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1

Influence of dietary calcium on phosphorus absorption and excretion and on phosphorus-33 distribution in laying hens  

SciTech Connect

An experiment was conducted using isotope-dilution and comparative balance techniques to estimate urinary and fecal P excretion of laying hens fed different levels of dietary Ca. Two levels of dietary Ca (3.46 and 4.2%) were fed to eight hens for 30 days. After 30 days, 50 microCi of the radioisotope /sup 33/P was injected intramuscularly to label endogenous P. On the 2nd day after /sup 33/P dosing and at 1 h postoviposition, plasma, liver, kidney, femur bone, whole egg, ileum, ileal digesta, and excreta samples were collected from each hen. Results showed a favorable effect of increasing dietary Ca consumption (2.91 vs 3.57 g/hen per day): femur ash increased (P less than .08), excreta P decreased (P less than .03), and urinary P decreased (P less than .06). The P content of ileal digesta was not affected by dietary Ca intake, but excreta P was greater for hens consuming less Ca, indicating that, during the collection period, excretion of P in urine was increased by the low Ca diet. Endogenous P secretions constituted less than 1% of the P in ileal digesta and excreta samples and this proportion was not changed by dietary Ca consumed.

Scheideler, S.E.; Sell, J.L.

1988-03-01

2

Three-step preparation and purification of phosphorus-33-labeled creatine phosphate of high specific activity  

SciTech Connect

Rabbit heart mitochondria were used as a source of enzymes for the synthesis of phosphorus-labeled creatine phosphate. This method is based on the coupled reaction between mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial-bound creatine kinase. It is possible to convert more than 90% of the inorganic phosphate (P/sub i/) to creatine phosphate. The method used only small amounts of adenine nucleotides which led to a product with only slight nucleotide contamination. This could be removed by activated charcoal extraction. For further purification, a method for the removal of residual P/sub i/ is described. 20 references.

Savabi, F.; Geiger, P.J.; Bessman, S.P.

1984-03-01

3

Phosphorus-33-labeled nucleotide 5 prime -triphosphates: Applications in DNA analysis  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis of ({gamma}-{sup 33}P) adenosine 5{prime}-triphosphate and ({alpha}-{sup 33}P)2{prime}-deoxyadenosine 5{prime}-triphosphate was accomplished in a way similar to the preparation of {sup 32}P-labeled nucleotides. These nucleotides were then used in a variety of molecular biological applications. The techniques of DNA sequencing and nucleic acid hybridization were used to evaluate potential applications for {sup 33}P labeled nucleotides. The {sup 33}P nucleotides were compared with the {sup 32}P and {sup 35}S nucleotide equivalents for the ability to serve as substrates for various enzymes used to label DNA, T4-bacteriophage polynucleotide kinase, E. coli DNA polymerase, and T7 DNA polymerase. The products of there reactions were either separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (DNA sequencing) or used as hybridization probes on a nylon membrane. The isotopically labeled DNA was detected by autoradiography on X-ray film. The film was evaluated for relative sensitivity of the film versus time for each isotope and the sharpness or resolution of the exposed bands on the film.

Buzby, P.R.

1992-01-01

4

Phosphorus - blood  

MedlinePLUS

Phosphorus - serum; HPO4 -2 , PO4 -3 ; Inorganic phosphate; Phosphorus blood test; Serum phosphorus ... This test is performed to see how much phosphorus in your blood. Kidney, liver, and certain bone ...

5

Dietary Phosphorus Requirement of Channel Catfish1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to reevaluate the dietary phosphorus requirement of fingerling channel catfish. Basal diets containing either casein with supplemental inorganic phosphorus and 0.5% total calcium or egg albumin with sup plemental inorganic phosphorus and 0.75% total calcium yielded similar requirement data. Eleven-week growth, feed efficiency, serum phosphorus, bone ash, bone calcium and bone phosphorus data indicate that 0.33%

ROBERT P. WILSON; EDWIN H. ROBINSON; DELBERT M. GATLIN; ANDWILLIAM E. POE

6

Phosphorus Test  

MedlinePLUS

... of this website will be limited. Search Help? Phosphorus Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... how will I know if I have abnormal phosphorus levels? Abnormal phosphorus levels are usually detected because ...

7

DESIGN MANUAL: PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

This manual summarizes process design information for the best developed methods for removing phosphorus from wastewater. his manual discusses several proven phosphorus removal methods, including phosphorus removal obtainable through biological activity as well as chemical precip...

8

Minerals: Calcium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium  

MedlinePLUS

... Minerals: Calcium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium Healthy Living Listen Minerals: Calcium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium Article Body Three minerals calcium , phosphorus, and magnesiumaccount for 98% of ...

9

Red Phosphorus Jack Grenade.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

CDEE PORTON have produced a Red Phosphorus Jack Grenade for AFV local smoke protection, with the object of combining the rapid screening qualities of the No 80 White Phosphorus with the quicker loading and reduced fire hazard of the L5 and L7 Jack Grenade...

C. A. Robinson P. A. Nelson P. G. Bartholomew

1968-01-01

10

Microbial sequestration of phosphorus in anoxic upwelling sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for life. In the ocean, phosphorus burial regulates marine primary production. Phosphorus is removed from the ocean by sedimentation of organic matter, and the subsequent conversion of organic phosphorus to phosphate minerals such as apatite, and ultimately phosphorite deposits. Bacteria are thought to mediate these processes, but the mechanism of sequestration has remained unclear. Here, we present results from laboratory incubations in which we labelled organic-rich sediments from the Benguela upwelling system, Namibia, with a 33P-radiotracer, and tracked the fate of the phosphorus. We show that under both anoxic and oxic conditions, large sulphide-oxidizing bacteria accumulate 33P in their cells, and catalyse the nearly instantaneous conversion of phosphate to apatite. Apatite formation was greatest under anoxic conditions. Nutrient analyses of Namibian upwelling waters and sediments suggest that the rate of phosphate-to-apatite conversion beneath anoxic bottom waters exceeds the rate of phosphorus release during organic matter mineralization in the upper sediment layers. We suggest that bacterial apatite formation is a significant phosphorus sink under anoxic bottom-water conditions. Expanding oxygen minimum zones are projected in simulations of future climate change, potentially increasing sequestration of marine phosphate, and restricting marine productivity.

Goldhammer, Tobias; Brchert, Volker; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Zabel, Matthias

2010-08-01

11

Anthropogenic phosphorus flow analysis of Hefei City, China.  

PubMed

The substance flow analysis (SFA) method was employed to examine phosphorus flow and its connection to water pollution in the city of Hefei, China, in 2008. As human activity is the driving force of phosphorus flux from the environment to the economy, the study provides a conceptual framework for analyzing an anthropogenic phosphorus cycle that includes four stages: extraction, fabrication and manufacturing, use, and waste management. Estimates of phosphorus flow were based on existing data as well as field research, expert advice, local accounting systems, and literature. The total phosphorus input into Hefei in 2008 reached 7810 tons, mainly as phosphate ore, chemical fertilizer, pesticides, crops and animal products. Approximately 33% of the total phosphorus input left the area, and nearly 20% of that amount was discharged as waste to surface water. Effluent containing excessive fertilizer from farming operations plays an important role in phosphorus overloads onto surface water; the other major emission source is sewage discharge. We also provide suggestions for reducing phosphorus emissions, for example reducing fertilizer use, recycling farming residues, and changing human consumption patterns. PMID:20863550

Li, Sisi; Yuan, Zengwei; Bi, Jun; Wu, Huijun

2010-09-22

12

Phosphorus chemistry in everyday living  

SciTech Connect

This book brings to life the versatility of phosphorus and its compounds and is filled with personal anecdotes and experiences of the authors. Covers the uses of phosphorus in matches and warfare; phosphates and food, fertilizers, cleaners, and detergents; organic phosphorus nerve gases and insecticides. Also discusses phosphoric acids, organic phosphorus polymers, deoxyribonucleic and ribonucleic acids and adenosine triphosphate.

Toy, D.F.; Walsh, E.F.

1987-01-01

13

Solid phosphorus fluoride catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Olefinic hydrocarbons which contain from three to about six carbon atoms may be subjected to oligomerization reactions as well as being used as alkylating agents in the alkylation of alkylatable hydrocarbons by treatment at reaction conditions in the presence of a catalyst comprising a phosphorus fluoride such as phosphorus trifluoride or phosphorus pentafluoride composited on a high surface area metal oxide such as gamma-alumina. The oligomers which are obtained in the oligomerization process will contain less branching than those which are obtained when utilizing other catalysts.

Imai, T.

1984-08-14

14

Phosphorus in diet  

MedlinePLUS

... helps the body make ATP, a molecule the body uses to store energy. Phosphorus works with the B vitamins. It also helps with the following: Kidney function Muscle contractions Normal heartbeat Nerve signaling

15

Biogeochemistry: Phosphorus burial  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation and burial of calcium phosphate minerals removes large quantities of phosphorus from the ocean. Radiotracer experiments reveal that bacteria in marine sediments mediate the production of these mineral phases at remarkably fast rates.

Ingall, Ellery D.

2010-08-01

16

BIOLOGICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Three proprietary biological phosphorus removal processes are reviewed. The paper presents the description and development status of these technologies. The paper is a summary of the emerging technology assessment report published by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1984. ...

17

Phosphorus and the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The approach taken here to considering these changes, and their probable effects on what remains of natural plant populations,\\u000a is to first consider what is known of plant-phosphorus interactions before mans influences became significant, with current\\u000a anthropogenic phosphorus mobilization now equaling natural processes (Tilman et al. 2001, 2002). This will give an appreciation of what plants, defined in the broad,

John A. Raven

18

Biological Phosphorus Removal Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) processes developed for wastewater treatment are mainly based on the enrichment\\u000a of activated sludge with phosphorus-accumulating organisms under alternative anaerobicaerobic conditions. According to the\\u000a literature information of the EBPR processes, this chapter attempts to review the biochemical models, microbiology of the\\u000a EBPR processes, and the main operating parameters that may influence the performance of the

Yong-Qiang Liu; Yu Liu; Joo-Hwa Tay; Yung-Tse Hung

19

32 CFR 33.33 - Supplies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Supplies. 33.33 Section 33.33 National Defense...Changes, Property, and Subawards § 33.33 Supplies. (a) Title. Title to supplies acquired under a grant or subgrant will...

2013-07-01

20

14 CFR 33.33 - Vibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vibration. 33.33 Section 33.33 Aeronautics...Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.33 Vibration. The engine must be designed...in any of the engine parts because of vibration and without imparting excessive...

2013-01-01

21

34 CFR 33.33 - Witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Witnesses. 33.33 Section 33.33 Education...FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 33.33 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...at the hearing must be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation....

2013-07-01

22

Phosphorus in prebiotic chemistry  

PubMed Central

The prebiotic synthesis of phosphorus-containing compoundssuch as nucleotides and polynucleotideswould require both a geologically plausible source of the element and pathways for its incorporation into chemical systems on the primitive Earth. The mineral apatite, which is the only significant source of phosphate on Earth, has long been thought to be problematical in this respect due to its low solubility and reactivity. However, in the last decade or so, at least two pathways have been demonstrated which would circumvent these perceived problems. In addition, recent results would seem to suggest an additional, extraterrestrial source of reactive phosphorus. It appears that the phosphorus problem is no longer the stumbling block which it was once thought to be.

Schwartz, Alan W

2006-01-01

23

On the Vibrational Spectra and Structure of Red Phosphorus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The infrared spectrum of red phosphorus (1400-33/cm) shows two pronounced bands at 452 and 354/cm whereas, in the Raman spectrum, four strong, well-defined lines were observed. The data are consistent with a polymeric structure composed of a repeating uni...

J. R. Durig J. M. Casper

1969-01-01

24

ENVIRONMENTAL SOIL PHOSPHORUS INDICES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The loss of phosphorus (P) in agricultural runoff and its input to freshwater bodies is known to accelerate eutrophication. As eutrophication of surface water impairs its use for recreation, drinking, and commercial fishing, several strategies have been put in place to minimize impairment by reduci...

25

Phosphorus oxynitride glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties and structural role of nitrogen in phosphorus oxynitride glasses are reported. Properties summarized for several compositions include the dissolution rate in water, thermal expansion coefficient, viscosity and refractive index. The bonding and coordination number of nitrogen in the glass network has been deduced from nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The existing evidence shows that

Mary R. Reidmeyer; Delbert E. Day

1995-01-01

26

CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the biochemical, physiological and molecular aspects of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) in human nutrition. Specific topics include: the chemical properties of Ca and P; physiological and metabolic functions of Ca and P; hormonal regulation, homeosta...

27

Soil organic phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction and resin fractionation procedures for determination of amounts and kinds of soil organic phosphorus (Pt IV of this series) were applied to a sequence of four soils having common parent material and vegetation but varying in altitude, rainfall, and temperature. Three different zonal soil groups were represented in the sequence: the brown-grey earths, yellow-grey earths, and high country

J. K. Martin

1970-01-01

28

Fractionation of Soil Phosphorus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An understanding of the qualitative and quantitative information provided by soil phosphorus (P) fractionation methods is important for addressing agronomic and water quality problems, as well as evaluating P biogeochemistry in extreme environments. This chapter provides a schematic overview of and ...

29

Impaired phosphorus conservation and 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D generation during phosphorus deprivation in familial hypophosphatemic rickets.  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of familial hypophosphatemic rickets (FHR) is incompletely understood. We therefore examined the effects of acute dietary phosphorus deprivation to see whether renal phosphate conservation and increased 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] plasma levels, which normally follow restriction of phosphorus intake, could be induced in patients with FHR. Six healthy male volunteers (age 26 +/- 3 yr) and seven male patients with FHR (age 24 +/- 3 yr) were placed on a low phosphorus diet supplemented with aluminum hydroxide and studied over a 4-d period. The patients with FHR excreted more than five times as much phosphorus per day at the conclusion of the study than did the controls (176 +/- 61 mg/24 h vs. 33 +/- 11 mg/h). In the normal subjects, maximum tubular reabsorptive capacity for phosphorus/glomerular filtration rate (TmP/GFR) rose progressively during phosphorus deprivation, and the rise from base line was more than two times greater than that seen in patients with FHR. Immunoreactive parathyroid hormone levels and nephrogenous cyclic AMP were initially normal in both groups and no change was seen in either group with phosphorus deprivation. In the normal subjects, 1,25(OH)2D levels rose progressively over the 96 h of the study (49 +/- 3 to 63 +/- 6 pg/ml, P less than 0.05), while mean circulating 1,25(OH)2D in the patients with FHR did not change (34 +/- 3 to 29 +/- 3 pg/ml). The changes in individual plasma 1,25(OH)2D levels correlated strongly with the change in individual nephrogenous cyclic AMP measurements in the patients with FHR (r = +0.93), while no such correlation was observed in the normal subjects. These data demonstrate a defective renal response to phosphorus deprivation in patients with FHR including a qualitatively abnormal response in 1,25(OH)2D generation.

Insogna, K L; Broadus, A E; Gertner, J M

1983-01-01

30

PHOSPHORUS MANAGEMENT IN CATTLE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Feeding excess phosphorus to dairy and beef cattle results in excessive amounts of phosphorus in the manure. Furthermore, the phosphorus fed in excess of need is excreted in the feces largely as soluble phosphorus. The soluble fraction of phosphorus is much more likely to be carried by water runof...

31

INDICATOR: PHOSPHORUS CONCENTRATIONS IN THE WESTERN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreements (GLWQA) of 1972 and 1978 recognized the damage caused by phosphorus pollution and the need for society to control phosphorus inputs. Therefore, the GLWQA included a binational phosphorus abatement program in order to restore the lakes to a more natural state. Due to the strong link between phosphorus and algal growth, ambient phosphorus concentrations

32

Phosphorus in the environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IsoPhos 2012: Development of Isotopic Tracers for a Better Understandingof the Phosphorus Cycle;Monte Verit, Switzerland, 24-29 June 2012 IsoPhos 2012, a conference dedicated to cutting-edge research on phosphorus, was held in the Centro Stefano Franscini of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology of Zurich (ETH Zurich). It gathered 63 scientists, 11 of whom were graduate students, from 16 countries and different areas of expertise, including Earth sciences, oceanography, paleontology, microbiology, soil and plant sciences, and hydrology. The conference focused on the use of stable oxygen isotopes in phosphate. New developments in preparation and analytical techniques have made the application of this tracer viable for fields other than paleoclimatology. However, new challenges with respect to sample preparation, standardization, its use in conjunction with other tracers, and the effect of biochemical processes have arisen.

Tamburini, F.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Paytan, A.

2012-10-01

33

Multiple phosphorus chemical sites in heavily phosphorus-doped diamond  

SciTech Connect

We have performed high-resolution core level photoemission spectroscopy on a heavily phosphorus (P)-doped diamond film in order to elucidate the chemical sites of doped-phosphorus atoms in diamond. P 2p core level study shows two bulk components, providing spectroscopic evidence for multiple chemical sites of doped-phosphorus atoms. This indicates that only a part of doped-phosphorus atoms contribute to the formation of carriers. From a comparison with band calculations, possible origins for the chemical sites are discussed.

Okazaki, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Yoshida, Rikiya [The Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Muro, Takayuki; Nakamura, Tetsuya [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI)/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Wakita, Takanori; Muraoka, Yuji; Yokoya, Takayoshi [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Hirai, Masaaki [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Kato, Hiromitsu; Yamasaki, Satoshi [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Center 2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Takano, Yoshihiko; Ishii, Satoshi [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Oguchi, Tamio [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

2011-02-21

34

Phosphorus and Global Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Phosphorus (P) is both an agent of global change, with P loads increasing in most global environments due to the loss of mined\\u000a phosphate from agricultural, industrial, and urban environments, and is affected by global change processes such as land degradation\\u000a or the need for P in biofuel production. P plays a fundamental role in food security and, because the

Holm Tiessen; Maria Victoria Ballester; Ignacio Salcedo

35

Marine phosphorus cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus introduced to the ocean must ultimately be removed if a steady state is to be maintained over geologic time. Aeolian input is insignificant, and there is evidently no hydrothermal contribution. Rivers dominate P-input to the ocean. The fluvial P-flux is poorly quantified due to the interactions of two factors: (1) man's influence on river-nutrient fluxes; and (2) inherent complexities

P. N. Frohlich; M. L. Bender; N. A. Luedtke; G. R. Heath; T. DeVries

1982-01-01

36

Lake Phosphorus Loading Graphs: An Alternative.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As an alternative to loading graphs, a graph of mean influent phosphorus concentration versus phosphorus retention capacity is proposed to express the relationship between phosphorus supply and hydraulic flow to, and resultant trophic state of, lakes. Lin...

D. P. Larsen H. T. Mercier

1975-01-01

37

Fluorinated phosphorus compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluoroalkyl phosphorochloridates CF3CH2OP(O)Cl2 and (RFCH2O)2P(O)Cl (RF=CF3, C2F5) were prepared from phosphorus oxychloride, fluoroalcohols and triethylamine, but selective substitution was difficult. Phosphates (RFCH2O)2P(O)OR (RF=CF3, C2F5 and R=Me, Et, n-Pr, i-Pr) were isolated in yields of 3884% from the reactions of the phosphorochloridates with alcohols and triethylamine. Success of the inverse reaction, i.e. ROP(O)Cl2 and RFCH2OH, depended on the R group (Me,

Christopher M Timperley; Michael Bird; John F Broderick; Ian Holden; Ian J Morton; Matthew J Waters

2000-01-01

38

Transformation of phosphorus during vermicomposting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the growing awareness about vermicomposting technology in recycling a wide range of organic wastes, the behaviour of phosphorus during mineralization of different organic wastes in the absence and presence of epigeic earthworms was studied. The magnitude of the transformation of phosphorus from the organic to inorganic state, and thereby into available forms was found to be considerably

M. Ghosh; G. N. Chattopadhyay; K. Baral

1999-01-01

39

Molecular Structure of Phosphorus pentachloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Phosphorus pentachloride is an extremely hazardous waste and is highly reactive against water. It has been used as a pesticide and as a component in plastics. In addition, phosphorus pentachloride has been employed as a catalyst in organic synthesis to induce rearrangements. Some of the molecule's properties are having trigonal bipyramidal geometry and a hybridization of sp3d.

2002-10-01

40

FLUOROALKYL PHOSPHORUS FIRE EXTINGUISHING AGENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus compounds show extraordinary effectiveness as flame extinguishants, and there is evidence for a chemical mechanism. Most work to date, however, has emphasized alkyl phosphonates and related materials or phosphonitriles. The former compounds are flammable and the latter have low volatilities. Phosphorus compounds containing fluoroalkyl and hydrofluoroalkyl groups, however, are often nonflammable and have higher volatilities. We are carrying out

Robert E. Tapscott; J. Douglas Mather

41

Electron Spin Resonance in Phosphorus Doped Silicon at Low Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of exchange and motion of electrons on electron spin resonance spectrum of phosphorus doped Si with concentration of 3 1016 cm-33 1019 cm-3 were investigated at liquid helium temperatures and at about 9300 Mc\\/sec. At lower concentrations, the intensity of the exchange coupled resonance line was measured as functions of temperature and donor concentration. Electrons are antiferromagnetically coupled, and

Shigeru Maekawa; Nobumori Kinoshita

1965-01-01

42

Phosphorus deficiency in a dairy herd  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus deficiency was diagnosed in a 90 cow seasonal supply dairy herd which showed low milk production, ill-thrift, infertility and osteophagia. Serum inorganic phosphorus and pasture phosphorus levels were low, pasture Ca:P ratios high and soil phosphorus levels very low; the soil phosphate retention value was 96%. The deficiency, which had probably existed for several years, was considered to be

H. V. Brooks; T. G. Cook; G. P. Mansellf; G. A. Walker

1984-01-01

43

Machining aspects of nickel-phosphorus coatings  

SciTech Connect

Nickel-phosphorus coatings with greater than 10% phosphorus have been widely used for diamond turning applications such as fabrication of large optics and other high precision parts. This paper discusses the importance of phosphorus content of the alloy on wear of the diamond tool and provides some speculation on the role of phosphorus on machining characteristics.

Dini, J.W.

1992-07-01

44

Microbial Recycling of Phytoplankton Phosphorus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The remineralization of phytoplankton-bound phosphorus subsequent to nonpredatory phytoplankton mortality represents a significant source of algal-available phosphorous in many lakes. A unique experimental apparatus (A Dual Culture Diffusion apparatus) wa...

J. V. De Pinto T. C. Young J. S. Bonner P. W. Rodgers

1986-01-01

45

Future directions for agricultural phosphorus research  

SciTech Connect

Future Directions for Agricultural Phosphorus Research is a collection of papers presented at a workshop in Muscle Shoals, Alabama, on July 18 and 19, 1990. The objective of the workshop was to gather representatives of academia, government, and industry to discuss and debate research needs with phosphorus in agriculture, ranging from basic to applied research. The enclosed papers present information on current knowledge in the areas of (1) identifying phosphorus solid phases in soil, (ii) enhanced phosphorus bioavailability through microbial activity, (iii) phosphorus rock quality, (iv) environmental issues regarding phosphorus in agriculture, (v) predicting phosphorus bioavailability in soil, and (vi) fertilizer management effects on phosphorus availability. Within each paper, the authors suggest future research needs in their area. With the discussion of current knowledge and future research needs, this publication was designed to benefit organizations formulating and developing research plans concerning phosphorus in agricultural systems.

Sikora, F.J. (ed.)

1992-03-01

46

Spiral galaxy Messier 33  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of studies of M33, the third largest and brightest galaxy in the local group are presented in a systematic manner. The discussion covers the history of the discovery of M33 and its study, the general structural and photometric characteristics of M33, and data on its nucleus, fixed and variable stars, star clusters and associations, gas nebulae, and interstellar material.

Aleksandr S. Sharov

1988-01-01

47

Utilization of phosphorus in poultry as influenced by dietary calcium and phosphorus source  

SciTech Connect

Experiment one was a 3 x 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of three levels of calcium (Ca) (3.0, 3.5, and 4.0%) fed with three phosphorus (p) feeding programs to two strains of laying hens for 336 days. In addition to production traits, measurements of P retention were made at 34, 42, 50, 62, and 72 weeks of age and phytate P retention and % P associated with excreted phytate at 34, 50, and 72 weeks of age. The phase feeding P programs adequately supported production characteristics. Experiment two involved feeding two levels of Ca (.8 and 1.2%) to one-week-old chicks for 7 days during which time /sup 33/P was administered to each chick. Serum P and excreta /sup 33/P activity were greater in chicks fed .8% Ca, while femur /sup 33/P was greater in checks fed 1.2% Ca. The % P associated with excreted phytate ranged from 5.6 to 7.0% and phytate P utilization ranged from 31 to 48%. P retention and bone P deposition were greater in chicks fed 1.2% Ca. The final experiments were conducted utilizing isotope-dilution (/sup 33/P) and comparative-balance methods to estimate urinary and fecal P excretions by laying hens fed 3.46 or 4.2% Ca.

Scheideler, S.E.

1986-01-01

48

Phosphorus Flamethrower: A Demonstration Using Red and White Allotropes of Phosphorus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A demonstration was created to display the unique behavior of a familiar element, phosphorus, and to make chemistry more accessible to the introductory student. The common allotropes of phosphorus and their reactivity are discussed. In this demonstration, the white allotrope of phosphorus is synthesized from the red phosphorus obtained from a

Golden, Melissa L.; Person, Eric C.; Bejar, Miriam; Golden, Donnie R.; Powell, Jonathan M.

2010-01-01

49

Towards global phosphorus security: A systems framework for phosphorus recovery and reuse options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human intervention in the global phosphorus cycle has mobilised nearly half a billion tonnes of the element from phosphate rock into the hydrosphere over the past half century. The resultant water pollution concerns have been the main driver for sustainable phosphorus use (including phosphorus recovery). However the emerging global challenge of phosphorus scarcity with serious implications for future food security,

D. Cordell; A. Rosemarin; J. J. Schrder; A. L. Smit

2011-01-01

50

Phosphorus Flamethrower: A Demonstration Using Red and White Allotropes of Phosphorus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A demonstration was created to display the unique behavior of a familiar element, phosphorus, and to make chemistry more accessible to the introductory student. The common allotropes of phosphorus and their reactivity are discussed. In this demonstration, the white allotrope of phosphorus is synthesized from the red phosphorus obtained from a

Golden, Melissa L.; Person, Eric C.; Bejar, Miriam; Golden, Donnie R.; Powell, Jonathan M.

2010-01-01

51

Effects of Prolonged High Phosphorus Diet on Phosphorus and Calcium Balance in Rats  

PubMed Central

The amount of phosphorus contained in food as food additives is currently increasing and a high intake of phosphorus can cause various diseases. To determine the effects of a prolonged high phosphorus diet, here we investigated the phosphorus and calcium balance and expression of type IIa sodium-dependent phosphate transporter (Npt IIa) in mature rats. Wistar male rats (8-weeks old) were divided into five groups and fed diets containing 0.6% calcium plus 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2 or 1.5% phosphorus for 4 weeks. Urinary and fecal phosphorus excretions were significantly increased by the high phosphorus diets (from 0.6 to 1.5%), dependent on the amount of dietary phosphorus. The net absorption of intestinal phosphorus was also significantly increased by high phosphorus diets. As a result, a negative phosphorus balance was observed in rats given the 1.2% or 1.5% phosphorus diets. Serum parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations were increased by high phosphorus diets. In addition, high phosphorus diets decreased the expression of Npt IIa mRNA and protein in the renal brush border membrane. Taken together, these results suggest that diets containing 1.2 or 1.5% phosphorus plus 0.6% calcium have potentially adverse effects on phosphorus homeostasis in mature rat.

Tani, Yoshiko; Sato, Tadatoshi; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Yamamoto, Hironori; Arai, Hidekazu; Sawada, Naoki; Genjida, Kaori; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji

2007-01-01

52

Method for Disposing of Red Phosphorus Composition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is described for disposing of a pyrotechnic composition comprised of red phosphorus, manganese dioxide, magnesium, zinc oxide, and linseed oil, with at least fifty percent of the composition being red phosphorus. The composition is burned in a fi...

F. E. Montgomery

1978-01-01

53

New Potentials in Red Phosphorus Compositions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New phosphorus compositions have been demonstrated which meet the current burning rate and smoke volume requirements but do not contain pyrolusite and/or magnesium. Phosphorus composition which used chlorotrifluoroethylene as an oxidizer-binder combinatio...

H. A. Webster D. M. Johnson

1976-01-01

54

Economic feasibility study for phosphorus recovery processes.  

PubMed

Phosphorus recovery from wastewater has become a necessity for sustainable development because phosphorus is a non-renewable essential resource, and its discharge into the environment causes serious negative impacts. There are no economic incentives for the implementation of phosphorus recovery technologies because the selling price of rock phosphate is lower than phosphorus recovered from sewage. The methodologies used to determine the feasibility of such projects are usually focused on internal costs without considering environmental externalities. This article shows a methodology to assess the economic feasibility of wastewater phosphorus recovery projects that takes into account internal and external impacts. The shadow price of phosphorus is estimated using the directional distance function to measure the environmental benefits obtained by preventing the discharge of phosphorus into the environment. The economic feasibility analysis taking into account the environmental benefits shows that the phosphorus recovery is viable not only from sustainable development but also from an economic point of view. PMID:21809783

Molinos-Senante, Mara; Hernndez-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramn; Garrido-Baserba, Manel

2011-06-01

55

Association of Pretransplant Serum Phosphorus with Posttransplant Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives Serum phosphorus levels are associated with mortality, cardiovascular disease, and renal function loss in individuals with and without chronic kidney disease. The association of pretransplant serum phosphorus levels with transplant outcomes is not clear. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Data of the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) up to June 2007 were linked to the database (2001 through 2006) of one of the U.S.-based large dialysis organizations (DaVita). The selected 9384 primary kidney recipients were divided into five groups according to pretransplant serum phosphorus levels (mg/dl): <3.5, 3.5 to <5.5 (reference group), 5.5 to <7.5, 7.5 to <9.5, and ?9.5. Unadjusted and multivariate adjusted risks for transplant outcomes were compared. Results Patients were 48 14 years old and included 37% women and 27% African Americans. After multivariate adjustment, all-cause and cardiovascular death hazard ratios were 2.44 (95% confidence interval: 1.28 to 4.65) and 3.63 (1.13 to 11.64), respectively, in recipients in the ?9.5 group; allograft loss hazard ratios were 1.42 (1.04 to 1.95) and 2.36 (1.33 to 4.17) in recipients with 7.5 to >9.5 and ?9.5, respectively. No significant association with delayed graft function was found. Conclusions Pretransplant phosphorus levels 7.5 to <9.5 mg/dl and ?9.5 mg/dl were associated with increased risk of functional graft failure and increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular deaths, respectively, when compared with 3.5 to <5.5 mg/dl. Additional studies are needed to examine whether more aggressive control of pretransplant serum phosphorus may improve posttransplant outcomes.

Sampaio, Marcelo S.; Molnar, Miklos Z.; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Mucsi, Istvan; Sim, John J.; Krishnan, Mahesh; Nissenson, Allen R.

2011-01-01

56

Spiral galaxy Messier 33  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of studies of M33, the third largest and brightest galaxy in the local group are presented in a systematic manner. The discussion covers the history of the discovery of M33 and its study, the general structural and photometric characteristics of M33, and data on its nucleus, fixed and variable stars, star clusters and associations, gas nebulae, and interstellar material. Particular attention is given to new results obtained in the visible, far ultraviolet, X-ray, and radio bands.

Sharov, Aleksandr S.

57

X-33 flight visualization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In early 1998, the NASA Space Transportation Programs Office and NASA Public Affairs jointly funded an activity under the Space Transportation Integrity Program (STIP) contract with Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) to develop X-33 flight visualizations. This technical and management support effort was contracted by the X-33 Program Office of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's X-33 Program Office. This paper presents the technical approach and methodology used in developing pre-flight visualizations, as well as the plans and approach for real-time flight coverage visualizations of the X-33 reusable launch vehicle.

Laue, Jay H.

1999-01-01

58

Phosphorus imbalance in the global ocean?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phosphorus budget of the prehuman modern ocean is constrained applying the most recent estimates of the natural riverine, eolian, and ice-rafted input fluxes; the phosphorus burial in marine sediments; and the hydrothermal removal of dissolved phosphate from the deep ocean. This review of current flux estimates indicates that the phosphorus budget of the ocean is unbalanced since the accumulation

Klaus Wallmann

2010-01-01

59

Improvements in Stability of Red Phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red phosphorus has become an essential item in the production of modern smoke and obscurants devices, additionally nearly all multi-spectral developmental projects are being based on the new versions of red phosphorus available from Clariant. In pyrotechnics and munitions, phosphine liberated by the red phosphorus charge may diffuse through the device and can give rise to corrosion of essential working

Sebastian Hrold

60

Determination of phosphorus using derivative neutron activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the determination of phosphorus in different matrices, the derivative neutron activation analysis is especially applicable to aqueous samples, since the conventional neutron activation analysis is not useful for the determination of phosphorus. Phosphorus when reacted with ammonium molybdate 4 hydrate and ammonium metavanadate forms molybdo vanado phosphoric acid. This complex is preconcentrated by extracting into methyl isobutyl ketone. The

Y. M. Scindia; A. G. C. Nair; A. V. R. Reddy; S. B. Manohar

2002-01-01

61

Acute management of white phosphorus burn.  

PubMed

White phosphorus is a combustible solid that is used in many of the smoke devices that are prevalent throughout the military arsenal. Exposure to phosphorus-containing compounds causes serious, often fatal, burns and can be the source of significant morbidity and lengthy hospital stays. I present the case of an individual with serious cutaneous phosphorus burns suffered at a munitions manufacturing plant. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the emergent treatments necessary in such patients and to discuss decontamination in the phosphorus-burned patient. Phosphorus-containing munitions are prevalent throughout the military arsenal, and all military physicians should be aware of these treatments. PMID:11799822

Davis, Kurt G

2002-01-01

62

Human perturbation to atmospheric phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A worldwide compilation of atmospheric total phosphorus (TP) and phosphate (PO4)concentration and deposition flux observations are combined with transport model simulations to derive the global distribution of concentrations and deposition fluxes of TP and PO4. Our results suggest that mineral aerosols are the dominant source of TP on a global scale (82 percent), with primary biogenic particles (12 percent) and

N. M. Mahowald; T. D. Jickells; A. R. Baker; P. Artaxo; C. Benitez-Nelson; G. Bergametti; T. Bond; Y. Chen; D. D. Cohen; B. Herut; N. Kubilay; R. Losno; W. A. Maenhaut; K. McGee; G. Okin; R. Siefert; S. Tsukuda; C. Luo

2008-01-01

63

Clinical Disorders of Phosphorus Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Deranged phosphorus metabolism is commonly encountered in clinical medicine. Disturbances in phosphate intake, excretion and transcellular shift account for the abnormal serum levels. As a result of the essential role played by phosphate in intracellular metabolism, the clinical manifestations of hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphatemia are extensive. An understanding of the pathophysiology of various phosphate disorders is helpful in guiding therapeutic decisions. Images

Yu, George C.; Lee, David B. N.

1987-01-01

64

MEASUREMENT OF PHOSPHORUS IN WATER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for growth and development of algae and other aquatic plants. However, P can cause water pollution if sufficient concentration (25 to 100 g total P L-1, eutrophic condition) is present in water. Eutrophication (nutrient-rich condition) can significantly incre...

65

The Galactic evolution of phosphorus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. As a galaxy evolves, its chemical composition changes and the abundance ratios of different elements are powerful probes of the underlying evolutionary processes. Phosphorous is an element whose evolution has remained quite elusive until now, because it is difficult to detect in cool stars. The infrared weak P i lines of the multiplet 1, at 1050-1082 nm, are the most reliable indicators of the presence of phosphorus. The availability of CRIRES at VLT has permitted access to this wavelength range in stellar spectra. Aims: We attempt to measure the phosphorus abundance of twenty cool stars in the Galactic disk. Methods: The spectra are analysed with one-dimensional model-atmospheres computed in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The line formation computations are performed assuming LTE. Results: The ratio of phosphorus to iron behaves similarly to sulphur, increasing towards lower metallicity stars. Its ratio with respect to sulphur is roughly constant and slightly larger than solar, [P/S] = 0.10 0.10. Conclusions: We succeed in taking an important step towards the understanding of the chemical evolution of phosphorus in the Galaxy. However, the observed rise in the P/Fe abundance ratio is steeper than predicted by Galactic chemical evolution model developed by Kobayashi and collaborators. Phosphorus appears to evolve differently from the light odd-Z elements sodium and aluminium. The constant value of [P/S] with metallicity implies that P production is insensitive to the neutron excess, thus processes other than neutron captures operate. We suggest that proton captures on 30Si and ? captures on 27Al are possibilities to investigate. We see no clear distinction between our results for stars with planets and stars without any detected planet. Based on observations obtained with the CRIRES spectrograph at ESO-VLT Antu 8.2 m telescope at Paranal, Programme 386.D-0130, P.I. E. Caffau.

Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.; Faraggiana, R.; Steffen, M.

2011-08-01

66

Phosphorus budgets and riverine phosphorus export in northwestern Ohio watersheds.  

