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1

Preparation of Poliovirus Labeled with Phosphorus-33  

PubMed Central

Phosphorus-33 (33P), a weak (0.25 Mev) beta-emitting isotope of phosphorus with a half-life of 25 days, has been used to label poliovirus in cell culture. HeLa cell monolayers were depleted of phosphate and then labeled by incubating at 37 C in a medium (LM) containing about 10 ?Ci of 33P as orthophosphate per ml. Labeled cells were infected at a high multiplicity with poliovirus type 1 and incubated for 8 hr in LM medium. Virus from infected cells was then concentrated and purified. Virus purity was confirmed by comparison of virus infectivity and radioactivity after CsCl density gradient centrifugation and by observing purified virus preparations with electron microscopy. With the method described, yields of about 1010 to 5 × 1010 plaque-forming units (PFU) of highly purified poliovirus with specific activities of about 3 × 10-4 to 10-3 disintegrations per min per PFU have been obtained from 1.5 × 108 to 3.0 × 108 HeLa cells. Images

Sobsey, Mark D.; Lavigne, Michael E.; Cooper, Robert C.

1972-01-01

2

Preparation of poliovirus labeled with phosphorus-33.  

PubMed

Phosphorus-33 ((33)P), a weak (0.25 Mev) beta-emitting isotope of phosphorus with a half-life of 25 days, has been used to label poliovirus in cell culture. HeLa cell monolayers were depleted of phosphate and then labeled by incubating at 37 C in a medium (LM) containing about 10 muCi of (33)P as orthophosphate per ml. Labeled cells were infected at a high multiplicity with poliovirus type 1 and incubated for 8 hr in LM medium. Virus from infected cells was then concentrated and purified. Virus purity was confirmed by comparison of virus infectivity and radioactivity after CsCl density gradient centrifugation and by observing purified virus preparations with electron microscopy. With the method described, yields of about 10(10) to 5 x 10(10) plaque-forming units (PFU) of highly purified poliovirus with specific activities of about 3 x 10(-4) to 10(-3) disintegrations per min per PFU have been obtained from 1.5 x 10(8) to 3.0 x 10(8) HeLa cells. PMID:4336662

Sobsey, M D; Lavigne, M E; Cooper, R C

1972-03-01

3

Determination of specific protein kinase activities using phosphorus-33.  

PubMed

The immune complex kinase assay is the most widely applied method to assess the catalytic activity of protein tyrosine kinases. It offers the advantage that the activity of a single selected enzyme can be determined, and that the enzyme activity can be normalized for the amount of enzyme in a parallel immunoblotting experiment. Here, we describe the use of the recently introduced isotope phosphorus-33 for the protein kinase assay. The lower energy of 33P, compared with the traditionally applied 32P, allows the simultaneous examination of the amount of enzyme with 125I-labeled antibodies. By analysing one and the same sample for both kinase activity and protein amount, the variation between parallel processed samples is avoided. Using this method, specific kinase activities can be calculated with high precision. The assay is particularly useful for the detection of cytokine and growth factor-induced activation of kinases, as changes in enzyme amounts by subcellular relocalization can be distinguished. PMID:8926338

Weernink, P A; Rijksen, G

1996-01-11

4

Influence of dietary calcium on phosphorus absorption and excretion and on phosphorus-33 distribution in laying hens.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted using isotope-dilution and comparative balance techniques to estimate urinary and fecal P excretion of laying hens fed different levels of dietary Ca. Two levels of dietary Ca (3.46 and 4.2%) were fed to eight hens for 30 days. After 30 days, 50 microCi of the radioisotope 33P was injected intramuscularly to label endogenous P. On the 2nd day after 33P dosing and at 1 h postoviposition, plasma, liver, kidney, femur bone, whole egg, ileum, ileal digesta, and excreta samples were collected from each hen. Results showed a favorable effect of increasing dietary Ca consumption (2.91 vs 3.57 g/hen per day): femur ash increased (P less than .08), excreta P decreased (P less than .03), and urinary P decreased (P less than .06). The P content of ileal digesta was not affected by dietary Ca intake, but excreta P was greater for hens consuming less Ca, indicating that, during the collection period, excretion of P in urine was increased by the low Ca diet. Endogenous P secretions constituted less than 1% of the P in ileal digesta and excreta samples and this proportion was not changed by dietary Ca consumed. PMID:3405922

Scheideler, S E; Sell, J L

1988-03-01

5

The specificity of S1 nuclease toward RNA-DNA hybrids as studied using isotopes of phosphorus-32 and phosphorus-33.  

PubMed

Hybrids were formed from Bacillus cereus DNA and ribosomal RNA. They were treated with various combination of S1 nuclease and ribonuclease, and the molar ratios of the RNA and DNA moieties remaining in the treated hybrids were determined using a 32P-33P dual-label technique. It was found that both S1 nuclease and ribonuclease are required to give hybrid with RNA and DNA in a perfect 1:1 molar ratio. It was noted that the dual-label technique which employs orthophosphate as the sole phosphorus source for both labels gives unambiguous molar ratios and obviates the need to calculate specific activities, make quench corrections, or correct for base content. PMID:197495

Wittelsberger, S C; Hansen, J N

1977-06-01

6

The specificity of S1 nuclease toward RNA-DNA hybrids as studied using isotopes of phosphorus-32 and phosphorus-33.  

PubMed Central

Hybrids were formed from Bacillus cereus DNA and ribosomal RNA. They were treated with various combination of S1 nuclease and ribonuclease, and the molar ratios of the RNA and DNA moieties remaining in the treated hybrids were determined using a 32P-33P dual-label technique. It was found that both S1 nuclease and ribonuclease are required to give hybrid with RNA and DNA in a perfect 1:1 molar ratio. It was noted that the dual-label technique which employs orthophosphate as the sole phosphorus source for both labels gives unambiguous molar ratios and obviates the need to calculate specific activities, make quench corrections, or correct for base content.

Wittelsberger, S C; Hansen, J N

1977-01-01

7

Three-step preparation and purification of phosphorus-33-labeled creatine phosphate of high specific activity.  

PubMed

Rabbit heart mitochondria were used as a source of enzymes for the synthesis of phosphorus-labeled creatine phosphate. This method is based on the coupled reaction between mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial-bound creatine kinase. It is possible to convert more than 90% of the inorganic phosphate (Pi) to creatine phosphate. The method used only small amounts of adenine nucleotides which led to a product with only slight nucleotide contamination. This could be removed by activated charcoal extraction. For further purification, a method for the removal of residual Pi is described. PMID:6731819

Savabi, F; Geiger, P J; Bessman, S P

1984-03-01

8

[3+3] annulation of allylic phosphoryl-stabilized carbanions/phosphorus ylides and vinyl azides: a practice strategy for synthesis of polyfunctionalized anilines.  

PubMed

Tandem Michael addition and Witting or Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons olefination initiated [3+3] annulation between vinyl azides and allylic phosphorus ylides or allylic phosphoryl-stabilized carbanions has been developed. This one-pot protocol furnishes highly functionalized anilines in good to excellent yields under mild, room-temperature conditions. A rational mechanism is also proposed. PMID:24953098

Liu, Shen; Chen, Wenteng; Luo, Jing; Yu, Yongping

2014-07-01

9

Phosphorus-33-labeled nucleotide 5 prime -triphosphates: Applications in DNA analysis  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis of ({gamma}-{sup 33}P) adenosine 5{prime}-triphosphate and ({alpha}-{sup 33}P)2{prime}-deoxyadenosine 5{prime}-triphosphate was accomplished in a way similar to the preparation of {sup 32}P-labeled nucleotides. These nucleotides were then used in a variety of molecular biological applications. The techniques of DNA sequencing and nucleic acid hybridization were used to evaluate potential applications for {sup 33}P labeled nucleotides. The {sup 33}P nucleotides were compared with the {sup 32}P and {sup 35}S nucleotide equivalents for the ability to serve as substrates for various enzymes used to label DNA, T4-bacteriophage polynucleotide kinase, E. coli DNA polymerase, and T7 DNA polymerase. The products of there reactions were either separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (DNA sequencing) or used as hybridization probes on a nylon membrane. The isotopically labeled DNA was detected by autoradiography on X-ray film. The film was evaluated for relative sensitivity of the film versus time for each isotope and the sharpness or resolution of the exposed bands on the film.

Buzby, P.R.

1992-01-01

10

Dietary Phosphorus Requirement of Channel Catfish1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to reevaluate the dietary phosphorus requirement of fingerling channel catfish. Basal diets containing either casein with supplemental inorganic phosphorus and 0.5% total calcium or egg albumin with sup plemental inorganic phosphorus and 0.75% total calcium yielded similar requirement data. Eleven-week growth, feed efficiency, serum phosphorus, bone ash, bone calcium and bone phosphorus data indicate that 0.33%

ROBERT P. WILSON; EDWIN H. ROBINSON; DELBERT M. GATLIN; ANDWILLIAM E. POE

11

Phosphorus Test  

MedlinePLUS

... mineral that combines with other substances to form organic and inorganic phosphate compounds. The terms phosphorus and ... Your Comments ©2001 - by American Association for Clinical Chemistry • Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy We comply ...

12

DESIGN MANUAL: PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

This manual summarizes process design information for the best developed methods for removing phosphorus from wastewater. his manual discusses several proven phosphorus removal methods, including phosphorus removal obtainable through biological activity as well as chemical precip...

13

Sequential calcium and phosphorus balance studies in preterm infants.  

PubMed

Forty-six infant boys less than 1500 g at birth and less than 32 weeks gestation were fed enterally from birth until day 47. Cohorts were given milk formula varying in calcium and phosphorus content: group A, calcium 45 mg/dL, phosphorus 33 mg/dL; group B, calcium 85 mg/dL, phosphorus 33 mg/dL; group C, calcium 125 mg/dL, phosphorus 33 mg/dL; group D, calcium 125 mg/dL, phosphorus 50 mg/dL; and group E, calcium 125 mg/dL, phosphorus 64 mg/dL. Three-day balance studies were begun at days 10, 20, 30, and 40. Calcium net absorption and retention were influenced by postnatal age and calcium intake. Calcium retention best approached intrauterine accretion rates in group C. Phosphorus was well absorbed irrespective of the calcium content of the milk. Phosphorus retention increased with increments in the calcium content of the milk. Increasing the phosphorus content of the milk (groups D and E) resulted in no overall change in calcium absorption and retention but some increments in phosphorus retention. PMID:3104569

Giles, M M; Fenton, M H; Shaw, B; Elton, R A; Clarke, M; Lang, M; Hume, R

1987-04-01

14

Dietary phosphorus, serum phosphorus, and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Recent epidemiologic studies have linked higher serum phosphorus concentrations to cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality. This association has been identified in the general population and in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The risk of adverse outcomes appears to begin with phosphorus concentrations within the upper limit of the normal reference range. Multiple experimental studies have suggested pathogenetic mechanisms that involve direct and indirect effects of high phosphorus concentrations to explain these associations. Drawing from these observations, guideline-forming agencies have recommended that serum phosphorus concentrations be maintained within the normal reference range in patients with CKD and that dietary phosphorus restriction or use of intestinal phosphate binders should be considered to achieve this goal. However, outside the dialysis population, the links between dietary phosphorus intake and serum phosphorus concentrations, and dietary phosphorus intake and CVD events, are uncertain. With specific reference to the nondialysis populations, this review discusses the available data linking dietary phosphorus intake with serum phosphorus concentrations and CVD events. PMID:24117725

Menon, Madhav C; Ix, Joachim H

2013-10-01

15

Proposed biokinetic model for phosphorus.  

PubMed

This paper reviews data related to the biokinetics of phosphorus in the human body and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic phosphorus for use in updated International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) guidance on occupational intake of radionuclides. Compared with the ICRP's current occupational model for systemic phosphorus (Publication 68, 1994), the proposed model provides a more realistic description of the paths of movement of phosphorus in the body and greater consistency with experimental, medical, and environmental data regarding its time-dependent distribution. For acute uptake of (32)P to blood, the proposed model yields roughly a 50% decrease in dose estimates for bone surface and red marrow and a six-fold increase in estimates for liver and kidney compared with the model of Publication 68. For acute uptake of (33)P to blood, the proposed model yields roughly a 50% increase in dose estimates for bone surface and red marrow and a seven-fold increase in estimates for liver and kidney compared with the model of Publication 68. PMID:24893947

Leggett, R W

2014-06-01

16

Phosphorus blood test  

MedlinePLUS

Phosphorus - serum; HPO4 -2 , PO4 -3 ; Inorganic phosphate; Serum phosphorus ... Calcium is a mineral the body needs to build strong bones and teeth. It is important for nerve signaling and muscle contraction. This ...

17

Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V., Jr.; Ediger, E.

1950-01-01

18

Red Phosphorus Jack Grenade.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

CDEE PORTON have produced a Red Phosphorus Jack Grenade for AFV local smoke protection, with the object of combining the rapid screening qualities of the No 80 White Phosphorus with the quicker loading and reduced fire hazard of the L5 and L7 Jack Grenade...

C. A. Robinson P. A. Nelson P. G. Bartholomew

1968-01-01

19

PHOSPHORUS RECOVERY FROM SEWAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Phosphorus is a growth limiting nutrient that is mined from rock ore, refined, used in fertilizers, and discharged to the environment through municipal sewage. The impacts of phosphorus discharge include severe eutrophication of fresh water bodies. The future sustainable use of...

20

Phosphorus in diet  

MedlinePLUS

... total body weight. It is present in every cell of the body. Most of the phosphorus in the body is found in the bones and teeth. ... The main function of phosphorus is in the formation of bones and ... the body make ATP, a molecule the body uses to store energy. ...

21

Phosphorus chemistry in everyday living  

SciTech Connect

This book brings to life the versatility of phosphorus and its compounds and is filled with personal anecdotes and experiences of the authors. Covers the uses of phosphorus in matches and warfare; phosphates and food, fertilizers, cleaners, and detergents; organic phosphorus nerve gases and insecticides. Also discusses phosphoric acids, organic phosphorus polymers, deoxyribonucleic and ribonucleic acids and adenosine triphosphate.

Toy, D.F.; Walsh, E.F.

1987-01-01

22

Impact of an external electron acceptor on phosphorus mobility between water and sediments.  

PubMed

The present work assessed the impact of an external electron acceptor on phosphorus fluxes between water and sediment interface. Microcosm experiments simulating a sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC) were carried out and phosphorus was extracted by an optimized combination of three methods. Despite the low voltage recorded, ~96 mV (SMFC with carbon paper anode) and ~146 mV (SMFC with stainless steel scourer anode), corresponding to a power density of 1.15 and 0.13 mW/m(2), it was enough to produce an increase in the amounts of metal bound phosphorus (14% vs 11%), Ca-bound phosphorus (26% vs 23%), and refractory phosphorus (33% vs 28%). These results indicate an important role of electroactive bacteria in the phosphorus cycling and open a new perspective for preventing metal bound phosphorus dissolution from sediments. PMID:24210650

Martins, G; Peixoto, L; Teodorescu, S; Parpot, P; Nogueira, R; Brito, A G

2014-01-01

23

Triphenylmethyl fluoride as a fluorinating agent in phosphorus–halogen chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triphenylmethyl fluoride 1 will effect chlorine–fluorine exchange in certain phosphorus chlorides. Exchange of chlorine for fluorine was observed only in ?3?3 (P)- and ?5?5 (P)-compounds, while phosphorus oxychloride as an example of a ?4?5 (P)-compound was unreactive towards 1.

Volker Plack; Jens R Goerlich; Reinhard Schmutzler

1998-01-01

24

Nitrogen and Phosphorus Biomass-Kinetic Model for Chlorella vulgaris in a Biofuel Production Scheme.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chlorella vulgaris was cultured in microbioreactors using Bold's Basal medium at varying nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations to define nitrogen and phosphorus utilization standards. Nutrient concentration was varied between 137 mg/L to 7.33 mg/L NO3-N ...

W. M. Rowley

2010-01-01

25

Biological Phosphorus Removal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three proprietary biological phosphorus removal processes are reviewed. The paper presents the description and development status of these technologies. The paper is a summary of the emerging technology assessment report published by U.S. Environmental Pr...

J. F. Kreissl A. E. Eralp

1986-01-01

26

Phosphorus-containing calixarenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data on the synthesis, conformational behaviour and complexing properties of calix[4]resorcinolarene and calix[n]arene derivatives modified by phosphorus-containing fragments are surveyed. The bibliography includes 123 references.

Antipin, Igor S.; Kazakova, Ella Kh; Habicher, Wolf D.; Konovalov, Alexander I.

1998-11-01

27

Aromatic Phosphorus Heterocycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus an element with an electronegativity somewhat less than that of carbon and is an excellent and versatile building\\u000a block of aromatic systems. Thus, in many systems carbon can be replaced efficiently by phosphorus. The versatility is a consequence\\u000a of the many different bonding modes available for the pnicogen element. The extent of the aromaticity is different with the\\u000a different

L. Nyulászi; Z. Benko

2009-01-01

28

Rethinking early Earth phosphorus geochemistry  

PubMed Central

Phosphorus is a key biologic element, and a prebiotic pathway leading to its incorporation into biomolecules has been difficult to ascertain. Most potentially prebiotic phosphorylation reactions have relied on orthophosphate as the source of phosphorus. It is suggested here that the geochemistry of phosphorus on the early Earth was instead controlled by reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds such as phosphite (HPO32?), which are more soluble and reactive than orthophosphates. This reduced oxidation state phosphorus originated from extraterrestrial material that fell during the heavy bombardment period or was produced during impacts, and persisted in the mildly reducing atmosphere. This alternate view of early Earth phosphorus geochemistry provides an unexplored route to the formation of pertinent prebiotic phosphorus compounds, suggests a facile reaction pathway to condensed phosphates, and is consistent with the biochemical usage of reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds in life today. Possible studies are suggested that may detect reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds in ancient Archean rocks.

Pasek, Matthew A.

2008-01-01

29

Phosphorus Cycle in the Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of phosphorus is considered at major stages of the sedimentary cycle beginning with supply sources for its delivery into the ocean to precipitation and its sedimentation, localization and subsequent diagenetic redistribution in bottom sediments. River runoff represents the main phosphorus source in the ocean. It delivers annually about 1.5 Mt of dissolved phosphorus and more than 20 Mt

G. N. Baturin

2003-01-01

30

Aromatic Phosphorus Heterocycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus an element with an electronegativity somewhat less than that of carbon and is an excellent and versatile building block of aromatic systems. Thus, in many systems carbon can be replaced efficiently by phosphorus. The versatility is a consequence of the many different bonding modes available for the pnicogen element. The extent of the aromaticity is different with the different bonding modes, and can also be fine tuned by utilizing various substituents that have inductive or steric effects. It is noteworthy that even small effects can have a large impact on the chemistry of these compounds. Thus, the analysis of subtle changes in aromaticity can be of importance in the future.

Nyulászi, L.; Benk?, Z.

31

Phosphorus-Containing Calixarenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calixarenes are macro(hetero)cyclic compounds having three-dimensional molecular cavities and are ubiquitous as synthetic receptors in supramolecular chemistry. This paper provides an overview of studies on the phosphorus-containing calixarenes and thiacalixarenes, within the context of synthesis, metal cation binding, catalysis, molecular recognition and bioactivity.

Cherenok, Sergey; Kalchenko, Vitaly

32

Predicting Phosphorus Losses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background In July 2003, the city of Tulsa, OK reached an agreement with six Arkansas poultry integrators and the city of Decatur to reduce P loading into the Lake Eucha-Spavinaw reservoir complex. As part of the agreement, poultry growers in the watershed were forbidden from land application of litter until a new phosphorus index (P-Index) could be developed and used

David Radcliffe; Nathan Nelson

33

Reduced Phosphorus Compounds in the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced phosphorus compounds (phosphorus with oxidation number less than +5) are and often ignored component of the global phosphorus cycle. This paper highlights environments in which reduced phosphorus compounds may be significant, reviews their importance in industrial applications and products, and examines their possible production by anaerobic bacteria or the steel industry. The role of reduced phosphorus in corrosion of

Siyuan C. Morton; Marc Edwards

2005-01-01

34

Phosphorus accummulation in reed bed treatment filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Constructed wetlands are well known method for alternative wastewater treatment in rural areas in Poland. There are mainly used as a biological treatment step of domestic wastewater. The most popular are subsurface flow constructed wetlands (reed bed systems) with bed filled with site soil (mainly clayey sand or sandy clay). Over 30 such plants with daily flow above 5 m3 per day is operated in Poland. Object and goal of research Many researches have been made on estimation constructed wetlands treatment efficiency, however there are mostly concentrated on inlet outlet concentration compartments. In this study preliminary results of phosphorus accumulation in the bed of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland are presented. Monitored plant treats wastewater from 150 inhabitants in the volume of 14 m3 d-1 at average and is under operation from December 1998. The goal of research was to asses the distribution of phosphorus in the wetland bed after 8 years of treatment of domestic wastewater. Obtained results are shown on the background of organic matter (TOC) distribution. The methods applied The bed of the constructed wetland (30 m width and 33 m length) was divided by net of 20 points. In every point two soil samples, one from the depth of 0-10 cm and one from the depth of 20-30 cm, were collected. The samples were analyzed for organic matter and total phosphorus content. Investigation findings The results showed variation of measured indexes on the length and depth of treatment bed. In generally, the highest accumulation occurred near the inlet zone of wetland. The relation is rather clear in case of organic matter, but in case of phosphorus high contents were also observed at the outlet zone of wetland. Higher organic matter concentrations were observed in deeper layer (20-30 cm) than in upper layer (0-10 cm) of the bed.

Karczmarczyk, A.; Bary?a, A.

2009-04-01

35

Phosphorus in the environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IsoPhos 2012: Development of Isotopic Tracers for a Better Understandingof the Phosphorus Cycle;Monte Verità, Switzerland, 24-29 June 2012 IsoPhos 2012, a conference dedicated to cutting-edge research on phosphorus, was held in the Centro Stefano Franscini of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology of Zurich (ETH Zurich). It gathered 63 scientists, 11 of whom were graduate students, from 16 countries and different areas of expertise, including Earth sciences, oceanography, paleontology, microbiology, soil and plant sciences, and hydrology. The conference focused on the use of stable oxygen isotopes in phosphate. New developments in preparation and analytical techniques have made the application of this tracer viable for fields other than paleoclimatology. However, new challenges with respect to sample preparation, standardization, its use in conjunction with other tracers, and the effect of biochemical processes have arisen.

Tamburini, F.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Paytan, A.

2012-10-01

36

Multiple phosphorus chemical sites in heavily phosphorus-doped diamond  

SciTech Connect

We have performed high-resolution core level photoemission spectroscopy on a heavily phosphorus (P)-doped diamond film in order to elucidate the chemical sites of doped-phosphorus atoms in diamond. P 2p core level study shows two bulk components, providing spectroscopic evidence for multiple chemical sites of doped-phosphorus atoms. This indicates that only a part of doped-phosphorus atoms contribute to the formation of carriers. From a comparison with band calculations, possible origins for the chemical sites are discussed.

Okazaki, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Yoshida, Rikiya [The Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Muro, Takayuki; Nakamura, Tetsuya [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI)/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Wakita, Takanori; Muraoka, Yuji; Yokoya, Takayoshi [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Hirai, Masaaki [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Kato, Hiromitsu; Yamasaki, Satoshi [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Center 2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Takano, Yoshihiko; Ishii, Satoshi [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Oguchi, Tamio [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

2011-02-21

37

Marine phosphorus cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus introduced to the ocean must ultimately be removed if a steady state is to be maintained over geologic time. Aeolian input is insignificant, and there is evidently no hydrothermal contribution. Rivers dominate P-input to the ocean. The fluvial P-flux is poorly quantified due to the interactions of two factors: (1) man's influence on river-nutrient fluxes; and (2) inherent complexities

P. N. Frohlich; M. L. Bender; N. A. Luedtke; G. R. Heath; T. DeVries

1982-01-01

38

Phosphorus and the Green Scum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource explains the relationship between the overabundance of the element phosphorus in the environment and explosive algae growth (called algae blooms or green scum) as well as the progress toward eutrophication. The origins of excess phosphorus are listed as: too much fertilizer, leaves and grass, human and animal waste, and eroded soils. The site contains suggestions for phosphorus control, including soil testing, composting yard debris, and educating the public.

39

Lake Phosphorus Loading Graphs: An Alternative.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As an alternative to loading graphs, a graph of mean influent phosphorus concentration versus phosphorus retention capacity is proposed to express the relationship between phosphorus supply and hydraulic flow to, and resultant trophic state of, lakes. Lin...

D. P. Larsen H. T. Mercier

1975-01-01

40

Method of Producing Epoxide Tars Containing Phosphorus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for producing epoxide tars (resins) containing phosphorus by means of interaction of diepoxides with the products of acids of phosphorus is presented. Derivatives of phosphorus acids are used with the dichlorides of phosphoric, phosphorous, and p...

E. V. Kuznetsov R. S. Ivanova V. A. Maslov

1965-01-01

41

Phosphorus in Soil and Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many waterways are considered polluted due, at least in part, to excessive amounts of phosphorus. This topic-in-depth delves into the issues surrounding phosphorus in the environment. First, Larry G. Bundy at the University of Wisconsin - Madison provides a slide show about phosphorus's presence in soils (1). Students can discover the agronomic need for phosphorus, its effects on water quality and management issues. The second web site, created by the University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, offers a great overview of how wetlands affect the retention, cycling, and release of phosphorus in wetlands (2). Users will find a straightforward diagram of the phosphorus cycle in wetlands. Next, Manitoba Agriculture, Food, and Rural Initiatives present the reasons for careful management of phosphorus in fertilizers, manure, detergents, sewage, and industrial waste (3). The web site effectively summarizes how phosphorus gets into the surface water and negatively influences the environment. Developed by the USGS, the fourth web site addresses the pollution concerns surrounding agricultural landscapes (4). Visitors can learn about the amounts and effects of the erosion of phosphorus, as well as nitrogen and pesticides, on nearby streams and lakes. Next, the Minnesota Environmental Partnership discusses why Minnesota has restricted the use of phosphorus-containing fertilizers on lawns (5). Visitors can discover tips for buying fertilizers and how to deal with the leftovers. The sixth web site describes the USDA's Agricultural Research Service's findings that residue from water-treatment processes may increase soil's capacity to adsorb phosphorus (6). Users can discover how this may help reduce the transport of phosphorus into the watershed, especially in sandy soils. Next, the Australian Government's National Eutrophication Management Program presents its research examining phosphorus erosion, external things that affect its movement, predictive capabilities, and ways to reduce its movement (7). Visitors can learn about the researchers' discoveries that phosphorus can enter waterways through the subsoil. Lastly, the Minnesota Department of Agriculture describes the concept of a watershed and how they influence water quality (8). Users can find out how to reduce the amount of phosphorus entering nearby streams and lakes and how to help their watershed.

42

Deep Level in InP Crystal Grown by the Horizontal Bridgman Method under Controlled Phosphorus Vapor Pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

InP crystals were grown by the horizontal Bridgman (HB) method under a controlled ambient phosphorus vapor pressure. The relationship between the phosphorus vapor pressure and crystal defects was investigated. Crystals grown under a lower phosphorus vapor pressure have an In-rich composition. P-vacancy related photoluminescence (PL) emission at 1.1 eV decreased in growth under a higher phosphorus vapor pressure. The ion density at Ec-1.1 eV also decreased according to results of photocapacitance measurement. It was considered that crystals became a P-rich composition from an In-rich one by growth under higher phosphorus vapor pressure of 23 or 29 atm. This corresponds to the results of coulometric titration analysis. In the InP crystal grown under the phosphorus pressure of 33 atm, the density of the deep level was undetectable by PL or photocapacitance measurement.

Shimizu, Atsushi; Nishizawa, Jun-ichi; Oyama, Yutaka; Suto, Ken

2000-07-01

43

Molecular Structure of Phosphorus pentachloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Phosphorus pentachloride is an extremely hazardous waste and is highly reactive against water. It has been used as a pesticide and as a component in plastics. In addition, phosphorus pentachloride has been employed as a catalyst in organic synthesis to induce rearrangements. Some of the molecule's properties are having trigonal bipyramidal geometry and a hybridization of sp3d.

2002-10-01

44

Extraction of soil organic phosphorus.  

PubMed

Organic phosphorus is an important component of soil biogeochemical cycles, but must be extracted from soil prior to analysis. Here we critically review the extraction of soil organic phosphorus, including procedures for quantification, speciation, and assessment of biological availability. Quantitative extraction conventionally requires strong acids and bases, which inevitably alter chemical structure. However, a single-step procedure involving sodium hydroxide and EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetate) is suitable for most soils and facilitates subsequent speciation by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Analysis of extracts by molybdate colorimetry is a potential source of error in all procedures, because organic phosphorus is overestimated in the presence of inorganic polyphosphates or complexes between inorganic phosphate and humic substances. Sequential extraction schemes fractionate organic phosphorus based on chemical solubility, but the link to potential bioavailability is misleading. Research should be directed urgently towards establishing extractable pools of soil organic phosphorus with ecological relevance. PMID:18969994

Turner, Benjamin L; Cade-Menun, Barbara J; Condron, Leo M; Newman, Susan

2005-04-15

45

Prebiotic phosphorus chemistry reconsidered.  

PubMed

The available evidence indicates that the origin of life on Earth certainly occurred earlier than 3.5 billion years ago and perhaps substantially earlier. The time available for the chemical evolution which must have preceded this event is more difficult to estimate. Both endogenic and exogenic contributions to chemical evolution have been considered; i.e., from chemical reactions in a primitive atmosphere, or by introduction in the interiors of comets and/or meteorites. It is argued, however, that the phosphorus chemistry of Earth's earliest hydrosphere, whether primarily exogenic or endogenic in origin, was most likely dominated by compounds less oxidized than phosphoric acid and its esters. A scenario is presented for the early production of a suite of reactive phosphonic acid derivatives, the properties of which may have foreshadowed the later appearance of biophosphates. PMID:11536839

Schwartz, A W

1997-12-01

46

Prebiotic phosphorus chemistry reconsidered  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The available evidence indicates that the origin of life on Earth certainly occurred earlier than 3.5 billion years ago and perhaps substantially earlier. The time available for the chemical evolution which must have preceded this event is more difficult to estimate. Both endogenic and exogenic contributions to chemical evolution have been considered; i.e., from chemical reactions in a primitive atmosphere, or by introduction in the interiors of comets and/or meteorites. It is argued, however, that the phosphorus chemistry of Earth's earliest hydrosphere, whether primarily exogenic or endogenic in origin, was most likely dominated by compounds less oxidized than phosphoric acid and its esters. A scenario is presented for the early production of a suite of reactive phosphonic acid derivatives, the properties of which may have foreshadowed the later appearance of biophosphates.

Schwartz, A. W.; Orgel, L. E. (Principal Investigator)

1997-01-01

47

Insoluble phosphorus usage by Eucalyptus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eucalyptus gummifera shows a marked growth response to insoluble phosphates (AlPO4, FePO4). An hypothesis of the mechanism of phosphorus nutrition involving the interaction of root exudates, micro-organisms, aluminium ions and uptake mechanisms is presented. The hypothesis is suggested as an adaptive mechanism of E. gummifera for survival in its habitats on very impoverished soils which commonly have phosphorus content as

K. J. Mullette; Nola J. Hannon; A. G. L. Elliott

1974-01-01

48

Ironing out the phosphorus problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control of serum phosphorus remains a vexing problem in chronic kidney disease. Although novel dialysis regimens may provide excellent phosphorus control, phosphate binders remain necessary for most dialysis patients. Block et al. present a phase I clinical trial examining the safety and efficacy of SBR759, a novel non-calcium, iron-based phosphate binder. Although the risks of iron accumulation and hypocalcemia must

Joshua J Zaritsky; Isidro B Salusky

2010-01-01

49

Towards a Closed Phosphorus Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This paper stresses the need to address upcoming scarcity of phosphorus, a mineral nutrient that is essential for all life\\u000a on Earth. Agricultural crops obtain phosphorus from the pool in the soil that can be replenished by recycling of organic material,\\u000a or by application of inorganic fertilizer, originating from mines, largely concentrated in three countries only: Morocco\\/Western\\u000a Sahara, China and

Michiel Keyzer

2010-01-01

50

Semiconducting layered blue phosphorus: a computational study.  

PubMed

We investigate a previously unknown phase of phosphorus that shares its layered structure and high stability with the black phosphorus allotrope. We find the in-plane hexagonal structure and bulk layer stacking of this structure, which we call "blue phosphorus," to be related to graphite. Unlike graphite and black phosphorus, blue phosphorus displays a wide fundamental band gap. Still, it should exfoliate easily to form quasi-two-dimensional structures suitable for electronic applications. We study a likely transformation pathway from black to blue phosphorus and discuss possible ways to synthesize the new structure. PMID:24836265

Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

2014-05-01

51

Semiconducting Layered Blue Phosphorus: A Computational Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate a previously unknown phase of phosphorus that shares its layered structure and high stability with the black phosphorus allotrope. We find the in-plane hexagonal structure and bulk layer stacking of this structure, which we call "blue phosphorus," to be related to graphite. Unlike graphite and black phosphorus, blue phosphorus displays a wide fundamental band gap. Still, it should exfoliate easily to form quasi-two-dimensional structures suitable for electronic applications. We study a likely transformation pathway from black to blue phosphorus and discuss possible ways to synthesize the new structure.

Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

2014-05-01

52

From Phosphorus-Containing Macrocycles to Phosphorus-Containing Dendrimers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various methods of synthesis of phosphorus-containing macrocycles are described. They are obtained in good to quantitative yields, thanks to the presence of phosphorhydrazone (P-N-N=) linkages in their structure. Multi-macrocyclic species and cryptands possessing the same linkage are also described. Various types of reactions, including complexation properties of the macrocycles are also reviewed. In the last part, the use of the same linkage for the elaboration of phosphorus-containing dendrimers is described, with emphasis on dendrimers incorporating macrocycles in some part of their structure (terminal groups, core or interior).

Caminade, Anne-Marie; Majoral, Jean-Pierre

53

Phosphorus Flamethrower: A Demonstration Using Red and White Allotropes of Phosphorus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A demonstration was created to display the unique behavior of a familiar element, phosphorus, and to make chemistry more accessible to the introductory student. The common allotropes of phosphorus and their reactivity are discussed. In this demonstration, the white allotrope of phosphorus is synthesized from the red phosphorus obtained from a…

Golden, Melissa L.; Person, Eric C.; Bejar, Miriam; Golden, Donnie R.; Powell, Jonathan M.

2010-01-01

54

Economic feasibility study for phosphorus recovery processes.  

PubMed

Phosphorus recovery from wastewater has become a necessity for sustainable development because phosphorus is a non-renewable essential resource, and its discharge into the environment causes serious negative impacts. There are no economic incentives for the implementation of phosphorus recovery technologies because the selling price of rock phosphate is lower than phosphorus recovered from sewage. The methodologies used to determine the feasibility of such projects are usually focused on internal costs without considering environmental externalities. This article shows a methodology to assess the economic feasibility of wastewater phosphorus recovery projects that takes into account internal and external impacts. The shadow price of phosphorus is estimated using the directional distance function to measure the environmental benefits obtained by preventing the discharge of phosphorus into the environment. The economic feasibility analysis taking into account the environmental benefits shows that the phosphorus recovery is viable not only from sustainable development but also from an economic point of view. PMID:21809783

Molinos-Senante, María; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramón; Garrido-Baserba, Manel

2011-06-01

55

An Improved Thermodynamic Model for Phosphorus Smoke.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Orthophosphoric acid is commonly employed to represent the solution thermodynamics of phosphorus smoke droplets. However, transmission measurements in the 8- to 12-micrometer region demonstrate significant disparities between phosphorus smoke and comparab...

G. O. Rubel

1981-01-01

56

Fire-Resistant Polyimides Containing Phosphorus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Limiting oxygen index increased. Copolyimide with a group containing phosphorus synthesized from 1-2,4-diaminobenzene, m-phenylenediamine, and tetracarboxylic dianhydride. Copolymer more fire resistant than corresponding polyimide without phosphorus.

Mikroyannidis, J.

1986-01-01

57

Method for Disposing of Red Phosphorus Composition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is described for disposing of a pyrotechnic composition comprised of red phosphorus, manganese dioxide, magnesium, zinc oxide, and linseed oil, with at least fifty percent of the composition being red phosphorus. The composition is burned in a fi...

F. E. Montgomery

1978-01-01

58

Effect of chitosan chewing gum on reducing serum phosphorus in hemodialysis patients: a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background HS219 (40 mg chitosan-loaded chewing gum) is designed to bind salivary phosphorus as an add-on to available phosphorus binders. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of HS219 in hemodialysis (HD) patients with hyperphosphatemia as an add-on to phosphorus binders. Methods Sixty-eight HD patients who were maintained on calcium carbonate (n?=?33) or sevelamer hydrochloride (n?=?35) were enrolled. The primary end point was a change in serum phosphorus levels. Secondary end points included changes in levels of salivary phosphorus, serum calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and intact fibroblast growth factor (iFGF) 23. Results Sixty-three patients chewed either HS219 (n?=?35) or placebo (n?=?28) for 30 min, three times a day, for 3 weeks. HS219 was well tolerated and safe. However, HS219 was not superior to placebo with additional reduction of serum phosphorus with respect to phosphorus binders at the end of the chewing period. There were no significant effects of HS219 on reduction of salivary phosphorus, serum calcium, iPTH, or iFGF23 levels. Conclusions The chitosan-loaded chewing gum HS219 does not affect serum and salivary phosphorus levels in Japanese HD patients with hyperphosphatemia. Our findings do not support previous findings that 20 mg of chitosan-loaded chewing gum reduces serum and salivary phosphorus levels. Trail registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01039428, 24 December, 2009.

2014-01-01

59

X-33 flight visualization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In early 1998, the NASA Space Transportation Programs Office and NASA Public Affairs jointly funded an activity under the Space Transportation Integrity Program (STIP) contract with Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) to develop X-33 flight visualizations. This technical and management support effort was contracted by the X-33 Program Office of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's X-33 Program Office. This paper presents the technical approach and methodology used in developing pre-flight visualizations, as well as the plans and approach for real-time flight coverage visualizations of the X-33 reusable launch vehicle.

Laue, Jay H.

1999-01-01

60

[Simulation of nitrogen and phosphorus loss in Siling Reservoir watershed with AnnAGNPS].  

PubMed

By using annual agricultural non-point source model (AnnAGNPS), this study simulated the export loading of nitrogen and phosphorus in Siling Reservoir watershed in Tiaoxi Basin, and integrated with the simulation results, the spatial distribution characteristics of non-point source pollution in the watershed was analyzed. The result showed that the export loading of nitrogen and phosphorus had similar characteristics: in the study area, the export loading of nutrients were higher in southern and western regions and lower in northern and eastern regions. Forest land mainly made up of bamboo was the main export source of nitrogen and phosphorus loading with the contribution above 90% of nutrient load of whole watershed. Three fertilization practices such as no fertilizer (CK), site-specific nutrient management (SSNM) and farmers' fertilizaction practice (FFP) were used in the scenario analysis. The scenario analysis showed that to a certain degree, SSNM could reduce the nitrogen and phosphorus loss. Comparing with FFP, the reduction of SSNM in dissolved nitrogen (DN), particle nitrogen (PN), dissolved phosphorus (DP) and particle phosphorus (PP) was 8.17%, 4.33%, 9.08% and 1.02%, respectively. PMID:23213887

Bian, Jin-yun; Wang, Fei-er; Yang, Jia; Yu, Jie; Lou, Li-ping; Yu, Dan-ping

2012-08-01

61

Phosphorus removal from wastewater by microalgae in Sweden--a year-round perspective.  

PubMed

The phosphorus and nitrogen removing capacity of a microalgal treatment step in Sweden was studied during an annual cycle. The treatment step had been constructed for extended phosphorus removal in a hydroponic wastewater treatment system, which had been built in a greenhouse. Two culture depths (17 and 33 cm) were compared as well as the effect of additional illumination during winter. The results showed large fluctuations in algal biomass production and phosphorus removal as a result of season. The phosphorus removal efficiency showed a clear correlation with pH, and the shallow cultures generally had higher phosphorus removal efficiencies than the deeper cultures. The efficiencies were between 60% and 100% during summer but mostly lower than 25% during winter, except in the shallow culture with extra illumination where efficiencies of 60-80% were recorded even during winter. A nitrogen removal efficiency of around 40% was reached for most parts of the year, and efficiencies of up to 60-80% were achieved during summer in the shallow cultures. In conclusion, the results showed that a large proportion of the phosphorus could be removed on a year-round basis, hence reducing the need for chemical precipitation, and also that significant nitrogen removal is possible. PMID:20391796

Larsdotter, Karin; Jansen, Jes la Cour; Dalhammar, Gunnel

2010-02-01

62

Gettering Silicon Wafers with Phosphorus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicon wafers subjected to gettering in phosphorus atmosphere have longer diffusion lengths and higher solar-cell efficiencies than untreated wafers. Gettering treatment improves properties of solar cells manufactured from impure silicon and is compatible with standard solar-cell processing.

Daiello, R. V.

1983-01-01

63

Recent Research on Phosphorus Smoke.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The optical extinction coefficients of phosphorus smokes in various regions of the spectrum are expected to depend on relative humidity due to the hygroscopic nature of the aerosol. They also depend on the amount of smoke (C-l product) present. These are ...

E. W. Stuebing R. H. Frickel G. O. Rubel

1980-01-01

64

Global warming and the phosphorus cycle  

SciTech Connect

Greenhouse-induced climate change seriously influences the phosphorus cycle. In this paper the authors have analyzed how environmental conditions cause an increase or a decrease in the phosphorus content of the soil. Phosphorus production in South Kazakhstan without strict control for fulfilling environment-protection measures may lead to the chemical erosion of soils, i.e., disturb the balance of soluble and insoluble, as well as organic and inorganic, forms of phosphorus. Phosphorus accumulation in the soil can be promoted by heavy metals. The authors have constructed a general dynamic system for phosphorus flows in the soil. The results of 7-years monitoring of the soils in the region of South Kazakhstan are discussed and compared with the dynamic system. The role of chemical elements promoting phosphorus accumulation in the soil is further analyzed.

Tarasova, N.P.; Smetannikov, Y.V.; Balitsky, V.Y. (Mendeleev Univ. of Chemical Technology of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation))

1994-09-01

65

Phosphorus cycle - possibilities for its rebuilding.  

