Sample records for phosphorus 33

  1. Parameterization of DFTB3/3OB for Sulfur and Phosphorus for Chemical and Biological Applications.

    PubMed

    Gaus, Michael; Lu, Xiya; Elstner, Marcus; Cui, Qiang

    2014-04-01

    We report the parametrization of the approximate density functional tight binding method, DFTB3, for sulfur and phosphorus. The parametrization is done in a framework consistent with our previous 3OB set established for O, N, C, and H, thus the resulting parameters can be used to describe a broad set of organic and biologically relevant molecules. The 3d orbitals are included in the parametrization, and the electronic parameters are chosen to minimize errors in the atomization energies. The parameters are tested using a fairly diverse set of molecules of biological relevance, focusing on the geometries, reaction energies, proton affinities, and hydrogen bonding interactions of these molecules; vibrational frequencies are also examined, although less systematically. The results of DFTB3/3OB are compared to those from DFT (B3LYP and PBE), ab initio (MP2, G3B3), and several popular semiempirical methods (PM6 and PDDG), as well as predictions of DFTB3 with the older parametrization (the MIO set). In general, DFTB3/3OB is a major improvement over the previous parametrization (DFTB3/MIO), and for the majority cases tested here, it also outperforms PM6 and PDDG, especially for structural properties, vibrational frequencies, hydrogen bonding interactions, and proton affinities. For reaction energies, DFTB3/3OB exhibits major improvement over DFTB3/MIO, due mainly to significant reduction of errors in atomization energies; compared to PM6 and PDDG, DFTB3/3OB also generally performs better, although the magnitude of improvement is more modest. Compared to high-level calculations, DFTB3/3OB is most successful at predicting geometries; larger errors are found in the energies, although the results can be greatly improved by computing single point energies at a high level with DFTB3 geometries. There are several remaining issues with the DFTB3/3OB approach, most notably its difficulty in describing phosphate hydrolysis reactions involving a change in the coordination number of the phosphorus, for which a specific parametrization (3OB/OPhyd) is developed as a temporary solution; this suggests that the current DFTB3 methodology has limited transferability for complex phosphorus chemistry at the level of accuracy required for detailed mechanistic investigations. Therefore, fundamental improvements in the DFTB3 methodology are needed for a reliable method that describes phosphorus chemistry without ad hoc parameters. Nevertheless, DFTB3/3OB is expected to be a competitive QM method in QM/MM calculations for studying phosphorus/sulfur chemistry in condensed phase systems, especially as a low-level method that drives the sampling in a dual-level QM/MM framework. PMID:24803865

  2. Three-step preparation and purification of phosphorus-33-labeled creatine phosphate of high specific activity

    SciTech Connect

    Savabi, F.; Geiger, P.J.; Bessman, S.P.

    1984-03-01

    Rabbit heart mitochondria were used as a source of enzymes for the synthesis of phosphorus-labeled creatine phosphate. This method is based on the coupled reaction between mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial-bound creatine kinase. It is possible to convert more than 90% of the inorganic phosphate (P/sub i/) to creatine phosphate. The method used only small amounts of adenine nucleotides which led to a product with only slight nucleotide contamination. This could be removed by activated charcoal extraction. For further purification, a method for the removal of residual P/sub i/ is described. 20 references.

  3. Competition between roots and microorganisms for phosphorus: A novel 33P labeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zilla, Thomas; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Zavišiæ, Aljoša; Polle, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    While organic N mineralization exhibits clear seasonal uptake dynamics, knowledge about seasonal variation in microbial P uptake and mineralization is scarce. We hypothesize that the dynamics of P uptake and mineralization by microorganisms in temperate forest soils exhibit a seasonality anti-cyclic to plant P uptake. Therefore, the ratio of microbial P to labile P increases by the transition from acquiring ecosystems (in spring) to recycling ones (in fall). To investigate this, intact soil-plant mesocosms containing Ah horizon with 1 year old F. sylvatica were removed from the P-rich field site Bad Brueckenau and the P-depleted field site Luess in Germany. During incubation under controlled conditions, seasonal pulse labeling by 33P-orthophosphate was performed at 5 time points over the course of one year. 33P recovery in microbial compounds of organic and mineral soil horizons was determined 7 and 30 days after the labeling. This procedure will account for temporal changes in P allocation and also considers the rather slow P transport from the mycorrhiza into the plants and other microorganisms. For the first time we analyzed the 33P incorporation into total PLFA and consequently provide a new technique for the analysis of P uptake by microorganisms, which has clear advantages compared to P quantification after chloroform fumigation. Polar lipids are hereby extracted with a Frostegård-modified Bligh-and-Dyer buffer, i.e. a single phase mixture of chloroform, methanol and citrate buffer (0.8:1:2, v:v:v). Phospholipids (PLFA) are isolated and purified by solid phase extraction via a silica gel column chromatography. Subsequently, PLFA are hydrolyzed and the resulting fatty acids derivatized by methylation. The fatty acid methyl esters were extracted with n-hexane and measured by GC/MS to investigate the composition of the microbial community. The remaining extract, containing head groups, phosphate units and glycerol backbones, was used to determine 33P activity and recovery in the microbial membrane lipids with a multi-purpose scintillation counter. This approach offers the unique possibility to quantify P fluxes through the microbial network. For the first time, P cycling can be linked to changes in microbial community structure and activity in soils in situ.

  4. Original article Ruminal phosphorus availability from several feedstuffs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    meals, rapeseed meals and sunflower meals). Rumen phosphorus avail- ability was not uniform amongst the feedstuffs, varying from 33.1% (FT rapeseed meal) to 84.7% (C wheat). Alfalfa phosphorus release kinetics 77.2% vs. 89.4% for wheat to 33.1% vs. 64.4% for the rapeseed meal) may depreciate the phosphorus

  5. Phosphorus Filter

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Tom Kehler, fishery biologist at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Northeast Fishery Center in Lamar, Pennsylvania, checks the flow rate of water leaving a phosphorus filter column. The USGS has pioneered a new use for acid mine drainage residuals that are currently a disposal challenge, usi...

  6. DESIGN MANUAL: PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual summarizes process design information for the best developed methods for removing phosphorus from wastewater. his manual discusses several proven phosphorus removal methods, including phosphorus removal obtainable through biological activity as well as chemical precip...

  7. PhosPhorus, Agriculture &

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    PhosPhorus, Agriculture & the environment #12;#12;PhosPhorus, Ag riculture & the environment Environmental Sciences #12;2 Introduction Phosphorus (P) is a naturally occurring element that can be found in the earth's crust, water, and all living organisms. Phosphorus (P) is one of 16 elements that are essential

  8. PHOSPHORUS IN IOWA SOILS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. E. Fenton

    Phosphorus is a key element in all living things. It is also a major fertilizer element and a major component of manure. Excess phosphorus in bodies of water causes growth of algae and other aquatic plants and thus is of environmental concern. Phosphorus is also a dynamic element in soil genesis. The amount, distribution, and chemical composition of phosphorus in

  9. Phosphorus: Riverine system transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transport and transformation of phosphorus (P) in riverine systems fundamentally affects the outcome of watershed mitigation strategies aimed at curbing downstream eutrophication. Phosphorus transport and transformations in streams and rivers are mediated by physical (sediment deposition and res...

  10. Phosphorus fractions of crayfish haemolymph, serum and haemocyanin.

    PubMed

    Gondko, R; Helszer, Z; Adamska, M

    1985-01-01

    Different amounts of haemolymph proteins participate in clot formation in Astacus leptodactylus and Orconectes limosus (20% and 10%, respectively), although in both species the content of proteins in haemolymph is similar. In both species the content of total phosphorus in the clot was similar (0.33-0.49%, w/w) but it was about 6 times lower in serum of O. limosus than in serum of A. leptodactylus (2.2 and 14.8 mg/100 ml, respectively). An even greater difference in phosphorus content was found in the protein precipitated from serum. In both species lipid phosphorus was predominant (77% of total haemolymph phosphorus in A. leptodactylus and 52% in O. limosus). Phospholipids were found mainly in serum. Only traces of phosphorus (0.005%) and small amounts of fatty acids were found in purified haemocyanin preparations. PMID:4090857

  11. Black phosphorus gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ahmad N; Liu, Bilu; Chen, Liang; Ma, Yuqiang; Cong, Sen; Aroonyadet, Noppadol; Köpf, Marianne; Nilges, Tom; Zhou, Chongwu

    2015-05-26

    The utilization of black phosphorus and its monolayer (phosphorene) and few-layers in field-effect transistors has attracted a lot of attention to this elemental two-dimensional material. Various studies on optimization of black phosphorus field-effect transistors, PN junctions, photodetectors, and other applications have been demonstrated. Although chemical sensing based on black phosphorus devices was theoretically predicted, there is still no experimental verification of such an important study of this material. In this article, we report on chemical sensing of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using field-effect transistors based on multilayer black phosphorus. Black phosphorus sensors exhibited increased conduction upon NO2 exposure and excellent sensitivity for detection of NO2 down to 5 ppb. Moreover, when the multilayer black phosphorus field-effect transistor was exposed to NO2 concentrations of 5, 10, 20, and 40 ppb, its relative conduction change followed the Langmuir isotherm for molecules adsorbed on a surface. Additionally, on the basis of an exponential conductance change, the rate constants for adsorption and desorption of NO2 on black phosphorus were extracted for different NO2 concentrations, and they were in the range of 130-840 s. These results shed light on important electronic and sensing characteristics of black phosphorus, which can be utilized in future studies and applications. PMID:25945545

  12. PHOSPHORUS RECOVERY FROM SEWAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phosphorus is a growth limiting nutrient that is mined from rock ore, refined, used in fertilizers, and discharged to the environment through municipal sewage. The impacts of phosphorus discharge include severe eutrophication of fresh water bodies. The future sustainable use of...

  13. PHOSPHORUS BASICS Larry G. Bundy

    E-print Network

    Balser, Teri C.

    PHOSPHORUS BASICS Larry G. Bundy Dept. of Soil Science University of Wisconsin #12;Phosphorus Terminology · Phosphorus (P) = element name and symbol · P2O5 = phosphate (oxide) Amount of P in fertilizers use #12;Forms & Concentrations of Phosphorus (P) in Soils Form Concentration (ppm) Total 1000 Soil

  14. 2, 3772, 2005 phosphorus control

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    HESSD 2, 37­72, 2005 Impact of phosphorus control measures B. O. L. Demars et al. Title Page Sciences Discussions Impact of phosphorus control measures on in-river phosphorus retention associated is licensed under a Creative Commons License. 37 #12;HESSD 2, 37­72, 2005 Impact of phosphorus control

  15. PHOSPHORUS EXCHANGE IN MARINE PHYTOPLANKTON

    E-print Network

    PHOSPHORUS EXCHANGE IN MARINE PHYTOPLANKTON BY THEODORE R. RICE FISHERY BULLETIN 80 UNITED STATES;ABSTRACT Phosphorus exchange in Nitzschia· clostai'iu.In, isoiated and grown in pure culture, was demunstrated by using rudioactive phosphorus find was ~h()\\\\"n to "IlI'Y with changes in the phosphorus

  16. Rethinking early Earth phosphorus geochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Pasek, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    Phosphorus is a key biologic element, and a prebiotic pathway leading to its incorporation into biomolecules has been difficult to ascertain. Most potentially prebiotic phosphorylation reactions have relied on orthophosphate as the source of phosphorus. It is suggested here that the geochemistry of phosphorus on the early Earth was instead controlled by reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds such as phosphite (HPO32?), which are more soluble and reactive than orthophosphates. This reduced oxidation state phosphorus originated from extraterrestrial material that fell during the heavy bombardment period or was produced during impacts, and persisted in the mildly reducing atmosphere. This alternate view of early Earth phosphorus geochemistry provides an unexplored route to the formation of pertinent prebiotic phosphorus compounds, suggests a facile reaction pathway to condensed phosphates, and is consistent with the biochemical usage of reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds in life today. Possible studies are suggested that may detect reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds in ancient Archean rocks. PMID:18195373

  17. Texas Phosphorus Index TECHNICAL NOTES

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Texas Phosphorus Index TECHNICAL NOTES U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE TEXAS Revised December, 2012 AGRONOMY TECHNICAL NOTE NUMBER ­ 15 PHOSPHORUS ASSESSMENT TOOL For Texas BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for plant and animal

  18. 3, 15871629, 2006 Marine phosphorus

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BGD 3, 1587­1629, 2006 Marine phosphorus cycle: sensitivity to oceanic circulation C. P. Slomp discussion forum of Biogeosciences The global marine phosphorus cycle: sensitivity to oceanic circulation C #12;BGD 3, 1587­1629, 2006 Marine phosphorus cycle: sensitivity to oceanic circulation C. P. Slomp

  19. Black Phosphorus RF Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Han; Wang, Xiaomu; Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Luhao; Jiang, Hao; Xia, Qiangfei; Chin, Mattew L.; Dubey, Madan; Han, Shu-Jen

    2015-03-01

    Few-layer and thin film form of layered black phosphorus (BP) has recently emerged as a promising material for applications in high performance thin film electronics and infrared optoelectronics. Layered BP offers a ~ 0.3eV bandgap and high mobility, leading to transistor devices with decent on/off ratio and high on-state current density. Here, we demonstrate the GHz frequency operation of black phosphorus field-effect transistor for the first time. BP transistors demonstrated here show excellent current saturation with an on-off ratio exceeding 2 × 103. The S-parameter characterization is performed for the first time on black phosphorus transistors, giving a 12 GHz short-circuit current-gain cut-off frequency and 20 GHz maximum oscillation frequency in 300 nm channel length devices. A current density in excess of 270 mA/mm and DC transconductance above 180 mS/mm are achieved for hole conductions. The results reveal the promising potential of black phosphorus transistors for enabling the next generation thin film transistor technology that can operate in the multi-GHz frequency range and beyond.

  20. Implications of phosphorus redox geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasek, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    Phosphorus is the limiting nutrient in many environments. Until recently, redox changes to phosphorus speciation have been confined to the realm of chemical laboratories as phosphorus was considered to be synonymous with phosphate in the natural environment. The few known phosphorus species with a reduced redox state, such as phosphine gas, were considered novelties. Recent work has revealed a surprising role for low redox state organophosphorus compounds -- the phosphonates -- in biogeochemistry. Additionally, phosphite and hypophosphite (the lower oxyanions of phosphorus) have been identified from natural sources, and microbial genomics suggests these compounds may be ubiquitous in nature. Recent work from our laboratory suggests that reduced phosphorus compounds such as phosphite and hypophosphite may be ubiquitous (Pasek et al. 2014). If so, then these species maybe important in the global phosphorus biogeochemical cycle, and could influence global phosphorus sustainability. Additionally, these compounds could have been relevant on the early earth environment, priming the earth with reactive phosphorus for prebiotic chemistry. Reference: Pasek, M. A., Sampson, J. M., & Atlas, Z. (2014). Redox chemistry in the phosphorus biogeochemical cycle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(43), 15468-15473.

  1. Soil test phosphorus and cumulative phosphorus budgets in fertilized grassland.

    PubMed

    Messiga, Aimé Jean; Ziadi, Noura; Jouany, Claire; Virkajärvi, Perttu; Suomela, Raija; Sinaj, Sokrat; Bélanger, Gilles; Stroia, Ciprian; Morel, Christian

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed the linearity of relationships between soil test P (STP) and cumulative phosphorus (P) budget using data from six long-term fertilized grassland sites in four countries: France (Ercé and Gramond), Switzerland (Les Verrières), Canada (Lévis), and Finland (Maaninka and Siikajoki). STP was determined according to existing national guidelines. A linear-plateau model was used to determine the presence of deflection points in the relationships. Deflection points with (x, y) coordinates were observed everywhere but Maaninka. Above the deflection point, a significant linear relationship was obtained (0.33 < r (2) < 0.72) at four sites, while below the deflection point, the relationship was not significant, with a negligible rate of STP decrease. The relationship was not linear over the range of STP encountered at most sites, suggesting a need for caution when using the P budget approach to predict STP changes in grasslands, particularly in situations of very low P fertilization. Our study provides insights and description of a tool to improve global P strategies aimed at maintaining STP at levels adequate for grassland production while reducing the risk of P pollution of water. PMID:25681982

  2. Nutrient Management Module No. 4 Phosphorus Cycling,

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Nutrient Management Module No. 4 Phosphorus Cycling, Testing and Fertilizer Recommendations about phosphorus. Objectives 1.Understand the various soil forms of phosphorus 2.Recognize how soil and climate properties affect phosphorus cycling in soil 3.Recognize how cropping systems affect phosphorus

  3. Soil & Water Lab , Phosphorus Analyzer Procedure Page 1 Phosphorus Analyzer Procedure

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    Soil & Water Lab , Phosphorus Analyzer Procedure Page 1 Phosphorus Analyzer Procedure Last updated: 5.29.13 A. Introduction The phosphorus analyzer can be used to measure soluble reactive phosphorus phosphorus (TP) from the ICP, can calculate total dissolved phosphorus (i.e. soluble plus insoluble

  4. Phosphorus accummulation in reed bed treatment filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karczmarczyk, A.; Bary?a, A.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Constructed wetlands are well known method for alternative wastewater treatment in rural areas in Poland. There are mainly used as a biological treatment step of domestic wastewater. The most popular are subsurface flow constructed wetlands (reed bed systems) with bed filled with site soil (mainly clayey sand or sandy clay). Over 30 such plants with daily flow above 5 m3 per day is operated in Poland. Object and goal of research Many researches have been made on estimation constructed wetlands treatment efficiency, however there are mostly concentrated on inlet outlet concentration compartments. In this study preliminary results of phosphorus accumulation in the bed of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland are presented. Monitored plant treats wastewater from 150 inhabitants in the volume of 14 m3 d-1 at average and is under operation from December 1998. The goal of research was to asses the distribution of phosphorus in the wetland bed after 8 years of treatment of domestic wastewater. Obtained results are shown on the background of organic matter (TOC) distribution. The methods applied The bed of the constructed wetland (30 m width and 33 m length) was divided by net of 20 points. In every point two soil samples, one from the depth of 0-10 cm and one from the depth of 20-30 cm, were collected. The samples were analyzed for organic matter and total phosphorus content. Investigation findings The results showed variation of measured indexes on the length and depth of treatment bed. In generally, the highest accumulation occurred near the inlet zone of wetland. The relation is rather clear in case of organic matter, but in case of phosphorus high contents were also observed at the outlet zone of wetland. Higher organic matter concentrations were observed in deeper layer (20-30 cm) than in upper layer (0-10 cm) of the bed.

  5. Multiple phosphorus chemical sites in heavily phosphorus-doped diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Okazaki, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Yoshida, Rikiya [The Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Muro, Takayuki; Nakamura, Tetsuya [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI)/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Wakita, Takanori; Muraoka, Yuji; Yokoya, Takayoshi [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Hirai, Masaaki [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Kato, Hiromitsu; Yamasaki, Satoshi [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Center 2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Takano, Yoshihiko; Ishii, Satoshi [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Oguchi, Tamio [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2011-02-21

    We have performed high-resolution core level photoemission spectroscopy on a heavily phosphorus (P)-doped diamond film in order to elucidate the chemical sites of doped-phosphorus atoms in diamond. P 2p core level study shows two bulk components, providing spectroscopic evidence for multiple chemical sites of doped-phosphorus atoms. This indicates that only a part of doped-phosphorus atoms contribute to the formation of carriers. From a comparison with band calculations, possible origins for the chemical sites are discussed.

  6. Potassium and Phosphorus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Thomas Raese

    1987-01-01

    In the Pacific Northwest, certain apple and pear orchards growing in low?phosphorus soils lack tree vigor and produce low yields. In an attempt to correct this condition, treatments of mono?ammonium phosphate (MAP) and nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and calcium nitrate) were applied to 15?year?old ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Goldspur’ apple trees, (Malus domestica Borkh.) and observed over a 3?year

  7. Black Phosphorus Boron Nitride Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillgren, Nathaniel; Barlas, Yafis; Shi, Yanmeng; Yang, Jiawei; Taniguchi, Takashi; Lau, Chun Ning (Jeanie)

    2015-03-01

    There has been significant recent interest in black phosphorus as a candidate for future electronics applications, as it possesses both a layered-tunable band gap and a relatively high mobility (compared to other 2D candidates). However, black phosphorus' degradation in ambient conditions constitutes a major road block in future applications. As a potential solution for this problem we explore the effects of encapsulating black phosphorus between hexagonal boron nitride. We will present the effects of this heterostructure on both the stability and transport properties of thin black phosphorus devices.

  8. Original article Plasma phosphorus content and dietary phosphorus

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    either dicalcium phosphate, calcium aluminium phosphate, stan- dard rapeseed meal or formaldehyde-treated rapeseed meal as the main phosphorus source. Inorganic plasma phosphorus was determined in samples taken homeostasis. During the test phase, dicalcium phosphate and both rapeseed meals were more efficient than

  9. COMBINED PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL AND RECOVERY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Hultman; M. Löwén

    The paper presents directions for a new system technology for municipal wastewater treatment, in order to consider both phosphorus removal and recovery. The system technology is proposed in a way to use as much as possible existing investments for the treatment and focus on modification of the operational mode. The process is based on removal followed by phosphorus recovery as

  10. Use Phosphorus Free Fertilizer Beginning January 1, 2012, Michigan law restricts phosphorus fertilizer applications on lawns.

    E-print Network

    Use Phosphorus Free Fertilizer Beginning January 1, 2012, Michigan law restricts phosphorus.michigan.gov/mda-fertilizer The Phosphorus Law Michigan Fertilizer Law (1994 PA 451, Part 85, Fertilizers) restricts the use of phosphorus homeowners and commercial applicators must follow the phosphorus application restrictions. Where can I find

  11. Extremely Sharp Phosphorus Turn-Off Slope and Effect of Hydrogen on Phosphorus Surface

    E-print Network

    Extremely Sharp Phosphorus Turn-Off Slope and Effect of Hydrogen on Phosphorus Surface Segregation in the normal structures (Fig. 1a), a sharp phosphorus turn-off is required. We investigated phosphorus surface) and report a record sharp turn-off slope of phosphorus of 6 nm/dec. The hydrogen surface coverage, which

  12. Review: Phosphorus removal and recovery technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. K Morse; S. W Brett; J. A Guy; J. N Lester

    1998-01-01

    A review has been undertaken of technologies to remove and recover phosphorus from wastewater and their potential to facilitate the recycling of phosphorus and its sustainability. A wide range of technologies were identified, including chemical precipitation, biological phosphorus removal, crystallisation, novel chemical precipitation approaches and a number of wastewater and sludge-based methods. Phosphorus in wastewater represents a significant renewable resource

  13. Energy and phosphorus recovery from black water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graaff de M. S; B. G. Temmink; G. Zeeman; C. J. N. Buisman

    2011-01-01

    Source-separated black water (BW) (toilet water) containing 38% of the organic material and 68% of the phosphorus in the total household waste (water) stream including kitchen waste, is a potential source for energy and phosphorus recovery. The energy recovered, in the form of electricity and heat, is more than sufficient for anaerobic treatment, nitrogen removal and phosphorus recovery. The phosphorus

  14. 7 Phosphorus Modeling in Soil and Water

    E-print Network

    163 7 Phosphorus Modeling in Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Model Indrajeet Chaubey...........................................................................164 7.2 Phosphorus Modeling in SWAT: Soil Phosphorus Interactions..................167 7.2.1 Initialization of Soil Phosphorus Levels......................................... 168 7.2.2 Mineralization

  15. Phosphorus Dynamic in Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, H. K.

    2010-12-01

    The projected greater warming at higher/northern latitudes in the coming decades due to global climatic changes can mineralize substantial amount of the organic matter and supply massive amount of phosphorus (P) to the water column, and cause the collapse of freshwater wetlands. Thus, the rates and duration of organic matter accumulations/decompositions under rising global temperatures are critical determinants of how a freshwater wetland functions as an ecological unit within a landscape. Phosphorus is a limiting nutrient and a primary controller of eutrophication. Once the external P loads are curtailed, internal P regeneration, resulting from decompositions of detritus and soil/sediment organic matter determine the productivity, as well as the water quality of a wetland. Thus, global rise in temperature not only causes hydro-climatic fluctuations but can also change the composition of aquatic/semi-aquatic communities, in turn, could lead to adverse effect on human food chain to collapse of the ecosystem. While P enrichment may lead to immediate algal blooms in wetlands/aquatic systems, decreased in P input from external sources may not be able to stop the blooms for a considerable period of time depending on the P loading from within. The extent of P mineralization under changing conditions, enzymatic hydrolysis, and estimation of different P pools using 31P NMR in sediments and the water columns showed that the stability and bioavailability of P can greatly be influenced by rise in temperature and fluctuations in water level, thus, are crucial in determining the fate of the freshwater wetlands.

  16. THE CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF PHOSPHORUS

    E-print Network

    Jacobson, Heather R.

    Phosphorus is one of the few remaining light elements for which little is known about its nucleosynthetic origin and chemical evolution, given the lack of optical absorption lines in the spectra of long-lived FGK-type ...

  17. Phosphorus as a critical macronutrient

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is required for plant growth and development but its availability is frequently limiting. Plants have evolved numerous adaptive mechanisms for acclimation to P-deficiency. These mechanisms involve activation of metabolic, molecular, developmental, and regulatory processes which modify...

  18. Investigations on phosphorus retention in subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Rustige, H; Tomac, I; Höner, G

    2003-01-01

    62 SSF sand-based constructed wetlands in Germany, Austria and Switzerland have been evaluated for their phosphorus performance. In addition intensive investigations on the removal of phosphorus and its accumulation within the filter bed were conducted at five wetlands. For the performance of horizontal flow (HF) reed beds a regression equation could be derived. This was not possible for vertical flow (VF) reed beds. The best removal efficiency was observed from HF systems with hydraulic loading rates of 10 mm d(-1) or less. 50 percent of all investigated HF wetlands had an average P output concentration of less than 2.1 mg l(-1) in comparison to 3.3 mg l(-1) of VF wetlands. Saturation, seasonal and redox effects could be derived from time series analysis of the performance rate and further investigations of a well monitored VF reed bed. The retention of phosphorus was highest during the warm season. A small positive effect on phosphorus removal was observed with intermittent low redox levels. Soil analyses showed the highest accumulation of P within the influent zone of either HF or VF wetlands. PMID:14621149

  19. Calcium phosphate granulation in anaerobic treatment of black water: a new approach to phosphorus recovery.

    PubMed

    Tervahauta, Taina; van der Weijden, Renata D; Flemming, Roberta L; Hernández Leal, Lucía; Zeeman, Grietje; Buisman, Cees J N

    2014-01-01

    Recovery of phosphorus from wastewater as calcium phosphate could diminish the need for mining of scarce phosphate rock resources. This study introduces a novel approach to phosphorus recovery by precipitation of calcium phosphate granules in anaerobic treatment of black water. The granules formed in the Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor at lab- and demonstration-scale were analyzed for chemical composition and mineralogy by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), Electron microprobe (EMP), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and micro X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The granules had a diameter of 1-2 mm, organic content of 33 wt%, and phosphorus content of 11-13 wt%. Three calcium phosphate phases were identified in the granules: hydroxyapatite, calcium phosphate hydrate and carbonated hydroxyapatite. Without any addition of chemicals, 7 gP/person/year can be recovered with the calcium phosphate granules, representing 2% of the incoming phosphorus in the UASB reactor. As the heavy metal content was lower compared to other phosphorus recovery products, phosphate rock and phosphorus fertilizer, the calcium phosphate granules could be considered as a new phosphorus product. PMID:24183558

  20. Capturing the lost phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Rittmann, Bruce E; Mayer, Brooke; Westerhoff, Paul; Edwards, Mark

    2011-08-01

    Minable phosphorus (P) reserves are being depleted and will need to be replaced by recovering P that currently is lost from the agricultural system, causing water-quality problems. The largest two flows of lost P are in agricultural runoff and erosion (?46% of mined P globally) and animal wastes (?40%). These flows are quite distinct. Runoff has a very high volumetric flow rate, but a low P concentration; animal wastes have low flow rates, but a high P concentration together with a high concentration of organic material. Recovering the lost P in animal wastes is technically and economically more tractable, and it is the focus for this review of promising P-capture technologies. P capture requires that organic P be transformed into inorganic P (phosphate). For high-strength animal wastes, P release can be accomplished in tandem with anaerobic treatment that converts the energy value in the organic matter to CH(4), H(2), or electricity. Once present as phosphate, the P can be captured in a reusable form by four approaches. Most well developed is precipitation as magnesium or calcium solids. Less developed, but promising are adsorption to iron-based adsorbents, ion exchange to phosphate-selective solids, and uptake by photosynthetic microorganisms or P-selective proteins. PMID:21377188

  1. [In situ dynamics of phosphorus in the rhizosphere solution and organic acids exudation of two aquatic plants].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-yu; Wen, Sheng-fang; Luo, Xian-xiang; Li, Ai-feng; Xing, Bao-shan; Li, Feng-min

    2009-08-15

    A mini-rhizotron experiment with Alternanthera philoxeroides and Typha latifolia was conducted to measure the spatial and temporal dynamics of phosphorus in the rhizosphere solution. The organic acids in the in situ rhizosphere soil solution were analyzed. A decreasing phosphorus concentration gradient in soil solution toward the root was observed for both A. philoxeroides and T. latifolia. The phosphorus concentration in the rhizosphere soil solution of A. philoxeroides (2.53 mg x L(-1)) was lower than that of T. latifolia (5.43 mg x L(-1)) in the forth sampling day. Compared to T. latifolia, A. philoxeroides released more malic acid (27.33 umol x L(-1)) which was more efficient in phosphorus mobilization. A. philoxeroides was more effective in phosphorus uptake in the rhizosphere than T. latifolia. PMID:19799282

  2. Phosphorus Loss (Risk) IndexesPhosphorus Loss (Risk) Indexes in the Southern Regionin the Southern Region

    E-print Network

    Phosphorus Loss (Risk) IndexesPhosphorus Loss (Risk) Indexes in the Southern Regionin the Southern in the US Sharply, et al. 2003. Development of phosphorus indices for nutrient management planning strategies in the United States. J. Soil Water Cons. Daniel et al. 2002. The Phosphorus Index: Background

  3. Utilization of phosphorus and calcium and minimal maintenance requirement for phosphorus

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Utilization of phosphorus and calcium and minimal maintenance requirement for phosphorus in growing sheep fed a low-phosphorus diet A. BOXEBELD, L. GUÉGUEN Geneviève HANNEQUART, Michelle DURAND Station de of a marginal phosphorus deficiency associated or not with an excess of calcium in 5 lots of 4 growing sheep

  4. Phosphorus Flamethrower: A Demonstration Using Red and White Allotropes of Phosphorus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Melissa L.; Person, Eric C.; Bejar, Miriam; Golden, Donnie R.; Powell, Jonathan M.

    2010-01-01

    A demonstration was created to display the unique behavior of a familiar element, phosphorus, and to make chemistry more accessible to the introductory student. The common allotropes of phosphorus and their reactivity are discussed. In this demonstration, the white allotrope of phosphorus is synthesized from the red phosphorus obtained from a…

  5. Economic feasibility study for phosphorus recovery processes.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, María; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramón; Garrido-Baserba, Manel

    2011-06-01

    Phosphorus recovery from wastewater has become a necessity for sustainable development because phosphorus is a non-renewable essential resource, and its discharge into the environment causes serious negative impacts. There are no economic incentives for the implementation of phosphorus recovery technologies because the selling price of rock phosphate is lower than phosphorus recovered from sewage. The methodologies used to determine the feasibility of such projects are usually focused on internal costs without considering environmental externalities. This article shows a methodology to assess the economic feasibility of wastewater phosphorus recovery projects that takes into account internal and external impacts. The shadow price of phosphorus is estimated using the directional distance function to measure the environmental benefits obtained by preventing the discharge of phosphorus into the environment. The economic feasibility analysis taking into account the environmental benefits shows that the phosphorus recovery is viable not only from sustainable development but also from an economic point of view. PMID:21809783

  6. Fire-Resistant Polyimides Containing Phosphorus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikroyannidis, J.

    1986-01-01

    Limiting oxygen index increased. Copolyimide with a group containing phosphorus synthesized from 1-2,4-diaminobenzene, m-phenylenediamine, and tetracarboxylic dianhydride. Copolymer more fire resistant than corresponding polyimide without phosphorus.

  7. Cemented backfilling performance of yellow phosphorus slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia-sheng Chen; Bin Zhao; Xin-min Wang; Qin-li Zhang; Li Wang

    2010-01-01

    The experiments on the cemented backfilling performance of yellow phosphorus slag, including physical-mechanical properties,\\u000a chemical compositions, optimized proportion, and cementation mechanisms, were carried out to make good use of yellow phosphorus\\u000a slag as well as tackle with environment problems, safety problems, geological hazards, and high-cost issues during mining\\u000a in Kaiyang Phosphorus Mine Group, Guizhou. The results show that yellow phosphorus

  8. AGRICULTURE, PHOSPHORUS MANAGEMENT AND WATER QUALITY IN BRAZIL: OPTIONS FOR THE FUTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Freshwater eutrophication, a threat to water quality in many parts of the world, is accelerated by increased inputs of phosphorus (P), of which agricultural runoff is a major contributor. During the last decade in Brazil, there has been a 33% increase in the number of livestock, with most in the So...

  9. Competition for phosphorus: differential uptake from dual-isotope-labeled soil interspaces between shrub and grass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Caldwell; D. M. Eissenstat; J. H. Richards; M. F. Allen

    1985-01-01

    Two species of Agropyron grass differed strikingly in their capacity to compete for phosphate in soil interspaces shared with a common competitor, the sagebrush Artemisia tridentata. Of the total phosphorus-32 and -33 absorbed by Artemisia, 86% was from the interspace shared with Agropyron spicatum and only 14% from that shared with Agropyron desertorum. Actively absorbing mycorrhizal roots of Agropyron and

  10. Gasification of phosphorus in the blast furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Polulyakh; A. L. Petelin; V. Ya. Dashevskii; A. Ya. Travyanov; Yu. S. Yusfin

    2009-01-01

    The behavior of phosphorus in blast-furnace smelting requires further study, in order to determine its distribution among the products. It is conventional to assume that practically all the phosphorus supplied to the blast furnace with the batch enters the hot metal [1]. However, in recent balance calculations, estimates have been obtained for the ratio of the quantity of phosphorus supplied

  11. Improvements in Stability of Red Phosphorus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Hörold

    Red phosphorus has become an essential item in the production of modern smoke and obscurants devices, additionally nearly all multi-spectral developmental projects are being based on the new versions of red phosphorus available from Clariant. In pyrotechnics and munitions, phosphine liberated by the red phosphorus charge may diffuse through the device and can give rise to corrosion of essential working

  12. Internal phosphorus loading in shallow Danish lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Søndergaard; Jens Peder Jensen; Erik Jeppesen

    1999-01-01

    High phosphorus concentrations due to internal loading from the sediment with a strongly negative impact on lake water quality, is often seen in shallow lakes after a reduction of external loading. To analyse the nature of internal loading we studied 1. the seasonal phosphorus concentrations of 265 Danish shallow, mainly eutrophic lakes; 2. seasonal phosphorus mass balances and retention for

  13. Can Eutrophication Influence Nitrogen vs. Phosphorus Limitation?

    E-print Network

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Can Eutrophication Influence Nitrogen vs. Phosphorus Limitation? George Gregory Bates College Foreman, Rich McHorney #12;Abstract As suburban sprawl spreads across Cape Cod, nitrogen and phosphorus whether the primary production in freshwater ponds is limited nitrogen or phosphorus. I sampled three

  14. Phosphorus Risk Index Quantitative vs. Qualitative

    E-print Network

    Phosphorus Risk Index Quantitative vs. Qualitative Which is Appropriate? Which is Best? Biosystems to estimate the level of risk to people or the environment Risk ­ Phosphorus Risk Index (Storm) ­ Probability that a specific phosphorus concentration and/or loading to a receiving water body will cause an adverse response

  15. Ironing out the phosphorus problem.

    PubMed

    Zaritsky, Joshua J; Salusky, Isidro B

    2010-05-01

    Control of serum phosphorus remains a vexing problem in chronic kidney disease. Although novel dialysis regimens may provide excellent phosphorus control, phosphate binders remain necessary for most dialysis patients. Block et al. present a phase I clinical trial examining the safety and efficacy of SBR759, a novel non-calcium, iron-based phosphate binder. Although the risks of iron accumulation and hypocalcemia must be addressed, this phosphate binder appears to be well tolerated and effective and offers a powder-based formulation. PMID:20431575

  16. Effect of chitosan chewing gum on reducing serum phosphorus in hemodialysis patients: a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background HS219 (40 mg chitosan-loaded chewing gum) is designed to bind salivary phosphorus as an add-on to available phosphorus binders. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of HS219 in hemodialysis (HD) patients with hyperphosphatemia as an add-on to phosphorus binders. Methods Sixty-eight HD patients who were maintained on calcium carbonate (n?=?33) or sevelamer hydrochloride (n?=?35) were enrolled. The primary end point was a change in serum phosphorus levels. Secondary end points included changes in levels of salivary phosphorus, serum calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and intact fibroblast growth factor (iFGF) 23. Results Sixty-three patients chewed either HS219 (n?=?35) or placebo (n?=?28) for 30 min, three times a day, for 3 weeks. HS219 was well tolerated and safe. However, HS219 was not superior to placebo with additional reduction of serum phosphorus with respect to phosphorus binders at the end of the chewing period. There were no significant effects of HS219 on reduction of salivary phosphorus, serum calcium, iPTH, or iFGF23 levels. Conclusions The chitosan-loaded chewing gum HS219 does not affect serum and salivary phosphorus levels in Japanese HD patients with hyperphosphatemia. Our findings do not support previous findings that 20 mg of chitosan-loaded chewing gum reduces serum and salivary phosphorus levels. Trail registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01039428, 24 December, 2009. PMID:24968790

  17. Controlling biosolids phosphorus content in enhanced biological phosphorus removal reactors.

    PubMed

    Chaparro, Sean K; Noguera, Daniel R

    2003-01-01

    A methodology to reduce the phosphorus content of biosolids produced by enhanced biological phosphorus removal treatment plants was studied. The process consists of mixing phosphate-rich waste activated sludge (WAS) with either primary sludge or the supernatant from a primary-sludge gravity thickener under anaerobic conditions to induce the release of phosphate from WAS. The solubilized phosphate could then be chemically sequestered and removed from the biosolids. Bench-scale phosphate release experiments were conducted with sludge from the Nine Springs Wastewater Treatment Plant (Madison, Wisconsin) at different mixing ratios. A WAS/primary sludge or WAS/supernatant mixing ratio of 1:1 (by volume) resulted in the highest phosphate release in the batch tests. For experiments with less than 50% WAS (by volume), the total phosphate release was directly proportional to the amount of WAS added. When the mixture contained more than 50% WAS, total phosphate release was limited by the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) available. For the Nine Springs plant optimal biosolids phosphorus could be achieved using a primary sludge/WAS mixing ratio of 1.02 kg volatile suspended solids (VSS)/kg VSS or a supernatant VFA/WAS mixing ratio of 0.028 kg VFA/kg VSS. The expected reduction in phosphorus content would be 35 and 32% if primary sludge or supernatant, respectively, were used. PMID:12837032

  18. Development of a process for the recovery of phosphorus resource from digested sludge by crystallization technology.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, K; Ishikawa, H; Mizuoka, A; Hirasawa, I

    2008-01-01

    Removal and recovery of phosphorus from sewage in form of MAP (magnesium ammonium phosphate) have attracted attention from the viewpoint of eutrophication prevention and phosphorus resource recovery as well as scaling prevention inside digestion tanks. In this work, phosphorus recovery demonstration tests were conducted in a 50 m3/d facility having a complete mixing type reactor and a liquid cyclone. Digested sludge, having 690 mg/L T-P and 268 mg/L PO4-P, was used as test material. The T-P and PO4-P of treated sludge were 464 mg/L and 20 mg/L achieving a T-P recovery efficiency of 33% and a PO4-P crystallization ratio of 93%. The reacted phosphorus did not become fine crystals and the recovered MAP particles were found to be valuable as a fertilizer. A case study in applying this phosphorus recovery process for treatment of sludge from an anaerobic-aerobic process of a 21,000 m3/d sewage system, showed that 30% of phosphorus concentration can be reduced in the final effluent, recovering 315 kg/d as MAP. PMID:18309226

  19. Gettering Silicon Wafers with Phosphorus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daiello, R. V.

    1983-01-01

    Silicon wafers subjected to gettering in phosphorus atmosphere have longer diffusion lengths and higher solar-cell efficiencies than untreated wafers. Gettering treatment improves properties of solar cells manufactured from impure silicon and is compatible with standard solar-cell processing.

  20. Mike Daniels Interstate Phosphorus Issues

    E-print Network

    Mike Daniels Interstate Phosphorus Issues: A Perspective from Arkansas #12;A Brief History and Water Technicians · Will be moving to P-Based plans #12;A Brief History ­ Dry Manure · Voluntary until by UA and OSU by Jan `'04 Non-profit agency created to oversee settlement · In 2003, Arkansas passes new

  1. Enzymatic hydrolysis of organic phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orthophosphate-releasing enzymatic hydrolysis is an alternative means for characterizing organic phosphorus (Po) in animal manure. The approach is not only simple and fast, but can also provide information difficult to obtain by other methods. Currently, commercially available phosphatases are mainl...

  2. The Galactic evolution of phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.; Faraggiana, R.; Steffen, M.

    2011-08-01

    Context. As a galaxy evolves, its chemical composition changes and the abundance ratios of different elements are powerful probes of the underlying evolutionary processes. Phosphorous is an element whose evolution has remained quite elusive until now, because it is difficult to detect in cool stars. The infrared weak P i lines of the multiplet 1, at 1050-1082 nm, are the most reliable indicators of the presence of phosphorus. The availability of CRIRES at VLT has permitted access to this wavelength range in stellar spectra. Aims: We attempt to measure the phosphorus abundance of twenty cool stars in the Galactic disk. Methods: The spectra are analysed with one-dimensional model-atmospheres computed in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The line formation computations are performed assuming LTE. Results: The ratio of phosphorus to iron behaves similarly to sulphur, increasing towards lower metallicity stars. Its ratio with respect to sulphur is roughly constant and slightly larger than solar, [P/S] = 0.10 ± 0.10. Conclusions: We succeed in taking an important step towards the understanding of the chemical evolution of phosphorus in the Galaxy. However, the observed rise in the P/Fe abundance ratio is steeper than predicted by Galactic chemical evolution model developed by Kobayashi and collaborators. Phosphorus appears to evolve differently from the light odd-Z elements sodium and aluminium. The constant value of [P/S] with metallicity implies that P production is insensitive to the neutron excess, thus processes other than neutron captures operate. We suggest that proton captures on 30Si and ? captures on 27Al are possibilities to investigate. We see no clear distinction between our results for stars with planets and stars without any detected planet. Based on observations obtained with the CRIRES spectrograph at ESO-VLT Antu 8.2 m telescope at Paranal, Programme 386.D-0130, P.I. E. Caffau.

