These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Efficiency of microbial phytase supplementation in diets formulated with different calcium:phosphorus ratios, supplied to broilers from 22 to 33 days old.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted with broilers from 22 to 33 days of age to evaluate the efficiency of six microbial phytases supplemented in diets (1500 FTU/kg) that were formulated with three different calcium:available phosphorus (Ca:Pavail ) ratios (4.5:1.0, 6.0:1.0 and 7.5:1.0). A positive control diet without phytase was formulated with a Ca:Pavail ratio of 7.5:3.4 to meet the nutritional requirements of the broilers. The P and ash contents of the tibia, magnesium in the plasma, performance, balance and retention of phytate phosphorus (Pphyt ), intake of total P and nitrogen (N), nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy and apparent digestibility of dry matter of the diets were not influenced (p > 0.05) by the type of phytase or the dietary Ca:Pavail ratio. However, there was an interaction (p < 0.05) between the phytase type and the Ca:Pavail ratio for the retention coefficients of total P, Ca and N. Phytase B resulted in the highest Ca deposition in the tibia (p < 0.01). Phytases D, E and F reduced the Ca concentrations in the tibia (p < 0.01) and plasma (p < 0.05). Phytase D increased the P level in the plasma and decreased the total P excretion (p < 0.01). Phytases E and F increased Ca excretion, while phytase A reduced it (p < 0.01). Regardless of the phytase type, increasing the dietary Ca:Pavail ratio reduced (p < 0.05) the plasma P concentration and the excretion of total P and N and, conversely, increased (p < 0.05) the plasma concentration, intake and excretion of Ca. For the rearing period evaluated, it is possible to reduce the Pavail of the diet to 1.0 g/kg when Ca is maintained at 7.5 g/kg, and the diet is supplemented with 1500 FTU of phytase A, C, D or E/kg. This diet allows the maintenance of performance and adequate bone mineralization, and it improves the Ca, total P and Pphyt utilization in addition to reducing the excretion of N and P into the environment. PMID:24684499

Naves, L de P; Rodrigues, P B; Teixeira, L do V; de Oliveira, E C; Saldanha, M M; Alvarenga, R R; Corrêa, A D; Lima, R R

2015-02-01

2

Phosphorus Nitrides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature data on the methods of preparation, structures, and properties of phosphorus nitrides PN, poly(phosphorus nitrides) (PN), (P3N5), etc., poly(phosphorus oxynitride) (NPO), and its thio-analogue (NPS) are surveyed and their practical applications, in particular as unique starting materials, formed as a result of the direct binding of molecular nitrogen, in the manufacture of phosphorus-nitrogen fertilisers are examined. The bibliography

Evgenii V. Borisov; E. E. Nifant'ev

1977-01-01

3

Isotopic tracing of phosphorus uptake in corn from 33 P labelled legume residues and 32 P labelled fertilisers applied to a sandy loam soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In low input (e.g. organic) farming systems where soil phosphorus (P) fertilisers such as superphosphate are not used, maintaining\\u000a sufficient available soil P for plant growth can be a major challenge. The use of P accumulating cover crops may increase\\u000a P availability for subsequent crops. We hypothesised that P release from organic residues of legumes (faba bean (Vicia faba) and

Gunasekhar Nachimuthu; Chris Guppy; Paul Kristiansen; Peter Lockwood

2009-01-01

4

Phosphorus Filter  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Tom Kehler, fishery biologist at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Northeast Fishery Center in Lamar, Pennsylvania, checks the flow rate of water leaving a phosphorus filter column. The USGS has pioneered a new use for acid mine drainage residuals that are currently a disposal challenge, usi...

5

DESIGN MANUAL: PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

This manual summarizes process design information for the best developed methods for removing phosphorus from wastewater. his manual discusses several proven phosphorus removal methods, including phosphorus removal obtainable through biological activity as well as chemical precip...

6

PHOSPHORUS IN IOWA SOILS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus is a key element in all living things. It is also a major fertilizer element and a major component of manure. Excess phosphorus in bodies of water causes growth of algae and other aquatic plants and thus is of environmental concern. Phosphorus is also a dynamic element in soil genesis. The amount, distribution, and chemical composition of phosphorus in

T. E. Fenton

7

Proposed biokinetic model for phosphorus.  

PubMed

This paper reviews data related to the biokinetics of phosphorus in the human body and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic phosphorus for use in updated International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) guidance on occupational intake of radionuclides. Compared with the ICRP's current occupational model for systemic phosphorus (Publication 68, 1994), the proposed model provides a more realistic description of the paths of movement of phosphorus in the body and greater consistency with experimental, medical, and environmental data regarding its time-dependent distribution. For acute uptake of (32)P to blood, the proposed model yields roughly a 50% decrease in dose estimates for bone surface and red marrow and a six-fold increase in estimates for liver and kidney compared with the model of Publication 68. For acute uptake of (33)P to blood, the proposed model yields roughly a 50% increase in dose estimates for bone surface and red marrow and a seven-fold increase in estimates for liver and kidney compared with the model of Publication 68. PMID:24893947

Leggett, R W

2014-06-01

8

Original article Plasma phosphorus content and dietary phosphorus  

E-print Network

Original article Plasma phosphorus content and dietary phosphorus availability in adult sheep David) Abstract -- This study was aimed at discriminating different quality phosphorus sources using plasma phosphorus kinetics in sheep. Four adult castrated Vendean sheep received successively two preliminary usual

Boyer, Edmond

9

Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V., Jr.; Ediger, E.

1950-01-01

10

Trimer adatom structure of phosphorus on Ge(111)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface structures of phosphorus on a Ge(111)c(2×8) surface have been investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low-energy electron diffraction, and Auger electron spectroscopy. Phosphorus adatoms are stable on the Ge(111) surface up to ~350 °C, where desorption and\\/or diffusion into the bulk sets in. The P adatoms cluster into small islands and form a local (3×3)R30° structure. The stable

L. Vitali; M. G. Ramsey; F. P. Netzer

2001-01-01

11

The Global Phosphorus Cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for all life forms. It is a key player in fundamental biochemical reactions (Westheimer, 1987) involving genetic material (DNA, RNA) and energy transfer (ATP), and in structural support of organisms provided by membranes (phospholipids) and bone (the biomineral hydroxyapatite). Photosynthetic organisms utilize dissolved phosphorus, carbon, and other essential nutrients to build their tissues using energy from the Sun. Biological productivity is contingent upon the availability of phosphorus to these simple organisms that constitute the base of the food web in both terrestrial and aquatic systems. (For reviews of P-utilization, P-biochemicals, and pathways in aquatic plants, see Fogg (1973), Bieleski and Ferguson (1983), and Cembella et al. (1984a, 1984b).)Phosphorus locked up in bedrock, soils, and sediments is not directly available to organisms. Conversion of unavailable forms to dissolved orthophosphate, which can be directly assimilated, occurs through geochemical and biochemical reactions at various stages in the global phosphorus cycle. Production of biomass fueled by P-bioavailability results in the deposition of organic matter in soils and sediments, where it acts as a source of fuel and nutrients to microbial communities. Microbial activity in soils and sediments, in turn, strongly influences the concentration and chemical form of phosphorus incorporated into the geological record.The global phosphorus cycle has four major components: (i) tectonic uplift and exposure of phosphorus-bearing rocks to the forces of weathering; (ii) physical erosion and chemical weathering of rocks producing soils and providing dissolved and particulate phosphorus to rivers; (iii) riverine transport of phosphorus to lakes and the ocean; and (iv) sedimentation of phosphorus associated with organic and mineral matter and burial in sediments (Figure 1). The cycle begins anew with uplift of sediments into the weathering regime.

Ruttenberg, K. C.

2003-12-01

12

The Global Phosphorus Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for all life forms. It is a key player in fundamental biochemical reactions (Westheimer, 1987) involving genetic material (DNA, RNA) and energy transfer (ATP), and in structural support of organisms provided by membranes (phospholipids) and bone (the biomineral hydroxyapatite). Photosynthetic organisms utilize dissolved phosphorus, carbon, and other essential nutrients to build their tissues using energy

K. C. Ruttenberg

2003-01-01

13

Anthropogenic phosphorus flow analysis of Hefei City, China.  

PubMed

The substance flow analysis (SFA) method was employed to examine phosphorus flow and its connection to water pollution in the city of Hefei, China, in 2008. As human activity is the driving force of phosphorus flux from the environment to the economy, the study provides a conceptual framework for analyzing an anthropogenic phosphorus cycle that includes four stages: extraction, fabrication and manufacturing, use, and waste management. Estimates of phosphorus flow were based on existing data as well as field research, expert advice, local accounting systems, and literature. The total phosphorus input into Hefei in 2008 reached 7810 tons, mainly as phosphate ore, chemical fertilizer, pesticides, crops and animal products. Approximately 33% of the total phosphorus input left the area, and nearly 20% of that amount was discharged as waste to surface water. Effluent containing excessive fertilizer from farming operations plays an important role in phosphorus overloads onto surface water; the other major emission source is sewage discharge. We also provide suggestions for reducing phosphorus emissions, for example reducing fertilizer use, recycling farming residues, and changing human consumption patterns. PMID:20863550

Li, Sisi; Yuan, Zengwei; Bi, Jun; Wu, Huijun

2010-11-01

14

Impact of an external electron acceptor on phosphorus mobility between water and sediments.  

PubMed

The present work assessed the impact of an external electron acceptor on phosphorus fluxes between water and sediment interface. Microcosm experiments simulating a sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC) were carried out and phosphorus was extracted by an optimized combination of three methods. Despite the low voltage recorded, ~96 mV (SMFC with carbon paper anode) and ~146 mV (SMFC with stainless steel scourer anode), corresponding to a power density of 1.15 and 0.13 mW/m(2), it was enough to produce an increase in the amounts of metal bound phosphorus (14% vs 11%), Ca-bound phosphorus (26% vs 23%), and refractory phosphorus (33% vs 28%). These results indicate an important role of electroactive bacteria in the phosphorus cycling and open a new perspective for preventing metal bound phosphorus dissolution from sediments. PMID:24210650

Martins, G; Peixoto, L; Teodorescu, S; Parpot, P; Nogueira, R; Brito, A G

2014-01-01

15

PHOSPHORUS BASICS Larry G. Bundy  

E-print Network

PHOSPHORUS BASICS Larry G. Bundy Dept. of Soil Science University of Wisconsin #12;Phosphorus Terminology · Phosphorus (P) = element name and symbol · P2O5 = phosphate (oxide) Amount of P in fertilizers use #12;Forms & Concentrations of Phosphorus (P) in Soils Form Concentration (ppm) Total 1000 Soil

Balser, Teri C.

16

PHOSPHORUS EXCHANGE IN MARINE PHYTOPLANKTON  

E-print Network

PHOSPHORUS EXCHANGE IN MARINE PHYTOPLANKTON BY THEODORE R. RICE FISHERY BULLETIN 80 UNITED STATES;ABSTRACT Phosphorus exchange in Nitzschia· clostai'iu.In, isoiated and grown in pure culture, was demunstrated by using rudioactive phosphorus find was ~h()\\\\"n to "IlI'Y with changes in the phosphorus

17

2, 3772, 2005 phosphorus control  

E-print Network

HESSD 2, 37­72, 2005 Impact of phosphorus control measures B. O. L. Demars et al. Title Page Sciences Discussions Impact of phosphorus control measures on in-river phosphorus retention associated is licensed under a Creative Commons License. 37 #12;HESSD 2, 37­72, 2005 Impact of phosphorus control

Boyer, Edmond

18

Climate Change Eff ects on Runoff , Catchment Phosphorus Loading and Lake Ecological State, and Potential Adaptations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change may have profound eff ects on phosphorus (P) transport in streams and on lake eutrophication. Phosphorus loading from land to streams is expected to increase in northern temperate coastal regions due to higher winter rainfall and to a decline in warm temperate and arid climates. Model results suggest a 3.3 to 16.5% increase within the next 100 yr

Martin Søndergaard; Kristina M. Hansen; Hans E. Andersen; Torben L. Lauridsen; Lone Liboriussen

19

Phosphorus-containing calixarenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data on the synthesis, conformational behaviour and complexing properties of calix[4]resorcinolarene and calix[n]arene derivatives modified by phosphorus-containing fragments are surveyed. The bibliography includes 123 references.

Antipin, Igor S.; Kazakova, Ella Kh; Habicher, Wolf D.; Konovalov, Alexander I.

1998-11-01

20

BIOLOGICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Three proprietary biological phosphorus removal processes are reviewed. The paper presents the description and development status of these technologies. The paper is a summary of the emerging technology assessment report published by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1984. ...

21

Catalytic decomposition of phosphorus compounds to produce phosphorus atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vacuum-ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence identified atomic phosphorus in the gas phase when phosphine, triethylphosphine, or molecular phosphorus sublimated from solid red phosphorus was decomposed on heated metal wire surfaces. Atomic phosphorus was found to be one of the major products in all systems, and its density increased monotonically with wire temperature but showed saturation at high temperatures. A wire material dependence of density was observed for molecular phosphorus, suggesting that the decomposition of the compound is catalytic. Electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) measurement showed that the wires are not phosphorized when heated in the presence of phosphine or molecular phosphorus.

Umemoto, Hironobu; Kanemitsu, Taijiro; Kuroda, Yuki

2014-01-01

22

3, 15871629, 2006 Marine phosphorus  

E-print Network

BGD 3, 1587­1629, 2006 Marine phosphorus cycle: sensitivity to oceanic circulation C. P. Slomp discussion forum of Biogeosciences The global marine phosphorus cycle: sensitivity to oceanic circulation C #12;BGD 3, 1587­1629, 2006 Marine phosphorus cycle: sensitivity to oceanic circulation C. P. Slomp

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

23

Combustion of White Phosphorus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction of white phosphorus with pure oxygen is conveniently and safely demonstrated by carrying out the reaction in a retort that has its open end submerged in water. After filling the retort with oxygen gas, a small amount of white phosphorus is introduced and heated with a hot-plate until it ignites. The spectacular reaction leads to consumption and expulsion of oxygen gas, creation of a partial vacuum in the retort, and back suction of water that extinguishes the combustion. Featured on the Cover

Keiter, Richard L.; Gamage, Chaminda P.

2001-07-01

24

Phosphorus-Containing Calixarenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calixarenes are macro(hetero)cyclic compounds having three-dimensional molecular cavities and are ubiquitous as synthetic receptors in supramolecular chemistry. This paper provides an overview of studies on the phosphorus-containing calixarenes and thiacalixarenes, within the context of synthesis, metal cation binding, catalysis, molecular recognition and bioactivity.

Cherenok, Sergey; Kalchenko, Vitaly

25

Phosphorus oxynitride glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties and structural role of nitrogen in phosphorus oxynitride glasses are reported. Properties summarized for several compositions include the dissolution rate in water, thermal expansion coefficient, viscosity and refractive index. The bonding and coordination number of nitrogen in the glass network has been deduced from nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The existing evidence shows that

Mary R. Reidmeyer; Delbert E. Day

1995-01-01

26

Disorders of phosphorus homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review The study of phosphorus physiology and investigations into clinical disorders of phosphorus metabolism has blossomed over the past decade. Recent work has confirmed and further extended our knowledge of basic mechanisms of phosphorus metabolism. Recent findings This review will focus on FGF-23 and Klotho, and on the recent further dissection of their roles in phosphorus and skeletal metabolism. Additionally, this review will detail recent studies that implicate a role for these phosphaturic and vitamin D regulating factors in extraskeletal calcification, including that occurring in soft tissue and vascular beds. Summary These findings in total provide fertile ground for investigations into the cause and treatment of abnormal skeletal and extraskeletal calcification in patients with inherited hypophosphatemic disorders. More importantly, and certainly with wider potential clinical application, these studies likewise imply a role for these factors in the pathogenesis of accelerated cardiovascular disease that occurs in patients with the most common hyperphosphatemic disorder, chronic kidney disease. Future studies are needed to confirm a harmful or possibly even beneficial role for FGF-23 and other factors in these disease states, and to determine whether therapeutic manipulation of these factors does truly affect clinical outcomes in patients with hypo- and hyperphosphatemia. PMID:20962635

Lee, Richard; Weber, Thomas J.

2013-01-01

27

ENVIRONMENTAL SOIL PHOSPHORUS INDICES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The loss of phosphorus (P) in agricultural runoff and its input to freshwater bodies is known to accelerate eutrophication. As eutrophication of surface water impairs its use for recreation, drinking, and commercial fishing, several strategies have been put in place to minimize impairment by reduci...

28

Nutrient Management Module No. 4 Phosphorus Cycling,  

E-print Network

Nutrient Management Module No. 4 Phosphorus Cycling, Testing and Fertilizer Recommendations about phosphorus. Objectives 1.Understand the various soil forms of phosphorus 2.Recognize how soil and climate properties affect phosphorus cycling in soil 3.Recognize how cropping systems affect phosphorus

Lawrence, Rick L.

29

Soil & Water Lab , Phosphorus Analyzer Procedure Page 1 Phosphorus Analyzer Procedure  

E-print Network

Soil & Water Lab , Phosphorus Analyzer Procedure Page 1 Phosphorus Analyzer Procedure Last updated: 5.29.13 A. Introduction The phosphorus analyzer can be used to measure soluble reactive phosphorus phosphorus (TP) from the ICP, can calculate total dissolved phosphorus (i.e. soluble plus insoluble

Walter, M.Todd

30

Phosphorus in the environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IsoPhos 2012: Development of Isotopic Tracers for a Better Understandingof the Phosphorus Cycle;Monte Verità, Switzerland, 24-29 June 2012 IsoPhos 2012, a conference dedicated to cutting-edge research on phosphorus, was held in the Centro Stefano Franscini of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology of Zurich (ETH Zurich). It gathered 63 scientists, 11 of whom were graduate students, from 16 countries and different areas of expertise, including Earth sciences, oceanography, paleontology, microbiology, soil and plant sciences, and hydrology. The conference focused on the use of stable oxygen isotopes in phosphate. New developments in preparation and analytical techniques have made the application of this tracer viable for fields other than paleoclimatology. However, new challenges with respect to sample preparation, standardization, its use in conjunction with other tracers, and the effect of biochemical processes have arisen.

Tamburini, F.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Paytan, A.

2012-10-01

31

Phosphorus recycling in sewage treatment plants with biological phosphorus removal.  

PubMed

In this paper, phosphorus balances are calculated for the wastewater purification and sludge treatment stages for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) applying Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR). The possible P-recovery potential is then estimated and evaluated regarding different locations along the process of wastewater purification and sludge treatment, taking the different phosphorus bonding forms into account. Caused by the more favourable bonding forms in the excess sludge as well as possibly also in the sludge ash a recovery of the phosphorus seems especially favoured for WWTPs with EBPR. The processes available for a P recycling are named, and special regard is given to the Phostrip-process, which is a possible recycling process already tested in practice. Further R&D demand consists in basic research regarding disintegration, fermentation or acidic total digestion of excess sludge followed by phosphorus precipitation including separation of the precipitates, MAP-precipitation and separation from digested sludge and on the ability to extract phosphorus and heavy metals from sewage sludge ash. These investigations are a precondition to enable purposeful process developments. At the present state the cost of recycled phosphorus earned from wastewater, sludge and ash, respectively, are a multiple higher than the costs for raw phosphate taking into account the suitable processes. Thus, up to now no phosphorus recycling with a defrayal of costs is possible. The future importance of phosphorus recycling will depend on the market price for raw phosphate, the recycling costs and, furthermore, on the general political framework. PMID:16459832

Heinzmann, B

2005-01-01

32

Multiple phosphorus chemical sites in heavily phosphorus-doped diamond  

SciTech Connect

We have performed high-resolution core level photoemission spectroscopy on a heavily phosphorus (P)-doped diamond film in order to elucidate the chemical sites of doped-phosphorus atoms in diamond. P 2p core level study shows two bulk components, providing spectroscopic evidence for multiple chemical sites of doped-phosphorus atoms. This indicates that only a part of doped-phosphorus atoms contribute to the formation of carriers. From a comparison with band calculations, possible origins for the chemical sites are discussed.

Okazaki, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Yoshida, Rikiya [The Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Muro, Takayuki; Nakamura, Tetsuya [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI)/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Wakita, Takanori; Muraoka, Yuji; Yokoya, Takayoshi [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Hirai, Masaaki [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Kato, Hiromitsu; Yamasaki, Satoshi [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Center 2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Takano, Yoshihiko; Ishii, Satoshi [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Oguchi, Tamio [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

2011-02-21

33

Marine phosphorus cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus introduced to the ocean must ultimately be removed if a steady state is to be maintained over geologic time. Aeolian input is insignificant, and there is evidently no hydrothermal contribution. Rivers dominate P-input to the ocean. The fluvial P-flux is poorly quantified due to the interactions of two factors: (1) man's influence on river-nutrient fluxes; and (2) inherent complexities

P. N. Frohlich; M. L. Bender; N. A. Luedtke; G. R. Heath; T. DeVries

1982-01-01

34

Phosphorus and the Green Scum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource explains the relationship between the overabundance of the element phosphorus in the environment and explosive algae growth (called algae blooms or green scum) as well as the progress toward eutrophication. The origins of excess phosphorus are listed as: too much fertilizer, leaves and grass, human and animal waste, and eroded soils. The site contains suggestions for phosphorus control, including soil testing, composting yard debris, and educating the public.

35

Response of rice to soil phosphorus levels  

E-print Network

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oaae ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0'6 H Correlation oi' Soil Test Phosphorus with the Crop Yield and Total Uptake of Phosphorus Response ~ . ~ ~ ~ 49 1 ~ Relationship of soil test phosphorus with the percent yield (grain and. straw) and. total uptake... of phosphorus on Hockley fine sandy loam ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ao ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ ee 49 2 ~ Relationship of soil test phosphorus with the peroent yield. (grain and straw) and total uptake of phosphorus on Beaunont olsyi...

Quddus, Mohammad Abdul

2012-06-07

36

THE PHOSPHORUS INDEX AND PHOSPHORUS NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT IN PENNSYLVANIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus management is becoming an increasingly important component of farm nutrient management. Attention has been focused on phosphorus as a result of the role it plays in water quality degradation, specifically accelerated eutrophication. Additionally, there has been a national revision of th...

37

Molecular Structure of Phosphorus pentachloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Phosphorus pentachloride is an extremely hazardous waste and is highly reactive against water. It has been used as a pesticide and as a component in plastics. In addition, phosphorus pentachloride has been employed as a catalyst in organic synthesis to induce rearrangements. Some of the molecule's properties are having trigonal bipyramidal geometry and a hybridization of sp3d.

2002-10-01

38

Preparation of high purity phosphorus  

DOEpatents

High purity phosphorus and phosphorus compounds are prepared by first reacting H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 with a lead compound such as PbO to form Pb.sub.3 (PO.sub.4).sub.2. The Pb.sub.3 (PO.sub.4).sub.2 is reduced with H.sub.2 at a temperature sufficient to form gaseous phosphorus which can be recovered as a high purity phosphorus product. Phosphorus compounds can be easily prepared by reacting the phosphorus product with gaseous reactants. For example, the phosphorus product is reacted with gaseous Cl.sub.2 to form PCl.sub.5. PCl.sub.5 is reduced to PCl.sub.3 by contacting it in the gaseous phase with solid elemental phosphorus. POCl.sub.3 can be prepared by contacting PCl.sub.5 in the gaseous phase with solid P.sub.2 O.sub.5. The general process is particularly suitable for the preparation of radiophosphorus compounds.

Rupp, Arthur F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Woo, David V. (Knoxville, TN)

1981-01-01

39

Virtual phosphorus ore requirement of Japanese economy.  

PubMed

Phosphorus is indispensable for agricultural production. Hence, the consumption of imported food indirectly implies the import of phosphorus resources. The global consumption of agricultural products depends on a small number of ore-producing countries. For sustainable management of phosphorus resources, the global supply and demand network should be clarified. In this study, we propose the virtual phosphorus ore requirement as a new indicator of the direct and indirect phosphorus requirements for our society. The virtual phosphorus ore requirement indicates the direct and indirect demands for phosphorus ore transformed into agricultural products and fertilizer. In this study, the virtual phosphorus ore requirement was evaluated for the Japanese economy in 2005. Importantly, the results show that our society requires twice as much phosphorus ore as the domestic demand for fertilizer production. The phosphorus contained in "eaten" agricultural products was only 12% of virtual phosphorus ore requirement. PMID:21636108

Matsubae, Kazuyo; Kajiyama, Jun; Hiraki, Takehito; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

2011-08-01

40

Use Phosphorus Free Fertilizer Beginning January 1, 2012, Michigan law restricts phosphorus fertilizer applications on lawns.  

E-print Network

Use Phosphorus Free Fertilizer Beginning January 1, 2012, Michigan law restricts phosphorus.michigan.gov/mda-fertilizer The Phosphorus Law Michigan Fertilizer Law (1994 PA 451, Part 85, Fertilizers) restricts the use of phosphorus homeowners and commercial applicators must follow the phosphorus application restrictions. Where can I find

41

Extremely Sharp Phosphorus Turn-Off Slope and Effect of Hydrogen on Phosphorus Surface  

E-print Network

Extremely Sharp Phosphorus Turn-Off Slope and Effect of Hydrogen on Phosphorus Surface Segregation in the normal structures (Fig. 1a), a sharp phosphorus turn-off is required. We investigated phosphorus surface) and report a record sharp turn-off slope of phosphorus of 6 nm/dec. The hydrogen surface coverage, which

42

Prebiotic phosphorus chemistry reconsidered  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The available evidence indicates that the origin of life on Earth certainly occurred earlier than 3.5 billion years ago and perhaps substantially earlier. The time available for the chemical evolution which must have preceded this event is more difficult to estimate. Both endogenic and exogenic contributions to chemical evolution have been considered; i.e., from chemical reactions in a primitive atmosphere, or by introduction in the interiors of comets and/or meteorites. It is argued, however, that the phosphorus chemistry of Earth's earliest hydrosphere, whether primarily exogenic or endogenic in origin, was most likely dominated by compounds less oxidized than phosphoric acid and its esters. A scenario is presented for the early production of a suite of reactive phosphonic acid derivatives, the properties of which may have foreshadowed the later appearance of biophosphates.

Schwartz, A. W.; Orgel, L. E. (Principal Investigator)

1997-01-01

43

Phosphorus speciation and treatment using enhanced phosphorus removal bioretention.  

PubMed

This field research investigated the water quality performance of a traditional bioretention cell retrofitted with 5% (by mass) water treatment residual (WTR) for enhanced phosphorus removal. Results indicate that WTR incorporation into the bioretention media does not negatively influence the infiltration mechanism of the bioretention system. Total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (TP), and particulate phosphorus (PP) concentrations in runoff inflow were significantly reduced compared to outflow due to filtration of particulate matter. TP concentrations were significantly reduced by the bioretention cell; before WTR retrofit TP export occurred. Although net removal of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) from incoming runoff was not found, leaching of dissolved phosphorus (DP) was prevented not only from incoming runoff, but also from the media and captured PP. Near constant outflow SRP and DOP concentrations suggest an equilibrium adsorption treatment mechanism. Both event mean concentrations and mass loads were reduced for TSS and all P species. Pollutant mass removals were higher than the event mean concentration removals due to the attenuation of volume by the bioretention media. PMID:24313712

Liu, Jiayu; Davis, Allen P

2014-01-01

44

Ironing out the phosphorus problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control of serum phosphorus remains a vexing problem in chronic kidney disease. Although novel dialysis regimens may provide excellent phosphorus control, phosphate binders remain necessary for most dialysis patients. Block et al. present a phase I clinical trial examining the safety and efficacy of SBR759, a novel non-calcium, iron-based phosphate binder. Although the risks of iron accumulation and hypocalcemia must

Joshua J Zaritsky; Isidro B Salusky

2010-01-01

45

Trimer adatom structure of phosphorus on Ge(111)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface structures of phosphorus on a Ge(111)c(2×8) surface have been investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low-energy electron diffraction, and Auger electron spectroscopy. Phosphorus adatoms are stable on the Ge(111) surface up to ~350 °C, where desorption and/or diffusion into the bulk sets in. The P adatoms cluster into small islands and form a local (3×3)R30° structure. The stable bonding configuration of phosphorus on Ge(111) between room temperature and ~260 °C is the so-called T4 trimer geometry, where the P adatoms form triangular trimer units above second-layer Ge atoms, thus saturating all the Ge surface dangling bonds in the local (3×3)R30° array. However, only poor long-range order is obtained. The P3 trimers replace the Ge adatoms of the c(2×8) reconstruction as revealed in atomically resolved STM images. The P trimer structure on Ge(111) is discussed in relation to the substitutional adsorption geometry of P on Si(111), and it is argued that the Ge(111)(3×3)R30°-P3 structure is the result of the larger tensile stress on the Ge surface and the weaker Ge-P bond strength as compared to the Si case.

Vitali, L.; Ramsey, M. G.; Netzer, F. P.

2001-04-01

46

Capturing the lost phosphorus.  