PubMed

The rebuilding of the phosphorus cycle can be performed with the use of both biotechnology and chemical technology. This paper presents a review of the phosphorus cycle and the different approaches that can be taken to the recovery of phosphorus from phosphate-rich waste. Critical issues in the phosphorus cycle are also discussed. Methods for the recovery of phosphorus form sewage sludge ash are widely explored and divided into two groups: wet extraction methods and thermochemical methods. Laboratory-scale methods are described, as well as proposed industrial technologies, with particular regard to the possibilities for their implementation in Poland. Phosphorus recovery methods from SSA (sewage sludge ash) in our country seems to be promising due to the increasing number of sewage sludge incineration plants, which could easily supply ash to future recovery installations. For the effective recovery of P from sewage sludge ash, it is essential to make the right choice in determining the appropriate method to use with respect to the particular properties of the ash composition available. A patented method of phosphorus recovery by acid extraction methods, developed by Cracow University of Technology, results in an efficiency of 80-96% for phosphorus recovery. 3000 to 4000 tons of phosphorus per year can be recycled and introduced back into the environment, that covers around 7% of the total amount of phosphorus ore imported into Poland between 2008 and 2009. PMID:24432324

Gorazda, Katarzyna; Wzorek, Zbigniew; Tarko, Barbara; Nowak, Anna K; Kulczycka, Joanna; Henclik, Anna

2013-01-01

66

Trichoderma harzianum might impact phosphorus transport by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.  

PubMed

Trichoderma sp. is a biocontrol agent active against plant pathogens via mechanisms such as mycoparasitism. Recently, it was demonstrated that Trichoderma harzianum was able to parasitize the mycelium of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, thus affecting its viability. Here, we question whether this mycoparasitism may reduce the capacity of Glomus sp. to transport phosphorus ((33)P) to its host plant in an in vitro culture system. (33)P was measured in the plant and in the fungal mycelium in the presence/absence of T. harzianum. The viability and metabolic activity of the extraradical mycelium was measured via succinate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase staining. Our study demonstrated an increased uptake of (33)P by the AM fungus in the presence of T. harzianum, possibly related to a stress reaction caused by mycoparasitism. In addition, the disruption of AM extraradical hyphae in the presence of T. harzianum affected the (33)P translocation within the AM fungal mycelium and consequently the transfer of (33)P to the host plant. The effects of T. harzianum on Glomus sp. may thus impact the growth and function of AM fungi and also indirectly plant performance by influencing the source-sink relationship between the two partners of the symbiosis. PMID:21609342

De Jaeger, Nathalie; de la Providencia, Ivan E; de Boulois, Hervé Dupré; Declerck, Stéphane

2011-09-01

67

X-33 Flight Visualization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-33 flight visualization effort has resulted in the integration of high-resolution terrain data with vehicle position and attitude data for planned flights of the X-33 vehicle from its launch site at Edwards AFB, California, to landings at Michael Army Air Field, Utah, and Maelstrom AFB, Montana. Video and Web Site representations of these flight visualizations were produced. In addition, a totally new module was developed to control viewpoints in real-time using a joystick input. Efforts have been initiated, and are presently being continued, for real-time flight coverage visualizations using the data streams from the X-33 vehicle flights. The flight visualizations that have resulted thus far give convincing support to the expectation that the flights of the X-33 will be exciting and significant space flight milestones... flights of this nation's one-half scale predecessor to its first single-stage-to-orbit, fully-reusable launch vehicle system.

Laue, Jay H.

1998-01-01

68

X-33 RLV Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technician Cristal Kellam of NASA Langley Research Center's Operational Support Division checks a composite model underwent testing at the 22-Inch Mach 20 Helium Tunnel as part of Phase II of her X-33 RLV development program.

1996-01-01

69

X-33 RCS model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model support system and instumentation cabling of the 1% scale X-33 reaction control system model. Installed in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel for supersonic testing. In building 1251, test section #2.

1998-01-01

70

X-33 RCS model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Part of the high pressure nitrogen system used for the 1% scale X-33 reaction control system model. Installed in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel for supersonic testing. In building 1251, test section #2.

1998-01-01

71

Influence of aquatic macrophytes on phosphorus cycling in lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergent macrophytes take up their phosphorus exclusively from the sediment. Submerged species obtain phosphorus both from the surrounding water and from the substrate, but under normal pore and lake water phosphorus concentrations, substrate uptake dominates. Release of phosphorus from actively growing macrophytes (both submerged and emergent) is minimal and epiphytes obtain phosphorus mainly from the water. Decaying macrophytes may act

Wilhelm Granéli; Doris Solander

1988-01-01

72

X-33 Development History  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of dealing with various types of proprietary documents, whether from the Lockheed Martin, the Skunk Works, McDonnell Douglas, Rockwell, and other corporations extant or extinct, remains unresolved. The computerized archive finding aid has over 100 records at present. These records consist of X-33 photographs, press releases, media clippings, and the small number of X-33 project records collected to date.

Butrica, Andrew J.

1997-01-01

73

Phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle  

DOEpatents

A method of phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle using ammonium phosphate is disclosed. A p-doped silicon sphere is mixed with a diluted solution of ammonium phosphate having a predetermined concentration. These spheres are dried with the phosphorus then being diffused into the sphere to create either a shallow or deep p-n junction. A good PSG glass layer is formed on the surface of the sphere during the diffusion process. A subsequent segregation anneal process is utilized to strip metal impurities from near the p-n junction into the glass layer. A subsequent HF strip procedure is then utilized to removed the PSG layer. Ammonium phosphate is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirement. 1 fig.

Stevens, G.D.; Reynolds, J.S.

1999-07-20

74

Phosphorus nutrition of terrestrial plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) is essential for plant growth and fecundity. It is an integral component of genetic, metabolic, structural\\u000a and regulatory molecules, in many of which it cannot be substituted by any other elements. Tissue P concentrations in well\\u000a fertilized plants approximate 0.4–1.5% of the dry matter (Broadley et al. 2004), most of which is present as nucleic acids and nucleotides,

Philip J. White; John P. Hammond

75

Genetic Responses to Phosphorus Deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPhosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for plants. Plants take up P as phosphate (Pi) from the soil solution. Since little Pi is available in most soils, P fertilizers are applied to crops. However, the use of P fertilizers is unsustainable and may cause pollution. Consequently, there is a need to develop more P-use-efficient (PUE) crops and precise methods to

JOHN P. HAMMOND; MARTIN R. BROADLEY; PHILIP J. WHITE

2004-01-01

76

Phosphorus Source Management for Eutrophic Lakes. Phase I. Tributary Phosphorus Loading.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contribution of phosphorus during base and storm flows was studied on several New Jersey streams. Phosphorus concentrations were very stable in the absence of point sources and major disturbances. Large changes in concentration occurred with storm flows g...

F. B. Trama R. C. Ahlert

1978-01-01

77

Engineering phosphorus metabolism in plants to produce a dual fertilization and weed control system.  

PubMed

High crop yields depend on the continuous input of orthophosphate (PO(4)(?3))-based fertilizers and herbicides. Two major challenges for agriculture are that phosphorus is a nonrenewable resource and that weeds have developed broad herbicide resistance. One strategy to overcome both problems is to engineer plants to outcompete weeds and microorganisms for limiting resources, thereby reducing the requirement for both fertilizers and herbicides. Plants and most microorganisms are unable to metabolize phosphite (PO(3)(?3)), so we developed a dual fertilization and weed control system by generating transgenic plants that can use phosphite as a sole phosphorus source. Under greenhouse conditions, these transgenic plants require 30–50% less phosphorus input when fertilized with phosphite to achieve similar productivity to that obtained by the same plants using orthophosphate fertilizer and, when in competition with weeds, accumulate 2–10 times greater biomass than when fertilized with orthophosphate. PMID:22922674

López-Arredondo, Damar Lizbeth; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

2012-09-01

78

Phosphorus-containing materials for organic electronics.  

PubMed

Phosphorus-based materials have received widespread attention in recent years, in particular as possible candidates for practical application in organic electronics. The geometry and electronic nature of phosphorus make it a favorable heteroatom for property tuning in order to obtain better performing organic electronics. This Focus Review discusses recent structural modifications and syntheses of phosphorus-based materials, illustrates property tuning at the same time, and highlights specific examples for device applications. PMID:24678037

Stolar, Monika; Baumgartner, Thomas

2014-05-01

79

Solubility of red phosphorus in molten lead  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solubility in molten lead of P4(g) generated by red phosphorus was measured by means of a two-zone isopiestic technique. The solubility of phosphorus vapor increases with temperatureT,especially atT> 800 K. Linear regression analysis of the results was used to determine the infinite-dilution activity coefficient and first-order interaction coefficient for hypothetical liquid phosphorus dissolved in liquid lead.

Sean E. Walker; Mark E. Schlesinger

1995-01-01

80

Phosphorus Cycling Through Space and Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cycling of phosphorus, a biocritical element in short supply in nature, is an important Earth system process. Variations in the phosphorus cycle have occurred in the past. For example, the rapid uplift of the Himalayan-Tibet Plateau increased chemical weathering, which led to enhanced input of phosphorus to the oceans. This drove the late Miocene "biogenic bloom." On glacial timescales, phosphorus is quite dynamic. In terrestrial systems, phosphorus soil mineralogy alters rapidly in response to early soil development, and ultimately becomes limited to plant availability in many setting. In marine systems, the loss of the substantial continental margin sink for reactive P occurs during glacial sea-level lowstands, effectively concentrating phosphorus in the deep sea. Finally, in the modern, the phosphorus cycle is dominated by human activity and agriculture, which causes unwanted pollution due to high phosphorus loading and itself poses significant concerns about the ultimate future availability of this nutrient to feed an expanding human population. This presentation will cover several critical components of the phosphorus cycle, including terrestrial and marine systems, through the lens of geologic time. This perspective reveals the significant changes that have occurred in the availability of phosphorus through time, and how other biogeochemical systems have responded to these changes. Furthermore, the perspective provides some sobering insights into the mechanisms behind the concentration of marine phosphorus into viable sources of phosphate rock. The rarity of high-quality phosphate rock deposits and the limitation of easily minable reserves are becoming critical, as the human demand for fertilizer phosphorus far outstrips the geologic rate of replacement and few prospects exist for new discoveries of phosphate rock.

Filippelli, Gabriel

2014-05-01

81

Laboratory Studies in Chemically Mediated Phosphorus Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemically mediated phosphorus removal, done during wastewater treatment, is an effective means of reducing nutrient loads to sensitive environments. Although this method of treatment is widely used, the mechanism of removal is poorly understood. Moreover, phosphorus regulations for wastewater effluents are moving to concentration ranges of 10-100 ?g P\\/L (total phosphorus). This is much lower than current regulations (?0.1 ?0.2

Rebecca L. Gilmore

2009-01-01

82

Assessing Long Term Impact of Phosphorus Fertilization on Phosphorus Loadings Using AnnAGNPS  

EPA Science Inventory

High phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields has been an environmental concern because of potential water quality problems in streams and lakes. To better understand the process of P loss and evaluate the different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus losses, the US...

83

Phosphorus and nutrition in chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Patients with renal impairment progressively lose the ability to excrete phosphorus. Decreased glomerular filtration of phosphorus is initially compensated by decreased tubular reabsorption, regulated by PTH and FGF23, maintaining normal serum phosphorus concentrations. There is a close relationship between protein and phosphorus intake. In chronic renal disease, a low dietary protein content slows the progression of kidney disease, especially in patients with proteinuria and decreases the supply of phosphorus, which has been directly related with progression of kidney disease and with patient survival. However, not all animal proteins and vegetables have the same proportion of phosphorus in their composition. Adequate labeling of food requires showing the phosphorus-to-protein ratio. The diet in patients with advanced-stage CKD has been controversial, because a diet with too low protein content can favor malnutrition and increase morbidity and mortality. Phosphorus binders lower serum phosphorus and also FGF23 levels, without decreasing diet protein content. But the interaction between intestinal dysbacteriosis in dialysis patients, phosphate binder efficacy, and patient tolerance to the binder could reduce their efficiency. PMID:22701173

González-Parra, Emilio; Gracia-Iguacel, Carolina; Egido, Jesús; Ortiz, Alberto

2012-01-01

84

Phosphorus and Nutrition in Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Patients with renal impairment progressively lose the ability to excrete phosphorus. Decreased glomerular filtration of phosphorus is initially compensated by decreased tubular reabsorption, regulated by PTH and FGF23, maintaining normal serum phosphorus concentrations. There is a close relationship between protein and phosphorus intake. In chronic renal disease, a low dietary protein content slows the progression of kidney disease, especially in patients with proteinuria and decreases the supply of phosphorus, which has been directly related with progression of kidney disease and with patient survival. However, not all animal proteins and vegetables have the same proportion of phosphorus in their composition. Adequate labeling of food requires showing the phosphorus-to-protein ratio. The diet in patients with advanced-stage CKD has been controversial, because a diet with too low protein content can favor malnutrition and increase morbidity and mortality. Phosphorus binders lower serum phosphorus and also FGF23 levels, without decreasing diet protein content. But the interaction between intestinal dysbacteriosis in dialysis patients, phosphate binder efficacy, and patient tolerance to the binder could reduce their efficiency.

Gonzalez-Parra, Emilio; Gracia-Iguacel, Carolina; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto

2012-01-01

85

40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721...Chemical Substances § 721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). ...substance identified generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN...

2012-07-01

86

40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721...Chemical Substances § 721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). ...substance identified generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN...

2011-07-01

87

21 CFR 862.1580 - Phosphorus (inorganic) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. 862...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1580 Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. (a) Identification. A phosphorus (inorganic) test system is a...

2013-04-01

88

21 CFR 862.1580 - Phosphorus (inorganic) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. 862...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1580 Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. (a) Identification. A phosphorus (inorganic) test system is a...

2009-04-01

89

40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

2013-07-01

90

Phosphorus: Tips for People with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)  

MedlinePLUS

... CKD) National Kidney Disease Education Program What Is Phosphorus? Phosphorus is a mineral that helps keep your ... also added to many processed foods. Why Is Phosphorus Important for People with CKD? When you have ...

91

21 CFR 862.1580 - Phosphorus (inorganic) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. 862...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1580 Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. (a) Identification. A phosphorus (inorganic) test system is a...

2010-04-01

92

Phosphorus distribution in sediments of the Delaware River estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the primary factors related to the accumulation of phosphorus in estuarine sediments, a study of phosphorus\\u000a fractions in sediments of the Delaware River Estuary was undertaken. A correlation matrix between the phosphorus fractions,\\u000a determined by serial extraction, and 14 sediment variables was computed. Total phosphorus and total inorganic phosphorus in\\u000a the sediment-phosphorus reservoir decreases with increasing

Richard N. Strom; Robert B. Biggs

1982-01-01

93

Sources of phosphorus to the Carson River upstream from Lahontan Reservoir, Nevada and California, Water Years 2001-02  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Discharge of treated municipal-sewage effluent to the Carson River in western Nevada and eastern California ceased by 1987 and resulted in a substantial decrease in phosphorus concentrations in the Carson River. Nonetheless, concentrations of total phosphorus and suspended sediment still commonly exceed beneficial-use criteria established for the Carson River by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. Potential sources of phosphorus in the study area include natural inputs from undisturbed soils, erosion of soils and streambanks, construction of low-head dams and their destruction during floods, manure production and grazing by cattle along streambanks, drainage from fields irrigated with streamwater and treated municipal-sewage effluent, ground-water seepage, and urban runoff including inputs from golf courses. In 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Carson Water Subconservancy District, began an investigation with the overall purpose of providing managers and regulators with information necessary to develop and implement total maximum daily loads for the Carson River. Two specific goals of the investigation were (1) to identify those reaches of the Carson River upstream from Lahontan Reservoir where the greatest increases in phosphorus and suspended-sediment concentrations and loading occur, and (2) to identify the most important sources of phosphorus within the reaches of the Carson River where the greatest increases in concentration and loading occur. Total-phosphorus concentrations in surface-water samples collected by USGS in the study area during water years 2001-02 ranged from <0.01 to 1.78 mg/L and dissolved-orthophosphate concentrations ranged from <0.01 to 1.81 mg/L as phosphorus. In streamflow entering Carson Valley from headwater areas in the East Fork Carson River, the majority of samples exceeding the total phosphorus water-quality standard of 0.1 mg/L occur during spring runoff (March, April, and May) when suspended-sediment concentrations are high. Downstream from Carson Valley, almost all samples exceed the water-quality standard, with the greatest concentrations observed during spring and summer months. Estimated annual total-phosphorus loads ranged from 1.33 tons at the West Fork Carson River at Woodfords to 43.41 tons at the Carson River near Carson City during water years 2001-02. Loads are greatest during spring runoff, followed by fall and winter, and least during the summer, which corresponds to the amount of streamflow in the Carson River. The estimated average annual phosphorus load entering Carson Valley was 21.9 tons; whereas, the estimated average annual phosphorus load leaving Carson Valley was 37.8 tons, for an annual gain in load across Carson Valley of 15.9 tons. Thus, about 58 percent of the total-phosphorus load leaving Carson Valley on an annual basis could be attributed to headwater reaches upstream from Carson Valley. During spring and summer (April 1-September 30) an average of 85 percent of the total-phosphorus load leaving Carson Valley could be attributed to headwater reaches. During fall and winter (October 1-March 31) only 17 percent of the phosphorus load leaving Carson Valley could be attributed to headwater reaches. The composition of the phosphorus changes during summer from particulate phosphorus entering Carson Valley to dissolved orthophosphate leaving Carson Valley. Particulate phosphorus entering Carson Valley could be settling out when water is applied to fields and be replaced by dissolved orthophosphate from other sources. Alternatively, the particulate phosphorus could be converted to dissolved orthophosphate as it travels across Carson Valley. Data collected during the study are not sufficient to distinguish between the two possibilities. Eagle Valley and Dayton-Churchill Valleys may act as sinks for phosphorus. On an annual basis, during water years 2001-02, about 90 percent of the phosphorus entering Eagle Valley left the

Alvarez, Nancy L.; Seiler, Ralph L.

2004-01-01

94

The X-33 Program Update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the X-33 program update, including details on program objectives and plans, the X-33 configuration, technologies used, and X-33 assembly and test status.

Dill, Charlie

2000-01-01

95

Relative Phosphorus Utilization Efficiency, Growth Response, and Phosphorus Uptake Kinetics of Brassica Cultivars under a Phosphorus Stress Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants grown in highly weathered or highly alkaline calcareous soils often experience phosphorus (P) stress but never a P?free environment. Thus, applications of mineral P fertilizers are often required to achieve maximum yield, but recovery of applied P fertilizers is notoriously low. Phosphorus deprivation elicits a complex array of morphological, physiological, and biochemical adaptations among plant species and genotypes to

M. Shahbaz Akhtar; Yoko Oki; Tadashi Adachi; Y. Murata

2007-01-01

96

Phosphorus removal in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal process: roles of extracellular polymeric substances.  

PubMed

Phosphorus-accumulating organisms are considered to be the key microorganisms in the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process. A large amount of phosphorus is found in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) matrix of these microorganisms. However, the roles of EPS in phosphorus removal have not been fully understood. In this study, the phosphorus in the EBPR sludge was fractionated and further analyzed using quantitative (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The amounts and forms of phosphorus in EPS as well as their changes in an anaerobic-aerobic process were also investigated. EPS could act as a reservoir for phosphorus in the anaerobic-aerobic process. About 5-9% of phosphorus in sludge was reserved in the EPS at the end of the aerobic phase and might further contribute to the phosphorus removal. The chain length of the intracellular long-chain polyphosphate (polyP) decreased in the anaerobic phase and then recovered under aerobic conditions. However, the polyP in the EPS had a much shorter chain length than the intracellular polyP in the whole cycle. The migration and transformation of various forms of phosphorus among microbial cells, EPS, and bulk liquid were also explored. On the basis of these results, a model with a consideration of the roles of EPS was proposed, which is beneficial to elucidate the mechanism of phosphorus removal in the EBPR system. PMID:24067022

Zhang, Hai-Ling; Fang, Wei; Wang, Yong-Peng; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Zeng, Raymond J; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing

2013-10-15

97

Sedimentary phosphorus cycling and a phosphorus mass balance for the Green Bay (Lake Michigan) ecosystem  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The tributaries of Green Bay have long been recognized as major sources of phosphorus in the Lake Michigan basin. The status of Green Bay as a sink or source of phosphorus for Lake Michigan proper has been less well defined. The bay receives nearly 70% of its annual load of phosphorus (700 metric tons (t)??year-1) from a single source: the Fox River. Most of this phosphorus is deposited in sediments accumulating at rates that reach 160 mg??cm-2??year-1 with an average of 20 mg??cm-2 year-1. The phosphorus content of these sediments varies from 70 ??mol??g-1. Deposition is highly focused, with ???0% of the total sediment accumulation and at least 80% of the phosphorus burial occurring within 20% of the surface area of the bay. Diagenetic and stoichiometric models of phosphorus cycling imply that >80% of the phosphorus deposited is permanently buried. External phosphorus loading to the bay is combined with sediment fluxes of phophorus to arrive at a simple phosphorus budget. Green Bay acts as an efficient nutrient trap, with the sediments retaining an estimated 70-90% of the external phosphorus inputs before flowing into Lake Michigan.

Val, Klump, J.; Edgington, D. N.; Sager, P. E.; Robertson, D. M.

1997-01-01

98

The management of white phosphorus burns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus burns are a rarely encountered chemical burn, typically occurring in battle, industrial accidents, or from fireworks. Death may result even with minimal burn areas. Early recognition of affected areas and adequate resuscitation is crucial. Amongst our 2765 admissions between 1984 and 1998, 326 patients had chemical burns. Seven admissions were the result of phosphorus burns. Our treatment protocol comprises

Trong-Duo Chou; Tz-Win Lee; Shao-Liang Chen; Yeou-Ming Tung; Nai-Tz Dai; Shyi-Gen Chen; Chiu-Hong Lee; Tim-Mo Chen; Hsian-Jenn Wang

2001-01-01

99

Solar production of elemental phosphorus. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elemental phosphorus is produced commercially by heating a mixture of phosphate rock (fluorapatite), silica sand, and carbon (coke) to approximately 1500°C in an electric arc furnace. The project described was carried out to determine the technical feasibility of using a solar furnace to produce elemental phosphorus and to provide guidelines for future reactor designs. Four successful solar furnace runs were

T. P. Whaley; B. D. Yudow; J. D. Schreiber

1981-01-01

100

Influence of dietary phosphorus on shell quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of level of dietary phosphorus on shell quality. In the first experiment, a reduction in the total dietary phosphorus from 0.72 to 0.39 per cent had no effect on the shell quality of eggs laid by caged birds. In the second experiment, birds housed on litter showed an inverse relationship between shell

J. R. Hunt; H. W. R. Chancey

1970-01-01

101

Tempered martensite embrittlement in phosphorus doped steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the effect of phosphorus on tempered martensite embrittlement of Ni-Cr steels is reported. It is shown that the measured degree of embrittlement depends on the phosphorus concentration, test temperature, grain size, and austenitizing temperature. Although reducing the prior austenite grain size tends to reduce the observed embrittlement, this can be offset by the fact that the low

C. L. Briant; S. K. Banerji

1979-01-01

102

Phosphorus Moieties Make Polymers Less Flammable  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phosphorus incorporated into epoxies and polyamides via curing agent. According to report, use of 1-(di(2-chloroethoxyphosphinyl)methyl)-2,4- and -2,6-diaminobenzene (DCEPD) as curing agent for epoxies and polyamides makes these polymers more fire-retardant than corresponding polymers made with standard curing agents not containing phosphorus.

Kourtides, D. A.; Mikroyannidis, J. A.

1992-01-01

103

The phosphorus cycle in coastal marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Approximately half of the sedimentation flux of particulate phosphorus,in the Laurentian Trough in the Gulf of St. Lawrence is mobilized,within the sediment and returned to the water column. In the oxidizing surface sediment, a major portion of the sedimentation flux of organic phosphorus is mineralized, and the released phosphate is partitioned between the pore water and surface adsorption sites.

Bjøorn Sundby; Charles Gobeil; Norman Silverberg; Alfonso Mucci

1993-01-01

104

The phosphorus cycle in coastal marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately half of the sedimentation flux of particulate phosphorus in the Laurentian Trough in the Gulf of St. Lawrence is mobilized within the sediment and returned to the water column. In the oxidizing surface sediment, a major portion of the sedimentation flux of organic phosphorus is mineralized, and the released phosphate is partitioned between the pore water and surface adsorption

Charles Gobeil; Norman Silverberg; Alfonso Mucci

105

Phosphorus Deprivation: the Metabolism of Vitamin D3 and 25-Hydroxycholecalcif eroi in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolism of intravenously administered 3H-vitamin D3 (D3-3H) and 3H-25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-HCC-3H) was examined in young rats following dietary depletion of phosphorus. Depleted animals, in contrast to controls given phosphate supplements in their drinking water, exhibited poor growth, hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and florid rickets. The acute plasma disappearance and hepatic uptake of a radioactive vitamin D3 preparation were similar in both groups.

JOHN G. HADDAD; VINCENZA BOISSEAU; ANDLOUIS V. AVIOLI

106

The standardization of 33P by the TDCR efficiency calculation technique.  

PubMed

The activity of the pure beta-emitter phosphorus-33 (33P) has been directly determined by the triple-to-double coincidence ratio (TDCR) efficiency calculation technique, thus extending the number of radionuclides that have been standardized by this simple, non-extrapolation liquid scintillation (LS) method. The major advantage of inherently accounting for chemical quenching without the need for additional external measurements is demonstrated. The 33P solution activity concentration was verified by tracing with cobalt-60, utilizing 4pi(LS)beta-gamma coincidence counting. Agreement to within 1.2% confirmed the reliability of the TDCR measurements. PMID:14987686

Simpson, B R S; Morris, W M

2004-01-01

107

Bronx River bed sediments phosphorus pool and phosphorus compound identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus (P) transport in the Bronx River degraded water quality, decreased oxygen levels, and resulted in bioaccumulation in sediment potentially resulting in eutrophication, algal blooms and oxygen depletion under certain temperature and pH conditions. The anthropogenic P sources are storm water runoff, raw sewage discharge, fertilizer application in lawn, golf course and New York Botanical Garden; manure from the Bronx zoo; combined sewoverflows (CSO's) from parkway and Hunts Point sewage plant; pollutants from East River. This research was conducted in the urban river system in New York City area, in order to control P source, figure out P transport temporal and spatial variations and the impact on water quality; aimed to regulate P application, sharing data with Bronx River Alliance, EPA, DEP and DEC. The sediment characteristics influence the distribution and bioavailbility of P in the Bronx River. The P sequential extraction gave the quantitative analysis of the P pool, quantifying the inorganic and organic P from the sediments. There were different P pool patterns at the 15 sites, and the substantial amount of inorganic P pool indicated that a large amount P is bioavailable. The 31P- NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy) technology had been used to identify P species in the 15 sites of the Bronx River, which gave a qualitative analysis on phosphorus transport in the river. The P compounds in the Bronx River bed sediments are mostly glycerophophate (GlyP), nucleoside monophosphates (NMP), polynucleotides (PolyN), and few sites showed the small amount of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), glycerophosphoethanoamine (GPEA), phosphoenopyruvates (PEP), and inosine monophosphate (IMP). The land use spatial and temporal variations influence local water P levels, P distributions, and P compositions.

Wang, J.; Pant, H. K.

2008-12-01

108

Exchange of phosphorus across the sediment-water interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, principles of phosphorus retention and phosphorus release at the sediment-water interface in lakes are reviewed. New results and hypotheses are discussed in relation to older models of phosphorus exchange between sediments and water. The fractional composition of sedimentary phosphorus is discussed as a tool for interpretation of different retention mechanisms. Special emphasis is given to the impact

Bengt Boström; Jens M. Andersen; Siegfried Fleischer; Mats Jansson

1988-01-01

109

Allometric and phylogenetic variation in insect phosphorus content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Phosphorus content was measured in adult insects and arachnids from 170 species collected in the Sonoran Desert. 2. Across insect body sizes spanning four orders of magnitude, phosphorus content was inversely related to body mass. The largest species ( ? 1 g dry) had phosphorus contents that were only about 60% (0·62% P absolute) as high as phosphorus

H. A. Woods; W. F. Fagan; J. J. Elser; J. F. Harrison

2004-01-01

110

33 CFR 83.33 - Equipment for sound signals (Rule 33).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equipment for sound signals (Rule 33). 83.33 Section 83...SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES RULES Sound and Light Signals § 83.33 Equipment for sound signals (Rule 33). (a) Vessels of...

2013-07-01

111

33 CFR 83.33 - Equipment for sound signals (Rule 33).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment for sound signals (Rule 33). 83.33 Section 83...SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES RULES Sound and Light Signals § 83.33 Equipment for sound signals (Rule 33). (a) Vessels of...

2010-07-01

112

Phosphorus deficiency in a dairy herd.  

PubMed

Phosphorus deficiency was diagnosed in a 90 cow seasonal supply dairy herd which showed low milk production, ill-thrift, infertility and osteophagia. Serum inorganic phosphorus and pasture phosphorus levels were low, pasture Ca:P ratios high and soil phosphorus levels very low; the soil phosphate retention value was 96%. The deficiency, which had probably existed for several years, was considered to be due to inadequate annual phosphate fertiliser applications on a high phosphate retaining soil. Phosphorus deficiency may have been exacerbated by the application of lime without phosphate several months before the onset of severe clinical disease. The finding of low sodium levels in pasture samples suggested that sodium deficiency may have co-existed and contributed to the clinical picture. Treatment, comprising bone flour dusting of pasture, water trough supplementation and phosphorus-containing injections, appeared to induce ovarian activity in anoestrous cows and suppress osteophagia, though controlled treatment trials were not performed. No improvement was noted in milk production or cow condition. Increased annual super-phosphate and reduced potassium applications were recommended, together with the monitoring of pasture and soil macro elements and serum phosphorus levels. A decision on whether to supplement with sodium would be based on the results of pasture monitoring, since a direct animal test is not currently available. It is suggested that phosphorus deficiency may not be uncommon in dairy herds in some North Island districts; based on the present case, the decline in New Zealand superphosphate quality in the 1970's and recently published data which has shown a high proportion of pasture phosphorus deficient sites in some North Island areas. PMID:16031014

Brooks, H V; Cook, T G; Mansell, G P; Walker, G A

1984-10-01

113

The phosphorus mass balance: identifying 'hotspots' in the food system as a roadmap to phosphorus security.  

PubMed

Phosphorus is a critical element on which all life depends. Global crop production depends on fertilisers derived from phosphate rock to maintain high crop yields. Population increase, changing dietary preferences towards more meat and dairy products, and the continuing intensification of global agriculture supporting this expansion will place increasing pressure on an uncertain, but finite supply of high-quality phosphate rock. Growing concern about phosphorus scarcity and security, coupled with the environmental impact of phosphorus pollution, has encouraged an increase in research exploring how phosphorus is used and lost in the food system-from mine to field to fork. An assessment of recent phosphorus flows analyses at different geographical scales identifies the key phosphorus 'hotspots', for example within the mining, agriculture or food processing sectors, where efficiency and reuse can be substantially improved through biotechnological approaches coupled with policy changes. PMID:22503084

Cordell, Dana; Neset, Tina-Simone Schmid; Prior, Timothy

2012-12-01

114

Predicting phosphorus availability from soil-applied composted and non-composted cattle feedlot manure.  

PubMed

Prediction of phosphorus (P) availability from soil-applied composts and manure is important for agronomic and environmental reasons. This study utilized chemical properties of eight composted and two non-composted beef cattle (Bos taurus) manures to predict cumulative phosphorus uptake (CPU) during a 363-d controlled environment chamber bioassay. Ten growth cycles of canola (Brassica napus L.) were raised in pots containing 2 kg of a Dark Brown Chernozemic clay loam soil (fine-loamy, mixed, Typic Haploboroll) mixed with 0.04 kg of the amendments. Inorganic P fertilizer (KH2PO4) and an unamended control were included for comparison. All treatments received a nutrient solution containing an adequate supply of all essential nutrients, except P, which was supplied by the amendments. Cumulative P uptake was similar for composted (74 mg kg-1 soil) and non-composted manures (60 mg kg-1 soil) and for the latter and the fertilizer (40 mg kg-1 soil). However, the CPU was significantly higher for organic amendments than the control (24 mg kg-1 soil) and for composted manure than the fertilizer. Apparent phosphorus recovery (APR) from composted manure (24%) was significantly lower than that from non-composted manure (33%), but there was no significant difference in APR between the organic amendments and the fertilizer (27%). Partial least squares (PLS) regression indicated that only two parameters [total water-extractable phosphorus (TPH2O) and total phosphorus (TP) concentration of amendments] were adequate to model amendment-derived cumulative phosphorus uptake (ACPU), explaining 81% of the variation in ACPU. These results suggest that P availability from soil-applied composted and non-composted manures can be adequately predicted from a few simple amendment chemical measurements. Accurate prediction of P availability and plant P recovery may help tailor manure and compost applications to plant needs and minimize the buildup of bioavailable P, which can contribute to eutrophication of sensitive aquatic systems. PMID:16641331

Zvomuya, Francis; Helgason, Bobbi L; Larney, Francis J; Janzen, H Henry; Akinremi, Olalekan O; Olson, Barry M

2006-01-01

115

[Optimization and comparison of nitrogen and phosphorus removal by different aeration modes in oxidation ditch].  

PubMed

The oxidation ditch operation mode was simulated by sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system with alternate stirring and aeration. The nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies were investigated in two different aeration modes: point aeration and step aeration. Experimental results show that oxygen is dissolved more efficiently in point aeration mode with a longer aerobic region in the same air supply capacity, but dissolved oxygen (DO) utilization efficiency for nitrogen and phosphorus removal is high in step aeration mode. Nitrification abilities of the two modes are equal with ammonia-nitrogen (NH4(+) -N) removal efficiency of 96.68% and 97.03%, respectively. Nitrifier activities are 4.65 and 4.66 mg x (g x h)(-1) respectively. When the ratio of anoxic zones and the aerobic zones were 1, the total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency of point aeration mode in 2, 4 or 7 partitions was respectively 60.14%, 47.93% and 33.7%. The total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiency was respectively 28.96%, 23.75% and 24.31%. The less the partitions, the higher the nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies, but it is in more favor of TN removal. As for step aeration mode with only one partitioning zone, the TN and TP removal efficiencies are respectively 64.21% and 49.09%, which is better than in point aeration mode, but more conducive to the improvement of TP removal efficiency. Under the condition of sufficient nitrification in step aeration mode, the nitrogen and phosphorus removal is better with the increase of anoxic zone. The removal efficiencies of TN and TP respectively rose to 73.94% and 54.18% when the ratio of anoxic zones and the aerobic zones was increased from 1 : 1 to 1. 8 : 1. As the proportion of anoxic zones was enlarged further, nitrification and operation stability were weakened so as to affect the nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies. PMID:22624387

Guo, Chang-Zi; Peng, Dang-Cong; Cheng, Xue-Mei; Wang, Dan

2012-03-01

116

X-33 Phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to Clause 17 of the Cooperative Agreement NCC8-115, Lockheed Martin Skunk Works has compiled an Annual Performance Report of the X-33/RLV Program. This report consists of individual reports from all industry team members, as well as NASA team centers. Contract award was announced on July 2, 1996 and the first milestone was hand delivered to NASA MSFC on July 17, 1996. The first year has been one of growth and progress as all team members staffed up and embarked on the technical adventure of the 20th century... the ultimate goal . . a Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) Reuseable Launch Vehicle (RLV).

1997-01-01

117

Towards global phosphorus security: a systems framework for phosphorus recovery and reuse options.  

PubMed

Human intervention in the global phosphorus cycle has mobilised nearly half a billion tonnes of the element from phosphate rock into the hydrosphere over the past half century. The resultant water pollution concerns have been the main driver for sustainable phosphorus use (including phosphorus recovery). However the emerging global challenge of phosphorus scarcity with serious implications for future food security, means phosphorus will also need to be recovered for productive reuse as a fertilizer in food production to replace increasingly scarce and more expensive phosphate rock. Through an integrated and systems framework, this paper examines the full spectrum of sustainable phosphorus recovery and reuse options (from small-scale low-cost to large-scale high-tech), facilitates integrated decision-making and identifies future opportunities and challenges for achieving global phosphorus security. Case studies are provided rather than focusing on a specific technology or process. There is no single solution to achieving a phosphorus-secure future: in addition to increasing phosphorus use efficiency, phosphorus will need to be recovered and reused from all current waste streams throughout the food production and consumption system (from human and animal excreta to food and crop wastes). There is a need for new sustainable policies, partnerships and strategic frameworks to develop renewable phosphorus fertilizer systems for farmers. Further research is also required to determine the most sustainable means in a given context for recovering phosphorus from waste streams and converting the final products into effective fertilizers, accounting for life cycle costs, resource and energy consumption, availability, farmer accessibility and pollution. PMID:21414650

Cordell, D; Rosemarin, A; Schröder, J J; Smit, A L

2011-08-01

118

33 CFR 164.33 - Charts and publications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Charts and publications. 164.33 Section 164.33 ...REGULATIONS § 164.33 Charts and publications. (a) Each vessel must have the...extract from, each of the following publications: (i) U.S. Coast Pilot....

2013-07-01

119

Phosphorus net absorption in dairy cows subjected to abomasal infusion of inorganic phosphorus--a pilot study.  

PubMed

In this pilot study, the effects of phosphorus (P) supply on inorganic phosphorus (Pi ) net absorption in dairy cows were investigated. Three non-lactating, non-pregnant, rumen-fistulated Swedish Red breed dairy cows were studied in a 3?×?3 Latin square design. Monosodium dihydrogen orthophosphate dihydrate (NaH2 PO4 *2H2 O) was continuously infused into the abomasum for 4?days. The solutions provided 0, 14.4 or 28.8?g Pi /day. Rumen fluid volume and outflow rate were estimated at day four of each experimental period using cobalt-lithium EDTA as an external marker. Acid insoluble ash in feeds and faecal samples was used to quantify P faecal excretion. Concentrations of Pi in collected samples of rumen fluid, blood, faeces and urine were determined. Pi flow into the small intestine increased (p?

Mogodiniyai Kasmaei, K; Holtenius, K

2013-06-01

120

Influence of phosphorus sources and rates on soil pH, extractable phosphorus, and DTPA-extractable micronutrients  

SciTech Connect

Two soils (McLain sicl-fine, mixed, thermic, Pachic Argiustoll and Quinlan cl-loamy, mixed, thermic, shallow Typic Ustocrept) that differed in micronutrient content and chemical characteristics were collected from western Oklahoma. Soils were passed through a 2-mm screen and placed in plastic Petri dishes, and five P levels (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 kg ha/sup -1/) were applied using monocalcium phosphate (MCP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP), and ammonium polyphosphate (APP); the soils were then mixed uniformly. Soils were moistened to approximately 0.33 MPa and incubated for 2 mo at room temperature. Application of P decreased soil pH in both soils, and MAP and APP had a greater effect than MCP, which was attributed to the nitrification of the added ammonium. Bray and Kurtz no. 1 P increased with P application in both soils. Monocalcium phosphate and MAP decreased DTPA-Fe, -Mn, and -Cu in McLain soil. However, high levels of P applied as APP increased DTPA-Fe, -Mn, and -Cu. Phosphorus application, regardless of source, had no effect on DTPA-Zn in McLain soil. Monocalcium phosphate and MAP decreased DTPA-Mn in the Quinlan soil; however; high levels of P applied as APP increased DTPA-Fe. Phosphorus application, regardless of source, had no effect on DTPA-Zn and -Cu in Quinlan soil.

Al-Showk, A.M.; Westerman, R.L.; Weeks, D.L.

1987-07-01

121

40 CFR 422.20 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory. 422...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Consuming Subcategory § 422...Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory....

2009-07-01

122

40 CFR 422.20 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory. 422...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Consuming Subcategory § 422...Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory....

2013-07-01

123

40 CFR 422.10 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory. 422...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Production Subcategory § 422...Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory....

2010-07-01

124

40 CFR 422.10 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory. 422...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Production Subcategory § 422...Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory....

2009-07-01

125

40 CFR 422.20 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory. 422...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Consuming Subcategory § 422...Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory....

2010-07-01

126

40 CFR 422.10 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory. 422...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Production Subcategory § 422...Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory....

2013-07-01

127

Dietary Phosphorus Modifications in Practical Feeds Do Not Affect Waterborne Phosphorus Concentrations and Phytoplankton Abundance in Channel Catfish Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured concentrations of soluble reactive phosphorus, total phosphorus, and chlorophyll a in 0.04-ha ponds containing channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus during three feeding trials to evaluate the effect of dietary phosphorus modifications on water quality and the potential discharge of phosphorus and organic matter in pond effluents. In experiment 1, a basal diet with 0.20% available phosphorus was compared with

Craig S. Tucker; John A. Hargreaves; Susan K. Kingsbury

2005-01-01

128

Future directions for agricultural phosphorus research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Future Directions for Agricultural Phosphorus Research is a collection of papers presented at a workshop in Muscle Shoals, Alabama, on July 18 and 19, 1990. The objective of the workshop was to gather representatives of academia, government, and industry ...