PubMed

Phosphorus (P) budgets for large watersheds are often used to predict trends in riverine P export. To test such predictions, we calculated annual P budgets for 1975-1995 for soils of the Maumee and Sandusky watersheds of northwestern Ohio and compared them with riverine P export from these watersheds. Phosphorus inputs to the soils include fertilizers, manure, rainfall, and sludge while outputs include crop removal and nonpoint-source export via rivers. Annual P inputs decreased due to reductions in fertilizer and manure inputs. Annual outputs increased due to increasing crop yields. Net P accumulation decreased from peak values of 13.4 and 9.5 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) to 3.7 and 2.6 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) for the Maumee and Sandusky watersheds, respectively. Thus, P budget analysis suggests that riverine P export should have increased throughout the study period, with smaller increases during more recent years. However, detailed water quality studies show that riverine export of total phosphorus (TP) has decreased by 25 to 40% and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) by 60 to 89%, both due primarily to decreases from nonpoint sources. We suggest that these decreases are associated with farmers' adoption of practices that minimize transport of recently applied P fertilizer and of sediments via surface runoff, coupled with changes in winter weather conditions. In comparison with most Midwestern watersheds, rivers draining these watersheds have high unit area yields of TP, low unit area yields of SRP, and high ratios of nonpoint source- to point source-derived P. PMID:11837450

Baker, David B; Richards, R Peter

67

Mechanism of phosphorus removal by SBR submerged biofilm system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of phosphorus removal in SBR submerged biofilm system was studied in the research. The DNP and nuclear magnetic resonance methods were employed to verify the mechanism of phosphorus removal by bacteria with the phosphorus release in anaerobic phase and uptake in oxic and anoxic phases. The mathematical models of phosphorus releases in anaerobic phase and phosphorus uptake in

Baozhen Wang; Jun Li; Lin Wang; Meisheng Nie; Ji Li

1998-01-01

68

Phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle  

DOEpatents

A method of phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle using ammonium phosphate is disclosed. A p-doped silicon sphere is mixed with a diluted solution of ammonium phosphate having a predetermined concentration. These spheres are dried with the phosphorus then being diffused into the sphere to create either a shallow or deep p-n junction. A good PSG glass layer is formed on the surface of the sphere during the diffusion process. A subsequent segregation anneal process is utilized to strip metal impurities from near the p-n junction into the glass layer. A subsequent HF strip procedure is then utilized to removed the PSG layer. Ammonium phosphate is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirement. 1 fig.

Stevens, G.D.; Reynolds, J.S.

1999-07-20

69

Phosphorus chemistry in dense interstellar clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent laboratory studies on the reactions of the phosphorus hydride ions, PH(n)(+) (n = 0 - 4) to construct a new model of phosphorus chemistry in interstellar cloudsare used. It is found that the nondetection of PN in cold, dark clouds is consistent with the chemical models only if the depletion of phosphorus is large, about 10,000 in TMC-1. Although the laboratory studies indicate that organo-phosphorus chains C(n)P can be formed, this large depletion precludes the detection of any phosphorus-bearing molecules in cold clouds. However, in warm clouds associated with star formation, the depletion of phosphorus may be reduced. In this case the PN abundance toward Orion KL can be reproduced with a depletion factor of about 300.

Millar, T. J.

1991-02-01

70

Electronic states of phosphorus in diamond  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of n-type diamond thin films was investigated by infra-red absorption spectroscopy. The films were grown by CVD on {111} synthetic diamond, and phosphorus-doped using [P]\\/[C]=1005000ppm of phosphine in the gas phase during growth. The phosphorus concentration in the films ranged from around 51017cm?3 to 21019cm?3. A continuum of absorption, attributed to the photoionisation of neutral phosphorus, is observed

E. Gheeraert; S. Koizumi; T. Teraji; H. Kanda; M. Nesladek

2000-01-01

71

Assessing Long Term Impact of Phosphorus Fertilization on Phosphorus Loadings Using AnnAGNPS  

EPA Science Inventory

High phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields has been an environmental concern because of potential water quality problems in streams and lakes. To better understand the process of P loss and evaluate the different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus losses, the US...

72

Energy and phosphorus recovery from black water.  

PubMed

Source-separated black water (BW) (toilet water) containing 38% of the organic material and 68% of the phosphorus in the total household waste (water) stream including kitchen waste, is a potential source for energy and phosphorus recovery. The energy recovered, in the form of electricity and heat, is more than sufficient for anaerobic treatment, nitrogen removal and phosphorus recovery. The phosphorus balance of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating concentrated BW showed a phosphorus conservation of 61% in the anaerobic effluent. Precipitation of phosphate as struvite from this stream resulted in a recovery of 0.22 kgP/p/y, representing 10% of the artificial phosphorus fertiliser production in the world. The remaining part of the phosphorus ended up in the anaerobic sludge, mainly due to precipitation (39%). Low dilution and a high pH favour the accumulation of phosphorus in the anaerobic sludge and this sludge could be used as a phosphorus-enriched organic fertiliser, provided that it is safe regarding heavy metals, pathogens and micro-pollutants. PMID:22049776

de Graaff, M S; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; Buisman, C J N

2011-01-01

73

Phosphorus recovery from wastewater through microbial processes.  

PubMed

Waste streams offer a compelling opportunity to recover phosphorus (P). 15-20% of world demand for phosphate rock could theoretically be satisfied by recovering phosphorus from domestic waste streams alone. For very dilute streams (<10 mg PL(-1)), including domestic wastewater, it is necessary to concentrate phosphorus in order to make recovery and reuse feasible. This review discusses enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) as a key technology to achieve this. EBPR relies on polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) to take up phosphorus from waste streams, so concentrating phosphorus in biomass. The P-rich biosolids can be either directly applied to land, or solubilized and phosphorus recovered as a mineral product. Direct application is effective, but the product is bulky and carries contaminant risks that need to be managed. Phosphorus release can be achieved using either thermochemical or biochemical methods, while recovery is generally by precipitation as struvite. We conclude that while EBPR technology is mature, the subsequent phosphorus release and recovery technologies need additional development. PMID:22922003

Yuan, Zhiguo; Pratt, Steven; Batstone, Damien J

2012-08-23

74

[Phosphorus intake and bone mineral density (BMD)].  

PubMed

Phosphorus regulates the bone formation and inhibits the bone resorption. It is still expected as one of anti-osteoporosis nutrients. The amounts of phosphorus intake with calcium are increasing from 1960 to 1995. Because phosphorus affects the regulation of calcium metabolism, the balance of these nutrients is important. Tuero suggested that more than 1,000 mg/day of calcium intake and more than 0.74 of Ca/P were associated with better bone mineral density (BMD) values in young women. However, there are few reports of correlations between appropriate phosphorus intake, Ca/P rate and BMD. PMID:16137950

Kawaura, Akihiko; Nishida, Yuka; Takeda, Eiji

2005-09-01

75

21 CFR 862.1580 - Phosphorus (inorganic) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. 862...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1580 Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. (a) Identification. A phosphorus (inorganic) test system is a...

2010-04-01

76

21 CFR 862.1580 - Phosphorus (inorganic) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. 862...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1580 Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. (a) Identification. A phosphorus (inorganic) test system is a...

2009-04-01

77

40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

2013-07-01

78

21 CFR 862.1580 - Phosphorus (inorganic) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. 862...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1580 Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. (a) Identification. A phosphorus (inorganic) test system is a...

2013-04-01

79

Availability of phosphorus from selected inorganic phosphate to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai ino.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of phosphorus to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai from primary, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphate, primary sodium or potassium phosphate separately or in combination was determined in a 120-day feeding trial. Seven semi-purified diets were formulated to contain relatively constant dietary phosphorus, ranging from 0.78%-0.82%. The concentrations of dietary phosphorus were presumed to be slightly below the requirement for abalone. A brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Abalone juveniles of silimar size (average weight 1.18 g; average shell length 18.74 mm) were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with eight treatments and three replicates each treatment. The survival ranged from 71.1% to 81.1%, and was not significantly (P>0.05) related to dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (41.72%-65.02%), daily increment in shell length (36.87-55.07 ?m) and muscle RNA-DNA ratio (3.44-4.69) were significantly (P<0.05) affected by dietary treatment. Soft body alkaline phosphatase activity (10.9-19.8 U/g wet tissue) and carcass levels of lipid (7.71%-9.33%) and protein (46.68%-49.35%) were significantly (P<0.05) responsive to available phosphorus of the diets. Dietary treatment had significant effect (P<0.05) on concentrations of phosphorus in the whole body (WB) and soft body (SB). Apparent digestibility coefficients (45%-97%) of phosphorus were also significantly (P<0.05) different between dietary treatments. The results indicated that among these inorganic compounds, primary calcium, potassium and sodium phosphates separately or in combination could be utilized effectively by juvenile abalone as dietary phosphorus sources (availability ranging from 87%-97%). However, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphates were found to be low in availability, the values being 45% and 77%, repectively.

Bei-Ping, Tan; Kang-Sen, Mai; Wei, Xu

2002-06-01

80

Availability of phosphorus from selected inorganic phosphate to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai ino.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of phosphorus to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai from primary, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphate, primary sodium or potassium phosphate separately or in combination was determined in a 120-day feeding trial. Seven semi-purified diets were formulated to contain relatively constant dietary phosphorus, ranging from 0.78% 0.82%. The concentrations of dietary phosphorus were presumed to be slightly below the requirement for abalone. A brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Abalone juveniles of silimar size (average weight 1.18 g; average shell length 18.74 mm) were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with eight treatments and three replicates each treatment. The survival ranged from 71.1% to 81.1%, and was not significantly (P>0.05) related to dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (41.72% 65.02%), daily increment in shell length (36.87 55.07 ?m) and muscle RNA-DNA ratio (3.44 4.69) were significantly (P<0.05) affected by dietary treatment. Soft body alkaline phosphatase activity (10.9 19.8 U/g wet tissue) and carcass levels of lipid (7.71% 9.33%) and protein (46.68% 49.35%) were significantly (P<0.05) responsive to available phosphorus of the diets. Dietary treatment had significant effect (P<0.05) on concentrations of phosphorus in the whole body (WB) and soft body (SB). Apparent digestibility coefficients (45% 97%) of phosphorus were also significantly (P<0.05) different between dietary treatments. The results indicated that among these inorganic compounds, primary calcium, potassium and sodium phosphates separately or in combination could be utilized effectively by juvenile abalone as dietary phosphorus sources (availability ranging from 87% 97%). However, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphates were found to be low in availability, the values being 45% and 77%, repectively.

Tan, Bei-Ping; Mai, Kang-Sen; Xu, Wei

2002-06-01

81

Influence of dietary calcium on phosphorus absorption and excretion and on phosphorus-33 distribution in laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted using isotope-dilution and comparative balance techniques to estimate urinary and fecal P excretion of laying hens fed different levels of dietary Ca. Two levels of dietary Ca (3.46 and 4.2%) were fed to eight hens for 30 days. After 30 days, 50 microCi of the radioisotope ³³P was injected intramuscularly to label endogenous P. On the

S. E. Scheideler; J. L. Sell

1988-01-01

82

Phosphorus removal in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal process: roles of extracellular polymeric substances.  

PubMed

Phosphorus-accumulating organisms are considered to be the key microorganisms in the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process. A large amount of phosphorus is found in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) matrix of these microorganisms. However, the roles of EPS in phosphorus removal have not been fully understood. In this study, the phosphorus in the EBPR sludge was fractionated and further analyzed using quantitative (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The amounts and forms of phosphorus in EPS as well as their changes in an anaerobic-aerobic process were also investigated. EPS could act as a reservoir for phosphorus in the anaerobic-aerobic process. About 5-9% of phosphorus in sludge was reserved in the EPS at the end of the aerobic phase and might further contribute to the phosphorus removal. The chain length of the intracellular long-chain polyphosphate (polyP) decreased in the anaerobic phase and then recovered under aerobic conditions. However, the polyP in the EPS had a much shorter chain length than the intracellular polyP in the whole cycle. The migration and transformation of various forms of phosphorus among microbial cells, EPS, and bulk liquid were also explored. On the basis of these results, a model with a consideration of the roles of EPS was proposed, which is beneficial to elucidate the mechanism of phosphorus removal in the EBPR system. PMID:24067022

Zhang, Hai-Ling; Fang, Wei; Wang, Yong-Peng; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Zeng, Raymond J; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing

2013-09-25

83

Trapping phosphorus in runoff with a phosphorus removal structure.  

PubMed

Reduction of phosphorus (P) inputs to surface waters may decrease eutrophication. Some researchers have proposed filtering dissolved P in runoff with P-sorptive byproducts in structures placed in hydrologically active areas with high soil P concentrations. The objectives of this study were to construct and monitor a P removal structure in a suburban watershed and test the ability of empirically developed flow-through equations to predict structure performance. Steel slag was used as the P sorption material in the P removal structure. Water samples were collected before and after the structure using automatic samples and analyzed for total dissolved P. During the first 5 mo of structure operation, 25% of all dissolved P was removed from rainfall and irrigation events. Phosphorus was removed more efficiently during low flow rate irrigation events with a high retention time than during high flow rate rainfall events with a low retention time. The six largest flow events occurred during storm flow and accounted for 75% of the P entering the structure and 54% of the P removed by the structure. Flow-through equations developed for predicting structure performance produced reasonable estimates of structure "lifetime" (16.8 mo). However, the equations overpredicted cumulative P removal. This was likely due to differences in pH, total Ca and Fe, and alkalinity between the slag used in the structure and the slag used for model development. This suggests the need for an overall model that can predict structure performance based on individual material properties. PMID:22565249

Penn, Chad J; McGrath, Joshua M; Rounds, Elliott; Fox, Garey; Heeren, Derek

84

On the structure of amorphous red phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure factor of amorphous red phosphorus has been determined by neutron diffraction. Results were analysed by inverse methods, such as MCGR ('Monte Carlo determination of G of R') and reverse Monte Carlo modelling. The diffraction pattern shows notable differences when compared to the latest known results on amorphous phosphorus.

P. Jvri; L. Pusztai

2002-01-01

85

Phosphorus availability influences cricket mate attraction displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adopting a stoichiometric perspective (e.g. the balance of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in organisms and their resources) has enhanced our understanding of ecological phenomena at a variety of hierar- chical levels of organization. Unfortunately, little is presently known about how stoichiometry directly influences animal behaviour. Here we use a stoichiometric perspective to investigate how phosphorus availability in the environment influences

Susan M. Bertram; Emily M. Whattam; Laksanavadee Visanuvimol; Rachel Bennett; Christopher Lauzon

2009-01-01

86

The management of phosphorus in poultry litter  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poultry litter provides an important source of plant nutrients including nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur. The potential for phosphorus (P) surplus at the farm scale can increase when farming systems change from cropping to intensive poultry and animal production, as P...

87

Phosphorus Availability Coefficients from Various Organic Sources  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objectives of this study were to determine Phosphorus Availability Coefficients (PACs) for a variety of organic phosphorus (P) sources, and to examine the relationship between PACs measured in simulated rainfall runoff and alternative soil incubations. PAC is an important parameter in the P-Ind...

88

PHOSPHORUS LOADING IN FURROW IRRIGATION TAILWATER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus (P) transport to streams from furrow irrigation tailwater is a significant water quality issue in the Pacific Northwest. Under this NRI funded research project, we have collected field data to document phosphorus loads that occur under furrow irrigation conditions in Kimberly, Idaho. Sin...

89

Phosphorus imbalance in the global ocean?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phosphorus budget of the prehuman modern ocean is constrained applying the most recent estimates of the natural riverine, eolian, and ice-rafted input fluxes; the phosphorus burial in marine sediments; and the hydrothermal removal of dissolved phosphate from the deep ocean. This review of current flux estimates indicates that the phosphorus budget of the ocean is unbalanced since the accumulation of phosphorus in marine sediments and altered oceanic crust exceeds the continental input of particulate and dissolved phosphorus. The phosphorus mass balance is further tested considering the dissolved phosphate distribution in the deep water column, the marine export production of particulate organic matter, rain rates of phosphorus to the seafloor, benthic dissolved phosphate fluxes, and the organic carbon to phosphorus ratios in marine particles. These independent data confirm that the phosphate and phosphorus budgets were not at steady state in the prehuman global ocean. The ocean is losing dissolved phosphate at a rate of ?11.6 1010 mol yr-1 corresponding to a decline in the phosphate inventory of ?4.5% kyr-1. Benthic data show that phosphate is preferentially retained in pelagic deep-sea sediments where extended oxygen exposure times favor the degradation of particulate organic matter and the uptake of phosphate in manganese and iron oxides and hydroxides. Enhanced C: P regeneration ratios observed in the deep water column (>400 m water depth) probably reflect the preferential burial of phosphorus in pelagic sediments. Excess phosphate is released from continental margin sediments deposited in low-oxygen environments. The dissolved oxygen threshold value for the enhanced release of dissolved phosphate is 20 ?M. Benthic phosphate fluxes increase drastically when oxygen concentrations fall below this value.

Wallmann, Klaus

2010-12-01

90

Identification of Constitutively Active Interleukin 33 (IL-33) Splice Variant*  

PubMed Central

IL-33/IL-1F11 is a new member of the IL-1 family ligand and provokes T helper-type immune responses. IL-33 is the ligand of ST2 and IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP) that triggers nuclear factor-? light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) and MAPK signaling. We discovered a novel short splice variant of IL-33 that was termed spIL-33. The new spIL-33 lacks exon 3 containing a proposed caspase-1 cleavage site. We isolated spIL-33 cDNA from the Huh7 human hepatocarcinoma cell line and expressed the recombinant spIL-33 protein in Escherichia coli. The recombinant spIL-33 and pro-IL-33 were not cleaved by caspase-1, unlike IL-18 (IL-1F4). The recombinant spIL-33 was constitutively active, and spIL-33-induced inflammatory cytokine production was caspase-1-independent in HMC-1 and Raw 264.7 cells. The recombinant spIL-33 induced the phosphorylation of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK1), NF-?B, p38 MAPK, p44/42 MAPK, and JNK in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Anti-ST2 monoclonal antibody specifically blocked the spIL-33-induced cytokine production. In this study, we identified and characterized a new IL-33 splice variant, which was a constitutively active IL-33 isoform. The existence of constitutively active spIL-33 suggests that the biological activity of IL-33 could be triggered by diverse stimulations during immune responses. Further investigation of the spIL-33 expression pattern may contribute to understanding the involvement of IL-33 in inflammatory disorders.

Hong, Jaewoo; Bae, Suyoung; Jhun, Hyunjhung; Lee, Siyoung; Choi, Jida; Kang, Taebong; Kwak, Areum; Hong, Kwangwon; Kim, Eunsom; Jo, Seunghyun; Kim, Soohyun

2011-01-01

91

Spectrophotometric determination of phosphorus acid  

SciTech Connect

A number of procedures have been proposed to determine phosphorus acid and its salts, the phosphites, in the presence of hypophosphorus acid and its salts, the hypophosphites. Among these procedures, iodometric back-titration has produced the most reliable results. In this paper, the authors propose an improved iodometric determination of phosphorus acid that enables the sensitivity to be increased by at least two orders of magnitude. The essence of this improvement is that excess iodine that did not react with phosphite ion is determined not volumetrically but spectrophotometrically. To eliminate the effect of iodine ion that is liberated when iodine reacts with phosphite ion on the optical density of the solution, a 200-fold excess of potassium iodide is added before the photometric measurement. The working iodine solution is prepared by diluting 10 m of 0.025 N iodine titrant and 50 ml of phosphate buffer, pH 6.7-7.2, to 1 liter with distilled water in a coulometric flask. To construct the calibration curve, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 ml, respectively of working iodine solution, and 10 ml of 2% aqueous potassium iodide are placed into five 100-ml volumetric flasks, and the solutions are made up to volume with water. After 10 min the photometric measurements are carried out at 380 nm using curvets and the reference solution is obtained by diluting 10 ml of 2% aqueous potassium iodide to 100 ml with distilled water.

Domin, A.V.; Domina, N.G.; Zakharov, Yu.A.; Shechkov, G.T.

1987-03-01

92

Phosphorus flux from wetland ditch sediments.  

PubMed

The accumulation of phosphorus (P) in the bottom sediment of field drainage ditches poses a threat to the ecology both of the ditch water and downstream water courses. We investigated the amounts, forms and internal loading of sediment-bound P along two drainage ditches that regulate water levels in a basin fen (~200 ha) supporting a mixture of restored wetland and drained agricultural fields. Water levels in the Lady's Drove Rhyne are currently managed to enhance the biodiversity of the wetland (Catcott Lows Reserve - an area formerly cultivated for arable crop production); whereas, the East Ditch is managed to drain adjoining land that remains under arable and livestock production. Laboratory-based chemical fractionation schemes were used to characterise the forms and potential mobility of the sediment-bound P, whilst pore-water equilibrators were employed in situ to evaluate the diffusive flux of P through the sediment-water column, and to characterise the corresponding redox conditions. Along both ditches, sediment pore-water profiles indicated conditions ranging from weakly to very reducing conditions with increasing depth, and net fluxes of P from the sediment to overlying water. P flux values ranged from 0.33 to 1.30 mg m(-2) day(-1). Both the degree of P saturation (DPS) of the sediment and NaOH extractable (Fe/Al-bound) P correlated significantly (P<0.05) with P flux. Both in the wetland and agricultural ditches, by far the highest values for P flux were recorded at sites closest to points of drainage water entry from the corresponding, adjoining land. Although the P flux data were obtained from only a single sampling event, this study highlights the contribution of historical as well as ongoing agricultural land use on the sustained elevated P status of ditch sediments in lowland catchments. PMID:22954652

Hill, C R; Robinson, J S

2012-09-04

93

Lamb-shift measurement in hydrogenic phosphorus  

SciTech Connect

The final result of a 2[ital s] [sup 2][ital S][sub 1/2--]2[ital p] [sup 2][ital P][sub 1/2] Lamb-shift measurement by the laser resonance method in hydrogenic phosphorus is reported. Metastable 2[ital s] [sup 2][ital S][sub 1/2] ions were prepared using a [beta][approx]0.08 velocity beam of [sup 31]P[sup 14+] ions obtained from the MP tandem accelerator at the Centre de Recherches Nucleaires in Strasbourg. From the metastable state the transition to the 2[ital p] [sup 2][ital P][sub 3/2] state was induced with a high-power dye laser leading to a measured transition energy of [Delta][ital E]=2.231 33(12) eV. Subtracting the well-known fine-structure splitting [Delta][ital E][sub FS]=2.314 82(2) eV, the Lamb shift is deduced to be [ital E][sub expt]([ital LS])=20 188(29) GHz. This result is compared with the theoretical value [ital E][sub theor]([ital LS])=20 254(10) GHz and with other experimental results for the Lamb shift in the region [ital Z][le]18. Finally, the utility of the Lamb-shift measurements in testing the [ital G]([ital Z][alpha]) function of the self-energy, which includes only terms in ([ital Z][alpha])[sup [ital n

Pross, H. (Bank Verlag GmbH, 5000 Koeln (Germany)); Budelsky, D.; Kremer, L.; Platte, D.; von Brentano, P. (Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, 5000 Koeln 41 (Germany)); Gassen, J. (Crone GmbH, 4100 Duisburg (Germany)); Mueller, D. (Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, 6100 Darmstadt (Germany)); Scheuer, F. (Target Systemelectronic GmbH, 5650 Solingen (Germany)); Pape, A.; Sens, J.C. (Centre de Recherches Nucleaires and Universite Louis Pasteur, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex (France))

1993-09-01

94

33 CFR 83.33 - Equipment for sound signals (Rule 33).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equipment for sound signals (Rule 33). 83.33 Section 83...SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES RULES Sound and Light Signals § 83.33 Equipment for sound signals (Rule 33). (a) Vessels of...

2013-07-01

95

33 CFR 83.33 - Equipment for sound signals (Rule 33).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment for sound signals (Rule 33). 83.33 Section 83...SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES RULES Sound and Light Signals § 83.33 Equipment for sound signals (Rule 33). (a) Vessels of...

2010-07-01

96

Internal phosphorus loading to shallow Edinboro Lake in northwestern Pennsylvania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The summer stratification phosphorus budget for eutrophic Edinboro Lake in northwestern Pennsylvania was determined. Phosphorus loading from internal sources contributed 141 kg, (79%) and 55 kg, (68%) of the mass phosphorus increase in the lake in 1981 and 1982, respectively. Calculated anaerobic sediment release rates of total phosphorus were 9.9 and 3.7 mg ? m-2 ? day-1 for these two

Kevin J. Garberl; Richard T. Hartman

1985-01-01

97

Novel Mechanisms in the Regulation of Phosphorus Homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus plays a critical role in diverse biological processes, and, therefore, the regulation of phosphorus balance and homeostasis are critical to the well being of the organism. Changes in environmental, dietary, and serum concen trations of inorganic phosphorus are detected by sensors that elicit changes in cellular function and alter the efficiency by which phosphorus is conserved. Short- term, post-cibal

Theresa Berndt; Rajiv Kumar

2010-01-01

98

Reaching ultra low phosphorus concentrations by filtration techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research deals with tertiary treatment techniques used for the removal of phosphorus from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. The main objective of this research is to obtain ultra low total phosphorus (<0.15 mg total phosphorus\\/L) concentrations by coagulation, flocculation and filtration of wastewater treatment plant effluent. Knowledge of the different phosphorus forms in WWTP effluent is essential to reach

S. M. Scherrenberg

2011-01-01

99

Exchange of phosphorus across the sediment-water interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, principles of phosphorus retention and phosphorus release at the sediment-water interface in lakes are reviewed. New results and hypotheses are discussed in relation to older models of phosphorus exchange between sediments and water. The fractional composition of sedimentary phosphorus is discussed as a tool for interpretation of different retention mechanisms. Special emphasis is given to the impact

Bengt Bostrm; Jens M. Andersen; Siegfried Fleischer; Mats Jansson

1988-01-01

100

Bronx River bed sediments phosphorus pool and phosphorus compound identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus (P) transport in the Bronx River degraded water quality, decreased oxygen levels, and resulted in bioaccumulation in sediment potentially resulting in eutrophication, algal blooms and oxygen depletion under certain temperature and pH conditions. The anthropogenic P sources are storm water runoff, raw sewage discharge, fertilizer application in lawn, golf course and New York Botanical Garden; manure from the Bronx zoo; combined sewoverflows (CSO's) from parkway and Hunts Point sewage plant; pollutants from East River. This research was conducted in the urban river system in New York City area, in order to control P source, figure out P transport temporal and spatial variations and the impact on water quality; aimed to regulate P application, sharing data with Bronx River Alliance, EPA, DEP and DEC. The sediment characteristics influence the distribution and bioavailbility of P in the Bronx River. The P sequential extraction gave the quantitative analysis of the P pool, quantifying the inorganic and organic P from the sediments. There were different P pool patterns at the 15 sites, and the substantial amount of inorganic P pool indicated that a large amount P is bioavailable. The 31P- NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy) technology had been used to identify P species in the 15 sites of the Bronx River, which gave a qualitative analysis on phosphorus transport in the river. The P compounds in the Bronx River bed sediments are mostly glycerophophate (GlyP), nucleoside monophosphates (NMP), polynucleotides (PolyN), and few sites showed the small amount of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), glycerophosphoethanoamine (GPEA), phosphoenopyruvates (PEP), and inosine monophosphate (IMP). The land use spatial and temporal variations influence local water P levels, P distributions, and P compositions.

Wang, J.; Pant, H. K.

2008-12-01

101

The distribution of soil phosphorus for global biogeochemical modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus (P) is a major element required for biological activity in terrestrial ecosystems. Although the total P content in most soils can be large, only a small fraction is available or in an organic form for biological utilization because it is bound either in incompletely weathered mineral particles, adsorbed on mineral surfaces, or, over the time of soil formation, made unavailable by secondary mineral formation (occluded). In order to adequately represent phosphorus availability in global biogeochemistry-climate models, a representation of the amount and form of P in soils globally is required. We develop an approach that builds on existing knowledge of soil P processes and databases of parent material and soil P measurements to provide spatially explicit estimates of different forms of soil P on the global scale. We assembled data on the various forms of phosphorus in soils globally, chronosequence information, and several global spatial databases to develop a map of total soil P and the distribution among mineral bound, labile, organic, occluded, and secondary P forms in soils globally. The amount of P, to 50 cm soil depth, in soil labile, organic, occluded, and secondary pools is 3.5 3, 8.7 6, 13.2 9, and 3.3 2 Pg P respectively. The amount in soil mineral particles to the same depth is estimated at 12.5 9 Pg P for a global soil total of 41.2 20 Pg P. The large uncertainty in our estimates reflects our limited understanding of the processes controlling soil P transformations during pedogenesis and lack of measurements of soil P. In spite of the large uncertainty, the estimated global spatial variation and distribution of different soil P forms presented in this study will be useful for global biogeochemistry models that include P as a limiting element in biological production by providing initial estimates of the available soil P for plant uptake and microbial utilization.

Yang, X.; Post, W. M.; Thornton, P. E.; Jain, A.

2012-11-01

102

[Phosphorus characteristics in leachate from soils irrigated with livestock wastewater].  

PubMed

Phosphorus fractions could enter water body from surface runoff and leachate due to excessive irrigation of centralized farm wastewater. Organic P is more mobile than inorganic P in the soil profile and represents a significant proportion of P present in leachate from irrigated farm soils. A set of parallel experiments were conducted to compare the characteristics of organic phosphorus in leachate. The experiment was established in a complete randomized block design with nine replicates. The plots received different combinations of P fertilizer and different rates of pig slurry, i. e. 100, 200,300, 400 t x (hm2 x a)(-1), accordingly, the phosphorus was added to the plots was 6.2, 12.4, 19.2, 24.8 kg x (hm2 x a)(-1), respectively. Leachate was collected over a year period and analyzed for different P fractions. Physico-chemical fractionation of P in leachate indicated that the majority of the P loss from the irrigated soil occurred in unreactive particulate (77% - 90%) P forms. 31P nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of eight leachate samples indicated that unreactive P was mainly comprised of monoester and diester forms of organic P. The presence of phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase activity in leachate resulted in hydrolysis of 9% - 29% of total unreactive P (TUP), indicating that some of the monoesters and diesters can be eventually hydrolyzed into inorganic P forms during P transport. To the treatment P45 + F200, enzyme hydrolysis showed that 33% of the TUP was present as labile monoester P (LMP), followed by 17% as inositol hexakisphosphate (IHP) and 9% as diesters (phospholipids and nucleic acids). The results suggest that LMP, IHP and diesters are an important component of organic P leaching from the irrigated soil. The identification of these organic P forms will improve our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for their release from soils, so that specific mitigation strategies can be implemented at the P source. PMID:16366499

He, Lian-Sheng; Liu, Hong-Liang; Zhu, Ying-Bo; Xi, Bei-Dou

2005-09-01

103

30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.33 Allowable limits of dust concentration. (a) The...

2013-07-01

104

Photometry of M33  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present UBVRI photometry of stars in the nearby Local Group galaxy M33, obtained by imaging with the Kitt Peak 4-m telescope and MOSAIC camera as part of our Local Group Galaxies survey. To obtain this photometry, we have been developing and strengthening routines that can search through images and automatically photometer these stars using point-spread-function fitting. The routines split the image into its corresponding eight CCD chips and then do automated photometry on each chip separately, so that separate color transformations can be applied in a chip-by-chip manner. Our calibration data comes from images obtained on the Lowell 1.1-m Hall telescope on Anderson Mesa, obtained on numerous pristine photometric nights. Once calibrated, our Mosaic photometry values are averaged, and a complete catalogue of positions and photometry (with errors) is obtained. In the end, we have a list of several hundred thousand stars with magnitudes and colors. These data can be used to analyze the stellar populations in M33, one of our closest neighbors. We will briefly describe our procedure, and present the first HR diagrams from our data. This work has been supported by the NSF under grant AST0093060.

Schlingman, W. M.; Massey, P.

2003-12-01

105

The phosphorus mass balance: identifying 'hotspots' in the food system as a roadmap to phosphorus security.  

PubMed

Phosphorus is a critical element on which all life depends. Global crop production depends on fertilisers derived from phosphate rock to maintain high crop yields. Population increase, changing dietary preferences towards more meat and dairy products, and the continuing intensification of global agriculture supporting this expansion will place increasing pressure on an uncertain, but finite supply of high-quality phosphate rock. Growing concern about phosphorus scarcity and security, coupled with the environmental impact of phosphorus pollution, has encouraged an increase in research exploring how phosphorus is used and lost in the food system-from mine to field to fork. An assessment of recent phosphorus flows analyses at different geographical scales identifies the key phosphorus 'hotspots', for example within the mining, agriculture or food processing sectors, where efficiency and reuse can be substantially improved through biotechnological approaches coupled with policy changes. PMID:22503084

Cordell, Dana; Neset, Tina-Simone Schmid; Prior, Timothy

2012-04-12

106

Difference characteristics of phosphorus in Chara and two submerged angiosperm species: implications for phosphorus nutrient cycling in an aquatic ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus speciation in three submerged macrophytes species, Chara fibrosa Agardh ex Bruzelius, Najas marina Linnaeus and Vallisneria gigantea Graebner, and the implications for phosphorus nutrient cycling in an aquatic ecosystem were studied, using sequential phosphorus fractionations. The results showed that C.?fibrosa had a far higher residual ash and calcium content compared with the two angiosperm species, but lower total phosphorus

Kian Siong; Takashi Asaeda; Takeshi Fujino; Anna Redden

2006-01-01

107

33 CFR 164.33 - Charts and publications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Charts and publications. 164.33 Section 164.33 ...REGULATIONS § 164.33 Charts and publications. (a) Each vessel must have the...extract from, each of the following publications: (i) U.S. Coast Pilot....

2013-07-01

108

Towards global phosphorus security: a systems framework for phosphorus recovery and reuse options.  

PubMed

Human intervention in the global phosphorus cycle has mobilised nearly half a billion tonnes of the element from phosphate rock into the hydrosphere over the past half century. The resultant water pollution concerns have been the main driver for sustainable phosphorus use (including phosphorus recovery). However the emerging global challenge of phosphorus scarcity with serious implications for future food security, means phosphorus will also need to be recovered for productive reuse as a fertilizer in food production to replace increasingly scarce and more expensive phosphate rock. Through an integrated and systems framework, this paper examines the full spectrum of sustainable phosphorus recovery and reuse options (from small-scale low-cost to large-scale high-tech), facilitates integrated decision-making and identifies future opportunities and challenges for achieving global phosphorus security. Case studies are provided rather than focusing on a specific technology or process. There is no single solution to achieving a phosphorus-secure future: in addition to increasing phosphorus use efficiency, phosphorus will need to be recovered and reused from all current waste streams throughout the food production and consumption system (from human and animal excreta to food and crop wastes). There is a need for new sustainable policies, partnerships and strategic frameworks to develop renewable phosphorus fertilizer systems for farmers. Further research is also required to determine the most sustainable means in a given context for recovering phosphorus from waste streams and converting the final products into effective fertilizers, accounting for life cycle costs, resource and energy consumption, availability, farmer accessibility and pollution. PMID:21414650

Cordell, D; Rosemarin, A; Schrder, J J; Smit, A L

2011-03-16

109

Crystallisation kinetics and phase transformation behaviour of electroless nickelphosphorus deposits with high phosphorus content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of continuous heating on the crystallisation kinetics and the phase transformation behaviour of electroless nickelphosphorus deposits plated on mild steel substrates, with high phosphorus contents of 12 and 16 wt.%, were studied. Both the deposits exhibited an amorphous X-ray profile in the as-deposited condition. The crystallisation temperatures of the deposits increased with decreasing phosphorus content, and increasing heating

K. G Keong; W Sha; S Malinov

2002-01-01

110

Soil microbial biomass phosphorus as an indicator of phosphorus availability in a Gleyic Andosol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between plant phosphorus (P) uptake and soil microbial biomass phosphorus (biomass P) or available phosphorus (Truog P) was estimated in a Gleyic Andosol in Sapporo, Hokkaido, in a 4-year field trial (20042007). Every year, the soil was treated in duplicate (each plot 36?m) or triplicate (each plot 24?m) with chemical fertilizer, cow manure compost or sewage sludge compost,

Tomoko Sugito; Koji Yoshida; Masako Takebe; Takuro Shinano; Koki Toyota

2010-01-01

111

Production of low phosphorus steels from high phosphorus Indian hot metal: Experience at Tata Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The position in India on the phosphorus front vis-a-vis iron and steel operations elsewhere in the world is, and will remain,\\u000a most unfavourable since Indian iron ores contain high phosphorus and coal (and therefore, also the coke), has high ash and\\u000a phosphorus in the Indian subcontinent. While dephosphorization of hot metal is theoretically ruled out in the Indian context,\\u000a dephosphorization

T Mukherjee; Amit Chatterjee

1996-01-01

112

Effect of previous fertilization on phosphorus adsorption. Measurement of surface phosphorus by isotopic exchange  

SciTech Connect

Adsorption properties of a soil with previous additions of different phosphate fertilizers were characterized by means of the Langmuir isotherm. The best correlation with the Langmuir isotherm was obtained for low added-phosphorus concentration and for conditions of different amounts of initial soil phosphorus treatment. The phosphorus initially present in each soil sample was evaluated by isotopic exchange. (The use of different isotopic methodologies is discussed.) Carrier-free {sup 32}P was added to a soil-solution system in adsorption equilibrium after soil agitation with increasing phosphorus concentration solutions for 5 days; this allowed measurement of the adsorbed phosphorus that remained exchangeable phosphorus and equilibrium phosphorus concentration was found. The surface exchangeable phosphorus concentration at 0.3 ppm was used to estimate initial surface soil phosphorus. Taking these corrections into account, the authors found adsorption maximum and the bonding energy constant were similar in spite of the amount and kind of previous fertilizer addition. However, the behavior of superphosphate seemed to be modified in the presence of rock phosphate, especially in relation to exchange ability.

Lopez, S.C.; Barbaro, N.O.; De Tramontini, S.R. (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina))

1990-09-01

113

Tracing the phosphorus contamination sources and reducing the phosphorus contamination in HPGe crystal growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The net impurity concentration and the dislocation density for the grown crystals must be controlled within a narrow range of values to produce crystals acceptable for large-volume coaxial germanium detector fabrication. Phosphorus is the main shallow level donor in high purity germanium crystal. The phosphorus contamination is a disaster for growing p-type high-purity germanium crystal. The phosphorus contamination mainly comes from crucible, insulation, ambient gas or crystal growth chamber. Regrowth method was used to trace the phosphorus contamination sources. The contamination level from sources was discussed in detail in this paper. For different contamination source, targeted approaches were used to reduce the contamination.