PubMed

Minable phosphorus (P) reserves are being depleted and will need to be replaced by recovering P that currently is lost from the agricultural system, causing water-quality problems. The largest two flows of lost P are in agricultural runoff and erosion (?46% of mined P globally) and animal wastes (?40%). These flows are quite distinct. Runoff has a very high volumetric flow rate, but a low P concentration; animal wastes have low flow rates, but a high P concentration together with a high concentration of organic material. Recovering the lost P in animal wastes is technically and economically more tractable, and it is the focus for this review of promising P-capture technologies. P capture requires that organic P be transformed into inorganic P (phosphate). For high-strength animal wastes, P release can be accomplished in tandem with anaerobic treatment that converts the energy value in the organic matter to CH(4), H(2), or electricity. Once present as phosphate, the P can be captured in a reusable form by four approaches. Most well developed is precipitation as magnesium or calcium solids. Less developed, but promising are adsorption to iron-based adsorbents, ion exchange to phosphate-selective solids, and uptake by photosynthetic microorganisms or P-selective proteins. PMID:21377188

Rittmann, Bruce E; Mayer, Brooke; Westerhoff, Paul; Edwards, Mark

2011-08-01

47

Competition for phosphorus: differential uptake from dual-isotope-labeled soil interspaces between shrub and grass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species of Agropyron grass differed strikingly in their capacity to compete for phosphate in soil interspaces shared with a common competitor, the sagebrush Artemisia tridentata. Of the total phosphorus-32 and -33 absorbed by Artemisia, 86% was from the interspace shared with Agropyron spicatum and only 14% from that shared with Agropyron desertorum. Actively absorbing mycorrhizal roots of Agropyron and

M. M. Caldwell; D. M. Eissenstat; J. H. Richards; M. F. Allen

1985-01-01

48

Effects of a High-Protein Diet on Regulation of Phosphorus Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Context: High-protein diets, which are popular for weight loss, contain large quantities of phosphorus. Phosphorus excess and consequent changes in phosphorus regulatory hormones are implicated in vascular calcification and cardiovascular disease. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that a moderate increase in dietary phosphorus during a high-protein diet leads to changes in phosphorus-responsive hormones. Design, Participants, and Setting: We conducted a post hoc analysis of a sequential dietary modification trial in 19 healthy volunteers in the general community. Intervention: Participants received 2 weeks of a weight-maintaining, low-protein (15%) diet, followed by 2 weeks of an isocaloric, high-protein (30%) diet, followed by 12 weeks of an ad libitum high-protein (30%) diet. Main Outcome Measures: Using previously collected samples, plasma concentrations of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), PTH, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were measured at 8 time points to assess 24-hour variability and in 24-hour pooled samples to delineate changes at the end of each diet period. Results: Mean dietary phosphorus intake during each study period was 1556, 2071, and 1622 mg/d, respectively. Plasma concentrations of FGF-23 and vitamin D metabolites varied in a diurnal pattern; plasma PTH concentrations varied in a bimodal pattern. After changing from a low- to high-protein isocaloric diet, plasma FGF-23 concentrations decreased slightly (mean ?4.48 pg/mL, 95% confidence interval 1.88–7.07). There were no other statistically significant changes in phosphorus regulatory hormones in response to diet modifications. Conclusions: Among healthy people, an approximate 33% increase in dietary phosphorus after institution of a high-protein diet does not cause large changes in measured concentrations of phosphorus regulatory hormones. PMID:23393178

Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Kratz, Mario; Weigle, David S.; Callahan, Holly S.; Purnell, Jonathan Q.; Horgan, Angela M.; de Boer, Ian H.; Kestenbaum, Bryan R.

2013-01-01

49

Interaction of phosphorus with dislocations in heavily phosphorus doped silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of annealing at 1173 K, that is comparable to the typical temperatures for the fabrication of Si-based devices, on the dissociated dislocations in Czochralski-grown silicon crystals heavily doped with phosphorus atoms were determined. Dislocation segments with edge component are constricted. They climbed out of the slip plane toward the compression side, forming complete dislocation segments. The dissociation width of the rest segments is increased. These results suggest that phosphorus atoms segregate nearby dislocations and the high doping level at the dislocations lowers the formation energy of negatively charged vacancies.

Ohno, Y.; Shirakawa, T.; Taishi, T.; Yonenaga, I.

2009-08-01

50

Phosphorus Flamethrower: A Demonstration Using Red and White Allotropes of Phosphorus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A demonstration was created to display the unique behavior of a familiar element, phosphorus, and to make chemistry more accessible to the introductory student. The common allotropes of phosphorus and their reactivity are discussed. In this demonstration, the white allotrope of phosphorus is synthesized from the red phosphorus obtained from a…

Golden, Melissa L.; Person, Eric C.; Bejar, Miriam; Golden, Donnie R.; Powell, Jonathan M.

2010-01-01

51

Phosphorus Loss (Risk) IndexesPhosphorus Loss (Risk) Indexes in the Southern Regionin the Southern Region  

E-print Network

Phosphorus Loss (Risk) IndexesPhosphorus Loss (Risk) Indexes in the Southern Regionin the Southern in the US Sharply, et al. 2003. Development of phosphorus indices for nutrient management planning strategies in the United States. J. Soil Water Cons. Daniel et al. 2002. The Phosphorus Index: Background

52

Fire-Resistant Polyimides Containing Phosphorus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Limiting oxygen index increased. Copolyimide with a group containing phosphorus synthesized from 1-2,4-diaminobenzene, m-phenylenediamine, and tetracarboxylic dianhydride. Copolymer more fire resistant than corresponding polyimide without phosphorus.

Mikroyannidis, J.

1986-01-01

53

Phosphorus: From the Stars to Land & Sea  

E-print Network

The chemistry of the element phosphorus offers a window into the diverse field of inorganic chemistry. Fundamental investigations into some simple molecules containing phosphorus reveal much about the ramifications of this ...

Cummins, Christopher C.

54

Economic feasibility study for phosphorus recovery processes.  

PubMed

Phosphorus recovery from wastewater has become a necessity for sustainable development because phosphorus is a non-renewable essential resource, and its discharge into the environment causes serious negative impacts. There are no economic incentives for the implementation of phosphorus recovery technologies because the selling price of rock phosphate is lower than phosphorus recovered from sewage. The methodologies used to determine the feasibility of such projects are usually focused on internal costs without considering environmental externalities. This article shows a methodology to assess the economic feasibility of wastewater phosphorus recovery projects that takes into account internal and external impacts. The shadow price of phosphorus is estimated using the directional distance function to measure the environmental benefits obtained by preventing the discharge of phosphorus into the environment. The economic feasibility analysis taking into account the environmental benefits shows that the phosphorus recovery is viable not only from sustainable development but also from an economic point of view. PMID:21809783

Molinos-Senante, María; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramón; Garrido-Baserba, Manel

2011-06-01

55

Cholestatic presentation of yellow phosphorus poisoning.  

PubMed

Yellow phosphorus, a component of certain pesticide pastes and fireworks, is well known to cause hepatotoxicity. Poisoning with yellow phosphorus classically manifests with acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure which may need liver transplantation. We present a case of yellow phosphorus poisoning in which a patient presented with florid clinical features of cholestasis highlighting the fact that cholestasis can rarely be a presenting feature of yellow phosphorus hepatotoxicity. PMID:24554916

Lakshmi, C P; Goel, Amit; Basu, Debdatta

2014-01-01

56

Cholestatic presentation of yellow phosphorus poisoning  

PubMed Central

Yellow phosphorus, a component of certain pesticide pastes and fireworks, is well known to cause hepatotoxicity. Poisoning with yellow phosphorus classically manifests with acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure which may need liver transplantation. We present a case of yellow phosphorus poisoning in which a patient presented with florid clinical features of cholestasis highlighting the fact that cholestasis can rarely be a presenting feature of yellow phosphorus hepatotoxicity. PMID:24554916

Lakshmi, C. P.; Goel, Amit; Basu, Debdatta

2014-01-01

57

Effect of chitosan chewing gum on reducing serum phosphorus in hemodialysis patients: a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background HS219 (40 mg chitosan-loaded chewing gum) is designed to bind salivary phosphorus as an add-on to available phosphorus binders. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of HS219 in hemodialysis (HD) patients with hyperphosphatemia as an add-on to phosphorus binders. Methods Sixty-eight HD patients who were maintained on calcium carbonate (n?=?33) or sevelamer hydrochloride (n?=?35) were enrolled. The primary end point was a change in serum phosphorus levels. Secondary end points included changes in levels of salivary phosphorus, serum calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and intact fibroblast growth factor (iFGF) 23. Results Sixty-three patients chewed either HS219 (n?=?35) or placebo (n?=?28) for 30 min, three times a day, for 3 weeks. HS219 was well tolerated and safe. However, HS219 was not superior to placebo with additional reduction of serum phosphorus with respect to phosphorus binders at the end of the chewing period. There were no significant effects of HS219 on reduction of salivary phosphorus, serum calcium, iPTH, or iFGF23 levels. Conclusions The chitosan-loaded chewing gum HS219 does not affect serum and salivary phosphorus levels in Japanese HD patients with hyperphosphatemia. Our findings do not support previous findings that 20 mg of chitosan-loaded chewing gum reduces serum and salivary phosphorus levels. Trail registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01039428, 24 December, 2009. PMID:24968790

2014-01-01

58

Simulating soil phosphorus dynamics for a phosphorus loss quantification tool  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pollution of fresh waters by agricultural phosphorus (P) is a water quality concern. Because soils can contribute significantly to P loss in runoff, it is important to assess how management affects soil P status over time, which is often done with models. Our objective was to describe and validate s...

59

Gettering Silicon Wafers with Phosphorus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicon wafers subjected to gettering in phosphorus atmosphere have longer diffusion lengths and higher solar-cell efficiencies than untreated wafers. Gettering treatment improves properties of solar cells manufactured from impure silicon and is compatible with standard solar-cell processing.

Daiello, R. V.

1983-01-01

60

GROUNDWATER POLLUTION BY PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus (P) is a primary nutrient necessary for plant growth. When soil P level is below what is needed for plant needs, P is supplied to the soil by the addition of P fertilizer or organic residuals (i.e., manure). Because of P fertilizer use in the past few decades or application of manure, a g...

61

MEASUREMENT OF PHOSPHORUS IN WATER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for growth and development of algae and other aquatic plants. However, P can cause water pollution if sufficient concentration (25 to 100 µg total P L-1, eutrophic condition) is present in water. Eutrophication (nutrient-rich condition) can significantly incre...

62

NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) NASA ASRS (Pub. 33)  

E-print Network

NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS (Pub. 33) #12;NASA ASRS

63

Bioavailability of organic phosphorus to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata as affected by phosphorus starvation: an isotope dilution study.  

PubMed

Phosphorus (P) starved algae have a capacity to rapidly take up P when resupplied to P. This study was set-up to measure to what extent P starvation enhances the potential of algae to utilize organic P forms. The initial (<0.5 h) PO4 uptake rates of cells of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata increased up to 18-fold with increasing starvation. Algae from different levels of P starvation were subsequently exposed to different model organic P forms and carrier-free (33)PO4. Uptake (1h) of P from organic P-increased up to 5-fold with increasing P starvation. The bioavailability of organic P, relative to PO4, was calculated from uptake of (31)P and (33)P isotopes assuming no isotopic exchange with organic P-forms. This relative bioavailability ranged from 0 to 57% and remained generally unaffected by the extent of P-starvation. This result was found for cells that were either or not treated by a wash method to remove extracellular phosphatases. Short-term P uptake rate sharply increases with decreasing internal P content of the algal cells but the bioavailability of organic P, relative to PO4, is not enhanced. Such finding suggests that P-starvation enhances PO4 uptake capacity and organic P hydrolysis capacity to about the same extent. PMID:23561496

Van Moorleghem, Christoff; De Schutter, Nynke; Smolders, Erik; Merckx, Roel

2013-06-01

64

november 2003 Production of multi-charged phosphorus ions  

E-print Network

1 november 2003 Production of multi-charged phosphorus ions with ecris "SUPERSHyPIE" at GANIL J The Ganil's Ion Production Group tested the source SUPERSHyPIE123 for the production of phosphorus n+ ion, is used to receive red phosphorus. (the red phosphorus is less dangerous than the white phosphorus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

65

Original article III. Quantitative aspects of phosphorus excretion  

E-print Network

Original article III. Quantitative aspects of phosphorus excretion in ruminants David BRAVOa -- Ruminant phosphorus excretion and metabolism were studied through a database. Fae- cal endogenous phosphorus is the main pathway of phosphorus excretion and averages 0.85 of total faecal phosphorus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

66

Phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle  

DOEpatents

A method of phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle using ammonium phosphate is disclosed. A p-doped silicon sphere is mixed with a diluted solution of ammonium phosphate having a predetermined concentration. These spheres are dried with the phosphorus then being diffused into the sphere to create either a shallow or deep p-n junction. A good PSG glass layer is formed on the surface of the sphere during the diffusion process. A subsequent segregation anneal process is utilized to strip metal impurities from near the p-n junction into the glass layer. A subsequent HF strip procedure is then utilized to removed the PSG layer. Ammonium phosphate is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirement. 1 fig.

Stevens, G.D.; Reynolds, J.S.

1999-07-20

67

Engineering phosphorus metabolism in plants to produce a dual fertilization and weed control system.  

PubMed

High crop yields depend on the continuous input of orthophosphate (PO(4)(?3))-based fertilizers and herbicides. Two major challenges for agriculture are that phosphorus is a nonrenewable resource and that weeds have developed broad herbicide resistance. One strategy to overcome both problems is to engineer plants to outcompete weeds and microorganisms for limiting resources, thereby reducing the requirement for both fertilizers and herbicides. Plants and most microorganisms are unable to metabolize phosphite (PO(3)(?3)), so we developed a dual fertilization and weed control system by generating transgenic plants that can use phosphite as a sole phosphorus source. Under greenhouse conditions, these transgenic plants require 30–50% less phosphorus input when fertilized with phosphite to achieve similar productivity to that obtained by the same plants using orthophosphate fertilizer and, when in competition with weeds, accumulate 2–10 times greater biomass than when fertilized with orthophosphate. PMID:22922674

López-Arredondo, Damar Lizbeth; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

2012-09-01

68

The Galactic evolution of phosphorus  

E-print Network

As a galaxy evolves, its chemical composition changes and the abundance ratios of different elements are powerful probes of the underlying evolutionary processes. Phosphorous is an element whose evolution has remained quite elusive until now, because it is difficult to detect in cool stars. The infrared weak P I lines of the multiplet 1, at 1050-1082 nm, are the most reliable indicators of the presence of phosphorus. The availability of CRIRES at VLT has permitted access to this wavelength range in stellar spectra.We attempt to measure the phosphorus abundance of twenty cool stars in the Galactic disk. The spectra are analysed with one-dimensional model-atmospheres computed in Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE). The line formation computations are performed assuming LTE. The ratio of phosphorus to iron behaves similarly to sulphur, increasing towards lower metallicity stars. Its ratio with respect to sulphur is roughly constant and slightly larger than solar, [P/S]=0.10+- 0.10. We succeed in taking an impo...

Caffau, E; Faraggiana, R; Steffen, M

2011-01-01

69

Phosphorus Cycling Through Space and Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cycling of phosphorus, a biocritical element in short supply in nature, is an important Earth system process. Variations in the phosphorus cycle have occurred in the past. For example, the rapid uplift of the Himalayan-Tibet Plateau increased chemical weathering, which led to enhanced input of phosphorus to the oceans. This drove the late Miocene "biogenic bloom." On glacial timescales, phosphorus is quite dynamic. In terrestrial systems, phosphorus soil mineralogy alters rapidly in response to early soil development, and ultimately becomes limited to plant availability in many setting. In marine systems, the loss of the substantial continental margin sink for reactive P occurs during glacial sea-level lowstands, effectively concentrating phosphorus in the deep sea. Finally, in the modern, the phosphorus cycle is dominated by human activity and agriculture, which causes unwanted pollution due to high phosphorus loading and itself poses significant concerns about the ultimate future availability of this nutrient to feed an expanding human population. This presentation will cover several critical components of the phosphorus cycle, including terrestrial and marine systems, through the lens of geologic time. This perspective reveals the significant changes that have occurred in the availability of phosphorus through time, and how other biogeochemical systems have responded to these changes. Furthermore, the perspective provides some sobering insights into the mechanisms behind the concentration of marine phosphorus into viable sources of phosphate rock. The rarity of high-quality phosphate rock deposits and the limitation of easily minable reserves are becoming critical, as the human demand for fertilizer phosphorus far outstrips the geologic rate of replacement and few prospects exist for new discoveries of phosphate rock.

Filippelli, Gabriel

2014-05-01

70

Phosphorus Fertilization of Direct Seeded Tomatoes.  

E-print Network

Harllnqlm 0 Rroodearf loo 200 300 4M) Broodcoat 0 Band Harnnqsn Cloy Ohtonee tba~ P war placed from center of row (hrj 8-1 101 July 1970 Phosphorus Fertilization of Direct Seeded Tomatoes %Ob Appllrd (lb/l) !xas A&M University xas... Growth of Tomatoes .......................... 5 Influence of Phosphorus Rate and Placement on Yield of Field Grown Tomatoes ............ .... 6 Influence of Phosphorus Rate and Placement on Nutrient Uptake by Tomatoes .................... 8 Influence...

Hipp, Billy W.

1970-01-01

71

Impact of phosphorus control measures on in-river phosphorus retention associated with point source pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-river phosphorus retention alters the quantity and timings of phosphorus delivery to downstream aquatic systems. Many intensive studies of in-river phosphorus retention have been carried out but generally on a short time scale (2-4 years). In this paper, monthly water quality data, collected by the Environment Agency of England and Wales over 12 years (1990-2001), were used to model daily phosphorus fluxes and monthly in-river phosphorus retention in the lowland calcareous River Wensum, Norfolk, UK. The effectiveness of phosphorus stripping at two major sewage treatment works was quantified over different hydrological conditions. The model explained 78% and 88% of the observed variance before and after phosphorus control, respectively. During relatively dry years, there was no net export of phosphorus from the catchment. High retention of phosphorus occurred, particularly during the summer months, which was not compensated for, by subsequent higher flow events. The critical discharge (Q) above which net remobilisation would occur, was only reached during few, high flow events Q25-Q13. Phosphorus removal from the effluent at two major STWs (Sewage Treatment Works) reduced the phosphorus catchment mass balance variability by 20-24% under the Q99-Q1. range of flow conditions. Although the absorbing capacity of the catchment against human impact was remarkable, further phosphorus remedial strategies will be necessary to prevent downstream risks of eutrophication occuring independently of the unpredictable variability in weather conditions.

Demars, B. O. L.; Harper, D. M.; Pitt, J.-A.; Slaughter, R.

2005-01-01

72

21 CFR 862.1580 - Phosphorus (inorganic) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. 862...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1580 Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. (a) Identification. A phosphorus (inorganic) test system is a...

2011-04-01

73

40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

2012-07-01

74

21 CFR 862.1580 - Phosphorus (inorganic) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. 862...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1580 Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. (a) Identification. A phosphorus (inorganic) test system is a...

2014-04-01

75

21 CFR 862.1580 - Phosphorus (inorganic) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. 862...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1580 Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. (a) Identification. A phosphorus (inorganic) test system is a...

2013-04-01

76

40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

2014-07-01

77

40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

2013-07-01

78

40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

2011-07-01

79

Phosphorus and Nutrition in Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Patients with renal impairment progressively lose the ability to excrete phosphorus. Decreased glomerular filtration of phosphorus is initially compensated by decreased tubular reabsorption, regulated by PTH and FGF23, maintaining normal serum phosphorus concentrations. There is a close relationship between protein and phosphorus intake. In chronic renal disease, a low dietary protein content slows the progression of kidney disease, especially in patients with proteinuria and decreases the supply of phosphorus, which has been directly related with progression of kidney disease and with patient survival. However, not all animal proteins and vegetables have the same proportion of phosphorus in their composition. Adequate labeling of food requires showing the phosphorus-to-protein ratio. The diet in patients with advanced-stage CKD has been controversial, because a diet with too low protein content can favor malnutrition and increase morbidity and mortality. Phosphorus binders lower serum phosphorus and also FGF23 levels, without decreasing diet protein content. But the interaction between intestinal dysbacteriosis in dialysis patients, phosphate binder efficacy, and patient tolerance to the binder could reduce their efficiency. PMID:22701173

González-Parra, Emilio; Gracia-Iguacel, Carolina; Egido, Jesús; Ortiz, Alberto

2012-01-01

80

PHOSPHORUS IN ALUM AMENDED POULTRY LITTER SYSTEMS: DISTRIBUTION, SPECIATION, AND  

E-print Network

PHOSPHORUS IN ALUM AMENDED POULTRY LITTER SYSTEMS: DISTRIBUTION, SPECIATION, AND INTERACTIONS;PHOSPHORUS IN ALUM AMENDED POULTRY LITTER SYSTEMS: DISTRIBUTION, SPECIATION, AND INTERACTIONS WITH ALUMINUM

Sparks, Donald L.

81

Phosphorus removal in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal process: roles of extracellular polymeric substances.  

PubMed

Phosphorus-accumulating organisms are considered to be the key microorganisms in the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process. A large amount of phosphorus is found in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) matrix of these microorganisms. However, the roles of EPS in phosphorus removal have not been fully understood. In this study, the phosphorus in the EBPR sludge was fractionated and further analyzed using quantitative (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The amounts and forms of phosphorus in EPS as well as their changes in an anaerobic-aerobic process were also investigated. EPS could act as a reservoir for phosphorus in the anaerobic-aerobic process. About 5-9% of phosphorus in sludge was reserved in the EPS at the end of the aerobic phase and might further contribute to the phosphorus removal. The chain length of the intracellular long-chain polyphosphate (polyP) decreased in the anaerobic phase and then recovered under aerobic conditions. However, the polyP in the EPS had a much shorter chain length than the intracellular polyP in the whole cycle. The migration and transformation of various forms of phosphorus among microbial cells, EPS, and bulk liquid were also explored. On the basis of these results, a model with a consideration of the roles of EPS was proposed, which is beneficial to elucidate the mechanism of phosphorus removal in the EBPR system. PMID:24067022

Zhang, Hai-Ling; Fang, Wei; Wang, Yong-Peng; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Zeng, Raymond J; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing

2013-10-15

82

Trapping phosphorus in runoff with a phosphorus removal structure.  

PubMed

Reduction of phosphorus (P) inputs to surface waters may decrease eutrophication. Some researchers have proposed filtering dissolved P in runoff with P-sorptive byproducts in structures placed in hydrologically active areas with high soil P concentrations. The objectives of this study were to construct and monitor a P removal structure in a suburban watershed and test the ability of empirically developed flow-through equations to predict structure performance. Steel slag was used as the P sorption material in the P removal structure. Water samples were collected before and after the structure using automatic samples and analyzed for total dissolved P. During the first 5 mo of structure operation, 25% of all dissolved P was removed from rainfall and irrigation events. Phosphorus was removed more efficiently during low flow rate irrigation events with a high retention time than during high flow rate rainfall events with a low retention time. The six largest flow events occurred during storm flow and accounted for 75% of the P entering the structure and 54% of the P removed by the structure. Flow-through equations developed for predicting structure performance produced reasonable estimates of structure "lifetime" (16.8 mo). However, the equations overpredicted cumulative P removal. This was likely due to differences in pH, total Ca and Fe, and alkalinity between the slag used in the structure and the slag used for model development. This suggests the need for an overall model that can predict structure performance based on individual material properties. PMID:22565249

Penn, Chad J; McGrath, Joshua M; Rounds, Elliott; Fox, Garey; Heeren, Derek

2012-01-01

83

Sustainable use of phosphorus: a finite resource.  

PubMed

Phosphorus is an essential element of life and of the modern agricultural system. Today, science, policy, agro-industry and other stakeholder groups are increasingly concerned about the sustainable use of this resource, given the dissipative nature of phosphorus and difficulties in assessing, evaluating, and coping with phosphorus pollution in aquatic and terrestrial systems. We argue that predictions about a forthcoming peak, followed by a quick reduction (i.e., physical phosphate rock scarcity) are unreasoned and stress that access to phosphorus (economic scarcity) is already, and may increasingly become critical, in particular for smallholders farmers in different parts of the world. The paper elaborates on the design, development, goals and cutting-edge contributions of a global transdisciplinary process (i.e. mutual learning between science and society including multiple stakeholders) on the understanding of potential contributions and risks related to the current mode of using phosphorus on multiple scales (Global TraPs). While taking a global and comprehensive view on the whole phosphorus-supply chain, Global TraPs organizes and integrates multiple transdisciplinary case studies to better answer questions which inform sustainable future phosphorus use. Its major goals are to contribute to four issues central to sustainable resource management: i) long-term management of biogeochemical cycles, in particular the challenge of closing the phosphorus cycle, ii) achieving food security, iii) avoiding environmental pollution and iv) sustainability learning on a global level by transdisciplinary processes. PMID:23769630

Scholz, Roland W; Ulrich, Andrea E; Eilittä, Marjatta; Roy, Amit

2013-09-01

84

Surface Reaction Behavior of Isogeometrical Phosphorus Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isogeometrical phosphorus compounds, used as model oil additives, were selected to study the role of sulfur and phosphorus under increasingly severe lubrication conditions. A modified commercial test device has been applied to measure friction and wear. Application of Auger electron spectroscopy leads to a better understanding of the beneficial role of AW\\/EP additives. A general mechanism resulting in the formation

R. Schumacher; D. Landolt; H. J. Mathieu; H. Zinke

1983-01-01

85

Inorganic Plant Nutrients: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Silicate Introduction  

E-print Network

. The biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen is further complicated by the different forms in which nitrogen can occurLab 3: Inorganic Plant Nutrients: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Silicate Introduction Compounds of nitrogen processes. Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus, on the other hand, are highly dynamic because they may

Jochem, Frank J.

86

INTERNAL PHOSPHORUS RECYCLING MECHANISMS IN SHALLOW LAKES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Budget calculations in the shallow lakes Dümmer and Schlei, F.R.G., and in limnocorral experiments carried out in Lake Schlei between 1981 and 1983 showed large seasonal fluctuations of internal phosphorus loading. These fluctuations were related to the load of the electron acceptors nitrate and sulfate from the tributaries and the internal metabolic processes. Based on lake budget studies, phosphorus release

W. Ripl

1986-01-01

87

The Pennsylvania Phosphorus Index, Version 2  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increased attention on phosphorus based management due to water quality concerns has prompted federal and state governments to generate guidelines for phosphorus management on certain agricultural operations. Pennsylvania’s Nutrient Management Program (Act 38 of 2005), the Concentrated Animal Feedin...

88

Phosphorus Moieties Make Polymers Less Flammable  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phosphorus incorporated into epoxies and polyamides via curing agent. According to report, use of 1-(di(2-chloroethoxyphosphinyl)methyl)-2,4- and -2,6-diaminobenzene (DCEPD) as curing agent for epoxies and polyamides makes these polymers more fire-retardant than corresponding polymers made with standard curing agents not containing phosphorus.

Kourtides, D. A.; Mikroyannidis, J. A.

1992-01-01

89

Phosphorus Availability Coefficients from Various Organic Sources  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objectives of this study were to determine Phosphorus Availability Coefficients (PACs) for a variety of organic phosphorus (P) sources, and to examine the relationship between PACs measured in simulated rainfall runoff and alternative soil incubations. PAC is an important parameter in the P-Ind...

90

Phosphorus Risk Index Quantitative vs. Qualitative  

E-print Network

Applications Qualitative Mode ­ Demonstrate "relative" impacts from varying management practices at the fieldPhosphorus Risk Index Quantitative vs. Qualitative Which is Appropriate? Which is Best? Biosystems and management parameters have toward risk of phosphorus movement and ... a method for developing management

91

EXTRACTION OF SOLUBLE PHOSPHORUS FROM SWINE WASTEWATER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Manure phosphorus (P) in excess of the assimilative capacity of land available on farms is an environmental concern often associated with confined livestock production. A wastewater treatment process was developed for removal of phosphorus from livestock wastewater. It includes nitrification of wast...

92

Extraction of soluble phosphorus from swine wastewater  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Manure phosphorus (P) in excess of the assimilative capacity of land available on farms is an environmental concern often associated with confined livestock production. A wastewater treatment process was developed for removal of phosphorus from livestock wastewater. It includes nitrification of wast...

93

Phosphorus imbalance in the global ocean?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phosphorus budget of the prehuman modern ocean is constrained applying the most recent estimates of the natural riverine, eolian, and ice-rafted input fluxes; the phosphorus burial in marine sediments; and the hydrothermal removal of dissolved phosphate from the deep ocean. This review of current flux estimates indicates that the phosphorus budget of the ocean is unbalanced since the accumulation of phosphorus in marine sediments and altered oceanic crust exceeds the continental input of particulate and dissolved phosphorus. The phosphorus mass balance is further tested considering the dissolved phosphate distribution in the deep water column, the marine export production of particulate organic matter, rain rates of phosphorus to the seafloor, benthic dissolved phosphate fluxes, and the organic carbon to phosphorus ratios in marine particles. These independent data confirm that the phosphate and phosphorus budgets were not at steady state in the prehuman global ocean. The ocean is losing dissolved phosphate at a rate of ?11.6 × 1010 mol yr-1 corresponding to a decline in the phosphate inventory of ?4.5% kyr-1. Benthic data show that phosphate is preferentially retained in pelagic deep-sea sediments where extended oxygen exposure times favor the degradation of particulate organic matter and the uptake of phosphate in manganese and iron oxides and hydroxides. Enhanced C: P regeneration ratios observed in the deep water column (>400 m water depth) probably reflect the preferential burial of phosphorus in pelagic sediments. Excess phosphate is released from continental margin sediments deposited in low-oxygen environments. The dissolved oxygen threshold value for the enhanced release of dissolved phosphate is ˜20 ?M. Benthic phosphate fluxes increase drastically when oxygen concentrations fall below this value.

Wallmann, Klaus

2010-12-01

94

Phosphorus flux from wetland ditch sediments.  