F. J. Sikora

1992-01-01

129

Tempered martensite embrittlement in phosphorus doped steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the effect of phosphorus on tempered martensite embrittlement of Ni?Cr steels is reported. It is shown that\\u000a the measured degree of embrittlement depends on the phosphorus concentration, test temperature, grain size, and austenitizing\\u000a temperature. Although reducing the prior austenite grain size tends to reduce the observed embrittlement, this can be offset\\u000a by the fact that the low

C. L. Briant; S. K. Banerji

1979-01-01

130

Assessing phosphorus reduction efforts in the Everglades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Years of agricultural and urban runoff have resulted in too much phosphorus in northern regions of the Florida Everglades. To deal with this problem, very large constructed wetlands, known as Stormwater Treatment Areas (STAs), have been built to strip phosphorus from runoff before the water enters protected Everglades areas. The more than $1 billion STA project currently relies on large areas (cells) of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) to absorb phosphorus as the final stage of treatment. To evaluate how well the treatment cells are functioning, as well as the potential lower limits of treatment, it is essential to have an accurate picture of the inflows, outflows, and background phosphorus levels. Juston and DeBusk made long-term measurements in one of the SAV cells. They found that after total phosphorous levels in the cells reached about 15 micrograms per liter, no more phosphorus removal occurred. They also analyzed inflow and outflow data from the cell and inferred background phosphorus concentrations for eight additional SAV cells. Background concentrations averaged around 16 micrograms per liter. (Water Resources Research, doi:10.1029/2010WR009294, 2011)

Tretkoff, Ernie

2011-05-01

131

Seasonal variation of nitrogen, phosphorus, and chlorophyll a in Lake Michigan and Green Bay, 1965  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Total and dissolved phosphorus, nitrate, and chlorophyll a were measured at four stations in northern Lake Michigan (inshore Michigan, offshore Michigan, offshore Wisconsin, and inshore Wisconsin) and one station in southern Green Bay during 16 sampling periods in 1965. The nutrients were measured at depths of 2, 5, and 10 meters and chlorophyll a at 2 meters. In Green Bay total phosphorus (33.7 ppb) was about five times as high and dissolved phosphorus (7.0 ppb) more than twice as high as the averages for the four Lake Michigan stations, but nitrate nitrogen concentration (37.3 ppb) was only about onethird that in the lake. Total and dissolved phosphorus were about 50 percent higher in the inshore Michigan area than in the other three lake areas. Concentration and seasonal trends in nitrates differed relatively little among the four lake stations. Nitrate at all areas and depths sampled decreased to almost nondetectable levels during September. Chlorophyll a was 70 percent higher at the two inshore areas than at the two offshore areas in the lake and was more than four times higher in Green Bay than at any lake area.

Allen, Herbert Ellis

1973-01-01

132

Solid-state phosphorus-31 NMR spectroscopy of a multiple-spin system: an investigation of a rhodium-triphosphine complex.  

PubMed

Phosphorus-31 NMR spectra of solid [tris(dimethylphenylphosphine)](2,5-norbornadiene) rhodium(I) hexafluorophosphate have been acquired at several applied magnetic field strengths. The phosphorus nuclei of the three phosphine ligands are spin-spin coupled to each other and to 103Rh, resulting in complex NMR spectra; however, the three phosphorus chemical shift (CS) tensors were determined through the analysis of NMR spectra of slow magic angle spinning and stationary samples. Spectra of spinning samples in rotational resonance and two-dimensional 31P NMR spectra were particularly useful for determining the magnitudes of the indirect spin-spin couplings, and to probe their signs. Despite being in similar environments, the three phosphorus nuclei of the phosphine ligands have distinct CS tensors. In particular, the spans of these tensors, delta11-delta33, range from 80 to 176 ppm. The phosphorus CS tensors have been assigned to specific sites determined by X-ray crystallography, based on a combination of the experimental results and the results of quantum chemical calculations of the phosphorus shielding and 2J(31P,31P) values. The effect of coordination of dimethylphenylphosphine with rhodium has been investigated by comparing calculated phosphorus CS tensors for the uncoordinated ligand with those obtained for the ligands in the complex. PMID:18956090

Bernard, Guy M; Feindel, Kirk W; Wasylishen, Roderick E; Cameron, T Stanley

2008-09-28

133

Monitoring of phosphorus in Danish surface waters 1990-2012: Trends in phosphorus loading and phosphorus concentrations in streams, lakes and estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than 20 years an integrated, standardized monitoring programme of Danish surface waters has provided information on status and trends in the phosphorus loading and phosphorus concentrations of Danish waters. Although the land-based phosphorus loading of Danish coastal waters has been reduced by 60For several decades the excess loading of phosphorus from diffuse sources and sewage outlets contributed significantly to the eutrophication of surface waters, and this is still the case. Measures taken to combat this eutrophication have included among others improved sewage treatment, diversion of sewage outlets from lakes and reduction of the phosphorus surplus on agricultural land. The overall effects of the measures taken to reduce the phosphorus loading and thereby improve the water quality will be presented for 15 Danish lakes and 10 estuaries and for 160 Danish streams draining catchments with varying anthropogenic impacts. The generally reduced phosphorus loading has led to a decrease in phosphorus concentrations in Danish lakes and estuaries due to the direct - long-term - link between phosphorus loading and phosphorus concentrations in lakes and estuaries. Special focus will be given to the development since 1990 in phosphorus concentrations in 31 streams draining farmed catchments with no significant sewage outlets and the potential factors influencing trends and variations. In 14 of these streams there has been a significant reduction in phosphorus concentrations since 1990, and for all the streams a general reduction of 17

Windolf, Jørgen; Kronvang, Brian; Carstensen, Jacob; Larsen, Søren E.; Bøgestrand, Jens; Trolle, Dennis

2014-05-01

134

Assessing Phosphorus Loading in Wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hari K. Pant Lehman College of the City University of New York, Department of Environmental, Geographic and Geological Sciences, 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, NY 10468; hari.pant@lehman.cuny.edu Depending on ecosystem's resilience, hydro-climatic changes brought upon by global climate change may cause nonlinear and/or irreversible changes in phosphorus (P) dynamic, and instigate P enrichment in freshwater wetlands. Thus, the studies of the influence of expected global climate change and its impacts on P stability in wetlands are in critical need to help manage, or increase the resilience of freshwater wetland ecosystems against undesirable changes. The objectives of this study were to assess P sorption in sediments, and help to estimate potential internal loading of P to the water column from the sediments. Sediment samples were collected from freshwater wetlands that are located within Pelham Bay Park, Bronx, New York. Although P sorption maxima (Smax) of the sediments were high in general (up to 1667 mg kg-1), the equilibrium P concentrations (EPC0) were also fairly high (0.09 -0.24 mg L-1), indicating substantial amounts of P may remain available for biological uptake in the water columns. High percentages of hysteretic P (>96%), as indicated by P retained values (Pr), along with a significant correlation between Smax and oxalate-extractable Fe (r = 0.89), suggest that changes in sediment/water chemistry such as redox status/acidity could cause massive P release to the water columns.

Pant, H. K.

2011-12-01

135

Summary Review of Health Effects Associated with Elemental and Inorganic Phosphorus Compounds: Health Issue Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phosphorus is a nonmetallic essential element. Although phosphorus occurs naturally in the environment, most of the phosphorus in the environment results from its manufacture into one of the three allotropic forms (white, red, or black) or into phosphorus...

1990-01-01

136

Stability and electronic structure of phosphorus nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First-principles density-functional theory (DFT) calculations of single-walled phosphorus nanotubes constructed from the black-phosphorus (b-P) layered allotrope show that their strain energies per atom for radii above 0.6 nm are comparable to the strain energies predicted for experimentally observed single-walled carbon nanotubes with radii of 0.5 nm. Our DFT calculations further predict that the nanotube structures are energetically more stable than the corresponding strips for radii larger than 0.55 nm, suggesting that the synthesis of phosphorus nanotubes (PNTs) could be possible. We find that polarized basis sets including d functions are necessary for accurate treatment of the strain energy, and these basis sets lead to strain energies per atom substantially larger than DFT strain energies of single-walled carbon nanotubes at similar diameters. We have also found that all the PNTs studied are semiconducting regardless of their helicity, in contrast with the band structures of carbon nanotubes. The band gaps increase and converge to the value of the band gap of a black-phosphorus single puckered layer, 1.8 eV, as the radius is increased. For a fixed radius, the band gaps increase when increasing the chiral angle. Our DFT calculations are in very good qualitative and quantitative agreement with earlier density-functional tight-binding calculations of black-phosphorus single puckered layers and nanotubes.

Cabria, I.; Mintmire, J. W.

2004-01-01

137

Recovery of Hyperphosphatoninism and Renal Phosphorus Wasting One Year after Successful Renal Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: In the first months after successful kidney transplantation, hypophosphatemia and renal phosphorus wasting are common and related to inappropriately high parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) levels. Little is known about the long-term natural history of renal phosphorus homeostasis in renal transplant recipients. Design, setting, participants: We prospectively followed parameters of mineral metabolism (including full-length PTH and FGF-23) in 50 renal transplant recipients at the time of transplantation (Tx), at month 3 (M3) and at month 12 (M12). Transplant recipients were (1:1) matched for estimated GFR with chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Results: FGF-23 levels (Tx: 2816 [641 to 10665] versus M3: 73 [43 to 111] versus M12: 56 [34 to 78] ng/L, median [interquartile range]) and fractional phosphorus excretion (FEphos; M3: 45 ± 19% versus M12: 37 ± 13%) significantly declined over time after renal transplantation. Levels 1 yr after transplantation were similar to those in CKD patients (FGF-23: 47 [34 to 77] ng/L; FEphos 35 ± 16%). Calcium (9.1 ± 0.5 versus 8.9 ± 0.3 mg/dl) and PTH (27.2 [17.0 to 46.0] versus 17.5 [11.7 to 24.4] ng/L) levels were significantly higher, whereas phosphorus (3.0 ± 0.6 versus 3.3 ± 0.6 mg/dl) levels were significantly lower 1 yr after renal transplantation as compared with CKD patients. Conclusions: Data indicate that hyperphosphatoninism and renal phosphorus wasting regress by 1 yr after successful renal transplantation.

Evenepoel, Pieter; Meijers, Bjorn K.I.; de Jonge, Hylke; Naesens, Maarten; Bammens, Bert; Claes, Kathleen; Kuypers, Dirk; Vanrenterghem, Yves

2008-01-01

138

Reflections on biocatalysis involving phosphorus.  

PubMed

Early studies on chemical synthesis of biological molecules can be seen to progress to preparation and biological evaluation of phosphonates as analogues of biological phosphates, with emphasis on their isosteric and isopolar character. Work with such mimics progressed into structural studies with a range of nucleotide-utilising enzymes. The arrival of metal fluorides as analogues of the phosphoryl group, PO(3)(-), for transition state (TS) analysis of enzyme reactions stimulated the symbiotic deployment of (19)F NMR and protein crystallography. Characteristics of enzyme transition state analogues are reviewed for a range of reactions. From the available MF(x) species, trifluoroberyllate gives tetrahedral mimics of ground states (GS) in which phosphate is linked to carboxylate and phosphate oxyanions. Tetrafluoroaluminate is widely employed as a TS mimic, but it necessarily imposes octahedral geometry on the assembled complexes, whereas phosphoryl transfer involves trigonal bipyramidal (tbp) geometry. Trifluoromagnesate (MgF(3)(-)) provides the near-ideal solution, delivering tbp geometry and correct anionic charge. Some of the forty reported tbp structures assigned as having AlF(3)(0) cores have been redefined as trifluoromagnesate complexes. Transition state analogues for a range of kinases, mutases, and phosphatases provide a detailed description of mechanism for phosphoryl group transfer, supporting the concept of charge balance in their TS and of concerted-associative pathways for biocatalysis. Above all, superposition of GS and TS structures reveals that in associative phosphoryl transfer, the phosphorus atom migrates through a triangle of three, near-stationary, equatorial oxygens. The extension of these studies to near attack conformers further illuminates enzyme catalysis of phosphoryl transfer. PMID:23157289

Blackburn, G M; Bowler, M W; Jin, Yi; Waltho, J P

2012-10-01

139

Chemical Investigation of Phosphorus Removal in Lakes by Aluminum Hydroxide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The chemical factors controlling the removal of phosphorus from lake waters by aluminum hydroxide were investigated. Chemical factors studied were dose size, settling time, pH, rate of phosphorus removal, and sorption and hydrolysis of model organic phosp...

D. E. Armstrong R. F. Harris S. J. Eisenreich

1977-01-01

140

Reduction of dietary phosphorus absorption by phosphorus binders. A theoretical, in vitro, and in vivo study.  

PubMed Central

Antacids used to decrease phosphorus absorption in patients with renal failure may be toxic. To find more efficient or less toxic binders, a three-part study was conducted. First, theoretical calculations showed that phosphorus binding occurs in the following order of avidity: Al3+ greater than H+ greater than Ca2+ greater than Mg2+. In the presence of acid (as in the stomach), aluminum can therefore bind phosphorus better than calcium or magnesium. Second, in vitro studies showed that the time required to reach equilibrium varied from 10 min to 3 wk among different compounds, depending upon solubility in acid and neutral solutions. Third, the relative order of effectiveness of binders in vivo was accurately predicted from theoretical and in vitro results; specifically, calcium acetate and aluminum carbonate gel were superior to calcium carbonate or calcium citrate in inhibiting dietary phosphorus absorption in normal subjects. We concluded that: (a) inhibition of phosphorus absorption by binders involves a complex interplay between chemical reactions and ion transport processes in the stomach and small intestine; (b) theoretical and in vitro studies can identify potentially better in vivo phosphorus binders; and (c) calcium acetate, not previously used for medical purposes, is approximately as efficient as aluminum carbonate gel and more efficient as a phosphorus binder than other currently used calcium salts.

Sheikh, M S; Maguire, J A; Emmett, M; Santa Ana, C A; Nicar, M J; Schiller, L R; Fordtran, J S

1989-01-01

141

[Effects of earthworm activity on phosphorus fraction and available phosphorus content in red soil].  

PubMed

By the methods of incubation test and Hedley's phosphorus fractionation, this paper studied the effects of inoculating earthworm (Pheretinma pingi) on the phosphorus fractions and available phosphorus contents in red soil. The results showed that during a 100-day incubation, earthworm inoculation combined with organic materials (rice straw RS, peanut residue PR, and rape residue RR) amendment increased significantly the content of soil available phosphorus. Statistics analysis showed that there was a significant difference in soil available phosphorus content between treatments PR or RR with and without earthworm inoculation. Compared with the contents of anion-exchange resin P(trace), NaCO3-soluble P(14.5 mg x kg(-1)) and microbial P(1.0 mg x kg(-1)) in CK, those in treatments of earthworm inoculation plus organic materials amendment increased to 10.5 - 17.8 mg kg(-1), 23.5-35.6 mg x kg(-1), and 6.8 - 9.7 mg x kg(-1), respectively, organic phosphorus content enhanced from 37.9 mg x kg(-1) to 50.7-59.3 mg x kg(-1), whereas residual P was reduced. Earthworm performed an activated effect on the availability of phosphorus in red soil. PMID:16422511

Liu, Dehui; Hu, Feng; Hu, Pei; Cheng, Jiemin

2005-10-01

142

Dietary Phosphorus and Magnesium Deficiency in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium, phosphorus and magnesium balance was studied in weanling rats, using 3 dietary levels of magnesium (130, 260 and 1,000 ppm) at each of 3 levels of phosphorus (0.3, 0.5 and 1.0% ). The effect of changes in dietary phosphorus on magnesium balance varied and was dependent on the dietary magnesium concen tration; high intakes of phosphorus lowered the apparent

G. E. BUNCE; H. E. SAUBERLICH; P. G. REEVES; S. OBA

143

Flammability of Epoxy Resins Containing Phosphorus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of a program to develop fire-resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial and general aviation aircraft, flame-retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured neat epoxy formulations were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis, microscale combustion calorimetry, and fire calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness and compressive strength of several cured formulations showed no detrimental effect due to phosphorus content. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

Hergenrother, P. M.; Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G.; Connell, J. W.; Hinkley, J. A.

2005-01-01

144

The microscope structures of amorphous phosphorus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microscopic structures of thin films of amorphous phosphorus have been investigated by Raman scattering. The thin films were deposited by vacuum evaporation at substrate temperatures T s between 300 and 510K. The Raman spectra of the films were compared with vibrational spectra of different allotropes of phosphorus: orthohombic black P, bulk amorphous red P and Hittorf's P. The structure of the films with T s ? 300K is built up of double layers similar to those of orthorhombic black P. For T s?510K the thin films have a structure similar to bulk amorphous red P based on the pentagonal tubes of Hittorf's P. A continuous transformation from one structure to the other is indicated by the Raman spectra of the films at intermediate T s. The Raman measurements support early determinations of the structures of amorphous phosphorus inferred from radial distribution functions.

Olego, D. J.; Baumann, J. A.; Schachter, R.

1985-03-01

145

Observations of interstellar chlorine and phosphorus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Copernicus observations of interstellar Cl I, Cl II, and P II UV lines toward 10 stars are reported. Column densities are estimated for each species, and upper limits are computed for HCl column densities. Derivation of the gas-phase abundances of chlorine and phosphorus indicates that the averages of both the chlorine and the phosphorus logarithmic abundances relative to hydrogen are between 5.0 and 5.1. It is suggested that interstellar chlorine may be depleted by about a factor of 3 relative to the solar abundance and that interstellar phosphorus is depleted by a factor of 2 to 3. The results are shown to support the prediction that chlorine is ionized in regions containing primarily atomic oxygen and is neutral in regions where there is a significant amount of molecular hydrogen. The photoionization rate of neutral chlorine toward 15 Mon is estimated, and it is concluded that most chlorine is contained within the gas phase.

Jura, M.; York, D. G.

1978-01-01

146

The absorption of dietary phosphorus and calcium in hemodialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption of dietary phosphorus and calcium in hemodialysis patients. Absorption of dietary phosphorus plays a critical role in the development of metabolic bone diseases in patients with chronic renal failure. However, phosphorus absorption is difficult to quantitate in dialysis patients because the dialysis treatments complicate metabolic balance studies. Utilizing a recently developed technique which permits measurement of net absorption

J Arnaldo Ramirez; Michael Emmett; Martin G White; Nastaran Fathi; Carol A Santa Ana; Stephen G Morawski; John S Fordtran

1986-01-01

147

EVALUATION OF A PROTOTYPE INSTRUMENT FOR DETERMINING PHOSPHORUS IN WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A second-generation flame spectrometer for the direct determination of phosphorus in water was evaluated. Response to phosphorus in the form of phosphoric acid was linear from 0.5 to 16 ppm phosphorus. The relative standard deviation was approximately constant at 20 percent over ...

148

Modeling an Improvement in Phosphorus Utilization in Tropical Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of Terra Preta soils have generated interest in recreating their fertility elsewhere. Much of the research has focused on soil amendment charcoal (“biochar”). Terra Preta also contains bone fragments, producing a high concentration of phosphorus. Some forecast worldwide declines in phosphorus supplies, and better agricultural system management is required to improve phosphorus use efficiency. A conceptual model is offered

David M. Edelstein; David J. Tonjes

2012-01-01

149

The fallacy of the calcium-phosphorus product  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scattered through the practice of medicine are dogmas with little or no scientific basis. One of these is the product of the serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations, the so-called calcium-phosphorus product or Ca × P. The assumption that ectopic calcification will occur when the product of the serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations exceeds a particular threshold has become standard practice

W C O'Neill

2007-01-01

150

46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section...Requirements § 151.50-50 Elemental phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be...head equivalent to the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket...

2010-10-01

151

46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section...Requirements § 151.50-50 Elemental phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be...head equivalent to the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket...

2009-10-01

152

49 CFR 173.188 - White or yellow phosphorus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false White or yellow phosphorus. 173.188 Section 173.188 Transportation...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.188 White or yellow phosphorus. Phosphorus, white or yellow, when offered for...

2013-10-01

153

Incorporating phosphorus management considerations into wastewater management practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspects of phosphorus management and its connection with wastewater management at a city level are explored here with the method of substance flow analysis (SFA) used to develop a phosphorus balance in Sydney, Australia, for the year 2000. The SFA results reveal that around 80% of the total phosphorus inputs into the system boundary are contained in food and detergent

Natthira Tangsubkul; Stephen Moore; T. David Waite

2005-01-01

154

Characterisation of phosphorus in sediments from waste stabilization ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The waste stabilization pond (WSP) systems are useful for the treatment of wastewater. Despite agood knowledge of these systems, the dynamics of phosphorus elimination in these systems are not well known, especially concerning the forms of phosphorus in the sediment. Phosphorus dynamics,were studied with data collected from the three stabilization ponds of the Mèze (France) system. A conceptual model

E. gómez; J. Paing; C. Casellas; B. Picot

155

New phosphorus-containing bisimide resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phosphorus-based flame retardants have been effectively used in a wide variety of polymeric materials. Such additives, however, may either influence the decomposition reaction in polymers or lack durability due to a tendency to be leached out by solvents. Attention is given to the synthesis, characterization, thermal stability and degradation mechanisms of bisimide resins, and an evaluation is conducted of the flammability and mechanical properties of graphite cloth-reinforced laminates fabricated from one of the six phosphorus-containing bisimide resins considered.

Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Hsu, M.-T.; Parker, J. A.

1984-01-01

156

Halo Gas of M33  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of M33 depends on its interaction with its environment. This interaction can be traced through observations of the gaseous halo of M33 to detect possible satellite streams, condensing halo clouds, and/or extensions from M33's disk. We present neutral hydrogen observations from the Galactic Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (GALFA) HI Survey (in particular observations from TOGS http://www.astro.lsa.umich.edu/ mputman/togs.html) that probe the gaseous halo of M33 and its surrounding environment at unprecedented sensitivity (3? NHI < 1018 cm-2 to a 25 km s-1 feature) and resolution (3.5’ and 0.2 km s-1). The GALFA data reveal both anomalous velocity halo clouds and a large arc of HI extending from the northern warp of M33 back to the galaxy's disk. The velocity resolution of GALFA enables clouds related to M33 to be disentangled from Galactic features and their dynamics to be examined. Similar to the Galaxy and M31, the amount of mass in HI in M33's halo is in the range of a few x 107 Mo. We discuss the origin of M33's halo features in the context of its proximity to M31, galaxy formation models, and the nature of its star forming disk.

Putman, Mary E.; Peek, J. E. G.; Douglas, K.; Heiles, C.; Gibson, S. J.; Korpela, E. J.; Stanimirovic, S.

2007-12-01

157

Excess sludge production and costs due to phosphorus removal.  

PubMed

Based on data collected from 35 French wastewater treatment plants and on published data, excess sludge production and chemical consumption associated with phosphorus removal is estimated for the three following phosphorus removal processes: chemical precipitation, Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal and hybrid process. The influence of wastewater characteristics on excess sludge production are assessed. Chemical costs and costs associated with sludge disposal were calculated and results for the three phosphorus removal processes are compared. The global costs for phosphorus removal are then estimated. PMID:11804358

Paul, E; Laval, M L; Sperandio, M

2001-11-01

158

Phosphorus Retention Models for Tennessee Valley Authority Reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data for the 18 largest Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) reservoirs are compared with previously developed models for predicting steady state phosphorus concentrations in lakes. A plug flow model is presented for lakes and reservoirs which have significant longitudinal variation in phosphorus concentration. The results indicate that phosphorus sedimentation and retention coefficients developed for natural lakes are not directly applicable to TVA reservoirs. The apparent settling velocity of phosphorus in TVA reservoirs was substantially higher than previously reported values for natural lakes. Application of the plug flow model to Cherokee Reservoir showed good agreement with measured in-lake phosphorus concentrations.

Higgins, John M.; Kim, Byung R.

1981-06-01

159

Time-Dependent Phosphorus Extractability from Soils Treated with Different Fertilizer Phosphorus Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of application of different fertilizer phosphorus (P) sources (diammonium phosphate—DAP, single super phosphate—SSP, phosphate rock—PR, partially acidulated phosphate rock—PAPR, basic slag phosphate—BSP, and humo phosphate—HP), and time (up to three years of soil-fertilizer P equilibration) on soil extractable P was studied on two representative Italian soils, principally differing in pH values and the capacity to retain P. Phosphorus extractability

Roberto Indiati; Ulderico Neri

2004-01-01

160

Emergent macrophytes in phosphorus limited marshes: do phosphorus usage strategies change after nutrient addition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two strategies for phosphorus (P) economy in P-limiting environment are conservation of use and enhanced acquisition. Using\\u000a two wetland macrophytes as an example, we show how these strategies change when the P-limitation is removed. Phosphorus resorption\\u000a and activities of root phosphatases were evaluated over 4 years in Eleocharis cellulosa Torr. and Typha domingensis Pers. from nutrient addition experiment (P, N, N&P,

Eliška Rejmánková; Jenise M. Snyder

2008-01-01

161

Sediment characteristics, phosphorus types and phosphorus release rates between river and lake sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Han river is 469.7 km long with 26219-km2 area watershed, and is the primary drinking water source for the 20 million people that live in Seoul, Kangwon-Do and Kyunggi-Do, Korea. Phosphorus release from sediments impacts water quality, and is endangering the beneficial use of the river. This research measures phosphorus release and predicts future releases from bottom sediments of

Lee-Hyung Kim; Euiso Choi; Michael K Stenstrom

2003-01-01

162

Modeling bioavailable phosphorus via other phosphorus fractions in sediment cores from Jiulongkou Lake, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioavailable phosphorus (BAP) plays an important role in phosphorus (P) release from lake and river sediments, as well as\\u000a serves as an indicator for the potential P-release risk in sediment. Developing a feasible model which could predict BAP via\\u000a other P fractions is needed for the lakes and reservoirs without regular BAP monitoring. The algal available P (AAP), NaHCO3 extractable

Ling LiuYing; Ying Zhang; Aris Efting; Tadd Barrow; Bao Qian; Zejian Fang

163

33 CFR 137.33 - General all appropriate inquiries requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General all appropriate inquiries requirements. 137...SPILL LIABILITY: STANDARDS FOR CONDUCTING ALL APPROPRIATE INQUIRIES UNDER THE INNOCENT...Standards and Practices § 137.33 General all appropriate inquiries requirements....

2010-07-01

164

33 CFR 137.33 - General all appropriate inquiries requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false General all appropriate inquiries requirements. 137...SPILL LIABILITY: STANDARDS FOR CONDUCTING ALL APPROPRIATE INQUIRIES UNDER THE INNOCENT...Standards and Practices § 137.33 General all appropriate inquiries requirements....

2009-07-01

165

Temporal dynamics of available and microbial phosphorus and organic phosphorus mineralization in a grassland soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turnover of phosphorus (P) through the microbial biomass and P mineralization have been reported as two main biological factors controlling P availability in soils. This is particularly true for grassland soils where organic matter is accumulated in the topsoil and microbial activity is high. The amounts of plant available inorganic P and microbial P can fluctuate over the season, but their interaction and responses to changes in environmental conditions, fertilization and cutting are not yet well understood. Also, gross P mineralization has not yet been measured in grassland soils. We studied P mineralization and immobilization in a species rich grassland managed at low intensity (with three harvests per season) under different P inputs. The trial was established in 1992 in Watt (Switzerland). Three different P input treatments were selected: no P (NK), mineral P (NPK) and organic P (NPKorg) fertilization, with 17 kg P ha-1yr-1 applied as superphosphate and slurry, respectively (rates according to Swiss fertilizer recommendations). We used two different approaches. Firstly, available (anion exchange resin extractable) and microbial P (hexanol labile P) were measured in fresh samples periodically taken throughout the vegetation period. Secondly, an isotopic dilution technique was applied on composite topsoil samples (0-5 cm) to determine rates of basal P mineralization and microbial immobilization of P in an incubation experiment. During the season available P ranged from 0.9-3.5, 5.3-11.2 and 1.9-6.7 mg kg-1 soil-1 and microbial P from 20-44, 43-59 and 61-93 mg kg-1 soil-1 in NK, NPK and NPKorg, respectively. Thus, microbial P was highest in NPKorg whereas available P was highest in NPK. Both P pools were lowest in NK. Average annual yield was lowest in NK (4.5 t ha-1), NPKorg (6.5 kg ha-1) and highest in NPK (7.5 t ha-1). However, no consistent relationship between changes in microbial and available P and plant productivity was found. Changes in weather conditions were reflected by changes in available and microbial P measured in the field. Phosphorus flushes were observed after dry periods (microbial P reduced and available P increased). Whereas fluctuations show microbial P release and P immobilization, an expected counteraction of microbial and available P could not be fully confirmed. In the incubation experiment microbial and available P were similar to average values in the field. A higher respiration rate measured in NPKorg indicated a higher microbial activity than in the other two treatments. Despite the differences in microbial P and respiration, the 33P recovery in the microbial biomass between 3 and 30 days of incubation was about 30% in all treatments. In conclusion we found complex interactions of available and microbial P with climate, fertilization, sward cutting and plant growth. An increased immobilization of P indicated by higher microbial P in the organic fertilized treatment was not confirmed in the isotope study. Gross and net mineralization data are still under analysis and will be presented at the conference.

Liebisch, Frank; Keller, Fabrizio; Frossard, Emmanuel; Huguenin-Elie, Olivier; Oberson, Astrid; Bünemann, Else

2010-05-01

166

Truck Transport of Hazardous Chemicals: Phosphorus Pentasulfide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principal purpose of this report is to present estimates of truck shipments of phosphorus pentasulfide, one of the 147 large-volume chemicals that account for at least 80 percent of U.S. truck shipments of hazardous chemicals. Appendix A lists these c...

1996-01-01

167

Predictive models for phosphorus retention in wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of wetlands to efficiently remove (i.e., act as a nutrient sink) or to transform nutrients like phosphorus under high nutrient loading has resulted in their consideration as a cost-effective means of treating wastewater on the landscape. Few predictive models exist which can accurately assess P retention capacity. An analysis of the north American data base (NADB) allowed us

C. J. Richardson; S. Qian; C. B. Craft; R. G. Qualls

1996-01-01

168

On the Structure of Phosphorus Compounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A discussion is presented of the basic principles underlying bonding in organic phosphorus compounds. A brief review is made of the position of organic chemistry in the chemical field and the primary uses of the compounds with which it deals. Subsequently...

R. Wolf

1974-01-01

169

Phosphorus uptake and release in surface drains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigated dairy farms in Australia contain extensive surface drainage networks that transport water and nutrients off the property into community drains, rivers and lake systems. These drainage networks are an important hydro-chemical link between the paddock, farm and catchment scales. This paper presents a preliminary investigation into phosphorus transfer in two drains from an irrigated dairy farm in southeastern Australia.

Kirsten Barlow; David Nash; Hugh Turral; Rodger Grayson

2003-01-01

170

Sulfate control of phosphorus availability in lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

During summer stratification large amounts of phosphorus (P) accumulate in anoxic bottom waters of many lakes due to release of P from underlying sediments. The availability to phytoplankton of this P is inversely related to the Fe:P ratio in bottom waters. Using data from 51 lakes, we tested the hypothesis that sulfate concentration in lake water may be critical in

N. F. Caraco; J. J. Cole; G. E. Likens

1993-01-01

171

PHOSPHORUS RUNOFF LOSSES FROM ALFALFA 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) released from plants after freezing at the end of the growing season may be a contributor to P in runoff from agricultural landscapes. We evaluated P release from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and mixed grass species (mainly quackgrass (Agropyron repens)) after freezing or drying in laboratory and field studies. Freezing released 18-30 % of the total P as

Tiffany Roberson; Larry G. Bundy; Todd W. Andraski

172

Modeling soil and plant phosphorus within DSSAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crop models in the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) have served worldwide as a research tool for improving predictions of relationships between soil and plant nitrogen (N) and crop yield. However, without a phosphorus (P) simulation option, the applicability of the DSSAT crop models in P-deficient environments is limited. In this study, a soil–plant P model integrated

K. A. Dzotsi; J. W. Jones; S. G. K. Adiku; J. B. Naab; U. Singh; C. H. Porter; A. J. Gijsman

2010-01-01

173

Iridium-Catalyzed Hydrogenation Using Phosphorus Ligands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the requirement of obtaining enantiomerically pure products through environmentally friendly technologies, the development of new methods in asymmetric catalysis is becoming an important approach to asymmetric synthesis. Asymmetric hydrogenation is one of the most applied catalytic reactions for the preparation of enantiomerically pure products. Iridium complexes containing phosphorus ligands have been less applied as catalysts in hydrogenation reaction than their corresponding rhodium complexes. On the other hand, most of the iridium complexes used as catalyst in hydrogenation reaction contain phosphorus-nitrogen ligands. However, iridium complexes containing a great variety of mono- and bidentate phosphorus ligands (phosphines, phosphinites, phosphites, phosphoramidites, and the combination of these functionalities) have been applied in hydrogenation reaction with different grades of success. In the early days, diphosphines were the most widely used phosphorus ligands. However, they are generally difficult to synthesize and prone to oxidation. In recent years, chiral phosphites, phosphinites, phosphonites, and phosphoroamidites have emerged as new types of ligands, which present several advantages and high catalytic activity and selectivity. Homogeneous and heterogeneous systems have been studied, allowing the recycling of catalysts. Slight modifications in the electronic and steric properties of the ligands influence the catalytic results, which indicates the potentiality of modular ligands. Imines, including unfunctionalized N-H imines and cyclic imines as quinolines and other substrates, have been transformed in the corresponding chiral amines with ee higher than 95% in many cases. Binol-derived phosphoroamidite constitute one of the most successful ligands in these asymmetric reaction achieving, in some cases, practically total enantioselectivity.

Diéguez, Montserrat; Pàmies, Oscar; Claver, Carmen

174

Crystal structure of phosphorus-rich ellenbergerite  

SciTech Connect

The phosphorus-rich variety of ellenbergerite (Mg{sub 0.61}Ti{sub 0.08}{open_square}{sub 0.31}){sub 2}(Mg{sub 0.52}Al{sub 0.43}{open_square}{sub 0.05})= {sub 12}[SiO{sub 3}(O{sub 0.29}(OH){sub 0.71})]{sub 6} [(P{sub 0.71}Si{sub 0.20}{open_square}{sub 0.09})O{sub 3}OH]{sub 2}(OH){sub 6} was studied by X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. The structure was refined in sp. gr. P6{sub 3}mc to R = 0.0248. The structure of phosphorus-rich ellenbergerite retains the octahedral framework observed in the structures of ellenbergerite, phosphoellenbergerite, ekatite, and a series of structurally related synthetic compounds. The structure of phosphorus-rich ellenbergerite differs from the structure of ellenbergerite primarily in that the Mg and Al cations in the phosphorus-rich variety are disordered in the octahedra of the framework, thereby leading to higher symmetry, and the channels of triangular cross section are occupied predominantly by P tetrahedra.

Zubkova, N. V., E-mail: dmitp@geol.msu.ru; Pushcharovskii, D. Yu. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Geology (Russian Federation); Pasero, M. [University of Pisa, Department of Earth Sciences (Italy); Chukanov, N. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics (Russian Federation); Merlino, S. [University of Pisa, Department of Earth Sciences (Italy)

2007-03-15

175

Fire-Resistant Polyamides Containing Phosphorus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flammability and weight loss reduced. Fire-resistant polymers obtained from 1-{(dialkoxyphosphonyl) methyl}-2, 4- and -2, 6-diaminobenzenes by reaction with acyl or diacyl halides of higher functionality. Incorporation of compounds containing phosphorus into certain polymers shown previously to increase fire retardance. Discovery adds new class of polyamides to group of such polymers.

Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Mikroyannidis, John A.

1988-01-01

176

BIOLOGICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL: A TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A study of alternative biological phosphorus (bio-P) removal processes was undertaken to evaluate their effectiveness and reliability. Thirty such facilities were identified in the United States and Canada. Four plants were selected for detailed study. The PhoStrip process is use...

177

LUXURY CONSUMPTION OF PHOSPHORUS BY BENTHIC ALGAE  

EPA Science Inventory

The ability of algal species to sequester phosphorus in their natural environment was evaluated. The amount of P sequestered was estimated by the density by polyphosphate (polyP) bodies within the cell. The abundance of polyP bodies was related to ambient P concentrations and tis...

178

Intruder Configurations in the A=33 Isobars: {sup 33}Mg and {sup 33}Al  

SciTech Connect

The {beta} decay of {sup 33}Mg (N=21) presented in this Letter reveals intruder configurations in both the parent and the daughter nucleus. The lowest excited states in the N=20 daughter nucleus, {sup 33}Al, are found to have nearly 2p-2h intruder configuration, thus extending the 'island of inversion' beyond Mg. The allowed direct {beta}-decay branch to the 5/2{sup +} ground state of the daughter nucleus {sup 33}Al implies positive parity for the ground state of the parent {sup 33}Mg, contrary to an earlier suggestion of negative parity from a g-factor measurement. An admixture of 1p-1h and 3p-3h configurations is proposed for the ground state of {sup 33}Mg to explain all of the experimental observables.

Tripathi, Vandana; Tabor, S. L.; Bender, P.; Hoffman, C. R.; Lee, Sangjin; Perry, M.; Pepper, K.; Volya, A. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States); Mantica, P. F. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Utsuno, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Cook, J.; Pereira, J.; Weisshaar, D. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Otsuka, T. [Department of Physics and Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); RIKEN, Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Pinter, J. S.; Stoker, J. [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

2008-10-03

179

Quantifying phosphorus and light effects in stream algae  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous gradients of phosphorus and light were applied in experimental streams to develop quantitative relationships between these two important abiotic variables and the growth and composition of benthic microalgae. Algal biovolume and whole-stream metabolism responded hyperbolically to phosphorus enrichment, increasing approximately two-fold over the 5-300 g L-1 range of experimental phosphorus concentrations. The saturation threshold for phosphorus effects occurred at 25 g L-1 of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP). Light effects were much stronger than those of phosphorus, resulting in a nearly ten-fold increase in algal biovolume over the 10-400 mol photons m-2 s-1 range of experimental irradiances. Biovolume accrual was light-saturated at 100 mol photons m-2 s-1 (5 mol photons m-2 d-1). Light effects were diminished by low phosphorus concentrations, and phosphorus effects were diminished by low irradiances, but evidence of simultaneous limitation by both phosphorus and light at subsaturating irradiances was weak. Contrary to the light:nutrient hypothesis, algal phosphorus content was not significantly affected by light, even in the lowest SRP treatments. However, algal nitrogen content increased substantially at lower irradiances, and it was very highly correlated with algal chlorophyll a content. Phosphorus enrichment in streams is likely to have its largest effect at concentrations <25 g L-1 SRP, but the effect of enrichment is probably minimized when streambed irradiances are kept below 2 mol photons m-2 d-1 by riparian shading or turbidity

Hill, Walter [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Fanta, S.E. [University of Illinois; Roberts, Brian J [ORNL

2009-01-01

180

Isolating phosphorus from sludge in the presence of surfactants  

SciTech Connect

The authors have examined extracting phosphorus by treatment with solutions containing surfactants, which were oleic acid, sodium tripolyphosphate, and trisodium phosphate, which were of pure or chemically pure grades. The phosphorus slime from the Kuibyshevfosfor Cooperative contained 68% elemental phosphorus; the slime from making red phosphorus at the Korund Cooperative contained 67% elemental phosphorus. The aqueous surfactant was added at an appropriate concentration in a ratio of five to the sludge. The ratio and the concentration providing a high degree of extraction were found in preliminary experiments. The decrease in phosphorus extraction as the temperature difference between the heating medium and the sludge in the reactor increases (it governs the boiling rate) to more than 40% is due to the properties changing on account of the rapid oxidation of the phosphorus and the partial steam distillation. The surfactant isolated from the solution after filtration is suitable for second treatment of new sludge batches.

Nikandrov, I.S.; Kogtev, S.E.; Solinov, I.A.

1988-09-10

181

No independent association of serum phosphorus with risk for death or progression to end-stage renal disease in a large screen for chronic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Whether higher serum phosphorus levels are associated with a higher risk for death and/or progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not well established, and whether the association is confounded by access and barriers to care is unknown. To answer these questions, data of 10,672 individuals identified to have CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) from those participating in a community-based screening program were analyzed. Over a median follow-up of 2.3 years, there was no association between quartiles of serum phosphorus and all-cause mortality (adjusted hazards ratio for serum phosphorus over 3.3 to 3.7, over 3.7 to 4.1, and over 4.1 mg/dl, respectively: 1.22 (0.95–1.56), 1.00 (0.76–1.32), and 1.00 (0.75–1.33); reference, serum phosphorus of 3.3 mg/dl and below). Individuals in the highest quartile for serum phosphorus had a significantly higher risk for progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (unadjusted hazards ratio, 6.72 (4.16–10.85)); however, the risk became nonsignificant on adjustment for potential confounders. There was no appreciable change in hazards ratio with inclusion of variables related to access and barriers to care. Additional analyses in subgroups based on 12 different variables yielded similar negative associations. Thus, in the largest cohort of individuals with early-stage CKD to date, we could not validate an independent association of serum phosphorus with risk for death or progression to ESRD.

Mehrotra, Rajnish; Peralta, Carmen A.; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Li, Suying; Sachs, Michael; Shah, Anuja; Norris, Keith; Saab, Georges; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Kestenbaum, Bryan; McCullough, Peter A.

2014-01-01

182

Amendment in phosphorus levels moderate the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L. as assayed by antioxidant enzymes activities.  

PubMed

Chromium (Z=24), a d-block element, is a potent carcinogen, whereas phosphorus is an essential and limiting nutrient for the plant growth and development. This study undertakes the role of phosphorus in moderating the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L., as both of them compete with each other during the uptake process. Two-factor complete randomized experiment (5 chromium × 5 phosphorus concentrations) was conducted for twenty eight days in green house. The individuals of R. sativus were grown in pots supplied with all essential nutrients. The toxic effects of chromium and the moderation of toxicity due to phosphorus amendment were determined as accumulation of chromium, nitrogen, phosphorus in root tissues and their effects were also examined in the changes in biomass, chlorophyll and antioxidant enzyme levels. Cr and N accumulation were almost doubled at the highest concentration of Cr supply, without any P amendment, whereas at the highest P concentration (125 mM), the accumulation was reduced to almost half. A significant reduction in toxic effects of Cr was determined as there was three-fold increase in total chlorophyll and biomass at the highest P amendment. Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and lipid peroxidation were analyzed at various levels of Cr each amended with five levels of P. It was observed that at highest level of P amendment, the reduction percentage in toxicity was 33, 44, 39 and 44, correspondingly. Conclusively, the phosphorus amendment moderates the toxicity caused by the supplied chromium in R. sativus. This finding can be utilized to develop a novel technology for the amelioration of chromium stressed fields. PMID:23810367

Sayantan, D; Shardendu

2013-09-01

183

33rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proceedings of the 33rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. JPL hosted the conference, which was held at the Pasadena Conference and Exhibition Center, Pasadena, California, on May 19-21, 1999. Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space cosponsored t...

D. R. C. Sevilla E. A. C. Boesiger E. C. C. Litty

1999-01-01

184

X-33 Linear Aerospike Engine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In July of 1999 two linear aerospike rocket engines will power the first flight of NASA's X-33 advanced technology demonstrator. The aerospike received serious consideration for NASA's current space shuttle, but was eventually rejected in 1969 in favor of...

