These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Three-step preparation and purification of phosphorus-33-labeled creatine phosphate of high specific activity  

SciTech Connect

Rabbit heart mitochondria were used as a source of enzymes for the synthesis of phosphorus-labeled creatine phosphate. This method is based on the coupled reaction between mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial-bound creatine kinase. It is possible to convert more than 90% of the inorganic phosphate (P/sub i/) to creatine phosphate. The method used only small amounts of adenine nucleotides which led to a product with only slight nucleotide contamination. This could be removed by activated charcoal extraction. For further purification, a method for the removal of residual P/sub i/ is described. 20 references.

Savabi, F.; Geiger, P.J.; Bessman, S.P.

1984-03-01

2

Measurement of Ultrasound Velocity in the Single Crystal of Black Phosphorus up to 3.3 GPa Gas Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the elastic constants of the single crystal black phosphorus is studied by using a gas pressure apparatus. Neon gas is used as the pressure transmitting medium. A large single crystal of orthorhombic black phosphorus with the dimensions of 5× 3× 6 mm3, has been grown under the condition of 1 GPa and 900°C by

Yasushi Kôzuki; Yoichi Hanayama; Masaki Kimura; Teruo Nishitake; Shoichi Endo

1991-01-01

3

Dietary Phosphorus Requirement of Channel Catfish1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to reevaluate the dietary phosphorus requirement of fingerling channel catfish. Basal diets containing either casein with supplemental inorganic phosphorus and 0.5% total calcium or egg albumin with sup plemental inorganic phosphorus and 0.75% total calcium yielded similar requirement data. Eleven-week growth, feed efficiency, serum phosphorus, bone ash, bone calcium and bone phosphorus data indicate that 0.33%

ROBERT P. WILSON; EDWIN H. ROBINSON; DELBERT M. GATLIN; ANDWILLIAM E. POE

4

[Forms and distributions of particulate phosphorus in the surface sediments of North Yellow Sea].  

PubMed

Surface sediments were collected from the North Yellow Sea in October 2007. The sediments were analyzed with modified SEDEX to obtain six forms of phosphorus. The results indicate that among the total phosphorus the detrital phosphorus and authigenic phosphorus are the main forms and the content varies from 25.7 to 122.5 microg x g(-1) and from 5.7 to 176.2 microg x g(-1), respectively, which taking up 17.0% -56.9% and 10.2% -49.8% of the total phosphorus. The content of exchangeable phosphorus, extractable organic phosphorus, iron-bound phosphorus and refractory phosphorus ranges from 5.5 to 43.9, from 4.1 to 41.4, from 2.3 to 26.7, from 6.0 to 33.6 microg x g(-1), respectively. Detrital and authigenic phosphorus are the major forms of the total phosphorus, indicating that the natural input is the major source of particle phosphorus in the study area. The content of iron-bound phosphorus is low, indicating that human input is minor in the area; mass fraction of the extractable organic phosphorus and refractory organic phosphorus is low, indicating that there is a low organic content while the main form of the total phosphorus is inorganic in the surface sediments of this area. Bioavailable phosphorus as exchangeable phosphorus, extractable organic phosphorus and iron-bound phosphorus account for 6.7% - 33.2% of the total particle phosphorus, indicating that bioavailability of phosphorus in the surface sediments is low. PMID:23233960

Meng, Jia; Yao, Qing-Zhen; Chen, Hong-Tao; Yu, Zhi-Gang

2012-10-01

5

Studies on phosphorus and calcium in poult nutrition  

E-print Network

1)------------ 32 Table III Average bone ash, bone calcium, bone phosphorus and serum phosphorus of poults at 3 weeks of age (Experi- ment 1) 33 Table IV Analysis of variance of 3-week weights (Expe iment 1)- 34 Table V Analysis of variance... of bone ash (Experiment 1) ------- 35 Table VI Average body weight, feed conversion and morta1ity of poults at 3 weeks of age (Experiment 2)----- ? ----- 36 Table VII Average bone ash, bone calcium, bone phosphorus and serum phosphorus of poults at 3...

Khaund, Robindra Nath

2012-06-07

6

PhosPhorus, Agriculture &  

E-print Network

. Algal blooms can cause fish kills and may harm wildlife and livestock by reducing the oxygen content for seed formation. Functions of Phosphorus in Animals Livestock also require phosphorus for proper growth. In addition to other func- tions, phosphorus is an essential component of bones and teeth. Animals derive

Liskiewicz, Maciej

7

Ruminal phosphorus availability from several feedstuffs measured by the nylon bag technique.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed at determining rumen phosphorus availability of some feedstuffs assessed with the nylon bag technique: forage (alfalfa), cereals (control-C wheat, formaldehyde treated-FT wheat, barley, corn), cereal by-products (wheat bran, wheat distillers, corn distillers) and meals (C and FT soya bean meals, rapeseed meals and sunflower meals). Rumen phosphorus availability was not uniform amongst the feedstuffs, varying from 33.1% (FT rapeseed meal) to 84.7% (C wheat). Alfalfa phosphorus release kinetics showed high bacterial phosphorus contamination. Technological treatments affected phosphorus content of by-products by either increasing (wheat bran and distillers) or decreasing (corn distillers) after germ extraction from the seed. Formaldehyde treatment decreasing rumen phosphorus availability (from 77.2% vs. 89.4% for wheat to 33.1% vs. 64.4% for the rapeseed meal) may depreciate the phosphorus nutritional value of FT meals. PMID:10863958

Bravo, D; Meschy, F; Bogaert, C; Sauvant, D

2000-01-01

8

Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V., Jr.; Ediger, E.

1950-01-01

9

Phosphorus fractions of crayfish haemolymph, serum and haemocyanin.  

PubMed

Different amounts of haemolymph proteins participate in clot formation in Astacus leptodactylus and Orconectes limosus (20% and 10%, respectively), although in both species the content of proteins in haemolymph is similar. In both species the content of total phosphorus in the clot was similar (0.33-0.49%, w/w) but it was about 6 times lower in serum of O. limosus than in serum of A. leptodactylus (2.2 and 14.8 mg/100 ml, respectively). An even greater difference in phosphorus content was found in the protein precipitated from serum. In both species lipid phosphorus was predominant (77% of total haemolymph phosphorus in A. leptodactylus and 52% in O. limosus). Phospholipids were found mainly in serum. Only traces of phosphorus (0.005%) and small amounts of fatty acids were found in purified haemocyanin preparations. PMID:4090857

Gondko, R; Helszer, Z; Adamska, M

1985-01-01

10

The Global Phosphorus Cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for all life forms. It is a key player in fundamental biochemical reactions (Westheimer, 1987) involving genetic material (DNA, RNA) and energy transfer (ATP), and in structural support of organisms provided by membranes (phospholipids) and bone (the biomineral hydroxyapatite). Photosynthetic organisms utilize dissolved phosphorus, carbon, and other essential nutrients to build their tissues using energy from the Sun. Biological productivity is contingent upon the availability of phosphorus to these simple organisms that constitute the base of the food web in both terrestrial and aquatic systems. (For reviews of P-utilization, P-biochemicals, and pathways in aquatic plants, see Fogg (1973), Bieleski and Ferguson (1983), and Cembella et al. (1984a, 1984b).)Phosphorus locked up in bedrock, soils, and sediments is not directly available to organisms. Conversion of unavailable forms to dissolved orthophosphate, which can be directly assimilated, occurs through geochemical and biochemical reactions at various stages in the global phosphorus cycle. Production of biomass fueled by P-bioavailability results in the deposition of organic matter in soils and sediments, where it acts as a source of fuel and nutrients to microbial communities. Microbial activity in soils and sediments, in turn, strongly influences the concentration and chemical form of phosphorus incorporated into the geological record.The global phosphorus cycle has four major components: (i) tectonic uplift and exposure of phosphorus-bearing rocks to the forces of weathering; (ii) physical erosion and chemical weathering of rocks producing soils and providing dissolved and particulate phosphorus to rivers; (iii) riverine transport of phosphorus to lakes and the ocean; and (iv) sedimentation of phosphorus associated with organic and mineral matter and burial in sediments (Figure 1). The cycle begins anew with uplift of sediments into the weathering regime.

Ruttenberg, K. C.

2003-12-01

11

Semiconducting black phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black phosphorus is a narrow-gap semiconductor newly attracting attention because of recent success in growing single crystals at a high temperature under a high pressure. This review covers recent research work on the preparation, the crystal structure, the band structure, the electrical and optical properties, and the superconductivity of black phosphorus.

A. Morita

1986-01-01

12

Microbial sequestration of phosphorus in anoxic upwelling sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for life. In the ocean, phosphorus burial regulates marine primary production. Phosphorus is removed from the ocean by sedimentation of organic matter, and the subsequent conversion of organic phosphorus to phosphate minerals such as apatite, and ultimately phosphorite deposits. Bacteria are thought to mediate these processes, but the mechanism of sequestration has remained unclear. Here, we present results from laboratory incubations in which we labelled organic-rich sediments from the Benguela upwelling system, Namibia, with a 33P-radiotracer, and tracked the fate of the phosphorus. We show that under both anoxic and oxic conditions, large sulphide-oxidizing bacteria accumulate 33P in their cells, and catalyse the nearly instantaneous conversion of phosphate to apatite. Apatite formation was greatest under anoxic conditions. Nutrient analyses of Namibian upwelling waters and sediments suggest that the rate of phosphate-to-apatite conversion beneath anoxic bottom waters exceeds the rate of phosphorus release during organic matter mineralization in the upper sediment layers. We suggest that bacterial apatite formation is a significant phosphorus sink under anoxic bottom-water conditions. Expanding oxygen minimum zones are projected in simulations of future climate change, potentially increasing sequestration of marine phosphate, and restricting marine productivity.

Goldhammer, Tobias; Brüchert, Volker; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Zabel, Matthias

2010-08-01

13

Tris(oxalato)phosphorus acid and its lithium salt.  

PubMed

The conversion of three equivalents of anhydrous oxalic acid with phosphorus pentachloride yields tris(oxalato)phosphorus acid 1, which crystallizes from diethyl ether solutions as protonated diethyl ether complex [(Et2O)2H](+)[P(C2O3)3)]-. The superacidic compound can be used as catalyst for Friedel-Crafts-type reactions. Upon neutralization with lithium hydride, the lithium salt Li[P(C2O3)3] 2 is obtained, which is highly soluble in aprotic solvents and which exhibits a wide voltage window. Thus, the lithium compound is a promising candidate as electrolyte for high performance non-aqueous batteries. PMID:15146519

Wietelmann, Ulrich; Bonrath, Werner; Netscher, Thomas; Nöth, Heinrich; Panitz, Jan-Christoph; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Margret

2004-05-17

14

The Chemical Evolution of Phosphorus  

E-print Network

Phosphorus is one of the few remaining light elements for which little is known about its nucleosynthetic origin and chemical evolution, given the lack of optical absorption lines in the spectra of long-lived FGK-type stars. We have identified a P I doublet in the near-ultraviolet (2135/2136 A) that is measurable in stars of low metallicity. Using archival Hubble Space Telescope-STIS spectra, we have measured P abundances in 13 stars spanning -3.3 compare the stellar data to chemical evolution models. Our results support previous indications that massive-star P yields may need to be increased by a factor of a few to match stellar data at all metallicities. Our results also show that hypernovae were important contributors to the P production in the early universe. As P is one of the ke...

Jacobson, Heather R; Frebel, Anna; Roederer, Ian U; Cescutti, Gabriele; Matteucci, Francesca

2014-01-01

15

Phosphorus in diet  

MedlinePLUS

... in the blood, although rare, can combine with calcium to form deposits in soft tissues such as muscle. High levels of phosphorus in blood only occur in people with severe kidney disease or severe dysfunction of their calcium regulation.

16

Rethinking early Earth phosphorus geochemistry.  

PubMed

Phosphorus is a key biologic element, and a prebiotic pathway leading to its incorporation into biomolecules has been difficult to ascertain. Most potentially prebiotic phosphorylation reactions have relied on orthophosphate as the source of phosphorus. It is suggested here that the geochemistry of phosphorus on the early Earth was instead controlled by reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds such as phosphite (HPO(3)(2-)), which are more soluble and reactive than orthophosphates. This reduced oxidation state phosphorus originated from extraterrestrial material that fell during the heavy bombardment period or was produced during impacts, and persisted in the mildly reducing atmosphere. This alternate view of early Earth phosphorus geochemistry provides an unexplored route to the formation of pertinent prebiotic phosphorus compounds, suggests a facile reaction pathway to condensed phosphates, and is consistent with the biochemical usage of reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds in life today. Possible studies are suggested that may detect reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds in ancient Archean rocks. PMID:18195373

Pasek, Matthew A

2008-01-22

17

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 86, 035105 (2012) Effect of van der Waals interactions on the structural and elastic properties of black phosphorus  

E-print Network

and elastic properties of black phosphorus S. Appalakondaiah and G. Vaitheeswaran* Advanced Centre of Research black phosphorus have been investigated using first-principles calculations based on density functional constant is significantly larger than the C11 and C33 parameters, implying that black phosphorus is stiffer

Svane, Axel Torstein

18

PHOSPHORUS BASICS Larry G. Bundy  

E-print Network

weed and algae growth. · Vegetative growth and oxygen depletion reduce water quality. · Phosphorus) Loss Processes · In surface runoff: Soluble (dissolved) P Particulate P (soil particles) · By leaching Does phosphorus leach? #12;PHOSPHORUS (P) IN RUNOFF · Dissolved (soluble P) (DP) · Total P (TP

Balser, Teri C.

19

Phosphorus accummulation in reed bed treatment filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Constructed wetlands are well known method for alternative wastewater treatment in rural areas in Poland. There are mainly used as a biological treatment step of domestic wastewater. The most popular are subsurface flow constructed wetlands (reed bed systems) with bed filled with site soil (mainly clayey sand or sandy clay). Over 30 such plants with daily flow above 5 m3 per day is operated in Poland. Object and goal of research Many researches have been made on estimation constructed wetlands treatment efficiency, however there are mostly concentrated on inlet outlet concentration compartments. In this study preliminary results of phosphorus accumulation in the bed of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland are presented. Monitored plant treats wastewater from 150 inhabitants in the volume of 14 m3 d-1 at average and is under operation from December 1998. The goal of research was to asses the distribution of phosphorus in the wetland bed after 8 years of treatment of domestic wastewater. Obtained results are shown on the background of organic matter (TOC) distribution. The methods applied The bed of the constructed wetland (30 m width and 33 m length) was divided by net of 20 points. In every point two soil samples, one from the depth of 0-10 cm and one from the depth of 20-30 cm, were collected. The samples were analyzed for organic matter and total phosphorus content. Investigation findings The results showed variation of measured indexes on the length and depth of treatment bed. In generally, the highest accumulation occurred near the inlet zone of wetland. The relation is rather clear in case of organic matter, but in case of phosphorus high contents were also observed at the outlet zone of wetland. Higher organic matter concentrations were observed in deeper layer (20-30 cm) than in upper layer (0-10 cm) of the bed.

Karczmarczyk, A.; Bary?a, A.

2009-04-01

20

Phosphorus and Global Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Phosphorus (P) is both an agent of global change, with P loads increasing in most global environments due to the loss of mined\\u000a phosphate from agricultural, industrial, and urban environments, and is affected by global change processes such as land degradation\\u000a or the need for P in biofuel production. P plays a fundamental role in food security and, because the

Holm Tiessen; Maria Victoria Ballester; Ignacio Salcedo

21

Phosphorus and the Green Scum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource explains the relationship between the overabundance of the element phosphorus in the environment and explosive algae growth (called algae blooms or green scum) as well as the progress toward eutrophication. The origins of excess phosphorus are listed as: too much fertilizer, leaves and grass, human and animal waste, and eroded soils. The site contains suggestions for phosphorus control, including soil testing, composting yard debris, and educating the public.

22

Phosphorus centers of different hybridization in phosphaalkene-substituted phospholes.  

PubMed

Phosphole-substituted phosphaalkenes (PPAs) of the general formula Mes*P=C(CH(3))-(C(4)H(2)P(Ph))-R 5?a-c (Mes*=2,4,6-tBu(3)Ph; R=2-pyridyl (a), 2-thienyl (b), phenyl (c)) have been prepared from octa-1,7-diyne-substituted phosphaalkenes by utilizing the Fagan-Nugent route. The presence of two differently hybridized phosphorus centers (?(2) ,?(3) and ?(3) ,?(3)) in 5 offers the possibility to selectively tune the HOMO-LUMO gap of the compounds by utilizing the different reactivity of the two phosphorus heteroatoms. Oxidation of 5?a-c by sulfur proceeds exclusively at the ?(3) ,?(3) -phosphorus atom, thus giving rise to the corresponding thioxophospholes 6?a-c. Similarly, 5?a is selectively coordinated by AuCl at the ?(3),?(3) -phosphorus atom. Subsequent second AuCl coordination at the ?(2),?(3) -phosphorus heteroatom results in a dimetallic species that is characterized by a gold-gold interaction that provokes a change in ? conjugation. Spectroscopic, electrochemical, and theoretical investigations show that the phosphaalkene and the phosphole both have a sizable impact on the electronic properties of the compounds. The presence of the phosphaalkene unit induces a decrease of the HOMO-LUMO gap relative to reference phosphole-containing ? systems that lack a P=C substituent. PMID:24890504

Öberg, Elisabet; Orthaber, Andreas; Lescop, Christophe; Réau, Régis; Hissler, Muriel; Ott, Sascha

2014-07-01

23

Transformation of phosphorus during vermicomposting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the growing awareness about vermicomposting technology in recycling a wide range of organic wastes, the behaviour of phosphorus during mineralization of different organic wastes in the absence and presence of epigeic earthworms was studied. The magnitude of the transformation of phosphorus from the organic to inorganic state, and thereby into available forms was found to be considerably

M. Ghosh; G. N. Chattopadhyay; K. Baral

1999-01-01

24

Molecular Structure of Phosphorus pentachloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Phosphorus pentachloride is an extremely hazardous waste and is highly reactive against water. It has been used as a pesticide and as a component in plastics. In addition, phosphorus pentachloride has been employed as a catalyst in organic synthesis to induce rearrangements. Some of the molecule's properties are having trigonal bipyramidal geometry and a hybridization of sp3d.

2002-10-01

25

Formation of Stable Phosphorus-Carbon Bond for Enhanced Performance in Black Phosphorus Nanoparticle-Graphite Composite  

E-print Network

Formation of Stable Phosphorus-Carbon Bond for Enhanced Performance in Black Phosphorus of electrical contact. Using the conducting allotrope of phosphorus, "black phosphorus" as starting materials, here we fabricated composites of black phosphorus nanoparticle-graphite by mechanochemical reaction

Cui, Yi

26

Geochemical stability of phosphorus solids below septic system infiltration beds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Review of 10 mature septic system plumes in Ontario, revealed that phosphorus (P) attenuation commonly occurred close to the infiltration pipes, resulting in discrete narrow intervals enriched in P by a factor of 2–4 (Wood, J.S.A. 1993. MSc thesis, Dept. Earth Sci., University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont.; Ground Water 36 (1995) 1000; J. Contam. Hydrol. 33 (1998) 405). Although these

M. A. Zurawsky; W. D. Robertson; C. J. Ptacek; S. L. Schiff

2004-01-01

27

The Chemical Evolution of Phosphorus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus is one of the few remaining light elements for which little is known about its nucleosynthetic origin and chemical evolution, given the lack of optical absorption lines in the spectra of long-lived FGK-type stars. We have identified a P I doublet in the near-ultraviolet (2135/2136 Å) that is measurable in stars of low metallicity. Using archival Hubble Space Telescope-Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph spectra, we have measured P abundances in 13 stars spanning –3.3 <= [Fe/H] <= -0.2, and obtained an upper limit for a star with [Fe/H] ~ -3.8. Combined with the only other sample of P abundances in solar-type stars in the literature, which spans a range of –1 <= [Fe/H] <= +0.2, we compare the stellar data to chemical evolution models. Our results support previous indications that massive-star P yields may need to be increased by a factor of a few to match stellar data at all metallicities. Our results also show that hypernovae were important contributors to the P production in the early universe. As P is one of the key building blocks of life, we also discuss the chemical evolution of the important elements to life, C-N-O-P-S, together. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. This work is supported through program AR-13246. Other portions of this work are based on data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and the McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin.

Jacobson, Heather R.; Thanathibodee, Thanawuth; Frebel, Anna; Roederer, Ian U.; Cescutti, Gabriele; Matteucci, Francesca

2014-12-01

28

New Inorganic Polymers Containing Phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relatively unexplored area of main group polymer chemistry continues to offer fertile ground for scientific study. In\\u000a this chapter recent developments in the area of linear inorganic polymers based on phosphorus are reviewed. The 1990s saw\\u000a the development of a number hybrid polymer systems where elements such as carbon and sulfur were incorporated into polymer\\u000a backbones along with phosphorus

Andrew R. McWilliams; Hendrik Dorn; Ian Manners

29

Calcium phosphate granulation in anaerobic treatment of black water: a new approach to phosphorus recovery.  

PubMed

Recovery of phosphorus from wastewater as calcium phosphate could diminish the need for mining of scarce phosphate rock resources. This study introduces a novel approach to phosphorus recovery by precipitation of calcium phosphate granules in anaerobic treatment of black water. The granules formed in the Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor at lab- and demonstration-scale were analyzed for chemical composition and mineralogy by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), Electron microprobe (EMP), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and micro X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The granules had a diameter of 1-2 mm, organic content of 33 wt%, and phosphorus content of 11-13 wt%. Three calcium phosphate phases were identified in the granules: hydroxyapatite, calcium phosphate hydrate and carbonated hydroxyapatite. Without any addition of chemicals, 7 gP/person/year can be recovered with the calcium phosphate granules, representing 2% of the incoming phosphorus in the UASB reactor. As the heavy metal content was lower compared to other phosphorus recovery products, phosphate rock and phosphorus fertilizer, the calcium phosphate granules could be considered as a new phosphorus product. PMID:24183558

Tervahauta, Taina; van der Weijden, Renata D; Flemming, Roberta L; Hernández Leal, Lucía; Zeeman, Grietje; Buisman, Cees J N

2014-01-01

30

Semiconducting layered blue phosphorus: a computational study.  

PubMed

We investigate a previously unknown phase of phosphorus that shares its layered structure and high stability with the black phosphorus allotrope. We find the in-plane hexagonal structure and bulk layer stacking of this structure, which we call "blue phosphorus," to be related to graphite. Unlike graphite and black phosphorus, blue phosphorus displays a wide fundamental band gap. Still, it should exfoliate easily to form quasi-two-dimensional structures suitable for electronic applications. We study a likely transformation pathway from black to blue phosphorus and discuss possible ways to synthesize the new structure. PMID:24836265

Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

2014-05-01

31

Semiconducting Layered Blue Phosphorus: A Computational Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate a previously unknown phase of phosphorus that shares its layered structure and high stability with the black phosphorus allotrope. We find the in-plane hexagonal structure and bulk layer stacking of this structure, which we call "blue phosphorus," to be related to graphite. Unlike graphite and black phosphorus, blue phosphorus displays a wide fundamental band gap. Still, it should exfoliate easily to form quasi-two-dimensional structures suitable for electronic applications. We study a likely transformation pathway from black to blue phosphorus and discuss possible ways to synthesize the new structure.

Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

2014-05-01

32

[In situ dynamics of phosphorus in the rhizosphere solution and organic acids exudation of two aquatic plants].  

PubMed

A mini-rhizotron experiment with Alternanthera philoxeroides and Typha latifolia was conducted to measure the spatial and temporal dynamics of phosphorus in the rhizosphere solution. The organic acids in the in situ rhizosphere soil solution were analyzed. A decreasing phosphorus concentration gradient in soil solution toward the root was observed for both A. philoxeroides and T. latifolia. The phosphorus concentration in the rhizosphere soil solution of A. philoxeroides (2.53 mg x L(-1)) was lower than that of T. latifolia (5.43 mg x L(-1)) in the forth sampling day. Compared to T. latifolia, A. philoxeroides released more malic acid (27.33 umol x L(-1)) which was more efficient in phosphorus mobilization. A. philoxeroides was more effective in phosphorus uptake in the rhizosphere than T. latifolia. PMID:19799282

Wang, Zhen-yu; Wen, Sheng-fang; Luo, Xian-xiang; Li, Ai-feng; Xing, Bao-shan; Li, Feng-min

2009-08-15

33

Economic feasibility study for phosphorus recovery processes.  

PubMed

Phosphorus recovery from wastewater has become a necessity for sustainable development because phosphorus is a non-renewable essential resource, and its discharge into the environment causes serious negative impacts. There are no economic incentives for the implementation of phosphorus recovery technologies because the selling price of rock phosphate is lower than phosphorus recovered from sewage. The methodologies used to determine the feasibility of such projects are usually focused on internal costs without considering environmental externalities. This article shows a methodology to assess the economic feasibility of wastewater phosphorus recovery projects that takes into account internal and external impacts. The shadow price of phosphorus is estimated using the directional distance function to measure the environmental benefits obtained by preventing the discharge of phosphorus into the environment. The economic feasibility analysis taking into account the environmental benefits shows that the phosphorus recovery is viable not only from sustainable development but also from an economic point of view. PMID:21809783

Molinos-Senante, María; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramón; Garrido-Baserba, Manel

2011-06-01

34

Transport and retention of nitrogen and phosphorus in the sub-tropical Richmond River estuary, Australia – A budget approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen and phosphorus loads in the sub-tropicalRichmond River estuary were quantified and materialbudgets were developed over two years of contrastingfreshwater discharge. During both years >74% of thenitrogen and >84% of the phosphorus load enteredthe estuary during one month when flooding occurred inthe catchment. Due to larger flood magnitude, loadsduring the 1995\\/96 year were 3.3 and 2.5 times greaterthan during the

Lester J. McKee; Bradley D. Eyre; Shahadat Hossain

2000-01-01

35

Effects of a High-Protein Diet on Regulation of Phosphorus Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Context: High-protein diets, which are popular for weight loss, contain large quantities of phosphorus. Phosphorus excess and consequent changes in phosphorus regulatory hormones are implicated in vascular calcification and cardiovascular disease. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that a moderate increase in dietary phosphorus during a high-protein diet leads to changes in phosphorus-responsive hormones. Design, Participants, and Setting: We conducted a post hoc analysis of a sequential dietary modification trial in 19 healthy volunteers in the general community. Intervention: Participants received 2 weeks of a weight-maintaining, low-protein (15%) diet, followed by 2 weeks of an isocaloric, high-protein (30%) diet, followed by 12 weeks of an ad libitum high-protein (30%) diet. Main Outcome Measures: Using previously collected samples, plasma concentrations of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), PTH, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were measured at 8 time points to assess 24-hour variability and in 24-hour pooled samples to delineate changes at the end of each diet period. Results: Mean dietary phosphorus intake during each study period was 1556, 2071, and 1622 mg/d, respectively. Plasma concentrations of FGF-23 and vitamin D metabolites varied in a diurnal pattern; plasma PTH concentrations varied in a bimodal pattern. After changing from a low- to high-protein isocaloric diet, plasma FGF-23 concentrations decreased slightly (mean ?4.48 pg/mL, 95% confidence interval 1.88–7.07). There were no other statistically significant changes in phosphorus regulatory hormones in response to diet modifications. Conclusions: Among healthy people, an approximate 33% increase in dietary phosphorus after institution of a high-protein diet does not cause large changes in measured concentrations of phosphorus regulatory hormones. PMID:23393178

Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Kratz, Mario; Weigle, David S.; Callahan, Holly S.; Purnell, Jonathan Q.; Horgan, Angela M.; de Boer, Ian H.; Kestenbaum, Bryan R.

2013-01-01

36

Phosphorus Risk Index Quantitative vs. Qualitative  

E-print Network

impact #12;Edge of Field Loss Water Body Loading Using a Phosphorus Index to accurately quantify that a specific phosphorus concentration and/or loading to a receiving water body will cause an adverse response guidelines for phosphorus at the site to lessen their impact on water quality." http://www

37

Phosphorus Runoff: Effect of Tillage and Soil Phosphorus Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transport of AAP in surface runoff and sediments is dependent on the erosion potential and the surface Continued inputs of fertilizer and manure in excess of crop require- soil P content (Sibbensen and Sharpley, 1997). The ments have led to a build-up of soil phosphorus (P) levels and in- creased P runoff from agricultural soils. The objectives of this

I. C. Daverede; A. N. Kravchenko; R. G. Hoeft; E. D. Nafziger; D. G. Bullock; J. J. Warren; L. C. Gonzini

38

Original article Plasma phosphorus content and dietary phosphorus  

E-print Network

either dicalcium phosphate, calcium aluminium phosphate, stan- dard rapeseed meal or formaldehyde homeostasis. During the test phase, dicalcium phosphate and both rapeseed meals were more efficient than calcium aluminium phos- phate in restoring the initial plasma phosphorus levels. Both, rapeseed meal diets

Boyer, Edmond

39

Effect of chitosan chewing gum on reducing serum phosphorus in hemodialysis patients: a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background HS219 (40 mg chitosan-loaded chewing gum) is designed to bind salivary phosphorus as an add-on to available phosphorus binders. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of HS219 in hemodialysis (HD) patients with hyperphosphatemia as an add-on to phosphorus binders. Methods Sixty-eight HD patients who were maintained on calcium carbonate (n?=?33) or sevelamer hydrochloride (n?=?35) were enrolled. The primary end point was a change in serum phosphorus levels. Secondary end points included changes in levels of salivary phosphorus, serum calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and intact fibroblast growth factor (iFGF) 23. Results Sixty-three patients chewed either HS219 (n?=?35) or placebo (n?=?28) for 30 min, three times a day, for 3 weeks. HS219 was well tolerated and safe. However, HS219 was not superior to placebo with additional reduction of serum phosphorus with respect to phosphorus binders at the end of the chewing period. There were no significant effects of HS219 on reduction of salivary phosphorus, serum calcium, iPTH, or iFGF23 levels. Conclusions The chitosan-loaded chewing gum HS219 does not affect serum and salivary phosphorus levels in Japanese HD patients with hyperphosphatemia. Our findings do not support previous findings that 20 mg of chitosan-loaded chewing gum reduces serum and salivary phosphorus levels. Trail registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01039428, 24 December, 2009. PMID:24968790

2014-01-01

40

Texas Phosphorus Index TECHNICAL NOTES  

E-print Network

inputs can also increase the biological productivity of surface waters by accelerating eutrophication. Eutrophication is the natural aging of lakes or streams brought on by nutrient enrichment. Phosphorus enrichment areas or practices that have the greatest potential to accelerate eutrophication. It can be used

Mukhtar, Saqib

41

NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) NASA ASRS (Pub. 33)  

E-print Network

NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS

42

Organic phosphorus sequestration in subtropical treatment wetlands.  

PubMed

Diffuse phosphorus pollution is commonly remediated by diverting runoff through treatment wetlands to sequester phosphorus into soil layers. Much of the sequestered phosphorus occurs in organic forms, yet our understanding of its chemical nature is limited. We used NaOH-EDTA extraction and solution 31P NMR spectroscopy to speciate organic phosphorus sequestered in a large treatment wetland (STA-1W) in Florida, USA. The wetland was constructed on previously farmed peat and was designed to remove phosphorus from agricultural runoff prior to discharge into the Everglades. Unconsolidated benthic floc that had accumulated during the 9-year operation of the wetland was sampled along transects through two connected cells dominated by cattail (Typha dominigensis Pers.) and an additional cell colonized by submerged aquatic vegetation, including southern water nymph (Najas guadalupensis(Spreng.) Magnus) and coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum L.). Organic phosphorus was a greater proportion of the sequestered phosphorus in the cattail marsh compared to the submerged aquatic vegetation wetland, but occurred almost exclusively as phosphate diesters and their alkaline hydrolysis products. Itwas therefore markedly different from the organic phosphorus in mineral soils, which is dominated typically by inositol phosphates. Phosphate diesters are readily degradable in most soils, raising concern about the long-term fate of organic phosphorus in treatment wetlands. Further studies are now necessaryto assess the stability of the sequestered organic phosphorus in response to biogeochemical and hydrological perturbation. PMID:16509310

Turner, Benjamin L; Newman, Susan; Newman, Jana M

2006-02-01

43

Nonpoint source phosphorus loads to Delaware's lakes and streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus loads were estimated for 30 lakes and subwatersheds. Major land uses in the watersheds were cropland and forestland. Annual phosphorus loads varied from 0.42 to 1.19 kg\\/ha. Watersheds with over 60% cropland had higher phosphorus loading rates than watersheds with more than 40% forestland. Ortho phosphorus concentrations were much lower than total phosphorus concentrations.

William F. Ritter

1992-01-01

44

The Galactic evolution of phosphorus  

E-print Network

As a galaxy evolves, its chemical composition changes and the abundance ratios of different elements are powerful probes of the underlying evolutionary processes. Phosphorous is an element whose evolution has remained quite elusive until now, because it is difficult to detect in cool stars. The infrared weak P I lines of the multiplet 1, at 1050-1082 nm, are the most reliable indicators of the presence of phosphorus. The availability of CRIRES at VLT has permitted access to this wavelength range in stellar spectra.We attempt to measure the phosphorus abundance of twenty cool stars in the Galactic disk. The spectra are analysed with one-dimensional model-atmospheres computed in Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE). The line formation computations are performed assuming LTE. The ratio of phosphorus to iron behaves similarly to sulphur, increasing towards lower metallicity stars. Its ratio with respect to sulphur is roughly constant and slightly larger than solar, [P/S]=0.10+- 0.10. We succeed in taking an impo...

Caffau, E; Faraggiana, R; Steffen, M

2011-01-01

45

Phosphorus-containing materials for organic electronics.  

PubMed

Phosphorus-based materials have received widespread attention in recent years, in particular as possible candidates for practical application in organic electronics. The geometry and electronic nature of phosphorus make it a favorable heteroatom for property tuning in order to obtain better performing organic electronics. This Focus Review discusses recent structural modifications and syntheses of phosphorus-based materials, illustrates property tuning at the same time, and highlights specific examples for device applications. PMID:24678037

Stolar, Monika; Baumgartner, Thomas

2014-05-01

46

[Kinetic simulation of enhanced biological phosphorus removal with fermentation broth as carbon source].  

PubMed

As a high-quality carbon source, fermentation broth could promote the phosphorus removal efficiency in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). The transformation of substrates in EBPR fed with fermentation broth was well simulated using the modified activated sludge model No. 2 (ASM2) based on the carbon source metabolism. When fermentation broth was used as the sole carbon source, it was found that heterotrophic bacteria acted as a promoter rather than a competitor to the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAO). When fermentation broth was used as a supplementary carbon source of real municipal wastewater, the wastewater composition was optimized for PAO growth; and the PAO concentration, which was increased by 3.3 times compared to that in EBPR fed with solely real municipal wastewater, accounting for about 40% of the total biomass in the reactor. PMID:24028007

Zhang, Chao; Chen, Yin-Guang

2013-07-01

47

Solar production of elemental phosphorus. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A project is described which was to determine the technical feasibility of using a solar furnace to produce elemental phosphorus and to provide guidelines for future reactor designs. A laboratory program showed that elemental phosphorus may be produced by heating an intimate mixture of phosphate rock, silica, and carbon black to 1300/sup 0/ to 1500/sup 0/C and sweeping the phosphorus vapors from the reactor with argon. Phosphorus vapors are bubbled through a copper sulfate solution to minimize any potential exposure of personnel. Four successful solar furnace runs at the White Sands Solar Facility are reported. The design and testing of the solar receiver/reactor are discussed. (LEW)

Whaley, T.P.; Yudow, B.D.; Schreiber, J.D.

1981-11-01

48

Studies on phosphorus availability in poultry rations  

E-print Network

to tricalcium phosphate for growth and bone formation in chicks. Analysis of the metaphosphate supplement for citrate-soluble phosphorus, according to the A.O.A.C. method for fertilizers, showed that 96 per cent of the total phosphorus was soluble in neutral... to tricalcium phosphate for growth and bone formation in chicks. Analysis of the metaphosphate supplement for citrate-soluble phosphorus, according to the A.O.A.C. method for fertilizers, showed that 96 per cent of the total phosphorus was soluble in neutral...

Baruah, Jogendra Nath

2013-10-04

49

Energy and phosphorus recovery from black water.  

PubMed

Source-separated black water (BW) (toilet water) containing 38% of the organic material and 68% of the phosphorus in the total household waste (water) stream including kitchen waste, is a potential source for energy and phosphorus recovery. The energy recovered, in the form of electricity and heat, is more than sufficient for anaerobic treatment, nitrogen removal and phosphorus recovery. The phosphorus balance of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating concentrated BW showed a phosphorus conservation of 61% in the anaerobic effluent. Precipitation of phosphate as struvite from this stream resulted in a recovery of 0.22 kgP/p/y, representing 10% of the artificial phosphorus fertiliser production in the world. The remaining part of the phosphorus ended up in the anaerobic sludge, mainly due to precipitation (39%). Low dilution and a high pH favour the accumulation of phosphorus in the anaerobic sludge and this sludge could be used as a phosphorus-enriched organic fertiliser, provided that it is safe regarding heavy metals, pathogens and micro-pollutants. PMID:22049776

de Graaff, M S; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; Buisman, C J N

2011-01-01

50

Phosphorus and Nutrition in Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Patients with renal impairment progressively lose the ability to excrete phosphorus. Decreased glomerular filtration of phosphorus is initially compensated by decreased tubular reabsorption, regulated by PTH and FGF23, maintaining normal serum phosphorus concentrations. There is a close relationship between protein and phosphorus intake. In chronic renal disease, a low dietary protein content slows the progression of kidney disease, especially in patients with proteinuria and decreases the supply of phosphorus, which has been directly related with progression of kidney disease and with patient survival. However, not all animal proteins and vegetables have the same proportion of phosphorus in their composition. Adequate labeling of food requires showing the phosphorus-to-protein ratio. The diet in patients with advanced-stage CKD has been controversial, because a diet with too low protein content can favor malnutrition and increase morbidity and mortality. Phosphorus binders lower serum phosphorus and also FGF23 levels, without decreasing diet protein content. But the interaction between intestinal dysbacteriosis in dialysis patients, phosphate binder efficacy, and patient tolerance to the binder could reduce their efficiency. PMID:22701173

Gonzalez-Parra, Emilio; Gracia-Iguacel, Carolina; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto

2012-01-01

51

Utilization of phosphorus and calcium and minimal maintenance requirement for phosphorus  

E-print Network

of a marginal phosphorus deficiency associated or not with an excess of calcium in 5 lots of 4 growing sheepUtilization of phosphorus and calcium and minimal maintenance requirement for phosphorus in growing. In experiment 1, two P-deficient diets (1.2 g/kg DM) poor (LPLCa) or rich (LPHCa) in Ca led to lower

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

52

THE EFFECT OF WASTEWATER PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL ON SHAGAWA LAKE, MINNESOTA: PHOSPHORUS SUPPLIES, LAKE PHOSPHORUS AND CHLOROPHYLL A  

EPA Science Inventory

In early 1973, the phosphorus supply to Shagawa Lake, Minnesota, was reduced by about 80% when a tertiary wastewater treatment plant began operating. Significant reductions in total and soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations have occurred in the lake since that time. By 1976 ...

53

Phosphorus Use-Efficiency by Cotton Grown in an Alkaline Soil as Determined Using Phosphorus and Phosphorus Radio-Isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) and P radioisotopes were used to identify the contribution of soil and fertilizer P sources to P uptake by cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) grown in an alkaline soil representative of those used for growing cotton in Australia. Phosphorus fertilizer application only increased P concentration in the plants during leaf expansion, but had no effect on biomass production, P

Christopher G. Dorahy; Ian J. Rochester; Graeme J. Blair; A. Raymond Till

2008-01-01

54

Trapping phosphorus in runoff with a phosphorus removal structure.  

PubMed

Reduction of phosphorus (P) inputs to surface waters may decrease eutrophication. Some researchers have proposed filtering dissolved P in runoff with P-sorptive byproducts in structures placed in hydrologically active areas with high soil P concentrations. The objectives of this study were to construct and monitor a P removal structure in a suburban watershed and test the ability of empirically developed flow-through equations to predict structure performance. Steel slag was used as the P sorption material in the P removal structure. Water samples were collected before and after the structure using automatic samples and analyzed for total dissolved P. During the first 5 mo of structure operation, 25% of all dissolved P was removed from rainfall and irrigation events. Phosphorus was removed more efficiently during low flow rate irrigation events with a high retention time than during high flow rate rainfall events with a low retention time. The six largest flow events occurred during storm flow and accounted for 75% of the P entering the structure and 54% of the P removed by the structure. Flow-through equations developed for predicting structure performance produced reasonable estimates of structure "lifetime" (16.8 mo). However, the equations overpredicted cumulative P removal. This was likely due to differences in pH, total Ca and Fe, and alkalinity between the slag used in the structure and the slag used for model development. This suggests the need for an overall model that can predict structure performance based on individual material properties. PMID:22565249

Penn, Chad J; McGrath, Joshua M; Rounds, Elliott; Fox, Garey; Heeren, Derek

2012-01-01

55

Treatment of phosphorus balance disorders.  

PubMed

Phosphorus (P) homeostasis in ruminants has received increased attention over the past decades. Although environmental concerns associated with excessive P excretion in cattle manure have led to incentives to lower dietary P intake, hypophosphatemia-particularly in the periparturient dairy cow-has been associated with conditions, such as the downer cow syndrome or postparturient hemoglobinuria. The objective of this article is to revisit current understanding of P homeostasis in ruminants, to discuss the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of P balance disorders, and to review different treatment approaches to correct imbalances of the body's P equilibrium. PMID:24980728

Grünberg, Walter

2014-07-01

56

The phosphorus cycle in coastal marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately half of the sedimentation flux of particulate phosphorus in the Laurentian Trough in the Gulf of St. Lawrence is mobilized within the sediment and returned to the water column. In the oxidizing surface sediment, a major portion of the sedimentation flux of organic phosphorus is mineralized, and the released phosphate is partitioned between the pore water and surface adsorption

Charles Gobeil; Norman Silverberg; Alfonso Mucci

57

The phosphorus cycle in coastal marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Approximately half of the sedimentation flux of particulate phosphorus,in the Laurentian Trough in the Gulf of St. Lawrence is mobilized,within the sediment and returned to the water column. In the oxidizing surface sediment, a major portion of the sedimentation flux of organic phosphorus is mineralized, and the released phosphate is partitioned between the pore water and surface adsorption sites.

Bjøorn Sundby; Charles Gobeil; Norman Silverberg; Alfonso Mucci

1993-01-01

58

7 Phosphorus Modeling in Soil and Water  

E-print Network

163 7 Phosphorus Modeling in Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Model Indrajeet Chaubey, Decomposition, and Immobilization..................... 170 7.2.3 Inorganic Phosphorus Sorption............................................................................................................. 185 7.1 SWAT MODEL BACKGROUND The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was developed by the U

59

Nutrient Management Module No. 4 Phosphorus Cycling,  

E-print Network

and climate properties affect phosphorus cycling in soil 3.Recognize how cropping systems affect phosphorus and movement. This is accomplished in this module by 1) describing the factors that affect P cycling in soils, and erosion (Figure 1). PLANT UPTAKE Despite low concentrations of phosphate in soil solution, plants can take

Lawrence, Rick L.