  3. Phosphorus cycle - possibilities for its rebuilding.

    PubMed

    Gorazda, Katarzyna; Wzorek, Zbigniew; Tarko, Barbara; Nowak, Anna K; Kulczycka, Joanna; Henclik, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The rebuilding of the phosphorus cycle can be performed with the use of both biotechnology and chemical technology. This paper presents a review of the phosphorus cycle and the different approaches that can be taken to the recovery of phosphorus from phosphate-rich waste. Critical issues in the phosphorus cycle are also discussed. Methods for the recovery of phosphorus form sewage sludge ash are widely explored and divided into two groups: wet extraction methods and thermochemical methods. Laboratory-scale methods are described, as well as proposed industrial technologies, with particular regard to the possibilities for their implementation in Poland. Phosphorus recovery methods from SSA (sewage sludge ash) in our country seems to be promising due to the increasing number of sewage sludge incineration plants, which could easily supply ash to future recovery installations. For the effective recovery of P from sewage sludge ash, it is essential to make the right choice in determining the appropriate method to use with respect to the particular properties of the ash composition available. A patented method of phosphorus recovery by acid extraction methods, developed by Cracow University of Technology, results in an efficiency of 80-96% for phosphorus recovery. 3000 to 4000 tons of phosphorus per year can be recycled and introduced back into the environment, that covers around 7% of the total amount of phosphorus ore imported into Poland between 2008 and 2009. PMID:24432324

  4. Organic phosphorus sequestration in subtropical treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Turner, Benjamin L; Newman, Susan; Newman, Jana M

    2006-02-01

    Diffuse phosphorus pollution is commonly remediated by diverting runoff through treatment wetlands to sequester phosphorus into soil layers. Much of the sequestered phosphorus occurs in organic forms, yet our understanding of its chemical nature is limited. We used NaOH-EDTA extraction and solution 31P NMR spectroscopy to speciate organic phosphorus sequestered in a large treatment wetland (STA-1W) in Florida, USA. The wetland was constructed on previously farmed peat and was designed to remove phosphorus from agricultural runoff prior to discharge into the Everglades. Unconsolidated benthic floc that had accumulated during the 9-year operation of the wetland was sampled along transects through two connected cells dominated by cattail (Typha dominigensis Pers.) and an additional cell colonized by submerged aquatic vegetation, including southern water nymph (Najas guadalupensis(Spreng.) Magnus) and coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum L.). Organic phosphorus was a greater proportion of the sequestered phosphorus in the cattail marsh compared to the submerged aquatic vegetation wetland, but occurred almost exclusively as phosphate diesters and their alkaline hydrolysis products. Itwas therefore markedly different from the organic phosphorus in mineral soils, which is dominated typically by inositol phosphates. Phosphate diesters are readily degradable in most soils, raising concern about the long-term fate of organic phosphorus in treatment wetlands. Further studies are now necessaryto assess the stability of the sequestered organic phosphorus in response to biogeochemical and hydrological perturbation. PMID:16509310

  5. november 2003 Production of multi-charged phosphorus ions

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 november 2003 Production of multi-charged phosphorus ions with ecris "SUPERSHyPIE" at GANIL J The Ganil's Ion Production Group tested the source SUPERSHyPIE123 for the production of phosphorus n+ ion, is used to receive red phosphorus. (the red phosphorus is less dangerous than the white phosphorus

  6. Original article III. Quantitative aspects of phosphorus excretion

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article III. Quantitative aspects of phosphorus excretion in ruminants David BRAVOa -- Ruminant phosphorus excretion and metabolism were studied through a database. Fae- cal endogenous phosphorus is the main pathway of phosphorus excretion and averages 0.85 of total faecal phosphorus

  7. Bioavailability of organic phosphorus to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata as affected by phosphorus starvation: an isotope dilution study.

    PubMed

    Van Moorleghem, Christoff; De Schutter, Nynke; Smolders, Erik; Merckx, Roel

    2013-06-01

    Phosphorus (P) starved algae have a capacity to rapidly take up P when resupplied to P. This study was set-up to measure to what extent P starvation enhances the potential of algae to utilize organic P forms. The initial (<0.5 h) PO4 uptake rates of cells of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata increased up to 18-fold with increasing starvation. Algae from different levels of P starvation were subsequently exposed to different model organic P forms and carrier-free (33)PO4. Uptake (1h) of P from organic P-increased up to 5-fold with increasing P starvation. The bioavailability of organic P, relative to PO4, was calculated from uptake of (31)P and (33)P isotopes assuming no isotopic exchange with organic P-forms. This relative bioavailability ranged from 0 to 57% and remained generally unaffected by the extent of P-starvation. This result was found for cells that were either or not treated by a wash method to remove extracellular phosphatases. Short-term P uptake rate sharply increases with decreasing internal P content of the algal cells but the bioavailability of organic P, relative to PO4, is not enhanced. Such finding suggests that P-starvation enhances PO4 uptake capacity and organic P hydrolysis capacity to about the same extent. PMID:23561496

  8. The Galactic evolution of phosphorus

    E-print Network

    Caffau, E; Faraggiana, R; Steffen, M

    2011-01-01

    As a galaxy evolves, its chemical composition changes and the abundance ratios of different elements are powerful probes of the underlying evolutionary processes. Phosphorous is an element whose evolution has remained quite elusive until now, because it is difficult to detect in cool stars. The infrared weak P I lines of the multiplet 1, at 1050-1082 nm, are the most reliable indicators of the presence of phosphorus. The availability of CRIRES at VLT has permitted access to this wavelength range in stellar spectra.We attempt to measure the phosphorus abundance of twenty cool stars in the Galactic disk. The spectra are analysed with one-dimensional model-atmospheres computed in Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE). The line formation computations are performed assuming LTE. The ratio of phosphorus to iron behaves similarly to sulphur, increasing towards lower metallicity stars. Its ratio with respect to sulphur is roughly constant and slightly larger than solar, [P/S]=0.10+- 0.10. We succeed in taking an impo...

  9. Evaluation of phosphorus starvation inducible genes relating to efficient phosphorus utilization in rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Shinano; M. Nanamori; M. Dohi; J. Wasaki; M. Osaki

    2005-01-01

    Plants develop strategies to recycle phosphorus so that all organs receive adequate amounts of phosphorus, especially new\\u000a growing organs. To evaluate the metabolic adaptation of rice plants under phosphorus deficient conditions, we selected several\\u000a genes related to phosphorus utilization efficiency in the cell. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, triose phosphate translocator, phosphoenolpyruvate\\/phosphate translocator (PPT), pyruvate kinase, NAD dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and NADP dependent

  10. Soil Organic Phosphorus Transformations During Pedogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin L. Turner; Leo M. Condron; Sarah J. Richardson; Duane A. Peltzer; Victoria J. Allison

    2007-01-01

    Long-term changes in soil phosphorus influence ecosystem development and lead to a decline in the productivity of forests\\u000a in undisturbed landscapes. Much of the soil phosphorus occurs in a series of organic compounds that differ in their availability\\u000a to organisms, but changes in the relative abundance of these compounds during pedogenesis remain unknown. We used alkaline\\u000a extraction and solution phosphorus-31

  11. Phosphorus Cycling Through Space and Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippelli, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    The cycling of phosphorus, a biocritical element in short supply in nature, is an important Earth system process. Variations in the phosphorus cycle have occurred in the past. For example, the rapid uplift of the Himalayan-Tibet Plateau increased chemical weathering, which led to enhanced input of phosphorus to the oceans. This drove the late Miocene "biogenic bloom." On glacial timescales, phosphorus is quite dynamic. In terrestrial systems, phosphorus soil mineralogy alters rapidly in response to early soil development, and ultimately becomes limited to plant availability in many setting. In marine systems, the loss of the substantial continental margin sink for reactive P occurs during glacial sea-level lowstands, effectively concentrating phosphorus in the deep sea. Finally, in the modern, the phosphorus cycle is dominated by human activity and agriculture, which causes unwanted pollution due to high phosphorus loading and itself poses significant concerns about the ultimate future availability of this nutrient to feed an expanding human population. This presentation will cover several critical components of the phosphorus cycle, including terrestrial and marine systems, through the lens of geologic time. This perspective reveals the significant changes that have occurred in the availability of phosphorus through time, and how other biogeochemical systems have responded to these changes. Furthermore, the perspective provides some sobering insights into the mechanisms behind the concentration of marine phosphorus into viable sources of phosphate rock. The rarity of high-quality phosphate rock deposits and the limitation of easily minable reserves are becoming critical, as the human demand for fertilizer phosphorus far outstrips the geologic rate of replacement and few prospects exist for new discoveries of phosphate rock.

  12. Engineering phosphorus metabolism in plants to produce a dual fertilization and weed control system.

    PubMed

    López-Arredondo, Damar Lizbeth; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2012-09-01

    High crop yields depend on the continuous input of orthophosphate (PO(4)(?3))-based fertilizers and herbicides. Two major challenges for agriculture are that phosphorus is a nonrenewable resource and that weeds have developed broad herbicide resistance. One strategy to overcome both problems is to engineer plants to outcompete weeds and microorganisms for limiting resources, thereby reducing the requirement for both fertilizers and herbicides. Plants and most microorganisms are unable to metabolize phosphite (PO(3)(?3)), so we developed a dual fertilization and weed control system by generating transgenic plants that can use phosphite as a sole phosphorus source. Under greenhouse conditions, these transgenic plants require 30–50% less phosphorus input when fertilized with phosphite to achieve similar productivity to that obtained by the same plants using orthophosphate fertilizer and, when in competition with weeds, accumulate 2–10 times greater biomass than when fertilized with orthophosphate. PMID:22922674

  13. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

  14. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

  16. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

  17. Phosphorus: Tips for People with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CKD) National Kidney Disease Education Program What Is Phosphorus? Phosphorus is a mineral that helps keep your ... also added to many processed foods. Why Is Phosphorus Important for People with CKD? When you have ...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

  19. Assessing long term impact of phosphorus fertilization on phosphorus loadings using AnnAGNPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields has been an environmental concern because of potential water quality problems in streams and lakes. To better understand the process of P loss and evaluate the different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus losses, the USDA Annualized AGricu...

  20. Assessing Long Term Impact of Phosphorus Fertilization on Phosphorus Loadings Using AnnAGNPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    High phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields has been an environmental concern because of potential water quality problems in streams and lakes. To better understand the process of P loss and evaluate the different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus losses, the US...

  1. Phosphorus and nutrition in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    González-Parra, Emilio; Gracia-Iguacel, Carolina; Egido, Jesús; Ortiz, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Patients with renal impairment progressively lose the ability to excrete phosphorus. Decreased glomerular filtration of phosphorus is initially compensated by decreased tubular reabsorption, regulated by PTH and FGF23, maintaining normal serum phosphorus concentrations. There is a close relationship between protein and phosphorus intake. In chronic renal disease, a low dietary protein content slows the progression of kidney disease, especially in patients with proteinuria and decreases the supply of phosphorus, which has been directly related with progression of kidney disease and with patient survival. However, not all animal proteins and vegetables have the same proportion of phosphorus in their composition. Adequate labeling of food requires showing the phosphorus-to-protein ratio. The diet in patients with advanced-stage CKD has been controversial, because a diet with too low protein content can favor malnutrition and increase morbidity and mortality. Phosphorus binders lower serum phosphorus and also FGF23 levels, without decreasing diet protein content. But the interaction between intestinal dysbacteriosis in dialysis patients, phosphate binder efficacy, and patient tolerance to the binder could reduce their efficiency. PMID:22701173

  2. Energy and phosphorus recovery from black water.

    PubMed

    de Graaff, M S; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; Buisman, C J N

    2011-01-01

    Source-separated black water (BW) (toilet water) containing 38% of the organic material and 68% of the phosphorus in the total household waste (water) stream including kitchen waste, is a potential source for energy and phosphorus recovery. The energy recovered, in the form of electricity and heat, is more than sufficient for anaerobic treatment, nitrogen removal and phosphorus recovery. The phosphorus balance of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating concentrated BW showed a phosphorus conservation of 61% in the anaerobic effluent. Precipitation of phosphate as struvite from this stream resulted in a recovery of 0.22 kgP/p/y, representing 10% of the artificial phosphorus fertiliser production in the world. The remaining part of the phosphorus ended up in the anaerobic sludge, mainly due to precipitation (39%). Low dilution and a high pH favour the accumulation of phosphorus in the anaerobic sludge and this sludge could be used as a phosphorus-enriched organic fertiliser, provided that it is safe regarding heavy metals, pathogens and micro-pollutants. PMID:22049776

  3. Phosphorus recovery from wastewater through microbial processes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhiguo; Pratt, Steven; Batstone, Damien J

    2012-12-01

    Waste streams offer a compelling opportunity to recover phosphorus (P). 15-20% of world demand for phosphate rock could theoretically be satisfied by recovering phosphorus from domestic waste streams alone. For very dilute streams (<10 mg PL(-1)), including domestic wastewater, it is necessary to concentrate phosphorus in order to make recovery and reuse feasible. This review discusses enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) as a key technology to achieve this. EBPR relies on polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) to take up phosphorus from waste streams, so concentrating phosphorus in biomass. The P-rich biosolids can be either directly applied to land, or solubilized and phosphorus recovered as a mineral product. Direct application is effective, but the product is bulky and carries contaminant risks that need to be managed. Phosphorus release can be achieved using either thermochemical or biochemical methods, while recovery is generally by precipitation as struvite. We conclude that while EBPR technology is mature, the subsequent phosphorus release and recovery technologies need additional development. PMID:22922003

  4. Thermodynamics of phosphorus in molten silicon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takahirio Miki; Kazuki Morita; Nobuo Sano

    1996-01-01

    Removal of phosphorus is one of the major problems on the purification of molten silicon for solar cell. The Gibbs energy\\u000a change of phosphorus dissolution into molten silicon was determined in the temperature range from 1723 to 1848 K by equilibrating\\u000a a molten silicon-phosphorus alloy in a controlled phosphorus partial pressure and is expressed by the following equations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a $$\\\\begin{gathered} \\\\frac{1}{2}P_2

  5. Sources of phosphorus to the Carson River upstream from Lahontan Reservoir, Nevada and California, Water Years 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, Nancy L.; Seiler, Ralph L.

    2004-01-01

    Discharge of treated municipal-sewage effluent to the Carson River in western Nevada and eastern California ceased by 1987 and resulted in a substantial decrease in phosphorus concentrations in the Carson River. Nonetheless, concentrations of total phosphorus and suspended sediment still commonly exceed beneficial-use criteria established for the Carson River by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. Potential sources of phosphorus in the study area include natural inputs from undisturbed soils, erosion of soils and streambanks, construction of low-head dams and their destruction during floods, manure production and grazing by cattle along streambanks, drainage from fields irrigated with streamwater and treated municipal-sewage effluent, ground-water seepage, and urban runoff including inputs from golf courses. In 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Carson Water Subconservancy District, began an investigation with the overall purpose of providing managers and regulators with information necessary to develop and implement total maximum daily loads for the Carson River. Two specific goals of the investigation were (1) to identify those reaches of the Carson River upstream from Lahontan Reservoir where the greatest increases in phosphorus and suspended-sediment concentrations and loading occur, and (2) to identify the most important sources of phosphorus within the reaches of the Carson River where the greatest increases in concentration and loading occur. Total-phosphorus concentrations in surface-water samples collected by USGS in the study area during water years 2001-02 ranged from <0.01 to 1.78 mg/L and dissolved-orthophosphate concentrations ranged from <0.01 to 1.81 mg/L as phosphorus. In streamflow entering Carson Valley from headwater areas in the East Fork Carson River, the majority of samples exceeding the total phosphorus water-quality standard of 0.1 mg/L occur during spring runoff (March, April, and May) when suspended-sediment concentrations are high. Downstream from Carson Valley, almost all samples exceed the water-quality standard, with the greatest concentrations observed during spring and summer months. Estimated annual total-phosphorus loads ranged from 1.33 tons at the West Fork Carson River at Woodfords to 43.41 tons at the Carson River near Carson City during water years 2001-02. Loads are greatest during spring runoff, followed by fall and winter, and least during the summer, which corresponds to the amount of streamflow in the Carson River. The estimated average annual phosphorus load entering Carson Valley was 21.9 tons; whereas, the estimated average annual phosphorus load leaving Carson Valley was 37.8 tons, for an annual gain in load across Carson Valley of 15.9 tons. Thus, about 58 percent of the total-phosphorus load leaving Carson Valley on an annual basis could be attributed to headwater reaches upstream from Carson Valley. During spring and summer (April 1-September 30) an average of 85 percent of the total-phosphorus load leaving Carson Valley could be attributed to headwater reaches. During fall and winter (October 1-March 31) only 17 percent of the phosphorus load leaving Carson Valley could be attributed to headwater reaches. The composition of the phosphorus changes during summer from particulate phosphorus entering Carson Valley to dissolved orthophosphate leaving Carson Valley. Particulate phosphorus entering Carson Valley could be settling out when water is applied to fields and be replaced by dissolved orthophosphate from other sources. Alternatively, the particulate phosphorus could be converted to dissolved orthophosphate as it travels across Carson Valley. Data collected during the study are not sufficient to distinguish between the two possibilities. Eagle Valley and Dayton-Churchill Valleys may act as sinks for phosphorus. On an annual basis, during water years 2001-02, about 90 percent of the phosphorus entering Eagle Valley left the

  6. PHOSPHORUS IN ALUM AMENDED POULTRY LITTER SYSTEMS: DISTRIBUTION, SPECIATION, AND

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    PHOSPHORUS IN ALUM AMENDED POULTRY LITTER SYSTEMS: DISTRIBUTION, SPECIATION, AND INTERACTIONS;PHOSPHORUS IN ALUM AMENDED POULTRY LITTER SYSTEMS: DISTRIBUTION, SPECIATION, AND INTERACTIONS WITH ALUMINUM

  7. Sedimentary phosphorus cycling and a phosphorus mass balance for the Green Bay (Lake Michigan) ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Val, Klump J.; Edgington, D.N.; Sager, P.E.; Robertson, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    The tributaries of Green Bay have long been recognized as major sources of phosphorus in the Lake Michigan basin. The status of Green Bay as a sink or source of phosphorus for Lake Michigan proper has been less well defined. The bay receives nearly 70% of its annual load of phosphorus (700 metric tons (t)??year-1) from a single source: the Fox River. Most of this phosphorus is deposited in sediments accumulating at rates that reach 160 mg??cm-2??year-1 with an average of 20 mg??cm-2 year-1. The phosphorus content of these sediments varies from 70 ??mol??g-1. Deposition is highly focused, with ???0% of the total sediment accumulation and at least 80% of the phosphorus burial occurring within 20% of the surface area of the bay. Diagenetic and stoichiometric models of phosphorus cycling imply that >80% of the phosphorus deposited is permanently buried. External phosphorus loading to the bay is combined with sediment fluxes of phophorus to arrive at a simple phosphorus budget. Green Bay acts as an efficient nutrient trap, with the sediments retaining an estimated 70-90% of the external phosphorus inputs before flowing into Lake Michigan.

  8. Phosphorus Recovery by Liquid–Liquid Extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia-Qian Jiang; Onesmus Mwabonje

    2009-01-01

    It is acknowledged that phosphorus removal is more crucial in comparison with nitrogen removal for preventing algae glooming and eutrophication. Chemical and biological methods are common methods for the P removal. Excessive sludge production and difficulties of recovering phosphorus are concerns in terms of sustainable waste management. A liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) process is thus considered for the study aiming at

  9. PHOSPHORUS RECOVERY - EXPERIENCES FROM EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Stark

    The interest in recovery and reuse by sludge fractionation has increased in recent years, largely due to environmental and political considerations. This article is a survey of the status concerning phosphorus recovery, looking into national policies and experiences in different European countries to find different factors influencing the development of phosphorus recovery. The ambivalence of sewage sludge as carrier of

  10. PHOSPHORUS MANAGEMENT AND WATER QUALITY PROTECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for growth of crops and aquatic vegetation. Phosphorus often needs to be applied to the land for optimal crop growth. Land application of P as animal manure, biosolids (sewage sludge), and mineral fertilizer can increase the risk of P pollution of freshwater. ...

  11. Phosphorus Availability Coefficients from Various Organic Sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine Phosphorus Availability Coefficients (PACs) for a variety of organic phosphorus (P) sources, and to examine the relationship between PACs measured in simulated rainfall runoff and alternative soil incubations. PAC is an important parameter in the P-Ind...

  12. Phosphorus Moieties Make Polymers Less Flammable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Mikroyannidis, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    Phosphorus incorporated into epoxies and polyamides via curing agent. According to report, use of 1-(di(2-chloroethoxyphosphinyl)methyl)-2,4- and -2,6-diaminobenzene (DCEPD) as curing agent for epoxies and polyamides makes these polymers more fire-retardant than corresponding polymers made with standard curing agents not containing phosphorus.

  13. NATIONAL PHOSPHORUS RUNOFF PROJECT: NEW HAMPSHIRE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Phosphorus Research Project was developed to coordinate research on the interaction between agricultural management and agricultural phosphorus pollution. As part of the Project, rainfall/runoff experiments were conducted on a Marlow soil in New Hampshire to assess the effects of soil ...

  14. Trends in Feed and Manure Phosphorus

    E-print Network

    Balser, Teri C.

    Trends in Feed and Manure Phosphorus John Peters Soil Science Department UW-Madison #12 feed more P than cows need According to National Research Council recommendations Source: Powell et al feed (today) #12;Potential annual phosphorus inputs and outputs from a 100 cow Wisconsin dairy farm P

  15. Phosphorus transfer from sediments by Myriophyllum spicatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CRAIG S. SMITH; MICHAEL S. ADAMS

    1986-01-01

    The uptake of phosphorus, the biomass, and the standing P stock were measured over the course of a year in roots and shoots of the Eurasian water milfoil, Myriophyllum spicatum, from Lake Wingra, Wisconsin. The resulting data were used to estimate the relative contributions of root and shoot uptake to the phosphorus economy of the plant and to examine the

  16. Sustainable use of phosphorus: a finite resource.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Roland W; Ulrich, Andrea E; Eilittä, Marjatta; Roy, Amit

    2013-09-01

    Phosphorus is an essential element of life and of the modern agricultural system. Today, science, policy, agro-industry and other stakeholder groups are increasingly concerned about the sustainable use of this resource, given the dissipative nature of phosphorus and difficulties in assessing, evaluating, and coping with phosphorus pollution in aquatic and terrestrial systems. We argue that predictions about a forthcoming peak, followed by a quick reduction (i.e., physical phosphate rock scarcity) are unreasoned and stress that access to phosphorus (economic scarcity) is already, and may increasingly become critical, in particular for smallholders farmers in different parts of the world. The paper elaborates on the design, development, goals and cutting-edge contributions of a global transdisciplinary process (i.e. mutual learning between science and society including multiple stakeholders) on the understanding of potential contributions and risks related to the current mode of using phosphorus on multiple scales (Global TraPs). While taking a global and comprehensive view on the whole phosphorus-supply chain, Global TraPs organizes and integrates multiple transdisciplinary case studies to better answer questions which inform sustainable future phosphorus use. Its major goals are to contribute to four issues central to sustainable resource management: i) long-term management of biogeochemical cycles, in particular the challenge of closing the phosphorus cycle, ii) achieving food security, iii) avoiding environmental pollution and iv) sustainability learning on a global level by transdisciplinary processes. PMID:23769630

  17. The management of phosphorus in poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter provides an important source of plant nutrients including nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur. The potential for phosphorus (P) surplus at the farm scale can increase when farming systems change from cropping to intensive poultry and animal production, as P...

  18. Trapping phosphorus in runoff with a phosphorus removal structure.

    PubMed

    Penn, Chad J; McGrath, Joshua M; Rounds, Elliott; Fox, Garey; Heeren, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Reduction of phosphorus (P) inputs to surface waters may decrease eutrophication. Some researchers have proposed filtering dissolved P in runoff with P-sorptive byproducts in structures placed in hydrologically active areas with high soil P concentrations. The objectives of this study were to construct and monitor a P removal structure in a suburban watershed and test the ability of empirically developed flow-through equations to predict structure performance. Steel slag was used as the P sorption material in the P removal structure. Water samples were collected before and after the structure using automatic samples and analyzed for total dissolved P. During the first 5 mo of structure operation, 25% of all dissolved P was removed from rainfall and irrigation events. Phosphorus was removed more efficiently during low flow rate irrigation events with a high retention time than during high flow rate rainfall events with a low retention time. The six largest flow events occurred during storm flow and accounted for 75% of the P entering the structure and 54% of the P removed by the structure. Flow-through equations developed for predicting structure performance produced reasonable estimates of structure "lifetime" (16.8 mo). However, the equations overpredicted cumulative P removal. This was likely due to differences in pH, total Ca and Fe, and alkalinity between the slag used in the structure and the slag used for model development. This suggests the need for an overall model that can predict structure performance based on individual material properties. PMID:22565249

  19. Thermodynamics of phosphorus in molten silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, Takahirio; Morita, Kazuki; Sano, Nobuo [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Metallurgy

    1996-12-01

    Removal of phosphorus is one of the major problems on the purification of molten silicon for solar cell. The Gibbs energy change of phosphorus dissolution into molten silicon was determined in the temperature range from 1,723 to 1,848 K by equilibrating a molten silicon-phosphorus alloy in a controlled phosphorus partial pressure and is expressed by the following equations: {1/2}P{sub 2}(g) = {und P} (mass pct, in Si); {Delta}G{degree} = {minus}139,000 ({+-}2,000) + 43.4 ({+-}10.1T)(J/mol). The possibility of removing phosphorus from silicon melts by vacuum treatment and the accompanying yield of silicon during the refining process are discussed.

  20. Ultrafast pulse generation with black phosphorus

    E-print Network

    Li, Diao; Karvonen, Lasse; Ye, Guojun; Lipsanen, Harri; Chen, Xianhui; Sun, Zhipei

    2015-01-01

    Black phosphorus has been recently rediscovered as a new and interesting two-dimensional material due to its unique electronic and optical properties. Here, we study the linear and nonlinear optical properties of black phosphorus thin films, indicating that both linear and nonlinear optical properties are anisotropic and can be tuned by the film thickness. Then we employ the nonlinear optical property of black phosphorus for ultrafast (pulse duration down to ~786 fs in mode-locking) and large-energy (pulse energy up to >18 nJ in Q-switching) pulse generation in fiber lasers at the near-infrared telecommunication band ~1.5 {\\mu}m. Our results underscore relatively large optical nonlinearity in black phosphorus and its prospective for ultrafast pulse generation, paving the way to black phosphorus based nonlinear and ultrafast photonics applications (e.g., ultrafast all-optical switches/modulators, frequency converters etc.).

  1. Separation of Phosphorus from silicon by induction vacuum refining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Song-Sheng Zheng; Thorvald Abel Engh; Merete Tangstad; Xue-Tao Luo

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus can be expected to separate preferentially from silicon melt by induction vacuum refining (IVR). In the present study, thermodynamic and kinetics of phosphorus evaporating from silicon melt has been investigated. Due to the phosphorus concentration in metallurgical grade silicon (MG-Si) being around 100ppmw level, we believe that phosphorus vaporizes from silicon as gas species P and P2 in the

  2. Phosphorus Radicals DOI: 10.1002/anie.200700059

    E-print Network

    Müller, Peter

    Phosphorus Radicals DOI: 10.1002/anie.200700059 An Isolable and Monomeric Phosphorus Radical] Sterically stabilized phosphorus-centered radicals which are persistent and monomeric in solution have been] radicals have been isolated. Yet the synthesis of a neutral phosphorus radical that exists as a monomer

  3. Exchange of phosphorus across the sediment-water interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bengt Boström; Jens M. Andersen; Siegfried Fleischer; Mats Jansson

    1988-01-01

    In this article, principles of phosphorus retention and phosphorus release at the sediment-water interface in lakes are reviewed. New results and hypotheses are discussed in relation to older models of phosphorus exchange between sediments and water. The fractional composition of sedimentary phosphorus is discussed as a tool for interpretation of different retention mechanisms. Special emphasis is given to the impact

  4. A Hybrid Phosphorus Ligand for Highly Enantioselective Asymmetric Hydroformylation

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Xumu

    A Hybrid Phosphorus Ligand for Highly Enantioselective Asymmetric Hydroformylation Yongjun Yan phosphorus ligand has been prepared starting from chiral NOBIN (2-amino-2- hydroxy-1,1-binaphthyl). Excellent phosphorus ligands bearing two different phosphorus groups are effective in asymmetric hydroformylation.2a

  5. Bronx River bed sediments phosphorus pool and phosphorus compound identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Pant, H. K.

    2008-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) transport in the Bronx River degraded water quality, decreased oxygen levels, and resulted in bioaccumulation in sediment potentially resulting in eutrophication, algal blooms and oxygen depletion under certain temperature and pH conditions. The anthropogenic P sources are storm water runoff, raw sewage discharge, fertilizer application in lawn, golf course and New York Botanical Garden; manure from the Bronx zoo; combined sewoverflows (CSO's) from parkway and Hunts Point sewage plant; pollutants from East River. This research was conducted in the urban river system in New York City area, in order to control P source, figure out P transport temporal and spatial variations and the impact on water quality; aimed to regulate P application, sharing data with Bronx River Alliance, EPA, DEP and DEC. The sediment characteristics influence the distribution and bioavailbility of P in the Bronx River. The P sequential extraction gave the quantitative analysis of the P pool, quantifying the inorganic and organic P from the sediments. There were different P pool patterns at the 15 sites, and the substantial amount of inorganic P pool indicated that a large amount P is bioavailable. The 31P- NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy) technology had been used to identify P species in the 15 sites of the Bronx River, which gave a qualitative analysis on phosphorus transport in the river. The P compounds in the Bronx River bed sediments are mostly glycerophophate (GlyP), nucleoside monophosphates (NMP), polynucleotides (PolyN), and few sites showed the small amount of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), glycerophosphoethanoamine (GPEA), phosphoenopyruvates (PEP), and inosine monophosphate (IMP). The land use spatial and temporal variations influence local water P levels, P distributions, and P compositions.

  6. Emerging technology for utilizing phosphorus sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, J.C. [James C. Barber and Associates, Inc., Florence, AL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper outlines a program at the Tennessee Valley Authority plant in Muscle Shoals, Alabama, to recycle phosphorus sludge produced by phosphate smelting. The recovery of phossy water and elemental phosphorus is addressed, as well as the recycle of inorganic solids from precipitator dust. Two processes for phossy water recycle were developed, which included separating phosphorus sludge from phossy water, waste clarification, and fluorine concentration control. The phossy water was used to make orthophosphate suspension fertilizer. For the recovery of elemental phosphorus, centrifuging and distillation were investigated. Centrifuging recovered 80 percent of the phosphorus in the sludge, but was difficult to operate and emitted toxic fumes. The pilot plant still did not completely volatilize the phosphorus, but was an improvement over other industry stills. A patented process for recycling precipitator dust is briefly described. It is estimated that the waste processing and recovery program will have a value of approximately $100 million, including the value of elemental phosphorus and the recovery of 93 acres of land.

  7. Formation of Stable Phosphorus-Carbon Bond for Enhanced Performance in Black Phosphorus Nanoparticle-Graphite Composite

    E-print Network

    Cui, Yi

    Formation of Stable Phosphorus-Carbon Bond for Enhanced Performance in Black Phosphorus battery electrode materi- als have attracted great research attention. Phosphorus as a low-cost abundant capacity anodes such as Si, Ge, Sn, and SnO2, there are only a few studies on phosphorus anodes despite its

  8. The phosphorus mass balance: identifying 'hotspots' in the food system as a roadmap to phosphorus security.

    PubMed

    Cordell, Dana; Neset, Tina-Simone Schmid; Prior, Timothy

    2012-12-01

    Phosphorus is a critical element on which all life depends. Global crop production depends on fertilisers derived from phosphate rock to maintain high crop yields. Population increase, changing dietary preferences towards more meat and dairy products, and the continuing intensification of global agriculture supporting this expansion will place increasing pressure on an uncertain, but finite supply of high-quality phosphate rock. Growing concern about phosphorus scarcity and security, coupled with the environmental impact of phosphorus pollution, has encouraged an increase in research exploring how phosphorus is used and lost in the food system-from mine to field to fork. An assessment of recent phosphorus flows analyses at different geographical scales identifies the key phosphorus 'hotspots', for example within the mining, agriculture or food processing sectors, where efficiency and reuse can be substantially improved through biotechnological approaches coupled with policy changes. PMID:22503084

  9. Studies on phosphorus and calcium in poult nutrition 

    E-print Network

    Khaund, Robindra Nath

    1962-01-01

    and defluorinated rock phosphate when compared 26 to the same level of phosphorus from defluorinated rock phosphate alone. When the phosphorus supplement was increased from 0. 302, to 0. 45T, added phosphorus there was a significant improvement (P(0. 05... ezi. sts in tbe supplement. Nost methods presently used to determine the availability of phosphorus from a certain souxce employ either practical or purified diets to which the test supplement is added to supply graded levels of phosphorus...

  10. Phosphorus Removal of High Phosphorus Iron Ore by Gas-Based Reduction and Melt Separation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui-qing TANG; Zhan-cheng GUO; Zhi-long ZHAO

    2010-01-01

    A new method (gas-based separation plus melt separation) has been proposed to remove phosphorus of the high phosphorus iron ore which was 1.25% of phosphorus content and 50.0% of iron content. HSC chemistry package and the coexistence theory of slag structure were adopted for theoretical analysis. The gas-based reduction was carried out using a lixed bed reactor and the ore

  11. Uptake and accumulation of phosphorus by dominant plant species growing in a phosphorus mining area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangli Xiao; Tingxuan Li; Xizhou Zhang; Haiying Yu; Huagang Huang; D. K. Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorus accumulation potentials were investigated for 12 dominant plant species growing in a phosphorus mining area in Shifang, as well as their corresponding non-mining ecotypes growing in Ya’an, China. High phosphorus concentrations were observed in the seedling and flowering stages of two species, Pilea sinofasciata and Polygonum hydropiper, up to 16.23 and 8.59gkg?1, respectively, which were 3.4 and 7 times

  12. Response of juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, to dietary calcium, phosphorus and calcium\\/phosphorus ratio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beiping Tan; Kangsen Mai; Zhiguo Liufu

    2001-01-01

    The feeding experiment was conducted to determine the response of juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, to dietary calcium, phosphorus and the ratios of calcium to phosphorus. Fifteen isonitrogenous (approximately 30% CP) casein–gelatin-based diets containing five graded levels of phosphorus (0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0%) for each of three levels of calcium (0%, 1.0% and 2.0%) were fed to the

  13. Phosphorus as a lunar volatile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasek, Matthew A.

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus is an important minor element on the Moon. It is moderately volatile and is found as both phosphates and phosphides in lunar material. The phosphides, such as schreibersite, are common to impact breccias at all Apollo sites. The origin of this schreibersite has been proposed to be a meteoritic contaminant, or alternatively produced in situ by reduction on the lunar surface. I propose that schreibersite and other siderophilic P phases have an origin from impact volatilization of phosphates at the lunar oxygen fugacity, followed by reaction of P gases with metal to form metal phosphides. This pathway is broadly consistent with the composition and structure of metal grains, as well as the native oxygen fugacity of the lunar surface. Additionally, this pathway suggests schreibersite is widespread across the lunar surface and likely on other planetary bodies, and hence may serve as a good P source for in situ resource utilization.

  14. 40 CFR 422.20 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory. 422...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Consuming Subcategory § 422...Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory....

  15. 40 CFR 422.10 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory. 422...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Production Subcategory § 422...Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory....

  16. 40 CFR 422.20 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory. 422...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Consuming Subcategory § 422...Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory....

  17. 40 CFR 422.10 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory. 422...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Production Subcategory § 422...Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory....

  18. 40 CFR 422.10 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory. 422...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Production Subcategory § 422...Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory....

  19. 40 CFR 422.20 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory. 422...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Consuming Subcategory § 422...Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory....

  20. 40 CFR 422.20 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory. 422...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Consuming Subcategory § 422...Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory....

  1. 40 CFR 422.10 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory. 422...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Production Subcategory § 422...Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory....

  2. 40 CFR 422.20 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory. 422...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Consuming Subcategory § 422...Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory....

  3. 40 CFR 422.10 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory. 422...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Production Subcategory § 422...Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory....

  4. Innovative methods in soil phosphorus research: A review

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Jens; Abraham, Marion; Amelung, Wulf; Baum, Christel; Bol, Roland; Kühn, Oliver; Lewandowski, Hans; Niederberger, Jörg; Oelmann, Yvonne; Rüger, Christopher; Santner, Jakob; Siebers, Meike; Siebers, Nina; Spohn, Marie; Vestergren, Johan; Vogts, Angela; Leinweber, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an indispensable element for all life on Earth and, during the past decade, concerns about the future of its global supply have stimulated much research on soil P and method development. This review provides an overview of advanced state-of-the-art methods currently used in soil P research. These involve bulk and spatially resolved spectroscopic and spectrometric P speciation methods (1 and 2D NMR, IR, Raman, Q-TOF MS/MS, high resolution-MS, NanoSIMS, XRF, XPS, (µ)XAS) as well as methods for assessing soil P reactions (sorption isotherms, quantum-chemical modeling, microbial biomass P, enzymes activity, DGT, 33P isotopic exchange, 18O isotope ratios). Required experimental set-ups and the potentials and limitations of individual methods present a guide for the selection of most suitable methods or combinations.

  5. Response of rice to soil phosphorus levels 

    E-print Network

    Quddus, Mohammad Abdul

    1962-01-01

    'ble phosphorus (P. Porno P 03) in the thx'ee soilsx as determined by smmoni4m biosrbonste method ~ . . . . ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ , ~ . ~ ~ 9 ~ Influence of soil applied phosyhorus under green- house oonditions on the extractable yhosyhorus (pep. m, P20...

  6. Anisotropic exciton Stark shift in black phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, A.; Low, Tony; Avouris, P.; ?ak?r, D.; Peeters, F. M.

    2015-04-01

    We calculate the excitonic spectrum of few-layer black phosphorus by direct diagonalization of the effective mass Hamiltonian in the presence of an applied in-plane electric field. The strong attractive interaction between electrons and holes in this system allows one to investigate the Stark effect up to very high ionizing fields, including also the excited states. Our results show that the band anisotropy in black phosphorus becomes evident in the direction-dependent field-induced polarizability of the exciton.

  7. Phosphorus speciation by coupled HPLC-ICPMS: low level determination of reduced phosphorus in natural materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atlas, Zachary; Pasek, Matthew; Sampson, Jacqueline

    2015-04-01

    Phosphorus is a geologically important minor element in the Earth's crust commonly found as relatively insoluble apatite. This constraint causes phosphorus to be a key limiting nutrient in biologic processes. Despite this, phosphorus plays a direct role in the formation of DNA, RNA and other cellular materials. Recent works suggest that since reduced phosphorus is considerably more soluble than oxidized phosphorus that it was integrally involved in the development of life on the early Earth and may continue to play a role in biologic productivity to this day. This work examines a new method for quantification and identification of reduced phosphorus as well as applications to the speciation of organo-phosphates separated by coupled HPLC - ICP-MS. We show that reduced phosphorus species (P1+, P3+ and P5+) are cleanly separated in the HPLC and coupled with the ICPMS reaction cell, using oxygen as a reaction gas to effectively convert elemental P to P-O. Analysis at M/Z= 47 producing lower background and flatter baseline chromatography than analyses performed at M/Z = 31. Results suggest very low detection limits (0.05 ?M) for P species analyzed as P-O. Additionally we show that this technique has potential to speciate at least 5 other forms of phosphorus compounds. We verified the efficacy of method on numerous materials including leached Archean rocks, suburban retention pond waters, blood and urine samples and most samples show small but detectible levels of reduced phosphorus and or organo-phaospates. This finding in nearly all substances analyzed supports the assumption that the redox processing of phosphorus has played a significant role throughout the history of the Earth and it's presence in the present environment is nearly ubiquitous with the reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds, phosphite and hypophosphite, potentially acting as significant constituents in the anaerobic environment.

  8. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record. PMID:25120281

  9. Solid-state phosphorus-31 NMR spectroscopy of a multiple-spin system: an investigation of a rhodium-triphosphine complex.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Guy M; Feindel, Kirk W; Wasylishen, Roderick E; Cameron, T Stanley

    2008-09-28

    Phosphorus-31 NMR spectra of solid [tris(dimethylphenylphosphine)](2,5-norbornadiene) rhodium(I) hexafluorophosphate have been acquired at several applied magnetic field strengths. The phosphorus nuclei of the three phosphine ligands are spin-spin coupled to each other and to 103Rh, resulting in complex NMR spectra; however, the three phosphorus chemical shift (CS) tensors were determined through the analysis of NMR spectra of slow magic angle spinning and stationary samples. Spectra of spinning samples in rotational resonance and two-dimensional 31P NMR spectra were particularly useful for determining the magnitudes of the indirect spin-spin couplings, and to probe their signs. Despite being in similar environments, the three phosphorus nuclei of the phosphine ligands have distinct CS tensors. In particular, the spans of these tensors, delta11-delta33, range from 80 to 176 ppm. The phosphorus CS tensors have been assigned to specific sites determined by X-ray crystallography, based on a combination of the experimental results and the results of quantum chemical calculations of the phosphorus shielding and 2J(31P,31P) values. The effect of coordination of dimethylphenylphosphine with rhodium has been investigated by comparing calculated phosphorus CS tensors for the uncoordinated ligand with those obtained for the ligands in the complex. PMID:18956090

  10. Uptake and accumulation of phosphorus by dominant plant species growing in a phosphorus mining area.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Guangli; Li, Tingxuan; Zhang, Xizhou; Yu, Haiying; Huang, Huagang; Gupta, D K

    2009-11-15

    Phosphorus accumulation potentials were investigated for 12 dominant plant species growing in a phosphorus mining area in Shifang, as well as their corresponding non-mining ecotypes growing in Ya'an, China. High phosphorus concentrations were observed in the seedling and flowering stages of two species, Pilea sinofasciata and Polygonum hydropiper, up to 16.23 and 8.59 g kg(-1), respectively, which were 3.4 and 7 times higher than in the non-mining ecotypes. Available phosphorus levels in the respective rhizosphere soils of these plants were 112.84 and 121.78 mg kg(-1), 12 and 4 times higher than in the non-rhizosphere soil. Phosphorus concentrations in shoots of the mining ecotypes of all 12 species were significantly negatively correlated with available phosphorus in the rhizosphere soils (p<0.05), whereas a positive correlation was observed in the non-mining ecotypes. The biomass in shoot of the mining ecotype of P. hydropiper was nearly 2 times that in the non-mining ecotype. The results suggested that P. sinofasciata and P. hydropiper were efficient candidates among the tested species for phosphorus accumulation in shoots, and that further studies should be conducted to investigate their potential to be adopted as phosphorus accumulators. PMID:19608342

  11. [Intravenous drop of calcium gluconate for phosphorus burns].