J. Vinson

1998-01-01

185

Effect of van der Waals interactions on the structural and elastic properties of black phosphorus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural and elastic properties of orthorhombic black phosphorus have been investigated using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The structural parameters have been calculated using the local density approximation (LDA), the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), and with several dispersion corrections to include van der Waals interactions. It is found that the dispersion corrections improve the lattice parameters over LDA and GGA in comparison with experimental results. The calculations reproduce well the experimental trends under pressure and show that van der Waals interactions are most important for the crystallographic b axis in the sense that they have the largest effect on the bonding between the phosphorus layers. The elastic constants are calculated and are found to be in good agreement with experimental values. The calculated C22 elastic constant is significantly larger than the C11 and C33 parameters, implying that black phosphorus is stiffer against strain along the a axis than along the b and c axes. From the calculated elastic constants, the mechanical properties, such as bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio are obtained. The calculated Raman active optical phonon frequencies and their pressure variations are in excellent agreement with available experimental results.

Appalakondaiah, S.; Vaitheeswaran, G.; Lebègue, S.; Christensen, N. E.; Svane, A.

2012-07-01

186

Star Formation in M 33 (HerM33es)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the key project "Herschel M 33 extended survey" (HerM33es), we are studying the physical and chemical processes driving star formation and galactic evolution in the nearby galaxy M 33, combining the study of local conditions affecting individual star formation with properties only becoming apparent on global scales. Here, we present recent results obtained by the HerM33es team. Combining Spitzer and Herschel data ranging from 3.6 ?m to 500?m, along with H i, H?, and GALEX UV data, we have studied the dust at high spatial resolutions of 150 pc, providing estimators of the total infrared (TIR) brightness and of the star formation rate. While the temperature of the warm dust at high brightness is driven by young massive stars, evolved stellar populations appear to drive the temperature of the cold dust. Plane-parallel models of photon dominated regions (PDRs) fail to reproduce fully the [C ii], [O i], and CO maps obtained in a first spectroscopic study of one 2' × 2' subregion of M 33, located on the inner, northern spiral arm and encompassing the H ii region BCLMP 302.

Kramer, C.; Boquien, M.; Braine, J.; Buchbender, C.; Calzetti, D.; Gratier, P.; Mookerjea, B.; Relaño, M.; Verley, S.

2011-11-01

187

Microstructural characterization of superalloy 718 with boron and phosphorus additions  

SciTech Connect

Boron and phosphorus additions are known to improve the stress rupture properties of IN-718. One possible mechanism to explain this property improvement relies on the boron and phosphorus additions slowing down the growth of {gamma}{double_prime} and {gamma}{prime} precipitates during high temperature service or aging. However, atom probe analysis found no segregation of boron and phosphorus to {gamma}-{gamma}{double_prime} or to {gamma}-{gamma}{prime} interfaces in the alloys with the high boron and high phosphorus levels. No difference in growth rates were found by transmission electron microscopy in the sizes of the {gamma}{double_prime} or {gamma}{prime} in alloys with high phosphorus and high boron as compared to commercial alloys and to alloys with even lower levels of phosphorus and boron. Atom probe analysis further found that much of the phosphorus, boron, and carbon segregated to grain boundaries. Creep curves comparing the alloys with high levels of phosphorus and boron and alloys with low levels of phosphorus and boron show a large difference in strain rate in the first hours of the test. These results suggest that the boron and phosphorus may have a direct effect on dislocation mobility by some pinning mechanism.

Horton, J.A.; McKamey, C.G.; Miller, M.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Cao, W.D.; Kennedy, R.L. [Teledyne Allvac, Monroe, NC (United States)

1997-06-01

188

Synthesis of 3,3-dinitroazetidine  

DOEpatents

The compound, 3,3-dinitroazetidine, and a process of preparing 3,3-dinitroazetidine including reacting a mixture of 1-tertiary-butyl-3,3-dinitroazetidine and benzyl chloroformate to form 1-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-3,3-dinitroazetidine, reacting the 1-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-3,3-dinitroazetidine and trifluoromethanesulfonic acid to form 3,3-dinitroazetidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate, and neutralizing the 3,3-dinitroazetidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate with a base to form 3,3-dinitroazetidine are provided. Salts of the 3,3-dinitroazetidine and preparation of such salts are also disclosed.

Hiskey, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM

1995-01-01

189

THE EFFICIENCY OF ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA (BRASSICACEAE) ROOT HAIRS IN PHOSPHORUS ACQUISITION1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arabidopsis thaliana root hairs grow longer and denser in response to low-phosphorus availability. In addition, plants with the root hair response acquire more phosphorus than mutants that have root hairs that do not respond to phosphorus limiting conditions. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the efficiency of root hairs in phosphorus acquisition at high- and low-phosphorus availability. Root

TERENCE R. BATES; JONATHAN P. L YNCH

2000-01-01

190

Black phosphorus field-effect transistors.  

PubMed

Two-dimensional crystals have emerged as a class of materials that may impact future electronic technologies. Experimentally identifying and characterizing new functional two-dimensional materials is challenging, but also potentially rewarding. Here, we fabricate field-effect transistors based on few-layer black phosphorus crystals with thickness down to a few nanometres. Reliable transistor performance is achieved at room temperature in samples thinner than 7.5 nm, with drain current modulation on the order of 10(5) and well-developed current saturation in the I-V characteristics. The charge-carrier mobility is found to be thickness-dependent, with the highest values up to ? 1,000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) obtained for a thickness of ? 10 nm. Our results demonstrate the potential of black phosphorus thin crystals as a new two-dimensional material for applications in nanoelectronic devices. PMID:24584274

Li, Likai; Yu, Yijun; Ye, Guo Jun; Ge, Qingqin; Ou, Xuedong; Wu, Hua; Feng, Donglai; Chen, Xian Hui; Zhang, Yuanbo

2014-05-01

191

Phosphorus chemistry in the tidal Hudson River  

SciTech Connect

A study of inorganic phosphborus in the tidal Hudson River was performed from Noverber 1988 to October 1989. Results indicate that phosphate concentrations are at or near equilibrium with a suspended solid phase consisting of amorphous ferric phosphate in amorphous ferric hydroxide. Equilibrium was observed over most of the river, over most of the year. Undersaturation was observed regularly below river mile 40 in the month of July. It represented the major deviation from equilibration. Low suspended sediment levels and dilution from sea water are believed to be responsible for undersaturation. Dissolved iron was near equilibrium with amorphous ferric hydroxide except in July. Recognition of the wide range of watersheds where phosphorus equilibrium controls phosphate concentrations suggests that the global, terrestrial flux of biologically available phosphorus may be double current estimates.

Fox, L.E. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States))

1991-06-01

192

Distribution behavior of phosphorus in the coal-based reduction of high-phosphorus-content oolitic iron ore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the reduction of phosphorus from high-phosphorus-content oolitic iron ore via coal-based reduction. The distribution behavior of phosphorus (i.e., the phosphorus content and the phosphorus distribution ratio in the metal, slag, and gas phases) during reduction was investigated in detail. Experimental results showed that the distribution behavior of phosphorus was strongly influenced by the reduction temperature, the reduction time, and the C/O molar ratio. A higher temperature and a longer reaction time were more favorable for phosphorus reduction and enrichment in the metal phase. An increase in the C/O ratio improved phosphorus reduction but also hindered the mass transfer of the reduced phosphorus when the C/O ratio exceeded 2.0. According to scanning electron microscopy analysis, the iron ore was transformed from an integral structure to metal and slag fractions during the reduction process. Apatite in the ore was reduced to P, and the reduced P was mainly enriched in the metal phase. These results suggest that the proposed method may enable utilization of high-phosphorus-content oolitic iron ore resources.

Sun, Yong-sheng; Han, Yue-xin; Gao, Peng; Ren, Duo-zhen

2014-04-01

193

Metal Phosphorus Complexes as Antitumor Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Phosphorus-based ligands are an extremely important class of ligand and they have found many applications, especially in homogeneous\\u000a catalysis. In addition, a phosphine ligand is found in a gold drug used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. Since metal compounds\\u000a are also widely used to treat cancer many studies on the anticancer activity of metal–phosphine complexes have been conducted.\\u000a In this chapter

Alexey A. Nazarov; Paul J. Dyson

194

Electron impact excitation cross sections for phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   An analytic atomic independent-particle-model is used to generate wave functions for the valence and excited states of the\\u000a neutral phosphorus atom. These wave functions are used to calculate generalized oscillator strengths, and from these quantities\\u000a the cross sections are obtained in Born approximation. Various excitations from the ground state are considered, and results are presented for electron impact energies

P. S. Ganas

1998-01-01

195

Phosphorus bioavailability in diets for growing horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of phosphorus (P) metabolism was carried out using 12 month old Brasileiro de Hipismo breed of horses to determine the P bioavailability available from feeds commonly fed to horses in Brazil. Five different diets were formulated to contain approximately equivalent levels of crude protein and digestible energy, as well as to supply at least 22 g P\\/horse\\/day (NRC, 1989). All

A. A. M. A. Oliveira; C. E. Furtado; D. M. S. S. Vitti; F. D. Resende; S. L. S Cabral Filho; H. Tosi; B. Winkler

2008-01-01

196

Phosphorus and Sulphur Cycling in Terrestrial Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S) are essential elements for all living cells. Among the biomolecules that contain P are nucleic\\u000a acids (DNA and RNA), phospholipids, sugar phosphates (e.g. glucose-6-phosphate) and molecules with an energy-rich pyrophosphate\\u000a bond (e.g. ATP), whereas S is contained in two amino acids (cysteine and methionine) and various coenzymes, vitamins and sulpholipids.\\u000a The forms, amounts, transformation processes

Else K. Bünemann; Leo M. Condron

197

Phosphorus, Plant Biodiversity and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Phosphorus (P) is a major plant nutrient. Its increasing use as a fertilizer has helped to raise crop and fodder production.\\u000a However, the global reserves and resources of P are finite, demanding an efficient use of P. Under natural conditions, it\\u000a is often in limited supply. Plants have developed adaptations to small soil P concentrations. Increased P levels can have

Nicole Wrage; Lydie Chapuis-Lardy; Johannes Isselstein

198

Soil testing to predict phosphorus leaching.  

PubMed

Subsurface pathways can play an important role in agricultural phosphorus (P) losses that can decrease surface water quality. This study evaluated agronomic and environmental soil tests for predicting P losses in water leaching from undisturbed soils. Intact soil columns were collected for five soil types that a wide range in soil test P. The columns were leached with deionized water, the leachate analyzed for dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), and the soils analyzed for water-soluble phosphorus (WSP), 0.01 M CaCl2 P (CaCl2-P), iron-strip phosphorus (FeO-P), and Mehlich-1 and Mehlich-3 extractable P, Al, and Fe. The Mehlich-3 P saturation ratio (M3-PSR) was calculated as the molar ratio of Mehlich-3 extractable P/[Al + Fe]. Leachate DRP was frequently above concentrations associated with eutrophication. For the relationship between DRP in leachate and all of the soil tests used, a change point was determined, below which leachate DRP increased slowly per unit increase in soil test P, and above which leachate DRP increased rapidly. Environmental soil tests (WSP, CaCl2-P, and FeO-P) were slightly better at predicting leachate DRP than agronomic soil tests (Mehlich-1 P, Mehlich-3 P, and the M3-PSR), although the M3-PSR was as good as the environmental soil tests if two outliers were omitted. Our results support the development of Mehlich-3 P and M3-PSR categories for profitable agriculture and environmental protection; however, to most accurately characterize the risk of P loss from soil to water by leaching, soil P testing must be fully integrated with other site properties and P management practices. PMID:12371177

Maguire, Rory O; Sims, J Thomas

2002-01-01

199

White phosphorus poisoning--explosive encounter.  

PubMed

Poisoning by white or yellow phosphorus is reported in various forms and also in ages varying from infants to adults, but spontaneous combustion and explosion during its management has never been described. This incidence occurred while attempting to pass a Ryle's tube. Its free end first exhibited a yellow flame and this later on led to an explosive encounter. Role of static electricity generated while handling plastic materials leading to ignition and explosion cannot be overlooked. PMID:15636320

Pande, T K; Pandey, S

2004-03-01

200

X-33 artist concept - 1999  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An artist's conception of the half scale X-33 demonstrator flying over the southwestern desert. The vehicle was a wedge-shaped lifting body, with two vertical fins and a pair of stub wings. On the fins are the Lockheed-Martin Skunk Works logo, which was the prime contractor. At the rear is the aerospike engine, an experimental design that lacked the nozzles of conventional rockets. The X-33 tested several other new technologies, including composite structures and a metallic thermal protection system. It was hoped that these advances would lead eventually to an operational single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle called the VentureStar. However, due to technical problems with the composite liquid hydrogen tank, the X-33 program was cancelled in February 2001.

1999-01-01

201

X-33 Linear Aerospike Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In July of 1999 two linear aerospike rocket engines will power the first flight of NASA's X-33 advanced technology demonstrator. A successful X-33 flight test program will validate the aerospike nozzle concept, a key technical feature of Lockheed Martin's VentureStar(trademark) reusable launch vehicle. The aerospike received serious consideration for NASA's current space shuttle, but was eventually rejected in 1969 in favor of high chamber pressure bell engines, in part because of perceived technical risk. The aerospike engine (discussed below) has several performance advantages over conventional bell engines. However, these performance advantages are difficult to validate by ground test. The space shuttle, a multibillion dollar program intended to provide all of NASA's future space lift could not afford the gamble of choosing a potentially superior though unproven aerospike engine over a conventional bell engine. The X-33 demonstrator provides an opportunity to prove the aerospike's performance advantage in flight before commiting to an operational vehicle.

Vinson, John

1998-01-01

202

[Information about phosphorus additives and nutritional counseling].  

PubMed

Hyperphosphatemia is a common disorder in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) , and may result in hyperparathyroidism and renal osteodystrophy. Hyperphosphatemia also may contribute to deterioration vascular calcification and increase mortality. Hence, correction and prevention of hyperphosphatemia is a main component of the management of CKD. This goal is usually approached both by administering phosphorus binders and by restricting dietary phosphorus (P) intake. Dietary intake of phosphorus (P) is derived largely from foods with high protein content or food additives and is an important determinant of P balance in patient with CKD. Food additives (PO4) can dramatically increase the amount of P consumed in the daily diet, especially because P is more readily absorbed in its inorganic form. In addition, information about the P content and type in prepared foods is often unavailable or misleading. Therefore, during dietary counseling of patients with CKD, we recommended that they consider both the absolute dietary P content and the P-to-protein ratio of foods and meals including food additives. PMID:23023640

Kido, Shinsuke; Nomura, Kengo; Sasaki, Shohei; Shiozaki, Yuji; Segawa, Hiroko; Tatsumi, Sawako

2012-10-01

203

Hyperpolarization Of Phosphorus Donors In Silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon phosphorus (Si:P) is a model system for investigating spin effects in solid state materials. Recently, members of this group demonstrated a simple method for optically inducing a non-equilibrium state of spin hyperpolarization in phosphorus doped silicon by exploiting a modified Overhauser process. The ability to pump high nuclear spin polarizations in this system could have far reaching technological implications for many fields. For example, hyperpolarized silicon nanoparticles have the potential to improve contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. Additionally, well-characterized quantum spin states have the potential to be useful as quantum qubits. Our current work attempts to extend these recent electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) measurements to direct nuclear magnetic resonance measurement of the hyperpolarized phosphorus nuclei. In this talk we will report on our current efforts to measure ^31P spin hyper-antipolarization after the sample is briefly exposed to an inert room temperature environment. We demonstrate the procedure of ^31P polarization measurement through low field electron spin resonance as a precursor to direct NMR measurement.

Sorte, Eric; Baker, William; McCamey, Dane; Laicher, Gernot; Boehme, Christoph; Saam, Brian

2008-10-01

204

Phosphorus, a key to life on the primitive earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The phosphorus of the primitive earth was present as phosphates. It is strongly probable that a portion of the phosphate was present as condensed phosphates. The primitive earth was highly deficient in the total available phosphorus until a sufficient quantity of phosphorus weathered from the igneous rocks in which it was entrapped. Approximately three billion years were required for the seas to become saturated. Until this time passed the seas acted as a giant sink for phosphorus, diluting it to the extent that all forms of life were deprived of the vital nutrient. When the seas became saturated, the rate of turnover of the phosphorus increased rapidly. As the seas pulsated, they left the excess precipitate phosphorus as sedimentary rock in locally rich deposits on which life could thrive.

Griffith, E. J.; Ponnamperuma, C.; Gabel, N. W.

1977-01-01

205

ACCUMULATION OF PHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS BY MUCOR RACEMOSUS1  

PubMed Central

James, A. W. (The Pennsylvania State University, University Park), and L. E. Casida, Jr. Accumulation of phosphorus compounds by Mucor racemosus. J. Bacteriol. 87:150–155. 1964.—In glucose-inorganic salts media containing excess KH2PO4, Mucor racemosus accumulated 5 to 6% phosphorus on a dry-weight basis in its mycelium. Fractionation of phosphorus compounds in young, rapidly growing mycelium revealed that approximately 58% of this phosphorus was in the form of inorganic polyphosphate; nucleic acids accounted for an additional 17% of the total phosphorus. Upon further growth, morphological changes were observed in many of the hyphae, and polyphosphate appeared in the culture media. In media containing limited amounts of KH2PO4, exogenous polyphosphate was utilized by M. racemosus, and the phosphorus content of the mycelium decreased to approximately 0.3%.

James, A. W.; Casida, L. E.

1964-01-01

206

47 CFR 11.33 - EAS Decoder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false EAS Decoder. 11.33 Section 11.33 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Equipment Requirements § 11.33 EAS Decoder. (a) An EAS Decoder must at a minimum be...

2011-10-01

207

47 CFR 11.33 - EAS Decoder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false EAS Decoder. 11.33 Section 11.33 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Equipment Requirements § 11.33 EAS Decoder. (a) An EAS Decoder must at a minimum be...

2010-10-01

208

14 CFR 33.62 - Stress analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stress analysis. 33.62 Section 33.62 Aeronautics...Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.62 Stress analysis. A stress analysis must be performed on each turbine...

2011-01-01

209

14 CFR 33.62 - Stress analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stress analysis. 33.62 Section 33.62 Aeronautics...Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.62 Stress analysis. A stress analysis must be performed on each turbine...

2010-01-01

210

14 CFR 33.62 - Stress analysis.  

...Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stress analysis. 33.62 Section 33.62 Aeronautics...Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.62 Stress analysis. A stress analysis must be performed on each turbine...

2014-01-01

211

14 CFR 33.62 - Stress analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stress analysis. 33.62 Section 33.62 Aeronautics...Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.62 Stress analysis. A stress analysis must be performed on each turbine...

2013-01-01

212

14 CFR 33.62 - Stress analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stress analysis. 33.62 Section 33.62 Aeronautics...Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.62 Stress analysis. A stress analysis must be performed on each turbine...

2012-01-01

213

32 CFR 989.33 - Environmental justice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Environmental justice. 989.33 Section 989.33 National...EIAP) § 989.33 Environmental justice. During the preparation of environmental...Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and...

2013-07-01

214

49 CFR 33.34 - Preferential scheduling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Preferential scheduling. 33.34 Section 33.34 Transportation Office of...SYSTEM Placement of Rated Orders § 33.34 Preferential scheduling. (a) A person must schedule operations,...

2013-10-01

215

28 CFR 115.33 - Inmate education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Inmate education. 115.33 Section 115.33 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Training and Education § 115.33 Inmate...

2013-07-01

216

Sustainable phosphorus loadings from effective and cost-effective phosphorus management around the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Nutrient over-enrichment of the Baltic Sea, accompanied by intensified algal blooms and decreasing water clarity, has aroused widespread concern in the surrounding countries during the last four decades. This work has used a well-tested dynamic mass-balance model to investigate which decrease in total phosphorus loading would be required to meet the environmental goal to restore the trophic state in the Baltic Sea to pre-1960s levels. Furthermore, the extent to which various abatement options may decrease the phosphorus loading in a cost-effective manner has been studied. Upgrading urban sewage treatment in the catchment could, alone or in combination with banning phosphates in detergents, be sufficient to meet the set environmental goal, at an estimated annual basin-wide cost of 0.21-0.43 billion euro. Such a plan would potentially decrease the total phosphorus loading to the Baltic Sea with 6,650-10,200 tons per year. PMID:19412551

Bryhn, Andreas C

2009-01-01

217

Sustainable Phosphorus Loadings from Effective and Cost-Effective Phosphorus Management Around the Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

Nutrient over-enrichment of the Baltic Sea, accompanied by intensified algal blooms and decreasing water clarity, has aroused widespread concern in the surrounding countries during the last four decades. This work has used a well-tested dynamic mass-balance model to investigate which decrease in total phosphorus loading would be required to meet the environmental goal to restore the trophic state in the Baltic Sea to pre-1960s levels. Furthermore, the extent to which various abatement options may decrease the phosphorus loading in a cost-effective manner has been studied. Upgrading urban sewage treatment in the catchment could, alone or in combination with banning phosphates in detergents, be sufficient to meet the set environmental goal, at an estimated annual basin-wide cost of 0.21–0.43 billion euro. Such a plan would potentially decrease the total phosphorus loading to the Baltic Sea with 6,650–10,200 tonnes per year.

Bryhn, Andreas C.

2009-01-01

218

Biogeochemical characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus in Jiaozhou Bay sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment samples were cored from 3 locations representing the inner bay, the outer bay and the bay mouth of Jiaozhou Bay in\\u000a September 2003 to study the source and biogeochemical characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus in the bay. The content and\\u000a vertical distributions of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), organic nitrogen (ON), organic phosphorus (OP), inorganic\\u000a nitrogen (IN), inorganic

Xuegang Li; Jinming Song; Huamao Yuan; Jicui Dai; Ning Li

2007-01-01

219

The atmospheric deposition of phosphorus in Lake Victoria (East Africa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wet and dry atmospheric fluxes of total phosphorus (TP) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) measured at four sites over a 12-month period were used to estimate lake-wide atmospheric phosphorus (P) deposition to Lake Victoria, East Africa. Atmospheric samples were collected in plastic buckets with top diameter of 25.5 cm by 30 cm deep. The highest P loading rates of 2.7 (TP) and

Rashid A. Tamatamah; Robert E. Hecky; Hamish C. Duthie

2005-01-01

220

Uptake of phosphorus-32 by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The uptake and accumulation of phosphorus by mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal onion plants were compared. The results of the experiments indicate:1.Mycorrhizal onion plants accumulated significantly more phosphorus in the roots and tops than nonmycorrhizal plants.2.Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae are sites of increased phosphorus accumulation compared to nonmycorrhizal roots.3.A fungitoxicant (parachloronitrobenzene) reduced phosphate accumulation by mycorrhizae but did not significantly affect phosphate accumulation

L. E. Gray; J. W. Gerdemann

1969-01-01

221

Phosphorus Purifing Effect of Blast Furnace Slags in Sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper focus on purifying phosphorus by batch and column experiment and researching phosphorus removal theory of blast furnace slags. The content includes the following main parts: experiment method and procedure, results and discussion and conclusion. The results indicated: the phosphorus removal rate of solution containing 10 mg\\/L P is above 85% with 2.5 g BF slags, at 25°C. The

Ling Huang; Haihong Xu

2009-01-01

222

Glyphosate and phosphorus leaching and residues in boreal sandy soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glyphosate [(N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine)] is a widely used herbicide and it is known to compete for the same sorption sites\\u000a in soil as phosphorus. Persistence and losses of glyphosate were monitored in a field with low phosphorus status and possible\\u000a correlation between glyphosate and phosphorus leaching losses was studied. Glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA (aminomethyl\\u000a phosphonic acid) residues in soil samples were

Pirkko Laitinen; Sari Rämö; Unto Nikunen; Lauri Jauhiainen; Katri Siimes; Eila Turtola

2009-01-01

223

Benthic phosphorus regeneration in the Potomac River Estuary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The flux of dissolved reactive phosphate from Potomac riverine and estuarine sediments is controlled by processes occurring at the water-sediment interface and within surficial sediment. In situ benthic fluxes (0.1 to 2.0 mmoles m-2 day-1) are generally five to ten times higher than calculated diffusive fluxes (0.020 to 0.30 mmoles m-2 day-1). The discrepancy between the two flux estimates is greatest in the transition zone (river mile 50 to 70) and is attributd to macrofaunal irrigation. Both in situ and diffusive fluxes of dissolved reactive phosphate from Potomac tidal river sediments are low while those from anoxic lower estuarine sediments are high. The net accumulation rate of phosphorus in benthic sediment exhibits an inverse pattern. Thus a large fraction of phosphorus is retained by Potomac tidal river sediments, which contain a surficial oxidized layer and oligochaete worms tolerant of low oxygen conditions, and a large fraction of phosphorus is released from anoxic lower estuary sediments. Tidal river sediment pore waters are in equilibrium with amorphous Fe (OH)3 while lower estuary pore waters are significantly undersaturated with respect to this phase. Benthic regeneration of dissolved reactive phosphorus is sufficient to supply all the phosphorus requirements for net primary production in the lower tidal river and transition-zone waters of the Potomac River Estuary. Benthic regeneration supplies approximately 25% as much phosphorus as inputs from sewage treatment plants and 10% of all phosphorus inputs to the tidal Potomac River. When all available point source phosphorus data are put into a steady-state conservation of mass model and reasonable coefficients for uptake of dissolved phosphorus, remineralization of particulate phosphorus, and sedimentation of particulate phosphorus are used in the model, a reasonably accurate simulation of dissolved and particulate phosphorus in the water column is obtained for the summer of 1980. ?? 1982 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

Callender, E.

1982-01-01

224

Diversity enhances agricultural productivity via rhizosphere phosphorus facilitation on phosphorus-deficient soils.  

PubMed

Intercropping, which grows at least two crop species on the same pieces of land at the same time, can increase grain yields greatly. Legume-grass intercrops are known to overyield because of legume nitrogen fixation. However, many agricultural soils are deficient in phosphorus. Here we show that a new mechanism of overyielding, in which phosphorus mobilized by one crop species increases the growth of a second crop species grown in alternate rows, led to large yield increases on phosphorus-deficient soils. In 4 years of field experiments, maize (Zea mays L.) overyielded by 43% and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) overyielded by 26% when intercropped on a low-phosphorus but high-nitrogen soil. We found that overyielding of maize was attributable to below-ground interactions between faba bean and maize in another field experiment. Intercropping with faba bean improved maize grain yield significantly and above-ground biomass marginally significantly, compared with maize grown with wheat, at lower rates of P fertilizer application (<75 kg of P(2)O(5) per hectare), and not significantly at high rate of P application (>112.5 kg of P(2)O(5) per hectare). By using permeable and impermeable root barriers, we found that maize overyielding resulted from its uptake of phosphorus mobilized by the acidification of the rhizosphere via faba bean root release of organic acids and protons. Faba bean overyielded because its growth season and rooting depth differed from maize. The large increase in yields from intercropping on low-phosphorus soils is likely to be especially important on heavily weathered soils. PMID:17592130

Li, Long; Li, Shu-Min; Sun, Jian-Hao; Zhou, Li-Li; Bao, Xing-Guo; Zhang, Hong-Gang; Zhang, Fu-Suo

2007-07-01

225

Increased Arginine Biosynthesis during Phosphorus Deficiency 1  

PubMed Central

The accumulation of arginine in leaves of four citrus rootstock cultivars during P deficiency has been demonstrated to be due to increased de novo synthesis rather than decreased catabolism or increased protein degradation (E Rabe, CJ Lovatt, 1984, Plant Physiol 76: 747-752). In this report, we provide evidence (a) that the increased activity of the arginine biosynthetic pathway observed for citrus rootstocks grown under P-deficient conditions for 7 months is due to an increase in the concentration of ammonia in leaves of P-deficient plants and (b) that ammonia accumulation and removal through arginine systhesis are early responses to phosphorus deficiency for both a woody perennial, rough lemon (Citrus limon), and an herbaceous annual, summer squash (Cucurbita pepo). Transferring 5-day-old squash plants to a phosphorus-deficient nutrient solution for only 10 days resulted in a 2-fold increase in the concentration of nitrate in the youngest fully expanded leaves (YFE). Concomitantly, the specific activity of nitrate reductase doubled and the ammonia content of P-deficient YFE leaves increased to a concentration significantly greater that of leaves from healthy control plants (P < 0.05). Consistent with increased availability of ammonia, the incorporation of NaH14CO3 into arginine plus urea doubled during phosphorus deficiency and arginine accumulated. Despite the accumulation of nitrate and ammonia in YFE leaves during phosphorus deficiency, the total nitrogen content of these leaves was less than that of the healthy control plants. Similar results were obtained for rough lemon. Nitrate content of the YFE leaves increased 1.5- and 3.0-fold in plants deprived of phosphorus for 6 and 12 weeks, respectively. Ammonia content of the leaves increased as P deficiency progressed to 1.4 ± 0.08 mg (± se, n = 4) per gram dry weight, a level 1.8-fold greater than that of the P-sufficient control plants. During P deficiency de novo arginine biosynthesis in rough lemon increased 10-fold. Immersing the petiole of YFE leaves from P-sufficient squash and rough lemon plants in 50 millimolar NH4+ for 3 hours resulted in the accumulation of ammonia in the leaves, and a 4-fold increase in the incorporation of NaH14CO3 into arginine plus urea. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that the accumulation of nitrate and ammonia in leaves is an early response of both woody and herbaceous plants to P deprivation. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that increased de novo arginine biosynthesis in leaves during P deficiency is in response to ammonia content of the leaves.

Rabe, Etiene; Lovatt, Carol J.

1986-01-01

226

21 CFR 862.1580 - Phosphorus (inorganic) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1580 Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. (a)...

2012-04-01

227

NMR and mass spectrometry of phosphorus in wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

There is at present little information on the long-term stability of phosphorus sequestered in wetlands. Phosphorus sequestered during high loading periods may be relatively unstable and easily remobilized following changes in nutrient status or hydrological regime, but the chemical forms of sequestered phosphorus that do remobilize are largely unknown at this time. A lack of suitable analytical techniques has contributed to this dearth of knowledge regarding the stability of soil organic phosphorus. We analysed phosphorus in soils from the 'head' of Rescue Strand tree island and an adjacent marsh in the Florida Everglades by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Tree islands are important areas of biodiversity within the Everglades and offer a unique opportunity to study phosphorus sequestration because they are exposed to large phosphorus loads and appear to be natural nutrient sinks. The 31P NMR profiling of extracts from surface and sediment samples in the tree island indicates that phosphorus input to Rescue Strand tree island soils is mostly in the form of inorganic ortho-phosphate and is either refractory when deposited or rapidly recycled by the native vegetation into a stable phosphorus pool largely resistant to re-utilization by plants or microbes. Mass spectrometry revealed the presence of inositol hexakisphosphate, a common organic monophosphate ester not previously observed in Everglades' soils. ?? 2008 The Authors.

El-Rifai, H.; Heerboth, M.; Gedris, T. E.; Newman, S.; Orem, W.; Cooper, W. T.

2008-01-01

228

Distributions of particle-bound phosphorus in an urbanized estuary  

SciTech Connect

The buffering of phosphate concentrations has been suggested in many estuaries including the Delaware. Previous study in the Delaware Estuary has shown that throughout most of the year (July-February) phosphate concentrations in the low salinity (S < 15 ppt) region are fairly constant ranging 1.5-2.5 [mu]M. Analysis of the suspended particulate matter reveals that there is a continual decrease in total particulate phosphorus ([mu]mole/g) with increasing salinity suggesting the release of particle-bound phosphorus. Analysis of the suspended particulate matter of the Delaware Estuary through sequential leaching extractions reveals phosphorus to be associated with iron, aluminum, calcium, and organic matter. In the organized river, a majority of the inorganic particulate phosphorus (67%) is associated with iron (25%) and aluminum (18%) while only a small fraction (3%) is associated with calcium. The proportions of each fraction, however, change during estuarine mixing. As salinity increases, less particulate phosphorus is associated with iron and aluminum, and calcium-bound phosphorus becomes more important. Simulated estuarine mixing in the laboratory revealed a release of phosphorus with increasing salinity. Particle-bound phosphorus associated with iron and aluminum was observed to decrease during mixing suggesting iron- and aluminum-bound phosphorus are important in the buffering of phosphate in the Delaware.

Lebo, M.L. (Univ. of Delaware, Lewes (United States))

1990-01-09

229

Method of removing and detoxifying a phosphorus-based substance  

DOEpatents

A method of removing a phosphorus-based poisonous substance from water contaminated is presented. In addition, the toxicity of the phosphorus-based substance is also subsequently destroyed. A water-immiscible organic solvent is first immobilized on a supported liquid membrane before the contaminated water is contacted with one side of the supported liquid membrane to absorb the phosphorus-based substance in the organic solvent. The other side of the supported liquid membrane is contacted with a hydroxy-affording strong base to react with phosphorus-based solvated species to form a non-toxic product.

Vandegrift, G.F.; Steindler, M.J.

1985-05-21

230

Electrically detected magnetic resonance studies of phosphorus doped diamond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus doped n-type epitaxial diamond films have been studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) and electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR). At low electric field, the dominant defects influencing the electronic transport are carbon dangling bonds, while at higher fields the anisotropic spin resonance signal of a new phosphorus-related center with g?=2.0026, g||=2.0042, Aiso=17.6 G, and Aaniso=1.8 G is observed. These results indicate that room temperature conductivity in this film is dominated by hopping via phosphorus-related defect centers rather than via hydrogenic donor states of phosphorus atoms on substitutional sites.

Graf, T.; Brandt, M. S.; Nebel, C. E.; Stutzmann, M.; Koizumi, S.

2001-12-01

231

Ascorbic acid, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium intake variations: effects on calcium, phosphorus and magnesium utilization by human adults  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding two levels of ascorbic acid, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and ascorbic acid on the apparent utilization of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium by healthy, human adult subjects. During 4 randomly-arranged experimental periods of 7 days each, a laboratory-controlled diet alone or with supplements of ascorbic acid, dicalcium phosphate or magnesium oxide was fed to the 18 subjects. Results indicated that ascorbic acid supplementation tended to reduce urinary phosphorus loss and to slightly increase fecal phosphorus loss so that overall phosphorus balances became more positive. Conversely, under these conditions, urinary calcium losses were little affected but fecal calcium losses were increased resulting in an overall decrease in calcium balance with ascorbic acid supplementation. Ascorbic acid supplementation resulted in decreased urine and fecal losses of magnesium and more positive magnesium balances. Magnesium supplementation resulted in more positive calcium and phosphorus balances as did calcium phosphate supplementation on magnesium balance.

Kies, C.; Brennan, M.A.; Parks, S.K.; Stauffer, D.J.; Wang, H.Y.; Young, S.F.; Fox, H.M.

1986-03-01

232

Application of indigenous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria from municipal wastewater to selectively bioleach phosphorus from high-phosphorus iron ore: effect of particle size.  

PubMed

The effects of ore particle size on selectively bioleaching phosphorus (P) from high-phosphorus iron ore were studied. The average contents of P and Fe in the iron ore were 1.06 and 47.90% (w/w), respectively. The particle sizes of the ores used ranged from 58 to 3350 microm. It was found that the indigenous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria from municipal wastewater could grow well in the slurries of solid high-phosphorus iron ore and municipal wastewater. The minimum bioleaching pH reached for the current work was 0.33. The P content in bioleached iron ore reduced slightly with decreasing particle size, while the removal percentage of Fe decreased appreciably with decreasing particle size. The optimal particle size fraction was 58-75 microm, because the P content in bioleached iron ore reached a minimum of 0.16% (w/w), the removal percentage of P attained a maximum of 86.7%, while the removal percentage of Fe dropped to a minimum of 1.3% and the Fe content in bioleached iron ore was a maximum of 56.4% (w/w) in this case. The iron ores thus obtained were suitable to be used in the iron-making process. The removal percentage of ore solid decreased with decreasing particle size at particle size range of 106-3350 microm. The possible reasons resulting in above phenomena were explored in the current work. It was inferred that the particle sizes of the iron ore used in this work have no significant effect on the viability of the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:23530328

Shen, Shaobo; Rao, Ruirui; Wang, Jincao

2013-01-01

233

[Nitrogen and phosphorus release from herbaceous vegetation under simulated inundation experiment of water-level fluctuation zone in the Three Gorges Reservior Area].  

PubMed

Nitrogen and phosphorus release from herbaceous vegetation of water-level fluctuation zone in the Three Gorges Reservior (TGR) area could become a crucial source which may deteriorate water quality of TGR. Stems and leaves of the dominant herbaceous plants from water-level fluctuation zone were collected and inundated in the laboratory for measuring nitrogen and phosphorus release along with decay process. Results show that: (1) The differences of initial carbon and nitrogen content among herbaceous plants of water-level fluctuation zone are remarkable, except intial phosphorus content. (2) The decomposition of vegetation under inundation causes the increase of pH, the decrease of Eh of the overlying water and the release of nitrogen and phosphorus. The release amount of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) are (3.85 +/- 2.53), (1.33 +/- 0.73) mg x g(-1) respectively. The release process of TN and ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+) -N) shows a parabolic curve, whereas TP releases fits in a logarithmic curve. The average peak time of TN and TP concentration is in the 15th day of inundation, while NH4(+) -N is in the 33th day. The release amount and rate of nutrients follow the sequence in TN > TP > NH4(+) -N. The average loads of TN, TP and NH4(+) -N release from vegetation decay in three months' inundation are 22.4, 8.9 and 4.5 kg x hm(-2) respectively. (3) The lower initial C and higher initial N and P content of plant, make an advantage for nitrogen and phosphorus release when plants are inundated in flooding period of TGR. PMID:22720558

Wang, Jian-Chao; Zhu, Bo; Wang, Tao; Yi, Li-Jun

2012-04-01

234

Calculation of the contribution of the sediment phosphorus to the phosphorus concentration of the water body of Shanzi deep reservoir in Fujian Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of the sediment phosphorus to the phosphorus concentration of the water body was studied through measuring the chemical forms of the sediment phosphorus and the environmental conditions at the sediment-water interface and the hydrological parameters of reservoir, and then we calculated the contribution from the concentration gradient of the total soluble phosphorus between the surface sediment and the

SU Yuping; LIN Jia; LIN Wanzhen; WANG Jiale

235

Adsorption capacity of phosphorus in Baltic Sea sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrient budgets of the Baltic Sea indicate that an increased loading of phosphorus to a great extent is counteracted by adsorption to the sediments, resulting in a comparatively small net increase of the phosphorus-concentration in the water column. The parmanent salinity stratification and increasing eutrophication of this sea has caused almost permanent anoxic conditions which limits the phosphorus-storage capacities in the deep basins below the halocline. The phosphorus-loading has increased about eight-fold during this century and does not show any sign of declination. The questions then arise—'what type of sediments store the phosphorus, what are the binding mechanisms and is the maximim storage capacity approached?' In an attempt to partly answer these questions, the phosphorus adsorption capacities of three different Baltic Sea sediments have been investigated. The greatest amount of adsorbed phosphorus, measured as mol g -1 dry substance, is found for an accumulation bottom from the deeper part of the Baltic Sea and the lowest for a transportation bottom above the halocline. However, if the rates are recalculated as phosphorus adsorption per area, which is more pertinent from an ecological point of view, i.e. most phosphorus is adsorbed in the shallow sediments. A comparison of the experimental data and ambient conditions in the water and sediments indicate that adsorption of phosphate from the water column plays a minor role in the phosphorus budget of the Baltic Sea. Only the assimilation of phosphate and subsequent sedimentation and decomposition of organic matter at the sediment surface will result in a sufficiently high sediment pore water concentration to explain the large sink of phosphorus to the Baltic Sea sediments calculated from input and output data.

Carman, R.; Wulff, F.

1989-11-01

236

24-Hour Urine Phosphorus Excretion and Mortality and Cardiovascular Events  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives Higher morning serum phosphorus has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with or without CKD. In patients with CKD and a phosphorous level >4.6 mg/dl, the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommend dietary phosphorus restriction. However, whether phosphorus restriction influences serum phosphorus concentrations and whether dietary phosphorus is itself associated with CVD or death are uncertain. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Among 880 patients with stable CVD and normal kidney function to moderate CKD, 24-hour urine phosphorus excretion (UPE) and serum phosphorus were measured at baseline. Participants were followed for a median of 7.4 years for CVD events and all-cause mortality. Results Mean ± SD age was 67±11 years, estimated GFR (eGFR) was 71±22 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and serum phosphorus was 3.7±0.6 mg/dl. Median UPE was 632 (interquartile range, 439, 853) mg/d. In models adjusted for demographic characteristics and eGFR, UPE was weakly and nonsignificantly associated with serum phosphorus (0.03 mg/dl higher phosphorus per 300 mg higher UPE; P=0.07). When adjusted for demographics, eGFR, and CVD risk factors, each 300-mg higher UPE was associated with 17% lower risk of CVD events. The association of UPE with all-cause mortality was not statistically significant (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 1.05). Results were similar irrespective of CKD status (P interactions > 0.87). Conclusions Among outpatients with stable CVD, the magnitude of the association of UPE with morning serum phosphorus is modest. Greater UPE is associated with lower risk for CVD events. The association was similar for all-cause mortality but was not statistically significant.

Palomino, Heather L.; Rifkin, Dena E.; Anderson, Cheryl; Criqui, Michael H.; Whooley, Mary A.

2013-01-01

237

Phosphorus, Eggshell Calcium and Phosphorus Levels of Laying Hens in Late Laying Production Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect dietary calcium level and vitamin-D on 3 calcium and phosphorus concentrations in plasma and eggshell of laying hens in late production period. Two hundred forty 70 weeks white lohman LSL laying hens were randomly assigned to ten groups equally (n=24) each treatment was replicates six times. Experimental diets were

S. Canan Bölükbasi; Saban Çelebi; Necati Utlu

238

Phosphorus Source Effects on Soil Organic Phosphorus: A P NMR Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of organic phosphorus (Po) in animal waste and in soil is important from both plant nutrition and environmental perspectives. The objectives of this study were (1) to monitor the nature of Po in different animal wastes and biosolids using solution state P NMR spectroscopy and (2) to understand the nature of Po as affected by crop P removal

M. N. Shafqat; G. M. Pierzynski; K. Xia

2009-01-01

239

Process for improving phosphorus-vanadium oxide and phosphorus-vanadium-co-metal oxide catalysts  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for the improvement of a vanadium-phosphorus-oxygen catalyst having a phosphorus to vanadium atomic ratio of about 2:1 to about 0.8:1 which catalyst is present on a catalyst bed having a portion therof containing an initial exotherm of reaction. The catalyst is suitable for use in the manufacture of maleic anhydride from a feed gas stream comprising C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons, benzene, or butane which process comprises: applying to the catalyst bed, simultaneously with introduction of the feed gas stream thereon, water and a phosphorus compound in an amount sufficient to initiate (a) deactivation of the portion of the catalyst containing the initial exotherm, and (b) formation of a new exotherm downstream in the catalyst bed from the initial exotherm, and thereafter reducing or discontinuing application of the phosphorus compound at a point in time when the initial exotherm portion of the catalyst bed is still undergoing deactivation, thereby allowing the partially deactivated exotherm portion to reactivate by producing a more isothermal catalyst bed.