PubMed

The accumulation of phosphorus (P) in the bottom sediment of field drainage ditches poses a threat to the ecology both of the ditch water and downstream water courses. We investigated the amounts, forms and internal loading of sediment-bound P along two drainage ditches that regulate water levels in a basin fen (~200 ha) supporting a mixture of restored wetland and drained agricultural fields. Water levels in the Lady's Drove Rhyne are currently managed to enhance the biodiversity of the wetland (Catcott Lows Reserve - an area formerly cultivated for arable crop production); whereas, the East Ditch is managed to drain adjoining land that remains under arable and livestock production. Laboratory-based chemical fractionation schemes were used to characterise the forms and potential mobility of the sediment-bound P, whilst pore-water equilibrators were employed in situ to evaluate the diffusive flux of P through the sediment-water column, and to characterise the corresponding redox conditions. Along both ditches, sediment pore-water profiles indicated conditions ranging from weakly to very reducing conditions with increasing depth, and net fluxes of P from the sediment to overlying water. P flux values ranged from 0.33 to 1.30 mg m(-2) day(-1). Both the degree of P saturation (DPS) of the sediment and NaOH extractable (Fe/Al-bound) P correlated significantly (P<0.05) with P flux. Both in the wetland and agricultural ditches, by far the highest values for P flux were recorded at sites closest to points of drainage water entry from the corresponding, adjoining land. Although the P flux data were obtained from only a single sampling event, this study highlights the contribution of historical as well as ongoing agricultural land use on the sustained elevated P status of ditch sediments in lowland catchments. PMID:22954652

Hill, C R; Robinson, J S

2012-10-15

95

Impact of phosphorus control measures on in-river phosphorus retention associated with point source pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-river phosphorus retention alters the quantity and timings of phosphorus delivery to downstream aquatic systems. Many intensive studies of in-river phosphorus retention have been carried out but generally on a short time scale (2-4 years). In this paper, monthly water quality data, collected by the Environment Agency of England and Wales over 12 years (1990-2001), were used to model daily phosphorus fluxes and monthly in-river phosphorus retention in the lowland calcareous River Wensum, Norfolk, UK. The calibrated model explained 79% and 89% of the observed variance before and after phosphorus control, respectively. A split test revealed that predicted TP loads were in good agreement with observed TP loads (r2=0.85), although TP loads were underestimated under high flow conditions. During relatively dry years, there was no net export of phosphorus from the catchment. High retention of phosphorus occurred, particularly during the summer months, which was not compensated for, by subsequent higher flow events. This was despite a relatively modest critical discharge (Q) above which net remobilisation occur. Phosphorus removal from the effluent at two major STWs (Sewage Treatment Works) reduced phosphorus retention but not the remobilisation. This may indicate that the presence of impoundments and weirs, or overbank flows may have more control on the phosphorus dynamics under high flow conditions. Further phosphorus remedial strategies will be necessary to prevent downstream risks of eutrophication occurring independently of the unpredictable variability in weather conditions. More research is also needed to quantify the impact of the weir and overbank flows on phosphorus dynamics.

Demars, B. O. L.; Harper, D. M.; Pitt, J.-A.; Slaughter, R.

2005-06-01

96

The distribution of soil phosphorus for global biogeochemical modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus (P) is a major element required for biological activity in terrestrial ecosystems. Although the total P content in most soils can be large, only a small fraction is available or in an organic form for biological utilization because it is bound either in incompletely weathered mineral particles, adsorbed on mineral surfaces, or, over the time of soil formation, made unavailable by secondary mineral formation (occluded). In order to adequately represent phosphorus availability in global biogeochemistry-climate models, a representation of the amount and form of P in soils globally is required. We develop an approach that builds on existing knowledge of soil P processes and databases of parent material and soil P measurements to provide spatially explicit estimates of different forms of soil P on the global scale. We assembled data on the various forms of phosphorus in soils globally, chronosequence information, and several global spatial databases to develop a map of total soil P and the distribution among mineral bound, labile, organic, occluded, and secondary P forms in soils globally. The amount of P, to 50 cm soil depth, in soil labile, organic, occluded, and secondary pools is 3.5 ± 3, 8.7 ± 6, 13.2 ± 9, and 3.3 ± 2 Pg P respectively. The amount in soil mineral particles to the same depth is estimated at 12.5 ± 9 Pg P for a global soil total of 41.2 ± 20 Pg P. The large uncertainty in our estimates reflects our limited understanding of the processes controlling soil P transformations during pedogenesis and lack of measurements of soil P. In spite of the large uncertainty, the estimated global spatial variation and distribution of different soil P forms presented in this study will be useful for global biogeochemistry models that include P as a limiting element in biological production by providing initial estimates of the available soil P for plant uptake and microbial utilization.

Yang, X.; Post, W. M.; Thornton, P. E.; Jain, A.

2012-11-01

97

Allometric and phylogenetic variation in insect phosphorus content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Phosphorus content was measured in adult insects and arachnids from 170 species collected in the Sonoran Desert. 2. Across insect body sizes spanning four orders of magnitude, phosphorus content was inversely related to body mass. The largest species ( ? 1 g dry) had phosphorus contents that were only about 60% (0·62% P absolute) as high as phosphorus

H. A. Woods; W. F. Fagan; J. J. Elser; J. F. Harrison

2004-01-01

98

Phosphorus Radicals DOI: 10.1002/anie.200700059  

E-print Network

Phosphorus Radicals DOI: 10.1002/anie.200700059 An Isolable and Monomeric Phosphorus Radical] Sterically stabilized phosphorus-centered radicals which are persistent and monomeric in solution have been] radicals have been isolated. Yet the synthesis of a neutral phosphorus radical that exists as a monomer

Müller, Peter

99

A Hybrid Phosphorus Ligand for Highly Enantioselective Asymmetric Hydroformylation  

E-print Network

A Hybrid Phosphorus Ligand for Highly Enantioselective Asymmetric Hydroformylation Yongjun Yan phosphorus ligand has been prepared starting from chiral NOBIN (2-amino-2- hydroxy-1,1-binaphthyl). Excellent phosphorus ligands bearing two different phosphorus groups are effective in asymmetric hydroformylation.2a

Zhang, Xumu

100

Exchange of phosphorus across the sediment-water interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, principles of phosphorus retention and phosphorus release at the sediment-water interface in lakes are reviewed. New results and hypotheses are discussed in relation to older models of phosphorus exchange between sediments and water. The fractional composition of sedimentary phosphorus is discussed as a tool for interpretation of different retention mechanisms. Special emphasis is given to the impact

Bengt Boström; Jens M. Andersen; Siegfried Fleischer; Mats Jansson

1988-01-01

101

Bioretention Column Studies of Phosphorus Removal from Urban Stormwater Runoff  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effectiveness of bioretention as a stormwater management practice using repetitive bioretention columns for phosphorus removal. Bioretention media, with a higher short-term phos- phorus sorption capacity, retained more phosphorus from infiltrating runoff after 3 mg\\/L phosphorus loading. A surface mulch layer prevented clogging after repetitive total suspended solids input. Evidence suggests that long- term phosphorus reactions will

Chi-hsu Hsieh; Allen P. Davis; Brian A. Needelman

102

Bronx River bed sediments phosphorus pool and phosphorus compound identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus (P) transport in the Bronx River degraded water quality, decreased oxygen levels, and resulted in bioaccumulation in sediment potentially resulting in eutrophication, algal blooms and oxygen depletion under certain temperature and pH conditions. The anthropogenic P sources are storm water runoff, raw sewage discharge, fertilizer application in lawn, golf course and New York Botanical Garden; manure from the Bronx zoo; combined sewoverflows (CSO's) from parkway and Hunts Point sewage plant; pollutants from East River. This research was conducted in the urban river system in New York City area, in order to control P source, figure out P transport temporal and spatial variations and the impact on water quality; aimed to regulate P application, sharing data with Bronx River Alliance, EPA, DEP and DEC. The sediment characteristics influence the distribution and bioavailbility of P in the Bronx River. The P sequential extraction gave the quantitative analysis of the P pool, quantifying the inorganic and organic P from the sediments. There were different P pool patterns at the 15 sites, and the substantial amount of inorganic P pool indicated that a large amount P is bioavailable. The 31P- NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy) technology had been used to identify P species in the 15 sites of the Bronx River, which gave a qualitative analysis on phosphorus transport in the river. The P compounds in the Bronx River bed sediments are mostly glycerophophate (GlyP), nucleoside monophosphates (NMP), polynucleotides (PolyN), and few sites showed the small amount of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), glycerophosphoethanoamine (GPEA), phosphoenopyruvates (PEP), and inosine monophosphate (IMP). The land use spatial and temporal variations influence local water P levels, P distributions, and P compositions.

Wang, J.; Pant, H. K.

2008-12-01

103

Atmospheric phosphorus deposition may cause lakes to revert from phosphorus limitation back to nitrogen limitation.  

PubMed

Recent findings indicate that increased atmospheric deposition of nitrogen of human origin has caused changes in the pattern of ecological nutrient limitation in lakes in the northern hemisphere. An increase in the nitrogen to phosphorus ratio, and hence a shift from pristine nitrogen limitation to human-induced phosphorus limitation of phytoplankton growth, seems to have been driven by deposition of atmospheric nitrogen. These findings challenge the classical paradigm of lake phytoplankton productivity being naturally limited by phosphorus availability. However, atmospheric phosphorus deposition may also be highly relevant. Here we show how dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentration has decreased in the Pyrenean lake district over recent decades, despite there being an increase in deposition of atmospheric nitrogen. This is related to an increased atmospheric phosphorus load in the lake water, as a result of higher atmospheric inputs. These changes are causing phytoplankton to revert from being phosphorus-limited to being nitrogen-limited. PMID:23047676

Camarero, L; Catalan, J

2012-01-01

104

Formation of Stable Phosphorus-Carbon Bond for Enhanced Performance in Black Phosphorus Nanoparticle-Graphite Composite  

E-print Network

Formation of Stable Phosphorus-Carbon Bond for Enhanced Performance in Black Phosphorus battery electrode materi- als have attracted great research attention. Phosphorus as a low-cost abundant capacity anodes such as Si, Ge, Sn, and SnO2, there are only a few studies on phosphorus anodes despite its

Cui, Yi

105

Phosphorus-containing pesticide breakdown products: quantitative utilization as phosphorus sources by bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Bacteria were isolated that could utilize representatives of the following ionic phosphorus-containing breakdown products of organophosphorus pesticides as sole phosphorus sources: dialkyl phosphates, dialkyl phosphorothioates, dialkyl phosphorodithioates, alkyl arylphosphonates, alkyl arylphosphonothioates, and alkyl alkylphosphonates. Utilization of each organophosphorus compound, which was complete for 7 of 12 compounds studied, was confirmed by determination of protein yield from the amount of phosphorus source consumed. This is the first report of the utilization of an ionic dialkyl thiophosphate or dithiophosphate by microorganisms. PMID:727784

Cook, A M; Daughton, C G; Alexander, M

1978-01-01

106

Tracing the phosphorus contamination sources and reducing the phosphorus contamination in HPGe crystal growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The net impurity concentration and the dislocation density for the grown crystals must be controlled within a narrow range of values to produce crystals acceptable for large-volume coaxial germanium detector fabrication. Phosphorus is the main shallow level donor in high purity germanium crystal. The phosphorus contamination is a disaster for growing p-type high-purity germanium crystal. The phosphorus contamination mainly comes from crucible, insulation, ambient gas or crystal growth chamber. Regrowth method was used to trace the phosphorus contamination sources. The contamination level from sources was discussed in detail in this paper. For different contamination source, targeted approaches were used to reduce the contamination.

Wang, Guojian; Guan, Yutong; Yang, Gang; Govani, Jayesh; Khizar, Muhammad; Mei, Hao; Mei, Dongming

2013-03-01

107

40 CFR 422.10 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory. 422...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Production Subcategory § 422...Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory....

2013-07-01

108

40 CFR 422.10 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory. 422...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Production Subcategory § 422...Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory....

2011-07-01

109

40 CFR 422.20 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory. 422...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Consuming Subcategory § 422...Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory....

2010-07-01

110

40 CFR 422.20 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory. 422...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Consuming Subcategory § 422...Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory....

2012-07-01

111

40 CFR 422.20 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory. 422...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Consuming Subcategory § 422...Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory....

2011-07-01

112

40 CFR 422.10 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory. 422...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Production Subcategory § 422...Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory....

2010-07-01

113

40 CFR 422.10 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory. 422...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Production Subcategory § 422...Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory....

2012-07-01

114

40 CFR 422.10 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory. 422...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Production Subcategory § 422...Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory....

2014-07-01

115

40 CFR 422.20 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory. 422...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Consuming Subcategory § 422...Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory....

2013-07-01

116

40 CFR 422.20 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory. 422...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Consuming Subcategory § 422...Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory....

2014-07-01

117

Studies on phosphorus availability in poultry rations  

E-print Network

, and review of l i t e r a t u r e . 1 Chapter II? Development of methods for the determination of availability of phosphorus in chick diets. 1 1 Chapter III* The utilization of colloidal phosphate in poultry rations. v? ? . ? ? ....... .41 Literature... by chick assay procedure using a synthetic diet supplemented with dicalcium phosphate and colloidal phosphate. ................. .......... .... ^ Table VI. Per cent availability of phosphorus by chick assay procedure using a synthetic diet supplemented...

Baruah, Jogendra Nath

2013-10-04

118

A structural investigation of phosphorus oxynitride glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus oxynitride glasses, containing up to 10 wt% nitrogen were prepared as bulk samples by nitridation in molten state-700°C-under ammonia flow of (NaPO3)x sodium phosphate. The structure of glasses has been investigated using Pb2+, Nd3+, and Eu3+ as local probes. Nitrogen is inserted between two or three phosphorus atoms of the metaphosphate-like chains. The environment of modifier ion is uniquely

L. Boukbir; R. Marchand; Y. Laurent; Zhang Jin Chao; C. Parent; G. Le Flem

1990-01-01

119

Phosphorus removal and N2O production in anaerobic/anoxic denitrifying phosphorus removal process: Long-term impact of influent phosphorus concentration.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate the long-term impact of influent phosphorus concentration on denitrifying phosphorus removal and N2O production during denitrifying phosphorous removal process. The results showed that, denitrifying phosphate accumulating organisms (DPAOs) could become dominant populations quickly in anaerobic/anoxic SBR by providing optimum cultivating conditions, and the reactor performed well for denitrifying phosphorus removal. The influent phosphorus concentration significantly affected anaerobic poly-?-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA) synthesis, denitrifying phosphorus removal, and N2O production during the denitrifying phosphorus removal process. As the influent phosphorus concentration was more than 20mgL(-1), the activity of DPAOs began to be inhibited due to the transformation of the available carbon source type. Meanwhile, N2O production was inhibited with the mitigation of anoxic NO2(-)-N accumulation. Adoption of a modified feeding could enhance denitrifying phosphorus removal and inhibit N2O production during denitrifying phosphorous removal processes. PMID:25541320

Wang, Zhen; Meng, Yuan; Fan, Ting; Du, Yuneng; Tang, Jie; Fan, Shisuo

2015-03-01

120

Soil phosphorus constrains biodiversity across European grasslands.  

PubMed

Nutrient pollution presents a serious threat to biodiversity conservation. In terrestrial ecosystems, the deleterious effects of nitrogen pollution are increasingly understood and several mitigating environmental policies have been developed. Compared to nitrogen, the effects of increased phosphorus have received far less attention, although some studies have indicated that phosphorus pollution may be detrimental for biodiversity as well. On the basis of a dataset covering 501 grassland plots throughout Europe, we demonstrate that, independent of the level of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and soil acidity, plant species richness was consistently negatively related to soil phosphorus. We also identified thresholds in soil phosphorus above which biodiversity appears to remain at a constant low level. Our results indicate that nutrient management policies biased toward reducing nitrogen pollution will fail to preserve biodiversity. As soil phosphorus is known to be extremely persistent and we found no evidence for a critical threshold below which no environmental harm is expected, we suggest that agro-environmental schemes should include grasslands that are permanently free from phosphorus fertilization. PMID:24895112

Ceulemans, Tobias; Stevens, Carly J; Duchateau, Luc; Jacquemyn, Hans; Gowing, David J G; Merckx, Roel; Wallace, Hilary; van Rooijen, Nils; Goethem, Thomas; Bobbink, Roland; Dorland, Edu; Gaudnik, Cassandre; Alard, Didier; Corcket, Emmanuel; Muller, Serge; Dise, Nancy B; Dupré, Cecilia; Diekmann, Martin; Honnay, Olivier

2014-12-01

121

Solid-state phosphorus-31 NMR spectroscopy of a multiple-spin system: an investigation of a rhodium-triphosphine complex.  

PubMed

Phosphorus-31 NMR spectra of solid [tris(dimethylphenylphosphine)](2,5-norbornadiene) rhodium(I) hexafluorophosphate have been acquired at several applied magnetic field strengths. The phosphorus nuclei of the three phosphine ligands are spin-spin coupled to each other and to 103Rh, resulting in complex NMR spectra; however, the three phosphorus chemical shift (CS) tensors were determined through the analysis of NMR spectra of slow magic angle spinning and stationary samples. Spectra of spinning samples in rotational resonance and two-dimensional 31P NMR spectra were particularly useful for determining the magnitudes of the indirect spin-spin couplings, and to probe their signs. Despite being in similar environments, the three phosphorus nuclei of the phosphine ligands have distinct CS tensors. In particular, the spans of these tensors, delta11-delta33, range from 80 to 176 ppm. The phosphorus CS tensors have been assigned to specific sites determined by X-ray crystallography, based on a combination of the experimental results and the results of quantum chemical calculations of the phosphorus shielding and 2J(31P,31P) values. The effect of coordination of dimethylphenylphosphine with rhodium has been investigated by comparing calculated phosphorus CS tensors for the uncoordinated ligand with those obtained for the ligands in the complex. PMID:18956090

Bernard, Guy M; Feindel, Kirk W; Wasylishen, Roderick E; Cameron, T Stanley

2008-09-28

122

Giant Phonon Softening and Enhancement of Superconductivity by Phosphorus Doping of BaNi2As2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of phosphorus doping on the structural and superconducting phase transitions of BaNi2(As1-xPx)2 were studied. The specific heat, resistivity, and magnetic susceptibility were measured. The results revealed an abrupt increase in the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) from 0.6 K in the triclinic phase (space group P1¯) with less phosphorus (x?0.067) to 3.3 K in the tetragonal phase (space group I4/mmm) with more phosphorus (x?0.067). Our data analysis suggests that a doping-induced softening related to an in-plane Ni and As(P) phonon mode is responsible for the enhanced superconductivity in the tetragonal phase.

Kudo, K.; Takasuga, M.; Okamoto, Y.; Hiroi, Z.; Nohara, M.

2012-08-01

123

Monitoring of phosphorus in Danish surface waters 1990-2012: Trends in phosphorus loading and phosphorus concentrations in streams, lakes and estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than 20 years an integrated, standardized monitoring programme of Danish surface waters has provided information on status and trends in the phosphorus loading and phosphorus concentrations of Danish waters. Although the land-based phosphorus loading of Danish coastal waters has been reduced by 60For several decades the excess loading of phosphorus from diffuse sources and sewage outlets contributed significantly to the eutrophication of surface waters, and this is still the case. Measures taken to combat this eutrophication have included among others improved sewage treatment, diversion of sewage outlets from lakes and reduction of the phosphorus surplus on agricultural land. The overall effects of the measures taken to reduce the phosphorus loading and thereby improve the water quality will be presented for 15 Danish lakes and 10 estuaries and for 160 Danish streams draining catchments with varying anthropogenic impacts. The generally reduced phosphorus loading has led to a decrease in phosphorus concentrations in Danish lakes and estuaries due to the direct - long-term - link between phosphorus loading and phosphorus concentrations in lakes and estuaries. Special focus will be given to the development since 1990 in phosphorus concentrations in 31 streams draining farmed catchments with no significant sewage outlets and the potential factors influencing trends and variations. In 14 of these streams there has been a significant reduction in phosphorus concentrations since 1990, and for all the streams a general reduction of 17

Windolf, Jørgen; Kronvang, Brian; Carstensen, Jacob; Larsen, Søren E.; Bøgestrand, Jens; Trolle, Dennis

2014-05-01

124

Sewage-effluent phosphorus: A greater risk to river eutrophication than agricultural phosphorus?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) concentrations from water quality monitoring at 54 UK river sites across seven major lowland catchment systems are examined in relation to eutrophication risk and to the relative importance of point and diffuse sources. The over-riding evidence indicates that point (effluent) rather than diffuse (agricultural) sources of phosphorus provide the most significant risk for river eutrophication, even in rural

Helen P. Jarvie; Colin Neal; Paul J. A. Withers

2006-01-01

125

Separation of phosphorus bound to organic matrices from inorganic phosphorus in alkaline soil extracts by ultrafiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described to separate inorganic phosphorus from phosphorus bound to humic substances in alkaline soil extracts. The method consists of the addition of polyethylenimine as a flocculant to the soil extract and subsequent ultrafiltration through 2September 1991 D cellulose acetate membranes. Inorganic P (Pi) is determined in the ultrafiltrate, organic P (Po) as the difference of total P,

J. Gerke; A. Jungk

1991-01-01

126

Evaluation of Soil Phosphorus and Phosphorus in Water Discharged from Three Everglades Agricultural Area Farms  

E-print Network

Lake Okeechobee to the Everglades. Water from Lake Okeechobee flows generally south down four majorEvaluation of Soil Phosphorus and Phosphorus in Water Discharged from Three Everglades Agricultural Area Farms Kathleen Lockhart University of Florida Soil and Water Science Department Major Advisor

Ma, Lena

127

Phosphorus Fractions of Various Feedstuffs and Apparent Phosphorus Availability to Channel Catfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine different phosphorus fractions in corn, cottonseed meal, dehulled soybean meal, fish meal analog, meat-bone meal, fish meal from menhaden Brevoortia spp., rice bran, sorghum, wheat, and wheat middlings, and phosphorus availability of these feedstuffs to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Test diets consisting of a 70:30 mixture of reference diet to test ingredient were used

Yesim Buyukates; Steven D. Rawles; Delbert M. Gatlin III

2000-01-01

128

Evaluation of Phosphorus Source Coefficients as Predictors of Runoff Phosphorus Concentrations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objectives of this study were to determine Phosphorus Source Coefficients (PSC) for organic phosphorus (P) sources, and to examine the relationship between PSCs and P concentrations measured in simulated rainfall runoff. The PSC is an important parameter in the P Site Index (PSI). An incubatio...

129

Simulating soil phosphorus dynamics for a phosphorus loss quantification tool.  

PubMed

Pollution of fresh waters by agricultural phosphorus (P) is a water quality concern. Because soils can contribute significantly to P loss in runoff, it is important to assess how management affects soil P status over time, which is often done with models. Our objective was to describe and validate soil P dynamics in the Annual P Loss Estimator (APLE) model. APLE is a user-friendly spreadsheet model that simulates P loss in runoff and soil P dynamics over 10 yr for a given set of runoff, erosion, and management conditions. For soil P dynamics, APLE simulates two layers in the topsoil, each with three inorganic P pools and one organic P pool. It simulates P additions to soil from manure and fertilizer, distribution among pools, mixing between layers due to tillage and bioturbation, leaching between and out of layers, crop P removal, and loss by surface runoff and erosion. We used soil P data from 25 published studies to validate APLE's soil P processes. Our results show that APLE reliably simulated soil P dynamics for a wide range of soil properties, soil depths, P application sources and rates, durations, soil P contents, and management practices. We validated APLE specifically for situations where soil P was increasing from excessive P inputs, where soil P was decreasing due to greater outputs than inputs, and where soil P stratification occurred in no-till and pasture soils. Successful simulations demonstrate APLE's potential to be applied to major management scenarios related to soil P loss in runoff and erosion. PMID:23128732

Vadas, Peter A; Joern, Brad C; Moore, Philip A

2012-01-01

130

Gastrointestinal Inhibition of Sodium-Hydrogen Exchanger 3 Reduces Phosphorus Absorption and Protects against Vascular Calcification in CKD.  

PubMed

In CKD, phosphate retention arising from diminished GFR is a key early step in a pathologic cascade leading to hyperthyroidism, metabolic bone disease, vascular calcification, and cardiovascular mortality. Tenapanor, a minimally systemically available inhibitor of the intestinal sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3, is being evaluated in clinical trials for its potential to (1) lower gastrointestinal sodium absorption, (2) improve fluid overload-related symptoms, such as hypertension and proteinuria, in patients with CKD, and (3) reduce interdialytic weight gain and intradialytic hypotension in ESRD. Here, we report the effects of tenapanor on dietary phosphorous absorption. Oral administration of tenapanor or other intestinal sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3 inhibitors increased fecal phosphorus, decreased urine phosphorus excretion, and reduced [(33)P]orthophosphate uptake in rats. In a rat model of CKD and vascular calcification, tenapanor reduced sodium and phosphorus absorption and significantly decreased ectopic calcification, serum creatinine and serum phosphorus levels, circulating phosphaturic hormone fibroblast growth factor-23 levels, and heart mass. These results indicate that tenapanor is an effective inhibitor of dietary phosphorus absorption and suggest a new approach to phosphate management in renal disease and associated mineral disorders. PMID:25404658

Labonté, Eric D; Carreras, Christopher W; Leadbetter, Michael R; Kozuka, Kenji; Kohler, Jill; Koo-McCoy, Samantha; He, Limin; Dy, Edward; Black, Deborah; Zhong, Ziyang; Langsetmo, Ingrid; Spencer, Andrew G; Bell, Noah; Deshpande, Desiree; Navre, Marc; Lewis, Jason G; Jacobs, Jeffrey W; Charmot, Dominique

2014-11-17

131

Phosphorus cycling in the Early Aptian  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for living organisms. It is vital for the formation of ATP, the energy store in cells, and is needed for DNA synthesis. Seawater phosphorus concentration therefore plays a critical role in controlling marine productivity on geological timescales. The majority of research on the P cycle focuses on modern lacustrine and marine settings. This follows the necessity to gain a further understanding on the effects of agricultural fertilisers on nutrient cycling; in particular on the mechanisms which lead to eutrophication. These studies use sequential extraction to determine the speciation of P. The results suggest that bottom sediments can act as both a source and a sink of phosphorus; the role they assume depends on range of factors including bottom water oxygen concentrations, sedimentation rate and the concentration of iron. This study applies a sequential extraction method developed in modern sediments to sediments from the Early Cretaceous, specifically the Early Aptian. During this time, globally synchronous oceanic anoxic events (OAE's) appear in the rock record. It has been suggested that these events represent an increase in marine productivity combined with bottom water anoxia. Our study investigates whether the speciation of sedimentary phosphorus can be used to reconstruct P cycling at this time. Our samples are taken from pre-, syn- and post-OAE1a but are not from the organic matter rich layers. Our results show that the original fractions of phosphorus have been altered during diagenesis with the majority of phosphorus now being preserved as either apatite (Ca-P) or phosphorus in organic matter (Porg). The dominance of Ca-P is expected as it is thought that redox-sensitive forms of P undergo 'sink switching' during diagenesis and are preserved as Ca-P. The high concentration of Porg however, differs from previous studies which generally find that Ca-P or iron (oxyhydr)oxide associated phosphorus (Fe-P) are dominant depending on deposition conditions. We find that during the anoxic event Ca-P preservation is enhanced, a trend which is not mirrored by an increase in total phosphorus concentration. This suggests that the formation of authigenic apatite via sink switching may have been enhanced during OAE1a. This agrees with the findings of a modern field and lab based study which proposes that more P is fixed than regenerated under anoxic conditions but contradicts earlier studies which suggest that more P will be refluxed from sediments under anoxic bottom-water conditions.

Oakes, R.; Dittrich, M.; Wortmann, U. G.

2012-12-01

132

Reactive Phosphorus Removal from Aquaculture and Poultry Productions  

E-print Network

Reactive Phosphorus Removal from Aquaculture and Poultry Productions Systems Using Polymeric of a sorption processes for the ultimate removal and recovery of reactive phos- phorus from aquaculture poultry and aquaculture wastewater effluents. Upon treatment, phosphorus anion concentrations were reduced

Rubloff, Gary W.

133

New England Regional Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer and  

E-print Network

New England Regional Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer and Associated Management Practice;2 New England Regional Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer and Associated Management Practice of Pesticide Control Brian Gagnon, Plymouth State University Marion Gold, University of Rhode Island Jurij

New Hampshire, University of

134

Phosphorus: Tips for People with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)  

MedlinePLUS

... r ney D u ise s ase (CKD) National Kidney Disease Education Program What Is Phosphorus? Phosphorus is a ... and Human Services National Institutes of Health National Kidney Disease Education Program 2

135

Phosphorus--Too Much and Plants May Suffer  

E-print Network

The buildup of phosphorus in lawns, gardens, pastures and croplands can cause plants to grow poorly and even die. This publication explains how to identify problems caused by excessive phosphorus and how to correct those problems....

Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

2008-05-09

136

Doping and Raman Characterization of Boron and Phosphorus Atoms in  

E-print Network

Doping and Raman Characterization of Boron and Phosphorus Atoms in Germanium Nanowires Naoki Fukata. The chemical bonding states and electrical activity of boron (B) and phosphorus (P) atoms in germanium

Wang, Zhong L.

137

Phosphorus Spin Coherence Times in Silicon at Very Low Temperatures  

E-print Network

Phosphorus donor spin coherence in isotopically pure 28 silicon is measured at very low temperatures using pulsed electron spin resonance. The isolated spin T2 varies unexpectedly with phosphorus concentration

Alexander, L K; Hutchison, W D

2010-01-01

138

Phosphorus Spin Coherence Times in Silicon at Very Low Temperatures  

E-print Network

Phosphorus donor spin coherence in isotopically pure 28 silicon is measured at very low temperatures using pulsed electron spin resonance. The isolated spin T2 varies unexpectedly with phosphorus concentration

L. K. Alexander; N. Suwuntanasarn; W. D. Hutchison

2010-09-22

139

Phylogenetic diversity in cadmium : phosphorus ratio regulation by marine phytoplankton  

E-print Network

Phylogenetic diversity in cadmium : phosphorus ratio regulation by marine phytoplankton Z. V Abstract We examined the effect of irradiance and growth rate on cadmium : phosphorus ratio in five species

140

Bioretention column studies of phosphorus removal from urban stormwater runoff.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effectiveness of bioretention as a stormwater management practice using repetitive bioretention columns for phosphorus removal. Bioretention media, with a higher short-term phosphorus sorption capacity, retained more phosphorus from infiltrating runoff after 3 mg/L phosphorus loading. A surface mulch layer prevented clogging after repetitive total suspended solids input. Evidence suggests that long-term phosphorus reactions will regenerate active short-term phosphorus adsorption sites. A high hydraulic conductivity media overlaying one with low hydraulic conductivity resulted in a higher runoff infiltration rate, from 0.51 to 0.16 cm/min at a fixed 15-cm head, and was more efficient in phosphorus removal (85% mass removal) than a profile with low conductivity media over high (63% mass removal). Media extractions suggest that most of the retained phosphorus in the media layers is available for vegetative uptake and that environmental risk thresholds were not exceeded. PMID:17370843

Hsieh, Chi-hsu; Davis, Allen P; Needelman, Brian A

2007-02-01

141

Reduction of dietary phosphorus absorption by phosphorus binders. A theoretical, in vitro, and in vivo study.  