Wang, Guojian; Guan, Yutong; Yang, Gang; Govani, Jayesh; Khizar, Muhammad; Mei, Hao; Mei, Dongming

2013-03-01

114

40 CFR 422.20 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory. 422...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Consuming Subcategory § 422...Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory....

2009-07-01

115

40 CFR 422.20 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory. 422...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Consuming Subcategory § 422...Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory....

2010-07-01

116

40 CFR 422.10 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory. 422...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Production Subcategory § 422...Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory....

2010-07-01

117

40 CFR 422.10 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory. 422...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Production Subcategory § 422...Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory....

2009-07-01

118

40 CFR 422.20 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory. 422...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Consuming Subcategory § 422...Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory....

2012-07-01

119

40 CFR 422.10 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory. 422...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Production Subcategory § 422...Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory....

2012-07-01

120

Phosphorus-based SAHA analogues as histone deacetylase inhibitors.  

PubMed

[structure: see text] Three analogues of suberoyl anilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) with phosphorus metal-chelating functionalities were synthesized as inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs). The compounds showed weak activity for HeLa nuclear extracts (IC(50) = 0.57-6.1 mM), HDAC8 (IC(50) = 0.28-0.41 mM), and histone-deacetylase-like protein (HDLP, IC(50) = 0.33-1.9 mM), suggesting that the transition state of HDAC is not analogous to zinc proteases. Antiproliferative activity against A2780 cancer cells (IC(50) = 0.11-0.12 mM), comparable to SAHA (0.15 mM), was observed. PMID:12916979

Kapustin, Galina V; Fejr, Gyrgy; Gronlund, Jennifer L; McCafferty, Dewey G; Seto, Edward; Etzkorn, Felicia A

2003-08-21

121

Phosphorus net absorption in dairy cows subjected to abomasal infusion of inorganic phosphorus--a pilot study.  

PubMed

In this pilot study, the effects of phosphorus (P) supply on inorganic phosphorus (Pi ) net absorption in dairy cows were investigated. Three non-lactating, non-pregnant, rumen-fistulated Swedish Red breed dairy cows were studied in a 3??3 Latin square design. Monosodium dihydrogen orthophosphate dihydrate (NaH2 PO4 *2H2 O) was continuously infused into the abomasum for 4?days. The solutions provided 0, 14.4 or 28.8?g Pi /day. Rumen fluid volume and outflow rate were estimated at day four of each experimental period using cobalt-lithium EDTA as an external marker. Acid insoluble ash in feeds and faecal samples was used to quantify P faecal excretion. Concentrations of Pi in collected samples of rumen fluid, blood, faeces and urine were determined. Pi flow into the small intestine increased (p?

Mogodiniyai Kasmaei, K; Holtenius, K

2012-03-08

122

A survey of the phosphorus content of pastures and the serum inorganic phosphorus content of dairy cows.  

PubMed

Serum inorganic phosphorus (Pi) concentration of 20 cows in each of ten factory supply dairy herds was assessed at monthly or two-monthly intervals during the 198243 lactation. Pasture on offer was ranked low, medium or high and the phosphorus (P) content assessed monthly on all farms from the two paddocks to be grazed next in the rotation. The mean serum Pi concentration was high (1.98 mmol/l) prior to calving but fell to low levels at peak lactation (1.28 mmol/l) and again during the drought (1.28-1.38 mmol/l) in January, February and March. Individual cows had Pi levels as low as 0.32 mmol/l. Herds on Northern Yellow-brown Earths had higher Pi levels than herds predominantly on Brown Granular Loams (P<0.01). There were differences between cows within herds (P<0.01) and Pi levels declined with cow age (P<0.01). Pasture P content was above minimum requirements for lactating cows (0.33% DM; with ad lib. feeding) from July through October but below requirements in most pastures from December through April, when pasture availability also limited production. The P content in pasture was unrelated to either its grass or legume content, but was higher in pastures given a medium or high DM ranking (P<0.05). The possibility of increasing dairy production with P supplementation in spring is discussed. PMID:16031248

Betteridge, K

1986-03-01

123

Phosphine Evolution Control in Red Phosphorus Munitions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several desiccants and sorbents were investigated for reducing or eliminating corrosion in red phosphorus munitions. It was shown that corrosion will not occur in the absence of moisture. Moist air and phosphine from oxyacids corrode the electrical compon...

P. A. Tarantino W. L. Brown

1989-01-01

124

Syntheses of Novel Nitrogen and Phosphorus Heterocycles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

1-Dichlorophospha-3,5-perfluoro-n-heptyl (or perfluoroalkylether)-2,4,6-triazines were synthesized by interaction of imidoylamidines with phosphorus pentachloride. In a parallel approach, 1,3-bis(phenylchlorophospha)-5-perfluoroalkyl (or perfluoroalkyleth...

K. L. Paciorek J. H. Nakahara D. H. Harris M. E. Smythe R. H. Kratzer

1985-01-01

125

Future directions for agricultural phosphorus research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Future Directions for Agricultural Phosphorus Research is a collection of papers presented at a workshop in Muscle Shoals, Alabama, on July 18 and 19, 1990. The objective of the workshop was to gather representatives of academia, government, and industry ...

F. J. Sikora

1992-01-01

126

Mechanistic Studies of Phosphorus Containing Flame Retardants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A combination of mass spectrometric and optical spectroscopic studies has been made to establish a mechanism for phosphorus controlled flame retardancy in thermoplastics. It is shown that a vapor phase mode of flame inhibition can account for the known fl...

C. L. McBee J. W. Hastie

1976-01-01

127

Phosphorus Fractionations in Acidic Piedmont Rice Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piedmont lands in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and many other Asian countries are important rice-growing soils, but most of the soils are potentially phosphorus (P) deficient because of low pH. Phosphorus fractions of rice-growing acidic piedmont soils were determined. Soil samples were amended with 100 and 200 mg P kg soil, and a control soil without P amendment was maintained. The

M. A. Islam; M. A. Saleque; M. S. Islam; A. J. M. S. Karim; A. R. M. Solaiman; A. Islam

2010-01-01

128

Interaction of vanadium and phosphorus in chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were carried out to determine the effect of dietary vanadium on chicks fed phosphorus deficient and control diets.\\u000a Vanadium at 50 mg\\/kg of diet decreased growth of both control and deficient chicks. The high mortality among the phosphorus\\u000a deficient chicks was significantly alleviated by the presence of vanadium. The increased relative ventricular weights found\\u000a among the deficient chicks was

C. H. Hill

1994-01-01

129

Assessing phosphorus reduction efforts in the Everglades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Years of agricultural and urban runoff have resulted in too much phosphorus in northern regions of the Florida Everglades. To deal with this problem, very large constructed wetlands, known as Stormwater Treatment Areas (STAs), have been built to strip phosphorus from runoff before the water enters protected Everglades areas. The more than $1 billion STA project currently relies on large areas (cells) of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) to absorb phosphorus as the final stage of treatment. To evaluate how well the treatment cells are functioning, as well as the potential lower limits of treatment, it is essential to have an accurate picture of the inflows, outflows, and background phosphorus levels. Juston and DeBusk made long-term measurements in one of the SAV cells. They found that after total phosphorous levels in the cells reached about 15 micrograms per liter, no more phosphorus removal occurred. They also analyzed inflow and outflow data from the cell and inferred background phosphorus concentrations for eight additional SAV cells. Background concentrations averaged around 16 micrograms per liter. (Water Resources Research, doi:10.1029/2010WR009294, 2011)

Tretkoff, Ernie

2011-05-01

130

The phosphorus fractions and alkaline phosphatase activities in sludge.  

PubMed

The alkaline phosphatase activities (APA) and phosphorus fractions in activated sludge during wastewater treatment were studied. Our results showed that the phosphorus concentration and fractions in activated sludge were highly correlated with the characteristics of influents. Inorganic phosphorus (IP) and non-apatite inorganic phosphorus (NAIP) were the main phosphorus fractions of sludge. A larger phosphorus concentration was found in activated sludge due to the more readily mobilizable and bio-available forms. The APA in sludge was directly correlated with mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) in activated sludge. The APA in the sludge is implicated the depletion of organic phosphorus forms in sludge, whilst also implying its less inhibition of inorganic phosphorus in sludge. The APA and phosphorus fractions in different sludge samples from the same wastewater treatment plant were quite stable. This stability shows their tight interactions in sludge. PMID:21123052

Xie, Chunsheng; Zhao, Jie; Tang, Jie; Xu, Jiang; Lin, Xianyong; Xu, Xinhua

2010-11-09

131

Seasonal variation of nitrogen, phosphorus, and chlorophyll a in Lake Michigan and Green Bay, 1965  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Total and dissolved phosphorus, nitrate, and chlorophyll a were measured at four stations in northern Lake Michigan (inshore Michigan, offshore Michigan, offshore Wisconsin, and inshore Wisconsin) and one station in southern Green Bay during 16 sampling periods in 1965. The nutrients were measured at depths of 2, 5, and 10 meters and chlorophyll a at 2 meters. In Green Bay total phosphorus (33.7 ppb) was about five times as high and dissolved phosphorus (7.0 ppb) more than twice as high as the averages for the four Lake Michigan stations, but nitrate nitrogen concentration (37.3 ppb) was only about onethird that in the lake. Total and dissolved phosphorus were about 50 percent higher in the inshore Michigan area than in the other three lake areas. Concentration and seasonal trends in nitrates differed relatively little among the four lake stations. Nitrate at all areas and depths sampled decreased to almost nondetectable levels during September. Chlorophyll a was 70 percent higher at the two inshore areas than at the two offshore areas in the lake and was more than four times higher in Green Bay than at any lake area.

Allen, Herbert Ellis

1973-01-01

132

Environmental Fate of White Phosphorus/Felt and Red Phosphorus/Butyl Rubber Military Screening Smokes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Investigations were conducted to identify those processes that control the loss and movement of White phosphorus/felt, Red phosphorus/butyl rubber, and their combustion products in air, soil, and aquatic environments. The fate of RP/BR will be controlled ...

R. J. Spanggord R. Rewick T. W. Chou R. Wilson R. T. Podoll

1985-01-01

133

The Phosphorus Index: A Tool for Management of Agricultural Phosphorus in Vermont  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Phosphorus (P) Index is a tool developed to assess the potential for phosphorus runoff from individual fields based on soil and field characteristics and on management practices. The P Index is much more comprehensive than relying only on a soil test because it considers erosion and runoff potential and manure and fertilizer P management. Use of the P Index

Bill Jokela

2001-01-01

134

Inorganic leaf phosphorus and soil tests as indicators of phosphorus nutrition in cereals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plant extraction method, which measures the inorganic phosphorus (Pi) in leaves, and four different soil testing methods were studied as indicators of phosphorus availability. Analytical values were compared with the yield responses and P uptakes of pot?grown barley and oats. The inorganic leaf phosporus test was a sensitive indicator for P availability. This simple plant extraction method appeared to

I. Saarela; J. Sippola

1990-01-01

135

Phosphorus Efficiency in Sunflower Cultivars and Its Relationships with Phosphorus, Calcium, Iron, Zinc and Manganese Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) efficiency (shoot dry weight at low P\\/shoot dry weight at high P) of a cultivar is the ability to produce a high yield in a soil that is limited in that element for a standard genotype. The large variation in P efficiency of different crops provides opportunities for screening crop species that perform well on low phosphorus soil.

Aydin Gunes; Ali Inal

2009-01-01

136

Summary Review of Health Effects Associated with Elemental and Inorganic Phosphorus Compounds: Health Issue Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phosphorus is a nonmetallic essential element. Although phosphorus occurs naturally in the environment, most of the phosphorus in the environment results from its manufacture into one of the three allotropic forms (white, red, or black) or into phosphorus...

1990-01-01

137

Assessing Phosphorus Loading in Wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hari K. Pant Lehman College of the City University of New York, Department of Environmental, Geographic and Geological Sciences, 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, NY 10468; hari.pant@lehman.cuny.edu Depending on ecosystem's resilience, hydro-climatic changes brought upon by global climate change may cause nonlinear and/or irreversible changes in phosphorus (P) dynamic, and instigate P enrichment in freshwater wetlands. Thus, the studies of the influence of expected global climate change and its impacts on P stability in wetlands are in critical need to help manage, or increase the resilience of freshwater wetland ecosystems against undesirable changes. The objectives of this study were to assess P sorption in sediments, and help to estimate potential internal loading of P to the water column from the sediments. Sediment samples were collected from freshwater wetlands that are located within Pelham Bay Park, Bronx, New York. Although P sorption maxima (Smax) of the sediments were high in general (up to 1667 mg kg-1), the equilibrium P concentrations (EPC0) were also fairly high (0.09 -0.24 mg L-1), indicating substantial amounts of P may remain available for biological uptake in the water columns. High percentages of hysteretic P (>96%), as indicated by P retained values (Pr), along with a significant correlation between Smax and oxalate-extractable Fe (r = 0.89), suggest that changes in sediment/water chemistry such as redox status/acidity could cause massive P release to the water columns.

Pant, H. K.

2011-12-01

138

Phosphorus33-labeled nucleotide 5 prime -triphosphates: Applications in DNA analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis of (γ-³³P) adenosine 5-triphosphate and (α-³³P)2-deoxyadenosine 5-triphosphate was accomplished in a way similar to the preparation of ³²P-labeled nucleotides. These nucleotides were then used in a variety of molecular biological applications. The techniques of DNA sequencing and nucleic acid hybridization were used to evaluate potential applications for ³³P labeled nucleotides. The ³³P nucleotides were compared with the ³²P and

Buzby

1992-01-01

139

A Preliminary Investigation of the Reactivity of Amorphous Red Phosphorus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reactivity of amorphous red phosphorus specimens obtained from six commercial manufacturers was investigated by a non-isothermal reaction with a sulfuryl chloride-benzene medium. Variations in the reactivity of the phosphorus specimens were measured. ...

W. Ripley C. A. Lipscomb

1968-01-01

140

Chemical Investigation of Phosphorus Removal in Lakes by Aluminum Hydroxide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The chemical factors controlling the removal of phosphorus from lake waters by aluminum hydroxide were investigated. Chemical factors studied were dose size, settling time, pH, rate of phosphorus removal, and sorption and hydrolysis of model organic phosp...

D. E. Armstrong R. F. Harris S. J. Eisenreich

1977-01-01

141

Pressure Induced Phase Transitions, Superconductivity of Phosphorus Described.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As temperature and pressure release its molecularity, phosphorus changes in the following order: white to red, rhombic black, rhombohedral black, and simple cubic. During this transition, the physical properties of phosphorus change considerably. In parti...

I. Shirotani H. Kawamura

1987-01-01

142

Inputs of Phosphorus from Precipitation to Lake Michigan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Precipitation samples were collected at six locations around Lake Michigan and analyzed for the different forms of phosphorus present. It was found that the atmosphere is presently contributing one million kilograms per year of phosphorus or about 18 perc...

T. J. Murphy P. V. Doskey

1975-01-01

143

Phosphorus Sequestration in Lake Sediment with Iron Mine Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internal phosphorus loading can lead to eutrophication in lakes when anoxic sediments release bioavailable phosphorus into the water column. In laboratory experiments, iron mine tailings helped to sequester phosphorus in sediment from a eutrophic lake. Phosphorus release from the sediments after extraction with distilled water or 0.02 N H2SO4 was significantly reduced when mine tailings were added (1:1 w\\/w), even

MAUREEN E. CLAYTON; SARAH LIEGEOIS; EDWARD J. BROWN

2004-01-01

144

46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section...Requirements § 151.50-50 Elemental phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be...head equivalent to the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket...

2009-10-01

145

46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section...Requirements § 151.50-50 Elemental phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be...head equivalent to the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket...

2010-10-01

146

Lightning-induced reduction of phosphorus oxidation state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus is frequently the limiting nutrient in marine and terrestrial ecosystems, largely owing to its poor solubility and slow movement through the rock cycle. Phosphorus is viewed to exist in geological systems almost exclusively in its fully oxidized state as orthophosphate. However, many microorganisms use the partially oxidized forms-phosphite and hypophosphite-as alternative phosphorus sources, and genomic evidence suggests that this

Matthew Pasek; Kristin Block

2009-01-01

147

EVALUATION OF A PROTOTYPE INSTRUMENT FOR DETERMINING PHOSPHORUS IN WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A second-generation flame spectrometer for the direct determination of phosphorus in water was evaluated. Response to phosphorus in the form of phosphoric acid was linear from 0.5 to 16 ppm phosphorus. The relative standard deviation was approximately constant at 20 percent over ...

148

Dephosphorization of LD slag by phosphorus solubilising bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus is one of the major nutrients, and microbial solubilisation of insoluble mineral phosphate in soil is an important process in natural ecosystem and in agricultural soil. Many soil microorganisms display the ability to solubilize many insoluble inorganic phosphates. They are generally referred as phosphorus solubilising microorganisms (PSM). In this study an attempt was made to look into the phosphorus

N. P. Marhual; N. Pradhan; N. C. Mohanta; L. B. Sukla; B. K. Mishra

2011-01-01

149

Commercial Developments in Red Phosphorus Performance and Stability for Pyrotechnics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red phosphorus has become an essential in- gredient in the production of modern smoke and obscurant devices. Nearly all multi-spectral developmental projects are being based on the new versions of red phosphorus available from Clariant. In pyrotechnics and munitions, phosphine liberated by the traditional red phosphorus- based smoke compounds may diffuse through the device and can give rise to corrosion

Sebastian Hoerold; Andrew Ratcliff

2001-01-01

150

46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section 151.50-50...151.50-50 Elemental phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be designed and...the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket extended to 8 feet above...

2011-10-01

151

46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section 151.50-50...151.50-50 Elemental phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be designed and...the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket extended to 8 feet above...

2012-10-01

152

FLUOROALKYL PHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS NGP ELEMENT: 4D\\/14\\/1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In work sponsored by the Next-Generation Fire Suppression Technology Program, research efforts at the New Mexico Engineering Research Institute extended earlier promising studies on alkyl phosphorus compound flame extinguishment performance to the study of several new partially and fully fluorinated alkyl phosphorus compounds from the phosphine and phosphonate families(1). Researchers have demonstrated that phosphorus compounds appear to provide a chemical

J. Douglas Mather; Robert E. Tapscott; Rajendra P. Singh

153

40 CFR 792.33 - Study director.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Study director. 792.33 Section 792.33 Protection...STANDARDS Organization and Personnel § 792.33 Study director. For each study, a scientist or other professional of...

2013-07-01

154

Phosphorus Redox on the Early Earth: First Identification of Low-Oxidation State Phosphorus Compounds in Terrestrial Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus is one of the key elements in biochemical systems, playing an important role in metabolism as ATP and other coenzymes, in replication as DNA and RNA, and in cellular structure as phospholipids. The geochemical cycling of phosphorus on the Earth is usually confined to the rock cycle- redox reactions of phosphorus are never considered. However, it has been proposed

K. M. Block; M. A. Pasek

2008-01-01

155

Plant-Mediated Phosphorus Mobilization from Sediments: Potential Influence on Freshwater Phosphorus Cycling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mobilization of sediment phosphorus (P) by three submersed freshwater pplant species was investigated on five different sediments. The study was conducted under controlled environmental conditions in lucite columns that enabled the separation of sedim...

J. W. Barko R. M. Smart M. S. Matthews D. G. Hardin

1979-01-01

156

Intruder Configurations in the A=33 Isobars: {sup 33}Mg and {sup 33}Al  

SciTech Connect

The {beta} decay of {sup 33}Mg (N=21) presented in this Letter reveals intruder configurations in both the parent and the daughter nucleus. The lowest excited states in the N=20 daughter nucleus, {sup 33}Al, are found to have nearly 2p-2h intruder configuration, thus extending the 'island of inversion' beyond Mg. The allowed direct {beta}-decay branch to the 5/2{sup +} ground state of the daughter nucleus {sup 33}Al implies positive parity for the ground state of the parent {sup 33}Mg, contrary to an earlier suggestion of negative parity from a g-factor measurement. An admixture of 1p-1h and 3p-3h configurations is proposed for the ground state of {sup 33}Mg to explain all of the experimental observables.

Tripathi, Vandana; Tabor, S. L.; Bender, P.; Hoffman, C. R.; Lee, Sangjin; Perry, M.; Pepper, K.; Volya, A. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States); Mantica, P. F. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Utsuno, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Cook, J.; Pereira, J.; Weisshaar, D. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Otsuka, T. [Department of Physics and Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); RIKEN, Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Pinter, J. S.; Stoker, J. [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

2008-10-03

157

Pressure-induced crystallization of amorphous red phosphorus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural transitions in amorphous red phosphorus were studied at ambient temperature and pressures up to 12 GPa. Amorphous (red) phosphorus was observed to transform into crystalline black phosphorus at 7.5 0.5 GPa using diamond anvil cell Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and a direct equation of state (EoS) measurement. The transition was found to be irreversible and the material recovered upon pressure cycling to 10 to 12 GPa was crystalline orthorhombic black phosphorus. A third order Birch-Murnaghan EoS was fit to the data and a bulk modulus (B0) of 11.2 GPa was measured for amorphous red phosphorus.

Rissi, Erin N.; Soignard, Emmanuel; McKiernan, Keri A.; Benmore, Chris. J.; Yarger, Jeffery L.

2012-03-01

158

Response of Mature Phosphorus-Deficient Apple Trees to Phosphorus Fertilization and Liming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to examine response of mature phosphorus (P) deficient apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees to phosphorus fertilization and liming. The experiment was carried out during 20032005 in a commercial orchard in Central Poland on Jonagold apple trees\\/M.26 planted in 1996 on a coarse-textured soil with low both pH (4.6) and organic matter (1.2%). Calcium-lactate soluble

Pawel Wojcik; Marzena Wojcik

2007-01-01

159

Sediment characteristics, phosphorus types and phosphorus release rates between river and lake sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Han river is 469.7 km long with 26219-km2 area watershed, and is the primary drinking water source for the 20 million people that live in Seoul, Kangwon-Do and Kyunggi-Do, Korea. Phosphorus release from sediments impacts water quality, and is endangering the beneficial use of the river. This research measures phosphorus release and predicts future releases from bottom sediments of

Lee-Hyung Kim; Euiso Choi; Michael K Stenstrom

2003-01-01

160

Phosphorus eutrophication in the SW Frisian lake district 2. Phosphorus balances and simulation of reduction scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lakes and interconnecting canals in the S.W. Frisian lake district are highly eutrophic. In the mid-1980's a project on eutrophication and lake restoration research was started. This project was aimed at modelling water transport and phosphorus (P) dynamics and at simulating management scenarios. A simple dynamic P-balance model was used to calculate total phosphorus (TP) balances and to simulate

Harry J. W. J. Van Huet

1992-01-01

161

Assessment of Red Phosphorus in the Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a brief critical review of the current literature relevant to the environmental and health effects of the use of red phosphorus in smoke and obscurant munitions by the Army. Properties of the element in its red allotropic form and its many ...

E. P. Burrows W. R. Mitchell

1990-01-01

162

Future directions for agricultural phosphorus research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A workshop was held in 1990 in Muscle Shoals, Alabama to discuss current and future research on phosphorus in agriculture. Twenty four presentations were given in areas ranging from basic to applied research. For five of the research areas presented at the workshop, this paper presents a literature review, a review of presentations at the workshop, and a discussion of

F. J. Sikora; P. M. Giordano

1995-01-01

163

Phosphorus Limits Tropical Rain Forest Litter Fauna  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stoichiometry of resources may explain bottom-up regulation of higher trophic levels. We tested the effects of soil and litter nutrient stoichiometry on the invertebrate litter fauna of a Costa Rican tropical rain forest. Animal densities were estimated from 15 sites across a phosphorus gradient. The density of the invertebrate litter fauna varied considerably, and was strongly tied to soil

Terrence P. McGlynn; Daniel J. Salinas; Robert R. Dunn; Tana E. Wood; Deborah Lawrence; Deborah A. Clark

2007-01-01

164

Expert systems guide biological phosphorus removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a large body of knowledge regarding optimum control strategies for new secondary wastewater treatment technology using an anaerobic selector to provide biological phosphorus removal. However, because the selector technology is new and the concepts differ somewhat from those used in conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment, a method of communicating this knowledge to plant operators is needed. Traditional methods

D. J. Krichten; K. D. Wilson; K. D. Tracy

1991-01-01

165

Parameters of the pulsed phosphorus laser system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pulsed phosphorus vapor laser has been investigated in detail. A number of laser plasma tubes have been constructed and this performance has been evaluated. The normal output parameters of peak power, gain, and beam quality have been determined for the visible orange ion laser lines at 6024 A and 6043 A. The effects of the tube geometry and excitation

G. R. Fowles

1975-01-01

166

PHOSPHORUS RUNOFF LOSSES FROM ALFALFA 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) released from plants after freezing at the end of the growing season may be a contributor to P in runoff from agricultural landscapes. We evaluated P release from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and mixed grass species (mainly quackgrass (Agropyron repens)) after freezing or drying in laboratory and field studies. Freezing released 18-30 % of the total P as

Tiffany Roberson; Larry G. Bundy; Todd W. Andraski

167

Promotion of root elongation by phosphorus deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decrease of culture solution pH and increase in cation\\/anion ratio in the plant were observed when horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.) was grown in solution culture deficient in phosphorus. The effux of H+ from the roots of ?P plants was observed in bromocresol purple agar. The length of root cells was considerably increased by ?P treatment. Thus a close correlation

M. Anuradha; A. Narayanan

1991-01-01

168

ESTIMATING SOURCE COEFFICIENTS FOR PHOSPHORUS SITE INDICES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus (P) release to runoff varies widely for different land-applied organic-P sources even when applied at equivalent total P rates. To address this variability, some P site indices include tabulated P source coefficients (PSCs) for differential weighting of applied P materials based on their ...

169

On the Structure of Phosphorus Compounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A discussion is presented of the basic principles underlying bonding in organic phosphorus compounds. A brief review is made of the position of organic chemistry in the chemical field and the primary uses of the compounds with which it deals. Subsequently...

R. Wolf

1974-01-01

170

BIOLOGICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL: A TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A study of alternative biological phosphorus (bio-P) removal processes was undertaken to evaluate their effectiveness and reliability. Thirty such facilities were identified in the United States and Canada. Four plants were selected for detailed study. The PhoStrip process is use...

171

Control of Phosphorus by Harvesting and Alum.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of this project was to evaluate macrophyte harvesting as a control for phosphorus (P) in Long Lake, Kitsap County, Washington. Plants were harvested in Long Lake during summers of 1988-1990 to determine if water column total P (TP) c...

E. B. Welch

1996-01-01

172

Phase Transfer Catalysis in Phosphorus Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase-transfer catalysis (PTC) has been widely used for the synthesis of organic compounds for more than three decades. The scope and mechanistic features of PTC have been the aim of numerous studies. This review focuses on the application of phase transfer catalysis in synthesis of phosphorus compounds.

Gheorghe Ilia; Lavinia Macarie; Erika Blint; Gyrgy Keglevich

2011-01-01

173

The management of phosphorus in poultry litter  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The potential for phosphorus (P) surplus at the farm scale can increase when farming systems change from cropping to intensive poultry and animal production, as P inputs become dominated by animal feed rather than fertilizer. Cost-effective and innovative solutions are needed to expand the range of ...

174

FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS OF PHOSPHORUS DEFICIENCY IN LEGUMES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for plant development and is second only to nitrogen as the most limiting nutrient for plant growth. Without substantial additions of P fertilizer, many soils are limited for P availability. Plants, particularly legumes, have developed adaptive mechanisms...

175

Osteophagia provide giraffes with phosphorus and calcium?  

PubMed

The daily requirement for calcium and phosphorus by giraffes to sustain the growth and maintenance of their skeletons is large. The source of sufficient calcium is browse. The source of necessary phosphorus is obscure, but it could be osteophagia, a frequently observed behaviour in giraffes. We have assessed whether bone ingested as a result of osteophagia can be digested in the rumen. Bone samples from cancellous (cervical vertebrae) and dense bones (metacarpal shaft) were immersed in the rumens of five sheep, for a period of up to 30 days, and the effect compared to immersion in distilled water and in artificial saliva for 30 days. Distilled water had no effect on the bones. Dense bone samples were softened by exposure to the saliva and rumen fluid, but did not lose either calcium or phosphorus. In saliva and rumen fluid the cancellous bone samples also softened, and their mass and volume decreased as a result of exposure to saliva, but in neither fluid did they lose significant amounts of calcium and phosphorus. We conclude that although saliva and rumen fluid can soften ingested bones, there is an insignificant digestion of bones in the rumen. PMID:18575058

Bredin, I P; Skinner, J D; Mitchell, G

2008-03-01

176

Crystal structure of phosphorus-rich ellenbergerite  

SciTech Connect

The phosphorus-rich variety of ellenbergerite (Mg{sub 0.61}Ti{sub 0.08}{open_square}{sub 0.31}){sub 2}(Mg{sub 0.52}Al{sub 0.43}{open_square}{sub 0.05})= {sub 12}[SiO{sub 3}(O{sub 0.29}(OH){sub 0.71})]{sub 6} [(P{sub 0.71}Si{sub 0.20}{open_square}{sub 0.09})O{sub 3}OH]{sub 2}(OH){sub 6} was studied by X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. The structure was refined in sp. gr. P6{sub 3}mc to R = 0.0248. The structure of phosphorus-rich ellenbergerite retains the octahedral framework observed in the structures of ellenbergerite, phosphoellenbergerite, ekatite, and a series of structurally related synthetic compounds. The structure of phosphorus-rich ellenbergerite differs from the structure of ellenbergerite primarily in that the Mg and Al cations in the phosphorus-rich variety are disordered in the octahedra of the framework, thereby leading to higher symmetry, and the channels of triangular cross section are occupied predominantly by P tetrahedra.

Zubkova, N. V., E-mail: dmitp@geol.msu.ru; Pushcharovskii, D. Yu. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Geology (Russian Federation); Pasero, M. [University of Pisa, Department of Earth Sciences (Italy); Chukanov, N. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics (Russian Federation); Merlino, S. [University of Pisa, Department of Earth Sciences (Italy)

2007-03-15

177

Revising the phosphorus index for Kentucky  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The phosphorus index (PI) is a field-scale assessment tool developed by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) to identify fields most vulnerable to P loss that has been adopted in some form across 48 states. Due to concerns that the use of the PI has not resulted in intended reduct...

178

[Vertical distribution patterns of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in Chinese pine forest soils developed from different parent materials in sOngshan Mountain Nature Reserve, Beijing of China].  

PubMed

Taking the soils developed from two kinds of parent materials (granite and limestone) under Pinus tabulaeformis forest at the same altitude in Songshan Mountain Nature Reserve of Beijing as test objects, this paper studied the vertical distribution patterns of soil total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium. The soil developed from granite had the total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents being 1.61-2. 35 g kg-1, 5. 84-10.74 mg kg- 1, and 39.33-93.66 mg kg-1, while that developed from limestone had the total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents being 1. 69 -2. 36 g kg-1, 4.45-8.57 mg . kg-1, and 60.66-124.00 mg kg-1, respectively. The total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents in the two soils were the highest in 0-10 cm layer, decreased with increasing depth, and had significant differences between different layers, showing that the soil total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium had a strong tendency to accumulate in surface layer. Such a tendency was more obvious for the soil developed from limestone. The paired t-test for the two soils indicated that the total nitrogen content in different layers had no significant difference, whereas the available phosphorus content in 0-10 cm layer and the available potassium content in 10-20 cm layer differed significantly. PMID:23898652

Gou, Li-hui; Sun, Zhao-di; Nie, Li-shui; Luo, Pan-pan; Wu, Ji-Gui; Xu, Wu-de

2013-04-01

179

Isolating phosphorus from sludge in the presence of surfactants  

SciTech Connect

The authors have examined extracting phosphorus by treatment with solutions containing surfactants, which were oleic acid, sodium tripolyphosphate, and trisodium phosphate, which were of pure or chemically pure grades. The phosphorus slime from the Kuibyshevfosfor Cooperative contained 68% elemental phosphorus; the slime from making red phosphorus at the Korund Cooperative contained 67% elemental phosphorus. The aqueous surfactant was added at an appropriate concentration in a ratio of five to the sludge. The ratio and the concentration providing a high degree of extraction were found in preliminary experiments. The decrease in phosphorus extraction as the temperature difference between the heating medium and the sludge in the reactor increases (it governs the boiling rate) to more than 40% is due to the properties changing on account of the rapid oxidation of the phosphorus and the partial steam distillation. The surfactant isolated from the solution after filtration is suitable for second treatment of new sludge batches.

Nikandrov, I.S.; Kogtev, S.E.; Solinov, I.A.

1988-09-10

180

User's Guide for HOST33.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the use and operation of HOST33, an application independent computer program for translating the primitive component placements of an Applicon AGS/870 drawing file into plot commands suitable for controlling the Gerber Scientific I...

K. E. Wiegandt M. A. Rios

1988-01-01

181

33rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proceedings of the 33rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. JPL hosted the conference, which was held at the Pasadena Conference and Exhibition Center, Pasadena, California, on May 19-21, 1999. Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space cosponsored t...

D. R. C. Sevilla E. A. C. Boesiger E. C. C. Litty

1999-01-01

182

A time-dynamic phosphorus model for the profundal sediments of Lake Erken, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

.Phosphorus profiles in core samples from Lake Erken (Sweden) sediments are combined with a seasonal study of surficial sediments\\u000a and pore water measurements to develop a model of the phosphorus dynamics in these sediments. Phosphorus is divided into four\\u000a functional groups: inert phosphorus, organic phosphorus, phosphorus sorbed to iron and phosphorus dissolved in pore water.\\u000a The model includes processes of

J. M. Malmaeus; E. Rydin

2006-01-01

183

Electroless Nickel Phosphorus Plating on AZ31  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the major drawbacks to using magnesium parts in automotive applications is poor corrosion resistance, which can be improved with a nickel-boron coating placed on a nickel-phosphorus coating, which, in turn, is placed on a phosphate-permanganate conversion-coating layer produced on the magnesium alloy AZ31. This work reports on the determination of the optimum kinetic parameters for producing a coherent nickel-phosphorus coating using an electroless-procedure phosphate-permanganate conversion-coating layer and for studying the effects of the experimental variables of the electroless plating process on the phosphorus content, surface morphology, and structure of the electroless nickel-phosphorus (EN-P) coatings produced. Measurements of the plating rate as a function of experimental variables such as the compositions of the plating bath constituents, temperature, and pH were implemented using the weight-gain method; the phosphorus content of the EN-P coatings was measured using energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The surface morphology of the coating was examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM); X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to characterize the structure of each coating. An empirical rate law was determined for EN-P plating on a phosphate-permanganate conversion coating. It is found that the deposition rate of the EN-P coating increases by increasing the deposition temperature, the concentration of free nickel ions, and the concentration of hypophosphite ions in the plating bath. In addition, the deposition rate decreases by increasing both the plating bath pH and the concentration of citric acid in the plating bath.

Shartal, Kh. M.; Kipouros, G. J.

2009-04-01

184

No independent association of serum phosphorus with risk for death or progression to end-stage renal disease in a large screen for chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Whether higher serum phosphorus levels are associated with a higher risk for death and/or progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not well established, and whether the association is confounded by access and barriers to care is unknown. To answer these questions, data of 10,672 individuals identified to have CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60?ml/min per 1.73?m(2)) from those participating in a community-based screening program were analyzed. Over a median follow-up of 2.3 years, there was no association between quartiles of serum phosphorus and all-cause mortality (adjusted hazards ratio for serum phosphorus over 3.3 to 3.7, over 3.7 to 4.1, and over 4.1?mg/dl, respectively: 1.22 (0.95-1.56), 1.00 (0.76-1.32), and 1.00 (0.75-1.33); reference, serum phosphorus of 3.3?mg/dl and below). Individuals in the highest quartile for serum phosphorus had a significantly higher risk for progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (unadjusted hazards ratio, 6.72 (4.16-10.85)); however, the risk became nonsignificant on adjustment for potential confounders. There was no appreciable change in hazards ratio with inclusion of variables related to access and barriers to care. Additional analyses in subgroups based on 12 different variables yielded similar negative associations. Thus, in the largest cohort of individuals with early-stage CKD to date, we could not validate an independent association of serum phosphorus with risk for death or progression to ESRD. PMID:23615501

Mehrotra, Rajnish; Peralta, Carmen A; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Li, Suying; Sachs, Michael; Shah, Anuja; Norris, Keith; Saab, Georges; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Kestenbaum, Bryan; McCullough, Peter A

2013-04-24

185

Sewage-effluent phosphorus: a greater risk to river eutrophication than agricultural phosphorus?  