    PubMed

    Hu, A J

    1993-07-01

    20 patients with phosphor burn (TBSA 2%-75%) were cured by i.v. drop of calcium gluconate combined with other therapies including eschar conservation. Our experimental data showed that dogs with burn by spreading 85% phosphoric acid and napalm locally increased the level of plasma phosphorus and pathological damages to the heart, lung, kidney and etc were similar to those previously reported phosphorus burns. Intravenous drop of calcium gluconate after phosphate burn reduced the level of plasma phosphorus to normal rapidly and lessened the visceral damages. We consider that i.v. drop of calcium gluconate can accelerate the elimination of phosphorus, and prevent phosphorus poisoning after phosphorus burns. PMID:8313772

  12. Nanoscopy Reveals Metallic Black Phosphorus

    E-print Network

    Abate, Yohannes; Zhen, Li; Cronin, Stephen B; Wang, Han; Babicheva, Viktoriia; Javani, Mohammad H; Stockman, Mark I

    2015-01-01

    Layered and two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene, boron nitride, transition metal dichalcogenides(TMDCs), and black phosphorus (BP) have intriguing fundamental physical properties and bear promise of numerous important applications in electronics and optics. Of them, BP is a novel 2D material that has been theoretically predicted to acquire plasmonic behavior for frequencies below ~0.4 eV when highly doped. The electronic properties of BP are unique due to an anisotropic structure, which could strongly influence collective electronic excitations. Advantages of BP as a material for nanoelectronics and nanooptics are due to the fact that, in contrast to metals, the free carrier density in it can be dynamically controlled by electrostatic gating, which has been demonstrated by its use in field-effect transistors. Despite all the interest that BP attracts, near-field and plasmonic properties of BP have not yet been investigated experimentally. Here we report the first observation of nanoscopic near-fie...

  13. Assessing Phosphorus Loading in Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, H. K.

    2011-12-01

    Hari K. Pant Lehman College of the City University of New York, Department of Environmental, Geographic and Geological Sciences, 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, NY 10468; hari.pant@lehman.cuny.edu Depending on ecosystem's resilience, hydro-climatic changes brought upon by global climate change may cause nonlinear and/or irreversible changes in phosphorus (P) dynamic, and instigate P enrichment in freshwater wetlands. Thus, the studies of the influence of expected global climate change and its impacts on P stability in wetlands are in critical need to help manage, or increase the resilience of freshwater wetland ecosystems against undesirable changes. The objectives of this study were to assess P sorption in sediments, and help to estimate potential internal loading of P to the water column from the sediments. Sediment samples were collected from freshwater wetlands that are located within Pelham Bay Park, Bronx, New York. Although P sorption maxima (Smax) of the sediments were high in general (up to 1667 mg kg-1), the equilibrium P concentrations (EPC0) were also fairly high (0.09 -0.24 mg L-1), indicating substantial amounts of P may remain available for biological uptake in the water columns. High percentages of hysteretic P (>96%), as indicated by P retained values (Pr), along with a significant correlation between Smax and oxalate-extractable Fe (r = 0.89), suggest that changes in sediment/water chemistry such as redox status/acidity could cause massive P release to the water columns.

  14. The renaissance of black phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xi; Wang, Han; Huang, Shengxi; Xia, Fengnian; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2015-04-14

    One hundred years after its first successful synthesis in the bulk form in 1914, black phosphorus (black P) was recently rediscovered from the perspective of a 2D layered material, attracting tremendous interest from condensed matter physicists, chemists, semiconductor device engineers, and material scientists. Similar to graphite and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), black P has a layered structure but with a unique puckered single-layer geometry. Because the direct electronic band gap of thin film black P can be varied from 0.3 eV to around 2 eV, depending on its film thickness, and because of its high carrier mobility and anisotropic in-plane properties, black P is promising for novel applications in nanoelectronics and nanophotonics different from graphene and TMDs. Black P as a nanomaterial has already attracted much attention from researchers within the past year. Here, we offer our opinions on this emerging material with the goal of motivating and inspiring fellow researchers in the 2D materials community and the broad readership of PNAS to discuss and contribute to this exciting new field. We also give our perspectives on future 2D and thin film black P research directions, aiming to assist researchers coming from a variety of disciplines who are desirous of working in this exciting research field. PMID:25820173

  15. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section 142...Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33 Foot protection. (a) Personnel working...where there is a reasonable probability for foot injury to occur shall wear...

  16. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section 142...Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33 Foot protection. (a) Personnel working...where there is a reasonable probability for foot injury to occur shall wear...

  17. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section 142...Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33 Foot protection. (a) Personnel working...where there is a reasonable probability for foot injury to occur shall wear...

  18. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section 142...Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33 Foot protection. (a) Personnel working...where there is a reasonable probability for foot injury to occur shall wear...

  19. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section 142...Personal Protective Equipment § 142.33 Foot protection. (a) Personnel working...where there is a reasonable probability for foot injury to occur shall wear...

  20. PHOSPHORUS RECOVERY FROM PHOSPHATE RICH SIDE STREAMS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Levlin; B. Hultman

    Phosphorus can be recovered from phosphorus rich side-streams in wastewater treatment plants with biological phosphorus removal. Different variants exsist for instance the PhoStrip process, in which phosphorus is recovered from the return sludge. Soluble phosphate is released at anaerobic treatment of return or excess sludge of phosphorus rich sludge from the activated sludge processes with biological phosphorus removal. Another alternative

  1. Phosphorus cycling in the Early Aptian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakes, R.; Dittrich, M.; Wortmann, U. G.

    2012-12-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for living organisms. It is vital for the formation of ATP, the energy store in cells, and is needed for DNA synthesis. Seawater phosphorus concentration therefore plays a critical role in controlling marine productivity on geological timescales. The majority of research on the P cycle focuses on modern lacustrine and marine settings. This follows the necessity to gain a further understanding on the effects of agricultural fertilisers on nutrient cycling; in particular on the mechanisms which lead to eutrophication. These studies use sequential extraction to determine the speciation of P. The results suggest that bottom sediments can act as both a source and a sink of phosphorus; the role they assume depends on range of factors including bottom water oxygen concentrations, sedimentation rate and the concentration of iron. This study applies a sequential extraction method developed in modern sediments to sediments from the Early Cretaceous, specifically the Early Aptian. During this time, globally synchronous oceanic anoxic events (OAE's) appear in the rock record. It has been suggested that these events represent an increase in marine productivity combined with bottom water anoxia. Our study investigates whether the speciation of sedimentary phosphorus can be used to reconstruct P cycling at this time. Our samples are taken from pre-, syn- and post-OAE1a but are not from the organic matter rich layers. Our results show that the original fractions of phosphorus have been altered during diagenesis with the majority of phosphorus now being preserved as either apatite (Ca-P) or phosphorus in organic matter (Porg). The dominance of Ca-P is expected as it is thought that redox-sensitive forms of P undergo 'sink switching' during diagenesis and are preserved as Ca-P. The high concentration of Porg however, differs from previous studies which generally find that Ca-P or iron (oxyhydr)oxide associated phosphorus (Fe-P) are dominant depending on deposition conditions. We find that during the anoxic event Ca-P preservation is enhanced, a trend which is not mirrored by an increase in total phosphorus concentration. This suggests that the formation of authigenic apatite via sink switching may have been enhanced during OAE1a. This agrees with the findings of a modern field and lab based study which proposes that more P is fixed than regenerated under anoxic conditions but contradicts earlier studies which suggest that more P will be refluxed from sediments under anoxic bottom-water conditions.

  2. Zooplankton and the total phosphorus chlorophyll a relationship: hierarchical Bayesian

    E-print Network

    Notre Dame, University of

    Zooplankton and the total phosphorus ­ chlorophyll a relationship: hierarchical Bayesian analysis: Zooplankton grazing is important in resolving residual variation around the total phosphorus ­ chlorophyll a relationship. In empirical studies, zooplankton body size is often a better predictor of residual variation

  3. Phosphorus Spin Coherence Times in Silicon at Very Low Temperatures

    E-print Network

    L. K. Alexander; N. Suwuntanasarn; W. D. Hutchison

    2010-09-22

    Phosphorus donor spin coherence in isotopically pure 28 silicon is measured at very low temperatures using pulsed electron spin resonance. The isolated spin T2 varies unexpectedly with phosphorus concentration

  4. Doping and Raman Characterization of Boron and Phosphorus Atoms in

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Doping and Raman Characterization of Boron and Phosphorus Atoms in Germanium Nanowires Naoki Fukata. The chemical bonding states and electrical activity of boron (B) and phosphorus (P) atoms in germanium

  5. PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Phosphorus and carbohydrate limitation of fecal coliform

    E-print Network

    Mallin, Michael

    PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Phosphorus and carbohydrate limitation of fecal coliform and fecal phosphorus, sediment carbohydrate, and environmental factors were made and relationships with bacteria or carbohydrate. Experimental results suggested that sediment-associ- ated fecal bacteria were more frequently

  6. Phosphorus--Too Much and Plants May Suffer 

    E-print Network

    Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

    2008-05-09

    The buildup of phosphorus in lawns, gardens, pastures and croplands can cause plants to grow poorly and even die. This publication explains how to identify problems caused by excessive phosphorus and how to correct those problems.

  7. Novel Mechanisms in the Regulation of Phosphorus Homeostasis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Theresa Berndt (Mayo Clinic)

    2009-02-01

    Phosphorus plays a critical role in diverse biological processes, and, therefore, the regulation of phosphorus balance and homeostasis are critical to the well being of the organism. Changes in environmental, dietary, and serum concentrations of inorganic phosphorus are detected by sensors that elicit changes in cellular function and alter the efficiency by which phosphorus is conserved. Short-term, post-cibal responses that occur independently of hormones previously thought to be important in phosphorus homeostasis may play a larger role than previously appreciated in the regulation of phosphorus homeostasis. Several hormones and regulatory factors such as the vitamin D endocrine system, parathyroid hormone, and the phosphatonins (FGF-23, sFRP-4, MEPE) among others, may play a role only in the long-term regulation of phosphorus homeostasis. In this review, we discuss how organisms sense changes in phosphate concentrations and how changes in hormonal factors result in the conservation or excretion of phosphorus.

  8. Response of Sugarcane in a Red Ultisol to Phosphorus Rates, Phosphorus Sources, and Filter Cake

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Renato de Mello; Campos, Cid Naudi Silva; Rosatto Moda, Leandro; de Lima Vasconcelos, Ricardo; Pizauro Júnior, João Martins

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of phosphorus application rates from various sources and in the presence or absence of filter cake on soil phosphorus, plant phosphorus, changes in acid phosphatase activity, and sugarcane productivity grown in Eutrophic Red Ultisol. Three P sources were used (triple superphosphate, Araxa rock phosphate, and Bayovar rock phosphate) and four application rates (0, 90, 180, and 360?kg?ha?1 of P2O5) in the presence or absence of filter cake (7.5?t?ha?1, dry basis). The soil P, the accumulated plant P, the leaf acid phosphatase activity and straw, the stalk productivity, the concentration of soluble solids in the juice (Brix), the juice sucrose content (Pol), and the purity were the parameters evaluated. We found that P applications increased levels of soil, leaf, and juice phosphorus and led to higher phosphorus accumulation and greater stalk and straw productivity. These levels were highest in the presence of filter cake. Acid phosphatase activity decreased with increasing plant phosphorus concentration. Phosphate fertilization did not show effect on sugarcane technological quality. We concluded that P application, regardless of source, improved phosphorus nutrition and increased productivity in sugarcane and, when associated with filter cake, reduced the need for mineral fertilizer.

  9. Phosphorus Sequestration in Lake Sediment with Iron Mine Tailings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MAUREEN E. CLAYTON; SARAH LIEGEOIS; EDWARD J. BROWN

    2004-01-01

    Internal phosphorus loading can lead to eutrophication in lakes when anoxic sediments release bioavailable phosphorus into the water column. In laboratory experiments, iron mine tailings helped to sequester phosphorus in sediment from a eutrophic lake. Phosphorus release from the sediments after extraction with distilled water or 0.02 N H2SO4 was significantly reduced when mine tailings were added (1:1 w\\/w), even

  10. [Spatial and temporal variations of phosphorus forms in surface sediments of Chaohu Lake].

    PubMed

    Xu, Kang; Liu, Fu-Cheng; An, Zong-Sheng; Gao, Yi; Han, Xi; Sun, Qing-Ye

    2011-11-01

    Total phosphorus (TP), inorganic-phosphorus(IP), organic-phosphorus (OP), Fe/Al-bound phosphorus (NaOH-P) and Ca-bound phosphorus (HCl-P) in surface sediments of Chaohu Lake were measured, using the standard measurement and test (SMT) procedure of phosphorus forms in freshwater sediments. ArcGIS 9.2 and goestatistics software GS + 5. 3 were applied to process the spatial data and interpolation. Results showed that no significant seasonal variation of TN, TP and organic matter contents in sediments were presented, and the western lake had higher contents of TN, TP and organic matter than those in eastern lake; the C/N ratios varied from 21.35 to 28.19, with average value of 24.94, which demonstrated the dominance of non-point source pollution. The TP contents in surface sediments ranged from 528.90 to 1 385.71 mg x kg(-1), and the main form of TP in sediments was IP(accounted for 55.78% -79.86% of TP). The OP in sediments ranged from 169.05 mg x kg(-1) to 841.24 mg x kg(-1), with eastern lake and western lake were 376.02 mg x kg(-1) and 406.53 mg x kg(-1), respectively (accounted for 47.49% and 36.28% of TP); the NaOH-P contents in sediments ranged from 33.77 mg x kg(-1) to 411.37 mg x kg(-1), with eastern lake and western lake of 376.02 mg x kg(-1) and 406.53 mg x kg(-1), respectively (accounted for 21.73% and 33.12% of the IP); the HCl-P contents ranged from 194.95 mg x kg(-1) to 477.45 mg x kg(-1), with eastern lake and western lake 321.71 mg x kg(-1). and 338.08 mg x kg(-1), respectively (accounted for 64.50% and 40.53% of the IP), which was the main species of IP. The OP contents was high in spring and winter compared with summer and autumn, while the contents of HCl-P and NaOH-P in summer and autumn were higher than those in spring and winter. PMID:22295621

  11. Flammability of Epoxy Resins Containing Phosphorus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.; Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G.; Connell, J. W.; Hinkley, J. A.

    2005-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire-resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial and general aviation aircraft, flame-retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured neat epoxy formulations were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis, microscale combustion calorimetry, and fire calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness and compressive strength of several cured formulations showed no detrimental effect due to phosphorus content. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  12. Electric field effect in ultrathin black phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, Steven P.; Schmidt, Hennrik [Graphene Research Centre, National University of Singapore, 6 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117546 (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Doganov, Rostislav A.; Castro Neto, A. H.; Özyilmaz, Barbaros [Graphene Research Centre, National University of Singapore, 6 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117546 (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering (NGS), National University of Singapore, 28 Medical Drive, Singapore 117456 (Singapore)

    2014-03-10

    Black phosphorus exhibits a layered structure similar to graphene, allowing mechanical exfoliation of ultrathin single crystals. Here, we demonstrate few-layer black phosphorus field effect devices on Si/SiO{sub 2} and measure charge carrier mobility in a four-probe configuration as well as drain current modulation in a two-point configuration. We find room-temperature mobilities of up to 300 cm{sup 2}/Vs and drain current modulation of over 10{sup 3}. At low temperatures, the on-off ratio exceeds 10{sup 5}, and the device exhibits both electron and hole conduction. Using atomic force microscopy, we observe significant surface roughening of thin black phosphorus crystals over the course of 1 h after exfoliation.

  13. Dephosphorization of LD slag by phosphorus solubilising bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. P. Marhual; N. Pradhan; N. C. Mohanta; L. B. Sukla; B. K. Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus is one of the major nutrients, and microbial solubilisation of insoluble mineral phosphate in soil is an important process in natural ecosystem and in agricultural soil. Many soil microorganisms display the ability to solubilize many insoluble inorganic phosphates. They are generally referred as phosphorus solubilising microorganisms (PSM). In this study an attempt was made to look into the phosphorus

  14. Secondary fuel-energy resources of the phosphorus industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Kh. Rosenberg; V. N. Belov; I. A. Shishkin

    1977-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of secondary fuel and energy resources in the phosphorus industry are given. Aspects of using the chemical fuel of phosphorus furnace exhaust gases, the sensible heat of molten phosphorus slags, and of certain other products are discussed.

  15. Excess Sludge Production and Costs Due to Phosphorus Removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Etienne; Laval Marie-Line; M. Sperandio

    2001-01-01

    Based on a data collected from 35 French wastewater treatment plants and on published data, excess sludge production and chemical consumption associated with Phosphorus removal is estimated for the three following phosphorus removal processes : chemical precipitation, Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal and hybrid process. The influence of wastewater characteristics on excess sludge production are assessed. Chemical costs and costs associated

  16. Recovery of phosphates from elemental phosphorus bearing wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Edwards; O. E. Moore; J. M. Sullivan

    1994-01-01

    A process for oxidizing aqueous elemental phosphorus containing residues (sludges) to produce orthophosphate containing slurries suitable for subsequent reaction with ammonia to produce nitrogen and phosphate containing fertilizer products is presented. It comprises reacting aqueous elemental phosphorus containing residues with certain special mixtures of concentrated nitric acid and sulfuric acid to effect the conversion of the elemental phosphorus into mostly

  17. Reducing Phosphorus in Dairy Effluent Wastewater through Flocculation and Precipitation 

    E-print Network

    Bragg, A.

    2003-01-01

    1 Reducing Phosphorus in Dairy Effluent Wastewater Through Flocculation and Precipitation Amanda Bragg Department of Soil and Crop Sciences Texas A&M University College Station, Texas Introduction Background The association between... to irrigation, phosphorus content in the soil could gradually decrease with plant uptake and removal, thus reducing phosphorus in eroded sediments. Flocculation Principle treatment processes for wastewater reuse include flocculation during which...

  18. Commercial Developments in Red Phosphorus Performance and Stability for Pyrotechnics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Hoerold; Andrew Ratcliff

    2001-01-01

    Red phosphorus has become an essential in- gredient in the production of modern smoke and obscurant devices. Nearly all multi-spectral developmental projects are being based on the new versions of red phosphorus available from Clariant. In pyrotechnics and munitions, phosphine liberated by the traditional red phosphorus- based smoke compounds may diffuse through the device and can give rise to corrosion

  19. Conical structures of black and blue two-dimensional phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utt, Kainen; Borunda, Mario; Barraza-Lopez, Salvador

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional phosphorus, the most recent addition to the growing list of novel two-dimensional materials, has quickly become the focus of materials science. We create conical configurations of black phosphorus from planar structures with a disclination line, and the properties of these conical structures of phosphorus will be discussed here.

  20. Incorporating phosphorus management considerations into wastewater management practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natthira Tangsubkul; Stephen Moore; T. David Waite

    2005-01-01

    Aspects of phosphorus management and its connection with wastewater management at a city level are explored here with the method of substance flow analysis (SFA) used to develop a phosphorus balance in Sydney, Australia, for the year 2000. The SFA results reveal that around 80% of the total phosphorus inputs into the system boundary are contained in food and detergent

  1. Plasma inorganic phosphorus concentration during eggshell formation. II. —

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Plasma inorganic phosphorus concentration during eggshell formation. II. — Inverse was evident between Cas and plasma inorganic phosphorus content (Pi) (r = - 0.7 to - 0.8). A negative of inorganic phosphorus in the plasma of laying hen (Pi) increases sharply between 10 and 14 h after

  2. 46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section...Requirements § 151.50-50 Elemental phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be...head equivalent to the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket...

  3. Author's personal copy Phosphorus availability influences cricket mate attraction displays

    E-print Network

    Bertram, Sue

    Author's personal copy Phosphorus availability influences cricket mate attraction displays Susan M Gryllidae mate attraction phosphorus Adopting a stoichiometric perspective (e.g. the balance of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in organisms and their resources) has enhanced our understanding of ecological

  4. IDENTIFYING TOTAL PHOSPHORUS SPECTRAL SIGNAL IN A TROPICAL ESTUARY LAGOON

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    IDENTIFYING TOTAL PHOSPHORUS SPECTRAL SIGNAL IN A TROPICAL ESTUARY LAGOON USING AN HYPERSPECTRAL phosphorus concentrations. A reflectance determination coefficient of 0.49 was obtained from the 467 to 529 phosphorus distribution map. In 1995 the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers (USCOE) developed the CH3D-WES and CE

  5. ORIGINAL PAPER Phosphorus budgets in Everglades wetland ecosystems

    E-print Network

    ORIGINAL PAPER Phosphorus budgets in Everglades wetland ecosystems: the effects of hydrology, and low rates of P cycling associated with soils. Phosphorus flux rates cannot be estimated for ecosystem-enriched areas of the Everglades. Keywords Budget Á Enrichment Á Everglades Á Hydrology Á Phosphorus Á Wetland

  6. PHOSPHORUS CONTENT OF WATERS ALONG THE WEST COAST OF FLORIDA

    E-print Network

    PHOSPHORUS CONTENT OF WATERS ALONG THE WEST COAST OF FLORIDA Marine Biological Laboratory WOODS PHOSPHORUS CONTENT OF WATERS ALONG THF WEST COAST OF FLORIDA Herbert Wo Graham, Fishery Biologist, John Mo, 195U #12;ABSTRACT The distribution of inorganic and total phosphorus in the waters along the west

  7. 49 CFR 173.188 - White or yellow phosphorus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false White or yellow phosphorus. 173.188 Section 173.188 Transportation...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.188 White or yellow phosphorus. Phosphorus, white or yellow, when offered for...

  8. 46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section...Requirements § 151.50-50 Elemental phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be...head equivalent to the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket...

  9. Original article II. Quantitative aspects of phosphorus absorption

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article II. Quantitative aspects of phosphorus absorption in ruminants David BRAVOa -- Phosphorus absorption in ruminants was analysed from a database described in a previ- ous article. For common values of ingested phosphorus (2.5­5.0 g·kg­1 of DM), 0.73 of dietary phos- phorus is absorbed

  10. Removing phosphorus from sewage effluent and agricultural runoff

    E-print Network

    Heal, Kate

    321 14 Removing phosphorus from sewage effluent and agricultural runoff using recovered ochre K © 2004 IWA Publishing. Phosphorus in Environmental Technology: Principles and Applications. Edited by Eugenia Valsami-Jones. ISBN: 1 84339 001 9 #12;322 Phosphorus removal technologies from water and waste

  11. 49 CFR 173.188 - White or yellow phosphorus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false White or yellow phosphorus. 173.188 Section 173.188 Transportation...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.188 White or yellow phosphorus. Phosphorus, white or yellow, when offered for...

  12. 46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section...Requirements § 151.50-50 Elemental phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be...head equivalent to the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket...

  13. Original article Analysis of the export of diffuse phosphorus

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Analysis of the export of diffuse phosphorus from a small rural watershed Lionel September 1997; accepted 16 January 1998 Abstract - Phosphorus is an important pollutant leading to lake eutrophication. Diffuse pollution accounts for a sub- stancial share of the total phosphorus load. To improve our

  14. Phosphorus diffusion in isoconcentration backgrounds under inert conditions in silicon

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Phosphorus diffusion in isoconcentration backgrounds under inert conditions in silicon Jay P. John (Received 29 May 1992; accepted for publication 31 December 1992) The diffusivity of phosphorus in isoconcentration backgrounds under inert conditions in silicon is investigated. Phosphorus is implanted at low dose

  15. Difference in Phosphorus Levels Between African and European Honeybees

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Difference in Phosphorus Levels Between African and European Honeybees By Matthew Harwood, Dina is linked to phosphorus levels (Elser et al., 2000b; Elser et al., 2001; Urabe et al., 1997). This led us the hypothesize A. mellifera scutellata will have higher percentage of phosphorus by biomass than A. mellifera

  16. 46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section...Requirements § 151.50-50 Elemental phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be...head equivalent to the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket...

  17. PHOSPHORUS: A Task-Based Agent Matchmaker Yolanda Gil

    E-print Network

    Gil, Yolanda

    PHOSPHORUS: A Task-Based Agent Matchmaker Yolanda Gil Information Sciences Institute University, U.S.A. surya@isi.edu ABSTRACT PHOSPHORUS is an agent matchmaking service that exploits do- main of accomplishing, as well as requests to locate agents with a required capability. PHOSPHORUS supports match- ing

  18. Reactive Phosphorus Removal from Aquaculture and Poultry Productions

    E-print Network

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Reactive Phosphorus Removal from Aquaculture and Poultry Productions Systems Using Polymeric,HCl chains with epichlorohydrin (EPI). The phosphorus binding capacity of the gels was measured in standard were obtained. The regeneration ability of the gels was demonstrated by release of the bound phosphorus

  19. 49 CFR 173.188 - White or yellow phosphorus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false White or yellow phosphorus. 173.188 Section 173.188 Transportation...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.188 White or yellow phosphorus. Phosphorus, white or yellow, when offered for...

  20. 49 CFR 173.188 - White or yellow phosphorus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false White or yellow phosphorus. 173.188 Section 173.188 Transportation...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.188 White or yellow phosphorus. Phosphorus, white or yellow, when offered for...

  1. Supplemental on-line material for Semiconducting layered blue phosphorus

    E-print Network

    Tománek, David

    Supplemental on-line material for Semiconducting layered blue phosphorus: A computational study PHOSPHORUS ALLOTROPES Density functional calculations based on the Gener- alized Gradient Approximation phosphorus is reproduced rather well by the PBE value of 5.55 °A and the value of 5.09 °A based on the local

  2. Mechanisms of Phosphorus Control in Urban Streams Receiving Sewage Effluent

    E-print Network

    David, Mark B.

    Mechanisms of Phosphorus Control in Urban Streams Receiving Sewage Effluent Paul D. Bedore & Mark B of phosphorus (P) to rivers, primarily due to large inputs of sewage effluent. A good example of this is Chicago are the dominant chemical controls on P chemistry in this P enriched system. Keywords Phosphorus . Streams . Urban

  3. THE DISTRIBUTION OF PHOSPHORUS AND GOLD IN NEUTRON IRRADIATED SILICON

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    L-257 THE DISTRIBUTION OF PHOSPHORUS AND GOLD IN NEUTRON IRRADIATED SILICON F. BÉNIÈRE and V. K contraire, est concentré à la surface. Abstract. 2014 The uniformity of phosphorus concentration produced that the phosphorus concentration is uniform throughout. Gold, on the other hand, is concentrated at the surface. LE

  4. 46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section...Requirements § 151.50-50 Elemental phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be...head equivalent to the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket...

  5. The absorption of dietary phosphorus and calcium in hemodialysis patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Arnaldo Ramirez; Michael Emmett; Martin G White; Nastaran Fathi; Carol A Santa Ana; Stephen G Morawski; John S Fordtran

    1986-01-01

    The absorption of dietary phosphorus and calcium in hemodialysis patients. Absorption of dietary phosphorus plays a critical role in the development of metabolic bone diseases in patients with chronic renal failure. However, phosphorus absorption is difficult to quantitate in dialysis patients because the dialysis treatments complicate metabolic balance studies. Utilizing a recently developed technique which permits measurement of net absorption

  6. Soil phosphorus dynamics under sprinkler and furrow irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Furrow irrigation detaches and transports soil particles and subsequently nutrients such as phosphorus. To reduce the risk of erosion and offsite phosphorus movement, producers can convert from furrow to sprinkler irrigation. We completed research on soil phosphorus dynamics in furrow versus sprin...

  7. FERTILISING VALUE OF PHOSPHORUS FROM URBAN AND AGRICULTURAL ORGANIC WASTE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Linères; C. Morel

    Organic wastes contain quantities of phosphorus (P) potentially available for the plants, which justify their use in agriculture. However, in practice, organic waste spreading does not take sufficiently into account the corresponding phosphorus supply. The aim of this contribution is to present a synthesis of seve- ral studies of the relative phosphorus availability (RPA), i.e. the plant availability of waste

  8. Controlled struvite crystallisation for removing phosphorus from anaerobic digester sidestreams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabeth V Münch; Keith Barr

    2001-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal wastewater treatment plants that use anaerobic digesters for sludge treatment, have high phosphorus concentrations in the sidestreams from their sludge dewatering equipment. To remove phosphorus from such sidestreams controlled struvite crystallisation can be used. Struvite (or MAP) is a naturally occurring crystal of magnesium, ammonium and phosphate. We present operational results obtained with a continuously operated

  9. Comparison of arsenic and phosphorus diffusion behavior in silicongermanium alloys

    E-print Network

    Comparison of arsenic and phosphorus diffusion behavior in silicon­germanium alloys S. Eguchia of ion-implanted arsenic and phosphorus in relaxed Si0.8Ge0.2 has been investigated. Under equilibrium is roughly seven for arsenic, and roughly two for phosphorus. Under transient diffusion conditions

  10. Lightning-induced reduction of phosphorus oxidation state

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Pasek; Kristin Block

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorus is frequently the limiting nutrient in marine and terrestrial ecosystems, largely owing to its poor solubility and slow movement through the rock cycle. Phosphorus is viewed to exist in geological systems almost exclusively in its fully oxidized state as orthophosphate. However, many microorganisms use the partially oxidized forms-phosphite and hypophosphite-as alternative phosphorus sources, and genomic evidence suggests that this

  11. Effects of white phosphorus on mallard reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vann, S.I.; Sparling, D.W.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Extensive waterfowl mortality involving thousands of ducks, geese, and swans has occurred annually at Eagle River Flats, Alaska since at least 1982. The primary agent for this mortality has been identified as white phosphorus. Although acute and subacute lethality have been described, sublethal effects are less well known. This study reports on the effects of white phosphorus on reproductive function in the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) in captivity. Fertility, hatching success, teratogenicity, and egg laying frequency were examined in 70 adult female mallards who received up to 7 daily doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg of white phosphorus. Measurements of fertility and hatchability were reduced by the white phosphorus. Teratogenic effects were observed in embryos from hens dosed at all treatment levels. Egg laying frequency was reduced even at the lowest treatment level; treated hens required a greater number of days to lay a clutch of 12 eggs than control hens. After two doses at 2.0 mg/kg, all females stopped laying completely for a minimum of 10 days and laying frequency was depressed for at least 45 days. Fertility of 10 adult male mallards dosed with 1.0 mg/kg of white phosphorus did not differ from 10 controls, but plasma testosterone levels were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in the treated males 1 day after dosing ended. These results provide evidence that productivity of free-ranging mallards may be impaired if they are exposed to white phosphorus at typical field levels.

  12. Studies on phosphorus availability in poultry rations 

    E-print Network

    Baruah, Jogendra Nath

    1959-01-01

    toxicityo Since the fluorine consent of the colloidal clay, which varied from. .1.4- to 1.7 per cent, contributed only 0.033 per cent to 0. 0*4-5 per 9 cent fluorine to the ration at the level used, when half of the supple? mented phosphorus supplied... animals (Dukes H. H., 1942). Sample size to contain 5-0 mg of phosphorus was taken in a 250-ml Erlenmeyer flask, exactly 50 nil 0.4 per cent HC1 was added, and the mixture was shaken for 30 seconds. The mixture was allowed to digest for two hours...

  13. New phosphorus-containing bisimide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Hsu, M.-T.; Parker, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Phosphorus-based flame retardants have been effectively used in a wide variety of polymeric materials. Such additives, however, may either influence the decomposition reaction in polymers or lack durability due to a tendency to be leached out by solvents. Attention is given to the synthesis, characterization, thermal stability and degradation mechanisms of bisimide resins, and an evaluation is conducted of the flammability and mechanical properties of graphite cloth-reinforced laminates fabricated from one of the six phosphorus-containing bisimide resins considered.

  14. Temporal and spatial variability of dissolved organic and inorganic phosphorus, and metrics of phosphorus bioavailability in an

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Stephen

    Temporal and spatial variability of dissolved organic and inorganic phosphorus, and metrics of phosphorus bioavailability in an upwelling-dominated coastal system Kathleen C. Ruttenberg Department in phytoplankton community composition and in APA. The spatial pattern of dissolved phosphorus and APA variability

  15. Phosphorus Redox on the Early Earth: First Identification of Low-Oxidation State Phosphorus Compounds in Terrestrial Samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Block; M. A. Pasek

    2008-01-01

    Phosphorus is one of the key elements in biochemical systems, playing an important role in metabolism as ATP and other coenzymes, in replication as DNA and RNA, and in cellular structure as phospholipids. The geochemical cycling of phosphorus on the Earth is usually confined to the rock cycle- redox reactions of phosphorus are never considered. However, it has been proposed

  16. Phosphorus vacancy cluster model for phosphorus diffusion gettering of metals in Si

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Renyu; Trzynadlowski, Bart; Dunham, Scott T. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2014-02-07

    In this work, we develop models for the gettering of metals in silicon by high phosphorus concentration. We first performed ab initio calculations to determine favorable configurations of complexes involving phosphorus and transition metals (Fe, Cu, Cr, Ni, Ti, Mo, and W). Our ab initio calculations found that the P{sub 4}V cluster, a vacancy surrounded by 4 nearest-neighbor phosphorus atoms, which is the most favorable inactive P species in heavily doped Si, strongly binds metals such as Cu, Cr, Ni, and Fe. Based on the calculated binding energies, we build continuum models to describe the P deactivation and Fe gettering processes with model parameters calibrated against experimental data. In contrast to previous models assuming metal-P{sub 1}V or metal-P{sub 2}V as the gettered species, the binding of metals to P{sub 4}V satisfactorily explains the experimentally observed strong gettering behavior at high phosphorus concentrations.

  17. Investigation into phosphorus removal by iron ochre for the potential treatment of aquatic phosphorus pollution 

    E-print Network

    Carr, Stephen Thomas David

    2012-11-29

    Phosphorus (P) pollution of waterbodies is a global issue with detrimental environmental, social and economic impacts. Low-cost and sustainable P removal technologies are therefore required to tackle P pollution, whilst ...

  18. Phosphorus removal from high-phosphorus hot metal in the converter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Levada; D. N. Makarov; V. B. Zakharov; O. K. Tokovoi

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of Korshunsk concentrate in the sintering batch at OAO Chelyabinskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (OAO ChMK) increased the mean phosphorus content in the hot metal from 0.10 to 0.17? 0.18% (in some periods, 0.20?0.22%). This is due to the phosphorus content of 0.1% in such concentrate, which is an order of magnitude higher than in the batch materials previously employed,

  19. Preparation of porous glasses from phosphorus slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. E Lebedeva; A. E Dubovichenko; O. I Kotsubinskaya; A. G Sarmurzina

    2000-01-01

    Leaching of phosphorus slag with phosphoric, nitric and hydrochloric acids was demonstrated to result in porous glasses. The textural properties of the materials depend on the nature of the acid, its concentration and leaching time. Under certain conditions materials with high values of specific surface area can be obtained. The formation of the porous materials occurs via destruction of a

  20. Solar production of elemental phosphorus. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Whaley, T.P.; Yudow, B.D.; Schreiber, J.D.

    1981-11-01

    Elemental phosphorus is produced commercially by heating a mixture of phosphate rock (fluorapatite), silica sand, and carbon (coke) to approximately 1500/sup 0/C in an electric arc furnace. The project described was carried out to determine the technical feasibility of using a solar furnace to produce elemental phosphorus and to provide guidelines for future reactor designs. Four successful solar furnace runs were carried out at the White Sands (New Mexico) solar furnace. Elementary phosphorus was produced at 1300/sup 0/ to 1500/sup 0/C in all four runs, but converted to phosphate by reaction with copper sulfate solution in a bubbler train. No attempt was made to carry the reactions to completion, and temperature measurements were too erratic to attempt any quantitative rate determinations. In all cases, the solution in the primary bubbler contained considerable quantities of free copper powder as determined later by analysis. (All solutions in the primary bubblers were filtered, and the solids saved for analysis.) The pH of the filtrates varied from 2 to less than 1 which was in agreement with the formation of sulfuric/phosphoric acids by reaction of phosphorus with CuSO/sub 4/ solution. The reaction vessel contained melted slag, as further evidence of the reaction.

  1. Phosphate recycling in the phosphorus industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Schipper; A. Klapwijk; A. Potjer; W. H. Rulkens; B. G. Temmink; F. D. G. Kiestra; A. C. M. Lijmbach

    2001-01-01

    The feasibility of phosphate recycling in the white phosphorus production process is discussed. Several types of materials may be recycled, provided they are dry inorganic materials, low in iron, copper and zinc. Sewage sludge ash may be used if no iron is used for phosphate precipitation in the treatment plant; using Ca or Al, or bio-P-removal, increases the recycling potential

  2. LUXURY CONSUMPTION OF PHOSPHORUS BY BENTHIC ALGAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of algal species to sequester phosphorus in their natural environment was evaluated. The amount of P sequestered was estimated by the density by polyphosphate (polyP) bodies within the cell. The abundance of polyP bodies was related to ambient P concentrations and tis...

  3. THE NATURE OF PHOSPHORUS IN CALCAREOUS SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcareous soils (containing free lime) are common in many arid and semi-arid regions of North America and occur as inclusions in more humid regions. Phosphorus (P) is very reactive with lime. Following fertilizer application, P undergoes a series of reactions that gradually reduce its solubility....

  4. Phosphorus recovery and reuse from waste streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is a macronutrient essential for all living organisms. Regrettably, it is a finite resource since phosphate rock (PR) is the main material used for production of P fertilizers. Globally, the demand for quality PR is escalating due to many factors including increasing human population....

  5. Phase Transfer Catalysis in Phosphorus Chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gheorghe Ilia; Lavinia Macarie; Erika Bálint; György Keglevich

    2011-01-01

    Phase-transfer catalysis (PTC) has been widely used for the synthesis of organic compounds for more than three decades. The scope and mechanistic features of PTC have been the aim of numerous studies. This review focuses on the application of phase transfer catalysis in synthesis of phosphorus compounds.

  6. Revising the phosphorus index for Kentucky

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phosphorus index (PI) is a field-scale assessment tool developed by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) to identify fields most vulnerable to P loss that has been adopted in some form across 48 states. Due to concerns that the use of the PI has not resulted in intended reduct...

  7. The management of phosphorus in poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for phosphorus (P) surplus at the farm scale can increase when farming systems change from cropping to intensive poultry and animal production, as P inputs become dominated by animal feed rather than fertilizer. Cost-effective and innovative solutions are needed to expand the range of ...

  8. Extractable soil phosphorus in Blackland Prairie soils 

    E-print Network

    Byrd, Robert Claude

    1995-01-01

    The Texas Agricultural Extension Service (TAEX) Soil Testing Laboratory currently utilizes a single phosphorus (P) extractant consisting of 1.43 M NH4OAc, 1. 0 M HCl, and 0.025 M EDTA-PH 4.2 to estimate plant available P for all soils in Texas...

  9. Fire-Resistant Polyamides Containing Phosphorus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Mikroyannidis, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Flammability and weight loss reduced. Fire-resistant polymers obtained from 1-{(dialkoxyphosphonyl) methyl}-2, 4- and -2, 6-diaminobenzenes by reaction with acyl or diacyl halides of higher functionality. Incorporation of compounds containing phosphorus into certain polymers shown previously to increase fire retardance. Discovery adds new class of polyamides to group of such polymers.

  10. Prospects for phosphorus recovery from poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land disposal of poultry litter is an environmental concern in regions with intense poultry production because there is not enough land for crop utilization of its nutrients, especially phosphorus (P). This situation promotes soil P surplus and potential pollution of water resources. Although poultr...

  11. Modeling Phosphorus in the Environment Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is a key component of fertilizer inputs in plant agriculture and a critical ingredient of diets in animal nutrition. Elevated levels of environmental P and nitrogen have often resulted in algal blooms and accelerated eutrophication of lakes and streams, and degrade fragile ecosystems...

  12. The role of phosphorus in chemical evolution.

    PubMed

    Maciá, Enrique

    2005-08-01

    In this tutorial review we consider the role of phosphorus and its compounds within the context of chemical evolution in galaxies. Following an interdisciplinary approach we first discuss the position of P among the main biogenic elements by considering its relevance in most essential biochemical functions as well as its peculiar chemistry under different physicochemical conditions. Then we review the phosphorus distribution in different cosmic sites, such as terrestrial planets, interplanetary dust particles, cometary dust, planetary atmospheres and the interstellar medium (ISM). In this way we realize that this element is both scarce and ubiquitous in the universe. These features can be related to the complex nucleosynthesis of P nuclide in the cores of massive stars under explosive conditions favouring a wide distribution of this element through the ISM, where it would be ready to react with other available atoms. A general tendency towards more oxidized phosphorus compounds is clearly appreciated as chemical evolution proceeds from circumstellar and ISM materials to protoplanetary and planetary condensed matter phases. To conclude we discuss some possible routes allowing for the incorporation of phosphorus compounds of prebiotic interest during the earlier stages of solar system formation. PMID:16186898

  13. Removal of phosphorus from livestock effluents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) accumulation in soils and water quality deterioration are often associated to land application of liquid manure from nearby confined livestock facilities. A treatment process was developed for removal of P from the liquid manure prior to land application. The new process consists of t...