60

Phosphorus transfer from sediments by Myriophyllum spicatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake of phosphorus, the biomass, and the standing P stock were measured over the course of a year in roots and shoots of the Eurasian water milfoil, Myriophyllum spicatum, from Lake Wingra, Wisconsin. The resulting data were used to estimate the relative contributions of root and shoot uptake to the phosphorus economy of the plant and to examine the

CRAIG S. SMITH; MICHAEL S. ADAMS

1986-01-01

61

Dietary phosphorus supply, egg-shell deposition and plasma inorganic phosphorus in laying hens.  

PubMed

1. In 2 experiments the effects of dietary phosphorus on relationships between plasma inorganic phosphorus concentration (Pi), shell and egg production and depletion states were measured in brown laying hens. 2. In a 12-week experiment dietary phosphorus concentrations from conventionally deficient (1.6 g non-phytate-phosphorus (PNP)/kg) to moderate excess (3.9 g PNP/kg) had little effect on egg and shell production, although there was evidence that plasma Pi concentration, when not influenced strongly by shell formation, reflected dietary phosphorus content. 3. Among birds at each dietary phosphorus concentration there was a negative linear relationship between shell weight of early eggs in the sequence and plasma Pi concentration. The relationship was apparently not affected by dietary phosphorus concentration. 4. Continued feeding of the deficient diet to 61 weeks of age did not have effects on body weight, egg and shell production, other than those associated with age, but plasma Pi and bone measurements indicated marginal phosphorus depletion. 5. In another experiment excessive dietary phosphorus (11.9 g PNP/kg) fed in a cross-over design caused small adverse effects on shell production, increased food intake and body weight and increased plasma Pi content, while there was no relationship between shell weight and plasma Pi concentration. 6. The results are consistent with an indirect effect of plasma phosphorus accumulation on shell formation, probably via an inhibitory effect on skeletal calcium release, in addition to any effect of excess dietary phosphorus on intestinal calcium availability. 7. Phosphorus requirement and status in the laying hen are complicated by the failure to recognise the contribution of digestible phytate-phosphorus to the available phosphorus supply. PMID:11337973

Boorman, K N; Gunaratne, S P

2001-03-01

62

Balance sheet for phosphorus in the UK.  

PubMed

A balance sheet for the inputs, uses and outputs of phosphorus in the UK economy has been drawn up. The major import is fertilizer, amounting to about 200 kt P per year. After fertilizers, the other imports (in kt P) are in animal feeds (63), detergents (38) and human food (14). The major outputs are sewage (50), animal excreta (26) and refuse (21); soil losses are about 20 kt. The flowpaths for phosphorus through humans, animals and plants are described. The discrepancy of about 210 kt P/yr is explained by the fact that the amount of phosphorus in the soil increases each year by almost as much as the amount of fertilizer phosphorus added. In view of UK dependence on this imported resource it is suggested that priority is given to work which might eventually have some practical application in preventing or reversing the immobilization of phosphorus in the soil. PMID:249678

Bowman, J C

63

Spectrophotometric determination of phosphorus acid  

SciTech Connect

A number of procedures have been proposed to determine phosphorus acid and its salts, the phosphites, in the presence of hypophosphorus acid and its salts, the hypophosphites. Among these procedures, iodometric back-titration has produced the most reliable results. In this paper, the authors propose an improved iodometric determination of phosphorus acid that enables the sensitivity to be increased by at least two orders of magnitude. The essence of this improvement is that excess iodine that did not react with phosphite ion is determined not volumetrically but spectrophotometrically. To eliminate the effect of iodine ion that is liberated when iodine reacts with phosphite ion on the optical density of the solution, a 200-fold excess of potassium iodide is added before the photometric measurement. The working iodine solution is prepared by diluting 10 m of 0.025 N iodine titrant and 50 ml of phosphate buffer, pH 6.7-7.2, to 1 liter with distilled water in a coulometric flask. To construct the calibration curve, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 ml, respectively of working iodine solution, and 10 ml of 2% aqueous potassium iodide are placed into five 100-ml volumetric flasks, and the solutions are made up to volume with water. After 10 min the photometric measurements are carried out at 380 nm using curvets and the reference solution is obtained by diluting 10 ml of 2% aqueous potassium iodide to 100 ml with distilled water.

Domin, A.V.; Domina, N.G.; Zakharov, Yu.A.; Shechkov, G.T.

1987-03-01

64

Bronx River bed sediments phosphorus pool and phosphorus compound identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus (P) transport in the Bronx River degraded water quality, decreased oxygen levels, and resulted in bioaccumulation in sediment potentially resulting in eutrophication, algal blooms and oxygen depletion under certain temperature and pH conditions. The anthropogenic P sources are storm water runoff, raw sewage discharge, fertilizer application in lawn, golf course and New York Botanical Garden; manure from the Bronx zoo; combined sewoverflows (CSO's) from parkway and Hunts Point sewage plant; pollutants from East River. This research was conducted in the urban river system in New York City area, in order to control P source, figure out P transport temporal and spatial variations and the impact on water quality; aimed to regulate P application, sharing data with Bronx River Alliance, EPA, DEP and DEC. The sediment characteristics influence the distribution and bioavailbility of P in the Bronx River. The P sequential extraction gave the quantitative analysis of the P pool, quantifying the inorganic and organic P from the sediments. There were different P pool patterns at the 15 sites, and the substantial amount of inorganic P pool indicated that a large amount P is bioavailable. The 31P- NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy) technology had been used to identify P species in the 15 sites of the Bronx River, which gave a qualitative analysis on phosphorus transport in the river. The P compounds in the Bronx River bed sediments are mostly glycerophophate (GlyP), nucleoside monophosphates (NMP), polynucleotides (PolyN), and few sites showed the small amount of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), glycerophosphoethanoamine (GPEA), phosphoenopyruvates (PEP), and inosine monophosphate (IMP). The land use spatial and temporal variations influence local water P levels, P distributions, and P compositions.

Wang, J.; Pant, H. K.

2008-12-01

65

Association of Dietary Phosphorus Intake and Phosphorus to Protein Ratio with Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: Epidemiologic studies show an association between higher predialysis serum phosphorus and increased death risk in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. The hypothesis that higher dietary phosphorus intake and higher phosphorus content per gram of dietary protein intake are each associated with increased mortality in MHD patients was examined. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Food frequency questionnaires were used to conduct a cohort study to examine the survival predictability of dietary phosphorus and the ratio of phosphorus to protein intake. At the start of the cohort, Cox proportional hazard regression was used in 224 MHD patients, who were followed for up to 5 years (2001 to 2006). Results: Both higher dietary phosphorus intake and a higher dietary phosphorus to protein ratio were associated with significantly increased death hazard ratios (HR) in the unadjusted models and after incremental adjustments for case-mix, diet, serum phosphorus, malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome, and inflammatory markers. The HR of the highest (compared with lowest) dietary phosphorus intake tertile in the fully adjusted model was 2.37. Across categories of dietary phosphorus to protein ratios of <12, 12 to <14, 14 to <16, and ?16 mg/g, death HRs were 1.13, 1.00 (reference value), 1.80, and 1.99, respectively. Cubic spline models of the survival analyses showed similar incremental associations. Conclusions: Higher dietary phosphorus intake and higher dietary phosphorus to protein ratios are each associated with increased death risk in MHD patients, even after adjustments for serum phosphorus, phosphate binders and their types, and dietary protein, energy, and potassium intakes. PMID:20185606

Noori, Nazanin; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Bross, Rachelle; Benner, Debbie; Kopple, Joel D.

2010-01-01

66

Tunable optical properties of multilayers black phosphorus  

E-print Network

We calculated the optical conductivity tensor of multilayers black phosphorus using the Kubo formula within an effective low-energy Hamiltonian. The optical absorption spectra of multilayers black phosphorus are shown to vary sensitively with thickness, doping, and light polarization. In conjunction with experimental spectra obtained from infrared absorption spectroscopy, we discuss the role of interband coupling and disorder on the observed anisotropic absorption spectra. Multilayers black phosphorus might offer attractive alternatives to narrow gap compound semiconductors for optoelectronics across mid- to near-infrared frequencies.

Low, Tony; Carvalho, A; Jiang, Yongjin; Wang, Han; Xia, Fengnian; Neto, A H Castro

2014-01-01

67

The phosphorus mass balance: identifying 'hotspots' in the food system as a roadmap to phosphorus security.  

PubMed

Phosphorus is a critical element on which all life depends. Global crop production depends on fertilisers derived from phosphate rock to maintain high crop yields. Population increase, changing dietary preferences towards more meat and dairy products, and the continuing intensification of global agriculture supporting this expansion will place increasing pressure on an uncertain, but finite supply of high-quality phosphate rock. Growing concern about phosphorus scarcity and security, coupled with the environmental impact of phosphorus pollution, has encouraged an increase in research exploring how phosphorus is used and lost in the food system-from mine to field to fork. An assessment of recent phosphorus flows analyses at different geographical scales identifies the key phosphorus 'hotspots', for example within the mining, agriculture or food processing sectors, where efficiency and reuse can be substantially improved through biotechnological approaches coupled with policy changes. PMID:22503084

Cordell, Dana; Neset, Tina-Simone Schmid; Prior, Timothy

2012-12-01

68

Uptake and accumulation of phosphorus by dominant plant species growing in a phosphorus mining area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus accumulation potentials were investigated for 12 dominant plant species growing in a phosphorus mining area in Shifang, as well as their corresponding non-mining ecotypes growing in Ya’an, China. High phosphorus concentrations were observed in the seedling and flowering stages of two species, Pilea sinofasciata and Polygonum hydropiper, up to 16.23 and 8.59gkg?1, respectively, which were 3.4 and 7 times

Guangli Xiao; Tingxuan Li; Xizhou Zhang; Haiying Yu; Huagang Huang; D. K. Gupta

2009-01-01

69

Towards global phosphorus security: a systems framework for phosphorus recovery and reuse options.  

PubMed

Human intervention in the global phosphorus cycle has mobilised nearly half a billion tonnes of the element from phosphate rock into the hydrosphere over the past half century. The resultant water pollution concerns have been the main driver for sustainable phosphorus use (including phosphorus recovery). However the emerging global challenge of phosphorus scarcity with serious implications for future food security, means phosphorus will also need to be recovered for productive reuse as a fertilizer in food production to replace increasingly scarce and more expensive phosphate rock. Through an integrated and systems framework, this paper examines the full spectrum of sustainable phosphorus recovery and reuse options (from small-scale low-cost to large-scale high-tech), facilitates integrated decision-making and identifies future opportunities and challenges for achieving global phosphorus security. Case studies are provided rather than focusing on a specific technology or process. There is no single solution to achieving a phosphorus-secure future: in addition to increasing phosphorus use efficiency, phosphorus will need to be recovered and reused from all current waste streams throughout the food production and consumption system (from human and animal excreta to food and crop wastes). There is a need for new sustainable policies, partnerships and strategic frameworks to develop renewable phosphorus fertilizer systems for farmers. Further research is also required to determine the most sustainable means in a given context for recovering phosphorus from waste streams and converting the final products into effective fertilizers, accounting for life cycle costs, resource and energy consumption, availability, farmer accessibility and pollution. PMID:21414650

Cordell, D; Rosemarin, A; Schröder, J J; Smit, A L

2011-08-01

70

Tracing the phosphorus contamination sources and reducing the phosphorus contamination in HPGe crystal growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The net impurity concentration and the dislocation density for the grown crystals must be controlled within a narrow range of values to produce crystals acceptable for large-volume coaxial germanium detector fabrication. Phosphorus is the main shallow level donor in high purity germanium crystal. The phosphorus contamination is a disaster for growing p-type high-purity germanium crystal. The phosphorus contamination mainly comes from crucible, insulation, ambient gas or crystal growth chamber. Regrowth method was used to trace the phosphorus contamination sources. The contamination level from sources was discussed in detail in this paper. For different contamination source, targeted approaches were used to reduce the contamination.

Wang, Guojian; Guan, Yutong; Yang, Gang; Govani, Jayesh; Khizar, Muhammad; Mei, Hao; Mei, Dongming

2013-03-01

71

ENZYME DEGRADATION OF CHIRAL ORGANIC PHOSPHORUS INSECTICIDES  

EPA Science Inventory

Chiral organic phosphorus pesticides (OPs) are expected to be biologically degraded enantioselectively by endogenous enzymes. Various chiral Ops were treated with the enzyme phosphotriesterase (PTE) obtained from partially purified extracts of Escherichia coli strain DH-5- carryi...

72

Stability and electronic structure of phosphorus nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

First-principles density-functional theory (DFT) calculations of single-walled phosphorus nanotubes constructed from the black-phosphorus (b-P) layered allotrope show that their strain energies per atom for radii above 0.6 nm are comparable to the strain energies predicted for experimentally observed single-walled carbon nanotubes with radii of 0.5 nm. Our DFT calculations further predict that the nanotube structures are energetically more stable than

I. Cabria; J. W. Mintmire

2004-01-01

73

Focused phosphorus ion beam implantation into silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus implantation into (100) silicon using a 32-keV focused ion beam is investigated from the standpoints of electrical properties and damage to the implanted layers. Phosphorus ions are extracted from the Pt-P-Sb alloy liguid-metal-ion source. Electrical properties are measured by isochronal annealing with Hall measurements and radiation damage is evaluated using a transmission electron microscope. Compared with the conventional implantation

Y. Madokoro; S. Shukuri; K. Umemura; M. Tamura

1989-01-01

74

Response of rice to soil phosphorus levels  

E-print Network

~ ~ ~ Relationship of soil test phosphorus with the peroent yield (grain and straw) and. total up- take of phosphorus on Lake Charles oiay ~ ~ . . +, ~ 52 Vy SUMMARY ND CONCLUSIORS ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ o ~ ~ a ~ boise 59 VIe LITERATURE CITED... the following three soil types was used during this study' (1) Rockley fine sandy loam~ a greyish brown sandy loam over a sandy olay su'bsoil. Its surface and internal d. rainsge is slow, but adequate for the growth of all common field crops, This soil...

Quddus, Mohammad Abdul

2012-06-07

75

Soil phosphorus constrains biodiversity across European grasslands.  

PubMed

Nutrient pollution presents a serious threat to biodiversity conservation. In terrestrial ecosystems, the deleterious effects of nitrogen pollution are increasingly understood and several mitigating environmental policies have been developed. Compared to nitrogen, the effects of increased phosphorus have received far less attention, although some studies have indicated that phosphorus pollution may be detrimental for biodiversity as well. On the basis of a dataset covering 501 grassland plots throughout Europe, we demonstrate that, independent of the level of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and soil acidity, plant species richness was consistently negatively related to soil phosphorus. We also identified thresholds in soil phosphorus above which biodiversity appears to remain at a constant low level. Our results indicate that nutrient management policies biased toward reducing nitrogen pollution will fail to preserve biodiversity. As soil phosphorus is known to be extremely persistent and we found no evidence for a critical threshold below which no environmental harm is expected, we suggest that agro-environmental schemes should include grasslands that are permanently free from phosphorus fertilization. PMID:24895112

Ceulemans, Tobias; Stevens, Carly J; Duchateau, Luc; Jacquemyn, Hans; Gowing, David J G; Merckx, Roel; Wallace, Hilary; van Rooijen, Nils; Goethem, Thomas; Bobbink, Roland; Dorland, Edu; Gaudnik, Cassandre; Alard, Didier; Corcket, Emmanuel; Muller, Serge; Dise, Nancy B; Dupré, Cecilia; Diekmann, Martin; Honnay, Olivier

2014-12-01

76

33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section 142...Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33 Foot protection. (a) Personnel working...where there is a reasonable probability for foot injury to occur shall wear...

2014-07-01

77

33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section 142...Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33 Foot protection. (a) Personnel working...where there is a reasonable probability for foot injury to occur shall wear...

2011-07-01

78

33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section 142...Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33 Foot protection. (a) Personnel working...where there is a reasonable probability for foot injury to occur shall wear...

2012-07-01

79

33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section 142...Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33 Foot protection. (a) Personnel working...where there is a reasonable probability for foot injury to occur shall wear...

2010-07-01

80

33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section 142...Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33 Foot protection. (a) Personnel working...where there is a reasonable probability for foot injury to occur shall wear...

2013-07-01

81

Uptake and accumulation of phosphorus by dominant plant species growing in a phosphorus mining area.  

PubMed

Phosphorus accumulation potentials were investigated for 12 dominant plant species growing in a phosphorus mining area in Shifang, as well as their corresponding non-mining ecotypes growing in Ya'an, China. High phosphorus concentrations were observed in the seedling and flowering stages of two species, Pilea sinofasciata and Polygonum hydropiper, up to 16.23 and 8.59 g kg(-1), respectively, which were 3.4 and 7 times higher than in the non-mining ecotypes. Available phosphorus levels in the respective rhizosphere soils of these plants were 112.84 and 121.78 mg kg(-1), 12 and 4 times higher than in the non-rhizosphere soil. Phosphorus concentrations in shoots of the mining ecotypes of all 12 species were significantly negatively correlated with available phosphorus in the rhizosphere soils (p<0.05), whereas a positive correlation was observed in the non-mining ecotypes. The biomass in shoot of the mining ecotype of P. hydropiper was nearly 2 times that in the non-mining ecotype. The results suggested that P. sinofasciata and P. hydropiper were efficient candidates among the tested species for phosphorus accumulation in shoots, and that further studies should be conducted to investigate their potential to be adopted as phosphorus accumulators. PMID:19608342

Xiao, Guangli; Li, Tingxuan; Zhang, Xizhou; Yu, Haiying; Huang, Huagang; Gupta, D K

2009-11-15

82

The Atomic Distribution in Red and Black Phosphorus and the Crystal Structure of Black Phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

No satisfactory crystal structure determination has been made of any of the forms of phosphorus. Five samples of black phosphorus gave identical powder patterns different from those reported by Linck and Jung, whose rhombohedral structure gives improbable interatomic distances and coordination. A sample which had been prepared at room temperature and 35,000 atmospheres gave the diffuse rings of an ``amorphous''

Ralph Hultgren; N. S. Gingrich; B. E. Warren

1935-01-01

83

Evaluation of Soil Phosphorus and Phosphorus in Water Discharged from Three Everglades Agricultural Area Farms  

E-print Network

Evaluation of Soil Phosphorus and Phosphorus in Water Discharged from Three Everglades Agricultural Area Farms Kathleen Lockhart University of Florida Soil and Water Science Department Major Advisor containing, from the north, the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA), Water Conservation Areas (WCA) 1, 2

Ma, Lena

84

Assessing Phosphorus Loading in Wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hari K. Pant Lehman College of the City University of New York, Department of Environmental, Geographic and Geological Sciences, 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, NY 10468; hari.pant@lehman.cuny.edu Depending on ecosystem's resilience, hydro-climatic changes brought upon by global climate change may cause nonlinear and/or irreversible changes in phosphorus (P) dynamic, and instigate P enrichment in freshwater wetlands. Thus, the studies of the influence of expected global climate change and its impacts on P stability in wetlands are in critical need to help manage, or increase the resilience of freshwater wetland ecosystems against undesirable changes. The objectives of this study were to assess P sorption in sediments, and help to estimate potential internal loading of P to the water column from the sediments. Sediment samples were collected from freshwater wetlands that are located within Pelham Bay Park, Bronx, New York. Although P sorption maxima (Smax) of the sediments were high in general (up to 1667 mg kg-1), the equilibrium P concentrations (EPC0) were also fairly high (0.09 -0.24 mg L-1), indicating substantial amounts of P may remain available for biological uptake in the water columns. High percentages of hysteretic P (>96%), as indicated by P retained values (Pr), along with a significant correlation between Smax and oxalate-extractable Fe (r = 0.89), suggest that changes in sediment/water chemistry such as redox status/acidity could cause massive P release to the water columns.

Pant, H. K.

2011-12-01

85

Simulating soil phosphorus dynamics for a phosphorus loss quantification tool.  

PubMed

Pollution of fresh waters by agricultural phosphorus (P) is a water quality concern. Because soils can contribute significantly to P loss in runoff, it is important to assess how management affects soil P status over time, which is often done with models. Our objective was to describe and validate soil P dynamics in the Annual P Loss Estimator (APLE) model. APLE is a user-friendly spreadsheet model that simulates P loss in runoff and soil P dynamics over 10 yr for a given set of runoff, erosion, and management conditions. For soil P dynamics, APLE simulates two layers in the topsoil, each with three inorganic P pools and one organic P pool. It simulates P additions to soil from manure and fertilizer, distribution among pools, mixing between layers due to tillage and bioturbation, leaching between and out of layers, crop P removal, and loss by surface runoff and erosion. We used soil P data from 25 published studies to validate APLE's soil P processes. Our results show that APLE reliably simulated soil P dynamics for a wide range of soil properties, soil depths, P application sources and rates, durations, soil P contents, and management practices. We validated APLE specifically for situations where soil P was increasing from excessive P inputs, where soil P was decreasing due to greater outputs than inputs, and where soil P stratification occurred in no-till and pasture soils. Successful simulations demonstrate APLE's potential to be applied to major management scenarios related to soil P loss in runoff and erosion. PMID:23128732

Vadas, Peter A; Joern, Brad C; Moore, Philip A

2012-01-01

86

Annealing of phosphorus-doped Ge islands on Si(001)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the effect of phosphorus on the evolution of Ge islands on Si(001), phosphorus-doped islands were annealed in a H2 ambient and undoped islands were annealed in a PH3/H2 ambient. In both cases phosphorus stabilizes the island structure and reduces coarsening during annealing. The changes of island shape during annealing are consistent with phosphorus influencing the thermodynamic properties of the islands, while the slower decrease in the density of islands when phosphorus is present is consistent with phosphorus kinetically retarding surface diffusion of Ge atoms.

Kamins, T. I.; Medeiros-Ribeiro, G.; Ohlberg, D. A. A.; Williams, R. Stanley

2004-02-01

87

Genetic Responses to Phosphorus Deficiency  

PubMed Central

• Background Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for plants. Plants take up P as phosphate (Pi) from the soil solution. Since little Pi is available in most soils, P fertilizers are applied to crops. However, the use of P fertilizers is unsustainable and may cause pollution. Consequently, there is a need to develop more P-use-efficient (PUE) crops and precise methods to monitor crop P-status. • Scope Manipulating the expression of genes to improve the PUE of crops could reduce their P fertilizer requirement. This has stimulated research towards the identification of genes and signalling cascades involved in plant responses to P deficiency. Genes that respond to P deficiency can be grouped into ‘early’ genes that respond rapidly and often non-specifically to P deficiency, or ‘late’ genes that impact on the morphology, physiology or metabolism of plants upon prolonged P deficiency. • Summary The use of micro-array technology has allowed researchers to catalogue the genetic responses of plants to P deficiency. Genes whose expression is altered by P deficiency include various transcription factors, which are thought to coordinate plant responses to P deficiency, and other genes involved in P acquisition and tissue P economy. Several common cis-regulatory elements have been identified in the promoters of these genes, suggesting that their expression might be coordinated. It is suggested that knowledge of the genes whose expression changes in response to P deficiency might allow the development of crops with improved PUE, and could be used in diagnostic techniques to monitor P deficiency in crops either directly using ‘smart’ indicator plants or indirectly through transcript profiling. The development of crops with improved PUE and the adoption of diagnostic technology could reduce production costs, minimize the use of a non-renewable resource, reduce pollution and enhance biodiversity. PMID:15292042

HAMMOND, JOHN P.; BROADLEY, MARTIN R.; WHITE, PHILIP J.

2004-01-01

88

PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Phosphorus and carbohydrate limitation of fecal coliform  

E-print Network

PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Phosphorus and carbohydrate limitation of fecal coliform and fecal phosphorus, sediment carbohydrate, and environmental factors were made and relationships with bacteria or carbohydrate. Experimental results suggested that sediment-associ- ated fecal bacteria were more frequently

Mallin, Michael

89

Original article Analysis of the export of diffuse phosphorus  

E-print Network

eutrophication. Diffuse pollution accounts for a sub- stancial share of the total phosphorus load. To improve our eutrophication is prevented by controlling phosphorus transfer from the watershed [39]. Despite the many factors

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

90

PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL IN LOWER GREAT LAKES MUNICIPAL TREATMENT PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report discusses a survey of phosphorus treatment approaches and accomplishments for all lower Great Lakes basin plants with flows greater than 1 mgd; field operation monitoring studies to evaluate the performance of four municipal treatment plants practicing phosphorus remo...

91

Phosphorus--Too Much and Plants May Suffer  

E-print Network

The buildup of phosphorus in lawns, gardens, pastures and croplands can cause plants to grow poorly and even die. This publication explains how to identify problems caused by excessive phosphorus and how to correct those problems....

Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

2008-05-09

92

Phosphorus Spin Coherence Times in Silicon at Very Low Temperatures  

E-print Network

Phosphorus donor spin coherence in isotopically pure 28 silicon is measured at very low temperatures using pulsed electron spin resonance. The isolated spin T2 varies unexpectedly with phosphorus concentration

Alexander, L K; Hutchison, W D

2010-01-01

93

Phosphorus Spin Coherence Times in Silicon at Very Low Temperatures  

E-print Network

Phosphorus donor spin coherence in isotopically pure 28 silicon is measured at very low temperatures using pulsed electron spin resonance. The isolated spin T2 varies unexpectedly with phosphorus concentration

L. K. Alexander; N. Suwuntanasarn; W. D. Hutchison

2010-09-22

94

Phylogenetic diversity in cadmium : phosphorus ratio regulation by marine phytoplankton  

E-print Network

Phylogenetic diversity in cadmium : phosphorus ratio regulation by marine phytoplankton Z. V Abstract We examined the effect of irradiance and growth rate on cadmium : phosphorus ratio in five species

95

Novel Mechanisms in the Regulation of Phosphorus Homeostasis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Phosphorus plays a critical role in diverse biological processes, and, therefore, the regulation of phosphorus balance and homeostasis are critical to the well being of the organism. Changes in environmental, dietary, and serum concentrations of inorganic phosphorus are detected by sensors that elicit changes in cellular function and alter the efficiency by which phosphorus is conserved. Short-term, post-cibal responses that occur independently of hormones previously thought to be important in phosphorus homeostasis may play a larger role than previously appreciated in the regulation of phosphorus homeostasis. Several hormones and regulatory factors such as the vitamin D endocrine system, parathyroid hormone, and the phosphatonins (FGF-23, sFRP-4, MEPE) among others, may play a role only in the long-term regulation of phosphorus homeostasis. In this review, we discuss how organisms sense changes in phosphate concentrations and how changes in hormonal factors result in the conservation or excretion of phosphorus.

Theresa Berndt (Mayo Clinic); Rajiv Kumar (Mayo Clinic)

2009-02-01

96

Zooplankton and the total phosphorus chlorophyll a relationship: hierarchical Bayesian  

E-print Network

Zooplankton and the total phosphorus ­ chlorophyll a relationship: hierarchical Bayesian analysis: Zooplankton grazing is important in resolving residual variation around the total phosphorus ­ chlorophyll found consistent effects of total zooplankton biomass, but not zooplankton length, on chlorophyll a

Notre Dame, University of

97

Electric field effect in ultrathin black phosphorus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black phosphorus exhibits a layered structure similar to graphene, allowing mechanical exfoliation of ultrathin single crystals. Here, we demonstrate few-layer black phosphorus field effect devices on Si/SiO2 and measure charge carrier mobility in a four-probe configuration as well as drain current modulation in a two-point configuration. We find room-temperature mobilities of up to 300 cm2/Vs and drain current modulation of over 103. At low temperatures, the on-off ratio exceeds 105, and the device exhibits both electron and hole conduction. Using atomic force microscopy, we observe significant surface roughening of thin black phosphorus crystals over the course of 1 h after exfoliation.

Koenig, Steven P.; Doganov, Rostislav A.; Schmidt, Hennrik; Castro Neto, A. H.; Özyilmaz, Barbaros

2014-03-01

98

Availability of phosphorus in bone meal.  

PubMed

Two commercially available bone meal products (grades 0-12-0 and 6-12-0) were examined. Samples were prepared according to AOAC method 2.007, and total and available phosphorus contents were determined. Portions of these preparations were reground to pass through successively smaller sieves, and subsequent analyses indicated the availability of phosphorus to be directly proportional to fineness of grind. A quantity of the citrate-insoluble fraction of the bone meal was obtained by following AOAC extraction procedures. Agronomic studies were conducted that compared this insoluble fraction with the original bone meal material and with reagent grade Ca(H2PO4)2.H2O. The data indicated poor correlation between the analytically defined and agronomically determined availability of phosphorus. PMID:2808250

Baker, A M; Trimm, J R; Sikora, F J

1989-01-01

99

Flammability of Epoxy Resins Containing Phosphorus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of a program to develop fire-resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial and general aviation aircraft, flame-retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured neat epoxy formulations were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis, microscale combustion calorimetry, and fire calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness and compressive strength of several cured formulations showed no detrimental effect due to phosphorus content. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

Hergenrother, P. M.; Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G.; Connell, J. W.; Hinkley, J. A.

2005-01-01

100

Effects of white phosphorus on mallard reproduction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Extensive waterfowl mortality involving thousands of ducks, geese, and swans has occurred annually at Eagle River Flats, Alaska since at least 1982. The primary agent for this mortality has been identified as white phosphorus. Although acute and subacute lethality have been described, sublethal effects are less well known. This study reports on the effects of white phosphorus on reproductive function in the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) in captivity. Fertility, hatching success, teratogenicity, and egg laying frequency were examined in 70 adult female mallards who received up to 7 daily doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg of white phosphorus. Measurements of fertility and hatchability were reduced by the white phosphorus. Teratogenic effects were observed in embryos from hens dosed at all treatment levels. Egg laying frequency was reduced even at the lowest treatment level; treated hens required a greater number of days to lay a clutch of 12 eggs than control hens. After two doses at 2.0 mg/kg, all females stopped laying completely for a minimum of 10 days and laying frequency was depressed for at least 45 days. Fertility of 10 adult male mallards dosed with 1.0 mg/kg of white phosphorus did not differ from 10 controls, but plasma testosterone levels were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in the treated males 1 day after dosing ended. These results provide evidence that productivity of free-ranging mallards may be impaired if they are exposed to white phosphorus at typical field levels.

Vann, S.I.; Sparling, D.W.; Ottinger, M.A.

2000-01-01

101

Phosphorus index as a phosphorus awareness tool: documented phosphorus use reduction in New York state.  

PubMed

In 1999, New York introduced its concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) permit followed, in 2001, by release of the New York phosphorus index (NY-PI) and establishment of a statewide on-farm research partnership. State policy requires that the Natural Resources Conservation Service's 590 nutrient management standard, and therefore the NY-PI, be implemented on all CAFO farms as well as animal feeding operations (AFOs) receiving state or federal cost share funds for manure storage and other related practices. Since the introduction of the NY-PI, P fertilizer sales (farm use) declined from 14,470 Mg in 2001 (8.6 kg P ha) to 7,376 Mg in 2009 (5.0 kg P ha). Cost of fertilizer was not a significant covariate for the reduction in P use over time. Certified nutrient management planners were surveyed in 2011 to evaluate their perceptions of drivers for changes in P use. In addition, whole farm P balances were recorded for 54 New York dairy farms. The survey data illustrate key ingredients for success: (i) statewide awareness of environmental challenges through both regulations and extension programming; (ii) science-based, user-friendly tools that allow for farm-specific responses to the challenges; (iii) risk assessment of management alternatives through on-farm research; (iv) enforcement of regulations; and (v) existence of economically feasible alternatives. Whole farm balances showed a reduction in P surplus of 44%, averaged across farms, whereas milk production increased, further illustrating the willingness and economic potential to make changes that improve production efficiency and reduce risk of nutrient loss to the environment. PMID:23128734

Ketterings, Quirine M; Czymmek, Karl J

2012-01-01

102

Incommensurate Structure of Phosphorus Phase IV  

SciTech Connect

There are six known phases for phosphorus at room temperature under high pressure. Only the structure of phase IV, which exists from 107 GPa to 137 GPa, remains unsolved. We performed a powder x-ray diffraction experiment and a Rietveld analysis and successfully determined its structure to be an incommensurately modulated structure by only 1 site of atomic position. High-pressure phases of halogens and chalcogens have previously been shown to have a similar modulated structure; however, phosphorus phase IV is different from them and was shown to be the third case.

Fujihisa, Hiroshi; Gotoh, Yoshito; Yamawaki, Hiroshi; Sakashita, Mami; Takeya, Satoshi; Honda, Kazumasa [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST Tsukuba Central 5, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Akahama, Yuichi; Kawamura, Haruki [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Kouto, Kamigori, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Ohishi, Yasuo [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Mikazuki, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

2007-04-27

103

INTERNAL PHOSPHORUS LOADING IN A SHALLOW EUTROPHIC LAKE (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Internal loading of phosphorus has been implicated as a major eutrophication factor in Long Lake, WA. As a result of such loading, summer total phosphorus concentrations approach or exceed 100 micrograms P/l. Most of the summer loading of phosphorus is thought to have been releas...

104

Adding phosphorus to forest soils: Storage capacity and possible risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake pollution through the indiscriminate loading of phosphorus in the soil of forest watersheds is becoming a matter of concern today. Phosphorus, scarce because of its low solubility and in constant demand by aquatic organisms, has the broadest potential of any nutrient to alter the biologic balance of lake waters (HUTCHINSON, 1957). When phosphorus is added to lake water low

Robert F. Powers; Kîni Isik; Paul J. Zinke

1975-01-01

105

The absorption of dietary phosphorus and calcium in hemodialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption of dietary phosphorus and calcium in hemodialysis patients. Absorption of dietary phosphorus plays a critical role in the development of metabolic bone diseases in patients with chronic renal failure. However, phosphorus absorption is difficult to quantitate in dialysis patients because the dialysis treatments complicate metabolic balance studies. Utilizing a recently developed technique which permits measurement of net absorption

J Arnaldo Ramirez; Michael Emmett; Martin G White; Nastaran Fathi; Carol A Santa Ana; Stephen G Morawski; John S Fordtran

1986-01-01

106

Supplemental on-line material for Semiconducting layered blue phosphorus  

E-print Network

en- ergy in black phosphorus is 20 meV/atom according to PBE and 100 meV/atom according to LDA the LDA value of 38 meV/atom. S2. BULK BAND STRUCTURE OF BLACK AND BLUE PHOSPHORUS The calculated bulk band structures of black and blue phosphorus are presented in Fig. S1. There is a strong band

Tománek, David

107

Sulfolipids dramatically decrease phosphorus demand by picocyanobacteria in oligotrophic  

E-print Network

cyanobacteria genomics lipids marine phosphorus cycle The oceans' subtropical gyres, once likened to marineSulfolipids dramatically decrease phosphorus demand by picocyanobacteria in oligotrophic marine 3 . Thus, evolution of this ``sulfur-for-phosphorus'' strategy set the stage for the success

108

Modeling an Improvement in Phosphorus Utilization in Tropical Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of Terra Preta soils have generated interest in recreating their fertility elsewhere. Much of the research has focused on soil amendment charcoal (“biochar”). Terra Preta also contains bone fragments, producing a high concentration of phosphorus. Some forecast worldwide declines in phosphorus supplies, and better agricultural system management is required to improve phosphorus use efficiency. A conceptual model is offered

David M. Edelstein; David J. Tonjes

2012-01-01

109

The Minnesota Filter: A Tool for Capturing Stormwater Dissolved Phosphorus  

E-print Network

The Minnesota Filter: A Tool for Capturing Stormwater Dissolved Phosphorus Andy Erickson, Research (inorganic, organic) · Nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, etc.) · Metals (copper, cadmium, zinc, etc.N., Smith, S.J., Jones, O.R., Berg, W.A. and Coleman, G.A. (1992) The Transport of Bioavailable Phosphorus

Minnesota, University of

110

Comparison of arsenic and phosphorus diffusion behavior in silicongermanium alloys  

E-print Network

Comparison of arsenic and phosphorus diffusion behavior in silicon­germanium alloys S. Eguchia of ion-implanted arsenic and phosphorus in relaxed Si0.8Ge0.2 has been investigated. Under equilibrium is roughly seven for arsenic, and roughly two for phosphorus. Under transient diffusion conditions

111

Phosphorus removal from high-phosphorus hot metal in the converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of Korshunsk concentrate in the sintering batch at OAO Chelyabinskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (OAO ChMK) increased the mean phosphorus content in the hot metal from 0.10 to 0.17? 0.18% (in some periods, 0.20?0.22%). This is due to the phosphorus content of 0.1% in such concentrate, which is an order of magnitude higher than in the batch materials previously employed,

A. G. Levada; D. N. Makarov; V. B. Zakharov; O. K. Tokovoi

2008-01-01

112

Distribution of phosphorus compounds in corn processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and corn gluten feed (CGF) are major coproducts of ethanol production from corn dry grind and wet milling facilities, respectively. These coproducts contain important nutrients, nevertheless, high levels of phosphorus (P). About 50–80% of the P in these products is in an organically bound form known as phytate. The phytate P in these products

H. Noureddini; M. Malik; J. Byun; A. J. Ankeny

2009-01-01

113

Surface Brillouin scattering in black phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface acoustic properties of black phosphorus have been studied in the X-Y plane by Brillouin scattering under normal conditions. Surface acoustic phonon peaks and quasielastic scattering peaks due to the entropy mode are observed in the X direction. A quasielastic peak and a polaritonlike resonance between surface acoustic phonons and Einstein-type modes are found in the Y direction.

A. Yoshihara; T. Fujimura; Y. Oka; H. Fujisaki; I. Shirotani

1986-01-01

114

Weathering of phosphorus in black shales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rock weathering is the ultimate source of phosphorus (P) to the oceans, where P can be a limiting nutrient for biological production. In this paper, P weathering is examined in soil chronosequences formed in weathering profiles on the organic-rich Woodford Shale, New Albany Shale and Green River Shale. At all sites, organic P and inorganic P concentrations reveal that P

Lauren Clark Kolowith; Robert A. Berner

2002-01-01

115

Extractable soil phosphorus in Blackland Prairie soils  

E-print Network

The Texas Agricultural Extension Service (TAEX) Soil Testing Laboratory currently utilizes a single phosphorus (P) extractant consisting of 1.43 M NH4OAc, 1. 0 M HCl, and 0.025 M EDTA-PH 4.2 to estimate plant available P for all soils in Texas...

Byrd, Robert Claude

2012-06-07

116

Trends in Feed and Manure Phosphorus  

E-print Network

Laboratory , Inc. · Digester/separator data provided by Gordondale Farms, Nelsonville, WI · Dairy dietary P information provided by Mark Powell, USDA-ARS #12;Phosphorus story · More than half of Wisconsin dairy farmers feed more P than cows need According to National Research Council recommendations Source: Powell et al

Balser, Teri C.

117

Phosphorus Limits Tropical Rain Forest Litter Fauna  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stoichiometry of resources may explain bottom-up regulation of higher trophic levels. We tested the effects of soil and litter nutrient stoichiometry on the invertebrate litter fauna of a Costa Rican tropical rain forest. Animal densities were estimated from 15 sites across a phosphorus gradient. The density of the invertebrate litter fauna varied considerably, and was strongly tied to soil

Terrence P. McGlynn; Daniel J. Salinas; Robert R. Dunn; Tana E. Wood; Deborah Lawrence; Deborah A. Clark

2007-01-01

118

PHOSPHORUS AVAILABILITY WITH ALKALINE\\/CALCAREOUS SOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient required by plants for normal growth and development. The availability of P to plants for uptake and utilization is impaired in alkaline and calcareous soil due to the formation of poorly soluble calcium phosphate minerals. Adding fertilizer P at \\

Bryan Hopkins; Jason Ellsworth

119

Pressure-induced crystallization of amorphous red phosphorus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural transitions in amorphous red phosphorus were studied at ambient temperature and pressures up to 12 GPa. Amorphous (red) phosphorus was observed to transform into crystalline black phosphorus at 7.5 ± 0.5 GPa using diamond anvil cell Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and a direct equation of state (EoS) measurement. The transition was found to be irreversible and the material recovered upon pressure cycling to 10 to 12 GPa was crystalline orthorhombic black phosphorus. A third order Birch-Murnaghan EoS was fit to the data and a bulk modulus (B0) of 11.2 GPa was measured for amorphous red phosphorus.

Rissi, Erin N.; Soignard, Emmanuel; McKiernan, Keri A.; Benmore, Chris. J.; Yarger, Jeffery L.

2012-03-01

120

Competition for phosphorus: differential uptake from dual-isotope--labeled soil interspaces between shrub and grass.  

PubMed

Two species of Agropyron grass differed strikingly in their capacity to compete for phosphate in soil interspaces shared with a common competitor, the sagebrush Artemisia tridentata. Of the total phosphorus-32 and -33 absorbed by Artemisia, 86 percent was from the interspace shared with Agropyron spicatum and only 14 percent from that shared with Agropyron desertorum. Actively absorbing mycorrhizal roots of Agropyron and Artemisia were present in both interspaces, where competition for the labeled phosphate occurred. The results have important implications about the way in which plants compete for resources below ground in both natural plant communities and agricultural intercropping systems. PMID:17795898

Caldwell, M M; Eissenstat, D M; Richards, J H; Allen, M F

1985-07-26

121

Competition for phosphorus: differential uptake from dual-isotope-labeled soil interspaces between shrub and grass  

SciTech Connect

Two species of Agropyron grass differed strikingly in their capacity to compete for phosphate in soil interspaces shared with a common competitor, the sagebrush Artemisia tridentata. Of the total phosphorus-32 and -33 absorbed by Artemisia, 86% was from the interspace shared with Agropyron spicatum and only 14% from that shared with Agropyron desertorum. Actively absorbing mycorrhizal roots of Agropyron and Artemisia were present in both interspaces, where competition for the labeled phosphate occurred. The results have important implications about the way in which plants compete for resources below ground in both natural plant communities and agricultural intercropping systems.

Caldwell, M.M.; Eissenstat, D.M.; Richards, J.H.; Allen, M.F.

1985-07-26

122

Innovative Method for Separating Phosphorus and Iron from High-Phosphorus Oolitic Hematite by Iron Nugget Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study puts forward a new method to separate phosphorus and iron from high-phosphorus oolitic hematite through iron nuggets process. Firstly, the physical, chemical, and microscopic characteristics of high-phosphorus oolitic hematite are investigated. Then, the reaction mechanisms of high-phosphorus hematite together with feasibility to separating phosphorus and iron by iron nugget process are discussed. Meanwhile, the experiments of high-phosphorus hematite used in rotary hearth furnace iron nugget processes are studied as well. The results indicate that the iron nugget process is a feasible and efficient method for iron and phosphorus separation of high-phosphorus oolitic hematite. The phosphorus content in iron nuggets is relatively low. Through the optimization of process parameters, the lowest of phosphorus in iron nuggets is 0.22 pct, the dephosphorization rate is above 86 pct, and the recovery of Fe is above 85 pct by the iron nugget process. This study aims to provide a theoretical and technical basis for economical and rational use of high-phosphorus oolitic hematite.

Han, Hongliang; Duan, Dongping; Wang, Xing; Chen, Siming

2014-10-01

123

Amendment in phosphorus levels moderate the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L. as assayed by antioxidant enzymes activities.  