Edwards, R.C.

1987-10-20

240

Phosphorus in Hawaiian Kikuyugrass Pastures and Potential Phosphorus Release to Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inceptisol) were pooled separately from those with low DRPWE (five Andisols, three Ultisols, and an Oxisol). The oxalate phosphorus tion of surface water with P is receiving increased atten- saturation index (PSIox) procedure was the best predictor of DRPWE tion in Hawaii (Henderson and Harrigan, 2002; Laws across soil orders when oxalate-extractable molybdate-reactive phos- and Ferentinos, 2003) and throughout the

B. W. Mathews; J. R. Carpenter; L. E. Sollenberger; S. Tsang

2005-01-01

241

Synthesis of 3,3-dinitroazetidine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The compound, 3,3-dinitroazetidine, and a process of preparing 3,3-dinitroazetidine including reacting a mixture of 1-tertiary-butyl- 3,3-dinitroazetidine and benzyl chloroformate to form 1-(benzyloxycarbonyl) -3,3dinitroazetidine, reacting the 1-(benzylo...

M. A. Hiskey

1993-01-01

242

Phosphorus can also be a "photocopy".  

PubMed

The syntheses of benzoxaphospholes and new benzobisoxaphospholes that display blue fluorescence are presented. The latter compounds were accessed by the use of a new precursor, 2,5-diphosphinohydroquinone. The new compounds were fully characterized, including a structural study of 2,6-tert-butylbenzo[1,2-d;4,5-d']bisoxaphosphole. Quantum yields for photoluminescence were determined for a series of compounds. These materials feature bona fide P horizontal lineC p-p pi bonds suitable for conjugated materials having phosphorus as a participatory atom and can thus "photocopy" the properties of other conjugated organic molecules. PMID:20235546

Washington, Marlena P; Gudimetla, Vittal B; Laughlin, Feng L; Deligonul, Nihal; He, Susan; Payton, John L; Simpson, M Cather; Protasiewicz, John D

2010-04-01

243

Molecular phosphorus ion source for semiconductor technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents results on the generation of molecular phosphorus ion beams in a hot filament ion source. Solid red phosphorous is evaporated mainly as tetra-atomic molecules up to a temperature of 800°C. Thus, one of the main conditions for producing maximum P4+ fraction in the beam is to keep the temperature of the phosphorous oven, the steam line and the discharge chamber walls no greater than 800°C. The prior version of our ion source was equipped with a discharge chamber cooling system. The modified source ensured a P4+ ion beam current greater than 30% of the total beam current.

Gushenets, V. I.; Bugaev, A. S.; Oks, E. M.; Hershcovitch, A.; Kulevoy, T. V.

2012-02-01

244

Molecular phosphorus ion source for semiconductor technology.  

PubMed

This paper presents results on the generation of molecular phosphorus ion beams in a hot filament ion source. Solid red phosphorous is evaporated mainly as tetra-atomic molecules up to a temperature of 800°C. Thus, one of the main conditions for producing maximum P(4)(+) fraction in the beam is to keep the temperature of the phosphorous oven, the steam line and the discharge chamber walls no greater than 800°C. The prior version of our ion source was equipped with a discharge chamber cooling system. The modified source ensured a P(4)(+) ion beam current greater than 30% of the total beam current. PMID:22380290

Gushenets, V I; Bugaev, A S; Oks, E M; Hershcovitch, A; Kulevoy, T V

2012-02-01

245

Molecular phosphorus ion source for semiconductor technology  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results on the generation of molecular phosphorus ion beams in a hot filament ion source. Solid red phosphorous is evaporated mainly as tetra-atomic molecules up to a temperature of 800 C. Thus, one of the main conditions for producing maximum P{sub 4}{sup +} fraction in the beam is to keep the temperature of the phosphorous oven, the steam line and the discharge chamber walls no greater than 800 C. The prior version of our ion source was equipped with a discharge chamber cooling system. The modified source ensured a P{sub 4}{sup +} ion beam current greater than 30% of the total beam current.

Gushenets V. I.; Hershcovitch A.; Bugaev, A.S.; Oks, E.M.; Kulevoy, T.V.

2012-02-15

246

Enhanced diffusion of phosphorus at grain boundaries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Enhanced diffusion of phosphorus at grain boundaries in cast polycrystalline photovoltaic materials (Wacker, HEM, and Semix) was studied. It was found that the enhancements for the three materials were the same, indicating that the properties of boundaries are similar, even though they were grown by different techniques. In addition, it was observed that grain boundaries capable of enhancing the diffusion always have strong recombination activities. Both phenomena could be related to dangling bonds existing at the boundaries. The present study gives the first evidence that incoherent second order twins of 111/115-plane type are diffusion-active.

Cheng, L. J.; Shyu, C. M.; Stika, K. M.; Daud, T.; Crotty, G. T.

1982-01-01

247

REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS USING ALUMINUM SALTS FOR PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of aluminum salts to remove phosphorus is common practice. It has been shown that aluminum salts are also capable of removing heavy metals, but the dosages were much greater than normally applied for phosphorus removal. This study investigates the removal of heavy metals ...

248

Process for the electrothermal production of yellow phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disclosure relates to a process for removing foreign components, especially zinc, from the product cycle during the production of yellow phosphorus inside and electrothermal furnace. To this end, the disclosure provides for molten ferrophosphorus and a calcium metasilicate slag and also a dust-containing gas mixture consisting essentially of carbon monoxide and phosphorus in vapor form to be taken from

K. Rottgen; H. Diskowski; J. Stendel

1985-01-01

249

Root hairs confer a competitive advantage under low phosphorus availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root hairs are presumably important in the acquisition of immobile soil resources such as phosphorus. The density and length of root hairs vary substantially within and between species, and are highly regulated by soil phosphorus availability, which suggests that at high nutrient availability, root hairs may have a neutral or negative impact on fitness. We used a root-hairless mutant of

Terence R. Bates; Jonathan P. Lynch

2001-01-01

250

76 FR 38592 - Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for Florida Everglades  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EPA-HQ-OW-2011-0515; FRL-9428-3] Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for Florida Everglades...would identify provisions of Florida's Water Quality Standards for Phosphorus in the...disapproved and that therefore are not applicable water quality standards for purposes of the...

2011-07-01

251

77 FR 46298 - Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for Florida Everglades  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL 9666-8] RIN 2040-AF38 Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for Florida Everglades...that identifies provisions of Florida's Water Quality Standards for Phosphorus in the...disapproved and that therefore are not applicable water quality standards for purposes of the...

2012-08-03

252

Lithium insertion in carbons prepared from phosphorus-containing polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus-containing carbon has been prepared by the pyrolysis of phenolic resin containing chemically bonded phosphorus atoms, which is synthesized through the esterification of phenolic hydroxyl group by phosphoric acid. The electrochemical insertion of lithium in as-prepared carbon is also investigated. It is found that, at a pyrolysis temperature of 500°C, the addition of phosphoric acid in the precursor lowers the reversible capacity of the resultant carbon, but at 900°C, the addition of phosphoric acid in the precursor resin increases the reversible capacity of resultant carbon. Especially, the phosphorus-containing carbon prepared by the above method at 900°C gives a capacity beyond the theoretical value of graphite and reasonable discharge/charge curves. The phosphorus-containing carbon prepared by the pyrolysis at 500°C shows a similar electrochemical behavior to that of pure carbon and the effect of phosphorus atoms is little. Its reversible capacity is mainly determined by the content of hydrogen atoms rather than phosphorus atoms. However, at a relatively high pyrolysis temperature, 900°C, more phosphorus atoms are bonded with carbon atoms and are introduced to the microcrystallite structure of carbon. Hence, phosphorus element exerts a strike effect on the electrochemical behavior of carbon and, because of its different electronic effect from carbon element, more lithium species are inserted into carbon matrix.

Xiang, Hong-Qi; Fang, Shi-Bi; Jiang, Ying-Yan

253

Radiation-Induced Phosphorus Segregation in Austenitic and Ferritic Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The radiation induced surface segregation (RIS) of phosphorus in stainless steel attained a maximum at a dose of 0.8 dpa then decreased continually with dose. This decrease in the surface segregation of phosphorus at high dose levels has been attributed t...

J. L. Brimhall D. R. Baer R. H. Jones

1983-01-01

254

Research Progress on Phosphorus Removal in Substrates of Constructed Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classification and property of constructed wetland substrate has been reviewed, various substrates for phosphorus removal due to different P-adsorptive capacity have been summarized and the main influencing factor about substrates for phosphorus adsorption capacity has been investigated. At last, the paper puts forward prospect in development and selection media of constructed wetland imperatival in future.

Dun-Qiu Wang; Xiao-Dan Jin; Hua Zhang; Xue-Hong Zhang; Hong-Hu Zeng; Shao-Hong You; Wen-Yu Zhao; Ze-Long Xu; Yan-Hua Wu

2009-01-01

255

Speciation of riverine particulate phosphorus during rain events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspended sediments collected during rain events were analysed to assess the maximum potential bioavailability of particulate phosphorus (PP). Physical (separation by particle size) and chemical (sequential extraction) fractionation techniques were applied. Time differentiated sampling during rain events revealed that changes in the concentrations of soluble and particle bound phosphorus, and in the proportion of different PP phases, are due to

Nic Pacini; René Gächter

1999-01-01

256

ENVIRO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF PHOSPHORUS NONPOINT POLLUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of Minnesota seeks to reduce phosphorus loading to the Minnesota River by 40% from current levels. The state agency charged with achieving this reduction has indicated each watershed should reduce its current phosphorus loading by 40%. We hypothesized that policies targeting specific practices or regions would have a smaller negative impact on farm income than policies requiring every

John V. Westra; Kent D. Olson

2001-01-01

257

Estimating soil phosphorus sorption saturation from Mehlich-3 data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil phosphorus sorption saturation (Psat) measures the degree to which soil phosphorus (P) sorption sites have been filled and has been found to be a good indicator of P availability to runoff and leachate. At present, analytical methods required to estimate Psat are generally not offered by soil testing laboratories. This study evaluated the use of Mehlich-3 data in estimating

Peter J. A. Kleinman; Andrew N. Sharpley

2002-01-01

258

Do invasive mussels restrict offshore phosphorus transport in Lake Huron?  

PubMed

Dreissenid mussels were first documented in the Laurentian Great Lakes in the late 1980s. Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) spread quickly into shallow, hard-substrate areas; quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) spread more slowly and are currently colonizing deep, offshore areas. These mussels occur at high densities, filter large water volumes while feeding on suspended materials, and deposit particulate waste on the lake bottom. This filtering activity has been hypothesized to sequester tributary phosphorus in nearshore regions reducing offshore primary productivity. We used a mass balance model to estimate the phosphorus sedimentation rate in Saginaw Bay, a shallow embayment of Lake Huron, before and after the mussel invasion. Our results indicate that the proportion of tributary phosphorus retained in Saginaw Bay increased from approximately 46-70% when dreissenids appeared, reducing phosphorus export to the main body of Lake Huron. The combined effects of increased phosphorus retention and decreased phosphorus loading have caused an approximate 60% decrease in phosphorus export from Saginaw Bay to Lake Huron. Our results support the hypothesis that the ongoing decline of preyfish and secondary producers including diporeia (Diporeia spp.) in Lake Huron is a bottom-up phenomenon associated with decreased phosphorus availability in the offshore to support primary production. PMID:21812427

Cha, Yoonkyung; Stow, Craig A; Nalepa, Thomas F; Reckhow, Kenneth H

2011-09-01

259

Phosphorus run-off assessment in a watershed.  

PubMed

The Watershed Assessment Model was used to simulate the runoff volume, peak flows, and non-point source phosphorus loadings from the 5870 km(2) Lake Okeechobee watershed as a case study. The results were compared to on-site monitoring to verify the accuracy of the method and to estimate the observed/simulated error. In 2008, the total simulated phosphorus contribution was 9634, 6524 and 3908 kg (P) y(-1) from sod farms, citrus farms and row crop farmlands, respectively. Although the dairies represent less than 1% of the total area of Kissimmee basin, the simulated P load from the dairies (9283 kg (P) y(-1) in 2008) made up 5.4% of the total P load during 2008. On average, the modeled P yield rates from dairies, sod farms and row crop farmlands are 3.85, 2.01 and 0.86 kg (P) ha(-1) y(-1), respectively. The maximum sediment simulated phosphorus yield rate is about 2 kg (P) ha(-1) and the particulate simulated phosphorus contribution from urban, improved pastures and dairies to the total phosphorus load was estimated at 9%, 3.5%, and 1%, respectively. Land parcels with P oversaturated soil as well as the land parcels with high phosphorus assimilation and high total phosphorus contribution were located. The most critical sub-basin was identified for eventual targeting by enforced agricultural best management practices. Phosphorus load, including stream assimilation, incoming to Lake Okeechobee from two selected dairies was also determined. PMID:21069224

Chebud, Yirgalem; Naja, Ghinwa M; Rivero, Rosanna

2011-01-01

260

Soil phosphorus cycling in an Antarctic polar desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil phosphorus distribution and cycling in the McMurdo Dry Valleys is poorly understood despite its importance for contemporary Antarctic ecosystem processes. We present data from sequential chemical extractions of phosphorus pools from dry valley soils and sediments on tills across a gradient of surface exposure ages, and across potential weathering gradients in stream channels. The geologically old, but poorly weathered,

D. B. Bate; J. E. Barrett; M. A. Poage; R. A. Virginia

2008-01-01

261

The chemistry of phosphorus in dense interstellar clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laboratory experiments show that the ion-molecule chemistry of phosphorus is significantly different from that of nitrogen in dense interstellar clouds. The PH3 molecule is not readily formed by gas-phase, ion-molecule reactions in these regions. Laboratory results used in a simple kinetic model indicate that the most abundant molecule containing phosphorus in dense clouds is PO.

Thorne, L. R.; Anicich, V. G.; Prasad, S. S.; Huntress, W. T., Jr.

1984-01-01

262

Phosphorus versus nitrogen limitation in the marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limnological and marine geochemical opinion favors phosphorus limitation of organic produc- tion in aquatic environments, while marine biological opinion favors nitrogen limitation. Clues in the literature and nutrient budgets for selected marine ecosystems suggest that phosphorus vs. nitrogen limitation is a function of the relative rates of water exchange and internal biochemical processes acting to adjust the ratio of ecosystem

S. V. Smith

1984-01-01

263

Phosphorus Sources for Aquatic Weeds: Water or Sediments?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine common species of aquatic macrophytes took all their phosphorus from the sediments when grown in situ in both a mesotrophic and a mildly eutrophic bay. Even under hypertrophic conditions, the sediments contributed an average of 72 percent of all the phosphorus taken up during growth. These experiments unambiguously demonstrate for the first time that submergent macrophytes in nature overwhelmingly

R. Carignan; J. Kalff

1980-01-01

264

Phosphorus uptake kinetics of a dominant tropical seagrass Thalassia testudinum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although nitrogen is primarily the dominant nutrient limiting seagrass production in temperate estuaries, phosphorus (P) limitation can be important in tropical carbonate-dominated seagrass systems. While nitrogen uptake kinetics of seagrasses are moderately well established, very limited data exist on the dynamics of P-uptake. In this study, we determined the kinetics of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (Pi) uptake for a dominant tropical

Amy F Gras; Marguerite S Koch; Christopher J Madden

2003-01-01

265

Rheological and Morphological Properties of Phosphorus-Containing Polysulfones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polysulfones with bulky phosphorus pendant groups, obtained by chemical modification of the chloromethylated polysulfones were subjected to rheological, surface tension and atomic force microscopy investigations, to establish the processing\\/morphology\\/property relationships of these polymers. The effects of the substitution degrees, of the bulky phosphorus pendant groups bound in different positions, and also of intermolecular and intramolecular interactions, influenced the rheological results.

Silvia Ioan; Luminita-Ioana Buruiana; Oana Petreus; Ecaterina Avram; Iuliana Stoica; Ghiocel Emil Ioanid

2011-01-01

266

Copper-phosphorus alloys offer advantages in brazing copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper-phosphorus brazing alloys are used extensively for joining copper, especially refrigeration and air-conditioning copper tubing and electrical conductors. What is the effect of phosphorus when alloyed with copper? The following are some of the major effects: (1) It lowers the melt temperature of copper (a temperature depressant). (2) It increases the fluidity of the copper when in the liquid state.

1996-01-01

267

The phosphorus cycle, phosphogenesis and marine phosphate-rich deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (in the form of phosphate) is an essential nutrient and energy carrier on many different levels of life, and a key element in mediating between living and lifeless parts of the biosphere. One of the most important aspects of the phosphorus cycle is its vital role in governing productivity, thereby interacting with the exogenic part of the carbon cycle,

K. B. Föllmi

1996-01-01

268

The influence of animals on phosphorus cycling in lake ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic animals directly influence the cycling of phosphorus in lakes through feeding and excretion. Traditionally, animals (zooplankton, benthic invertebrates and fish) have been assigned only minor roles in the process of freshwater phosphorus cycling. They were regarded as consumers without much regulating influence. Today there is growing evidence that animals, predators and herbivores, directly or indirectly can control biomass of

Gunnar Andersson; Wilhelm Granéli; Jan Stenson

1988-01-01

269

X-33 Hypersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, under a cooperative agreement with NASA, will build and fly the X-33, a half-scale prototype of a rocket-based, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch vehicle (RLV). A 0.007-scale model of the X-33 604B0002G configuration was tested in four hypersonic facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine vehicle stability and control characteristics and to populate an aerodynamic flight database i n the hypersonic regime. The vehicle was found to be longitudinally controllable with less than half of the total body flap deflection capability across the angle of attack range at both Mach 6 and Mach 10. At these Mach numbers, the vehicle also was shown to be longitudinally stable or neutrally stable for typical (greater than 20 degrees) hypersonic flight attitudes. This configuration was directionally unstable and the use of reaction control jets (RCS) will be necessary to control the vehicle at high angles of attack in the hypersonic flight regime. Mach number and real gas effects on longitudinal aerodynamics were shown to be small relative to X-33 control authority.

Murphy, Kelly J.; Nowak, Robert J.; Thompson, Richard A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

1999-01-01

270

33rd Actinide Separations Conference  

SciTech Connect

Welcome to the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference hosted this year by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This annual conference is centered on the idea of networking and communication with scientists from throughout the United States, Britain, France and Japan who have expertise in nuclear material processing. This conference forum provides an excellent opportunity for bringing together experts in the fields of chemistry, nuclear and chemical engineering, and actinide processing to present and discuss experiences, research results, testing and application of actinide separation processes. The exchange of information that will take place between you, and other subject matter experts from around the nation and across the international boundaries, is a critical tool to assist in solving both national and international problems associated with the processing of nuclear materials used for both defense and energy purposes, as well as for the safe disposition of excess nuclear material. Granlibakken is a dedicated conference facility and training campus that is set up to provide the venue that supports communication between scientists and engineers attending the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference. We believe that you will find that Granlibakken and the Lake Tahoe views provide an atmosphere that is stimulating for fruitful discussions between participants from both government and private industry. We thank the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the United States Department of Energy for their support of this conference. We especially thank you, the participants and subject matter experts, for your involvement in the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference.

McDonald, L M; Wilk, P A

2009-05-04

271

Blood lead, calcium, and phosphorus in women with preeclampsia in Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The authors investigated the effect of blood lead (BPb) and its relationship with calcium and phosphorus in the development of preeclampsia in Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from 59 preclamptics, 150 normal pregnant, and 122 nonpregnant women. Blood lead and serum Ca and P were determined. Blood lead was significantly higher (p < .001), whereas serum Ca and P were significantly lower (p < .001) in preclamptics than in normal pregnant women (60.2 ± 12.8 vs 26.3 ± 8.0 ?g/dL for Pb, 1.39 ± 0.33 vs 2.03 ± 0.22 mmol/L for Ca, and 0.76 ± 0.10 vs 0.99 ± 0.13 mmol/L for P, respectively). There was significant increase (p < .05) in BPb and decreases (p < .01) in serum Ca and P in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women (35.7 ± 18.0 vs 13.1 ± 6.4 ?g/dL for Pb, 1.85 ± 0.33 vs 2.33 ± 0.20 mmol/L for Ca, and 0.93 ± 0.38 vs 1.24 ± 0.26 mmol/L for P). Also, BPb was negatively correlated with serum Ca and, P, and positively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures in pregnancy (r = -.804 for Ca, r = -.728 for P, r = .908 for SBP, and r = .842 for DBP) and preeclampsia (p < .01). It appears that increase in blood lead, which parallels decreases in serum calcium and phosphorus, may be related to the development and progression of preeclampsia in this environment. PMID:22845729

Ikechukwu, Ikaraoha Chidiebere; Ojareva, Oforofuo Isreal Agware; Ibhagbemien, Anetor John; Okhoaretor, Okogbo Felix; Oluwatomi, Okusanya Babasola; Akhalufo, Okogbenin Sylvanus; Oluwagbenga, Alonge Temitope; Chigaekwu, Mbadiwe Nkeiruka

2012-01-01

272

Can bacteria outcompete phytoplankton for phosphorus? a chemostat test.  

PubMed

Although the bacterioplankton of lakes are usually considered primarily in terms of mineralization processes, recent studies suggest that they may also strongly compete for phosphorus with the phytoplankton. In the present study, we have tested in chemostat culture, and found support for the hypotheses that (1) a freshwater bacterium (Pseudomonas paucimobilis), whose carbon source is excretion from a phosphorus-limited alga (Synedra ulna var.danica), can outcompete that alga for phosphorus (P) under widely varied P supply rates; (2) exogenously-supplied organic carbon positively influences bacterial biomass and negatively influences algal biomass; (3) the ratio of bacterial to algal phosphorus uptake in short-term(32)P orthophosphate uptake experiments is an accurate predictor of their relative long-term phosphorus assimilation (i.e., growth) in mixed culture. PMID:24221143

Currie, D J; Kalff, J

1984-09-01

273

Improving phosphorus availability in an Acid soil using organic amendments produced from agroindustrial wastes.  

PubMed

In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments. PMID:25032229

Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab

2014-01-01

274

Improving Phosphorus Availability in an Acid Soil Using Organic Amendments Produced from Agroindustrial Wastes  

PubMed Central

In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments.

Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab.

2014-01-01

275

The Prevalence of Phosphorus Containing Food Additives in Top Selling Foods in Grocery Stores  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the prevalence of phosphorus-containing food additives in best selling processed grocery products and to compare the phosphorus content of a subset of top selling foods with and without phosphorus additives. Design The labels of 2394 best selling branded grocery products in northeast Ohio were reviewed for phosphorus additives. The top 5 best selling products containing phosphorus additives from each food category were matched with similar products without phosphorus additives and analyzed for phosphorus content. Four days of sample meals consisting of foods with and without phosphorus additives were created and daily phosphorus and pricing differentials were computed. Setting Northeast Ohio Main outcome measures Presence of phosphorus-containing food additives, phosphorus content Results 44% of the best selling grocery items contained phosphorus additives. The additives were particularly common in prepared frozen foods (72%), dry food mixes (70%), packaged meat (65%), bread & baked goods (57%), soup (54%), and yogurt (51%) categories. Phosphorus additive containing foods averaged 67 mg phosphorus/100 gm more than matched non-additive containing foods (p=.03). Sample meals comprised mostly of phosphorus additive-containing foods had 736 mg more phosphorus per day compared to meals consisting of only additive-free foods. Phosphorus additive-free meals cost an average of $2.00 more per day. Conclusion Phosphorus additives are common in best selling processed groceries and contribute significantly to their phosphorus content. Moreover, phosphorus additive foods are less costly than phosphorus additive-free foods. As a result, persons with chronic kidney disease may purchase these popular low-cost groceries and unknowingly increase their intake of highly bioavailable phosphorus.

Leon, Janeen B.; Sullivan, Catherine M.; Sehgal, Ashwini R.

2013-01-01

276

DECREASED ABSORPTION OF CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM, ZINC AND PHOSPHORUS BY HUMANS DUE TO INCREASED FIBER AND PHOSPHORUS CONSUMPTION AS WHEAT BREAD  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a 20 day period of high fiber consumption in the form of bread made partly from wheaten wholemeal, two men developed negative balances of calcium, magnesium, zinc and phosphorus due to in creased fecal excretion of each element. The fecal losses correlated closely with fecal dry matter and phosphorus. Fecal dry matter, in turn, was directly proportional to fecal

John G. Reinhold; Bahram Faradji; Parichehr Abadi; Faramarz Ismail-Beigi

2009-01-01

277

Sediment and phosphorus transport in irrigation furrows.  

PubMed

Sediment and phosphorus (P) in agricultural runoff can impair water quality in streams, lakes, and rivers. We studied the factors affecting P transfer and transport in irrigated furrows in six freshly tilled fallow fields, 110 to 180 m long with 0.007 to 0.012 m m-1 slopes without the interference of raindrops or sheet flow that occur during natural or simulated rain. The soil on all fields was Portneuf silt loam (coarse-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Durinodic Xeric Haplocalcids). Flow rate, sediment concentration, and P concentrations were monitored at four, equally spaced locations in each furrow. Flow rate decreased with distance down the furrow as water infiltrated. Sediment concentration varied with distance and time with no set pattern. Total P concentrations related directly to sediment concentrations (r2=0.75) because typically >90% of the transported P was particulate P, emphasizing the need to control erosion to reduce P loss. Dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) concentrations decreased with time at a specific furrow site but increased with distance down the furrow as contact time with soil and suspended sediment increased. The DRP concentration correlated better with sediment concentration than extractable furrow soil P concentration. However, suspended sediment concentration tended to not affect DRP concentration later in the irrigation (>2 h). These results indicate that the effects of soil P can be overshadowed by differences in flow hydraulics, suspended sediment loads, and non-equilibrium conditions. PMID:16585621

Bjorneberg, D L; Westermann, D T; Aase, J K; Clemmens, A J; Strelkoff, T S

2006-01-01

278

Calcium effect on enhanced biological phosphorus removal.  

PubMed

The role of calcium (Ca) in enhanced biological phosphorus removal and its possible implications on the metabolic pathway have been studied. The experience has been carried out in an SBR under anaerobic-aerobic conditions for biological phosphorus removal during 8 months. The variations of influent Ca concentration showed a clear influence on the EBPR process, detecting significant changes in Y(PO4). These Y(PO4) variations were not due to influent P/COD ratio, pH, denitrification and calcium phosphate formation. The Y(PO4) has been found to be highly dependent on the Ca concentration, increasing as Ca concentration decreases. The results suggest that high Ca concentrations produce "inert" granules of polyphosphate with Ca as a counterion that are not involved in P release and uptake. Furthermore, microbiological observations confirmed that appreciable changes in PAO and GAO populations were not observed. This behaviour could suggest a change in the bacterial metabolic pathway, with prevailing polyphosphate-accumulating metabolism (PAM) at low influent Ca concentration and glycogen-accumulating metabolism (GAM) at high concentration. PMID:16889238

Barat, R; Montoya, T; Borras, L; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

2006-01-01

279

Weathering of phosphorus in black shales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rock weathering is the ultimate source of phosphorus (P) to the oceans, where P can be a limiting nutrient for biological production. In this paper, P weathering is examined in soil chronosequences formed in weathering profiles on the organic-rich Woodford Shale, New Albany Shale and Green River Shale. At all sites, organic P and inorganic P concentrations reveal that P weathering is far from complete, prior to erosion. Carbon (C)/P ratios decrease significantly from unweathered shale to the weathered shale at all sites, which is driven by loss of total organic C with weathering. Here we characterize organic phosphorus across a weathering profile from the Woodford Shale using solid-state CPMAS 31P NMR spectroscopy techniques, revealing that P esters are the dominant forms of P during all stages of weathering. Certain P esters appear to be resistant to chemical weathering during the millions of years between deposition, uplift and erosion, possibly representing a significant long-term global sink for P.

Kolowith, Lauren Clark; Berner, Robert A.

2002-12-01

280

Removing Phosphorus from Milkhouse Wastewater Using Vegetative Filter Strips  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetative filter strips (VFS) are commonly used BMPs to control agricultural pollutants. In watersheds supplying drinking water to New York City, VFS are installed to remove phosphorus (P) from milkhouse wastewater and barnyard runoff to reduce P inputs to the drinking water reservoirs and minimize eutrophication. Monitoring wells were installed within two VFS and the application of chloride tracer was used to investigate flow paths and soluble reactive P (SRP) removal. The SRP concentrations in the wells were highest (generally over 10 mg/l) near the wastewater discharge point, while the Morgan's soil test P was high (over 60 mg/kg) in the downslope area of the VFS. Although P sorption isotherms indicate these soils (pH of 6.5) have high potential to remove P, the soil P accumulations were not occurring in the same area as the highest well water concentrations. Early chloride breakthroughs showed that milkhouse waste flowed preferentially in the VFS through locally saturated areas. The accelerated surface flow contributed to rapid transport of SRP in the wastewater to the downslope area of the VFS, resulting in less SRP removal. Although VFS of 33 to 40m long for the two sites, respectively, eventually reduced SRP to lower than 0.2mg/l in most cases, SRP was less effectively removed in areas where soil saturation occurred. The anaerobic condition of the locally saturated area apparently reduced opportunity for soil P sorption to Fe oxides in these sites. In order for the VFS to be more effective at P removal, efforts to distribute wastewater more uniformly to avoid soil saturation should be considered in new designs.

Geohring, L. D.; Kim, Y.; Steenhuis, T. S.

2003-12-01

281

The speciation of phosphorus in the sand particles in Western Inner Mongolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the SEDEX analytical method was used to study the speciation of phosphorus in the sands of Western Inner Mongolia. The bio-availability of phosphorus in sands were calculated. Furthermore, the possible impacts of phosphorus from the sands and marine ecosystem were also discussed. We reached the following conclusions: Pau was the main content of phosphorus in the western

Boshu Guo; Hongwei Yang; Yan Li

2011-01-01

282

Phosphorus–discharge hysteresis during storm events along a river catchment: the River Swale, UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in the concentration of determinands in rivers during storms often result in a hysteresis effect with different concentration during the rising and falling limb of the hydrograph. This is investigated here by measuring total phosphorus, particulate phosphorus and soluble reactive phosphorus at 3-h intervals at three points along the River Swale. Phosphorus concentration–discharge hysteresis from 10 storm events were

Michael J. Bowes; William A. House; Robin A. Hodgkinson; David V. Leach

2005-01-01

283

Utilization of phosphorus sources of different availability by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In experiments with phosphorus sources of different availability mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal maize grew equally well when the phosphorus source was readily available. When the phosphorus source was slowly available, however, mycorrhizal maize had a much higher phosphorus content and grew much better than non-mycorrhizal maize.

C. L. Murdoch; J. A. Jackobs; J. W. Gerdemann

1967-01-01

284

The story of phosphorus: Global food security and food for thought  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food production requires application of fertilizers containing phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium on agricultural fields in order to sustain crop yields. However modern agriculture is dependent on phosphorus derived from phosphate rock, which is a non-renewable resource and current global reserves may be depleted in 50–100 years. While phosphorus demand is projected to increase, the expected global peak in phosphorus production

Dana Cordell; Jan-Olof Drangert; Stuart White

2009-01-01

285

A mathematical model of the phosphorus cycle in Lake Loosdrecht and simulation of additional measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phosphorus cycle in the ecosystem of the shallow, hypertrophic Loosdrecht lakes (The Netherlands) was simulated by means of the dynamic eutrophication model PCLOOS. The model comprises three algal groups, zooplankton, fish, detritus, zoobenthos, sediment detritus and some inorganic phosphorus fractions. All organic compartments are modelled in two elements, carbon and phosphorus. Within the model system, the phosphorus cycle is

J. H. Janse; T. Aldenberg; P. R. G. Kramer

1992-01-01

286

Potentially mobile pools of phosphorus and silicon in sediment from the Bay of Brest: Interactions and implications for phosphorus dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Competitive interactions between silicate and phosphate at ligand exchange sites in the sediment surface layer may increase the release of phosphorus (P) from the sediment into the water column. In this study, the role of silicon (Si) in the release of P from the sediment surface layer was studied in a marine estuarine environment, the Bay of Brest, with the aid of a sequential sediment fractionation procedure developed for P, and the addition of inorganic or diatom-bound Si to surface sediment samples in vitro. The potentially mobile pools of P in the surface sediment (loosely bound P + Fe/Al-bound-P) amounted to 5.0 ?mol g -1 dry sed., 42% of the total extractable and 33% of the total amount of P in the sediment, while the similarly extracted pools of Si were bigger (ca. 20 ?mol g -1 dry sed., 50% of the total extractable Si). Additions of inorganic Si increased the concentration of dissolved P in the sediment interstitial water in a bottle experiment, and the addition of both inorganic Si and cultivated diatoms to intact sediment cores increased the outward flux of dissolved P. Model calculations based on the regression equation from the bottle experiment and Si and P water column data showed that the sedimentation of spring diatoms could cause Si pulses to the sediment which would produce a P flux to the water column of ca. 44 ?mol m -2 d -1. Field data from the bay show that in spring, decreases in P and Si and an increase in chl a due to diatom production are often followed by a small separate P peak which may be caused by Si-induced P fluxes from the sediment surface.

Tallberg, Petra; Tréguer, Paul; Beucher, Charlotte; Corvaisier, Rudolph

2008-01-01

287

Effect of pH on biological phosphorus uptake.  

PubMed

An anaerobic aerobic laboratory scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated to study the effect of pH on enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Seven steady states were achieved under different operating conditions. In all of them, a slight variation in the pH value was observed during anaerobic phase. However, pH rose significantly during aerobic phase. The increase observed was due to phosphorus uptake and carbon dioxide stripping. When pH was higher than 8.2-8.25 the phosphorus uptake rate clearly decreased. The capability of Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) and Biological Nutrient Removal Model No. 1 (BNRM1) to simulate experimental results was evaluated. Both models successfully characterized the enhanced biological phosphorus removal performance of the SBR. Furthermore, BNRM1 also reproduced the pH variations observed and the decrease in the phosphorus uptake rate. This model includes a switch function in the kinetic expressions to represent the pH inhibition in biological processes. The pH inhibition constants related to polyphosphate storage process were obtained by adjusting model predictions to measured phosphorus concentrations. On the other hand, pH inhibition should be included in ASM2d to accurately simulate experimental phosphorus evolution observed in an A/O SBR. PMID:16958137

Serralta, J; Ferrer, J; Borrás, L; Seco, A

2006-12-01

288

Low phosphorus status might contribute to the onset of obesity.  

PubMed

Overweight and obesity are becoming global health problems. Although genetics certainly plays a role, weight gain is ultimately the result of a failure in the balance between energy expenditure and energy intake. Obesity during the past few decades was paralleled with several changes in dietary habits favouring low phosphorus consumption. This is believed to compromise adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production that is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism. Ingestion of high-carbohydrate-low phosphorus food is known to increase insulin release, to simultaneously stimulate peripheral uptake of phosphorus and the phosphorylation of many compounds. This creates a competition for phosphorus that compromises its availability for ATP production, possibly translated into low diet-induced thermogenesis. Moreover, reduced hepatic ATP production is believed to be transmitted through neural afferents to the central nervous system, resulting in an increase in food intake. On the other hand, the positive relation between phosphorus and red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, which reduces oxygen affinity to haemoglobin, would be expected to reduce the capacity for physical activity. In line with that, plasma phosphorus status was reported to be inversely related to body weight. Adequate intakes of phosphorus are thus potentially protective against rising obesity epidemic across the globe. PMID:23679666

Obeid, O A

2013-08-01

289

Electronic transport and mechanical properties of phosphorus and phosphorus-nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes  

SciTech Connect

We present a density functional theory study of the electronic structure, quantum transport and mechanical properties of recently synthesized phosphorus (P) and phosphorus-nitrogen (PN) doped single-walled carbon nanotubes. The results demonstrate that substitutional P and PN doping creates localized electronic states that modify the electron transport properties by acting as scattering centers. For low doping concentrations (1 doping site per ~200 atoms), the quantum conductance for metallic nanotubes is found to be only slightly reduced. The substitutional doping also alters the mechanical strength, leading to a 50% reduction in the elongation upon fracture, while Young s modulus remains approximately unchanged. Overall, the PN- and P-doped nanotubes display promising properties for components in composite materials and, in particular, for fast response and ultra sensitive sensors operating at the molecular level.

Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Charlier, Jean Christophe [Universite Catholique de Louvain; Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto [ORNL; Cruz Silva, Eduardo [ORNL; Lopez, Florentino [IPICyT; Munoz-Sandoval, Emilio [IPICyT

2009-01-01

290

Phosphorus Biogeochemistry and the Impact of Phosphorus Enrichment: Why Is the Everglades so Unique?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Florida Everglades is extremely oligotrophic and sensitive to small increases in phosphorus (P) concentrations. P enrichment\\u000a is one of the dominant anthropogenic impacts on the ecosystem and is therefore a main focus of restoration efforts. In this\\u000a review, we synthesize research on P biogeochemistry and the impact of P enrichment on ecosystem structure and function in\\u000a the Florida Everglades.

Gregory B. Noe; Daniel L. Childers; Ronald D. Jones

2001-01-01

291

Phosphorus Fertilization of Annual Ryegrass and Comparison of Soil Phosphorus Extractants  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is unclear how much phosphorus (P) fertilizer is needed to maximize annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.cv. ‘TAM90’) forage yield and nutritive value in lower-rainfall climates. It is equally unclear which soil-P extractant is most effective when making P fertilization decisions. A 3-yr field study addressed these issues using small replicated plots during the winter months in north-central Texas. The

Twain J. Butler; James P. Muir; Tony L. Provin

2007-01-01

292

Responses of phosphorus limited Lake Michigan phytoplankton to factorial enrichments with nitrogen and phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factorial nutrient enrichment expcrimcnts were conducted with water containing natural phytoplankton assemblages collected from Grand Traverse Bay. Levels of phosphorus (phosphate) were 5, 15, 25, 40, and 60 pg P liter4 and levels of nitrogen (nitrate) were 0.23, 0.84, and 1.12 mg N liter-l. Nutrients were maintained at these levels by additions at 2- or S-day intervals. Two different analyses

CLAIRE L. SCHELSKE; EDWARD D. ROTHMAN; EUGENE F. STOERMER; MILA A. SANTIAGO

1974-01-01

293

Phosphorus in pasture plants: potential implications for phosphorus loss in surface runoff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) loss from land can impair surface water quality. Losses can occur from soil and plant components. While it\\u000a is known that P losses increase with soil P concentration, it is not known how losses from pasture plants vary with soil P\\u000a concentration or between different forages. We examined total P and filterable reactive P (FRP) in water extracts

Richard W. McDowell; Andrew N. Sharpley; James R. Crush; Tara Simmons

294

Copper-phosphorus alloys offer advantages in brazing copper  

SciTech Connect

Copper-phosphorus brazing alloys are used extensively for joining copper, especially refrigeration and air-conditioning copper tubing and electrical conductors. What is the effect of phosphorus when alloyed with copper? The following are some of the major effects: (1) It lowers the melt temperature of copper (a temperature depressant). (2) It increases the fluidity of the copper when in the liquid state. (3) It acts as a deoxidant or a fluxing agent with copper. (4) It lowers the ductility of copper (embrittles). There is a misconception that silver improves the ductility of the copper-phosphorus alloys. In reality, silver added to copper acts in a similar manner as phosphorus. The addition of silver to copper lowers the melt temperature (temperature depressant) and decreases the ductility. Fortunately, the rate and amount at which silver lowers copper ductility is significantly less than that of phosphorus. Therefore, taking advantage of the temperature depressant property of silver, a Ag-Cu-P alloy can be selected at approximately the same melt temperature as a Cu-P alloy, but at a lower phosphorus content. The lowering of the phosphorus content actually makes the alloy more ductile, not the silver addition. A major advantage of the copper-phosphorus alloys is the self-fluxing characteristic when joining copper to copper. They may also be used with the addition of a paste flux on brass, bronze, and specialized applications on silver, tungsten and molybdenum. Whether it is selection of the proper BCuP alloy or troubleshooting an existing problem, the suggested approach is a review of the desired phosphorus content in the liquid metal and how it is being altered during application. In torch brazing, a slight change in the oxygen-fuel ratio can affect the joint quality or leak tightness.

Rupert, W.D. [Engelhard Corp., Warwick, RI (United States)

1996-05-01

295

P-NEXFS analysis of aerosol phosphorus delivered to the Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

productivity in many ocean regions is controlled by the availability of the nutrient phosphorus. In the Mediterranean Sea, aerosol deposition is a key source of phosphorus and understanding its composition is critical for determining its potential bioavailability. Aerosol phosphorus was investigated in European and North African air masses using phosphorus near-edge X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (P-NEXFS). These air masses are the main source of aerosol deposition to the Mediterranean Sea. We show that European aerosols are a significant source of soluble phosphorus to the Mediterranean Sea. European aerosols deliver on average 3.5 times more soluble phosphorus than North African aerosols and furthermore are dominated by organic phosphorus compounds. The ultimate source of organic phosphorus does not stem from common primary emission sources. Rather, phosphorus associated with bacteria best explains the presence of organic phosphorus in Mediterranean aerosols.

Longo, Amelia F.; Ingall, Ellery D.; Diaz, Julia M.; Oakes, Michelle; King, Laura E.; Nenes, Athanasios; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Violaki, Kaliopi; Avila, Anna; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R.; Brandes, Jay; McNulty, Ian; Vine, David J.