  14. Phosphorus Fertility Evaluation in Graham County

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. Norton; L. J. Clark

    A field study was implemented in 2002 in the Upper Gila River Valley of Safford to investigate the effects of varying phosphorus (P) fertilization rates on yield and quality of Upland cotton. This study is a continuation of work performed in this valley that began in 1998. This study was organized in a randomized complete block design with four treatments

  15. ESTIMATING SOURCE COEFFICIENTS FOR PHOSPHORUS SITE INDICES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) release to runoff varies widely for different land-applied organic-P sources even when applied at equivalent total P rates. To address this variability, some P site indices include tabulated P source coefficients (PSCs) for differential weighting of applied P materials based on their ...

  16. EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS TREATMENT ON LEAD MINERALOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of Pb-contaminated soils by amendments of phosphate may prove to be a viable way of sequestering Pb in the natural environment. Test plots of Pb-contaminated soil near Joplin, MO were treated with a variety of phosphorus-based amendments to observe the influence of co...

  17. Do soils loose phosphorus with dissolved organic matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, K.; Brödlin, D.; Hagedorn, F.

    2014-12-01

    During ecosystem development and soil formation, primary mineral sources of phosphorus are becoming increasingly depleted. Inorganic phosphorus forms tend to be bound strongly to or within secondary minerals, thus, are hardly available to plants and are not leached from soil. What about organic forms of phosphorus? Since rarely studied, little is known on the composition, mobility, and bioavailability of dissolved organic phosphorus. There is some evidence that plant-derived compounds, such as phytate, bind strongly to minerals as well, while microbial compounds, such as nucleotides and nucleic acids, may represent more mobile fractions of soil phosphorus. In some weakly developed, shallow soils, leaching losses of phosphorus seem to be governed by mobile organic forms. Consequently, much of the phosphorus losses observed during initial stages of ecosystem development may be due to the leaching of dissolved organic matter. However, the potentially mobile microbial compounds are enzymatically hydrolysable. Forest ecosystems on developed soils already depleted in easily available inorganic phosphorus are characterized by rapid recycling of organic phosphors. That can reduce the production of soluble forms of organic phosphorus as well as increase the enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequent plant uptake of phosphorus bound within dissolved organic matter. This work aims at giving an outlook to the potential role of dissolved organic matter in the cycling of phosphorus within developing forest ecosystems, based on literature evidence and first results of ongoing research.

  18. Quantifying phosphorus and light effects in stream algae

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Walter [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Fanta, S.E. [University of Illinois; Roberts, Brian J [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous gradients of phosphorus and light were applied in experimental streams to develop quantitative relationships between these two important abiotic variables and the growth and composition of benthic microalgae. Algal biovolume and whole-stream metabolism responded hyperbolically to phosphorus enrichment, increasing approximately two-fold over the 5-300 g L-1 range of experimental phosphorus concentrations. The saturation threshold for phosphorus effects occurred at 25 g L-1 of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP). Light effects were much stronger than those of phosphorus, resulting in a nearly ten-fold increase in algal biovolume over the 10-400 mol photons m-2 s-1 range of experimental irradiances. Biovolume accrual was light-saturated at 100 mol photons m-2 s-1 (5 mol photons m-2 d-1). Light effects were diminished by low phosphorus concentrations, and phosphorus effects were diminished by low irradiances, but evidence of simultaneous limitation by both phosphorus and light at subsaturating irradiances was weak. Contrary to the light:nutrient hypothesis, algal phosphorus content was not significantly affected by light, even in the lowest SRP treatments. However, algal nitrogen content increased substantially at lower irradiances, and it was very highly correlated with algal chlorophyll a content. Phosphorus enrichment in streams is likely to have its largest effect at concentrations <25 g L-1 SRP, but the effect of enrichment is probably minimized when streambed irradiances are kept below 2 mol photons m-2 d-1 by riparian shading or turbidity

  19. Patient education for phosphorus management in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This review explores the challenges and solutions in educating patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to lower serum phosphorus while avoiding protein insufficiency and hypercalcemia. Methods: A literature search including terms “hyperphosphatemia,” “patient education,” “food fatigue,” “hypercalcemia,” and “phosphorus–protein ratio” was undertaken using PubMed. Results: Hyperphosphatemia is a strong predictor of mortality in advanced CKD and is remediated via diet, phosphorus binders, and dialysis. Dietary counseling should encourage the consumption of foods with the least amount of inorganic or absorbable phosphorus, low phosphorus-to-protein ratios, and adequate protein content, and discourage excessive calcium intake in high-risk patients. Emerging educational initiatives include food labeling using a “traffic light” scheme, motivational interviewing techniques, and the Phosphate Education Program – whereby patients no longer have to memorize the phosphorus content of each individual food component, but only a “phosphorus unit” value for a limited number of food groups. Phosphorus binders are associated with a clear survival advantage in CKD patients, overcome the limitations associated with dietary phosphorus restriction, and permit a more flexible approach to achieving normalization of phosphorus levels. Conclusion: Patient education on phosphorus and calcium management can improve concordance and adherence and empower patients to collaborate actively for optimal control of mineral metabolism. PMID:23667310

  20. Phosphorus Equilibria Among Mafic Silicate Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berlin, Jana; Xirouchakis, Dimitris

    2002-01-01

    Phosphorus incorporation in major rock-forming silicate minerals has the following implications: (1) Reactions between phosphorus-hosting major silicates and accessory phosphates, which are also major trace element carriers, may control the stability of the latter and thus may affect the amount of phosphorus and other trace elements released to the coexisting melt or fluid phase. (2) Less of a phosphate mineral is needed to account for the bulk phosphorus of planetaty mantles. (3) During partial melting of mantle mineral assemblages or equilibrium fractional crystallization of basaltic magmas, and in the absence or prior to saturation with a phosphate mineral, silicate melts may become enriched in phosphorus, especially in the geochemically important low melt fraction regime, Although the small differences in the ionic radii of IVp5+, IVSi4+, and IV Al3+ makes phosphoms incorporation into crystalline silicates perhaps unsurprising, isostructural silicate and phosphate crystalline solids do not readily form solutions, e.g., (Fe, Mg)2SiO4 vs. LiMgPO4, SiO)2 VS. AlPO4. Nonetheless, there are reports of, poorly characterized silico-phosphate phases in angrites , 2-4 wt% P2O5 in olivine and pyroxene grains in pallasites and reduced terestrial basalts which are little understood but potentially useful, and up to 17 wt% P2O5 in olivine from ancient slags. However, such enrichments are rare and only underscore the likelihood of phosphoms incorporation in silicate minerals. The mechanisms that allow phosphorus to enter major rock-forming silicate minerals (e.g., Oliv, Px, Gt) remain little understood and the relevant data base is limited. Nonetheless, old and new high-pressure (5-10 GPa) experimental data suggest that P2O5 wt% decreases from silica-poor to silica-rich compositions or from orthosilicate to chain silicate structures (garnet > olivine > orthopyroxene) which implies that phosphorus incorporation in silicates is perhaps more structure-than site-specific. The data also indicate that DXVliQP2O5 decrease in the same order, but DOVLiQP2O5 and DOpx/LiQP205 are likely constant, respectively equal to 0.08(3) and 0.007(4), in contrast, DG1ILiQP205 increases from 0.15(3) to 0.36(10) as garnet becomes majoritic, thus silica-enriched, and may also depend on liquid composition (SiO2, P2O5 and Na2O wt%).

  1. Temporal dynamics of available and microbial phosphorus and organic phosphorus mineralization in a grassland soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebisch, Frank; Keller, Fabrizio; Frossard, Emmanuel; Huguenin-Elie, Olivier; Oberson, Astrid; Bünemann, Else

    2010-05-01

    Turnover of phosphorus (P) through the microbial biomass and P mineralization have been reported as two main biological factors controlling P availability in soils. This is particularly true for grassland soils where organic matter is accumulated in the topsoil and microbial activity is high. The amounts of plant available inorganic P and microbial P can fluctuate over the season, but their interaction and responses to changes in environmental conditions, fertilization and cutting are not yet well understood. Also, gross P mineralization has not yet been measured in grassland soils. We studied P mineralization and immobilization in a species rich grassland managed at low intensity (with three harvests per season) under different P inputs. The trial was established in 1992 in Watt (Switzerland). Three different P input treatments were selected: no P (NK), mineral P (NPK) and organic P (NPKorg) fertilization, with 17 kg P ha-1yr-1 applied as superphosphate and slurry, respectively (rates according to Swiss fertilizer recommendations). We used two different approaches. Firstly, available (anion exchange resin extractable) and microbial P (hexanol labile P) were measured in fresh samples periodically taken throughout the vegetation period. Secondly, an isotopic dilution technique was applied on composite topsoil samples (0-5 cm) to determine rates of basal P mineralization and microbial immobilization of P in an incubation experiment. During the season available P ranged from 0.9-3.5, 5.3-11.2 and 1.9-6.7 mg kg-1 soil-1 and microbial P from 20-44, 43-59 and 61-93 mg kg-1 soil-1 in NK, NPK and NPKorg, respectively. Thus, microbial P was highest in NPKorg whereas available P was highest in NPK. Both P pools were lowest in NK. Average annual yield was lowest in NK (4.5 t ha-1), NPKorg (6.5 kg ha-1) and highest in NPK (7.5 t ha-1). However, no consistent relationship between changes in microbial and available P and plant productivity was found. Changes in weather conditions were reflected by changes in available and microbial P measured in the field. Phosphorus flushes were observed after dry periods (microbial P reduced and available P increased). Whereas fluctuations show microbial P release and P immobilization, an expected counteraction of microbial and available P could not be fully confirmed. In the incubation experiment microbial and available P were similar to average values in the field. A higher respiration rate measured in NPKorg indicated a higher microbial activity than in the other two treatments. Despite the differences in microbial P and respiration, the 33P recovery in the microbial biomass between 3 and 30 days of incubation was about 30% in all treatments. In conclusion we found complex interactions of available and microbial P with climate, fertilization, sward cutting and plant growth. An increased immobilization of P indicated by higher microbial P in the organic fertilized treatment was not confirmed in the isotope study. Gross and net mineralization data are still under analysis and will be presented at the conference.

  2. The effect of various phosphorus fertilizers on yields, phosphorus uptake by plants and conversion of phosphorus fertilizers in long-term experiments on different soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Müller; O Hagemann; H Ansorge

    1986-01-01

    Long-term experiments have been undertaken to investigate the effects of various types of phosphorus fertilizers on yields, phosphorus uptake and fertilizer conversion in the soil. Optimum effects were obtained from water-soluble phosphate, whereas finely ground soft rock phosphate had little effect even with large amounts of phosphorus fertilizers and with a pH value of the soil of around 5.4. Partially

  3. [Prediction of total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in purple soil using hyperspectral data].

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Hua; Xie, De-Ti; Wei, Chao-Fu; Li, Bing

    2013-03-01

    Hyper-spectral remote sensing is one of the effective means for prediction of soil nutrients. Taking Wangjiagou small watershed of Three Gorges Reservoir Area as researching zone, based on the soil physicochemical properties, reflective spectrum analysis and measurement, were built predictive models for total phosphorous and total phosphorus concentrations in purple soil. Meanwhile, 33 soil samples from paddy soil were used to validate the prediction models for soil nutrients in purple soil. Results show that the total correlation coefficients between their predicted values and measured values of total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentration in purple soil are 0.672 and 0.498, respectively. Correlation coefficients obtained from predictive model of purple soil nutrients validated by paddy soil samples are 0.550 and 0.124. Therefore, it is reasonable to use hyper-spectrum method to prediction total nitrogen concentration. But prediction accuracy for total phosphorus concentration in purple soil is relatively poor. The prediction model of soil nutrients in purple soil is not suitable for paddy soil. PMID:23705441

  4. Microstructural characterization of superalloy 718 with boron and phosphorus additions

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, J.A.; McKamey, C.G.; Miller, M.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Cao, W.D.; Kennedy, R.L. [Teledyne Allvac, Monroe, NC (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Boron and phosphorus additions are known to improve the stress rupture properties of IN-718. One possible mechanism to explain this property improvement relies on the boron and phosphorus additions slowing down the growth of {gamma}{double_prime} and {gamma}{prime} precipitates during high temperature service or aging. However, atom probe analysis found no segregation of boron and phosphorus to {gamma}-{gamma}{double_prime} or to {gamma}-{gamma}{prime} interfaces in the alloys with the high boron and high phosphorus levels. No difference in growth rates were found by transmission electron microscopy in the sizes of the {gamma}{double_prime} or {gamma}{prime} in alloys with high phosphorus and high boron as compared to commercial alloys and to alloys with even lower levels of phosphorus and boron. Atom probe analysis further found that much of the phosphorus, boron, and carbon segregated to grain boundaries. Creep curves comparing the alloys with high levels of phosphorus and boron and alloys with low levels of phosphorus and boron show a large difference in strain rate in the first hours of the test. These results suggest that the boron and phosphorus may have a direct effect on dislocation mobility by some pinning mechanism.

  5. [Research progress on phosphorus budgets and regulations in reservoirs].

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao; Li, Xu; Zhang, Wang-shou

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus is an important limiting factor of water eutrophication. A clear understanding of its budget and regulated method is fundamental for reservoir ecological health. In order to pro- mote systematic research further and improve phosphorus regulation system, the budget balance of reservoir phosphorus and its influencing factors were concluded, as well as conventional regulation and control measures. In general, the main phosphorus sources of reservoirs include upstream input, overland runoff, industrial and domestic wastewater, aquaculture, atmospheric deposition and sediment release. Upstream input is the largest phosphorus source among them. The principal output path of phosphorus is the flood discharge, the emission load of which is mainly influenced by drainage patterns. In addition, biological harvest also can export a fraction of phosphorus. There are some factors affecting the reservoir phosphorus balance, including reservoirs' function, hydrological conditions, physical and chemical properties of water, etc. Therefore, the phosphorus budgets of different reservoirs vary greatly, according to different seasons and regions. In order to reduce the phosphorus loading in reservoirs, some methods are carried out, including constructed wetlands, prefix reservoir, sediment dredging, biomanipulation, etc. Different methods need to be chosen and combined according to different reservoirs' characteristics and water quality management goals. Thus, in the future research, it is reasonable to highlight reservoir ecological characteristics and proceed to a complete and systematic analysis of the inherent complexity of phosphorus budget and its impact factors for the reservoirs' management. Besides, the interaction between phosphorus budget and other nutrients in reservoirs also needs to be conducted. It is fundamental to reduce the reservoirs' phosphorus loading to establish a scientific and improved management system based on those researches. PMID:25876422

  6. Soil studies using sweet vernal to assess element availability IV. Phosphorus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Wells; W. M. H. Saunders

    1960-01-01

    The phosphorus status of New Zealand topsoils is surveyed in terms of total, organic, and inorganic phosphorus fractions, solubility of the inorganic phosphorus in N H2SO4 and phosphorus content of the grass, sweet vernal (Anthoxanthum odoratum). Use is made of the genetic soil classification to show how the plant and soil phosphorus values are influenced by the nature and degree

  7. Distribution Characteristics of Phosphorus in the Sediments and Overlying Water of Poyang Lake

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingqing; Liang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a key indicator of the aquatic organism growth and eutrophication in lakes. The distribution and speciation of P and its release characteristics from sediments were investigated by analyzing sediment and water samples collected during high flow and low flow periods. Results showed that the average concentrations (ranges) of total phosphorus (TP) in the surface and deep water were 0.06 mg L-1 (0.03–0.13 mg L-1) and 0.15 mg L-1 (0.06–0.33 mg L-1), respectively, while the average concentration (range) of TP in sediments was 709.17 mg kg-1 (544.76–932.11 mg kg-1). The concentrations of TP and different forms of P varied spatially in the surface sediments, displaying a decreasing trend from south to north. P also varied topographically from estuarine areas to lake areas. The vertical distribution of TP and different forms of P were observed to decrease as depth increased. The P concentrations during the low flow period were higher than those during the high flow period. Inorganic phosphorus (IP) was the dominant form of P, accounting for 61%–82% of TP. The concentration of bioavailable phosphorus in sediments was relatively large, indicating a high risk of release to overlying water. The simulation experiment of P release from sediments showed that the release was relatively fast in the first 0-5 min and then decreased to a plateau after 1 hr. Approximately 84–89% of the maximum amount of P was released during the first hour. PMID:25938758

  8. Longitudinal Relationships among Coronary Artery Calcification, Serum Phosphorus, and Kidney Function

    PubMed Central

    Short, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is common in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), yet its onset and time course are uncertain. The study objective was to assess longitudinal relationships among CAC, kidney function, and traditional and putative cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This is a prospective cohort analysis from the Spokane Heart Study, a long-term observational study of community-dwelling adults who were assessed every 2 yr for CAC (electron-beam computed tomography), CVD risk factors, and laboratory testing. Estimated GFR (eGFR) was determined by the reexpressed Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Results: CAC was present in 28% (245 of 883) at baseline. After 6 yr, new-onset CAC developed in 33% (122 of 371); severity increased from a median CAC score of 38 to 152 in those with baseline CAC. Neither eGFR (101 ± 34 versus 104 ± 31 ml/min per 1.73 m2, respectively) nor serum phosphorus (3.25 ± 0.49 versus 3.29 ± 0.48 mg/dl, respectively) differed by CAC presence or absence at baseline; however, multivariate models (generalized estimating equations for incidence and prevalence) revealed that independent predictors of CAC over time were greater baseline CAC scores, higher serum phosphorus levels, lower eGFR levels, and traditional CVD risk factors. Each 1-mg/dl increase in phosphorus imparted odds ratios for CAC of 1.61 (incidence) and 1.54 (prevalence), risks comparable to traditional CVD risk factors. Conclusions: CAC becomes more frequent and severe over time. Higher levels of serum phosphorus and reduced kidney function independently predicted CAC. PMID:19965546

  9. Serum phosphorus during the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Voda, A M; Wilde, K; Gill, B P

    1980-07-01

    In the continuing search for a simple, noninvasive, reliable method to detect ovulation, phosphorus (P) levels have been measured in women across a menstrual cycle. Salivary P has been reported to increase significantly in women periovulatory. Reports of serum P show no such periovulatory peak. We measured serum P in nine ovulatory and two anovulatory women during one menstrual cycle. Indirect indicators of ovulation were biphasic BBT curve and luteal phase serum progesterone more than 3 ng/ml. No significant periovulatory change in serum P was found, only small fluctations ranging from 0.99--2.76 mg/dl. The absence of a periovulatory serum phosphorus peak in this and other investigations of serum P suggests that if there is altered P metabolism during the menstrual cycle, it is not reflected in the serum. Other mechanisms, such as urinary or salivary excretion, may be operating to maintain serum P within the physiological range. This hypothesis needs to be explored. PMID:7418408

  10. Luxury uptake of phosphorus by sediment bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aazam Khoshmanesh; Barry T. Hart; Anabelle Duncan; Ron Beckett

    2002-01-01

    This note reports the results of experiments aimed at confirming the luxury uptake of phosphorus (P) by sediment bacteria as polyphosphate (Poly-P). Aerobic suspensions of sediments from two different sites were spiked with 1mg P\\/L as orthophosphate and augmented with acetate (a fermentation product) or glucose. The orthophosphate was rapidly taken up over a period of a few hours. When

  11. Phosphorus Fertilization of Direct Seeded Tomatoes. 

    E-print Network

    Hipp, Billy W.

    1970-01-01

    for growth measurements and P analysis. 5 Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine 5 the influence of soil temperature on tomato response to P, Soil temperatures were thermostatically controlled . with a circulating water bath. Soil temperatures.... These dati suggest that sidedress P would not be effective in stirnu. lating rapid early growth. . . Influence of' Temperature on .Growth and Phosphorus Response by Tomatoes . Results of experiments with controlled soil tempen. . tures indicated...

  12. Metal Phosphorus Complexes as Antitumor Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexey A. Nazarov; Paul J. Dyson

    \\u000a Phosphorus-based ligands are an extremely important class of ligand and they have found many applications, especially in homogeneous\\u000a catalysis. In addition, a phosphine ligand is found in a gold drug used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. Since metal compounds\\u000a are also widely used to treat cancer many studies on the anticancer activity of metal–phosphine complexes have been conducted.\\u000a In this chapter

  13. Soil Organic Phosphorus Speciation Using Spectroscopic Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashlea L. Doolette; Ronald J. Smernik

    \\u000a The most commonly used differentiation of soil phosphorus (P) is between inorganic and organic forms, despite the fact that\\u000a this is only the beginning of soil P speciation. Forms of inorganic and organic soil P include a large range of specific P\\u000a compounds, and spectroscopic techniques can offer the best potential for determining the speciation of soil organic P. The

  14. Phosphorus, Plant Biodiversity and Climate Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole Wrage; Lydie Chapuis-Lardy; Johannes Isselstein

    \\u000a Phosphorus (P) is a major plant nutrient. Its increasing use as a fertilizer has helped to raise crop and fodder production.\\u000a However, the global reserves and resources of P are finite, demanding an efficient use of P. Under natural conditions, it\\u000a is often in limited supply. Plants have developed adaptations to small soil P concentrations. Increased P levels can have

  15. White phosphorus poisoning--explosive encounter.

    PubMed

    Pande, T K; Pandey, S

    2004-03-01

    Poisoning by white or yellow phosphorus is reported in various forms and also in ages varying from infants to adults, but spontaneous combustion and explosion during its management has never been described. This incidence occurred while attempting to pass a Ryle's tube. Its free end first exhibited a yellow flame and this later on led to an explosive encounter. Role of static electricity generated while handling plastic materials leading to ignition and explosion cannot be overlooked. PMID:15636320

  16. Nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiencies in dairy production in china.

    PubMed

    Bai, Z H; Ma, L; Oenema, O; Chen, Q; Zhang, F S

    2013-07-01

    Milk production has greatly increased in China recently, with significant impacts on the cycling of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). However, nutrient flows within the changing dairy production system are not well quantified. The aim of this study was to increase the quantitative understanding of N and P cycling and utilization in dairy production through database development and simulation modeling. In 2010, of the entire 1987 and 346 thousand tons (Gg) of N and P input, only 188 Gg N and 31 Gg P ended up in milk. The average N and P use efficiencies were 24 and 25%, respectively, at the whole system level. Efficiencies differed significantly between the four dairy systems. Losses of N from these systems occurred via NH volatilization (33%), discharge (27%), denitrification (24%), NO leaching and runoff (16%), and NO emission (1%). Industrial feedlots use less feed per kg milk produced than traditional systems, and rely more on high-quality feed from fertilized cropland; they have very poor recycling of manure nutrients to cropland. As industrial feedlot systems are booming, overall mean N and P use efficiencies will increase at herd level but will decrease at the whole dairy production system level unless manure N and P are used more efficiently through reconnecting China's feed and dairy production sectors. PMID:24216351

  17. Phosphorus transfer from sediments by Myriophyllum spicatum

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.S.; Adams, M.S.

    1986-11-01

    The uptake of phosphorus, the biomass, and the standing P stock were measured over the course of a year in roots and shoots of the Eurasian water milfoil, Myriophyllum spicatum, from Lake Wingra, Wisconsin. The resulting data were used to estimate the relative contributions of root and shoot uptake to the phosphorus economy of the plant and to examine the role of the plant in moving phosphorus between sediment and water. The total yearly uptake of P by a square meter of Myriophyllum was 3.0 g P m/sup -2/. Root uptake accounted for 2.2 g, shoot uptake only 0.8 g. The rate of P release from healthy shoots was insignificant, but about 2.8 g P m/sup -2/ yr/sup -1/ was lost due to shoot turnover. Since most of the P uptake is by the roots and much of the plant P is transferred to and lost by the shoots, Myriophyllum is a potentially important vector in the movement of P from the sediments to the water. The net transfer of P from the sediments to shoots of Myriophyllum in Lake Wingra is about 2.0 g P m/sup -2/ yr /sup -1/. Release of this P during decay makes Myriophyllum an important source of P for pelagic phytoplankton and can explain much of the previously reported P export from the littoral zone of Lake Wingra.

  18. Redox chemistry in the phosphorus biogeochemical cycle

    PubMed Central

    Pasek, Matthew A.; Sampson, Jacqueline M.; Atlas, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    The element phosphorus (P) controls growth in many ecosystems as the limiting nutrient, where it is broadly considered to reside as pentavalent P in phosphate minerals and organic esters. Exceptions to pentavalent P include phosphine—PH3—a trace atmospheric gas, and phosphite and hypophosphite, P anions that have been detected recently in lightning strikes, eutrophic lakes, geothermal springs, and termite hindguts. Reduced oxidation state P compounds include the phosphonates, characterized by C?P bonds, which bear up to 25% of total organic dissolved phosphorus. Reduced P compounds have been considered to be rare; however, the microbial ability to use reduced P compounds as sole P sources is ubiquitous. Here we show that between 10% and 20% of dissolved P bears a redox state of less than +5 in water samples from central Florida, on average, with some samples bearing almost as much reduced P as phosphate. If the quantity of reduced P observed in the water samples from Florida studied here is broadly characteristic of similar environments on the global scale, it accounts well for the concentration of atmospheric phosphine and provides a rationale for the ubiquity of phosphite utilization genes in nature. Phosphine is generated at a quantity consistent with thermodynamic equilibrium established by the disproportionation reaction of reduced P species. Comprising 10–20% of the total dissolved P inventory in Florida environments, reduced P compounds could hence be a critical part of the phosphorus biogeochemical cycle, and in turn may impact global carbon cycling and methanogenesis. PMID:25313061

  19. Phosphorus Purifing Effect of Blast Furnace Slags in Sewage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling Huang; Haihong Xu

    2009-01-01

    The paper focus on purifying phosphorus by batch and column experiment and researching phosphorus removal theory of blast furnace slags. The content includes the following main parts: experiment method and procedure, results and discussion and conclusion. The results indicated: the phosphorus removal rate of solution containing 10 mg\\/L P is above 85% with 2.5 g BF slags, at 25°C. The

  20. Anti-crack performance of phosphorus slag concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xia Chen; Li Zeng; Kunhe Fang

    2009-01-01

    Anti-crack performance of concrete with phosphorus slag and fly ash singly and compositely added is investigated in terms\\u000a of physical performance, hydration heat, dry shrinkage and creep, and index K is introduced to evaluate the crack resistance of phosphorus slag concrete. Results show that strength of phosphorus slag\\u000a concrete increases with fineness increasing and when surface specific area is greater

  1. Possibilities for a Phosphorus Recovery from Sewage Sludge Ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Schaum; Peter Cornel; Norbert Jardin

    The elution behaviour of phosphorus and metals at different pH-values was examined in laboratory-scale experiments with ashes from different full-scale sludge incineration plants. The elution of ashes with water alone caused no significant release of phosphorus, while depending on the ash origin and formation, a phosphorus release of 30 - 50 % was measured by use of caustic soda. With

  2. Benthic phosphorus regeneration in the Potomac River Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Callender, E.

    1982-01-01

    The flux of dissolved reactive phosphate from Potomac riverine and estuarine sediments is controlled by processes occurring at the water-sediment interface and within surficial sediment. In situ benthic fluxes (0.1 to 2.0 mmoles m-2 day-1) are generally five to ten times higher than calculated diffusive fluxes (0.020 to 0.30 mmoles m-2 day-1). The discrepancy between the two flux estimates is greatest in the transition zone (river mile 50 to 70) and is attributd to macrofaunal irrigation. Both in situ and diffusive fluxes of dissolved reactive phosphate from Potomac tidal river sediments are low while those from anoxic lower estuarine sediments are high. The net accumulation rate of phosphorus in benthic sediment exhibits an inverse pattern. Thus a large fraction of phosphorus is retained by Potomac tidal river sediments, which contain a surficial oxidized layer and oligochaete worms tolerant of low oxygen conditions, and a large fraction of phosphorus is released from anoxic lower estuary sediments. Tidal river sediment pore waters are in equilibrium with amorphous Fe (OH)3 while lower estuary pore waters are significantly undersaturated with respect to this phase. Benthic regeneration of dissolved reactive phosphorus is sufficient to supply all the phosphorus requirements for net primary production in the lower tidal river and transition-zone waters of the Potomac River Estuary. Benthic regeneration supplies approximately 25% as much phosphorus as inputs from sewage treatment plants and 10% of all phosphorus inputs to the tidal Potomac River. When all available point source phosphorus data are put into a steady-state conservation of mass model and reasonable coefficients for uptake of dissolved phosphorus, remineralization of particulate phosphorus, and sedimentation of particulate phosphorus are used in the model, a reasonably accurate simulation of dissolved and particulate phosphorus in the water column is obtained for the summer of 1980. ?? 1982 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  3. The determination of phosphorus by fast neutron activation analysis

    E-print Network

    To-On, Maen

    1964-01-01

    Activation IZST OF TABLES I Nuclear Reactions and Properties of Nuclei Formed by Bombarding phosphorus with Neutrons zz Determination of Phosphorus in Ammonium Di hydrogen Phosphate Samples XXX Determination of Phosphorus in Soluble Phos- phate Samples...'emoval of the silicon, The technique was tested on the following samples' ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, soluble phosphate~ lubrication oils, bio- logical materials, mixtures of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate~ silicon dioxide, fertilizer and phosphate rock samples...

  4. The atmospheric deposition of phosphorus in Lake Victoria (East Africa)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rashid A. Tamatamah; Robert E. Hecky; Hamish C. Duthie

    2005-01-01

    Wet and dry atmospheric fluxes of total phosphorus (TP) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) measured at four sites over a 12-month period were used to estimate lake-wide atmospheric phosphorus (P) deposition to Lake Victoria, East Africa. Atmospheric samples were collected in plastic buckets with top diameter of 25.5 cm by 30 cm deep. The highest P loading rates of 2.7 (TP) and

  5. Phosphorus water quality model evaluation and comparison for natural and constructed wetlands

    E-print Network

    Paasch, Mary Margaret

    1998-01-01

    numerical models have been developed to predict total phosphorus outflow concentrations and annual phosphorus retention within treatment wetlands. Three phosphorus models, the mass balance model with first order areal uptake, the Vollenweider-based wetland...

  6. Plasma-Assisted Directed Vapor Deposition for Synthesizing Lithium Phosphorus Oxynitride

    E-print Network

    Wadley, Haydn

    Plasma-Assisted Directed Vapor Deposition for Synthesizing Lithium Phosphorus Oxynitride Thin Films a new vapor deposition route for synthesizing lithium phosphorus oxynitride (Lipon) thin the reactive synthesis of lithium phosphorus oxynitride from a lithium phosphate source. This dissertation

  7. Understanding soil phosphorus systems from emergent phosphorus behaviour in a headwater catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ockenden, Mary; Beven, Keith; Collins, Adrian; Evans, Bob; Falloon, Pete; Hiscock, Kevin; Hollaway, Michael; Kahana, Ron; Macleod, Kit; Ross, Kirsty; Wearing, Catherine; Withers, Paul; Zhou, Jian; Benskin, Clare; Burke, Sean; EdenDTC Team; Haygarth, Phil

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of soil phosphorus (P) sources and pathways is essential for predicting P transfers to water in the future, when drivers of P biogeochemistry may change under climate and land use change. However, the understanding of high frequency phosphorus dynamics has been limited by data of insufficient temporal resolution. This study shows how observing the patterns shown by headwater catchment systems can help to improve understanding of soil system science. The study describes analysis of 15 minute resolution data of rainfall and river discharge, and 30 minute resolution data of total phosphorus (TP) and total reactive phosphorus (TRP) concentrations from a sub-basin of the River Eden catchment, Cumbria, UK, collected by the Defra Demonstration Test Catchment Programme. The analysis focussed on extreme events and event sequences, which are predicted to occur more frequently under a changing climate, such as periods of drying followed by heavy rainfall. Events were classified according to exceedance of discharge and P concentration thresholds (Type 1 = high discharge, low TP; Type 2 = high discharge, high TP; Type 3 = low discharge, high TP). More than 75% of the TP load was transported during the 5% of the time with highest river discharge, with more than 69% of the TP load transferred in Type 2 events (< 4% in Type 1 events). High phosphorus concentrations in the river were also recorded during rainfall events following a dry period, when there was little response in discharge (Type 3, which accounted for less than 2% of total load). A lag of around one hour between peak TP and peak TRP concentrations indicated different pathways, with TP influenced by quickly mobilised sources, such as a readily available soil P pool, and fast pathways. In contrast, TRP showed a slower response indicating the presence of slower sub-surface pathways. Improved understanding of these processes will help in understanding the importance and availability of soil P pools in order to help farmers to plan sustainable phosphorus use and appropriate land management.

  8. 21 CFR 862.1580 - Phosphorus (inorganic) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1580 Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. (a)...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1580 - Phosphorus (inorganic) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1580 Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. (a)...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1580 - Phosphorus (inorganic) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1580 Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. (a)...

  11. Evaluation of the calcium and phosphorus requirement of developing boars 

    E-print Network

    Schroeder, James

    1973-01-01

    , increased levels caused a linear reduction (P&. 10) in average daily gain. Boars fed 1. 2:1 ratio diets containing 0. 75 and 1. 00X dietary phos- phorus gained slightly slower than those fed the 1:1 ratio diets. Carcass measurements were unaffected... and turbinate ash. The phosphorus content ~ of the femur ash was lower for the 1:1 than the 1. 2:1 ratio at , 0. 50X dietary phosphorus, higher at 0. 75X dietary phosphorus and lower at 1. 00X dietary phosphorus. A similar inconsistent effect . of the Ca:P...

  12. NMR and mass spectrometry of phosphorus in wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    El-Rifai, H.; Heerboth, M.; Gedris, T.E.; Newman, S.; Orem, W.; Cooper, W.T.

    2008-01-01

    There is at present little information on the long-term stability of phosphorus sequestered in wetlands. Phosphorus sequestered during high loading periods may be relatively unstable and easily remobilized following changes in nutrient status or hydrological regime, but the chemical forms of sequestered phosphorus that do remobilize are largely unknown at this time. A lack of suitable analytical techniques has contributed to this dearth of knowledge regarding the stability of soil organic phosphorus. We analysed phosphorus in soils from the 'head' of Rescue Strand tree island and an adjacent marsh in the Florida Everglades by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Tree islands are important areas of biodiversity within the Everglades and offer a unique opportunity to study phosphorus sequestration because they are exposed to large phosphorus loads and appear to be natural nutrient sinks. The 31P NMR profiling of extracts from surface and sediment samples in the tree island indicates that phosphorus input to Rescue Strand tree island soils is mostly in the form of inorganic ortho-phosphate and is either refractory when deposited or rapidly recycled by the native vegetation into a stable phosphorus pool largely resistant to re-utilization by plants or microbes. Mass spectrometry revealed the presence of inositol hexakisphosphate, a common organic monophosphate ester not previously observed in Everglades' soils. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  13. The composition, dynamics, and ecological significance of soil organic phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, B. L.

    2011-12-01

    Studies of plant nutrition often consider only inorganic phosphate to be biologically available, yet organic phosphorus is abundant in soils and its turnover can account for the majority of the phosphorus taken up by natural vegetation. Soil organic phosphorus occurs in a variety of chemical forms, including phosphomonoesters, phosphodiesters, phosphonates, and organic polyphosphates, which can be determined conveniently by alkaline extraction and solution phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The inositol phosphates are of particular interest, because they are widespread in soils, yet only one of the four stereoisomers of inositol hexakisphosphate present in soils has been detected elsewhere in the environment. The mobility and bioavailability of the various organic phosphorus compounds differs depending on factors such as their interaction with metal oxide surfaces, which leads to a disparity between the forms of organic phosphorus entering the soil and the composition of the stable soil organic phosphorus pool. During long-term pedogenesis, organic phosphorus accumulates in the early nitrogen-limited stages of ecosystem development, but then declines as phosphorus-limitation strengthens in old soils. At the same time, the composition of the organic phosphorus varies; for example, the inositol phosphates decline to become a small proportion of the total organic phosphorus in old soils, presumably indicating their potential availability under conditions of strong phosphorus limitation. Plants have evolved a variety of mechanisms to acquire phosphorus from organic compounds, including the synthesis of phosphatase enzymes and the secretion of organic anions. Phosphatase activity is linked strongly to soil organic phosphorus concentrations, as indicated by broad surveys of tropical forest soils, fertilization experiments, and patterns observed during long-term ecosystem development. Organic anion secretion is often linked to inorganic phosphate solubilization, but the majority of the phosphorus released from most soils is in organic forms. Differences among plant species in the ability to access organic phosphorus may promote species co-existence at a site and is likely to regulate the response of plant communities to future changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations or nitrogen deposition. This is likely to be of greatest significance in freshwater wetlands, super-humid temperate regions, and ecosystems developed on strongly-weathered soils that cover vast areas of ancient landscapes in Africa, Australia and South America.

  14. Phosphorus biogeochemistry in alpine ecosystems of the Northern Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, Mikhail; Vaganov, Ivan

    2010-05-01

    The study of phosphorus biogeochemistry in an alpine landscape of the Northern Caucasus has been spent in the Teberda Biosphere Reserve on the experimental plot with total area of 3.9 ha (150 m wide, 260 m long, altitude differences 100 m) and on the plots of long-term experiment on studying of nutrients application influence on alpine ecosystems located in the eastern slope of Mt. Malaya Khatipara. Results of studying of phosphorus concentrations and store in alpine soils and plant phytomass indicated differences for diverse alpine ecosystems along geochemical gradient. Although biological accumulation of phosphorus in the upper part of soil profiles was general characteristic of all ecosystems, it is shown that geochemical redistribution of phosphorus from eluvial to accumulative parts of a landscape is the main thing in the course of phosphorus and its labile compounds accumulation in soils of the alpine communities of accumulative habitats. In turn, biological accumulation of phosphorus in soils of different alpine ecosystems redistributes an element in a soil profile with different intensity depending on capacity of biological cycle. The biological factor causes also prevalence of organic compounds among of phosphorus migrating forms in modern soils and in a landscape. As inorganic (0.01-0.02 mg/L) as organic (up to 0.17 mg/L) phosphorus leaching in the eluvial soils was from 2 to 5 times lower compared with soils of accumulative positions in a landscape. Soil phosphorus fractionation on organic and inorganic compounds of different geochemical mobility and biological availability indicated differences of phosphorus state for diverse alpine ecosystems along the experimental plot. The minor proportion of 0.5 M NaHCO3 (pH 8.5) extractable labile organic and inorganic phosphates was general characteristic of all studied soils, although especially low proportion of labile phosphorus compounds was typical for lichen heath soil, while soils of snow-bed communities contained higher proportion of labile phosphorus. Organic phosphorus mineralization was highest in soils of grassland and meadow communities of transit landscape positions where conditions for biological activity are more favorable. Lower mineralization in the eluvial lichen heath soil is controlled by depletion of mineralizable substrate with nitrogen and phosphorus, while in accumulative snow-bed and bog soils lower mineralization is probably controlled by high concentration of available inorganic phosphorus and high soil moisture. The study of soil phosphorus state and biological circle transformation as a result of long-term phosphorus application indicated phosphorus redistribution between different fractions of phytomass and between different soil phosphorus compounds. The main part of phosphorus has been fixed in the form of stable inorganic phosphates (about 50%). Below ground phytomass accumulated about 20% of the total applied phosphorus, and 10-15% has been accumulated in the sum of above ground phytomass and available inorganic soil phosphates. Lysimetric studies indicated that applied phosphorus migration to the lower horizon was different in various alpine ecosystems. Phosphorus leaching in the soil of lichen heath was minimal, while in the soils of snow-bed communities of the bottommost topographical positions leaching can be significant.

  15. 33 CFR 64.33 - Marking by the Coast Guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Marking by the Coast Guard. 64.33 Section 64.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...Provisions § 64.33 Marking by the Coast Guard. (a) The District...

  16. X-33 RCS model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Part of the high pressure nitrogen system used for the 1% scale X-33 reaction control system model. Installed in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel for supersonic testing. In building 1251, test section #2.

  17. X-33 RCS model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Model support system and instumentation cabling of the 1% scale X-33 reaction control system model. Installed in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel for supersonic testing. In building 1251, test section #2.

  18. X-33 Flight Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, Jay H.

    1998-01-01

    The X-33 flight visualization effort has resulted in the integration of high-resolution terrain data with vehicle position and attitude data for planned flights of the X-33 vehicle from its launch site at Edwards AFB, California, to landings at Michael Army Air Field, Utah, and Maelstrom AFB, Montana. Video and Web Site representations of these flight visualizations were produced. In addition, a totally new module was developed to control viewpoints in real-time using a joystick input. Efforts have been initiated, and are presently being continued, for real-time flight coverage visualizations using the data streams from the X-33 vehicle flights. The flight visualizations that have resulted thus far give convincing support to the expectation that the flights of the X-33 will be exciting and significant space flight milestones... flights of this nation's one-half scale predecessor to its first single-stage-to-orbit, fully-reusable launch vehicle system.

  19. X-33 Development History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butrica, Andrew J.

    1997-01-01

    The problem of dealing with various types of proprietary documents, whether from the Lockheed Martin, the Skunk Works, McDonnell Douglas, Rockwell, and other corporations extant or extinct, remains unresolved. The computerized archive finding aid has over 100 records at present. These records consist of X-33 photographs, press releases, media clippings, and the small number of X-33 project records collected to date.

  20. 24-Hour Urine Phosphorus Excretion and Mortality and Cardiovascular Events

    PubMed Central

    Palomino, Heather L.; Rifkin, Dena E.; Anderson, Cheryl; Criqui, Michael H.; Whooley, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Higher morning serum phosphorus has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with or without CKD. In patients with CKD and a phosphorous level >4.6 mg/dl, the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommend dietary phosphorus restriction. However, whether phosphorus restriction influences serum phosphorus concentrations and whether dietary phosphorus is itself associated with CVD or death are uncertain. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Among 880 patients with stable CVD and normal kidney function to moderate CKD, 24-hour urine phosphorus excretion (UPE) and serum phosphorus were measured at baseline. Participants were followed for a median of 7.4 years for CVD events and all-cause mortality. Results Mean ± SD age was 67±11 years, estimated GFR (eGFR) was 71±22 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and serum phosphorus was 3.7±0.6 mg/dl. Median UPE was 632 (interquartile range, 439, 853) mg/d. In models adjusted for demographic characteristics and eGFR, UPE was weakly and nonsignificantly associated with serum phosphorus (0.03 mg/dl higher phosphorus per 300 mg higher UPE; P=0.07). When adjusted for demographics, eGFR, and CVD risk factors, each 300-mg higher UPE was associated with 17% lower risk of CVD events. The association of UPE with all-cause mortality was not statistically significant (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 1.05). Results were similar irrespective of CKD status (P interactions > 0.87). Conclusions Among outpatients with stable CVD, the magnitude of the association of UPE with morning serum phosphorus is modest. Greater UPE is associated with lower risk for CVD events. The association was similar for all-cause mortality but was not statistically significant. PMID:23539231

  1. The content of available mineral phosphorus compounds in chestnut soils of Northern Mongolia upon application of different forms of phosphorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubugunov, L. L.; Enkhtuyaa, B.; Merkusheva, M. G.