PubMed

Chromium (Z=24), a d-block element, is a potent carcinogen, whereas phosphorus is an essential and limiting nutrient for the plant growth and development. This study undertakes the role of phosphorus in moderating the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L., as both of them compete with each other during the uptake process. Two-factor complete randomized experiment (5 chromium × 5 phosphorus concentrations) was conducted for twenty eight days in green house. The individuals of R. sativus were grown in pots supplied with all essential nutrients. The toxic effects of chromium and the moderation of toxicity due to phosphorus amendment were determined as accumulation of chromium, nitrogen, phosphorus in root tissues and their effects were also examined in the changes in biomass, chlorophyll and antioxidant enzyme levels. Cr and N accumulation were almost doubled at the highest concentration of Cr supply, without any P amendment, whereas at the highest P concentration (125 mM), the accumulation was reduced to almost half. A significant reduction in toxic effects of Cr was determined as there was three-fold increase in total chlorophyll and biomass at the highest P amendment. Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and lipid peroxidation were analyzed at various levels of Cr each amended with five levels of P. It was observed that at highest level of P amendment, the reduction percentage in toxicity was 33, 44, 39 and 44, correspondingly. Conclusively, the phosphorus amendment moderates the toxicity caused by the supplied chromium in R. sativus. This finding can be utilized to develop a novel technology for the amelioration of chromium stressed fields. PMID:23810367

Sayantan, D; Shardendu

2013-09-01

124

Effect of van der Waals interactions on the structural and elastic properties of black phosphorus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural and elastic properties of orthorhombic black phosphorus have been investigated using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The structural parameters have been calculated using the local density approximation (LDA), the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), and with several dispersion corrections to include van der Waals interactions. It is found that the dispersion corrections improve the lattice parameters over LDA and GGA in comparison with experimental results. The calculations reproduce well the experimental trends under pressure and show that van der Waals interactions are most important for the crystallographic b axis in the sense that they have the largest effect on the bonding between the phosphorus layers. The elastic constants are calculated and are found to be in good agreement with experimental values. The calculated C22 elastic constant is significantly larger than the C11 and C33 parameters, implying that black phosphorus is stiffer against strain along the a axis than along the b and c axes. From the calculated elastic constants, the mechanical properties, such as bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio are obtained. The calculated Raman active optical phonon frequencies and their pressure variations are in excellent agreement with available experimental results.

Appalakondaiah, S.; Vaitheeswaran, G.; Lebègue, S.; Christensen, N. E.; Svane, A.

2012-07-01

125

Phosphorus limitation strategy to increase propionic acid flux towards 3-hydroxyvaleric acid monomers in Cupriavidus necator.  

PubMed

Properties of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (P(3HB-co-3HV)) depend on their 3HV content. 3HV can be produced by Cupriavidus necator from propionic acid. Few studies explored carbon distribution and dynamics of 3HV and 3HB monomers production, and none of them have been done with phosphorus as limiting nutrient. In this study, fed-batch cultures of C. necator with propionic acid, as sole carbon source or mixed with butyric acid, were performed. Phosphorus deficiency allowed sustaining 3HV production rate and decreasing 3HB production rate, leading to an instant production of up to 100% of 3HV. When a residual growth is sustained by a phosphorus feeding, the maximum 3HV percentage produced from propionic acid is limited to 33% (Mole.Mole(-1)). The association of a second carbon source like butyric acid lead to higher conversion of propionic acid into 3HV. This study showed the importance of the limiting nutrient and of the culture strategy to get the appropriate product. PMID:24365742

Grousseau, Estelle; Blanchet, Elise; Déléris, Stéphane; Albuquerque, Maria G E; Paul, Etienne; Uribelarrea, Jean-Louis

2014-02-01

126

Lightning-induced reduction of phosphorus oxidation state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus is frequently the limiting nutrient in marine and terrestrial ecosystems, largely owing to its poor solubility and slow movement through the rock cycle. Phosphorus is viewed to exist in geological systems almost exclusively in its fully oxidized state as orthophosphate. However, many microorganisms use the partially oxidized forms-phosphite and hypophosphite-as alternative phosphorus sources, and genomic evidence suggests that this selectivity is ancient. Elucidating the processes that reduce phosphate is therefore key to understanding the biological cycling of phosphorus. Here we show that cloud-to-ground lightning reduces phosphate in lightning-derived glass compounds, termed fulgurites. We analysed the phosphorus chemistry of ten fulgurites retrieved from North America, Africa and Australia, using microprobes and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance. Half of the fulgurites contained reduced phosphorus, mainly in the form of phosphite. The amount and type of reduced phosphorus was dependent on the composition of the fulgurite section examined: carbon-rich sections contained around 22% reduced phosphorus in the form of iron phosphide, whereas other fulgurites contained between 37 and 68% in the form of phosphite. We suggest that lightning provides some portion of the reduced phosphorus used by microbes, and that phosphate reduction by lightning can be locally important to phosphorus biogeochemistry.

Pasek, Matthew; Block, Kristin

2009-08-01

127

[Phosphorus rhizosphere depletion effect of four aquatic plants].  

PubMed

Four aquatic plants (Alternanthera philoxeroides, Typha latifolia, Sagittaria sagittifolia, Phragmites communis ) were cultured on P-enriched soil in a pot experiment to assess the phosphorus rhizosphere depletion effect and analysis the ratio of root to shoot, root morphology, phosphorus uptake efficiency and phosphorus use efficiency. An obvious variation in P concentration of the soil in the rhizophere and non- rhizophere was observed. Compared with the non-rhizosphere (available P: 167.53 microg x g(-1)), the available P in the rhizosphere soil of Alternanthera philoxeroides, Typha latifolia, Sagittaria sagittifolia and Phragmites communis was reduced to 80.17, 124.37, 155.38 and 161.75 microg x g(-1) respectively, with 81%, 42%, 18% and 16% reduction ratio of water-soluble phosphorus. More effective phosphorus depletion was achieved in Alternanthera philoxeroides by higher phosphorus uptake efficiency (1.32 mg x m(-1)), while rooting system was small and phosphorus use efficiency was low (0.34 g x mg(-1)). Phosphorus uptake efficiency of Typha latjfolia is much lower (0.52 mg x m(-1)) than that of Alternanthera philoxeroides, however, its strong rooting system enhanced soil exploration, with higher phosphorus use efficiency (0.64 g x mg(-1)) and the ratio of root to shoot (0.35). Alternantshera philoxeroides and Typha latfolia were more effective in phosphorus depletion of the rhizosphere soil than that in Sagittaria sagittifolia and Phragmites communis. PMID:19068629

Wang, Zhen-yu; Wen, Sheng-fang; Xing, Bao-shan; Gao, Dong-mei; Li, Feng-min; Hu, Hong-ying; Sakoda, Akiyoshi; Sagehashi, Masaki

2008-09-01

128

Black phosphorus field-effect transistors.  

PubMed

Two-dimensional crystals have emerged as a class of materials that may impact future electronic technologies. Experimentally identifying and characterizing new functional two-dimensional materials is challenging, but also potentially rewarding. Here, we fabricate field-effect transistors based on few-layer black phosphorus crystals with thickness down to a few nanometres. Reliable transistor performance is achieved at room temperature in samples thinner than 7.5 nm, with drain current modulation on the order of 10(5) and well-developed current saturation in the I-V characteristics. The charge-carrier mobility is found to be thickness-dependent, with the highest values up to ? 1,000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) obtained for a thickness of ? 10 nm. Our results demonstrate the potential of black phosphorus thin crystals as a new two-dimensional material for applications in nanoelectronic devices. PMID:24584274

Li, Likai; Yu, Yijun; Ye, Guo Jun; Ge, Qingqin; Ou, Xuedong; Wu, Hua; Feng, Donglai; Chen, Xian Hui; Zhang, Yuanbo

2014-05-01

129

Phosphorus Ionization in Massive Star Winds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observed wind line profiles of phosphorus P V in the spectra of hot stars are significantly weaker than theory predicts. Lower abundance of the phosphorus ion P V in massive stars could explain weaker profiles of the resonance ultraviolet doublet 1118, 1128 A. Using full NLTE calculations we show that high-energy radiation, both X-ray and XUV, can not be the solution of weak P V line profiles. Our three-dimensional radiative transfer calculations with porosity, interclump medium, and ``vorosity'' show that optically thick clumping is the most probable reason for weaker P V resonance line profiles in the spectra of massive hot stars even in the case of a relatively low clumping factor of 10.

Kubát, Ji?í; Šurlan, Brankica; Hamann, Wolf-Rainer; Oskinova, Lidia M.

2013-06-01

130

[Magnesium and phosphorus--the forgotten electrolytes].  

PubMed

The clinical and pathophysiological significance and epidemiology of magnesium and phosphorus excess and deficit are discussed. In daily routine both ions largely remain "the forgotten electrolytes". With both elements deficits are clinically more important than excesses. Dietary intake, gastrointestinal and renal losses, shifts between intra- and extracellular fluid and sequestration within the extracellular compartment are the essential factors which determine body stores and the extracellular concentration of the electrolyte. The clinical signs of excess and deficit often lack specificity and - in the case of phosphorus deficiency - involve almost any organ. Since treatment of deficits is easy and success is rapid and involves virtually no risk a timely diagnosis is all the more important but often requires a high index of suspicion. PMID:6648437

Truniger, B; Banz, I

1983-11-01

131

The extended stability range of phosphorus allotropes.  

PubMed

Phosphorus displays fascinating structural diversity and the discovery of new modifications continues to attract attention. In this work, a complete stability range of known and novel crystalline allotropes of phosphorus is described for the first time. This includes recently discovered tubular modifications and the prediction of not-yet-known crystal structures of [P12 ] nanorods and not-yet-isolated [P14 ] nanorods. Despite significant structural differences, all P allotropes consist of covalent substructures, which are held together by van der Waals interactions. Their correct reproduction by ab initio calculations is a core issue of current research. While some predictions with the established DFT functionals GGA and LDA differ significantly from experimental data in the description of the P allotropes, consistently excellent agreement with the GGA-D2 approach is used to predict the solid structures of the P nanorods. PMID:25196550

Bachhuber, Frederik; von Appen, Jörg; Dronskowski, Richard; Schmidt, Peer; Nilges, Tom; Pfitzner, Arno; Weihrich, Richard

2014-10-20

132

Phosphorus chemistry in the tidal Hudson River  

SciTech Connect

A study of inorganic phosphborus in the tidal Hudson River was performed from Noverber 1988 to October 1989. Results indicate that phosphate concentrations are at or near equilibrium with a suspended solid phase consisting of amorphous ferric phosphate in amorphous ferric hydroxide. Equilibrium was observed over most of the river, over most of the year. Undersaturation was observed regularly below river mile 40 in the month of July. It represented the major deviation from equilibration. Low suspended sediment levels and dilution from sea water are believed to be responsible for undersaturation. Dissolved iron was near equilibrium with amorphous ferric hydroxide except in July. Recognition of the wide range of watersheds where phosphorus equilibrium controls phosphate concentrations suggests that the global, terrestrial flux of biologically available phosphorus may be double current estimates.

Fox, L.E. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States))

1991-06-01

133

Electrical Properties of Black Phosphorus Single Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large single crystals of black phosphorus have been grown under high pressure, and by using the crystals, the Hall measurements have been done in a range from 4.2 K to 550 K. All the undoped samples have exhibited p-type conduction, while we have succeeded in obtaining n-type crystals by doping Te impurity. The effective acceptor concentrations NA-ND of the p-type

Yuichi Akahama; Shoichi Endo; Shin-ichiro Narita

1983-01-01

134

Structural stability of phases of black phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pseudopotential method is used to examine the structural stability of high-pressure orthorhombic, rhombohedral (A-7), and simple cubic (sc) phases of black phosphorus. The calculated ground-state properties are in good agreement with the measured values for each phase. A total-energy study gives the orthorhombic phase as the most stable structure at low pressures. At higher pressures it transforms into the

K. J. Chang; Marvin Cohen

1986-01-01

135

Soil Organic Phosphorus Speciation Using Spectroscopic Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The most commonly used differentiation of soil phosphorus (P) is between inorganic and organic forms, despite the fact that\\u000a this is only the beginning of soil P speciation. Forms of inorganic and organic soil P include a large range of specific P\\u000a compounds, and spectroscopic techniques can offer the best potential for determining the speciation of soil organic P. The

Ashlea L. Doolette; Ronald J. Smernik

136

Treatment of wastewater containing phosphorus compounds  

SciTech Connect

Wastewater containing phosphorus values and BOD is initially admixed with recycled sludge containing activated biomass under anaerobic conditions, then contacted with oxygen-containing gas, followed by separation of a dense sludge layer from the mixed liquor. A portion of the sludge layer, containing the activated biomass, is held under non-aeration conditions for sufficient time to reduce any nitrates and/or nitrites contained therein, before admixture of the recycled sludge with the wastewater influent.

Block, Ch. S.; Hong, S.-H.

1984-12-18

137

Phosphorus Kedge XANES Spectroscopy of Mineral Standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was performed on phosphate mineral specimens including (a) twelve specimens from the apatite group covering a range of compositional variation and crystallinity; (b) six non-apatite calcium-rich phosphate minerals; (c) 15 aluminium-rich phosphate minerals; (d) ten phosphate minerals rich in either reduced iron or manganese; (e) four phosphate minerals rich in either oxidized

E Ingall; J Brandes; J Diaz; M de Jonge; D Paterson; I McNulty; C Elliott; P Northrup

2011-01-01

138

X-33 Flight Visualization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-33 flight visualization effort has resulted in the integration of high-resolution terrain data with vehicle position and attitude data for planned flights of the X-33 vehicle from its launch site at Edwards AFB, California, to landings at Michael Army Air Field, Utah, and Maelstrom AFB, Montana. Video and Web Site representations of these flight visualizations were produced. In addition, a totally new module was developed to control viewpoints in real-time using a joystick input. Efforts have been initiated, and are presently being continued, for real-time flight coverage visualizations using the data streams from the X-33 vehicle flights. The flight visualizations that have resulted thus far give convincing support to the expectation that the flights of the X-33 will be exciting and significant space flight milestones... flights of this nation's one-half scale predecessor to its first single-stage-to-orbit, fully-reusable launch vehicle system.

Laue, Jay H.

1998-01-01

139

Redox chemistry in the phosphorus biogeochemical cycle  

PubMed Central

The element phosphorus (P) controls growth in many ecosystems as the limiting nutrient, where it is broadly considered to reside as pentavalent P in phosphate minerals and organic esters. Exceptions to pentavalent P include phosphine—PH3—a trace atmospheric gas, and phosphite and hypophosphite, P anions that have been detected recently in lightning strikes, eutrophic lakes, geothermal springs, and termite hindguts. Reduced oxidation state P compounds include the phosphonates, characterized by C?P bonds, which bear up to 25% of total organic dissolved phosphorus. Reduced P compounds have been considered to be rare; however, the microbial ability to use reduced P compounds as sole P sources is ubiquitous. Here we show that between 10% and 20% of dissolved P bears a redox state of less than +5 in water samples from central Florida, on average, with some samples bearing almost as much reduced P as phosphate. If the quantity of reduced P observed in the water samples from Florida studied here is broadly characteristic of similar environments on the global scale, it accounts well for the concentration of atmospheric phosphine and provides a rationale for the ubiquity of phosphite utilization genes in nature. Phosphine is generated at a quantity consistent with thermodynamic equilibrium established by the disproportionation reaction of reduced P species. Comprising 10–20% of the total dissolved P inventory in Florida environments, reduced P compounds could hence be a critical part of the phosphorus biogeochemical cycle, and in turn may impact global carbon cycling and methanogenesis. PMID:25313061

Pasek, Matthew A.; Sampson, Jacqueline M.; Atlas, Zachary

2014-01-01

140

Redox chemistry in the phosphorus biogeochemical cycle.  

PubMed

The element phosphorus (P) controls growth in many ecosystems as the limiting nutrient, where it is broadly considered to reside as pentavalent P in phosphate minerals and organic esters. Exceptions to pentavalent P include phosphine-PH3-a trace atmospheric gas, and phosphite and hypophosphite, P anions that have been detected recently in lightning strikes, eutrophic lakes, geothermal springs, and termite hindguts. Reduced oxidation state P compounds include the phosphonates, characterized by C-P bonds, which bear up to 25% of total organic dissolved phosphorus. Reduced P compounds have been considered to be rare; however, the microbial ability to use reduced P compounds as sole P sources is ubiquitous. Here we show that between 10% and 20% of dissolved P bears a redox state of less than +5 in water samples from central Florida, on average, with some samples bearing almost as much reduced P as phosphate. If the quantity of reduced P observed in the water samples from Florida studied here is broadly characteristic of similar environments on the global scale, it accounts well for the concentration of atmospheric phosphine and provides a rationale for the ubiquity of phosphite utilization genes in nature. Phosphine is generated at a quantity consistent with thermodynamic equilibrium established by the disproportionation reaction of reduced P species. Comprising 10-20% of the total dissolved P inventory in Florida environments, reduced P compounds could hence be a critical part of the phosphorus biogeochemical cycle, and in turn may impact global carbon cycling and methanogenesis. PMID:25313061

Pasek, Matthew A; Sampson, Jacqueline M; Atlas, Zachary

2014-10-28

141

Phosphorus transfer from sediments by Myriophyllum spicatum  

SciTech Connect

The uptake of phosphorus, the biomass, and the standing P stock were measured over the course of a year in roots and shoots of the Eurasian water milfoil, Myriophyllum spicatum, from Lake Wingra, Wisconsin. The resulting data were used to estimate the relative contributions of root and shoot uptake to the phosphorus economy of the plant and to examine the role of the plant in moving phosphorus between sediment and water. The total yearly uptake of P by a square meter of Myriophyllum was 3.0 g P m/sup -2/. Root uptake accounted for 2.2 g, shoot uptake only 0.8 g. The rate of P release from healthy shoots was insignificant, but about 2.8 g P m/sup -2/ yr/sup -1/ was lost due to shoot turnover. Since most of the P uptake is by the roots and much of the plant P is transferred to and lost by the shoots, Myriophyllum is a potentially important vector in the movement of P from the sediments to the water. The net transfer of P from the sediments to shoots of Myriophyllum in Lake Wingra is about 2.0 g P m/sup -2/ yr /sup -1/. Release of this P during decay makes Myriophyllum an important source of P for pelagic phytoplankton and can explain much of the previously reported P export from the littoral zone of Lake Wingra.

Smith, C.S.; Adams, M.S.

1986-11-01

142

X-33 Development History  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of dealing with various types of proprietary documents, whether from the Lockheed Martin, the Skunk Works, McDonnell Douglas, Rockwell, and other corporations extant or extinct, remains unresolved. The computerized archive finding aid has over 100 records at present. These records consist of X-33 photographs, press releases, media clippings, and the small number of X-33 project records collected to date.

Butrica, Andrew J.

1997-01-01

143

Electronic Properties of Few-layer Black Phosphorus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black phosphorus is a layered allotropy of phosphorus that closely resembles graphite. In a single atomic layer, phosphorus atoms are covalently bonded into a puckered honey comb structure. All five valence electrons are localized, so unlike graphene monolayer black phosphorus is a semiconductor with a band gap of ˜ 2 eV. In a bulk crystal the interlayer coupling reduces the band gap to ˜ 0.3 eV. Using mechanical exfoliation method, we have successfully fabricated few layer black phosphorus field effect transistors. Our samples exhibit bipolar behavior with on-off ratio up to 10^6, and a low off-state current. Electronic mobilities up to ˜ 1000 cm^2V-1s-1 are currently achieved, with possibilities for further improvement. Such characteristics make black phosphorus a potential candidate for future nanoelectronic applications.

Li, Likai; Yu, Yijun; Ye, G. J.; Chen, X. H.; Zhang, Yuanbo

2013-03-01

144

Effect of root oxygen stress on phosphorus uptake by cattail  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of redox conditions or oxygen demand in rooting medium on phosphorus (P) uptake by Typha domingensis was quantified. Phosphorus uptake decreased with decrease in redox potential in the rooting medium. Greatest uptake was measured under the oxidized treatment (+565 mV). Phosphorus uptake was less under the two anaerobic treatments (+277 mV and ?200 mV). In the two anaerobic

R. D. DeLaune; A. Jugsujinda; K. R. Reddy

1999-01-01

145

Phosphorus grain boundary segregation in steel 17-4PH  

Microsoft Academic Search

A correlation between grain boundary etching of a martensitic steel and phosphorus segregation was established. Using metallographic experiments, the phosphorus diffusivity D in the steel and the Gibbs free energy ?GP of phosphorus grain boundary segregation were determined: D=0.183?0.174+3.475×10?4exp(?229±19kJmol?1\\/RT) m2s?1, ?GP=?43.1 kJmol?1.

F Christien; R Le Gall; G Saindrenan

2003-01-01

146

Determination of phosphorus in hypereutectic aluminium-silicon alloys.  

PubMed

A reproducible method is described for determination of small amounts of phosphorus (from 0.0005% to 0.02%) in hypereutectic aluminium-silicon complex alloys. The method permits the separate determination of phosphorus in acid-soluble and acid-insoluble fractions. Phosphomolybdate is extracted with n-butanol-chloroform solvent mixture and back-extracted with a btannous chloride reducing solution. The phosphorus content of a sample cut into small pieces decreases during storage; loss of phosphorus is negligible on acid dissolution under oxidizing conditions. PMID:18961077

Mukai, K

1972-04-01

147

NMR and mass spectrometry of phosphorus in wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

There is at present little information on the long-term stability of phosphorus sequestered in wetlands. Phosphorus sequestered during high loading periods may be relatively unstable and easily remobilized following changes in nutrient status or hydrological regime, but the chemical forms of sequestered phosphorus that do remobilize are largely unknown at this time. A lack of suitable analytical techniques has contributed to this dearth of knowledge regarding the stability of soil organic phosphorus. We analysed phosphorus in soils from the 'head' of Rescue Strand tree island and an adjacent marsh in the Florida Everglades by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Tree islands are important areas of biodiversity within the Everglades and offer a unique opportunity to study phosphorus sequestration because they are exposed to large phosphorus loads and appear to be natural nutrient sinks. The 31P NMR profiling of extracts from surface and sediment samples in the tree island indicates that phosphorus input to Rescue Strand tree island soils is mostly in the form of inorganic ortho-phosphate and is either refractory when deposited or rapidly recycled by the native vegetation into a stable phosphorus pool largely resistant to re-utilization by plants or microbes. Mass spectrometry revealed the presence of inositol hexakisphosphate, a common organic monophosphate ester not previously observed in Everglades' soils. ?? 2008 The Authors.

El-Rifai, H.; Heerboth, M.; Gedris, T.E.; Newman, S.; Orem, W.; Cooper, W.T.

2008-01-01

148

21 CFR 862.1580 - Phosphorus (inorganic) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1580 Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. (a)...

2010-04-01

149

Production of phosphorus-containing molecules in interstellar clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following a detailed experimental survey of the reactions of ions in the series PH(n)(+) (n = 0 to 4) with several molecular gases (Smith et al., 1989), possible routes to the synthesis of phosphorus-bearing molecules in interstellar clouds are considered. Many phosphorus-bearing ions are synthesized in the PH(n)(+) reactions, and the large majority of these ions are unreactive with H2 and CO, the most abundant interstellar molecules. Thus the phosphorus-bearing ions could dissociatively recombine with electrons to produce phosphorus-bearing neutral molecules in interstellar clouds including PN, PO, PS, and HCP.

Adams, N. G.; McIntosh, B. J.; Smith, D.

1990-06-01

150

Dietary calcium and phosphorus manipulations in thyroparathyroidectomized pregnant rats  

E-print Network

(Porterfield, Whittle and Hendrich, 1975 ; Garel and Gilbert, 1978), and grafting one parathyroid gland experimentation using dietary calcium and phosphorus manipulations. Material and methods. Experimental procedures

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

151

Ascorbic acid, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium intake variations: effects on calcium, phosphorus and magnesium utilization by human adults  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding two levels of ascorbic acid, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and ascorbic acid on the apparent utilization of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium by healthy, human adult subjects. During 4 randomly-arranged experimental periods of 7 days each, a laboratory-controlled diet alone or with supplements of ascorbic acid, dicalcium phosphate or magnesium oxide was fed to the 18 subjects. Results indicated that ascorbic acid supplementation tended to reduce urinary phosphorus loss and to slightly increase fecal phosphorus loss so that overall phosphorus balances became more positive. Conversely, under these conditions, urinary calcium losses were little affected but fecal calcium losses were increased resulting in an overall decrease in calcium balance with ascorbic acid supplementation. Ascorbic acid supplementation resulted in decreased urine and fecal losses of magnesium and more positive magnesium balances. Magnesium supplementation resulted in more positive calcium and phosphorus balances as did calcium phosphate supplementation on magnesium balance.

Kies, C.; Brennan, M.A.; Parks, S.K.; Stauffer, D.J.; Wang, H.Y.; Young, S.F.; Fox, H.M.

1986-03-01

152

A novel approach for phosphorus recovery and no wasted sludge in enhanced biological phosphorus removal process with external COD addition.  

PubMed

In enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process, phosphorus (P) in wastewater is removed via wasted sludge without actual recovery. A novel approach to realize phosphorus recovery with special external chemical oxygen demand (COD) addition in EBPR process was proposed. During the new operating approach period, it was found that (1) no phosphorus was detected in the effluent; (2) with an external addition of 10 % of influent COD amount, 79 % phosphorus in the wastewater influent was recovered; (3) without wasted sludge, the MLVSS concentration in the system increased from 2,010 to 3,400 mg/L and kept stable after day 11 during 24-day operating period. This demonstrates that the novel approach is feasible to realize phosphorus recovery with no wasted sludge discharge in EBPR process. Furthermore, this approach decouples P removal and sludge age, which may enhance the application of membrane bioreactor for P removal. PMID:24122666

Xia, Cheng-Wang; Ma, Yun-Jie; Zhang, Fang; Lu, Yong-Ze; Zeng, Raymond J

2014-01-01

153

Application of indigenous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria from municipal wastewater to selectively bioleach phosphorus from high-phosphorus iron ore: effect of particle size.  

PubMed

The effects of ore particle size on selectively bioleaching phosphorus (P) from high-phosphorus iron ore were studied. The average contents of P and Fe in the iron ore were 1.06 and 47.90% (w/w), respectively. The particle sizes of the ores used ranged from 58 to 3350 microm. It was found that the indigenous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria from municipal wastewater could grow well in the slurries of solid high-phosphorus iron ore and municipal wastewater. The minimum bioleaching pH reached for the current work was 0.33. The P content in bioleached iron ore reduced slightly with decreasing particle size, while the removal percentage of Fe decreased appreciably with decreasing particle size. The optimal particle size fraction was 58-75 microm, because the P content in bioleached iron ore reached a minimum of 0.16% (w/w), the removal percentage of P attained a maximum of 86.7%, while the removal percentage of Fe dropped to a minimum of 1.3% and the Fe content in bioleached iron ore was a maximum of 56.4% (w/w) in this case. The iron ores thus obtained were suitable to be used in the iron-making process. The removal percentage of ore solid decreased with decreasing particle size at particle size range of 106-3350 microm. The possible reasons resulting in above phenomena were explored in the current work. It was inferred that the particle sizes of the iron ore used in this work have no significant effect on the viability of the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:23530328

Shen, Shaobo; Rao, Ruirui; Wang, Jincao

2013-01-01

154

Phosphorus retention and movement across an ombrotrophic-minerotrophic peatland gradient  

E-print Network

Phosphorus retention and movement across an ombrotrophic-minerotrophic peatland gradient LAURIE E function, Peatland, Phosphorus cycling, Phosphorus retention, Radioiso- tope Abstract. An understanding of the mechanisms controlling nutrient availability and retention in and across ecosystems allows for a greater

Notre Dame, University of

155

33 CFR 5.33 - Training, examination, and assignment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

33 ? Navigation and Navigable Waters ? 1 ? 2013-07-01 ? 2013-07-01 ? false ? Training, examination, and assignment. ? 5.33 ? Section 5.33 ? Navigation and Navigable Waters ? COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ? GENERAL ? COAST GUARD AUXILIARY ? § 5.33 ? Training, examination,...

2013-07-01

156

A quantitative, semi-automated method for phytate phosphorus determination in sorghum and other cereals  

E-print Network

Detellninations of Phosphorus Total Phosphorus Sample Preparation Phytate Phosphorus Washing of Ferric Phytate Precipitate Ferric Phytate Digestion Standard Additions Overall Variability Page Vl Vll V111 Xll 4 5 6 6 7 10 11 13 13 !3 15 16... of Extraction Medium and Extraction Time Upon Mean Phosphorus Levels in mg Phosphorus/g Sample . Effects of Washing the Ferric Phytate Precipitate Upon Mean Phosphorus Levels in Whole Grain CS3541 and Calcium Phytate Average Recoveries of Standard Additions...

Doherty, C. A

2012-06-07

157

Reducing phosphorus export from croplands with FBC fly ash and FGD gypsum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive soil phosphorus levels cause high concentrations of water-soluble phosphorus in soil, thereby increasing the potential for phosphorus export to streams. Converting water-soluble phosphorus to less soluble forms with lime or calcium-containing coal combustion byproducts can reduce the release of soil phosphorus to surface runoff. A typical agricultural soil at excessive soil phosphorus levels was incubated with four treatments (0

William L. Stout; Andrew N. Sharpley; William J. Gburek; Harry B. Pionke

1999-01-01

158

24-Hour Urine Phosphorus Excretion and Mortality and Cardiovascular Events  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives Higher morning serum phosphorus has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with or without CKD. In patients with CKD and a phosphorous level >4.6 mg/dl, the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommend dietary phosphorus restriction. However, whether phosphorus restriction influences serum phosphorus concentrations and whether dietary phosphorus is itself associated with CVD or death are uncertain. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Among 880 patients with stable CVD and normal kidney function to moderate CKD, 24-hour urine phosphorus excretion (UPE) and serum phosphorus were measured at baseline. Participants were followed for a median of 7.4 years for CVD events and all-cause mortality. Results Mean ± SD age was 67±11 years, estimated GFR (eGFR) was 71±22 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and serum phosphorus was 3.7±0.6 mg/dl. Median UPE was 632 (interquartile range, 439, 853) mg/d. In models adjusted for demographic characteristics and eGFR, UPE was weakly and nonsignificantly associated with serum phosphorus (0.03 mg/dl higher phosphorus per 300 mg higher UPE; P=0.07). When adjusted for demographics, eGFR, and CVD risk factors, each 300-mg higher UPE was associated with 17% lower risk of CVD events. The association of UPE with all-cause mortality was not statistically significant (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 1.05). Results were similar irrespective of CKD status (P interactions > 0.87). Conclusions Among outpatients with stable CVD, the magnitude of the association of UPE with morning serum phosphorus is modest. Greater UPE is associated with lower risk for CVD events. The association was similar for all-cause mortality but was not statistically significant. PMID:23539231

Palomino, Heather L.; Rifkin, Dena E.; Anderson, Cheryl; Criqui, Michael H.; Whooley, Mary A.

2013-01-01

159

Phosphorus Loss (Risk) IndexesPhosphorus Loss (Risk) Indexes in the Southern Regionin the Southern Region  

E-print Network

strategies in the United States. J. Soil Water Cons. Daniel et al. 2002. The Phosphorus Index: Background and agricultural management practices to assess the risk of P movement from soil to water #12;Factors in P Risk Additive vs. multiplicative Surface drainage vs. leaching All farm fields vs. pasture Water body P

160

Predictability of Phosphorus Load, Hydrological Load and Lake Total Phosphorus Concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

One goal for eutrophication research is to predict lake trophic state without extensive field programs. However, existing comparisons of predicted:observed TP (total phosphorus) concentration calculate the former from measured watershed characteristics that require field sampling. Predictions of lake TP based on estimated rather than measured components are probably much less powerful, but this possibility should be quantitatively assessed. To assess

Gregory C. Scarborough; Robert H. Peters

1996-01-01

161

Phosphorus utilization by rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss): estimation of dissolved phosphorus waste output  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) waste output, notably in the dissolved form (DWP), is a major concern for many fish culture operations. Fish are believed to excrete DWP via the urine but this aspect has never been examined in detail. A better understanding of P utilization and renal P handling of fish could aid development of nutritional strategies for the management and reduction

D. p. Bureau; C. y. Cho

1999-01-01

162

Effect of Microwave Treatment Upon Processing Oolitic High Phosphorus Iron Ore for Phosphorus Removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Influence of microwave treatment on the previously proposed phosphorus removal process of oolitic high phosphorus iron ore (gaseous reduction followed by melting separation) has been studied. Microwave treatment was carried out using a high-temperature microwave reactor (Model: MS-WH). Untreated ore fines and microwaved ore fines were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Thereafter, experiments on the proposed phosphorus removal process were conducted to examine the effect of microwave treatment. Results show that microwave treatment could change the microstructure of the ore fines and has an intensification effect on its gaseous reduction by reducing gas internal resistance, increasing chemical reaction rate and postponing the occurrence of sintering. Results of gaseous reduction tests using tubular furnace indicate both microwave treatment and high reduction temperature high as 1273 K (1000 °C) are needed to totally break down the dense oolite and metallization rate of the ore fines treated using microwave power of 450 W could reach 90 pct under 1273 K (1000 °C) and for 2 hours. Results of melting separation tests of the reduced ore fines with a metallization rate of 90 pct show that, in addition to the melting conditions in our previous studies, introducing 3 pct Na2CO3 to the highly reduced ore fines is necessary, and metal recovery rate and phosphorus content of metal could reach 83 pct and 0.31 mass pct, respectively.

Tang, Hui-Qing; Liu, Wei-Di; Zhang, Huan-Yu; Guo, Zhan-Cheng

2014-10-01

163

Phosphorus release and sedimentation in three contiguous shallow brackish lakes, as estimated from changes in phosphorus stock and loading from catchment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ phosphorus release rates in three contiguous shallow brackish lakes were calculated by considering the amount of water\\u000a inflow, changes in salinity and phosphorus stock, and loading from phosphorus inflow based on monthly data. The annual amount\\u000a of sedimental phosphorus relative to that of phosphorus inflow was different for each of the three water bodies: 16% for Lake\\u000a Shinji,

Hiroshi Kamiya; Hitoshi Ohshiro; Yu Tabayashi; Yoshihiro Kano; Koji Mishima; Toshiyuki Godo; Masumi Yamamuro; Osamu Mitamura; Yu Ishitobi

2011-01-01

164

Origin of photoresponse in black phosphorus phototransistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the origin of a photocurrent generated in doped multilayer black phosphorus (BP) phototransistors, and find that it is dominated by thermally driven thermoelectric and bolometric processes. The experimentally observed photocurrent polarities are consistent with photothermal processes. The photothermoelectric current can be generated up to a micrometer away from the contacts, indicating a long thermal decay length. With an applied source-drain bias, a photobolometric current is generated across the whole device, overwhelming the photothermoelectric contribution at a moderate bias. The photoresponsivity in the multilayer BP device is two orders of magnitude larger than that observed in graphene.

Low, Tony; Engel, Michael; Steiner, Mathias; Avouris, Phaedon

2014-08-01

165

Labile Soil Phosphorus as Influenced by Methods of  

E-print Network

Labile Soil Phosphorus as Influenced by Methods of Applying Radioactive Phosphorus Vilma V. Selvaratnam, Senay Siimer, A. J. Andersen, J. D. Thomsen and G. Gissel Nielsen #12;RISÃ?-R-409 LABILE SOIL barley, ijuckwheat, and rye grass for the L- value determination. The four soils differed greatly

166

REVIEW PAPER Diversity in phosphorus mobilisation and uptake  

E-print Network

and mineral phosphorus 1 Introduction Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for plant nutrition and can only roots or microorganisms as P is combined either to cations to form mineral P or to carbon inorganic orthophosphate (Pi) concentrations, soil may contain high total P contents, as insoluble mineral P

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

167

Photoconduction of Black Phosphorus in the Infrared Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photoconduction of elemental black phosphorus has been investigated for the first time in the spectral range from 1.5 mum to 5.5 mum, including its fundamental absorption edge. It has been found that black phosphorus shows a broad spectral response from the absorption edge to the visible region and a linear response to the light intensity, which has a fairly response

Mamoru Baba; Yoshitaka Nakamura; Kiyotaka Shibata; Akira Morita

1991-01-01

168

CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS METABOLISM IN SHEEP G.D. BRAITHWAITE  

E-print Network

CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS METABOLISM IN SHEEP G.D. BRAITHWAITE National Institute for Research in the rates of absorption of both calcium and phosphorus and prevented the negative mineral retention normally, here used as a model ruminant. Material and Methods Eight 2-year-old Suffolk x Scottish black face

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

169

Phosphorus Management of Lucerne Grown on Calcareous Soil in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lucerne or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is grown as a forage crop on many livestock farms. In calcareous soils in eastern Turkey, lucerne production requires phosphorus (P) additions as the soils are naturally P deficient. Phosphorus sorption isotherms were used to estimate P fertilizer needs for lucerne grown for two years in a 3-cut system on a calcareous P deficient

Metin Turan; F. Mehmet Kiziloglu; Quirine M. Ketterings

2009-01-01

170

PHOSPHORUS LOADING AND DIVERSION FOR PINE LAKE, WASHINGTON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus external and internal loading to Pine Lake was estimated and potential restoration measures were recommended. External sources contributed approximately 57 percent of the total phosphorus load, and internal sources the remaining 43 percent. External and internal loading together exceeded the critical level expected for a mesotrophic state. About one-third of the external load, or about 20 percent of the

Gregory J. Pelletier; Eugene B. Welch

1987-01-01

171

Potential Phosphorus Load Reductions Under the Lake Okeechobee Regulatory Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient loading from beef pastures located within the northern Lake Okeechobee watershed in Florida, has been identified as a source of phosphorus contributing to the accelerated eutrophication of the lake. Since 1989 within the watershed, 557 agricultural drainage sites, mainly beef pasture, have been monitored for compliance under a regulatory program. Of those sites, 154 were actively monitored for phosphorus

Joyce Zhang; Susan A. F. Ray; Annoesjka Steinman

2002-01-01

172

ENVIRO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF PHOSPHORUS NONPOINT POLLUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of Minnesota seeks to reduce phosphorus loading to the Minnesota River by 40% from current levels. The state agency charged with achieving this reduction has indicated each watershed should reduce its current phosphorus loading by 40%. We hypothesized that policies targeting specific practices or regions would have a smaller negative impact on farm income than policies requiring every

John V. Westra; Kent D. Olson

2001-01-01

173

Do invasive mussels restrict offshore phosphorus transport in Lake Huron?  

PubMed

Dreissenid mussels were first documented in the Laurentian Great Lakes in the late 1980s. Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) spread quickly into shallow, hard-substrate areas; quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) spread more slowly and are currently colonizing deep, offshore areas. These mussels occur at high densities, filter large water volumes while feeding on suspended materials, and deposit particulate waste on the lake bottom. This filtering activity has been hypothesized to sequester tributary phosphorus in nearshore regions reducing offshore primary productivity. We used a mass balance model to estimate the phosphorus sedimentation rate in Saginaw Bay, a shallow embayment of Lake Huron, before and after the mussel invasion. Our results indicate that the proportion of tributary phosphorus retained in Saginaw Bay increased from approximately 46-70% when dreissenids appeared, reducing phosphorus export to the main body of Lake Huron. The combined effects of increased phosphorus retention and decreased phosphorus loading have caused an approximate 60% decrease in phosphorus export from Saginaw Bay to Lake Huron. Our results support the hypothesis that the ongoing decline of preyfish and secondary producers including diporeia (Diporeia spp.) in Lake Huron is a bottom-up phenomenon associated with decreased phosphorus availability in the offshore to support primary production. PMID:21812427

Cha, Yoonkyung; Stow, Craig A; Nalepa, Thomas F; Reckhow, Kenneth H

2011-09-01

174

Synthesis and some properties of phosphorus-substituted azomethines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of phosphorus(iii)-substituted azomethines and enamines were synthesized by the reaction of lithium salts of aldimines and ketimines with derivatives\\u000a of phosphorus(iii) acids. Some properties of the compounds synthesized were studied.

M. M. Kabachnik; Z. S. Novikova; I. A. Chadnaya; A. A. Borisenko; I. P. Beletskaya

1998-01-01

175

Phosphorus as a limiting factor on sustainable greywater irrigation.  

PubMed

Water reuse through greywater irrigation has been adopted worldwide and has been proposed as a potential sustainable solution to increased water demands. Despite widespread adoption, there is limited domestic knowledge of greywater reuse. There is no pressure to produce low-level phosphorus products and current guidelines and legislation, such as those in Australia, may be inadequate due to the lack of long-term data to provide a sound scientific basis. Research has clearly identified phosphorus as a potential environmental risk to waterways from many forms of irrigation. To assess the sustainability of greywater irrigation, this study compared four residential lots that had been irrigated with greywater for four years and adjacent non-irrigated lots that acted as controls. Each lot was monitored for the volume of greywater applied and selected physic-chemical water quality parameters and soil chemistry profiles were analysed. The non-irrigated soil profiles showed low levels of phosphorus and were used as controls. The Mechlich3 Phosphorus ratio (M3PSR) and Phosphate Environmental Risk Index (PERI) were used to determine the environmental risk of phosphorus leaching from the irrigated soils. Soil phosphorus concentrations were compared to theoretical greywater irrigation loadings. The measured phosphorus soil concentrations and the estimated greywater loadings were of similar magnitude. Sustainable greywater reuse is possible; however incorrect use and/or lack of understanding of how household products affect greywater can result in phosphorus posing a significant risk to the environment. PMID:23624003

Turner, Ryan D R; Will, Geoffrey D; Dawes, Les A; Gardner, Edward A; Lyons, David J

2013-07-01

176

Plant based phosphorus recovery from wastewater via algae and macrophytes.  

PubMed

At present, resource recovery by irrigation of wastewater to plants is usually driven by the value of the water resource rather than phosphorus recovery. Expanded irrigation for increased phosphorus recovery may be expected as the scarcity and price of phosphorus increases, but providing the necessary treatment, storage and conveyance comes at significant expense. An alternative to taking the wastewater to the plants is instead to take the plants to the wastewater. Algal ponds and macrophyte wetlands are already in widespread use for wastewater treatment and if harvested, would require less than one-tenth of the area to recover phosphorus compared to terrestrial crops/pastures. This area could be further decreased if the phosphorus content of the macrophytes and algae biomass was tripled from 1% to 3% via luxury uptake. While this and many other opportunities for plant based recovery of phosphorus exist, e.g. offshore cultivation, much of this technology development is still in its infancy. Research that enhances our understanding of how to maximise phosphorus uptake and harvest yields; and further add value to the biomass for reuse would see the recovery of phosphorus via plants become an important solution in the future. PMID:22889679

Shilton, Andrew N; Powell, Nicola; Guieysse, Benoit

2012-12-01

177

Electron impact ionization cross sections of phosphorus and arsenic molecules  

E-print Network

77 Electron impact ionization cross sections of phosphorus and arsenic molecules G. Monnom, Ph'ionisation dissociative obtenues par bombardement électronique des molécules d'arsenic As4 et As2 et de phosphore P4 et P2 ionization total cross sections of arsenic As4 and As2 molecules and phosphorus P4 and P2 molecules

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

178

Removal of phosphorus from secondary effluents by coagulation and ultrafiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary effluents of municipal wastewater in Israel contain on average 10 mg\\/L phosphorus, a concentration that is twice as high as a limit recently legislated by the Israeli Ministry of Environment. Reduction of phosphorus concentration to the required level is often performed by biological methods, or by flocculation followed by sand filtration. The current study explores a different path of

Tomer Nir; Elizabeth Arkhangelsky; Inna Levitsky; Vitaly Gitis

2009-01-01

179

Root hairs confer a competitive advantage under low phosphorus availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root hairs are presumably important in the acquisition of immobile soil resources such as phosphorus. The density and length of root hairs vary substantially within and between species, and are highly regulated by soil phosphorus availability, which suggests that at high nutrient availability, root hairs may have a neutral or negative impact on fitness. We used a root-hairless mutant of

Terence R. Bates; Jonathan P. Lynch

2001-01-01

180

Copper-phosphorus alloys offer advantages in brazing copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper-phosphorus brazing alloys are used extensively for joining copper, especially refrigeration and air-conditioning copper tubing and electrical conductors. What is the effect of phosphorus when alloyed with copper? The following are some of the major effects: (1) It lowers the melt temperature of copper (a temperature depressant). (2) It increases the fluidity of the copper when in the liquid state.