2014-06-01

296

22 CFR 42.33 - Diversity immigrants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Diversity immigrants. 42.33 Section 42...to Numerical Limitations § 42.33 Diversity immigrants. (a) General ...year during which an alien possesses diversity visa eligibility. (2)...

2009-04-01

297

22 CFR 42.33 - Diversity immigrants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diversity immigrants. 42.33 Section 42...to Numerical Limitations § 42.33 Diversity immigrants. (a) General ...year during which an alien possesses diversity visa eligibility. (2)...

2010-04-01

298

46 CFR 111.33-1 - General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General. 111.33-1 Section 111... ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor...Rectifier Systems § 111.33-1 General. This subpart is...

2013-10-01

299

22 CFR 192.33 - Dispute.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...33 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Medical Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.33 Dispute. Any dispute between the Office and eligible persons concerning whether medical or...

2013-04-01

300

Effect of phosphorus on cleavage fracture in ? -carbide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand the origin of cleavage fracture which dominates in Fe(Mn)-Al-C alloys at a high phosphorus concentration, we performed first-principles study of the phosphorus effect on ideal cleavage energy and critical stress in ? -carbide, Fe3AlC , a precipitate in the austenitic alloys. We find that phosphorus has higher solubility in Fe3AlC than in ? -Fe and sharply reduces the cleavage characteristics of ? -carbide. We show that strong anisotropy of the Fe-P bonds in Fe3(Al,P)C under tensile stress, leads to the appearance of large structural voids and may facilitate crack nucleation.

Medvedeva, N. I.; Howell, R. A.; van Aken, D. C.; Medvedeva, J. E.

2010-01-01

301

Prospects for phosphorus recovery from poultry litter.  

PubMed

Land disposal of poultry litter is an environmental concern often associated to excess phosphorus (P) in soils and potential water pollution in regions with intense poultry production. Although poultry litter can be moved off the farm and traded as fertilizer, its transportation becomes less economical with increasing distances from the farm. Thus, new litter management alternatives are needed to reduce the environmental impact of P litter application to land. This paper summarizes established and emerging alternative technologies in the U.S. that facilitate handling, concentration, and transporting of litter P. Furthermore, it examines the potential integration of technologies into poultry litter management systems that could reduce poultry litter volume and increase P content in litter byproducts. The adoption of alternative technologies may encourage new opportunities to produce bio-energy, fertilizer, and other valuable P byproducts from poultry litter while reducing environmental impact and promoting sustainable poultry production. PMID:19394817

Szogi, A A; Vanotti, M B

2009-11-01

302

Molecular phosphorus ion source for semiconductor technology  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results on the generation of molecular phosphorus ion beams in a hot filament ion source. Solid red phosphorous is evaporated mainly as tetra-atomic molecules up to a temperature of 800 deg. C. Thus, one of the main conditions for producing maximum P{sub 4}{sup +} fraction in the beam is to keep the temperature of the phosphorous oven, the steam line and the discharge chamber walls no greater than 800 deg. C. The prior version of our ion source was equipped with a discharge chamber cooling system. The modified source ensured a P{sub 4}{sup +} ion beam current greater than 30% of the total beam current.

Gushenets, V. I.; Bugaev, A. S.; Oks, E. M. [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Hershcovitch, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kulevoy, T. V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation)

2012-02-15

303

A radio search for interstellar phosphorus compounds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The J = 1-0 and 3-2 transitions of phosphorus nitride, PN, with resolvable hyperfine components at 46.99 GHz and blended components at 140.97 GHz, and transitions of phosphine, PH3, at 47.39 and 46.94 GHz, arising from a small induced dipole moment, have been searched for but not found in interstellar molecular clouds. The J = 3/2-1/2, F - 3/2-3/2 transition of nitric oxide, NO, and the J(K-K+) = 16(4, 12) -15(5, 11) transition of sulfur dioxide, SO2, have been detected in Orion and Sagittarius B2. An unidentified emission line, U140921.8 MHz, has been observed in IRC + 10216.

Hollis, J. M.; Snyder, L. E.; Lovas, F. J.; Ulich, B. L.

1980-01-01

304

Intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus  

SciTech Connect

The intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus has received considerable attention in recent years. The evidence has clearly indicated that calcium is absorbed by two processes: active transport and diffusion. Vitamin D appears to affect both processes, and has a significant effect at the brush border of the intestinal cell. Several proposed models to account for the transmural movement of calcium are discussed. The active transport of phosphate is under the control of vitamin D and is located at the brush border region of the intestinal cell. This transport system, like several others, appears to be sodium-dependent and inhibited by ouabain. In-transit phosphate does not mix with the cellular phosphate pool. Emphasized in the presentation is current knowledge of the transport mechanisms and macromolecular changes that potentially account for the stimulatory effect of vitamin D on calcium and phosphate transport.

Wasserman, R.H.

1981-01-01

305

Influence of phosphorus on the properties of 45Kh10G14Yu2 steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Phosphorus increases the tendency of 45Kh10G14Yu2 steel to austenite grain growth at 1200–1250°C.2.Phosphorus concentrations from 0.009 to 0.043% do not affect the ductility of the steel during high-temperature plastic deformation.3.Phosphorus increases the strength of the steel at room temperature and reduces the ductility somewhat; the hardening influence of phosphorus is retained at 630 and 700°C.4.As the phosphorus content is increased

R. M. Volkova; M. V. Pridantsev; O. A. Bannykh; M. Ya. Dzugutoy; V. M. Doronin; A. M. Uglova

1967-01-01

306

Phosphorus losses in furrow irrigation runoff.  

PubMed

Phosphorus (P) often limits the eutrophication of streams, rivers, and lakes receiving surface runoff. We evaluated the relationships among selected soil P availability indices and runoff P fractions where manure, whey, or commercial fertilizer applications had previously established a range of soil P availabilities on a Portneuf silt loam (coarse-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Durinodic Xeric Haplocalcid) surface-irrigated with Snake River water. Water-soluble P, Olsen P (inorganic and organic P), and iron-oxide impregnated paper-extractable P (FeO-Ps) were determined on a 0.03-m soil sample taken from the bottom of each furrow before each irrigation in fall 1998 and spring 1999. Dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) in a 0.45-microm filtered runoff sample, and iron-oxide impregnated paper-extractable P (FeO-Pw), total P, and sediment in an unfiltered runoff sample were determined at selected intervals during a 4-h irrigation on 18.3-m field plots. The 1998 and 1999 data sets were combined because there were no significant differences. Flow-weighted average runoff DRP and FeO-Pw concentrations increased linearly as all three soil P test concentrations increased. The average runoff total P concentration was not related to any soil P test but was linearly related to sediment concentration. Stepwise regression selected the independent variables of sediment, soil lime concentration, and soil organic P extracted by the Olsen method as related to average runoff total P concentration. The average runoff total P concentration was 1.08 mg L(-1) at a soil Olsen P concentration of 10 mg kg(-1). Soil erosion control will be necessary to reduce P losses in surface irrigation runoff. PMID:11401247

Westermann, D T; Bjorneberg, D L; Aase, J K; Robbins, C W

2001-01-01

307

Characterization of phosphorus sources in rural watersheds.  

PubMed

Correct identification of P sources in rural watersheds is critical for the development of cost-effective measures to combat agriculturally-driven eutrophication. The chemical composition of various storm runoff types (field surface runoff, field drain outfalls, roads, farmyards, and septic tanks) and the receiving streams in three micro (<10 km(2)) watersheds of varying agricultural intensity were monitored over a 2-yr period. Mean weekly stream soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations increased from 29 and 69 microg L(-1), respectively in the watershed with the lowest intensity agriculture to 382 and 503 microg L(-1), respectively in the watershed with high intensity agriculture and a village sewage treatment works. Concentrations of TP in storm runoff varied by up to two orders of magnitude reflecting the complex origins, routing, and composition of contributing source areas. Application of the DESPRAL test suggested field runoff TP concentrations were influenced by both P and organic matter in soil. However, runoff from impervious surfaces (farmyard and roads), and/or influenced by septic tank discharges, was significantly more concentrated (0.08-16 mg TP L(-1), mean >1 mg L(-1)) than surface and subsurface runoff from cultivated land and pasture (0.02-3.6 mg TP L(-1), mean <1 mg L(-1)), and/or contained a significantly greater proportion (>50% vs. <50%) of P in dissolved forms. It is concluded that P sources associated with the functioning of rural communities (impervious surfaces, detergents, and wastewater) may be more ecologically relevant than those associated with agriculture and should be better quantified and controlled to avoid localized eutrophication impacts. PMID:19704143

Withers, P J A; Jarvie, H P; Hodgkinson, R A; Palmer-Felgate, E J; Bates, A; Neal, M; Howells, R; Withers, C M; Wickham, H D

2009-01-01

308

Phosphorus saturation in spodosols impacted by manure.  

PubMed

Significant amounts of phosphorus (P) accumulate in soils receiving animal manures that could eventually result in unacceptable concentrations of dissolved P loss through surface runoff or subsurface leaching. The degree of phosphorus saturation (DPS) relates a soil's extractable P to its P sorbing capacity, and is reportedly a predictor of the P likely to be mobilized from a system. A DPS value (DPS-1) was derived that expressed the percentage of Mehlich 1-extractable P to the sorbing capacity of a Spodosol (expressed as the sum of oxalate-extractable Fe and Al). Values of DPS-1 were determined in various horizons of soil in current and abandoned dairy systems in South Florida's Lake Okeechobee watershed to assess P release potential. Land use within the dairies was classified as highly impacted by cattle (intensive and holding), and minimally impacted by cattle (pasture, forage, or native) areas. The A and E horizon of soils in heavily manure-impacted intensive and holding areas for both active and abandoned dairies generally had higher DPS-1 values than the pasture, forage, and native area soils, which were minimally impacted by manure. Degree of P saturation was also calculated as a percentage of Mehlich 1-extractable P to the sum of Mehlich 1-extractable Fe and Al (DPS-2). Both DPS-1 and DPS-2 were shown to be significantly (P = 0.0001) related to water-extractable P for all soil horizons, suggesting that either index can be used as an indicator for P loss potential from a soil. PMID:12175047

Nair, V D; Graetz, D A

2002-01-01

309

28 CFR 552.33 - Media.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Media. 552.33 Section 552.33 Judicial...Hostage Situation Management § 552.33 Media. The Warden shall assign staff to handle all news releases and news media inquiries in accordance with the...

2013-07-01

310

31 CFR 8.33 - Accuracy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Accuracy. 8.33 Section 8.33 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary...FIREARMS Duties and Restrictions Relating to Practice § 8.33 Accuracy. Each attorney, certified public...

2009-07-01

311

31 CFR 8.33 - Accuracy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accuracy. 8.33 Section 8.33 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary...FIREARMS Duties and Restrictions Relating to Practice § 8.33 Accuracy. Each attorney, certified public...

2010-07-01

312

24 CFR 8.33 - Housing adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 8.33 Section 8.33 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary...HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Program Accessibility § 8.33 Housing adjustments. A recipient shall...

2009-04-01

313

24 CFR 8.33 - Housing adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 8.33 Section 8.33 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary...HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Program Accessibility § 8.33 Housing adjustments. A recipient shall...

2010-04-01

314

42 CFR 8.33 - Written decision.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written decision. 8.33 Section 8.33 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Regarding Withdrawal of Approval of an Accreditation Body § 8.33 Written decision. (a) Issuance of...

2010-10-01

315

42 CFR 8.33 - Written decision.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Written decision. 8.33 Section 8.33 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Regarding Withdrawal of Approval of an Accreditation Body § 8.33 Written decision. (a) Issuance of...

2009-10-01

316

32 CFR 33.34 - Copyrights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Copyrights. 33.34 Section 33.34 National...Property, and Subawards § 33.34 Copyrights. The Federal awarding agency...Federal Government purposes: (a) The copyright in any work developed under a...

2013-07-01

317

29 CFR 33.11 - Communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Communications. 33.11 Section 33...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR § 33.11 Communications. (a) The Department...steps to ensure effective communication with applicants, participants...other devices of a personal nature. (2) Where the...

2013-07-01

318

49 CFR 38.33 - Fare box.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fare box. 38.33 Section 38.33 Transportation Office...TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.33 Fare box. Where provided, the farebox shall be located as far...

2013-10-01

319

14 CFR 33.74 - Continued rotation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Continued rotation. 33.74 Section 33.74 Aeronautics...Aircraft Engines § 33.74 Continued rotation. If any of the engine main rotating...and if means to prevent that continued rotation are not provided, then any...

2010-01-01

320

14 CFR 33.74 - Continued rotation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 false Continued rotation. 33.74 Section 33.74 Aeronautics...Aircraft Engines § 33.74 Continued rotation. If any of the engine main rotating...and if means to prevent that continued rotation are not provided, then any...

2009-01-01

321

34 CFR 33.28 - Motions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Motions. 33.28 Section 33.28 Education...FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 33.28 Motions. (a) Any application to the ALJ for an order or ruling must be by motion. Motions must state the...

2013-07-01

322

42 CFR 110.33 - Death benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Death benefits. 110.33 Section 110.33...PROGRAM Available Benefits § 110.33 Death benefits. (a) Eligible survivors may be able to receive a death benefit under this Program if...

2013-10-01

323

42 CFR 102.33 - Death benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Death benefits. 102.33 Section 102.33...PROGRAM Available Benefits § 102.33 Death benefits. (a) Eligible survivors may be able to receive a death benefit under this Program if...

2013-10-01

324

32 CFR 750.33 - Damages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Damages. 750.33 Section 750.33 National...REGULATIONS Federal Tort Claims Act § 750.33 Damages. (a) Generally. The measure of damages is determined by the law of the...

2013-07-01

325

X33 Transient Liftoff Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful design of a launch vehicle requires the careful characterization of the various loads the structure will experience over its lifetime. Many of the most demanding load environments occur during the launch/ascent phase of a mission, typically defined as the point of engine start through engine cut off. One of the critical events during the launch phase is the liftoff event. This event imparts high loads on the vehicle due to transient events such as thrust build-up and vehicle release. This paper describes the theory and procedures used to calculate structural loads due to the liftoff event for the Lockheed-Martin X33 technology demonstrator vehicle. These procedures were developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and verified previously on other advanced launch system concepts and the Space Shuttle system.

Peck, Jeff; Brunty, Joseph

2000-01-01

326

Influence of Antecedent Hydrologic Conditions on Nitrate and Phosphorus Export from a Small Agricultural Catchment in Southern Ontario, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of the scientific community to quantify and predict discharge and nutrient transport in a range of settings is confounded by the effects of antecedent hydrologic conditions in upland areas. Previous work has empirically linked spatial variables such as land use, soil type, topography, and drainage characteristics to hydrochemical export from various landscapes (e.g. MCDOWELL et al., 2001; ARHEIMER and LIDEN, 2000; STAMM et al., 1998; JORDAN et al., 1997; WELSCH et al., 2001). However, the specific reasons why similar types of events produce different nutrient export patterns are poorly understood. Nutrient (nitrate, soluble and total phosphorus) transport from agricultural catchments is difficult to quantify and predict because of the influence of variable hydrologic flowpaths and their interaction with varying nutrient pools. This research examines the role of antecedent hydrologic conditions on stream discharge and nitrate (NO3-), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total phosphorus (TP) export from a small (2.7 km2) first-order agricultural catchment in Southern Ontario, Canada. During 59 events occurring over a two-year sampling period (year-round), runoff ratios ranged from 0-0.99). Runoff ratios increased throughout successive events as conditions became wetter although key indices of antecedent wetness such as water table position, pre-event streamflow and soil moisture did not yield predictive relationships. Nitrate, SRP and TP transport from the catchment increased with antecedent wetness during some periods but decreased with antecedent wetness during other periods. This variability appears to be linked to a combination of the position of water table before and during the event, as well as timing of fertilizer application. It is hypothesized that in general, wetter antecedent hydrologic conditions increase nutrient transport from the catchment by increasing macropore connectivity between surface soil horizons and tile drains, although this is not always the case. Arheimer, B and R Liden (2000) Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations from agricultural catchments - influence of spatial and temporal variables. J. Hydrology 227: 140-159. Jordan TE, DL Correll, and DE Weller (1997) Relating nutrient discharges from watersheds to land use and streamflow variability. Water Resources Res. 33: 2579-2590. McDowell RW, AN Sharpley, LM Condron, PM Haygarth, and PC Brookes (2001) Processes controlling soil phosphorus release to runoff and implications for agricultural management. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 59: 269-284. Stamm C, H Fluhler, R Gachter, J Leuenberger, and H Wunderli (1998) Preferential transport of phosphorus in drained grassland soils. J. Environ. Qual. 27: 515-522. Welsch DL, CN Kroll, JJ McDonnell, and DA Burns (2001) Topographic controls on the chemistry of subsurface stormflow: Hydrological Processes 15: 1925-1938.

Macrae, M. L.; English, M. C.; Schiff, S. L.; Stone, M.

2009-04-01

327

[Soil phosphorus form and fractionation scheme: a review].  

PubMed

As an essential element of plant nutrition, phosphorus plays an important role in the agricultural sustainable development and ecosystem balance. Adopting appropriate soil phosphorus fractionation scheme to study the forms, transformation, and availability of soil phosphorous is critical for understanding soil phosphorus supply and its losses. This paper reviewed the recent researches about the forms of soil inorganic and organic phosphorous, as well as their fractionation schemes and limitations. Hedley method, a widely used soil phosphorous fractionation scheme, gives attention to both organic and inorganic phosphorous forms, being available to understand the bioavailability and dynamics of soil phosphorus. The process of Hedley method and its application scope were described. A detailed discussion of its modification, the Tiessen method, was also presented. PMID:19899484

Zhang, Lin; Wu, Ning; Wu, Yan; Luo, Peng; Liu, Lin; Chen, Wen-Nian; Hu, Hong-Yu

2009-07-01

328

Primary sources of phosphorus and phosphates in chemical evolution.  

PubMed

In this work we consider the role of phosphorus in chemical evolution from an interdisciplinary approach. First we briefly review the presence of this element in different cosmic sites, such as massive stellar cores, circumstellar and interstellar clouds, meteorites, lunar and Martian samples, interplanetary dust particles, cometary dust and planetary atmospheres. Thus we illustrate the fact that phosphorus seems to be, at the same time, scarce and ubiquitous in the solar system. Afterwards, by comparing the phosphorus content of our planet's main reservoirs with the amount of cometary and meteoritic matter captured by the primitive Earth, we conclude that comets may have provided a primary source for phosphorus compounds of prebiotic interest. Finally, we make a number of proposals aimed to gain observational supporting evidence to the above conclusion and other suggestions made in the article. PMID:11536836

Macia, E; Hernandez, M V; Oro, J

1997-12-01

329

Phosphorus Removal in Lower Great Lakes Municipal Treatment Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses a survey of phosphorus treatment approaches and accomplishments for all lower Great Lakes basin plants with flows greater than 1 mgd; field operation monitoring studies to evaluate the performance of four municipal treatment plants p...

J. V. DePinto J. K. Edzwald M. S. Switzenbaum T. C. Young E. F. Barth

1980-01-01

330

Evaluation of Processes Available for Removal of Phosphorus from Wastewater.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The more important treatment processes for removal of phosphorus compounds from municipal wastewater are evaluated for practicality, cost, and impact on the quality of the treated effluent. The numerous options for the designer in the selection of treatin...

1971-01-01

331

Biocompatibility Testing of Aluminium-Calcium-Phosphorus Oxide (ALCAP) Ceramics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ceramic implants composed of aluminum oxide, calcium oxide, and phosphorus pentoxide have given excellent results in terms of compatibility and gradual replacement of the ceramic material with endogenous bone. Experiments conducted so far suggest that bio...

D. R. Mattie P. K. Bajpai

1986-01-01

332

Phosphorus-31 NMR Spectra of Some Tertiary Phosphine Rhodium Compounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phosphorus-31 nmr data are reported for trans-chlorocarbonylbis (tris-phenylphosphine) rhodium (I) and for three compounds of the type tri-chlorotris(Triorganophosphine) rhodium (III). The spectra unambiguously confirm the trans configurations for the rho...

S. O. Grim R. A. Ference

1966-01-01

333

Phosphorus Determination by Derivative Activation Analysis: A Multifaceted Radiochemical Application.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although determination of phosphorus is important in biology, physiology, and environmental science, traditional gravimetric and colorimetric methods are cumbersome and lack the requisite sensitivity. Therefore, a derivative activation analysis method is suggested. Background information, procedures, and results are provided. (JN)

Kleppinger, E. W.; And Others

1984-01-01

334

Method of removing and detoxifying a phosphorus-based substance  

DOEpatents

A method of removing organic phosphorus-based poisonous substances from water contaminated therewith and of subsequently destroying the toxicity of the substance is disclosed. Initially, a water-immiscible organic is immobilized on a supported liquid membrane. Thereafter, the contaminated water is contacted with one side of the supported liquid membrane to selectively dissolve the phosphorus-based substance in the organic extractant. At the same time, the other side of the supported liquid membrane is contacted with a hydroxy-affording strong base to react the phosphorus-based substance dissolved by the organic extractant with a hydroxy ion. This forms a non-toxic reaction product in the base. The organic extractant can be a water-insoluble trialkyl amine, such as trilauryl amine. The phosphorus-based substance can be phosphoryl or a thiophosphoryl.

Vandegrift, George F. (Bolingbrook, IL); Steindler, Martin J. (Park Forest, IL)

1989-01-01

335

Observations on the phosphorus requirement of cattle for growth.  

PubMed

Weaner cattle were fed ad libitum a diet of Stylosanthes humilis (Townsville stylo) containing 1.80 per cent nitrogen and 0.12 per cent phosphorus in the dry matter, with or without a supplement of phosphorus at the rate of 5 g/day. The feed was consumed in amounts sufficient to support gains in weight of over 0.5 kg/day during the experiment, and the supplement had no influence on voluntary feed intake, live weight gain or phosphorus concentration in samples of rib bone obtained by biopsy at the end of the experiment. It is suggested that the recomendations of the Agricultural Research Council and the National Research Council for the intake of phosphorus by young growing cattle overestimate requirements by approximately 35 per cent. PMID:7414074

Little, D A

1980-03-01

336

Analysis of reduced phosphorus in samples of environmental interest.  

PubMed

The combination of ion chromatography (IC) and inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP-ES) was used forthe sensitive and specific detection of hypophosphite (PO2), phosphite (PO3), methylphosphonic acid (MPA), and phosphate (PO4). Application of this technique to a wide range of environmental samples proved that reduced phosphorus was present in some situations including process water from thermal phosphorus plants, drinking water contacting cast iron, and phosphorus corrosion inhibitor used in water treatment and in sewage wastewater. Preliminary testing did not detect high concentrations of reduced phosphorus and phosphine in situations where it was previously reported to be very important, including anaerobic digesters in wastewater treatment plants. The new IC-ICP-ES technique is a promising tool for use in corrosion and soil research where phosphites are likely to be present. PMID:16047769

Morton, Siyuan C; Glindemann, Dietmar; Wang, Xiaorong; Niu, Xiaojun; Edwards, Marc

2005-06-15

337

Electrosynthesis of nickel phosphides on the basis of white phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduction of white phosphorus in the coordination sphere of the electrochemically generated nickel(0) complexes with ?-donor ligands was shown to be possible and accompanied by the transformation of P4 into the nickel phosphides.

Yu. H Budnikova; D. I Tazeev; B. A Trofimov; O. G Sinyashin

2004-01-01

338

Biogeochemical characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus in Jiaozhou Bay sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment samples were cored from 3 locations representing the inner bay, the outer bay and the bay mouth of Jiaozhou Bay in September 2003 to study the source and biogeochemical characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus in the bay. The content and vertical distributions of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), organic nitrogen (ON), organic phosphorus (OP), inorganic nitrogen (IN), inorganic phosphorus (IP), the ratio of organic carbon and total nitrogen (OC/TN), and the ratio of total nitrogen and total phosphorus (TN/TP) in the sediments were analyzed. The results show that both TN and TP in surface sediments decrease from the inner bay to the outer bay. In general, ON occupies 50%-70% of TN and IP accounts for more than 60% of TP. In ratio of OC:TN, the nitrogen accumulated in the sediments from the inner bay and the bay mouth came mainly from terrestrial sources, and the portion of autogenetic nitrogen was 28.9% and 13.1%, respectively. However, in the outer bay, nitrogen was mainly autogenetic, accounting for 62.1% of TN, whereas phosphorus was mainly land-derived. The sedimentation fluxes of nitrogen and phosphorus varied spatially. The overall diagenesis rate of nitrogen was higher than that of phosphorus. Specifically, the diagenesis rate of OP was higher than that of IP. However, the diagenesis rate of ON was not always higher than that of IN. In species, the diagenesis rate of IN is sometimes much higher than that of the OC. In various environments, the diagenesis rate is, to some degree, affected by OC, pH, Eh, and Es.

Li, Xuegang; Song, Jinming; Yuan, Huamao; Dai, Jicui; Li, Ning

2007-04-01

339

Review of phosphorus acid and its salts as fertilizer materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a review of the literature, recent unpublished research, and other information pertaining to the use of phosphorus acid (H3PO3) and its salts as fertilizer materials. Early studies on the potential of H3PO3 and its salts as alternative phosphate fertilizers showed that these phosphorus (P)?containing materials were not as effective as phosphoric acids (H3PO4) and its derivatives on growth

David A. Rickard

2000-01-01

340

Soils - Part 6: Phosphorus and Potassium in the Soil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explains the importance of phosphorus fixation and describes methods for applying phosphorus and the advantages (and disadvantages) of each. It also describes the three forms of potassium and how form determines availability of potassium to plants.[This lesson, as well as the other nine lessons in the Soils series, is taken from the "Soils Home Study Course," published in 1999 by the University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension.

341

Ecological nitrogen-to-phosphorus stoichiometry at station ALOHA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elemental stoichiometry of dissolved and particulate matter in the sea, especially the nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratio, is an important parameter for studies of the nutrient control of plankton growth and for modeling biogeochemical processes, including carbon sequestration. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) pools have been measured on approximately monthly intervals for a 9-yr period at a deep-ocean station in the North

David M. Karl; Karin M Björkman; John E. Dore; Lance Fujieki; Dale V. Hebel; Terrence Houlihan; Ricardo M. Letelier; Luis M. Tupas

2001-01-01

342

Study on Chemical Phosphorus Removal from Industry Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coagulation process using poly aluminum chloride (PAC) was employed as the turbidity and phosphorus removal method for industry wastewater in this paper. Factors such as solution pH coagulant dosage and solution temperature that influence turbidity and phosphorus removal were experimentally tested. The results showed that the optimum dosage coagulant was 8mg\\/L when the pH = 7, this dosage was best

Fang Zhu; Wenzhen Jia; Chang Cheng

2011-01-01

343

Bacteria as a source of phosphorus for zooplankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of bacterial phosphorus in zooplankton metabolism was investigated using radio-phosphorus labelled natural\\u000a bacteria as food source for zooplankton in feeding experiments. Incorporation of labelled bacteria was clearly related to\\u000a the species' ability to graze on bacteria, with the cladoceran Daphnia reaching the highest biomass-specific activity and the copepod Acanthodiaptomus the lowest. Within Daphnia, juveniles had a higher biomass-specific

Dag O. Hessen; Tom Andersen

1990-01-01

344

Phosphorus removal by a synthetic iron oxide–gypsum compound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus pollution is a major concern for soil and water management. This study assesses the phosphate and organic phosphorus removal capacity of an iron oxide–gypsum compound (named OX) in batch trials. Phosphate solutions ranging from 0.001 to 10 mg P l?1 were tested and OX proved to be an effective fixing agent. Solutions with different ionic strengths did not affect

Olivier Bastin; Frédéric Janssens; Joseph Dufey; Alain Peeters

1999-01-01

345

beta-Radiation from Active Phosphorus and Sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN order to investigate the beta-radiation from active phosphorus, phosphorus pentoxide was irradiated with 5 MeV. deutrons (current approximately 40µ A.) in the cyclotron of this Institute. A very small fraction of the sample (about 0.01 mC.) in the form of Mg2P2O7 was placed between two foils of about 0.02µ thickness, the preparation forming a narrow strip 7 mm. ×

Kai Siegbahn

1944-01-01

346

Molecular Approaches to the Study of Biological Phosphorus Cycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Phosphorus cycling in soils is partly affected by biological processes. Many different organisms are involved, and microbial\\u000a functions in particular make a substantial contribution. Recently, various molecular tools independent of microbial cultivation\\u000a have been developed, offering new possibilities for the analysis of the function and ecology of microbes involved in phosphorus\\u000a cycling. Plants are also directly or indirectly involved in

Jun Wasaki; Hayato Maruyama

347

Calcium and phosphorus requirements of bobwhite quail chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four experiments involving 873 bob-white quail (Colinus virginianus) chicks were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, Maryland. A comparison was made of calcium: phosphorus ratios of 1:1, 15:1, 1%: 1, 2:1, 2+:1,and 2%: 1in diets with phosphorus levels of 0.52, 0.75, 1.00, and 1.25 percent. The results indicate that the optimum level of phosphorus for growth is in the neighborhood of 0.75 per cent, and that of calcium is about 1.00 per cent, making a ratio of 1 1/3: 1....Although the greatest efficiency of feed utilization occurred on the phosphorus level of 0.52 per cent, the liveweight and bone-ash of the birds at the end of ten weeks were significantly lower than they were on the levels of 0.75 and 1.00 per cent, phosphorus. Bone-ash of birds on a Ca: P ratio of 1:1was significantly lower than that on any of the other five ratios, regardless of phosphorus level....There was a significant reverse correlation between the Ca: P ratio of the diet and the storage of vitamin A in the liver. Storage was especially low on the ratio of 2 2/3: 1....The low and high levels of calcium and phosphorus considered in these studies are abnormal, the low level especially being hard to obtain with common feedstuffs, if the protein requirements of the birds are met. Nevertheless, even on such levels, results were not disastrous. The growth of quail in the wild happens during a season when the birds have access to the minerals of the soil and in the abundant animal matter (mostly insects), as well as to minerals in plant material. Therefore, seemingly, calcium and phosphorus need not be critical nutrients for growing quail in the wild.

Nestler, R.B.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.; Moschler, M.

1948-01-01

348

Mineralization of dissolved organic phosphorus from a shallow eutrophic lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Release of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) from dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP), concentrated by reverse osmosis of water\\u000a samples from Lough Neagh Northern Ireland, was measured in the presence of enzymes and cultures of lake water bacteria in\\u000a a basal liquid medium adjusted to the pH of lake water (7.6). No hydrolysis of unfractionated DOP was observed in the presence\\u000a of

J. E. Cooper; J. Early; A. J. Holding

1991-01-01

349

Phosphorus loads from different urban storm runoff sources in southern China: a case study in Wenzhou City.  

PubMed

Storm runoff from six types of underlying surface area during five rainfall events in two urban study areas of Wenzhou City, China was investigated to measure phosphorus (P) concentrations and discharge rates. The average event mean concentrations (EMCs) of total phosphorus (TP), total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), and particulate phosphorus (PP) ranged from 0.02 to 2.5 mg?·?L(-1), 0.01 to 0.48 mg?·?L(-1), and 0.02 to 2.43 mg?·?L(-1), respectively. PP was generally the dominant component of TP in storm runoff, while the major form of P varied over time, especially in roof runoff, where TDP made up the largest portion in the latter stages of runoff events. Both TP and PP concentrations were positively correlated with pH, total suspended solids (TSS), and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)/chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations (p<0.01), while TDP was positively correlated with BOD/COD only (p<0.01). In addition, the EMCs of TP and PP were negatively correlated with maximum rainfall intensity (p<0.05), while the EMCs of TDP positively correlated with the antecedent dry weather period (p<0.05). The annual TP emission fluxes from the two study areas were 367.33 and 237.85 kg, respectively. Underlying surface type determined the TP and PP loadings in storm runoff, but regional environmental conditions affected the export of TDP more significantly. Our results indicate that the removal of particles from storm runoff could be an effective measure to attenuate P loadings to receiving water bodies. PMID:23690078

Zhou, Dong; Bi, Chun-Juan; Chen, Zhen-Lou; Yu, Zhong-Jie; Wang, Jun; Han, Jing-Chao

2013-11-01

350

Balancing nutrition and serum phosphorus in maintenance dialysis.  

PubMed

Elevated serum phosphorus levels are common in patients with chronic kidney disease and are associated with heart and vascular disease, conditions that in turn are associated with increased mortality. Accurately managing phosphorus intake by restricting dietary protein alone can prove challenging because protein from different sources can contain varying amounts of available phosphorus. Additives used in processed foods frequently are high in inorganic phosphorus, which is readily absorbed, compounding this difficulty. Recent evidence suggests that dietary protein restriction in some cases may do more harm than good in some patients treated with maintenance hemodialysis because protein restriction can lead to protein-energy wasting, which is associated with increased mortality. Accordingly, phosphorus binders are important for managing hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients. Managing hyperphosphatemia in patients with late-stage chronic kidney disease requires an individualized approach, involving a combination of adequate dietary advice, phosphate-binder use, and adjustments to dialysis prescription. We speculate that increased use of phosphate binders could allow patients to eat more protein-rich foods and that communicating this to patients might increase their perception of their need for phosphate binders, providing an incentive to improve adherence. The aim of this review is to discuss the challenges involved in maintaining adequate nutrition while controlling phosphorus levels in patients on maintenance hemodialysis therapy. PMID:24819675

Fouque, Denis; Horne, Rob; Cozzolino, Mario; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

2014-07-01

351

Phosphorus cycling in the deep subseafloor biosphere at North Pond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus is a macronutrient involved both in functional and structural components of all living cells. This makes it an essential nutrient for life, including microbial life in the deep subseafloor habitat. Phosphorus availability in this environment is limited since it is thought to be mainly present in refractory mineral phases. However, recent estimates suggest that the deep biosphere may contain up to 1% of Earth's total biomass, which implies that microorganisms may possess mechanisms to harvest recalcitrant phosphorus compounds in this environment. This study sheds light on those mechanisms by investigating phosphorus cycling in deep open-ocean sediments using stable oxygen isotope ratios in phosphate. Furthermore, this study provides insight into changes in phosphorus bioavailability and mobility under a range of natural environmental conditions within the deep biosphere. Sediment samples were collected from four boreholes drilled during the IODP Expedition 336 to North Pond, an isolated sediment pond on the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Sedimentary phosphorus compounds are characterized using sequential extractions (SEDEX), which separate them into five distinct pools. Phosphate from the various extracts are then concentrated, purified through a series of steps, then converted to silver phosphate, which is pyrolyzed and analyzed by continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS). The isotopic signatures and/or fractionations associated with many of the potential reactions and transformations operating in the P cycle have been determined, and provide the basis for interpreting isotopic data that are obtained from the phosphate extracts.

Defforey, D.; Paytan, A.

2013-12-01

352

Calcium and phosphorus requirements of breeding bobwhite quail  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the course of studies designed to determine the calcium and phosphorus requirements of breeding bobwhite quail, it was found that best results were obtained when the Ca/P ratio in the diet was approximately 2.3:1. Variations in the Ca/P ratio produced significant differences in results when the level of phosphorus in the diet was 0.75%, but the differences were less marked when the level of phosphorus was increased to 1.00%. Although diets containing 0.75% phosphorus and 1.8% calcium appeared adequate for reproduction, as judged by the criteria of the maintenance of satisfactory condition in the breeders, egg production, fertility, hatchability and survival of offspring during the first 5 days after hatching, it was found that the winter mortality of the offspring of birds fed such a diet was much greater than that occurring in the offspring of birds fed on diets containing 1.00 or 1.25% phosphorus. It is concluded that breeding bobwhite quail require diets furnishing approximately 1.00% phosphorus and 2.3% calcium.

DeWitt, J.B.; Nestler, R .B.; Derby, J.V., Jr.

1949-01-01

353

Elucidating the redox cycle of environmental phosphorus using ion chromatography.  

PubMed

Historically, it was assumed that reactive, inorganic phosphorus present in pristine environments was solely in the form of orthophosphate. However, this assumption contradicts theories of biogenesis and the observed metabolic behavior of select microorganisms. This paper discusses the role of ion chromatography (IC) in elucidating the oxidation-reduction cycle of environmental phosphorus. These methods employ suppressed-IC, coupled with tandem conductivity and electrospray mass spectrometry detectors to identify and quantify phosphorus oxyanions in natural water, synthetic cosmochemical, and biological samples. These techniques have been used to detect phosphite and orthophosphate in geothermal hot springs. Hypophosphite, phosphite, and orthophosphate have been detected in synthetic schreibersite corrosion samples, and termite extract supernatant. Synthetic schreibersite corrosion samples were also analyzed for two poly-phosphorus compounds, hypophosphate and pyrophosphate, and results show these samples did not contain concentrations above the 1.3 and 2.0 ?M respective 3? limit of detection. These methods are readily adaptable to a variety of matrices, and contribute to the elucidation of the oxidation-reduction cycle of phosphorus oxyanions in the environment. In contrast to most studies, these techniques have been used to show that phosphorus actively participates in redox processes in both the biological and geological world. PMID:21859529

Pech, Herbe; Vazquez, Maria G; Van Buren, Jean; Shi, Lixin; Ivey, Michelle M; Salmassi, Tina M; Pasek, Matthew A; Foster, Krishna L

2011-09-01

354

Phosphorus chemical shift tensors of phosphido ligands in ruthenium carbonyl compounds: (31)P NMR spectroscopy of single-crystal and powder samples and ab initio calculations.  

PubMed

The phosphorus chemical shift (CS) tensors of several ruthenium carbonyl compounds containing a phosphido ligand, micro), bridging a Ru [bond] Ru bond were characterized by solid-state (31)P NMR spectroscopy. As well, an analogous osmium compound was examined. The structures of most of the clusters investigated have approximate local C(2v) symmetry about the phosphorus atom. Compared to the "isolated" PH(2)(-) anion, the phosphorus nucleus of a bridging phosphido ligand exhibits considerable deshielding. The phosphorus CS tensors of most of the compounds have spans ranging from 230 to 350 ppm and skews of approximately zero. Single-crystal NMR was used to investigate the orientation of the phosphorus CS tensors for two of the compounds, Ru(2)(CO)(6)(mu(2)-C [triple bond] C [bond] Ph)(mu(2)-PPh(2)) and Ru(3)(CO)(9)(mu(2)-H)(mu(2)-PPh(2)). The intermediate component of the phosphorus CS tensor, delta(22), lies along the local C(2) axis in both compounds. The least shielded component, delta(11), lies perpendicular to the Ru [bond] P [bond] Ru plane while the most shielded component, delta(33), lies perpendicular to the C [bond]P [bond] C plane. The orientation of the phosphorus CS tensor for a third compound, Ru(2)(CO)(6)(mu(2)-PPh(2))(2), was investigated by the dipolar-chemical shift NMR technique and was found to be analogous, suggesting it to be the same in all compounds. Ab initio calculations of phosphorus magnetic shielding tensors have been carried out and reproduce the orientations found experimentally. The orientation of the CS tensor has been rationalized using simple frontier MO theory. Splittings due to (99,101)Ru [bond] (31)P spin-spin coupling have been observed for several of the complexes. A rare example of (189)Os [bond] (31)P spin-spin splittings is observed in the (31)P MAS NMR spectrum of the osmium cluster, where (1)J((189)Os, (31)P) is 367 Hz. For this complex, the (189)Os nuclear quadrupolar coupling constant is on the order of several hundred megahertz. PMID:11841326

Eichele, Klaus; Wasylishen, Roderick E; Corrigan, John F; Taylor, Nicholas J; Carty, Arthur J; Feindel, Kirk W; Bernard, Guy M

2002-02-20

355

Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 33  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental data are evaluated for known nuclides of mass number A=33 (Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K). Detailed evaluated level properties and related information are presented, including adopted values of level and ?-ray energies, decay data (energies, intensities and placement of radiations), and other spectroscopic data. This work supersedes earlier full evaluations of A=33 published by 1990En08 (also 1998En04 update) and 1978En02. Experimental studies for the identification of the 33Ne and 33K nuclides have not met with success as yet. Values of S(n) and S(p) from systematics for 33Ne and 33K, respectively suggest that these nuclei are likely to be unstable to particle emission. The radioactive decay schemes of 33Na and 33Al seem incomplete in view of large Q values and known excitations much below than allowed by the Q values. The 33S and 33Cl nuclides remain as the most extensively studied from many different reactions and decays.

Chen, Jun; Singh, Balraj

2011-06-01

356

Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 33  

SciTech Connect

The experimental data are evaluated for known nuclides of mass number A=33 (Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K). Detailed evaluated level properties and related information are presented, including adopted values of level and {gamma}-ray energies, decay data (energies, intensities and placement of radiations), and other spectroscopic data. This work supersedes earlier full evaluations of A=33 published by 1990En08 (also 1998En04 update) and 1978En02. Experimental studies for the identification of the {sup 33}Ne and {sup 33}K nuclides have not met with success as yet. Values of S(n) and S(p) from systematics for {sup 33}Ne and {sup 33}K, respectively suggest that these nuclei are likely to be unstable to particle emission. The radioactive decay schemes of {sup 33}Na and {sup 33}Al seem incomplete in view of large Q values and known excitations much below than allowed by the Q values. The {sup 33}S and {sup 33}Cl nuclides remain as the most extensively studied from many different reactions and decays.

Chen Jun; Singh, Balraj [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)

2011-06-15

357

IL-33 Exacerbates Acute Kidney Injury  

PubMed Central

Inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI). IL-33 is a proinflammatory cytokine, but its role in AKI is unknown. Here we observed increased protein expression of full-length IL-33 in the kidney following induction of AKI with cisplatin. To determine whether IL-33 promotes injury, we administered soluble ST2 (sST2), a fusion protein that neutralizes IL-33 activity by acting as a decoy receptor. Compared with cisplatin-induced AKI in untreated mice, mice treated with sST2 had fewer CD4 T cells infiltrate the kidney, lower serum creatinine, and reduced acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and apoptosis. In contrast, administration of recombinant IL-33 (rIL-33) exacerbated cisplatin-induced AKI, measured by an increase in CD4 T cell infiltration, serum creatinine, ATN, and apoptosis; this did not occur in CD4-deficient mice, suggesting that CD4 T cells mediate the injurious effect of IL-33. Wildtype mice that received cisplatin and rIL-33 also had higher levels of the proinflammatory chemokine CXCL1, which CD T cells produce, in the kidney compared with CD4-deficient mice. Mice deficient in the CXCL1 receptor also had lower serum creatinine, ATN, and apoptosis than wildtype mice following cisplatin-induced AKI. Taken together, IL-33 promotes AKI through CD4 T cell-mediated production of CXCL1. These data suggest that inhibiting IL-33 or CXCL1 may have therapeutic potential in AKI.