    2015-06-01

    The effect of different forms of phosphorite (activated and crude ground) of the Burenkhansk deposit on the phosphate status of chestnut soils and the productivity of spring wheat was studied in Northern Mongolia. It was found that the transformation of mineral soil phosphates upon the application of activated phosphorite (together with NK) is similar to that upon superphosphate application, and the available phosphorus concentration is even a gradation higher. The application of crude ground phosphorite helped to preserve the content of mineral phosphates in the soil at the initial level. Optimum concentrations of available phosphorus and the sum of loosely bound and calcium phosphates in the plow horizon were estimated 33-35 mg/kg) and 16-18 mg/100 g, respectively. Under these concentrations, high and sustainable yields of spring wheat were obtained upon application of activated phosphorite.

  2. Phosphorus utilization by rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss): estimation of dissolved phosphorus waste output

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. p. Bureau; C. y. Cho

    1999-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) waste output, notably in the dissolved form (DWP), is a major concern for many fish culture operations. Fish are believed to excrete DWP via the urine but this aspect has never been examined in detail. A better understanding of P utilization and renal P handling of fish could aid development of nutritional strategies for the management and reduction

  3. Mineralizable phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbon relationships in dairy manure at various carbon-to-phosphorus ratios

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal manure contains all major elements required for plant and microorganisms’ uptake and assimilation for growth, namely, phosphorus (P), nitrogen, and carbon. Information about interactions between transformations of nutrients and the turnover of P forms in dairy manure, is essential to accurat...

  4. MODIFICATION OF PHOSPHORUS EXPORT FROM A CATCHMENT BY FLUVIAL SEDIMENT PHOSPHORUS INPUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) export from agricultural watersheds can accelerate freshwater eutrophication. Landscape-based remedial measures can reduce edge-of-field P losses. However stream channel hydraulics and fluvial sediment properties can modify the forms and amounts of P exported by the time it reaches th...

  5. Phosphorus budget and phosphorus availability in soils under organic and conventional farming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Oehl; A. Oberson; H. U. Tagmann; J. M. Besson; D. Dubois; P. Mäder; H.-R. Roth; E. Frossard

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess to which extent organic farming practices would affect the accumulation of total and available phosphorus (P) in a cropped soil in comparison to conventional practices. In order to achieve this, soil samples were taken from a long-term field trial comparing a non-fertilised control (NON), two conventionally cultivated treatments (MIN, CON), and two

  6. Influence of soil phosphorus and manure on phosphorus leaching in Swedish topsoils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Sweden, subsurface transport of phosphorus (P) represents the primary pathway of concern to surface water quality. While strong relationships have been consistently observed between P in surface runoff and soil test P, there have been mixed findings linking P in leachate with soil test P. To expl...

  7. Phosphorus Removal in Sewage by Mixed Steel Slag Fillings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huang Ling; Su Yongqiang

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is purifying phosphorus by column experiment and researching phosphorus removal theory of substrates including steel slag, natural sand and limestone. The winch is composed of the following main parts: experiment method and procedure, results and discussion and conclusion. The results indicated: Pure steel slag is not suitable as filling in wastewater land treating. Mixing natural

  8. Elemental phosphorus slag exposure study in Southeastern Idaho, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L Alvarez; R Geddes; J. E Rice; T. F Gesell; D Wells

    2002-01-01

    Phosphorus slag containing elevated concentrations of radionuclides in the uranium series with radium-226 ranging from 750 to 1100 Bq\\/kg has been used in Southeastern Idaho communities as a construction material. An exposure study was conducted in the region to identify residences that incorporated phosphorus slag in the construction material, to determine the dose from the slag to residents, and to

  9. Phosphorus Removal Characteristics in Hydroxyapatite Crystallization Using Converter Slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EUNG-HO KIM; HWAN-KOOK HWANG; SOO-BIN YIM

    2006-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the phosphorus removal characteristics in hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystallization using converter slag as a seed crystal and the usefulness of a slag column reactor system. The effects of alkalinity, and the isomorphic-substitutable presence of ionic magnesium, fluoride, and iron on HAP crystallization seeded with converter slag, were examined using a batch reactor system. The phosphorus

  10. Phosphorus recovery from pig manure solids prior to land application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land disposal of pig manure is an environmental concern due to an imbalance of the nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P) ratio for crop production, leading to excess phosphorus (P) in soils and potential risks of water pollution. A process called “quick wash” was investigated for its feasibility to extract ...

  11. Phosphorus recovery from wastewater: needs, technologies and costs.

    PubMed

    Cornel, P; Schaum, C

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential, yet limited resource, which cannot be replaced by any other element. This is why there are increasing efforts to recycle phosphorus contained in wastewater. It involves the recovery of phosphorus and, normally, the separation of phosphates from harmful substances. Phosphorus can be recovered from wastewater, sewage sludge, as well as from the ash of incinerated sewage sludge, and can be combined with phosphorus removal in most cases. The phosphorus recovery rate from the liquid phase can reach 40 to 50% at the most, while recovery rates from sewage sludge and sewage sludge ash can reach up to 90%. There are various methods which can be applied for phosphorus recovery. Up to now, there is limited experience in industrial-scale implementation. The costs for recovered phosphate exceed the costs for phosphate from rock phosphate by several times. For German conditions, the specific additional costs of wastewater treatment by integrating phosphorus recovery can be estimated at euro2-6 per capita and year. PMID:19342801

  12. Phosphorus recovery - an overview of potentials and possibilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Balmér

    The endeavour towards a sustainable society has led to an interest in the recovery and recirculation or reuse of phosphorus from wastewater among environmentalists and politicians. In a recent interdisciplinary investigation commissioned by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, an attempt was made to evaluate different possibilities to recover phosphorus from wastewater or its fractions; systems based on source separation of

  13. 76 FR 38592 - Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for Florida Everglades

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ...EPA-HQ-OW-2011-0515; FRL-9428-3] Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for Florida Everglades...would identify provisions of Florida's Water Quality Standards for Phosphorus in the...disapproved and that therefore are not applicable water quality standards for purposes of the...

  14. 77 FR 46298 - Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for Florida Everglades

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ...FRL 9666-8] RIN 2040-AF38 Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for Florida Everglades...that identifies provisions of Florida's Water Quality Standards for Phosphorus in the...disapproved and that therefore are not applicable water quality standards for purposes of the...

  15. Plant based phosphorus recovery from wastewater via algae and macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Shilton, Andrew N; Powell, Nicola; Guieysse, Benoit

    2012-12-01

    At present, resource recovery by irrigation of wastewater to plants is usually driven by the value of the water resource rather than phosphorus recovery. Expanded irrigation for increased phosphorus recovery may be expected as the scarcity and price of phosphorus increases, but providing the necessary treatment, storage and conveyance comes at significant expense. An alternative to taking the wastewater to the plants is instead to take the plants to the wastewater. Algal ponds and macrophyte wetlands are already in widespread use for wastewater treatment and if harvested, would require less than one-tenth of the area to recover phosphorus compared to terrestrial crops/pastures. This area could be further decreased if the phosphorus content of the macrophytes and algae biomass was tripled from 1% to 3% via luxury uptake. While this and many other opportunities for plant based recovery of phosphorus exist, e.g. offshore cultivation, much of this technology development is still in its infancy. Research that enhances our understanding of how to maximise phosphorus uptake and harvest yields; and further add value to the biomass for reuse would see the recovery of phosphorus via plants become an important solution in the future. PMID:22889679

  16. Low Phytic Acid Barley Responses to Phosphorus Rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low phytic acid (LPA) barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars partition phosphorus in seed tissue differently than conventional barley cultivars through a reduction in seed phytic acid (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexkisphosphate) coupled with an increase in inorganic phosphorus. The response of the LPA...

  17. Phosphorus Dynamics in Agricultural Runoff and Reservoirs in Oklahoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Sharpley; S. J. Smith; R. G. Menzel

    1989-01-01

    Concentrations of soluble and total phosphorus in runoff from 16 grassed and cropped watersheds were measured over the past decade. Six watersheds drained into two flood detention reservoirs, where phosphorus concentrations were also measured at the inflow, within the lake, and at the outflow over a two-year period, to assess the effects of agricultural management practices on water quality. Soluble

  18. Reducing watershed scale phosphorus export through integrated management practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus losses from golf course have been documented and are comparable to losses from agriculture and urban areas. Integrated management practices are required to address the problem. An integrated management approach using filter socks and limiting the amount of phosphorus applied to the golf c...

  19. Phosphorus Removal By Silage Corn In Southern Idaho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn silage is the predominant crop in Idaho used for recovering phosphorus (P) that has accumulated in soils from dairy manure applications. However, little is known about how much phosphorus and other nutrients are being recovered under Idaho conditions. The objective of the study is to estimate p...

  20. New England Regional Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer and

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    New England Regional Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer and Associated Management Practice;2 New England Regional Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer and Associated Management Practice provider #12;3 INTRODUCTION Significant land-use changes have occurred in New England during the last 30

  1. Environmental Benefits and Burdens of Phosphorus Recovery from Municipal Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bradford-Hartke, Zenah; Lane, Joe; Lant, Paul; Leslie, Gregory

    2015-07-21

    The environmental benefits and burdens of phosphorus recovery in four centralized and two decentralized municipal wastewater systems were compared using life cycle assessment (LCA). In centralized systems, phosphorus recovered as struvite from the solids dewatering liquid resulted in an environmental benefit except for the terrestrial ecotoxicity and freshwater eutrophication impact categories, with power and chemical use offset by operational savings and avoided fertilizer production. Chemical-based phosphorus recovery, however, generally required more resources than were offset by avoided fertilizers, resulting in a net environmental burden. In decentralized systems, phosphorus recovery via urine source separation reduced the global warming and ozone depletion potentials but increased terrestrial ecotoxicity and salinization potentials due to application of untreated urine to land. Overall, mineral depletion and eutrophication are well-documented arguments for phosphorus recovery; however, phosphorus recovery does not necessarily present a net environmental benefit. While avoided fertilizer production does reduce potential impacts, phosphorus recovery does not necessarily offset the resources consumed in the process. LCA results indicate that selection of an appropriate phosphorus recovery method should consider both local conditions and other environmental impacts, including global warming, ozone depletion, toxicity, and salinization, in addition to eutrophication and mineral depletion impacts. PMID:26121005

  2. Managing phosphorus for water quality protection - 10 principles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accelerated eutrophication of aquatic systems has primarily been the concern of developed nations where it represents the most pervasive impairment of surface water bodies. Managing phosphorus for water quality protection requires prudent tempering of agronomic emphases to build soil phosphorus,...

  3. REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS USING ALUMINUM SALTS FOR PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of aluminum salts to remove phosphorus is common practice. It has been shown that aluminum salts are also capable of removing heavy metals, but the dosages were much greater than normally applied for phosphorus removal. This study investigates the removal of heavy metals ...

  4. ROLE OF PRECISION FARMING IN PHOSPHORUS MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus is the second most common nutrient used by plants after nitrogen, so its role in plant growth is significant. When coupled with its strong affinity for most soil particles, it becomes a challenge to manage in an agricultural setting. Phosphorus that is attached to soil and organic matter ...

  5. Phosphorus Sources for Aquatic Weeds: Water or Sediments?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Carignan; J. Kalff

    1980-01-01

    Nine common species of aquatic macrophytes took all their phosphorus from the sediments when grown in situ in both a mesotrophic and a mildly eutrophic bay. Even under hypertrophic conditions, the sediments contributed an average of 72 percent of all the phosphorus taken up during growth. These experiments unambiguously demonstrate for the first time that submergent macrophytes in nature overwhelmingly

  6. Phosphorus versus nitrogen limitation in the marine environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Smith

    1984-01-01

    Limnological and marine geochemical opinion favors phosphorus limitation of organic produc- tion in aquatic environments, while marine biological opinion favors nitrogen limitation. Clues in the literature and nutrient budgets for selected marine ecosystems suggest that phosphorus vs. nitrogen limitation is a function of the relative rates of water exchange and internal biochemical processes acting to adjust the ratio of ecosystem

  7. The microbiology of biological phosphorus removal in activated sludge systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J Seviour; Takashi Mino; Motoharu Onuki

    2003-01-01

    Activated sludge systems are designed and operated globally to remove phosphorus microbiologically, a process called enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). Yet little is still known about the ecology of EBPR processes, the microbes involved, their functions there and the possible reasons why they often perform unreliably. The application of rRNA-based methods to analyze EBPR community structure has changed dramatically our

  8. Selective phosphorus regeneration of sinking marine particles: evidence from 31

    E-print Network

    Paytan, Adina

    Selective phosphorus regeneration of sinking marine particles: evidence from 31 P-NMR Adina Paytan oceanic settings and water depths, using 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Both in revised form 13 March 2003; accepted 17 March 2003 Abstract Phosphorus (P) regeneration and transformation

  9. Africa Phosphorus Fertilizer Application Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Africa Phosphorus Fertilizer Application Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Amount of phosphorus fertilizer applied averaged over all crops within the 0.5 deg grid cell. Grid cell values global maps of harvested areas for 175 crops with national information on fertilizer use for each crop

  10. Rheological and Morphological Properties of Phosphorus-Containing Polysulfones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Ioan; Luminita-Ioana Buruiana; Oana Petreus; Ecaterina Avram; Iuliana Stoica; Ghiocel Emil Ioanid

    2011-01-01

    Polysulfones with bulky phosphorus pendant groups, obtained by chemical modification of the chloromethylated polysulfones were subjected to rheological, surface tension and atomic force microscopy investigations, to establish the processing\\/morphology\\/property relationships of these polymers. The effects of the substitution degrees, of the bulky phosphorus pendant groups bound in different positions, and also of intermolecular and intramolecular interactions, influenced the rheological results.

  11. Research Progress on Phosphorus Removal in Substrates of Constructed Wetlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dun-Qiu Wang; Xiao-Dan Jin; Hua Zhang; Xue-Hong Zhang; Hong-Hu Zeng; Shao-Hong You; Wen-Yu Zhao; Ze-Long Xu; Yan-Hua Wu

    2009-01-01

    The classification and property of constructed wetland substrate has been reviewed, various substrates for phosphorus removal due to different P-adsorptive capacity have been summarized and the main influencing factor about substrates for phosphorus adsorption capacity has been investigated. At last, the paper puts forward prospect in development and selection media of constructed wetland imperatival in future.

  12. Phosphorus as a limiting factor on sustainable greywater irrigation.

    PubMed

    Turner, Ryan D R; Will, Geoffrey D; Dawes, Les A; Gardner, Edward A; Lyons, David J

    2013-07-01

    Water reuse through greywater irrigation has been adopted worldwide and has been proposed as a potential sustainable solution to increased water demands. Despite widespread adoption, there is limited domestic knowledge of greywater reuse. There is no pressure to produce low-level phosphorus products and current guidelines and legislation, such as those in Australia, may be inadequate due to the lack of long-term data to provide a sound scientific basis. Research has clearly identified phosphorus as a potential environmental risk to waterways from many forms of irrigation. To assess the sustainability of greywater irrigation, this study compared four residential lots that had been irrigated with greywater for four years and adjacent non-irrigated lots that acted as controls. Each lot was monitored for the volume of greywater applied and selected physic-chemical water quality parameters and soil chemistry profiles were analysed. The non-irrigated soil profiles showed low levels of phosphorus and were used as controls. The Mechlich3 Phosphorus ratio (M3PSR) and Phosphate Environmental Risk Index (PERI) were used to determine the environmental risk of phosphorus leaching from the irrigated soils. Soil phosphorus concentrations were compared to theoretical greywater irrigation loadings. The measured phosphorus soil concentrations and the estimated greywater loadings were of similar magnitude. Sustainable greywater reuse is possible; however incorrect use and/or lack of understanding of how household products affect greywater can result in phosphorus posing a significant risk to the environment. PMID:23624003

  13. AMERICAN SOCIETY OF AGRONOMY BOOK "PHOSPHORUS, AGRICULTURE AND THE ENVIRONMENT"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus: Agriculture and the Environment” provides a comprehensive, systematic review of the varied aspects of phosphorus (P) use in crop and livestock production and of the relationship between agricultural P management and water quality. This monograph draws upon the expertise of leading inte...

  14. Root hairs confer a competitive advantage under low phosphorus availability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terence R. Bates; Jonathan P. Lynch

    2001-01-01

    Root hairs are presumably important in the acquisition of immobile soil resources such as phosphorus. The density and length of root hairs vary substantially within and between species, and are highly regulated by soil phosphorus availability, which suggests that at high nutrient availability, root hairs may have a neutral or negative impact on fitness. We used a root-hairless mutant of

  15. The Sources of Phosphorus in the Waters of Great Britain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip J. White; John P. Hammond

    2009-01-01

    Total phosphorus (TP) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) loads to watercourses of the River Basin Districts (RBDs) of Great Britain (GB) were estimated using inventories of industrial P loads and estimates of P loads from sewage treatment works and diff use P loads calculated using region- specifi c export coeffi cients for particular land cover classes combined with census data

  16. PHOSPHORUS LOADING AND DIVERSION FOR PINE LAKE, WASHINGTON

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory J. Pelletier; Eugene B. Welch

    1987-01-01

    Phosphorus external and internal loading to Pine Lake was estimated and potential restoration measures were recommended. External sources contributed approximately 57 percent of the total phosphorus load, and internal sources the remaining 43 percent. External and internal loading together exceeded the critical level expected for a mesotrophic state. About one-third of the external load, or about 20 percent of the

  17. Phosphorus run-off assessment in a watershed.

    PubMed

    Chebud, Yirgalem; Naja, Ghinwa M; Rivero, Rosanna

    2011-01-01

    The Watershed Assessment Model was used to simulate the runoff volume, peak flows, and non-point source phosphorus loadings from the 5870 km(2) Lake Okeechobee watershed as a case study. The results were compared to on-site monitoring to verify the accuracy of the method and to estimate the observed/simulated error. In 2008, the total simulated phosphorus contribution was 9634, 6524 and 3908 kg (P) y(-1) from sod farms, citrus farms and row crop farmlands, respectively. Although the dairies represent less than 1% of the total area of Kissimmee basin, the simulated P load from the dairies (9283 kg (P) y(-1) in 2008) made up 5.4% of the total P load during 2008. On average, the modeled P yield rates from dairies, sod farms and row crop farmlands are 3.85, 2.01 and 0.86 kg (P) ha(-1) y(-1), respectively. The maximum sediment simulated phosphorus yield rate is about 2 kg (P) ha(-1) and the particulate simulated phosphorus contribution from urban, improved pastures and dairies to the total phosphorus load was estimated at 9%, 3.5%, and 1%, respectively. Land parcels with P oversaturated soil as well as the land parcels with high phosphorus assimilation and high total phosphorus contribution were located. The most critical sub-basin was identified for eventual targeting by enforced agricultural best management practices. Phosphorus load, including stream assimilation, incoming to Lake Okeechobee from two selected dairies was also determined. PMID:21069224

  18. Soil phosphorus availability differences between sprinkler and furrow irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water flowing in irrigation furrows detaches and transports soil particles and subsequently nutrients such as phosphorus. To reduce the risk of erosion and offsite phosphorus transport, producers in south-central Idaho have been converting from furrow to sprinkler irrigation. We completed research...

  19. Assessing the Long Term Impact of Phosphorus Fertilization on Phosphorus Loadings Using AnnAGNPS

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yongping; Bingner, Ronald L.; Locke, Martin A.; Stafford, Jim; Theurer, Fred D.

    2011-01-01

    High phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields has been an environmental concern because of potential water quality problems in streams and lakes. To better understand the process of P loss and evaluate the effects of different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus losses, the USDA Annualized AGricultural Non-Point Source (AnnAGNPS) pollutant loading model was applied to the Ohio Upper Auglaize watershed, located in the southern portion of the Maumee River Basin. In this study, the AnnAGNPS model was calibrated using USGS monitored data; and then the effects of different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus loadings were assessed. It was found that P loadings increase as fertilization rate increases, and long term higher P application would lead to much higher P loadings to the watershed outlet. The P loadings to the watershed outlet have a dramatic change after some time with higher P application rate. This dramatic change of P loading to the watershed outlet indicates that a “critical point” may exist in the soil at which soil P loss to water changes dramatically. Simulations with different initial soil P contents showed that the higher the initial soil P content is, the less time it takes to reach the “critical point” where P loadings to the watershed outlet increases dramatically. More research needs to be done to understand the processes involved in the transfer of P between the various stable, active and labile states in the soil to ensure that the model simulations are accurate. This finding may be useful in setting up future P application and management guidelines. PMID:21776225

  20. Luxury uptake of phosphorus by sediment bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aazamkhoshm Anesh; Barry T. Hart; Anabelle Duncan; Ron Beckett

    Abstract This note reports the results of experiments,aimed,at confirming,the luxury uptake,of phosphorus,(P) by sediment bacteria as polyphosphate,(Poly-P). Aerobic suspensions,of sediments from two different sites were spiked with 1 mg P\\/L as orthophosphate,and,augmented,with acetate (a fermentation,product) or glucose. The orthophosphate,was rapidly taken up over a period of a few hours. When,these aerobic uptake,experiments,were made,anaerobic,and,additional organic carbon added, only the acetate-amended sediment

  1. Molecular phosphorus ion source for semiconductor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gushenets V. I.; Hershcovitch A.; Bugaev, A.S.; Oks, E.M.; Kulevoy, T.V.

    2012-02-15

    This paper presents results on the generation of molecular phosphorus ion beams in a hot filament ion source. Solid red phosphorous is evaporated mainly as tetra-atomic molecules up to a temperature of 800 C. Thus, one of the main conditions for producing maximum P{sub 4}{sup +} fraction in the beam is to keep the temperature of the phosphorous oven, the steam line and the discharge chamber walls no greater than 800 C. The prior version of our ion source was equipped with a discharge chamber cooling system. The modified source ensured a P{sub 4}{sup +} ion beam current greater than 30% of the total beam current.

  2. Determination of soil organic phosphorus exchange sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shand, Charles; Wendler, Renate; Lumsdon, David; Cooper, Pat; George, Timothy; Brown, Lawrie; Giles, Courtney; Stutter, Marc; Menezes-Blackburn, Daniel; Zhang, Hao; Wearing, Catherine; Haygarth, Philip; Blackwell, Martin; Darch, Tegan

    2015-04-01

    Soils contain both organic and inorganic phosphorus (P) species in varying proportions. Studies have shown that many soils contain substantial amounts of inositol hexaphosphate (IHP) and there is much interest worldwide in developing strategies to make some use of this recalcitrant resource for plant growth to reduce P fertilizer inputs. Little is known about the preference of ion exchange processes in the solubilisation of organic vs inorganic P forms in soils, an important first step in making P forms bioavailable. Although they do not possess biotic functions, resins provides a simple means to deplete P forms in soil allowing investigation of exchange selectivity between inorganic and organic P forms. The aim of our work was to determine new understanding of exchange selectivity in soils and provide insight into potential depletion and plant uptake of soil phosphorus, with emphasis on organic forms such as IHP. For our study we used a Cambisol sampled from an agricultural area (Tayport) near Dundee in Scotland. The soil had a high Olsen (0.5 M sodium bicarbonate at pH 8.5) extractable P status (84 mg P/kg) and P-31 nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of its NaOH/EDTA extract showed it contained a substantial proportion of IHP (21 % of total extractable P). For resin extraction we used anion exchange resin sheets (4.17 cm each side) in bicarbonate form to minimise pH related solubilisation effects. We used 3.5 g of soil in 75 ml of water and added 1, 2 or 3 resin squares. After equilibration the resin squares were removed and replaced with fresh resin squares a further 3 times. Phosphorus was recovered from the resin sheets by elution with 0.25 M sulphuric acid and analysed by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy to determine total P, and colorimetrically with malachite green to determine inorganic P with the remainder assigned to organic P. The data showed that the resin preferentially removed inorganic P and even after four sequential extractions little or no organic P (< 9 %) was found on the resin, despite the high charge density of IHP. The amount of total P extracted over the sequential extractions with 1, 2 or 3 resin squares decreased in an exponential manner. Keywords: anion exchange, inositol hexaphosphate, phosphorus, P-31 NMR, resin

  3. [Characterization of phosphorus forms in different organic materials].

    PubMed

    Deng, Jia; Hu, Meng-Kun; Zhao, Xiu-Lan; Ni, Jiu-Pai; Xie, De-Ti

    2015-03-01

    The existing forms of phosphorus in seven organic waste materials including biogas residues of swine manure (ZZ), biogas residues of cattle manure (NZ), compost of cattle manure and corn straw (NJD), compost of sewage sludge (WD) and compost of rural daily garbage (NSLD) were characterized according to phosphorus fractionation procedures developed by DOU et al. The result showed that there was a great difference in the total phosphorus (TP) and the total phosphorus of various forms (P(t)) among different organic materials. ZZ had the highest content of TP with the value of 23.59 g x kg(-1); while NZ had the lowest TP content with the value of 3.61 g x kg(-1). The contents and proportions of phosphorus fractions in ZZ, NZ, NJD and WD followed the order of HCl-P > Residues-P > NaHCO3-P > NaOH-P > H2O-P, while followed the order of HC1-P > Residues-P > H2O-P > NaHCO3-P > NaOH-P in the three NSLDs. The proportion of HCl-P in the total fractionated phosphorus (P(tt)) in seven organic materials ranged from 47.75% to 84.96%, which indicated that most of P in organic materials existed in the forms that were easier to be extracted by strong extracting agents like HCl, which was difficult to be absorbed by plants. The inorganic phosphorus accounted for 79.72% -94.76% of the total phosphorus in the organic materials. Of all the phosphorus forms, the NaHCO3-P had the highest inorganic phosphorus fractions, but the inorganic phosphorus was mainly distributed in HCl-P. The organic phosphorus was mainly distributed in HCl-P and Residues-P. In addition, the higher proportions of inorganic phosphorus in NJD than those of NZ demonstrated that the composting process was benefit for the mineralization of organic phosphorus in organic materials and thus improving its availability. PMID:25929082

  4. Transport properties of ultrathin black phosphorus on hexagonal boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doganov, Rostislav A.; Koenig, Steven P.; Yeo, Yuting; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Özyilmaz, Barbaros

    2015-02-01

    Ultrathin black phosphorus, or phosphorene, is a two-dimensional material that allows both high carrier mobility and large on/off ratios. Similar to other atomic crystals, like graphene or layered transition metal dichalcogenides, the transport behavior of few-layer black phosphorus is expected to be affected by the underlying substrate. The properties of black phosphorus have so far been studied on the widely utilized SiO2 substrate. Here, we characterize few-layer black phosphorus field effect transistors on hexagonal boron nitride—an atomically smooth and charge trap-free substrate. We measure the temperature dependence of the field effect mobility for both holes and electrons and explain the observed behavior in terms of charged impurity limited transport. We find that in-situ vacuum annealing at 400 K removes the p-doping of few-layer black phosphorus on both boron nitride and SiO2 substrates and reduces the hysteresis at room temperature.

  5. Quantitation of phosphorus excretion in sheep by compartmental analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, K.M.; Boston, R.C.; Leaver, D.D.

    1987-04-01

    The control of phosphorus excretion in sheep has been examined by constructing a kinetic model that contains a mechanistic set of connections between blood and gastrointestinal tract. The model was developed using experimental data from chaff-fed sheep and gives an accurate description of the absorption and excretion of /sup 32/P phosphorus in feces and urine of the ruminating sheep. These results indicated the main control site for phosphorus excretion in the ruminating sheep was the gastrointestinal tract, whereas for the non-ruminating sheep fed the liquid diet, control was exerted by the kidney. A critical factor in the induction of adaptation of phosphorus reabsorption by the kidney was the reduction in salivation, and since this response occurred independently of marked changes in the delivery of phosphorus to the kidney, a humoral factor may be involved in this communication between salivary gland and kidney.

  6. The Prevalence of Phosphorus Containing Food Additives in Top Selling Foods in Grocery Stores

    PubMed Central

    León, Janeen B.; Sullivan, Catherine M.; Sehgal, Ashwini R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of phosphorus-containing food additives in best selling processed grocery products and to compare the phosphorus content of a subset of top selling foods with and without phosphorus additives. Design The labels of 2394 best selling branded grocery products in northeast Ohio were reviewed for phosphorus additives. The top 5 best selling products containing phosphorus additives from each food category were matched with similar products without phosphorus additives and analyzed for phosphorus content. Four days of sample meals consisting of foods with and without phosphorus additives were created and daily phosphorus and pricing differentials were computed. Setting Northeast Ohio Main outcome measures Presence of phosphorus-containing food additives, phosphorus content Results 44% of the best selling grocery items contained phosphorus additives. The additives were particularly common in prepared frozen foods (72%), dry food mixes (70%), packaged meat (65%), bread & baked goods (57%), soup (54%), and yogurt (51%) categories. Phosphorus additive containing foods averaged 67 mg phosphorus/100 gm more than matched non-additive containing foods (p=.03). Sample meals comprised mostly of phosphorus additive-containing foods had 736 mg more phosphorus per day compared to meals consisting of only additive-free foods. Phosphorus additive-free meals cost an average of $2.00 more per day. Conclusion Phosphorus additives are common in best selling processed groceries and contribute significantly to their phosphorus content. Moreover, phosphorus additive foods are less costly than phosphorus additive-free foods. As a result, persons with chronic kidney disease may purchase these popular low-cost groceries and unknowingly increase their intake of highly bioavailable phosphorus. PMID:23402914

  7. DECREASED ABSORPTION OF CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM, ZINC AND PHOSPHORUS BY HUMANS DUE TO INCREASED FIBER AND PHOSPHORUS CONSUMPTION AS WHEAT BREAD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John G. Reinhold; Bahram Faradji; Parichehr Abadi; Faramarz Ismail-Beigi

    2009-01-01

    During a 20 day period of high fiber consumption in the form of bread made partly from wheaten wholemeal, two men developed negative balances of calcium, magnesium, zinc and phosphorus due to in creased fecal excretion of each element. The fecal losses correlated closely with fecal dry matter and phosphorus. Fecal dry matter, in turn, was directly proportional to fecal

  8. Phosphorus Utilization and Characterization of Excreta From Swine Fed Diets Containing A Variety of Cereal Grains Balanced For Total Phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intrinsic phytase in swine feeds may alter phytate utilization and solubility of excreted phosphorus. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to quantify changes in fecal phosphorus composition from swine fed various cereal grains with a range of phytate concentrations and endogenous phytase...

  9. Electron shuttling in phosphorus donor qubit systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, N. Tobias; Gamble, John King; Nielsen, Erik; Muller, Richard P.; Witzel, Wayne M.; Montano, Ines; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2014-03-01

    Phosphorus donors in silicon are a promising qubit architecture, due in large part to their long nuclear coherence times and the recent development of atomically precise fabrication methods. Here, we investigate issues related to implementing qubits with phosphorus donors in silicon, employing an effective mass theory that non-phenomenologically takes into account inter-valley coupling. We estimate the significant sources of decoherence and control errors in this system to compute the fidelity of primitive gates and gate timescales. We include the effects of valley repopulation during the process of shuttling an electron between a donor and nearby interface or between neighboring donors, evaluating the control requirements for ensuring adiabaticity with respect to the valley sector. This work was supported in part by the LDRD program at Sandia National Labs, a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corp, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp, for the U.S. DOE NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. Phosphorus in the Diffuse Interstellar Medium

    E-print Network

    V. Lebouteiller; Kuassivi; R. Ferlet

    2005-07-18

    We present FUSE and HST/STIS measurements of the PII column density toward Galactic stars. We analyzed PII through the profile fitting of the unsaturated $\\lambda$1125 and $\\lambda$1533 lines and derived column densities integrated along the sightlines as well as in individual resolved components. We find that phosphorus is not depleted along those sightlines sampling the diffuse neutral gas. We also investigate the correlation existing between PII and OI column densities and find that there is no differential depletion between these two specie. Furthermore, the ratio N(PII)/N(OI) is consistent with the solar P/O value, implying that PII and OI coexist in the same gaseous phase and are likely to evolve in parallel since the time they are produced in stars. We argue that phosphorus, as traced by PII, is an excellent neutral oxygen tracer in various physical environments, except when ionization corrections are a significant issue. Hence, PII lines (observable with FUSE, HST/STIS, or with VLT/UVES for the QSO sightlines) reveal particularly useful as a proxy for OI lines when these are saturated or blended.

  11. The Financial Impact of Animal Related Phosphorus Management on Vermont Dairy Farms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alyssa Dodd; Catherine Halbrendt; Charles F. Nicholson

    Excessive phosphorus loading has been identified as the primary cause of decreasing water quality in Lake Champlain. Dairy farms are the major source of phosphorus pollution to the lake and are targeted to reduce phosphorus run-off. The goal of this research is to determine the farm-level financial impact of phosphorus management on different sizes of Vermont dairy farms. Farm financial

  12. Variable Rate Phosphorus Fertilization in Cotton on the Texas High Plains

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Variable Rate Phosphorus Fertilization in Cotton on the Texas High Plains Kevin Bronson, Wayne to phosphorus fertilizer, even with soil tests. Phosphorus is probably the third limiting factor in crop growth cotton responds to phosphorus fertilizer, using a landscape (topography) scale. Differences in nitrogen

  13. Leaf nitrogen to phosphorus ratios of tropical trees: experimental assessment of physiological and

    E-print Network

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    Leaf nitrogen to phosphorus ratios of tropical trees: experimental assessment of physiological words: leaf nitrogen concentration, leaf nitrogen to phosphorus ratio, leaf phosphorus concentration to phosphorus ratios of tropical tree and liana seedlings as a function of the relative growth rate, whole

  14. Utilization of phosphorus sources of different availability by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal maize

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Murdoch; J. A. Jackobs; J. W. Gerdemann

    1967-01-01

    Summary In experiments with phosphorus sources of different availability mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal maize grew equally well when the phosphorus source was readily available. When the phosphorus source was slowly available, however, mycorrhizal maize had a much higher phosphorus content and grew much better than non-mycorrhizal maize.

  15. The metabolic basis of whole-organism RNA and phosphorus content

    E-print Network

    Brown, James H.

    The metabolic basis of whole-organism RNA and phosphorus content James F. Gillooly* , Andrew P of phosphorus-rich RNA and whole-body phosphorus content in eukaryotes based on the mass- and temperature and consequently scales with body mass to the 1 4 power. Second, whole-body phosphorus content declines

  16. Ectopic expression of a soybean phytase in developing seeds of Glycine max to improve phosphorus availability

    E-print Network

    Finer, John J.

    Ectopic expression of a soybean phytase in developing seeds of Glycine max to improve phosphorus 2004 Key words: Glycine max, phosphorus, phytase expression, phytate, soybean, transgenic Abstract, phosphorus Introduction Phosphorus (P) is stored in plant seeds as phytate (also known as phytic acid, myo

  17. New Chiral Phosphorus Ligands for Enantioselective Hydrogenation Wenjun Tang and Xumu Zhang*

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Xumu

    New Chiral Phosphorus Ligands for Enantioselective Hydrogenation Wenjun Tang and Xumu Zhang, Pennsylvania 16802 Received January 29, 2003 Contents 1. Introduction 3029 2. Chiral Phosphorus Ligands: A Historical Overview 3030 2.1. Chiral Phosphorus Ligands from 1970 to 1980 3031 2.2. Chiral Phosphorus Ligands

  18. SEDIMENTARY PHOSPHORUS CYCLING IN TOMALES BAY, CALIFORNIA A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE DIVISION OF THE

    E-print Network

    Luther, Douglas S.

    SEDIMENTARY PHOSPHORUS CYCLING IN TOMALES BAY, CALIFORNIA A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE Cycling of phosphorus deposited in sediments and associated with suspended sediments delivered to Tomales of phosphorus between these solid phases and the water column. Phosphorus exchanged from suspended sediments

  19. Nitrate suppresses internal phosphorus loading in an eutrophic lake.

    PubMed

    Hemond, Harold F; Lin, Katherine

    2010-06-01

    The presence of nitrate in the hypolimnion of the eutrophic, dimictic Upper Mystic Lake has been previously shown to suppress the release of arsenic from lake sediments during seasonal anoxia, in large part by oxidizing iron (II) and producing iron oxyhydroxides that sorb inorganic arsenic. Because of the importance of internal phosphorus loading in the phosphorus budget of many eutrophic lakes, the chemical similarities between phosphate and arsenate, and the need to account for internal phosphorus loading as part of many lake restoration strategies, we carried out measurements to determine if the presence of nitrate also suppressed the release of phosphorus from the sediments of this lake during anoxia. Observations showed that this was the case. Arsenic, phosphorus, and iron (II) concentrations were strongly correlated in the water column, as expected, and the depths below which phosphorus and iron concentrations increased relative to epilimnetic values was predicted by the depth at which nitrate concentration approached zero. The results suggest that knowledge of a lake's nitrogen budget may be a useful tool in the design of lake remediation efforts, even though phosphorus is typically the limiting nutrient. PMID:20494392

  20. Domestic source of phosphorus to sewage treatment works.

    PubMed

    Comber, Sean; Gardner, Michael; Georges, Karyn; Blackwood, David; Gilmour, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus is an element essential for life. Concerns regarding long-term security of supply and issues related to eutrophication of surface waters once released into the aquatic environment have led governments to consider and apply measures for reducing the use and discharge of phosphorus. Examples of source control include legislation to reduce phosphorus use in domestic detergents. This research shows that other domestic sources of phosphorus also contribute significantly to the domestic load to sewer and that overall, domestic sources dominate loads to sewage treatment works. Estimates provided here show that although the natural diet contributes 40% of the domestic phosphorus load, other potentially preventable sources contribute significantly to the estimated 44,000 tonnes of phosphorus entering UK sewage treatment works each year. In the UK, food additives are estimated to contribute 29% of the domestic load; automatic dishwashing detergents contribute 9% and potentially increasing; domestic laundry 14%, including contributions from phosphonates, but decreasing; phosphorus dosing to reduce lead levels in tap water 6%; food waste disposed of down the drain 1%; and personal care products 1%. Although UK data is presented here, it is anticipated that similar impacts would be expected for other developed economies. Consideration of alternatives to all preventable sources of phosphorus from these sources would therefore offer potentially significant reductions in phosphorus loads to sewage treatment works and hence to the aquatic environment. Combining all source control measures and applying them to their maximum extent could potentially lead to the prevention of over 22,000 tonnes-P/year entering sewage treatment works. PMID:24191467

  1. Estimation of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Effluent from the Striped Catfish Farming Sector in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sena S. De Silva; Brett A. Ingram; Phuong T. Nguyen; Tam M. Bui; Geoff J. Gooley; Giovanni M. Turchini

    2010-01-01

    In this study an attempt is made to estimate nitrogen and phosphorus discharged to the environment from the striped catfish\\u000a (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) farming sector in the Mekong Delta (8°33?–10°55?N, 104°30?–106°50?E), South Vietnam. The sector accounted for 687,000 t\\u000a production in 2007 and 1,094,879 t in 2008, with over 95% of the produce destined for export to over 100 countries. Commercial\\u000a and farm-made

  2. Characterization of Phosphorus in Sewage Sludge from Different Sources by Phosphorus Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xi-Ling Peng; Ling Chen; Zi-Wen Lv; Guan-Jun Hao; Hai-Lan Fang

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the distribution and dynamics of phosphorus (P) in soils for environmental protection and agronomical usage, P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P NMR) was used to characterize the contents and chemical properties of P in sewage sludge from 13 wastewater treatment plants in Shanghai. The samples were extracted with 0.25 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) \\/ 0.05 M sodium ethylenediamietetraacetic

  3. Mineralizable phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbon relationships in dairy manure at various carbon-to-phosphorus ratios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thanh H. Dao; Robert C. Schwartz

    2010-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) in animal manure can be an important nutrient for crops or an environmental contaminant if in excess. Organic P in dairy manure may add to the environmentally bioactive P pools upon mineralization. A 353d incubation study of manures containing C:P between 83 and 130:1 was conducted to determine linkages between C and P transformations and the effects of

  4. Change in Soluble Phosphorus in Soils following Fertilization is Dependent on Initial Mehlich-3 Phosphorus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Ryan Bond; R. O. Maguire; J. L. Havlin

    2006-01-01

    There is a lack of information on how fertilization and initial Mehlich-3 phosphorus (M3P) interact to affect water soluble P (WSP) in soils. Our objectives were to (i) quantify the relationship between WSP and M3P for four textural diverse benchmark soils of North Car- olina (NC) and (ii) quantify the change in WSP concentrations follow- ing P additions to soils

  5. Phosphorus Control Practices for Dairy Waste Application Fields Using a Phosphorus Risk Index

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne McFarland

    Acknowledgments Funding for this report was provided,under,Section 319(h) of the Clean Water Act through,the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6, and the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation,Board for the demonstration,project Demonstration of Phosphorus Best Management,Practices in the North Bosque River Basin. The project was conducted,in coordination,with the USDA The Lake Waco\\/Bosque River Watershed Initiative funded,through the Natural Resource

  6. Effects of Cholecalciferol and Phytase on Phytate Phosphorus Utilization in Laying Hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. MUSAPUOR; J. POURREZA; A. SAMIE; H. MORADI

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of different levels of phytase, vitamin D3, calcium and available phosphorus on phytate phosphorus utilization in laying hens. Dietary phytase caused a significant (P<0.05) increase in feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, tibia ash weight, tibia ash percentage, tibia phosphorus plasma phosphorus and phosphorus digestibility. However, dietary phytase caused a significant (P<0.05) decrease

  7. Phosphorus removal in a surface-flow constructed wetland treating agricultural runoff.

    PubMed

    Beutel, Marc W; Morgan, Matthew R; Erlenmeyer, Jonathan J; Brouillard, Elaine S

    2014-05-01

    Agricultural runoff is a leading source of phosphorus (P) pollution to lakes and streams. The objective of this study was to evaluate P removal dynamics in a constructed treatment wetland (CTW) treating agricultural irrigation return flows. The CTW included a sedimentation basin (SB) followed by two surface-flow wetlands in parallel. Typical retention times and total P (TP) loading were 1.4 d and 50 to 110 g m yr P, respectively, for the SB and 5 to 6 d and 4 to 10 g m yr P, respectively, for wetlands. On the basis of this multiyear study, concentration removal efficiency in the SB averaged 21% for TP and 32% for reactive phosphorus (RP). Concentration removal efficiency in wetlands averaged 37 and 43% for TP and 22 and 33% for RP. Areal first-order removal rates for TP averaged 22 and 31 m yr in wetlands. Total P removal in wetlands exhibited a strong seasonal pattern, with minimum removal in the summer when high temperatures likely enhanced P release from decaying plant biomass. The performance of the CTW was stochastic, with removal unpredictably poorer in some years in part as a result of muskrat bioturbation and plant harvesting. In years before muskrat impacts, concentration removal efficiencies in wetlands were 50% for TP and 65% for RP. PMID:25602836

  8. Mycorrhizal Acquisition of Inorganic Phosphorus by the Green-leaved Terrestrial Orchid Goodyera repens

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Duncan D.; Johnson, Irene; Leake, Jonathan R.; Read, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Mycorrhizal fungi play a vital role in providing a carbon subsidy to support the germination and establishment of orchids from tiny seeds, but their roles in adult orchids have not been adequately characterized. Recent evidence that carbon is supplied by Goodyera repens to its fungal partner in return for nitrogen has established the mutualistic nature of the symbiosis in this orchid. In this paper the role of the fungus in the capture and transfer of inorganic phosphorus (P) to the orchid is unequivocally demonstrated for the first time. Methods Mycorrhiza-mediated uptake of phosphorus in G. repens was investigated using spatially separated, two-dimensional agar-based microcosms. Results External mycelium growing from this green orchid is shown to be effective in assimilating and transporting the radiotracer 33P orthophosphate into the plant. After 7 d of exposure, over 10 % of the P supplied was transported over a diffusion barrier by the fungus and to the plants, more than half of this to the shoots. Conclusions Goodyera repens can obtain significant amounts of P from its mycorrhizal partner. These results provide further support for the view that mycorrhizal associations in some adult green orchids are mutualistic. PMID:17339276

  9. Phosphorus Loadings Associated with a Park Tourist Attraction: Limnological Consequences of Feeding the Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Andrew M.; Ruhl, Nathan

    2007-04-01

    The Linesville spillway of Pymatuning State Park is one of the most visited tourist attractions in Pennsylvania, USA, averaging more than 450,000 visitors · year-1. Carp ( Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus) and waterfowl congregate at the spillway where they are fed bread and other foods by park visitors. We hypothesized that the “breadthrowers” constitute a significant nutrient vector to the upper portion of Pymatuning Reservoir. In the summer of 2002, we estimated phosphorus loadings attributable to breadthrowers, and compared these values to background loadings from Linesville Creek, a major tributary to the upper reservoir. Items fed to fish included bread, donuts, bagels, canned corn, popcorn, corn chips, hot dogs, birthday cakes, and dog food. Phosphorus loading associated with park visitors feeding fish was estimated to be 3233 g day-1, and estimated P export from the Linesville Creek watershed was 2235 g·day-1. P loading attributable to breadthrowers exceeded that of the entire Linesville Creek watershed on 33 of the 35 days of study, with only a heavy rainfall event triggering watershed exports that exceeded spillway contributions. Averaged across 5 weeks, breadthrowers contributed 1.45-fold more P to Pymatuning Reservoir than the Linesville Creek watershed. If Linesville Creek P exports are extrapolated to the entire Sanctuary Lake watershed, spillway contributions of P added 48% to the non-point source watershed P entering the lake. Park visitors feeding fish at the Linesville Spillway are a significant source of nutrients entering Sanctuary Lake.