1996-01-01

181

Phosphorus run-off assessment in a watershed.  

PubMed

The Watershed Assessment Model was used to simulate the runoff volume, peak flows, and non-point source phosphorus loadings from the 5870 km(2) Lake Okeechobee watershed as a case study. The results were compared to on-site monitoring to verify the accuracy of the method and to estimate the observed/simulated error. In 2008, the total simulated phosphorus contribution was 9634, 6524 and 3908 kg (P) y(-1) from sod farms, citrus farms and row crop farmlands, respectively. Although the dairies represent less than 1% of the total area of Kissimmee basin, the simulated P load from the dairies (9283 kg (P) y(-1) in 2008) made up 5.4% of the total P load during 2008. On average, the modeled P yield rates from dairies, sod farms and row crop farmlands are 3.85, 2.01 and 0.86 kg (P) ha(-1) y(-1), respectively. The maximum sediment simulated phosphorus yield rate is about 2 kg (P) ha(-1) and the particulate simulated phosphorus contribution from urban, improved pastures and dairies to the total phosphorus load was estimated at 9%, 3.5%, and 1%, respectively. Land parcels with P oversaturated soil as well as the land parcels with high phosphorus assimilation and high total phosphorus contribution were located. The most critical sub-basin was identified for eventual targeting by enforced agricultural best management practices. Phosphorus load, including stream assimilation, incoming to Lake Okeechobee from two selected dairies was also determined. PMID:21069224

Chebud, Yirgalem; Naja, Ghinwa M; Rivero, Rosanna

2011-01-01

182

Africa Phosphorus Fertilizer Application Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1  

E-print Network

Africa Phosphorus Fertilizer Application Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Amount of phosphorus fertilizer applied averaged over all crops within the 0.5 deg grid cell. Grid cell values global maps of harvested areas for 175 crops with national information on fertilizer use for each crop

Columbia University

183

33 CFR 83.33 - Equipment for sound signals (Rule 33).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equipment for sound signals (Rule 33). 83.33 Section 83...SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES RULES Sound and Light Signals § 83.33 Equipment for sound signals (Rule 33). (a) Vessels of...

2012-07-01

184

33 CFR 83.33 - Equipment for sound signals (Rule 33).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equipment for sound signals (Rule 33). 83.33 Section 83...SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES RULES Sound and Light Signals § 83.33 Equipment for sound signals (Rule 33). (a) Vessels of...

2013-07-01

185

Calcium effect on enhanced biological phosphorus removal.  

PubMed

The role of calcium (Ca) in enhanced biological phosphorus removal and its possible implications on the metabolic pathway have been studied. The experience has been carried out in an SBR under anaerobic-aerobic conditions for biological phosphorus removal during 8 months. The variations of influent Ca concentration showed a clear influence on the EBPR process, detecting significant changes in Y(PO4). These Y(PO4) variations were not due to influent P/COD ratio, pH, denitrification and calcium phosphate formation. The Y(PO4) has been found to be highly dependent on the Ca concentration, increasing as Ca concentration decreases. The results suggest that high Ca concentrations produce "inert" granules of polyphosphate with Ca as a counterion that are not involved in P release and uptake. Furthermore, microbiological observations confirmed that appreciable changes in PAO and GAO populations were not observed. This behaviour could suggest a change in the bacterial metabolic pathway, with prevailing polyphosphate-accumulating metabolism (PAM) at low influent Ca concentration and glycogen-accumulating metabolism (GAM) at high concentration. PMID:16889238

Barat, R; Montoya, T; Borras, L; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

2006-01-01

186

Phosphorus in the Diffuse Interstellar Medium  

E-print Network

We present FUSE and HST/STIS measurements of the PII column density toward Galactic stars. We analyzed PII through the profile fitting of the unsaturated $\\lambda$1125 and $\\lambda$1533 lines and derived column densities integrated along the sightlines as well as in individual resolved components. We find that phosphorus is not depleted along those sightlines sampling the diffuse neutral gas. We also investigate the correlation existing between PII and OI column densities and find that there is no differential depletion between these two specie. Furthermore, the ratio N(PII)/N(OI) is consistent with the solar P/O value, implying that PII and OI coexist in the same gaseous phase and are likely to evolve in parallel since the time they are produced in stars. We argue that phosphorus, as traced by PII, is an excellent neutral oxygen tracer in various physical environments, except when ionization corrections are a significant issue. Hence, PII lines (observable with FUSE, HST/STIS, or with VLT/UVES for the QSO sightlines) reveal particularly useful as a proxy for OI lines when these are saturated or blended.

V. Lebouteiller; Kuassivi; R. Ferlet

2005-07-18

187

Common Genetic Variants Associate with Serum Phosphorus Concentration  

PubMed Central

Phosphorus is an essential mineral that maintains cellular energy and mineralizes the skeleton. Because complex actions of ion transporters and regulatory hormones regulate serum phosphorus concentrations, genetic variation may determine interindividual variation in phosphorus metabolism. Here, we report a comprehensive genome-wide association study of serum phosphorus concentration. We evaluated 16,264 participants of European ancestry from the Cardiovascular Heath Study, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, Framingham Offspring Study, and the Rotterdam Study. We excluded participants with an estimated GFR <45 ml/min per 1.73 m2 to focus on phosphorus metabolism under normal conditions. We imputed genotypes to approximately 2.5 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the HapMap and combined study-specific findings using meta-analysis. We tested top polymorphisms from discovery cohorts in a 5444-person replication sample. Polymorphisms in seven loci with minor allele frequencies 0.08 to 0.49 associate with serum phosphorus concentration (P = 3.5 × 10?16 to 3.6 × 10?7). Three loci were near genes encoding the kidney-specific type IIa sodium phosphate co-transporter (SLC34A1), the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), proteins that contribute to phosphorus metabolism. We also identified genes encoding phosphatases, kinases, and phosphodiesterases that have yet-undetermined roles in phosphorus homeostasis. In the replication sample, five of seven top polymorphisms associate with serum phosphorous concentrations (P < 0.05 for each). In conclusion, common genetic variants associate with serum phosphorus in the general population. Further study of the loci identified in this study may help elucidate mechanisms of phosphorus regulation. PMID:20558539

Glazer, Nicole L.; Kottgen, Anna; Felix, Janine F.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Hausman, Dorothy B.; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Gieger, Christian; Ried, Janina S.; Meitinger, Thomas; Strom, Tim M.; Wichmann, H. Erich; Campbell, Harry; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; de Boer, Ian H.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rice, Kenneth M.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Li, Man; Arking, Dan E.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Coresh, Josef; Yang, Qiong; Levy, Daniel; van Rooij, Frank J.A.; Dehghan, Abbas; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Hofman, Albert; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Kao, W.H. Linda; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Siscovick, David S.; Fox, Caroline S.

2010-01-01

188

Formation of stable phosphorus-carbon bond for enhanced performance in black phosphorus nanoparticle-graphite composite battery anodes.  

PubMed

High specific capacity battery electrode materials have attracted great research attention. Phosphorus as a low-cost abundant material has a high theoretical specific capacity of 2596 mAh/g with most of its capacity at the discharge potential range of 0.4-1.2 V, suitable as anodes. Although numerous research progress have shown other high capacity anodes such as Si, Ge, Sn, and SnO2, there are only a few studies on phosphorus anodes despite its high theoretical capacity. Successful applications of phosphorus anodes have been impeded by rapid capacity fading, mainly caused by large volume change (around 300%) upon lithiation and thus loss of electrical contact. Using the conducting allotrope of phosphorus, "black phosphorus" as starting materials, here we fabricated composites of black phosphorus nanoparticle-graphite by mechanochemical reaction in a high energy mechanical milling process. This process produces phosphorus-carbon bonds, which are stable during lithium insertion/extraction, maintaining excellent electrical connection between phosphorus and carbon. We demonstrated high initial discharge capacity of 2786 mAh·g(-1) at 0.2 C and an excellent cycle life of 100 cycles with 80% capacity retention. High specific discharge capacities are maintained at fast C rates (2270, 1750, 1500, and 1240 mAh·g(-1) at C/5, 1, 2, and 4.5 C, respectively). PMID:25019417

Sun, Jie; Zheng, Guangyuan; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Liu, Nian; Wang, Haotian; Yao, Hongbin; Yang, Wensheng; Cui, Yi

2014-08-13

189

DECREASED ABSORPTION OF CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM, ZINC AND PHOSPHORUS BY HUMANS DUE TO INCREASED FIBER AND PHOSPHORUS CONSUMPTION AS WHEAT BREAD  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a 20 day period of high fiber consumption in the form of bread made partly from wheaten wholemeal, two men developed negative balances of calcium, magnesium, zinc and phosphorus due to in creased fecal excretion of each element. The fecal losses correlated closely with fecal dry matter and phosphorus. Fecal dry matter, in turn, was directly proportional to fecal

John G. Reinhold; Bahram Faradji; Parichehr Abadi; Faramarz Ismail-Beigi

2009-01-01

190

The Prevalence of Phosphorus Containing Food Additives in Top Selling Foods in Grocery Stores  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the prevalence of phosphorus-containing food additives in best selling processed grocery products and to compare the phosphorus content of a subset of top selling foods with and without phosphorus additives. Design The labels of 2394 best selling branded grocery products in northeast Ohio were reviewed for phosphorus additives. The top 5 best selling products containing phosphorus additives from each food category were matched with similar products without phosphorus additives and analyzed for phosphorus content. Four days of sample meals consisting of foods with and without phosphorus additives were created and daily phosphorus and pricing differentials were computed. Setting Northeast Ohio Main outcome measures Presence of phosphorus-containing food additives, phosphorus content Results 44% of the best selling grocery items contained phosphorus additives. The additives were particularly common in prepared frozen foods (72%), dry food mixes (70%), packaged meat (65%), bread & baked goods (57%), soup (54%), and yogurt (51%) categories. Phosphorus additive containing foods averaged 67 mg phosphorus/100 gm more than matched non-additive containing foods (p=.03). Sample meals comprised mostly of phosphorus additive-containing foods had 736 mg more phosphorus per day compared to meals consisting of only additive-free foods. Phosphorus additive-free meals cost an average of $2.00 more per day. Conclusion Phosphorus additives are common in best selling processed groceries and contribute significantly to their phosphorus content. Moreover, phosphorus additive foods are less costly than phosphorus additive-free foods. As a result, persons with chronic kidney disease may purchase these popular low-cost groceries and unknowingly increase their intake of highly bioavailable phosphorus. PMID:23402914

Leon, Janeen B.; Sullivan, Catherine M.; Sehgal, Ashwini R.

2013-01-01

191

Studies on the phosphorus requirement and proper calcium/phosphorus ratio in the diet of the black sea bream ( Sparus macrocephalus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An expriment on the phosphorus requirement and the proper Ca/P ratio in the diet of the black sea bream using the phosphorus gradient method (with casein as basic diet, sodium dihydrogen phosphate as source of phosphorus, and calcium lactate as source of calcium) showed that growth was greatly affected by the diet's phosphorus content and Ca/P ratio. Inadequate phosphorus in the diet resulted in slow growth and poor food conversion ratio (FCR). Analyses of the fish body showed it contained a high level of lipid but a low level of moisture, ash, calcium and phosphorus. The optimal values of phosphorus and Ca/P ratio in the black sea bream diet are 0.68% and 1?2 respectively. Phosphorus in excess of this optimum value resulted in slow growth or even death. The results of this experiment clearly indicated that phosphorus is the principal mineral additive affecting black sea bream growth.

Liu, Jingke; Li, Maotang; Wang, Keling; Wang, Xincheng; Liu, Jianking

1993-06-01

192

30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.33 Allowable...

2012-07-01

193

30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.33 Allowable...

2010-07-01

194

30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.33 Allowable...

2013-07-01

195

30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.33 Allowable...

2011-07-01

196

30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.  

... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.33 Allowable...

2014-07-01

197

X-33. Phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the Cooperative Agreement, Lockheed Martin Skunk Works has compiled an Annual Performance Report of the X-33/RLV Program. This report consists of individual reports from all industry team members, as well as NASA team centers. The first milestone was hand delivered to NASA MSFC. The second year has been one of significant accomplishment in which team members have demonstrated their ability to meet vital benchmarks while continuing on the technical adventure of the 20th century.

1998-01-01

198

Effect of pH on biological phosphorus uptake.  

PubMed

An anaerobic aerobic laboratory scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated to study the effect of pH on enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Seven steady states were achieved under different operating conditions. In all of them, a slight variation in the pH value was observed during anaerobic phase. However, pH rose significantly during aerobic phase. The increase observed was due to phosphorus uptake and carbon dioxide stripping. When pH was higher than 8.2-8.25 the phosphorus uptake rate clearly decreased. The capability of Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) and Biological Nutrient Removal Model No. 1 (BNRM1) to simulate experimental results was evaluated. Both models successfully characterized the enhanced biological phosphorus removal performance of the SBR. Furthermore, BNRM1 also reproduced the pH variations observed and the decrease in the phosphorus uptake rate. This model includes a switch function in the kinetic expressions to represent the pH inhibition in biological processes. The pH inhibition constants related to polyphosphate storage process were obtained by adjusting model predictions to measured phosphorus concentrations. On the other hand, pH inhibition should be included in ASM2d to accurately simulate experimental phosphorus evolution observed in an A/O SBR. PMID:16958137

Serralta, J; Ferrer, J; Borrás, L; Seco, A

2006-12-01

199

The dissipation of phosphorus in sewage and sewage effluents.  

PubMed

Of the 41 kt of phosphorus reaching the sewage works in England and Wales 15 kt is removed in sewage sludge and the remainder is disposed of to rivers. 60% of the sewage sludge is now used as fertilizer and this proportion will no doubt increase in the future. The total use of sewage sludge, however, represents only about 5% of the current annual usage of artificial phosphorus fertilizer. At present there is no general economic incentive to make better use of the phosphorus in effluents. Phosphorus removal is expensive--about 2--3 pence/m3. If all the sewage effluents in England and Wales were to be so treated the cost would be about 100--150 million pounds annually, that is about 50% of the present costs of sewage treatment. In certain cases, but rarely in the UK, phosphate is removed, not to conserve phosphorus but to minimize the problems it creates in the environment. The phosphorus removed has little value as fertilizer. Alternative methods of using the phosphorus in effluents by the production and harvesting of crops of algae or aquatic plants have so far proved uneconomic. However, these methods need to be reviewed periodically as they may in the future become economically more attractive, especially in warmer climates where plant growth can be maintained throughout the year. PMID:357121

Collingwood, R W

200

Estimation of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Effluent from the Striped Catfish Farming Sector in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study an attempt is made to estimate nitrogen and phosphorus discharged to the environment from the striped catfish\\u000a (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) farming sector in the Mekong Delta (8°33?–10°55?N, 104°30?–106°50?E), South Vietnam. The sector accounted for 687,000 t\\u000a production in 2007 and 1,094,879 t in 2008, with over 95% of the produce destined for export to over 100 countries. Commercial\\u000a and farm-made

Sena S. De Silva; Brett A. Ingram; Phuong T. Nguyen; Tam M. Bui; Geoff J. Gooley; Giovanni M. Turchini

2010-01-01

201

Optical and electrical properties of phosphorus-doped ZnMgTe bulk crystals grown by Bridgman method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus-doped Zn1-x Mgx Te crystals with Mg concentration x of 0 to 0.33 have been grown by vertical Bridgman method. The lattice constant, transmissivity and band-gap energy as a function of x have been determined. The linear relation has been found between the lattice constant or band-gap energy and x . The number of precipitates in Zn1-x Mgx Te single crystals seems to be less than that in ZnTe grown from VGF method. The p -type Zn1-x Mgx Te (x ? 0.19) crystals with carrier concentration of 1017 cm-3 were obtained independent of x .

Saito, K.; So, G.; Tanaka, T.; Nishio, M.; Guo, Q. X.; Ogawa, H.

2006-09-01

202

Crystalline phosphorus fibers: controllable synthesis and visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity.  

PubMed

An efficient method is developed for the synthesis of single crystalline fibrous phosphorus submicron materials. Via the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique, fibrous phosphorus fibers with diameters from ?150 nm to 2 ?m were prepared directly from amorphous red phosphorus. The as-prepared fibrous phosphorus exhibited interesting photocatalytic properties. PMID:25325830

Shen, Zhurui; Hu, Zhuofeng; Wang, Wanjun; Lee, Siu-Fung; Chan, Donald K L; Li, Yecheng; Gu, Ting; Yu, Jimmy C

2014-11-01

203

Semiconducting Layered Blue Phosphorus: A Computational Study Zhen Zhu and David Tomnek*  

E-print Network

structure and high stability with the black phosphorus allotrope. We find the in-plane hexagonal structure. Unlike graphite and black phosphorus, blue phosphorus displays a wide fundamental band gap. Still study a likely transformation pathway from black to blue phosphorus and discuss possible ways

Tománek, David

204

An ecological risk assessment paradigm using the Spatially Integrated model for Phosphorus Loading and Erosion (SIMPLE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological risk assessments provide a probabilitistic approach to analyzing and predicting ecosystem responses to stress. We are evaluating the relationship between nonpoint source (NPS) phosphorus loading and the trophic status of the aquatic ecosystem. We are using SIMPLE (the Spatially Integrated Model for Phosphorus Loading and Erosion) to identify probable phosphorus sources in a watershed, simulate the phosphorus loading to

M. D. Matlock; D. E. Storm; J. G. Sabbagh; C. T. Haan; M. D. Smolen; S. L. Burks

1994-01-01

205

A review and reassessment of lake phosphorus retention and the nutrient loading concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. We conducted a statistical reassessment of data previously reported in the lake total phosphorus (TP) input\\/output literature (n ¼ 305) to determine which lake characteristics are most strongly associated with lake phosphorus concentration and retention. We tested five different hypotheses for predicting lake TP concentrations and phosphorus retention. 2. The Vollenweider phosphorus mass loading model can be expressed

MICHAEL T. BRETT; MARK M. BENJAMIN

2008-01-01

206

Research on Soil Phosphorus Spatial Distribution and Variation Characteristics along Jialu River Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial distribution and variation characteristics of several forms of soil phosphorus along Jialu River Basin, the main tributary basin of Huaihe River, were discussed using Geo-statistical method and GIS technology. At the same time, correlation analysis of phosphorus concentration in soil and sediment were taken respectively to explore the phosphorus transfer path and to identify the main source of the river phosphorus accumulation. The results show that: (1) Total phosphorus, organic phosphorus and inorganic phosphorus concentration in soil appeared obvious trends of symmetry along Jialu river respectively, each of which had a corresponding high value area; (2) The variation characteristics analysis shows that the total phosphorus and inorganic phosphorus had a strong spatial distribution correlation, suggesting that spatial variability caused by structural factors is greater than that caused by random factors. Special distribution of other phosphorus showed significant correlation; (3) Total phosphorus in soil and sediments showed a negative correlation, indicating that a big part of phosphorus in river sediments came from soil phosphorus loss. The correlation coefficient of the organic phosphorus in soil and sediments was 0.429, illuminating that high amount of soil organic phosphorus leached into water through various ways, which may be the main source of organic phosphorus in the sediments.

Bai, Y.; Ruan, X.; Mao, C.

2013-12-01

207

Phosphorus fertilizer can increase pea and lentil yield on many Montana soils  

E-print Network

Phosphorus fertilizer can increase pea and lentil yield on many Montana soils December 15, 2006 -- By Carol Flaherty BOZEMAN--Applications of phosphorus fertilizer can increase pea and lentil yield, two of available phosphorus in central Montana found that phosphorus fertilizer improved grain yield of spring pea

Maxwell, Bruce D.

208

Chemical Changes of Applied and Native Phosphorus During Incubation and Distribution into Different Soil Phosphorus Pools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical transformations of applied and residual soil phosphorus (P) into different pools in two soils [Alfisols], a red sandy clay soil [Haplo?Palcustalfs] from Rustenburg, which is a high P fixing, and a red sandy loam soil [Pale?Xerults] from Loskop, a low P fixing were examined after treatments with different P rates (0, 25, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg kg) and

Victor A. Ochwoh; Andries S. Claassens; P. C. de Jager

2005-01-01

209

Microbial phytases in phosphorus acquisition and plant growth promotion.  

PubMed

Phosphorus (P) is one of the major constituents in energy metabolism and biosynthesis of nucleic acids and cell membranes with an important role in regulation of a number of enzymes. Soil phosphorous is an important macronutrient for plant growth. Phosphorus deficiency in soil is a major problem for agricultural production. Total soil P occurs in either organic or in organic form. Phytic acid as phytate (salts of phytic acid) is the major form of organic phosphorus in soil and it is not readily available to plants as a source of phosphorus because it either forms a complex with cations or adsorbs to various soil components. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms are ubiquitous in soils and could play an important role in supplying P to plants. Microorganisms utilizing phytate are found in cultivated soils as well as in wetland, grassland and forest soils. Various fungi and bacteria (including plant growth promoting rhizobacteria) hydrolyze this organic form of phosphorus secreting phosphatases such as phytases and acidic/alkaline phosphatases. A large number of transgenic plants have been developed which were able to utilize sodium phytate as sole source of phosphorus. However, the recombinant phytases were similar to their wild type counterparts in terms of their properties. Increased phytase/phosphatase activity in transgenic plants may be an effective approach to promote their phytate-phosphorus utilization. The extracellular phytase activity of transgenic plant roots is a significant factor in the utilization of phosphorus from phytate. Furthermore, this indicated that an opportunity exists for using gene technology to improve the ability of plants to utilize accumulated forms of soil organic phosphorus. This review is focused on the role of phytases and phytase producing microbes in promoting the growth of different plants. PMID:23572999

Singh, Bijender; Satyanarayana, T

2011-04-01

210

Typhoon effects on phosphorus dynamics in a subtropical reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intense storm event during typhoon period is identified that will significantly alter the content of phosphorus in the water body of reservoir. However, the fate and transport of phosphorus in aquatic environments that triggered by typhoons is poorly understanded. Better understanding of typhoon impacts on the runoff mechanism of phosphorus will be useful in improving the management of water pollution and reduce the impairment to the drinking water sources. In this study, three typhoon events namely Talim, Saola and Tembin which occurred in between June and August 2012 were investigated through continuous sampling (every 3 hours) at five main tributaries at the upstream of Fei-Tsui reservoir, Taiwan. In addition, weekly sampling was conducted at different depths throughout the water column at the dam site. For all water samples, in situ measurements of pH, temperature, electrical conductivity (EC) and dissolved oxygen (DO) were conducted. The water samples had been analysed for total suspended solid (TSS), dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP), dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP), particulate phosphorus (PP) and total phosphorus (TP). Results indicated that high intense typhoon storm had caused a 2-10 times increase in DIP compared with the moderate storm and base flow condition. Correlation analysis showed that TP was positively correlated with TSS. That indicates the turbidity current can be a source of phosphorus. All nutrients showed a contrasting hysteresis pattern, which reflecting different supply of source and transport mechanism. PP was mainly originated from overland surface runoff and resuspension of sediment from the river bottom, while DIP was supplied from both surface and subsurface flow. High PP concentration was observed during the early part of storm runoff at the upstream river. Results suggested that first flush effect was evident for PP. These findings had improved the understanding on fate and transport of phosphorus in the reservoir watershed during the typhoon induced storm events.

Chow, Ming Fai

2013-04-01

211

Domestic source of phosphorus to sewage treatment works.  

PubMed

Phosphorus is an element essential for life. Concerns regarding long-term security of supply and issues related to eutrophication of surface waters once released into the aquatic environment have led governments to consider and apply measures for reducing the use and discharge of phosphorus. Examples of source control include legislation to reduce phosphorus use in domestic detergents. This research shows that other domestic sources of phosphorus also contribute significantly to the domestic load to sewer and that overall, domestic sources dominate loads to sewage treatment works. Estimates provided here show that although the natural diet contributes 40% of the domestic phosphorus load, other potentially preventable sources contribute significantly to the estimated 44,000 tonnes of phosphorus entering UK sewage treatment works each year. In the UK, food additives are estimated to contribute 29% of the domestic load; automatic dishwashing detergents contribute 9% and potentially increasing; domestic laundry 14%, including contributions from phosphonates, but decreasing; phosphorus dosing to reduce lead levels in tap water 6%; food waste disposed of down the drain 1%; and personal care products 1%. Although UK data is presented here, it is anticipated that similar impacts would be expected for other developed economies. Consideration of alternatives to all preventable sources of phosphorus from these sources would therefore offer potentially significant reductions in phosphorus loads to sewage treatment works and hence to the aquatic environment. Combining all source control measures and applying them to their maximum extent could potentially lead to the prevention of over 22,000 tonnes-P/year entering sewage treatment works. PMID:24191467

Comber, Sean; Gardner, Michael; Georges, Karyn; Blackwood, David; Gilmour, Daniel

2013-01-01

212

Phosphorus-phosphorus coupling in a diphosphine with a ten bond P...P separation.  

PubMed

The large, unsymmetrical diphosphine 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,26-bis(diphenylphosphinomethoxy)-27(or 28)-benzoyloxy-28(or 27)-hydroxycalix[4]arene, in which the phosphorus atoms are separated by ten bonds, was prepared by monobenzoylation of 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,26-bis(diphenylphosphinoylmethoxy)-27,28-bis(hydroxy)calix[4]arene, followed by reduction with phenyl silane. Its molecular structure has been determined by X-ray crystallography. In the solid state, the phosphorus atoms are separated by 5.333(1) A. NMR investigations reveal an unexpected "through-space"J(PP') coupling constant of 8.0 Hz and also show that, in solution, the calixarene is conformationally mobile, the phenoxy ring flipping rapidly through the calixarene annulus. The spatial proximity of the two phosphorus atoms was further demonstrated by the ease of obtaining the cis-chelate complex [Pd(eta3-C3H4Me)(THF)2]BF4 (THF = tetrahydrofuran). PMID:16832495

Kuhn, P; Jeunesse, C; Matt, D; Harrowfield, J; Ricard, L

2006-07-28

213

A radio search for interstellar phosphorus compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The J = 1-0 and 3-2 transitions of phosphorus nitride, PN, with resolvable hyperfine components at 46.99 GHz and blended components at 140.97 GHz, and transitions of phosphine, PH3, at 47.39 and 46.94 GHz, arising from a small induced dipole moment, have been searched for but not found in interstellar molecular clouds. The J = 3/2-1/2, F - 3/2-3/2 transition of nitric oxide, NO, and the J(K-K+) = 16(4, 12) -15(5, 11) transition of sulfur dioxide, SO2, have been detected in Orion and Sagittarius B2. An unidentified emission line, U140921.8 MHz, has been observed in IRC + 10216.

Hollis, J. M.; Snyder, L. E.; Lovas, F. J.; Ulich, B. L.

1980-10-01

214

Methods of Supplying Phosphorus to Range Cattle in South Texas.  

E-print Network

, professor, Department of Agronomy; pro- 1 f~ssor and professor, Department of Animal Husbandry; prof~ssor, Department of Agroliomy, College Station, I T~xas; a.nd president, King Ranch, Kingsville, Texas. soils in the region (6). Schmidt (7) reported... supple- ments which supplied as much as 6.5 grams of phosphorus 6 days per week to dry cows grazing phosphorus-deficient vegetation prevented phos- phorus deficiency (Figure 1). Phosphorus sup- plements increased the number of calves and the weight...

Kleberg, R. J. Jr.; Fudge, J. F.; Jones, J. H.; Jones, J. M.; Reynolds, E. B.

1953-01-01

215

Tunable optical properties of multilayer black phosphorus thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black phosphorus thin films might offer attractive alternatives to narrow-gap compound semiconductors for optoelectronics across mid- to near-infrared frequencies. In this work, we calculate the optical conductivity tensor of multilayer black phosphorus thin films using the Kubo formula within an effective low-energy Hamiltonian. The optical absorption spectra of multilayer black phosphorus are shown to vary sensitively with thickness, doping, and light polarization. In conjunction with experimental spectra obtained from infrared absorption spectroscopy, we also discuss the role of interband coupling and disorder on the observed anisotropic absorption spectra.

Low, Tony; Rodin, A. S.; Carvalho, A.; Jiang, Yongjin; Wang, Han; Xia, Fengnian; Castro Neto, A. H.

2014-08-01

216

P-NEXFS analysis of aerosol phosphorus delivered to the Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

productivity in many ocean regions is controlled by the availability of the nutrient phosphorus. In the Mediterranean Sea, aerosol deposition is a key source of phosphorus and understanding its composition is critical for determining its potential bioavailability. Aerosol phosphorus was investigated in European and North African air masses using phosphorus near-edge X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (P-NEXFS). These air masses are the main source of aerosol deposition to the Mediterranean Sea. We show that European aerosols are a significant source of soluble phosphorus to the Mediterranean Sea. European aerosols deliver on average 3.5 times more soluble phosphorus than North African aerosols and furthermore are dominated by organic phosphorus compounds. The ultimate source of organic phosphorus does not stem from common primary emission sources. Rather, phosphorus associated with bacteria best explains the presence of organic phosphorus in Mediterranean aerosols.

Longo, Amelia F.; Ingall, Ellery D.; Diaz, Julia M.; Oakes, Michelle; King, Laura E.; Nenes, Athanasios; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Violaki, Kaliopi; Avila, Anna; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R.; Brandes, Jay; McNulty, Ian; Vine, David J.

2014-06-01

217

Phosphorus saturation in spodosols impacted by manure.  

PubMed

Significant amounts of phosphorus (P) accumulate in soils receiving animal manures that could eventually result in unacceptable concentrations of dissolved P loss through surface runoff or subsurface leaching. The degree of phosphorus saturation (DPS) relates a soil's extractable P to its P sorbing capacity, and is reportedly a predictor of the P likely to be mobilized from a system. A DPS value (DPS-1) was derived that expressed the percentage of Mehlich 1-extractable P to the sorbing capacity of a Spodosol (expressed as the sum of oxalate-extractable Fe and Al). Values of DPS-1 were determined in various horizons of soil in current and abandoned dairy systems in South Florida's Lake Okeechobee watershed to assess P release potential. Land use within the dairies was classified as highly impacted by cattle (intensive and holding), and minimally impacted by cattle (pasture, forage, or native) areas. The A and E horizon of soils in heavily manure-impacted intensive and holding areas for both active and abandoned dairies generally had higher DPS-1 values than the pasture, forage, and native area soils, which were minimally impacted by manure. Degree of P saturation was also calculated as a percentage of Mehlich 1-extractable P to the sum of Mehlich 1-extractable Fe and Al (DPS-2). Both DPS-1 and DPS-2 were shown to be significantly (P = 0.0001) related to water-extractable P for all soil horizons, suggesting that either index can be used as an indicator for P loss potential from a soil. PMID:12175047

Nair, V D; Graetz, D A

2002-01-01

218

Irreversible phosphorus sorption in septic system plumes?  

PubMed

The mobility of phosphorus (P) in septic system plumes remains a topic of debate because of the considerable reactivity of this constituent. In this study, a septic system plume in Ontario was monitored over a 16-year period with detail that clearly shows the advancing frontal portion of the P plume. This monitoring record provides insight into the extent of secondary P attenuation in the ground water zone beyond that available from previous studies. A P plume 16 m in length developed over the monitoring period with PO(4)-P concentrations (3 to 6 mg/L) that approached the concentrations present under the tile bed. Simulations using an analytical model showed that when first-order solute decay was considered to account for the possibility of secondary P attenuation in the ground water zone, field values could only be matched when decay was absent or occurred at an exceedingly slow rate (half-life greater than 30 years). Thus, hypothesized secondary P attenuation mechanisms such as slow recystallization of sorbed P into insoluble metal phosphate minerals, diffusion into microsites, or kinetically slow direct precipitation of P minerals such as hydroxyapatite were inactive in the ground water zone at this site or occurred at rates that were too slow to be observed in the context of the current 16-year study. Desorption tests on sediment samples from below the tile bed indicated a PO(4) distribution coefficient (K(d)) of 4.8, which implies a P retardation factor of 25, similar to the field apparent value of 37 determined from model calibrations. This example of inactive secondary P attenuation in the ground water zone shows that phosphorus in some ground water plumes can remain mobile and conservative for decades. This has important implications for septic systems located in lakeshore environments when long-term usage scenarios are considered. PMID:18181864

Robertson, W D

2008-01-01

219

Phosphorus Loadings Associated with a Park Tourist Attraction: Limnological Consequences of Feeding the Fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Linesville spillway of Pymatuning State Park is one of the most visited tourist attractions in Pennsylvania, USA, averaging more than 450,000 visitors · year-1. Carp ( Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus) and waterfowl congregate at the spillway where they are fed bread and other foods by park visitors. We hypothesized that the “breadthrowers” constitute a significant nutrient vector to the upper portion of Pymatuning Reservoir. In the summer of 2002, we estimated phosphorus loadings attributable to breadthrowers, and compared these values to background loadings from Linesville Creek, a major tributary to the upper reservoir. Items fed to fish included bread, donuts, bagels, canned corn, popcorn, corn chips, hot dogs, birthday cakes, and dog food. Phosphorus loading associated with park visitors feeding fish was estimated to be 3233 g day-1, and estimated P export from the Linesville Creek watershed was 2235 g·day-1. P loading attributable to breadthrowers exceeded that of the entire Linesville Creek watershed on 33 of the 35 days of study, with only a heavy rainfall event triggering watershed exports that exceeded spillway contributions. Averaged across 5 weeks, breadthrowers contributed 1.45-fold more P to Pymatuning Reservoir than the Linesville Creek watershed. If Linesville Creek P exports are extrapolated to the entire Sanctuary Lake watershed, spillway contributions of P added 48% to the non-point source watershed P entering the lake. Park visitors feeding fish at the Linesville Spillway are a significant source of nutrients entering Sanctuary Lake.

Turner, Andrew M.; Ruhl, Nathan

2007-04-01

220

Mycorrhizal Acquisition of Inorganic Phosphorus by the Green-leaved Terrestrial Orchid Goodyera repens  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Mycorrhizal fungi play a vital role in providing a carbon subsidy to support the germination and establishment of orchids from tiny seeds, but their roles in adult orchids have not been adequately characterized. Recent evidence that carbon is supplied by Goodyera repens to its fungal partner in return for nitrogen has established the mutualistic nature of the symbiosis in this orchid. In this paper the role of the fungus in the capture and transfer of inorganic phosphorus (P) to the orchid is unequivocally demonstrated for the first time. Methods Mycorrhiza-mediated uptake of phosphorus in G. repens was investigated using spatially separated, two-dimensional agar-based microcosms. Results External mycelium growing from this green orchid is shown to be effective in assimilating and transporting the radiotracer 33P orthophosphate into the plant. After 7 d of exposure, over 10 % of the P supplied was transported over a diffusion barrier by the fungus and to the plants, more than half of this to the shoots. Conclusions Goodyera repens can obtain significant amounts of P from its mycorrhizal partner. These results provide further support for the view that mycorrhizal associations in some adult green orchids are mutualistic. PMID:17339276

Cameron, Duncan D.; Johnson, Irene; Leake, Jonathan R.; Read, David J.

2007-01-01

221

X-33 Phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to Clause 17 of the Cooperative Agreement NCC8-115, Lockheed Martin Skunk Works has compiled an Annual Performance Report of the X-33/RLV Program. This report consists of individual reports from all industry team members, as well as NASA team centers. Contract award was announced on July 2, 1996 and the first milestone was hand delivered to NASA MSFC on July 17, 1996. The first year has been one of growth and progress as all team members staffed up and embarked on the technical adventure of the 20th century... the ultimate goal . . a Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) Reuseable Launch Vehicle (RLV).

1997-01-01

222

Is phosphorus intake that exceeds dietary requirements a risk factor in bone health?  

PubMed

Phosphorus intake in excess of the nutrient needs of healthy adults is thought to disrupt hormonal regulation of phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), and vitamin D, contributing to impaired peak bone mass, bone resorption, and greater risk of fracture. Elevation of extracellular phosphorus due to excessive intake is thought to be the main stimulus disrupting phosphorus homeostasis in healthy individuals, as it is in renal disease even when intake is modest. If high serum phosphorus is the critical link to the effect of high phosphorus intake on bone health, the issue could be addressed through epidemiologic or dietary studies. However, several confounding factors, including problems estimating accurate phosphorus intake, the influence of a low dietary Ca:P ratio, the acidic nature of phosphorus, the rapid rate of absorption and greater phosphorus bioavailability from processed food such as cola drinks, and circadian fluctuation in serum phosphorus, make this question difficult to address using conventional study designs. These confounding factors are considered in this review, exploring whether phosphorus intake exceeding nutrient needs in healthy individuals disrupts phosphorus regulation and negatively affects bone accretion or loss. Specific attention is given to phosphorus intake from processed foods rich in phosphorus additives, which significantly contribute to phosphorus intake. PMID:24472074

Calvo, Mona S; Tucker, Katherine L

2013-10-01

223

Asteroidal Impact Caused Phosphorus Flooding on the Earth During Palaeoproterozoic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abrupt contact between carbonate and phosphate stromatolites at Udaipur, India of Palaeoproterozoic age indicates asteroidal impact that inundated the Earth with phosphorus. Resultant cyanobacterial bloom changed the Earth's overall environment.

Sisodia, M. S.; Mishra, S.; Purohit, R.; Purohit, V.

2013-09-01

224

Mineralogical Investigation of the Phosphorus-Rich Springwater Pallasite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate the textural relationships among olivine and phosphorus-bearing phases in the Springwater pallasite, we determined olivine crystal orientations with EBSD and analyzed phosphates and phosphoran olivine with electron microprobe.

Fowler-Gerace, N. A.; Tait, K. T.; Moser, D. E.; Hyde, B. C.; Barker, I.

2013-09-01

225

Nitrogen and Phosphorus Hydrochemistry in Las Vegas Wash.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sources of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient species, the chemical reactions occurring, and the parameters of nutrient uptake were studied for the Las Vegas Wash hydrologic system. Las Vegas Wash, a natural drainage channel running from Las Vegas Valle...

A. Schmidt, J. W. Hess

1980-01-01

226

Novel Mechanisms in the Regulation of Phosphorus Homeostasis - Figure 3  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This figure shows that intestinal phosphate sensing increases the fractional excretion of phosphorus in the kidney following increases in intestinal luminal phosphate concentrations by the release of an intestinal mediator ("intestinal phosphatonin").

Theresa Berndt (Mayo Clinic); Rajiv Kumar (Mayo Clinic)

2009-02-01

227

The availability of dissolved organic phosphorus compounds to marine phytoplankton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of three dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) compounds as nutrient sources for experimental culture of three algae was studied. Results indicated that these compounds could be utilized by algae, and that dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) was first to be uptaken when various forms of phosphorus (DIP and DOP) co-existed. Dicrateria zhanjiangensis' uptake of sodium glycerophosphate was faster than that of D-ribose-5-phosphate. The increase of sodium glycerophosphate had little effect on the maximum uptake rate( V max) of Chlorella sp., but increased the semisaturation constant( K s) remarkably; the photosynthesis rates(PR) of Dicrateria zhanjiangensis and Chlorella sp. were rarely affected by using various forms of phosphorus in the culture experiments. The possible DOP pathways utilized by algae are discussed.

Hua-Sheng, Hong; Hai-Li, Wang; Bang-Qin, Huang

1995-06-01

228

Saving phosphorus removal at the Henderson NV plant.  

PubMed

While the mechanism of biological phosphorus removal (BPR) and the need for volatile fatty acids (VFA) have been well researched and documented to the point where it is now possible to design a plant with a very reliable phosphorus removal process using formal flow sheets, BPR is still observed in a number of plants that have no designated anaerobic zone, which was considered essential for phosphorus removal. Some examples are given in this paper. A theory is proposed and then applied to solve problems with a shortage of VFA in the influent of the Henderson NV plant. Mixed liquor was fermented in the anaerobic zone, which resulted in phosphorus removal to very low levels. This paper will discuss some of the background, and some case histories and applications, and present a simple postulation as to the mechanism and efforts at modelling the results. PMID:22437032

Barnard, J; Houweling, D; Analla, H; Steichen, M

2012-01-01

229

Black phosphorus photodetector for multispectral, high-resolution imaging.  

PubMed

Black phosphorus is a layered semiconductor that is intensely researched in view of applications in optoelectronics. In this letter, we investigate a multilayer black phosphorus photodetector that is capable of acquiring high-contrast (V > 0.9) images both in the visible (?VIS = 532 nm) as well as in the infrared (?IR = 1550 nm) spectral regime. In a first step, by using photocurrent microscopy, we map the active area of the device and we characterize responsivity and gain. In a second step, by deploying the black phosphorus device as a point-like detector in a confocal microsope setup, we acquire diffraction-limited optical images with submicron resolution. The results demonstrate the usefulness of black phosphorus as an optoelectronic material for hyperspectral imaging applications. PMID:25299161

Engel, Michael; Steiner, Mathias; Avouris, Phaedon

2014-11-12

230

Method of removing and detoxifying a phosphorus-based substance  

DOEpatents

A method of removing organic phosphorus-based poisonous substances from water contaminated therewith and of subsequently destroying the toxicity of the substance is disclosed. Initially, a water-immiscible organic is immobilized on a supported liquid membrane. Thereafter, the contaminated water is contacted with one side of the supported liquid membrane to selectively dissolve the phosphorus-based substance in the organic extractant. At the same time, the other side of the supported liquid membrane is contacted with a hydroxy-affording strong base to react the phosphorus-based substance dissolved by the organic extractant with a hydroxy ion. This forms a non-toxic reaction product in the base. The organic extractant can be a water-insoluble trialkyl amine, such as trilauryl amine. The phosphorus-based substance can be phosphoryl or a thiophosphoryl.

Vandegrift, George F. (Bolingbrook, IL); Steindler, Martin J. (Park Forest, IL)

1989-01-01

231

The pollution load by nitrogen and phosphorus in the Jadro River.  