PubMed

Phosphorus (P) concentrations from water quality monitoring at 54 UK river sites across seven major lowland catchment systems are examined in relation to eutrophication risk and to the relative importance of point and diffuse sources. The over-riding evidence indicates that point (effluent) rather than diffuse (agricultural) sources of phosphorus provide the most significant risk for river eutrophication, even in rural areas with high agricultural phosphorus losses. Traditionally, the relative importance of point and diffuse sources has been assessed from annual P flux budgets, which are often dominated by diffuse inputs in storm runoff from intensively managed agricultural land. However, the ecological risk associated with nuisance algal growth in rivers is largely linked to soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations during times of ecological sensitivity (spring/summer low-flow periods), when biological activity is at its highest. The relationships between SRP and total phosphorus (TP; total dissolved P+suspended particulate P) concentrations within UK rivers are evaluated in relation to flow and boron (B; a tracer of sewage effluent). SRP is the dominant P fraction (average 67% of TP) in all of the rivers monitored, with higher percentages at low flows. In most of the rivers the highest SRP concentrations occur under low-flow conditions and SRP concentrations are diluted as flows increase, which is indicative of point, rather than diffuse, sources. Strong positive correlations between SRP and B (also TP and B) across all the 54 river monitoring sites also confirm the primary importance of point source controls of phosphorus concentrations in these rivers, particularly during spring and summer low flows, which are times of greatest eutrophication risk. Particulate phosphorus (PP) may form a significant proportion of the phosphorus load to rivers, particularly during winter storm events, but this is of questionable relevance for river eutrophication. Although some of the agriculturally derived PP is retained as sediment on the river bed, in most cases this bed sediment showed potential for removal of SRP from the overlying river water during spring and summer low flows. Thus, bed sediments may well be helping to reduce SRP concentrations within the river at times of eutrophication risk. These findings have important implications for targeting environmental management controls for phosphorus more efficiently, in relation to the European Union Water Framework Directive requirements to maintain/improve the ecological quality of impacted lowland rivers. For the UK rivers examined here, our results demonstrate that an important starting point for reducing phosphorus concentrations to the levels approaching those required for ecological improvement, is to obtain better control over point source inputs, particularly small point sources discharging to ecologically sensitive rural/agricultural tributaries. PMID:16226299

Jarvie, Helen P; Neal, Colin; Withers, Paul J A

2005-10-13

186

33 CFR 385.38 - Interim goals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...responses for areas such as, Lake Okeechobee, the Kissimmee River...high and low water levels in Lake Okeechobee; and (E) The frequency of...the Everglades; and (B) Lake Okeechobee phosphorus concentrations....

2010-07-01

187

33 CFR 385.38 - Interim goals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...responses for areas such as, Lake Okeechobee, the Kissimmee River...high and low water levels in Lake Okeechobee; and (E) The frequency of...the Everglades; and (B) Lake Okeechobee phosphorus concentrations....

2009-07-01

188

Watershed Scale Modeling of Critical Source Areas of Runoff Generation and Phosphorus Transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A curve number based model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), and a physically based model, Soil Moisture Distribution and Routing (SMDR), were applied in a headwater watershed in Pennsylvania to identify runoff generation areas, as runoff areas have been shown to be critical for phosphorus management. SWAT performed better than SMDR in simulating daily streamflows over the four-year simulation period (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient: SWAT, 0.62; SMDR, 0.33). Both models varied streamflow simulations seasonally as precipitation and watershed conditions varied. However, levels of agreement between simulated and observed flows were not consistent over seasons. SMDR, a variable source area based model, needs further improvement in model formulations to simulate large peak flows as observed. SWAT simulations matched the majority of observed peak flow events. SMDR overpredicted annual flow volumes, while SWAT underpredicted the same. Neither model routes runoff over the landscape to water bodies, which is critical to surface transport of phosphorus. SMDR representation of the watershed as grids may allow targeted management of phosphorus sources. SWAT representation of fields as hydrologic response units (HRUs) does not allow such targeted management.

Srinivasan, M. S.; Grard-Marchant, Pierre; Veith, Tamie L.; Gburek, William J.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

2005-04-01

189

Microstructural characterization of superalloy 718 with boron and phosphorus additions  

SciTech Connect

Boron and phosphorus additions are known to improve the stress rupture properties of IN-718. One possible mechanism to explain this property improvement relies on the boron and phosphorus additions slowing down the growth of {gamma}{double_prime} and {gamma}{prime} precipitates during high temperature service or aging. However, atom probe analysis found no segregation of boron and phosphorus to {gamma}-{gamma}{double_prime} or to {gamma}-{gamma}{prime} interfaces in the alloys with the high boron and high phosphorus levels. No difference in growth rates were found by transmission electron microscopy in the sizes of the {gamma}{double_prime} or {gamma}{prime} in alloys with high phosphorus and high boron as compared to commercial alloys and to alloys with even lower levels of phosphorus and boron. Atom probe analysis further found that much of the phosphorus, boron, and carbon segregated to grain boundaries. Creep curves comparing the alloys with high levels of phosphorus and boron and alloys with low levels of phosphorus and boron show a large difference in strain rate in the first hours of the test. These results suggest that the boron and phosphorus may have a direct effect on dislocation mobility by some pinning mechanism.

Horton, J.A.; McKamey, C.G.; Miller, M.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Cao, W.D.; Kennedy, R.L. [Teledyne Allvac, Monroe, NC (United States)

1997-06-01

190

Synthesis of 3,3-dinitroazetidine  

DOEpatents

The compound, 3,3-dinitroazetidine, and a process of preparing 3,3-dinitroazetidine including reacting a mixture of 1-tertiary-butyl-3,3-dinitroazetidine and benzyl chloroformate to form 1-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-3,3-dinitroazetidine, reacting the 1-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-3,3-dinitroazetidine and trifluoromethanesulfonic acid to form 3,3-dinitroazetidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate, and neutralizing the 3,3-dinitroazetidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate with a base to form 3,3-dinitroazetidine are provided. Salts of the 3,3-dinitroazetidine and preparation of such salts are also disclosed.

Hiskey, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01

191

[Effect of iron plaque on root surfaces on phosphorus uptake of two wetland plants].  

PubMed

In situ micro-suction cups were used to collect samples of soil solution with Arundo donax Linn and Typha latifolia from defined segments at rhizosphere in field. The experiment was conducted to elucidate the contribution of iron plaque while wetland plants were used to remove phosphorus. The reddish iron plaque was observed and measured on the surfaces of roots of Arundo donax Linn and Typha latifolia in the field, 20,170.8 mg/kg (fresh weight) for Arundo donax Linn and 7640.3 mg/kg (fresh weight) for Typha latifolia were collected. Olsen-P contents of Arundo donax Linn with iron plaque were 28.85 mg/kg, 46.2% more than that of without, 34.99 mg/kg for Typha latifolia 21.9% more than that of without. The phosphate concentrations in the in situ rhizosphere soil solution of Arundo donax Linn with iron plaque were 0.65 mg/kg, 9.2% more than that of without, 0.56 mg/kg for Typha latifolia, 33.9% more than that of without. The phosphorus contents adsorbed by iron plaque were 81.7% for Arundo donax Linn and 85.7% for Typha latifolia of the wetland plants with iron plaque. Phosphate use efficiency of Arundo donax Linn with iron plaque was 16.5% more than that of without, 31.4% for Typha latifolia. The contents of phosphorus of single plant of the two wetland plants with iron plaque are higher than that of without. Due to adsorb phosphate with iron plaque, the transfer speeds of phosphate from non-rhizosphere to rhizosphere and from soil to soil solution are increasing. The phosphorus contents with iron plaque accumulated at rhizosphere and depleted at rhizosphere without iron plaque of Arundo donax Linn and Typha latifolia. PMID:20358843

Wang, Zhen-yu; Liu, Li-hua; Wen, Sheng-fang; Peng, Chang-sheng; Xing, Bao-shan; Li, Feng-min

2010-03-01

192

Peak phosphorus - peak food? The need to close the phosphorus cycle.  

PubMed

The peak in the world production of phosphorus has been predicted to occur in 2033, based on world reserves of rock phosphate (URR) reckoned at around 24,000 million tonnes (Mt), with around 18,000 Mt remaining. This figure was reckoned-up to 71,000 Mt, by the USGS, in 2012, but a production maximum during the present century is still highly probable. There are complex issues over what the demand will be for phosphorus in the future, as measured against a rising population (from 7 billion to over 9 billion in 2050), and a greater per capita demand for fertiliser to grow more grain, in part to feed animals and meet a rising demand for meat by a human species that is not merely more populous but more affluent. As a counterweight to this, we may expect that greater efficiencies in the use of phosphorus - including recycling from farms and of human and animal waste - will reduce the per capita demand for phosphate rock. The unseen game changer is peak oil, since phosphate is mined and recovered using machinery powered by liquid fuels refined from crude oil. Hence, peak oil and peak phosphorus might appear as conjoined twins. There is no unequivocal case that we can afford to ignore the likelihood of a supply-demand gap for phosphorus occurring sometime this century, and it would be perilous to do so. PMID:23901632

Rhodes, Christopher J

2013-01-01

193

[Distribution of phosphorus fractions and bio-available phosphorus forms and their relationships in sewage sludge].  

PubMed

To investigate the potential bioavailability and mobility of phosphorus (P) in sewage sludge, the Standards, Measurements and Testing (SMT) programme was employed to characterize the distribution of P in sewage sludge from different treatment stage of Jiangxinzhou WWTP. The results showed that the inorganic phosphorus (IP), accounting for 61%, was the predominant fraction of total phosphorus (TP), while the organic phosphorus (OP) in TP was only 15% to 35%. And the IP mainly distributed in the non-apatite inorganic phosphorus (NAIP) fraction, accounting for more than 60%. It suggested the high potential bioavailability and mobility of P in sewage sludge. The significant positive correlations between the contents of TP and the NAIP + OP indicated that the determination of TP could be used to estimate the potential bioavailability of P in sewage sludge. The correlations between the P fractions and the physical-chemical characteristics suggested that the LOI and pH would influence significantly on the potential mobility of P in sewage sludge. PMID:18763507

Wang, Chao; Feng, Shi-long; Wang, Pei-fang; Li, Xiao-chen; Zou, Li-min

2008-06-01

194

Phosphorus Ionization in Massive Star Winds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observed wind line profiles of phosphorus P V in the spectra of hot stars are significantly weaker than theory predicts. Lower abundance of the phosphorus ion P V in massive stars could explain weaker profiles of the resonance ultraviolet doublet 1118, 1128 A. Using full NLTE calculations we show that high-energy radiation, both X-ray and XUV, can not be the solution of weak P V line profiles. Our three-dimensional radiative transfer calculations with porosity, interclump medium, and ``vorosity'' show that optically thick clumping is the most probable reason for weaker P V resonance line profiles in the spectra of massive hot stars even in the case of a relatively low clumping factor of 10.

Kubt, Ji?; urlan, Brankica; Hamann, Wolf-Rainer; Oskinova, Lidia M.

2013-06-01

195

Biogeochemistry of phosphorus exchange in magnetic bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetotactic bacteria swim at high relative speeds (5 mm/min) and cross the sediment water interface in an apparent diurnal pattern. We hypothesized that this is part of a migratory life cycle across the oxic anoxic transition zone at the water sediment interface. If true, this migration has important consequences on the exchange of phosphorous, sulfur and iron between water and sediments. Magnetotactic bacteria may also influence biomineralization and the magnetization of sediments. Our results show that the exchange of phosphorus between magnetic bacteria and water is consistent with a periodic life cycle, during which cells accumulated large amounts of phosphate under oxidizing conditions. Under reducing and anaerobic conditions (i.e. sulfidic sediments) cells release phosphorus. This research shows the importance of magnetic bacteria in the exchange of materials across redox interfaces.

Drennen, C.; Popa, R.; Nealson, K.

2005-05-01

196

Chemical and physical characterization of phosphorus smokes for inhalation exposure and toxicology studies. Final report. [Red phosphorus containing butyl rubber; white phosphorus impregnated in felt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical and physical properties of the aerosols produced from the combustion of red phosphorus containing butyl rubber (RPBR) and white phosphorus impregnated in felt (WPF) have been examined. The aerosols were produced at a uniform concentration by extruding softened raw material and burning the emerging filament or by igniting fragments of the formulations in a convective air flow. Aeorsol

R. S. Ramsey; J. H. Moneyhun; R. W. Holmberg

1985-01-01

197

Phosphorus accumulation in Proteaceae seeds: a synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The family Proteaceae dominates the nutrient-poor, Mediterranean-climate floristic regions of southwestern Australia (SWA)\\u000a and the Cape of South Africa. It is well-recognised that mediterranean Proteaceae have comparatively large seeds that are\\u000a enriched with phosphorus (P), stored mainly as salts of phytic acid in protein globoids. Seed P can contribute up to 48% of\\u000a the total aboveground P, with the fraction

Philip K. Groom; Byron B. Lamont

2010-01-01

198

Potentially mobile phosphorus in Lake Erken sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of potentially mobile phosphorus (P) in Lake Erken sediments was determined by P release experiments, and forms of mobile P were identified by P fractionation. Amounts and forms of this P were compared to P released by sediment diagenesis. Calculated on the top 30cm of a sediment core, the amount of potentially mobile P was 5g\\/m2, consisting mainly

Emil Rydin

2000-01-01

199

Phosphorus, Plant Biodiversity and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Phosphorus (P) is a major plant nutrient. Its increasing use as a fertilizer has helped to raise crop and fodder production.\\u000a However, the global reserves and resources of P are finite, demanding an efficient use of P. Under natural conditions, it\\u000a is often in limited supply. Plants have developed adaptations to small soil P concentrations. Increased P levels can have

Nicole Wrage; Lydie Chapuis-Lardy; Johannes Isselstein

200

Transient emitting species in phosphorus chemiluminescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phosphorescence of phosphorus oxidation is the oldest and the best known chemiluminescing reaction, but a definitive spectroscopic study of this classic system has been lacking. In this paper we report the results of an investigation of the oxidation of P4 vapor under atmospheric conditions, with added H2O or D2O vapor. In spectral studies of small horizontal rectangular cross sections

Richard J. VanZee; Ahsan U. Khan

1976-01-01

201

Phosphorus Fertilizing Effects of Biomass Ashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The reutilization of biomass ashes in agriculture is important to create nutrient cycles. In field and pot experiments we\\u000a investigated the fertilizing effects of different biomass ashes (rape meal ash, straw ash, and cereal ash) for eight different\\u000a crops on a loamy sand and a sandy loam. Special emphasis was given to phosphorus (P). The ashes showed large differences in

Katja Schiemenz; Jrgen Kern; Hans-Marten Paulsen; Silvia Bachmann; Bettina Eichler-Lbermann

202

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PHOSPHORUS FORMS AND PLANT GROWTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

To minimize the financial and environmental costs of fertilizer phosphorus (P) applications, it is important to maximize whole-plant P-use efficiencies. Nutrient efficiencies are influenced by both the uptake and partitioning of P between pools within the plant. This study investigates the partitioning of total plant P between storage\\/metabolic P and structural P pools, and their relationships with plant growth. Lettuce

Martin R. Broadley; Amanda Burns; Ian G. Burns

2002-01-01

203

Phosphorus and Sulphur Cycling in Terrestrial Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S) are essential elements for all living cells. Among the biomolecules that contain P are nucleic\\u000a acids (DNA and RNA), phospholipids, sugar phosphates (e.g. glucose-6-phosphate) and molecules with an energy-rich pyrophosphate\\u000a bond (e.g. ATP), whereas S is contained in two amino acids (cysteine and methionine) and various coenzymes, vitamins and sulpholipids.\\u000a The forms, amounts, transformation processes

Else K. Bnemann; Leo M. Condron

204

Phosphorus reference concentrations in European lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an assessment of the ecological quality of surface waters, recent European water legislation, the water framework\\u000a directive (WFD), requires the setting of environmental objectives for particular chemicals. As part of this, many European\\u000a countries are choosing to develop a quality classification scheme for total phosphorus (TP) concentration. The assessment\\u000a of ecological quality and its component parts, such

A. C. Cardoso; A. Solimini; G. Premazzi; L. Carvalho; A. Lyche; S. Rekolainen

2007-01-01

205

Phosphorus reference concentrations in European lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an assessment of the ecological quality of surface waters, recent European water legislation, the water framework\\u000a directive (WFD), requires the setting of environmental objectives for particular chemicals. As part of this, many European\\u000a countries are choosing to develop a quality classification scheme for total phosphorus (TP) concentration. The assessment\\u000a of ecological quality and its component parts, such

A. C. Cardoso; A. Solimini; G. Premazzi; L. Carvalho; A. Lyche; S. Rekolainen

206

Phytate phosphorus hydrolysis in broilers in response to dietary phytase, calcium, and phosphorus concentrations.  

PubMed

Three 5-d bioassays were conducted to investigate the microbial phytase effect on apparent phytate phosphorus (PP) hydrolysis by 21-d-old broilers using corn-soybean meal basal diets. In Experiment 1, broilers fed corn-soy basal diet [0.7% Ca, 0.4% total P (TP), and 0.12% nonphytate P (NPP)] with 0, 250, 500, 750, 1,000, 1,500, 2,000, and 5,000 FTU of phytase/kg diet produced PP hydrolysis (%) of 43.12, 68.12, 74.7, 85.02, 85.25 92.77, 96.91, and 99.45, respectively. In Experiment 2, broilers fed corn-soy basal (0.5% Ca and 0.17% PP) without added phytase and 0.08, 0.13, 0.18, 0.23, 0.28, 0.33, 0.38, and 0.45% NPP had PP hydrolysis (%) of 8.5, 27.6, 26.4, 28.9, 26.3, 17.1, 21.0, and 27.7, respectively. Broilers fed the same 0.5% Ca basal and NPP concentrations with 1,000 FTU of phytase/kg of diet increased (P < 0.05) PP hydrolysis (%) to 80.9, 75.9, 73.5, 72.2, 68.4, 71.6, 58.3, and 62.5, respectively. Experiment 3 was conducted in the same way as Experiment 2 but Ca was maintained at 0.9% for all diets. Phytate P hydrolysis (%) without addition of phytase in 0.08, 0.13, 0.18, 0.23, 0.28, 0.33, 0.38, and 0.45% NPP-fed groups was 49.2, 19.6, 16.0, 8.0, 9.4, 2.1, 4.0, and 4.2, respectively. The addition of phytase increased (P < 0.05) PP hydrolysis (%) to 85.3, 76.1, 70.0, 76.1, 62.6, 68.6, 67.4, and 63.7, respectively. In conclusion, these studies indicated near-complete hydrolysis (99.45%) of PP at greater dietary phytase (5,000 FTU/kg) supplementation, but maximum TP retention was obtained with only 1,000 FTU of added phytase. Maximum PP hydrolysis occurred for broilers fed diets with 1,000 FTU added phytase when the diets contained the lowest concentration (0.08%) of dietary NPP with either 0.5 or 0.9% dietary Ca concentrations. These data also suggest that broilers fed 0.9% dietary Ca have a greater P physiological threshold before a loss in retention compared with broilers fed lower (0.5%) dietary Ca concentrations with no dietary phytase supplementation. PMID:18648052

Manangi, M K; Coon, C N

2008-08-01

207

Hyperpolarization Of Phosphorus Donors In Silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon phosphorus (Si:P) is a model system for investigating spin effects in solid state materials. Recently, members of this group demonstrated a simple method for optically inducing a non-equilibrium state of spin hyperpolarization in phosphorus doped silicon by exploiting a modified Overhauser process. The ability to pump high nuclear spin polarizations in this system could have far reaching technological implications for many fields. For example, hyperpolarized silicon nanoparticles have the potential to improve contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. Additionally, well-characterized quantum spin states have the potential to be useful as quantum qubits. Our current work attempts to extend these recent electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) measurements to direct nuclear magnetic resonance measurement of the hyperpolarized phosphorus nuclei. In this talk we will report on our current efforts to measure ^31P spin hyper-antipolarization after the sample is briefly exposed to an inert room temperature environment. We demonstrate the procedure of ^31P polarization measurement through low field electron spin resonance as a precursor to direct NMR measurement.

Sorte, Eric; Baker, William; McCamey, Dane; Laicher, Gernot; Boehme, Christoph; Saam, Brian

2008-10-01

208

Biogeochemistry of Phosphorus Exchange in Magnetic Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetotactic bacteria swim (some at high relative speeds of ~5 mm/min) across the sediment water interface, in both freshwater and marine ecosystems, this occurs in an apparent diurnal pattern. We hypothesized that this is part of a migratory life cycle across the oxic anoxic transition zone (OATZ), at the water-sediment interface. Magnetotactic bacteria have been shown to contain sizable reserves of metals, phosphorus and sulfur. If the migration model is true, then this migration has important consequences on the exchange of phosphorous, sulfur and metals between water and sediments. Our results show that the exchange of phosphorus between magnetic bacteria and water is consistent with a periodic life cycle. These results also show that magnetic cells accumulate large amounts of phosphate under oxidizing conditions. Under reducing and anaerobic conditions (e.g. sulfidic, low Eh sediments) cells release phosphorus. This research shows the importance of magnetic bacteria in the exchange of materials across redox interfaces. Magnetotactic bacteria may also play a significant role in biomineralization and bioweathering of metal oxides and phosphates, as well as possibly contributing to the magnetization of sediments.

Drennen, C.; Popa, R.; Nealson, K.

2005-12-01

209

10 CFR 26.33 - Behavioral observation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Behavioral observation. 26.33 Section 26.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Program Elements § 26.33 Behavioral observation. Licensees and other entities shall ensure...

2013-01-01

210

49 CFR 38.33 - Fare box.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Fare box. 38.33 Section 38.33 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.33...

2011-10-01

211

49 CFR 38.33 - Fare box.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Fare box. 38.33 Section 38.33 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.33...

2012-10-01

212

46 CFR 111.33-5 - Installation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...111.33-5 Section 111.33-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-5...

2012-10-01

213

46 CFR 111.33-1 - General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...111.33-1 Section 111.33-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-1...

2012-10-01

214

14 CFR 1273.33 - Supplies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplies. 1273.33 Section 1273.33 Aeronautics...Changes, Property, and Subawards § 1273.33 Supplies. (a) Title. Title to supplies acquired under a grant or subgrant will...

2013-01-01

215

22 CFR 192.33 - Dispute.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Dispute. 192.33 Section 192.33 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Medical Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.33 Dispute. Any dispute between...

2009-04-01

216

45 CFR 33.15 - Refunds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Refunds. 33.15 Section 33.15 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION SALARY OFFSET § 33.15 Refunds. (a) The Secretary shall promptly refund any amounts paid or deducted under this part...

2011-10-01

217

7 CFR 29.33 - Official sample.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Official sample. 29.33 Section 29.33...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION...Definitions § 29.33 Official sample. A sample selected, tagged, and...

2013-01-01

218

7 CFR 15a.33 - Comparable facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Comparable facilities. 15a.33 Section 15a.33...of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING...Prohibited § 15a.33 Comparable facilities. A recipient may provide...

2012-01-01

219

14 CFR 33.83 - Vibration test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration test. 33.83 Section 33.83 Aeronautics...Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.83 Vibration test. (a) Each engine must undergo vibration surveys to establish that the...

2010-01-01

220

14 CFR 33.83 - Vibration test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Vibration test. 33.83 Section 33.83 Aeronautics...Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.83 Vibration test. (a) Each engine must undergo vibration surveys to establish that the...

2009-01-01

221

21 CFR 312.33 - Annual reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Annual reports. 312.33 Section 312.33...FOR HUMAN USE INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Investigational New Drug Application (IND) § 312.33 Annual reports. A sponsor shall within...

2013-04-01

222

5 CFR 1201.33 - Federal witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Federal witnesses. 1201.33 Section 1201.33 Administrative...Appellate Cases Parties, Representatives, and Witnesses § 1201.33 Federal witnesses. (a) Every Federal agency or...

2013-01-01

223

40 CFR 160.33 - Study director.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Study director. 160.33 Section 160.33 Protection...STANDARDS Organization and Personnel § 160.33 Study director. For each study, a scientist or other professional of...

2013-07-01

224

21 CFR 58.33 - Study director.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Study director. 58.33 Section 58.33 Food...LABORATORY PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Organization and Personnel § 58.33 Study director. For each nonclinical...

2013-04-01

225

14 CFR 33.45 - Calibration tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calibration tests. 33.45 Section 33.45...Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.45 Calibration tests. (a) Each engine must be subjected to the calibration tests necessary to establish...

2013-01-01

226

14 CFR 33.85 - Calibration tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calibration tests. 33.85 Section 33.85...Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.85 Calibration tests. (a) Each engine must be subjected to those calibration tests necessary to establish...

2013-01-01

227

46 CFR 64.33 - Pipe connection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...connection. 64.33 Section 64.33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.33 Pipe connection. Each...

2012-10-01

228

46 CFR 64.33 - Pipe connection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...connection. 64.33 Section 64.33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.33 Pipe connection. Each...

2011-10-01

229

10 CFR 76.33 - Application procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...procedures. 76.33 Section 76.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Application § 76.33 Application procedures. (a) Filing requirements. (1) An...

2013-01-01

230

21 CFR 21.33 - Medical records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...33 Section 21.33 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...PRIVACY Requirements for Specific Categories of Records § 21.33 Medical...Systems maintained by the Food and Drug Administration. (b) The...

2013-04-01

231

Sustainable Phosphorus Loadings from Effective and Cost-Effective Phosphorus Management Around the Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

Nutrient over-enrichment of the Baltic Sea, accompanied by intensified algal blooms and decreasing water clarity, has aroused widespread concern in the surrounding countries during the last four decades. This work has used a well-tested dynamic mass-balance model to investigate which decrease in total phosphorus loading would be required to meet the environmental goal to restore the trophic state in the Baltic Sea to pre-1960s levels. Furthermore, the extent to which various abatement options may decrease the phosphorus loading in a cost-effective manner has been studied. Upgrading urban sewage treatment in the catchment could, alone or in combination with banning phosphates in detergents, be sufficient to meet the set environmental goal, at an estimated annual basin-wide cost of 0.210.43 billion euro. Such a plan would potentially decrease the total phosphorus loading to the Baltic Sea with 6,65010,200 tonnes per year.

Bryhn, Andreas C.

2009-01-01

232

3.3 Diagnostic Radiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Brnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '3.3 Diagnostic Radiology' of the Chapter '3 Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology and Radiotherapy' with the contents:

Kramer, H.-M.; Moores, B. M.; Stieve, F.-E.

233

Electronic device encapsulation using red phosphorus flame retardants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper presents an analysis of the use of red phosphorus,as a flame retardant material in encapsulated,microcircuits and discusses the reliability risks. Chemical reactions, which can arise when red phosphorus is exposed to ambient humidity to form highly mobile ions and oxygen-containing phosphorus acids, are presented. These ions and acids can induce electro-chemical migration, causing short circuits between leads

Michael Pecht; Yuliang Deng

2006-01-01

234

Phosphorus release from sediments of a deep wastewater stabilization pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fractional composition and potential mobility of particulate phosphorus was investigated in sediment from a deep wastewater stabilization pond. The predominant phosphorus fractions were Fe- and Al-bound P (NaOH-RP) and Residual-P (consisting mainly of organic P), which amounted to 35 and 34% of total phosphorus, respectively. A laboratory study was conducted to determine the influence of various environmental parameters (pH,

J. F. Ortuo; J. Sez; M. Llorens; A. Soler

235

Effect of root oxygen stress on phosphorus uptake by cattail  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of redox conditions or oxygen demand in rooting medium on phosphorus (P) uptake by Typha domingensis was quantified. Phosphorus uptake decreased with decrease in redox potential in the rooting medium. Greatest uptake was measured under the oxidized treatment (+565 mV). Phosphorus uptake was less under the two anaerobic treatments (+277 mV and ?200 mV). In the two anaerobic

R. D. DeLaune; A. Jugsujinda; K. R. Reddy

1999-01-01

236

Uptake of phosphorus-32 by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The uptake and accumulation of phosphorus by mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal onion plants were compared. The results of the experiments indicate:1.Mycorrhizal onion plants accumulated significantly more phosphorus in the roots and tops than nonmycorrhizal plants.2.Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae are sites of increased phosphorus accumulation compared to nonmycorrhizal roots.3.A fungitoxicant (parachloronitrobenzene) reduced phosphate accumulation by mycorrhizae but did not significantly affect phosphate accumulation

L. E. Gray; J. W. Gerdemann

1969-01-01

237

Effect of phosphorus on cleavage fracture in kappa -carbide  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the origin of cleavage fracture which dominates in Fe(Mn)-Al-C alloys at a high phosphorus concentration, we performed first-principles study of the phosphorus effect on ideal cleavage energy and critical stress in kappa -carbide, Fe3AlC , a precipitate in the austenitic alloys. We find that phosphorus has higher solubility in Fe3AlC than in gamma -Fe and sharply reduces the

N. I. Medvedeva; R. A. Howell; D. C. van Aken; J. E. Medvedeva

2010-01-01

238

Effect of phosphorus on cleavage fracture in ? -carbide  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the origin of cleavage fracture which dominates in FeMn-Al-C alloys at a high phosphorus concentration, we performed first-principles study of the phosphorus effect on ideal cleavage energy and critical stress in -carbide, Fe3AlC, a precipitate in the austenitic alloys. We find that phosphorus has higher solubility in Fe3AlC than in -Fe and sharply reduces the cleavage characteristics of

N. I. Medvedeva; R. A. Howell; D. C. Van Aken; J. E. Medvedeva

2010-01-01

239

Microstructural characterization of superalloy 718 with boron and phosphorus additions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron and phosphorus additions are known to improve the stress rupture properties of IN-718. One possible mechanism to explain this property improvement relies on the boron and phosphorus additions slowing down the growth of γ and γ precipitates during high temperature service or aging. However, atom probe analysis found no segregation of boron and phosphorus to γ-γ or to γ-γ

J. A. Horton; C. G. McKamey; M. K. Miller; W. D. Cao; R. L. Kennedy

1997-01-01

240

Modification of hypereutectic silumins with phosphorus and sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The nucleation theory of the refining of primary silicon crystals in hypereutectic Silumins microalloyed with phosphorus was verified by experiments. Particles were observed in silicon crystals (possible AIP) which served as additional centers of nucleation of primary silicon crystals.2.Combined modification of high-silicon Silumins with phosphorus and sodium leads to refining of primary and eutectic silicon.3.Modification with phosphorus is most expedient

P. A. Parkhutik; L. D. Kalashnik; M. Z. Lubenskii

1977-01-01

241

Benthic phosphorus regeneration in the Potomac River Estuary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The flux of dissolved reactive phosphate from Potomac riverine and estuarine sediments is controlled by processes occurring at the water-sediment interface and within surficial sediment. In situ benthic fluxes (0.1 to 2.0 mmoles m-2 day-1) are generally five to ten times higher than calculated diffusive fluxes (0.020 to 0.30 mmoles m-2 day-1). The discrepancy between the two flux estimates is greatest in the transition zone (river mile 50 to 70) and is attributd to macrofaunal irrigation. Both in situ and diffusive fluxes of dissolved reactive phosphate from Potomac tidal river sediments are low while those from anoxic lower estuarine sediments are high. The net accumulation rate of phosphorus in benthic sediment exhibits an inverse pattern. Thus a large fraction of phosphorus is retained by Potomac tidal river sediments, which contain a surficial oxidized layer and oligochaete worms tolerant of low oxygen conditions, and a large fraction of phosphorus is released from anoxic lower estuary sediments. Tidal river sediment pore waters are in equilibrium with amorphous Fe (OH)3 while lower estuary pore waters are significantly undersaturated with respect to this phase. Benthic regeneration of dissolved reactive phosphorus is sufficient to supply all the phosphorus requirements for net primary production in the lower tidal river and transition-zone waters of the Potomac River Estuary. Benthic regeneration supplies approximately 25% as much phosphorus as inputs from sewage treatment plants and 10% of all phosphorus inputs to the tidal Potomac River. When all available point source phosphorus data are put into a steady-state conservation of mass model and reasonable coefficients for uptake of dissolved phosphorus, remineralization of particulate phosphorus, and sedimentation of particulate phosphorus are used in the model, a reasonably accurate simulation of dissolved and particulate phosphorus in the water column is obtained for the summer of 1980. ?? 1982 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

Callender, E.

1982-01-01

242

Soil organic phosphorus in lowland tropical rain forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus is widely considered to constrain primary productivity in tropical rain forests, yet the chemistry of soil organic\\u000a phosphorus in such ecosystems remains poorly understood. We assessed the composition of soil organic phosphorus in 19 contrasting\\u000a soils under lowland tropical forest in the Republic of Panama using NaOHEDTA extraction and solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The soils spanned a

Benjamin L. Turner; Bettina M. J. Engelbrecht

2011-01-01

243

Mechanisms for internal loading of phosphorus in lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake sediments play an important role in the phosphorus metabolism in lakes. The impact depends on the tendencies to retain\\u000a and to release phosphorus.The internal loading will often determine the eutrophication status of the lake and the time lag\\u000a for recovery after reduction of the external loading. Internal loading is most important during the summer. The potential\\u000a source of phosphorus

Kurt Pettersson; G. Bertru

1998-01-01

244

Phosphorus in Hawaiian kikuyugrass pastures and potential phosphorus release to water.  

PubMed

Pasture systems in Hawaii are based primarily on kikuyugrass (Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst. ex Chiov.). Relationships among kikuyugrass P concentration, animal P requirements, and various soil P determinations are needed to help identify source areas for implementing pasture management strategies to limit P loss via overland flow. A total of 51 rotationally stocked kikuyugrass pastures (>20 yr old) with contrasting soil chemical properties were sampled. A satisfactory predictive relationship between modified-Truog (MT)-extractable phosphorus (P(MT)) and dissolved (<0.45-mum pore diameter), molybdate-reactive phosphorus (DRP) desorbed from soil in a water extract (DRP(WE)) was found when 0- to 4-cm-depth data for the soil orders with medium to high DRP(WE) (two Mollisols and an Inceptisol) were pooled separately from those with low DRP(WE) (five Andisols, three Ultisols, and an Oxisol). The oxalate phosphorus saturation index (PSI(ox)) procedure was the best predictor of DRP(WE) across soil orders when oxalate-extractable molybdate-reactive phosphorus (RP(ox)) was used to calculate PSI(ox) (PSI(ox)RP) rather than when total oxalate-extractable phosphorus (TP(ox)) was used (PSI(ox)TP). There was little DRP(WE) until PSI(ox)RP exceeded 6% or PSI(ox)TP exceeded 8%. A more empirical dilute-acid phosphorus saturation index (PSI(MT)) was also calculated using P(MT) and MT-extractable iron (Fe(MT)) and aluminum (Al(MT)). The PSI(MT) procedure showed some utility in predicting DRP(WE), was positively related to the PSI(ox) procedures, and can be more readily performed in agronomic soil testing laboratories than PSI(ox). The present research suggests that while Hawaiian kikuyugrass pastures tend to be sufficient to high in forage P, potential soil P release to water only appeared to be a possible environmental concern for the Mollisol and Inceptisol sites. PMID:15942040

Mathews, B W; Carpenter, J R; Sollenberger, L E; Tsang, S

2005-06-07

245

Diversity enhances agricultural productivity via rhizosphere phosphorus facilitation on phosphorus-deficient soils  

PubMed Central

Intercropping, which grows at least two crop species on the same pieces of land at the same time, can increase grain yields greatly. Legumegrass intercrops are known to overyield because of legume nitrogen fixation. However, many agricultural soils are deficient in phosphorus. Here we show that a new mechanism of overyielding, in which phosphorus mobilized by one crop species increases the growth of a second crop species grown in alternate rows, led to large yield increases on phosphorus-deficient soils. In 4 years of field experiments, maize (Zea mays L.) overyielded by 43% and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) overyielded by 26% when intercropped on a low-phosphorus but high-nitrogen soil. We found that overyielding of maize was attributable to below-ground interactions between faba bean and maize in another field experiment. Intercropping with faba bean improved maize grain yield significantly and above-ground biomass marginally significantly, compared with maize grown with wheat, at lower rates of P fertilizer application (<75 kg of P2O5 per hectare), and not significantly at high rate of P application (>112.5 kg of P2O5 per hectare). By using permeable and impermeable root barriers, we found that maize overyielding resulted from its uptake of phosphorus mobilized by the acidification of the rhizosphere via faba bean root release of organic acids and protons. Faba bean overyielded because its growth season and rooting depth differed from maize. The large increase in yields from intercropping on low-phosphorus soils is likely to be especially important on heavily weathered soils.

Li, Long; Li, Shu-Min; Sun, Jian-Hao; Zhou, Li-Li; Bao, Xing-Guo; Zhang, Hong-Gang; Zhang, Fu-Suo

2007-01-01

246

40 CFR 409.33 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.33...

2012-07-01

247

40 CFR 131.33 - Idaho.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS Federally Promulgated Water Quality Standards § 131.33 Idaho. (a) Temperature criteria for bull...

2013-07-01

248

Increased Arginine Biosynthesis during Phosphorus Deficiency 1  

PubMed Central

The accumulation of arginine in leaves of four citrus rootstock cultivars during P deficiency has been demonstrated to be due to increased de novo synthesis rather than decreased catabolism or increased protein degradation (E Rabe, CJ Lovatt, 1984, Plant Physiol 76: 747-752). In this report, we provide evidence (a) that the increased activity of the arginine biosynthetic pathway observed for citrus rootstocks grown under P-deficient conditions for 7 months is due to an increase in the concentration of ammonia in leaves of P-deficient plants and (b) that ammonia accumulation and removal through arginine systhesis are early responses to phosphorus deficiency for both a woody perennial, rough lemon (Citrus limon), and an herbaceous annual, summer squash (Cucurbita pepo). Transferring 5-day-old squash plants to a phosphorus-deficient nutrient solution for only 10 days resulted in a 2-fold increase in the concentration of nitrate in the youngest fully expanded leaves (YFE). Concomitantly, the specific activity of nitrate reductase doubled and the ammonia content of P-deficient YFE leaves increased to a concentration significantly greater that of leaves from healthy control plants (P < 0.05). Consistent with increased availability of ammonia, the incorporation of NaH14CO3 into arginine plus urea doubled during phosphorus deficiency and arginine accumulated. Despite the accumulation of nitrate and ammonia in YFE leaves during phosphorus deficiency, the total nitrogen content of these leaves was less than that of the healthy control plants. Similar results were obtained for rough lemon. Nitrate content of the YFE leaves increased 1.5- and 3.0-fold in plants deprived of phosphorus for 6 and 12 weeks, respectively. Ammonia content of the leaves increased as P deficiency progressed to 1.4 0.08 mg ( se, n = 4) per gram dry weight, a level 1.8-fold greater than that of the P-sufficient control plants. During P deficiency de novo arginine biosynthesis in rough lemon increased 10-fold. Immersing the petiole of YFE leaves from P-sufficient squash and rough lemon plants in 50 millimolar NH4+ for 3 hours resulted in the accumulation of ammonia in the leaves, and a 4-fold increase in the incorporation of NaH14CO3 into arginine plus urea. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that the accumulation of nitrate and ammonia in leaves is an early response of both woody and herbaceous plants to P deprivation. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that increased de novo arginine biosynthesis in leaves during P deficiency is in response to ammonia content of the leaves.