PubMed Central

Antacids used to decrease phosphorus absorption in patients with renal failure may be toxic. To find more efficient or less toxic binders, a three-part study was conducted. First, theoretical calculations showed that phosphorus binding occurs in the following order of avidity: Al3+ greater than H+ greater than Ca2+ greater than Mg2+. In the presence of acid (as in the stomach), aluminum can therefore bind phosphorus better than calcium or magnesium. Second, in vitro studies showed that the time required to reach equilibrium varied from 10 min to 3 wk among different compounds, depending upon solubility in acid and neutral solutions. Third, the relative order of effectiveness of binders in vivo was accurately predicted from theoretical and in vitro results; specifically, calcium acetate and aluminum carbonate gel were superior to calcium carbonate or calcium citrate in inhibiting dietary phosphorus absorption in normal subjects. We concluded that: (a) inhibition of phosphorus absorption by binders involves a complex interplay between chemical reactions and ion transport processes in the stomach and small intestine; (b) theoretical and in vitro studies can identify potentially better in vivo phosphorus binders; and (c) calcium acetate, not previously used for medical purposes, is approximately as efficient as aluminum carbonate gel and more efficient as a phosphorus binder than other currently used calcium salts. PMID:2910921

Sheikh, M S; Maguire, J A; Emmett, M; Santa Ana, C A; Nicar, M J; Schiller, L R; Fordtran, J S

1989-01-01

142

Dietary phosphorus requirement of juvenile red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus  

E-print Network

salmon (Ketola 1975), carp (Ogino and Takeda 1976), red sea bream (Sakamoto and Yone 1973) and rainbow trout (Ogino and Takeda 1978) . Since the phosphorus requirement for red drum has not been reported and since the phosphorus must be supplied... by the form of the phosphorus and by the species of the fish (NRC 1983) . Monobasic phosphates of sodium and potassium are highly available sources of phosphorus for channel catfish, common carp, red sea bream, and rainbow trout. Furthermore, Sakamoto...

Davis, Donald Allen

1986-01-01

143

Effect of irradiation on phosphorus segregation  

SciTech Connect

Phosphorus strongly segregated to the surface during irradiation of austenitic-type alloys in the temperature range 775 to 925 K. Much weaker but measurable radiation induced segregation of phosphorus occurred in a Ni + 0.03% P alloy. Irradiation under similar conditions produced no measurable phosphorus segregation in ferritic HT-9 or Fe + 0.03% P alloy. The lack of segregation in the ferritic alloys was suggested to result from a weak point defect - impurity interaction in the bcc iron structure while a strong interaction was suggested for the fcc iron structure. The slow accumulation of radiation damage in bcc iron alloys is also consistent with a lack of observable segregation. The evidence strongly suggests a radiation induced mechanism but a radiation enhanced, thermally activated equilibrium segreation cannot be ruled out. 7 figures.

Brimhall, J.L.; Baer, D.R.; Jones, R.H.

1982-09-01

144

Glycogen metabolism in phosphorus-depleted rats.  

PubMed

Glycogen content as well as the enzymes of glycogenolysis and glycogen synthesis were examined in myocardium, skeletal muscle, liver and kidneys of rats with dietary phosphorus deprivation. Myocardial glycogen content was decreased and this was accompanied by activation of the enzymes of glycogenolysis and inhibition of the enzymes of glycogen synthesis. Beta blockade (nadolol) abolished the effect of phosphorus depletion (PD) on myocardial glycogen metabolism, documenting that the effect of PD is mediated, at least in part, by increased sympathetic activity. Furthermore, administration of insulin caused a marked increase of glycogen content in the heart of both control and phosphorus-depleted (PD) animals. There was no change of glycogen content or the activities of enzymes of glycogen metabolism in skeletal muscle or kidney, but a decrease of glycogen content of the liver was observed in PD animals. PMID:6135979

Hörl, W H; Kreusser, W; Rambausek, M; Heidland, A; Ritz, E

1983-01-01

145

Electric field effect in ultrathin black phosphorus  

SciTech Connect

Black phosphorus exhibits a layered structure similar to graphene, allowing mechanical exfoliation of ultrathin single crystals. Here, we demonstrate few-layer black phosphorus field effect devices on Si/SiO{sub 2} and measure charge carrier mobility in a four-probe configuration as well as drain current modulation in a two-point configuration. We find room-temperature mobilities of up to 300 cm{sup 2}/Vs and drain current modulation of over 10{sup 3}. At low temperatures, the on-off ratio exceeds 10{sup 5}, and the device exhibits both electron and hole conduction. Using atomic force microscopy, we observe significant surface roughening of thin black phosphorus crystals over the course of 1 h after exfoliation.

Koenig, Steven P.; Schmidt, Hennrik [Graphene Research Centre, National University of Singapore, 6 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117546 (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Doganov, Rostislav A.; Castro Neto, A. H.; Özyilmaz, Barbaros [Graphene Research Centre, National University of Singapore, 6 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117546 (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering (NGS), National University of Singapore, 28 Medical Drive, Singapore 117456 (Singapore)

2014-03-10

146

Flammability of Epoxy Resins Containing Phosphorus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of a program to develop fire-resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial and general aviation aircraft, flame-retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured neat epoxy formulations were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis, microscale combustion calorimetry, and fire calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness and compressive strength of several cured formulations showed no detrimental effect due to phosphorus content. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

Hergenrother, P. M.; Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G.; Connell, J. W.; Hinkley, J. A.

2005-01-01

147

Observations of interstellar chlorine and phosphorus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Copernicus observations of interstellar Cl I, Cl II, and P II UV lines toward 10 stars are reported. Column densities are estimated for each species, and upper limits are computed for HCl column densities. Derivation of the gas-phase abundances of chlorine and phosphorus indicates that the averages of both the chlorine and the phosphorus logarithmic abundances relative to hydrogen are between 5.0 and 5.1. It is suggested that interstellar chlorine may be depleted by about a factor of 3 relative to the solar abundance and that interstellar phosphorus is depleted by a factor of 2 to 3. The results are shown to support the prediction that chlorine is ionized in regions containing primarily atomic oxygen and is neutral in regions where there is a significant amount of molecular hydrogen. The photoionization rate of neutral chlorine toward 15 Mon is estimated, and it is concluded that most chlorine is contained within the gas phase.

Jura, M.; York, D. G.

1978-01-01

148

Characterization of phosphorus liquid-metal ion source as a dopant source in focused ion beam systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of a phosphorus liquid-metal ion source (LMIS) for use in focused ion beam systems was investigated because of its potential as an n-type dopant for integrated circuit device fabrication. A continuous lifetime of more than 33 h was recorded as a part of the source stability measurement. Short-term stability measurements indicated a very stable beam emission during its operation.

R. H. Higuchi-Rusli; J. C. Corelli

1988-01-01

149

Effects of white phosphorus on mallard reproduction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Extensive waterfowl mortality involving thousands of ducks, geese, and swans has occurred annually at Eagle River Flats, Alaska since at least 1982. The primary agent for this mortality has been identified as white phosphorus. Although acute and subacute lethality have been described, sublethal effects are less well known. This study reports on the effects of white phosphorus on reproductive function in the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) in captivity. Fertility, hatching success, teratogenicity, and egg laying frequency were examined in 70 adult female mallards who received up to 7 daily doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg of white phosphorus. Measurements of fertility and hatchability were reduced by the white phosphorus. Teratogenic effects were observed in embryos from hens dosed at all treatment levels. Egg laying frequency was reduced even at the lowest treatment level; treated hens required a greater number of days to lay a clutch of 12 eggs than control hens. After two doses at 2.0 mg/kg, all females stopped laying completely for a minimum of 10 days and laying frequency was depressed for at least 45 days. Fertility of 10 adult male mallards dosed with 1.0 mg/kg of white phosphorus did not differ from 10 controls, but plasma testosterone levels were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in the treated males 1 day after dosing ended. These results provide evidence that productivity of free-ranging mallards may be impaired if they are exposed to white phosphorus at typical field levels.

Vann, S.I.; Sparling, D.W.; Ottinger, M.A.

2000-01-01

150

Lightning-induced reduction of phosphorus oxidation state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus is frequently the limiting nutrient in marine and terrestrial ecosystems, largely owing to its poor solubility and slow movement through the rock cycle. Phosphorus is viewed to exist in geological systems almost exclusively in its fully oxidized state as orthophosphate. However, many microorganisms use the partially oxidized forms-phosphite and hypophosphite-as alternative phosphorus sources, and genomic evidence suggests that this

Matthew Pasek; Kristin Block

2009-01-01

151

Soil phosphorus dynamics under sprinkler and furrow irrigation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Furrow irrigation detaches and transports soil particles and subsequently nutrients such as phosphorus. To reduce the risk of erosion and offsite phosphorus movement, producers can convert from furrow to sprinkler irrigation. We completed research on soil phosphorus dynamics in furrow versus sprin...

152

Grain Boundary Phosphorus Segregation in Thermally Aged Low Alloy Steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intergranular embrittlement due to grain boundary segregation of phosphorus is recognized as one of the potential degradation factors in irradiated reactor low alloy steels at high neutron fluence. In this study, low alloy steels thermally aged at 400-500°C were investigated to evaluate the correlation between phosphorus segregation and intergranular embrittlement. Phosphorus segregation determined using Auger electron spectroscopy increased after thermal

Hayato NAKATA; Katsuhiko FUJII; Koji FUKUYA; Ryuta KASADA; Akihiko KIMURA

2006-01-01

153

EVALUATION OF A PROTOTYPE INSTRUMENT FOR DETERMINING PHOSPHORUS IN WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A second-generation flame spectrometer for the direct determination of phosphorus in water was evaluated. Response to phosphorus in the form of phosphoric acid was linear from 0.5 to 16 ppm phosphorus. The relative standard deviation was approximately constant at 20 percent over ...

154

Modeling an Improvement in Phosphorus Utilization in Tropical Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of Terra Preta soils have generated interest in recreating their fertility elsewhere. Much of the research has focused on soil amendment charcoal (“biochar”). Terra Preta also contains bone fragments, producing a high concentration of phosphorus. Some forecast worldwide declines in phosphorus supplies, and better agricultural system management is required to improve phosphorus use efficiency. A conceptual model is offered

David M. Edelstein; David J. Tonjes

2012-01-01

155

46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section...Requirements § 151.50-50 Elemental phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be...head equivalent to the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket...

2013-10-01

156

Plasma inorganic phosphorus concentration during eggshell formation. II. —  

E-print Network

Plasma inorganic phosphorus concentration during eggshell formation. II. — Inverse was evident between Cas and plasma inorganic phosphorus content (Pi) (r = - 0.7 to - 0.8). A negative of inorganic phosphorus in the plasma of laying hen (Pi) increases sharply between 10 and 14 h after

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

157

IDENTIFYING TOTAL PHOSPHORUS SPECTRAL SIGNAL IN A TROPICAL ESTUARY LAGOON  

E-print Network

IDENTIFYING TOTAL PHOSPHORUS SPECTRAL SIGNAL IN A TROPICAL ESTUARY LAGOON USING AN HYPERSPECTRAL phosphorus concentrations. A reflectance determination coefficient of 0.49 was obtained from the 467 to 529 phosphorus distribution map. In 1995 the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers (USCOE) developed the CH3D-WES and CE

Gilbes, Fernando

158

Production of phosphorus and carbon ions with MONO 1001  

E-print Network

1 Production of phosphorus and carbon ions with MONO 1001 J-Y. Pacquet, R. Leroy, C. Barué, C.P. 5133, 14070 Caen Cedex 05, France 1- Phosphorus Mission ECR source MONO10011 4 has been tested of phosphorus 1+ and its capacities to ionize carbon from CO2. The objectives are 200µAp of P

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

159

46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section...Requirements § 151.50-50 Elemental phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be...head equivalent to the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket...

2010-10-01

160

PHOSPHORUS: A Task-Based Agent Matchmaker Yolanda Gil  

E-print Network

PHOSPHORUS: A Task-Based Agent Matchmaker Yolanda Gil Information Sciences Institute University, U.S.A. surya@isi.edu ABSTRACT PHOSPHORUS is an agent matchmaking service that exploits do- main of accomplishing, as well as requests to locate agents with a required capability. PHOSPHORUS supports match- ing

Gil, Yolanda

161

46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section...Requirements § 151.50-50 Elemental phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be...head equivalent to the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket...

2011-10-01

162

46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section...Requirements § 151.50-50 Elemental phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be...head equivalent to the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket...

2012-10-01

163

49 CFR 173.188 - White or yellow phosphorus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false White or yellow phosphorus. 173.188 Section 173.188 Transportation...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.188 White or yellow phosphorus. Phosphorus, white or yellow, when offered for...

2012-10-01

164

46 CFR 151.50-50 - Elemental phosphorus in water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 false Elemental phosphorus in water. 151.50-50 Section...Requirements § 151.50-50 Elemental phosphorus in water. (a) Tanks shall be...head equivalent to the design lading of phosphorus and its water blanket...

2014-10-01

165

Removing phosphorus from sewage effluent and agricultural runoff  

E-print Network

321 14 Removing phosphorus from sewage effluent and agricultural runoff using recovered ochre K © 2004 IWA Publishing. Phosphorus in Environmental Technology: Principles and Applications. Edited by Eugenia Valsami-Jones. ISBN: 1 84339 001 9 #12;322 Phosphorus removal technologies from water and waste

Heal, Kate

166

ORIGINAL PAPER Phosphorus budgets in Everglades wetland ecosystems  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Phosphorus budgets in Everglades wetland ecosystems: the effects of hydrology, and low rates of P cycling associated with soils. Phosphorus flux rates cannot be estimated for ecosystem-enriched areas of the Everglades. Keywords Budget Á Enrichment Á Everglades Á Hydrology Á Phosphorus Á Wetland

167

Phosphorus diffusion in isoconcentration backgrounds under inert conditions in silicon  

E-print Network

Phosphorus diffusion in isoconcentration backgrounds under inert conditions in silicon Jay P. John (Received 29 May 1992; accepted for publication 31 December 1992) The diffusivity of phosphorus in isoconcentration backgrounds under inert conditions in silicon is investigated. Phosphorus is implanted at low dose

Florida, University of

168

PHOSPHORUS CONTENT OF WATERS ALONG THE WEST COAST OF FLORIDA  

E-print Network

PHOSPHORUS CONTENT OF WATERS ALONG THE WEST COAST OF FLORIDA Marine Biological Laboratory WOODS PHOSPHORUS CONTENT OF WATERS ALONG THF WEST COAST OF FLORIDA Herbert Wo Graham, Fishery Biologist, John Mo, 195U #12;ABSTRACT The distribution of inorganic and total phosphorus in the waters along the west

169

INTERNAL PHOSPHORUS LOADING IN A SHALLOW EUTROPHIC LAKE (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Internal loading of phosphorus has been implicated as a major eutrophication factor in Long Lake, WA. As a result of such loading, summer total phosphorus concentrations approach or exceed 100 micrograms P/l. Most of the summer loading of phosphorus is thought to have been releas...

170

New phosphorus-containing bisimide resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phosphorus-based flame retardants have been effectively used in a wide variety of polymeric materials. Such additives, however, may either influence the decomposition reaction in polymers or lack durability due to a tendency to be leached out by solvents. Attention is given to the synthesis, characterization, thermal stability and degradation mechanisms of bisimide resins, and an evaluation is conducted of the flammability and mechanical properties of graphite cloth-reinforced laminates fabricated from one of the six phosphorus-containing bisimide resins considered.

Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Hsu, M.-T.; Parker, J. A.

1984-01-01

171

Phosphorus Redox on the Early Earth: First Identification of Low-Oxidation State Phosphorus Compounds in Terrestrial Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus is one of the key elements in biochemical systems, playing an important role in metabolism as ATP and other coenzymes, in replication as DNA and RNA, and in cellular structure as phospholipids. The geochemical cycling of phosphorus on the Earth is usually confined to the rock cycle- redox reactions of phosphorus are never considered. However, it has been proposed

K. M. Block; M. A. Pasek

2008-01-01

172

Phosphorus vacancy cluster model for phosphorus diffusion gettering of metals in Si  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we develop models for the gettering of metals in silicon by high phosphorus concentration. We first performed ab initio calculations to determine favorable configurations of complexes involving phosphorus and transition metals (Fe, Cu, Cr, Ni, Ti, Mo, and W). Our ab initio calculations found that the P4V cluster, a vacancy surrounded by 4 nearest-neighbor phosphorus atoms, which is the most favorable inactive P species in heavily doped Si, strongly binds metals such as Cu, Cr, Ni, and Fe. Based on the calculated binding energies, we build continuum models to describe the P deactivation and Fe gettering processes with model parameters calibrated against experimental data. In contrast to previous models assuming metal-P1V or metal-P2V as the gettered species, the binding of metals to P4V satisfactorily explains the experimentally observed strong gettering behavior at high phosphorus concentrations.

Chen, Renyu; Trzynadlowski, Bart; Dunham, Scott T.

2014-02-01

173

Phosphorus vacancy cluster model for phosphorus diffusion gettering of metals in Si  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we develop models for the gettering of metals in silicon by high phosphorus concentration. We first performed ab initio calculations to determine favorable configurations of complexes involving phosphorus and transition metals (Fe, Cu, Cr, Ni, Ti, Mo, and W). Our ab initio calculations found that the P{sub 4}V cluster, a vacancy surrounded by 4 nearest-neighbor phosphorus atoms, which is the most favorable inactive P species in heavily doped Si, strongly binds metals such as Cu, Cr, Ni, and Fe. Based on the calculated binding energies, we build continuum models to describe the P deactivation and Fe gettering processes with model parameters calibrated against experimental data. In contrast to previous models assuming metal-P{sub 1}V or metal-P{sub 2}V as the gettered species, the binding of metals to P{sub 4}V satisfactorily explains the experimentally observed strong gettering behavior at high phosphorus concentrations.

Chen, Renyu; Trzynadlowski, Bart; Dunham, Scott T. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

2014-02-07

174

[Vertical distribution patterns of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in Chinese pine forest soils developed from different parent materials in Songshan Mountain Nature Reserve, Beijing of China].  

PubMed

Taking the soils developed from two kinds of parent materials (granite and limestone) under Pinus tabulaeformis forest at the same altitude in Songshan Mountain Nature Reserve of Beijing as test objects, this paper studied the vertical distribution patterns of soil total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium. The soil developed from granite had the total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents being 1.61-2. 35 g kg-1, 5. 84-10.74 mg kg- 1, and 39.33-93.66 mg kg-1, while that developed from limestone had the total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents being 1. 69 -2. 36 g kg-1, 4.45-8.57 mg . kg-1, and 60.66-124.00 mg kg-1, respectively. The total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents in the two soils were the highest in 0-10 cm layer, decreased with increasing depth, and had significant differences between different layers, showing that the soil total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium had a strong tendency to accumulate in surface layer. Such a tendency was more obvious for the soil developed from limestone. The paired t-test for the two soils indicated that the total nitrogen content in different layers had no significant difference, whereas the available phosphorus content in 0-10 cm layer and the available potassium content in 10-20 cm layer differed significantly. PMID:23898652

Gou, Li-hui; Sun, Zhao-di; Nie, Li-shui; Luo, Pan-pan; Wu, Ji-Gui; Xu, Wu-de

2013-04-01

175

Competition for phosphorus: differential uptake from dual-isotope--labeled soil interspaces between shrub and grass.  

PubMed

Two species of Agropyron grass differed strikingly in their capacity to compete for phosphate in soil interspaces shared with a common competitor, the sagebrush Artemisia tridentata. Of the total phosphorus-32 and -33 absorbed by Artemisia, 86 percent was from the interspace shared with Agropyron spicatum and only 14 percent from that shared with Agropyron desertorum. Actively absorbing mycorrhizal roots of Agropyron and Artemisia were present in both interspaces, where competition for the labeled phosphate occurred. The results have important implications about the way in which plants compete for resources below ground in both natural plant communities and agricultural intercropping systems. PMID:17795898

Caldwell, M M; Eissenstat, D M; Richards, J H; Allen, M F

1985-07-26

176

Competition for phosphorus: differential uptake from dual-isotope-labeled soil interspaces between shrub and grass  

SciTech Connect

Two species of Agropyron grass differed strikingly in their capacity to compete for phosphate in soil interspaces shared with a common competitor, the sagebrush Artemisia tridentata. Of the total phosphorus-32 and -33 absorbed by Artemisia, 86% was from the interspace shared with Agropyron spicatum and only 14% from that shared with Agropyron desertorum. Actively absorbing mycorrhizal roots of Agropyron and Artemisia were present in both interspaces, where competition for the labeled phosphate occurred. The results have important implications about the way in which plants compete for resources below ground in both natural plant communities and agricultural intercropping systems.

Caldwell, M.M.; Eissenstat, D.M.; Richards, J.H.; Allen, M.F.

1985-07-26

177

Correlation of several tests for phosphorus with resin extractable phosphorus for 30 alkaline soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus was extracted from 30 alkaline soils from western Minnesota using the Olsen NaHCO3, the Soltanpour AB?DTPA, Mehlich 2, Mehlich 3, Bray?1, and resin methods. Values from the first six methods were compared to resin extractable phosphorus.The NaHCO3?P values for 30 soils were most closely related to resin extractable?P values with r ? 0.943, followed by the AB?DTPA with r

P. Nesse; J. Grava; P. R. Bloom

1988-01-01

178

Phosphorus recovery and reuse from waste streams  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus (P) is an important macro-nutrient required by higher plants for growth and development. Phosphate rock is the main raw material for P fertilizers and the global rock phosphate production stands at 191,000 thousand tonnes (t) in the year 2011 (Jaisinski, 2012). Phosphate rock is a scarce ...

179

ESTIMATING SOURCE COEFFICIENTS FOR PHOSPHORUS SITE INDICES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus (P) release to runoff varies widely for different land-applied organic-P sources even when applied at equivalent total P rates. To address this variability, some P site indices include tabulated P source coefficients (PSCs) for differential weighting of applied P materials based on their ...

180

The role of phosphorus in chemical evolution.  

PubMed

In this tutorial review we consider the role of phosphorus and its compounds within the context of chemical evolution in galaxies. Following an interdisciplinary approach we first discuss the position of P among the main biogenic elements by considering its relevance in most essential biochemical functions as well as its peculiar chemistry under different physicochemical conditions. Then we review the phosphorus distribution in different cosmic sites, such as terrestrial planets, interplanetary dust particles, cometary dust, planetary atmospheres and the interstellar medium (ISM). In this way we realize that this element is both scarce and ubiquitous in the universe. These features can be related to the complex nucleosynthesis of P nuclide in the cores of massive stars under explosive conditions favouring a wide distribution of this element through the ISM, where it would be ready to react with other available atoms. A general tendency towards more oxidized phosphorus compounds is clearly appreciated as chemical evolution proceeds from circumstellar and ISM materials to protoplanetary and planetary condensed matter phases. To conclude we discuss some possible routes allowing for the incorporation of phosphorus compounds of prebiotic interest during the earlier stages of solar system formation. PMID:16186898

Maciá, Enrique

2005-08-01

181

Causes for variation in phosphorus soil tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inconsistencies in test results and recommendations among service laboratories often contribute to lack of confidence in soil testing as a diagnostic tool. The North Central Regional Committee on Soil Testing (NCR?13) recently surveyed testing procedures and conducted a soil sample exchange. These studies indicated considerable diversity in procedures and variations in phosphorus test results among university laboratories. The variations may

John Grava

1975-01-01

182

FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS OF PHOSPHORUS DEFICIENCY IN LEGUMES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for plant development and is second only to nitrogen as the most limiting nutrient for plant growth. Without substantial additions of P fertilizer, many soils are limited for P availability. Plants, particularly legumes, have developed adaptive mechanisms...

183

LEGUME ROOT GENOMIC RESPONSES TO PHOSPHORUS DEFICIENCY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for plant development and is second only to nitrogen as the most limiting nutrient for plant growth. Without substantial additions of P fertilizer, many soils are limited for P availability. Plants, particularly legumes, have developed adaptive mechanisms...

184

7 Phosphorus Modeling in Soil and Water  

E-print Network

is the continuation of over 30 years of model development within the USDA-ARS. The Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion from163 7 Phosphorus Modeling in Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Model Indrajeet Chaubey............................................................................................................. 185 7.1 SWAT MODEL BACKGROUND The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was developed by the U

185

Phosphorus recovery and reuse from waste streams  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus (P) is a macronutrient essential for all living organisms. Regrettably, it is a finite resource since phosphate rock (PR) is the main material used for production of P fertilizers. Globally, the demand for quality PR is escalating due to many factors including increasing human population....

186

SURVEY OF WATER EXTRACTABLE PHOSPHORUS IN MANURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water-extractable phosphorus (P) in manure is strongly related to dissolved P in runoff from soils receiving recent additions of manure. A survey of water-extractable P concentrations in manures submitted to Penn State University's Agricultural Analytical Services Laboratory was conducted. Results r...

187

EVALUATION OF PHOSPHORUS MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN PENNSYLVANIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Farm management and financial impacts of three phosphorus (P) nutrient management strategies: soil test crop response (STCR), environmental soil P threshold (ESPT), and P Index (PI) outlined in the USDA and USEPA (1999) Unified Strategy for Animal Feeding Operations were evaluated on ten Pennsylvani...

188

EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS TREATMENT ON LEAD MINERALOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Remediation of Pb-contaminated soils by amendments of phosphate may prove to be a viable way of sequestering Pb in the natural environment. Test plots of Pb-contaminated soil near Joplin, MO were treated with a variety of phosphorus-based amendments to observe the influence of co...

189

Extractable soil phosphorus in Blackland Prairie soils  

E-print Network

The Texas Agricultural Extension Service (TAEX) Soil Testing Laboratory currently utilizes a single phosphorus (P) extractant consisting of 1.43 M NH4OAc, 1. 0 M HCl, and 0.025 M EDTA-PH 4.2 to estimate plant available P for all soils in Texas...

Byrd, Robert Claude

1995-01-01

190

Revising the phosphorus index for Kentucky  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The phosphorus index (PI) is a field-scale assessment tool developed by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) to identify fields most vulnerable to P loss that has been adopted in some form across 48 states. Due to concerns that the use of the PI has not resulted in intended reduct...

191

Phosphorus removal in vegetated filter strips.  

PubMed

Vegetated filter strips (VFS) are used recently for removal, at or near the source, of sediment and sediment-bound chemicals from cropland runoff. Vegetation within the flowpath increases water infiltration and decreases water turbulence, thus enhancing pollutant removal by sedimentation within filter media and infiltration through the filter surface. Field experiments have been conducted to examine the efficiency of vegetated filter strips for phosphorus removal from cropland runoff with 20 filters with varying length (2 to 15 m), slope (2.3 and 5%), and vegetated cover, including bare-soil plots as control. Artificial runoff used in this study had an average phosphorus concentration of 2.37 mg L(-1) and a sediment concentration of 2700 mg L(-1). The average phosphorus trapping efficiency of all vegetated filters was 61% and ranged from 31% in a 2-m filter to 89% in a 15-m filter. Filter length has been found to be the predominant factor affecting P trapping in VFS. The rate of inflow, type of vegetation, and density of vegetation coverage had secondary influences on P removal. Short filters (2 and 5 m), which are somewhat effective in sediment removal, are much less effective in P removal. Increasing the filter length beyond 15 m is ineffective in enhancing sediment removal but is expected to further enhance P removal. Sediment deposition, infiltration, and plant adsorption are the primary mechanisms for phosphorus trapping in VFS. PMID:12708686

Abu-Zreig, Majed; Rudra, Ramesh P; Whiteley, Hugh R; Lalonde, Manon N; Kaushik, Narinder K

2003-01-01

192

Phosphorus Limits Tropical Rain Forest Litter Fauna  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stoichiometry of resources may explain bottom-up regulation of higher trophic levels. We tested the effects of soil and litter nutrient stoichiometry on the invertebrate litter fauna of a Costa Rican tropical rain forest. Animal densities were estimated from 15 sites across a phosphorus gradient. The density of the invertebrate litter fauna varied considerably, and was strongly tied to soil

Terrence P. McGlynn; Daniel J. Salinas; Robert R. Dunn; Tana E. Wood; Deborah Lawrence; Deborah A. Clark

2007-01-01

193

Fire-Resistant Polyamides Containing Phosphorus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flammability and weight loss reduced. Fire-resistant polymers obtained from 1-{(dialkoxyphosphonyl) methyl}-2, 4- and -2, 6-diaminobenzenes by reaction with acyl or diacyl halides of higher functionality. Incorporation of compounds containing phosphorus into certain polymers shown previously to increase fire retardance. Discovery adds new class of polyamides to group of such polymers.

Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Mikroyannidis, John A.

1988-01-01

194

Phosphorus retention capacity in red ferralitic soil.  

PubMed

In this study the main physical-chemical characteristics of red ferralitic soil to use as substrate in subsurface wetlands was determined. The P-removal was evaluated in a short-term isotherm batch experiment and in a column percolation experiment. The acid characteristic and high content of iron minerals in the red ferralitic soil facilitated the phosphorus removal. Also the sorption isotherms at two different temperatures were obtained. The results showed that the sorption capacity increases with an increase in solution temperature from 25 to 35 °C. The experimental data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich models, having a better fit to the Freundlich isotherms. The maximum P-sorption capacities estimated using the Langmuir isotherm were 0.96 and 1.13 g/kg at 25 and 35 °C respectively. Moreover a column experiment was carried out at two different flows. Sequential extractions of the phosphorus-saturated soil indicated that phosphorus is mainly bound with iron or aluminum minerals. The results have demonstrated a good potential for red ferralitic soil for phosphorus removal from urban wastewater. PMID:25401322

Pérez, M M; Bossens, J; Rosa, E; Tack, F M G

2014-01-01

195

BIOLOGICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL: A TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A study of alternative biological phosphorus (bio-P) removal processes was undertaken to evaluate their effectiveness and reliability. Thirty such facilities were identified in the United States and Canada. Four plants were selected for detailed study. The PhoStrip process is use...