PubMed

The objective of the investigations of the Jadro River, located in Croatia, was to estimate the nitrogen and phosphorus loads in the Jadro River spring and its streamflow by calculating the load in kg/day or tons/year and to compare this with the load for the maximum allowed concentrations (MAC) for drinking water (Official Bulletin, No 46/94) expressed in kg/day or tons/year. Daily pollution loads at the Jadro River spring for total N ranged from 0 to 304 kg, for NH3-N from 0 to 38 kg, for NO3-N from 0-1321 kg and for PO4-P from 0-92 kg in the period from September 1993 to September 2003. When compared with MAC loads the results prove that the Jadro River spring is not polluted by nitrogen compounds and phosphorus. The average annual load for total N ranged from 10 to 33 t, for NH3-N from 0.25 to 5.15 t, for NO3-N from 40 to 190 t, and for PO4-P from 0.3 to 11.5 t. The nitrogen compounds and phosphorus loads vary from one year to another without any constant decreasing or increasing trends. The annual average loads compared with the average annual MAC loads (especially for NH3-N and PO4-P) show that there were no threats of constant pollution of the spring. The loads for total N and PO4-P along the Jadro River flow from the spring to the fishpond entrance were monitored over a five year period from September 1999 to September 2004. The results show no regularities. The highest annual total nitrogen load of 45 t was recorded at the entrance to the fishpond during the 2002/2003 period. The highest annual PO4-P load of 10 t was measured at the Vidovi? Bridge during the 2003/2004 period; however, the concentrations of N and P did not exceed the MAC concentrations which are prescribed for drinking water. According to the investigation results of the daily and average annual loads compared with MAC loads for drinking water, it can be concluded that the Jadro River spring and its streamflow are not polluted by nitrogen and phosphorus. PMID:17054013

Stambuk-Giljanovi?, Nives

2006-12-01

232

Influence of Microorganisms on Phosphorus Bioavailability in Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil microorganisms, particularly the rhizosphere flora of higher plants, remarkably affect the phosphorus bioavailability\\u000a in soils. Microbially derived carboxylic acids mobilize calcium phosphates as well as iron- and aluminum-bound phosphorus.\\u000a Microbial mineralization of organic matter is essential for nutrient cycling in soils and phosphatases enhance the use of\\u000a organic P compounds by higher plants. Plants, especially in nutrient-poor habitats like

Annette Deubel; Wolfgang Merbach

233

Electronic Structure of Black Phosphorus in Tight Binding Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy band structure of black phosphorus is calculated for the first time using the tight binding approach. It is shown that black phosphorus is a narrow gap semiconductor with the direct energy gap at the zone edge in the (0 0 kz) direction. The pressure dependence of the energy gap is calculated to be -2.61× 10-2 eV\\/kbar, its experimental

Yukihiro Takao; Hideo Asahina; Akira Morita

1981-01-01

234

The Phosphorus Compounds of Cotton Seed Meal and Wheat Bran.  

E-print Network

claimed, and especially that cottonseed meal does not contain meta- or pyrophos- phoric acid. The work presented in this bulletin is a continuation of the above study of the forms of phosphorus compounds in cottonseed mea], together... with an investigation of the acid-soluble phosphorus com? pounds of wheat bran. REVIEW OF LITERATURE. Hardin states (Bulletin 8, Dew series. South Carolina ExperimeDt Sta? tion) that cottonseed meal consists largely of meta- and pyrophosphoric acids. Crawford (Jour...

Rather, J. B. (James Burness)

1913-01-01

235

Phosphorus catalysis in the pyrolysis behaviour of biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus is a key plant nutrient and as such, is incorporated into growing biomass in small amounts. This paper examines the influence of phosphorus, present in either acid (H3PO4) or salt ((NH4)3PO4) form, on the pyrolysis behaviour of both Miscanthus×giganteus, and its cell wall components, cellulose, hemicellulose (xylan) and lignin (Organosolv). Pyrolysis–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (PY–GC–MS) is used to examine the

Daniel J. Nowakowski; Charles R. Woodbridge; Jenny M. Jones

2008-01-01

236

Bioassays of weathered residues of several organic phosphorus insecticides  

E-print Network

l i b r a r y l A i braayOy rn Eyhl? BIOASSAYS OF WEATHERED RESIDUES OF SEVERAL ORGANIC PHOSPHORUS INSECTICIDES A Dissertation By BILLIE GENE HIGHTOWER Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR QF PHILOSOPHY January 1959 Major Subject: Entomology BIOASSAYS OF WEATHERED RESIDUES OF SEVERAL ORGANIC PHOSPHORUS INSECTICIDES A Dissertation By BILLIE GENE HIGHTOWER Approved...

Hightower, Billie Gene

2013-10-04

237

Characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus loads in peat mining wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Runoff water quality from a peat mine was studied during 1995 and 1996 in Central Finland. Water samples from three drained sub-catchments and groundwater were analysed for all the standard physio-chemical parametres including different forms of nitrogen and phosphorus. The annual leaching of phosphorus, nitrogen and suspended solids was estimated to be 16–38kgkm?2, 1073–1500kgkm?2, and 2–8tkm?2, respectively. The variation in

Bjørn Kløve

2001-01-01

238

The release of dissolved phosphorus from lake sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chapter 1. Introduction:<\\/strong> Eutrophication is one of the world's major water quality problems. Attempts to alleviate eutrophication of lakes have involved the control of phosphorus loadings. In such cases, an internal loading of phosphorus from the sediments may retard an improvement of the water quality. Chapters 2 - 5 deal specifically with the sediments of Lake Loosdrecht.Chapter 2. Distribution and

P. C. M. Boers

1991-01-01

239

Estimating Phosphorus Concentrations Following Alum Treatment Using Apparent Settling Velocity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apparent settling velocity (Vs) is a term used in empirical, steady-state, mass-balance lake models to represent the net phosphorus flux from the water column. The Vollenweider (1969) mixed-reactor lake model was rearranged and used to calculate Vs values for total phosphorus (TP) for three lakes treated with alum to reduce the internal flux of P to the water column

John C. Panuska; Dale M. Robertson

1999-01-01

240

The effect of sulphur and phosphorus sources on cotton  

E-print Network

UBRARy ASM COLLEGE OF I'EXAS THE EFFECT OF SULPHUR AND PHOSPHORUS SOURCES ON COTTON A Thesis By SHELTON GLENN BLACK Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1958 Major Subject: Agronomy THE EFFECT OF SULPHUR AND PHOSPHORUS SOURCES ON COTTON Thesis By SHELTON GLENN BLACK Approved as to style and content by. ' (Chairman of Committee) 7 (H~d of Depa...

Black, Shelton Glenn

2012-06-07

241

Conjugation in the Series of Phosphorus(III) Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In its electronic effect phosphorus(III) is usually regarded as an analogue of tervalent nitrogen. However, in recent years it has been shown that substituents with phosphorus(III) do not exhibit a pi-donor effect, which is characteristic to a greater or smaller extent of groups containing the elements in Periods II and III with lone pairs of electrons. On the other hand,

Evgeny N. Tsvetkov; Martin I. Kabachnik

1971-01-01

242

Carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus relations in oceanic Neogene sediments  

E-print Network

CARBON, SULFUR, AND PHOSPHORUS RELATIONS IN OCEANIC NFOGENE SEDIMENTS A Thesis by LINDA LOWRY MAYS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1987 Major Subject: Oceanography CARBON, SULFUR, AND PHOSPHORUS RELATIONS IN OCEANIC NEOGENE SEDIMENTS A Thesis by LINDA LOWRY MAYS Approved as to style and content by: John W. M se (Co-chai man) Philip D. Rabinowitz (Co-chairman) Ka...

Mays, Linda Lowry

2012-06-07

243

Continuous phosphorus measurements reveal catchment-scale transport processes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small fraction of the nutrients used for agriculture is transported by rivers and artificial drainage networks to downstream waters. In lakes and coastal seas such as the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Mexico these nutrients cause large-scale algal blooms and hypoxia and thus are a major environmental hazard. In this presentation we focus on the transport of phosphorus from agricultural fields. An improved understanding of the flow routes and stores of phosphorus within a catchment and of the chemical properties of these phosphorus stores and fluxes are crucial for developing effective remediation and mitigation strategies. In the Hupsel brook agricultural catchment in the Netherlands (6.5 km2), we measured dissolved and total phosphorus every 15 minutes for a 1 year period. Many studies have found that phosphorus is mainly transported adsorbed to sediments and other oxide surfaces. We, however, show for the Hupsel brook catchment that the affinity for phosphorus to bind with particles has a strong seasonality. During the winter season the ratio dissolved versus bound phosphorus is approximately 3:2 (i.e. more dissolved than adsorbed), while during the summer this ratio reduces to 1:5 (i.e. more adsorbed than dissolved), with variations during discharge events. In our presentation we will use the weekly sampling of other ions at several locations within the catchment, chemical analyses of transported sediments and continuous water temperature and discharge records to shed some light on the biological, chemical and physical processes that drive catchment-scale transport of phosphorus for this agricultural stream.

van der Velde, Y.; Rozemeijer, J. C.

2012-04-01

244

Electrodeposition of amorphous ternary nickel-chromium-phosphorus alloy  

DOEpatents

Amorphous ternary nickel-chromium-phosphorus alloys are electrodeposited from a bath comprising a nickel salt, a chromium salt, a phosphorus source such as sodium hypophosphite, a complexing agent for the nickel ions, supporting salts to increase conductivity, and a buffering agent. The process is carried out at about room temperature and requires a current density between about 20 to 40 A/dm.sup.2.

Guilinger, Terry R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1990-01-01

245

Global potential of phosphorus recovery from human urine and feces.  

PubMed

This study geospatially quantifies the mass of an essential fertilizer element, phosphorus, available from human urine and feces, globally, regionally, and by specific country. The analysis is performed over two population scenarios (2009 and 2050). This important material flow is related to the presence of improved sanitation facilities and also considers the global trend of urbanization. Results show that in 2009 the phosphorus available from urine is approximately 1.68 million metric tons (with similar mass available from feces). If collected, the phosphorus available from urine and feces could account for 22% of the total global phosphorus demand. In 2050 the available phosphorus from urine that is associated with population increases only will increase to 2.16 million metric tons (with similar mass available from feces). The available phosphorus from urine and feces produced in urban settings is currently approximately 0.88 million metric tons and will increase with population growth to over 1.5 million metric tons by 2050. Results point to the large potential source of human-derived phosphorus in developing regions like Africa and Asia that have a large population currently unserved by improved sanitation facilities. These regions have great potential to implement urine diversion and reuse and composting or recovery of biosolids, because innovative technologies can be integrated with improvements in sanitation coverage. In contrast, other regions with extensive sanitation coverage like Europe and North America need to determine how to retrofit existing sanitation technology combined that is combined with human behavioral changes to recover phosphorus and other valuable nutrients. PMID:21429554

Mihelcic, James R; Fry, Lauren M; Shaw, Ryan

2011-08-01

246

Dryland Wheat Response to Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilization.  

E-print Network

Experiment Station ? Edward A. Hiler, Director ? The Texas A&M University System ? College Station, Texas (Blank Page in Origill - BuUetin) ? ,. .I.? .. . .?, ~ - ~ - . ??: ? .. .? ~ . Dryland Wheat Response to Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilization... Betty A. Kramp and David Bordovsky1 Summary Growth characteristics and grain yield response of dry land wheat were compared between four levels of nitrogen (N) and four levels of phosphorus (P) fer tilization. No plant responses to P fertilizer addi...

Kramp, Betty A.; Bordovsky, David

1995-01-01

247

The effect of feeding various levels of energy and phosphorus on blood glucose and blood phosphorus in heifers pre- and post-partum  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF FEEDING VARIOUS LEVELS OF ENERGY AND PHOSPHORUS ON BLOOD GLUCOSE AND BLOOD PHOSPHORUS IN HEIFERS PRE- AND POSTPARTUM A Thesis by EDWARD FLOYD FUGGER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1970 Major Sub]ect: Physiology of Reproduction THE EFFECT OF FEEDING VARIOUS LEVELS OF ENERGY AND PHOSPHORUS ON BLOOD GLUCOSE AND BLOOD PHOSPHORUS IN HEIFERS PRE- AND POSTPARTUM...

Fugger, Edward Floyd

2012-06-07

248

TESLA-Report 1993-33 TESLA-Report 1993-33  

E-print Network

#12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993

249

Phosphorus and Nitrogen Regulate Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis in Petunia hybrida  

PubMed Central

Phosphorus and nitrogen are essential nutrient elements that are needed by plants in large amounts. The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis between plants and soil fungi improves phosphorus and nitrogen acquisition under limiting conditions. On the other hand, these nutrients influence root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi and symbiotic functioning. This represents a feedback mechanism that allows plants to control the fungal symbiont depending on nutrient requirements and supply. Elevated phosphorus supply has previously been shown to exert strong inhibition of arbuscular mycorrhizal development. Here, we address to what extent inhibition by phosphorus is influenced by other nutritional pathways in the interaction between Petunia hybrida and R. irregularis. We show that phosphorus and nitrogen are the major nutritional determinants of the interaction. Interestingly, the symbiosis-promoting effect of nitrogen starvation dominantly overruled the suppressive effect of high phosphorus nutrition onto arbuscular mycorrhiza, suggesting that plants promote the symbiosis as long as they are limited by one of the two major nutrients. Our results also show that in a given pair of symbiotic partners (Petunia hybrida and R. irregularis), the entire range from mutually symbiotic to parasitic can be observed depending on the nutritional conditions. Taken together, these results reveal complex nutritional feedback mechanisms in the control of root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. PMID:24608923

Nouri, Eva; Breuillin-Sessoms, Florence; Feller, Urs; Reinhardt, Didier

2014-01-01

250

Phosphorus runoff from turfgrass as affected by phosphorus fertilization and clipping management.  

PubMed

Phosphorus enrichment of surface water is a concern in many urban watersheds. A 3-yr study on a silt loam soil with 5% slope and high soil test P (27 mg kg(-1) Bray P1) was conducted to evaluate P fertilization and clipping management effects on P runoff from turfgrass (Poa pratensis L.) under frozen and nonfrozen conditions. Four fertilizer treatments were compared: (i) no fertilizer, (ii) nitrogen (N)+potassium (K)+0xP, (iii) N+K+1xP, and (iv) N+K+3xP. Phosphorus rates were 21.3 and 63.9 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) the first year and 7.1 and 21.3 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) the following 2 yr. Each fertilizer treatment was evaluated with clippings removed or clippings recycled back to the turf. In the first year, P runoff increased with increasing P rate and P losses were greater in runoff from frozen than nonfrozen soil. In year 2, total P runoff from the no fertilizer treatment was greater than from treatments receiving fertilizer. This was because reduced turf quality resulted in greater runoff depth from the no fertilizer treatment. In year 3, total P runoff from frozen soil and cumulative total P runoff increased with increasing P rate. Clipping management was not an important factor in any year, indicating that returning clippings does not significantly increase P runoff from turf. In the presence of N and K, P fertilization did not improve turf growth or quality in any year. Phosphorus runoff can be reduced by not applying P to high testing soils and avoiding fall applications when P is needed. PMID:20048316

Bierman, Peter M; Horgan, Brian P; Rosen, Carl J; Hollman, Andrew B; Pagliari, Paulo H

2010-01-01

251

Phase transitions and superconductivity of black phosphorus and phosphorus-arsenic alloys at low temperatures and high pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray diffraction of black phosphorus and phosphorus-arsenic alloys with composition P1-xAsx (x=0.05,0.1) has been carried out with synchrotron radiation at low temperatures and high pressures. The first transition from the orthorhombic to the rhombohedral state started at around 7.5 GPa at 21 K. The transition pressure at 21 K is about 3 GPa higher than that at room temperature. The

Ichimin Shirotani; Junya Mikami; Takafumi Adachi; Yoshinori Katayama; Kazuhiko Tsuji; Haruki Kawamura; Osamu Shimomura; Tetsuo Nakajima

1994-01-01

252

[X-33 Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lockheed Martin Skunk Works has compiled an Annual Performance Report of the X-33/RLV Program. This report consists of individual reports from all industry team members, as well as NASA team centers. This portion of the report is comprised of a status report of Allied-Signal Aerospace's contribution to the program. The following is a summary of the work reviewed under their portion of the agreement: (1) Communication Systems; (2) Environmental Control Systems- Active Thermal Control System (ATCS), Purge and Vent System, Hydrogen Detection System (HDS), Avionics Bay Inerting System (ABIS), and Flush Air Data System (FADS); (2) Landing Systems; (3) Power Management and Generation Systems; (4) Flight Control Actuation System (FCAS)- Electric Power Control & Distribution System (EPCDS), and Battery Power System (BPS); and (5) Vehicle Management Systems (VMS)- VMS Hardware, VMS Software Development Activities, and System Integration Laboratory (SIL).

1999-01-01

253

PHOSPHORUS CONTAINING FOOD ADDITIVES AND THE ACCURACY OF NUTRIENT DATABASES: IMPLICATIONS FOR RENAL PATIENTS  

PubMed Central

Objective Phosphorus containing additives are increasingly added to food products. We sought to determine the potential impact of these additives. We focused on chicken products as an example. Methods We purchased a variety of chicken products, prepared them according to package directions, and performed laboratory analyses to determine their actual phosphorus content. We used ESHA Food Processor SQL Software to determine the expected phosphorus content of each product. Results Of 38 chicken products, 35 (92%) had phosphorus containing additives listed among their ingredients. For every category of chicken products containing additives, the actual phosphorus content was greater than the content expected from nutrient database. For example, actual phosphorus content exceeded expected phosphorus content by an average of 84 mg/100g for breaded breast strips. There was also a great deal of variation within each category. For example, the difference between actual and expected phosphorus content ranged from 59 to 165 mg/100g for breast patties. Two 100 g servings of additive containing products contain an average of 440 mg of phosphorus, or about half the total daily recommended intake for dialysis patients. Conclusion Phosphorus containing additives significantly increase the amount of phosphorus in chicken products. Available nutrient databases do not reflect this higher phosphorus content, and the variation between similar products makes it impossible for patients and dietitians to accurately estimate phosphorus content. We recommend that dialysis patients limit their intake of additive containing products and that the phosphorus content of food products be included on nutrition facts labels. PMID:17720105

Sullivan, Catherine M.; Leon, Janeen B.; Sehgal, Ashwini R.

2007-01-01

254

Is phosphorus recovery from waste water feasible?  

PubMed

Phosphorus (P) recovery from waste water must become a predominant goal of all countries to face the limited resources of this essential nutrient. The induced crystallisation of calcium phosphates straight from the waste water phase applying tobermorite-rich calcium silicate hydrate compounds (CSH) from the construction industry as the trigger material has proved to be a suitable method. Laboratory and semi-technical scale experiments were carried out in fixed bed, stirred reactor and expanded bed mode. P-loads of the crystallisation substrates of up to 13 wt-% total P (P-tot) (30 wt-% P2O5) were achieved. Recycling options of the generated products, both as substitute for phosphate rock in the phosphate industry and as a new fertiliser in agriculture, were demonstrated. Indicative operating and investment costs were estimated for conversion of conventional waste water treatment plants (WWTP) designed for nutrient removal and P-precipitation with iron and aluminium reagents to the proposed new crystallisation technology for simultaneous P-removal and P-recovery. PMID:17396410

Berg, U; Knoll, G; Kaschka, E; Weidler, P G; Nüesch, R

2007-02-01

255

Structural stability of phases of black phosphorus  

SciTech Connect

The pseudopotential method is used to examine the structural stability of high-pressure orthorhombic, rhombohedral (A-7), and simple cubic (sc) phases of black phosphorus. The calculated ground-state properties are in good agreement with the measured values for each phase. A total-energy study gives the orthorhombic phase as the most stable structure at low pressures. At higher pressures it transforms into the A-7 structure in agreement with experiment. At even higher pressure, the calculations indicate that the A-7 phase is stable with respect to the sc structure as is the case for other group-V elements. Measurements show that the sc phase is stable at 110 kbar at room temperature. This suggests that the calculated crystal energy for the A-7 phase is too low and it requires a finite energy shift. With an a priori energy shift, the transition pressure and volume are in good agreement with experiment. A possible source of this correction is the zero-point energy or temperature renormalization of the phonon frequencies caused by anharmonicity. The changes of the energy band structures and charge densities for the A-7 displacement and selected phonon frequencies are calculated.

Chang, K.J.; Cohen, M.L.

1986-05-01

256

Metagenomic analysis of phosphorus removing sludgecommunities  

SciTech Connect

Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) is not wellunderstood at the metabolic level despite being one of the best-studiedmicrobially-mediated industrial processes due to its ecological andeconomic relevance. Here we present a metagenomic analysis of twolab-scale EBPR sludges dominated by the uncultured bacterium, "CandidatusAccumulibacter phosphatis." This analysis resolves several controversiesin EBPR metabolic models and provides hypotheses explaining the dominanceof A. phosphatis in this habitat, its lifestyle outside EBPR and probablecultivation requirements. Comparison of the same species from differentEBPR sludges highlights recent evolutionary dynamics in the A. phosphatisgenome that could be linked to mechanisms for environmental adaptation.In spite of an apparent lack of phylogenetic overlap in the flankingcommunities of the two sludges studied, common functional themes werefound, at least one of them complementary to the inferred metabolism ofthe dominant organism. The present study provides a much-needed blueprintfor a systems-level understanding of EBPR and illustrates thatmetagenomics enables detailed, often novel, insights into evenwell-studied biological systems.

Garcia Martin, Hector; Ivanova, Natalia; Kunin, Victor; Warnecke,Falk; Barry, Kerrie; McHardy, Alice C.; Yeates, Christine; He, Shaomei; Salamov, Asaf; Szeto, Ernest; Dalin, Eileen; Putnam, Nik; Shapiro, HarrisJ.; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L.; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Blackall, Linda Louise; McMahon, Katherine D.; Hugenholtz, Philip

2006-02-01

257

Determination of Phosphorus in Cola Drinks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory experiments can improve student interest in science. However, the contrary effect could occur if they are not well designed and seem tedious, too laborious, and disconnected from daily life. Cola beverages are one of the most widely consumed drinks and are most popular among students. Much attention is being paid to possible consequences of excessive consumption for human health. Intensive efforts are being made to assess the erosive potential for teeth because of the beverages' acidity (1, 2); adverse effects secondary to high caffeine intake (e.g., hypertension, allergic reactions, gastrointestinal disturbances) (3 - 5); and adverse effects on calcium metabolism due to their high phosphoric acid content, which combined with low dietary calcium intake could increase the risk of suffering from bone diseases (6 - 9). We propose here the quantification of the phosphorus content in this kind of drinks by a different procedure from that previously described by Murphy in this Journal (10). We think this laboratory experiment will seem very interesting to students.

Lozano-Calero, Diego; Martìn-Palomeque, Pilar; Madueño-Lorguillo, Silvia

1996-12-01

258

Black phosphorus radio-frequency transistors.  

PubMed

Few-layer and thin film forms of layered black phosphorus (BP) have recently emerged as a promising material for applications in high performance nanoelectronics and infrared optoelectronics. Layered BP thin films offer a moderate bandgap of around 0.3 eV and high carrier mobility, which lead to transistors with decent on-off ratios and high on-state current densities. Here, we demonstrate the gigahertz frequency operation of BP field-effect transistors for the first time. The BP transistors demonstrated here show respectable current saturation with an on-off ratio that exceeds 2 × 10(3). We achieved a current density in excess of 270 mA/mm and DC transconductance above 180 mS/mm for hole conduction. Using standard high frequency characterization techniques, we measured a short-circuit current-gain cutoff frequency fT of 12 GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency fmax of 20 GHz in 300 nm channel length devices. BP devices may offer advantages over graphene transistors for high frequency electronics in terms of voltage and power gain due to the good current saturation properties arising from their finite bandgap, thus can be considered as a promising candidate for the future high performance thin film electronics technology for operation in the multi-GHz frequency range and beyond. PMID:25347787

Wang, Han; Wang, Xiaomu; Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Luhao; Jiang, Hao; Xia, Qiangfei; Chin, Matthew L; Dubey, Madan; Han, Shu-Jen

2014-11-12

259

Phosphorus: a limiting nutrient for humanity?  

PubMed

Phosphorus is a chemical element that is essential to life because of its role in numerous key molecules, including DNA and RNA; indeed, organisms require large amounts of P to grow rapidly. However, the supply of P from the environment is often limiting to production, including to crops. Thus, large amounts of P are mined annually to produce fertilizer that is applied in support of the 'Green Revolution.' However, much of this fertilizer eventually ends up in rivers, lakes and oceans where it causes costly eutrophication. Furthermore, given increasing human population, expanding meat consumption, and proliferating bioenergy pressures, concerns have recently been raised about the long-term geological, economic, and geopolitical viability of mined P for fertilizer production. Together, these issues highlight the non-sustainable nature of current human P use. To achieve P sustainability, farms need to become more efficient in how they use P while society as a whole must develop technologies and practices to recycle P from the food chain. Such large-scale changes will probably require a radical restructuring of the entire food system, highlighting the need for prompt but sustained action. PMID:22465489

Elser, James J

2012-12-01

260

[Phosphorus fractions under different land uses in Sanjiang plain].  

PubMed

Five land-uses type (soybean-filed, rice-field, abandoned cultivation, artificial forest, natural wetland) were obtained before planting and soil P fractions were determined by a modified Hedley fraction method. The result showed that the content of total P (TP) in natural wetland was higher than other soil. While the proportion of total inorganic P (TPi) in TP of farm land soil was higher than that of wetland. Adversely, the proportion of total organic P (TPo) was higher in wetland and least in rice-field. There was no obvious difference between that of abandoned field and artificial forest. The values of labile inorganic phosphorus (labile Pi) under different land-uses were similar. The contents of Resin-P and NaHCO3-Pi varied at a range of 32-36.3 mg x kg(-1) and 33.77-50.42 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The contents of NaOH-Pi and C.HCl-Pi in farmland were higher than those of wetland, especially in rice-field which was 152.4 mg x kg(-1). But for D.HCl-Pi, the content was higher in wetland with the value of 84.3 mg x kg(-1), and the contents of NaOH-Pi, C. HCl-Pi and D.HCl-Pi in abandoned field and artificial forest were in the middle of the above two land use patterns, which indicated that the restoration of soil P in abandoned farmland tended to approach the level of natural wetland. The value and percentage of Po was decreased greatly with the reclamation of wetland, and the decrease of C. HCl-Po was the most significant in all forms of organic P, and its values in soybean-filed and rice-field were only 25.96% and 19.26% of that in wetland. As the time went by the content of Po in abandoned arable land increased with very slow speed, which indicated that the restoration of wetland after reclamation would need a long time. The distribution of soil P in different P fractions has significant difference for the land-use change in Sanjiang plain. PMID:18290436

Qin, Sheng-jin; Liu, Jing-shuang; Wang, Guo-ping; Zhou, Wang-ming

2007-12-01

261

[Phosphorus forms of the suspended particulate matter in the Yellow River downstream during water and sediment regulation 2008].  

PubMed

Suspended particulate matter samples were collected from Lijin Station on the Yellow River during the 2008 water and sediment regulation. Using water elutriation method, samples were physically separated according to grain size, and phosphorus forms were detected by the improved SEDEX technology. Results show that authigenic apatite phosphorus and organic phosphorus are the dominant forms of the particulate phosphorus. During water and sediment regulation, concentrations of total particulate phosphorus, loosely adsorbed phosphorus, organic phosphorus and refractory phosphorus are lower than those in other time of the year, while the concentration of detrital fluorapatite phosphorus is higher than that in other time. Grain size is the primary variable in the determination of the content of various particulate phosphorus forms. In fine particles, loosely adsorbed phosphorus, organic phosphorus and refractory phosphorus concentrations are high, while detrital fluorapatite phosphorus concentration is high in coarse particles. About 28.3% of the total particulate phosphorus is in the form of bio-available phosphorus, of which organic phosphorus is the major component. During the water and sediment regulation, the fluxes of sediment, particulate phosphorus and particulate bio-available phosphorus are 6.63 x 10(7) t, 3.42 x 10(4) t, and 8.30 x 10(3) t, which are 83.2%, 78.6%, and 80.2% each of the total fluxes in 2008. PMID:21528556

Wei, Jun-Feng; Chen, Hong-Tao; Liu, Yue-Liang; Shan, Kai; Yao, Qing-Zhen; He, Hui-Jun; Yu, Zhi-Gang

2011-02-01

262

Pulsar search in M33.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors describe the scientific goals and the experimental set-up of the project Pulsar search in M33. Its aim is the discovery of radio pulsars in the Scd spiral Galaxy M33 (NGC 598). A complete survey of the Ha area of M33, with an exagonal grid somewhat less than one-half power of the Arecibo telescope at 1400 MHz, has been performed and about 100 observations over the 40% of the grid areas are now available. An improved version of the analysis procedure has been realized and is shortly described in the following. Some considerations about the detectability of pulsars eventually present in M33 are reported.

Fauci, F.; Guainazzi, M.; Boriakoff, V.

1993-12-01

263

Phosphorus forms and controls on phosphorus dynamics in sediments from Monterey Bay, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus is an essential element for all organisms. Phosphorus can be removed from the water column as sinking particulate matter, where it may either be buried or remineralized and released to the water column. The objective of our study was to determine P forms, dynamics and variability in sediment samples from Monterey Bay, CA. Six pushcore samples were randomly collected from a 2-m2 area, and were divided into 4 layers, each 1.5-2.5 cm thick. Samples were analyzed for total P, C and N, P forms by 31P NMR spectroscopy and SEDEX fractionation, phosphatase activity, and P retention. Total P, C and N did not change with depth, but there were significant changes with depth for P forms by NMR and SEDEX, and well as alkaline phosphatase and diesterase activity. However, P retention was strong in all layers and increased with depth, suggesting that remineralized P not taken up by organisms is sorbed onto sediment minerals rather than released to the surface water.

Cade-Menun, B. J.; Paytan, A.

2007-12-01

264

Potentials of using nanofiltration to recover phosphorus from sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Due to the depletion of mineral phosphorus resources there is an increasing demand for efficient phosphorus recovery technologies. In this study the potential of nanofiltration to recover phosphorus from pre-treated sewage sludge is investigated. The efficiency of three commercial nanofiltration membranes (Desal 5DK, NP030; MPF34) was tested using model solutions. Desal 5DK showed the best selectivity for phosphorus. A pH of lower than 1.5 was found to be most suitable. Desal 5DK was used on four different sewage sludge ash eluates and on one sewage sludge. In these experiments it was shown that a separation of phosphorus from undesired components such as heavy metals was possible with significant variations in the efficiency for the different ash and sludge types. Additionally the achievable product recovery was investigated with model solutions. A product recovery of 57.1% was attained for pH 1 and 41.4% for pH 1.5. PMID:18401142

Niewersch, C; Koh, C N; Wintgens, T; Melin, T; Schaum, C; Cornel, P

2008-01-01

265

Use of reactive materials to bind phosphorus.  

PubMed

Phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural soils have caused surface water quality impairment in many regions of the world, including The Netherlands. Due to the large amounts of P accumulated in Dutch soils, the generic fertilizer and manure policy will not be sufficient to reach in time the surface water quality standards of the European Water Framework Directive. Additional measures must be considered to further reduce P enrichment of surface waters. One option is to immobilize P in soils or manure or to trap P when it moves through the landscape by using reactive materials with a large capacity to retain P. We characterized and tested two byproducts of the process of purification of deep groundwater for drinking water that could be used as reactive materials: iron sludge and iron-coated sand. Both materials contain low amounts of inorganic contaminants, which also have a low (bio)availability, and bound a large amount of P. We could describe sorption of P to the iron sludge in batch experiments well with the kinetic Freundlich equation (Q = × t (m) × C(n)). Kinetics had a large influence on P sorption in batch and column experiments and should be taken into account when iron-containing materials are tested for their capability to immobilize or trap P. A negative aspect of the iron sludge is its low hydraulic conductivity; even when mixed with pure sand to a mixture containing 20% sludge, the conductivity was very low, and only 10% sludge may be needed before application is possible in filters or barriers for removing P from groundwater. Due to its much higher hydraulic conductivity, iron-coated sand has greater potential for use under field conditions. Immobilizing P could be an option for using iron sludge as a reactive material. PMID:22565245

Chardon, Wim J; Groenenberg, Jan E; Temminghoff, Erwin J M; Koopmans, Gerwin F

2012-01-01

266

A simple fractionation method for determination of phosphorus components in phytoplankton: Application to natural populations of phytoplankton in summer surface waters of Tokyo Bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple procedure for fractionation of phosphorus components in natural populations of phytoplankton has been developed. By a combination of a trichloroacetic acid (TCA) extraction, a hot dilute acid treatment, a charcoal treatment and an organic solvent extraction, cellular phosphorus was divided into orthophosphate, nucleotide phosphorus, sugar phosphates, acid-soluble polyphosphates, lipid phosphorus, nucleic acid phosphorus, acid-insoluble polyphosphates, and residual phosphorus.

Kazuyasu Miyatat; Akihiko Hattorit

1986-01-01

267

HANDBOOK: RETROFITTING POTWS FOR PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY DRAINAGE BASIN  

EPA Science Inventory

This document assesses the technology, economics, and efficiency of phosphorus removal processes for use in the Chesapeake Bay Drainage basin (CBDB). ince phosphorus removal requirements in the CBDB vary widely with geographic location, this document discusses the feasibility of ...

268

Long-term controls on ocean phosphorus and oxygen in a global biogeochemical model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedimentary phosphorus dynamics are included in a global biogeochemical modelIncreases in phosphorus river inputs promote the expansion of ocean suboxiaPreferential P regeneration enhances the expansion of ocean suboxia

V. Palastanga; C. P. Slomp; C. Heinze

2011-01-01

269

Making Photosynthetic Biofuel Renewable: Recovering Phosphorus from Residual Biomass J. M. Gifford and P. Westerhoff  

E-print Network

Making Photosynthetic Biofuel Renewable: Recovering Phosphorus from Residual Biomass J. M. Gifford to global warming. Biofuel from phototrophic microbes like algae and bacteria provides a viable substitute improves biofuel sustainability by refining phosphorus recycling. Biomass Production Residual Biomass

Hall, Sharon J.

270

Recent Changes in Soil Total Phosphorus in the Everglades: Water Conservation Area 3  

E-print Network

Recent Changes in Soil Total Phosphorus in the Everglades: Water Conservation Area 3 Gregory L nutrient loading from drained agricul- tural lands, annual phosphorus (P) inputs to the Water Conservation

Grunwald, Sabine

271

Impact of fish farming on the distribution of phosphorus in sediments in the middle Adriatic area.  

PubMed

During the last decade, intensive fish farming developed along the central Croatian coast, creating a need to study and evaluate its potential influence on unaffected sites. We considered phosphorus as an indicator of the influence of fish farming and investigated the distribution of phosphorus forms in sediment from several fish farms and marine areas of different trophic status in the middle Adriatic. Analyses of samples were performed with modified SEDEX techniques. Our results indicated that authigenic apatite phosphorus showed no significant differences among the investigated stations, while organic phosphorus concentrations reflected the trophic status of the station area. Below-cage sediment was characterized by enhanced fish debris phosphorus and low detrital apatite phosphorus concentrations, while sediment from an anthropogenically influenced bay showed the highest values of iron bound phosphorus species. Among the different P fractions, fish debris phosphorus proved to be the most sensitive indicator of the influence of fish farming on marine sediment. PMID:18187162

Matijevi?, Slavica; Kuspili?, Grozdan; Kljakovi?-Gaspi?, Zorana; Bogner, Danijela

2008-03-01

272

Microbial and metabolic characterization of a denitrifying phosphorus-uptake/side stream phosphorus removal system for treating domestic sewage.  

PubMed

In this study, an advanced wastewater treatment process, the denitrifying phosphorus/side stream phosphorus removal system (DPR-Phostrip), was developed for the purpose of enhancing denitrifying phosphorus removal. The enrichment of denitrifying phosphorus-accumulating organisms (DPAOs) and the microbial community structure of DPR-Phostrip were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and the metabolic activity of seed sludge and activated sludge collected after 55 days of operation were evaluated by Biolog™ analysis. This experimental study of DPR-Phostrip operation showed that nutrients were removed effectively, and denitrifying phosphorus removal was observed during the pre-anoxic period. PCR-DGGE analysis indicated that DPR-Phostrip supported DPAO growth while inhibiting PAOs and GAOs. The major dominant species in DPR-Phostrip were Bacteroidetes bacterium, Saprospiraceae bacterium, and Chloroflexi bacterium. Moreover, the functional diversity indices calculated on the basis of Biolog analysis indicated that DPR-Phostrip had almost no effect on microbial community diversity but was associated with a shift in the dominant species, which confirms the results of the PCR-DGGE analysis. The results for average well color development, calculated via Biolog analysis, showed that DPR-Phostrip had a little impact on the metabolic activity of sludge. Further principal component analysis suggested that the ability to utilize low-molecular-weight organic compounds was reduced in DPR-Phostrip. PMID:25073616

Jin, Zhan; Ji, Fang-Ying; Xu, Xuan; Xu, Xiao-Yi; Chen, Qing-Kong; Li, Qi

2014-11-01

273

Phosphorus: The Noose of Sustainability and Renewability in Steelmaking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With rising ore prices and the continued demand for higher quality steels, much work has been carried out into refining and control prospects of steel chemistry. As several technologies around the world are exploring the control of phosphorus with high priority, an overview of current knowledge, ongoing research, and specific interest areas is presented. The reliance of the basic oxygen furnace steelmaking on iron ore quality is considered with regard to impurity levels, as well as the phosphorus content of direct reduced iron introduction to the electric arc furnace process. This article reviews methods to control phosphorus in steelmaking and proposes a practical approach based on laboratory-scale equilibrium experiments. The article ends by exploring energy savings in steelmaking as well as speculating on further avenues of steel production profitability.

Tayeb, Mohammed A.; Spooner, Stephen; Sridhar, Seetharaman

2014-08-01

274

Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge ash through an electrodialytic process.  

PubMed

The electrodialytic separation process (ED) was applied to sewage sludge ash (SSA) aiming at phosphorus (P) recovery. As the SSA may have high heavy metals contents, their removal was also assessed. Two SSA were sampled, one immediately after incineration (SA) and the other from an open deposit (SB). Both samples were ED treated as stirred suspensions in sulphuric acid for 3, 7 and 14 days. After 14 days, phosphorus was mainly mobilized towards the anode end (approx. 60% in the SA and 70% in the SB), whereas heavy metals mainly electromigrated towards the cathode end. The anolyte presented a composition of 98% of P, mainly as orthophosphate, and 2% of heavy metals. The highest heavy metal removal was achieved for Cu (ca. 80%) and the lowest for Pb and Fe (between 4% and 6%). The ED showed to be a viable method for phosphorus recovery from SSA, as it promotes the separation of P from the heavy metals. PMID:24656469

Guedes, Paula; Couto, Nazaré; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

2014-05-01

275

Phosphorus in the Young Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus (31P), which is essential for life, is thought to be synthesized in massive stars and dispersed into interstellar space when these stars explode as supernovae (SNe). Here, we report on near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the young SN remnant Cassiopeia A, which show that the abundance ratio of phosphorus to the major nucleosynthetic product iron (56Fe) in SN material is up to 100 times the average ratio of the Milky Way, confirming that phosphorus is produced in SNe. The observed range is compatible with predictions from SN nucleosynthetic models but not with the scenario in which the chemical elements in the inner SN layers are completely mixed by hydrodynamic instabilities during the explosion.

Koo, Bon-Chul; Lee, Yong-Hyun; Moon, Dae-Sik; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Raymond, John C.

2013-12-01

276

Removal of Phosphorus in Metallurgical Silicon by Rare Earth Elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Removal of phosphorus in metallurgical silicon is one of the crucial steps for the production of solar grade Si feedstock. The possibility of doping rare earth elements for phosphorus removal has in this work been studied both theoretically and experimentally. Thermochemical properties of Ce, Nd, and Pr monophosphides have first been estimated by ab initio thermodynamic simulations based on density functional theory and the direct phonon method. The reliability of the first principles calculations was assessed by coupling with the phase diagram data of the Pr-P system. Equilibrium calculations confirmed the existence of stable rare earth monophosphides in solid silicon. Experimental investigations were then carried out, employing a high temperature resistance furnace. The Ce-doped silicon samples were examined by electron probe micro analyzer and inductively coupled plasma analysis. The efficiency of phosphorus removal by means of rare earth doping was discussed in detail in the paper.

Tang, Kai; Løvvik, Ole Martin; Safarian, Jafar; Ma, Xiang; Tangstad, Merete

2014-09-01

277

Phosphorus: The Noose of Sustainability and Renewability in Steelmaking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With rising ore prices and the continued demand for higher quality steels, much work has been carried out into refining and control prospects of steel chemistry. As several technologies around the world are exploring the control of phosphorus with high priority, an overview of current knowledge, ongoing research, and specific interest areas is presented. The reliance of the basic oxygen furnace steelmaking on iron ore quality is considered with regard to impurity levels, as well as the phosphorus content of direct reduced iron introduction to the electric arc furnace process. This article reviews methods to control phosphorus in steelmaking and proposes a practical approach based on laboratory-scale equilibrium experiments. The article ends by exploring energy savings in steelmaking as well as speculating on further avenues of steel production profitability.

Tayeb, Mohammed A.; Spooner, Stephen; Sridhar, Seetharaman

2014-09-01

278

Phosphorus in the Young Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A  

E-print Network

Phosphorus ($^{31}$P), which is essential for life, is thought to be synthesized in massive stars and dispersed into interstellar space when these stars explode as supernovae (SNe). Here we report on near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the young SN remnant Cassiopeia A, which show that the abundance ratio of phosphorus to the major nucleosynthetic product iron ($^{56}$Fe) in SN material is up to 100 times the average ratio of the Milky Way, confirming that phosphorus is produced in SNe. The observed range is compatible with predictions from SN nucleosynthetic models but not with the scenario in which the chemical elements in the inner SN layers are completely mixed by hydrodynamic instabilities during the explosion.

Koo, Bon-Chul; Moon, Dae-Sik; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Raymond, John C

2013-01-01

279

Method for processing wastes resulting from production of phosphorus  

SciTech Connect

The method comprises processing slime and off-gases resulting from the production of phosphorus with an aqueous solution of copper sulphate having a concentration of from 15 to 50% at a temperature within the range of from 20* to 80* C. As a result, two products are obtained, i.e., a liquid product and a solid one. The solid product containing mainly copper phosphide as well as fluorides and chlorides of alkali metals and silicon, and silicates of calcium and aluminum, is used as a modifying and refining agent for hypereutectic silumines and for the manufacture of a copper-phosphorus alloy. The liquid product containing phosphoric acid, sulphuric acid and copper sulphate is used as starting product for the preparation of a copper-containing fertilizer. The method according to the present invention makes it possible to modify the production of phosphorus so as to eliminate the formation of secondary wastes and improve the environmental control.

Alzhanov, T.M.; Bykov, V.I.; Chernogorenko, V.B.; Dmitrenko, V.V.; Ishkhanov, E.S.; Kipchakbaev, A.D.; Koverya, V.M.; Lynchak, K.A.; Markovsky, E.A.; Muchnik, S.V.; Pobortsev, M.E.; Sapian, V.G.; Sergienko, V.Y.; Vopilov, A.N.

1980-03-11

280

33 CFR 83.33 - Equipment for sound signals (Rule 33).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NAVIGATION RULES RULES Sound and Light Signals § 83.33 Equipment...33). (a) Vessels of 12 meters or more in length. A vessel of 12 meters or more in length shall be...and a bell and a vessel of 100 meters or more in length...

2010-07-01

281

33 CFR 83.33 - Equipment for sound signals (Rule 33).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NAVIGATION RULES RULES Sound and Light Signals § 83.33 Equipment...33). (a) Vessels of 12 meters or more in length. A vessel of 12 meters or more in length shall be...and a bell and a vessel of 100 meters or more in length...

2011-07-01

282

Nitrogen and phosphorus exportation in the Garonne Basin (France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen balance was determined in two basins of the southwest of France: the Garonne (52,000 km 2) and one of its tributaries, the Girou (520 km 2). Phosphorus balance was estimated only in the Girou watershed. Monthly water samples were collected in the period 1971-1981 by the Agence Financière de Bassin Adour—Garonne from the rivers Garonne and Girou. Additional water samples were collected during the hydrological year 1980/1981 with a frequency of two samples a week. The discharge—concentration relationships and the behaviour of the concentrations during storm events show that nitrogen and phosphorus have both a superficial origin. The separation of three different components (surface runoff, subsurface runoff and groundwater flow) of the storm hydrograph shows that nitrogen is mainly exported by subsurface runoff and phosphorus mainly by surface runoff. Mixing models allow to estimate the total phosphorus concentration in surface waters at 0.5 mg 1 -1 and the nitrate concentration in subsurface waters 60-130 mg 1 -1 according to the season. The nitrogen balance shows that there is a good relationship between the exportation rate (ratio between river exportations and fertilizer inputs) and the mean annual discharge in the two watersheds. During a humid hydrological year, the exportation rate can reach 40-50%. Phosphorus balance in the Girou watershed shows that the exportation rate is lower than 1%. The contribution of the different phosphorus sources to the annual streamflux can be estimated as 7% for the biogeochemical processes, 32% for the nonpoint-pollution due to fertilizer applications and 61% for the point-pollution due to sewage effluents.