Rabe, Etiene; Lovatt, Carol J.

1986-01-01

249

Production of phosphorus-containing molecules in interstellar clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following a detailed experimental survey of the reactions of ions in the series PH(n)(+) (n = 0 to 4) with several molecular gases (Smith et al., 1989), possible routes to the synthesis of phosphorus-bearing molecules in interstellar clouds are considered. Many phosphorus-bearing ions are synthesized in the PH(n)(+) reactions, and the large majority of these ions are unreactive with H2 and CO, the most abundant interstellar molecules. Thus the phosphorus-bearing ions could dissociatively recombine with electrons to produce phosphorus-bearing neutral molecules in interstellar clouds including PN, PO, PS, and HCP.

Adams, N. G.; McIntosh, B. J.; Smith, D.

1990-06-01

250

Phosphorus removal from domestic wastewater by Echinodorus cordifolius L.  

PubMed

This study was to use the plants to remove phosphorus from domestic wastewater which contained high phosphorus concentration. Six higher plant species such as Crinum asiaticum L., Echinodorus cordifolius L., Spathiphyllum clevelandii Schott, Rhizophora apiculata Blume, Thalia dealbata J.fraser., Heliconia psittacorum L.f. were screened for phosphorus removal. Plants were grown in the domestic wastewater and the remaining phosphorus-phosphate concentration in the systems was determined. The results indicated that among studied plants, Echinodorus cordifolius L. was the best for phosphorus removal. Using this plant will improve the quality of domestic wastewater which contained excess phosphorus concentration and induced eutrophication. The relationship between the plants, microorganisms, and soil in the system were also investigated. In this system, adsorption by soil was the major role for phosphorus removal (71%), followed by E. cordifolius (16%), microorganisms in domestic wastewater (7%), and microorganisms in soil (6%). These results indicated the ability of E. cordifolius to remove phosphorus which was superior to that of the microorganisms in the system. Moreover, the rapid phosphorus removal was concomitant to the growth, photosynthesis activity and biomass of E. cordifolius grown in domestic wastewater. The C:N:P ratio of E. cordifolius tissue in the system indicated that elements were taken up from the wastewater. From these results, the suitability of E. cordifolius for domestic wastewater treatment was confirmed. PMID:22416873

Torit, Jirawan; Siangdung, Wipawan; Thiravetyan, Paitip

2012-01-01

251

The composition, dynamics, and ecological significance of soil organic phosphorus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of plant nutrition often consider only inorganic phosphate to be biologically available, yet organic phosphorus is abundant in soils and its turnover can account for the majority of the phosphorus taken up by natural vegetation. Soil organic phosphorus occurs in a variety of chemical forms, including phosphomonoesters, phosphodiesters, phosphonates, and organic polyphosphates, which can be determined conveniently by alkaline extraction and solution phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The inositol phosphates are of particular interest, because they are widespread in soils, yet only one of the four stereoisomers of inositol hexakisphosphate present in soils has been detected elsewhere in the environment. The mobility and bioavailability of the various organic phosphorus compounds differs depending on factors such as their interaction with metal oxide surfaces, which leads to a disparity between the forms of organic phosphorus entering the soil and the composition of the stable soil organic phosphorus pool. During long-term pedogenesis, organic phosphorus accumulates in the early nitrogen-limited stages of ecosystem development, but then declines as phosphorus-limitation strengthens in old soils. At the same time, the composition of the organic phosphorus varies; for example, the inositol phosphates decline to become a small proportion of the total organic phosphorus in old soils, presumably indicating their potential availability under conditions of strong phosphorus limitation. Plants have evolved a variety of mechanisms to acquire phosphorus from organic compounds, including the synthesis of phosphatase enzymes and the secretion of organic anions. Phosphatase activity is linked strongly to soil organic phosphorus concentrations, as indicated by broad surveys of tropical forest soils, fertilization experiments, and patterns observed during long-term ecosystem development. Organic anion secretion is often linked to inorganic phosphate solubilization, but the majority of the phosphorus released from most soils is in organic forms. Differences among plant species in the ability to access organic phosphorus may promote species co-existence at a site and is likely to regulate the response of plant communities to future changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations or nitrogen deposition. This is likely to be of greatest significance in freshwater wetlands, super-humid temperate regions, and ecosystems developed on strongly-weathered soils that cover vast areas of ancient landscapes in Africa, Australia and South America.

Turner, B. L.

2011-12-01

252

Characterization of phosphorus-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (P-MWNTs) have been successfully synthesized by spray pyrolysis methods using a solution of ferrocene and triphenylphosphine in toluene. Electron microscopy images reveal corrugated tubes with a special morphology, similar to a carbon necklace. P-MWNTs are shorter compared to undoped tubes grown in the same conditions using ferrocene and toluene as precursors. Raman spectroscopy characterization suggests the formation of more defective tubes as the phosphorus in the precursor solution was increased. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealing the chemical environment of the phosphorus atoms clearly indicates the presence of substitutional phosphorus in the nanotubes.

Larrude, D. G.; Maia da Costa, M. E. H.; Monteiro, F. H.; Pinto, A. L.; Freire, F. L.

2012-03-01

253

Phosphorus balance of a polytrophic shallow lake with the consideration of phosphorus release  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of an one-year investigation (April 1994 to March1995) the phosphorus balance of a polytrophic shallow lake withconsideration of phosphorus release (P-release) was studied. Theinvestigated Lake Blankensee covers an area of 2.9 km2 with anaverage depth of 1.2 m (volume 3.43 106 m3).The averagesummer chlorophyll-a concentrations range from 104 to418 g l-1 (19921995). Secchi-depths from 0.2 to0.3 mare

Kerstin Ramm; Volker Scheps

1997-01-01

254

Ascorbic acid, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium intake variations: effects on calcium, phosphorus and magnesium utilization by human adults  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding two levels of ascorbic acid, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and ascorbic acid on the apparent utilization of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium by healthy, human adult subjects. During 4 randomly-arranged experimental periods of 7 days each, a laboratory-controlled diet alone or with supplements of ascorbic acid, dicalcium phosphate or magnesium oxide was fed to the 18 subjects. Results indicated that ascorbic acid supplementation tended to reduce urinary phosphorus loss and to slightly increase fecal phosphorus loss so that overall phosphorus balances became more positive. Conversely, under these conditions, urinary calcium losses were little affected but fecal calcium losses were increased resulting in an overall decrease in calcium balance with ascorbic acid supplementation. Ascorbic acid supplementation resulted in decreased urine and fecal losses of magnesium and more positive magnesium balances. Magnesium supplementation resulted in more positive calcium and phosphorus balances as did calcium phosphate supplementation on magnesium balance.

Kies, C.; Brennan, M.A.; Parks, S.K.; Stauffer, D.J.; Wang, H.Y.; Young, S.F.; Fox, H.M.

1986-03-01

255

Surficial sediment phosphorus fractions along a biogeochemical gradient in Nyanza (Winam) Gulf, northeastern Lake Victoria and their possible role in phosphorus recycling and internal loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different phosphorus fractions and metal element composition of surficial sediments were measured on three occasions in 2005\\u000a and 2006 along a transect between Nyanza Gulf and offshore Lake Victoria, in order to assess the potential for sediments to\\u000a contribute to the water column P concentrations in Lake Victoria. Total phosphorus (TP), apatite phosphorus (AP), inorganic\\u000a phosphorus (IP) and organic phosphorus

P. Gikuma-Njuru; R. E. Hecky; S. J. Guildford

2010-01-01

256

[Modelling nitrogen and phosphorus transfer in Potamogeton malaianus Miq. decompostion].  

PubMed

Potamogeton malaianus Miq. is one of the dominant species of submerged aquatic vegetations in Lake Taihu, China. The decomposition of its debris and metabolic detritus is an important part of nutrients cycling in the lake water. Nitrogen and phosphorus transfer model in P. malaianus Miq. decomposition has been set up based on an indoor P. malaianus Miq. decomposition experiment to quantitatively characterize the decomposition process. It mainly focuses on the dissolving process of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus in P. malaianus Miq., the degradation process of its organic nitrogen and phosphorus, and the boundary's adsorbing process of nitrogen and phosphorus in water. There are eight state variables in the model, including inorganic and organic nitrogen in P. malaianus Miq., inorganic and organic phosphorus in P. malaianus Miq., total nitrogen and total phosphorus in water, and nitrogen and phosphorus adsorbed on container boundary. The model calibration showed a good accordance with the observed results of P. malaianus Miq. decomposition experiment. The dissolve rates of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus in P. malaianus Miq. are 0.04 d(-1) and 0.06 d(-1) respectively. And the decompose rates of these two state variables are 0.005 25 d(-1) and 0.010 44 d(-1) respectively. Model outputs show that 6.7% nitrogen and 35.8% phosphorus can release from P. malaianus Miq. in the former 5 days. Phosphorus release is prior to nitrogen due to the bigger inorganic/organic ratio of phosphorus than that of nitrogen in P. malaianus Miq., Decomposition of P. malaianus Miq. could be affected by water temperature, and the affection is slight when water temperature is lower according to the model. The model also showed that P. malaianus Miq. decomposition process has influences on water quality in the former days, which can be eliminated by adsorbing process later. PMID:20698260

Han, Hong-Juan; Zhai, Shui-Jing; Hu, Wei-Ping

2010-06-01

257

33rd Actinide Separations Conference  

SciTech Connect

Welcome to the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference hosted this year by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This annual conference is centered on the idea of networking and communication with scientists from throughout the United States, Britain, France and Japan who have expertise in nuclear material processing. This conference forum provides an excellent opportunity for bringing together experts in the fields of chemistry, nuclear and chemical engineering, and actinide processing to present and discuss experiences, research results, testing and application of actinide separation processes. The exchange of information that will take place between you, and other subject matter experts from around the nation and across the international boundaries, is a critical tool to assist in solving both national and international problems associated with the processing of nuclear materials used for both defense and energy purposes, as well as for the safe disposition of excess nuclear material. Granlibakken is a dedicated conference facility and training campus that is set up to provide the venue that supports communication between scientists and engineers attending the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference. We believe that you will find that Granlibakken and the Lake Tahoe views provide an atmosphere that is stimulating for fruitful discussions between participants from both government and private industry. We thank the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the United States Department of Energy for their support of this conference. We especially thank you, the participants and subject matter experts, for your involvement in the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference.

McDonald, L M; Wilk, P A

2009-05-04

258

28 CFR 33.53 - based organizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Justice Block Grants] [Sec. 33.53 Participation by Faith - based organizations...2009-07-01 false 33.53 Sec. 33.53 Participation by faith JUDICIAL ADMINISTRATION...Justice Block Grants Sec. 33.53 Participation by faith-based organizations....

2009-07-01

259

Selection of phosphorus solubilizing bacteria with biocontrol potential for growth in phosphorus rich animal bone charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria with the ability to solubilize phosphorus (P) and to improve plant health were selected and tested for growth and survival in P-rich animal bone charcoal (ABC). ABC is suggested to be suitable as a carrier for biocontrol agents, offering them a protected niche as well as delivering phosphate to plants, meanwhile re-using P from waste of the food chain.

J. Postma; E. H. Nijhuis; E. Sommeus

2010-01-01

260

Phosphorus budget and phosphorus availability in soils under organic and conventional farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to assess to which extent organic farming practices would affect the accumulation of total and available phosphorus (P) in a cropped soil in comparison to conventional practices. In order to achieve this, soil samples were taken from a long-term field trial comparing a non-fertilised control (NON), two conventionally cultivated treatments (MIN, CON), and two

F. Oehl; A. Oberson; H. U. Tagmann; J. M. Besson; D. Dubois; P. Mder; H.-R. Roth; E. Frossard

2002-01-01

261

Benefit of foliar spray phosphorus on peanuts in relation to gypsum and phosphorus application to soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted at Stratford Research Station, Stratford, Oklahoma to evalute the effect of foliar opray phosphorus on Spanish peanut yield (Arachis hypogea) with regard to the rates of gypsum and phosporus application to soil. Three levels of P (0, 45, and 90 kg\\/ha) and four levels of gypsum (0, 336, 672, and 1009 kg\\/ha) which consisted of

K. R. Sistani; L. G. Morrill

1989-01-01

262

DEVELOPMENT OF A PHOSPHORUS INDEX FOR PASTURES FERTILIZED WITH POULTRY LITTER - FACTORS AFFECTING PHOSPHORUS RUNOFF.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Currently, several state and federal agencies are proposing upper limits on soil test phosphorus (P), above which animal manures can not be applied, based on the assumption that high P concentrations in runoff are due to high soil test P. Recent studies show that other factors are more indicative o...

263

Changes in soil phosphorus fractions following positive and negative phosphorus balances for long periods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of phosphorus (P) balance (addition, in both fertilizers and farmyard manure (FYM), minus removal in crops) on eight soil P fractions determined by sequential extraction, was measured on archived soils from various long-term experiments run by Rothamsted Experimental Station in the United Kingdom. It has been established unequivocally that, for all the soils investigated, no one of the

L. Blake; A. E. Johnston; P. R. Poulton; K. W. T. Goulding

2003-01-01

264

A capacity factor as an alternative to soil test phosphorus in phosphorus risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil test phosphorus (P) concentrations (STP) are often used as measures of environmental P risk. However, a low STP is not valid justification for further P application because P sorption capacity may be low and P added could be lost to surface waters. The degree of P saturation (DPS) normalises extractable P using extractable Al and Fe as a surrogate

V. D. Nair; W. G. Harris

2004-01-01

265

Measuring Water-Extractable Phosphorus in Manures to Predict Phosphorus Concentrations in Runoff  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water-extractable phosphorus (WEP) in manures can influence the risk of P losses in runoff when manures are land applied. There is some uncertainty about how WEP in manures should be determined. Information on the effects of manure sample handling before analysis on WEP values and appropriate manu...

266

Living donor liver transplantation for acute liver failure in pediatric patients caused by the ingestion of fireworks containing yellow phosphorus.  

PubMed

Yellow phosphorus is a protoplasmic toxicant that targets the liver. The ingestion of fireworks containing yellow phosphorus, either by children who accidentally consume them or by adults who are attempting suicide, often results in death due to acute liver failure (ALF). We present the outcomes of 10 children who ingested fireworks containing yellow phosphorus. There were 6 boys and 4 girls, and their ages ranged from 21 to 60 months. One patient remained stable without liver complications and was discharged. Three patients died of hepatorenal failure and cardiovascular collapse, and living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) was performed for 6 patients. The patients had grade II or III encephalopathy, a mean alanine aminotransferase level of 1148.2 IU/L, a mean aspartate aminotransferase level of 1437.5 IU/L, a mean total bilirubin level of 6.9 mg/dL, a mean international normalized ratio of 6.6, a mean Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease score of 33.7, and a mean Child-Pugh score of 11.3. Postoperatively, 2 patients had persistent encephalopathy and died on the second or third postoperative day, and 1 patient died of cardiac arrest on the first postoperative day despite a well-functioning graft. The other 3 patients were still alive at a mean of 204 days. In conclusion, the ingestion of fireworks containing yellow phosphorus causes ALF with a high mortality rate. When signs of irreversible ALF are detected, emergency LDLT should be considered as a lifesaving procedure; however, if yellow phosphorus toxicity affects both the brain and the heart in addition to the liver, the mortality rate remains very high despite liver transplantation. PMID:21761550

Ates, Mustafa; Dirican, Abuzer; Ozgor, Dincer; Aydin, Cemalettin; Isik, Burak; Ara, Cengiz; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Ayse Selimoglu, M; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yilmaz, Sezai

2011-11-01

267

Molecular phosphorus ion source for semiconductor technology.  

PubMed

This paper presents results on the generation of molecular phosphorus ion beams in a hot filament ion source. Solid red phosphorous is evaporated mainly as tetra-atomic molecules up to a temperature of 800C. Thus, one of the main conditions for producing maximum P(4)(+) fraction in the beam is to keep the temperature of the phosphorous oven, the steam line and the discharge chamber walls no greater than 800C. The prior version of our ion source was equipped with a discharge chamber cooling system. The modified source ensured a P(4)(+) ion beam current greater than 30% of the total beam current. PMID:22380290

Gushenets, V I; Bugaev, A S; Oks, E M; Hershcovitch, A; Kulevoy, T V

2012-02-01

268

Molecular phosphorus ion source for semiconductor technology  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results on the generation of molecular phosphorus ion beams in a hot filament ion source. Solid red phosphorous is evaporated mainly as tetra-atomic molecules up to a temperature of 800 C. Thus, one of the main conditions for producing maximum P{sub 4}{sup +} fraction in the beam is to keep the temperature of the phosphorous oven, the steam line and the discharge chamber walls no greater than 800 C. The prior version of our ion source was equipped with a discharge chamber cooling system. The modified source ensured a P{sub 4}{sup +} ion beam current greater than 30% of the total beam current.

Gushenets V. I.; Hershcovitch A.; Bugaev, A.S.; Oks, E.M.; Kulevoy, T.V.

2012-02-15

269

Phosphorus-based fatty acid methyl esters.  

PubMed

With the aim of designing novel transformable fatty acid diesters, various strategies for introducing phosphorus arms to the fatty backbone have been examined. While lithiated phosphine reacts classically to brominated fatty esters to afford the mono-addition product, the synthesis of phosphorylated diesters was found to be difficult, a fact related to the bulkiness of fatty acids and phosphine reagents. A base-induced dehydrochlorination reaction using ArPCl2 and hydroxy-terminated fatty esters resulted in metastable diester for which hydrolytic cleavage undergo phosphine oxidation and expulsion of one fatty chain. Alternatively, ArPOCl2 alleviates this drawback and provides stable, phosphorylated fatty acid diesters. PMID:23845998

Katir, Nadia; El Kadib, Abdelkrim; Castel, Annie

2013-07-08

270

Microbial endemism: does phosphorus limitation enhance speciation?  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence for the existence of unique ecosystems that are dominated by locally adapted microbiota which harbour distinct lineages and biological capabilities, much like the macrobiota of Darwin's Galapagos Islands. As a primary example of such a system, we highlight key discoveries from the Cuatro Cinegas basin in Mexico. We argue that high microbial endemism requires a combination of geographical isolation, long-term continuity and mechanisms for reducing the intensity of horizontal gene transfer (HGT). We also propose that strong phosphorus limitation has an important role in microbial diversification by reducing the intensity of HGT. PMID:18521074

Souza, Valeria; Eguiarte, Luis E; Siefert, Janet; Elser, James J

2008-06-03

271

Assessing the long term impact of phosphorus fertilization on phosphorus loadings using AnnAGNPS.  

PubMed

High phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields has been an environmental concern because of potential water quality problems in streams and lakes. To better understand the process of P loss and evaluate the effects of different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus losses, the USDA Annualized AGricultural Non-Point Source (AnnAGNPS) pollutant loading model was applied to the Ohio Upper Auglaize watershed, located in the southern portion of the Maumee River Basin. In this study, the AnnAGNPS model was calibrated using USGS monitored data; and then the effects of different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus loadings were assessed. It was found that P loadings increase as fertilization rate increases, and long term higher P application would lead to much higher P loadings to the watershed outlet. The P loadings to the watershed outlet have a dramatic change after some time with higher P application rate. This dramatic change of P loading to the watershed outlet indicates that a "critical point" may exist in the soil at which soil P loss to water changes dramatically. Simulations with different initial soil P contents showed that the higher the initial soil P content is, the less time it takes to reach the "critical point" where P loadings to the watershed outlet increases dramatically. More research needs to be done to understand the processes involved in the transfer of P between the various stable, active and labile states in the soil to ensure that the model simulations are accurate. This finding may be useful in setting up future P application and management guidelines. PMID:21776225

Yuan, Yongping; Bingner, Ronald L; Locke, Martin A; Stafford, Jim; Theurer, Fred D

2011-06-14

272

Red Phosphorus for Use in Screening Smoke Compositions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It has been known for many years that red phosphorus reacts with moist air to produce phosphorus oxyacids and phosphine. The detailed mechanism remains unknown. This problem is of great concern to MoD and to pyrotechnics manufacturers because of the prese...

N. Davies

1999-01-01

273

Pressure dependence of the electrical conductivity of amorphous red phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The d.c. resistance of amorphous red phosphorus has been measured up to pressures of 90 kbar. At 70 kbar, a transition to orthorhombic black phosphorus was observed. The effect of an initially inhomogeneous microstructure is discussed. At a fixed pressure, a time dependence of the resistance was observed, and this is considered to be due to a relaxation of the

P. Extance; S. R. Elliott

1981-01-01

274

Soil phosphorus cycling in an Antarctic polar desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil phosphorus distribution and cycling in the McMurdo Dry Valleys is poorly understood despite its importance for contemporary Antarctic ecosystem processes. We present data from sequential chemical extractions of phosphorus pools from dry valley soils and sediments on tills across a gradient of surface exposure ages, and across potential weathering gradients in stream channels. The geologically old, but poorly weathered,

D. B. Bate; J. E. Barrett; M. A. Poage; R. A. Virginia

2008-01-01

275

Internal Phosphorus Loading and Macrophytes: an Alternative Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rooted, submersed macrophytes, primarily Elodea densa, have apparently served to restrict internal phosphorus loading during the summer in shallow Long Lake, Washington, instead of contributing phosphorus through senescence (process of aging). Internal loading was consistently controlled for five years by treatment by drawdown and alum, and mean, whole-lake macrophyte biomass ranged from about 30 to 250 g\\/m during the 12

Eugene B. Welch; T. Scott Kelly

1990-01-01

276

PHOSPHORUS LOADING AND DIVERSION FOR PINE LAKE, WASHINGTON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus external and internal loading to Pine Lake was estimated and potential restoration measures were recommended. External sources contributed approximately 57 percent of the total phosphorus load, and internal sources the remaining 43 percent. External and internal loading together exceeded the critical level expected for a mesotrophic state. About one-third of the external load, or about 20 percent of the

Gregory J. Pelletier; Eugene B. Welch

1987-01-01

277

The influence of phosphorus on shrinkage porosity in cast irons  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the influence of phosphorus on the formation and presence of microporosity in gray cast iron is examined. The microporosity is ascribed to the formation and presence of the phosphide eutectic(s) in the microstructure during solidification. Samples with high phosphorus content have higher levels of microporosity. The role of alloying elements like chromium and molybdenum on the formation

T. S Srivatsan; T. S Sudarshan

1999-01-01

278

Phosphorus Index for Vermont: Background, Rationale, and Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Phosphorus Index is a tool developed to assess the potential for phosphorus runoff from individual fields based on soil and field characteristics and on management practices. Use of the P Index provides a means of identifying fields that have high P runoff potential and, therefore, require additional conservation practices and\\/or limitations of manure or fertilizer P application, as well

Bill Jokela

279

Approaches and Challenges to Engineering Seed Phytate and Total Phosphorus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

About 75% of seed total phosphorus (P) is found in a single compound, phytic acid (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate or InsP6). Phytic acid is not efficiently utilized by monogastric animals (poultry, swine, fish), which creates phosphorus management and environmental impact problems in anim...

280

Can bacteria outcompete phytoplankton for phosphorus? a chemostat test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the bacterioplankton of lakes are usually considered primarily in terms of mineralization processes, recent studies suggest that they may also strongly compete for phosphorus with the phytoplankton. In the present study, we have tested in chemostat culture, and found support for the hypotheses that (1) a freshwater bacterium (Pseudomonas paucimobilis), whose carbon source is excretion from a phosphorus-limited alga

David J. Currie; Jaap Kalff

1984-01-01

281

AMERICAN SOCIETY OF AGRONOMY BOOK "PHOSPHORUS, AGRICULTURE AND THE ENVIRONMENT"  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus: Agriculture and the Environment provides a comprehensive, systematic review of the varied aspects of phosphorus (P) use in crop and livestock production and of the relationship between agricultural P management and water quality. This monograph draws upon the expertise of leading inte...

282

Do invasive mussels restrict offshore phosphorus transport in Lake Huron?  

PubMed

Dreissenid mussels were first documented in the Laurentian Great Lakes in the late 1980s. Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) spread quickly into shallow, hard-substrate areas; quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) spread more slowly and are currently colonizing deep, offshore areas. These mussels occur at high densities, filter large water volumes while feeding on suspended materials, and deposit particulate waste on the lake bottom. This filtering activity has been hypothesized to sequester tributary phosphorus in nearshore regions reducing offshore primary productivity. We used a mass balance model to estimate the phosphorus sedimentation rate in Saginaw Bay, a shallow embayment of Lake Huron, before and after the mussel invasion. Our results indicate that the proportion of tributary phosphorus retained in Saginaw Bay increased from approximately 46-70% when dreissenids appeared, reducing phosphorus export to the main body of Lake Huron. The combined effects of increased phosphorus retention and decreased phosphorus loading have caused an approximate 60% decrease in phosphorus export from Saginaw Bay to Lake Huron. Our results support the hypothesis that the ongoing decline of preyfish and secondary producers including diporeia (Diporeia spp.) in Lake Huron is a bottom-up phenomenon associated with decreased phosphorus availability in the offshore to support primary production. PMID:21812427

Cha, Yoonkyung; Stow, Craig A; Nalepa, Thomas F; Reckhow, Kenneth H

2011-08-12

283

Research Progress on Phosphorus Removal in Substrates of Constructed Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classification and property of constructed wetland substrate has been reviewed, various substrates for phosphorus removal due to different P-adsorptive capacity have been summarized and the main influencing factor about substrates for phosphorus adsorption capacity has been investigated. At last, the paper puts forward prospect in development and selection media of constructed wetland imperatival in future.

Dun-Qiu Wang; Xiao-Dan Jin; Hua Zhang; Xue-Hong Zhang; Hong-Hu Zeng; Shao-Hong You; Wen-Yu Zhao; Ze-Long Xu; Yan-Hua Wu

2009-01-01

284

Utilization of Stream-Borne Phosphorus by Cayuga Lake Phytoplankton.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies indicate that in the tributaries to Cayuga Lake, most of the phosphorus discharged is in the particulate form, during periods of high runoff. The effect of stream-borne phosphorus on lake ecosystems depends on whether it can be utilized by lake bi...

J. P. Barlow

1975-01-01

285

Removal of phosphorus from secondary effluents by coagulation and ultrafiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary effluents of municipal wastewater in Israel contain on average 10 mg\\/L phosphorus, a concentration that is twice as high as a limit recently legislated by the Israeli Ministry of Environment. Reduction of phosphorus concentration to the required level is often performed by biological methods, or by flocculation followed by sand filtration. The current study explores a different path of

Tomer Nir; Elizabeth Arkhangelsky; Inna Levitsky; Vitaly Gitis

2009-01-01

286

DIFFERENTIATING FORMS AND POTENTIAL BIOACTIVITY OF ENVIRONMENTAL PHOSPHORUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Animal manures and organic sources of nutrients such as crop residues are major sources of organic phosphorus (P) applied to soils. They are attracting a great deal of research attention and regulatory interest because animal digestive systems are markedly inefficient at retaining dietary phosphorus...

287

Compared Phosphorus Efficiency in Soybean, Sunflower and Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

A more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of phosphorus (P) efficiency is agronomically significant to advance in the design of crop management schemes that increase P efficiency and reduce the need of fertilizers. Phosphorus efficiency is defined as the ability of a plant to acquire P from the soil and\\/or to utilize it in the production of biomass or the

M. C. Fernndez; H. Belinque; F. H. Gutierrez Boem; G. Rubio

2009-01-01

288

Structure flammability relationships of phosphorus containing polystyrene samples (I)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphonated polystyrene flammability is discussed in relation to their structure. It is shown that the oxygen Index of phosphonated polystyrenes depends mainly on the position of the phosphorus atoms on the backbone of the polymer and not on the absolute phosphorus content.

A. Chiotis; G. Clouet; J. Brossas

1982-01-01

289

Plant based phosphorus recovery from wastewater via algae and macrophytes.  

PubMed

At present, resource recovery by irrigation of wastewater to plants is usually driven by the value of the water resource rather than phosphorus recovery. Expanded irrigation for increased phosphorus recovery may be expected as the scarcity and price of phosphorus increases, but providing the necessary treatment, storage and conveyance comes at significant expense. An alternative to taking the wastewater to the plants is instead to take the plants to the wastewater. Algal ponds and macrophyte wetlands are already in widespread use for wastewater treatment and if harvested, would require less than one-tenth of the area to recover phosphorus compared to terrestrial crops/pastures. This area could be further decreased if the phosphorus content of the macrophytes and algae biomass was tripled from 1% to 3% via luxury uptake. While this and many other opportunities for plant based recovery of phosphorus exist, e.g. offshore cultivation, much of this technology development is still in its infancy. Research that enhances our understanding of how to maximise phosphorus uptake and harvest yields; and further add value to the biomass for reuse would see the recovery of phosphorus via plants become an important solution in the future. PMID:22889679

Shilton, Andrew N; Powell, Nicola; Guieysse, Benoit

2012-08-10

290

Solubility of manure phosphorus characterized by selective and sequential extractions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The increasing awareness of the severity of the problem of phosphorus (P) derived from agricultural production moving off-farm and threatening water quality has led to the search for methods to characterize the forms and potential solubilities of phosphorus in food animal manures and manure products...

291

Growth and phosphorus status of limnetic phytoplankton and bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phosphorus status (total phosphorus (P), surplus P, and alkaline phosphatase activity (APA)) of phytoplankton and bacteria were followed in a eutrophic Norwegian lake. On average 36% (range 20-60) of the particulate P and 57% (range 10-l 00) of the surplus P were bound by bacteria. The P : C ratio of phytoplankton and bacteria varied between 2.5 and 55

OLAV VADSTEIN; ARNE JENSEN; YNGVAR OLSEN; HELGE REINERTSEN

1988-01-01

292

THE FATE AND TRANSPORT OF PHOSPHORUS IN AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus (P) is an important input for economic crop and livestock production systems but excessive P losses from agricultural sources can accelerate eutrophication of surface waters. Phosphorus losses occur in particulate forms with eroded surface soil and in soluble forms in runoff and in some ...

293

Hydrocarbon alkylation processes employing a phosphorus-modified alumina composite  

SciTech Connect

An alkylation process is described which comprises contacting a hydrocarbon feedstock with a catalyst, maintained at alkylation-promoting conditions, comprising an amorphous phosphorus-modified calcined alumina hydrogel composite having a molar ratio on an elemental basis of aluminum to phosphorus less than 2.3:1 and having a surface area of from about 140 to 450 m/sup 2//g.

Chao, T.H.

1988-02-23

294

Managing phosphorus for water quality protection - 10 principles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The accelerated eutrophication of aquatic systems has primarily been the concern of developed nations where it represents the most pervasive impairment of surface water bodies. Managing phosphorus for water quality protection requires prudent tempering of agronomic emphases to build soil phosphorus,...

295

Nature of Phosphorus Limitation in the Ultraoligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphate addition to surface waters of the ultraoligotrophic, phosphorus-starved eastern Mediterranean in a Lagrangian experiment caused unexpected ecosystem responses. The system exhibited a decline in chlorophyll and an increase in bacterial production and copepod egg abundance. Although nitrogen and phosphorus colimitation hindered phytoplankton growth, phosphorous may have been transferred through the microbial food web to copepods via two, not mutually

T. F. Thingstad; M. D. Krom; R. F. C. Mantoura; G. A. F. Flaten; S. Groom; B. Herut; N. Kress; C. S. Law; A. Pasternak; P. Pitta; S. Psarra; F. Rassoulzadegan; T. Tanaka; A. Tselepides; P. Wassmann; E. M. S. Woodward; C. Wexels Riser; G. Zodiatis; T. Zohary

2005-01-01

296

Determination of phosphorus in gold or silver brazing alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spectrophotometric method has been devised for measuring microgram levels of phosphorus in brazing alloys of gold or silver that contain high nickel concentration. Phosphorus in such alloys is normally measured by solid mass spectrometry, but the high nickel concentration produces a double ionized nickel spectral interference. The described procedure is based upon the formation of molybdovanadophosphoric acid when a

R. J. Antepenko

1979-01-01

297

The influence of animals on phosphorus cycling in lake ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic animals directly influence the cycling of phosphorus in lakes through feeding and excretion. Traditionally, animals (zooplankton, benthic invertebrates and fish) have been assigned only minor roles in the process of freshwater phosphorus cycling. They were regarded as consumers without much regulating influence. Today there is growing evidence that animals, predators and herbivores, directly or indirectly can control biomass of

Gunnar Andersson; Wilhelm Granli; Jan Stenson

1988-01-01

298

Phosphorus accumulation in manure-impacted Spodosols of Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulation of phosphorus (P) in soils receiving long-term application of manure has been linked with degradation of water quality in nearby streams and lakes. The objective of this research was to determine the amounts and depth distribution of phosphorus (P) in Florida Spodosols used for dairies and beef ranches, and to relate them to various soil chemical parameters. Land areas

D. A. Graetz; V. D. Nair; K. M. Portier; R. L. Voss

1999-01-01

299

Phosphorus versus nitrogen limitation in the marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limnological and marine geochemical opinion favors phosphorus limitation of organic produc- tion in aquatic environments, while marine biological opinion favors nitrogen limitation. Clues in the literature and nutrient budgets for selected marine ecosystems suggest that phosphorus vs. nitrogen limitation is a function of the relative rates of water exchange and internal biochemical processes acting to adjust the ratio of ecosystem

S. V. Smith

1984-01-01

300

Phosphorus Sources for Aquatic Weeds: Water or Sediments?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine common species of aquatic macrophytes took all their phosphorus from the sediments when grown in situ in both a mesotrophic and a mildly eutrophic bay. Even under hypertrophic conditions, the sediments contributed an average of 72 percent of all the phosphorus taken up during growth. These experiments unambiguously demonstrate for the first time that submergent macrophytes in nature overwhelmingly

R. Carignan; J. Kalff

1980-01-01

301

Production of fluid fertilizer from phosphorus furnace waste stream  

SciTech Connect

Processes and compositions of matter are disclosed for the production of liquid fertilizers wherein wastewater from a phosphorus smelting furnace is incorporated in liquid fertilizer processes. The wastewater replaces water evaporated and the wastewater dissolves fertilizer salts. A serious water pollution problem is avoided when wastewater is incorporated in liquid fertilizers. The invention discloses a process for making orthophosphate suspension fertilizer wherein impure phosphoric acid is neutralized in the condensing system, water from the condensing system is bled off, and a suspending clay is added to produce orthophosphate suspension fertilizer. In this process, phosphorus sludge made at phosphorus furnaces is used to produce suspension fertilizer, and wastewater from phosphate smelting furnaces is recovered. New compositions of matter are disclosed. A process is disclosed for making phosphoric acid with low impurities content wherein phosphorus sludge is burned to make impure orthophosphoric acid and the impure acid is recycled to an agglomerating step in a process for making elemental phosphorus.

Barber, J. C.

1985-04-30

302

The efficiency of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) root hairs in phosphorus acquisition.  

PubMed

Arabidopsis thaliana root hairs grow longer and denser in response to low-phosphorus availability. In addition, plants with the root hair response acquire more phosphorus than mutants that have root hairs that do not respond to phosphorus limiting conditions. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the efficiency of root hairs in phosphorus acquisition at high- and low-phosphorus availability. Root hair growth, root growth, root respiration, plant phosphorus uptake, and plant phosphorus content of 3-wk-old wild-type Arabidopsis (WS) were compared to two root hair mutants (rhd6 and rhd2) under high (54 mmol/m) and low (0.4 mmol/m) phosphorus availability. A cost-benefit analysis was constructed from the measurements to determine root hair efficiency. Under high-phosphorus availability, root hairs did not have an effect on any of the parameters measured. Under low-phosphorus availability, wild-type Arabidopsis had greater total root surface area, shoot biomass, phosphorus per root length, and specific phosphorus uptake. The cost-benefit analysis shows that under low phosphorus, wild-type roots acquire more phosphorus for every unit of carbon respired or unit of phosphorus invested into the roots than the mutants. We conclude that the response of root hairs to low-phosphorus availability is an efficient strategy for phosphorus acquisition. PMID:10898773

Bates, T R; Lynch, J P

2000-07-01

303

Blood lead, calcium, and phosphorus in women with preeclampsia in Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The authors investigated the effect of blood lead (BPb) and its relationship with calcium and phosphorus in the development of preeclampsia in Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from 59 preclamptics, 150 normal pregnant, and 122 nonpregnant women. Blood lead and serum Ca and P were determined. Blood lead was significantly higher (p < .001), whereas serum Ca and P were significantly lower (p < .001) in preclamptics than in normal pregnant women (60.2 12.8 vs 26.3 8.0 ?g/dL for Pb, 1.39 0.33 vs 2.03 0.22 mmol/L for Ca, and 0.76 0.10 vs 0.99 0.13 mmol/L for P, respectively). There was significant increase (p < .05) in BPb and decreases (p < .01) in serum Ca and P in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women (35.7 18.0 vs 13.1 6.4 ?g/dL for Pb, 1.85 0.33 vs 2.33 0.20 mmol/L for Ca, and 0.93 0.38 vs 1.24 0.26 mmol/L for P). Also, BPb was negatively correlated with serum Ca and, P, and positively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures in pregnancy (r = -.804 for Ca, r = -.728 for P, r = .908 for SBP, and r = .842 for DBP) and preeclampsia (p < .01). It appears that increase in blood lead, which parallels decreases in serum calcium and phosphorus, may be related to the development and progression of preeclampsia in this environment. PMID:22845729

Ikechukwu, Ikaraoha Chidiebere; Ojareva, Oforofuo Isreal Agware; Ibhagbemien, Anetor John; Okhoaretor, Okogbo Felix; Oluwatomi, Okusanya Babasola; Akhalufo, Okogbenin Sylvanus; Oluwagbenga, Alonge Temitope; Chigaekwu, Mbadiwe Nkeiruka

2012-01-01

304

Mat-water phosphorus exchange in an acid bog lake  

SciTech Connect

The exchange of phosphorus between a bog lake and its surrounding Sphagnum mat and the fate of mat phosphorus entering the limnetic zone of a lake were studied by means of a series of mat-labeling experiments using /sup 32/P, and by an analysis of water budgets of the lake and mat. A /sup 32/P solution applied directly to the Sphagnum produced a labeled soluble but biologically refractory phosphorus fraction which persisted in the lake at the initial concentration level for >16 d. Labeling the interstitial water of the mat directly with /sup 32/P produced a labeled particulate fraction which was biologically active and was quickly concentrated in the limnetic food web. Heavy rainfall flushed both labeled components into the lake. The pathway phosphorus takes to enter the lake from the mat was determined by temperature gradients in the mat and the degree of decomposition of the mat material. The maximum phosphorus concentrations in the mat were above a compacted zone at the 2-m depth. This maximum coincided with an open-water phosphorus maximum at 2 m, which indicated that there were frequent inputs of mat phosphorus to this stratum. The direction of net phosphorus movement was largely controlled by the water balance of the system. During periods of high precipitation, low temperatures, and low evapotranspiration, as was found in early spring, net phosphorus movement was toward the lake. During midsummer high evapotranspiration of the mat vegetation increased the storage capacity of the mat. This reduced phosphorus flow toward the lake so that net flow was often toward the mat. (JMT)

Hooper, F.F.; Morris, L.S.