Akcay, Ali; Nguyen, Quocan; He, Zhibin; Turkmen, Kultigin; Won Lee, Dong; Hernando, Ana Andres; Altmann, Christopher; Toker, Aysun; Pacic, Arijana; Ljubanovic, Danica Galesic; Jani, Alkesh; Faubel, Sarah

2011-01-01

358

Phosphorus runoff from turfgrass as affected by phosphorus fertilization and clipping management.  

PubMed

Phosphorus enrichment of surface water is a concern in many urban watersheds. A 3-yr study on a silt loam soil with 5% slope and high soil test P (27 mg kg(-1) Bray P1) was conducted to evaluate P fertilization and clipping management effects on P runoff from turfgrass (Poa pratensis L.) under frozen and nonfrozen conditions. Four fertilizer treatments were compared: (i) no fertilizer, (ii) nitrogen (N)+potassium (K)+0xP, (iii) N+K+1xP, and (iv) N+K+3xP. Phosphorus rates were 21.3 and 63.9 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) the first year and 7.1 and 21.3 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) the following 2 yr. Each fertilizer treatment was evaluated with clippings removed or clippings recycled back to the turf. In the first year, P runoff increased with increasing P rate and P losses were greater in runoff from frozen than nonfrozen soil. In year 2, total P runoff from the no fertilizer treatment was greater than from treatments receiving fertilizer. This was because reduced turf quality resulted in greater runoff depth from the no fertilizer treatment. In year 3, total P runoff from frozen soil and cumulative total P runoff increased with increasing P rate. Clipping management was not an important factor in any year, indicating that returning clippings does not significantly increase P runoff from turf. In the presence of N and K, P fertilization did not improve turf growth or quality in any year. Phosphorus runoff can be reduced by not applying P to high testing soils and avoiding fall applications when P is needed. PMID:20048316

Bierman, Peter M; Horgan, Brian P; Rosen, Carl J; Hollman, Andrew B; Pagliari, Paulo H

2010-01-01

359

Evaluate and Characterize Mechanisms Controlling Transport, Fate and Effects of Army Smokes in the Aerosol Wind Tunnel: Transport, Transformations, Fate, and Terrestrial Ecological Effects of Red Phosphorus-Butyl Rubber and White Phosphorus Obscurant Smokes: Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An evaluation of the terrestrial transport, transformations and ecological effects of phosphorus (red phosphorus-butyl rubber (RP/BR)) smoke obscurant was performed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. A similar evaluation using white phosphorus (WP) smoke/ob...

P. Van Voris M. W. Ligotke K. M. McFadden S. M. W. Li B. L. Thomas

1987-01-01

360

Calcium, Phosphorus, calcium-phosphorus ratio in rib bone of healthy humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium and phosphorus concentrations as well as the Ca\\/P ratio were estimated in intact rib bone samples from healthy humans,\\u000a 37 women and 45 men, aged 15–55 yr. For Ca and P concentration measurements, instrumental neutron activation analysis was\\u000a used. The mean values (mean±SD) for the investigated parameters were 19.3±4.5% of dry bone weight, 8.42±2.14% of dry bone\\u000a weight, and

Margaret Tzaphlidou; Vladimir Zaichick

2003-01-01

361

The role of diet in phosphorus demand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 50 years, there have been major changes in human diets, including a global average increase in meat consumption and total calorie intake. We quantified how changes in annual per capita national average diets affected requirements for mined P between 1961 and 2007, starting with the per capita availability of a food crop or animal product and then determining the P needed to grow the product. The global per capita P footprint increased 38% over the 46 yr time period, but there was considerable variability among countries. Phosphorus footprints varied between 0.35 kg P capita-1 yr-1 (DPR Congo, 2007) and 7.64 kg P capita-1 yr-1 (Luxembourg, 2007). Temporal trends also differed among countries; for example, while China’s P footprint increased almost 400% between 1961 and 2007, the footprints of other countries, such as Canada, decreased. Meat consumption was the most important factor affecting P footprints; it accounted for 72% of the global average P footprint. Our results show that dietary shifts are an important component of the human amplification of the global P cycle. These dietary trends present an important challenge for sustainable P management.

Metson, Geneviève S.; Bennett, Elena M.; Elser, James J.

2012-12-01

362

Phosphorus component in AnnAGNPS  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The USDA Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution model (AnnAGNPS) has been developed to aid in evaluation of watershed response to agricultural management practices. Previous studies have demonstrated the capability of the model to simulate runoff and sediment, but not phosphorus (P). The main purpose of this article is to evaluate the performance of AnnAGNPS on P simulation using comparisons with measurements from the Deep Hollow watershed of the Mississippi Delta Management Systems Evaluation Area (MDMSEA) project. A sensitivity analysis was performed to identify input parameters whose impact is the greatest on P yields. Sensitivity analysis results indicate that the most sensitive variables of those selected are initial soil P contents, P application rate, and plant P uptake. AnnAGNPS simulations of dissolved P yield do not agree well with observed dissolved P yield (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency of 0.34, R2 of 0.51, and slope of 0.24); however, AnnAGNPS simulations of total P yield agree well with observed total P yield (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency of 0.85, R2 of 0.88, and slope of 0.83). The difference in dissolved P yield may be attributed to limitations in model simulation of P processes. Uncertainties in input parameter selections also affect the model's performance.

Yuan, Y.; Bingner, R. L.; Theurer, F. D.; Rebich, R. A.; Moore, P. A.

2005-01-01

363

Is phosphorus recovery from waste water feasible?  

PubMed

Phosphorus (P) recovery from waste water must become a predominant goal of all countries to face the limited resources of this essential nutrient. The induced crystallisation of calcium phosphates straight from the waste water phase applying tobermorite-rich calcium silicate hydrate compounds (CSH) from the construction industry as the trigger material has proved to be a suitable method. Laboratory and semi-technical scale experiments were carried out in fixed bed, stirred reactor and expanded bed mode. P-loads of the crystallisation substrates of up to 13 wt-% total P (P-tot) (30 wt-% P2O5) were achieved. Recycling options of the generated products, both as substitute for phosphate rock in the phosphate industry and as a new fertiliser in agriculture, were demonstrated. Indicative operating and investment costs were estimated for conversion of conventional waste water treatment plants (WWTP) designed for nutrient removal and P-precipitation with iron and aluminium reagents to the proposed new crystallisation technology for simultaneous P-removal and P-recovery. PMID:17396410

Berg, U; Knoll, G; Kaschka, E; Weidler, P G; Nüesch, R

2007-02-01

364

Phosphorus and nitrogen in coral reef sediments  

SciTech Connect

The occurrence of P and N in the sediments has been investigated on Davies Reef in the central region of the Great Barrier Reef Complex. Concentrations of inorganic P and N in the water were typical of nutrient-depleted tropical surface water. Carbonate sediments were found to contain a uniform pool of P (300 ppm by wt), principally in the form of inorganic phosphate. The interstitial water of the surface layer of sediment contained micromolar concentrations of inorganic P and even higher concentrations of inorganic N, principally as ammonium. These nutrient concentrations were considered too low to compete significantly with the uptake of available phasphate into algae. The presence of ammonium and soluble P was associated with anaerobic redox potentials in the sediments just below the surface. Soluble phosphorus was in equilibrium with a small, rapidly exchangeable fraction of the sedimentary pool of inorganic phosphate. Analyses of P in growing tips of Halimeda and corals (which supply more than half of reef sediments) suggested that the skeletons provide a biological mechanism for the replenishment of at least some of the sedimentary pool. Ratios of C:N:P for a selection of benthic algae were used as a preliminary indicator of thier N and P status.

Entsch, B.; Boto, K.G.; Sim, R.G.; Wellington, J.T.

1983-05-01

365

Intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus  

SciTech Connect

The intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus has received considerable attention in recent years. The evidence has clearly indicated that calcium is absorbed by two processes: active transport and diffusion. Vitamin D appears to affect both processes, and has a significant effect at the brush border of the intestinal cell. Vitamin D also affects the release of calcium from the intestinal cell to the lamina propria. Several proposed models to account for the transmural movement of calcium are discussed. The active transport of phosphate is under the control of vitamin D and is located at the brush border region of the intestinal cell. This transport system, like several others, appears to be sodium-dependent and inhibited by ouabain. In-transit phosphate does not mix with the cellular phosphate pool, implying that phosphate is moving through the cell as a distinct packet or through specialized channels, or possibly a phosphorylated derivative. Emphasized in the presentation is current knowledge of the transport mechanisms and macromolecular changes that potentially account for the stimulatory effect of vitamin D on calcium and phosphate transport.

Wasserman, R.H.

1981-01-01

366

Forms of organic phosphorus in wetland soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus (P) cycling in freshwater wetlands is dominated by biological mechanisms, yet there has been no comprehensive examination of the forms of biogenic P (i.e. forms derived from biological activity) in wetland soils. We used solution 31P NMR spectroscopy to identify and quantify P forms in surface soils of 28 palustrine wetlands spanning a range of climatic, hydro-geomorphic and vegetation types. Total P concentrations ranged between 51 and 3516 ?g P g

Cheesman, A. W.; Turner, B. L.; Reddy, K. R.

2014-06-01

367

Hydrologic transport and partitioning of phosphorus fractions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryPhosphorus (P) in rainfall-runoff partitions between dissolved and particulate matter (PM) bound phases. This study investigates the transport and partitioning of P to PM fractions in runoff from a landscaped and biogenically-loaded carpark in Gainesville, FL (GNV). Additionally, partitioning and concentration results are compared to a similarly-sized concrete-paved source area of a similar rainfall depth frequency distribution in Baton Rouge, LA (BTR), where in contrast vehicular traffic represents the main source of pollutants. Results illustrate that concentrations of P fractions (dissolved, suspended, settleable and sediment) for GNV are one to two orders of magnitude higher than BTR. Despite these differences the dissolved fraction ( f d) and partitioning coefficient ( K d) distributions are similar, illustrating that P is predominantly bound to PM fractions. Examining PM size fractions, specific capacity for P (PSC) indicates that the P concentration order is suspended > settleable > sediment for GNV, similarly to BTR. For GNV the dominant PM mass fraction is sediment (>75 ?m), while the mass of P is distributed predominantly between sediment and suspended (<25 ?m) fractions since these PM mass fractions dominated the settleable one. With respect to transport of PM and P fractions the predominance of events for both areas is mass-limited first-flush, although each fraction illustrated unique washoff parameters. However, while transport is predominantly mass-limited, the transport of each PM and P fraction is influenced by separate hydrologic parameters.

Berretta, C.; Sansalone, J.

2011-06-01

368

A Literature Review - Problem Definition Studies on Selected Toxic Chemicals. Volume 2. Occupational Health and Safety Aspects of Phosphorus Smoke Compounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Problem Definition Study provides information on toxicological aspects and health hazards of phosphorus smoke compounds. The compounds covered in this study are red phosphorus, white phosphorus, butyl rubber/red phosphorus, plasticized white phosphor...

J. E. Villaume K. Wasti K. J. R. Abaidoo

1978-01-01

369

Geochemical stability of phosphorus solids below septic system infiltration beds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Review of 10 mature septic system plumes in Ontario, revealed that phosphorus (P) attenuation commonly occurred close to the infiltration pipes, resulting in discrete narrow intervals enriched in P by a factor of 2-4 ( Wood, J.S.A. 1993. MSc thesis, Dept. Earth Sci., University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont.; Ground Water 36 (1995) 1000; J. Contam. Hydrol. 33 (1998) 405). Although these attenuation reactions appeared to be sustainable under present conditions, the potential for remobilization of this P mass, should geochemical conditions change, is unknown. To test the stability of these P solids, dynamic flow column tests were carried out using sediments from three of the previously studied sites (Cambridge, Langton and Muskoka) focusing on sediments from the 'High-P' and underlying (Below) zones. Tests were continued for 166-266 pore volumes (PVs), during which time varying degrees of water saturation were maintained. During saturated flow conditions, relatively high concentrations of PO 4 were eluted from the Cambridge and Langton High-P zones (up to 4 and 9 mg/l P, respectively), accompanied by elevated concentrations of Fe (up to 1.4 mg/l) and Mn (up to 4 mg/l) and lower values of Eh (<150 mV). The Below zones from Cambridge and Langton, however, maintained lower concentrations of P (generally<2 mg/l), Fe (<0.2 mg/l) and Mn (<1 mg/l) and maintained higher Eh (>250 mV) during saturated flow conditions. During unsaturated flow, P and Fe declined dramatically in the High-P zones (P<1 mg/l, Fe<0.2 mg/l), whereas concentrations remained about the same during saturated and unsaturated flow in the Below zones. This behavior is at least partly attributed to the development of reducing conditions during saturated flow in the High-P zones, leading to reductive dissolution of Fe (III)-P solids present in the sediments. Reducing conditions did not develop in the Below zones apparently because of lower sediment organic carbon (OC) contents (0.03-0.04 wt.%) compared to the High-P zones (0.2-0.65 wt.%). At the Muskoka site, where the sediments were noncalcareous, low values of P (<0.2 mg/l) were maintained in both the High-P and Below columns and reducing conditions did not develop. Results indicate the possibility of remobilizing P accumulated below septic system infiltration beds should conditions become more reducing. This could occur if sewage loading patterns change, for example when a seasonal use, lakeshore cottage is converted to a permanent dwelling.

Zurawsky, M. A.; Robertson, W. D.; Ptacek, C. J.; Schiff, S. L.

2004-09-01

370

Geochemical stability of phosphorus solids below septic system infiltration beds.  

PubMed

Review of 10 mature septic system plumes in Ontario, revealed that phosphorus (P) attenuation commonly occurred close to the infiltration pipes, resulting in discrete narrow intervals enriched in P by a factor of 2-4 (. MSc thesis, Dept. Earth Sci., University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont.; Ground Water 36 (1995) 1000; J. Contam. Hydrol. 33 (1998) 405). Although these attenuation reactions appeared to be sustainable under present conditions, the potential for remobilization of this P mass, should geochemical conditions change, is unknown. To test the stability of these P solids, dynamic flow column tests were carried out using sediments from three of the previously studied sites (Cambridge, Langton and Muskoka) focusing on sediments from the 'High-P' and underlying (Below) zones. Tests were continued for 166-266 pore volumes (PVs), during which time varying degrees of water saturation were maintained. During saturated flow conditions, relatively high concentrations of PO4 were eluted from the Cambridge and Langton High-P zones (up to 4 and 9 mg/l P, respectively), accompanied by elevated concentrations of Fe (up to 1.4 mg/l) and Mn (up to 4 mg/l) and lower values of Eh (<150 mV). The Below zones from Cambridge and Langton, however, maintained lower concentrations of P (generally<2 mg/l), Fe (<0.2 mg/l) and Mn (<1 mg/l) and maintained higher Eh (>250 mV) during saturated flow conditions. During unsaturated flow, P and Fe declined dramatically in the High-P zones (P<1 mg/l, Fe<0.2 mg/l), whereas concentrations remained about the same during saturated and unsaturated flow in the Below zones. This behavior is at least partly attributed to the development of reducing conditions during saturated flow in the High-P zones, leading to reductive dissolution of Fe (III)-P solids present in the sediments. Reducing conditions did not develop in the Below zones apparently because of lower sediment organic carbon (OC) contents (0.03-0.04 wt.%) compared to the High-P zones (0.2-0.65 wt.%). At the Muskoka site, where the sediments were noncalcareous, low values of P (<0.2 mg/l) were maintained in both the High-P and Below columns and reducing conditions did not develop. Results indicate the possibility of remobilizing P accumulated below septic system infiltration beds should conditions become more reducing. This could occur if sewage loading patterns change, for example when a seasonal use, lakeshore cottage is converted to a permanent dwelling. PMID:15336792

Zurawsky, M A; Robertson, W D; Ptacek, C J; Schiff, S L

2004-09-01

371

46 CFR 111.33-5 - Installation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-5 Installation. Each semiconductor rectifier system must meet the installation requirements, as appropriate,...

2013-10-01

372

Experimental X-33 In-Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pictured here is an artist's concept of the experimental X-33 in-flight. The X-33 program was designed to pave the way to a full-scale commercially developed, reusable launch vehicle (RLV). The program that will put the U.S. on a path toward safe, affordable, reliable access to space by providing the latest technology was ready for space flight. The X-33 is the flagship technology demonstrator for technologies that will dramatically lower the cost of access to space. The X-33 program was cancelled in 2001.

2004-01-01

373

14 CFR 33.75 - Safety analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.75...applicable: (i) Aircraft-level devices and...early warning devices, maintenance checks, and other...

2010-01-01

374

10 CFR 34.33 - Permanent radiographic installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Permanent radiographic installations. 34.33 Section 34.33...REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY...33 Permanent radiographic installations. (a) Each entrance...

2010-01-01

375

10 CFR 34.33 - Permanent radiographic installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Permanent radiographic installations. 34.33 Section 34.33...REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY...33 Permanent radiographic installations. (a) Each entrance...

2009-01-01

376

Partially acidulated phosphate rocks: Phosphorus release characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five phosphate rocks varying in formic acid P solubility from 18.9 to 52.7%, expressed as percentage of total P, were acidulated with phosphoric or sulphuric acids to 0, 20%, 33% and 50% of full acidulation and granulated. In an incubation experiment fertilizer granules of diameter 1–2 mm were mixed with two acid soils and after 1 week incubation soil samples

J. Hagin; S. S. S. Rajan; M. K. Boyes; M. Upsdell

1990-01-01

377

Egg shell quality, medullary bone ash, intestinal calcium and phosphorus absorption, and calcium-binding protein in phosphorus-deficient hens.  

PubMed

The effect of dietary phosphorus deficiency on the performance and on various parameters of calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D metabolism was studied in laying hens. Phosphorus deficiency resulted in a decline in rate of production and egg weight, probably through appetite depression. The latter, or any secondary calcium deficiency, does not appear to cause the observed reduction in shell quality due to the deficiency. Similar to the response in the chick, phosphorus deficiency resulted in an increase in calcium-binding protein in intestine and kidney, there was no change in the activity of kidney 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3-1-hydroxylase. Percentages of calcium and phosphorus absorption were also higher during phosphorus deficiency. Medullary bone ash, decreased during phosphorus deficiency, was probably due to a reduction in the rate of bone formation. PMID:6541788

Bar, A; Hurwitz, S

1984-10-01

378

Phosphorus and phosphorus-nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes for ultrasensitive and selective molecular detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A first-principles approach is used to establish that substitutional phosphorus atoms within carbon nanotubes strongly modify the chemical properties of the surface, thus creating highly localized sites with specific affinity towards acceptor molecules. Phosphorus-nitrogen co-dopants within the tubes have a similar effect for acceptor molecules, but the P-N bond can also accept charge, resulting in affinity towards donor molecules. This molecular selectivity is illustrated in CO and NH3 adsorbed on PN-doped nanotubes, O2 on P-doped nanotubes, and NO2 and SO2 on both P- and PN-doped nanotubes. The adsorption of different chemical species onto the doped nanotubes modifies the dopant-induced localized states, which subsequently alter the electronic conductance. Although SO2 and CO adsorptions cause minor shifts in electronic conductance, NH3, NO2, and O2 adsorptions induce the suppression of a conductance dip. Conversely, the adsorption of NO2 on PN-doped nanotubes is accompanied with the appearance of an additional dip in conductance, correlated with a shift of the existing ones. Overall these changes in electric conductance provide an efficient way to detect selectively the presence of specific molecules. Additionally, the high oxidation potential of the P-doped nanotubes makes them good candidates for electrode materials in hydrogen fuel cells.

Cruz-Silva, Eduardo; Lopez-Urias, Florentino; Munoz-Sandoval, Emilio; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Terrones, Humberto; Charlier, Jean-Christophe; Meunier, Vincent; Terrones, Mauricio

2011-03-01

379

Phosphorus and phosphorus nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes for ultrasensitive and selective molecular detection  

SciTech Connect

A first-principles approach is used to establish that substitutional phosphorus atoms within carbon nanotubes strongly modify the chemical properties of the surface, thus creating highly localized sites with specific affinity towards acceptor molecules. Phosphorus nitrogen co-dopants within the tubes have a similar effect for acceptor molecules, but the P N bond can also accept charge, resulting in affinity towards donor molecules. This molecular selectivity is illustrated in CO and NH3 adsorbed on PN-doped nanotubes, O2 on P-doped nanotubes, and NO2 and SO2 on both P- and PN-doped nanotubes. The adsorption of different chemical species onto the doped nanotubes modifies the dopant-induced localized states, which subsequently alter the electronic conductance. Although SO2 and CO adsorptions cause minor shifts in electronic conductance, NH3, NO2, and O2 adsorptions induce the suppression of a conductance dip. Conversely, the adsorption of NO2 on PN-doped nanotubes is accompanied with the appearance of an additional dip in conductance, correlated with a shift of the existing ones. Overall these changes in electric conductance provide an efficient way to detect selectively the presence of specific molecules. Additionally, the high oxidation potential of the P-doped nanotubes makes them good candidates for electrode materials in hydrogen fuel cells.

Cruz Silva, Eduardo [ORNL; Lopez, Florentino [IPICyT; Munoz-Sandoval, Emilio [IPICyT; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto [ORNL; Charlier, Jean Christophe [Universite Catholique de Louvain; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL; Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio [ORNL

2011-01-01

380

Phosphorus and carbon segregation: Effects on fatigue and fracture of gas-carburized modified 4320 steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus and carbon segregation to austenite grain boundaries and its effects on fatigue and fracture were studied in carburized modified 4320 steel with systematic variations, 0.005, 0.017, and 0.031 wt pct, in alloy phosphorus concentration. Specimens subjected to bending fatigue were characterized by light metallography, X-ray analyses for retained austenite and residual stress measurements, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of fracture surfaces. Scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) was used to determine intergranular concentrations of phosphorus and carbon. The degree of phosphorus segregation is directly dependent on alloy phosphorus and carbon content. The degree of carbon segregation, in the form of cementite, at austenite grain boundaries was found to be a function of alloy phosphorus concentration. The endurance limit and fracture toughness decreased slightly when alloy phosphorus concentration was increased from 0.005 to 0.017 wt pct. Between 0.017 and 0.031 wt pct phosphorus, the endurance limit and fracture toughness decreased substantially. Other effects related to increasing alloy phosphorus concentration include increased case carbon concentration, decreased case retained austenite, increased case compressive residual stresses, and increased case hardness. All of these results are consistent with the phosphorus-enhanced formation of intergranular cementite and a decrease in carbon solubility in intragranular austenite with increasing phosphorus concentration. Differences in fatigue and fracture correlate with the degree of cementite coverage on the austenite grain boundaries and the buildup of phosphorus at cementite/matrix interfaces because of the insolubility of phosphorus in cementite.

Hyde, R. S.; Krauss, G.; Matlock, D. K.

1994-06-01

381

Growth Behavior, Nitrogen-Form Effects on Phosphorus Acquisition, and Phosphorus–Zinc Interactions in Brassica Cultivars under Phosphorus-Stress Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) interact both in plants and soils and hence may affect the availability and utilization of each other. To investigate P and Zn nutritional status and P–Zn interactions, two genetically diverse Brassica cultivars classified as P tolerant (Brown Raya) and P sensitive (Sultan Raya) were grown in a sand-based pot culture. Jordan rock phosphate (RP) and

M. Shahbaz Akhtar; Yoko Oki; Tadashi Adachi

2010-01-01

382

The optimal size of dynamic phosphorus models for coastal areas.  

PubMed

One method to assess environmental effects from industrial emissions to coastal and inland waters, e.g. from pulp and paper industries, is to quantify these emissions with mass balance models. In this study six different mass balance models for phosphorus with varying degrees of complexity have been tested in 11 Swedish coastal areas. The majority of these areas are recipients of pulp and paper industries. The accuracy of model predictions of phosphorus and chlorophyll is evaluated and compared between models. The results imply that for the included water bodies, models containing state variables for phosphorus in surface water and deep water are superior to models treating the water column as a completely mixed entity. The results do not justify the separation of phosphorus into dissolved and particulate fractions, but for chlorophyll predictions the results were significantly improved when phytoplankton was included as a state variable. Unless detailed descriptions or predictions of chlorophyll dynamics are required, modelling eutrophication in coastal areas may be considered as a matter of total phosphorus in two water compartments plus sediments. PMID:17486838

Malmaeus, J M; Karlsson, O M; Lindgren, D; Eklund, J

2007-01-01

383

6 CFR 37.33 - DMV databases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false DMV databases. 37.33 Section 37...Requirements § 37.33 DMV databases. (a) States must maintain a State motor vehicle database that contains, at a minimum...A record of the full legal name and recorded...

2010-01-01

384

6 CFR 37.33 - DMV databases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false DMV databases. 37.33 Section 37...Requirements § 37.33 DMV databases. (a) States must maintain a State motor vehicle database that contains, at a minimum...A record of the full legal name and recorded...

2009-01-01

385

The cytokine interleukin-33 mediates anaphylactic shock  

PubMed Central

Anaphylactic shock is characterized by elevated immunoglobulin-E (IgE) antibodies that signal via the high affinity Fc? receptor (Fc?RI) to release inflammatory mediators. Here we report that the novel cytokine interleukin-33 (IL-33) potently induces anaphylactic shock in mice and is associated with the symptom in humans. IL-33 is a new member of the IL-1 family and the ligand for the orphan receptor ST2. In humans, the levels of IL-33 are substantially elevated in the blood of atopic patients during anaphylactic shock, and in inflamed skin tissue of atopic dermatitis patients. In murine experimental atopic models, IL-33 induced antigen-independent passive cutaneous and systemic anaphylaxis, in a T cell–independent, mast cell–dependent manner. In vitro, IL-33 directly induced degranulation, strong eicosanoid and cytokine production in IgE-sensitized mast cells. The molecular mechanisms triggering these responses include the activation of phospholipase D1 and sphingosine kinase1 to mediate calcium mobilization, Nuclear factor–?B activation, cytokine and eicosanoid secretion, and degranulation. This report therefore reveals a hitherto unrecognized pathophysiological role of IL-33 and suggests that IL-33 may be a potential therapeutic target for anaphylaxis, a disease of considerable unmet medical need.

Pushparaj, Peter N.; Tay, Hwee Kee; H'ng, Shiau Chen; Pitman, Nick; Xu, Damo; McKenzie, Andrew; Liew, Foo Y.; Melendez, Alirio J.

2009-01-01

386

33 CFR 117.1023 - Pamunkey River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...29947, June 24, 2009. (a) The draw of the Eltham Bridge (SR33/30), mile 1.0, located in West Point, Virginia...117.1023 Pamunkey River. The draw of the Eltham Bridge (SR33/30) mile 1.0, located in West Point, Virginia shall...

2009-07-01

387

7 CFR 247.33 - Fair hearings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Fair hearings. 247.33 Section 247...Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.33 Fair hearings. (a) What is a fair...

2009-01-01

388

7 CFR 247.33 - Fair hearings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fair hearings. 247.33 Section 247...Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.33 Fair hearings. (a) What is a fair...

2010-01-01

389

Use of reactive materials to bind phosphorus.  

PubMed

Phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural soils have caused surface water quality impairment in many regions of the world, including The Netherlands. Due to the large amounts of P accumulated in Dutch soils, the generic fertilizer and manure policy will not be sufficient to reach in time the surface water quality standards of the European Water Framework Directive. Additional measures must be considered to further reduce P enrichment of surface waters. One option is to immobilize P in soils or manure or to trap P when it moves through the landscape by using reactive materials with a large capacity to retain P. We characterized and tested two byproducts of the process of purification of deep groundwater for drinking water that could be used as reactive materials: iron sludge and iron-coated sand. Both materials contain low amounts of inorganic contaminants, which also have a low (bio)availability, and bound a large amount of P. We could describe sorption of P to the iron sludge in batch experiments well with the kinetic Freundlich equation (Q = × t (m) × C(n)). Kinetics had a large influence on P sorption in batch and column experiments and should be taken into account when iron-containing materials are tested for their capability to immobilize or trap P. A negative aspect of the iron sludge is its low hydraulic conductivity; even when mixed with pure sand to a mixture containing 20% sludge, the conductivity was very low, and only 10% sludge may be needed before application is possible in filters or barriers for removing P from groundwater. Due to its much higher hydraulic conductivity, iron-coated sand has greater potential for use under field conditions. Immobilizing P could be an option for using iron sludge as a reactive material. PMID:22565245

Chardon, Wim J; Groenenberg, Jan E; Temminghoff, Erwin J M; Koopmans, Gerwin F

2012-01-01

390

The Release of Phosphorus from Pond Sediments and Its Availability to Lemna Minor L.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are reported of a study of the availability of phosphorus released from pond sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions to Lemna minor L. A bioassay technique using Lemna to measure available phosphorus was developed and the results compared...

A. Fekete

1973-01-01

391

Determination of Nitrogen, Sulphur, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium, Calcium, and Magnesium in Plant Material by Automatic Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods are proposed for the rapid determination of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, calcium, and magnesium in plant material by automated chemical analysis. Phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sodium are determined in nitric-p...

C. H. Williams J. R. Twine

1967-01-01

392

ECOLOGICAL STUDIES AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF 'CLADOPHORA' IN LAKE HURON: 2. PHOSPHORUS UPTAKE KINETICS (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory experiments were conducted with field populations of Cladophora glomerata to examine the phosphorus uptake process. Results from 35 experiments conducted over two field seasons emphasize the importance of two factors in regulating phosphorus uptake: dissolved phosphoru...

393

Phosphorus Removal Mechanisms at the Yellow River Sweetwater Creek Water Reclamation Facility, Gwinnett County, Georgia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research investigated the capabilities of the Yellow River Sweetwater Creek Water Reclamation Facility in Gwinnett County, GA. to remove phosphorus biologically. Phosphorus levels and removal locations were analyzed in plant operational units (sampli...

J. T. Borowy

1994-01-01

394

Identification of Critical Nutrient Levels through Field Verification of Models for Phosphorus and Phytoplankton Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two models for phosphorus and phytoplankton growth were field verified along a marked gradient in trophic conditions in Green Bay (Lake Michigan): one, the Monod model, relates growth rate to external (dissolved) phosphorus concentration, and the other, t...

M. T. Auer M. S. Kieser R. P. Canale

1986-01-01

395

Algal-Available Phosphorus in Suspended Sediments from Lower Great Lakes Tributaries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Suspended sediments collected from five tributaries to the lower Great Lakes were chemically analyzed for several forms of phosphorus and bioassayed under aerobic conditions to measure the release of algal-available phosphorus. The bioassay data for all s...

J. V. DePinto T. C. Young S. C. Martin

1981-01-01

396

Soluble Phosphorus Removal in the Activated Sludge Process. Part II. Sludge Digestion Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sludges containing aluminum phosphorus precipitates from an activated sludge waste water treatment plant were digested in a high-rate digester. Sodium aluminate and liquid alum were used to precipitate the phosphorus from the waste water. Analyses on both...

1971-01-01

397

Topological Representation of the Stereochemistry of Displacement Reactions at Phosphorus in Phosphonium Salts and Cognate Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nucleophilic displacement on phosphorus in cyclic phosphonium salts by external nucleophiles is believed to proceed through intermediate phosphoranes, and similar intermediates are involved in internal nucleophilic displacements at phosphorus in acyclic p...

K. E. DeBruin K. Naumann G. Zon K. Mislow

1969-01-01

398

The role of interleukin-33 in rhinitis.  

PubMed

IL-33, a member of the IL-1 cytokine family and a ligand to receptor ST2, has great potential to induce a T helper 2-type inflammatory response. IL-33 is proven to be released by epithelial cells during their injury by different environmental stimuli such as airborne allergens, viruses, and air pollutants. IL-33 acting as an endogenous danger signal is termed an alarmin. As such, this cytokine is considered to play a crucial role in an allergic inflammatory disease such as rhinitis. Recent investigations regarding the IL-33/ST2 axis involvement in Th2 inflammatory response and pathogenesis of rhinitis have been reviewed. The role of IL-33 as a novel promising therapeutic target has also been discussed. PMID:23381303

Rogala, Barbara; Glück, Joanna

2013-04-01

399

Phosphorus poisoning of molybdenum sulfide hydrodesulfurization catalysts supported on carbon and alumina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus-containing Mo sulfide catalysts supported on γ-AlâOâ and activated carbon were evaluated for their thiophene HDS activities. Phosphorus was added as phosphoric acid to the carrier material prior to the molydbenum component. The thiophene HDS activity of the carbon-supported catalysts was strongly decreased by phosphorus, while alumina-supported catalysts were not poisoned by phosphorus when present at moderate contents. The structural

S. M. A. M. Bouwens; J. P. R. Vissers; V. H. J. De Beer; R. Prins

1988-01-01

400

PEAK PHOSPHORUS: A NEW DIMENSION FOR FOOD SECURITY AND WATER QUALITY IN THE LAKE WINNIPEG BASIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is emerging that global supplies of rock phosphate used for production of phosphorus (P) fertilizers are declining. The term peak phosphorus has been applied to the situation that phosphorus, the first non-renewable, non-substitutable life-supporting element, will become scarce in the foreseeable future. As a result, management of phosphorus on the land and the prevention of nutrient pollution in aquatic

A. E. Ulrich; D. F. Malley; P. D. Watts

401

Phosphorus Regeneration by Lake Michigan Alewives in the Mid1970s  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bioenergetics model offish growth was used to estimate phosphorus (P) cycling by the population of Lake Michigan alewives Alosa pseudoharengns in the mid-1970s. The mean annual standing stock of alewives during the mid-1970s contained 1,500 tonnes of phosphorus, representing a substantial pool of paniculate phosphorus unavailable to algae. An estimated 12,000 tonnes of phosphorus were egested and excreted annually

CLIFFORD E. KRAFT

1993-01-01

402

Nitrogen versus phosphorus-limited growth and sources of nutrients for coral reef macroalgae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent investigations of nutrient-limited productivity in coral reef macroalgae have led to the conclusion that phosphorus,\\u000a rather than nitrogen, is the primary limiting nutrient. In this study, comparison of the dissolved inorganic nitrogen:phosphorus\\u000a ratio in the water column of Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii, with tissue nitrogen:phosphorus ratios in macroalgae from Kaneohe Bay suggested\\u000a that nitrogen, rather than phosphorus, generally limits productivity

S. T. Larned

1998-01-01

403

Recovery of phosphates from elemental phosphorus bearing wastes  

SciTech Connect

A process for oxidizing aqueous elemental phosphorus containing residues (sludges) to produce orthophosphate containing slurries suitable for subsequent reaction with ammonia to produce nitrogen and phosphate containing fertilizer products is presented. It comprises reacting aqueous elemental phosphorus containing residues with certain special mixtures of concentrated nitric acid and sulfuric acid to effect the conversion of the elemental phosphorus into mostly orthophosphoric acid and very little orthophosphorus acid with the relative ratios of the two acids being dependent upon the mole ratio of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}:HNO{sub 3} employed in the processing. The resulting aqueous reaction intermediate is neutralized with ammonia during processing to a fluid or solid fertilizer product. Prior to the conversion to products, the aqueous reaction intermediate may be subjected to a solids separation step to remove insoluble salts of certain environmentally undesirable metals, such as Pb, Cd, Ba, and Cr.

Edwards, R.E.; Moore, O.E.; Sullivan, J.M.

1994-10-01

404

Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge ash through an electrodialytic process.  

PubMed

The electrodialytic separation process (ED) was applied to sewage sludge ash (SSA) aiming at phosphorus (P) recovery. As the SSA may have high heavy metals contents, their removal was also assessed. Two SSA were sampled, one immediately after incineration (SA) and the other from an open deposit (SB). Both samples were ED treated as stirred suspensions in sulphuric acid for 3, 7 and 14days. After 14days, phosphorus was mainly mobilized towards the anode end (approx. 60% in the SA and 70% in the SB), whereas heavy metals mainly electromigrated towards the cathode end. The anolyte presented a composition of 98% of P, mainly as orthophosphate, and 2% of heavy metals. The highest heavy metal removal was achieved for Cu (ca. 80%) and the lowest for Pb and Fe (between 4% and 6%). The ED showed to be a viable method for phosphorus recovery from SSA, as it promotes the separation of P from the heavy metals. PMID:24656469

Guedes, Paula; Couto, Nazaré; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

2014-05-01

405

The adsorption process during inorganic phosphorus removal by cultured periphyton.  

PubMed

To explain the detailed process involved in phosphorus removal by periphyton, the periphyton dominated by photoautotrophic microorganisms was employed in this study to remove inorganic phosphorus (P i ) from wastewater, and the removal kinetics and isotherms were then evaluated for the P i removal process. Results showed that the periphyton was capable of effectively removing P i that could completely remove the P i in 24 h at an initial P i concentration of 13 mg P L(-1). Furthermore, the P i removal process by the periphyton was dominated by adsorption at initial stage (~24 h), which involved physical mechanistic process. However, this P i adsorption process was significantly influenced by environmental conditions. This work provides an insight into the understanding of phosphorus adsorption by periphyton or similar microbial aggregates. PMID:24728572

Lu, Haiying; Yang, Linzhang; Shabbir, Sadaf; Wu, Yonghong

2014-07-01

406

Method for processing wastes resulting from production of phosphorus  

SciTech Connect

The method comprises processing slime and off-gases resulting from the production of phosphorus with an aqueous solution of copper sulphate having a concentration of from 15 to 50% at a temperature within the range of from 20* to 80* C. As a result, two products are obtained, i.e., a liquid product and a solid one. The solid product containing mainly copper phosphide as well as fluorides and chlorides of alkali metals and silicon, and silicates of calcium and aluminum, is used as a modifying and refining agent for hypereutectic silumines and for the manufacture of a copper-phosphorus alloy. The liquid product containing phosphoric acid, sulphuric acid and copper sulphate is used as starting product for the preparation of a copper-containing fertilizer. The method according to the present invention makes it possible to modify the production of phosphorus so as to eliminate the formation of secondary wastes and improve the environmental control.

Alzhanov, T.M.; Bykov, V.I.; Chernogorenko, V.B.; Dmitrenko, V.V.; Ishkhanov, E.S.; Kipchakbaev, A.D.; Koverya, V.M.; Lynchak, K.A.; Markovsky, E.A.; Muchnik, S.V.; Pobortsev, M.E.; Sapian, V.G.; Sergienko, V.Y.; Vopilov, A.N.

1980-03-11

407

Phosphorus in the young supernova remnant Cassiopeia A.  

PubMed

Phosphorus ((31)P), which is essential for life, is thought to be synthesized in massive stars and dispersed into interstellar space when these stars explode as supernovae (SNe). Here, we report on near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the young SN remnant Cassiopeia A, which show that the abundance ratio of phosphorus to the major nucleosynthetic product iron ((56)Fe) in SN material is up to 100 times the average ratio of the Milky Way, confirming that phosphorus is produced in SNe. The observed range is compatible with predictions from SN nucleosynthetic models but not with the scenario in which the chemical elements in the inner SN layers are completely mixed by hydrodynamic instabilities during the explosion. PMID:24337291

Koo, Bon-Chul; Lee, Yong-Hyun; Moon, Dae-Sik; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Raymond, John C

2013-12-13

408

Acid-soluble phosphorus compounds in mammalian semen  

PubMed Central

1. A method is described for the extraction, purification and separation of acid-soluble phosphorus compounds from mammalian semen. [8-14C]ATP and [8-14C]AMP were used as internal recovery standards to measure the breakdown and loss of these nucleotides in the procedure. 2. Bull, ram, boar and stallion semen was separated into seminal plasma and spermatozoa and the two fractions were examined separately. The overall composition of the mixture of the phosphorus compounds extracted from the two fractions was similar for the four species. 3. Glycerylphosphorylcholine and glycerylphosphorylinositol were the two phosphorus compounds identified in extracts of seminal plasma. ATP, ADP, AMP, GTP, GDP, NAD, fructose 1,6-diphosphate and glucose 6-phosphate were identified in extracts prepared from spermatozoa.

Brooks, D. E.

1970-01-01

409

THE DISRUPTION AND FUELING OF M33  

SciTech Connect

The disruption of the M33 galaxy is evident from its extended gaseous structure. We present new data from the Galactic Arecibo L-Band Feed Array H I (GALFA-H I) Survey that show the full extent and detailed spatial and kinematic structure of M33's neutral hydrogen. Over 18% of the H I mass of M33 (M{sub HI{sub t{sub o{sub t}}}}=1.4x10{sup 9} M {sub sun}) is found beyond the star-forming disk as traced in the far-ultraviolet (FUV). The most distinct features are extended warps, an arc from the northern warp to the disk, diffuse gas surrounding the galaxy, and a southern cloud with a filament back to the galaxy. The features extend out to 22 kpc from the galaxy center (18 kpc from the edge of the FUV disk), and the gas is directly connected to M33's disk. Only five discrete clouds (i.e., gas not directly connected to M33 in position-velocity space) are cataloged in the vicinity of M33, and these clouds show similar properties to Galactic and M31 halo clouds. M33's gaseous features most likely originate from the tidal disruption of M33 by M31 1-3 Gyr ago as shown by an orbit analysis which results in a tidal radius <15 kpc in the majority of M33's possible orbits. M33 is now beyond the disruptive gravitational influence of M31, and the gas appears to be returning to M33's disk and redistributing its star formation fuel. M33's high mean velocity dispersion in the disk (approx18.5 km s{sup -1}) may also be consistent with the previous interaction and high rate of star formation. M33 will either exhaust its star formation fuel in the next few Gyrs or eventually become star formation fuel for M31. The latter represents the accretion of a large gaseous satellite by a spiral galaxy, similar to the Magellanic Clouds' relationship to the Galaxy.