  10. Molecular phosphorus ion source for semiconductor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gushenets, V. I.; Bugaev, A. S.; Oks, E. M. [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Hershcovitch, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kulevoy, T. V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation)

    2012-02-15

    This paper presents results on the generation of molecular phosphorus ion beams in a hot filament ion source. Solid red phosphorous is evaporated mainly as tetra-atomic molecules up to a temperature of 800 deg. C. Thus, one of the main conditions for producing maximum P{sub 4}{sup +} fraction in the beam is to keep the temperature of the phosphorous oven, the steam line and the discharge chamber walls no greater than 800 deg. C. The prior version of our ion source was equipped with a discharge chamber cooling system. The modified source ensured a P{sub 4}{sup +} ion beam current greater than 30% of the total beam current.

  11. Vanadium reduces mortality in phosphorus deficient chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C.H. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Since the vanadate anion is similar in structure to the phosphate ion, and since vanadate has been shown to interfere with phosphate metabolism both in vitro and in vivo, experiments were conducted to determine the effect of dietary vanadate (V) on chicks fed phosphorus (P) deficient diets. In these studies, broiler chicks of both sexes were fed the experimental diets from the day of hatching for 19 days. The diets were based on soybean meal and corn, supplemented with methionine, manganese, and vitamins to supply the chick's requirements. Calcium (Ca) and P levels were manipulated by use of feed grade dicalcium phosphate and limestone. V was added as ammonium metavanadate. Serum Ca and P were determined on representative chicks in each group. Increasing Ca levels increased serum Ca and decreased serum P. V increased serum P levels in the chicks receiving 0.2% P but not in those receiving 0.1% P.

  12. Organic Phosphorus in the Deep Subseafloor Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defforey, D.; Paytan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a macronutrient involved both in functional and structural components of all living cells. This makes it an essential nutrient for life, including microbial life in the deep subseafloor habitat. P availability in this environment is limited since organic matter is scarce and P is thought to be mainly present in refractory mineral phases. However, recent estimates suggest that the deep biosphere may contain up to 1% of Earth's total biomass, which implies that microorganisms may possess mechanisms to harvest recalcitrant phosphorus compounds in this environment. In addition, the role of the organic P pool in this setting is poorly understood and could be of great importance should it represent an important P pool fueling the deep biosphere. This study aims to identify and quantify organic P compounds in open ocean sediments using our newly developed sequential extraction procedure for 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P NMR). This method amplifies the signal of organic P in spectra by increasing its concentration and quantitatively removing the majority of inorganic P. Briefly, P bound to iron oxyhydroxides is removed from sediment samples during a reductive step; then, P in authigenic and biogenic apatite is solubilized over the course of an extraction in an acidic buffer. These two steps remove the majority of inorganic P from the sample. Lastly, the residue is extracted in 0.25M NaOH+ 0.05M Na2EDTA and the supernatant is frozen and lyophilized prior to 31P NMR analysis. This method will be applied to sediment samples from North Pond (IODP expedition 336), an isolated sediment pond on the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic ridge. This work will provide valuable insight into the diagenetic processes affecting organic P in open ocean sediments and into possible nutrient sources to the deep biosphere.

  13. Evaluating the Possible Role of Phosphorus Release from Sediments on Stream Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timm, A.; McGinley, P.

    2010-12-01

    Elevated phosphorus concentrations can lead to algal blooms which impair waters for consumption, recreation, industry and agricultural uses. Along with sources of phosphorus such as runoff from agriculture and the effluent from wastewater treatment plants, there are reservoirs of phosphorus stored in stream sediments. As phosphorus inputs from agriculture and industry are decreased, there is the potential for these phosphorus reserves in the sediment to be released and prolong the time for restoration. Mill Creek in Central Wisconsin has water phosphorus concentrations ranging from 0.1 mg/L to 0.5 mg/L. These high phosphorus concentrations are the result of both wastewater discharges and agriculture runoff. Often a model used to develop a Total Mass Daily Load (TMDL) does not include a sediment reserve as a source of phosphorus. This study evaluates two methods of estimating sediment phosphorus reserves and incorporates them within a model for the phosphorus concentration in a stream. Two methods for estimating phosphorus equilibration with the stream were examined: sorption isotherms with equilibrium phosphorus concentration estimation; and pore-water profiling with equilibrators. This study compares these two approaches along a phosphorus concentration gradient in the stream and examines the sensitivity of stream phosphorus concentration reductions to sediment phosphorus reserves.

  14. 30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.33 Allowable limits of dust concentration. (a) The...

  15. 30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.33 Allowable limits of dust concentration. (a) The...

  16. 30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.33 Allowable limits of dust concentration. (a) The...

  17. 30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.33 Allowable limits of dust concentration. (a) The...

  18. 30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.33 Allowable limits of dust concentration. (a) The...

  19. Key structure-activity relationships in the vanadium phosphorus oxide catalyst system

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.R. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Ebner, J.R. (Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO (USA))

    1990-04-01

    The crystal structure of vanadyl pyrophosphate has been redetermined using single crystals obtained from a near solidified melt of a microcrystalline catalyst sample. Crystals that index as vanadyl pyrophosphate obtained from this melt are variable in color. Crystallographic refinement of the single crystal x-ray diffraction data indicates that structural differences among these materials can be described in terms of crystal defects associated with linear disorder of the vanadium atoms. The importance of the disorder is outlined in the context of its effect on the proposed surface topology parallel to (1,0,0). Models of the surface topology simply and intuitively account for the non-stoichometric surface atomic P/V ratio exhibited by selective catalysts of this phase. These models also point to the possible role of the excess phosphorus in providing site isolation of reactive centers at the surface. 33 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Plant uptake of phosphorus and nitrogen recycled from synthetic source-separated urine.

    PubMed

    Bonvin, Christophe; Etter, Bastian; Udert, Kai M; Frossard, Emmanuel; Nanzer, Simone; Tamburini, Federica; Oberson, Astrid

    2015-03-01

    Urine contains about 50 % of the phosphorus (P) and about 90 % of the nitrogen (N) excreted by humans and is therefore an interesting substrate for nutrient recovery. Source-separated urine can be used to precipitate struvite or, through a newly developed technology, nitrified urine fertilizer (NUF). In this study, we prepared (33)P radioisotope- and stable (15)N isotope-labeled synthetic NUF (SNUF) and struvite using synthetic urine and determined P and N uptake by greenhouse-grown ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum var. Gemini) fertilized with these products. The P and N in the urine-based fertilizers were as readily plant-available in a slightly acidic soil as the P and N in reference mineral fertilizers. The ryegrass crop recovered 26 % of P applied with both urine-based fertilizers and 72 and 75 % of N applied as struvite and SNUF, respectively. Thus, NUF and urine-derived struvite are valuable N and P recycling fertilizers. PMID:25681979

  1. Aircraft Measurements of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in and around the

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Qi

    Aircraft Measurements of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in and around the Lake Tahoe Basin: Implications an instrumented aircraft flown over three locations: the Sierra Nevada foothills east of Sacramento ("low

  2. A single phosphorus treatment doubles growth of cyanobacterial lichen transplants.

    PubMed

    McCune, Bruce; Caldwell, Bruce A

    2009-02-01

    Lichens are reputedly slow growing and become unhealthy or die in response to supplements of the usual limiting resources, such as water and nitrogen. We found, however, that the tripartite cyanobacterial lichen Lobaria pulmonaria doubled in annual biomass growth after a single 20-minute immersion in a phosphorus solution (K2HPO4), as compared to controls receiving no supplemental phosphorus. This stimulation of cyanolichens by phosphorus has direct relevance to community and population ecology of lichens, including improving models of lichen performance in relation to air quality, improving forest management practices affecting old-growth associated cyanolichens, and understanding the distribution and abundance of cyanolichens on the landscape. Phosphorus may be as important a stimulant to cyanobacterial-rich lichen communities as it is to cyanobacteria in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:19323240

  3. A quantitative phosphorus loss assessment tool for agricultural fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation and nutrient management planners need an assessment tool to accurately predict phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural lands. Available tools are either qualitative indices with limited capability to quantify offsite water quality impacts or prohibitively complex quantitative process-bas...

  4. Novel Mechanisms in the Regulation of Phosphorus Homeostasis - Figure 3

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Theresa Berndt (Mayo Clinic)

    2009-02-01

    This figure shows that intestinal phosphate sensing increases the fractional excretion of phosphorus in the kidney following increases in intestinal luminal phosphate concentrations by the release of an intestinal mediator ("intestinal phosphatonin").

  5. Phosphorus Determination by Derivative Activation Analysis: A Multifaceted Radiochemical Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleppinger, E. W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Although determination of phosphorus is important in biology, physiology, and environmental science, traditional gravimetric and colorimetric methods are cumbersome and lack the requisite sensitivity. Therefore, a derivative activation analysis method is suggested. Background information, procedures, and results are provided. (JN)

  6. Method of removing and detoxifying a phosphorus-based substance

    DOEpatents

    Vandegrift, George F. (Bolingbrook, IL); Steindler, Martin J. (Park Forest, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A method of removing organic phosphorus-based poisonous substances from water contaminated therewith and of subsequently destroying the toxicity of the substance is disclosed. Initially, a water-immiscible organic is immobilized on a supported liquid membrane. Thereafter, the contaminated water is contacted with one side of the supported liquid membrane to selectively dissolve the phosphorus-based substance in the organic extractant. At the same time, the other side of the supported liquid membrane is contacted with a hydroxy-affording strong base to react the phosphorus-based substance dissolved by the organic extractant with a hydroxy ion. This forms a non-toxic reaction product in the base. The organic extractant can be a water-insoluble trialkyl amine, such as trilauryl amine. The phosphorus-based substance can be phosphoryl or a thiophosphoryl.

  7. High Mobility Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in Black Phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Likai; Ye, Guojun; Tran, Vy; Chen, Guorui; Wang, Huichao; Wang, Jian; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Yang, Li; Chen, Xianhui; Zhang, Yuanbo

    2015-03-01

    Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new member in the family of two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals. It is a semiconductor with a tunable bandgap and high carrier mobility - material properties that are important for potential opto-electronic and high-speed device applications. In this work, we achieve a record-high carrier mobility in black phosphorus by placing it on hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) substrate. The exceptional mobility of the 2D electron gas created at the interface allows us to observe quantum oscillations for the first time in this material. The temperature and magnetic field dependence of the oscillations yields crucial information about the black phosphorus 2DEG, such as cyclotron mass of the charge carriers and their lifetime. Our results pave the way to future research on quantum transport in black phosphorus.

  8. Phosphorus Removal from Silicon by Vacuum Refining and Directional Solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Dachuan; Ren, Shiqiang; Shi, Shuang; Dong, Wei; Qiu, Jieshan; TAN, Yi; Li, Jiayan

    2014-02-01

    Silicon is widely used as a raw material for production of solar cells. As a major impurity in silicon, phosphorus must be removed to 1 × 10-5 wt.%. In the present study, based on the distribution of phosphorus in a silicon ingot obtained by vacuum refining and directional solidification, the mechanism for removal of phosphorus from silicon is investigated. The results show that the distribution is controlled not only by segregation at the solid-liquid interface but also by evaporation at the gas-liquid interface, showing some deviation from Scheil's equation. A modified model which considers both segregation and evaporation is used to simulate the distribution, matching quite well with the experimental results. The temperature and solidification rate are two important parameters that affect the overall mass transfer coefficient and the effective segregation coefficient and thus the distribution of phosphorus. A high removal efficiency and a homogeneous distribution can be obtained by adjusting these two parameters.

  9. Reducing Phosphorus in Dairy Effluent Wastewater through Flocculation and Precipitation

    E-print Network

    Bragg, A.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of my research is to find methods to reduce the phosphorus concentration in dairy effluent wastewater through removal of suspended solids and precipitation of calcium or magnesium-ammonium phosphates....

  10. Determination of phosphorus by controlled-potential coulometry

    SciTech Connect

    Oganesyan, L.B.; Svirschchevskaya, G.G.; Ogareva, M.B.; Kon'kova, N.F.

    1987-07-10

    The purpose of their study was to determine the conditions necessary for eliminating the interference from molybdate and silicon as well as developing a controlled-potential coulometric method for the determination of phosphorus.

  11. Determination of phosphorus by controlled-potential coulometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. B. Oganesyan; G. G. Svirschchevskaya; M. B. Ogareva; N. F. Konkova

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of their study was to determine the conditions necessary for eliminating the interference from molybdate and silicon as well as developing a controlled-potential coulometric method for the determination of phosphorus.

  12. Phosphorus removal and recovery from domestic wastewater in a membrane bioreactor with external recycle anaerobic process of sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Lijuan; Feng Li; Wang Liping; Sun Dezhi; Zhang Liqiu

    2010-01-01

    The removal of phosphorus from domestic wastewater in a membrane bioreactor with external recycle anaerobic process of sludge was investigated. More than 85% of phosphorus removal efficiency could be achieved steadily with external recycle of sludge. In the anaerobic reactor, the sufficiency of phosphorus released from the phosphorus-enriched sludge was an important factor for phosphorus removal from the system. Sodium

  13. Reversible changes of the muscle cell in experimental phosphorus deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, T J; Carter, N W; Barcenas, C; Knochel, J P

    1976-01-01

    Both animal and human studies suggest that either phosphorus depletion or hypophosphatemia might have an adverse effect on muscle function and composition. Recently a possible deleterious effect was noted in patients with chronic alcoholism. In this unexplained disease, a variety of toxic and nutritional disturbances could affect the muscle cell, thus obscuring the precise role of phosphorus. Accordingly, we examined eight conditioned dogs for the possibility that phosphorus deficiency per se might induce an abnormally low resting transmembrane electrical potential difference (Em) and alter the composition of the muscle cell. Eight conditioned dogs were fed a synthetic phosphorus-deficient but otherwise nutritionally adequate diet plus aluminum carbonate gel for a 28-day period followed by the same diet with phosphorus supplementation for an additional 28 days. Sequential measurements of Em and muscle composition were made at 0 and 28 days during depletion and again after phosphorus repletion. Serum inorganic phosphorus concentration (mg/100 ml) fell from 4.2 +/- 0.6 on day 0 t0 1.7 +/- 0.1 on day 28. Total muscle phosphorus content (mmol/100 g fat-free dry wt [FFDW]) fell from 28.5 +/- 1.8 on day 0 to 22.4 +/- 2.1 on day 28. During phosphorus depletion, average Em (-mV) fell from 92.6 +/- 4.2 to 77.9 +/- 4.1 mV (P less than 0.001). Muscle Na+ and Cl- content (meq/100 g FFDW) rose respectively from 11.8 +/- 3.2 to 17.2 +/- 2.8 (P less than 0.01) and from 8.4 +/- 1.4 to 12.7 +/- 2.0 (P less than 0.001). Total muscle water content rose from 331 +/- 12 to 353 +/- 20 g/100 FFDW (P less than 0.05). A slight, but nevertheless, significant drop in muscle potassium content, 43.7 +/- 2.0-39.7 +/- 2.2 meq/100 g FFDW (P less than 0.05) was also noted. After 4 wk of phosphorus repletion, all of these measurements returned toward control values. We conclude that moderate phosphorus depletion can induce reversible changes in skeletal muscle composition and transmembrane potential in the dog, and it apparently occurs independently of profound hypophosphatemia. PMID:947947

  14. Hydration kinetics of phosphorus slag-cement paste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xia Chen; Kunhe Fang; Huaquan Yang; Hua Peng

    2011-01-01

    Hydration characteristics of Portland cement paste with phosphorus slag powder incorporated and hydration kinetics was investigated\\u000a with SEM, X-ray diffraction, DTA-TG and calorimeter II 80. Results showed that phosphorus slag powder could reduce total amount\\u000a of hydration products yet had little influence on the type of hydration products. The total amount of heat of hydration was\\u000a decreased by 49.11% and

  15. Ecological nitrogen-to-phosphorus stoichiometry at station ALOHA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Karl; Karin M Björkman; John E. Dore; Lance Fujieki; Dale V. Hebel; Terrence Houlihan; Ricardo M. Letelier; Luis M. Tupas

    2001-01-01

    The elemental stoichiometry of dissolved and particulate matter in the sea, especially the nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratio, is an important parameter for studies of the nutrient control of plankton growth and for modeling biogeochemical processes, including carbon sequestration. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) pools have been measured on approximately monthly intervals for a 9-yr period at a deep-ocean station in the North

  16. Modeling high-concentration phosphorus diffusion in crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velichko, O. I.; Aksenov, V. V.; Anufriev, L. P.; Golubev, N. F.; Komarov, A. F.

    2013-05-01

    Phosphorus diffusion in crystalline silicon in doping from a surface source at a temperature of 840°C and a duration of 10 min has been modeled. Good agreement with experimental data has been obtained, which confirms the adequacy of the employed model of high-concentration phosphorus diffusion. This model takes account of the drift of self-interstitials in the field of internal elastic stresses.

  17. Thermochemical treatment of sewage sludge ashes for phosphorus recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Adam; B. Peplinski; M. Michaelis; G. Kley; F.-G. Simon

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for all living organisms and cannot be replaced. Municipal sewage sludge is a carrier of phosphorus, but also contains organic pollutants and heavy metals. A two-step thermal treatment is suggested, including mono-incineration of sewage sludge and subsequent thermochemical treatment of the ashes. Organic pollutants are completely destroyed by mono-incineration. The resulting sewage sludge ashes

  18. The release of dissolved phosphorus from lake sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. M. Boers

    1991-01-01

    Chapter 1. Introduction:<\\/strong> Eutrophication is one of the world's major water quality problems. Attempts to alleviate eutrophication of lakes have involved the control of phosphorus loadings. In such cases, an internal loading of phosphorus from the sediments may retard an improvement of the water quality. Chapters 2 - 5 deal specifically with the sediments of Lake Loosdrecht.Chapter 2. Distribution and

  19. Calcium and phosphorus requirements of bobwhite quail chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.; Moschler, M.

    1948-01-01

    Four experiments involving 873 bob-white quail (Colinus virginianus) chicks were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, Maryland. A comparison was made of calcium: phosphorus ratios of 1:1, 15:1, 1%: 1, 2:1, 2+:1,and 2%: 1in diets with phosphorus levels of 0.52, 0.75, 1.00, and 1.25 percent. The results indicate that the optimum level of phosphorus for growth is in the neighborhood of 0.75 per cent, and that of calcium is about 1.00 per cent, making a ratio of 1 1/3: 1....Although the greatest efficiency of feed utilization occurred on the phosphorus level of 0.52 per cent, the liveweight and bone-ash of the birds at the end of ten weeks were significantly lower than they were on the levels of 0.75 and 1.00 per cent, phosphorus. Bone-ash of birds on a Ca: P ratio of 1:1was significantly lower than that on any of the other five ratios, regardless of phosphorus level....There was a significant reverse correlation between the Ca: P ratio of the diet and the storage of vitamin A in the liver. Storage was especially low on the ratio of 2 2/3: 1....The low and high levels of calcium and phosphorus considered in these studies are abnormal, the low level especially being hard to obtain with common feedstuffs, if the protein requirements of the birds are met. Nevertheless, even on such levels, results were not disastrous. The growth of quail in the wild happens during a season when the birds have access to the minerals of the soil and in the abundant animal matter (mostly insects), as well as to minerals in plant material. Therefore, seemingly, calcium and phosphorus need not be critical nutrients for growing quail in the wild.

  20. Electrodeposition of amorphous ternary nickel-chromium-phosphorus alloy

    DOEpatents

    Guilinger, Terry R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    Amorphous ternary nickel-chromium-phosphorus alloys are electrodeposited from a bath comprising a nickel salt, a chromium salt, a phosphorus source such as sodium hypophosphite, a complexing agent for the nickel ions, supporting salts to increase conductivity, and a buffering agent. The process is carried out at about room temperature and requires a current density between about 20 to 40 A/dm.sup.2.

  1. The determination of phosphorus by fast neutron activation analysis 

    E-print Network

    To-On, Maen

    1964-01-01

    THE DETERMXNATIQN OF PHOSPHORUS BY FAST NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANAXYSIS Thesis MAEN TO ON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the reguirekents for the degree of MASTER OF SC XENCE May 1964 Major... subject, : chemistr'y THE DETERMXNATXON OF PHOSPHORUS BY FAST NEUTRON ACTXVATXON ANAXYSXS Thesis By MAEN TO ON Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Memb of Committee) (Head of Department) (Member of Committee) May 1964 AC...

  2. Microbial phytases in phosphorus acquisition and plant growth promotion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bijender Singh; T. Satyanarayana

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the major constituents in energy metabolism and biosynthesis of nucleic acids and cell membranes\\u000a with an important role in regulation of a number of enzymes. Soil phosphorous is an important macronutrient for plant growth.\\u000a Phosphorus deficiency in soil is a major problem for agricultural production. Total soil P occurs in either organic or in\\u000a organic

  3. Phosphorus and nitrogen retention in five Precambrian shield wetlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Devito; P. J. Dillon; B. D. Lazerte

    1989-01-01

    Phosphorus and nitrogen mass balances of five wetlands (two beaver ponds, two conifer-Sphagnum swamps and one sedge fen) situated in three catchments in central Ontario, Canada, were measured. Monthly and annual input-output budgets of total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), total organic nitrogen (TON), total inorganic nitrogen (TIN), ammonium ion (NH4+ -N), nitrate (NO3- -N) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)

  4. Quantitation of phosphorus excretion in sheep by compartmental analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Schneider; R. C. Boston; D. D. Leaver

    1987-01-01

    The control of phosphorus excretion in sheep has been examined by constructing a kinetic model that contains a mechanistic set of connections between blood and gastrointestinal tract. The model was developed using experimental data from chaff-fed sheep and gives an accurate description of the absorption and excretion of ³²P phosphorus in feces and urine of the ruminating sheep. These results

  5. Influence of suspended clay on phosphorus uptake by periphyton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Wolfe; O. T. Lind

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of suspended clay upon the phosphorus uptake rate exhibited by lotic periphyton communities. Suspended\\u000a inorganic clays and periphyton are common to aquatic environments, and both can strongly influence physical and chemical water\\u000a conditions. We used replicated artificial stream channels to test the prediction that suspended clay particles would affect\\u000a the uptake of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP)

  6. Phosphorus and Nitrogen Regulate Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis in Petunia hybrida

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Eva; Breuillin-Sessoms, Florence; Feller, Urs; Reinhardt, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus and nitrogen are essential nutrient elements that are needed by plants in large amounts. The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis between plants and soil fungi improves phosphorus and nitrogen acquisition under limiting conditions. On the other hand, these nutrients influence root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi and symbiotic functioning. This represents a feedback mechanism that allows plants to control the fungal symbiont depending on nutrient requirements and supply. Elevated phosphorus supply has previously been shown to exert strong inhibition of arbuscular mycorrhizal development. Here, we address to what extent inhibition by phosphorus is influenced by other nutritional pathways in the interaction between Petunia hybrida and R. irregularis. We show that phosphorus and nitrogen are the major nutritional determinants of the interaction. Interestingly, the symbiosis-promoting effect of nitrogen starvation dominantly overruled the suppressive effect of high phosphorus nutrition onto arbuscular mycorrhiza, suggesting that plants promote the symbiosis as long as they are limited by one of the two major nutrients. Our results also show that in a given pair of symbiotic partners (Petunia hybrida and R. irregularis), the entire range from mutually symbiotic to parasitic can be observed depending on the nutritional conditions. Taken together, these results reveal complex nutritional feedback mechanisms in the control of root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. PMID:24608923

  7. [Characteristics of denitrifying phosphorus removal by sequencing batch reactor].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Lü, Xi-wu

    2007-10-01

    The characteristics of denitrifying phosphorus removal were studied in a laboratory sequencing batch reactor (SBR) at NO3(-)-N to COD ratio (NO3(-)-N/COD) of 0.04, 0.095, 0.125 and 0.27, respectively. Experiments showed that the transformations of pollutants correlated well to control parameters (i.e. pH, ORP and DO). In blending phase, the reaction of denitrifying phosphorus removal could be indicated by ORP, and in oxidation phase a valley concentration of TN called NAS point could be monitored by all the three parameters, among which pH was the most sensitive parameter. Both reactor efficiency and effluent quality would be improved when supernatant was discharged at NAS point. In denitrifying phosphorus removal process, NO3(-)-N was quickly transformed into intermediate products firstly and then gradually into N2 by denitrifying P-bacteria (DPBs). Carbon source had a significant influence on phosphorus removal capability of DPBs. When NO3(-)-N/COD ratio was higher than 0.095, phosphorus removal capability of DPBs enhanced with the increase of the ratio. Results indicated that NO3(-)-N/COD ratio should not be lower than 0.125 for a favorable denitrifying phosphorus removal effect. PMID:18268989

  8. Phosphorus out-diffusion in laser molten silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, J. R.; Eisele, S. J.

    2015-04-01

    Laser doping via liquid phase diffusion enables the formation of defect free pn junctions and a tailoring of diffusion profiles by varying the laser pulse energy density and the overlap of laser pulses. We irradiate phosphorus diffused 100 oriented p-type float zone silicon wafers with a 5 ?m wide line focused 6.5 ns pulsed frequency doubled Nd:YVO4 laser beam, using a pulse to pulse overlap of 40%. By varying the number of laser scans Ns = 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 40 at constant pulse energy density H = 1.3 J/cm2 and H = 0.79 J/cm2 we examine the out-diffusion of phosphorus atoms performing secondary ion mass spectroscopy concentration measurements. Phosphorus doping profiles are calculated by using a numerical simulation tool. The tool models laser induced melting and re-solidification of silicon as well as the out-diffusion of phosphorus atoms in liquid silicon during laser irradiation. We investigate the observed out-diffusion process by comparing simulations with experimental concentration measurements. The result is a pulse energy density independent phosphorus out-diffusion velocity vout = 9 ± 1 cm/s in liquid silicon, a partition coefficient of phosphorus 1 < kp < 1.1 and a diffusion coefficient D = 1.4(±0.2)cm2/s × 10-3 × exp[-183 meV/(kBT)].

  9. Phosphorus cycling in the deep subseafloor biosphere at North Pond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defforey, D.; Paytan, A.

    2013-12-01

    Phosphorus is a macronutrient involved both in functional and structural components of all living cells. This makes it an essential nutrient for life, including microbial life in the deep subseafloor habitat. Phosphorus availability in this environment is limited since it is thought to be mainly present in refractory mineral phases. However, recent estimates suggest that the deep biosphere may contain up to 1% of Earth's total biomass, which implies that microorganisms may possess mechanisms to harvest recalcitrant phosphorus compounds in this environment. This study sheds light on those mechanisms by investigating phosphorus cycling in deep open-ocean sediments using stable oxygen isotope ratios in phosphate. Furthermore, this study provides insight into changes in phosphorus bioavailability and mobility under a range of natural environmental conditions within the deep biosphere. Sediment samples were collected from four boreholes drilled during the IODP Expedition 336 to North Pond, an isolated sediment pond on the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Sedimentary phosphorus compounds are characterized using sequential extractions (SEDEX), which separate them into five distinct pools. Phosphate from the various extracts are then concentrated, purified through a series of steps, then converted to silver phosphate, which is pyrolyzed and analyzed by continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS). The isotopic signatures and/or fractionations associated with many of the potential reactions and transformations operating in the P cycle have been determined, and provide the basis for interpreting isotopic data that are obtained from the phosphate extracts.

  10. Elucidating the redox cycle of environmental phosphorus using ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Pech, Herbe; Vazquez, Maria G; Van Buren, Jean; Shi, Lixin; Ivey, Michelle M; Salmassi, Tina M; Pasek, Matthew A; Foster, Krishna L

    2011-09-01

    Historically, it was assumed that reactive, inorganic phosphorus present in pristine environments was solely in the form of orthophosphate. However, this assumption contradicts theories of biogenesis and the observed metabolic behavior of select microorganisms. This paper discusses the role of ion chromatography (IC) in elucidating the oxidation-reduction cycle of environmental phosphorus. These methods employ suppressed-IC, coupled with tandem conductivity and electrospray mass spectrometry detectors to identify and quantify phosphorus oxyanions in natural water, synthetic cosmochemical, and biological samples. These techniques have been used to detect phosphite and orthophosphate in geothermal hot springs. Hypophosphite, phosphite, and orthophosphate have been detected in synthetic schreibersite corrosion samples, and termite extract supernatant. Synthetic schreibersite corrosion samples were also analyzed for two poly-phosphorus compounds, hypophosphate and pyrophosphate, and results show these samples did not contain concentrations above the 1.3 and 2.0 ?M respective 3? limit of detection. These methods are readily adaptable to a variety of matrices, and contribute to the elucidation of the oxidation-reduction cycle of phosphorus oxyanions in the environment. In contrast to most studies, these techniques have been used to show that phosphorus actively participates in redox processes in both the biological and geological world. PMID:21859529

  11. Calcium and phosphorus requirements of breeding bobwhite quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, J.B.; Nestler, R.B.; Derby, J.V., Jr.

    1949-01-01

    In the course of studies designed to determine the calcium and phosphorus requirements of breeding bobwhite quail, it was found that best results were obtained when the Ca/P ratio in the diet was approximately 2.3:1. Variations in the Ca/P ratio produced significant differences in results when the level of phosphorus in the diet was 0.75%, but the differences were less marked when the level of phosphorus was increased to 1.00%. Although diets containing 0.75% phosphorus and 1.8% calcium appeared adequate for reproduction, as judged by the criteria of the maintenance of satisfactory condition in the breeders, egg production, fertility, hatchability and survival of offspring during the first 5 days after hatching, it was found that the winter mortality of the offspring of birds fed such a diet was much greater than that occurring in the offspring of birds fed on diets containing 1.00 or 1.25% phosphorus. It is concluded that breeding bobwhite quail require diets furnishing approximately 1.00% phosphorus and 2.3% calcium.

  12. THE MORTALITY OF BACTERIOPHAGE CONTAINING ASSIMILATED RADIOACTIVE PHOSPHORUS

    PubMed Central

    Hershey, A. D.; Kamen, M. D.; Kennedy, J. W.; Gest, H.

    1951-01-01

    The bacteriophage T4 containing assimilated radioactive phosphorus is inactivated at a rate proportional to the specific radioactivity of the constituent phosphorus. The beta radiation from the phosphorus makes a negligible contribution to this effect. The inactivation is therefore a direct consequence of the nuclear reaction, which kills the phage with an efficiency of about 1/12. Several phages related to T4 behave similarly. When radioactive phage is grown from a seed of non-radioactive phage, all of the phage progeny are subject to killing by radioactive decay. The phage is killed by beta radiation from P32 with an efficiency of about 1/100 per ionization within the particle volume. Bacteriophage T4 and its relatives contain about 500,000 atoms of phosphorus per infective particle. Virtually all this phosphorus is adsorbed to bacteria with the specificity characteristic of the infective particles, and none of it can be removed from the particles by the enzyme desoxyribonuclease. The phosphorus content per particle, together with the published data on analytical composition, indicates a particle diameter close to 110 mµ for the varieties of phage studied. PMID:14824499

  13. First-principles study of the effect of phosphorus on nickel grain boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenguan; Ren, Cuilan; Han, Han, E-mail: hanhan@sinap.ac.cn, E-mail: xuhongjie@sinap.ac.cn; Zou, Yang; Zhou, Xingtai; Huai, Ping; Xu, Hongjie, E-mail: hanhan@sinap.ac.cn, E-mail: xuhongjie@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Tan, Jie [Department of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan Shandong 250100 (China)

    2014-01-28

    Based on first-principles quantum-mechanical calculations, the impurity-dopant effects of phosphorus on ?5(012) symmetrical tilt grain boundary in nickel have been studied. The calculated binding energy suggests that phosphorus has a strong tendency to segregate to the grain boundary. Phosphorus forms strong and covalent-like bonding with nickel, which is beneficial to the grain boundary cohesion. However, a too high phosphorus content can result in a thin and fragile zone in the grain boundary, due to the repulsion between phosphorus atoms. As the concentration of phosphorus increases, the strength of the grain boundary increases first and then decreases. Obviously, there exists an optimum concentration for phosphorus segregation, which is consistent with observed segregation behaviors of phosphorus in the grain boundary of nickel. This work is very helpful to understand the comprehensive effects of phosphorus.

  14. Phosphorus chemical shift tensors of phosphido ligands in ruthenium carbonyl compounds: (31)P NMR spectroscopy of single-crystal and powder samples and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Eichele, Klaus; Wasylishen, Roderick E; Corrigan, John F; Taylor, Nicholas J; Carty, Arthur J; Feindel, Kirk W; Bernard, Guy M

    2002-02-20

    The phosphorus chemical shift (CS) tensors of several ruthenium carbonyl compounds containing a phosphido ligand, micro), bridging a Ru [bond] Ru bond were characterized by solid-state (31)P NMR spectroscopy. As well, an analogous osmium compound was examined. The structures of most of the clusters investigated have approximate local C(2v) symmetry about the phosphorus atom. Compared to the "isolated" PH(2)(-) anion, the phosphorus nucleus of a bridging phosphido ligand exhibits considerable deshielding. The phosphorus CS tensors of most of the compounds have spans ranging from 230 to 350 ppm and skews of approximately zero. Single-crystal NMR was used to investigate the orientation of the phosphorus CS tensors for two of the compounds, Ru(2)(CO)(6)(mu(2)-C [triple bond] C [bond] Ph)(mu(2)-PPh(2)) and Ru(3)(CO)(9)(mu(2)-H)(mu(2)-PPh(2)). The intermediate component of the phosphorus CS tensor, delta(22), lies along the local C(2) axis in both compounds. The least shielded component, delta(11), lies perpendicular to the Ru [bond] P [bond] Ru plane while the most shielded component, delta(33), lies perpendicular to the C [bond]P [bond] C plane. The orientation of the phosphorus CS tensor for a third compound, Ru(2)(CO)(6)(mu(2)-PPh(2))(2), was investigated by the dipolar-chemical shift NMR technique and was found to be analogous, suggesting it to be the same in all compounds. Ab initio calculations of phosphorus magnetic shielding tensors have been carried out and reproduce the orientations found experimentally. The orientation of the CS tensor has been rationalized using simple frontier MO theory. Splittings due to (99,101)Ru [bond] (31)P spin-spin coupling have been observed for several of the complexes. A rare example of (189)Os [bond] (31)P spin-spin splittings is observed in the (31)P MAS NMR spectrum of the osmium cluster, where (1)J((189)Os, (31)P) is 367 Hz. For this complex, the (189)Os nuclear quadrupolar coupling constant is on the order of several hundred megahertz. PMID:11841326

  15. Evaluation of radioactive phosphorus in the palliation of metastatic bone lesions from carcinoma of the breast and prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, A. (Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Canada); Driedger, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive phosphorus effected substantial palliation of intractable bone pain in 17 of 33 (51.5%) women with metastatic carcinoma of the breast and in 14 of 15 (93.3%) men with metastatic carcinoma of the prostate. No significant difference in the overall response rate was found between androgen and paralthormone priming prior to radiophosphorus therapy. The degree of response was not dependent on total dose of /sup 32/P within the range of 9 to 18 mCi (333 to 666 MPq). Myelosuppression was a transient complication in 9 of 33 patients with metastatic breast carcinoma and in 7 of 15 patients with metastatic prostate carcinoma. Symptomatic hypercalcemia was an infrequent complication of radiophosphorus therapy irrespective of the priming regimen.

  16. Uncertainty based analysis of the impact of watershed phosphorus load on reservoir phosphorus concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamouz, Mohammad; Taheriyoun, Masoud; Seyedabadi, Mohammadreza; Nazif, Sara

    2015-02-01

    In many regions of the world that depend on surface reservoirs as a source of water supply, eutrophication is a major water quality problem. Developing simulation models to evaluate the impact of watershed nutrient loads on the reservoir's water quality is an essential step in eutrophication management. In this regard, analysis of model uncertainty gives an opportunity to assess the reliability and the margin of safety of the model predictions for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) from the watershed nutrient load. In this study, a computational procedure has been proposed for the analysis of the model uncertainties in simulation of watershed phosphorous load and reservoir phosphorous concentration. Data from the Aharchai watershed which is located upstream of the Satarkhan reservoir in the northwestern part of Iran, is used as the study area to test the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. The Soil and Water Assessment Tools (SWAT) is utilized for assessment of watershed phosphorus load as the main agent resulting in the reservoir eutrophication in the region. The most effective parameters in model performance are identified by a global sensitivity analysis technique named modified Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) which can incorporate parameter interdependencies. The Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) technique is also applied to set up behavioral ranges of the parameters that are relevant to the actual observations. Finally, the cumulative weighted-likelihood distribution functions (CWLDF) are derived for outputs of the SWAT. They are used jointly for estimation of results uncertainty limits using the Copula method. To assess the effectiveness of applying Best Management Practices (BMPs) in the watershed, two scenarios of with and without BMPs application are tested. The results showed the effectiveness of the proposed model in uncertainty estimation of watershed phosphorus load and reservoir phosphorus concentration as well as the effectiveness of BMPs in reducing P loads from the watershed.

  17. Wet deposition of phosphorus in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollman, C. D.; Landing, W. M.; Perry, J. J.; Fitzpatrick, T.

    Wet deposition of phosphorus was measured at 10 sites across Florida originally established as part of the Florida Atmospheric Mercury Study conducted between 1992 and 1996. Monthly integrated samples were collected and analyzed using a total analytical protocol that incorporated "clean lab" conditions for sample equipment preparation and Aerochem Metrics collectors modified for suitability to use for ultra-trace elements. Samples also were collected aboard 15 m towers to minimize any influence on measured deposition by insects, etc., and locally originating particles that do not contribute to true net deposition. Extensive replication of samples in the field was conducted (ca. 83%). The average absolute difference between replicates was 16.2%, with a median absolute difference of 9.5%. Replicate precision was poorest for concentrations above 0.080 mg P l -1, suggesting that concentrations above this level are contaminated. The wet deposition concentrations and fluxes of phosphorus measured in this study are appreciably lower than those reported by previous investigators for wet deposition in Florida, and lie at the lower end of measurements reported in the recent literature. For example, the volume weighted mean concentration and flux for wet deposition across all our study sites averaged 0.005 mg P l -1 and 7.5 mg P m -2 yr -1, respectively, which is approximately 50% and 32% lower than that reported by Hendry et al. (1981 in Atmospheric Pollutants in Natural Waters. Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor. MI, pp. 199-215). Our lower measurements likely reflect three factors: (1) the ultra-trace element sampling and analytical protocols; (2) improved collector design to eliminate sampling artifacts (e.g., splash-off contamination and transfer of contaminants from the dry bucket); and (3) placement of collectors off the ground surface. Lower VWM concentrations were observed near the Florida coast; otherwise, strong spatial patterns across the state were absent. Seasonal variations in VWM also were not pronounced, although deposition fluxes were highest during the summer wet season in response to the strong seasonal distribution of rainfall.