1982-10-01

305

Common Genetic Variants Associate with Serum Phosphorus Concentration  

PubMed Central

Phosphorus is an essential mineral that maintains cellular energy and mineralizes the skeleton. Because complex actions of ion transporters and regulatory hormones regulate serum phosphorus concentrations, genetic variation may determine interindividual variation in phosphorus metabolism. Here, we report a comprehensive genome-wide association study of serum phosphorus concentration. We evaluated 16,264 participants of European ancestry from the Cardiovascular Heath Study, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, Framingham Offspring Study, and the Rotterdam Study. We excluded participants with an estimated GFR <45 ml/min per 1.73 m2 to focus on phosphorus metabolism under normal conditions. We imputed genotypes to approximately 2.5 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the HapMap and combined study-specific findings using meta-analysis. We tested top polymorphisms from discovery cohorts in a 5444-person replication sample. Polymorphisms in seven loci with minor allele frequencies 0.08 to 0.49 associate with serum phosphorus concentration (P = 3.5 10?16 to 3.6 10?7). Three loci were near genes encoding the kidney-specific type IIa sodium phosphate co-transporter (SLC34A1), the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), proteins that contribute to phosphorus metabolism. We also identified genes encoding phosphatases, kinases, and phosphodiesterases that have yet-undetermined roles in phosphorus homeostasis. In the replication sample, five of seven top polymorphisms associate with serum phosphorous concentrations (P < 0.05 for each). In conclusion, common genetic variants associate with serum phosphorus in the general population. Further study of the loci identified in this study may help elucidate mechanisms of phosphorus regulation.

Glazer, Nicole L.; Kottgen, Anna; Felix, Janine F.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Hausman, Dorothy B.; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Gieger, Christian; Ried, Janina S.; Meitinger, Thomas; Strom, Tim M.; Wichmann, H. Erich; Campbell, Harry; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; de Boer, Ian H.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rice, Kenneth M.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Li, Man; Arking, Dan E.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Coresh, Josef; Yang, Qiong; Levy, Daniel; van Rooij, Frank J.A.; Dehghan, Abbas; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Hofman, Albert; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Kao, W.H. Linda; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Siscovick, David S.; Fox, Caroline S.

2010-01-01

306

DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONALLY-CONSISTENT PHOSPHORUS SOURCE COEFFICIENTS FOR USE IN PHOSPHORUS INDEX EVALUATIONS IN THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Phosphorus Index was designed as a screening tool for use by soil conservation field staff and nutrient management planners to rank the relative vulnerability of agricultural fields as sources of phosphorus (P) loss to surface waters. Development of individual P Indices in the Mid-Atlantic Regi...

307

Changes in respiratory quinone profiles of enhanced biological phosphorus removal activated sludge under different influent phosphorus\\/carbon ratio conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the microbial community of an enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) activated sludge system under different influent phosphorus\\/carbon (P\\/C) ratio conditions were investigated through evaluation of population respiratory quinone profiles. A total of 13 types of respiratory quinone homologs consisting of 3 types of ubiquinones (UQ) and 10 types of menaquinones (MK) were identified in this study. The dominant

Johwan Ahn; Mikyung Lee; Hyukku Kwon

2006-01-01

308

Enhancement of phosphorus removal in a low temperature A(2)/O process by anaerobic phosphorus release of activated sludge.  

PubMed

An anaerobic phosphorus release tank was introduced to an anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic (A(2)/O) process treating domestic sewage to enhance the phosphorus removal at low temperature. Phosphorus release of the activated sludge from the second sedimentation tank was evaluated at 14 C by batch cultures, and the nutrient removal in the modified low temperature A(2)/O process was further investigated at the same temperature. The results showed that the feasible sludge retention time was 14 h for sequencing batch reaction and 12 h for continuous flow operation. The ratio of raw sewage to activated sludge from the second sedimentation tank was 1:1 in volume to meet the demand of carbon resource for the growth of phosphorus release microbes. The feasible chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rate of the activated sludge in the phosphorus release tank was 0.015-0.02 g COD/g MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids) and the nitrate concentration should be less than 5 mg/L. The phosphorus release was doubled when the sludge was blended intermittently and gently. The anaerobic phosphorus release of the activated sludge improved the phosphate removal remarkably, as well as the removal of NH4(+)-N and total nitrogen (TN) in the modified low temperature A(2)/O process. The effluent COD, NH4(+)-N, TN and total phosphorus could meet a stricter discharge standard. PMID:23752374

Li, Jianzheng; Jin, Yu; Guo, Yaqiong; He, Junguo

2013-01-01

309

Atmospheric phosphorus in the northern part of Lake Taihu, China.  

PubMed

Eutrophication, which has been linked to enhanced nutrient loading in lakes, estuarine and coastal waters, is common to many water bodies in China, including Lake Taihu. The atmosphere is an important and growing source of new nutrients entering water bodies. To assess the impact of atmospheric phosphorus (P) on water quality of Lake Taihu, we have estimated the atmospheric input of P by measuring its concentrations in aerosols and in rainwater. Samples were collected at the northeastern part of the lake. The P concentration in total suspended particle ranged from 0.054 to 0.300 ?g m(-3). Concentrations of P in aerosols in the winter and autumn samples were higher than those in the spring and summer samples. Soluble inorganic P (SIP), which provides direct nutrient sources to algae, accounts for 4.9%-83.4% of the total P. Principal Component Analysis of the measured aerosol constituents and examination of inter-species correlation indicate that SIP was correlated with elemental carbon, water soluble organic carbon, NO(3)(-), and Ca(2+). Such correlations could be explained if two nearby coal-fired power plants were a major aerosol P sources. The average concentration of the total P in rain water samples was 0.0820.058 mg P/L. The annual deposition flux of P into the northern part of Lake Taihu was estimated to be in the range of 0.04-0.44 kg ha(-1)year(-1) through dry deposition and 0.33 kg ha(-1)year(-1) through wet deposition. The combined wet and dry deposition was less than 8% of riverine P input, therefore the atmospheric deposition was only a minor contributor to P in Lake Taihu at the time of this study. PMID:21339003

Luo, Jun; Wang, Xiaorong; Yang, Hong; Yu, Jian Zhen; Yang, Longyuan; Qin, Boqiang

2011-02-19

310

Bioremediation of Parboiled Rice Effluent Supplemented with Biodiesel-Derived Glycerol Using Pichia pastoris X-33  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the use of Pichia pastoris X-33 as a bioremediator to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), and phosphorus (P-PO4???3?), after culture in parboiled rice effluent supplemented with p.a. glycerol or a glycerol by-product of the biodiesel industry. The greatest reduction in the COD (55%), TKN (45%), and P-PO4???3? (52%) of the effluent was observed in cultures of P. pastoris X-33 supplemented with 15?g?L?1 of biodiesel-derived glycerol. Furthermore, the overall biomass yield was 2.1?g?L?1. These data suggest that biodiesel-derived glycerol is an efficient carbon source for the bioremediation of parboiled rice effluent and biomass production.

Gil de los Santos, Diego; Gil Turnes, Carlos; Rochedo Conceicao, Fabricio

2012-01-01

311

SUMMARY REVIEW OF HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH ELEMENTAL AND INORGANIC PHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS: HEALTH ISSUE ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Phosphorus is a nonmetallic essential element. lthough phosphorus occurs naturally in the environment, most of the phosphorus in the environment occurs during its manufacture into one of the three allotropic forms (white, red, or black) or into phosphorus compounds and during the...

312

Method of extraction-photometric determination of phosphorus impurities in glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus is found in glass as an impurity with the initial components, while it is introduced specially in some brands of glass. Since the silicon content in glass exceeds the phosphorus content a hundredfold or more, it must be separated in chemical determination of the phosphorus. To do this, a method based on extraction of phosphorus in the form of

E. V. Lapitskaya

1982-01-01

313

The chemistry of phosphorus, silicon, and germanium in the Jupiter atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen atoms were found to react with phosphorus to form phosphine. The formation of phosphine probably occurs as a series of heterogeneous reactions at the surface of the elemental phosphorus in which three hydrogen atoms impinge upon the surface of solid phosphorus sequentially and PH3 departs. Aqueous ammonia was also found to react with phosphorus to form phosphine. These two

G. R. Howland

1978-01-01

314

Characteristics of phosphorus adsorption for a titanium mesostructure synthesized with various surfactants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eutrophication due to excessive phosphorus in water has been considered one of the most important environmental problems. In this study, a titanium mesostructure, prepared with different surfactant templates, was tested to confirm its applicability as an adsorbent for the removal of phosphorus and to evaluate the phosphorus removal efficiency. An X?ray diffraction analysis, the phosphorus adsorption isotherm and a kinetic

2011-01-01

315

Utilization of phosphorus sources of different availability by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In experiments with phosphorus sources of different availability mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal maize grew equally well when the phosphorus source was readily available. When the phosphorus source was slowly available, however, mycorrhizal maize had a much higher phosphorus content and grew much better than non-mycorrhizal maize.

C. L. Murdoch; J. A. Jackobs; J. W. Gerdemann

1967-01-01

316

Low phosphorus status might contribute to the onset of obesity.  

PubMed

Overweight and obesity are becoming global health problems. Although genetics certainly plays a role, weight gain is ultimately the result of a failure in the balance between energy expenditure and energy intake. Obesity during the past few decades was paralleled with several changes in dietary habits favouring low phosphorus consumption. This is believed to compromise adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production that is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism. Ingestion of high-carbohydrate-low phosphorus food is known to increase insulin release, to simultaneously stimulate peripheral uptake of phosphorus and the phosphorylation of many compounds. This creates a competition for phosphorus that compromises its availability for ATP production, possibly translated into low diet-induced thermogenesis. Moreover, reduced hepatic ATP production is believed to be transmitted through neural afferents to the central nervous system, resulting in an increase in food intake. On the other hand, the positive relation between phosphorus and red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, which reduces oxygen affinity to haemoglobin, would be expected to reduce the capacity for physical activity. In line with that, plasma phosphorus status was reported to be inversely related to body weight. Adequate intakes of phosphorus are thus potentially protective against rising obesity epidemic across the globe. PMID:23679666

Obeid, O A

2013-05-16

317

Dietary phosphorus requirement of young abalone Haliotis discus Hannai Ino  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment was performed to determine the dietary phosphorus requirement of the young abalone, Haliotis discus hannai. Five semi-purified diets were formulated to provide a series of graded levels of dietary total phosphorus (0.23% 1.98) from monobasic potassium phosphate (KH2P04). The brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Similar size abalone were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with six treatments and three replicates each treatment. The abalone were hand-fed to satiation with appropriate diets in excess, once daily at 17:00. The feeding trial was run for 120-d. Survival rate and soft-body to shell ratio (SB/S) were constantly maintained regardless of dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (WGR), daily increment in shell length (DISL), muscle RNA to DNA ratio (RNA/DNA), carcass levels of lipid and protein, soft-body alkaline phosphatase (SBAKP), and phosphorus concentrations of whole body (WB) and soft body (SB) were significantly (ANOVA, P<0.05) affected by the dietary phosphorus level. The dietary phosphorus requirements of the abalone were evaluated from the WGR, DISL, and RNA/DNA ratio respectively, by using second-order polynomial regression analysis. Based on these criteria, about 1.0% 1.2% total dietary phosphorus, i.e. 0.9% 1.1% dietary available phosphorus is recommended for the maximum growth of the abalone.

Tan, Bei-Ping; Mai, Kang-Sen; Liufu, Zhi-Guo

2002-03-01

318

The dissipation of phosphorus in sewage and sewage effluents.  

PubMed

Of the 41 kt of phosphorus reaching the sewage works in England and Wales 15 kt is removed in sewage sludge and the remainder is disposed of to rivers. 60% of the sewage sludge is now used as fertilizer and this proportion will no doubt increase in the future. The total use of sewage sludge, however, represents only about 5% of the current annual usage of artificial phosphorus fertilizer. At present there is no general economic incentive to make better use of the phosphorus in effluents. Phosphorus removal is expensive--about 2--3 pence/m3. If all the sewage effluents in England and Wales were to be so treated the cost would be about 100--150 million pounds annually, that is about 50% of the present costs of sewage treatment. In certain cases, but rarely in the UK, phosphate is removed, not to conserve phosphorus but to minimize the problems it creates in the environment. The phosphorus removed has little value as fertilizer. Alternative methods of using the phosphorus in effluents by the production and harvesting of crops of algae or aquatic plants have so far proved uneconomic. However, these methods need to be reviewed periodically as they may in the future become economically more attractive, especially in warmer climates where plant growth can be maintained throughout the year. PMID:357121

Collingwood, R W

319

Electronic transport and mechanical properties of phosphorus and phosphorus-nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes  

SciTech Connect

We present a density functional theory study of the electronic structure, quantum transport and mechanical properties of recently synthesized phosphorus (P) and phosphorus-nitrogen (PN) doped single-walled carbon nanotubes. The results demonstrate that substitutional P and PN doping creates localized electronic states that modify the electron transport properties by acting as scattering centers. For low doping concentrations (1 doping site per ~200 atoms), the quantum conductance for metallic nanotubes is found to be only slightly reduced. The substitutional doping also alters the mechanical strength, leading to a 50% reduction in the elongation upon fracture, while Young s modulus remains approximately unchanged. Overall, the PN- and P-doped nanotubes display promising properties for components in composite materials and, in particular, for fast response and ultra sensitive sensors operating at the molecular level.

Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Charlier, Jean Christophe [Universite Catholique de Louvain; Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto [ORNL; Cruz Silva, Eduardo [ORNL; Lopez, Florentino [IPICyT; Munoz-Sandoval, Emilio [IPICyT

2009-01-01

320

48 CFR 33.215 - Contract clauses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTESTS, DISPUTES, AND APPEALS Disputes and Appeals 33.215 Contract clauses. (a) Insert the clause at 52.233-1, Disputes, in solicitations and contracts, unless the conditions in 33.203(b) apply. If it is determined...

2012-10-01

321

48 CFR 33.215 - Contract clauses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTESTS, DISPUTES, AND APPEALS Disputes and Appeals 33.215 Contract clauses. (a) Insert the clause at 52.233-1, Disputes, in solicitations and contracts, unless the conditions in 33.203(b) apply. If it is determined...

2011-10-01

322

27 CFR 4.33 - Brand names.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...33 Section 4.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements...standing alone, or in association with...

2013-04-01

323

37 CFR 102.33 - General exemptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights...102.33 Section 102.33 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT... DISCLOSURE OF GOVERNMENT INFORMATION Privacy Act §...

2013-07-01

324

40 CFR 273.33 - Waste management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Waste management. 273.33 Section 273... STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Large Quantity...Universal Waste § 273.33 Waste management. (a) Universal waste...

2013-07-01

325

40 CFR 273.33 - Waste management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste management. 273.33 Section 273... STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Large Quantity...Universal Waste § 273.33 Waste management. (a) Universal waste...

2010-07-01

326

40 CFR 273.33 - Waste management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Waste management. 273.33 Section 273... STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Large Quantity...Universal Waste § 273.33 Waste management. (a) Universal waste...

2009-07-01

327

10 CFR 36.33 - Irradiator pools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Irradiator pools. 36.33 Section 36...Requirements for Irradiators § 36.33 Irradiator pools. (a) For licenses initially issued after July 1, 1993, irradiator pools must either: (1)...

2009-01-01

328

10 CFR 36.33 - Irradiator pools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Irradiator pools. 36.33 Section 36...Requirements for Irradiators § 36.33 Irradiator pools. (a) For licenses initially issued after July 1, 1993, irradiator pools must either: (1)...

2010-01-01

329

36 CFR 1192.33 - Fare box.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 1192.33...

2011-07-01

330

36 CFR 1192.33 - Fare box.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 1192.33...

2012-07-01

331

7 CFR 2201.33 - Defaults.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Section 2201.33 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS Loan Guarantees § 2201.33...

2013-01-01

332

46 CFR 76.33-1 - Application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of § 76.33-90, shall apply to all installations contracted for on or after November 19, 1952. Installations contracted for prior to November 19, 1952, shall meet the requirements of § 76.33-90. (b)...

2011-10-01

333

46 CFR 76.33-1 - Application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of § 76.33-90, shall apply to all installations contracted for on or after November 19, 1952. Installations contracted for prior to November 19, 1952, shall meet the requirements of § 76.33-90. (b)...

2012-10-01

334

14 CFR 415.33 - Safety organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety organization. 415.33 Section...TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch From a Federal Launch Range § 415.33 Safety organization. (a) An...

2013-01-01

335

36 CFR 908.33 - Final determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Section 908.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION POLICY AND PROCEDURES...THE RETENTION OF DISPLACED BUSINESSES AND RESIDENTS IN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Review Procedure § 908.33...

2011-07-01

336

36 CFR 908.33 - Final determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Section 908.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION POLICY AND PROCEDURES...THE RETENTION OF DISPLACED BUSINESSES AND RESIDENTS IN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Review Procedure § 908.33...

2012-07-01

337

33 CFR 165.1303 - regulated navigation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Title 33 - NAVIGATION AND NAVIGABLE WATERS] [Chapter I - COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...165.1303 Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters, Wa - regulated navigation] 33 NAVIGATION AND NAVIGABLE WATERS 2 2005-07-01...

2005-07-01

338

27 CFR 4.33 - Brand names.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Brand names. 4.33 Section... LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.33 Brand names. (a) General. The product shall bear a brand name, except that if...

2010-04-01

339

27 CFR 4.33 - Brand names.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Brand names. 4.33 Section... LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.33 Brand names. (a) General. The product shall bear a brand name, except that if...

2009-04-01

340

22 CFR 42.33 - Diversity immigrants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Diversity immigrants. 42.33 Section 42...to Numerical Limitations § 42.33 Diversity immigrants. (a) General ...year during which an alien possesses diversity visa eligibility. (2)...

2009-04-01

341

22 CFR 42.33 - Diversity immigrants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diversity immigrants. 42.33 Section 42...to Numerical Limitations § 42.33 Diversity immigrants. (a) General ...year during which an alien possesses diversity visa eligibility. (2)...

2010-04-01

342

28 CFR 115.33 - Inmate education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Section 115.33 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Training and Education § 115.33 Inmate education. (a)...

2013-07-01

343

10 CFR 850.33 - Beryllium emergencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beryllium emergencies. 850.33 Section... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific...Program Requirements § 850.33 Beryllium emergencies. (a) The...

2013-01-01

344

Phosphorus Biogeochemistry and the Impact of Phosphorus Enrichment: Why Is the Everglades so Unique?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Florida Everglades is extremely oligotrophic and sensitive to small increases in phosphorus (P) concentrations. P enrichment\\u000a is one of the dominant anthropogenic impacts on the ecosystem and is therefore a main focus of restoration efforts. In this\\u000a review, we synthesize research on P biogeochemistry and the impact of P enrichment on ecosystem structure and function in\\u000a the Florida Everglades.

Gregory B. Noe; Daniel L. Childers; Ronald D. Jones

2001-01-01

345

Change in Soluble Phosphorus in Soils following Fertilization is Dependent on Initial Mehlich-3 Phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a lack of information on how fertilization and initial Mehlich-3 phosphorus (M3P) interact to affect water soluble P (WSP) in soils. Our objectives were to (i) quantify the relationship between WSP and M3P for four textural diverse benchmark soils of North Car- olina (NC) and (ii) quantify the change in WSP concentrations follow- ing P additions to soils

C. Ryan Bond; R. O. Maguire; J. L. Havlin

2006-01-01

346

Phosphorus fractions and adsorption characteristics in grassland soils of varied soil phosphorus status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of phosphorus (P) in soils is important both agronomically and environmentally, although the outcome may\\u000a depend on the technique applied. Consequently, we evaluated fractionation and adsorption, individually and jointly, and relevant\\u000a ancillary soil attributes, to determine the dominant functional characteristics of soil P in 32 fertilized temperate grassland\\u000a Inceptisols classified by eight soil series, and by two soil-P index

M. Herlihy; D. McGrath

2007-01-01

347

A comparison of phosphorus and nitrogen transfer between plants of different phosphorus status  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has two objections: (1) to compare transfers of phosphorus (32P) with nitrogen (15N) from undefoliated and defoliated mycorrhizal P-rich plants to an adjacent mycorrhizal plant and (2) to determine whether the improved nutrient status of a plant growing with a nutrient-rich plant is due primarily to movement of nutrients from roots of its nutrient-rich neighbor (= nutrient transfer)

D. M. Eissenstat

1990-01-01

348

Phosphorus Control Practices for Dairy Waste Application Fields Using a Phosphorus Risk Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acknowledgments Funding for this report was provided,under,Section 319(h) of the Clean Water Act through,the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6, and the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation,Board for the demonstration,project Demonstration of Phosphorus Best Management,Practices in the North Bosque River Basin. The project was conducted,in coordination,with the USDA The Lake Waco\\/Bosque River Watershed Initiative funded,through the Natural Resource

Anne McFarland

349

Effect of phosphorus and nitrogen on flame retardant cellulose: A study of phosphorus compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three organophosphorus compounds, N-hydroxymethyl-3-dimethylphosphonopropionamide (HDPP), triallyl phosphate (TAP) and triallyl phosphoramide were employed in a study on flame retardant (FR) mechanisms. N-hydroxymethyl-3-dimethylphosphonopropionamide was more efficient in providing flame retardancy to cellulosic fabrics at the same phosphorus content on cotton fabrics. The flame retardance of the flame retardant treated cotton fabrics were characterized by using limiting oxygen index (LOI). Structural changes

Sabyasachi Gaan; Gang Sun

2007-01-01

350

Carbon and phosphorus transformations during decomposition of pine forest floor with different phosphorus status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Information on the mineralization of inorganic phosphate (Pi) from organically bound P (Po) during decomposition of forest floor and soil organic matter is vital for understanding P\\u000a supply in forest ecosystems. Carbon (C) and phosphorus (P) fluxes were determined for forest floor samples from three Pinus radiata plots which had received no P (Control), 62.5?kg P ha1 (Low P)

S. Saggar; R. L. Parfitt; G. Salt; M. F. Skinner

1998-01-01

351

Dense gas in M 33 (HerM33es)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We aim to better understand the emission of molecular tracers of the diffuse and dense gas in giant molecular clouds and the influence that metallicity, optical extinction, density, far-UV field, and star formation rate have on these tracers. Methods: Using the IRAM 30 m telescope, we detected HCN, HCO+, 12CO, and 13CO in six GMCs along the major axis of M 33 at a resolution of ~114 pc and out to a radial distance of 3.4 kpc. Optical, far-infrared, and submillimeter data from Herschel and other observatories complement these observations. To interpret the observed molecular line emission, we created two grids of models of photon-dominated regions, one for solar and one for M 33-type subsolar metallicity. Results: The observed HCO+/HCN line ratios range between 1.1 and 2.5. Similarly high ratios have been observed in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The HCN/CO ratio varies between 0.4% and 2.9% in the disk of M 33. The 12CO/13CO line ratio varies between 9 and 15 similar to variations found in the diffuse gas and the centers of GMCs of the Milky Way. Stacking of all spectra allowed HNC and C2H to be detected. The resulting HCO+/HNC and HCN/HNC ratios of ~8 and 6, respectively, lie at the high end of ratios observed in a large set of (ultra-)luminous infrared galaxies. HCN abundances are lower in the subsolar metallicity PDR models, while HCO+ abundances are enhanced. For HCN this effect is more pronounced at low optical extinctions. The observed HCO+/HCN and HCN/CO line ratios are naturally explained by subsolar PDR models of low optical extinctions between 4 and 10 mag and of moderate densities of n 3 103-3 104 cm-3, while the FUV field strength only has a small effect on the modeled line ratios. The line ratios are almost equally well reproduced by the solar-metallicity models, indicating that variations in metallicity only play a minor role in influencing these line ratios. Based on observations with the IRAM 30m telescope, Herschel, and other observatories. IRAM is supported by CNRS/INSU (France), the MPG (Germany), and the IGN (Spain). Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFITS files of the presented spectra of the ground-state transitions of HCN, HCO+, 12CO and 13CO are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/549/A17

Buchbender, C.; Kramer, C.; Gonzalez-Garcia, M.; Israel, F. P.; Garca-Burillo, S.; van der Werf, P.; Braine, J.; Rosolowsky, E.; Mookerjea, B.; Aalto, S.; Boquien, M.; Gratier, P.; Henkel, C.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Verley, S.; van der Tak, F.

2013-01-01

352

14 CFR 33.21 - Engine cooling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine cooling. 33.21 Section 33.21 Aeronautics...Construction; General § 33.21 Engine cooling. Engine design and construction must provide the necessary cooling under conditions in which the...

2013-01-01

353

34 CFR 33.28 - Motions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Motions. 33.28 Section 33.28 Education...FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 33.28 Motions. (a) Any application to the ALJ for an order or ruling must be by motion. Motions must state the...

2013-07-01

354

6 CFR 37.33 - DMV databases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false DMV databases. 37.33 Section 37.33 Domestic Security...LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Other Requirements § 37.33 DMV databases. (a) States must maintain a State motor...

2010-01-01

355

6 CFR 37.33 - DMV databases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Domestic Security 1 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false DMV databases. 37.33 Section 37.33 Domestic Security...LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Other Requirements § 37.33 DMV databases. (a) States must maintain a State motor...

2009-01-01

356

28 CFR 544.33 - Movies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Movies. 544.33 Section 544.33 Judicial Administration... Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.33 Movies. If there is a program to show movies, the Supervisor of Education shall ensure...

2009-07-01

357

28 CFR 544.33 - Movies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Movies. 544.33 Section 544.33 Judicial Administration... Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.33 Movies. If there is a program to show movies, the Supervisor of Education shall ensure...

2013-07-01

358

28 CFR 544.33 - Movies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Movies. 544.33 Section 544.33 Judicial Administration... Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.33 Movies. If there is a program to show movies, the Supervisor of Education shall ensure...

2010-07-01

359

9 CFR 311.33 - Listeriosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Listeriosis. 311.33 Section 311.33 Animals...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.33 Listeriosis. Carcasses of livestock identified...S. Suspects because of a history of listeriosis shall be passed for human food...

2009-01-01

360

9 CFR 311.33 - Listeriosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Listeriosis. 311.33 Section 311.33 Animals...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.33 Listeriosis. Carcasses of livestock identified...S. Suspects because of a history of listeriosis shall be passed for human food...

2010-01-01

361

28 CFR 552.33 - Media.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Media. 552.33 Section 552.33 Judicial...Hostage Situation Management § 552.33 Media. The Warden shall assign staff to handle all news releases and news media inquiries in accordance with the...

2013-07-01

362

6 CFR 37.33 - DMV databases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false DMV databases. 37.33 Section 37.33 Domestic... Other Requirements § 37.33 DMV databases. (a) States must maintain a State motor vehicle database that contains, at a minimum...

2013-01-01

363

29 CFR 97.33 - Supplies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Supplies. 97.33 Section 97.33 Labor Office...Changes, Property, and Subawards § 97.33 Supplies. (a) Title. Title to supplies acquired under a grant or subgrant will...

2013-07-01

364

22 CFR 135.33 - Supplies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Supplies. 135.33 Section 135.33 Foreign Relations...Changes, Property, and Subawards § 135.33 Supplies. (a) Title. Title to supplies acquired under a grant or subgrant will...

2013-04-01

365

15 CFR 24.33 - Supplies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplies. 24.33 Section 24.33 Commerce and...Changes, Property, and Subawards § 24.33 Supplies. (a) Title. Title to supplies acquired under a grant or subgrant will...

2013-01-01

366

45 CFR 92.33 - Supplies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Supplies. 92.33 Section 92.33 Public Welfare...Changes, Property, and Subawards § 92.33 Supplies. (a) Title. Title to supplies acquired under a grant or subgrant will...

2011-10-01

367

42 CFR 110.33 - Death benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Death benefits. 110.33 Section 110.33...PROGRAM Available Benefits § 110.33 Death benefits. (a) Eligible survivors may be able to receive a death benefit under this Program if...

2012-10-01

368

42 CFR 102.33 - Death benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Death benefits. 102.33 Section 102.33...PROGRAM Available Benefits § 102.33 Death benefits. (a) Eligible survivors may be able to receive a death benefit under this Program if...

2012-10-01

369

42 CFR 102.33 - Death benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Death benefits. 102.33 Section 102.33...PROGRAM Available Benefits § 102.33 Death benefits. (a) Eligible survivors may be able to receive a death benefit under this Program if...

2011-10-01

370

42 CFR 110.33 - Death benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Death benefits. 110.33 Section 110.33...PROGRAM Available Benefits § 110.33 Death benefits. (a) Eligible survivors may be able to receive a death benefit under this Program if...

2011-10-01

371

46 CFR 50.20-33 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false [Reserved] 50.20-33 Section 50.20-33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-33 ...

2011-10-01

372

14 CFR 33.43 - Vibration test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Vibration test. 33.43 Section 33.43 Aeronautics...Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.43 Vibration test. (a) Each engine must undergo a vibration survey to establish the torsional and...

2009-01-01

373

14 CFR 33.43 - Vibration test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration test. 33.43 Section 33.43 Aeronautics...Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.43 Vibration test. (a) Each engine must undergo a vibration survey to establish the torsional and...

2010-01-01

374

50 CFR 27.33 - Water skiing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Water skiing. 27.33 Section 27.33 Wildlife and...Disturbing Violations: With Vehicles § 27.33 Water skiing. When water skiing is permitted upon national wildlife...

2011-10-01

375

50 CFR 27.33 - Water skiing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Water skiing. 27.33 Section 27.33 Wildlife and...Disturbing Violations: With Vehicles § 27.33 Water skiing. When water skiing is permitted upon national wildlife...

2012-10-01

376

38 CFR 42.33 - Witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Witnesses. 42.33 Section 42.33 Pensions...FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 42.33 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation....

2013-07-01

377

15 CFR 25.33 - Witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Witnesses. 25.33 Section 25.33 Commerce... Fraud Civil Remedies § 25.33 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation....

2012-01-01

378

43 CFR 35.33 - Witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Witnesses. 35.33 Section 35.33 Public...FRAUDULENT CLAIMS AND STATEMENTS § 35.33 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation....

2011-10-01

379

49 CFR 31.33 - Witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Witnesses. 31.33 Section 31.33 Transportation...PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 31.33 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation....

2011-10-01

380

6 CFR 13.33 - Witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Witnesses. 13.33 Section 13.33 Domestic...PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.33 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...at the hearing will be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation....

2012-01-01

381

45 CFR 79.33 - Witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Witnesses. 79.33 Section 79.33 Public...PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.33 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation....

2011-10-01

382

31 CFR 16.33 - Witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Witnesses. 16.33 Section 16.33 Money...CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 16.33 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation....

2013-07-01

383

10 CFR 1013.33 - Witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Witnesses. 1013.33 Section 1013.33 Energy...REMEDIES AND PROCEDURES § 1013.33 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation....

2013-01-01

384

49 CFR 31.33 - Witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Witnesses. 31.33 Section 31.33 Transportation...PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 31.33 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation....

2012-10-01

385

15 CFR 25.33 - Witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Witnesses. 25.33 Section 25.33 Commerce... Fraud Civil Remedies § 25.33 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation....

2013-01-01

386

10 CFR 13.33 - Witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Witnesses. 13.33 Section 13.33 Energy...PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.33 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation....

2013-01-01

387

6 CFR 13.33 - Witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Witnesses. 13.33 Section 13.33 Domestic...PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.33 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...at the hearing will be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation....

2013-01-01

388

22 CFR 521.33 - Witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Witnesses. 521.33 Section 521.33 Foreign...FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 521.33 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation....

2013-04-01

389

22 CFR 35.33 - Witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Witnesses. 35.33 Section 35.33 Foreign...PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 35.33 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation....

2013-04-01

390

45 CFR 79.33 - Witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Witnesses. 79.33 Section 79.33 Public...PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.33 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation....

2012-10-01

391

40 CFR 27.33 - Witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Witnesses. 27.33 Section 27.33 Protection...PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 27.33 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation....

2013-07-01

392

29 CFR 22.33 - Witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Witnesses. 22.33 Section 22.33 Labor...CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 22.33 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation....

2013-07-01

393

20 CFR 355.33 - Witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Witnesses. 355.33 Section 355.33 Employees...CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 355.33 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation....

2013-04-01

394

22 CFR 224.33 - Witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Witnesses. 224.33 Section 224.33 Foreign...FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 224.33 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation....

2013-04-01

395

43 CFR 35.33 - Witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Witnesses. 35.33 Section 35.33 Public...FRAUDULENT CLAIMS AND STATEMENTS § 35.33 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation....

2012-10-01

396

28 CFR 71.33 - Witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Witnesses. 71.33 Section 71.33 Judicial...the Department of Justice § 71.33 Witnesses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...at the hearing shall be given orally by witnesses under oath or affirmation....

2013-07-01

397

46 CFR 90.10-33 - Rivers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rivers. 90.10-33 Section 90.10-33...in This Subchapter § 90.10-33 Rivers. Under this designation shall be...vessels whose navigation is restricted to rivers and/or canals exclusively, and to...

2012-10-01

398

7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture...Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE 1(Standards, Inspections...ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5...

2009-01-01

399

7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture...Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections...ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5...

2010-01-01

400

7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture...Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections...ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5...

2013-01-01

401

Molecular phosphorus ion source for semiconductor technology  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results on the generation of molecular phosphorus ion beams in a hot filament ion source. Solid red phosphorous is evaporated mainly as tetra-atomic molecules up to a temperature of 800 deg. C. Thus, one of the main conditions for producing maximum P{sub 4}{sup +} fraction in the beam is to keep the temperature of the phosphorous oven, the steam line and the discharge chamber walls no greater than 800 deg. C. The prior version of our ion source was equipped with a discharge chamber cooling system. The modified source ensured a P{sub 4}{sup +} ion beam current greater than 30% of the total beam current.

Gushenets, V. I.; Bugaev, A. S.; Oks, E. M. [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Hershcovitch, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kulevoy, T. V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation)

2012-02-15

402

Vanadium reduces mortality in phosphorus deficient chicks  

SciTech Connect

Since the vanadate anion is similar in structure to the phosphate ion, and since vanadate has been shown to interfere with phosphate metabolism both in vitro and in vivo, experiments were conducted to determine the effect of dietary vanadate (V) on chicks fed phosphorus (P) deficient diets. In these studies, broiler chicks of both sexes were fed the experimental diets from the day of hatching for 19 days. The diets were based on soybean meal and corn, supplemented with methionine, manganese, and vitamins to supply the chick's requirements. Calcium (Ca) and P levels were manipulated by use of feed grade dicalcium phosphate and limestone. V was added as ammonium metavanadate. Serum Ca and P were determined on representative chicks in each group. Increasing Ca levels increased serum Ca and decreased serum P. V increased serum P levels in the chicks receiving 0.2% P but not in those receiving 0.1% P.

Hill, C.H. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (United States))

1991-03-15

403

Effects of Cholecalciferol and Phytase on Phytate Phosphorus Utilization in Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was conducted to study the effects of different levels of phytase, vitamin D3, calcium and available phosphorus on phytate phosphorus utilization in laying hens. Dietary phytase caused a significant (P<0.05) increase in feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, tibia ash weight, tibia ash percentage, tibia phosphorus plasma phosphorus and phosphorus digestibility. However, dietary phytase caused a significant (P<0.05) decrease

A. MUSAPUOR; J. POURREZA; A. SAMIE; H. MORADI

404

Phosphorus loadings associated with a park tourist attraction: limnological consequences of feeding the fish.  

PubMed

The Linesville spillway of Pymatuning State Park is one of the most visited tourist attractions in Pennsylvania, USA, averaging more than 450,000 visitors . year(-1). Carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus) and waterfowl congregate at the spillway where they are fed bread and other foods by park visitors. We hypothesized that the "breadthrowers" constitute a significant nutrient vector to the upper portion of Pymatuning Reservoir. In the summer of 2002, we estimated phosphorus loadings attributable to breadthrowers, and compared these values to background loadings from Linesville Creek, a major tributary to the upper reservoir. Items fed to fish included bread, donuts, bagels, canned corn, popcorn, corn chips, hot dogs, birthday cakes, and dog food. Phosphorus loading associated with park visitors feeding fish was estimated to be 3233 g day(-1), and estimated P export from the Linesville Creek watershed was 2235 g.day(-1). P loading attributable to breadthrowers exceeded that of the entire Linesville Creek watershed on 33 of the 35 days of study, with only a heavy rainfall event triggering watershed exports that exceeded spillway contributions. Averaged across 5 weeks, breadthrowers contributed 1.45-fold more P to Pymatuning Reservoir than the Linesville Creek watershed. If Linesville Creek P exports are extrapolated to the entire Sanctuary Lake watershed, spillway contributions of P added 48% to the non-point source watershed P entering the lake. Park visitors feeding fish at the Linesville Spillway are a significant source of nutrients entering Sanctuary Lake. PMID:17265114

Turner, Andrew M; Ruhl, Nathan

2007-01-29

405

Characterization of phosphorus sources in rural watersheds.  