196

Modeling Phosphorus in the Environment Review  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus (P) is a key component of fertilizer inputs in plant agriculture and a critical ingredient of diets in animal nutrition. Elevated levels of environmental P and nitrogen have often resulted in algal blooms and accelerated eutrophication of lakes and streams, and degrade fragile ecosystems...

197

PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL BY URBAN RUNOFF DETENTION BASINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An empirical model previously developed for predicting phosphorus retention in reservoirs is tested against the urban lake\\/detention pond data set. Detention pond design criteria developed under the EPA's Nationwide Urban Runoff Program (NURP) are ovaluated using the model. For summer precipitation and runoff quality typical of St. Paul, Minnesota, a basin designed according to NURP criteria is estimated to have

William W. Walker Jr

1987-01-01

198

Quantifying phosphorus and light effects in stream algae  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous gradients of phosphorus and light were applied in experimental streams to develop quantitative relationships between these two important abiotic variables and the growth and composition of benthic microalgae. Algal biovolume and whole-stream metabolism responded hyperbolically to phosphorus enrichment, increasing approximately two-fold over the 5-300 g L-1 range of experimental phosphorus concentrations. The saturation threshold for phosphorus effects occurred at 25 g L-1 of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP). Light effects were much stronger than those of phosphorus, resulting in a nearly ten-fold increase in algal biovolume over the 10-400 mol photons m-2 s-1 range of experimental irradiances. Biovolume accrual was light-saturated at 100 mol photons m-2 s-1 (5 mol photons m-2 d-1). Light effects were diminished by low phosphorus concentrations, and phosphorus effects were diminished by low irradiances, but evidence of simultaneous limitation by both phosphorus and light at subsaturating irradiances was weak. Contrary to the light:nutrient hypothesis, algal phosphorus content was not significantly affected by light, even in the lowest SRP treatments. However, algal nitrogen content increased substantially at lower irradiances, and it was very highly correlated with algal chlorophyll a content. Phosphorus enrichment in streams is likely to have its largest effect at concentrations <25 g L-1 SRP, but the effect of enrichment is probably minimized when streambed irradiances are kept below 2 mol photons m-2 d-1 by riparian shading or turbidity

Hill, Walter [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Fanta, S.E. [University of Illinois; Roberts, Brian J [ORNL

2009-01-01

199

Patient education for phosphorus management in chronic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This review explores the challenges and solutions in educating patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to lower serum phosphorus while avoiding protein insufficiency and hypercalcemia. Methods: A literature search including terms “hyperphosphatemia,” “patient education,” “food fatigue,” “hypercalcemia,” and “phosphorus–protein ratio” was undertaken using PubMed. Results: Hyperphosphatemia is a strong predictor of mortality in advanced CKD and is remediated via diet, phosphorus binders, and dialysis. Dietary counseling should encourage the consumption of foods with the least amount of inorganic or absorbable phosphorus, low phosphorus-to-protein ratios, and adequate protein content, and discourage excessive calcium intake in high-risk patients. Emerging educational initiatives include food labeling using a “traffic light” scheme, motivational interviewing techniques, and the Phosphate Education Program – whereby patients no longer have to memorize the phosphorus content of each individual food component, but only a “phosphorus unit” value for a limited number of food groups. Phosphorus binders are associated with a clear survival advantage in CKD patients, overcome the limitations associated with dietary phosphorus restriction, and permit a more flexible approach to achieving normalization of phosphorus levels. Conclusion: Patient education on phosphorus and calcium management can improve concordance and adherence and empower patients to collaborate actively for optimal control of mineral metabolism. PMID:23667310

Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

2013-01-01

200

Phosphorus Equilibria Among Mafic Silicate Phases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phosphorus incorporation in major rock-forming silicate minerals has the following implications: (1) Reactions between phosphorus-hosting major silicates and accessory phosphates, which are also major trace element carriers, may control the stability of the latter and thus may affect the amount of phosphorus and other trace elements released to the coexisting melt or fluid phase. (2) Less of a phosphate mineral is needed to account for the bulk phosphorus of planetaty mantles. (3) During partial melting of mantle mineral assemblages or equilibrium fractional crystallization of basaltic magmas, and in the absence or prior to saturation with a phosphate mineral, silicate melts may become enriched in phosphorus, especially in the geochemically important low melt fraction regime, Although the small differences in the ionic radii of IVp5+, IVSi4+, and IV Al3+ makes phosphoms incorporation into crystalline silicates perhaps unsurprising, isostructural silicate and phosphate crystalline solids do not readily form solutions, e.g., (Fe, Mg)2SiO4 vs. LiMgPO4, SiO)2 VS. AlPO4. Nonetheless, there are reports of, poorly characterized silico-phosphate phases in angrites , 2-4 wt% P2O5 in olivine and pyroxene grains in pallasites and reduced terestrial basalts which are little understood but potentially useful, and up to 17 wt% P2O5 in olivine from ancient slags. However, such enrichments are rare and only underscore the likelihood of phosphoms incorporation in silicate minerals. The mechanisms that allow phosphorus to enter major rock-forming silicate minerals (e.g., Oliv, Px, Gt) remain little understood and the relevant data base is limited. Nonetheless, old and new high-pressure (5-10 GPa) experimental data suggest that P2O5 wt% decreases from silica-poor to silica-rich compositions or from orthosilicate to chain silicate structures (garnet > olivine > orthopyroxene) which implies that phosphorus incorporation in silicates is perhaps more structure-than site-specific. The data also indicate that DXVliQP2O5 decrease in the same order, but DOVLiQP2O5 and DOpx/LiQP205 are likely constant, respectively equal to 0.08(3) and 0.007(4), in contrast, DG1ILiQP205 increases from 0.15(3) to 0.36(10) as garnet becomes majoritic, thus silica-enriched, and may also depend on liquid composition (SiO2, P2O5 and Na2O wt%).

Berlin, Jana; Xirouchakis, Dimitris

2002-01-01

201

Amendment in phosphorus levels moderate the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L. as assayed by antioxidant enzymes activities.  

PubMed

Chromium (Z=24), a d-block element, is a potent carcinogen, whereas phosphorus is an essential and limiting nutrient for the plant growth and development. This study undertakes the role of phosphorus in moderating the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L., as both of them compete with each other during the uptake process. Two-factor complete randomized experiment (5 chromium × 5 phosphorus concentrations) was conducted for twenty eight days in green house. The individuals of R. sativus were grown in pots supplied with all essential nutrients. The toxic effects of chromium and the moderation of toxicity due to phosphorus amendment were determined as accumulation of chromium, nitrogen, phosphorus in root tissues and their effects were also examined in the changes in biomass, chlorophyll and antioxidant enzyme levels. Cr and N accumulation were almost doubled at the highest concentration of Cr supply, without any P amendment, whereas at the highest P concentration (125 mM), the accumulation was reduced to almost half. A significant reduction in toxic effects of Cr was determined as there was three-fold increase in total chlorophyll and biomass at the highest P amendment. Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and lipid peroxidation were analyzed at various levels of Cr each amended with five levels of P. It was observed that at highest level of P amendment, the reduction percentage in toxicity was 33, 44, 39 and 44, correspondingly. Conclusively, the phosphorus amendment moderates the toxicity caused by the supplied chromium in R. sativus. This finding can be utilized to develop a novel technology for the amelioration of chromium stressed fields. PMID:23810367

Sayantan, D; Shardendu

2013-09-01

202

Phosphorus-acquisition and phosphorus-conservation mechanisms of plants native to south-western Australia or to Brazilian rupestrian fields.  

E-print Network

??This thesis aimed to explore phosphorus acquisition and conservation mechanisms. Through field work I found functional equivalence in plant phosphorus nutrition of rupestrian fields (Brazil),… (more)

Cruz Rodrigues de Campos, Mariana

2011-01-01

203

Phosphorus segregation on iron (111) surfaces studied by AES, XPS, and LEED  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work was done to get information about the phosphorus segregation kinetics on iron (111) surfaces as a function of the bulk concentration. Line shape changes of the P(L23VV) Auger transition as well as the P2p and Fe2p{3}/{2} photoelectron emission for several phosphorus/iron layers were studied and used to identify different bonding states of phosphorus. At low phosphorus concentration and temperatures within the range of 670 to 870 K, equilibrium states between the phosphorus atoms in the surface layer and phosphorus atoms in the dislocations were established. With rising temperature, however, phosphorus was dissolved in the dislocations so that the surface concentration of phosphorus was decreased. At high phosphorus concentration, phosphorus segregation was observed already at lower temperatures. Characteristic of a phosphorus-rich surface was the formation of a FexP layer with phosphorus clusters segregated above this layer forming a thick phosphorus layer.

Arabczyk, W.; Müssig, H.-J.; Storbeck, F.

1991-07-01

204

Microstructural characterization of superalloy 718 with boron and phosphorus additions  

SciTech Connect

Boron and phosphorus additions are known to improve the stress rupture properties of IN-718. One possible mechanism to explain this property improvement relies on the boron and phosphorus additions slowing down the growth of {gamma}{double_prime} and {gamma}{prime} precipitates during high temperature service or aging. However, atom probe analysis found no segregation of boron and phosphorus to {gamma}-{gamma}{double_prime} or to {gamma}-{gamma}{prime} interfaces in the alloys with the high boron and high phosphorus levels. No difference in growth rates were found by transmission electron microscopy in the sizes of the {gamma}{double_prime} or {gamma}{prime} in alloys with high phosphorus and high boron as compared to commercial alloys and to alloys with even lower levels of phosphorus and boron. Atom probe analysis further found that much of the phosphorus, boron, and carbon segregated to grain boundaries. Creep curves comparing the alloys with high levels of phosphorus and boron and alloys with low levels of phosphorus and boron show a large difference in strain rate in the first hours of the test. These results suggest that the boron and phosphorus may have a direct effect on dislocation mobility by some pinning mechanism.

Horton, J.A.; McKamey, C.G.; Miller, M.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Cao, W.D.; Kennedy, R.L. [Teledyne Allvac, Monroe, NC (United States)

1997-06-01

205

[Radioactivity of phosphorus implanted TiNi alloy].  

PubMed

Exposed to neutron flow, the phosphorus implanted TiNi alloy gets radioactive. This radioactive material is used in vascular stent for prevention and cure of restenosis. Phosphorus implantation is carried out in a plasma immerged ion implantation system, and the dose of phosphorus implantation is in the range of 2-10 x 10(17) cm-2. After ion implantation, the alloy is exposed to the slow neutron flow in a nuclear reactor, the dose of the slow neutron is 1.39-5.88 x 10(19) n/cm2. The radioactivity of the TiNi alloy was measured by liquid scintillation spectrometry and radio-chromic-film dosimetry. The result shows that whether the phosphorus is implanted or not, the TiNi alloy comes to be radioactive after exposure to neutron flow. Just after neutron irradiation, the radiation dose of phosphorus implanted TiNi alloy is about one hundred times higher than that of un-phosphorus implanted TiNi alloy. The radiation difference between phosphorus and un-phosphorus implanted alloy decreases as time elapses. Within three months after neutron irradiation, the average half-decay period of phosphorus implanted TiNi alloy is about 62 days. The radiation ray penetration of phosphorus implanted TiNi alloy is deeper than that of pure 32P; this is of benefit to making radiation uniformity between stent struts and reducing radiation grads beyond the edge of stent. PMID:14565001

Zhao, Xingke; Cai, Wei; Zhao, Liancheng

2003-09-01

206

High Sensitivity, Low Volume Method to Determine Dissolved Phosphorus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high sensitivity, low volume method was developed to determine nanomolar concentrations of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) using reverse phase HPLC. The technique in determining SRP involved using methods from Strickland and Parsons, 1972 and Karl and Tien, 1992. Various techniques for improving blanks and sensitivity will be discussed. The method was applied to seawater and freshwater samples taken from the estuarine Nueces Delta system, Texas, two sites in the Gulf of Mexico, and within two upland (2400 m) forest catchments in the Peruvian Andes. One catchment was partially deforested within the last 3 years, while the other has remained untouched. Samples in the Gulf of Mexico were taken at a series of coastal and open water stations at various depths. Samples in each of the two upland forest catchments in Peru were obtained at 33.3 m distance intervals along a 100 m reach. Samples were taken in the Nueces River, Texas upland from a marsh estuary and from high and low regions of the marsh. Comparisons are made between the forest catchment sites in addition to comparisons made in the Nueces marsh estuary/river system. Depth profiles of SRP in the Gulf of Mexico are established. Future studies should be conducted to investigate phosphate in sediment pore waters. This method has many potential applications, is scalable across a wide range of sample volumes, and can be automated.

Haberer, J. L.; Brandes, J. A.

2001-12-01

207

The extended stability range of phosphorus allotropes.  

PubMed

Phosphorus displays fascinating structural diversity and the discovery of new modifications continues to attract attention. In this work, a complete stability range of known and novel crystalline allotropes of phosphorus is described for the first time. This includes recently discovered tubular modifications and the prediction of not-yet-known crystal structures of [P12] nanorods and not-yet-isolated [P14] nanorods. Despite significant structural differences, all P allotropes consist of covalent substructures, which are held together by van der Waals interactions. Their correct reproduction by ab initio calculations is a core issue of current research. While some predictions with the established DFT functionals GGA and LDA differ significantly from experimental data in the description of the P allotropes, consistently excellent agreement with the GGA-D2 approach is used to predict the solid structures of the P nanorods. PMID:25196550

Bachhuber, Frederik; von Appen, Jörg; Dronskowski, Richard; Schmidt, Peer; Nilges, Tom; Pfitzner, Arno; Weihrich, Richard

2014-10-20

208

Characterization of Phosphorus Forms in Soil Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Characterization of phosphorus (P) forms in soil microorganisms is a novel approach to reach a better understanding of the\\u000a role of bacteria and fungi as sink and source of P. After an overview of methods for cultivation of microorganisms, extraction\\u000a from soil, and chemical analysis, two case studies are presented, one on pure cultures and one on microbial cells extracted

Else K. Bünemann; Bartlomiej Prusisz; Knut Ehlers

209

Soil Organic Phosphorus Speciation Using Spectroscopic Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The most commonly used differentiation of soil phosphorus (P) is between inorganic and organic forms, despite the fact that\\u000a this is only the beginning of soil P speciation. Forms of inorganic and organic soil P include a large range of specific P\\u000a compounds, and spectroscopic techniques can offer the best potential for determining the speciation of soil organic P. The

Ashlea L. Doolette; Ronald J. Smernik

210

Phosphorus accumulation in Proteaceae seeds: a synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The family Proteaceae dominates the nutrient-poor, Mediterranean-climate floristic regions of southwestern Australia (SWA)\\u000a and the Cape of South Africa. It is well-recognised that mediterranean Proteaceae have comparatively large seeds that are\\u000a enriched with phosphorus (P), stored mainly as salts of phytic acid in protein globoids. Seed P can contribute up to 48% of\\u000a the total aboveground P, with the fraction

Philip K. Groom; Byron B. Lamont

2010-01-01

211

Semiconducting black phosphorus: synthesis, transport properties and electronic applications.  

PubMed

Phosphorus is one of the most abundant elements preserved in earth, and it comprises a fraction of ?0.1% of the earth crust. In general, phosphorus has several allotropes, and the two most commonly seen allotropes, i.e. white and red phosphorus, are widely used in explosives and safety matches. In addition, black phosphorus, though rarely mentioned, is a layered semiconductor and has great potential in optical and electronic applications. Remarkably, this layered material can be reduced to one single atomic layer in the vertical direction owing to the van der Waals structure, and is known as phosphorene, in which the physical properties can be tremendously different from its bulk counterpart. In this review article, we trace back to the research history on black phosphorus of over 100 years from the synthesis to material properties, and extend the topic from black phosphorus to phosphorene. The physical and transport properties are highlighted for further applications in electronic and optoelectronics devices. PMID:25307017

Liu, Han; Du, Yuchen; Deng, Yexin; Ye, Peide D

2014-10-13

212

Phosphorus, a key to life on the primitive earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The phosphorus of the primitive earth was present as phosphates. It is strongly probable that a portion of the phosphate was present as condensed phosphates. The primitive earth was highly deficient in the total available phosphorus until a sufficient quantity of phosphorus weathered from the igneous rocks in which it was entrapped. Approximately three billion years were required for the seas to become saturated. Until this time passed the seas acted as a giant sink for phosphorus, diluting it to the extent that all forms of life were deprived of the vital nutrient. When the seas became saturated, the rate of turnover of the phosphorus increased rapidly. As the seas pulsated, they left the excess precipitate phosphorus as sedimentary rock in locally rich deposits on which life could thrive.

Griffith, E. J.; Ponnamperuma, C.; Gabel, N. W.

1977-01-01

213

Redox chemistry in the phosphorus biogeochemical cycle.  

PubMed

The element phosphorus (P) controls growth in many ecosystems as the limiting nutrient, where it is broadly considered to reside as pentavalent P in phosphate minerals and organic esters. Exceptions to pentavalent P include phosphine--PH3--a trace atmospheric gas, and phosphite and hypophosphite, P anions that have been detected recently in lightning strikes, eutrophic lakes, geothermal springs, and termite hindguts. Reduced oxidation state P compounds include the phosphonates, characterized by C-P bonds, which bear up to 25% of total organic dissolved phosphorus. Reduced P compounds have been considered to be rare; however, the microbial ability to use reduced P compounds as sole P sources is ubiquitous. Here we show that between 10% and 20% of dissolved P bears a redox state of less than +5 in water samples from central Florida, on average, with some samples bearing almost as much reduced P as phosphate. If the quantity of reduced P observed in the water samples from Florida studied here is broadly characteristic of similar environments on the global scale, it accounts well for the concentration of atmospheric phosphine and provides a rationale for the ubiquity of phosphite utilization genes in nature. Phosphine is generated at a quantity consistent with thermodynamic equilibrium established by the disproportionation reaction of reduced P species. Comprising 10-20% of the total dissolved P inventory in Florida environments, reduced P compounds could hence be a critical part of the phosphorus biogeochemical cycle, and in turn may impact global carbon cycling and methanogenesis. PMID:25313061

Pasek, Matthew A; Sampson, Jacqueline M; Atlas, Zachary

2014-10-28

214

Redox chemistry in the phosphorus biogeochemical cycle  

PubMed Central

The element phosphorus (P) controls growth in many ecosystems as the limiting nutrient, where it is broadly considered to reside as pentavalent P in phosphate minerals and organic esters. Exceptions to pentavalent P include phosphine—PH3—a trace atmospheric gas, and phosphite and hypophosphite, P anions that have been detected recently in lightning strikes, eutrophic lakes, geothermal springs, and termite hindguts. Reduced oxidation state P compounds include the phosphonates, characterized by C?P bonds, which bear up to 25% of total organic dissolved phosphorus. Reduced P compounds have been considered to be rare; however, the microbial ability to use reduced P compounds as sole P sources is ubiquitous. Here we show that between 10% and 20% of dissolved P bears a redox state of less than +5 in water samples from central Florida, on average, with some samples bearing almost as much reduced P as phosphate. If the quantity of reduced P observed in the water samples from Florida studied here is broadly characteristic of similar environments on the global scale, it accounts well for the concentration of atmospheric phosphine and provides a rationale for the ubiquity of phosphite utilization genes in nature. Phosphine is generated at a quantity consistent with thermodynamic equilibrium established by the disproportionation reaction of reduced P species. Comprising 10–20% of the total dissolved P inventory in Florida environments, reduced P compounds could hence be a critical part of the phosphorus biogeochemical cycle, and in turn may impact global carbon cycling and methanogenesis. PMID:25313061

Pasek, Matthew A.; Sampson, Jacqueline M.; Atlas, Zachary

2014-01-01

215

X-33 RCS model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Part of the high pressure nitrogen system used for the 1% scale X-33 reaction control system model. Installed in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel for supersonic testing. In building 1251, test section #2.

1998-01-01

216

X-33 RCS model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model support system and instumentation cabling of the 1% scale X-33 reaction control system model. Installed in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel for supersonic testing. In building 1251, test section #2.

1998-01-01

217

The X-33 Program Update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the X-33 program update, including details on program objectives and plans, the X-33 configuration, technologies used, and X-33 assembly and test status.

Dill, Charlie

2000-01-01

218

X-33 Development History  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of dealing with various types of proprietary documents, whether from the Lockheed Martin, the Skunk Works, McDonnell Douglas, Rockwell, and other corporations extant or extinct, remains unresolved. The computerized archive finding aid has over 100 records at present. These records consist of X-33 photographs, press releases, media clippings, and the small number of X-33 project records collected to date.

Butrica, Andrew J.

1997-01-01

219

The effect of sulphur and phosphorus sources on cotton  

E-print Network

to measure the effects of sulphur and phosphorus on the yreld of seed cotton, plant dry weight, matnrity factors, and chern- ical composition of plants at different stages of growth. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Although gypsum has been. used as a fertilizer... improved the effectiveness of phosphorus fertilizers and decreased cost. With experiments conducted in the greenhouse, Mitchell, Dehm, and Dion (Z3) showed that non-efficient phosphorus carriers for neutral or alkali soils could be greatly improved...

Black, Shelton Glenn

2012-06-07

220

Evaluation of the calcium and phosphorus requirement of developing boars  

E-print Network

) December 1973 48 7C08 ABSTRACT Evaluation of the Calcium and Phosphorus Requirement of Developing Boars. (December 1973) James Schroeder, B. S. (Animal Science) Texas ASM University Directed by: Dr. T. D. Tanksley, Jr. Thirty-six crossbred male pigs... by dietary calcium and phosphorus levels, except for a slight but significant (P&. 10) reduction in carcass length for pigs fed diets containing 1. 00X phosphorus. Bone breaking load (BKL) of femurs and the third metacarpals increased (P&. 10) linearly...

Schroeder, James

1973-01-01

221

Benthic phosphorus regeneration in the Potomac River Estuary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The flux of dissolved reactive phosphate from Potomac riverine and estuarine sediments is controlled by processes occurring at the water-sediment interface and within surficial sediment. In situ benthic fluxes (0.1 to 2.0 mmoles m-2 day-1) are generally five to ten times higher than calculated diffusive fluxes (0.020 to 0.30 mmoles m-2 day-1). The discrepancy between the two flux estimates is greatest in the transition zone (river mile 50 to 70) and is attributd to macrofaunal irrigation. Both in situ and diffusive fluxes of dissolved reactive phosphate from Potomac tidal river sediments are low while those from anoxic lower estuarine sediments are high. The net accumulation rate of phosphorus in benthic sediment exhibits an inverse pattern. Thus a large fraction of phosphorus is retained by Potomac tidal river sediments, which contain a surficial oxidized layer and oligochaete worms tolerant of low oxygen conditions, and a large fraction of phosphorus is released from anoxic lower estuary sediments. Tidal river sediment pore waters are in equilibrium with amorphous Fe (OH)3 while lower estuary pore waters are significantly undersaturated with respect to this phase. Benthic regeneration of dissolved reactive phosphorus is sufficient to supply all the phosphorus requirements for net primary production in the lower tidal river and transition-zone waters of the Potomac River Estuary. Benthic regeneration supplies approximately 25% as much phosphorus as inputs from sewage treatment plants and 10% of all phosphorus inputs to the tidal Potomac River. When all available point source phosphorus data are put into a steady-state conservation of mass model and reasonable coefficients for uptake of dissolved phosphorus, remineralization of particulate phosphorus, and sedimentation of particulate phosphorus are used in the model, a reasonably accurate simulation of dissolved and particulate phosphorus in the water column is obtained for the summer of 1980. ?? 1982 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

Callender, E.

1982-01-01

222

Methods of Supplying Phosphorus to Range Cattle in South Texas.  

E-print Network

. Cows that received phosphorus supplements and cows on pasture fertilized with triple superp phate produced larger calf crops and heavier calves at weaning time than cows that did not receive phosphorus supplements. The cows that did not receive a... phosphorus supplement produced 93 pounds of weaned calves per I acre; cows that were fed bonemeal, 116 pounds; cows that received disodium phosphate in drinJ - water, 143 pounds; and cows on fertilized pasture, 176 pounds. The group of cows that did...

Kleberg, R. J. Jr.; Fudge, J. F.; Jones, J. H.; Jones, J. M.; Reynolds, E. B.

1953-01-01

223

Phosphorus speciation in sediments of Lake Hongfeng, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was conducted to evaluate the distribution characteristics of phosphorus and its species in 14 sediments samples collected from Lake Hongfeng based on sequential extraction. Lake Hongfeng, a major drinking-water source for Guiyang City in southwestern China, is one of the largest artificial reservoirs located in a typical karstic area of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. The results of this study indicate that the average percentages of DP, Al-P, Fe-P, Ca-P and OP in the lake sediments were 0.52, 6.59, 6.09, 42.85 and 40.27, respectively. The concentrations of organic phosphorus (OP) were lower than those of inorganic phosphorus (IP), which consisted mainly of calcium-bound phosphorus (Ca-P). The high concentrations of Ca-P may temporarily control the release of phosphorus from the sediments because it is a relatively stable, inert, and non-bioavailable phosphorus fraction. However, a large number of phosphate solubilizing bacteria can transform insoluble phosphate into bioavailable forms. Moreover, the concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) in the lake sediments were high; thus, the potential for the release of phosphorus from the sediments to the water column and phosphorus bioavailability were still significant. Further statistical analyses of the results revealed significant correlations between phosphorus species in sediments from the lake with two extractable principal component species (PCs) and five selectable cluster levels allowing interpretation of possible origins of phosphorus loading and the release of phosphorus. Furthermore, available remediation measures were briefly assessed for the lake with consideration of its distinctive environmental features.

Jiang, Cuihong; Hu, Jiwei; Huang, Xianfei; Li, Cunxiong; Deng, Jiajun; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Feng

2011-01-01

224

Diversity enhances agricultural productivity via rhizosphere phosphorus facilitation on phosphorus-deficient soils  

PubMed Central

Intercropping, which grows at least two crop species on the same pieces of land at the same time, can increase grain yields greatly. Legume–grass intercrops are known to overyield because of legume nitrogen fixation. However, many agricultural soils are deficient in phosphorus. Here we show that a new mechanism of overyielding, in which phosphorus mobilized by one crop species increases the growth of a second crop species grown in alternate rows, led to large yield increases on phosphorus-deficient soils. In 4 years of field experiments, maize (Zea mays L.) overyielded by 43% and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) overyielded by 26% when intercropped on a low-phosphorus but high-nitrogen soil. We found that overyielding of maize was attributable to below-ground interactions between faba bean and maize in another field experiment. Intercropping with faba bean improved maize grain yield significantly and above-ground biomass marginally significantly, compared with maize grown with wheat, at lower rates of P fertilizer application (<75 kg of P2O5 per hectare), and not significantly at high rate of P application (>112.5 kg of P2O5 per hectare). By using permeable and impermeable root barriers, we found that maize overyielding resulted from its uptake of phosphorus mobilized by the acidification of the rhizosphere via faba bean root release of organic acids and protons. Faba bean overyielded because its growth season and rooting depth differed from maize. The large increase in yields from intercropping on low-phosphorus soils is likely to be especially important on heavily weathered soils. PMID:17592130

Li, Long; Li, Shu-Min; Sun, Jian-Hao; Zhou, Li-Li; Bao, Xing-Guo; Zhang, Hong-Gang; Zhang, Fu-Suo

2007-01-01

225

Diversity enhances agricultural productivity via rhizosphere phosphorus facilitation on phosphorus-deficient soils.  

PubMed

Intercropping, which grows at least two crop species on the same pieces of land at the same time, can increase grain yields greatly. Legume-grass intercrops are known to overyield because of legume nitrogen fixation. However, many agricultural soils are deficient in phosphorus. Here we show that a new mechanism of overyielding, in which phosphorus mobilized by one crop species increases the growth of a second crop species grown in alternate rows, led to large yield increases on phosphorus-deficient soils. In 4 years of field experiments, maize (Zea mays L.) overyielded by 43% and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) overyielded by 26% when intercropped on a low-phosphorus but high-nitrogen soil. We found that overyielding of maize was attributable to below-ground interactions between faba bean and maize in another field experiment. Intercropping with faba bean improved maize grain yield significantly and above-ground biomass marginally significantly, compared with maize grown with wheat, at lower rates of P fertilizer application (<75 kg of P(2)O(5) per hectare), and not significantly at high rate of P application (>112.5 kg of P(2)O(5) per hectare). By using permeable and impermeable root barriers, we found that maize overyielding resulted from its uptake of phosphorus mobilized by the acidification of the rhizosphere via faba bean root release of organic acids and protons. Faba bean overyielded because its growth season and rooting depth differed from maize. The large increase in yields from intercropping on low-phosphorus soils is likely to be especially important on heavily weathered soils. PMID:17592130

Li, Long; Li, Shu-Min; Sun, Jian-Hao; Zhou, Li-Li; Bao, Xing-Guo; Zhang, Hong-Gang; Zhang, Fu-Suo

2007-07-01

226

Application of indigenous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria from municipal wastewater to selectively bioleach phosphorus from high-phosphorus iron ore: effect of particle size.  