Probst, J. L.

1985-02-01

283

All-solid-state lithium secondary batteries with high capacity using black phosphorus negative electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black phosphorus was prepared from red phosphorus by using mixer mill and planetary ball-mill apparatuses. The composites with black phosphorus and acetylene black (AB) were also prepared by using the mixer mill apparatus. The mechanical milling of black phosphorus and AB brought about a decrease in size of secondary particles of the composites. The all-solid-state lithium cells with the composite

Motohiro Nagao; Akitoshi Hayashi; Masahiro Tatsumisago

2011-01-01

284

Contribution of microfiltration on phosphorus removal in the sequencing anoxic\\/anaerobic membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the contribution of microfiltration to phosphorus removal in the sequencing anoxic\\/anaerobic membrane\\u000a bioreactor. The phosphorus content in activated sludge was fractionated by the Schmidt–Thannhauser–Schneider method. The size\\u000a distribution of phosphorus in the influent was analyzed to estimate the portion of particulate phosphorus rejected physically\\u000a by the 0.2 ?m microfiltration. The result was that along with the high removal

Jinwoo Cho; Kyung-Guen Song; Kyu-Hong Ahn

2009-01-01

285

Net anthropogenic phosphorus inputs: spatial and temporal variability in the Chesapeake Bay region  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimated net anthropogenic phosphorus inputs (NAPI) in the Chesapeake Bay region. NAPI is an index of phosphorus pollution\\u000a potential. NAPI was estimated by quantifying all phosphorus inputs and outputs for each county. Inputs include fertilizer\\u000a applications and non-food phosphorus uses, while trade of food and feed can be an input or an output. The average of 1987,\\u000a 1992, 1997,

Marc J. Russell; Donald E. Weller; Thomas E. Jordan; Kevin J. Sigwart; Kathryn J. Sullivan

2008-01-01

286

The effect of various calcium and phosphorus levels on egg production and egg shell quality  

E-print Network

Mtba . M y fl t' g *p t appear in the literature concerning phosphorus levels in the laying hen diet. There is little knowledge as to the minimum level of phosphorus necessary to maintain adequate shell strength as well as egg production... to that of those hens receiving 0. 55 percent available phosphorus. Results of recent work seem to indicate that levels of 0. 3 percent available phosphorus, together with 3. 5 percent calcium produce maximum egg production and egg shell strength. Calcium...

Bradley, John Warren

2012-06-07

287

Early metal bis(phosphorus-stabilised)carbene chemistry.  

PubMed

Since the discovery of covalently-bound mid- and late-transition metal carbenes there has been a spectacular explosion of interest in their chemistry, but their early metal counterparts have lagged behind. In recent years, bis(phosphorus-stabilised)carbenes have emerged as valuable ligands for metals across the periodic table, and their use has in particular greatly expanded covalently-bound early metal carbene chemistry. In this tutorial review we introduce the reader to bis(phosphorus-stabilised)carbenes, and cover general preparative methods, structure and bonding features, and emerging reactivity studies of early metal derivatives (groups 1-4 and the f-elements). PMID:21321726

Liddle, Stephen T; Mills, David P; Wooles, Ashley J

2011-05-01

288

Phosphorus-31 magnetic relaxation of phosphocreatine in solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements have been made of the longitudinal phosphorus-31 magnetic relaxation of phosphocreatine in H 2O and D 2O solutions from 278 to 333 K at 121.5 and at 40.5 MHz. The phosphorus-31 spin—lattice relaxation of phosphocreatine is dominated by intermolecular and intramolecular dipolar and chemical-shift anisotropy interactions. The relative contribution of the two interactions to the spin—lattice relaxation changes with NMR frequency. Activation energies characterizing the solution dynamics of the phosphocreatine molecule in H 2O and D 2O are 15.4±1.1 and 14.6±1.0 kJ/mol, respectively.

Gaspar, R., Jr.; Brey, W. S.; Andrew, E. R.

1991-09-01

289

Calcium acetate, an effective phosphorus binder in patients with renal failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium acetate, an effective phosphorus binder in patients with renal failure. Calcium salts are increasingly used as phosphorus binders in patients with chronic renal failure. Calcium carbonate is the principal salt presently utilized, however, other calcium salts may be more effective and safer phosphorus binders. Theoretical calculations, in vitro experiments, and in vivo studies in normal subjects have shown calcium

Martin L Mai; Michael Emmett; Mudassir S Sheikh; Carol A Santa Ana; Lawrence Schiller; John S Fordtran

1989-01-01

290

Relative stability of red and black phosphorus at P<1 GPa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative stability of red and black phosphorus at P -3. The existence of a region of stability on the P-T plane for red phosphorus was established. A qualitative phase diagram for phosphorus is presented; the red form is most stable at high temperatures and relatively low pressures. It is necessary to undertake careful investigations at pressures P< 0.3 GPa under

V. V. Brazhkin; A. Ju. Zerr

1992-01-01

291

Phase transitions in black phosphorus at low temperature and high pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase transitions in black phosphorus have been studied with synchrotron radiation at 21 K and high pressures; the transition pressures at 21 K were much higher than those at 77 K. The P-T phase diagram of black phosphorus was determined at low temperatures and high pressures. The relation between the crystal structure and the superconducting transition temperature of the phosphorus

I. Shirotani; K. Tsuji; M. Imai; H. Kawamura; O. Shimomura; T. Kikegawa; T. Nakajima

1990-01-01

292

A diatom-phosphorus transfer function for shallow, eutrophic ponds in southeast England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shallow ponds in southeast England are often eutrophic with high phosphorus concentrations. The aim of this study was to develop a diatom-phosphorus ‘transfer function’ to enable past phosphorus levels in such waters to be inferred from the sediment record. A water chemistry survey of 123 randomly chosen, shallow, artificial ponds in southeast England was carried out. Principal components analysis (PCA)

Helen Bennion

1994-01-01

293

THE IMPORTANCE OF SEDIMENT RELEASE IN THE ASSESSMENT OF A SHALLOW, EUTROPHIC LAKE FOR PHOSPHORUS CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complaints of declining water quality and increasing macrophyte growth resulted in a 3-year study to determine the feasibility of phosphorus control on recreationally important Lake Wabamun, Alberta. All nutrient inputs including groundwater were measured or estimated to assess the importance of each source. A preliminary phosphorus loading calculation suggested that the sediment may supply a large quantity of phosphorus during

Patricia Mitchell

1984-01-01

294

Purification of phosphorus by a zero pollution zone melting technique Zhen Zhang a,b  

E-print Network

-grade phosphorus increases in demand. A chal- lenge faced by the food industry is minimizing the arsenic concen standard (FDA) [6] and the Food Chemicals Codex standard (FCC) [7], the arsenic concentration in food grade melting phosphorus purifi- cation technique. We have successfully removed arsenic from solid phosphorus

Wang, Xiao-Ping

295

Bacterially mediated removal of phosphorus and cycling of nitrate and sulfate in the waste stream  

E-print Network

sludge Phosphorus removal Denitrification Apatite formation Sulfur cycling a b s t r a c t SimultaneousBacterially mediated removal of phosphorus and cycling of nitrate and sulfate in the waste stream systems including treatment systems in aquaculture. In this study, phosphorus, nitrate and sulfate cycling

Benning, Liane G.

296

Effects of phosphorus starvation versus limitation on the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus MED4 II  

E-print Network

Effects of phosphorus starvation versus limitation on the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus MED and phosphorus cycles and shift these ecosys- tems towards P limitation (Karl, 1999; 2007). Thus, a thorough of Southern Maine, Portland, ME 04103, USA. Summary Phosphorus (P) availability drives niche differentia- tion

297

Potential availability of sedimentary phosphorus to sediment resuspension in Florida Bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have suggested that phosphorus is a limiting nutrient for seagrass and phytoplankton growth in much of Florida Bay. In fact, soluble reactive phosphate concentrations in Florida Bay waters can be as low as a few nM. Sediments represent the largest phosphorus reservoir because Florida Bay sediments are dominated by carbonate, which has a strong capacity to retain phosphorus.

Jia-Zhong Zhang; Charles J. Fischer; Peter B. Ortner

2004-01-01

298

Phosphorus cycling in marine sediments from the continental margin off Namibia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigate benthic phosphorus cycling in recent continental margin sediments at three sites off the Namibian coastal upwelling area. Examination of the sediments reveals that organic and biogenic phosphorus are the major P-containing phases preserved. High Corg\\/Porg ratios just at the sediment surface suggest that the preferential regeneration of phosphorus relative to that of organic carbon has

Kathrin Küster-Heins; Ekkehard Steinmetz; Gert J. De Lange; Matthias Zabel

2010-01-01

299

PREDICTING CONCENTRATION OF TOTAL PHOSPHORUS AND CHLOROPHYLL 'A' IN A LAKE WITH SHORT HYDRAULIC RESIDENCE TIME  

EPA Science Inventory

The relationship between total phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentration was determined for Skinner Lake, Indiana over an annual cycle in 1978-79. Total nitrogen: total phosphorus ratios in the epilimnion ranged from 19 to 220 suggesting a phosphorus-dependent algal yield in the...

300

Effect of microflora and lactose on the absorption of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium  

E-print Network

Effect of microflora and lactose on the absorption of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, magnesium and phosphorus was determined in the ileum, caecum, large intestine and faeces by the mineral/Tio2 and magnesium but did have an unfavorable influence on phosphorus absorption. Lactose increased calcium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

301

Phosphorus and arsenic profile control for high performance epitaxial base bipolar junction devices  

E-print Network

Phosphorus and arsenic profile control for high performance epitaxial base bipolar junction devices interface. The arsenic segregation is confirmed to be significantly higher than phosphorus. In addition, an increase in both the phosphorus and arsenic incorporation is observed in the presence of a highly doped

Bashir, Rashid

302

The nitrogen and phosphorus dependence of algal biomass in lakes: An empirical and theoretical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of mean growing season concentrations of chlorophyll, total phosphorus (TP), and total nitrogen (TN) in 228 north latitude lakes confirms previous observations that chlo- rophyll yield is dependent both on the phosphorus concentration and on the TN:TP ratio. Of two modified chlorophyll models which depend explicitly on both nitrogen and phosphorus developed and tested, one, a multiple regression

Val H. Smith

1982-01-01

303

Phosphorus retention capacity of filter media for estimating the longevity of constructed wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The filter medium could be selected and the longevity of the filter medium by the phosphorus saturation could be predicted in the constructed wetland system, accordingly proposing the scheme to remove the phosphorus for a long period. The phosphorus adsorption capacities of various filter media were investigated in relation to the size and types of filter media to screen the

Dong Cheol Seo; Ju Sik Cho; Hong Jae Lee; Jong Soo Heo

2005-01-01

304

Laboratory investigation of the phosphorus removal (SRP and TP) from eutrophic lake water treated with aluminium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms involved in phosphorus (P) removal from eutrophic lake water with aluminium (Al) were assessed by jar tests. For this purpose, eutrophic lake water enriched with soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), algae or sediments in order to mimic the various conditions found in shallow eutrophic lakes was studied. Total phosphorus (TP) removal was reached after floc settling, the maximal TP removal

Franck Auvray; Eric D. van Hullebusch; Veronique Deluchat; Michel Baudu

2006-01-01

305

[Study on the nitrogen and phosphorus uptake ability of four plants cultivated on floating-bed].  

PubMed

Plant floating-bed tested engineering was constructed for eutrophication control in Dian-shan Lake, the characteristics and nutrient uptake abilities of Canna indica, Iris pseudacorus, Thalia dealbata and Lythrum salicaria were compared. It shows that using upper and lower nylon nets to fix the plants on the floating-bed is beneficial for them to grow and reproduce rapidly. Survival rates of Canna indica, lris pseudacorus, Thalia dealbata and Lythrum salicaria are 83.33%, 83.33%, 76.67% and 53.33% respectively. Ramets of Canna indica and Thalia dealbata are 64 and 78 respectively in November, and the biomass (fresh weight) of these two plants are 32.0 and 38.6 kg per individual plant. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) content in stems/leaves of Canna indica and Thalia dealbata are greater than those in roots. The ratio between stems/leaves and roots of N, P content in Canna indica are 1.40 and 1.21 respectively, while 1.59 and 1.08 in Thalia dealbata. The difference of cumulative N, P content in plants is mostly on account of different plant biomass. N uptake ability of Thalia dealbata is the highest, which is 457.11 g per square; Canna indica has the highest P uptake ability, which is 41.29 g per square. N, P uptake ability of stems/leaves in Canna indica are 2.17 and 1.86 times higher than that of roots, while 1.73 and 1.17 times higher respectively in Thalia dealbata. Thus, Canna indica and Thalia dealbata are recommended as the floating-bed plants to control the eutrophication in Dian-shan Lake. PMID:21717738

Wu, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Min; Wu, Jian; Jiang, Yue; Sun, Cong-Jun; Cao, Yong

2011-04-01

306

Effects of low phosphorus ingredient combinations on weight gain, apparent digestibility coefficients, non-fecal phosphorus excretion, phosphorus retention and loading of large rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study is to develop an eco-friendly aquatic feed to reduce phosphorus (P) loading, in large rainbow trout. Gain in fish mass, nutrient digestibility, non-fecal P excretion, P retention and loading were compared among triplicate groups of fish reared with a P-sufficient (commercial feed), a previously-developed P-deficient (Aquaculture Collaborative Research and Development Program, ACRDP diet) and

Pallab Kumer Sarker; Johanie Fournier; Eric Boucher; Emilie Proulx; Joël de la Noüe; Grant W. Vandenberg

2011-01-01

307

28 CFR 544.33 - Movies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Movies. 544.33 Section 544.33 Judicial Administration... Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.33 Movies. If there is a program to show movies, the Supervisor of Education shall ensure...

2010-07-01

308

25 CFR 163.33 - Administrative appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 163.33 Section 163.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.33 Administrative appeals. Any challenge to action...

2011-04-01

309

25 CFR 163.33 - Administrative appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 163.33 Section 163.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.33 Administrative appeals. Any challenge to action...

2010-04-01

310

6 CFR 37.33 - DMV databases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false DMV databases. 37.33 Section 37.33 Domestic... Other Requirements § 37.33 DMV databases. (a) States must maintain a State motor vehicle database that contains, at a minimum—...

2012-01-01

311

6 CFR 37.33 - DMV databases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false DMV databases. 37.33 Section 37.33 Domestic... Other Requirements § 37.33 DMV databases. (a) States must maintain a State motor vehicle database that contains, at a minimum—...

2011-01-01

312

6 CFR 37.33 - DMV databases.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false DMV databases. 37.33 Section 37.33 Domestic... Other Requirements § 37.33 DMV databases. (a) States must maintain a State motor vehicle database that contains, at a minimum—...

2014-01-01

313

6 CFR 37.33 - DMV databases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false DMV databases. 37.33 Section 37.33 Domestic... Other Requirements § 37.33 DMV databases. (a) States must maintain a State motor vehicle database that contains, at a minimum—...

2010-01-01

314

6 CFR 37.33 - DMV databases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false DMV databases. 37.33 Section 37.33 Domestic... Other Requirements § 37.33 DMV databases. (a) States must maintain a State motor vehicle database that contains, at a minimum—...

2013-01-01

315

46 CFR 111.33-1 - General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...111.33-1 Section 111.33-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-1...

2010-10-01

316

46 CFR 111.33-5 - Installation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...111.33-5 Section 111.33-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-5...

2011-10-01

317

46 CFR 111.33-5 - Installation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...111.33-5 Section 111.33-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-5...

2013-10-01

318

46 CFR 111.33-1 - General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...111.33-1 Section 111.33-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-1...

2012-10-01

319

46 CFR 111.33-5 - Installation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...111.33-5 Section 111.33-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-5...

2012-10-01

320

46 CFR 111.33-5 - Installation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...111.33-5 Section 111.33-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-5...

2010-10-01

321

21 CFR 25.33 - Animal drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...33 Section 25.33 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.33 Animal drugs. The classes of...

2011-04-01

322

21 CFR 25.33 - Animal drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...33 Section 25.33 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.33 Animal drugs. The classes of...

2010-04-01

323

28 CFR 544.33 - Movies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Movies. 544.33 Section 544.33 Judicial Administration... Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.33 Movies. If there is a program to show movies, the Supervisor of Education shall ensure...

2011-07-01

324

28 CFR 544.33 - Movies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Movies. 544.33 Section 544.33 Judicial Administration... Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.33 Movies. If there is a program to show movies, the Supervisor of Education shall ensure...

2013-07-01

325

28 CFR 544.33 - Movies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Movies. 544.33 Section 544.33 Judicial Administration... Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.33 Movies. If there is a program to show movies, the Supervisor of Education shall ensure...

2012-07-01

326

10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension formula. (a) The amount of power to...

2010-01-01

327

28 CFR 115.33 - Inmate education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Inmate education. 115.33 Section 115.33 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Training and Education § 115.33 Inmate...

2013-07-01

328

25 CFR 163.33 - Administrative appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 163.33 Section 163.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.33 Administrative appeals. Any challenge to action...

2012-04-01

329

25 CFR 163.33 - Administrative appeals.  

... 163.33 Section 163.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.33 Administrative appeals. Any challenge to action...

2014-04-01

330

25 CFR 163.33 - Administrative appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 163.33 Section 163.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.33 Administrative appeals. Any challenge to action...

2013-04-01

331

47 CFR 11.33 - EAS Decoder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false EAS Decoder. 11.33 Section 11.33 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Equipment Requirements § 11.33 EAS Decoder. (a) An EAS Decoder must at a minimum be...

2010-10-01

332

47 CFR 11.33 - EAS Decoder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false EAS Decoder. 11.33 Section 11.33 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Equipment Requirements § 11.33 EAS Decoder. (a) An EAS Decoder must at a minimum be...

2011-10-01

333

10 CFR 76.33 - Application procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...procedures. 76.33 Section 76.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Application § 76.33 Application procedures. (a) Filing requirements. (1) An...

2010-01-01

334

10 CFR 76.33 - Application procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...procedures. 76.33 Section 76.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Application § 76.33 Application procedures. (a) Filing requirements. (1) An...

2012-01-01

335

10 CFR 76.33 - Application procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...procedures. 76.33 Section 76.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Application § 76.33 Application procedures. (a) Filing requirements. (1) An...

2011-01-01

336

10 CFR 76.33 - Application procedures.  

...procedures. 76.33 Section 76.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Application § 76.33 Application procedures. (a) Filing requirements. (1) An...

2014-01-01

337

10 CFR 76.33 - Application procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...procedures. 76.33 Section 76.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Application § 76.33 Application procedures. (a) Filing requirements. (1) An...

2013-01-01

338

The impact of perennial cormorant colonies on soil phosphorus status  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decades, the population of cormorants in Northern Europe has grown rapidly due to protection. Their impact on vegetation has been recognized, as many trees containing cormorant colonies have collapsed, but their influence on the soil phosphorus (P) status and related ecological impacts have not been studied in details.In this study, total and plant available P (PTotal, POlsen)

Henrik Breuning-Madsen; Camilla Bloch Ehlers; Ole K. Borggaard

2008-01-01

339

Phosphorus Retention in Streams and Wetlands: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetlands and streams buffer the interactions among uplands and adjacent aquatic systems. Phosphorus (P) is often the key nutrient found to be limiting in both estuarine and freshwater ecosystems. As such, the ability of wetlands and streams to retain P is key to determining downstream water quality. This article reviews the processes and factors regulating P retention in streams and

K. R. Reddy; R. H. Kadlec; E. Flaig; P. M. Gale

1999-01-01

340

PRECIPITATION AND INACTIVATION OF PHOSPHORUS AS A LAKE RESTORATION TECHNIQUE  

EPA Science Inventory

Many eutrophic lakes respond slowly following nutrient diversion because of long water retention times, and the recycling of phosphorus from sediments and other internal sources. Treatment of lakes with aluminum sulfate and/or sodium aluminate is a successful method for removing ...

341

Ceratophyllum demersum – phosphorus interactions in nutrient enriched aquaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

High macrophyte density in shallow lakes is often associated with clear water, especially when the non-rooted, submerged angiosperm Ceratophyllum demersum is dominant. Lack of true roots and high surface area:volume ratio suggest that nutrient uptake from the water column by C. demersum may be high. Therefore, possible competition for nutrients, including phosphorus (P), could contribute to phytoplankton inhibition.

Paola Lombardo; G. Dennis Cooke

2003-01-01

342

Revised Results for the Band Properties of Black Phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Revised result for the band properties of black phosphorus based on the self-consistent band calculation with the norm-conserving pseudopotential given in a previous paper are presented. The results are in good agreement with experiments in XPS and optical reflectance for linearly polarized light.

Kiyotaka Shibata; Jun Takahashi; Taizo Sasaki; Akira Morita

1988-01-01

343

Ultra-black nickel-phosphorus alloy optical absorber  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop an optical absorber for use in the measurement of optical power, the authors have investigated and evaluated ultrablack films of nickel-phosphorus alloy which were deposited on substrates using an electroless plating process and subsequently etched. Results of varying the plating and etching bath components and conditions were studied. The result was a superior optical absorber which has a

S. Kodama; M. Horiuchi; T. Kunii; K. Kuroda

1990-01-01

344

Lattice Dynamics of Black Phosphorus. I. Valence Force Field Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculation of the lattice dynamical properties of black phosphorus, which is a narrow-gap covalent semiconductor with a layered structure, based on the valence force field model is presented. The results obtained are in good agreement with the experiments, except for infrared active optical modes. The results are discussed in connection with the crystal structure and the chemical-bonding nature of black

Chioko Kaneta; Hiroshi Katayama-Yoshida; Akira Morita

1986-01-01

345

Photoconductive Decay Measurements on Semiconducting Black Phosphorus Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photoconductive decay measurements on black phosphorus crystals have been carried out in the temperature range 80-330 K. It was found that the measured lifetime is nearly constant below about 260 K, while it decreases with increasing temperature. From such temperature dependence, it was suggested that the indirect Shockley-Read recombination is dominant below 260 K, while the direct recombination such as

Mamoru Baba; Yoshitaka Nakamura; Kiyotaka Shibata; Akira Morita; Hiroshi Yamada

1991-01-01

346

Ultra-black nickel-phosphorus alloy optical absorber  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop an optical absorber for use in the measurement of optical power, the authors investigated and evaluated ultra-black films of nickel-phosphorus alloy, which were plated and etched on substrates using an electroless plating process. The plating and etching bath components and conditions were examined. The spectral reflectances and surface morphologies of the films were measured precisely. An

Shunichi Kodama; M. Horiuchi; K. Kuroda; T. Kunii

1989-01-01

347

Bond Charges and Crystal Pseudopotential in Black Phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitude of the bond charge of black phosphorus is determined from the self-consistent pseudopotential band calculation. The result is in good agreement with Phillips' conjecture. It is found that the contribution of the bond charge to the crystal pseudopotential is important.

Taizo Sasaki; Hideo Asahina; Akira Morita

1985-01-01

348

Ag-Cu-P (Silver-Copper-Phosphorus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume C3 'Non-Ferrous Metal Systems. Part 3: Selected Soldering and Brazing Systems' of Volume 11 'Ternary Alloy Systems - Phase Diagrams, Crystallographic and Thermodynamic Data critically evaluated by MSIT®' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It provides data of the ternary system Silver-Copper-Phosphorus.

Materials Science International Team MSIT

349

Cu-P-Sn (Copper-Phosphorus-Tin)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume C3 'Non-Ferrous Metal Systems. Part 3: Selected Soldering and Brazing Systems' of Volume 11 'Ternary Alloy Systems - Phase Diagrams, Crystallographic and Thermodynamic Data critically evaluated by MSIT®' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It provides data of the ternary system Copper-Phosphorus-Tin.

Materials Science International Team MSIT

350

Cr-Ni-P (Chromium-Nickel-Phosphorus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume C3 'Non-Ferrous Metal Systems. Part 3: Selected Soldering and Brazing Systems' of Volume 11 'Ternary Alloy Systems - Phase Diagrams, Crystallographic and Thermodynamic Data critically evaluated by MSIT®' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It provides data of the ternary system Chromium-Nickel-Phosphorus.

Materials Science International Team MSIT

351

Nutrient status of rhizosphere and phosphorus response of radish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) exhibits a high efficiency in the utilization of sparingly?soluble phosphates. A greenhouse experiment was designed to investigate the growth response of radish to different phosphorus (P) sources and the nutrient status of the rhizosphere associated with radish growth and nutrient absorption. Radish plants were grown in pots with the roots confined in rhizobags, in such a

Jianlin Wang; Zhichao Luo; Richard H. Loeppert

1995-01-01

352

BLOOD CHANGES IN MALLARDS EXPOSED TO WHITE PHOSPHORUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

White phosphorus (P 4) has been extensively used by the military for various purposes, including marking artillery impacts and as an obscurant. Target practice in an Alaskan tidal marsh during the last 4 decades has deposited large amounts of P4 particles in sediments and water, which have resulted in die-offs of several waterfowl species. Because the toxicity of P 4

Donald W. Sparling; Stephanie Vann; Robert A. Grove

1998-01-01

353

COMPARISONS OF MODELS PREDICTING AMBIENT LAKE PHOSPHORUS CONCENTRATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Vollenweider, Dillon, and Larsen/Mercier models for predicting ambient lake phosphorus concentrations and classifying lakes by trophic state are compared in this report. The Dillon and Larsen/Mercier models gave comparable results in ranking 39 lakes relative to known ambient...

354

Assessing internal phosphorus load – Problems to be solved  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internal loading as phosphorus (P) released from anoxic sediment surfaces often represents the main summer P load to lakes and reservoirs and can have an immense effect on their water quality. Many difficulties in internal load assessment exist, however, including ignoring internal load altogether, ambiguity about the origin of sediment released P and inexact definitions. Most of these problems are

Gertrud K. Nürnberg

2009-01-01

355

Phosphorus Loading of an Urban Lake by Bird Droppings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of birds in nutrient cycling in lakes and reservoirs is often not quantified, or thought to be relatively unimportant. However, when bird populations are large relative to the size or volume of the waterbody, a substantial fraction of the nutrient pool may cycle through birds. In this report, we estimate the mass of phosphorus in bird droppings cycling

Nancy M. Scherer; Harry L. Gibbons; Kevin B. Stoops; Martin Muller

1995-01-01

356

SUMMER INTERNAL PHOSPHORUS SUPPLIES IN SHAGAWA LAKE, MINNESOTA  

EPA Science Inventory

Phosphorus budget calculations for Shagawa Lake show that significant increases in lake P during July and August 1971-1975 originated from within the lake basin. Mass increases of 2,000-2,900 kg (35-50 ug/liter) were measusred, corresponding to internal supply rates of 240-680 kg...

357

A Capability in APSIM to Model Phosphorus Responses in Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop simulation models can be used to evaluate climatic risk and alternative management options, including the use of nitrogen fertilisers. However, they have not met the needs of researchers for low-input systems in tropical regions where organic inputs rather than fertilisers are often the only nutrient management option, and other nutrients besides nitrogen (particular phosphorus) frequently constrain crop growth. This

M. E. Probert

2004-01-01

358

Phosphorus cycling in a dense Potamogeton pectinatus L. Bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of phosphorus concentrations and standing stocks in the various components of a dense Potamogeton pectinatus L. community in a brackish lake showed that the amounts of P per unit area varied in the following order: Sediments > Above ground macrophytes > Detritus > Benthic Invertebrates > Below ground macrophyte tissue > Epiphytic algae > Water soluble P >

C. Howard-Williams; B. R. Allanson

1981-01-01

359

Phosphorus removal from secondary-treated wastewater using overland flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of total phosphorus from secondary effluent by overland flow was studied using five terraces constructed 91 m in length and 140 or 70 m in width. Three methods of wastewater application were tested on the terraces including sprinkler, fan nozzle, and gated pipe. In addition, three different application rates were used. Samples of applied wastewater, runoff collected at

Georgia Turner; Deborah Crawford; Richard J. Watts; John H. Zirschky

1994-01-01

360

Soil phosphorus transformations under forest burning and laboratory heat treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural and prescribed fires (including site preparation burning) are common in pine and mixed-pine forests in the southeastern USA. The present high fuel load condition of many forests has renewed concerns about the effects of hot fires on soil nutrients and on nonpoint sources of pollution [i.e. sediments and phosphorus (P)]. Variation in temperature and velocity of fire due to

Marco A. Galang; Daniel Markewitz; Lawrence A. Morris

2010-01-01

361

Developing an Environmental Manure Test for the Phosphorus Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread implementation of the phosphorus (P) index has focused attention on environmental manure tests that can be used to estimate the relative availability of P in manure to runoff water. This article describes the development and use of a water extractable P (WEP) test to assess the capacity of land?applied manure to enrich P in runoff water. WEP of surface?applied

Peter J. A. Kleinman; Andrew N. Sharpley; Ann M. Wolf; Douglas B. Beegle; Herschel A. Elliott; Jennifer L. Weld; Robin Brandt

2006-01-01

362

Phosphorus Transport at a Wastewater Infiltration Site; Mines Park, CO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) from onsite wastewater systems (OWSs) is often considered to be a water resources problem because it contributes to eutrophication of surface-water bodies. In mountainous watersheds, OWSs are commonly used, yet the P transport mechanisms are poorly understood. This study focuses on P transport directly below the OWS infiltrative surface at the Mines Park Test Site, a wastewater infiltration

S. E. Doyle; J. E. McCray; G. D. Thyne; K. S. Lowe

2005-01-01

363

Phosphorus scavenging in the unicellular marine diazotroph Crocosphaera watsonii.  

PubMed

Through the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen and photosynthesis, marine diazotrophs play a critical role in the global cycling of nitrogen and carbon. Crocosphaera watsonii is a recently described unicellular diazotroph that may significantly contribute to marine nitrogen fixation in tropical environments. One of the many factors that can constrain the growth and nitrogen fixation rates of marine diazotrophs is phosphorus bioavailability. Using genomic and physiological approaches, we examined phosphorus scavenging mechanisms in strains of C. watsonii from both the Atlantic and the Pacific. Observations from the C. watsonii WH8501 genome suggest that this organism has the capacity for high-affinity phosphate transport (e.g., homologs of pstSCAB) in low-phosphate, oligotrophic systems. The pstS gene (high-affinity phosphate binding) is present in strains isolated from both the Atlantic and the Pacific, and its expression was regulated by the exogenous phosphate supply in strain WH8501. Genomic observation also indicated a broad capacity for phosphomonoester hydrolysis (e.g., a putative alkaline phosphatase). In contrast, no clear homologs of genes for phosphonate transport and hydrolysis could be identified. Consistent with these genomic observations, C. watsonii WH8501 is able to grow on phosphomonoesters as a sole source of added phosphorus but not on the phosphonates tested to date. Taken together these data suggest that C. watsonii has a robust capacity for scavenging phosphorus in oligotrophic systems, although this capacity differs from that of other marine cyanobacterial genera, such as Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus, and Trichodesmium. PMID:16461699

Dyhrman, Sonya T; Haley, Sheean T

2006-02-01

364

Salinity and Plant Residue Effects on Soil Available Phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of salinity and plant residue on soil phosphorus (P) availability was investigated. The organic carbon content of non-saline and salinized soil samples was enhanced by 1% with applying separately different amounts of residues. Fourteen residues including roots and shoots of wheat, barley, corn, alfalfa, and clover as well as leaves of apple, oak, plant-tree, and oleaster were used.

Amir Hossein Khoshgoftarmanesh; Farshid Nourbakhsh

2009-01-01

365

Phosphorus Loading Trends in Lake Michigan: A Historic Surprise  

EPA Science Inventory

Total phosphorus (TP) loads to the Great Lakes have been of interest to researchers since the 1960s. The International Joint Commission (IJC) was the primary source of Great Lakes TP loading data during the 1970s and 1980s when the IJC released annual reports detailing Great Lake...

366

NUTRIENT DIVERSION: RESULTING LAKE TROPHIC STATE AND PHOSPHORUS DYNAMICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Lake Sammamish, Washington, was studied during 1970-75 to determine its response to wastewater diversion in 1968. The results were compared with a pre-diversion study in 1964-65. Diversion reduced the phosphorus loading by about one-third (from 1.02 to 0.67 g P/sq m. yr and about...

367

Endocrine regulation of calcium and phosphorus concentration in camel's milk.  

E-print Network

Endocrine regulation of calcium and phosphorus concentration in camel's milk. F Riad M Ben Goumi JCIAVHassan Il, Rabat, Maroc; 31NRA, Theix, France Some qualitative aspects of the milk of the dromedary suggest that the ability to produce milk of high nutritive value for offspring or for human beings during long periods

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

368

WHEAT SEED QUALITY IN RESPONSE TO MOLYBDENUM AND PHOSPHORUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Similarity of the molybdate and phosphate anions suggests that these nutrients are likely to interact in plant metabolism. This relationship has not been explained with respect to seed quality. The objective of this study was to examine wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed quality in response to varying nutrient solution concentrations of molybdenum (Mo) and phosphorus (P). Seeds of wheat, cultivar

Albert T. Modi

2002-01-01

369

Phosphorus Losses from Agricultural Watersheds in the Mississippi Delta  

EPA Science Inventory

High phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields has been an environmental concern because of potential water quality problems in streams and lakes. To better understand the process of P loss, rainfall, surface runoff, sediment, ortho-P and total P (TP) were measured (1996 to 2...

370

SYNTHESIS AND EMERGING IDEAS Relationships among phosphorus, molybdenum and free-  

E-print Network

SYNTHESIS AND EMERGING IDEAS Relationships among phosphorus, molybdenum and free- living nitrogen, where free-living fixation could outpace symbiotic N fixation to repre- sent the dominant source of new to simultaneously assess the relative strength of P versus Mo relationships with free-living N fixation rates. We

Cleveland, Cory

371

Author's personal copy Phosphorus availability influences cricket mate attraction displays  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Phosphorus availability influences cricket mate attraction displays Susan M. Using adult male European house crickets (Acheta domesticus), we manipulated the availability of dietary) revealed that male crickets reared on diets rich in protein showed significantly greater nymphal survival

Bertram, Sue

372

Photoelectron spectroscopy of phosphorus hydride anions Kent M. Ervina  

E-print Network

, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, and Department of Chemistry February 2005; published online 13 May 2005 Negative-ion photoelectron spectroscopy is applied to the PH apply negative-ion photoelectron spec- troscopy to a series of phosphorus hydride anions, PH- , PH2

Lineberger, W. Carl

373

Direct Speciation of Phosphorus in Alum-Amended Poultry Litter  

E-print Network

recognized as the limiting nutrient for eutrophication in fresh waters. Although a naturally occurring aging (PL) with aluminum sulfate (alum) has proven to be effective in reducing water-soluble phosphorus (P phenomenon of surface water, eutrophi- cation is accelerated by anthropogenic nutrient inputs and therefore

Sparks, Donald L.

374

Phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance in isolated perfused rat pancreas  

SciTech Connect

Phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was applied to measure phosphorus energy metabolites in isolated perfused rat pancreas. The gland was perfused with a modified Krebs-Henseleit solution at room temperature (25{degree}C). {sup 31}P resonances of creatine phosphate (PCr), ATP, ADP, inorganic phosphate (P{sub i}) and phosphomonoesters (PMEs) were observed in all the preparations of pancreas. In different individual preparations, the resonance of PCr varied, but those of ATP were almost the same. The initial levels of PCr and ATP in individual preparations, however, remained almost unchanged during perfusion with the standard solution for 2 h. When the perfusion was stopped, the levels of ATP and PCr decreased, while the levels of PME and P{sub i} increased. At that time, the P{sub i} resonance shfted to a higher magnetic field, indicating that the tissue pH decreased. On reperfusion, the tissue levels of phosphorus compounds and the tissue pH were restored to their initial resting levels. Continuous infusion of 0.1 {mu}M acetylcholine caused marked and sustained increases in the flow of pancreatic juice and protein output. During the stimulation the tissue levels of phosphorus compounds remained unchanged, while the tissue pH was decreased slightly.

Matsumoto, Takehisa; Kanno, Tomio; Seo, Yoshiteru; Murakami, Masataka; Watari, Hiroshi (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan) National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki (Japan))

1988-04-01

375

RESEARCH ARTICLE Sulfur-induced changes in phosphorus distribution  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Sulfur-induced changes in phosphorus distribution in Everglades Agricultural Area. Soils were sampled four times during the growing season at 2, 6, 9, and 13 months after sulfur application and sub- jected to chemical P fractionation. Sulfur application had minimal effect on soil p

Florida, University of

376

Stream periphyton response to grazing and changes in phosphorus concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grazing by the large caddisfly larva, Dicosmoecus gilvipes (Trichoptera; Limnephilidae), drastically reduced periphyton biomass in laboratory channels at a current velocity of 20 cm s-1. Reduction in biomass as chl a and AFDW ranged from 88 to 93% and 82 to 85%, respectively. On average, grazing rate increased with in-channel SRP (soluble reactive phosphorus) content from 6 to 10 µg

Sharon P. Walton; Eugene B. Welch; Richard R. Horner

1995-01-01

377

Phosphorus Recovery from Wastewater by Struvite Crystallization: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present review provides an understanding of principles of struvite crystallization and examines the techniques and processes experimented to date by researchers at laboratory, pilot, and full-scale to maximize phosphorus removal and reuse as struvite from wastewater effluents. Struvite is mainly known as a scale deposit causing concerns to wastewater companies. Indeed, struvite naturally occurs under the specific condition of

K. S. Le Corre; E. Valsami-Jones; P. Hobbs; S. A. Parsons

2009-01-01

378

Relating Algal Bloom Frequencies to Phosphorus Concentrations in Lake Okeechobee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical relationships were developed between algal bloom frequencies and total phosphorus concentrations for three distinct regions of Lake Okeechobee, and hypotheses were derived to explain observed spatial variation in those relationships. The analyses were based on water quality monitoring data collected monthly between 1986 and 1993, at 10 open-water stations, 12 north littoral stations, and 14 south littoral stations. Using

William W. Walker Jr; Karl E. Havens

1995-01-01

379

Modelling of phosphorus transport during spring flood in northern Sweden.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peaks in phosphorus concentrations are observed in connection to the spring flood in some, mainly unregulated, rivers in northern Sweden draining to the Baltic Sea. The elevated concentrations are only seen during a few days prior and following peak discharge in the rivers. This rapid event is often missed by the water quality monitoring programme with a standard monthly sampling frequency. As a consequence, calculated transport of phosphorus, both from interpolation of measurements and from simulations by models calibrated using observed time series may therefore be significantly lower than the actual transport. Possible explanations of this phenomenon were investigated using two numerical water quality models, the HYPE and HBV-NP models. The hypothesis was that the observed peaks in phosphorus concentrations were due to either river bank erosion, flash-out of previously settled phosphorus-laden particles in rivers and/or elevated loading from land in connection to snowmelt in the lowland areas of the catchment. The modelling exercise was supported by high frequency (daily) measurements of phosphorus concentration during the spring flood of 2008 and 2009 in River Kalixälven and in River Umeälven. Results from the study indicate that different processes may be important in the studied catchments. The dynamics of the simulated phosphorus concentrations from the HBV-NP model, used for the Swedish reporting to HELCOM, greatly improved when a model function controlling sedimentation and resuspension processes in watercourses was activated. Regulated rivers in contrast to unregulated ones have relatively high sustained discharge throughout the winter period which hinders the sedimentation of particles. This could explain why mainly unregulated rivers experience elevated phosphorous concentrations during spring flood. Including bank erosion in the HBV-NP simulations increased simulated phosphorus transport to the right magnitude. Observations showed that the phenomenon of elevated phosphorus concentrations during spring flood was concentrated to regions close to the coast and mainly in areas below the highest sea level (before land rise due to isostatic rebound). Sediments deposited in the Baltic Sea since the last ice age and lifted by the isostatic rebound could be resuspended during the spring flood. Bank erosion from ice breakup may also be an explaining factor. The more HYPE model managed to simulate the concentration patterns well by adjusting model parameters connected to soil leaching and erosion. The model also enabled some of the investigated processes to be mapped in space and time. According to the model, the loading of phosphorus from land to watercourses increases rapidly during snowmelt as a result of groundwater reaching more phosphorus rich soil layers and due to increased surface runoff (causing soil erosion). The HYPE model also showed that resuspension of particles in streams and rivers was very quick at the onset of snowmelt and peaked locally well before peak discharge.

Strömqvist, Johan; Hjerdt, Niclas; Arheimer, Berit

2010-05-01

380

Phosphorus loads in a small groundwater-fed river during the 1989–1992 East Anglian drought  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gains and losses in the phosphorus load in a small groundwater-fed river, the River Nar in East Anglia, have been estimated over four drought years. Annual phosphorus balances between downstream sites imply that dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) was retained increasingly over the drought. The external DIP loading to the River did not change over the 4 years although phosphorus retention

R. R. Boar; D. H. Lister; W. T. Clough

1995-01-01

381

Experiment Study on the Removal of Phosphorus in Eutrophic Water Bodies by the Utilization of Mineral Calcite  

Microsoft Academic Search

For seeking a new method to solve the problem of eutrophication, we have made the experiments of removing phosphorus in eutropic water by use of mineral calcite. The results indicate that the mineral calcite can remove phosphorus from the solution, and that the initial phosphorus concentration may influence the efficiency of phosphorus removal. The dephosphorization rate is high when the

Hong XU; Jing ZHANG; Yiming GAO

2008-01-01

382

Effects of sediment physical properties on the phosphorus release in aquatic environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle size, porosity, and the initial phosphorus concentration in sediments are the main factors affecting phosphorus release flux through the sediment-water interface. Sediments can be physically divided to muddy and sandy matters, and the adsorption-desorption capacity of sediment with phosphorus depends on particle size. According to phosphorus adsorption-desorption experiments, phosphorus sorption capacity of the sediment decreases with the increase of particle dimension. But among the size-similar particles, sediment with a bigger particle size has the larger initial phosphorus release rate. In terms of muddy and sandy sediments, there are inversely proportional relationships between the release rate and the flux. Due to the contact of surface sediment and the overlying water, the release flux from the sediment is either from direct desorption of surface sediment layer or from the diffusion of pore water in the sediment layer, which is mainly determined by sediment particle size and porosity. Generally, static phosphorus release process may include two stages: the first is the initial release. As for coarse particles, phosphorus is desorbed from surface sediment. And for fine particles, phosphorus concentration in water often decreases, mainly from pore water by the molecular diffusion. During the second stage, pore water flows faster in coarse sediment, and phosphorus is easy to desorb from the surface of the particles as diffusion dominates. For the smaller liquid-solid ratio of fine particles and the larger amount of phosphorus adsorption, the release flux from pore water due to diffusion is very small with longer sorption duration.