PubMed

Correct identification of P sources in rural watersheds is critical for the development of cost-effective measures to combat agriculturally-driven eutrophication. The chemical composition of various storm runoff types (field surface runoff, field drain outfalls, roads, farmyards, and septic tanks) and the receiving streams in three micro (<10 km(2)) watersheds of varying agricultural intensity were monitored over a 2-yr period. Mean weekly stream soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations increased from 29 and 69 microg L(-1), respectively in the watershed with the lowest intensity agriculture to 382 and 503 microg L(-1), respectively in the watershed with high intensity agriculture and a village sewage treatment works. Concentrations of TP in storm runoff varied by up to two orders of magnitude reflecting the complex origins, routing, and composition of contributing source areas. Application of the DESPRAL test suggested field runoff TP concentrations were influenced by both P and organic matter in soil. However, runoff from impervious surfaces (farmyard and roads), and/or influenced by septic tank discharges, was significantly more concentrated (0.08-16 mg TP L(-1), mean >1 mg L(-1)) than surface and subsurface runoff from cultivated land and pasture (0.02-3.6 mg TP L(-1), mean <1 mg L(-1)), and/or contained a significantly greater proportion (>50% vs. <50%) of P in dissolved forms. It is concluded that P sources associated with the functioning of rural communities (impervious surfaces, detergents, and wastewater) may be more ecologically relevant than those associated with agriculture and should be better quantified and controlled to avoid localized eutrophication impacts. PMID:19704143

Withers, P J A; Jarvie, H P; Hodgkinson, R A; Palmer-Felgate, E J; Bates, A; Neal, M; Howells, R; Withers, C M; Wickham, H D

2009-08-24

406

Impacts of anthropic pressures on soil phosphorus availability, concentration, and phosphorus forms in sediments in a Southern Brazilian watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe transfer of soil sediments and phosphorus from terrestrial to aquatic systems is a common process in agricultural lands.\\u000a The aims of this paper are to quantify the soil phosphorus availability and to characterize phosphorus forms in soil sediments\\u000a as contaminant agents of waters as a function of anthropic pressures.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methodsOn three subwatersheds with different anthropic pressure, water

Joo Batista Rossetto Pellegrini; Danilo Rheinheimer dos Santos; Celso Santos Gonalves; Andr Carlos Cruz Copetti; Edson Campanhola Bortoluzzi; Daniel Tessier

2010-01-01

407

Reactions of elemental phosphorus and phosphine with electrophiles in superbasic systems: XX. Phosphorylation of 4-vinylbenzyl chloride with elemental phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

4-Vinylbenzyl chloride reacts with white and red phosphorus, as well as with nanostructured activated red phosphorus (complex\\u000a organophosphorus polymer prepared from white phosphorus under ionizing radiation) in the system concentrated aqueous KOH-dioxane-phase-transfer\\u000a catalyst (2050C, argon) to form tris(4-vinylbenzyl)phosphine oxide, along with (4-vinylbenzyl)- and bis(4-vinylbenzyl)phosphinic\\u000a acids, the yield and product ratio being dependent on both the reaction conditions and the nature

S. F. Malysheva; V. A. Kuimov; N. K. Gusarova; B. G. Sukhov; Yu. V. Smetannikov; N. P. Tarasova; B. A. Trofimov

2007-01-01

408

Evaluation of Aluminum Sulfate for Phosphorus Control in Eutrophic Lakes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The response of eutrophic lakes to nutrient diversion is often less than expected because many lakes have internal recycling which keeps phosphorus (P) levels high enough to continue nuisance algal blooms. For these lakes a restoration technique is requir...

G. D. Cooke

1979-01-01

409

Phosphorus Determination by Derivative Activation Analysis: A Multifaceted Radiochemical Application.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although determination of phosphorus is important in biology, physiology, and environmental science, traditional gravimetric and colorimetric methods are cumbersome and lack the requisite sensitivity. Therefore, a derivative activation analysis method is suggested. Background information, procedures, and results are provided. (JN)|

Kleppinger, E. W.; And Others

1984-01-01

410

The Relative Significance of Phosphorus and Nitrogen as Algal Nutrients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

By the examination of the interaction between nitrogen and phosphorus species relative to algal growth in several fresh water environments of differing trophic state, it has been possible to establish the relative significance of these elements as algal n...

C. M. Weiss

1970-01-01

411

Determination of Phosphorus in Gold or Silver Brazing Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A spectrophotometric method has been devised for measuring microgram levels of phosphorus in brazing alloys of gold or silver alloys is normally measured by solid mass spectrometry, but the high nickel concentration produces a double ionized nickel spectr...

R. J. Antepenko

1976-01-01

412

Seasonal variations in phosphorus fractions in semiarid sandy soils ...  

Treesearch

International Institute of Tropical Forestry ... Description: We investigated the seasonal patterns of soil phosphorus (P) fractions under five vegetation types Ulmus macrocarpa ... Litter decomposition played a key role in soil P availability.

413

Metabolic Storage of Phosphorus in the Activated Sludge Floc.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two laboratory batch aeration units were operated under similar conditions using synthetic feed with and without phosphates. With synthetic feed, the normal activated sludge flocs after being washed off of their cations exhibited a phosphorus storage betw...

S. K. Malhotra

1970-01-01

414

Asteroidal Impact Caused Phosphorus Flooding on the Earth During Palaeoproterozoic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abrupt contact between carbonate and phosphate stromatolites at Udaipur, India of Palaeoproterozoic age indicates asteroidal impact that inundated the Earth with phosphorus. Resultant cyanobacterial bloom changed the Earth's overall environment.

Sisodia, M. S.; Mishra, S.; Purohit, R.; Purohit, V.

2013-09-01

415

Electrophilic heterocyclization of unsaturated sulfur and phosphorus compounds  

SciTech Connect

The literature on the electrophilic heterocyclization of unsaturated sulfur and phosphorus compounds has been reviewed. The factors influencing the reactivity of unsaturated compounds in such reactions are discussed, and data on the stereochemistry of the addition are presented.

Gevaza, Yu.I.; Staninets, V.I.

1986-09-01

416

Airborne Emission Control Technology for the Elemental Phosphorus Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Preliminary estimates by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have indicated the potential for significant radiation doses to individuals near elemental phosphorus plants. During plant operations radionuclides associated with particulates and vo...

R. T. Stula R. E. Belanger C. L. Clary R. F. May M. E. Spaeth

1984-01-01

417

Phosphorus Determination by Derivative Activation Analysis: A Multifaceted Radiochemical Application.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although determination of phosphorus is important in biology, physiology, and environmental science, traditional gravimetric and colorimetric methods are cumbersome and lack the requisite sensitivity. Therefore, a derivative activation analysis method is suggested. Background information, procedures, and results are provided. (JN)

Kleppinger, E. W.; And Others

1984-01-01

418

Analysis of reduced phosphorus in samples of environmental interest.  

PubMed

The combination of ion chromatography (IC) and inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP-ES) was used forthe sensitive and specific detection of hypophosphite (PO2), phosphite (PO3), methylphosphonic acid (MPA), and phosphate (PO4). Application of this technique to a wide range of environmental samples proved that reduced phosphorus was present in some situations including process water from thermal phosphorus plants, drinking water contacting cast iron, and phosphorus corrosion inhibitor used in water treatment and in sewage wastewater. Preliminary testing did not detect high concentrations of reduced phosphorus and phosphine in situations where it was previously reported to be very important, including anaerobic digesters in wastewater treatment plants. The new IC-ICP-ES technique is a promising tool for use in corrosion and soil research where phosphites are likely to be present. PMID:16047769

Morton, Siyuan C; Glindemann, Dietmar; Wang, Xiaorong; Niu, Xiaojun; Edwards, Marc

2005-06-15

419

Method of removing and detoxifying a phosphorus-based substance  

DOEpatents

A method of removing organic phosphorus-based poisonous substances from water contaminated therewith and of subsequently destroying the toxicity of the substance is disclosed. Initially, a water-immiscible organic is immobilized on a supported liquid membrane. Thereafter, the contaminated water is contacted with one side of the supported liquid membrane to selectively dissolve the phosphorus-based substance in the organic extractant. At the same time, the other side of the supported liquid membrane is contacted with a hydroxy-affording strong base to react the phosphorus-based substance dissolved by the organic extractant with a hydroxy ion. This forms a non-toxic reaction product in the base. The organic extractant can be a water-insoluble trialkyl amine, such as trilauryl amine. The phosphorus-based substance can be phosphoryl or a thiophosphoryl.

Vandegrift, George F. (Bolingbrook, IL); Steindler, Martin J. (Park Forest, IL)

1989-01-01

420

Influence of Antecedent Hydrologic Conditions on Nitrate and Phosphorus Export from a Small Agricultural Catchment in Southern Ontario, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of the scientific community to quantify and predict discharge and nutrient transport in a range of settings is confounded by the effects of antecedent hydrologic conditions in upland areas. Previous work has empirically linked spatial variables such as land use, soil type, topography, and drainage characteristics to hydrochemical export from various landscapes (e.g. MCDOWELL et al., 2001; ARHEIMER and LIDEN, 2000; STAMM et al., 1998; JORDAN et al., 1997; WELSCH et al., 2001). However, the specific reasons why similar types of events produce different nutrient export patterns are poorly understood. Nutrient (nitrate, soluble and total phosphorus) transport from agricultural catchments is difficult to quantify and predict because of the influence of variable hydrologic flowpaths and their interaction with varying nutrient pools. This research examines the role of antecedent hydrologic conditions on stream discharge and nitrate (NO3-), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total phosphorus (TP) export from a small (2.7 km2) first-order agricultural catchment in Southern Ontario, Canada. During 59 events occurring over a two-year sampling period (year-round), runoff ratios ranged from 0-0.99). Runoff ratios increased throughout successive events as conditions became wetter although key indices of antecedent wetness such as water table position, pre-event streamflow and soil moisture did not yield predictive relationships. Nitrate, SRP and TP transport from the catchment increased with antecedent wetness during some periods but decreased with antecedent wetness during other periods. This variability appears to be linked to a combination of the position of water table before and during the event, as well as timing of fertilizer application. It is hypothesized that in general, wetter antecedent hydrologic conditions increase nutrient transport from the catchment by increasing macropore connectivity between surface soil horizons and tile drains, although this is not always the case. Arheimer, B and R Liden (2000) Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations from agricultural catchments - influence of spatial and temporal variables. J. Hydrology 227: 140-159. Jordan TE, DL Correll, and DE Weller (1997) Relating nutrient discharges from watersheds to land use and streamflow variability. Water Resources Res. 33: 2579-2590. McDowell RW, AN Sharpley, LM Condron, PM Haygarth, and PC Brookes (2001) Processes controlling soil phosphorus release to runoff and implications for agricultural management. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 59: 269-284. Stamm C, H Fluhler, R Gachter, J Leuenberger, and H Wunderli (1998) Preferential transport of phosphorus in drained grassland soils. J. Environ. Qual. 27: 515-522. Welsch DL, CN Kroll, JJ McDonnell, and DA Burns (2001) Topographic controls on the chemistry of subsurface stormflow: Hydrological Processes 15: 1925-1938.

Macrae, M. L.; English, M. C.; Schiff, S. L.; Stone, M.

2009-04-01

421

Management of natural and added dietary phosphorus burden in kidney disease.  

PubMed

Phosphorus retention occurs from higher dietary phosphorus intake relative to its renal excretion or dialysis removal. In the gastrointestinal tract the naturally existing organic phosphorus is only partially (?60%) absorbable; however, this absorption varies widely and is lower for plant-based phosphorus including phytate (<40%) and higher for foods enhanced with inorganic phosphorus-containing preservatives (>80%). The latter phosphorus often remains unrecognized by patients and health care professionals, even though it is widely used in contemporary diets, in particular, low-cost foods. In a nonenhanced mixed diet, digestible phosphorus correlates closely with total protein content, making protein-rich foods a main source of natural phosphorus. Phosphorus burden is limited more appropriately in predialysis patients who are on a low-protein diet (?0.6 g/kg/d), whereas dialysis patients who require higher protein intake (?1.2 g/kg/d) are subject to a higher dietary phosphorus load. An effective and patient-friendly approach to reduce phosphorus intake without depriving patients of adequate proteins is to educate patients to avoid foods with high phosphorus relative to protein such as egg yolk and those with high amounts of phosphorus-based preservatives such as certain soft drinks and enhanced cheese and meat. Phosphorus rich foods should be prepared by boiling, which reduces phosphorus as well as sodium and potassium content, or by other types of cooking-induced demineralization. The dose of phosphorus-binding therapy should be adjusted separately for the amount and absorbability of phosphorus in each meal. Dietician counseling to address the emerging aspects of dietary phosphorus management is instrumental for achieving a reduction of phosphorus load. PMID:23465504

Cupisti, Adamasco; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

2013-03-01

422

The pollution load by nitrogen and phosphorus in the Jadro River.  

PubMed

The objective of the investigations of the Jadro River, located in Croatia, was to estimate the nitrogen and phosphorus loads in the Jadro River spring and its streamflow by calculating the load in kg/day or tons/year and to compare this with the load for the maximum allowed concentrations (MAC) for drinking water (Official Bulletin, No 46/94) expressed in kg/day or tons/year. Daily pollution loads at the Jadro River spring for total N ranged from 0 to 304 kg, for NH3-N from 0 to 38 kg, for NO3-N from 0-1321 kg and for PO4-P from 0-92 kg in the period from September 1993 to September 2003. When compared with MAC loads the results prove that the Jadro River spring is not polluted by nitrogen compounds and phosphorus. The average annual load for total N ranged from 10 to 33 t, for NH3-N from 0.25 to 5.15 t, for NO3-N from 40 to 190 t, and for PO4-P from 0.3 to 11.5 t. The nitrogen compounds and phosphorus loads vary from one year to another without any constant decreasing or increasing trends. The annual average loads compared with the average annual MAC loads (especially for NH3-N and PO4-P) show that there were no threats of constant pollution of the spring. The loads for total N and PO4-P along the Jadro River flow from the spring to the fishpond entrance were monitored over a five year period from September 1999 to September 2004. The results show no regularities. The highest annual total nitrogen load of 45 t was recorded at the entrance to the fishpond during the 2002/2003 period. The highest annual PO4-P load of 10 t was measured at the Vidovi? Bridge during the 2003/2004 period; however, the concentrations of N and P did not exceed the MAC concentrations which are prescribed for drinking water. According to the investigation results of the daily and average annual loads compared with MAC loads for drinking water, it can be concluded that the Jadro River spring and its streamflow are not polluted by nitrogen and phosphorus. PMID:17054013

Stambuk-Giljanovi?, Nives

2006-10-20

423

Electrolytic formation of phosphine from red phosphorus in aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are presented on the current-voltage behavior of red phosphorus suspensions at gold, platinum, lead, and cadmium cathodes\\u000a in a 1.0 M Na2CO3 solution. In experiments with a red phosphorus suspension in alkaline solutions, the formal current efficiency for phosphine\\u000a was 38%, while the current efficiency for hydrogen approached 100%. Similar results were obtained with cathodes produced\\u000a by pressing a

N. N. Shalashova; M. K. Smirnov; S. V. Nikolashin; V. V. Turygin; A. V. Khudenko; M. N. Brekhovskikh; V. A. Fedorov; A. P. Tomilov

2006-01-01

424

Biogeochemical characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus in Jiaozhou Bay sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment samples were cored from 3 locations representing the inner bay, the outer bay and the bay mouth of Jiaozhou Bay in September 2003 to study the source and biogeochemical characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus in the bay. The content and vertical distributions of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), organic nitrogen (ON), organic phosphorus (OP), inorganic nitrogen (IN), inorganic phosphorus (IP), the ratio of organic carbon and total nitrogen (OC/TN), and the ratio of total nitrogen and total phosphorus (TN/TP) in the sediments were analyzed. The results show that both TN and TP in surface sediments decrease from the inner bay to the outer bay. In general, ON occupies 50%-70% of TN and IP accounts for more than 60% of TP. In ratio of OC:TN, the nitrogen accumulated in the sediments from the inner bay and the bay mouth came mainly from terrestrial sources, and the portion of autogenetic nitrogen was 28.9% and 13.1%, respectively. However, in the outer bay, nitrogen was mainly autogenetic, accounting for 62.1% of TN, whereas phosphorus was mainly land-derived. The sedimentation fluxes of nitrogen and phosphorus varied spatially. The overall diagenesis rate of nitrogen was higher than that of phosphorus. Specifically, the diagenesis rate of OP was higher than that of IP. However, the diagenesis rate of ON was not always higher than that of IN. In species, the diagenesis rate of IN is sometimes much higher than that of the OC. In various environments, the diagenesis rate is, to some degree, affected by OC, pH, Eh, and Es.

Li, Xuegang; Song, Jinming; Yuan, Huamao; Dai, Jicui; Li, Ning

2007-04-01

425

Diffusion of phosphorus doped silica for active optical fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diffusion of phosphorus in P2O5SiO2 glass has been investigated by annealing of doped layers on the inner surface of quartz glass tubes between 1700C and 2000C and measuring radial phosphorus profiles by X-ray microprobe analysis and refractive index profiling, respectively, subsequent to the tube collapse. By comparison with calculated profiles, diffusion coefficients could be determined, which are fitted by

J. Kirchhof; S. Unger; J. Dellith

2004-01-01

426

Internal Phosphorus Loading in Spring Lake: Year 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of phosphorus release from sediments, and the degree to which alum reduces phosphorus release from sediments, was investigated in Spring Lake during the summer of 2003. Triplicate cores were sampled from 4 sites in the lake, and exposed to one of four treatments in the laboratory: 1) oxygen\\/alum; 2) oxygen\\/ no alum; 3) nitrogen\\/alum; or 4) nitrogen\\/no alum.

Alan Steinman; Rick Rediske

2003-01-01

427

Microdetermination of phosphorus from infant formulas, casein and casein phosphopeptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spectrophotometric method, which has been proposed for the determination of phosphorus in biological fluids based on the formation of a phosphomolybdate complex, is adapted and validated for the determination of phosphorus in milk-based infant formulas, casein, casein phosphopeptides (CPPs) and the soluble fractions resulting from their gastrointestinal digestion, as well as in the fractions resulting from the ion-exchange high-performance

Esther Miquel; Amparo Alegra; Reyes Barber; Rosaura Farr

2004-01-01

428

The uptake, translocation and release of phosphorus by Elodea densa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term (16 h) laboratory studies of 32P uptake by Elodea densa rooted in sediment demonstrated both foliar and root uptake, and that translocation occurred acropetally and basipetally.\\u000a Root absorption is projected to provide 8385% of total phosphorus uptake during 1216 h photoperiod days. Measured foliar\\u000a uptake and excretion rates suggest that there would be no net leakage of phosphorus into

J. O. Gabrielson; M. A. Perkins; E. B. Welch

1984-01-01

429

Continuous phosphorus measurements reveal catchment-scale transport processes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small fraction of the nutrients used for agriculture is transported by rivers and artificial drainage networks to downstream waters. In lakes and coastal seas such as the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Mexico these nutrients cause large-scale algal blooms and hypoxia and thus are a major environmental hazard. In this presentation we focus on the transport of phosphorus from agricultural fields. An improved understanding of the flow routes and stores of phosphorus within a catchment and of the chemical properties of these phosphorus stores and fluxes are crucial for developing effective remediation and mitigation strategies. In the Hupsel brook agricultural catchment in the Netherlands (6.5 km2), we measured dissolved and total phosphorus every 15 minutes for a 1 year period. Many studies have found that phosphorus is mainly transported adsorbed to sediments and other oxide surfaces. We, however, show for the Hupsel brook catchment that the affinity for phosphorus to bind with particles has a strong seasonality. During the winter season the ratio dissolved versus bound phosphorus is approximately 3:2 (i.e. more dissolved than adsorbed), while during the summer this ratio reduces to 1:5 (i.e. more adsorbed than dissolved), with variations during discharge events. In our presentation we will use the weekly sampling of other ions at several locations within the catchment, chemical analyses of transported sediments and continuous water temperature and discharge records to shed some light on the biological, chemical and physical processes that drive catchment-scale transport of phosphorus for this agricultural stream.

van der Velde, Y.; Rozemeijer, J. C.

2012-04-01

430

Role of sand capping in phosphorus release from sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sand is the simplest capping material proposed to date to contain phosphorus in sediment in situ. This research was carried out to understand the role of sand capping in the speciation and release of phosphorus from sediment.\\u000a Clean sand was laid on sediment sampled at a eutrophicated lake in one dimensional columns with different capping thicknesses.\\u000a It could be understood

Geonha Kim; Woohyeuk Jung

2010-01-01

431

Modeling high-concentration phosphorus diffusion in crystalline silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus diffusion in crystalline silicon in doping from a surface source at a temperature of 840C and a duration of 10 min has been modeled. Good agreement with experimental data has been obtained, which confirms the adequacy of the employed model of high-concentration phosphorus diffusion. This model takes account of the drift of self-interstitials in the field of internal elastic stresses.

Velichko, O. I.; Aksenov, V. V.; Anufriev, L. P.; Golubev, N. F.; Komarov, A. F.

2013-05-01

432

Influence of suspended clay on phosphorus uptake by periphyton  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of suspended clay upon the phosphorus uptake rate exhibited by lotic periphyton communities. Suspended\\u000a inorganic clays and periphyton are common to aquatic environments, and both can strongly influence physical and chemical water\\u000a conditions. We used replicated artificial stream channels to test the prediction that suspended clay particles would affect\\u000a the uptake of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP)

J. E. Wolfe; O. T. Lind

2008-01-01

433

Characterization of nickel phosphorus surface by ToF-SIMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ToF-SIMS was used to characterize the surface of nickel phosphorus (NiP) layers that were electrolessly plated on aluminum substrates of magnetic recording disks. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was also used to study the bonding nature of phosphorus and nickel. ToF-SIMS and XPS results showed that the NiP surface is oxidized and composed of nickel oxide, nickel hydroxide, nickel phosphate, and

Bin C. Zhang; Gunter Barth; Hui Kathy Liu; Susan Chang

2004-01-01

434

Ecological nitrogen-to-phosphorus stoichiometry at station ALOHA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elemental stoichiometry of dissolved and particulate matter in the sea, especially the nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratio, is an important parameter for studies of the nutrient control of plankton growth and for modeling biogeochemical processes, including carbon sequestration. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) pools have been measured on approximately monthly intervals for a 9-yr period at a deep-ocean station in the North

David M. Karl; Karin M Bjrkman; John E. Dore; Lance Fujieki; Dale V. Hebel; Terrence Houlihan; Ricardo M. Letelier; Luis M. Tupas

2001-01-01

435

Coevaporation phosphorus doping in Si grown by molecular beam epitaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus-doped Si epilayers with bulk-like mobilities were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (Si-MBE) by coevaporation of phosphorus from a tin phosphide source. The behaviour of P doping as a function of growth parameters and of potential enhanced doping indicates a non-unity, almost growth-temperature independent incorporation efficiency with negligible surface segregation -a unique combination among coevaporated dopants in Si-MBE.

Kubiak, R. A. A.; Patel, G.; Leong, W. Y.; Houghton, R.; Parker, E. H. C.

1986-11-01

436

Dietary potassium influences kidney maintenance of serum phosphorus concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary potassium influences kidney maintenance of serum phosphorus concentration. In studying the metabolic effects of diet potassium (K+) variation in normal humans, we noted that varying diet K+ within its normal range influenced inorganic phosphorus (Pi) homeostasis and serum calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D) levels. In six men who ingested a constant whole-foods diet containing (per 70 kg body wt) 27 mmol\\/day

Anthony Sebastian; Rosemary E Hernandez; Anthony A Portale; Joan Colman; Jessie Tatsuno; R Curtis Morris

1990-01-01

437

Calcium and phosphorus requirements of bobwhite quail chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four experiments involving 873 bob-white quail (Colinus virginianus) chicks were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, Maryland. A comparison was made of calcium: phosphorus ratios of 1:1, 15:1, 1%: 1, 2:1, 2+:1,and 2%: 1in diets with phosphorus levels of 0.52, 0.75, 1.00, and 1.25 percent. The results indicate that the optimum level of phosphorus for growth is in the neighborhood of 0.75 per cent, and that of calcium is about 1.00 per cent, making a ratio of 1 1/3: 1....Although the greatest efficiency of feed utilization occurred on the phosphorus level of 0.52 per cent, the liveweight and bone-ash of the birds at the end of ten weeks were significantly lower than they were on the levels of 0.75 and 1.00 per cent, phosphorus. Bone-ash of birds on a Ca: P ratio of 1:1was significantly lower than that on any of the other five ratios, regardless of phosphorus level....There was a significant reverse correlation between the Ca: P ratio of the diet and the storage of vitamin A in the liver. Storage was especially low on the ratio of 2 2/3: 1....The low and high levels of calcium and phosphorus considered in these studies are abnormal, the low level especially being hard to obtain with common feedstuffs, if the protein requirements of the birds are met. Nevertheless, even on such levels, results were not disastrous. The growth of quail in the wild happens during a season when the birds have access to the minerals of the soil and in the abundant animal matter (mostly insects), as well as to minerals in plant material. Therefore, seemingly, calcium and phosphorus need not be critical nutrients for growing quail in the wild.

Nestler, R.B.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.; Moschler, M.

1948-01-01

438

Inputs of phosphorus from precipitation to Lake Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precipitation samples were collected at six locations around Lake Michigan and analyzed for the concentrations of the different forms of phosphorus present. The concentrations were found to be higher in the southern part of the lake. Precipitation-weighted concentrations of total phosphorus and dissolved reactive phosphates were found to be 0.023 mg\\/l and 0.011 mg\\/l, both higher than the concentrations found

T. J. Murphy; P. V. Doskey

1976-01-01

439

Global potential of phosphorus recovery from human urine and feces.  

PubMed

This study geospatially quantifies the mass of an essential fertilizer element, phosphorus, available from human urine and feces, globally, regionally, and by specific country. The analysis is performed over two population scenarios (2009 and 2050). This important material flow is related to the presence of improved sanitation facilities and also considers the global trend of urbanization. Results show that in 2009 the phosphorus available from urine is approximately 1.68 million metric tons (with similar mass available from feces). If collected, the phosphorus available from urine and feces could account for 22% of the total global phosphorus demand. In 2050 the available phosphorus from urine that is associated with population increases only will increase to 2.16 million metric tons (with similar mass available from feces). The available phosphorus from urine and feces produced in urban settings is currently approximately 0.88 million metric tons and will increase with population growth to over 1.5 million metric tons by 2050. Results point to the large potential source of human-derived phosphorus in developing regions like Africa and Asia that have a large population currently unserved by improved sanitation facilities. These regions have great potential to implement urine diversion and reuse and composting or recovery of biosolids, because innovative technologies can be integrated with improvements in sanitation coverage. In contrast, other regions with extensive sanitation coverage like Europe and North America need to determine how to retrofit existing sanitation technology combined that is combined with human behavioral changes to recover phosphorus and other valuable nutrients. PMID:21429554

Mihelcic, James R; Fry, Lauren M; Shaw, Ryan

2011-03-22

440

Solid sorbent sampler for white phosphorus in air  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solid sorbent sampling tube packed with Tenax-GC is used with a personal sampling pump to collect samples of white (yellow) phosphorus vapor from air. The phosphorus is leached from the exposed sorbent into xylene and quantitated by gas chromatographic analysis. The capacity of the sorbents is in the range 10 to 20?g P4 per 100?mg of sorbent, which allows

H. KENNETH DILLON; WILLIAM J. BARRETT; PETER M. ELLER

1978-01-01

441

Determination of phosphorus in gold or silver brazing alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spectrophotometric method has been devised for measuring microgram levels of phosphorus in brazing alloys of gold or silver\\u000a that contain high nickel concentration. Phosphorus in such alloys is normally measured by solid mass spectrometry, but the\\u000a high nickel concentration produces a double ionized nickel spectral interference. The described procedure is based upon the\\u000a formation of molybdovanadophosphoric acid when a

R. J. Antepenko

1979-01-01

442

Phosphorus transport to the bottom of Lake Constance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite decreasing nutrient loading of Lake Constance over the past few years, annual sedimentation rates of dry matter remained nearly constant at a level of about 1000 gm-2y-1. The phosphorus content in settling material varied between 0.13 and 0.22% of dry weight. Phosphorus was transported to the lake bottom mainly by POM and by coprecipitation with authigenically formed calcite (estimated

Joachim Kleiner; Hans-Henning Stabel

1989-01-01

443

Phosphorus intake regulates intestinal function and polyamine metabolism in uremia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus intake regulates intestinal function and polyamine metabolism in uremia. This study found that 5\\/6-nephrectomized uremic rats showed secondary hyperparathyroidism as reflected by an increase in their serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level in association with a decrease in serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH)2D]. These changes recovered partially upon phosphorus restriction. Calcium absorption and gene expression of calbindin-D9k were decreased in uremia

Yasuo Imanishi; Hidenori Koyama; Masaaki Inaba; Senji Okuno; Yoshiki Nishizawa; Hirotoshi Morii; Shuzo Otani

1996-01-01

444

Calcium and phosphorus requirements of breeding bobwhite quail  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the course of studies designed to determine the calcium and phosphorus requirements of breeding bobwhite quail, it was found that best results were obtained when the Ca/P ratio in the diet was approximately 2.3:1. Variations in the Ca/P ratio produced significant differences in results when the level of phosphorus in the diet was 0.75%, but the differences were less marked when the level of phosphorus was increased to 1.00%. Although diets containing 0.75% phosphorus and 1.8% calcium appeared adequate for reproduction, as judged by the criteria of the maintenance of satisfactory condition in the breeders, egg production, fertility, hatchability and survival of offspring during the first 5 days after hatching, it was found that the winter mortality of the offspring of birds fed such a diet was much greater than that occurring in the offspring of birds fed on diets containing 1.00 or 1.25% phosphorus. It is concluded that breeding bobwhite quail require diets furnishing approximately 1.00% phosphorus and 2.3% calcium.

DeWitt, J.B.; Nestler, R .B.; Derby, J.V., Jr.

1949-01-01

445

Quantification and Thickness Correction of EFTEM Phosphorus Maps  

PubMed Central

We describe a method for correcting plural inelastic scattering effects in elemental maps that are acquired in the energy filtering transmission electron microscope (EFTEM) using just two energy windows, one above and one below a core-edge in the electron energy loss spectrum (EELS). The technique is demonstrated for mapping low concentrations of phosphorus in biological samples. First, the single scattering EELS distributions are obtained from specimens of pure carbon and plastic embedding material. Then, spectra are calculated for different specimen thicknesses t, expressed in units of the inelastic mean free path ?. In this way, standard curves are generated for the ratio k0 of post-edge to pre-edge intensities at the phosphorus L2,3 excitation energy, as a function of relative specimen thickness t/?. Thickness effects in a two-window phosphorus map are corrected by successive acquisition of zero-loss and unfiltered images, from which it is possible to determine a t/? image and hence a background k0-ratio image. Knowledge of the thickness-dependent k0-ratio at each pixel thus enables a more accurate determination of the phosphorus distribution in the specimen. Systematic and statistical errors are calculated as a function of specimen thickness, and elemental maps are quantified in terms of the number of phosphorus atoms per pixel. Further analysis of the k0-curve shows that the EFTEM can be used to obtain reliable two-window phosphorus maps from specimens that are considerably thicker than previously possible.

Aronova, M. A.; Kim, Y. C.; Zhang, G.; Leapman, R. D.

2007-01-01

446

Phosphorus loads from different urban storm runoff sources in southern China: a case study in Wenzhou City.  

PubMed

Storm runoff from six types of underlying surface area during five rainfall events in two urban study areas of Wenzhou City, China was investigated to measure phosphorus (P) concentrations and discharge rates. The average event mean concentrations (EMCs) of total phosphorus (TP), total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), and particulate phosphorus (PP) ranged from 0.02 to 2.5mg??L(-1), 0.01 to 0.48mg??L(-1), and 0.02 to 2.43mg??L(-1), respectively. PP was generally the dominant component of TP in storm runoff, while the major form of P varied over time, especially in roof runoff, where TDP made up the largest portion in the latter stages of runoff events. Both TP and PP concentrations were positively correlated with pH, total suspended solids (TSS), and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)/chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations (p?33 and 237.85kg, respectively. Underlying surface type determined the TP and PP loadings in storm runoff, but regional environmental conditions affected the export of TDP more significantly. Our results indicate that the removal of particles from storm runoff could be an effective measure to attenuate P loadings to receiving water bodies. PMID:23690078

Zhou, Dong; Bi, Chun-Juan; Chen, Zhen-Lou; Yu, Zhong-Jie; Wang, Jun; Han, Jing-Chao

2013-05-21

447

Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 33  

SciTech Connect

The experimental data are evaluated for known nuclides of mass number A=33 (Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K). Detailed evaluated level properties and related information are presented, including adopted values of level and {gamma}-ray energies, decay data (energies, intensities and placement of radiations), and other spectroscopic data. This work supersedes earlier full evaluations of A=33 published by 1990En08 (also 1998En04 update) and 1978En02. Experimental studies for the identification of the {sup 33}Ne and {sup 33}K nuclides have not met with success as yet. Values of S(n) and S(p) from systematics for {sup 33}Ne and {sup 33}K, respectively suggest that these nuclei are likely to be unstable to particle emission. The radioactive decay schemes of {sup 33}Na and {sup 33}Al seem incomplete in view of large Q values and known excitations much below than allowed by the Q values. The {sup 33}S and {sup 33}Cl nuclides remain as the most extensively studied from many different reactions and decays.

Chen Jun; Singh, Balraj [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)

2011-06-15

448

X-33: The operational challenge  

SciTech Connect

In a cooperative effort with industry, NASA has embarked upon an effort to develop the next generation of reusable space transportation systems. Operational efficiency is the key attribute that will determine the economic viability of any reusable launch vehicle program. This factor not only controls the recurring cost per flight, but also determines the number of flights over which the program{close_quote}s fixed cost and overhead can be amortized. A single stage to orbit reusable vehicle has the obvious advantage of eliminating expendable hardware and the need for mating stages and interface verification; however, these factors alone are not sufficient to generate the order of magnitude improvement in operational efficiency necessary to justify a new launch system. To achieve these objectives, a clear understanding is needed of the factors that have allowed aircraft to demonstrate operability and reliability levels five orders of magnitude better than launch systems. This understanding must then be reflected in analytical tools which can support detailed design trades. Even with the best of analytical environments, the difficulty in developing an operationally efficient single stage to orbit vehicle should not be underestimated. New technologies and operational concepts must be creatively combined into a design that will initially involve significant development risk. The risk derives not so much from the possibility that the goals cannot be achieved, but from the recognition that any new program with a high investment in new technology is unlikely to succeed without an opportunity to mature these technologies and to correct deficiencies in the basic design. The X-33 Program represents the first comprehensive testbed developed for the investigation and demonstration of operational technologies and design features prior to final system design and deployment. (Abstract Truncated)

Hickman, R.A. [The Aerospace Corporation, 2350 E. El Segundo Blvd., El Segundo, California 92957-2957 (United States)

1996-03-01

449

A survey of the phosphorus and calcium contents of pastures and the serum inorganic phosphorus and calcium contents of cows on four Manawatu dairy farms.  

PubMed

Serum inorganic phosphorus (Pi) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were assessed in 20 cows on each of four Manawatu factory supply dairy farms. Blood was taken from each cow before calving and at six-week intervals during lactation. Bleeding coincided with herd testing. Herds of Friesian or Friesian X cows and Jersey or Jersey X cows were compared on adjacent farms on a Central Yellow-brown Sand and on adjacent farms on a Peat Loam overlying a Central Yellow-brown Earth soil. Pasture mass and composition were estimated to grazing height in the next two paddocks to be grazed in the rotation. Mean serum Pi concentration was higher in cows on sandy soils (1.55 mmol Pi/l than in cows on the peat loam (1.34 mmol Pi/l (P<0.001). Concentrations were highest before calving (1.69 mmol Pi/l) but fell to low levels at peak lactation (1.17mmol Pi/l when 70% of cows were below the minima of the 'normal range', and during the drought (1.29 mmol Pi/l. Pasture phosphorus (P) concentrations were adequate to support cow nutrition for lactation (>0.33% DM, ad lib. feeding) until the summer drought when low herbage mass would have restricted milk production. Serum Ca was adequate for lactating cows and changed little between months or between cows (mean 2.12 mmol Ca/l). No metabolic disorders relating to mineral deficiencies were observed. It appears that serum Pi in a high proportion of cows falls below the normal range during peak lactation without cows displaying clinical deficiency symptoms or a depression in butterfat production. PMID:16031518

Betteridge, K

1989-06-01

450

Evaluation of radioactive phosphorus in the palliation of metastatic bone lesions from carcinoma of the breast and prostate  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive phosphorus effected substantial palliation of intractable bone pain in 17 of 33 (51.5%) women with metastatic carcinoma of the breast and in 14 of 15 (93.3%) men with metastatic carcinoma of the prostate. No significant difference in the overall response rate was found between androgen and paralthormone priming prior to radiophosphorus therapy. The degree of response was not dependent on total dose of /sup 32/P within the range of 9 to 18 mCi (333 to 666 MPq). Myelosuppression was a transient complication in 9 of 33 patients with metastatic breast carcinoma and in 7 of 15 patients with metastatic prostate carcinoma. Symptomatic hypercalcemia was an infrequent complication of radiophosphorus therapy irrespective of the priming regimen.