Putman, M. E. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Peek, J. E. G. [Astronomy Department, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Muratov, A.; Gnedin, O. Y.; Hsu, W.; Heiles, C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Douglas, K. A.; Korpela, E. J. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Stanimirovic, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI 53706-1582 (United States); Gibson, S. J. [Arecibo Observatory, National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, Arecibo, PR 00612 (United States)

2009-10-01

410

The Disruption and Fueling of M33  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The disruption of the M33 galaxy is evident from its extended gaseous structure. We present new data from the Galactic Arecibo L-Band Feed Array H I (GALFA-H I) Survey that show the full extent and detailed spatial and kinematic structure of M33's neutral hydrogen. Over 18% of the H I mass of M33 (M_HI_{tot}=1.4 × 10^9 M sun) is found beyond the star-forming disk as traced in the far-ultraviolet (FUV). The most distinct features are extended warps, an arc from the northern warp to the disk, diffuse gas surrounding the galaxy, and a southern cloud with a filament back to the galaxy. The features extend out to 22 kpc from the galaxy center (18 kpc from the edge of the FUV disk), and the gas is directly connected to M33's disk. Only five discrete clouds (i.e., gas not directly connected to M33 in position-velocity space) are cataloged in the vicinity of M33, and these clouds show similar properties to Galactic and M31 halo clouds. M33's gaseous features most likely originate from the tidal disruption of M33 by M31 1-3 Gyr ago as shown by an orbit analysis which results in a tidal radius <15 kpc in the majority of M33's possible orbits. M33 is now beyond the disruptive gravitational influence of M31, and the gas appears to be returning to M33's disk and redistributing its star formation fuel. M33's high mean velocity dispersion in the disk (~18.5 km s-1) may also be consistent with the previous interaction and high rate of star formation. M33 will either exhaust its star formation fuel in the next few Gyrs or eventually become star formation fuel for M31. The latter represents the accretion of a large gaseous satellite by a spiral galaxy, similar to the Magellanic Clouds' relationship to the Galaxy.

Putman, M. E.; Peek, J. E. G.; Muratov, A.; Gnedin, O. Y.; Hsu, W.; Douglas, K. A.; Heiles, C.; Stanimirovic, S.; Korpela, E. J.; Gibson, S. J.

2009-10-01

411

Interleukin-33 in the Human Placenta  

PubMed Central

Objective Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is the newest member of the IL-1 cytokine family, a group of key regulators of inflammation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether IL-33 is expressed in the human placenta and to investigate its expression in the context of acute and chronic chorioamnionitis. Methods Placental tissues were obtained from five groups of patients: (1) normal pregnancy at term without labor (n=10); (2) normal pregnancy at term in labor (n=10); (3) preterm labor without inflammation (n=10); (4) preterm labor with acute chorioamnionitis (n=10); and (5) preterm labor with chronic chorioamnionitis (n=10). Immunostaining was performed to determine IL-33 protein expression patterns in the placental disk, chorioamniotic membranes, and umbilical cord. mRNA expression of IL-33 and its receptor IL1RL1 (ST2) was measured in primary amnion epithelial and mesenchymal cells (AECs and AMCs, n=4) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, n=4) treated with IL-1? (1ng/ml and 10ng/ml) and CXCL10 (0.5ng/ml and 1ng/ml or 5ng/ml). Results 1) Nuclear IL-33 expression was found in endothelial and smooth muscle cells in the placenta, chorioamniotic membranes, and umbilical cord; 2) IL-33 was detected in the nucleus of CD14+ macrophages in the chorioamniotic membranes, chorionic plate, and umbilical cord, and in the cytoplasm of myofibroblasts in the Wharton’s jelly; 3) acute (but not chronic) chorioamnionitis was associated with the presence of IL-33+ macrophages in the chorioamniotic membranes and umbilical cord; 4) expression of IL-33 or IL1RL1 (ST2) mRNA in AECs was undetectable; 5) IL-33 mRNA expression increased in AMCs and HUVECs after IL-1? treatment but did not change with CXCL10 treatment; and 6) IL1RL1 (ST2) expression decreased in AMCs and increased in HUVECs after IL-1? but not CXCL10 treatment. Conclusions IL-33 is expressed in the nucleus of placental endothelial cells, CD14+ macrophages, and myofibroblasts in the Wharton’s jelly. IL-1? can induce the expression of IL-33 and its receptor. Protein expression of IL-33 is detectable in macrophages of the chorioamniotic membranes in acute (but not chronic) chorioamnionitis.

Topping, Vanessa; Romero, Roberto; Than, Nandor Gabor; Tarca, Adi L.; Xu, Zhonghui; Kim, Sun Young; Wang, Bing; Yeo, Lami; Kim, Chong Jai; Hassan, Sonia S.; Kim, Jung-Sun

2012-01-01

412

Degradation Mechanisms of SOFC Anodes in Coal Gas Containing Phosphorus  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of phosphorus in synthetic coal gas with the nickel-based anode of solid oxide fuel cells has been investigated. Tests with both anode-supported and electrolyte-supported button cells were performed at 700 to 800oC in synthetic coal gas containing 0.5 to 10 ppm phosphorus, introduced as phosphine. Two primary modes of degradation were observed. The most obvious was the formation of a series of bulk nickel phosphide phases, of which Ni3P, Ni5P2, Ni12P5 and Ni2P were identified. Phosphorus was essentially completely captured by the anode, forming a sharp boundary between converted and unconverted anode portions. These products partially coalesced into large grains, which eventually affected electronic percolation through the anode support. Thermodynamic calculations predict that formation of the first binary nickel phosphide phase is possible at sub-parts per billion concentrations in coal gas at temperatures relevant to fuel cell operation. A second mode of degradation is attributed to surface diffusion of phosphorus to the active anode/electrolyte interface to form an adsorption layer. Direct evidence for the presence of such an adsorption layer on nickel was obtained by surface spectroscopies on fracture surfaces. Further, cell performance losses were observed well before the entire anode was converted to bulk nickel phosphide. Impedance spectroscopy revealed that these losses were primarily due to growth in electrodic resistance, whereas large ohmic increases were visible when the entire anode was converted to nickel phosphide phases. The rate of resistance growth for anode-supported cells showed a very low dependence on phosphorus concentration, attributed to phosphorus activity control within the anode by bulk nickel phosphide products.

Marina, Olga A.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Edwards, Danny J.; Coffey, Greg W.; Pederson, Larry R.

2010-01-22

413

Magnetic spin resonance of hydrogenic phosphorus donors in silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements of an ensemble of phosphorus donors in silicon has lead to following intriguing discoveries. Electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) at low magnetic fields (<200G) has revealed transitions involving superposition states between phosphorus electron and nuclear spins. Such states emerge because the hyperfine term overwhelm the electron Zeeman term at such low magnetic fields. A continuous control of the degree of the superposition by applied magnetic field has been demonstrated. Extremely long coherence times ˜0.6 s at 2K of electron spins bound to phosphorus and ˜3 s at 6K of ^31P nuclear spins have been obtained by pulse-EPR and ENDOR of an isotopically enriched ^28Si single crystal (99.992%). Making the Si crystal nearly monoisotopic led to elimination of docoherence due to ^29Si nuclear spins. Not only the electron spin but also phosphorus nuclear spin decoherence time was found to depend strongly on the phosphorus concentration in the range 8x10^13-4x10^15 cm-3. Unexpected observation of shifts in ^31P nuclear transition energies (ENDOR peak positions) with the change in the background silicon isotopic composition is also reported. The four nearest neighbor silicon isotopes of phosphorus are shown to affect strongly the nuclear transition energy of ^31P. Experimental results will be discussed in the context of isotope effect arising from differences in the nuclear mass and spins. This work has been performed in collaborations with S. Tojo, H. Morishita, M. Eto, L. S. Vlasenko, and groups lead by K. Semba, M. L. W. Thewalt, S. A. Lyon, J. J. L. Morton, and M. S. Brandt. Financial supports by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research #18001002, NONOQUINE, JST-DFG Strategic Cooperative Program, and Global Center of Excellence at Keio University are greatly appreciated.

Itoh, Kohei

2010-03-01

414

First-principles molecular dynamics study on simple cubic calcium: comparison with simple cubic phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the dynamical behavior of simple cubic (sc) calcium is investigated by first-principles molecular dynamics (MD) simulation at 40 GPa and 300 K and is compared with that of sc phosphorus. As a result, we found that calcium shows larger structural fluctuation through the MD simulation than phosphorus but the dynamical structures of calcium and phosphorus both become the sc

Takahiro Ishikawa; Hitose Nagara; Naoshi Suzuki; Katsuya Shimizu

2012-01-01

415

A Phosphorus Budget, Model, and Load Reduction Strategy For Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phosphorus budget and mass balance model were developed for Lake Champlain in order to identify load reductions necessary to attain interim in-lake total phosphorus concentration criteria established in a water quality agreement between New York, Quebec, and Vermont Total phosphorus loadings were measured from 31 tributaries, 88 wastewater discharges, and direct precipitation. Mean annual tributary loadings were estimated using

Eric Smeltzer; Scott Quinn

1996-01-01

416

A novel wastewater treatment process: simultaneous nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) via the nitrite pathway and anaerobic-anoxic enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) are two processes that can significantly reduce the COD demand for nitrogen and phosphorus removal. The combination of these two processes has the potential of achieving simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal with a minimal requirement for COD. A lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was

R. J. Zeng; R. Lemaire; Z. Yuan; J. Keller

417

Chemical mechanical polishing of PSG and BPSG dielectric films: the effect of phosphorus and boron concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical-mechanical polishing of blanket and patterned oxide films doped with phosphorus and boron has been studied. FTIR was used to characterize the film microstructure. Experimental results show that an increase of phosphorus level promoted the polish rate of PSG film. We also found that increasing the boron content enhanced the polish rate of BPSG films although phosphorus contents is decreased.

Chi-Wen Liu; Bau-Tong Dai; Ching-Fa Yeh

1995-01-01

418

Modeling of phosphorus dynamics in aquatic sediments: I—model development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is developed to study the phosphorus dynamics in aquatic sediments and to conduct dynamic predictions of phosphorus release across a sediment–water interface. The model focuses on the sediment active layer below the sediment–water interface and is based on primary mechanisms regulating phosphorus behavior in sediments, including effective diffusion, bioturbation mixing and burial processes (transport), organic decomposition, sorption kinetic

Hong Wang; Adhityan Appan; John S. Gulliver

2003-01-01

419

Modeling Phosphorus Dynamics in a Shallow Lake During an Episodic Event  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind, current, suspended sediment, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and phosphorus data were collected in Lake Okeechobee, a shallow lake in south Florida, during a storm event in early 1993. Measured field data indicate that wind and wind-generated waves are major factors responsible for sediment resuspension in the lake. Data also show that soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total dissolved phosphorus

Xinjian Chen; Y. Peter Sheng

2003-01-01

420

Effect of Phosphorus on Survival of Escherichia coli in Drinking Water Biofilms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of phosphorus addition on survival of Escherichia coli in an experimental drinking water distri- bution system was investigated. Higher phosphorus concentrations prolonged the survival of culturable E. coli in water and biofilms. Although phosphorus addition did not affect viable but not culturable (VBNC) E. coli in biofilms, these structures could act as a reservoir of VBNC forms of

Talis Juhna; Dagne Birzniece; Janis Rubulis

2007-01-01

421

Relationship of Urine Dopamine with Phosphorus Homeostasis in Humans: The Heart and Soul Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Urine dopamine (DA) is produced in the proximal tubule and has been found to increase in response to dietary phosphorus intake, and to contribute to greater urinary phosphorus excretion in animal models. Whether urine DA is associated with phosphorus homeostasis in humans is uncertain. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 884 outpatients. DA was measured from 24-hour urine

Nisha Bansal; Chi-yuan Hsu; Mary Whooley; Anders H. Berg; Joachim H. Ix

2012-01-01

422

Daytime Rhythm and Treatment-Related Fluctuations of Serum Phosphorus Concentration in Dialysis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Serum phosphorus concentrations reflect a dynamic balance between generation, exchanges, and removal. Time-averaged phosphorus concentrations (TACphos) reflect the overall exposure better than single time-point concentrations, especially in dialysis patients treated with an intermittent modality. The present study aimed to determine the daytime rhythm of phosphorus in dialysis patients and to compare the TACphos in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)

Liesbeth Viaene; Björn Meijers; Yves Vanrenterghem; Pieter Evenepoel

2012-01-01

423

A diatom-phosphorus transfer function for shallow, eutrophic ponds in southeast England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shallow ponds in southeast England are often eutrophic with high phosphorus concentrations. The aim of this study was to develop a diatom-phosphorus ‘transfer function’ to enable past phosphorus levels in such waters to be inferred from the sediment record. A water chemistry survey of 123 randomly chosen, shallow, artificial ponds in southeast England was carried out. Principal components analysis (PCA)

Helen Bennion

1994-01-01

424

The nitrogen and phosphorus dependence of algal biomass in lakes: An empirical and theoretical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of mean growing season concentrations of chlorophyll, total phosphorus (TP), and total nitrogen (TN) in 228 north latitude lakes confirms previous observations that chlo- rophyll yield is dependent both on the phosphorus concentration and on the TN:TP ratio. Of two modified chlorophyll models which depend explicitly on both nitrogen and phosphorus developed and tested, one, a multiple regression

Val H. Smith

1982-01-01

425

Summer Total Phosphorus in Lakes: A Map of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan, USA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A map of summer total phosphorus in lakes has been compiled for Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan to clarify regional patterns in attainable lake trophic state. Total phosphorus was used as a measure of lake trophic state because: phosphorus plays a cent...

J. M. Omernik D. P. Larsen C. M. Rohm S. E. Clarke

1988-01-01

426

Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Phosphorus Considerations - Module 19, Objectives, and Script.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The treatment of wastewater phosphorus via land application includes both chemical and biological mechanisms. Chemically, phosphorus reacts with iron, aluminum, and calcium compounds in the soil providing efficient removal over a wide range of pH values. Phosphorus is also absorbed by rooted plants which, upon harvest, constitute a further removal…

Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

427

Not all that glistens is gold: civilian white phosphorus burn injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

White phosphorus is an incendiary agent used in particular types of ammunition. Exposure to phosphorus-containing compounds may cause severe burn injuries. Systemic effects may be fatal for the casualty even though only a small surface of the body is burned. We report 4 cases of white phosphorus burn injuries due to an exceptional accident mechanism. All casualties were holidaymakers in

Matthias Frank; Uli Schmucker; Thomas Nowotny; Axel Ekkernkamp; Peter Hinz

2008-01-01

428

Effect of Coagulants on Electrochemical Process for Phosphorus Removal from Activated Sludge Effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Environmental Protection Organization of Iran, maximum permissible concentration of residual phosphorus in treated municipal wastewater is 1 mg \\/l-P. The total average phosphorus concentration in raw municipal wastewater is about 8 mg \\/ l; about 70 percent of the incoming phosphorus normally is discharged with secondary treatment plant effluents. In this research, the role of adding different kinds

AR Mesdaghinia; D Rabbani; S Nasseri; F Vaezi

429

Calcium acetate, an effective phosphorus binder in patients with renal failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium acetate, an effective phosphorus binder in patients with renal failure. Calcium salts are increasingly used as phosphorus binders in patients with chronic renal failure. Calcium carbonate is the principal salt presently utilized, however, other calcium salts may be more effective and safer phosphorus binders. Theoretical calculations, in vitro experiments, and in vivo studies in normal subjects have shown calcium

Martin L Mai; Michael Emmett; Mudassir S Sheikh; Carol A Santa Ana; Lawrence Schiller; John S Fordtran

1989-01-01

430

Analysis of red phosphorus using a pyrolysis gas chromatograph\\/mass spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A qualitative method has been developed for the analysis of red phosphorus found in clandestine methamphetamine manufacturing laboratories. This method converts the red allotropic form of phosphorus into the white allotropic form of phosphorus using heat (The Merck Index—An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals, eleventh ed., 1989, p. 1167) from a pyrolysis unit. The pyrolysis unit is interfaced to

J. Schieferecke; D. Worley

2004-01-01

431

A non-linear model of phosphorus flux in the phytoplankton of a temperate eutrophic reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus fluxes in phytoplankton, between intracellular andexternal compartments have been measured, in the epilimnion ofatemperate eutrophic reservoir, by means of phosphorusdepletionexperiments performed in situ. Flow rates betweencompartments were plotted against the phosphorus concentrationofthe compartments' origin of the flows and fitted to saturationfunctions.A value of phosphorus cell subsistence quota for the wholecommunity has been computed from the X-intercept values ofeveryfunction. The

José A. Fernández; Vicente Clavero; José A. Villalobos; F. Xavier Niell

1997-01-01

432

Platelet adhesion on phosphorus-incorporated tetrahedral amorphous carbon films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The haemocompatibility of phosphorus-incorporated tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C:P) films, synthesized by filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique with PH 3 as the dopant source, was assessed by in vitro platelet adhesion tests. Results based on scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurements reveal that phosphorus incorporation improves the wettability and blood compatibility of ta-C film. Our studies may provide a novel approach for the design and synthesis of doped ta-C films to repel platelet adhesion and reduce thrombosis risk.

Liu, Aiping; Zhu, Jiaqi; Liu, Meng; Dai, Zhifei; Han, Xiao; Han, Jiecai

2008-11-01

433

Fire-resistant phosphorus containing polyimides and copolyimides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phosphorus-containing polyimides and copolyimides are synthesized in a two-step polycondensation reaction from 1- (diorganooxyphosphonl)methly 2,4- and 2,6-diaminobenzenes and tetracarboxylic anhydride. The diorgano position of the diorganooxyphosphonyl group includes alkyl, such as ethyl, substituted alkyl, such as 2-chloroethyl, and aryl such as phenyl. The tetracarboxylic anhydries include compounds such as pyrometallitic dianhydride and benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polyimides is reduced by incorporation of the (dialkoxyphosphonyl)methyl groups. The phosphorus-containing copolyimides show a considerably higher degree of fire-resistance as compared to that of the corresponding common polyimides.

Mikroyannidis, J. A. (inventor)

1985-01-01

434

Phosphorus containing PET and PEN by direct esterification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of various flame retardant copolyesters containing various amounts of phosphorus were synthesized by direct esterification process using the compound of [(6-oxido-6H-dibenz ?c,e??1,2? oxaphosphorin-6-yl)methyl]-butanedioic acid (ODOP-BDA) and bis (hydroxyethyl) terephthalate (BHET) or bis (hydroxyethyl) naphthalate (BHEN). The copolyesters having inherent viscosity of 0.517–0.617 dl\\/g were obtained in quantitative yield. These phosphorus-containing copolyesters have good thermal and flame retardant properties.

C. S Wang; J. Y Shieh; Y. M Sun

1999-01-01

435

Use of phosphorus oxychloride in synthesizing nucleotides and oligonucleotides  

PubMed Central

Procedures are described for phosphorylating protected nucleotides, oligonucleotides and phosphoramidate oligonucleotide derivatives at the 3?-hydroxyl group. The conditions (phosphorylation with phosphorus oxychloride and pyridine in dioxane followed by hydrolysis with aqueous pyridine) are sufficiently mild that base labile (trifluoroacetylamino; ?-cyanoethyl phosphotriester) and acid labile (O-monomethoxytrityl; phosphoramidate) functions are retained intact. Application of the technique is illustrated by the synthesis of dpT, dTp, d(CF3CONH)Tp, dTpNTp, and dTpNTpNTp. In addition, the utilization of phosphorus oxychloride in joining thymidine derivatives and dinucleoside phosphotriester blocks via phosphodiester links is described.

Mungall, W.S.; Greene, G.L.; Miller, P.S.; Letsinger, R.L.

1974-01-01

436

[Study on the nitrogen and phosphorus uptake ability of four plants cultivated on floating-bed].  

PubMed

Plant floating-bed tested engineering was constructed for eutrophication control in Dian-shan Lake, the characteristics and nutrient uptake abilities of Canna indica, Iris pseudacorus, Thalia dealbata and Lythrum salicaria were compared. It shows that using upper and lower nylon nets to fix the plants on the floating-bed is beneficial for them to grow and reproduce rapidly. Survival rates of Canna indica, lris pseudacorus, Thalia dealbata and Lythrum salicaria are 83.33%, 83.33%, 76.67% and 53.33% respectively. Ramets of Canna indica and Thalia dealbata are 64 and 78 respectively in November, and the biomass (fresh weight) of these two plants are 32.0 and 38.6 kg per individual plant. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) content in stems/leaves of Canna indica and Thalia dealbata are greater than those in roots. The ratio between stems/leaves and roots of N, P content in Canna indica are 1.40 and 1.21 respectively, while 1.59 and 1.08 in Thalia dealbata. The difference of cumulative N, P content in plants is mostly on account of different plant biomass. N uptake ability of Thalia dealbata is the highest, which is 457.11 g per square; Canna indica has the highest P uptake ability, which is 41.29 g per square. N, P uptake ability of stems/leaves in Canna indica are 2.17 and 1.86 times higher than that of roots, while 1.73 and 1.17 times higher respectively in Thalia dealbata. Thus, Canna indica and Thalia dealbata are recommended as the floating-bed plants to control the eutrophication in Dian-shan Lake. PMID:21717738

Wu, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Min; Wu, Jian; Jiang, Yue; Sun, Cong-Jun; Cao, Yong

2011-04-01

437

M33 HII regions SED (Relano+, 2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the continuum UV emission of M 33, we used the data from GALEX, in particular the data distributed by de Paz et al. (2007, Cat. J/ApJS/173/185). To trace the ionised gas, we used the narrow-line H? image of M 33 obtained by Greenawalt (1998, Ph.D. Thesis, New Mexico state University). Dust emission can be investigated through the mid-IR (MIR) and FIR data of M 33 obtained with the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and Multiband Imaging Photometer (MIPS). (3 data files).

Relano, M.; Verley, S.; Perez, I.; Kramer, C.; Calzetti, D.; Xilouris, E. M.; Boquien, M.; Abreu-Vicente, J.; Combes, F.; Israel, F.; Tabatabaei, F. S.; Braine, J.; Buchbender, C.; Gonzalez, M.; Gratier, P.; Lord, S.; Mookerjea, B.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; van der Werf, P.

2013-09-01

438

Red supergiants in M33 galaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work the spatial distribution of the red supergiants in M33 galaxy is discussed. The observational data exhibit stellar groups of high stellar density. The smallest 60 groups with stellar density corresponding to signal-to-noise ratio S/N > 5 have a mean size of 8.1" (?30 pc). They are real stellar associations in M33. The size of the largest stellar groups found in M33 is of about 200" (~0.8 kpc) and is typical for a stellar complex.

Vassilev, O.; Vassileva, L.; Ivanov, G.; Vassilev, D.

2002-07-01

439

The phosphorus cycle, phosphogenesis and marine phosphate-rich deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus (in the form of phosphate) is an essential nutrient and energy carrier on many different levels of life, and a key element in mediating between living and lifeless parts of the biosphere. One of the most important aspects of the phosphorus cycle is its vital role in governing productivity, thereby interacting with the exogenic part of the carbon cycle, which, in turn, is important in regulating Earth's climate. Phosphorus is a prime element to be traced in Earth's history, because it allows for the reconstruction of long-term feedback mechanisms between climate, environment and ecology, and of global change as such. Marine sedimentary phosphate deposits are particularly suited to study aspects of the phosphorus cycle, because, in the case of ubiquity, their origin may result from a general acceleration of the global phosphorus cycle. Sources of sedimentary phosphate are microbial breakdown of buried organic matter and redox-driven phosphate desorption from iron and manganese oxyhydroxides. Dissolved sea-water phosphate represents an additional source which may become important in the formation of phosphatic hardgrounds. The main locus of phosphogenesis is near the sediment-water interface, but phosphogenesis also occurs at greater sediment depths. Current-induced winnowing and transport processes along the sea floor concentrate phosphate precipitates into deposits, which exhibit internal stratification patterns typical for the prevailing hydraulic energy regime. In a sequence-stratigraphic context, phosphate deposits preferentially occur along marine or maximum flooding surfaces. Consequent sedimentary reworking may result in the transfer of phosphates to highstand or lowstand deposits. (Bio-)chemical weathering on continents represents the most significant source of bioavailable phosphorus. This implies that long-term changes in marine phosphorus levels — and with these changes in marine ecology, productivity rates and ratios of exported carbonate carbon and organic carbon — are a response to changes in continental weathering rates. A compilation of marine sedimentary phosphorus burial rates for the last 160 Myr suggests that natural variations have occurred that span one order of magnitude. For the late Jurassic, Cretaceous and most of the Paleogene, the phosphorus cycle appears to have been accelerated in times of climate warming, which was most likely due to the spreading of zones of humid climate and more intense continental weathering. In the Neogene, the phosphorus cycle appears to have responded to changes in glacially induced weathering. This suggests that uniform interpretations with respect to the emplacement of major phosphorite deposits should be treated with caution. Integrated analyses of the sedimentary and biogeochemical context of phosphorite occurrences may help to identify paleoenvironmental conditions, as well as to improve our understanding of periods of enhanced phosphate accumulation, periods which were usually characterized by steep gradients in the development of climate and environment. With regard to the complexity of feedback mechanisms between the phosphorus cycle and the biosphere, the present-day input rates of phosphate into the world's oceans should be of great concern. They are more than doubled by anthropogenic means and affect ecological systems on a rapidly increasing scale.

Föllmi, K. B.

1996-04-01

440

Phosphorus Chemistry and Bacterial Community Composition Interact in Brackish Sediments Receiving Agricultural Discharges  

PubMed Central

Background External nutrient discharges have caused eutrophication in many estuaries and coastal seas such as the Baltic Sea. The sedimented nutrients can affect bacterial communities which, in turn, are widely believed to contribute to release of nutrients such as phosphorus from the sediment. Methods We investigated relationships between bacterial communities and chemical forms of phosphorus as well as elements involved in its cycling in brackish sediments using up-to-date multivariate statistical methods. Bacterial community composition was determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and cloning of the 16S rRNA gene. Results and Conclusions The bacterial community composition differed along gradients of nutrients, especially of different phosphorus forms, from the estuary receiving agricultural phosphorus loading to the open sea. This suggests that the chemical composition of sediment phosphorus, which has been affected by riverine phosphorus loading, influenced on bacterial communities. Chemical and spatial parameters explained 25% and 11% of the variation in bacterial communities. Deltaproteobacteria, presumptively sulphate and sulphur/iron reducing, were strongly associated to chemical parameters, also when spatial autocorrelation was taken into account. Sulphate reducers correlated positively with labile organic phosphorus and total nitrogen in the open sea sediments. Sulphur/iron reducers and sulphate reducers linked to iron reduction correlated positively with aluminium- and iron-bound phosphorus, and total iron in the estuary. The sulphate and sulphur/iron reducing bacteria can thus have an important role both in the mineralization and mobilization of nutrients from sediment. Significance Novelty in our study is that relationships between bacterial community composition and different phosphorus forms, instead of total phosphorus, were investigated. Total phosphorus does not necessarily bring out interactions between bacteria and phosphorus chemistry since proportions of easily usable mobile (reactive) phosphorus and immobile phosphorus forms in different sediments can vary. Our study suggested possible feedbacks between different forms of phosphorus and bacterial community composition.

Sinkko, Hanna; Sihvonen, Leila M.; Sivonen, Kaarina; Leivuori, Mirja; Rantanen, Matias; Paulin, Lars; Lyra, Christina

2011-01-01

441

12 CFR 1209.33 - Interlocutory review.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules of Practice and Procedure § 1209.33 Interlocutory review. ...to the Director only in accordance with the procedures set forth in this section. (b) Scope...

2012-01-01

442

42 CFR 8.33 - Written decision.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...33 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...each party. (c) Public notice and communications to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). (1) If...effective immediately and the public will be notified by...

2013-10-01

443

30 CFR 33.1 - Purpose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General Provisions § 33.1 Purpose...requirements for dust collectors used in connection with rock drilling in coal mines to procure their certification as...

2010-07-01

444

30 CFR 33.1 - Purpose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General Provisions § 33.1 Purpose...requirements for dust collectors used in connection with rock drilling in coal mines to procure their certification as...

2009-07-01

445

30 CFR 33.38 - Electrical parts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.38 Electrical parts. (a) Units with electrical parts and...

2010-07-01

446

X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Liftoff  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wedge-shaped X-33 was a sub-scale technology demonstration prototype of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). Through demonstration flights and ground research, NASA's X-33 program was to provide the information needed for industry representatives such as Lockheed Martin (builder of the X-33 Venture Star) to decide by the year 2000 whether to proceed with the development of a full-scale, commercial RLV program. This program would dramatically increase reliability and lower the costs of putting a payload into space. This would in turn create new opportunities for space access and significantly improve U.S. economic competitiveness in the worldwide launch marketplace. NASA would be a customer, not the operator in the commercial RLV. The X-33 program was cancelled in 2001.

2004-01-01

447

19 CFR 159.33 - Proclaimed rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Conversion of Foreign Currency § 159.33 Proclaimed rate. If a rate of...in accordance with 31 U.S.C. 5151(b) for the currency involved, such proclaimed rate shall be...

2013-04-01

448

46 CFR 76.33-1 - Application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Smoke Detecting System, Details § 76.33-1 Application. (a) Where a smoke detecting system is installed, the provisions of this subpart, with the...

2013-10-01

449

46 CFR 76.33-5 - Zoning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Smoke Detecting System, Details § 76.33-5 Zoning. (a) The smoke detecting system shall be divided into...any particular alarm signal. (b) The smoke detecting zone shall not include...

2013-10-01

450

33 CFR 127.605 - Emergency outfits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01...605 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...that protects the head against impact; (4) Water resistant clothing that also...

2013-07-01

451

25 CFR 163.33 - Administrative appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.33 Administrative appeals. Any challenge to action under 25 CFR part 163 taken by...

2011-04-01

452

49 CFR 178.33-5 - Material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS...Linings § 178.33-5 Material. (a) Uniform quality steel plate such as black plate, electro-tin plate, hot dipped...uniform drawing quality. (b) Material with seams, cracks,...

2009-10-01

453

49 CFR 178.33-5 - Material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS...Linings § 178.33-5 Material. (a) Uniform quality steel plate such as black plate, electro-tin plate, hot dipped...uniform drawing quality. (b) Material with seams, cracks,...

2010-10-01

454

25 CFR 33.2 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...THE INTERIOR EDUCATION TRANSFER OF INDIAN EDUCATION FUNCTIONS § 33.2 Policy. ...Authority to perform education functions shall be delegated directly...Indian Education program functions to be performed at...

2013-04-01

455

25 CFR 33.7 - Implementing procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION TRANSFER OF INDIAN EDUCATION FUNCTIONS § 33.7 Implementing procedures...Affairs shall: (1) Implement the transfer for Indian education functions from the jurisdiction of Agency...

2013-04-01

456

33 CFR 336.0 - General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01...General. 336.0 Section 336.0 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS...island creation, or construction of underwater berms, the discharge will be...

2013-07-01

457

33 CFR 166.105 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters ...105 Section 166.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters ...be permitted. Temporary underwater obstacles may be permitted...in Subpart B. Aids to navigation approved by the...

2013-07-01

458

25 CFR 33.1 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION TRANSFER OF INDIAN EDUCATION FUNCTIONS § 33.1 Definitions. (a...Indian Tribes. (b) Early childhood means education activities serving the 0 to 8 year old...

2011-04-01

459

25 CFR 33.2 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION TRANSFER OF INDIAN EDUCATION FUNCTIONS § 33.2 Policy. It is the...control of Indian affairs in all matters relating to education shall be facilitated. (b) Authority...

2011-04-01

460

25 CFR 33.7 - Implementing procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION TRANSFER OF INDIAN EDUCATION FUNCTIONS § 33.7 Implementing procedures... (1) Implement the transfer for Indian education functions from the jurisdiction of...

2011-04-01

461

Expedition 33/34 Mission Overview  

NASA Video Gallery

The work now under way on board the International Space Station is designed to support deep space exploration in the future and provide benefits on earth today. The Expedition 33 crew members are w...

462

47 CFR 11.33 - EAS Decoder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...received. (iii) A signal is present at each audio input that is specified in § 11.33(a)(1). (6) Program Data Retention. The program data must be retained even with power removed. (7) Outputs. Decoders shall have the...

2009-10-01

463

32 CFR 806b.33 - Reviewing notices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Preparing and Publishing System Notices for the Federal Register § 806b.33 Reviewing notices. System managers will review and validate their Privacy Act system notices...

2013-07-01

464

33 CFR 151.05 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...in this subpart— Act means the Act to Prevent Pollution from Ships, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1901-1911). Antarctica means the area south of 60 degrees south latitude. Cargo associated wastes means all materials which have...

2012-07-01

465

33 CFR 151.05 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...in this subpart— Act means the Act to Prevent Pollution from Ships, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1901-1911). Antarctica means the area south of 60 degrees south latitude. Cargo associated wastes means all materials which have...

2011-07-01

466

14 CFR 171.33 - Reports.  

...Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Nondirectional Radio Beacon Facilities § 171.33 Reports. The owner of each facility to which...

2014-01-01

467

19 CFR 123.33 - [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through the United States § 123.33...

2013-04-01

468

22 CFR 33.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...33.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY FISHERMEN'S PROTECTIVE ACT GUARANTY FUND PROCEDURES...loss, assuming a seller willing to sell and buyer willing to buy. Other direct charge. Any levy which is imposed in...

2010-04-01

469

22 CFR 33.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...33.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY FISHERMEN'S PROTECTIVE ACT GUARANTY FUND PROCEDURES...loss, assuming a seller willing to sell and buyer willing to buy. Other direct charge. Any levy which is imposed in...

2013-04-01

470

22 CFR 33.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...33.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY FISHERMEN'S PROTECTIVE ACT GUARANTY FUND PROCEDURES...loss, assuming a seller willing to sell and buyer willing to buy. Other direct charge. Any levy which is imposed in...

2009-04-01

471

Chemical and physical characterization of phosphorus smokes for inhalation exposure and toxicology studies. Final report. [Red phosphorus containing butyl rubber; white phosphorus impregnated in felt  

SciTech Connect

The chemical and physical properties of the aerosols produced from the combustion of red phosphorus containing butyl rubber (RPBR) and white phosphorus impregnated in felt (WPF) have been examined. The aerosols were produced at a uniform concentration by extruding softened raw material and burning the emerging filament or by igniting fragments of the formulations in a convective air flow. Aeorsol particle sizes were found to be within the respirable range, varying from 0.4 to 1.0 micrometers depending upon generation conditions and aerosol age at collection. Chemically, both RPBR and WPF aerosols were found to be very similar, composed primarily of water and phosphoric acids. Organic compounds and inorganic gases were detected only at trace levels. 11 references, 15 figures, 11 tables.

Ramsey, R.S.; Moneyhun, J.H.; Holmberg, R.W.

1985-04-01

472

X-33 Simulation Lab and Staff Engineers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-33 program engineers at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, monitor a flight simulation of the X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator as a 'flight' unfolds. The simulation provided flight trajectory data while flight control laws were being designed and developed. It also provided information which assisted X-33 developer Lockheed Martin in aerodynamic design of the vehicle. The X-33 program was a government/industry effort to design, build and fly a half-scale prototype that was to demonstrate in flight the new technologies needed for Lockheed Martin's proposed full-scale VentureStar Reusable Launch Vehicle. The X-33 was a wedged-shaped subscale technology demonstrator prototype of a potential future Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) that Lockheed Martin had dubbed VentureStar. The company had hoped to develop VentureStar early this century. Through demonstration flight and ground research, NASA's X-33 program was intended to provide the information needed for industry representatives such as Lockheed Martin to decide whether to proceed with the development of a full-scale, commercial RLV program. A full-scale, single-stage-to-orbit RLV was intended to dramatically increase reliability and lower costs of putting a pound of payload into space, from the current figure of $10,000 to $1,000. Reducing the cost associated with transporting payloads in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by using a commercial RLV was to create new opportunities for space access and significantly improve U.S. economic competitiveness in the world-wide launch marketplace. NASA expected to be a customer, not the operator, of the commercial RLV. The X-33 design was based on a lifting body shape with two revolutionary 'linear aerospike' rocket engines and a rugged metallic thermal protection system. The vehicle also had lightweight components and fuel tanks built to conform to the vehicle's outer shape. Time between X-33 flights was normally to have been seven days, but the program hoped to demonstrate a two-day turnaround between flights during the flight-test phase of the program. The X-33 was an unpiloted vehicle that took off vertically like a rocket and landed horizontally like an airplane. It was to reach altitudes of up to 50 miles and high hypersonic speeds. The X-33 program was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and was to be launched from a special launch site on Edwards Air Force Base. Due to technical problems with the liquid hydrogen fuel tank, and the resulting cost increase and time delay, the X-33 program was cancelled in February 2001.

1997-01-01

473

Effect of phosphorus management on production and phosphorus balance in a rice (Oriza sativa L.)-wheat (Triticum aestivum) cropping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was carried out at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, for three crop years (2000–2001 to 2003–2004) to find out the effect of rates and sources of phosphorus on production and phosphorus balance in a rice-wheat system. Phosphorus application significantly increased productivity and P uptake of rice-wheat cropping system and resulted in an increase in extractable

Shri Niwas Sharma; Rajendra Prasad; Mohammadreza Davari; Moola Ram; Manoj Kumar Dwivedi

2011-01-01

474

Effect of phosphorus concentration and method of preparation on the structure of the oxide form of phosphorus-nickel-tungsten\\/alumina hydrotreating catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two series of phosphorus containing NiW\\/Al2O3 catalysts were prepared by different preparation methods and varying phosphorus content from 0 to 7.6 wt.% P2O5. The influence of the phosphorus concentration and the preparation procedure on the structure and the dispersion of the compounds formed in the oxide form of the catalysts was studied. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and

P. Atanasova; T. Tabakova; Ch. Vladov; T. Halachev; A. Lopez Agudo

1997-01-01

475

Synthesis, structure and reactivity of rare-earth metal complexes containing anionic phosphorus ligands.  

PubMed

A comprehensive review of structurally characterized rare-earth metal complexes containing anionic phosphorus ligands is presented. Since rare-earth elements form hard ions and phosphorus is considered as a soft ligand, the rare-earth metal phosphorus coordination is regarded as a less favorite combination. Three classes of phosphorus ligands, (1) the monoanionic organophosphide ligands (PR2(-)) bearing one negative charge on the phosphorus atom; (2) the dianionic phosphinidene (PR(2-)) and P(3-) ligands; and (3) the pure inorganic polyphosphide ligands (Pn(x-)), are included here. Particular attention has been paid to the synthesis, structure, and reactivity of the rare-earth metal phosphides. PMID:23945727

Li, Tianshu; Kaercher, Sabrina; Roesky, Peter W

2014-01-01

476

Beneficial effect of phosphorus on the creep behavior of Inconel 718  

SciTech Connect

Phosphorus has long been regarded as a harmful impurity in superalloys. However, recent research work has found that phosphorus within a proper content range could remarkably improve the stress-rupture properties of some superalloys. In order to study the individual effects of phosphorus alone, two INCONEL 718 based alloys, with 0.003 wt% and 0.02 wt% phosphorus, respectively, have been prepared in the present work and the creep properties at different temperature and under different stress levels have been carefully determined. This is the first publication about the individual effect of phosphorus alone on the creep parameters (stress exponent and activation energy) of superalloys.

Song, H.; Guo, S.; Hu, Z. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China). Inst. of Metal Research)

1999-06-18

477

Resolution of diplopia after 33 years.  

PubMed

A 54-year-old male sustained a fractured right orbital floor 33 years ago, which was treated with a silastic implant. His diplopia never resolved, and he presented to us with an acute orbital cellulitis. Computerized tomography showed a displaced inferior rectus and entrapment of both inferior and medial recti. The implant was removed surgically via a Caldwell-Luc approach and his diplopia completely resolved after 33 years. PMID:24964460

Hammond, D; Grew, N; Bruzual, L

2013-01-01

478

Effects of low phosphorus ingredient combinations on weight gain, apparent digestibility coefficients, non-fecal phosphorus excretion, phosphorus retention and loading of large rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study is to develop an eco-friendly aquatic feed to reduce phosphorus (P) loading, in large rainbow trout. Gain in fish mass, nutrient digestibility, non-fecal P excretion, P retention and loading were compared among triplicate groups of fish reared with a P-sufficient (commercial feed), a previously-developed P-deficient (Aquaculture Collaborative Research and Development Program, ACRDP diet) and

Pallab Kumer Sarker; Johanie Fournier; Eric Boucher; Emilie Proulx; Joël de la Noüe; Grant W. Vandenberg

2011-01-01

479

Characterizing the novel protein p33MONOX.  

PubMed

The novel protein p33MONOX (p33Monooxygenase) was over-expressed in neuroblastoma cells demonstrating its inhibitory effect on the phosphorylation of the App (amyloid precursor protein) and Bcl2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) proteins but mediating higher activation of Mapk1/3 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/3). We employed a variety of cell biology techniques to show the localization of p33MONOX to the cytoplasm of pyramidal neurons in the mouse brain hippocampus. We also carried out a yeast-two-hybrid screening plus co-immunoprecipitation and bio-informatics to determine COBRA1 (cofactor of BRCA1 (breast cancer type 1)), NOL12 (nucleolar protein 12), and PRNP (prion protein) as p33MONOX-interacting proteins. Bio-computational analyses revealed a flavine-containing monooxygenase (FMO)-1 motif, thus linking p33MONOX to a group of previously characterized proteins, the MICALs (molecule interacting with CasL). Concluding, p33MONOX might regulate pre- and post-transcriptional control of dynamic processes related to growth cone guidance. PMID:21153684

Mishra, Manisha; Inoue, Noriko; Heese, Klaus

2011-04-01

480

Biological and chemical phosphorus fractionalization in swine manure under aeration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the dynamic responses of different phosphorous factions in swine manure to aeration treatment were investigated and profiled to provide insight on potential ways to improve the biological phosphorus removal process. Batch reactors fabricated from clear acrylic columns were filled with fresh swine manure containing a 4.6 % solids content, which was aerated continuously for 15 days at

Xiao Wu; Wanying Yao; Jun Zhu; Curtis Miller

2010-01-01

481

49 CFR 173.188 - White or yellow phosphorus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

Phosphorus, white or yellow, when offered for transportation or transported by rail, highway, or water, must be packaged in water or dry in packagings conforming to the requirements of part 178 of this subchapter at the Packing Group I performance level, as...

2009-10-01

482

49 CFR 173.188 - White or yellow phosphorus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

Phosphorus, white or yellow, when offered for transportation or transported by rail, highway, or water, must be packaged in water or dry in packagings conforming to the requirements of part 178 of this subchapter at the Packing Group I performance level, as...

2010-10-01

483

40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(1) The chemical substance identified generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new use described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. (2) The significant new uses...

2010-07-01

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