  18. Black phosphorus nanoelectromechanical resonators vibrating at very high frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zenghui; Jia, Hao; Zheng, Xuqian; Yang, Rui; Wang, Zefang; Ye, G. J.; Chen, X. H.; Shan, Jie; Feng, Philip X.-L.

    2014-12-01

    We report on the experimental demonstration of a new type of nanoelectromechanical resonator based on black phosphorus crystals. Facilitated by a highly efficient dry transfer technique, crystalline black phosphorus flakes are harnessed to enable drumhead resonators vibrating at high and very high frequencies (HF and VHF bands, up to ~100 MHz). We investigate the resonant vibrational responses from the black phosphorus crystals by devising both electrical and optical excitation schemes, in addition to measuring the undriven thermomechanical motions in these suspended nanostructures. Flakes with thicknesses from ~200 nm down to ~20 nm clearly exhibit elastic characteristics transitioning from the plate to the membrane regime. Both frequency- and time-domain measurements of the nanomechanical resonances show that very thin black phosphorus crystals hold interesting potential for moveable and vibratory devices and for semiconductor transducers where high-speed mechanical motions could be coupled to the attractive electronic and optoelectronic properties of black phosphorus.We report on the experimental demonstration of a new type of nanoelectromechanical resonator based on black phosphorus crystals. Facilitated by a highly efficient dry transfer technique, crystalline black phosphorus flakes are harnessed to enable drumhead resonators vibrating at high and very high frequencies (HF and VHF bands, up to ~100 MHz). We investigate the resonant vibrational responses from the black phosphorus crystals by devising both electrical and optical excitation schemes, in addition to measuring the undriven thermomechanical motions in these suspended nanostructures. Flakes with thicknesses from ~200 nm down to ~20 nm clearly exhibit elastic characteristics transitioning from the plate to the membrane regime. Both frequency- and time-domain measurements of the nanomechanical resonances show that very thin black phosphorus crystals hold interesting potential for moveable and vibratory devices and for semiconductor transducers where high-speed mechanical motions could be coupled to the attractive electronic and optoelectronic properties of black phosphorus. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: A supporting document with additional technical details is included as a separate PDF file. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04829f

  19. Fast, quantitative in situ hybridization of rare mRNAs using 14C-standards and phosphorus imaging.

    PubMed

    Cremer, Christian M; Cremer, Markus; Escobar, Jennifer Lopez; Speckmann, Erwin-J; Zilles, Karl

    2009-12-15

    The use of radiolabelled probes for in situ hybridization (ISH) bears the advantage of high sensitivity and quantifiability. The crucial disadvantages are laborious hybridization protocols, exposition of hybridized sections to film for up to several weeks and the time consuming need to prepare tissue standards with relatively short-lived isotopes like (33)P or (35)S for each experiment. The quantification of rare mRNAs like those encoding for subunits of neurotransmitter receptors is therefore a challenge in ISH. Here, we describe a method for fast, quantitative in situ hybridization (qISH) of mRNAs using (33)P-labelled oligonucleotides together with (14)C-polymer standards (Microscales, Amersham Biosciences) and a phosphorus imaging system (BAS 5000 BioImage Analyzer, Raytest-Fuji). It enables a complete analysis of rare mRNAs by ISH. The preparation of short-lived (33)P-standards for each experiment was replaced by co-exposition and calibration of long-lived (14)C-standards together with (33)P-labelled brain paste standards. The use of a phosphorus imaging system allowed a reduction of exposition time following hybridization from several weeks to a few hours or days. We used this approach as an example for applications to quantify the expression of GluR1 and GluR2 subunit mRNAs of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor in the hippocampus of untreated rats, and after intraperitoneal application of the organo-arsenic compound dimethyl arsenic acid. PMID:19761793

  20. Pasture degradation impacts soil phosphorus storage via changes to aggregate-associated soil organic matter in highly weathered tropical

    E-print Network

    Gilli, Adrian

    Pasture degradation impacts soil phosphorus storage via changes to aggregate-associated soil 8 October 2013 Keywords: Amazon Basin Colombia Phosphorus Soil aggregation Soil organic matter between soil organic matter (SOM), aggregation, and phosphorus (P) dynamics by comparing productive vs

  1. Performances evaluation of phosphorus removal by apatite in constructed wetlands treating domestic wastewater: Column and pilot experiments

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Performances evaluation of phosphorus removal by apatite in constructed wetlands treating domestic are obtained on mains parameters except phosphorus (P) which can cause eutrophication problems. In order: constructed wetlands; phosphorus removal; apatite; experiments scale; sustainable treatment. *corresponding

  2. Determination of Phosphorus in Cola Drinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano-Calero, Diego; Martìn-Palomeque, Pilar; Madueño-Lorguillo, Silvia

    1996-12-01

    Laboratory experiments can improve student interest in science. However, the contrary effect could occur if they are not well designed and seem tedious, too laborious, and disconnected from daily life. Cola beverages are one of the most widely consumed drinks and are most popular among students. Much attention is being paid to possible consequences of excessive consumption for human health. Intensive efforts are being made to assess the erosive potential for teeth because of the beverages' acidity (1, 2); adverse effects secondary to high caffeine intake (e.g., hypertension, allergic reactions, gastrointestinal disturbances) (3 - 5); and adverse effects on calcium metabolism due to their high phosphoric acid content, which combined with low dietary calcium intake could increase the risk of suffering from bone diseases (6 - 9). We propose here the quantification of the phosphorus content in this kind of drinks by a different procedure from that previously described by Murphy in this Journal (10). We think this laboratory experiment will seem very interesting to students.

  3. Anoxic phosphorus removal by denitrifying heterotrophic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lacko, N; Drysdale, G D; Bux, F

    2003-01-01

    The unexplained occurrence of anoxic phosphorus (P) accumulation has largely hampered modeling of nitrification denitrification biological excess P removal (NDBEPR) systems. The aim of this study was, therefore, to isolate and identify denitrifying-P accumulating heterotrophic bacteria (DPBs) from a NDBEPR system in order to evaluate anoxic P accumulation and the specific mechanisms involved. Results of the study showed various heterotrophic bacteria to be capable of anoxic P accumulation utilising nitrate (NO3) as electron acceptor. While Pseudomonas spp. predominated, Serratia spp. and Vibrio spp. demonstrated the most efficient anoxic P accumulation with 7.10 and 7.29 mgPO4-P/L removal, respectively, at an initial NO3 concentration of 13.54 mgNO3-N/L and P concentration of 16.34 mgPO4-P/L. Weaker DPBs were also identified which were only capable of accumulating small amounts of P at low initial P and NO3 concentrations due to weak denitrification capacity. Anoxic P release was also observed due to the presence of acetate. PMID:12906266

  4. Use of radioactive phosphorus in haematology.

    PubMed

    Roberts, B E; Smith, A H

    1997-09-01

    Following the development of the cyclotron in 1932, radio-isotopes became available for use in medicine both as tracer substances and therapeutic agents. The father of nuclear medicine, Dr J. H. Lawrence, pioneered their use in a range of disease states and found that radio-isotopes were of enormous value in the diagnosis and treatment of haemopoetic disease, particularly the myeloproliferative disorders. Radioactive phosphorus 32P emerged as the radio-isotope of choice for the myelosuppressive treatment of myeloproliferative disorders. This article also describes the use of radio-isotopes in the treatment of other disorders: chronic myeloid leukaemia, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and myeloma, work that is now largely forgotten. All myeloproliferative disorders may evolve without treatment into myelodysplastic syndrome or blast-cell transformation. It is accepted that life is prolonged in myeloproliferative disorders treated with 32P or alkylating agents, yet both are leukaemogenic. The ideal form of treatment for polycythaemia vera is unknown and will remain so, for patients with this disorder often outlive their physician and achieve 90% of normal life expectation. 32P remains the treatment of choice for elderly patients with polycythaemia vera. PMID:9370045

  5. Is phosphorus recovery from waste water feasible?

    PubMed

    Berg, U; Knoll, G; Kaschka, E; Weidler, P G; Nüesch, R

    2007-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) recovery from waste water must become a predominant goal of all countries to face the limited resources of this essential nutrient. The induced crystallisation of calcium phosphates straight from the waste water phase applying tobermorite-rich calcium silicate hydrate compounds (CSH) from the construction industry as the trigger material has proved to be a suitable method. Laboratory and semi-technical scale experiments were carried out in fixed bed, stirred reactor and expanded bed mode. P-loads of the crystallisation substrates of up to 13 wt-% total P (P-tot) (30 wt-% P2O5) were achieved. Recycling options of the generated products, both as substitute for phosphate rock in the phosphate industry and as a new fertiliser in agriculture, were demonstrated. Indicative operating and investment costs were estimated for conversion of conventional waste water treatment plants (WWTP) designed for nutrient removal and P-precipitation with iron and aluminium reagents to the proposed new crystallisation technology for simultaneous P-removal and P-recovery. PMID:17396410

  6. Expert systems guide biological phosphorus removal

    SciTech Connect

    Krichten, D.J.; Wilson, K.D.; Tracy, K.D. (Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States))

    1991-10-01

    There is a large body of knowledge regarding optimum control strategies for new secondary wastewater treatment technology using an anaerobic selector to provide biological phosphorus removal. However, because the selector technology is new and the concepts differ somewhat from those used in conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment, a method of communicating this knowledge to plant operators is needed. Traditional methods such as classroom training and operating manuals are of limited effectiveness. The commonplace availability and low cost of the personal computer (PC) makes it practical to use a computer program to communicate the type of information required to control a wastewater treatment plant. Knowledge-based systems technology, commonly referred to as expert systems (ES) technology, is easy to use, provides useful information regarding a consistent control strategy, relieves the anxiety associated with learning a new process,' and provides instruction for inexperienced personnel. ES technology does not require special formatted input and is therefore easily accessible. All information required by the program is readily available through routine laboratory analysis, common plant instrumentation, or direct user observation. The program was designed for all levels of computer users and will run on all IBM-compatible or Apple MacIntosh systems.

  7. Lowland fluvial phosphorus altered by dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jianjun; Zhang, Man; Lin, Binliang; Lu, Pingyu

    2015-04-01

    Dams affect ecosystems, but their physical link to the variations in fluvial fluxes and downstream ecological consequences are inadequately understood. After estimating the current effects of the Three Gorges project and other reservoirs upstream on the Yangtze River on the fluvial phosphorus (P) in the middle and lower Yangtze River, we further investigated the long-term effects of dams on the fluvial regimes of P and P-enriched sediment (PES). Simultaneously measured P distributions with sediment size (PDSS) from the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) proved that the areal density of particulate P (PP) bound on graded sediment can be measured using the surface area concentration of the total sediment. A PDSS relationship is obtained and the selective transport and long-term sedimentation of P are simulated using a nonuniform suspended sediment model, which incorporates the PDSS formula. The computations revealed that a reservoir would significantly lower the downstream availability of P in the dry season and promote high pulses of P in summer when the reservoir is flushed as sedimentation accumulates. As a result, the P buffering and replenishing mechanism in the pristine ecosystem from upstream supplies and local re-suspension are permanently eliminated when a regulating reservoir is built upstream. This change is irreversible if reservoir regulation continues. Changes could potentially aggravate the existing P-limitation, decrease the water's ability to adjust nutrient/pollutant fluctuations, accumulate a greater surplus of carbon and nitrogen, and even exacerbate blooms in favorable conditions.

  8. Phosphorus: a limiting nutrient for humanity?

    PubMed

    Elser, James J

    2012-12-01

    Phosphorus is a chemical element that is essential to life because of its role in numerous key molecules, including DNA and RNA; indeed, organisms require large amounts of P to grow rapidly. However, the supply of P from the environment is often limiting to production, including to crops. Thus, large amounts of P are mined annually to produce fertilizer that is applied in support of the 'Green Revolution.' However, much of this fertilizer eventually ends up in rivers, lakes and oceans where it causes costly eutrophication. Furthermore, given increasing human population, expanding meat consumption, and proliferating bioenergy pressures, concerns have recently been raised about the long-term geological, economic, and geopolitical viability of mined P for fertilizer production. Together, these issues highlight the non-sustainable nature of current human P use. To achieve P sustainability, farms need to become more efficient in how they use P while society as a whole must develop technologies and practices to recycle P from the food chain. Such large-scale changes will probably require a radical restructuring of the entire food system, highlighting the need for prompt but sustained action. PMID:22465489

  9. Metagenomic analysis of phosphorus removing sludgecommunities

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia Martin, Hector; Ivanova, Natalia; Kunin, Victor; Warnecke,Falk; Barry, Kerrie; McHardy, Alice C.; Yeates, Christine; He, Shaomei; Salamov, Asaf; Szeto, Ernest; Dalin, Eileen; Putnam, Nik; Shapiro, HarrisJ.; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L.; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Blackall, Linda Louise; McMahon, Katherine D.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2006-02-01

    Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) is not wellunderstood at the metabolic level despite being one of the best-studiedmicrobially-mediated industrial processes due to its ecological andeconomic relevance. Here we present a metagenomic analysis of twolab-scale EBPR sludges dominated by the uncultured bacterium, "CandidatusAccumulibacter phosphatis." This analysis resolves several controversiesin EBPR metabolic models and provides hypotheses explaining the dominanceof A. phosphatis in this habitat, its lifestyle outside EBPR and probablecultivation requirements. Comparison of the same species from differentEBPR sludges highlights recent evolutionary dynamics in the A. phosphatisgenome that could be linked to mechanisms for environmental adaptation.In spite of an apparent lack of phylogenetic overlap in the flankingcommunities of the two sludges studied, common functional themes werefound, at least one of them complementary to the inferred metabolism ofthe dominant organism. The present study provides a much-needed blueprintfor a systems-level understanding of EBPR and illustrates thatmetagenomics enables detailed, often novel, insights into evenwell-studied biological systems.

  10. TESLA-Report 1993-33 TESLA-Report 1993-33

    E-print Network

    #12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993

  11. Organic and inorganic dietary phosphorus and its management in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Noori, Nazanin; Sims, John J; Kopple, Joel D; Shah, Anuja; Colman, Sara; Shinaberger, Christian S; Bross, Rachelle; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2010-04-01

    Dietary phosphorus control is often a main strategy in the management of patients with chronic kidney disease. Dietary protein is a major source of phosphorus intake. Recent data indicate that imposed dietary phosphorus restriction may compromise the need for adequate protein intake, leading to protein-energy wasting and possibly to increased mortality. The two main sources of dietary phosphorus are organic, including animal and vegetarian proteins, and inorganic, mostly food preservatives. Animal-based foods and plant are abundant in organic phosphorus. Usually 40% to 60% of animal-based phosphorus is absorbed; this varies by degree of gastrointestinal vitamin-D-receptor activation, whereas plant phosphorus, mostly associated with phytates, is less absorbable by human gastrointestinal tract. Up to 100% of inorganic phosphorus in processed foods may be absorbed; ie, phosphorus in processed cheese and some soda (cola) drinks. A recent study suggests that a higher dietary phosphorus-protein intake ratio is associated with incremental death risk in patients on long-term hemodialysis. Hence, for phosphorus management in chronic kidney disease, in addition to absolute dietary phosphorus content, the chemical structure (inorganic versus organic), type (animal versus plant), and phosphorus-protein ratio should be considered. We recommend foods and supplements with no or lowest quantity of inorganic phosphorus additives, more plant-based proteins, and a dietary phosphorus-protein ratio of less than 10 mg/g. Fresh (nonprocessed) egg white (phosphorus-protein ratio less than 2 mg/g) is a good example of desirable food, which contains a high proportion of essential amino acids with low amounts of fat, cholesterol, and phosphorus. PMID:20404416

  12. [X-33 Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works has compiled an Annual Performance Report of the X-33/RLV Program. This report consists of individual reports from all industry team members, as well as NASA team centers. This portion of the report is comprised of a status report of Allied-Signal Aerospace's contribution to the program. The following is a summary of the work reviewed under their portion of the agreement: (1) Communication Systems; (2) Environmental Control Systems- Active Thermal Control System (ATCS), Purge and Vent System, Hydrogen Detection System (HDS), Avionics Bay Inerting System (ABIS), and Flush Air Data System (FADS); (2) Landing Systems; (3) Power Management and Generation Systems; (4) Flight Control Actuation System (FCAS)- Electric Power Control & Distribution System (EPCDS), and Battery Power System (BPS); and (5) Vehicle Management Systems (VMS)- VMS Hardware, VMS Software Development Activities, and System Integration Laboratory (SIL).

  13. Phosphorus and phosphorus nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes for ultrasensitive and selective molecular detection

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz Silva, Eduardo [ORNL; Lopez, Florentino [IPICyT; Munoz-Sandoval, Emilio [IPICyT; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto [ORNL; Charlier, Jean Christophe [Universite Catholique de Louvain; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL; Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    A first-principles approach is used to establish that substitutional phosphorus atoms within carbon nanotubes strongly modify the chemical properties of the surface, thus creating highly localized sites with specific affinity towards acceptor molecules. Phosphorus nitrogen co-dopants within the tubes have a similar effect for acceptor molecules, but the P N bond can also accept charge, resulting in affinity towards donor molecules. This molecular selectivity is illustrated in CO and NH3 adsorbed on PN-doped nanotubes, O2 on P-doped nanotubes, and NO2 and SO2 on both P- and PN-doped nanotubes. The adsorption of different chemical species onto the doped nanotubes modifies the dopant-induced localized states, which subsequently alter the electronic conductance. Although SO2 and CO adsorptions cause minor shifts in electronic conductance, NH3, NO2, and O2 adsorptions induce the suppression of a conductance dip. Conversely, the adsorption of NO2 on PN-doped nanotubes is accompanied with the appearance of an additional dip in conductance, correlated with a shift of the existing ones. Overall these changes in electric conductance provide an efficient way to detect selectively the presence of specific molecules. Additionally, the high oxidation potential of the P-doped nanotubes makes them good candidates for electrode materials in hydrogen fuel cells.

  14. Species and distribution of inorganic and organic phosphorus in enhanced phosphorus removal aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenli; Huang, Weiwei; Li, Huifang; Lei, Zhongfang; Zhang, Zhenya; Tay, Joo Hwa; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2015-10-01

    The species and distribution of phosphorus (P) in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR)-aerobic granular sludge (AGS) were fractionated and further analyzed. Results showed that microbial cells, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and mineral precipitates contributed about 73.7%, 17.6% and 5.3-6.4% to the total P (TP) of EBPR-AGS, respectively. Inorganic P (IP) species were orthophosphate, pyrophosphate and polyphosphate among which polyphosphate was the major P species in the AGS, cells and EPS. Monoester and diester phosphates were identified as the organic P (OP) species in the AGS and cells. Hydroxyapatite (Ca5(PO4)3OH) and calcium phosphate (Ca2(PO4)3) were the dominant P minerals accumulated in the core of the granules. Cells along with polyphosphate were mainly in the outer layer of AGS while EPS were distributed in the whole granules. Based on the above results, the distribution of IP and OP species in AGS has been conceived. PMID:26144019

  15. Growth Behavior, Nitrogen-Form Effects on Phosphorus Acquisition, and Phosphorus–Zinc Interactions in Brassica Cultivars under Phosphorus-Stress Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Shahbaz Akhtar; Yoko Oki; Tadashi Adachi

    2010-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) interact both in plants and soils and hence may affect the availability and utilization of each other. To investigate P and Zn nutritional status and P–Zn interactions, two genetically diverse Brassica cultivars classified as P tolerant (Brown Raya) and P sensitive (Sultan Raya) were grown in a sand-based pot culture. Jordan rock phosphate (RP) and

  16. Phosphorus removal characteristics in hydroxyapatite crystallization using converter slag.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eung-Ho; Hwang, Hwan-Kook; Yim, Soo-Bin

    2006-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the phosphorus removal characteristics in hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystallization using converter slag as a seed crystal and the usefulness of a slag column reactor system. The effects of alkalinity, and the isomorphic-substitutable presence of ionic magnesium, fluoride, and iron on HAP crystallization seeded with converter slag, were examined using a batch reactor system. The phosphorus removal efficiencies of the batch reactor system were found to increase with increases in the iron and fluoride ion concentrations, and to decrease with increases in the alkalinity and magnesium ion concentration. A column reactor system for HAP crystallization using converter slag was found to achieve high, stable levels of phosphorus elimination: the average PO4-P removal efficiency over 414 days of operation was 90.4%, in which the effluent phosphorus concentration was maintained at less than 0.5 mg/L under the appropriate phosphorus crystallization conditions. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the crystalline material deposited on the seed particles exhibited peaks consistent with HAP. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) images showed that finely distributed crystalline material was formed on the surfaces of the seed particles. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mapping analysis revealed that the molar Ca/P composition ratio of the crystalline material was 1.72. PMID:17000544

  17. Phosphorus recovery from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash.

    PubMed

    Kalmykova, Yuliya; Fedje, K Karlfeldt

    2013-06-01

    The potential of phosphorus (P) recycling from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residue is investigated. Vast and ever increasing amounts of incineration residues are produced worldwide; these are an environmental burden, but also a resource, as they are a major sink for the material flows of society. Due to strict environmental regulations, in combination with decreasing landfilling space, the disposal of the MSWI residues is problematic. At the same time, resource scarcity is recognized as a global challenge for the modern world, and even more so for future generations. This paper reports on the methods and efficiency of P extraction from MSWI fly ash by acid and base leaching and precipitation procedures. Phosphorus extracted from the MSWI residues generated each year could meet 30% of the annual demand for mineral phosphorus fertiliser in Sweden, given a recovery rate of 70% achieved in this initial test. The phosphorus content of the obtained product is slightly higher than in sewage sludge, but due to the trace metal content it is not acceptable for application to agricultural land in Sweden, whereas application in the rest of the EU would be possible. However, it would be preferable to use the product as a raw material to replace rock phosphate in fertilizer production. Further development is currently underway in relation to procedure optimization, purification of the phosphorus product, and the simultaneous recovery of other resources. PMID:23490361

  18. Phosphorus diffusion in nanocrystalline 3C-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnabel, Manuel; Siddique, Abu Bakr; Janz, Stefan; Wilshaw, Peter R.

    2015-03-01

    Phosphorus diffusion in nanocrystalline 3C silicon carbide (nc-SiC) with a grain size of 4-7 nm is studied using polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) as the phosphorus source. Diffusion is much faster than in monocrystalline SiC and proceeds exclusively via grain boundaries (GBs). The poly-Si deposition step, alone or followed by a 1000 °C drive-in step, is sufficient to create a shallow phosphorus profile <100 nm deep, while drive-in steps above 1100 °C lead to phosphorus penetrating the 200 nm thick films and reaching the Si substrate. In the bulk of the films, GB diffusion is Fickian, and thermally activated with an activation energy of 5.2 ± 0.3 eV, which is substantially lower than in the monocrystalline case. Boltzmann-Matano analysis corroborates the analysis of the phosphorus profiles in the bulk of the films using error functions and shows that the high near-surface concentrations observed can be explained in terms of a concentration-dependent diffusivity. The concentration dependence is stronger and begins at higher concentrations for higher drive-in temperatures.

  19. APFIM characterization of a high phosphorus Russian RPV weld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. K.; Russell, K. F.

    1996-03-01

    A microstructural characterization of a high phosphorus (0.035 wt% P) weld from the pressure vessel of a Russian VVER nuclear reactor has been performed. The microstructure of these steels consists of intragranular and intergranular vanadium carbonitride precipitates of average composition 51.3 ± 0.9 at% V, 18.8 ± 0.7 at% C, 22.1 ± 0.7 at% N, 4.9 ± 0.4 at% Cr, 2.4 ± 0.3 at% Mo, 0.36 ± 0.05 at% Fe, 0.07 ± 0.05 at% B and 0.03 ± 0.03 at% P. The lath and grain boundaries were also coated with a thin film of molybdenum carbonitride precipitates. The phosphorus coverage at the boundaries in the unirradiated material was ˜ 13% of a monolayer in agreement with predictions from the McLean model of equilibrium segregation. After neutron irradiation to a fluence of 1.15 × 10 20 n cm -2, the phosphorus coverage had increased significantly to up to ˜ 60% of a monolayer. This result indicates that neutron irradiation significantly enhanced the phosphorus segregation process. Phosphorus and copper clusters were also observed in the matrix of the neutron-irradiated material.

  20. Influence of Phosphorus Cycle Coupling on Carbon-Climate Feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Thornton, P. E.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2014-12-01

    It is being increasingly recognized that carbon-nutrient interactions play important roles in regulating terrestrial carbon cycle responses to increasing CO2 in the atmosphere and climate change. Nitrogen-enabled models in CMIP5 indicated that the inclusion of nitrogen cycle reduces CO2 fertilization effect and warming-induced carbon loss from land ecosystems. None of the CMIP5 models has considered phosphorus (P) as a limiting nutrient. Phosphorus has been commonly considered to be the most limiting nutrient in lowland tropical forests. Only recently a few land models have considered P dynamics and C-N-P interactions (CASA-CNP, JSBACH-CNP and CLM-CNP) and these models show strong P limitation in tropical forest responses to increasing atmospheric CO2. In this study, we have performed a set of offline global-scale simulations using CLM-CNP constrained by realistic maps of phosphorus distribution. We examine the influence of including phosphorus cycle dynamics and C-N-P interactions on C-climate feedbacks. We illustrate the spatial patterns of dominant nutrient limitation (N-limited vs. P-limited) on the global scale. We show that P-limitation dominates over most of the tropics and sub-tropics, while N limitation dominates over most of the temperate and high-latitude regions. We also show that phosphorus cycle coupling reduces the sensitivity of net carbon exchange to variations in both temperature and precipitation.

  1. Phosphorus Recovery Using Zirconium-Loaded Saponified Orange Juice Residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Mitsunori; Biswas, Biplob K.; Ohura, Seichirou; Inoue, Katsutoshi; Ishikawa, Susumu; Kawakita, Hidetaka; Ohto, Keisuke

    Zirconium was immobilized to orange juice residue, to investigate the feasibility of using zirconium-loaded saponified orange juice residue (Zr-SOJR) for phosphorus recovery from secondary effluent and the extraction solution from incinerated sewage sludge ash by using H2SO4 and HCl. These had phosphorus concentrations of 68.2 mg/dm3 and 5.9 mg/dm3, respectively. The phosphorus removal rate secondary effluent increased with an increasing solid/liquid ratio in batch experiments. The adsorption capacity of Zr-SOJR was also compared with those obtained using a synthetic phosphorus solution and using zirconium-loaded ferrite. The prepared absorbent was effective for phosphorus removal and exhibited a reasonably high sorption capacity, twice that of zirconium ferrite. Secondary effluent was treated by packed column, and this reached break-through after 300 bed volumes. The results from phosphorous extraction from the ash indicate that can be treated with acid to efficiently recover phosphorous and thus can be absorbed by Zr-SOJR.

  2. HANDBOOK: RETROFITTING POTWS FOR PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY DRAINAGE BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document assesses the technology, economics, and efficiency of phosphorus removal processes for use in the Chesapeake Bay Drainage basin (CBDB). ince phosphorus removal requirements in the CBDB vary widely with geographic location, this document discusses the feasibility of ...

  3. Recent Changes in Soil Total Phosphorus in the Everglades: Water Conservation Area 3

    E-print Network

    Grunwald, Sabine

    Recent Changes in Soil Total Phosphorus in the Everglades: Water Conservation Area 3 Gregory L nutrient loading from drained agricul- tural lands, annual phosphorus (P) inputs to the Water Conservation

  4. PHOSPHORUS-DEFECT INTERACTIONS DURING THERMAL ANNEALING OF ION IMPLANTED SILICON

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    PHOSPHORUS-DEFECT INTERACTIONS DURING THERMAL ANNEALING OF ION IMPLANTED SILICON By PATRICK HENRY for providing the CVD grown boron spike material and performing several of the phosphorus implants. I would also

  5. Making Photosynthetic Biofuel Renewable: Recovering Phosphorus from Residual Biomass J. M. Gifford and P. Westerhoff

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    to global warming. Biofuel from phototrophic microbes like algae and bacteria provides a viable substituteMaking Photosynthetic Biofuel Renewable: Recovering Phosphorus from Residual Biomass J. M. Gifford improves biofuel sustainability by refining phosphorus recycling. Biomass Production Residual Biomass

  6. Determination of phosphorus composition and availability from various feedstuffs to channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) 

    E-print Network

    Buyukates, Yesim

    1998-01-01

    test diets were fed to channel catfish weighing approximately 100-150 g and the feed samples were obtained by stripping approximately 12 h after feeding. Feed and fecal samples were analyzed for total phosphorus (TP), soluble reactive phosphorus (SIRP...

  7. ECOLOGICAL STUDIES AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF 'CLADOPHORA' IN LAKE HURON: 2. PHOSPHORUS UPTAKE KINETICS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were conducted with field populations of Cladophora glomerata to examine the phosphorus uptake process. Results from 35 experiments conducted over two field seasons emphasize the importance of two factors in regulating phosphorus uptake: dissolved phosphoru...

  8. Phosphorus water quality model evaluation and comparison for natural and constructed wetlands 

    E-print Network

    Paasch, Mary Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Constructed and natural wetlands have been used to treat wastewater from both point and nonpoint sources. Phosphorus concentrations in receiving waters are a prime concern due to the role phosphorus plays in freshwater ...

  9. Qubit control in phosphorus doped silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gali, Adam

    2014-03-01

    Quantum confinement can turn thin silicon nanowires (SiNWs) to wide band gap material where the large surface-to-volume ratio indicates that its electronic structure may be tailored by surface termination. Here we show an example how these properties of thin SiNWs may be utilized to host quantum bits. A phosphorus (P) donor has been extensively studied in bulk silicon to realize the concept of Kane quantum computers. In most cases the quantum bit was realized as an entanglement between the donor electron spin and the nonzero nuclei spin of the donor impurity mediated by the hyperfine coupling between them. The donor ionization energies and the spin-lattice relaxation time limited the temperatures to a few kelvin in these experiments. Here, we demonstrate by means of ab initio density functional theory calculations that quantum confinement in thin SiNWs results in (i) larger excitation energies of donor impurity and (ii) a sensitive manipulation of the hyperfine coupling by external electric field. We propose that these features may allow to realize the quantum bit (qubit) experiments at elevated temperatures with a strength of electric fields applicable in current field-effect transistor technology. We also show that the strength of quantum confinement and the presence of strain induced by the surface termination may significantly affect the ground and excited states of the donors in thin SiNWs, possibly allowing an optical read-out of the electron spin. Another forms of donor-related defects as potential qubits will be also discussed.

  10. Phosphorus recovery by struvite crystallization in WWTPs: Influence of the sludge treatment line operation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Martí; L. Pastor; A. Bouzas; J. Ferrer; A. Seco

    2010-01-01

    Phosphorus recovery by struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) crystallization is one of the most widely recommended technologies for treating sludge digester liquors especially in wastewater treatments plants (WWTP) with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). In this paper, phosphorus recovery by struvite crystallization is assessed using the rejected liquors resulting from four different operational strategies of the sludge treatment line. Phosphorus precipitation and recovery

  11. Net anthropogenic phosphorus inputs: spatial and temporal variability in the Chesapeake Bay region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc J. Russell; Donald E. Weller; Thomas E. Jordan; Kevin J. Sigwart; Kathryn J. Sullivan

    2008-01-01

    We estimated net anthropogenic phosphorus inputs (NAPI) in the Chesapeake Bay region. NAPI is an index of phosphorus pollution\\u000a potential. NAPI was estimated by quantifying all phosphorus inputs and outputs for each county. Inputs include fertilizer\\u000a applications and non-food phosphorus uses, while trade of food and feed can be an input or an output. The average of 1987,\\u000a 1992, 1997,

  12. The distribution and diurnal variation of phosphorus in some Texas bays 

    E-print Network

    Bruce, Herbert Ernest

    1959-01-01

    the conclusions of Coffin, et al. , Hayes, et al. , and Hutchinson and Bowen, who state that there is an active exchange between dis- solved phosphorus and phosphorus present in solid material and bottom mud. TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION Page GENERAL... the conclu- sions of Coffin, et al. (1949), Bayes, et al, (1951-52) and Hutchinson and Bowen (1947) that there is an active exchange between dissolved phosphorus and phosphorus present in solid material and bottom mud. These investi- gators estimated...

  13. Numerical Simulation of Phosphorus Removal from Silicon by Induction Vacuum Refining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Songsheng Zheng; Thorvald Abel Engh; Merete Tangstad; Xue-Tao Luo

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus can be expected to evaporate preferentially from silicon melt by induction vacuum refining (IVR). In the present\\u000a study, on the assumption of phosphorus evaporating from silicon melt as gas species P and P\\u000a 2, a numerical model of phosphorus removal from silicon by IVR was developed. The factors affecting phosphorus removal in decreasing\\u000a order are temperature, chamber pressure, geometry

  14. Variable responses of old-field perennials to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphorus source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather L. Reynolds; Keith M. Vogelsang; Anne E. Hartley; James D. Bever; P. A. Schultz

    2006-01-01

    If arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) promote phosphorus partitioning of plant hosts, they could provide one mechanism for\\u000a the maintenance of plant community diversity. We investigated whether AMF improved the ability of old field perennials to\\u000a grow on a range of phosphorus sources and whether AMF facilitated differential performance of plant species on different phosphorus\\u000a sources (phosphorus niche partitioning). We manipulated

  15. Microbial and metabolic characterization of a denitrifying phosphorus-uptake/side stream phosphorus removal system for treating domestic sewage.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhan; Ji, Fang-Ying; Xu, Xuan; Xu, Xiao-Yi; Chen, Qing-Kong; Li, Qi

    2014-11-01

    In this study, an advanced wastewater treatment process, the denitrifying phosphorus/side stream phosphorus removal system (DPR-Phostrip), was developed for the purpose of enhancing denitrifying phosphorus removal. The enrichment of denitrifying phosphorus-accumulating organisms (DPAOs) and the microbial community structure of DPR-Phostrip were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and the metabolic activity of seed sludge and activated sludge collected after 55 days of operation were evaluated by Biolog™ analysis. This experimental study of DPR-Phostrip operation showed that nutrients were removed effectively, and denitrifying phosphorus removal was observed during the pre-anoxic period. PCR-DGGE analysis indicated that DPR-Phostrip supported DPAO growth while inhibiting PAOs and GAOs. The major dominant species in DPR-Phostrip were Bacteroidetes bacterium, Saprospiraceae bacterium, and Chloroflexi bacterium. Moreover, the functional diversity indices calculated on the basis of Biolog analysis indicated that DPR-Phostrip had almost no effect on microbial community diversity but was associated with a shift in the dominant species, which confirms the results of the PCR-DGGE analysis. The results for average well color development, calculated via Biolog analysis, showed that DPR-Phostrip had a little impact on the metabolic activity of sludge. Further principal component analysis suggested that the ability to utilize low-molecular-weight organic compounds was reduced in DPR-Phostrip. PMID:25073616

  16. Phosphorus removal from secondary effluents through integrated constructed treatment system.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jibing; Qin, Yong; Mahmood, Qaisar; Liu, Hanhu; Yang, Dejun

    2011-01-01

    The treatment capacity of an integrated constructed treatment system (CTS) was explored which was designed to reduce phosphorus (P) from secondary effluents. The integrated CTS was combined with vertical-flow constructed wetland, floating bed and sand filter. The vertical wetland was filled from the bottom to the top with gravels, steel slag and peat. Vetiverzizanioides (L.) Nash was selected to grow in the vertical constructed wetland while Coixlacrymajobi L. was grown in floating bed. The results suggested that integrated CTS displayed excellent removal efficiency for chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved phosphorus (DP), and total phosphorus (TP). The average COD removal efficiency of the integrated CTS was 90.45% after 40 days of operation, the average DP and TP removal efficiencies of the integrated CTS were 97.43% and 96.40%, respectively. The integrated CTS has good potential in removing COD as well as P from secondary effluents. PMID:21570097

  17. Integrated nutrient removal design for very low phosphorus levels.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Bruce R; Daigger, Glen T

    2009-01-01

    The State of Washington has found that the Spokane River is DO impaired, and is requiring dischargers to reduce phosphorus inputs to the river. Spokane County elected to build a new water recovery facility with a target effluent total phosphorus level of 50 microg/L on a seasonal average basis. Spokane County elected to use a private company to design/build and operate their facility. The very low nutrient requirements, and lack of historical operating information, necessitated an integrated approach to the nutrient removal design while considering the risks and benefits of the various treatment options. The process selection evaluated membrane bioreactors and tertiary membranes for the primary liquids process in combination with chemical and/or biological phosphorus removal. The final process selection included chemically enhanced primary treatment, membrane bioreactor with metal salts, and dewatering liquor treatment with an innovative post aerobic digestion step. PMID:19901479

  18. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge ash through an electrodialytic process.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Paula; Couto, Nazaré; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

    2014-05-01

    The electrodialytic separation process (ED) was applied to sewage sludge ash (SSA) aiming at phosphorus (P) recovery. As the SSA may have high heavy metals contents, their removal was also assessed. Two SSA were sampled, one immediately after incineration (SA) and the other from an open deposit (SB). Both samples were ED treated as stirred suspensions in sulphuric acid for 3, 7 and 14 days. After 14 days, phosphorus was mainly mobilized towards the anode end (approx. 60% in the SA and 70% in the SB), whereas heavy metals mainly electromigrated towards the cathode end. The anolyte presented a composition of 98% of P, mainly as orthophosphate, and 2% of heavy metals. The highest heavy metal removal was achieved for Cu (ca. 80%) and the lowest for Pb and Fe (between 4% and 6%). The ED showed to be a viable method for phosphorus recovery from SSA, as it promotes the separation of P from the heavy metals. PMID:24656469

  19. Synthesis and investigation of tungsten-phosphorus catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Obrubov, V.A.; Zhdanova, S.A.; Shchukin, V.P.

    1988-11-10

    The authors present the results of their investigation of the effect of phosphorus compounds on the activity of tungsten-containing catalysts in the oxidation of ethane. They investigated tungsten-phosphorus catalysts with different phosphorus concentrations (calculated on the basis of P/sub 2/O/sub 5/). The catalysts were prepared by heat decomposition of the starting compounds at 750/sup 0/C for 4 h. As their starting compounds, they used two types of materials: heteropoly acids mixtures of monosubstituted ammonium phosphoric and tungstic acids. The specific surface area of the catalysts was determined using the nitrogen desorption method. The x-ray phase analysis was carried out using a DRON-1.5 diffractometer. The catalytic activity was determined using the impulse method in a reactor with a vibrofluidized catalyst layer.

  20. Phosphorus in the Young Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A

    E-print Network

    Koo, Bon-Chul; Moon, Dae-Sik; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Raymond, John C

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus ($^{31}$P), which is essential for life, is thought to be synthesized in massive stars and dispersed into interstellar space when these stars explode as supernovae (SNe). Here we report on near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the young SN remnant Cassiopeia A, which show that the abundance ratio of phosphorus to the major nucleosynthetic product iron ($^{56}$Fe) in SN material is up to 100 times the average ratio of the Milky Way, confirming that phosphorus is produced in SNe. The observed range is compatible with predictions from SN nucleosynthetic models but not with the scenario in which the chemical elements in the inner SN layers are completely mixed by hydrodynamic instabilities during the explosion.

  1. Phosphorus in the young supernova remnant Cassiopeia A.

    PubMed

    Koo, Bon-Chul; Lee, Yong-Hyun; Moon, Dae-Sik; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Raymond, John C

    2013-12-13

    Phosphorus ((31)P), which is essential for life, is thought to be synthesized in massive stars and dispersed into interstellar space when these stars explode as supernovae (SNe). Here, we report on near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the young SN remnant Cassiopeia A, which show that the abundance ratio of phosphorus to the major nucleosynthetic product iron ((56)Fe) in SN material is up to 100 times the average ratio of the Milky Way, confirming that phosphorus is produced in SNe. The observed range is compatible with predictions from SN nucleosynthetic models but not with the scenario in which the chemical elements in the inner SN layers are completely mixed by hydrodynamic instabilities during the explosion. PMID:24337291

  2. Exceptional and Anisotropic Transport Properties of Photocarriers in Black Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    He, Jiaqi; He, Dawei; Wang, Yongsheng; Cui, Qiannan; Bellus, Matthew Z; Chiu, Hsin-Ying; Zhao, Hui

    2015-06-23

    One key challenge in developing postsilicon electronic technology is to find ultrathin channel materials with high charge mobilities and sizable energy band gaps. Graphene can offer extremely high charge mobilities; however, the lack of a band gap presents a significant barrier. Transition metal dichalcogenides possess sizable and thickness-tunable band gaps; however, their charge mobilities are relatively low. Here we show that black phosphorus has room-temperature charge mobilities on the order of 10(4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), which are about 1 order of magnitude larger than silicon. We also demonstrate strong anisotropic transport in black phosphorus, where the mobilities along the armchair direction are about 1 order of magnitude larger than in the zigzag direction. A photocarrier lifetime as long as 100 ps is also determined. These results illustrate that black phosphorus is a promising candidate for future electronic and optoelectronic applications. PMID:25961945

  3. Creating a Stable Oxide at the Surface of Black Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, M T; Tadich, A; Carvalho, A; Ziletti, A; O'Donnell, K M; Koenig, S P; Coker, D F; Özyilmaz, B; Neto, A H Castro; Fuhrer, M S

    2015-07-15

    The stability of the surface of in situ cleaved black phosphorus crystals upon exposure to atmosphere is investigated with synchrotron-based photoelectron spectroscopy. After 2 days atmosphere exposure a stable subnanometer layer of primarily P2O5 forms at the surface. The work function increases by 0.1 eV from 3.9 eV for as-cleaved black phosphorus to 4.0 eV after formation of the 0.4 nm thick oxide, with phosphorus core levels shifting by <0.1 eV. The results indicate minimal charge transfer, suggesting that the oxide layer is suitable for passivation or as an interface layer for further dielectric deposition. PMID:26126232

  4. Speciation of Phosphorus by coupled HPLC-ICPMS: Application for quantification of reduced forms of phosphorus in rocks and natural waters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atlas, Z. D.; Pasek, M. A.; Sampson, J.