Zhu, HongWei; Wang, DaoZeng; Cheng, PengDa; Fan, JingYu; Zhong, BaoChang

2014-08-01

383

A Regional Modeling Framework of Phosphorus Sources and Transport in Streams of the Southeastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We applied the SPARROW model to estimate phosphorus transport from catchments to stream reaches and subsequent delivery to major receiving water bodies in the Southeastern United States (U.S.). We show that six source variables and five land-to-water transport variables are significant (p<0.05) in explaining 67% of the variability in long-term log-transformed mean annual phosphorus yields. Three land-to-water variables are a subset of landscape characteristics that have been used as transport factors in phosphorus indices developed by state agencies and are identified through experimental research as influencing land-to-water phosphorus transport at field and plot scales. Two land-to-water variables - soil organic matter and soil pH - are associated with phosphorus sorption, a significant finding given that most state-developed phosphorus indices do not explicitly contain variables for sorption processes. Our findings for Southeastern U.S. streams emphasize the importance of accounting for phosphorus present in the soil profile to predict attainable instream water quality. Regional estimates of phosphorus associated with soil-parent rock were highly significant in explaining instream phosphorus yield variability. Model predictions associate 31% of phosphorus delivered to receiving water bodies to geology and the highest total phosphorus yields in the Southeast were catchments with already high background levels that have been impacted by human activity. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

Garcia, A. M.; Hoos, A. B.; Terziotti, S.

2011-01-01

384

Sewage sludge management for phosphorus recovery as struvite in EBPR wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

The influence of separate and mixed thickening of primary and secondary sludge on struvite recovery was studied. Phosphorus precipitation in the digester was reduced from 13.7 g of phosphorus per kg of treated sludge in the separate thickening experiment to 5.9 in the mixed thickening experiment. This lessening of the uncontrolled precipitation means a reduction of the operational problems and enhances the phosphorus availability for its later crystallization. High phosphorus precipitation and recovery efficiencies were achieved in both crystallization experiments. However, mixed thickening configuration showed a lower percentage of phosphorus precipitated as struvite due to the presence of high calcium concentrations. In spite of this low percentage, the global phosphorus mass balance showed that mixed thickening experiment produces a higher phosphorus recovery as struvite per kg of treated sludge (i.e., 3.6 gP/kg sludge vs. 2.5 gP/kg sludge in separate thickening). PMID:17976981

Pastor, L; Marti, N; Bouzas, A; Seco, A

2008-07-01

385

Translocation of Carbon-14 in Sugarcane Plants Supplied with or Deprived of Phosphorus 1  

PubMed Central

Translocation of radioactive carbon from the fed part of a blade to the rest of the plant was impaired by a deficiency in phosphorus only when the level of phosphorus was low enough to decrease growth. Phosphorus deficiency decreased the percentage of inorganic phosphorus more than that of organic phosphorus, indicating little effect of phosphorus deficiency upon phosphorylation. Thus phosphorus deficiency did not reduce phosphorylation enough to affect translocation. Evidence for the involvement of phosphorylation in translocation obtained from studies with potassium deficiency, light intensity and quality, 3-(p-chlorophenyl)-1, 1-dimethylurea and 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1, 1-dimethylurea, and carbon dioxide suggests that noncyclic photosynthetic phosphorylation provides the energy for phototranslocation. PMID:16658003

Hartt, Constance E.

1972-01-01

386

Effects of different carbon supplements on phosphorus removal in low C/P ratio industrial wastewater.  

PubMed

This study focuses on the effects of different carbon supplements on biological phosphorus removal in the optonics and semiconductor industrial wastewater treatment. Experimental results demonstrate that the addition of a carbon source (glucose, acetate, and digester supernatant) improved phosphorus removal effectively. When the COD/P ratios were controlled in the range of 18-20 (using glucose and supernatant as supplement), the acclimated sludge showed more than 98% removal of phosphorus. In addition, different organic carbons induce dissimilar behavior in anaerobic release and aerobic uptake of phosphorus. The glucose supplement induces significant phosphorus release in anaerobic phase and then an increased phosphorus uptake in aerobic phase. The released phosphorus descended in anaerobic phase when acetate and supernatant were added. There was a good linear relationship of first order reaction between initial COD concentration and specific substrate utilization rate in anaerobic phase. PMID:21183336

Chuang, Shun-Hsing; Chang, Wei-Chin; Huang, Yao-Hui; Tseng, Ching-Cheng; Tai, Chia-Chuan

2011-05-01

387

Impact of nitrite on aerobic phosphorus uptake by poly-phosphate accumulating organisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal sludges.  

PubMed

Impact of nitrite on aerobic phosphorus (P) uptake of poly-phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) in three different enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems was investigated, i.e., the enriched PAOs culture fed with synthetic wastewater, the two lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) treating domestic wastewater for nutrient removal through nitrite-pathway nitritation and nitrate-pathway nitrification, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization results showed that PAOs in the three sludges accounted for 72, 7.6 and 6.5% of bacteria, respectively. In the enriched PAOs culture, at free nitrous acid (FNA) concentration of 0.47 × 10(-3) mg HNO?-N/L, aerobic P-uptake and oxidation of intercellular poly-?-hydroxyalkanoates were both inhibited. Denitrifying phosphorus removal under the aerobic conditions was observed, indicating the existence of PAOs using nitrite as electron acceptor in this culture. When the FNA concentration reached 2.25 × 10(-3) mg HNO2-N/L, denitrifying phosphorus removal was also inhibited. And the inhibition ceased once nitrite was exhausted. Corresponding to both SBRs treating domestic wastewater with nitritation and nitrification pathway, nitrite inhibition on aerobic P-uptake by PAOs did not occur even though FNA concentration reached 3 × 10(-3) and 2.13 × 10(-3) mg HNO?-N/L, respectively. Therefore, PAOs taken from different EBPR activated sludges had different tolerance to nitrite. PMID:23771179

Zeng, Wei; Li, Boxiao; Yang, Yingying; Wang, Xiangdong; Li, Lei; Peng, Yongzhen

2014-02-01

388

DIFFERENTIAL CAPACITY OF WHEAT CULTIVARS AND WHITE LUPIN TO ACQUIRE PHOSPHORUS FROM ROCK PHOSPHATE, PHYTATE AND SOLUBLE PHOSPHORUS SOURCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterized varying capacity of two wheat cultivars (‘Brookton’ and ‘Krichauff’) and white lupin to acquire and utilize phosphorus (P) from different P resources [P0, rock phosphate, composted rock phosphate, phytate and soluble P) at 200 mg P kg soil]. In all three genotypes, shoot P concentration and content were highest in the phytate treatment and lowest in P0. Roots

E. Sepehr; Z. Rengel; E. Fateh; M. R. Sadaghiani

2012-01-01

389

Phosphorus Sorption and Potential Phosphorus Storage in Sediments of Lake Istokpoga and the Upper Chain of Lakes, Florida, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) can be an important nutrient in regulating primary productivity in lakes. Th e ability of lake sediments to retain P from external sources depends on the physiochemical characteristics of the sediment. To assess the P dynamics in Lake Istokpoga and the upper chain of lakes that drain into Lake Okeechobee, Florida, USA, sorption properties of batch sediment samples

Marco A. Belmont; John R. White; K. Ramesh Reddy

2009-01-01

390

Long-Term Phosphorus Desorption Using Dialysis Membrane Tubes Filled with Iron Hydroxide and its Effect on Phosphorus Pools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many agricultural fields that have received long-term applications of phosphorus (P) often contain levels of P exceeding those required for optimal crop production. Knowledge of the effect of the P remaining in the soil (residual effect) is of great importance for fertilization management. Plant P availability of residual P in soils is usually estimated using successive cropping experiments carried out

A. M. Taddesse; A. S. Claassens; P. C. de Jager

2008-01-01

391

Phosphorus in the Pampean semi?arid region of Argentina. I. bray and anionic exchange resin ex?tractable phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is often a lack response of wheat to phosphorus (P) fertilization in the Pampean semi?arid area of Argentina. Consequently, the fate of fertilizer P in an entic Haplustoll soil was investigated under three production systems commonly practiced in that region. The following procedures were conducted: i) comparison and linear regression of the values of P obtained by Bray I

R. A. Baravalle; R. A. Rosell; A. E. Glave

1993-01-01

392

Phosphorus?calcium carbonate saturation relationships in a lowland chalk river impacted by sewage inputs and phosphorus remediation: an assessment of phosphorus self-cleansing mechanisms in natural waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between calcium carbonate saturation and phosphorus concentrations for seven sites on the upper reaches of the River Kennet are examined. The findings are related to issues of groundwater supplies and the introduction of phosphorus treatment of effluent from the Marlborough sewage treatment works (STW) at part of the way along the study reach. Being supplied from a Cretaceous

Colin Neal; Helen P Jarvie; Richard J Williams; Margaret Neal; Heather Wickham; Linda Hill

2002-01-01

393

Chromosomal Location of Traits Associated with Wheat Seedling Water and Phosphorus Use Efficiency under Different Water and Phosphorus Stresses  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to locate chromosomes for improving water and phosphorus-deficiency tolerance of wheat at the seedling stage. A set of Chinese Spring-Egyptian Red wheat substitution lines and their parent Chinese Spring (recipient) and Egyptian Red (donor) cultivars were measured to determine the chromosomal locations of genes controlling water use efficiency (WUE) and phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) under different water and phosphorus conditions. The results underlined that chromosomes 1A, 7A, 7B, and 3A showed higher leaf water use efficiency (WUEl = Pn/Tr; Pn = photosynthetic rate; Tr = transpiration rate) under W-P (Hoagland solution with 1/2P), -W-P (Hoagland solution with 1/2P and 10% PEG). Chromosomes 7A, 3D, 2B, 3B, and 4B may carry genes for positive effects on individual plant water use efficiency (WUEp = biomass/TWC; TWC = total water consumption) under WP (Hoagland solution), W-P and -W-P treatment. Chromosomes 7A and 7D carry genes for PUE enhancement under WP, -WP (Hoagland solution with 10% PEG) and W-P treatment. Chromosome 7A possibly has genes for controlling WUE and PUE simultaneously, which indicates that WUE and PUE may share the same genetic background. Phenotypic and genetic analysis of the investigated traits showed that photosynthetic rate (Pn) and transpiration rate (Tr), Tr and WUEl showed significant positive and negative correlations under WP, W-P, -WP and -W-P, W-P, -WP treatments, respectively. Dry mass (DM), WUEP, PUT (phosphorus uptake) all showed significant positive correlation under WP, W-P and -WP treatment. PUE and phosphorus uptake (PUT = P uptake per plant) showed significant negative correlation under the four treatments. The results might provide useful information for improving WUE and PUE in wheat genetics. PMID:19865535

Cao, Hong-Xing; Zhang, Zheng-Bin; Sun, Cheng-Xu; Shao, Hong-Bo; Song, Wei-Yi; Xu, Ping

2009-01-01

394

Preparation of Black Phosphorus Single Crystals by a Completely Closed Bismuth-Flux Method and Their Crystal Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Needle-shaped and film- or plate-shaped black phosphorus single crystals were prepared by an improved bismuth-flux method. The conversion of red phosphorus to white phosphorus and the growth of black phosphorus single crystals from the solution of white phosphorus in liquid bismuth were performed in an evacuated quartz-glass apparatus without breaking the vacuum. Needle crystals measured about 5 mm in length

Mamoru Baba; Fukunori Izumida; Yuji Takeda; Akira Morita

1989-01-01

395

Rethinking soil erosion, phosphorus and colloid transfers from intensive grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general consensus from the relatively small amount of existing research into soil erosion and nutrient export from intensive grasslands suggests that they are not a significant source of either sediment or phosphorus (P) (Bilotta et al., 2006). Authors have often attributed the low rates of erosion on intensive grasslands to the effect of the high surface cover which acts to intercept raindrops and retard runoff, resulting in limited detachment and transport of soil particles and so low sediment and particulate-phosphorus losses from these environments. Consequently, researchers have proposed that the phosphorus transfer from intensive grasslands is dominated by soluble forms of phosphorus, arbitrarily defined as anything that passes through a 0.45 ?m filter (Sharpley et al., 2000). Nevertheless, researchers studying surface water quality issues in areas that are dominated by intensive grasslands are finding problems associated with the delivery of sediment and sediment-bound contaminants (Heathwaite and Dils, 2000). Clearly there are some inconsistencies within the literature which need to be re-examined. Work presented here aims to question why these inconsistencies exist and presents results from a field experiment designed to further understanding of the response of grasslands in terms of sediment and phosphorus delivery from intensively managed grasslands. The field-based experiment comprises paired lysimeter studies, run as part of the Rowden Experimental Research Platform (RERP) at the Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, Devon, UK. Six one-hectare Lysimeters are used to observe response to natural rainfall events in terms of overland flow, subsurface (or drained) flow, sediment flux, Total Phosphorus (TP) flux, conductivity, temperature and turbidity. Plots are equipped to monitor surface flow and drained flow in isolation, so that the effect of land drainage, common to intensively grazed land on heavy soils, can be assessed alongside undrained plots. Results are presented as time series at each plot as well as event, monthly, seasonal and annual budgets. Results indicate that significant, event-based yields of both sediments (1.18 kg ha-1 from drained plots and 3.09 kg ha-1 from undrained plots) and nutrients (3.9 g ha-1 of TP from drained plots and 9.86 g ha-1 from undrained plots) are forthcoming, as the artificial drainage influences both the hydrograph response and form to natural rainfall events. In addition, significant yields of fine particles (<0.45ìm), of both organic and inorganic origin (colloids) are observed, from both drained and undrained plots, associated with high levels of particulate phosphorus. Such results suggest that though grasslands may not suffer from `classical' erosion processes, such as rilling and gullying, they can still contribute significant levels of fine sediments and nutrients, whether they are drained or not, which in turn will make a detrimental impact on the quality of adjacent surface waters. Bilotta, G. S., and Brazier, R.E. (in press). Rethinking soil erosion and sediment and colloid transfers from intensive grasslands. Hydrological Processes. Heathwaite, A.L. and Dils, R.M. (2000) Characterising phosphorus loss in surface and subsurface hydrological pathways. The Science Of The Total Environment, 251/252: 523-538. Sharpley, A.N., Foy, R.H. and Withers, P.J.A. (2000) Practical and innovative measures for the control of agricultural phosphorus losses to water. An Overview. Journal of Environmental Quality, 29: 1-9.

Brazier, R. E.; Bilotta, G.

2006-12-01

396

X-33 Linear Aerospike Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In July of 1999 two linear aerospike rocket engines will power the first flight of NASA's X-33 advanced technology demonstrator. A successful X-33 flight test program will validate the aerospike nozzle concept, a key technical feature of Lockheed Martin's VentureStar(trademark) reusable launch vehicle. The aerospike received serious consideration for NASA's current space shuttle, but was eventually rejected in 1969 in favor of high chamber pressure bell engines, in part because of perceived technical risk. The aerospike engine (discussed below) has several performance advantages over conventional bell engines. However, these performance advantages are difficult to validate by ground test. The space shuttle, a multibillion dollar program intended to provide all of NASA's future space lift could not afford the gamble of choosing a potentially superior though unproven aerospike engine over a conventional bell engine. The X-33 demonstrator provides an opportunity to prove the aerospike's performance advantage in flight before commiting to an operational vehicle.

Vinson, John

1998-01-01

397

Highly efficient uptake of phosphorus in epiphytic bromeliads  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Vascular epiphytes which can be abundant in tree crowns of tropical forests have to cope with low and highly intermittent water and nutrient supply from rainwater, throughfall and stem flow. Phosphorus rather than nitrogen has been suggested as the most limiting nutrient element, but, unlike nitrogen, this element has received little attention in physiological studies. This motivated the present report, in which phosphate uptake kinetics by leaves and roots, the subsequent distribution within plants and the metabolic fate of phosphate were studied as a step towards an improved understanding of physiological adaptations to the conditions of tree canopies. Methods Radioactively labelled [32P]phosphate was used to study uptake kinetics and plant distribution of phosphorus absorbed from bromeliad tanks. The metabolism of low molecular phosphorus metabolites was analysed by thin-layer chromatography followed by autoradiography. Key Results Uptake of phosphate from tanks is an ATP-dependent process. The kinetics of phosphorus uptake suggest that epiphytes possess effective phosphate transporters. The Km value of 1·05 µm determined for leaves of the bromeliad Aechmea fasciata is comparable with values obtained for the high affinity phosphate transporters in roots of terrestrial plants. In this species, young leaves are the main sink for phosphate absorbed from tank water. Within these leaves, phosphate is then allocated from the basal uptake zone into distal sections of the leaves. More than 80 % of the phosphate incorporated into leaves is not used in metabolism but stored as phytin. Conclusions Tank epiphytes are adapted to low and intermittent nutrient supply by different mechanisms. They possess an effective mechanism to take up phosphate, minimizing dilution and loss of phosphorus captured in the tank. Available phosphorus is taken up from the tank solution almost quantitatively, and the surplus not needed for current metabolism is accumulated in reserves, i.e. plants show luxury consumption. Young, developing leaves are preferentially supplied with this nutrient element. Taken together, these features allow epiphytes the efficient use of scarce and variable nutrient supplies. PMID:19033287

Winkler, Uwe; Zotz, Gerhard

2009-01-01

398

Collective excitations in S33  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High spin states of S33 populated through 27Al(12C,?pn)S33 reaction at E(C12)=40 MeV have been studied using the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) facility. The level scheme was extended and modified utilizing data from the ? -? coincidence, directional correlation, and linear polarization measurements. Three levels of the negative parity yrast sequence were found to be connected by strong E2 transitions. The lifetimes of these states determined by the Doppler shift attenuation method have been utilized to study the evolution of collectivity with spin. Large basis shell model calculations have been performed to understand the microscopic origin of these levels.

Bisoi, Abhijit; Sarkar, M. Saha; Sarkar, S.; Ray, S.; Pramanik, D.; Kshetri, R.; Nag, Somnath; Selvakumar, K.; Singh, P.; Goswami, A.; Saha, S.; Sethi, J.; Trivedi, T.; Naidu, B. S.; Donthi, R.; Nanal, V.; Palit, R.

2014-08-01

399

Effects of dietary calcium, available phosphorus and vitamin d on growth rate, food utilisation, plasma and bone constituents and calcium and phosphorus retention of commercial broiler strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The effects of different dietary concentrations of calcium (Ca), available phosphorus (AP) and vitamin D (D) on 5? to 16?day growth performance, and aspects of calcium and phosphorus (P) metabolism of chickens from three commercial strains were studied in two experiments.2. Increasing dietary Ca reduced weight gain, tibia Ca and P content and increased plasma total Ca, Ca consumption

T. M. Shafey; M. W. McDonald; R. A. E. Pym

1990-01-01

400

Influence of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Applied Phosphorus on Root Colonization in Wheat and Plant Nutrient Dynamics in a Phosphorus-Deficient Acid Alfisol of Western Himalayas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi symbiosis confers benefits directly to the host plant's growth and yield through acquisition of phosphorus and other macro- and micronutrients, especially from phosphorus (P)–deficient acidic soils. The inoculation of three VAM cultures [viz., local culture (Glomus mosseae), VAM culture from Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi (Glomus mosseae), and a culture from the Centre

V. K. Suri; Anil K. Choudhary; Girish Chander; T. S. Verma

2011-01-01

401

Iron colloids reduce the bioavailability of phosphorus to the green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata.  

PubMed

Phosphorus (P) is a limiting nutrient in many aquatic systems. The bioavailability of P in natural waters strongly depends on its speciation. In this study, structural properties of iron colloids were determined and related to their effect on P sorption and P bioavailability. The freshwater green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata was exposed to media spiked with radiolabelled (33)PO4, and the uptake of (33)P was monitored for 1 h. The media contained various concentrations of synthetic iron colloids with a size between 10 kDa and 0.45 ?m. The iron colloids were stabilised by natural organic matter. EXAFS spectroscopy showed that these colloids predominantly consisted of ferrihydrite with small amounts of organically complexed Fe. In colloid-free treatments, the P uptake flux by the algae obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. In the presence of iron colloids at 9 or 90 ?M Fe, corresponding to molar P:Fe ratios between 0.02 and 0.17, the truly dissolved P (<10 kDa) was between 4 and 60% of the total dissolved P (<0.45 ?m). These colloids reduced the P uptake flux by R. subcapitata compared to colloid-free treatments at the same total dissolved P concentration. However, the P uptake flux from colloid containing solutions equalled that from colloid-free ones when expressed as truly dissolved P. This demonstrates that colloidal P did not contribute to the P uptake flux. It is concluded that, on the short term, phosphate adsorbed to ferrihydrite colloids is not available to the green alga R. subcapitata. PMID:24797616

Baken, Stijn; Nawara, Sophie; Van Moorleghem, Christoff; Smolders, Erik

2014-08-01

402

Phosphorus requirement of finishing feedlot calves.  

PubMed

Dietary P supplied to feedlot cattle is important because an inadequate supply will compromise performance, whereas excess P may harm the environment. However, P requirements of feedlot cattle are not well documented. Therefore, 45 steer calves (265.2+/-16.6 kg) were individually fed to determine the P required for gain and bone integrity over a 204-d finishing period. The basal diet consisted of 33.5% high-moisture corn, 30% brewers grits, 20% corn bran, 7.5% cottonseed hulls, 3% tallow, and 6% supplement. Treatments consisted of 0.16 (no supplemental inorganic P), 0.22, 0.28, 0.34, and 0.40% P (DM basis). Supplemental P was provided by monosodium phosphate top-dressed to the daily feed allotment. Blood was sampled every 56 d to assess P status. At slaughter, phalanx and metacarpal bones were collected from the front leg to determine bone ash and assess P resorption from bone. Dry matter intake and ADG did not change linearly (P > 0.86) or quadratically (P > 0.28) due to P treatment. Feed efficiency was not influenced (P > 0.30) by P treatment and averaged 0.169. Plasma inorganic P averaged across d 56 to 204 responded quadratically, with calves fed 0.16% P having the lowest concentration of plasma inorganic P. However, plasma inorganic P concentration (5.7 mg/dL) for steers fed 0.16% P is generally considered adequate. Total bone ash weight was not influenced by dietary P for phalanx (P = 0.19) or metacarpal bones (P = 0.37). Total P intake ranged from 14.2 to 35.5 g/d. The NRC (1996) recommendation for these calves was 18.7 g/d, assuming 68% absorption. Based on performance results, P requirements for finishing calves is < 0.16% of diet DM or 14.2 g/d. Based on these observations, we suggest that typical grain-based feedlot cattle diets do not require supplementation of inorganic mineral P to meet P requirements. PMID:12078751

Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Milton, C T; Brink, D; Orth, M W; Whittet, K M

2002-06-01

403

RNA function and phosphorus use by photosynthetic organisms  

PubMed Central

Phosphorus (P) in RNA accounts for half or more of the total non-storage P in oxygenic photolithotrophs grown in either P-replete or P-limiting growth conditions. Since many natural environments are P-limited for photosynthetic primary productivity, and peak phosphorus fertilizer production is inevitable, the paper analyses what economies in P allocation to RNA could, in principle, increase P-use efficiency of growth (rate of dry matter production per unit organism P). The possibilities of decreasing P allocation to RNA without decreasing growth rate include (1) more widespread down-regulation of RNA production in P-limited organisms, (2) optimal allocation of P to RNA, both spatially among cell compartments and organs, and temporally depending on the stage of growth, and (3) a constant rate of protein synthesis through the diel cycle. Acting on these suggestions would, however, be technically demanding. PMID:24421782

Raven, John A.

2013-01-01

404

A new phosphorus paradigm for the Baltic proper.  

PubMed

The external phosphorus (P) loading has been halved, but the P content in the water column and the area of anoxic bottoms in Baltic proper has increased during the last 30 years. This can be explained by a temporary internal source of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) that is turned on when the water above the bottom sediment becomes anoxic. A load-response model, explaining the evolution from 1980 to 2005, suggests that the average specific DIP flux from anoxic bottoms in the Baltic proper is about 2.3 g P m?² year?¹. This is commensurable with fluxes estimated in situ from anoxic bottoms in the open Baltic proper and from hydrographic data in the deep part of Bornholm Basin. Oxygenation of anoxic bottoms, natural or manmade, may quickly turn off the internal P source from anoxic bottoms. This new P-paradigm should have far-reaching implications for abatement of eutrophication in the Baltic proper. PMID:24114069

Stigebrandt, Anders; Rahm, Lars; Viktorsson, Lena; Odalen, Malin; Hall, Per O J; Liljebladh, Bengt

2014-09-01

405

Electrodeposition of amorphous ternary nickel-chromium-phosphorus alloy  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of forming amorphous ternary nickel-phosphorus-chromium alloy deposits by electrodeposition on an electrically conductive substrate. It comprises: subjecting the substrate to an applied current density between about 20 and 40 A/dm{sup 2} at a temperature from the range of about 20{degrees} to 30{degrees}C in a bath. The bath comprising: a chromium salt and a nickel salt in a weight ratio of about 3:1, a phosphorus source at about 0.3 MP concentration; about 0.3 M of a complexing agent; about 0.1 M of a supporting salt; and about 1.0 M of buffer.

Guilinger, T.R.

1990-01-09

406

Tissue and cellular phosphorus storage during development of phosphorus toxicity in Hakea prostrata (Proteaceae).  

PubMed

Storage of phosphorus (P) in stem tissue is important in Mediterranean Proteaceae, because proteoid root growth and P uptake is greatest during winter, whereas shoot growth occurs mostly in summer. This has prompted the present investigation of the P distribution amongst roots, stems, and leaves of Hakea prostrata R.Br. (Proteaceae) when grown in nutrient solutions at ten P-supply rates. Glasshouse experiments were carried out during both winter and summer months. For plants grown in the low-P range (0, 0.3, 1.2, 3.0, or 6.0 micromol d(-1)) the root [P] was > stem and leaf [P]. In contrast, leaf [P] > stem and root [P] for plants grown in the high-P range (6.0, 30, 60, 150, or 300 micromol P d(-1)). At the highest P-supply rates, the capacity for P storage in stems and roots appears to have been exceeded, and leaf [P] thereafter increased dramatically to approximately 10 mg P g(-1) dry mass. This high leaf [P] was coincident with foliar symptoms of P toxicity which were similar to those described for many other species, including non-Proteaceae. The published values (tissue [P]) at which P toxicity occurs in a range of species are summarized. X-ray microanalysis of frozen, full-hydrated leaves revealed that the [P] in vacuoles of epidermal, palisade and bundle-sheath cells were in the mM range when plants were grown at low P-supply, even though very low leaf [P] was measured in bulk leaf samples. At higher P-supply rates, P accumulated in vacuoles of palisade cells which were associated with decreased photosynthetic rates. PMID:15047760

Shane, Michael W; McCully, Margaret E; Lambers, Hans

2004-05-01

407

Relationship between photosynthetic phosphorus-use efficiency and foliar phosphorus fractions in tropical tree species  

PubMed Central

How plants develop adaptive strategies to efficiently use nutrients on infertile soils is an important topic in plant ecology. It has been suggested that, with decreasing phosphorus (P) availability, plants increase photosynthetic P-use efficiency (PPUE) (i.e., the ratio of instantaneous photosynthetic carbon assimilation rate per unit foliar P). However, the mechanism to increase PPUE remains unclear. In this study, we tested whether high PPUE is explained by an optimized allocation of P in cells among P-containing biochemical compounds (i.e., foliar P fractions). We investigated the relationships among mass-based photosynthetic carbon assimilation rate (Amass), PPUE, total foliar P concentration, and foliar P fractions in 10 tree species in two tropical montane rain forests with differing soil P availability (five species on sedimentary soils and five species on P-poorer ultrabasic serpentine soils) on Mount Kinabalu, Borneo. We chemically fractionated foliar P into the following four fractions: metabolic P, lipid P, nucleic acid P, and residual P. Amass was positively correlated with the concentrations of total foliar P and of metabolic P across 10 tree species. Mean Amass and mean concentrations of total foliar P and of each foliar P fraction were lower on the P-poorer ultrabasic serpentine soils than on the sedimentary soils. There was a negative relationship between the proportion of metabolic P per total P and the proportion of lipid P per total P. PPUE was positively correlated with the ratio of metabolic P to lipid P. High PPUE is explained by the net effect of a relatively greater investment of P into P-containing metabolites and a relatively lesser investment into phospholipids in addition to generally reduced concentrations of all P fractions. We conclude that plants optimize the allocation of P among foliar P fractions for maintaining their productivity and growth and for reducing demand for P as their adaptation to P-poor soils. PMID:24455122

Hidaka, Amane; Kitayama, Kanehiro

2013-01-01

408

Relationship between photosynthetic phosphorus-use efficiency and foliar phosphorus fractions in tropical tree species.  

PubMed

How plants develop adaptive strategies to efficiently use nutrients on infertile soils is an important topic in plant ecology. It has been suggested that, with decreasing phosphorus (P) availability, plants increase photosynthetic P-use efficiency (PPUE) (i.e., the ratio of instantaneous photosynthetic carbon assimilation rate per unit foliar P). However, the mechanism to increase PPUE remains unclear. In this study, we tested whether high PPUE is explained by an optimized allocation of P in cells among P-containing biochemical compounds (i.e., foliar P fractions). We investigated the relationships among mass-based photosynthetic carbon assimilation rate (A mass), PPUE, total foliar P concentration, and foliar P fractions in 10 tree species in two tropical montane rain forests with differing soil P availability (five species on sedimentary soils and five species on P-poorer ultrabasic serpentine soils) on Mount Kinabalu, Borneo. We chemically fractionated foliar P into the following four fractions: metabolic P, lipid P, nucleic acid P, and residual P. A mass was positively correlated with the concentrations of total foliar P and of metabolic P across 10 tree species. Mean A mass and mean concentrations of total foliar P and of each foliar P fraction were lower on the P-poorer ultrabasic serpentine soils than on the sedimentary soils. There was a negative relationship between the proportion of metabolic P per total P and the proportion of lipid P per total P. PPUE was positively correlated with the ratio of metabolic P to lipid P. High PPUE is explained by the net effect of a relatively greater investment of P into P-containing metabolites and a relatively lesser investment into phospholipids in addition to generally reduced concentrations of all P fractions. We conclude that plants optimize the allocation of P among foliar P fractions for maintaining their productivity and growth and for reducing demand for P as their adaptation to P-poor soils. PMID:24455122

Hidaka, Amane; Kitayama, Kanehiro

2013-12-01

409

Residual soil phosphorus as the missing piece in the global phosphorus crisis puzzle.  

PubMed

Phosphorus (P) is a finite and dwindling resource. Debate focuses on current production and use of phosphate rock rather than on the amounts of P required in the future to feed the world. We applied a two-pool soil P model to reproduce historical continental crop P uptake as a function of P inputs from fertilizer and manure and to estimate P requirements for crop production in 2050. The key feature is the consideration of the role of residual soil P in crop production. Model simulations closely fit historical P uptake for all continents. Cumulative inputs of P fertilizer and manure for the period 1965-2007 in Europe (1,115 kg . ha(-1) of cropland) grossly exceeded the cumulative P uptake by crops (360 kg ha(-1)). Since the 1980s in much of Europe, P application rates have been reduced, and uptake continues to increase due to the supply of plant-available P from residual soil P pool. We estimate that between 2008 and 2050 a global cumulative P application of 700-790 kg . ha(-1) of cropland (in total 1,070-1,200 teragrams P) is required to achieve crop production according to the various Millennium Ecosystem Assessment scenarios [Alcamo J, Van Vuuren D, Cramer W (2006) Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Scenarios, Vol 2, pp 279-354]. We estimate that average global P fertilizer use must change from the current 17.8 to 16.8-20.8 teragrams per year in 2050, which is up to 50% less than other estimates in the literature that ignore the role of residual soil P. PMID:22431593

Sattari, Sheida Z; Bouwman, Alexander F; Giller, Ken E; van Ittersum, Martin K

2012-04-17

410

Phosphorus Treated Coal Combustion Products (CCP-bottom ash) as an Agricultural Source of Phosphorus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal combustion products (CCP or "ash") have been seen to be beneficial for improving soil quality and increasing vegetative yields. Owing to their structure with more holes, they are also potential carriers of plant nutrients. The bottom ash from the Lambton Generating Station, Sarnia, Ontario, Canada was treated for 66 hours in 0.10 mol/L P solutions prepared from NaH 2PO 4, which resulted in the ash adsorbing 784 µg/g of phosphorus. The ash was mixed with quartz sand and/or non P-loaded ash from the same source to provide a set of growth media that contained 10%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of the recommended dose of P (50 µg/g) for maize. Biomass yields at 26, 34, and 46 days after planting were compared with control (non-doped ash) and fertilized with 0-20-0 fertilizer. In general, growth media containing between 25% and 100% of the recommended P dose performed as well or better than the fertilized trials. 46 days after planting, the shoot fresh weight for the 50%, 75%, and 100% doped media were 39.46%, 42.73%, and 46.13%, respectively, greater compared to fertilized trials. The shoot dry weight increased by 29.71%, 13.39%, and 28.87%, respectively. Also, root fresh and dry weight increased averagely by 16.62% and 14.03%. These results implied that coal ashes are a better carrier for P uptaking, and P-loaded ash can be a good additive for sand soil improvement.

Junfeng, Shen; Powell, M. A.; Hayden, D. B.

411

Microbial mechanisms coupling carbon and phosphorus cycles in phosphorus-limited northern Adriatic Sea.  

PubMed

The coastal northern Adriatic Sea receives pulsed inputs of riverine nutrients, causing phytoplankton blooms and seasonally sustained dissolved organic carbon (DOC) accumulation-hypothesized to cause episodes of massive mucilage. The underlying mechanisms regulating P and C cycles and their coupling are unclear. Extensive biogeochemical parameters, processes and community composition were measured in a 64-day mesocosms deployed off Piran, Slovenia. We followed the temporal trends of C and P fluxes in P-enriched (P+) and unenriched (P-) mesocosms. An intense diatom bloom developed then crashed; however, substantial primary production was maintained throughout, supported by tightly coupled P regeneration by bacteria and phytoplankton. Results provide novel insights on post-bloom C and P dynamics and mechanisms. 1) Post-bloom DOC accumulation to 186 ?M remained elevated despite high bacterial carbon demand. Presumably, a large part of DOC accumulated due to the bacterial ectohydrolytic processing of primary productivity that adventitiously generated slow-to-degrade DOC; 2) bacteria heavily colonized post-bloom diatom aggregates, rendering them microscale hotspots of P regeneration due to locally intense bacterial ectohydrolase activities; 3) Pi turnover was rapid thus suggesting high P flux through the DOP pool (dissolved organic phosphorus) turnover; 4) Alpha- and Gamma-proteobacteria dominated the bacterial communities despite great differences of C and P pools and fluxes in both mesocosms. However, minor taxa showed dramatic changes in community compositions. Major OTUs were presumably generalists adapted to diverse productivity regimes.We suggest that variation in bacterial ectohydrolase activities on aggregates, regulating the rates of POM?DOM transition as well as dissolved polymer hydrolysis, could become a bottleneck in P regeneration. This could be another regulatory step, in addition to APase, in the microbial regulation of P cycle and the coupling between C and P cycles. PMID:24246940

Malfatti, F; Turk, V; Tinta, T; Mozeti?, P; Manganelli, M; Samo, T J; Ugalde, J A; Kova?, N; Stefanelli, M; Antonioli, M; Fonda-Umani, S; Del Negro, P; Cataletto, B; Hozi?, A; Ivoševi? Denardis, N; Zuti?, V; Svetli?i?, V; Miši? Radi?, T; Radi?, T; Fuks, D; Azam, F

2014-02-01

412

Polyaromatic hydrocarbons impair phosphorus transport by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis.  

PubMed

Phosphate uptake by plant roots is mainly mediated by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). However, the impact on phosphorus (P) transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), persistent organic pollutants widely found in altered soils, is not known up today. Here, we monitored the Rhizophagus irregularis fungal growth and the fungal P transport ability from the extraradical mycelium to the host transformed chicory roots in the presence of anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and the combination of both PAH, under in vitro conditions. Firstly, our findings showed that PAH have detrimental effect on the fungal growth. The combination of both PAH was more toxic than each of the PAH individually due to synergistic effects. Secondly, PAH affected the P transport by the fungus from the medium to the roots. This was evidenced by either the decrease in (33)P quantity transported in the roots as well as the decrease in acid phosphatase activity in the mycorrhizal roots. Moreover, the fungal alkaline phosphatase activities remained constant in the extraradical mycelium as well as in the roots in the absence and in the presence of PAH. The GintPT and GiALP (encoding a P transporter and an alkaline phosphatase respectively) gene expressions were also found to be similar in the extraradical mycelium treated with PAH or not (control). These findings suggested that the P uptake by R. irregularis was not affected by PAH but probably the transport from the extraradical mycelium to the intraradical mycelium. PMID:24287265

Calonne, Maryline; Fontaine, Joël; Tisserant, Benoît; Dupré de Boulois, Hervé; Grandmougin-Ferjani, Anne; Declerck, Stéphane; Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa

2014-06-01

413

Immunity, Volume 33 Supplemental Information  

E-print Network

), respectively, and were injected into the tail veins of by complete sequencing. The targeting vector was injected in the blastocysts by the personnel in the Animal Facility of Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, Three times injection generated a total 33

von Andrian, Ulrich H.

414

Anisotropic Thermal Expansion and Compressibility of Black Phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anisotropic thermal expansion and compressibility coefficients of black phosphorus have been determined by high temperature single-crystal x-ray diffraction, by high pressure x-ray diffraction and by neutron (time-of-flight) diffraction and are Ka = 1.5(2), Kb = 15.1(4), Kc = 12.1(4), Kv = 30.2(1.0) × 10-4 kbar-1. The volume changes agree well with that reported by Bridgman. The Burch-Murnaghan coefficient BT

R. J. Riedner; S. R. Srinivasa; L. Cartz; T. G. Worlton; R. Klinger; R. Beyerlein

1974-01-01

415

Resonant photoemission in single-crystal black phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resonant photoemission in single-crystal black phosphorus has been reinvestigated in detail by high-resolution spectroscopy. Partial-yield, valence-band, and constant-initial-state spectra were measured in the 2p core-exciton excitation region. We have confirmed two types of resonances at the 2p core threshold: one is a strong core-exciton-induced resonance with two final valence holes and the other is a weak Fano-type resonance. The Fano-type

M. Taniguchi; J. Ghijsen; R. L. Johnson; S. Suga; Y. Akahama; S. Endo

1989-01-01

416

Effect of pressure on bonding in black phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bond lengths and bond angles of orthorhombic black phosphorus have been determined as a function of hydrostatic pressures to 26.6(5) kbar using time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction. We show that the markedly anisotropic compression reported previously results from a large pressure-induced shortening of the van der Waals bonds separating layers of atoms combined with a shear motion within the layers.

L. Cartz; S. R. Srinivasa; R. J. Riedner; J. D. Jorgensen; T. G. Worlton

1979-01-01

417

Infrared Investigation of Lattice Vibration in Black Phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lattice vibrations in black phosphorus single crystals prepared under high pressure have been studied. The transmission spectra at various temperatures in a frequency range of 100-1000 cm-1 have been measured. We have found in the spectra at 1.5 K sharp absorption peaks at 110, 132 and 474 cm-1. By measuring the temperature, magnetic field and light-polarization dependences of the

Shinichi Terada; Tuyoshi Hattori; Michihiro Kobayashi; Yuichi Akahama; Shoichi Endo; Shin-ichiro Narita

1983-01-01

418

Optical Determination of Dielectric Constant in Black Phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three components of dielectric constant along three principal crystal axes in black phosphorus are determined for the first time. Two of them are obtained from far-infrared interference spectra for thin cleaved samples. The remaining one is determined by analyzing far-infrared absorption peaks observed in p-type sample at 1.4 K, which are ascribed to optical transitions from the acceptor ground state

Toshiya Nagahama; Michihiro Kobayashi; Yuichi Akahama; Shoichi Endo; Shin-ichiro Narita

1985-01-01

419

Blast furnace slag as phosphorus sorbents — column studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Filter substrates that efficiently remove phosphorus (P) from wastewater can be used to optimise the nutrient removal by on-site wastewater treatment systems. A number of filter substrates have been investigated and the industrial by-product blast furnace slag has attracted attention as a promising substrate. To further evaluate the sorption and attenuation of PO43?, a column experiment was carried out under

Lena Johansson

1999-01-01

420

EVALUATION OF PHOSPHORUS LOADING FOR DELAVAN LAKE IN SOUTHEASTERN WISCONSIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite diversion of sewage effluent and septic leachate from Delavan Lake in 1981, dense blue-green algal blooms caused numerous complaints in the summer of 1983. The U.S. Geological Survey started a comprehensive two-year water quality investigation in 1983. All major external inputs and outflows of phosphorus were measured to assess the importance of each source. Internal loads were calculated as

Stephen J. Field

1986-01-01

421

Phosphorus Load Reduction Goals for Feitsui Reservoir Watershed, Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper describes an effort for developing the total maximum daily load (TMDL) for phosphorus and a load reduction\\u000a strategy for the Feitsui Reservoir in Northern Taiwan. BASINS model was employed to estimate watershed pollutant loads from\\u000a nonpoint sources (NPS) in the Feitsui Reservoir watershed. The BASINS model was calibrated using field data collected during\\u000a a 2-year sampling period

Wen-Shang Chou; Tsu-Chuan Lee; Jen-Yang Lin; Shaw L. Yu

2007-01-01

422

Microbial dissolved organic phosphorus utilization in the Hudson River Estuary  

SciTech Connect

The Hudson River Estuary has large inputs of phosphorus and other nutrients from sewage discharge. Concentrations of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) reach at least 4 uM during the summer low-flow period. Biological utilization of phosphorus and other nutrients is usually minimal because of the high turbidity and short residence time of the water. Therefore SRP is normally a conservative tracer of salinity, with maximum concentrations found off Manhattan and decreasing to the north. Despite this abundance of SRP, some components of the dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) appear to be rapidly cycled by microbes. The objective of this study was to measure this DIP cycling during both the high- and low-flow periods. We measured the concentrations of SRP and DOP, the SRP turnover rate, algal and bacterial biomass, and the substrate turnover rates of two microbial cell-surface phosphatases, alkaline phosphatase (AP) and 5[prime] - nucleotidase (5PN). SRP concentrations ranged from about 0.5-4 uM, DOP was usually less than 1 uM. SRP and AP turnover were slow (generally < 5%/h), but 5PN substrate turnover was high with a median rate of 100%/h. Furthermore, over 30% of the phosphate hydrolyzed by 5PN was immediately taken up. If the nucleotide-P concentration is conservatively assumed to be 5 nM, than the rate of phosphate utilization from DOP is nearly equal to that from SRP. That is paradoxical considering the large SRP concentration, but suggests that much of this SRP may be biologically unavailable due to complexation with iron or other processes.

Ammerman, J.W. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (United States)); Angel, D.L. (City College of New York, NY (United States))

1990-01-09

423

Observations of Circumstellar Thermochemical Equilibrium: The Case of Phosphorus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We will present observations of phosphorus-bearing species in circumstellar envelopes, including carbon- and oxygen-rich shells 1. New models of thermochemical equilibrium chemistry have been developed to interpret, and constrained by these data. These calculations will also be presented and compared to the numerous P-bearing species already observed in evolved stars. Predictions for other viable species will be made for observations with Herschel and ALMA.

Milam, Stefanie N.; Charnley, Steven B.