PubMed

The effects of ore particle size on selectively bioleaching phosphorus (P) from high-phosphorus iron ore were studied. The average contents of P and Fe in the iron ore were 1.06 and 47.90% (w/w), respectively. The particle sizes of the ores used ranged from 58 to 3350 microm. It was found that the indigenous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria from municipal wastewater could grow well in the slurries of solid high-phosphorus iron ore and municipal wastewater. The minimum bioleaching pH reached for the current work was 0.33. The P content in bioleached iron ore reduced slightly with decreasing particle size, while the removal percentage of Fe decreased appreciably with decreasing particle size. The optimal particle size fraction was 58-75 microm, because the P content in bioleached iron ore reached a minimum of 0.16% (w/w), the removal percentage of P attained a maximum of 86.7%, while the removal percentage of Fe dropped to a minimum of 1.3% and the Fe content in bioleached iron ore was a maximum of 56.4% (w/w) in this case. The iron ores thus obtained were suitable to be used in the iron-making process. The removal percentage of ore solid decreased with decreasing particle size at particle size range of 106-3350 microm. The possible reasons resulting in above phenomena were explored in the current work. It was inferred that the particle sizes of the iron ore used in this work have no significant effect on the viability of the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:23530328

Shen, Shaobo; Rao, Ruirui; Wang, Jincao

2013-01-01

227

Increased Arginine Biosynthesis during Phosphorus Deficiency 1  

PubMed Central

The accumulation of arginine in leaves of four citrus rootstock cultivars during P deficiency has been demonstrated to be due to increased de novo synthesis rather than decreased catabolism or increased protein degradation (E Rabe, CJ Lovatt, 1984, Plant Physiol 76: 747-752). In this report, we provide evidence (a) that the increased activity of the arginine biosynthetic pathway observed for citrus rootstocks grown under P-deficient conditions for 7 months is due to an increase in the concentration of ammonia in leaves of P-deficient plants and (b) that ammonia accumulation and removal through arginine systhesis are early responses to phosphorus deficiency for both a woody perennial, rough lemon (Citrus limon), and an herbaceous annual, summer squash (Cucurbita pepo). Transferring 5-day-old squash plants to a phosphorus-deficient nutrient solution for only 10 days resulted in a 2-fold increase in the concentration of nitrate in the youngest fully expanded leaves (YFE). Concomitantly, the specific activity of nitrate reductase doubled and the ammonia content of P-deficient YFE leaves increased to a concentration significantly greater that of leaves from healthy control plants (P < 0.05). Consistent with increased availability of ammonia, the incorporation of NaH14CO3 into arginine plus urea doubled during phosphorus deficiency and arginine accumulated. Despite the accumulation of nitrate and ammonia in YFE leaves during phosphorus deficiency, the total nitrogen content of these leaves was less than that of the healthy control plants. Similar results were obtained for rough lemon. Nitrate content of the YFE leaves increased 1.5- and 3.0-fold in plants deprived of phosphorus for 6 and 12 weeks, respectively. Ammonia content of the leaves increased as P deficiency progressed to 1.4 ± 0.08 mg (± se, n = 4) per gram dry weight, a level 1.8-fold greater than that of the P-sufficient control plants. During P deficiency de novo arginine biosynthesis in rough lemon increased 10-fold. Immersing the petiole of YFE leaves from P-sufficient squash and rough lemon plants in 50 millimolar NH4+ for 3 hours resulted in the accumulation of ammonia in the leaves, and a 4-fold increase in the incorporation of NaH14CO3 into arginine plus urea. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that the accumulation of nitrate and ammonia in leaves is an early response of both woody and herbaceous plants to P deprivation. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that increased de novo arginine biosynthesis in leaves during P deficiency is in response to ammonia content of the leaves. PMID:16664901

Rabe, Etiene; Lovatt, Carol J.

1986-01-01

228

Annals of Botany 79: 111120, 1997 Mechanisms of Phosphorus Acquisition for Ponderosa Pine Seedlings  

E-print Network

# , climate change, growth analysis, oxalate, Pinus ponderosa, ponderosa pine, phosphorus uptake, rhizosphereAnnals of Botany 79: 111­120, 1997 Mechanisms of Phosphorus Acquisition for Ponderosa Pine conditions, act antagonistically on phosphorus acquisition of ponderosa pine, seedlings were grown

DeLucia, Evan H.

229

Plasma-Assisted Directed Vapor Deposition for Synthesizing Lithium Phosphorus Oxynitride  

E-print Network

Plasma-Assisted Directed Vapor Deposition for Synthesizing Lithium Phosphorus Oxynitride Thin Films a new vapor deposition route for synthesizing lithium phosphorus oxynitride (Lipon) thin the reactive synthesis of lithium phosphorus oxynitride from a lithium phosphate source. This dissertation

Wadley, Haydn

230

Phosphorus sorption in subsurface constructed wetlands: investigations focused on calcareous materials and their  

E-print Network

Phosphorus sorption in subsurface constructed wetlands: investigations focused on calcareous Phosphorus removal from wastewater has been of growing interest for some decades to avoid eutrophication dissolution leading to a quick phosphorus precipitation but inducing high conductivity and p H values

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

231

Determination of phosphorus composition and availability from various feedstuffs to channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)  

E-print Network

The availability of phosphorus in fish diets is an raphics. important consideration in aquaculture because phosphorus excretion by fish may influence eutrophication of the culture system or receiving water, as phosphorus is a primary nutrient...

Buyukates, Yesim

2012-06-07

232

21 CFR 862.1580 - Phosphorus (inorganic) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1580 Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. (a)...

2012-04-01

233

Water quality criteria for white phosphorus: Final report. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

Data obtained from a review of the literature concerning the environmental fate and aquatic and mammalian toxicity of white phosphorus are presented to derive Water Quality Criteria for the protection of humans and aquatic organisms and their uses. Laboratory and field studies indicate that white phosphorus is quite toxic to aquatic organisms, with fish being more sensitive than macroinvertebrates. Bioaccumulation is rapid and extensive, with the greatest uptake in the liver and muscle of fish and the hepatopancreas of lobster; however, depuration occurs within 7 days postexposure. Other toxic effects to aquatic organisms include cardiovascular and histological changes. Field studies indicate that effluents containing white phosphorus adversely affect receiving aquatic systems by decreasing diversity and increasing mortality of select species. Acute exposure to white phosphorus causes similar effects in laboratory animals and humans. In the absence of medical treatment, the estimated minimal lethal dose of white phosphorus in humans is 100 mg (1.4 mg/kg). Following ingestion, organs damaged by white phosphorus are the gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidney, brain, and cardiovascular system. Chronic and subchronic exposure of laboratory animals to white phosphorus by oral or subcutaneous routes results in reduced growth, reduced survival at high does, increased survival at low doses, and bone pathology. Humans chronically exposed to white phosphorus in the occupational environment develop a specific lesion (different from that observed in laboratory animals) called phosphorus necrosis of the jawbone or ''phossy jaw.'' 139 refs., 1 fig., 18 tabs.

Davidson, K.A.; Hovatter, P.S.; Sigmon, C.F.

1987-08-01

234

Studies on phosphorus and calcium in poult nutrition  

E-print Network

% total phosphorus for males, using a diet composed chiefly of corn and soybean oil meal and containing 1. 55K calcium and about 0. 407. organic phosphorus. Atkinson (1958) demonstrated that 2. 007. calcium and 1. 00'/ total phosphorus in trukey... as 50 A. O. A. C. chick units of vitamin D per 100 gms. of diet was sufficient for maximum growth and calcification when the diet contained 2. 00 or 3. 00K calcium and 1. 00%%d phosphorus. When the diet was supplemented with 160 A. O . A. C. units...

Khaund, Robindra Nath

2012-06-07

235

NMR and mass spectrometry of phosphorus in wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

There is at present little information on the long-term stability of phosphorus sequestered in wetlands. Phosphorus sequestered during high loading periods may be relatively unstable and easily remobilized following changes in nutrient status or hydrological regime, but the chemical forms of sequestered phosphorus that do remobilize are largely unknown at this time. A lack of suitable analytical techniques has contributed to this dearth of knowledge regarding the stability of soil organic phosphorus. We analysed phosphorus in soils from the 'head' of Rescue Strand tree island and an adjacent marsh in the Florida Everglades by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Tree islands are important areas of biodiversity within the Everglades and offer a unique opportunity to study phosphorus sequestration because they are exposed to large phosphorus loads and appear to be natural nutrient sinks. The 31P NMR profiling of extracts from surface and sediment samples in the tree island indicates that phosphorus input to Rescue Strand tree island soils is mostly in the form of inorganic ortho-phosphate and is either refractory when deposited or rapidly recycled by the native vegetation into a stable phosphorus pool largely resistant to re-utilization by plants or microbes. Mass spectrometry revealed the presence of inositol hexakisphosphate, a common organic monophosphate ester not previously observed in Everglades' soils. ?? 2008 The Authors.

El-Rifai, H.; Heerboth, M.; Gedris, T.E.; Newman, S.; Orem, W.; Cooper, W.T.

2008-01-01

236

The composition, dynamics, and ecological significance of soil organic phosphorus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of plant nutrition often consider only inorganic phosphate to be biologically available, yet organic phosphorus is abundant in soils and its turnover can account for the majority of the phosphorus taken up by natural vegetation. Soil organic phosphorus occurs in a variety of chemical forms, including phosphomonoesters, phosphodiesters, phosphonates, and organic polyphosphates, which can be determined conveniently by alkaline extraction and solution phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The inositol phosphates are of particular interest, because they are widespread in soils, yet only one of the four stereoisomers of inositol hexakisphosphate present in soils has been detected elsewhere in the environment. The mobility and bioavailability of the various organic phosphorus compounds differs depending on factors such as their interaction with metal oxide surfaces, which leads to a disparity between the forms of organic phosphorus entering the soil and the composition of the stable soil organic phosphorus pool. During long-term pedogenesis, organic phosphorus accumulates in the early nitrogen-limited stages of ecosystem development, but then declines as phosphorus-limitation strengthens in old soils. At the same time, the composition of the organic phosphorus varies; for example, the inositol phosphates decline to become a small proportion of the total organic phosphorus in old soils, presumably indicating their potential availability under conditions of strong phosphorus limitation. Plants have evolved a variety of mechanisms to acquire phosphorus from organic compounds, including the synthesis of phosphatase enzymes and the secretion of organic anions. Phosphatase activity is linked strongly to soil organic phosphorus concentrations, as indicated by broad surveys of tropical forest soils, fertilization experiments, and patterns observed during long-term ecosystem development. Organic anion secretion is often linked to inorganic phosphate solubilization, but the majority of the phosphorus released from most soils is in organic forms. Differences among plant species in the ability to access organic phosphorus may promote species co-existence at a site and is likely to regulate the response of plant communities to future changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations or nitrogen deposition. This is likely to be of greatest significance in freshwater wetlands, super-humid temperate regions, and ecosystems developed on strongly-weathered soils that cover vast areas of ancient landscapes in Africa, Australia and South America.

Turner, B. L.

2011-12-01

237

Phosphorus removal from domestic wastewater by Echinodorus cordifolius L.  

PubMed

This study was to use the plants to remove phosphorus from domestic wastewater which contained high phosphorus concentration. Six higher plant species such as Crinum asiaticum L., Echinodorus cordifolius L., Spathiphyllum clevelandii Schott, Rhizophora apiculata Blume, Thalia dealbata J.fraser., Heliconia psittacorum L.f. were screened for phosphorus removal. Plants were grown in the domestic wastewater and the remaining phosphorus-phosphate concentration in the systems was determined. The results indicated that among studied plants, Echinodorus cordifolius L. was the best for phosphorus removal. Using this plant will improve the quality of domestic wastewater which contained excess phosphorus concentration and induced eutrophication. The relationship between the plants, microorganisms, and soil in the system were also investigated. In this system, adsorption by soil was the major role for phosphorus removal (71%), followed by E. cordifolius (16%), microorganisms in domestic wastewater (7%), and microorganisms in soil (6%). These results indicated the ability of E. cordifolius to remove phosphorus which was superior to that of the microorganisms in the system. Moreover, the rapid phosphorus removal was concomitant to the growth, photosynthesis activity and biomass of E. cordifolius grown in domestic wastewater. The C:N:P ratio of E. cordifolius tissue in the system indicated that elements were taken up from the wastewater. From these results, the suitability of E. cordifolius for domestic wastewater treatment was confirmed. PMID:22416873

Torit, Jirawan; Siangdung, Wipawan; Thiravetyan, Paitip

2012-01-01

238

Method of removing and detoxifying a phosphorus-based substance  

DOEpatents

A method of removing a phosphorus-based poisonous substance from water contaminated is presented. In addition, the toxicity of the phosphorus-based substance is also subsequently destroyed. A water-immiscible organic solvent is first immobilized on a supported liquid membrane before the contaminated water is contacted with one side of the supported liquid membrane to absorb the phosphorus-based substance in the organic solvent. The other side of the supported liquid membrane is contacted with a hydroxy-affording strong base to react with phosphorus-based solvated species to form a non-toxic product.

Vandegrift, G.F.; Steindler, M.J.

1985-05-21

239

Phosphorus biogeochemistry in alpine ecosystems of the Northern Caucasus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of phosphorus biogeochemistry in an alpine landscape of the Northern Caucasus has been spent in the Teberda Biosphere Reserve on the experimental plot with total area of 3.9 ha (150 m wide, 260 m long, altitude differences 100 m) and on the plots of long-term experiment on studying of nutrients application influence on alpine ecosystems located in the eastern slope of Mt. Malaya Khatipara. Results of studying of phosphorus concentrations and store in alpine soils and plant phytomass indicated differences for diverse alpine ecosystems along geochemical gradient. Although biological accumulation of phosphorus in the upper part of soil profiles was general characteristic of all ecosystems, it is shown that geochemical redistribution of phosphorus from eluvial to accumulative parts of a landscape is the main thing in the course of phosphorus and its labile compounds accumulation in soils of the alpine communities of accumulative habitats. In turn, biological accumulation of phosphorus in soils of different alpine ecosystems redistributes an element in a soil profile with different intensity depending on capacity of biological cycle. The biological factor causes also prevalence of organic compounds among of phosphorus migrating forms in modern soils and in a landscape. As inorganic (0.01-0.02 mg/L) as organic (up to 0.17 mg/L) phosphorus leaching in the eluvial soils was from 2 to 5 times lower compared with soils of accumulative positions in a landscape. Soil phosphorus fractionation on organic and inorganic compounds of different geochemical mobility and biological availability indicated differences of phosphorus state for diverse alpine ecosystems along the experimental plot. The minor proportion of 0.5 M NaHCO3 (pH 8.5) extractable labile organic and inorganic phosphates was general characteristic of all studied soils, although especially low proportion of labile phosphorus compounds was typical for lichen heath soil, while soils of snow-bed communities contained higher proportion of labile phosphorus. Organic phosphorus mineralization was highest in soils of grassland and meadow communities of transit landscape positions where conditions for biological activity are more favorable. Lower mineralization in the eluvial lichen heath soil is controlled by depletion of mineralizable substrate with nitrogen and phosphorus, while in accumulative snow-bed and bog soils lower mineralization is probably controlled by high concentration of available inorganic phosphorus and high soil moisture. The study of soil phosphorus state and biological circle transformation as a result of long-term phosphorus application indicated phosphorus redistribution between different fractions of phytomass and between different soil phosphorus compounds. The main part of phosphorus has been fixed in the form of stable inorganic phosphates (about 50%). Below ground phytomass accumulated about 20% of the total applied phosphorus, and 10-15% has been accumulated in the sum of above ground phytomass and available inorganic soil phosphates. Lysimetric studies indicated that applied phosphorus migration to the lower horizon was different in various alpine ecosystems. Phosphorus leaching in the soil of lichen heath was minimal, while in the soils of snow-bed communities of the bottommost topographical positions leaching can be significant.

Makarov, Mikhail; Vaganov, Ivan

2010-05-01

240

Living donor liver transplantation for acute liver failure in pediatric patients caused by the ingestion of fireworks containing yellow phosphorus.  

PubMed

Yellow phosphorus is a protoplasmic toxicant that targets the liver. The ingestion of fireworks containing yellow phosphorus, either by children who accidentally consume them or by adults who are attempting suicide, often results in death due to acute liver failure (ALF). We present the outcomes of 10 children who ingested fireworks containing yellow phosphorus. There were 6 boys and 4 girls, and their ages ranged from 21 to 60 months. One patient remained stable without liver complications and was discharged. Three patients died of hepatorenal failure and cardiovascular collapse, and living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) was performed for 6 patients. The patients had grade II or III encephalopathy, a mean alanine aminotransferase level of 1148.2 IU/L, a mean aspartate aminotransferase level of 1437.5 IU/L, a mean total bilirubin level of 6.9 mg/dL, a mean international normalized ratio of 6.6, a mean Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease score of 33.7, and a mean Child-Pugh score of 11.3. Postoperatively, 2 patients had persistent encephalopathy and died on the second or third postoperative day, and 1 patient died of cardiac arrest on the first postoperative day despite a well-functioning graft. The other 3 patients were still alive at a mean of 204 days. In conclusion, the ingestion of fireworks containing yellow phosphorus causes ALF with a high mortality rate. When signs of irreversible ALF are detected, emergency LDLT should be considered as a lifesaving procedure; however, if yellow phosphorus toxicity affects both the brain and the heart in addition to the liver, the mortality rate remains very high despite liver transplantation. PMID:21761550

Ates, Mustafa; Dirican, Abuzer; Ozgor, Dincer; Aydin, Cemalettin; Isik, Burak; Ara, Cengiz; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Ayse Selimoglu, M; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yilmaz, Sezai

2011-11-01

241

Using a phosphorus loss model to evaluate the Kentucky phosphorus index  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Natural Resource Conservation Service (USDA-NRCS) has recently revised its 590 Nutrient Management Conservation Standard. As part of this revision, USDA-NRCS is requiring states to test the accuracy of their phosphorus (P) index using either measured P loss data or s...

242

Effect of Foliar Application of Phosphorus on Winter Wheat Grain Yield, Phosphorus Uptake, and Use Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

One would expect foliar applied phosphorus (P) to have higher use efficiencies than when applied to the soil, but limited information is available concerning this. Experiments were conducted in 2002, 2003, and 2004 to determine the effect of foliar applications of P on winter wheat grain yields, P uptake, and use efficiency. Twelve treatments containing varying foliar P rates (0,

Jagadeesh Mosali; Kefyalew Desta; Roger K. Teal; Kyle W. Freeman; Kent L. Martin; Jason W. Lawles; William R. Raun

2006-01-01

243

Influence of soil phosphorus and manure on phosphorus leaching in Swedish topsoils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In Sweden, subsurface transport of phosphorus (P) represents the primary pathway of concern to surface water quality. While strong relationships have been consistently observed between P in surface runoff and soil test P, there have been mixed findings linking P in leachate with soil test P. To expl...

244

Phosphorus utilization by rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss): estimation of dissolved phosphorus waste output  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) waste output, notably in the dissolved form (DWP), is a major concern for many fish culture operations. Fish are believed to excrete DWP via the urine but this aspect has never been examined in detail. A better understanding of P utilization and renal P handling of fish could aid development of nutritional strategies for the management and reduction

D. p. Bureau; C. y. Cho

1999-01-01

245

Effect of Microwave Treatment Upon Processing Oolitic High Phosphorus Iron Ore for Phosphorus Removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Influence of microwave treatment on the previously proposed phosphorus removal process of oolitic high phosphorus iron ore (gaseous reduction followed by melting separation) has been studied. Microwave treatment was carried out using a high-temperature microwave reactor (Model: MS-WH). Untreated ore fines and microwaved ore fines were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Thereafter, experiments on the proposed phosphorus removal process were conducted to examine the effect of microwave treatment. Results show that microwave treatment could change the microstructure of the ore fines and has an intensification effect on its gaseous reduction by reducing gas internal resistance, increasing chemical reaction rate and postponing the occurrence of sintering. Results of gaseous reduction tests using tubular furnace indicate both microwave treatment and high reduction temperature high as 1273 K (1000 °C) are needed to totally break down the dense oolite and metallization rate of the ore fines treated using microwave power of 450 W could reach 90 pct under 1273 K (1000 °C) and for 2 hours. Results of melting separation tests of the reduced ore fines with a metallization rate of 90 pct show that, in addition to the melting conditions in our previous studies, introducing 3 pct Na2CO3 to the highly reduced ore fines is necessary, and metal recovery rate and phosphorus content of metal could reach 83 pct and 0.31 mass pct, respectively.

Tang, Hui-Qing; Liu, Wei-Di; Zhang, Huan-Yu; Guo, Zhan-Cheng

2014-10-01

246

Assessing the Long Term Impact of Phosphorus Fertilization on Phosphorus Loadings Using AnnAGNPS  

PubMed Central

High phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields has been an environmental concern because of potential water quality problems in streams and lakes. To better understand the process of P loss and evaluate the effects of different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus losses, the USDA Annualized AGricultural Non-Point Source (AnnAGNPS) pollutant loading model was applied to the Ohio Upper Auglaize watershed, located in the southern portion of the Maumee River Basin. In this study, the AnnAGNPS model was calibrated using USGS monitored data; and then the effects of different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus loadings were assessed. It was found that P loadings increase as fertilization rate increases, and long term higher P application would lead to much higher P loadings to the watershed outlet. The P loadings to the watershed outlet have a dramatic change after some time with higher P application rate. This dramatic change of P loading to the watershed outlet indicates that a “critical point” may exist in the soil at which soil P loss to water changes dramatically. Simulations with different initial soil P contents showed that the higher the initial soil P content is, the less time it takes to reach the “critical point” where P loadings to the watershed outlet increases dramatically. More research needs to be done to understand the processes involved in the transfer of P between the various stable, active and labile states in the soil to ensure that the model simulations are accurate. This finding may be useful in setting up future P application and management guidelines. PMID:21776225

Yuan, Yongping; Bingner, Ronald L.; Locke, Martin A.; Stafford, Jim; Theurer, Fred D.

2011-01-01

247

Molecular phosphorus ion source for semiconductor technology  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results on the generation of molecular phosphorus ion beams in a hot filament ion source. Solid red phosphorous is evaporated mainly as tetra-atomic molecules up to a temperature of 800 C. Thus, one of the main conditions for producing maximum P{sub 4}{sup +} fraction in the beam is to keep the temperature of the phosphorous oven, the steam line and the discharge chamber walls no greater than 800 C. The prior version of our ion source was equipped with a discharge chamber cooling system. The modified source ensured a P{sub 4}{sup +} ion beam current greater than 30% of the total beam current.

Gushenets V. I.; Hershcovitch A.; Bugaev, A.S.; Oks, E.M.; Kulevoy, T.V.

2012-02-15

248

Enhanced diffusion of phosphorus at grain boundaries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Enhanced diffusion of phosphorus at grain boundaries in cast polycrystalline photovoltaic materials (Wacker, HEM, and Semix) was studied. It was found that the enhancements for the three materials were the same, indicating that the properties of boundaries are similar, even though they were grown by different techniques. In addition, it was observed that grain boundaries capable of enhancing the diffusion always have strong recombination activities. Both phenomena could be related to dangling bonds existing at the boundaries. The present study gives the first evidence that incoherent second order twins of 111/115-plane type are diffusion-active.

Cheng, L. J.; Shyu, C. M.; Stika, K. M.; Daud, T.; Crotty, G. T.

1982-01-01

249

Managing phosphorus for water quality protection - 10 principles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The accelerated eutrophication of aquatic systems has primarily been the concern of developed nations where it represents the most pervasive impairment of surface water bodies. Managing phosphorus for water quality protection requires prudent tempering of agronomic emphases to build soil phosphorus,...

250

Soil phosphorus availability differences between sprinkler and furrow irrigation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water flowing in irrigation furrows detaches and transports soil particles and subsequently nutrients such as phosphorus. To reduce the risk of erosion and offsite phosphorus transport, producers in south-central Idaho have been converting from furrow to sprinkler irrigation. We completed research...

251

AMERICAN SOCIETY OF AGRONOMY BOOK "PHOSPHORUS, AGRICULTURE AND THE ENVIRONMENT"  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

“Phosphorus: Agriculture and the Environment” provides a comprehensive, systematic review of the varied aspects of phosphorus (P) use in crop and livestock production and of the relationship between agricultural P management and water quality. This monograph draws upon the expertise of leading inte...

252

Labile Soil Phosphorus as Influenced by Methods of  

E-print Network

Labile Soil Phosphorus as Influenced by Methods of Applying Radioactive Phosphorus Vilma V. Selvaratnam, Senay Siimer, A. J. Andersen, J. D. Thomsen and G. Gissel Nielsen #12;RISÃ?-R-409 LABILE SOIL barley, ijuckwheat, and rye grass for the L- value determination. The four soils differed greatly

253

Supplemental on-line material for Semiconducting layered blue phosphorus  

E-print Network

. A very similar behavior oc- curs in graphite, where the 1 eV band dispersion along the K -H line the LDA value of 38 meV/atom. S2. BULK BAND STRUCTURE OF BLACK AND BLUE PHOSPHORUS The calculated bulk band structures of black and blue phosphorus are presented in Fig. S1. There is a strong band

Tománek, David

254

REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS USING ALUMINUM SALTS FOR PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of aluminum salts to remove phosphorus is common practice. It has been shown that aluminum salts are also capable of removing heavy metals, but the dosages were much greater than normally applied for phosphorus removal. This study investigates the removal of heavy metals ...

255

Auger parameter measurements of phosphorus compounds for characterization of phosphazenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray generated photoelectron and Auger transition data for several phosphorus reference compounds, including PClâ, Pâ Nâ, Pâ Oâ, (Câ Hâ )â P(Câ Hâ ), (Câ Hâ )â PBr, KHâ POâ , NHâHâPOâ, and NHâ PFâ are presented. These data have been used to determine the relative ionicity and polarizability of phosphorus in the chlorophosphazene trimer ((NPClâ )â ) and polymer

L. S. Dake; D. R. Baer; D. M. Friedrich

1989-01-01

256

PHOSPHORUS REDUCTION IN THE UPPER CLARK FORK RIVER  

EPA Science Inventory

(1) Quantify point-source phosphorus discharge from urban stormwater runoff and from various industrial wastewater and runoff sources into Silver Bow Creek; (2) Quantify the point-source phosphorus discharge from mine adits or other sources in Warm Springs-Phosphate, Brock, Dunkl...

257

The chemistry of phosphorus in dense interstellar clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laboratory experiments show that the ion-molecule chemistry of phosphorus is significantly different from that of nitrogen in dense interstellar clouds. The PH3 molecule is not readily formed by gas-phase, ion-molecule reactions in these regions. Laboratory results used in a simple kinetic model indicate that the most abundant molecule containing phosphorus in dense clouds is PO.

Thorne, L. R.; Anicich, V. G.; Prasad, S. S.; Huntress, W. T., Jr.

1984-01-01

258

Phosphorus versus nitrogen limitation in the marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limnological and marine geochemical opinion favors phosphorus limitation of organic produc- tion in aquatic environments, while marine biological opinion favors nitrogen limitation. Clues in the literature and nutrient budgets for selected marine ecosystems suggest that phosphorus vs. nitrogen limitation is a function of the relative rates of water exchange and internal biochemical processes acting to adjust the ratio of ecosystem

S. V. Smith

1984-01-01

259

Phosphorus Sources for Aquatic Weeds: Water or Sediments?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine common species of aquatic macrophytes took all their phosphorus from the sediments when grown in situ in both a mesotrophic and a mildly eutrophic bay. Even under hypertrophic conditions, the sediments contributed an average of 72 percent of all the phosphorus taken up during growth. These experiments unambiguously demonstrate for the first time that submergent macrophytes in nature overwhelmingly

R. Carignan; J. Kalff

1980-01-01

260

RESIDUAL EFFECTS OF PHOSPHORUS SOURCES IN GRAIN AMARANTH PRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Productivity of grain amaranth can be improved at a reduced cost through combined use of low-cost rock phosphate (RP) phosphorus sources as well as selection of amaranth varieties with high phosphorus (P) use efficiencies. Rock phosphate sources are known to exhibit differences with respect to grain yield, disease tolerance and P use efficiency (PUE) in amaranth varieties. However, very little

O. D. Ojo; E. A. Akinrinde; M. O. Akoroda

2010-01-01

261

The microbiology of biological phosphorus removal in activated sludge systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated sludge systems are designed and operated globally to remove phosphorus microbiologically, a process called enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). Yet little is still known about the ecology of EBPR processes, the microbes involved, their functions there and the possible reasons why they often perform unreliably. The application of rRNA-based methods to analyze EBPR community structure has changed dramatically our

Robert J Seviour; Takashi Mino; Motoharu Onuki

2003-01-01

262

Africa Phosphorus Fertilizer Application Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1  

E-print Network

Africa Phosphorus Fertilizer Application Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Amount of phosphorus fertilizer applied averaged over all crops within the 0.5 deg grid cell. Grid cell values global maps of harvested areas for 175 crops with national information on fertilizer use for each crop

Columbia University

263

Difference in Phosphorus Levels Between African and European Honeybees  

E-print Network

hypothesize the African honeybee (Apis mellifera scutaletta) will have a higher level of phosphorus in its body than the European honeybee (Apis mellifera linguistica). A statistically meaningful difference the hypothesize A. mellifera scutellata will have higher percentage of phosphorus by biomass than A. mellifera

Hall, Sharon J.

264

QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF PHYTATE AND AVAILABLE PHOSPHORUS FOR MAIZE BREEDING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytate is the dominant storage form of phosphorus (P) in mature cereal and oil grains. Phosphorus bound in phytate is nutritionally unavailable to monogastric animals and thus contributes to water pollution because it is excreted in the manure. Also, phytate can chelate certain minerals and exace...

265

DIFFERENTIATING FORMS AND POTENTIAL BIOACTIVITY OF ENVIRONMENTAL PHOSPHORUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Animal manures and organic sources of nutrients such as crop residues are major sources of organic phosphorus (P) applied to soils. They are attracting a great deal of research attention and regulatory interest because animal digestive systems are markedly inefficient at retaining dietary phosphorus...

266

76 FR 38592 - Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for Florida Everglades  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EPA-HQ-OW-2011-0515; FRL-9428-3] Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for Florida Everglades...would identify provisions of Florida's Water Quality Standards for Phosphorus in the...disapproved and that therefore are not applicable water quality standards for purposes of the...

2011-07-01

267

77 FR 46298 - Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for Florida Everglades  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FRL 9666-8] RIN 2040-AF38 Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for Florida Everglades...that identifies provisions of Florida's Water Quality Standards for Phosphorus in the...disapproved and that therefore are not applicable water quality standards for purposes of the...