Cheung, A. (Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Canada); Driedger, A.A.

1980-01-01

451

The chemical composition changes of silicon and phosphorus in the process of native oxide formation of heavily phosphorus doped silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition changes of silicon and phosphorus in the process of native oxide formation of both heavily phosphorus-doped Si(100) and polycrystalline Si prepared by HF-treatment were monitored for a period of 1 year, using angle dependent X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Right after HF-treatment, significant amounts of unoxidized-P (P?) and a new chemical state of Si (Si?) having an unstable

W. B Ying; Y Mizokawa; Y Kamiura; K Kawamoto; W. Y Yang

2001-01-01

452

Phosphorus adsorption characteristics of Hawaiian soils and their relationships to equilibrium phosphorus concentrations required for maximum growth of Millet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus adsor tion isotherms were constructed for six Latosols and one calcareous soil from Hawaii which differed greatly in their phosphorus adsorption capacities. Equilibration was in 0.01M CaCl2 at 25C for 6 or 8 days. P adsorption properties of the soils were characterised employing the linear form of Langmuir's equation and also by calculating the amount of P adsorbed between

S. S. S. Rajan

1973-01-01

453

Evaluation of phosphorus in forest soils: Comparison of phosphorus uptake, extraction method and soil properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Phosphorus in soils from plantation of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) was determined using six extractants: 0.002N H2SO4 (pH 3.0); 0.025N HCl+ +0.03N NH4F; 0.5N NaHCO3 (pH 8.5);N NH4OAc (pH 4.8); anion exchange resin (Dower ?2, Cl-form); H2O. Correlations of extractable P with Al- and Al-+Fe-P indicated that these fractions are the dominant forms of inorganic P in most

O. Kadeba; J. R. Boyle

1978-01-01

454

IL-33 reduces macrophage foam cell formation.  

PubMed

The development of atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the formation of arterial fibrotic plaques, has been shown to be reduced by IL-33 in vivo. However, whether IL-33 can directly affect macrophage foam cell formation, a key feature of atherosclerotic plaques, has not been determined. In this study, we investigated whether IL-33 reduces macrophage foam cell accumulation in vivo and if IL-33 reduces their formation in vitro using THP-1 and primary human monocyte-derived macrophages. In Apolipoprotein E(-/-) mice fed on a high fat diet, IL-33 treatment significantly reduced the accumulation of macrophage-derived foam cells in atherosclerotic plaques. IL-33 also reduced macrophage foam cell formation in vitro by decreasing acetylated and oxidized low-density lipoprotein uptake, reducing intracellular total and esterified cholesterol content and enhancing cholesterol efflux. These changes were associated with IL-33-mediated reduction in the expression of genes involved in modified low-density lipoprotein uptake, such as CD36, and simultaneous increase in genes involved in cholesterol efflux, including Apolipoprotein E, thereby providing a mechanism for such an action for this cytokine. IL-33 also decreased the expression of key genes implicated in cholesterol esterification and triglyceride storage, including Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 and Adipocyte differentiation-related protein. Furthermore, using bone marrow-derived macrophages from ST2(-/-) mice, we demonstrate that the IL-33 receptor, ST2, is integral to the action of IL-33 on macrophage foam cell formation. In conclusion, IL-33 has a protective role in atherosclerosis by reducing macrophage foam cell formation suggesting that IL-33 maybe a potential therapeutic agent against atherosclerosis. PMID:20543107

McLaren, James E; Michael, Daryn R; Salter, Rebecca C; Ashlin, Tim G; Calder, Claudia J; Miller, Ashley M; Liew, Foo Y; Ramji, Dipak P

2010-06-11

455

7 CFR 1206.33 - Vacancies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board § 1206.33 Vacancies. (a)...

2012-01-01

456

7 CFR 1206.33 - Vacancies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board § 1206.33 Vacancies. (a)...

2013-01-01

457

14 CFR 33.61 - Applicability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.61 Applicability. This subpart prescribes additional design and construction requirements for turbine aircraft...

2013-01-01

458

7 CFR 1209.33 - Appointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Mushroom Council § 1209.33 Appointment. From the...

2013-01-01

459

7 CFR 1209.33 - Appointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Mushroom Council § 1209.33 Appointment. From the...

2012-01-01

460

40 CFR 411.33 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CEMENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Materials Storage Piles Runoff Subcategory § 411.33...

2012-07-01

461

7 CFR 1410.33 - Contract modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Section 1410.33 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY...CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES...into production using sustainable grazing or crop...

2013-01-01

462

A Literature Review - Problem Definition Studies on Selected Toxic Chemicals. Volume 2. Occupational Health and Safety Aspects of Phosphorus Smoke Compounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Problem Definition Study provides information on toxicological aspects and health hazards of phosphorus smoke compounds. The compounds covered in this study are red phosphorus, white phosphorus, butyl rubber/red phosphorus, plasticized white phosphor...

J. E. Villaume K. Wasti K. J. R. Abaidoo

1978-01-01

463

Phosphorus and nitrogen in coral reef sediments  

SciTech Connect

The occurrence of P and N in the sediments has been investigated on Davies Reef in the central region of the Great Barrier Reef Complex. Concentrations of inorganic P and N in the water were typical of nutrient-depleted tropical surface water. Carbonate sediments were found to contain a uniform pool of P (300 ppm by wt), principally in the form of inorganic phosphate. The interstitial water of the surface layer of sediment contained micromolar concentrations of inorganic P and even higher concentrations of inorganic N, principally as ammonium. These nutrient concentrations were considered too low to compete significantly with the uptake of available phasphate into algae. The presence of ammonium and soluble P was associated with anaerobic redox potentials in the sediments just below the surface. Soluble phosphorus was in equilibrium with a small, rapidly exchangeable fraction of the sedimentary pool of inorganic phosphate. Analyses of P in growing tips of Halimeda and corals (which supply more than half of reef sediments) suggested that the skeletons provide a biological mechanism for the replenishment of at least some of the sedimentary pool. Ratios of C:N:P for a selection of benthic algae were used as a preliminary indicator of thier N and P status.

Entsch, B.; Boto, K.G.; Sim, R.G.; Wellington, J.T.

1983-05-01

464

Metagenomic analysis of phosphorus removing sludgecommunities  

SciTech Connect

Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) is not wellunderstood at the metabolic level despite being one of the best-studiedmicrobially-mediated industrial processes due to its ecological andeconomic relevance. Here we present a metagenomic analysis of twolab-scale EBPR sludges dominated by the uncultured bacterium, "CandidatusAccumulibacter phosphatis." This analysis resolves several controversiesin EBPR metabolic models and provides hypotheses explaining the dominanceof A. phosphatis in this habitat, its lifestyle outside EBPR and probablecultivation requirements. Comparison of the same species from differentEBPR sludges highlights recent evolutionary dynamics in the A. phosphatisgenome that could be linked to mechanisms for environmental adaptation.In spite of an apparent lack of phylogenetic overlap in the flankingcommunities of the two sludges studied, common functional themes werefound, at least one of them complementary to the inferred metabolism ofthe dominant organism. The present study provides a much-needed blueprintfor a systems-level understanding of EBPR and illustrates thatmetagenomics enables detailed, often novel, insights into evenwell-studied biological systems.

Garcia Martin, Hector; Ivanova, Natalia; Kunin, Victor; Warnecke,Falk; Barry, Kerrie; McHardy, Alice C.; Yeates, Christine; He, Shaomei; Salamov, Asaf; Szeto, Ernest; Dalin, Eileen; Putnam, Nik; Shapiro, HarrisJ.; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L.; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Blackall, Linda Louise; McMahon, Katherine D.; Hugenholtz, Philip

2006-02-01

465

Daily phosphorus variation in a mountain stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monthly diel monitoring studies for phosphorus content were conducted (1995-1996 period) for multiple stations on Incline Creek, a mountain stream in the Lake Tahoe basin (California-Nevada). Large discharge and particulate P (PP) concentration fluctuations occurred during June in the early evening as snowmelt from higher elevations arrived at the lower stream reaches. June diel dissolved organic P (DOP) concentrations steadily increased, while soluble reactive P (SRP) concentrations remained constant. June diel PP concentrations associated with sand-sized particles (PPsand: >63 ?m) exhibited a clockwise hysteresis, indicating possible sediment source depletion on a daily timescale. June diel PP associated with silt- and clay-sized particles (PPSC: >0.45 ?m and <63 ?m) exhibited counterclockwise hysteresis behavior, suggesting a potential groundwater contribution to PPSC. PPSC comprised the majority of PP concentration, except during high-discharge events when PPsand concentration was dominant. Areal PP loading, specifically PPsand, appears to originate primarily from the lower eastern branch of Incline Creek during the spring snowmelt season. Possible sources include a ski resort/parking lot and a golf course. DOP and SRP areal loads were greatest from the undeveloped upper subwatershed, suggesting that natural factors such as slope are influencing loading of small-sized P fractions.

Hatch, Lorin K.; Reuter, John E.; Goldman, Charles R.

1999-12-01

466

The role of diet in phosphorus demand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 50 years, there have been major changes in human diets, including a global average increase in meat consumption and total calorie intake. We quantified how changes in annual per capita national average diets affected requirements for mined P between 1961 and 2007, starting with the per capita availability of a food crop or animal product and then determining the P needed to grow the product. The global per capita P footprint increased 38% over the 46 yr time period, but there was considerable variability among countries. Phosphorus footprints varied between 0.35 kg P capita-1 yr-1 (DPR Congo, 2007) and 7.64 kg P capita-1 yr-1 (Luxembourg, 2007). Temporal trends also differed among countries; for example, while Chinas P footprint increased almost 400% between 1961 and 2007, the footprints of other countries, such as Canada, decreased. Meat consumption was the most important factor affecting P footprints; it accounted for 72% of the global average P footprint. Our results show that dietary shifts are an important component of the human amplification of the global P cycle. These dietary trends present an important challenge for sustainable P management.

Metson, Genevive S.; Bennett, Elena M.; Elser, James J.

2012-12-01

467

Extrapolating phosphorus production to estimate resource reserves.  

PubMed

Various indicators of resource scarcity and methods for extrapolating resource availability are examined for phosphorus. These include resource lifetime, and trends in resource price, ore grade and discovery rates, and Hubbert curve extrapolation. Several of these indicate increasing scarcity of phosphate resources. Calculated resource lifetime is subject to a number of caveats such as unanticipated future changes in resource discovery, mining and beneficiation technology, population growth or per-capita demand. Thus it should be used only as a rough planning index or as a relative indicator of potential scarcity. This paper examines the uncertainty in one method for estimating available resources from historical production data. The confidence intervals for the parameters and predictions of the Hubbert curves are computed as they relate to the amount of information available. These show that Hubbert-type extrapolations are not robust for predicting the ultimately recoverable reserves or year of peak production of phosphate rock. Previous successes of the Hubbert curve are for cases in which there exist alternative resources, which is not the situation for phosphate. It is suggested that data other than historical production, such as population growth, identified resources and economic factors, should be included in making such forecasts. PMID:21440285

Vaccari, David A; Strigul, Nikolay

2011-03-25

468

Changes in phosphorus smoke chemistry with environmental conditions  

SciTech Connect

Physical and chemical characteristics of two phosphorus aerosols were measured under a limited number of environmental conditions. The exposures and measurements were performed in a wind tunnel under various humidities, wind speeds and, to a limited extent, aerosol ages. Temperature, another important environmental variable that may influence the chemical form of the aerosols, was not studied in this research program. Steady-state aerosols generated by combustion of red phosphorus/butyl rubber (RP/BR) and white phosphorus (WP) were suspended in a closed-loop wind tunnel to simulate the continuous-generation of these obscurants at Army field training sites. Measured aerosol characteristics were found to differ significantly from characteristics predicted by simple phosphoric acid models previously thought to represent the chemical form of the suspended particles. As many as 28 individual phosphorus species were detected in aerosol samples. The distribution of linear and cyclic phosphorus species in the sampled aerosol was observed to vary significantly for changes in both aerosol age (0 to 60 min) and relative humidity (<5% to 90%). Hydrolysis toward phosphate occurred as the aerosol aged, and the rate of change was slower for higher humidities. More high-order phosphorus species appeared to be formed during aerosol generation at low relative humidities than at high humidity, as revealed by measurements near the combustion zone. Steady-state aerosols showed decreasing conversion to phosphate with increasing humidity. The highly speciated aerosols hydrolyzed to phosphate in less than 18 hr after deposition onto dry surfaces. Other aerosol characteristics such as mass concentration, water and phosphorus content of the particles, and particle size distribution were also measured.

McFadden, K.M.; Ligotke, M.W.; Garland, T.R.; Van Voris, P.; Schirmer, R.E.

1985-09-01

469

Phosphorus and phosphorus nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes for ultrasensitive and selective molecular detection  

SciTech Connect

A first-principles approach is used to establish that substitutional phosphorus atoms within carbon nanotubes strongly modify the chemical properties of the surface, thus creating highly localized sites with specific affinity towards acceptor molecules. Phosphorus nitrogen co-dopants within the tubes have a similar effect for acceptor molecules, but the P N bond can also accept charge, resulting in affinity towards donor molecules. This molecular selectivity is illustrated in CO and NH3 adsorbed on PN-doped nanotubes, O2 on P-doped nanotubes, and NO2 and SO2 on both P- and PN-doped nanotubes. The adsorption of different chemical species onto the doped nanotubes modifies the dopant-induced localized states, which subsequently alter the electronic conductance. Although SO2 and CO adsorptions cause minor shifts in electronic conductance, NH3, NO2, and O2 adsorptions induce the suppression of a conductance dip. Conversely, the adsorption of NO2 on PN-doped nanotubes is accompanied with the appearance of an additional dip in conductance, correlated with a shift of the existing ones. Overall these changes in electric conductance provide an efficient way to detect selectively the presence of specific molecules. Additionally, the high oxidation potential of the P-doped nanotubes makes them good candidates for electrode materials in hydrogen fuel cells.

Cruz Silva, Eduardo [ORNL; Lopez, Florentino [IPICyT; Munoz-Sandoval, Emilio [IPICyT; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto [ORNL; Charlier, Jean Christophe [Universite Catholique de Louvain; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL; Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio [ORNL

2011-01-01

470

Phosphorus and phosphorus-nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes for ultrasensitive and selective molecular detection.  

PubMed

A first-principles approach is used to establish that substitutional phosphorus atoms within carbon nanotubes strongly modify the chemical properties of the surface, thus creating highly localized sites with specific affinity towards acceptor molecules. Phosphorus-nitrogen co-dopants within the tubes have a similar effect for acceptor molecules, but the P-N bond can also accept charge, resulting in affinity towards donor molecules. This molecular selectivity is illustrated in CO and NH3 adsorbed on PN-doped nanotubes, O2 on P-doped nanotubes, and NO2 and SO2 on both P- and PN-doped nanotubes. The adsorption of different chemical species onto the doped nanotubes modifies the dopant-induced localized states, which subsequently alter the electronic conductance. Although SO2 and CO adsorptions cause minor shifts in electronic conductance, NH3, NO2, and O2 adsorptions induce the suppression of a conductance dip. Conversely, the adsorption of NO2 on PN-doped nanotubes is accompanied with the appearance of an additional dip in conductance, correlated with a shift of the existing ones. Overall these changes in electric conductance provide an efficient way to detect selectively the presence of specific molecules. Additionally, the high oxidation potential of the P-doped nanotubes makes them good candidates for electrode materials in hydrogen fuel cells. PMID:21152534

Cruz-Silva, Eduardo; Lopez-Urias, Florentino; Munoz-Sandoval, Emilio; Sumpter, Bobby G; Terrones, Humberto; Charlier, Jean-Christophe; Meunier, Vincent; Terrones, Mauricio

2010-12-09

471

Organic and inorganic dietary phosphorus and its management in chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Dietary phosphorus control is often a main strategy in the management of patients with chronic kidney disease. Dietary protein is a major source of phosphorus intake. Recent data indicate that imposed dietary phosphorus restriction may compromise the need for adequate protein intake, leading to protein-energy wasting and possibly to increased mortality. The two main sources of dietary phosphorus are organic, including animal and vegetarian proteins, and inorganic, mostly food preservatives. Animal-based foods and plant are abundant in organic phosphorus. Usually 40% to 60% of animal-based phosphorus is absorbed; this varies by degree of gastrointestinal vitamin-D-receptor activation, whereas plant phosphorus, mostly associated with phytates, is less absorbable by human gastrointestinal tract. Up to 100% of inorganic phosphorus in processed foods may be absorbed; ie, phosphorus in processed cheese and some soda (cola) drinks. A recent study suggests that a higher dietary phosphorus-protein intake ratio is associated with incremental death risk in patients on long-term hemodialysis. Hence, for phosphorus management in chronic kidney disease, in addition to absolute dietary phosphorus content, the chemical structure (inorganic versus organic), type (animal versus plant), and phosphorus-protein ratio should be considered. We recommend foods and supplements with no or lowest quantity of inorganic phosphorus additives, more plant-based proteins, and a dietary phosphorus-protein ratio of less than 10 mg/g. Fresh (nonprocessed) egg white (phosphorus-protein ratio less than 2 mg/g) is a good example of desirable food, which contains a high proportion of essential amino acids with low amounts of fat, cholesterol, and phosphorus. PMID:20404416

Noori, Nazanin; Sims, John J; Kopple, Joel D; Shah, Anuja; Colman, Sara; Shinaberger, Christian S; Bross, Rachelle; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

2010-04-01

472

14 CFR 431.33 - Safety organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety organization. 431.33 Section 431...OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Safety Review and Approval for Launch and Reentry...Reusable Launch Vehicle § 431.33 Safety organization. (a) An applicant...

2013-01-01

473

21 CFR 1403.33 - Supplies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01...Supplies. 1403.33 Section 1403.33 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL...GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award...

2013-04-01

474

14 CFR 33.62 - Stress analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Stress analysis. 33.62 Section 33.62 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine...

2009-01-01

475

Phosphorus Recovery Using Zirconium-Loaded Saponified Orange Juice Residue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zirconium was immobilized to orange juice residue, to investigate the feasibility of using zirconium-loaded saponified orange juice residue (Zr-SOJR) for phosphorus recovery from secondary effluent and the extraction solution from incinerated sewage sludge ash by using H2SO4 and HCl. These had phosphorus concentrations of 68.2 mg/dm3 and 5.9 mg/dm3, respectively. The phosphorus removal rate secondary effluent increased with an increasing solid/liquid ratio in batch experiments. The adsorption capacity of Zr-SOJR was also compared with those obtained using a synthetic phosphorus solution and using zirconium-loaded ferrite. The prepared absorbent was effective for phosphorus removal and exhibited a reasonably high sorption capacity, twice that of zirconium ferrite. Secondary effluent was treated by packed column, and this reached break-through after 300 bed volumes. The results from phosphorous extraction from the ash indicate that can be treated with acid to efficiently recover phosphorous and thus can be absorbed by Zr-SOJR.

Harada, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Mitsunori; Biswas, Biplob K.; Ohura, Seichirou; Inoue, Katsutoshi; Ishikawa, Susumu; Kawakita, Hidetaka; Ohto, Keisuke

476

The supplementation of phytase RONOZYME P on the growth and the utilisation of phosphorus by sex-reversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of phytase supplementation to a low fish meal based diet on growth performance and phosphorus utilis- ation was investigated in sex-reversed red tilapia. Diets were prepared without phytase or inorganic phosphorus supplement- ation, with phytase, with supplemented inorganic phosphorus and with both phytase and supplemental inorganic phosphorus. Available phosphorus was set below requirement and the total phosphorus set

Jirawat Tudkaew; Jacques Gabaudan; Wutiporn Phromkunthong

477

IL-33 reduces the development of atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the vasculature commonly leading to myocardial infarction and stroke. We show that IL-33, which is a novel IL-1like cytokine that signals via ST2, can reduce atherosclerosis development in ApoE?/? mice on a high-fat diet. IL-33 and ST2 are present in the normal and atherosclerotic vasculature of mice and humans. Although control PBS-treated mice developed severe and inflamed atherosclerotic plaques in the aortic sinus, lesion development was profoundly reduced in IL-33treated animals. IL-33 also markedly increased levels of IL-4, -5, and -13, but decreased levels of IFN? in serum and lymph node cells. IL-33 treatment also elevated levels of total serum IgA, IgE, and IgG1, but decreased IgG2a, which is consistent with a Th1-to-Th2 switch. IL-33treated mice also produced significantly elevated antioxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) antibodies. Conversely, mice treated with soluble ST2, a decoy receptor that neutralizes IL-33, developed significantly larger atherosclerotic plaques in the aortic sinus of the ApoE?/? mice compared with control IgG-treated mice. Furthermore, coadministration of an antiIL-5 mAb with IL-33 prevented the reduction in plaque size and reduced the amount of ox-LDL antibodies induced by IL-33. In conclusion, IL-33 may play a protective role in the development of atherosclerosis via the induction of IL-5 and ox-LDL antibodies.

Miller, Ashley M.; Xu, Damo; Asquith, Darren L.; Denby, Laura; Li, Yubin; Sattar, Naveed; Baker, Andrew H.; McInnes, Iain B.; Liew, Foo Y.

2008-01-01

478

33 CFR 183.33 - Maximum weight capacity: Inboard and inboard-outdrive boats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...capacity: Inboard and inboard-outdrive boats. 183.33 Section 183.33 Navigation...SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Safe Loading...capacity: Inboard and inboard-outdrive boats. (a) The maximum weight...

2013-07-01

479

Phosphorus Dynamic and Water Quality Paradigm. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Depending on environmental conditions, stored nutrients and contaminants could be released from organic matrix through mineralization, and recycled within or exported from the ecosystems. The rates and duration of organic matter accumulations under changing hydro-climatic conditions are critical determinants of how a freshwater system functions as an ecological unit within a landscape. Aquatic ecosystems such as freshwaters can be very sensitive to changes, e.g., water quality, quantity and temperature, induced by climatic changes. Phosphorus (P) influx in freshwater systems may occur as a byproduct of single or many activities such as urban development and/or loading from within the systems due to gradual or sudden changes in environmental conditions. Any direct or indirect alterations due to anthropogenic influences, including a global rise in temperature, pose a serious threat of accelerated eutrophication of freshwater systems mainly due to P loading, causing their ultimate destructions. Our studies showed that sediments/soils contain both organic P (e.g., sugar phosphates and nucleoside monophosphates) and inorganic P in significant proportions, as well as acquiring data on P sorption phenomena, phosphatase-induced hydrolysis along with relative composition of various P forms will be helpful to derive P Destabilization Index to aid to the freshwater ecosystem management. It is indicative that any mitigating strategies need to take into account the nonlinear behaviors of the ecosystem processes and components, and begin planning to minimize effects of the changes. Also, it is crucial to be ready to integrate if there may need of policy revisions or adoption of new approaches and technologies, as the ecosystem struggles to attain a new equilibrium.

Pant, H. K.

2009-12-01

480

Algal-Available Phosphorus in Suspended Sediments from Lower Great Lakes Tributaries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Suspended sediments collected from five tributaries to the lower Great Lakes were chemically analyzed for several forms of phosphorus and bioassayed under aerobic conditions to measure the release of algal-available phosphorus. The bioassay data for all s...

J. V. DePinto T. C. Young S. C. Martin

1981-01-01

481

Identification of Critical Nutrient Levels through Field Verification of Models for Phosphorus and Phytoplankton Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two models for phosphorus and phytoplankton growth were field verified along a marked gradient in trophic conditions in Green Bay (Lake Michigan): one, the Monod model, relates growth rate to external (dissolved) phosphorus concentration, and the other, t...

M. T. Auer M. S. Kieser R. P. Canale

1986-01-01

482

Soluble Phosphorus Removal in the Activated Sludge Process. Part II. Sludge Digestion Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sludges containing aluminum phosphorus precipitates from an activated sludge waste water treatment plant were digested in a high-rate digester. Sodium aluminate and liquid alum were used to precipitate the phosphorus from the waste water. Analyses on both...

1971-01-01

483

Effect of snails (Elimia clavaeformis) on phosphorus cycling in stream periphyton and leaf detritus communities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this study, the author examined the effect of grazing on phosphorus cycling in stream periphyton and leaf detritus communities using the snail Elimia clavaeformis. Phosphorus cycling fluxes and turnover rates were measured in a laboratory and in a natu...

E. A. Jay

1993-01-01

484

Determination of Nitrogen, Sulphur, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium, Calcium, and Magnesium in Plant Material by Automatic Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods are proposed for the rapid determination of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, calcium, and magnesium in plant material by automated chemical analysis. Phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sodium are determined in nitric-p...

C. H. Williams J. R. Twine

1967-01-01

485

Effect of oxidations on phosphorus-diffused crystalline-silicon substrates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors examined the effect of oxidation on phosphorus-diffused crystalline-silicon p-type substrates. Oxidations subsequent to the phosphorus diffusion are of interest for passivating surfaces, and are commonly found in both high-efficiency laborator...

J. M. Gee R. R. King J. H. Reiss K. W. Mitchell S. Narayanan

1997-01-01

486

Organic Phosphorus in Marine Sediments: Chemical Structure, Diagenetic Alteration, and Mechanisms of Preservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phosphorus, an essential nutrient, is removed from the oceans only through burial with marine sediments. Organic phosphorus P(org) constitutes an important fraction (Ca. 25%) of total-P in marine sediments. However, given the inherent lability of primary ...

K. L. Laarkamp

2000-01-01

487

Morphological response of forage chicory fine roots to manipulated soil phosphorus levels  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Appalachian pastures suffer multiple stresses that result in reduced yields. Chicory offers the potential for increased phosphorus uptake, reduced drought stress and anthelmintic secondary products. To study the mechanism of improved phosphorus uptake, an experiment with three cultivars, two Appal...

488

Phosphorus Removal Using Chemical Coagulation and a Continuous Countercurrent Filtration Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A continuous precipitation and countercurrent filtration process was evaluated for the removal of phosphorus from municipal wastewater. Using alum and an anionic polyelectrolyte, the process was found to effectively reduce total phosphorus (TP), orthophos...

G. R. Bell D. V. Libby D. T. Lordi

1970-01-01

489

Impact of fish farming on the distribution of phosphorus in sediments in the middle Adriatic area.  

PubMed

During the last decade, intensive fish farming developed along the central Croatian coast, creating a need to study and evaluate its potential influence on unaffected sites. We considered phosphorus as an indicator of the influence of fish farming and investigated the distribution of phosphorus forms in sediment from several fish farms and marine areas of different trophic status in the middle Adriatic. Analyses of samples were performed with modified SEDEX techniques. Our results indicated that authigenic apatite phosphorus showed no significant differences among the investigated stations, while organic phosphorus concentrations reflected the trophic status of the station area. Below-cage sediment was characterized by enhanced fish debris phosphorus and low detrital apatite phosphorus concentrations, while sediment from an anthropogenically influenced bay showed the highest values of iron bound phosphorus species. Among the different P fractions, fish debris phosphorus proved to be the most sensitive indicator of the influence of fish farming on marine sediment. PMID:18187162

Matijevi?, Slavica; Kuspili?, Grozdan; Kljakovi?-Gaspi?, Zorana; Bogner, Danijela

2008-01-09

490

The characters and effects of available phosphorus in dahurian larch-Manchurica ash mixed seedling stand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characters and effects of available phosphorus in dahurian larch-Manchuria ash mixed stand was analyzed through measuring\\u000a available phosphorus of rhizosphere-soil, phosphorus of living and withered leaves and tree height. The study results showed\\u000a that the phosphorus of living leaves of larch was equal to or less than that of ash. For 5-year-old larch-ash mixed seedlings\\u000a stand, larch has more

Chai Yixin; Diao Shaoqi

1995-01-01

491

QTL Analysis of Adventitious Root Formation in Common Bean under Contrasting Phosphorus Availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low phosphorus availability is a primary constraint to crop pro- duction in developing countries. Adventitious roots play an important role in phosphorus acquisition, as theyare localized nearthe soil surface where phosphorus is relatively abundant. A population of recombinant inbred lines of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (G2333\\/G19839) was screened under high- and low-phosphorus conditions in the greenhouse and field. We observed phenotypic

Ivan E. Ochoa; Matthew W. Blair; Jonathan P. Lynch

2006-01-01

492

Variable responses of old-field perennials to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphorus source  

Microsoft Academic Search

If arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) promote phosphorus partitioning of plant hosts, they could provide one mechanism for\\u000a the maintenance of plant community diversity. We investigated whether AMF improved the ability of old field perennials to\\u000a grow on a range of phosphorus sources and whether AMF facilitated differential performance of plant species on different phosphorus\\u000a sources (phosphorus niche partitioning). We manipulated

Heather L. Reynolds; Keith M. Vogelsang; Anne E. Hartley; James D. Bever; P. A. Schultz

2006-01-01

493

Beneficial effect of phosphorus on the creep behavior of INCONEL 718  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus has long been regarded as a harmful impurity in superalloys. However, recent research work has found that phosphorus within a proper content range could remarkably improve the stress-rupture properties of some superalloys. In order to study the individual effects of phosphorus alone, two INCONEL 718 based alloys, with 0.003 wt% and 0.02 wt% phosphorus, respectively, have been prepared in

Hongwei Song; Shouren Guo; Zhuangqi Hu

1999-01-01

494

Nitrogen versus phosphorus-limited growth and sources of nutrients for coral reef macroalgae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent investigations of nutrient-limited productivity in coral reef macroalgae have led to the conclusion that phosphorus,\\u000a rather than nitrogen, is the primary limiting nutrient. In this study, comparison of the dissolved inorganic nitrogen:phosphorus\\u000a ratio in the water column of Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii, with tissue nitrogen:phosphorus ratios in macroalgae from Kaneohe Bay suggested\\u000a that nitrogen, rather than phosphorus, generally limits productivity

S. T. Larned

1998-01-01

495

Processes controlling forms of phosphorus in surficial sediments from the eastern Arabian Sea impinged by varying bottom water oxygenation conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surficial sediments from the upper continental slope of the eastern Arabian Sea, impinged by the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ, 150-1200 m water depth), show varying concentrations of the biogenic element phosphorus (P, 0.1-0.2%) in the northern and southern areas even though total organic carbon concentrations are relatively constant (TOC, 2-5%; Prakash Babu et al., 1999). To understand this discordance, 17 surface sediment samples from shelf, slope and deep sea of the eastern Arabian Sea were investigated using a five-step sequential extraction scheme to delineate the process responsible for P enrichment in OMZ. High fractions of organic phosphorus (P org 10-26%), biogenic phosphorus (P bio 36-48%), relatively low molar C org/P org ratios (322-447), and C org/P reactive ratios close to Redfield Ratio in OMZ sediments of the SE Arabian Sea suggest accumulation under high surface production and low residence time of labile forms of P due to high sedimentation rates. Despite higher productivity in surface waters, low fractions of P org (8-13%; less than deep-sea sediments of the study area 12-13%), P bio (25-33%), relatively high molar C org/P org ratios (341-508), and C org/P reactive ratios less than Redfield Ratio in OMZ sediments from the NE Arabian Sea may indicate a higher degree of regeneration and diagenetic transformation of labile forms of P to other phases. Authigenic phosphorus (P aut) fraction varies by a factor of 2-8 in sediments from the OMZ when compared to well-oxygenated deep-sea sediments of the study area. While the P total remains constant, significant P transformation seems to occur in NE Arabian Sea, which is suggested by high P aut fraction (50%) compared to low P aut fraction (10-39%) in the SE Arabian Sea sediments. Supply rates of phosphorus, variable rates of P dissolution under varying dissolved oxygen contents in the bottom waters, and early diagenetic transformation of P within the sediments seem to influence P geochemistry in sediments overlain by the OMZ in the eastern Arabian Sea.

Babu, C. Prakash; Nath, B. Nagender

2005-07-01

496

Effect of prefermentation on denitrifying phosphorus removal in slaughterhouse wastewater.  

PubMed

An anaerobic-anoxic sequencing batch reactor (A2 SBR) coupled with a fixed-bed nitrification reactor for simultaneous carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal was evaluated using slaughterhouse wastewater. Whereas the treatment could not be successfully carried out on the raw wastewater, the process showed very good nutrient removal performances after prefermentation. The removals of COD, N-NH4 and P-PO4 achieved were 99%, 85% and 99%, respectively. The increase in volatile fatty acid (VFA) and phosphate concentrations in the effluent after prefermentation may explain the high levels of biological carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal observed. A simple prefermentation is, therefore, necessary but sufficient to ensure good performances of the denitrifying enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process. PMID:15792577

Merzouki, M; Bernet, N; Delgens, J P; Benlemlih, M

2005-01-20

497

Method for processing wastes resulting from production of phosphorus  

SciTech Connect

The method comprises processing slime and off-gases resulting from the production of phosphorus with an aqueous solution of copper sulphate having a concentration of from 15 to 50% at a temperature within the range of from 20* to 80* C. As a result, two products are obtained, i.e., a liquid product and a solid one. The solid product containing mainly copper phosphide as well as fluorides and chlorides of alkali metals and silicon, and silicates of calcium and aluminum, is used as a modifying and refining agent for hypereutectic silumines and for the manufacture of a copper-phosphorus alloy. The liquid product containing phosphoric acid, sulphuric acid and copper sulphate is used as starting product for the preparation of a copper-containing fertilizer. The method according to the present invention makes it possible to modify the production of phosphorus so as to eliminate the formation of secondary wastes and improve the environmental control.

Alzhanov, T.M.; Bykov, V.I.; Chernogorenko, V.B.; Dmitrenko, V.V.; Ishkhanov, E.S.; Kipchakbaev, A.D.; Koverya, V.M.; Lynchak, K.A.; Markovsky, E.A.; Muchnik, S.V.; Pobortsev, M.E.; Sapian, V.G.; Sergienko, V.Y.; Vopilov, A.N.

1980-03-11

498

Solid sorbent sampler for white phosphorus in air.  

PubMed

A solid sorbent sampling tube packed with Tenax-GC is used with a personal sampling pump to collect samples of white (yellow) phosphorus vapor from air. The phosphorus is leached from the exposed sorbent into xylene and quantitated by gas chromatographic analysis. The capacity of the sorbents is in the range 10 to 20 microgramP4per100 mg of sorbent, which allows for up to 4 hrs of sampling at the OSHA Standard, 0.1 mg/m3. No interferences from red phosphorus, phosphine, water vapor, or other common gases are significant. The effects on the method of variations in temperature, pressure, humidity, sample storage and shipping conditions, and chromatographic parameters were determined. PMID:696621

Dillon, H K; Barrett, W J; Eller, P M

1978-08-01

499

Degradation Mechanisms of SOFC Anodes in Coal Gas Containing Phosphorus  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of phosphorus in synthetic coal gas with the nickel-based anode of solid oxide fuel cells has been investigated. Tests with both anode-supported and electrolyte-supported button cells were performed at 700 to 800oC in synthetic coal gas containing 0.5 to 10 ppm phosphorus, introduced as phosphine. Two primary modes of degradation were observed. The most obvious was the formation of a series of bulk nickel phosphide phases, of which Ni3P, Ni5P2, Ni12P5 and Ni2P were identified. Phosphorus was essentially completely captured by the anode, forming a sharp boundary between converted and unconverted anode portions. These products partially coalesced into large grains, which eventually affected electronic percolation through the anode support. Thermodynamic calculations predict that formation of the first binary nickel phosphide phase is possible at sub-parts per billion concentrations in coal gas at temperatures relevant to fuel cell operation. A second mode of degradation is attributed to surface diffusion of phosphorus to the active anode/electrolyte interface to form an adsorption layer. Direct evidence for the presence of such an adsorption layer on nickel was obtained by surface spectroscopies on fracture surfaces. Further, cell performance losses were observed well before the entire anode was converted to bulk nickel phosphide. Impedance spectroscopy revealed that these losses were primarily due to growth in electrodic resistance, whereas large ohmic increases were visible when the entire anode was converted to nickel phosphide phases. The rate of resistance growth for anode-supported cells showed a very low dependence on phosphorus concentration, attributed to phosphorus activity control within the anode by bulk nickel phosphide products.

Marina, Olga A.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Edwards, Danny J.; Coffey, Greg W.; Pederson, Larry R.

2010-01-22

500

How complex should a catchment scale phosphorus prediction model be?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a need to understand the mobilisation and transport of Phosphorus (P) from diffuse and point sources to the stream at the catchment scale. Despite there being many phosphorus models available for the prediction of phosphorus concentrations, there has been little effort to quantify the amount of uncertainty present in these predictions. Furthermore the modelling framework considered and the complexity of that approach should reflect the limitations in our ability to monitor appropriate phosphorus dynamics used to both drive and evaluate model predictions. Taking into account these key ingredients should ensure the end-user is provided with as much information as possible in order that they can make more informed management decisions within a risk based framework. In this paper an uncertainty analysis of the process-based model INCA-P within the Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) framework is presented. The framework is applied to a set of data describing the Lugg catchment (885km2) on the border between England and Wales. Daily flow for four catchments and monthly phosphorus (soluble reactive and total) for ten and eight catchments respectively are used to initially assess the uncertainty and sensitivity of 46 of the model parameters. We include estimates of observational errors in our analysis. These are introduced through an assessment of the errors in the non-perfect stage- discharge rating curves from three stations and from the analytical error and the `representational level' of single point phosphorus measurement being used to define a daily concentration. We apply different assumptions to the assumed error characteristics and evaluate the impact that these assumption make on the prediction uncertainties. We finally discuss whether such process-based modelling approaches can be evaluated effectively and if the ability of the model to reproduce catchment behaviour is limited mainly by the model structural error and/or the limitations and errors in the observed datasets.

Freer, J. E.; Sarah, D.; Beven, K. J.; Wade, A.; Butterfield, D.

2006-12-01