2011-01-01

424

Soil available phosphorus in a permanent grassland excessively fertilized  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus is an essential element for crop growth and it is necessary to maintain profitable agriculture. In agricultural areas with high cattle manure and/or slurry inputs, available soil P levels are in excess of crop needs, so they had the potential to enrich surface water by runoff, which may trigger eutrophication. This is the case in Galicia, a temperate humid region in north-western of Spain. Soil nutrient testing is a management tool that can help accurately determine the available nutrient status of soils and guide the efficient use of fertilizers. Differences in soil phosphorus (P) contents measured by various techniques may have agronomic and environmental implications. The aim of this study was to analyze the spatial variability of available phosphorus in a permanent grassland field fertilized with organic manure. determined both after exchange resin and Mehlich 3 extraction. The experimental site was located at Castro de Ribeira de Lea, Lugo province, Spain. The studied soil was characterized by a loamy to loam sandy A horizon, rich in organic matter over tertizry-quaternary sediments. Soil was sampled at two successive depths, 0-20 cm and > 20 cm over a 6 ha field. Eighty soil samples were collected. Available P was colorimetrically determined after extraction with Mehlich 3 and exchangeable resin. Mean available P contents extracted using Mehlich 3 and resin were 29.9 and 108.8 mg.kg-1, respectively. Phosphorus extracted by Mehlich 3 ranged from 40.2 to 203.1 mg.kg-1, whereas resin extractable P ranged from 12.4 to 61 mg.kg-1 . These test results indicate excess P all over the studied field. Spatial variability of P over the experimental field was analyzed using geostatistics.

García Tomillo, Aitor; Valcárcel Armesto, Montserrat; Dafonte Dafonte, Jorge; Marinho, Mara de Andrade; Ramón Raposo, Juan; de Abreu, Cleide A.

2013-04-01

425

Coupled Mediterranean ecomodel of the phosphorus and nitrogen cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of the Mediterranean marine environment, in terms of nutrient depletion and easterly decreasing trophic gradients, requires full exploit of the knowledge and processes of the ecosystem dynamics.The three-dimensional model here proposed takes into account the phosphorus and nitrogen cycles coupled with the temporal and spatial hydrodynamical evolution.The food web considers, as primary producers, small autotrophs and large autotrophs uptaking

G. Crispi; A. Crise; C. Solidoro

2002-01-01

426

Phosphorus removal by electric arc furnace steel slag and serpentinite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag and serpentinite were tested in columns either alone or mixed with limestone to determine their capacity to remove phosphorus (P) from a solution containing initially 20mg P\\/L (for 114 days) than 400mg P\\/L (for 21 days). EAF steel slag was nearly 100% efficient due to specific P adsorption onto metal hydroxides and precipitation of

Aleksandra Drizo; Christiane Forget; Robert P. Chapuis; Yves Comeau

2006-01-01

427

Phosphorus responses of C 3 and C 4 species  

Microsoft Academic Search

An hypothesis was formulated that phosphorus (P) par- titioning in tissues of C4 leaves would permit C4 plants to resist P deficiency better than C3 plants. To test this hypothesis, 12 C3, C4, and C3-C4 intermediate species were grown at adequate, deficient, and severely deficient P supply in a solid-phase-buffered sand culture system to characterize photosynthetic and growth responses. Species

Marilou Halsted; Jonathan Lynch

1996-01-01

428

Phosphorus cycling by mussels (Unionidae : Bivalvia) in Lake St. Clair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of mussels in cycling phosphorus in Lake St. Clair during the May–October period was examined by measuring concentrations in the water column and in mussel tissue, and by measuring rates of biodeposition and excretion. Mean rates of biodeposition and excretion for Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea, the most abundant species, were 6.3 µg P (g shell-free dry wt)-1 h-1 and

T. F. Nalepa; W. S. Gardner; J. M. Malczyk

1991-01-01

429

Phosphorus sorbing materials: sorption dynamics and physicochemical characteristics.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of various management practices to reduce phosphorus (P) loss from soil to water can potentially be improved by using by-product materials that have the capacity to sorb phosphorus. This study evaluated the P sorption and desorption potential, and the physicochemical characteristics of various phosphorus sorbing materials. Twelve materials were selected and P sorption potentials ranged between 66 and 990 mg kg(-1). Iron, and calcium drinking water treatment residuals (DWTRs), a magnesium fertilizer by-product, aluminum, and humate materials all removed substantial amounts of P from solution and desorbed little. Humate had the highest maximum P sorption capacity (S(max)). Materials which had a low equilibrium P concentration (EPC(0)) and a high S(max) included aluminum and humate by-products. In a kinetic study, the Fe-DWTR, Ca-DWTR, aluminum, and magnesium by-product materials all removed P (to relatively low levels) from solution within 4 h. Phosphorus fractionation suggests that most materials contained little or no P that was readily available to water. Sand materials contained the greatest P fraction associated with fulvic and humic acids. In general, materials (not Ca-DWTR) and magnesium by-product were composed of sand-sized particles. There were no relationships between particle size distributions and P sorption in materials other than sands. The Ca- and Fe-DWTR, and magnesium by-product also contained plant nutrients and thus, may be desirable as soil amendments after being used to sorb P. Further, using Ca-DWTRs and Fe-DWTRs as soil amendments may also increase soil cation exchange and water holding capacity. PMID:18178890

Leader, J W; Dunne, E J; Reddy, K R

2008-01-01

430

Sediment Phosphorus Loading Beneath Dense Canopies of Aquatic Macrophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dense surface canopies of aquatic macrophytes were associated with significant changes in the physical and chemical water quality of two shallow Pacific Northwest lakes. Internal loading of phosphorus (P) was observed at the sediment-water interface beneath canopies of Ceratophyllum demersum L. and Myriophtllum exalbescens (Fern.) Jeps. and in deep open-water areas when dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations were ?0.4 mg\\/L. Aerobic

Jonathan D. Frodge; G. L. Thomas; G. B. Pauley

1991-01-01

431

Phosphorus cycling in sediments of the Bohai and Yellow Seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a box-sampler, surface and core sediment samples were collected from the Bohai and Yellow Seas in 1998–1999. The sediments were sequentially extracted to determine six phosphorus fractions, and non-sequentially extracted for total P (TP) and inorganic P (IP), where the difference between TP and IP was assumed to be organic P (OP). It was found that more than 70%

Su Mei Liu; Jing Zhang; Dao Ji Li

2004-01-01

432

Uplift, Erosion, and Phosphorus Limitation in Terrestrial Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary productivity on old, weathered soils often is assumed to be limited by phosphorus (P), especially in the lowland tropics\\u000a where climatic conditions promote the rapid depletion of rock-derived nutrients. This assumption is based on a static view\\u000a of soils weathering in place with no renewal of the bedrock source. In reality, advection of material through the soil column\\u000a introduces

Stephen Porder; Peter M. Vitousek; Oliver A. Chadwick; C. Page Chamberlain; George E. Hilley

2007-01-01

433

Carbon\\/nitrogen\\/phosphorus allometric relations across species  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter reviews some of the ecological and evolutionary implications of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P)\\u000a stoichiometry and the allometric relationships among these elements reported for terrestrial plant species because the patterns\\u000a of C mass allocation and N:P-stoichiometry for different plant organ-types are of general interest to understanding a broad\\u000a range of ecological and evolutionary phenomena (Aerts and

Karl J. Niklas

434

Evaluation of the calcium and phosphorus requirement of developing boars  

E-print Network

, but utilization decreased when soybean meal was increased. Pa~stere used to indzaate required SsvsIs. The influence of the parameters used to indicate optimum calcium and phosphorus dietary levels in establishing requirements has been pointed out by Rutledge... gain and feed efficiency were determined on an individual pig basis. Pig weight and feed consumption records were obtained avery 7 days and daily gain, feed efficiency and daily feed intake were computed for the entire feeding period. Serum. Blood...

Schroeder, James

2012-06-07

435

Nucleophilic substitution at phosphorus centers (SN2@p).  

PubMed

We have studied the characteristics of archetypal model systems for bimolecular nucleophilic substitution at phosphorus (SN2@P) and, for comparison, at carbon (SN2@C) and silicon (SN2@Si) centers. In our studies, we applied the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) of density functional theory (DFT) at the OLYP/TZ2P level. Our model systems cover nucleophilic substitution at carbon in X(-)+CH3Y (SN2@C), at silicon in X(-)+SiH3Y (SN2@Si), at tricoordinate phosphorus in X(-)+PH2Y (SN2@P3), and at tetracoordinate phosphorus in X(-)+POH2Y (SN2@P4). The main feature of going from SN2@C to SN2@P is the loss of the characteristic double-well potential energy surface (PES) involving a transition state [X--CH3--Y]- and the occurrence of a single-well PES with a stable transition complex, namely, [X--PH2--Y]- or [X--POH2--Y](-). The differences between SN2@P3 and SN2@P4 are relatively small. We explored both the symmetric and asymmetric (i.e. X, Y=Cl, OH) SN2 reactions in our model systems, the competition between backside and frontside pathways, and the dependence of the reactions on the conformation of the reactants. Furthermore, we studied the effect, on the symmetric and asymmetric SN2@P3 and S(N)2@P4 reactions, of replacing hydrogen substituents at the phosphorus centers by chlorine and fluorine in the model systems X(-)+PR2Y and X(-)+POR2Y, with R=Cl, F. An interesting phenomenon is the occurrence of a triple-well PES not only in the symmetric, but also in the asymmetric SN2@P4 reactions of X(-)+POCl2--Y. PMID:17990249

van Bochove, Marc A; Swart, Marcel; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias

2007-12-01

436

Reduction of a phosphorus oxide and acid reaction set  

SciTech Connect

It has been predicted for some time that hypersonic aircraft will suffer from diminished fuel efficiency due to the slow speed of radical recombination in the nozzle of the aircraft and the consequent expulsion of high-energy fragments during high Mach number flight. The addition of small amounts of phosphine combustion products (phosphorus oxides and acids) to water vapor has been found to result in a faster relaxation rate of OH to its equilibrium density following H{sub 2}O photolysis. This article describes the systematic construction of a reaction model of 162 phosphorus reactions among 17 phosphorus-containing species. Those reactions that contribute to the reestablishment of equilibrium following the perturbation of the system by H{sub 2}O photolysis or by an increase in temperature are identified. A thermodynamic free energy function is used to quantify the rate of system relaxation back to equilibrium for a series of 36 reaction conditions covering a temperature range of 1,500 to 3,000 K, a gas density range of 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} to 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} mol/cm{sup 3} and a fuel equivalence ratio of 0.8 to 1.2.

Twarowski, A. [Rockwell International Science Center, Thousand Oaks, CA (United States)] [Rockwell International Science Center, Thousand Oaks, CA (United States)

1995-07-01

437

White phosphorus poisoning of waterfowl in an Alaskan salt marsh.  

PubMed

The cause of the yearly death of an estimated 1,000 to 2,000 migrating dabbling ducks (Anas spp.) and 10 to 50 swans (Cygnus buccinator and C. columbianus) has remained a mystery for the last ten years in Eagle River Flats (ERF), a 1,000 ha estuarine salt marsh near Anchorage, Alaska, used for artillery training by the U.S. Army. We have gathered evidence that the cause of this mortality is the highly toxic, incendiary munition white phosphorus (P4). The symptoms of poisoning we observed in wild ducks included lethargy, repeated drinking, and head shaking and rolling. Death was preceded by convulsions. Farm-reared mallards dosed with white phosphorus showed nearly identical behavioral symptoms to those of wild ducks that became sick in ERF. White phosphorus does not occur in nature but was found in both the sediments where dabbling ducks and swans feed and in the gizzards of all carcasses collected in ERF. We hypothesize that feeding waterfowl are ingesting small particles of the highly toxic, incendiary munition P4 stored in the bottom anoxic sediments of shallow salt marsh ponds. PMID:1474672

Racine, C H; Walsh, M E; Roebuck, B D; Collins, C M; Calkins, D; Reitsma, L; Buchli, P; Goldfarb, G

1992-10-01

438

Biologically induced phosphorus precipitation in aerobic granular sludge process.  

PubMed

Aerobic granular sludge is a promising process for nutrient removal in wastewater treatment. In this work, for the first time, biologically induced precipitation of phosphorus as hydroxyl-apatite (Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)(OH)) in the core of granules is demonstrated by direct spectral and optical analysis: Raman spectroscopy, Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) coupled with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction analysis are performed simultaneously on aerobic granules cultivated in a batch airlift reactor for 500 days. Results reveal the presence of mineral clusters in the core of granules, concentrating all the calcium and considerable amounts of phosphorus. Hydroxyapatite appears as the major mineral, whereas other minor minerals could be transiently produced but not appreciably accumulated. Biologically induced precipitation was responsible for 45% of the overall P removal in the operating conditions tested, with pH varying from 7.8 to 8.8. Major factors influencing this phenomenon (pH, anaerobic phosphate release, nitrification denitrification) need to be investigated as it is an interesting way to immobilize phosphorus in a stable and valuable product. PMID:21616518

Angela, Mañas; Béatrice, Biscans; Mathieu, Spérandio

2011-06-01

439

Controlled struvite crystallisation for removing phosphorus from anaerobic digester sidestreams.  

PubMed

Enhanced biological phosphorus removal wastewater treatment plants that use anaerobic digesters for sludge treatment, have high phosphorus concentrations in the sidestreams from their sludge dewatering equipment. To remove phosphorus from such sidestreams controlled struvite crystallisation can be used. Struvite (or MAP) is a naturally occurring crystal of magnesium, ammonium and phosphate. We present operational results obtained with a continuously operated pilot-scale MAP reactor. The pilot-scale reactor (143 l) was an air agitated column reactor with a reaction and a settling zone, based on the Phosnix process of Unitika Ltd., Japan. The influent to the MAP reactor was centrate from the centrifuge that dewaters anaerobically digested sludge at the Oxley Creek wastewater treatment plant in Brisbane. We used a 60% magnesium hydroxide slurry to add the required magnesium to the process and to obtain the alkaline pH value required. The pilot-scale MAP process achieved an ortho-P removal ratio of 94% from an average influent ortho-P concentration of 61 mg/l. The reactor was operated at a pH of around 8.5. Insufficient dosing of magnesium reduced the P removal performance. There was no influence of the hydraulic residence time on the process in the range of 1-8 h. The dry MAP product had cadmium, lead and mercury concentrations well below the legal limits for fertilisers in Queensland, Australia and can be reused as a valuable slow-release fertiliser. PMID:11257869

Münch, E V; Barr, K

2001-01-01

440

Elevated dissolved phosphorus in riparian groundwater along gaining urban streams.  

PubMed

Findings of low concentrations of dissolved phosphorus in groundwater in large surveys [e.g., United States Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program ( Dubrovsky, N. M.; et al. The Quality of Our Nation's Water: Nutrients in the Nation's Streams and Groundwater, 1992-2004 . U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1350; USGS : Reston, VA , 2010 . ); >5000 wells] support the common perception that groundwater is generally of little importance for transporting phosphorus. Here, we address whether this applies to urban riparian settings, where discharging groundwater may potentially contribute to urban stream syndrome and downstream eutrophication problems. This survey study includes 665 samples of groundwater collected along gaining stream reaches at six urban sites. Considering the combined sample set, 27% had soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations >0.1 mg L(-1), which is more than double that determined in the NAWQA Program (12%), while for individual sites the range was 12-52%, excluding one site with consistently low SRP (0%). None of the sites showed significant correlation between SRP and the artificial sweetener acesulfame, a promising wastewater indicator, including two with known wastewater contamination (but the lowest SRP). Rather, high SRP concentrations were associated with geochemically reducing conditions. This could mean that natural aquifer or stream sediment materials were a primary contributor of the elevated SRP observed in this study. PMID:24422427

Roy, James W; Bickerton, Greg

2014-02-01

441

White phosphorus burns and arsenic inhalation: a toxic combination.  

PubMed

White phosphorus is a common industrial and military compound, which can cause severe thermal and chemical burns beyond what would be predicted from body surface area alone. The authors present a rare case of a 45-year-old male patient who suffered white phosphorus burns combined with arsenic inhalation because of an industrial accident. The presented case is used to review the history and the toxicities of these chemicals as well as current methods of treatment. A literature review was performed to summarize the current knowledge of white phosphorus burns, as well as arsenic poisoning, and no similar case reports of the two combined were found. The patient ultimately recovered and was discharged, though with significant chronic complications. This case highlights the risk of burns and inhalation injury present in industrial manufacturing jobs, as well as the potential severity of these conditions. The systemic effects of chemicals absorbed across burned skin and via inhalation were the main contributors to our patient's severe illness, and required more intensive treatment than the burns themselves. Arsenic toxicity is rare and could easily have been missed without the appropriate patient history. PMID:24503966

Berndtson, Allison E; Fagin, Alice; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

2014-01-01

442

Alexandrium minutum growth controlled by phosphorus . An applied model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toxic algae are a worldwide problem threatening aquaculture, public health and tourism. Alexandrium, a toxic dinoflagellate proliferates in Northwest France estuaries (i.e. the Penzé estuary) causing Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning events. Vegetative growth, and in particular the role of nutrient uptake and growth rate, are crucial parameters to understand toxic blooms. With the goal of modelling in situ Alexandrium blooms related to environmental parameters, we first try to calibrate a zero-dimensional box model of Alexandrium growth. This work focuses on phosphorus nutrition. Our objective is to calibrate Alexandrium minutum as well as Heterocapsa triquetra (a non-toxic dinoflagellate) growth under different rates of phosphorus supply, other factors being optimal and constant. Laboratory experiments are used to calibrate two growth models and three uptake models for each species. Models are then used to simulate monospecific batch and semi-continuous experiments as well as competition between the two algae (mixed cultures). Results show that the Droop growth model together with linear uptake versus quota can represent most of our observations, although a power law uptake function can more accurately simulate our phosphorus uptake data. We note that such models have limitations in non steady-state situations and cell quotas can depend on a variety of factors, so care must be taken in extrapolating these results beyond the specific conditions studied.

Chapelle, A.; Labry, C.; Sourisseau, M.; Lebreton, C.; Youenou, A.; Crassous, M. P.

2010-11-01

443

Human-induced nitrogen-phosphorus imbalances alter natural and managed ecosystems across the globe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of carbon from rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and of nitrogen from various human-induced inputs to ecosystems is continuously increasing; however, these increases are not paralleled by a similar increase in phosphorus inputs. The inexorable change in the stoichiometry of carbon and nitrogen relative to phosphorus has no equivalent in Earth’s history. Here we report the profound and yet uncertain consequences of the human imprint on the phosphorus cycle and nitrogen:phosphorus stoichiometry for the structure, functioning and diversity of terrestrial and aquatic organisms and ecosystems. A mass balance approach is used to show that limited phosphorus and nitrogen availability are likely to jointly reduce future carbon storage by natural ecosystems during this century. Further, if phosphorus fertilizers cannot be made increasingly accessible, the crop yields projections of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment imply an increase of the nutrient deficit in developing regions.

Peñuelas, Josep; Poulter, Benjamin; Sardans, Jordi; Ciais, Philippe; van der Velde, Marijn; Bopp, Laurent; Boucher, Olivier; Godderis, Yves; Hinsinger, Philippe; Llusia, Joan; Nardin, Elise; Vicca, Sara; Obersteiner, Michael; Janssens, Ivan A.

2013-12-01

444

Assessing a decade of phosphorus management in the Lake Mendota, Wisconsin watershed and scenarios for enhanced phosphorus management  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phosphorus (P) budget was estimated for the watershed of Lake Mendota, Wisconsin, to assess the effects of nutrient management\\u000a on P accumulation in the watershed soils. We estimated how nutrient management programs and legislation have affected the\\u000a budget by comparing the budget for 2007 to a budget calculated for 1995, prior to implementation of the programs. Since 1995,\\u000a inputs

Emily L. Kara; Chad Heimerl; Tess Killpack; Matthew C. Van de Bogert; Hiroko Yoshida; Stephen R. Carpenter

445

Enhancing phosphorus availability in phosphorus-fertilized zones by reducing phosphate adsorbed on ferrihydrite using rice straw-derived biochar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Biochar amendments can alter phosphorus (P) availability in soils, though the influencing mechanisms are not yet fully understood.\\u000a This work investigated the adsorption and desorption of P on ferrihydrite (F, a Fe-oxide widely distributed in surface environments)\\u000a in order to evaluate the interactions between P and Fe-oxide in the absence or presence of biochar (F or ferrihydrite–biochar\\u000a (F–B) interaction) in

Hao-Jie Cui; Ming Kuang Wang; Ming-Lai Fu; En Ci

446

Alum:Redox-Sensitive Phosphorus Ratio Considerations and Uncertainties in the Estimation of Alum Dosage to Control Sediment Phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alum dosage requirements to immobilize loosely-bound and iron-bound sediment phosphorus (P) fractions (i.e., redox-sensitive P fractions) in the surface sediments of eutrophic, Squaw Lake, Wisconsin, were determined using alum assay procedures developed by Rydin and Welch (1999). Since the lake exhibits a low buffering capacity (alkalinity = 25 mg Ca L), an alkalinity-based calculation could not be used to estimate

William F. James

2005-01-01

447

The effect of soil P sorption properties and phosphorus fertiliser application strategy on ‘incidental’ phosphorus fertiliser characteristics: a laboratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of phosphorus (P) fertilisers to grazed pasture systems can increase the export of P in surface runoff. This\\u000a increase can arise from interaction of recently applied fertiliser P with surface runoff (incidental effects) or the interaction\\u000a between pseudo-equilibrated soil P and surface runoff (systematic effects). The former can represent a large proportion of\\u000a annual exports. In this paper

W. J. Dougherty; L. L. Burkitt; R. Corkrey; D. M. Harvey

2011-01-01

448

Availability of soil organic phosphorus and fertilizer phosphorus applied to coastal bermudagrass (cynodon dactylon l.) on Houston black clay  

E-print Network

. Greenhouse Study . Soil Chemical and Physical Characteristics Plant Samples. Soil Samples . Field Study. Soil Chemical and Physical Characteristics Plant Samples. Soil Samples . RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Greenhouse Study . Soil Chemical and Physical... Characteristics . Plant Yield and Analysis Efficiency of Phosphorus Utilization . Soil Analysis. The Distribution of IP and 32P in the Soil and Plant. Soil Labile P. Field Study. Soil Chemical and Physical Characteristics Plant Yield and Analysis...

Krautmann, Jolly Yang

2012-06-07

449

Phosphorus release potential and pollution characteristics of sediment in downstream Nansi Lake, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research aimed to evaluate present and potential phosphorous pollution due to high sedimentary phosphorus load and release\\u000a from sediment, when external phosphorus was reduced in downstream Nansi Lake. Pollution load of the sediment and overlying\\u000a water was investigated. Kinetics and isotherms of adsorption\\/release of sedimentary phosphorus were studied to determine equilibrium\\u000a phosphate concentration (EPC0) and release potential. Kinetics of

Zhijian Li; Qinyan Yue; Baoyu Gao; Yanwen Wang; Qing Liu

450

& Phosphorus Layers mP-BaP3: A New Phase from an Old Binary System  

E-print Network

/3 of the PÃ?P bonds present in the layers of black phosphorus. The unit- cell volume of the mP-BaP3 phase is 1& Phosphorus Layers mP-BaP3: A New Phase from an Old Binary System Juli-Anna Dolyniuk,[a] Derrick C: A polyphosphide, mP-BaP3, with a unique two-di- mensional phosphorus layer has been discovered and char- acterized

Osterloh, Frank

451

Operation performance and microbial community dynamics of phosphorus removal sludge with different electron acceptors.  

PubMed

Operation performances of phosphorus removal sludge with different electron acceptors in three parallel SBRs were firstly compared in the present study, and the effect of post-aeration on denitrifying phosphorus removal was also studied. Moreover, community dynamics of different phosphorus removal sludge was systematically investigated with high-throughput sequencing for the first time. TP removal rates for nitrate-, nitrite-, and oxygen-based phosphorus removal sludge were 84.8, 78.5, and 87.4 %, with an average effluent TP concentration of 0.758, 0.931, and 0.632 mg/l. The average specific phosphorus release and uptake rates were 20.3, 10.8, and 21.5, and 9.43, 8.68, and 10.8 mgP/(gVSS h), respectively. Moreover, electron utilization efficiency of denitrifying phosphorus removal sludge with nitrate as electron acceptor was higher than nitrite, with P/e(-) were 2.21 and 1.51 mol-P/mol-e(-), respectively. With the assistance of post-aeration for nitrate-based denitrifying phosphorus removal sludge, settling ability could be improved, with SVI decreased from 120 to 80 and 72 ml/g when post-aeration time was 0, 10, and 30 min, respectively. Moreover, further phosphorus removal could be achieved during post-aeration with increased aeration time. However, the anoxic phosphorus uptake was deteriorated, which was likely a result of shifted microbial community structure. Post-aeration of approximately 10 min was proposed for denitrifying phosphorus removal. Nitrate- and nitrite-based denitrifying phosphorus removal sludge exhibited similar community structure. More phosphorus accumulating organisms were enriched under anaerobic-aerobic conditions, while anaerobic-anoxic conditions were favorable for suppressing glycogen-accumulating organisms. Significant differences in pathogenic bacterial community profiles revealed in the current study indicated the potential public health hazards of non-aeration activated sludge system. PMID:24752562

Lv, Xiaomei; Shao, Mingfei; Li, Chaolin; Li, Ji; Liu, Dongyang; Gao, Xinlei; Xia, Xue

2014-07-01

452

Effect of Phosphorus on Survival of Escherichia coli in Drinking Water Biofilms?  

PubMed Central

The effect of phosphorus addition on survival of Escherichia coli in an experimental drinking water distribution system was investigated. Higher phosphorus concentrations prolonged the survival of culturable E. coli in water and biofilms. Although phosphorus addition did not affect viable but not culturable (VBNC) E. coli in biofilms, these structures could act as a reservoir of VBNC forms of E. coli in drinking water distribution systems. PMID:17416695

Juhna, Talis; Birzniece, Dagne; Rubulis, Janis

2007-01-01

453

Effects of phosphorus-containing engine oil additives on exhaust oxidation catalyst degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalyst deterioration caused by phosphorus-containing engine oil additives was investigated using a variety of engine oil blends in a steady-state engine-dynamometer test. The reductions in hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide conversion in the 200-hour test were related to two parameters: (1) the quantity of phosphorus in the oil added to the engine, and (2) the amount of phosphorus on the catalyst

F. Caracciolo; J. A. Spearot

1976-01-01

454

Kinetics of biologically induced phosphorus precipitation in waste-water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In waste-water treatment plants with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR), a part of the phosphorus can be eliminated by chemical precipitation. In experiments with inactivated sludge containing relatively high concentrations of dissolved calcium (?1.5molm?3) and phosphorus (?1molm?3), a pH-sensitive and partly reversible precipitation of calcium phosphates was observed at pH values below 8.0. A dynamic model was formulated on the

M. Maurer; D. Abramovich; H. Siegrist; W. Gujer

1999-01-01

455

Available phosphorus content of soil affected by P fertilization and its change in time  

Microsoft Academic Search

For characterizing the rate of increase of the available soil phosphorus content applying superphosphate fertilization the slope of the linear regression curve in the range of 0–12–120 ppm P is used. The available phosphorus is determined by NH4?lactate and NaHCO3 extractions. The rate of increase of available phosphorus is primarily influenced by the presence of CaCO3 and is in close

Gy. Füleky

1978-01-01

456

Phytoremediation facilitates removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from eutrophicated water and release from sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) fractions and the effect of phytoremediation on nitrogen and phosphorus removal from eutrophicated water and\\u000a release from sediment were investigated in the eco-remediation experiment enclosures installed in the Hua-jia-chi pond (Hangzhou\\u000a city, Zhejiang province, China). The main P fraction in the sediment was inorganic phosphorus (IP). For the mesotrophic sediments,\\u000a IP mainly consisted of HCl-extractable P (Ca-P). The

Wu Xiang; Yang Xiao-E; Zed Rengel

2009-01-01

457

Spatial and seasonal variability of pore water phosphorus concentration in shallow Lake Swarz?dzkie, Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pore waters play an important role in phosphorus dynamics in aquatic ecosystems. Phosphorus concentrations in pore waters\\u000a are much higher than above the bottom. This is confirmed by the results of this study concerning the hypereutrophic lake.\\u000a Pore water was analyzed at 11 sampling stations in the upper layer of bottom sediments. This water was separated by centrifugation\\u000a and phosphorus

Katarzyna Kowalczewska-Madura; Ryszard Go?dyn

458

Nature of Phosphorus Compounds Fueling Microbial Life in Deep-Sea Sediments at North Pond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus is an essential nutrient that can be limiting in some environments. Despite its critical importance for life, many components of its cycle, including phosphorus uptake and cycling in deep-sea sediments, remain unclear. Understanding phosphorus cycling in open ocean sediments is crucial, since a significant portion of Earth's prokaryotes thrives in this environment. However, little is known about the nature of phosphorus compounds these microorganisms are taking up or the mechanisms used. This study aims to identify the specific phosphorus forms within the labile and refractory sedimentary phosphorus pools that "fuel" the deep biosphere at North Pond, an isolated sediment pond on the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic ridge. Sediment samples were collected from four boreholes drilled during the IODP expedition 336. Sedimentary phosphorus compounds are characterized using sequential extractions (SEDEX), which separate them into distinct reservoirs. In addition, solution phase 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is used to further characterize phosphorus forms. We hypothesize that phosphorus in deep sub-seafloor sediments has low bioavailability and is mainly present in mineral phases.

Defforey, D.; Paytan, A.

2012-12-01

459

Effect of Sludge Type on Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal in Sequencing Batch Reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerobic granulation technology has become a novel biotechnology for wastewater treatment. However, the study of distinct properties and characteristics of phosphorus removal between granules and flocculent sludge are still sparse in EBPR. Two SBRs were concurrently operated to investigate the different phosphorus removal characteristics between granules (R1) and flocculate sludge (R2). Results indicated that R2 had a faster progress for enriching phosphorus-accumulating organisms compared with R1, and the phosphorus removal reached the steady state after 40 days in R1 but only 30 days in R2. The moisture content of granules (85.63%) was smaller than that (91.36%) in R2, and the granules had a higher removal efficiency of NH4+-N. However, flocculent sludge could release and take up more phosphorus. The special phosphorus release rate (SPRR) and special phosphorus uptake rate (SPUR) were 8.818 mg/gVSS?h and 9.921 mg/gVSS?h in R2 which were consistently larger than that (0.999 mg/gVSS?h and 0.754 mg/gVSS?h) in R1. The results of DGGE of PCR-amplified 16SrDNA fragments revealed that the diversity and the amount of phosphorus accumulating microbial of bacteria in flocculent sludge were much more than that in the granules. It can be concluded that the flocculent sludge showed a better phosphorus removal.

Li, Xing; Gao, Dawen; Zhang, Baihui

2010-11-01

460

Access and in situ growth of phosphorene-precursor black phosphorus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of orthorhombic black phosphorus can be grown by a short way transport reaction from red phosphorus and Sn/SnI4 as mineralization additive. Sizes of several millimeters can be realized with high crystal quality and purity, making a large area preparation of single or multilayer phosphorene possible. An in situ neutron diffraction study was performed addressing the formation of black phosphorus. Black phosphorus is formed directly via gas phase without the occurrence of any other intermediate phase. Crystal growth was initiated after cooling the starting materials down from elevated temperatures at 500 °C.

Köpf, Marianne; Eckstein, Nadine; Pfister, Daniela; Grotz, Carolin; Krüger, Ilona; Greiwe, Magnus; Hansen, Thomas; Kohlmann, Holger; Nilges, Tom

2014-11-01

461

Phosphorus supplement alters postprandial lipemia of healthy male subjects: a pilot cross-over trial  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological studies have found a U-shaped relationship between serum phosphorus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The mechanism(s) behind such a relationship are poorly understood. Phosphorus (P) is reported to improve insulin sensitivity, which is involved in lipid metabolism, and thus we were interested in determining the impact of phosphorus ingestion on postprandial lipemia, a recognized CVD risk factor. Findings A within–subject study design was conducted, whereby 8 healthy male subjects received a high fat meal (330Kcal; 69% energy from fat; 35 mg of phosphorus) with placebo or phosphorus (500 mg) in a random order. Postprandial blood samples (~10 ml) were collected every hour for 6 hours after meal ingestion. Changes in different parameters were analyzed using a 2-factor repeated-measure ANOVA. In the phosphorus (P) supplemented group, postprandial serum P increased (p?=?0.00), while changes in insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and triglyceride (TG) were not significantly different than that of placebo. Concurrently, phosphorus supplementation increased postprandial concentrations of apolipoprotein B48 (ApoB48) (p?Phosphorus supplementation (500 mg) of the meal seems to alter the different components of postprandial lipemia. These findings highlight the potential role of phosphorus in CVD. PMID:25002136

2014-01-01

462

[Study on phosphorus removal capability of constructed wetlands filled with broken bricks].  

PubMed

Physico-chemical properties of broken bricks (BB) were determined, as well as its phosphorus adsorption ability. The results showed that BB was appropriate for enrichment of microorganisms and growth of plants as filter medium in CWs, in addition, BB had high phosphorus adsorption ability. A vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland (VSSF) filled with BB was constructed in order to investigate the phosphorus removal effect of domestic sewage, and the phosphorus removal mechanism of VSSF was also explored. The results showed that the phosphorus removal rate of VSSF was more than 90%, which remained stable when the hydraulic loading rate was 5 cm x d(-1) and the running time was 1 a; adsorption and precipitation within BB played the greatest role in phosphorus removal; distribution characteristics of total phosphorus in the filter media were attributed to the vertical flow state of wastewater in the system, besides, the contents and chemical forms of elements which could precipitate with phosphorus should be principal factors for the phosphorus removal processes of BB. Therefore, BB might be an ideal filter medium used in CWs. PMID:23379167

Wang, Zhen; Liu, Chao-Xiang; Li, Peng-Yu; Dong, Jian; Liu, Lin; Zhu, Ge-Fu

2012-12-01

463

Chemical measurements of phosphorus avialability in some medium to fine textured soils  

E-print Network

, and the phosphorus was determined periodically using three accepted methods oi' extraction. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Black (5), working with finely ground kaolinite, observed a maximum fixation of phosphorus at pH 3. 0 to 4. 0 regardless of the con- centration oi...' the source of phosphorus or the time of contact employed. The same investigator, using bentonite, found a maximum fixation at pH 6 . 0 when the concentration of the source of phosphorus was 1 p. p. m. and a maximum of fixation at PH 4. 8 when the source oi...

Velasco Molina, Hugo Alejo

2012-06-07

464

The availability of phosphorus in the bacterial model of the interstellar grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is pointed out that bacterial grains produce extinction of starlight dominantly by scattering. If conditions in molecular clouds are similar to those for the distributed interstellar medium of the solar neighborhood, undifferentiated interchanges of grains and of hydrogen between the clouds and the distributed medium have no effect on the question of phosphorus availability. However, if there are differences, the possibility exists that phosphorus accumulates in the distributed medium. Attention is given to questions regarding the phosphorus requirement, the approximate chemical composition of an Escherichia coli cell, aspects of phosphorus availability, and the Galaxy as a biological system.

Hoyle, F.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

1984-08-01

465

Effect of dietary phosphorus content on milk production and phosphorus excretion in dairy cows  

PubMed Central

Background Phosphorus (P) supplementation is costly and can result in excess P excretion. This study investigated the effects of reducing dietary P on milk production and P excretion in dairy cows over a full lactation. Method Forty-five multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided into 15 blocks according to expected calving date and previous milk yield, and assigned randomly to one of the three dietary treatments: 0.37, 0.47, and 0.57% P (DM basis); these P levels represent the NRC recommendations, Chinese recommendations, and the amount of dietary P commonly fed by Chinese dairy farmers, respectively. Average daily feed intake was calculated from monthly data on feed offered and refused. Milk yields of individual cows were recorded weekly, and milk samples were taken for analysis of protein, fat, solids-not-fat, lactose, and somatic cell count. Blood samples were collected on days ?6, ?3, 0, 3, 6 relative to calving, and then monthly throughout lactation, and analyzed for P and Ca concentrations. Spot samples of feces and urine were collected for 3 consecutive d during weeks 12, 24, and 36, and P concentrations were analyzed. Reproduction and health data were recorded. Results Dietary P did not affect dry matter intake or milk yield (P?>?0.10). Milk fat content was slightly higher in cows fed 0.37% P than in cows fed 0.47% P (P?=?0.05). Serum concentrations of P and Ca did not reflect dietary P content (P?>?0.10). Fecal and urinary P both declined linearly (P??0.05). Conclusions Lowering dietary P from 0.57 to 0.37% did not negatively affect milk production, but did significantly reduce P excretion into environment. PMID:24872881

2014-01-01

466

33rd Actinide Separations Conference  

SciTech Connect

Welcome to the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference hosted this year by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This annual conference is centered on the idea of networking and communication with scientists from throughout the United States, Britain, France and Japan who have expertise in nuclear material processing. This conference forum provides an excellent opportunity for bringing together experts in the fields of chemistry, nuclear and chemical engineering, and actinide processing to present and discuss experiences, research results, testing and application of actinide separation processes. The exchange of information that will take place between you, and other subject matter experts from around the nation and across the international boundaries, is a critical tool to assist in solving both national and international problems associated with the processing of nuclear materials used for both defense and energy purposes, as well as for the safe disposition of excess nuclear material. Granlibakken is a dedicated conference facility and training campus that is set up to provide the venue that supports communication between scientists and engineers attending the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference. We believe that you will find that Granlibakken and the Lake Tahoe views provide an atmosphere that is stimulating for fruitful discussions between participants from both government and private industry. We thank the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the United States Department of Energy for their support of this conference. We especially thank you, the participants and subject matter experts, for your involvement in the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference.

McDonald, L M; Wilk, P A

2009-05-04

467

Investigations on phosphorus recovery and reuse as soil amendment from electric arc furnace slag filters.  

PubMed

Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag has been identified as an effective filter material for the removal of phosphorus (P) from both point and non-point sources. To determine the feasibility of land-applying P saturated EAF steel slag this study was undertaken to investigate (i) saturated EAF steel slag material's potential as a P fertilizer or soil amendment and (ii) P desorption and metals leachate from saturated EAF steel slag material to surface runoff. Medicago sativa (alfalfa) was planted in a nutrient depleted washed sand media. Phosphorus was added either as saturated EAF steel slag or as a standard commercial phosphate fertilizer in order to assess the plant availability of the P from saturated EAF steel slag. Four different P application levels were tested: a low (20 lbs acre furrow slice(-1) (5.5 g P m(-3))) two medium (40 and 60 lbs. acre f.s.(-1) (11 and 16.5 g P m(-3))) and a high (120 lbs. acre f.s.(-1) (33 g P m(-3))). The above-ground biomass of half of the plants was harvested after 5 weeks and the second half at 10 weeks. All treatments regardless of the P source used showed high rates of germination. At the first harvest period (5 weeks) significantly higher above-ground biomass (p < 0.01) was seen at the 3 highest P amendment rates in treatments with triple super phosphate fertilizer (TSP) than with EAF steel slag. However, by the second harvest (10 weeks) only the highest amendment rate of TSP showed a significantly higher amount of biomass (p < 0.01), suggesting that EAF steel slag might be an effective slow release P source. In a second experiment, a rain simulator was used to assess desorption of DRP, TP and metals from a saturated and semi-saturated EAF steel slag. The results revealed that the total amounts of DRP and TP released to surface runoff from EAF steel slag were negligible when compared to the total quantities of P retained by this material. Overall the results from this study demonstrated that once the EAF steel slag filter reaches its saturation point, the material could be re-used as soil amendment for the slow release of bioavailable P with minimal risk for loss of P to surface runoff, bringing further benefits to the environment. PMID:20183504

Bird, Simon C; Drizo, Aleksandra

2009-11-01

468

Effect of level of dietary calcium and phosphorus on the site of absorption and utilization of phosphorus in gestating and lactating ruminants  

E-print Network

. Phosphorus Metabolism Site of Phosphorus Absorption The primary site of P absorption is the small intestine with a net secretion in the stomach and large intestine of sheep (Greene et al. , 1983 c; Wylie et al. , 1985) and steers (Greene et al. , 1983 b... intestine, pH increases which decreases the solubility of P and thus P absorption decreases along the length of the small intestine. Sklan and Hurwitz (1985) also noted some disappearance in the large intestine resulting in an overall phosphorus absorption...

Barrett, Robert Clay

2012-06-07

469

The Connection between Dietary Phosphorus, Cardiovascular Disease, and Mortality: Where We Stand and What We Need to Know123  

PubMed Central

Disorders of phosphorus metabolism are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Because excess dietary phosphorus intake is common in the general population and plays a central role in disturbances in phosphorus homeostasis, these findings have fueled interest in restricting phosphorus intake as a potential therapy for improving cardiovascular outcomes. Although experimental and observational data support this possibility, current limitations in the assessment of dietary phosphorus consumption in free-living populations and the lack of reliable biomarkers of the effects of dietary phosphorus on cardiovascular health pose major barriers to the design and conduct of trials assessing the efficacy of phosphorus restriction in improving cardiovascular health. Fibroblast growth factor 23 and Klotho are novel mediators of phosphorus metabolism that are tightly linked to dietary phosphorus intake and show promise as integrated biomarkers of phosphorus excess and its long-term health consequences. Advances in the understanding of how these hormones are associated with diet and phosphorus metabolism will likely bolster future efforts to assess the true health consequences of excess phosphorus intake and whether restricting phosphorus intake has salutary effects on cardiovascular health. PMID:24228204

Gutierrez, Orlando M.

2013-01-01

470

40 CFR 273.33 - Waste management.  

...2014-07-01 false Waste management. 273.33 Section 273...STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Large Quantity...Waste § 273.33 Waste management. (a) Universal waste batteries. A large quantity...

2014-07-01

471

7 CFR 3575.33 - Interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 3575.33 Section 3575...Guaranteed Loans § 3575.33 Interest rates. (a) General. Rates...may be either fixed or variable rates. Interest rates will be those...

2010-01-01

472

7 CFR 1779.33 - Interest rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 1779.33 Section 1779...GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.33 Interest rates. (a) General. Rates...may be either fixed or variable rates. Interest rates will be those rates...

2010-01-01

473

10 CFR 95.33 - Security education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security education. 95.33 Section 95.33...REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA...

2010-01-01

474

32 CFR 989.33 - Environmental justice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Environmental justice. 989.33 Section 989...PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.33 Environmental justice. During the preparation...Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations...

2013-07-01

475

32 CFR 989.33 - Environmental justice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Environmental justice. 989.33 Section 989...PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.33 Environmental justice. During the preparation...Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations...

2011-07-01

476

32 CFR 989.33 - Environmental justice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Environmental justice. 989.33 Section 989...PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.33 Environmental justice. During the preparation...Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations...

2010-07-01

477

32 CFR 989.33 - Environmental justice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Environmental justice. 989.33 Section 989...PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.33 Environmental justice. During the preparation...Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations...

2012-07-01

478

32 CFR 989.33 - Environmental justice.  

... 2014-07-01 false Environmental justice. 989.33 Section 989...PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.33 Environmental justice. During the preparation...Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations...

2014-07-01

479

45 CFR 33.6 - Hearings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01...Hearings. 33.6 Section 33.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...The hearing official's findings, analysis, and conclusions, including a...

2012-10-01

480

10 CFR 95.33 - Security education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Security education. 95.33 Section 95.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION...

2011-01-01

481

10 CFR 95.33 - Security education.  

10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Security education. 95.33 Section 95.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION...

2014-01-01

482

10 CFR 95.33 - Security education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Security education. 95.33 Section 95.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION...

2013-01-01

483

10 CFR 95.33 - Security education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Security education. 95.33 Section 95.