2012-08-03

268

Crystallization of phosphorus-doped amorphous silicon films  

E-print Network

657 Crystallization of phosphorus-doped amorphous silicon films prepared by glow discharge of phosphorus-doped amorphous silicon films prepared by glow discharge of silane is observed by using 6 août 1981, accepté le 9 septembre 1981) Résumé. 2014 La cristallisation dans le silicium amorphe

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

269

Turnover of Phospholipids in Normal and Phosphorus-deficient Spirodela  

PubMed Central

When 32P1 was supplied as a 15-minute pulse to normal Spirodela oligorrhiza plants, the first phospholipid to become fully labeled was phosphatidic acid. Phosphatidyl glycerol reached maximum labeling before the other major phospholipids. In phosphorus-deficient plants, however, phosphatidyl glycerol became labeled much more slowly than either phosphatidyl choline or phosphatidyl ethanolamine, and also the proportion of phosphatidyl glycerol present was smaller. Thus, phosphatidyl glycerol synthesis is sensitive to phosphorus deficiency. Since most of the phosphatidyl glycerol present in Spirodela was localized in the chloroplast, this effect appeared to be specifically one on chloroplast composition. The phosphorus-deficient chloroplast had a 60% lower phospholipid content and a normal phospholipid pattern, but the phospholipid which was present was apparently cycling much less rapidly. Zeatin, which ameliorates the visual symptoms of phosphorus deficiency, also reduces the effect of phosphorus deficiency on phospholipid synthesis. PMID:16658040

Bieleski, R. L.

1972-01-01

270

Black phosphorus nanoelectromechanical resonators vibrating at very high frequencies.  

PubMed

We report on the experimental demonstration of a new type of nanoelectromechanical resonator based on black phosphorus crystals. Facilitated by a highly efficient dry transfer technique, crystalline black phosphorus flakes are harnessed to enable drumhead resonators vibrating at high and very high frequencies (HF and VHF bands, up to ?100 MHz). We investigate the resonant vibrational responses from the black phosphorus crystals by devising both electrical and optical excitation schemes, in addition to measuring the undriven thermomechanical motions in these suspended nanostructures. Flakes with thicknesses from ?200 nm down to ?20 nm clearly exhibit elastic characteristics transitioning from the plate to the membrane regime. Both frequency- and time-domain measurements of the nanomechanical resonances show that very thin black phosphorus crystals hold interesting potential for moveable and vibratory devices and for semiconductor transducers where high-speed mechanical motions could be coupled to the attractive electronic and optoelectronic properties of black phosphorus. PMID:25385657

Wang, Zenghui; Jia, Hao; Zheng, Xuqian; Yang, Rui; Wang, Zefang; Ye, G J; Chen, X H; Shan, Jie; Feng, Philip X-L

2014-12-18

271

Main defect reactions behind phosphorus diffusion gettering of iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus diffusion is well known to getter effectively metal impurities during silicon solar cell processing. However, the main mechanisms behind phosphorus diffusion gettering are still unclear. Here, we analyze the impact of oxygen, phosphosilicate glass as well as active and clustered phosphorus on the gettering efficiency of iron. The results indicate that two different mechanisms dominate the gettering process. First, segregation of iron through active phosphorus seems to correlate well with the gettered iron profile. Secondly, immobile oxygen appears to act as an effective gettering sink for iron further enhancing the segregation effect. Based on these findings, we present a unifying gettering model that can be used to predict the measured iron concentrations in the bulk and in the heavily phosphorus doped layers and explains the previous discrepancies reported in the literature.

Schön, Jonas; Vähänissi, Ville; Haarahiltunen, Antti; Schubert, Martin C.; Warta, Wilhelm; Savin, Hele

2014-12-01

272

Quantitation of phosphorus excretion in sheep by compartmental analysis  

SciTech Connect

The control of phosphorus excretion in sheep has been examined by constructing a kinetic model that contains a mechanistic set of connections between blood and gastrointestinal tract. The model was developed using experimental data from chaff-fed sheep and gives an accurate description of the absorption and excretion of /sup 32/P phosphorus in feces and urine of the ruminating sheep. These results indicated the main control site for phosphorus excretion in the ruminating sheep was the gastrointestinal tract, whereas for the non-ruminating sheep fed the liquid diet, control was exerted by the kidney. A critical factor in the induction of adaptation of phosphorus reabsorption by the kidney was the reduction in salivation, and since this response occurred independently of marked changes in the delivery of phosphorus to the kidney, a humoral factor may be involved in this communication between salivary gland and kidney.

Schneider, K.M.; Boston, R.C.; Leaver, D.D.

1987-04-01

273

Biologically mediated phosphorus precipitation in wastewater treatment with microalgae.  

PubMed

A lab-scale continuous microalgal culture was grown on sterile-filtered wastewater in order to clarify the phosphorus removing mechanisms in a microalgal treatment step that treats residual phosphorus from a hydroponic wastewater treatment pilot plant. The phosphorus assimilation was dependent on algal biomass production, whereas the chemical precipitation was dependent on phosphorus load, i.e. an increase in average precipitation rate with decreased hydraulic retention time was observed. The chemical precipitation was mainly a result of the increased pH, which was biologically mediated by the photosynthesising algae. The precipitate was composed of a calcium phosphate with magnesium included, magnesium hydroxide and calcite. A significant nitrogen removal was also experienced, which implies that the microalgal wastewater treatment is appropriate both for phosphorus and nitrogen removal. PMID:17910248

Larsdotter, K; La Cour Jansen, J; Dalhammar, G

2007-09-01

274

Improving Phosphorus Availability in an Acid Soil Using Organic Amendments Produced from Agroindustrial Wastes  

PubMed Central

In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments. PMID:25032229

Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab.

2014-01-01

275

Development of a high-efficiency phosphorus recovery method using a fluidized-bed crystallized phosphorus removal system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have been engaged in the research and development concerning the recovery of MAP (Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate) using a fluidized-bed crystallized phosphorus removal system. In the reactor of the fluidized-bed crystallized phosphorus removal system, seed crystals (of MAP) are fluidized previously and new MAP crystals are produced on the seed crystal surfaces. Conventionally, the reactor consisted of one reaction

K. Shimamura; T. Tanaka; Y. Miura; H. Ishikawa

276

Phosphorus Utilization and Characterization of Excreta From Swine Fed Diets Containing A Variety of Cereal Grains Balanced For Total Phosphorus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Intrinsic phytase in swine feeds may alter phytate utilization and solubility of excreted phosphorus. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to quantify changes in fecal phosphorus composition from swine fed various cereal grains with a range of phytate concentrations and endogenous phytase...

277

DECREASED ABSORPTION OF CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM, ZINC AND PHOSPHORUS BY HUMANS DUE TO INCREASED FIBER AND PHOSPHORUS CONSUMPTION AS WHEAT BREAD  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a 20 day period of high fiber consumption in the form of bread made partly from wheaten wholemeal, two men developed negative balances of calcium, magnesium, zinc and phosphorus due to in creased fecal excretion of each element. The fecal losses correlated closely with fecal dry matter and phosphorus. Fecal dry matter, in turn, was directly proportional to fecal

John G. Reinhold; Bahram Faradji; Parichehr Abadi; Faramarz Ismail-Beigi

2009-01-01

278

DISTRIBUTED HYDROLOGICAL MODELING OF TOTAL DISSOLVED PHOSPHORUS TRANSPORT IN AN AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE. PART II: DISSOLVED PHOSPHORUS TRANSPORT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reducing non-point source phosphorus (P) loss to drinking water reservoirs is a main concern for New York City watershed planners, and modeling of P transport can assist in the evaluation of agricultural effects on nutrient dynamics. A spatially distributed model of total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) ...

279

Sediment and phosphorus transport in irrigation furrows.  

PubMed

Sediment and phosphorus (P) in agricultural runoff can impair water quality in streams, lakes, and rivers. We studied the factors affecting P transfer and transport in irrigated furrows in six freshly tilled fallow fields, 110 to 180 m long with 0.007 to 0.012 m m-1 slopes without the interference of raindrops or sheet flow that occur during natural or simulated rain. The soil on all fields was Portneuf silt loam (coarse-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Durinodic Xeric Haplocalcids). Flow rate, sediment concentration, and P concentrations were monitored at four, equally spaced locations in each furrow. Flow rate decreased with distance down the furrow as water infiltrated. Sediment concentration varied with distance and time with no set pattern. Total P concentrations related directly to sediment concentrations (r2=0.75) because typically >90% of the transported P was particulate P, emphasizing the need to control erosion to reduce P loss. Dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) concentrations decreased with time at a specific furrow site but increased with distance down the furrow as contact time with soil and suspended sediment increased. The DRP concentration correlated better with sediment concentration than extractable furrow soil P concentration. However, suspended sediment concentration tended to not affect DRP concentration later in the irrigation (>2 h). These results indicate that the effects of soil P can be overshadowed by differences in flow hydraulics, suspended sediment loads, and non-equilibrium conditions. PMID:16585621

Bjorneberg, D L; Westermann, D T; Aase, J K; Clemmens, A J; Strelkoff, T S

2006-01-01

280

Calcium effect on enhanced biological phosphorus removal.  

PubMed

The role of calcium (Ca) in enhanced biological phosphorus removal and its possible implications on the metabolic pathway have been studied. The experience has been carried out in an SBR under anaerobic-aerobic conditions for biological phosphorus removal during 8 months. The variations of influent Ca concentration showed a clear influence on the EBPR process, detecting significant changes in Y(PO4). These Y(PO4) variations were not due to influent P/COD ratio, pH, denitrification and calcium phosphate formation. The Y(PO4) has been found to be highly dependent on the Ca concentration, increasing as Ca concentration decreases. The results suggest that high Ca concentrations produce "inert" granules of polyphosphate with Ca as a counterion that are not involved in P release and uptake. Furthermore, microbiological observations confirmed that appreciable changes in PAO and GAO populations were not observed. This behaviour could suggest a change in the bacterial metabolic pathway, with prevailing polyphosphate-accumulating metabolism (PAM) at low influent Ca concentration and glycogen-accumulating metabolism (GAM) at high concentration. PMID:16889238

Barat, R; Montoya, T; Borras, L; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

2006-01-01

281

Phosphorus in the Diffuse Interstellar Medium  

E-print Network

We present FUSE and HST/STIS measurements of the PII column density toward Galactic stars. We analyzed PII through the profile fitting of the unsaturated $\\lambda$1125 and $\\lambda$1533 lines and derived column densities integrated along the sightlines as well as in individual resolved components. We find that phosphorus is not depleted along those sightlines sampling the diffuse neutral gas. We also investigate the correlation existing between PII and OI column densities and find that there is no differential depletion between these two specie. Furthermore, the ratio N(PII)/N(OI) is consistent with the solar P/O value, implying that PII and OI coexist in the same gaseous phase and are likely to evolve in parallel since the time they are produced in stars. We argue that phosphorus, as traced by PII, is an excellent neutral oxygen tracer in various physical environments, except when ionization corrections are a significant issue. Hence, PII lines (observable with FUSE, HST/STIS, or with VLT/UVES for the QSO sightlines) reveal particularly useful as a proxy for OI lines when these are saturated or blended.

V. Lebouteiller; Kuassivi; R. Ferlet

2005-07-18

282

Briquetting of coke fines for phosphorus production  

SciTech Connect

Large amounts of coke wastes have accumulated in phosphorus factories. For use as a carbonaceous reducing agent in phosphorus production this waste material should be agglomerated to the required size with satisfactory strength, with minimal consumption of energy and materials. The dependence of briquet strength on a number of important physicochemical factors is described by an equation obtained by least-squares computer analysis of experimental data. Addition of finely ground quartzite to the mixture raises the thermal stability of the briquets. The activation energy and order of overall interaction of phosphoric acid and the ash components of coke, E = 24.8 kJ/mole and n = 0.98, were found by the method of nonisothermal kinetics. Their results show that the reactions leading to increase of briquet strength occur at temperatures from 520 to 670 K, i.e., below the ignition point of coke. Therefore the briquets may be heat-treated in an oxidizing medium; this greatly simplifies the practical process of agglomeration of coke fines.

Shpaizer, E.E.; Klimova, L.K.; Mel'nik, A.P.; Egorov, A.A.

1988-07-20

283

Atmospheric phosphorus in the northern part of Lake Taihu, China.  

PubMed

Eutrophication, which has been linked to enhanced nutrient loading in lakes, estuarine and coastal waters, is common to many water bodies in China, including Lake Taihu. The atmosphere is an important and growing source of new nutrients entering water bodies. To assess the impact of atmospheric phosphorus (P) on water quality of Lake Taihu, we have estimated the atmospheric input of P by measuring its concentrations in aerosols and in rainwater. Samples were collected at the northeastern part of the lake. The P concentration in total suspended particle ranged from 0.054 to 0.300 ?g m(-3). Concentrations of P in aerosols in the winter and autumn samples were higher than those in the spring and summer samples. Soluble inorganic P (SIP), which provides direct nutrient sources to algae, accounts for 4.9%-83.4% of the total P. Principal Component Analysis of the measured aerosol constituents and examination of inter-species correlation indicate that SIP was correlated with elemental carbon, water soluble organic carbon, NO(3)(-), and Ca(2+). Such correlations could be explained if two nearby coal-fired power plants were a major aerosol P sources. The average concentration of the total P in rain water samples was 0.082±0.058 mg P/L. The annual deposition flux of P into the northern part of Lake Taihu was estimated to be in the range of 0.04-0.44 kg ha(-1)year(-1) through dry deposition and 0.33 kg ha(-1)year(-1) through wet deposition. The combined wet and dry deposition was less than 8% of riverine P input, therefore the atmospheric deposition was only a minor contributor to P in Lake Taihu at the time of this study. PMID:21339003

Luo, Jun; Wang, Xiaorong; Yang, Hong; Yu, Jian Zhen; Yang, Longyuan; Qin, Boqiang

2011-08-01

284

328 Sensors and Actuators, A21 -A23 ( 1990) 328-33 1 Electrostatic-comb Drive of Lateral Polysilicon Resonators  

E-print Network

328 Sensors and Actuators, A21 -A23 ( 1990) 328-33 1 Electrostatic-comb Drive of Lateral The mtnnslc quality factor of the phosphorus-doped low-pressure chemlcal-vapor- deposited (LPCVD) polyslhcon resonators is 49 000 + 2000, whereas at atmosphenc pressure, Q

Tang, William C

285

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance structural study of phosphorus oxynitride glasses, ‘LiNaPON’  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the structure of mixed alkali nitrided phosphate glasses ‘LiNaPON’, of composition Li0.5Na0.5PO3?3x\\/2Nx(0phosphorus atoms, thus

André Le Sauze; Lionel Montagne; Gérard Palavit; Franck Fayon; Roger Marchand

2000-01-01

286

30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.33 Allowable limits of dust concentration. (a) The...

2012-07-01

287

30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.33 Allowable limits of dust concentration. (a) The...

2013-07-01

288

30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.33 Allowable limits of dust concentration. (a) The...

2014-07-01

289

30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.33 Allowable limits of dust concentration. (a) The...

2011-07-01

290

30 CFR 33.33 - Allowable limits of dust concentration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.33 Allowable limits of dust concentration. (a) The...

2010-07-01

291

48 CFR 6302.33 - Motion for reconsideration (Rule 33).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONTRACT APPEALS RULES OF PROCEDURE 6302.33 Motion for reconsideration (Rule 33). A motion for reconsideration shall set forth specifically the grounds relied upon to sustain the motion and shall be mailed or otherwise furnished...

2014-10-01

292

48 CFR 6302.33 - Motion for reconsideration (Rule 33).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTRACT APPEALS RULES OF PROCEDURE 6302.33 Motion for reconsideration (Rule 33). A motion for reconsideration shall set forth specifically the grounds relied upon to sustain the motion and shall be mailed or otherwise furnished...

2012-10-01

293

48 CFR 6302.33 - Motion for reconsideration (Rule 33).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTRACT APPEALS RULES OF PROCEDURE 6302.33 Motion for reconsideration (Rule 33). A motion for reconsideration shall set forth specifically the grounds relied upon to sustain the motion and shall be mailed or otherwise furnished...

2010-10-01

294

48 CFR 6302.33 - Motion for reconsideration (Rule 33).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTRACT APPEALS RULES OF PROCEDURE 6302.33 Motion for reconsideration (Rule 33). A motion for reconsideration shall set forth specifically the grounds relied upon to sustain the motion and shall be mailed or otherwise furnished...

2013-10-01

295

48 CFR 6302.33 - Motion for reconsideration (Rule 33).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTRACT APPEALS RULES OF PROCEDURE 6302.33 Motion for reconsideration (Rule 33). A motion for reconsideration shall set forth specifically the grounds relied upon to sustain the motion and shall be mailed or otherwise furnished...

2011-10-01

296

SUMMARY REVIEW OF HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH ELEMENTAL AND INORGANIC PHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS: HEALTH ISSUE ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Phosphorus is a nonmetallic essential element. lthough phosphorus occurs naturally in the environment, most of the phosphorus in the environment occurs during its manufacture into one of the three allotropic forms (white, red, or black) or into phosphorus compounds and during the...

297

SEDIMENTARY PHOSPHORUS CYCLING IN TOMALES BAY, CALIFORNIA A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE DIVISION OF THE  

E-print Network

SEDIMENTARY PHOSPHORUS CYCLING IN TOMALES BAY, CALIFORNIA A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE Cycling of phosphorus deposited in sediments and associated with suspended sediments delivered to Tomales of phosphorus between these solid phases and the water column. Phosphorus exchanged from suspended sediments

Luther, Douglas S.

298

Variable Rate Phosphorus Fertilization in Cotton on the Texas High Plains  

E-print Network

Variable Rate Phosphorus Fertilization in Cotton on the Texas High Plains Kevin Bronson, Wayne to phosphorus fertilizer, even with soil tests. Phosphorus is probably the third limiting factor in crop growth cotton responds to phosphorus fertilizer, using a landscape (topography) scale. Differences in nitrogen

Mukhtar, Saqib

299

Utilization of phosphorus sources of different availability by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In experiments with phosphorus sources of different availability mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal maize grew equally well when the phosphorus source was readily available. When the phosphorus source was slowly available, however, mycorrhizal maize had a much higher phosphorus content and grew much better than non-mycorrhizal maize.

C. L. Murdoch; J. A. Jackobs; J. W. Gerdemann

1967-01-01

300

Purification of phosphorus by a zero pollution zone melting technique Zhen Zhang a,b  

E-print Network

Purification of phosphorus by a zero pollution zone melting technique Zhen Zhang a,b , Xueyun Zhang 2012 Keywords: Zone melting Phosphorus purification Zero pollution Phase-field model 3-D numerical melting phosphorus purifi- cation technique. We have successfully removed arsenic from solid phosphorus

Wang, Xiao-Ping

301

The metabolic basis of whole-organism RNA and phosphorus content  

E-print Network

The metabolic basis of whole-organism RNA and phosphorus content James F. Gillooly* , Andrew P of phosphorus-rich RNA and whole-body phosphorus content in eukaryotes based on the mass- and temperature and consequently scales with body mass to the 1 4 power. Second, whole-body phosphorus content declines

Brown, James H.

302

New Chiral Phosphorus Ligands for Enantioselective Hydrogenation Wenjun Tang and Xumu Zhang*  

E-print Network

New Chiral Phosphorus Ligands for Enantioselective Hydrogenation Wenjun Tang and Xumu Zhang, Pennsylvania 16802 Received January 29, 2003 Contents 1. Introduction 3029 2. Chiral Phosphorus Ligands: A Historical Overview 3030 2.1. Chiral Phosphorus Ligands from 1970 to 1980 3031 2.2. Chiral Phosphorus Ligands

Zhang, Xumu

303

Leaf nitrogen to phosphorus ratios of tropical trees: experimental assessment of physiological and  

E-print Network

Leaf nitrogen to phosphorus ratios of tropical trees: experimental assessment of physiological words: leaf nitrogen concentration, leaf nitrogen to phosphorus ratio, leaf phosphorus concentration to phosphorus ratios of tropical tree and liana seedlings as a function of the relative growth rate, whole

Bermingham, Eldredge

304

Phosphorus fertilizer can increase pea and lentil yield on many Montana soils  

E-print Network

Phosphorus fertilizer can increase pea and lentil yield on many Montana soils December 15, 2006 -- By Carol Flaherty BOZEMAN--Applications of phosphorus fertilizer can increase pea and lentil yield, two of available phosphorus in central Montana found that phosphorus fertilizer improved grain yield of spring pea

Maxwell, Bruce D.

305

Understanding the anthropogenic phosphorus pathway with substance flow analysis at the city level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive input of phosphorus into natural water bodies as a result of anthropogenic processes is an escalating factor that leads to eutrophication. Hence, quantifying the pathway of phosphorus throughout the socioeconomic system is essential for the selection of appropriate measures to mitigate phosphorus discharge. The study develops an analytical model of anthropogenic phosphorus flows within a socioeconomic system based on

Zengwei Yuan; Junkui Shi; Huijun Wu; Ling Zhang; Jun Bi

2011-01-01

306

Effect of pH on biological phosphorus uptake.  

PubMed

An anaerobic aerobic laboratory scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated to study the effect of pH on enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Seven steady states were achieved under different operating conditions. In all of them, a slight variation in the pH value was observed during anaerobic phase. However, pH rose significantly during aerobic phase. The increase observed was due to phosphorus uptake and carbon dioxide stripping. When pH was higher than 8.2-8.25 the phosphorus uptake rate clearly decreased. The capability of Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) and Biological Nutrient Removal Model No. 1 (BNRM1) to simulate experimental results was evaluated. Both models successfully characterized the enhanced biological phosphorus removal performance of the SBR. Furthermore, BNRM1 also reproduced the pH variations observed and the decrease in the phosphorus uptake rate. This model includes a switch function in the kinetic expressions to represent the pH inhibition in biological processes. The pH inhibition constants related to polyphosphate storage process were obtained by adjusting model predictions to measured phosphorus concentrations. On the other hand, pH inhibition should be included in ASM2d to accurately simulate experimental phosphorus evolution observed in an A/O SBR. PMID:16958137

Serralta, J; Ferrer, J; Borrás, L; Seco, A

2006-12-01

307

Chemical measurements of phosphorus avialability in some medium to fine textured soils  

E-print Network

FIGURES Ei'feet oi' time on the phosphorus extracted by 0. 5 M NaHC03 (mean of 5 soils and 6 phosphorus sources). . . , . . . . . . . 15 Effect of time on phosphorus extracted by 0. 5 M NaHC03 from 5 soils (average) treated with 6 phosphorus sources.... . . . , . 20 Effect of the extracting procedure on the average amounts of phosphorus extractable from 5 soils with different pH values. . 21 Effect of time on phosphorus extracted by 0. 5 M NaHC03 from Austin clay loam treated with various phosphorus...

Velasco Molina, Hugo Alejo

2012-06-07

308

33 CFR 64.33 - Marking by the Coast Guard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Marking by the Coast Guard. 64.33 Section 64.33...Provisions § 64.33 Marking by the Coast Guard. (a) The District Commander...owner. Markings established by the Coast Guard do not relieve the owner's...

2011-07-01

309

33 CFR 64.33 - Marking by the Coast Guard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Marking by the Coast Guard. 64.33 Section 64.33...Provisions § 64.33 Marking by the Coast Guard. (a) The District Commander...owner. Markings established by the Coast Guard do not relieve the owner's...

2012-07-01

310

33 CFR 64.33 - Marking by the Coast Guard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Marking by the Coast Guard. 64.33 Section 64.33...Provisions § 64.33 Marking by the Coast Guard. (a) The District Commander...owner. Markings established by the Coast Guard do not relieve the owner's...

2010-07-01

311

33 CFR 64.33 - Marking by the Coast Guard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Marking by the Coast Guard. 64.33 Section 64.33...Provisions § 64.33 Marking by the Coast Guard. (a) The District Commander...owner. Markings established by the Coast Guard do not relieve the owner's...

2013-07-01

312

33 CFR 64.33 - Marking by the Coast Guard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Marking by the Coast Guard. 64.33 Section 64.33...Provisions § 64.33 Marking by the Coast Guard. (a) The District Commander...owner. Markings established by the Coast Guard do not relieve the owner's...

2014-07-01

313

Phosphorus removal in a surface-flow constructed wetland treating agricultural runoff.  

PubMed

Agricultural runoff is a leading source of phosphorus (P) pollution to lakes and streams. The objective of this study was to evaluate P removal dynamics in a constructed treatment wetland (CTW) treating agricultural irrigation return flows. The CTW included a sedimentation basin (SB) followed by two surface-flow wetlands in parallel. Typical retention times and total P (TP) loading were 1.4 d and 50 to 110 g m yr P, respectively, for the SB and 5 to 6 d and 4 to 10 g m yr P, respectively, for wetlands. On the basis of this multiyear study, concentration removal efficiency in the SB averaged 21% for TP and 32% for reactive phosphorus (RP). Concentration removal efficiency in wetlands averaged 37 and 43% for TP and 22 and 33% for RP. Areal first-order removal rates for TP averaged 22 and 31 m yr in wetlands. Total P removal in wetlands exhibited a strong seasonal pattern, with minimum removal in the summer when high temperatures likely enhanced P release from decaying plant biomass. The performance of the CTW was stochastic, with removal unpredictably poorer in some years in part as a result of muskrat bioturbation and plant harvesting. In years before muskrat impacts, concentration removal efficiencies in wetlands were 50% for TP and 65% for RP. PMID:25602836

Beutel, Marc W; Morgan, Matthew R; Erlenmeyer, Jonathan J; Brouillard, Elaine S

2014-05-01

314

Phosphorus loadings associated with a park tourist attraction: limnological consequences of feeding the fish.  

PubMed

The Linesville spillway of Pymatuning State Park is one of the most visited tourist attractions in Pennsylvania, USA, averaging more than 450,000 visitors . year(-1). Carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus) and waterfowl congregate at the spillway where they are fed bread and other foods by park visitors. We hypothesized that the "breadthrowers" constitute a significant nutrient vector to the upper portion of Pymatuning Reservoir. In the summer of 2002, we estimated phosphorus loadings attributable to breadthrowers, and compared these values to background loadings from Linesville Creek, a major tributary to the upper reservoir. Items fed to fish included bread, donuts, bagels, canned corn, popcorn, corn chips, hot dogs, birthday cakes, and dog food. Phosphorus loading associated with park visitors feeding fish was estimated to be 3233 g day(-1), and estimated P export from the Linesville Creek watershed was 2235 g.day(-1). P loading attributable to breadthrowers exceeded that of the entire Linesville Creek watershed on 33 of the 35 days of study, with only a heavy rainfall event triggering watershed exports that exceeded spillway contributions. Averaged across 5 weeks, breadthrowers contributed 1.45-fold more P to Pymatuning Reservoir than the Linesville Creek watershed. If Linesville Creek P exports are extrapolated to the entire Sanctuary Lake watershed, spillway contributions of P added 48% to the non-point source watershed P entering the lake. Park visitors feeding fish at the Linesville Spillway are a significant source of nutrients entering Sanctuary Lake. PMID:17265114

Turner, Andrew M; Ruhl, Nathan

2007-04-01

315

Impact of fertilizer phosphorus application on phosphorus release kinetics in some calcareous soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphate reactions and retention in the soil are of paramount importance from the perspective of plant nutrition and fertilizer use efficiency. The objective of this work was to study the kinetics of phosphorus (P) desorption in different soils of Hamadan in fertilized and unfertilized soils. Soils were fertilized with 200 mg P kg-1. Fertilized and unfertilized soils were incubated at 25 ± 1°C for 6 months. After that, release of P was studied by successive extraction with 0.5 M NaHCO3 over a period of 1,752 h. The results showed that phosphorus desorption from the fertilized and unfertilized soils began with a fast initial reaction, followed by a slow secondary reaction. The amount of P released after 1,752 h in fertilized and unfertilized soils ranged from 457 to 762.4 and 309.6 to 586.7 mg kg-1, respectively. The kinetics of cumulative P release was evaluated using the five kinetic equations. Phosphorus desorption kinetics were best described by parabolic diffusion law, first order, and power function equations. Rate constants of these equations were higher in fertilized than unfertilized soils. Results from this study indicate that release rate of P plays a significant role in supplying available P and released P in runoff.

Hosseinpur, A. R.; Biabanaki, F. S.

2009-01-01

316

Nitrogen and phosphorus removal from domestic strength synthetic wastewater using an alternating pumped flow sequencing batch biofilm reactor.  

PubMed

Nutrient removal from domestic strength synthetic wastewater by an alternating pumped flow sequencing batch biofilm reactor (APFSBBR) was investigated in this laboratory study. The APFSBBR comprised two reactor tanks (Reactors 1 and 2) with two identical biofilm modules of vertical tubular plastic media with a high specific surface area, one in each tank. The APFSBBR was operated in cycles of four phases: fill, anaerobic, aerobic, and draw. During the fill phase, Reactor 1 was half-filled with domestic strength synthetic wastewater. During the subsequent anaerobic phase, most of the phosphorus release took place from the submerged biofilm in this reactor. In the aerobic phase, the wastewater was circulated by pumps between Reactors 1 and 2, resulting in denitrification at the start of the aerobic phase due to low oxygen concentrations, followed by nitrification and luxury uptake of phosphorus when oxygen concentrations increased. During the draw phase, Reactor 2 was half-emptied of the treated water. At the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) loading rates on the total biofilm area of 3.20 g COD, 0.33 g TN, and 0.06 g TP m(-2) d(-1), the removal efficiencies were 97, 85, and 92% for COD, TN, and TP, respectively. PMID:18453421

Rodgers, Michael; Wu, Guangxue; Zhan, Xinmin

2008-01-01

317

Tunable optical properties of multilayer black phosphorus thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black phosphorus thin films might offer attractive alternatives to narrow-gap compound semiconductors for optoelectronics across mid- to near-infrared frequencies. In this work, we calculate the optical conductivity tensor of multilayer black phosphorus thin films using the Kubo formula within an effective low-energy Hamiltonian. The optical absorption spectra of multilayer black phosphorus are shown to vary sensitively with thickness, doping, and light polarization. In conjunction with experimental spectra obtained from infrared absorption spectroscopy, we also discuss the role of interband coupling and disorder on the observed anisotropic absorption spectra.

Low, Tony; Rodin, A. S.; Carvalho, A.; Jiang, Yongjin; Wang, Han; Xia, Fengnian; Castro Neto, A. H.

2014-08-01

318

Determination of clemastine in human plasma by gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection.  