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus is a geologically important element making up approximately 0.12 % of the Earth's crust. It is commonly found as relatively insoluble apatite and this causes phosphorus to be a limiting nutrient in biologic processes. Despite this, phosphorus is a key element in DNA, RNA and other cellular materials. Recent works suggest that reduced phosphorus played a substantial role in the development of life on the early Earth. Reduced phosphorus is considerably more soluble than oxidized phosphorus, and reduced phosphorus may continue to play a role in biologic productivity. This study examines a new methodology for quantification of reduced phosphorus separated by coupled HPLC - ICP-MS. We show that phosphorus species (P1+, P3+ and P5+) are cleanly separated in the HPLC and coupled with the ICP-MS reaction cell (using O2 gas) effectively convert elemental P to P-O producing lower background and flatter baseline chromatography. Results suggest very low detection limits (0.05 mM) for P species analyzed as P-O at M/Z = 47. Additionally this technique has potential to speciate at least 5 other metastable forms of phosphorus. We verified this method on numerous materials including leached Archean rocks to suburban retention pond waters and many samples show small but detectible levels of reduced phosphorus. These data highlight a significant role of redox processing of phosphorus throughout the history of the Earth, with the reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds, phosphite and hypophosphite, potentially acting as significant constituents in the anaerobic environment.

  5. Double Slag Operation Dephosphorization in BOF for Producing Low Phosphorus Steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi-hong TIAN; Ben-hai LI; Xiao-ming ZHANG; Zhong-hang JIANG

    2009-01-01

    A study on the production of low phosphorus steel by double slag operation in 210 t converter was carried out. A phosphorus content of less than 0.005% (mass percent) was obtained before tapping. About 80% phosphorus could be removed by the first slag after 5 min. High Fe3+ content and high basicity in the first slag were in favor of

  6. The occurrence of internal phosphorus loading in two small, eutrophic, glacial lakes in Northeastern Ohio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Dennis Cooke; Murray R. McComas; David W. Waller; Robert H. Kennedy

    1977-01-01

    Internal loading of phosphorus for the summers of 1972–1974 in the eutrophic Twin Lakes, Ohio, USA was calculated from nutrient budgets, and was found to account for 65–100% of the increase in phosphorus content of the lakes during this period. Recovery of lakes of this type after nutrient diversion may be delayed by internal loading and chemical inactivation of phosphorus

  7. Potential phosphorus recovery in a WWTP with the BCFS ® process: Interactions with the biological process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Barat; M. C. M. van Loosdrecht

    2006-01-01

    The BCFS® process was developed to optimize the activity of denitrifying and P-removing bacteria. In this technology in combination with optimal operating conditions for biological nitrogen removal, chemical precipitation of phosphorus is used to ensure compliance with effluent standards regarding phosphorus. This work addresses the potential of the BCFS® technology for phosphorus recovery and the interactions with the biological process.

  8. PREDICTING CONCENTRATION OF TOTAL PHOSPHORUS AND CHLOROPHYLL 'A' IN A LAKE WITH SHORT HYDRAULIC RESIDENCE TIME

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between total phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentration was determined for Skinner Lake, Indiana over an annual cycle in 1978-79. Total nitrogen: total phosphorus ratios in the epilimnion ranged from 19 to 220 suggesting a phosphorus-dependent algal yield in the...

  9. Structure and spectroscopy of phosphorus cluster anions: Theory (simulated annealing) and experiment (photoelectron detachment)

    E-print Network

    Structure and spectroscopy of phosphorus cluster anions: Theory (simulated annealing phosphorus cluster anions with up to nine atoms, generated by a pulsed arc cluster ion source PACIS properties of phosphorus have provided a continuing challenge for many years. The bulk forms include several

  10. Phosphorus concentration and loading reductions following changes in fertilizer application and formulation on managed turf

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All current and future efforts to address water quality impairment must focus on phosphorus. Phosphorus is a natural element in the environment and is an essential element of all life. However, excess phosphorus, particularly in surface waters can lead to severe eutrophication. Identifying source ar...

  11. Development of an Arcellacea (testate lobose amoebae) based transfer function for sedimentary Phosphorus in lakes

    E-print Network

    Patterson, Timothy

    Phosphorus in lakes R. Timothy Patterson a, , Helen M. Roe b , Graeme T. Swindles c a Ottawa Eutrophication Phosphorus Ontario Canada Arcellacea (testate lobose amoebae) communities were assessed from 73 arcellacean-based training set for sedimentary phosphorus (Olsen P (OP)) loading; and (2) derive a transfer

  12. Effect of microflora and lactose on the absorption of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of microflora and lactose on the absorption of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, magnesium and phosphorus was determined in the ileum, caecum, large intestine and faeces by the mineral/Tio2 and magnesium but did have an unfavorable influence on phosphorus absorption. Lactose increased calcium

  13. A reactive force field simulation of liquidliquid phase transitions in phosphorus

    E-print Network

    A reactive force field simulation of liquid­liquid phase transitions in phosphorus P. Ballone 2004; accepted 6 August 2004 A force field model of phosphorus has been developed based on density-ray diffraction measurements1 have identified a liquid-liquid phase transition in phosphorus occurring at high

  14. A comparison of boron and phosphorus diffusion and dislocation loop growth from silicon implants into silicon

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    A comparison of boron and phosphorus diffusion and dislocation loop growth from silicon implants performed an experiment using boron, phosphorus, and dislocation markers to compare TED effects. This experiment shows that phosphorus is enhanced significantly more than boron during damage annealing

  15. Effects of phosphorus implantation and subsequent growth on diamond Euo Sik Choa,*, Cheon An Leea

    E-print Network

    Lee, Jong Duk

    Effects of phosphorus implantation and subsequent growth on diamond Euo Sik Choa,*, Cheon An Leea of diamond, phosphorus implantation was done during the growth of diamond films. The diamond films implanted with phosphorus were subsequently grown again by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD). Fabricated

  16. Phytate phosphorus utilization in the growing pig A. POINTILLART, Marie-Elise JAY, Nicole FONTAINE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Phytate phosphorus utilization in the growing pig A. POINTILLART, Marie-Elise JAY, Nicole FONTAINE LN.R.A., Station de Recherche.; de Nutrition, 78350 Jouy-en-Josns At least 2/3 of the phosphorus consumed by the pig are phytates. To analyse the interrelationships between phytate phosphorus

  17. Carbon and phosphorus relations in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal pine seedlings

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Carbon and phosphorus relations in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal pine seedlings J.V.D. Rousseau C physiological and developmental responses to mycorrhizal fungus inocula- tion and applied phosphorus were exam- ined to determine which responses were similar to enhanced phosphorus nutrition and which were more

  18. Author's personal copy Field flume reveals aquatic vegetation's role in sediment and particulate phosphorus

    E-print Network

    phosphorus transport in a shallow aquatic ecosystem Judson W. Harvey , Gregory B. Noe, Laurel G. Larsen Available online 7 April 2010 Keywords: Hydroecology Sediment transport Floc Wetland Everglades Phosphorus sediment was enriched in phosphorus (by approximately twenty times) compared with bulk sediment on the bed

  19. Phosphorus retention in a mesotrophic lake under transient loading conditions: Insights from

    E-print Network

    Arhonditsis, George B.

    Phosphorus retention in a mesotrophic lake under transient loading conditions: Insights from a sediment phosphorus binding form study M. Dittrich a, *, A. Chesnyuk a , A. Gudimov a , J. McCulloch a , S form 30 November 2012 Accepted 6 December 2012 Available online 14 December 2012 Keywords: Phosphorus

  20. Africa Phosphorus in Manure Production Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Africa Phosphorus in Manure Production Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Amount of phosphorus://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/data/collection/fertilizer-and-manure 0 500 Kilometers Kg/ha of Phosphorus Manure produced per grid cell: 0 0.1 -2 2.1 -5 5.1 -10 10

  1. Effect of phosphorus impurity on tricalcium silicate T1: from synthesis to structural characterization

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of phosphorus impurity on tricalcium silicate T1: from synthesis to structural the effect of phosphorus on C3S and its consequences on reactivity with water. This paper deals-microprobe analysis (EMPA). The appearance of a phase rich in phosphorus is shown. It displays a structure derivative

  2. Properties of phosphorus compounds by density functional theory: CH3P species as a test case

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Minh Tho

    Properties of phosphorus compounds by density functional theory: CH3P species as a test case Minh and energetic properties of low-coordinated phosphorus compounds is reported. While DFT methods include both assessment and in connection with our continuing theoretical study of low- coordinated phosphorus compounds

  3. Planktonic phosphorus pool sizes and cycling efficiency in coastal and interior British Columbia lakes

    E-print Network

    Mazumder, Asit

    Planktonic phosphorus pool sizes and cycling efficiency in coastal and interior British Columbia long acknowledged the importance of phosphorus (P) in determining the organism biomass and productivity of precise measurements of the dissolved inorganic phosphorus (PO3À 4 ) and (2) accurate or complete

  4. Field emission properties of phosphorus doped microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition diamond films by ion implantation

    E-print Network

    Lee, Jong Duk

    Field emission properties of phosphorus doped microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition diamond 2002; published 5 February 2003 Phosphorus doped polycrystalline diamond films were grown using ion to the conclusion that phosphorus ions and defects in the Si­diamond interface play an important role

  5. Project EARTH-11-TM1: Volcanoes and the global atmospheric phosphorus cycle

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Gideon

    Project EARTH-11-TM1: Volcanoes and the global atmospheric phosphorus cycle Supervisors: Dr Tamsin Mather and Prof. David Pyle Phosphorus is an important nutrient for terrestrial and ocean ecosystems, rivalling carbon and nitrogen in importance. Atmospheric total phosphorus (TP) is mainly transported

  6. Effect of feeding regime on concentration of plasma calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in heifers

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of feeding regime on concentration of plasma calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in heifers P and phosphorus were studied in heifers. A total of 20 pregnant heifers were included in this study. The heifers. No such a relationship was found for phosphorus intake. It is concluded that the feeding regime has a major influence

  7. Legume responses to low phosphorus fertility University of Colorado Mountain Research Station,

    E-print Network

    Legume responses to low phosphorus fertility T.K. Raab University of Colorado Mountain Research bean (Vigna mungo L.) plants over 1 ­15 weeks to either nutrient-replete conditions or low-phosphorus family. Low-phosphorus availability was the first challenge of our model edible legume, Vigna mungo L

  8. Two-dimensional study on the effects of nonamorphizing silicon implantation damage on phosphorus diffusion

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Two-dimensional study on the effects of nonamorphizing silicon implantation damage on phosphorus on phosphorus diffusion in silicon by comparing dif- fusion profiles at damaged and nondamaged points. Park and Plummer.4 A 250 A layer of dry oxide was grown on three (100) orienta- tion p-type wafers. A phosphorus

  9. Phosphorus removal from municipal wastewater in an experimental two-stage vertical flow constructed wetland

    E-print Network

    Brix, Hans

    Phosphorus removal from municipal wastewater in an experimental two-stage vertical flow constructed may be used in separate, exchangeable filter units in constructed wetland systems to remove phosphorus-units to study phosphorus removal. The hydraulic loading rate varied between 1.7 and 6.2 m3/d. The residence time

  10. Phosphorus cycling and partitioning in an oligotrophic Everglades wetland ecosystem: a radioisotope tracing

    E-print Network

    Phosphorus cycling and partitioning in an oligotrophic Everglades wetland ecosystem: a radioisotope was to quantify short-term phosphorus (P) partitioning and identify the ecosystem components important to P in this oligotrophic ecosystem. Keywords: Everglades, nutrient cycling, oligotrophic, phosphorus, wetland Introduction

  11. Author's personal copy Roles of sorption and tube-dwelling benthos in the cycling of phosphorus

    E-print Network

    Shull, David H.

    Author's personal copy Roles of sorption and tube-dwelling benthos in the cycling of phosphorus Climate change Continental shelves Phosphorus cycle a b s t r a c t Adsorption of dissolved phosphate onto iron-hydroxides has been shown to be one of the primary regulators of phosphorus cycling in sediments

  12. IMPACT OF ALGAL-AVAILABLE PHOSPHORUS ON LAKE ERIE WATER QUALITY: MATHEMATICAL MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate estimates of the forms and bioavailability of phosphorus loadings are necessary for loading trend analysis and water quality model development. Total phosphorus loading data for Lake Erie from 1970 to 1980 were categorized into three forms, based on phosphorus bioavailab...

  13. Studies on Characterization and Burning of Red Phosphorus-Based Smoke Compositions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. SOMAYAJULU; G. K. GAUTAM; S. JAYARAMAN; J. P. AGRAWAL

    2003-01-01

    Burning of red phosphorus leads to attenuation of electromagnetic radiation in the visible and infrared regions. Red phosphorus and potassium nitrate-based compositions exhibit favorable smoke screen formation with high obscuration characteristics at low oxidizer content as indicated by radiometric studies. The rapid vaporization of excess red phosphorus leads to quick dispersion in air. The obscuration is mainly due to formation

  14. Assessing Nonpoint Phosphorus Control in the LaPlatte River Watershed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald W. Meals

    1993-01-01

    Phosphorus loading from agricultural activities such as manure and fertilizer applications often contributes to eutrophication of surface waters. The primary goal of the LaPlatte River Watershed Project in northwestern Vermont was to reduce phosphorus loading from farmland through implementation of best management practices (BMPs). Eleven years of monitoring did not show a dramatic decrease in phosphorus concentration or load from

  15. Yield of Mungbean as Affected by Different Durations of Weed Competition under High Phosphorus Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MUHAMMAD NAEEM; SAEED AHMED; ZAHID A. CHEEMA

    A field experiment was conducted to determine the competitive behaviour of weeds at different levels of phosphorus, on the growth and yield of mungbean. Number of pods per plant, number of grains per pod, 1000-grain weight and grain yield of mungbean was found to be significantly higher with application of phosphorus. The application of phosphorus beyond 50 kg ha-1 was

  16. Regeneration of inorganic phosphorus and nitrogen from decomposition of seston in a freshwater sediment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frede Østergaard Andersen; Henning Skovgaard Jensen

    1992-01-01

    The mineralization of phosphorus and nitrogen from seston was studied in consolidated sediment from the shallow Lake Arreskov (July and November) and in suspensions without sediment (July). In the suspension experiment, phosphorus and nitrogen were mineralized in the same proportions as they occurred in the seston. During the 30 days suspension experiment, 47 and 43% of the particulate phosphorus and

  17. Phosphorus and arsenic profile control for high performance epitaxial base bipolar junction devices

    E-print Network

    Bashir, Rashid

    Phosphorus and arsenic profile control for high performance epitaxial base bipolar junction devices interface. The arsenic segregation is confirmed to be significantly higher than phosphorus. In addition, an increase in both the phosphorus and arsenic incorporation is observed in the presence of a highly doped

  18. Conversion of seed phytate to utilizable phosphorus in soybean seeds expressing a bacterial phytase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytic acid contains the major part of the phosphorus in the soybean, chelates divalent cations, and is not digested by monogastric animals. Untreated soymeal does not provide monogastrics sufficient phosphorus and minerals, and phytic acid in the waste stream leads to phosphorus run-off. We gener...

  19. RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE RESPONSE OF SAGINAW BAY, LAKE HURON, TO REDUCTIONS IN PHOSPHORUS LOADINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A retrospective analysis was conducted of the response of Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, to a substantial reduction in external phosphorus loadings over the study period 1974-1980. Loadings to Saginaw Bay from the Saginaw River for total phosphorus and dissolved ortho phosphorus were 5...

  20. Technology for recovery of phosphorus from animal wastewater through calcium phosphate precipitation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wastewater treatment process was developed for removal of phosphorus from livestock wastewater. The phosphorus is recovered as calcium phosphate with addition of only small quantities of liquid lime. The process is based on the distinct chemical equilibrium between phosphorus and calcium ions when...

  1. Degradation Mechanisms of SOFC Anodes in Coal Gas Containing Phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Marina, Olga A.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Edwards, Danny J.; Coffey, Greg W.; Pederson, Larry R.

    2010-01-22

    The interaction of phosphorus in synthetic coal gas with the nickel-based anode of solid oxide fuel cells has been investigated. Tests with both anode-supported and electrolyte-supported button cells were performed at 700 to 800oC in synthetic coal gas containing 0.5 to 10 ppm phosphorus, introduced as phosphine. Two primary modes of degradation were observed. The most obvious was the formation of a series of bulk nickel phosphide phases, of which Ni3P, Ni5P2, Ni12P5 and Ni2P were identified. Phosphorus was essentially completely captured by the anode, forming a sharp boundary between converted and unconverted anode portions. These products partially coalesced into large grains, which eventually affected electronic percolation through the anode support. Thermodynamic calculations predict that formation of the first binary nickel phosphide phase is possible at sub-parts per billion concentrations in coal gas at temperatures relevant to fuel cell operation. A second mode of degradation is attributed to surface diffusion of phosphorus to the active anode/electrolyte interface to form an adsorption layer. Direct evidence for the presence of such an adsorption layer on nickel was obtained by surface spectroscopies on fracture surfaces. Further, cell performance losses were observed well before the entire anode was converted to bulk nickel phosphide. Impedance spectroscopy revealed that these losses were primarily due to growth in electrodic resistance, whereas large ohmic increases were visible when the entire anode was converted to nickel phosphide phases. The rate of resistance growth for anode-supported cells showed a very low dependence on phosphorus concentration, attributed to phosphorus activity control within the anode by bulk nickel phosphide products.

  2. Dietary phosphorus requirement of juvenile red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus 

    E-print Network

    Davis, Donald Allen

    1986-01-01

    DIETARy PHOSPHORUS REQUIREMENT OF JUVENILE RED DRUNK ~CIAO)PS QCELIA~K A Thesis by DONALD ALLEN DAVIS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A a N University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of 1%STER OF SCIENCE... ~r 1986 Najor Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences DIETARY PHOSPHORUS REQUIRENENT FOR JUVENILE RED DRUN, jKIMgllLPS ~CCEUAlU . A Thesis by Approved as to style and content by: Edwin H. Robinson (Chairman of Committee) Kirk Strawn (Nenber...

  3. Studies on phosphorus and calcium in poult nutrition

    E-print Network

    Khaund, Robindra Nath

    1962-01-01

    STUDIES ON PHOSPHORUS AND CALCIUM IN POULT NUTRITION A Thesis By ROBINDRA NATH XHAUND Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SClENCE January 1962 MaJor SubJect: Biochemistry and Nutrition STUDIES ON PHOSPHORUS AND CALCIUM IN POULT NUTRITION A Thesis ROBINDRA NAZH KHAUND Apptoved as to st e nd. content by: ai an of Co e) (Head of Depar tm t) Jan@any 1962...

  4. Chemical vapor deposition of amorphous ruthenium–phosphorus alloy films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinhong Shin; Abdul Waheed; Wyatt A. Winkenwerder; Hyun-Woo Kim; Kyriacos Agapiou; Richard A. Jones; Gyeong S. Hwang; John G. Ekerdt

    2007-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition growth of amorphous ruthenium–phosphorus films on SiO2 containing ?15% phosphorus is reported. cis-Ruthenium(II)dihydridotetrakis-(trimethylphosphine), cis-RuH2(PMe3)4 (Me=CH3) was used at growth temperatures ranging from 525 to 575 K. Both Ru and P are zero-valent. The films are metastable, becoming increasingly more polycrystalline upon annealing to 775 and 975 K. Surface studies illustrate that demethylation is quite efficient near 560 K. Precursor adsorption

  5. Fire-resistant phosphorus containing polyimides and copolyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikroyannidis, J. A. (inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Phosphorus-containing polyimides and copolyimides are synthesized in a two-step polycondensation reaction from 1- (diorganooxyphosphonl)methly 2,4- and 2,6-diaminobenzenes and tetracarboxylic anhydride. The diorgano position of the diorganooxyphosphonyl group includes alkyl, such as ethyl, substituted alkyl, such as 2-chloroethyl, and aryl such as phenyl. The tetracarboxylic anhydries include compounds such as pyrometallitic dianhydride and benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polyimides is reduced by incorporation of the (dialkoxyphosphonyl)methyl groups. The phosphorus-containing copolyimides show a considerably higher degree of fire-resistance as compared to that of the corresponding common polyimides.

  6. Anomalous Quantum Transport Properties in Semimetallic Black Phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiba, Kazuto; Miyake, Astushi; Akahama, Yuichi; Matsubayashi, Kazuyuki; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Arai, Hayato; Fuseya, Yuki; Tokunaga, Masashi

    2015-07-01

    Magnetoresistance in single crystals of black phosphorus is studied at ambient and hydrostatic pressures. In the semiconducting states at pressures below 0.71 GPa, the magnetoresistance shows periodic oscillations, which can be ascribed to the magneto-phonon resonance that is characteristic of high-mobility semiconductors. In the semimetallic state above 1.64 GPa, both transverse and longitudinal magnetoresistances show a considerable increase while exhibiting superposed Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. The observed small Fermi surfaces, high mobilities, and light effective masses of carriers in semimetallic black phosphorus are comparable to those in the representative elemental semimetals of bismuth and graphite.

  7. Effect of dietary phosphorus on the growth and body components of juvenile Synechogobius hasta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhi; Li, Xiaodong; Gong, Shiyuan; Xi, Wenqiu; Li, Yali

    2009-03-01

    The effect of dietary phosphorus on the growth and body components of juvenile Synechogobius hasta was determined. Different percentages of dietary phosphorus (0.63, 0.77, 0.93, 1.06, 1.22 and 1.36) were tested by feeding the fish (body weight, 15.81 g ± 0.32 g; 20 individuals each group; 3 groups each percentage) at a surplus of 5%-10% above satiation for 35 d. Dietary phosphorus did not significantly affect the specific growth rate, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency rate. Nitrogen retention was found to be the highest in fish fed the diet containing 1.06% of phosphorus; however, this was not significantly different from other diets. Fish fed the diet containing 0.93% of phosphorus showed the highest phosphorus retention; similar phosphorus retention rates were found in fish fed the diets containing 0.77% and 1.06% of phosphorus. Fish fed the diet containing the highest percentage of dietary phosphorus were found to contain the least whole body lipid, lower than fish fed other diets ( P<0.05). The protein content increased from 18.59% to 19.55% (although not significant) with the decrease of body lipid content ( P>0.05). The contents of the whole body ash, whole body phosphorus and vertebrae phosphorus increased with dietary phosphorus percentage up to 1.06 ( P<0.05), reaching a plateau after that. Dietary phosphorus did not significantly influence the muscle components (protein, lipid and moisture). Condition factor and hepatosomatic index were the highest in fish fed the diet containing 0.63% of dietary phosphorus; however, this was not significantly different from those of other diets. The second-order polynomial regression of phosphorus retention against dietary phosphorus identified a breakpoint at 0.88% of dietary phosphorus. However, the dietary requirement of phosphorus for maintaining maximum phosphorus storage determined by broken-line analysis of the contents of whole body phosphorus, and ash and vertebrae phosphorus was 1.06% of the diet.

  8. Bioavailability of phosphorus from defluorinated and dicalcium phosphates and phosphorus requirement of calves.

    PubMed

    Miller, W J; Neathery, M W; Gentry, R P; Blackmon, D M; Crowe, C T; Ware, G O; Fielding, A S

    1987-09-01

    Bioavailability of P from defluorinated phosphate and dicalcium phosphate and the P requirement were studied with 63 male Holstein calves. A P depletion diet containing .08% total P on a dry matter basis was fed to all animals for 4 wk beginning at 6 wk of age and 61 kg weight. Calves developed typical signs of P deficiency. The depletion period was followed by a 6-wk experimental period in which the same depletion diet was used as a control. Phosphorus from each of the two sources was added to make diets containing .14, .20, and .32% total P. Source of supplemental P did not affect weight gains, feed consumption, feed efficiency, serum inorganic P, serum alkaline phosphatase, or bone ash. PMID:3668046

  9. Colloidal and dissolved phosphorus in sandy soils as affected by phosphorus saturation.

    PubMed

    Ilg, Katrin; Siemens, Jan; Kaupenjohann, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Fertilization exceeding crop requirements causes an accumulation of phosphorus (P) in soils, which might increase concentrations of dissolved and colloidal P in drainage. We sampled soils classified as Typic Haplorthods from four fertilization experiments to test (i) whether increasing degrees of phosphorus saturation (DPS) increase concentrations of dissolved and colloidal P, and (ii) if critical DPS levels can be defined for P release from these soils. Oxalate-extractable concentrations of P, iron (Fe), and aluminum (Al) were quantified to characterize DPS. Turbidity, zeta potential, dissolved P, and colloidal P, Fe, Al, and carbon (C) concentrations were determined in water and KCl extracts. While concentrations of dissolved P decreased with increasing depth, concentrations of water-extractable colloidal P remained constant. In topsoils 28 +/- 17% and in subsoils 94 +/- 8% of water-extractable P was bound to colloids. Concentrations of dissolved P increased sharply for DPS > 0.1. Colloidal P concentrations increased with increasing DPS because of an additional mobilization of colloids and due to an increase of the colloids P contents. In addition to DPS, ionic strength and Ca(2+) affected the release of colloidal P. Hence, using KCl for extraction improved the relationship between DPS and colloidal P compared with water extraction. Accumulation of P in soils increases not only concentrations of dissolved P but also the risk of colloidal P mobilization. Leaching of colloidal P is potentially important for inputs of P into water bodies because colloidal P as the dominant water-extractable P fraction in subsoils was released from soils with relatively low DPS. PMID:15843656

  10. The fluvial flux of phosphorus from the UK 1974 - 2012: where has all the phosphorus gone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrall, Fred; Howden, Nicholas; Burt, Timothy; Jarvie, Helen

    2015-04-01

    As part of the Harmonised Monitoring Scheme, the UK has been monitoring total phosphorus (TP) and total reactive phosphorus (TRP) concentration at the tidal limit of all major UK rivers since 1974. Over the study period there were over 40,000 measurements of TP from 230 catchments and 160,000 measurements of TRP from 270 catchments. Concentrations of TRP and TP in UK rivers have decreased significantly since 1989, with values now less than 50% of their 1974 values. During this time, the ratio of TRP to TP has increased slightly with TRP now representing 73% of TP. The UK riverine flux of TRP peaked at 70.9 ktonnes P/yr (0.29 tonnes P/km2/yr) in 2000 and reached a minimum in 2011 of 9.3 ktonnes P/yr (0.04 tonnes P/km2/yr). Similarly, for TP, the peak flux occurred in 2001 at 95 ktonnes P/yr, with a minimum in 2011 of 15.8 ktonnes P/yr. A comparison of patterns in P fluxes with catchment land-use, soil types and hydroclimatic factors shows that the fluxes of both TP and TRP are dominantly linked to urban land cover, which we consider to be proxy for sewage inputs. The fluvial fluxes of TRP and TP will be discussed in the light of declining P fertiliser inputs; decreased direct sewage outputs of P; increased transfers of P via food and feed imports; and an increasing UK population.

  11. A review and model assessment of (32)P and (33)P uptake to biota in freshwater systems.

    PubMed

    Smith, J T; Bowes, M J; Cailes, C R

    2011-04-01

    Bioaccumulation of key short-lived radionuclides such as (131)I and (32,33)P may be over-estimated since concentration ratios (CRs) are often based on values for the corresponding stable isotope which do not account for radioactive decay during uptake via the food chain. This study presents estimates for bioaccumulation of radioactive phosphorus which account for both radioactive decay and varying ambient levels of stable P in the environment. Recommended interim CR values for radioactive forms of P as a function of bioavailable stable phosphorus in the water body are presented. Values of CR are presented for three different trophic levels of the aquatic food chain; foodstuffs from all three trophic levels may potentially be consumed by humans. It is concluded that current recommended values of the CR are likely to be significantly over-estimated for radioactive phosphorus in many freshwater systems, particularly lowland rivers. Further research is recommended to field-validate these models and assess their uncertainty. The relative importance of food-chain uptake and direct uptake from water are also assessed from a review of the literature. It can be concluded that food-chain uptake is the dominant accumulation pathway in fish and hence accumulation factors for radioactive phosphorus in farmed fish are likely to be significantly lower than those for wild fish. PMID:21324571

  12. X-ray observation of phosphorus vaporization from steelmaking slag and suppression method of phosphorus reversion in liquid iron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min-Oh Suk; Sung-Koo Jo; Seon-Hyo Kim; Kae-Young Lee; Jong-Min Park

    2006-01-01

    The behavior of phosphorus in CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-P2O5-Fe\\u000a t\\u000a O slag systems during solid Al and carbon deoxidation was investigated at 1873 K. Furthermore, an X-ray apparatus (vertical\\u000a resistancetube furnace equipped with an X-ray inspector system, which enhances the real-time observation of the generated\\u000a gas in slag) was introduced to confirm the possibility of the vaporizing phenomena of phosphorus from slag. The

  13. Composite of graphite/phosphorus as anode for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Aojun; Wang, Li; Li, Jiaoyang; He, Xiangming; Wang, Jixian; Wang, Jianlong

    2015-09-01

    Graphite/Phosphorus composite anodes are prepared by mixing graphite and the phosphorus/carbon material, which prepared by heating the mixture of red phosphorus and porous carbon. Their electrochemical performances are evaluated as anodes for Li-ion batteries. A graphite/Phosphorus composite|LiFePO4 full-cell is also attempted. When the phosphorus/carbon content in the composite anode is 28.6 wt.%, the composite anode presents high reversible capacity of 500 mAh g-1 and considerable cycleability comparable to that of graphite anode, showing promising performance.

  14. Beneficial effect of phosphorus on the creep behavior of Inconel 718

    SciTech Connect

    Song, H.; Guo, S.; Hu, Z. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China). Inst. of Metal Research)

    1999-06-18

    Phosphorus has long been regarded as a harmful impurity in superalloys. However, recent research work has found that phosphorus within a proper content range could remarkably improve the stress-rupture properties of some superalloys. In order to study the individual effects of phosphorus alone, two INCONEL 718 based alloys, with 0.003 wt% and 0.02 wt% phosphorus, respectively, have been prepared in the present work and the creep properties at different temperature and under different stress levels have been carefully determined. This is the first publication about the individual effect of phosphorus alone on the creep parameters (stress exponent and activation energy) of superalloys.

  15. Influence of Residual and Fresh Subsurface Phosphorus Fertilizer Bands on Soil Phosphorus Profile Distribution and Maize Growth and Shoot Phosphorus Uptake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nora Macariola-See; Howard J. Woodard

    2006-01-01

    A field study was conducted at Beresford, SD, to examine how residual fertilizer phosphorus (P) bands influenced the distribution of Bray-1 extractable P in the soil profile and maize (Zea mays L.) shoot growth and P uptake in a ridge-till system. Liquid ammonium polyphosphate (10-34-0) was injected each fall for three consecutive years in either one or two concentrated subsurface

  16. Intruder Configurations in the A=33 Isobars: {sup 33}Mg and {sup 33}Al

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Vandana; Tabor, S. L.; Bender, P.; Hoffman, C. R.; Lee, Sangjin; Perry, M.; Pepper, K.; Volya, A. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States); Mantica, P. F. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Utsuno, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Cook, J.; Pereira, J.; Weisshaar, D. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Otsuka, T. [Department of Physics and Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); RIKEN, Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Pinter, J. S.; Stoker, J. [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2008-10-03

    The {beta} decay of {sup 33}Mg (N=21) presented in this Letter reveals intruder configurations in both the parent and the daughter nucleus. The lowest excited states in the N=20 daughter nucleus, {sup 33}Al, are found to have nearly 2p-2h intruder configuration, thus extending the 'island of inversion' beyond Mg. The allowed direct {beta}-decay branch to the 5/2{sup +} ground state of the daughter nucleus {sup 33}Al implies positive parity for the ground state of the parent {sup 33}Mg, contrary to an earlier suggestion of negative parity from a g-factor measurement. An admixture of 1p-1h and 3p-3h configurations is proposed for the ground state of {sup 33}Mg to explain all of the experimental observables.

  17. Soil Phosphorus in Relation to Surface and Ground Water Phosphorus in Harvested and Forested Portions of a Sub-humid Boreal Aspen Upland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macrae, M. L.; Devito, K. J.; Redding, T.; Creed, I. F.; Bell, W.

    2004-05-01

    Soil moisture and phosphorus measured across a toposequence from upland to wetland in both harvested (clearcut) and forested sections of an aspen-dominated catchment in central Alberta were related to surface and ground water phosphorus. Topographic position explained most of the variance in the moisture and phosphorus contents of surface soils (0-20 cm) and there was little difference between harvested and forested areas. Soil phosphorus was inversely related to soil moisture throughout the catchment. Soil moisture was low and soil phosphorus was high in upslope areas compared to low-lying areas and wetlands. Surface organic soils (0 -10 cm) are high in extractable phosphorus (> 70 ? g g-1) and total phosphorus pools (> 1000 ? g g-1) whereas mineral soils are low in extractable phosphorus (< 2 ? g g-1) and total phosphorus pools (< 300 ? g g-1). Phosphorus buffering capacity was low in organic surface soils (EPC > 5000 ? g l-1) and high in subsoils (EPC =100-400 ? g l-1 in A horizon; EPC < 100 ? g l-1 in B horizon). This is reflected in total dissolved phosphorus concentrations in surface water and ground water throughout the catchment. Total dissolved phosphorus concentrations were high in surface water (85 ? g l-1) and soil water (202 ? g l-1) where organic soils were present and low in ground water where mineral soils were prevalent (23 ? g l-1). Changes in ground water phosphorus following a harvest are unlikely in this catchment due to the high adsorption affinity of mineral subsoils. Phosphorus-rich surface soils have a high potential for phosphorus release to surface water but this does not differ between harvested and forested sections of the catchment. Natural climatic variability in this sub-humid area often prevents surface runoff and discharge from occurring. The effects of harvesting may be dampened in sub-humid areas such as the Boreal Plain due to the moisture deficit. However, our ability to evaluate the effects of harvesting on phosphorus dynamics in this region is confounded by natural climatic variability and spatial variability within catchments.

  18. Making low-alloy steel from phosphorus pig iron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Kharlashin; O. V. Nosochenko; E. A. Ivanov; V. I. Ganoshenko; V. M. Baklanskii

    1991-01-01

    In order to expand the range of grades of converter steel that can be made from arsenic-bearing phosphorus pig iron, attempts have been made to convert pig iron from Kerchensk ores to quality low-alloy steel by a technology developed at the \\

  19. Adsorption of phosphorus in saturated slag media columns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung Hwan Lee; S. Vigneswaran; Hee Moon

    1997-01-01

    Adsorption of phosphorus (P as phosphates) in saturated slag media (dust and cake) columns was studied to assess the slag media's capability in removing P from wastewater. Prior to the experiments, slag media were completely washed to rinse off the soluble metal ions which are generally responsible for forming insoluble precipitates. Experimental data revealed that the adsorption capacities of washed

  20. Removal of Phosphorus from Steelmaking Slags: A Literature Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Iwasaki; E. Fregeau-Wu; T. Fujita

    1993-01-01

    An estimated 5 million tons of steelmaking slag is generated annually by the integrated mills in the United States. A literature review was made on the properties and the utilization of these slags with respect to the slag minimization processes, utilization as construction materials, and phosphorus removal for recycle. A major emphasis was placed on the application of mineral processing

  1. Boron Redistribution During Crystallization of Phosphorus-Doped Amorphous Silicon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Simola; D. Mangelinck; A. Portavoce; J. Bernardini; P. Fornara

    2006-01-01

    The redistribution of boron has been studied during solid phase crystallization (SPC) of a homogeneous phosphorus-doped amorphous silicon layer deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition, for different thermal annealing. We show that for the lower temperature annealing (T = 586 °C, 1h) boron diffuses without changing the P profile, while for the higher temperature annealing (T = 800 °C,

  2. Growth analysis of maize field crops under phosphorus deficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Plénet; S. Etchebest; A. Mollier; S. Pellerin

    2000-01-01

    Biomass accumulation by crops depends both on light interception by leaves and on the efficiency with which the intercepted\\u000a light is used to produce dry matter. Our aim was to identify which of these processes were affected for maize (Zea Mays L., cv Volga) field crops grown under phosphorus (P) deficiency, and assess their relative importance. In this paper, the

  3. Dietary calcium and phosphorus manipulations in thyroparathyroidectomized pregnant rats

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Dietary calcium and phosphorus manipulations in thyroparathyroidectomized pregnant rats and fetal vitamin D3 meta- bolite injection to the mothers when their plasma calcium is low or slightly elevated. To determine the putative role of calcium in these experiments, we elevated TPTX maternal plasma calcium

  4. MANURE SOURCE EFFECTS ON SOIL PHOSPHORUS FRACTIONS AND THEIR DISTRIBUTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure can be applied to soils as a major source of nutrients such as phosphorus (P). The environmental chemistry and plant availability of applied P are influenced by the chemical forms of P in the solid phase. The objectives of this study were to determine the amounts, availability, and chemical f...

  5. Phosphorus Flows in China. Physical Profiles and Environmental Regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liu Yi

    2005-01-01

    The substantial shifts in the structure of domestic phosphorus (P) throughput, during a crucial period of social and economic transitions, brings forth a challenge for curbing the extensive eutrophication of surface waters in China. The lack of an overall knowledge on the societal metabolism of P has contributed to the absence of eutrophication policy and efficient measures in China. Therefore,

  6. Animal management to reduce phosphorus losses to the environment1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. F. Knowlton; J. S. Radcliffe; C. L. Novak; D. A. Emmerson

    Water quality in the United States is threatened by contamination with nutrients, primarily nitrogen and phosphorus. Animal manure can be a val- uable resource for farmers, providing nutrients, im- proving soil structure, and increasing vegetative cover to decrease erosion potential. At the same time, applica- tion of manure nutrients in excess of crop requirements can result in environmental contamination. Environ-

  7. Method for recovery of phosphorus from animal wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wastewater treatment process and systems were developed to extract and concentrate phosphates from livestock wastewater. The research was conducted over a 10-year period and went from initial bench studies to pilot module development to full-scale demonstrations of the phosphorus module on swine f...

  8. Ceratophyllum demersum – phosphorus interactions in nutrient enriched aquaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paola Lombardo; G. Dennis Cooke

    2003-01-01

    High macrophyte density in shallow lakes is often associated with clear water, especially when the non-rooted, submerged angiosperm Ceratophyllum demersum is dominant. Lack of true roots and high surface area:volume ratio suggest that nutrient uptake from the water column by C. demersum may be high. Therefore, possible competition for nutrients, including phosphorus (P), could contribute to phytoplankton inhibition.

  9. The Minnesota Filter: A Tool for Capturing Stormwater Dissolved Phosphorus

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    treatment practices provide: ­ Filtration (solids) ­ Infiltration (solids, dissolved?) ­ Sedimentation://stormwater.safl.umn.edu/ Dissolved Pollutant Removal Processes · Vegetative processes: plant uptake and rhizospheric activity to nitrogen gas or petroleum hydrocarbons to carbon dioxide #12;http://stormwater.safl.umn.edu/ Phosphorus

  10. Update on white lupin cluster roots acclimation to phosphorus deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is one of 17 essential elements required for plant growth. Although bound P is quite abundant in many soils, it is largely unavailable for uptake. As such, P is frequently the most limiting element for plant growth and development. Crop yield on 40% to 60% of the world's arable land i...

  11. Agronomic effectiveness of phosphorus materials recovered from manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land application of large amounts of manure from confined livestock facilities is an environmental concern often associated often associated to excess phosphorus (P) in soils and potential pollution of water resources. Recovery of P from livestock manure is an attractive approach when on-farm applic...

  12. Development and testing of a new phosphorus index for Kentucky

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phosphorus index (PI) is a field-scale assessment tool developed by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) to identify fields most vulnerable to P loss that has been adopted in some form across 48 states. Due to concerns that the use of the PI has not resulted in intended reduct...

  13. PRODUCTION AND FEEDING STRATEGIES FOR PHOSPHORUS MANAGEMENT ON DAIRY FARMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The long-term accumulation of soil phosphorus (P) is becoming an important concern on some watersheds heavily populated with dairy farms. Management changes in crop production and feeding may be useful in reducing this accumulation of excess P, but farm profitability must be maintained or improved t...

  14. REDUCTION IN EXCESS SOIL PHOSPHORUS CONCENTRATIONS USING WATER TREATMENT RESIDUALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock production in the southeastern Coastal Plain region has created environmental concern from the effects of excess soil phosphorus (P) concentrations on water quality. In many Coastal aquatic ecosystems, water quality can be at risk by elevated P transport via runoff, erosion, and leaching f...

  15. EVALUATING THE SUCCESS OF PHOSPHORUS MANAGEMENT FROM FIELD TO WATERSHED

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have demonstrated some phosphorus (P) loss reduction following implementation of remedial strategies at field scales. However, there has been little coordinated evaluation of Best Management Practices (BMPs) on a watershed scale to show where, when, and which work most effectively. Thus, i...

  16. Seasonal and long term changes in manure phosphorus availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soils are most often the resource used in the final assimilation of many agricultural waste products. In regions where manure phosphorus (P) production exceeds the assimilative capacity of crops, soil P will often accumulate at high levels. Land application of manure at rates exceeding crop removal ...

  17. Effectiveness of Recovered Manure Phosphorus as Plant Fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) was recovered from liquid swine manure and poultry litter using new advanced treatment manure processes developed to recover this nutrient from manure. The high P concentration in the recovered P materials indicates that they likely have use as plant fertilizers. A study was conducted...

  18. Effectiveness and Longevity of Phosphorus Inactivation with Alum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene B. Welch; G. Dennis Cooke

    1999-01-01

    Effectiveness and longevity of alum treatments were evaluated in 21 lakes (or lake basins) across the United States; 9 were polymictic and 12 were dimictic. Effectiveness was judged from reductions in lake TP (total phosphorus) and internal loading rate, as well as chlorophyll a (chl a), both initially and over periods ranging from 4 to 20 years following treatment. Internal

  19. Internal Phosphorus Loading and Alum Effectiveness in Shallow Lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene B. Welch; Curtis L. DeGasperi; Demitrius E. Spyridakis; Thomas J. Belnick

    1988-01-01

    Internal phosphorus loading in shallow aerobic lakes appears to be controlled by iron redox, much as it is in deep, stratified anaerobic lakes. Lack of stratification in shallow lakes, permitting greater oxygen transport to sediments than in stratified lakes, may be offset by higher temperature; this promotes greater demand for electron acceptors (O2 and NO3) and anoxic conditions at the

  20. Phosphorus Loading of an Urban Lake by Bird Droppings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy M. Scherer; Harry L. Gibbons; Kevin B. Stoops; Martin Muller

    1995-01-01

    The role of birds in nutrient cycling in lakes and reservoirs is often not quantified, or thought to be relatively unimportant. However, when bird populations are large relative to the size or volume of the waterbody, a substantial fraction of the nutrient pool may cycle through birds. In this report, we estimate the mass of phosphorus in bird droppings cycling