PubMed

A method for the quantitative determination of clemastine in human plasma has been developed and validated. The assay uses gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection and a HP-1 capillary column (25 mx0.22 mm, film thickness 0.33 mm) coated with dimethylpolysiloxane. Clemastine (with orphenadrine as internal standard) was isolated from human plasma using liquid-liquid extraction. A linear relationship was observed between 0.1 and 12.8 ng/ml using the peak area ratio of clemastine to orphenadrine with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.99 (the detection limit for clemastine was 0.06 ng/ml). The intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation were less than 11%. The developed method was used for the analysis of plasma samples from healthy volunteers (n = 19) to examine the pharmacokinetics of the antihistamine clemastine after single and multiple oral doses of clemastine fumarate. PMID:10985579

Davydova, N N; Yasuda, S U; Woosley, R L; Wainer, I W

2000-07-01

319

Dirac fermions in blue-phosphorus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose that Dirac cones can be engineered in phosphorene with fourfold-coordinated phosphorus atoms. The key is to separate the energy levels of the in-plane (s, px, and py) and out-of-plane (pz) oribtals through the sp2 configuration, yielding respective ?- and ?-character Dirac cones, and then quench the latter. As a proof-of-principle study, we create ?-character Dirac cones in hydrogenated and fluorinated phosphorene with a honeycomb lattice. The obtained Dirac cones are at K-points, slightly anisotropic, with Fermi velocities of 0.91 and 1.23 times that of graphene along the ?K and KM direction, and maintain good linearity up to ?2 eV for holes. A substantive advantage of a ?-character Dirac cone is its convenience in tuning the Dirac gap via in-plane strain. Our findings pave the way for development of high-performance electronic devices based on Dirac materials.

Li, Yuanchang; Chen, Xiaobin

2014-12-01

320

Molecular phosphorus ion source for semiconductor technology  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results on the generation of molecular phosphorus ion beams in a hot filament ion source. Solid red phosphorous is evaporated mainly as tetra-atomic molecules up to a temperature of 800 deg. C. Thus, one of the main conditions for producing maximum P{sub 4}{sup +} fraction in the beam is to keep the temperature of the phosphorous oven, the steam line and the discharge chamber walls no greater than 800 deg. C. The prior version of our ion source was equipped with a discharge chamber cooling system. The modified source ensured a P{sub 4}{sup +} ion beam current greater than 30% of the total beam current.

Gushenets, V. I.; Bugaev, A. S.; Oks, E. M. [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Hershcovitch, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kulevoy, T. V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation)

2012-02-15

321

A radio search for interstellar phosphorus compounds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The J = 1-0 and 3-2 transitions of phosphorus nitride, PN, with resolvable hyperfine components at 46.99 GHz and blended components at 140.97 GHz, and transitions of phosphine, PH3, at 47.39 and 46.94 GHz, arising from a small induced dipole moment, have been searched for but not found in interstellar molecular clouds. The J = 3/2-1/2, F - 3/2-3/2 transition of nitric oxide, NO, and the J(K-K+) = 16(4, 12) -15(5, 11) transition of sulfur dioxide, SO2, have been detected in Orion and Sagittarius B2. An unidentified emission line, U140921.8 MHz, has been observed in IRC + 10216.

Hollis, J. M.; Snyder, L. E.; Lovas, F. J.; Ulich, B. L.

1980-01-01

322

Agricultural trade and the global phosphorus cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trends of increasing agricultural trade, increased concentration of livestock production systems, and increased human consumption of livestock products influence the distribution of nutrients across the global landscape. Phosphorus (P) represents a unique management challenge as we are rapidly depleting mineable reserves of this essential and non-renewable resource. At the same time, its overuse can lead to pollution of aquatic ecosystems. We analyzed the relative contributions of food crop, feed crop, and livestock product trade to P flows through agricultural soils for twelve countries from 1961 to 2007. We then used case studies of P fertilizer use in the world's three major soybean export regions: Iowa (USA), Mato Grosso (Brazil), and Buenos Aires (Argentina) to examine the influence of historical P management and soil types on agriculture's environmental consequences. Due to the intensification of agricultural production, average soil surface P balances more than tripled from 6 to 21 kg P per ha between 1961 and 2007 for the twelve study countries. Consequently, countries that are primarily agricultural exporters carried increased risks for water pollution or, for Argentina, reduced soil fertility due to soil P mining to support exports. In 2007, nations imported food and feed from regions with higher apparent P fertilizer use efficiencies than if those crops were produced domestically. However, this was largely because imports were sourced from regions depleting soil P resources to support export crop production. In addition, the pattern of regional specialization and intensification of production systems also reduced the potential to recycle P resources, with greater implications for livestock production than crop production. In a globalizing world, it will be increasingly important to integrate biophysical constraints of our natural resources and environmental impacts of agricultural systems into trade policy and agreements and to develop mechanisms that move us closer to more equitable management of non-renewable resources such as phosphorus.

Schipanski, M.; Bennett, E.; Riskin, S.; Porder, S.

2012-12-01

323

Method of removing and detoxifying a phosphorus-based substance  

DOEpatents

A method of removing organic phosphorus-based poisonous substances from water contaminated therewith and of subsequently destroying the toxicity of the substance is disclosed. Initially, a water-immiscible organic is immobilized on a supported liquid membrane. Thereafter, the contaminated water is contacted with one side of the supported liquid membrane to selectively dissolve the phosphorus-based substance in the organic extractant. At the same time, the other side of the supported liquid membrane is contacted with a hydroxy-affording strong base to react the phosphorus-based substance dissolved by the organic extractant with a hydroxy ion. This forms a non-toxic reaction product in the base. The organic extractant can be a water-insoluble trialkyl amine, such as trilauryl amine. The phosphorus-based substance can be phosphoryl or a thiophosphoryl.

Vandegrift, George F. (Bolingbrook, IL); Steindler, Martin J. (Park Forest, IL)

1989-01-01

324

Phosphorus Removal from Silicon by Vacuum Refining and Directional Solidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon is widely used as a raw material for production of solar cells. As a major impurity in silicon, phosphorus must be removed to 1 × 10-5 wt.%. In the present study, based on the distribution of phosphorus in a silicon ingot obtained by vacuum refining and directional solidification, the mechanism for removal of phosphorus from silicon is investigated. The results show that the distribution is controlled not only by segregation at the solid-liquid interface but also by evaporation at the gas-liquid interface, showing some deviation from Scheil's equation. A modified model which considers both segregation and evaporation is used to simulate the distribution, matching quite well with the experimental results. The temperature and solidification rate are two important parameters that affect the overall mass transfer coefficient and the effective segregation coefficient and thus the distribution of phosphorus. A high removal efficiency and a homogeneous distribution can be obtained by adjusting these two parameters.

Jiang, Dachuan; Ren, Shiqiang; Shi, Shuang; Dong, Wei; Qiu, Jieshan; TAN, Yi; Li, Jiayan

2014-02-01

325

Technology for recovering phosphorus from incinerated wastewater treatment sludge.  

PubMed

A bench-top study of phosphorus-recovering technology from ash associated with incinerated wastewater (sewage) treatment sludge was conducted by adding sulfuric acid to ashes for the elution of phosphorus. With the exception of lead, which is insoluble in sulfuric acid, when the pH of the ash fell below 2.0, phosphorus and various heavy metals in the ash were extracted. The study found that, when alkalis were added to adjust the pH of the ash extract to 4.0, phosphorus was subsequently recovered via filtration. Furthermore, when alkalis were added to adjust the pH to 10, the recovery of various heavy metals was observed. In addition, disposal of the remaining solution (wastewater), which consists of a relatively low concentration of salts, is not considered to be a significant issue since it is within wastewater discharge standards and has been found to be useful as an acid-treating substance. PMID:11419755

Takahashi, M; Kato, S; Shima, H; Sarai, E; Ichioka, T; Hatyakawa, S; Miyajiri, H

2001-07-01

326

Black phosphorus photodetector for multispectral, high-resolution imaging.  

PubMed

Black phosphorus is a layered semiconductor that is intensely researched in view of applications in optoelectronics. In this letter, we investigate a multilayer black phosphorus photodetector that is capable of acquiring high-contrast (V > 0.9) images both in the visible (?VIS = 532 nm) as well as in the infrared (?IR = 1550 nm) spectral regime. In a first step, by using photocurrent microscopy, we map the active area of the device and we characterize responsivity and gain. In a second step, by deploying the black phosphorus device as a point-like detector in a confocal microsope setup, we acquire diffraction-limited optical images with submicron resolution. The results demonstrate the usefulness of black phosphorus as an optoelectronic material for hyperspectral imaging applications. PMID:25299161

Engel, Michael; Steiner, Mathias; Avouris, Phaedon

2014-11-12

327

Phosphorus Determination by Derivative Activation Analysis: A Multifaceted Radiochemical Application.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although determination of phosphorus is important in biology, physiology, and environmental science, traditional gravimetric and colorimetric methods are cumbersome and lack the requisite sensitivity. Therefore, a derivative activation analysis method is suggested. Background information, procedures, and results are provided. (JN)

Kleppinger, E. W.; And Others

1984-01-01

328

Novel Mechanisms in the Regulation of Phosphorus Homeostasis - Figure 3  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This figure shows that intestinal phosphate sensing increases the fractional excretion of phosphorus in the kidney following increases in intestinal luminal phosphate concentrations by the release of an intestinal mediator ("intestinal phosphatonin").

Theresa Berndt (Mayo Clinic); Rajiv Kumar (Mayo Clinic)

2009-02-01

329

Aircraft Measurements of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in and around the  

E-print Network

Aircraft Measurements of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in and around the Lake Tahoe Basin: Implications an instrumented aircraft flown over three locations: the Sierra Nevada foothills east of Sacramento ("low

Zhang, Qi

330

TESLA-Report 1993-33 TESLA-Report 1993-33  

E-print Network

#12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993-33 #12;TESLA-Report 1993

331

Electrodeposition of amorphous ternary nickel-chromium-phosphorus alloy  

DOEpatents

Amorphous ternary nickel-chromium-phosphorus alloys are electrodeposited from a bath comprising a nickel salt, a chromium salt, a phosphorus source such as sodium hypophosphite, a complexing agent for the nickel ions, supporting salts to increase conductivity, and a buffering agent. The process is carried out at about room temperature and requires a current density between about 20 to 40 A/dm.sup.2.

Guilinger, Terry R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1990-01-01

332

Influence of suspended clay on phosphorus uptake by periphyton  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of suspended clay upon the phosphorus uptake rate exhibited by lotic periphyton communities. Suspended\\u000a inorganic clays and periphyton are common to aquatic environments, and both can strongly influence physical and chemical water\\u000a conditions. We used replicated artificial stream channels to test the prediction that suspended clay particles would affect\\u000a the uptake of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP)

J. E. Wolfe; O. T. Lind

2008-01-01

333

Ionic conductivities and structure of lithium phosphorus oxynitride glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium phosphorus oxynitride glasses with different lithium contents have been prepared by melting base glasses at high temperature in a flowing ammonia atmosphere for 16–72 h. The melt was then furnace-cooled to room temperature to avoid bubble formation in the sample. The structure of the lithium phosphorus oxynitride glasses was probed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography.

B. Wang; B. S. Kwak; B. C. Sales; J. B. Bates

1995-01-01

334

Calcium and phosphorus requirements of bobwhite quail chicks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four experiments involving 873 bob-white quail (Colinus virginianus) chicks were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, Maryland. A comparison was made of calcium: phosphorus ratios of 1:1, 15:1, 1%: 1, 2:1, 2+:1,and 2%: 1in diets with phosphorus levels of 0.52, 0.75, 1.00, and 1.25 percent. The results indicate that the optimum level of phosphorus for growth is in the neighborhood of 0.75 per cent, and that of calcium is about 1.00 per cent, making a ratio of 1 1/3: 1....Although the greatest efficiency of feed utilization occurred on the phosphorus level of 0.52 per cent, the liveweight and bone-ash of the birds at the end of ten weeks were significantly lower than they were on the levels of 0.75 and 1.00 per cent, phosphorus. Bone-ash of birds on a Ca: P ratio of 1:1was significantly lower than that on any of the other five ratios, regardless of phosphorus level....There was a significant reverse correlation between the Ca: P ratio of the diet and the storage of vitamin A in the liver. Storage was especially low on the ratio of 2 2/3: 1....The low and high levels of calcium and phosphorus considered in these studies are abnormal, the low level especially being hard to obtain with common feedstuffs, if the protein requirements of the birds are met. Nevertheless, even on such levels, results were not disastrous. The growth of quail in the wild happens during a season when the birds have access to the minerals of the soil and in the abundant animal matter (mostly insects), as well as to minerals in plant material. Therefore, seemingly, calcium and phosphorus need not be critical nutrients for growing quail in the wild.

Nestler, R.B.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.; Moschler, M.

1948-01-01

335

Microbial phytases in phosphorus acquisition and plant growth promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) is one of the major constituents in energy metabolism and biosynthesis of nucleic acids and cell membranes\\u000a with an important role in regulation of a number of enzymes. Soil phosphorous is an important macronutrient for plant growth.\\u000a Phosphorus deficiency in soil is a major problem for agricultural production. Total soil P occurs in either organic or in\\u000a organic

Bijender Singh; T. Satyanarayana

2011-01-01

336

[The vitamin D allowance of premature infants and their phosphorus-calcium metabolic status with different types of feeding and rickets prevention].  

PubMed

The content of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, calcium and phosphorus in blood serum was measured in 80 premature infants aged 12 to 120 days depending on the type of feeding and rickets prevention. Administration of vitamin D in a dose of 400 IU and increase of calcium consumption up to 110-120 mg and of phosphorus to 45-57 mg per kg body weight at the expense of calcinated cottage introduction into the diet provide for the optimal levels of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and calcium in the blood of these children. Administration of calcium and phosphorus to children receiving breast feeding in doses of 80-90 and 33-37 mg/kg, respectively, is not sufficient for the maintenance of calcium homeostasis and endogenous supply with vitamin D even if the latter is given prophylactically. When children are fed with the mixture Maliutka, the maximal permissible dose of vitamin D may amount to 800 IU a day. Administration of vitamin D in a dose of 3750 IU is fraught with a danger of hypervitaminosis D in the presence of high alimentary supply with calcium and phosphorus and does not make calcium homeostasis return to normal in the presence of low supply with these mineral substances. PMID:2378101

Shakirova, E M; Pereverzeva, O G

1990-01-01

337

Fast, quantitative in situ hybridization of rare mRNAs using 14C-standards and phosphorus imaging.  

PubMed

The use of radiolabelled probes for in situ hybridization (ISH) bears the advantage of high sensitivity and quantifiability. The crucial disadvantages are laborious hybridization protocols, exposition of hybridized sections to film for up to several weeks and the time consuming need to prepare tissue standards with relatively short-lived isotopes like (33)P or (35)S for each experiment. The quantification of rare mRNAs like those encoding for subunits of neurotransmitter receptors is therefore a challenge in ISH. Here, we describe a method for fast, quantitative in situ hybridization (qISH) of mRNAs using (33)P-labelled oligonucleotides together with (14)C-polymer standards (Microscales, Amersham Biosciences) and a phosphorus imaging system (BAS 5000 BioImage Analyzer, Raytest-Fuji). It enables a complete analysis of rare mRNAs by ISH. The preparation of short-lived (33)P-standards for each experiment was replaced by co-exposition and calibration of long-lived (14)C-standards together with (33)P-labelled brain paste standards. The use of a phosphorus imaging system allowed a reduction of exposition time following hybridization from several weeks to a few hours or days. We used this approach as an example for applications to quantify the expression of GluR1 and GluR2 subunit mRNAs of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor in the hippocampus of untreated rats, and after intraperitoneal application of the organo-arsenic compound dimethyl arsenic acid. PMID:19761793

Cremer, Christian M; Cremer, Markus; Escobar, Jennifer Lopez; Speckmann, Erwin-J; Zilles, Karl

2009-12-15

338

Phosphorus and Nitrogen Regulate Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis in Petunia hybrida  

PubMed Central

Phosphorus and nitrogen are essential nutrient elements that are needed by plants in large amounts. The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis between plants and soil fungi improves phosphorus and nitrogen acquisition under limiting conditions. On the other hand, these nutrients influence root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi and symbiotic functioning. This represents a feedback mechanism that allows plants to control the fungal symbiont depending on nutrient requirements and supply. Elevated phosphorus supply has previously been shown to exert strong inhibition of arbuscular mycorrhizal development. Here, we address to what extent inhibition by phosphorus is influenced by other nutritional pathways in the interaction between Petunia hybrida and R. irregularis. We show that phosphorus and nitrogen are the major nutritional determinants of the interaction. Interestingly, the symbiosis-promoting effect of nitrogen starvation dominantly overruled the suppressive effect of high phosphorus nutrition onto arbuscular mycorrhiza, suggesting that plants promote the symbiosis as long as they are limited by one of the two major nutrients. Our results also show that in a given pair of symbiotic partners (Petunia hybrida and R. irregularis), the entire range from mutually symbiotic to parasitic can be observed depending on the nutritional conditions. Taken together, these results reveal complex nutritional feedback mechanisms in the control of root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. PMID:24608923

Nouri, Eva; Breuillin-Sessoms, Florence; Feller, Urs; Reinhardt, Didier

2014-01-01

339

Thermal conduction in single-layer black phosphorus: highly anisotropic?  

PubMed

The single-layer black phosphorus is characteristic for its puckered structure, which has led to distinct anisotropy in its optical, electronic, and mechanical properties. We use the non-equilibrium Green's function approach and the first-principles method to investigate the thermal conductance for single-layer black phosphorus in the ballistic transport regime, in which the phonon-phonon scattering is neglected. We find that the anisotropy in the thermal conduction is very weak for the single-layer black phosphorus-the difference between two in-plane directions is less than 4%. Our phonon calculations disclose that the out-of-plane acoustic phonon branch has lower group velocities in the direction perpendicular to the pucker, as the black phosphorus is softer in this direction, leading to a weakening effect for the thermal conductance in the perpendicular direction. However, the longitudinal acoustic phonon branch behaves abnormally; i.e., the group velocity of this phonon branch is higher in the perpendicular direction, although the single-layer black phosphorus is softer in this direction. The abnormal behavior of the longitudinal acoustic phonon branch is closely related to the highly anisotropic Poisson's ratio in the single-layer black phosphorus. As a result of the counteraction between the out-of-plane phonon mode and the in-plane phonon modes, the thermal conductance in the perpendicular direction is weaker than the parallel direction, but the anisotropy is pretty small. PMID:25571869

Jiang, Jin-Wu

2015-02-01

340

Elucidating the redox cycle of environmental phosphorus using ion chromatography.  

PubMed

Historically, it was assumed that reactive, inorganic phosphorus present in pristine environments was solely in the form of orthophosphate. However, this assumption contradicts theories of biogenesis and the observed metabolic behavior of select microorganisms. This paper discusses the role of ion chromatography (IC) in elucidating the oxidation-reduction cycle of environmental phosphorus. These methods employ suppressed-IC, coupled with tandem conductivity and electrospray mass spectrometry detectors to identify and quantify phosphorus oxyanions in natural water, synthetic cosmochemical, and biological samples. These techniques have been used to detect phosphite and orthophosphate in geothermal hot springs. Hypophosphite, phosphite, and orthophosphate have been detected in synthetic schreibersite corrosion samples, and termite extract supernatant. Synthetic schreibersite corrosion samples were also analyzed for two poly-phosphorus compounds, hypophosphate and pyrophosphate, and results show these samples did not contain concentrations above the 1.3 and 2.0 ?M respective 3? limit of detection. These methods are readily adaptable to a variety of matrices, and contribute to the elucidation of the oxidation-reduction cycle of phosphorus oxyanions in the environment. In contrast to most studies, these techniques have been used to show that phosphorus actively participates in redox processes in both the biological and geological world. PMID:21859529

Pech, Herbe; Vazquez, Maria G; Van Buren, Jean; Shi, Lixin; Ivey, Michelle M; Salmassi, Tina M; Pasek, Matthew A; Foster, Krishna L

2011-09-01

341

THE MORTALITY OF BACTERIOPHAGE CONTAINING ASSIMILATED RADIOACTIVE PHOSPHORUS  

PubMed Central

The bacteriophage T4 containing assimilated radioactive phosphorus is inactivated at a rate proportional to the specific radioactivity of the constituent phosphorus. The beta radiation from the phosphorus makes a negligible contribution to this effect. The inactivation is therefore a direct consequence of the nuclear reaction, which kills the phage with an efficiency of about 1/12. Several phages related to T4 behave similarly. When radioactive phage is grown from a seed of non-radioactive phage, all of the phage progeny are subject to killing by radioactive decay. The phage is killed by beta radiation from P32 with an efficiency of about 1/100 per ionization within the particle volume. Bacteriophage T4 and its relatives contain about 500,000 atoms of phosphorus per infective particle. Virtually all this phosphorus is adsorbed to bacteria with the specificity characteristic of the infective particles, and none of it can be removed from the particles by the enzyme desoxyribonuclease. The phosphorus content per particle, together with the published data on analytical composition, indicates a particle diameter close to 110 mµ for the varieties of phage studied. PMID:14824499

Hershey, A. D.; Kamen, M. D.; Kennedy, J. W.; Gest, H.

1951-01-01

342

Thermal conduction in single-layer black phosphorus: highly anisotropic?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The single-layer black phosphorus is characteristic for its puckered structure, which has led to distinct anisotropy in its optical, electronic, and mechanical properties. We use the non-equilibrium Green?s function approach and the first-principles method to investigate the thermal conductance for single-layer black phosphorus in the ballistic transport regime, in which the phonon–phonon scattering is neglected. We find that the anisotropy in the thermal conduction is very weak for the single-layer black phosphorus—the difference between two in-plane directions is less than 4%. Our phonon calculations disclose that the out-of-plane acoustic phonon branch has lower group velocities in the direction perpendicular to the pucker, as the black phosphorus is softer in this direction, leading to a weakening effect for the thermal conductance in the perpendicular direction. However, the longitudinal acoustic phonon branch behaves abnormally; i.e., the group velocity of this phonon branch is higher in the perpendicular direction, although the single-layer black phosphorus is softer in this direction. The abnormal behavior of the longitudinal acoustic phonon branch is closely related to the highly anisotropic Poisson?s ratio in the single-layer black phosphorus. As a result of the counteraction between the out-of-plane phonon mode and the in-plane phonon modes, the thermal conductance in the perpendicular direction is weaker than the parallel direction, but the anisotropy is pretty small.

Jiang, Jin-Wu

2015-02-01

343

First-principles study of the effect of phosphorus on nickel grain boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on first-principles quantum-mechanical calculations, the impurity-dopant effects of phosphorus on ?5(012) symmetrical tilt grain boundary in nickel have been studied. The calculated binding energy suggests that phosphorus has a strong tendency to segregate to the grain boundary. Phosphorus forms strong and covalent-like bonding with nickel, which is beneficial to the grain boundary cohesion. However, a too high phosphorus content can result in a thin and fragile zone in the grain boundary, due to the repulsion between phosphorus atoms. As the concentration of phosphorus increases, the strength of the grain boundary increases first and then decreases. Obviously, there exists an optimum concentration for phosphorus segregation, which is consistent with observed segregation behaviors of phosphorus in the grain boundary of nickel. This work is very helpful to understand the comprehensive effects of phosphorus.

Liu, Wenguan; Ren, Cuilan; Han, Han; Tan, Jie; Zou, Yang; Zhou, Xingtai; Huai, Ping; Xu, Hongjie

2014-01-01

344

First-principles study of the effect of phosphorus on nickel grain boundary  

SciTech Connect

Based on first-principles quantum-mechanical calculations, the impurity-dopant effects of phosphorus on ?5(012) symmetrical tilt grain boundary in nickel have been studied. The calculated binding energy suggests that phosphorus has a strong tendency to segregate to the grain boundary. Phosphorus forms strong and covalent-like bonding with nickel, which is beneficial to the grain boundary cohesion. However, a too high phosphorus content can result in a thin and fragile zone in the grain boundary, due to the repulsion between phosphorus atoms. As the concentration of phosphorus increases, the strength of the grain boundary increases first and then decreases. Obviously, there exists an optimum concentration for phosphorus segregation, which is consistent with observed segregation behaviors of phosphorus in the grain boundary of nickel. This work is very helpful to understand the comprehensive effects of phosphorus.

Liu, Wenguan; Ren, Cuilan; Han, Han, E-mail: hanhan@sinap.ac.cn, E-mail: xuhongjie@sinap.ac.cn; Zou, Yang; Zhou, Xingtai; Huai, Ping; Xu, Hongjie, E-mail: hanhan@sinap.ac.cn, E-mail: xuhongjie@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Tan, Jie [Department of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan Shandong 250100 (China)

2014-01-28

345

Black phosphorus nanoelectromechanical resonators vibrating at very high frequencies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the experimental demonstration of a new type of nanoelectromechanical resonator based on black phosphorus crystals. Facilitated by a highly efficient dry transfer technique, crystalline black phosphorus flakes are harnessed to enable drumhead resonators vibrating at high and very high frequencies (HF and VHF bands, up to ~100 MHz). We investigate the resonant vibrational responses from the black phosphorus crystals by devising both electrical and optical excitation schemes, in addition to measuring the undriven thermomechanical motions in these suspended nanostructures. Flakes with thicknesses from ~200 nm down to ~20 nm clearly exhibit elastic characteristics transitioning from the plate to the membrane regime. Both frequency- and time-domain measurements of the nanomechanical resonances show that very thin black phosphorus crystals hold interesting potential for moveable and vibratory devices and for semiconductor transducers where high-speed mechanical motions could be coupled to the attractive electronic and optoelectronic properties of black phosphorus.We report on the experimental demonstration of a new type of nanoelectromechanical resonator based on black phosphorus crystals. Facilitated by a highly efficient dry transfer technique, crystalline black phosphorus flakes are harnessed to enable drumhead resonators vibrating at high and very high frequencies (HF and VHF bands, up to ~100 MHz). We investigate the resonant vibrational responses from the black phosphorus crystals by devising both electrical and optical excitation schemes, in addition to measuring the undriven thermomechanical motions in these suspended nanostructures. Flakes with thicknesses from ~200 nm down to ~20 nm clearly exhibit elastic characteristics transitioning from the plate to the membrane regime. Both frequency- and time-domain measurements of the nanomechanical resonances show that very thin black phosphorus crystals hold interesting potential for moveable and vibratory devices and for semiconductor transducers where high-speed mechanical motions could be coupled to the attractive electronic and optoelectronic properties of black phosphorus. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: A supporting document with additional technical details is included as a separate PDF file. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04829f

Wang, Zenghui; Jia, Hao; Zheng, Xuqian; Yang, Rui; Wang, Zefang; Ye, G. J.; Chen, X. H.; Shan, Jie; Feng, Philip X.-L.

2014-12-01

346

[X-33 Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lockheed Martin Skunk Works has compiled an Annual Performance Report of the X-33/RLV Program. This report consists of individual reports from all industry team members, as well as NASA team centers. This portion of the report is comprised of a status report of Allied-Signal Aerospace's contribution to the program. The following is a summary of the work reviewed under their portion of the agreement: (1) Communication Systems; (2) Environmental Control Systems- Active Thermal Control System (ATCS), Purge and Vent System, Hydrogen Detection System (HDS), Avionics Bay Inerting System (ABIS), and Flush Air Data System (FADS); (2) Landing Systems; (3) Power Management and Generation Systems; (4) Flight Control Actuation System (FCAS)- Electric Power Control & Distribution System (EPCDS), and Battery Power System (BPS); and (5) Vehicle Management Systems (VMS)- VMS Hardware, VMS Software Development Activities, and System Integration Laboratory (SIL).

1999-01-01

347

Forms of organic phosphorus in wetland soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus (P) cycling in freshwater wetlands is dominated by biological mechanisms, yet there has been no comprehensive examination of the forms of biogenic P (i.e., forms derived from biological activity) in wetland soils. We used solution 31P NMR spectroscopy to identify and quantify P forms in surface soils of 28 palustrine wetlands spanning a range of climatic, hydrogeomorphic, and vegetation types. Total P concentrations ranged between 51 and 3516 ?g P g-1, of which an average of 58% was extracted in a single-step NaOH-EDTA procedure. The extracts contained a broad range of P forms, including phosphomonoesters (averaging 24% of the total soil P), phosphodiesters (averaging 10% of total P), phosphonates (up to 4% of total P), and both pyrophosphate and long-chain polyphosphates (together averaging 6% of total P). Soil P composition was found to be dependant upon two key biogeochemical properties: organic matter content and pH. For example, stereoisomers of inositol hexakisphosphate were detected exclusively in acidic soils with high mineral content, while phosphonates were detected in soils from a broad range of vegetation and hydrogeomorphic types but only under acidic conditions. Conversely inorganic polyphosphates occurred in a broad range of wetland soils, and their abundance appears to reflect more broadly that of a "substantial" and presumably active microbial community with a significant relationship between total inorganic polyphosphates and microbial biomass P. We conclude that soil P composition varies markedly among freshwater wetlands but can be predicted by fundamental soil properties.

Cheesman, A. W.; Turner, B. L.; Reddy, K. R.

2014-12-01

348

Forms of organic phosphorus in wetland soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus (P) cycling in freshwater wetlands is dominated by biological mechanisms, yet there has been no comprehensive examination of the forms of biogenic P (i.e. forms derived from biological activity) in wetland soils. We used solution 31P NMR spectroscopy to identify and quantify P forms in surface soils of 28 palustrine wetlands spanning a range of climatic, hydro-geomorphic and vegetation types. Total P concentrations ranged between 51 and 3516 ?g P g

Cheesman, A. W.; Turner, B. L.; Reddy, K. R.

2014-06-01

349

Phosphorus removal using novel crystallisation technology.  

PubMed

A soy protein manufacturing facility was faced with the challenge of reducing its effluent phosphorus (P) content from 20-50 mg L(-1) down to <2 mg L(-1) total P without increasing soluble salt levels to comply with discharge and receiving water requirements. A number of biological and chemical P removal technologies previously evaluated either failed to achieve the new standards or would have produced prohibitive amounts of residual sludge and unacceptably high effluent salt concentrations. Lime precipitation, utilising a novel crystallisation technology, was demonstrated through on-site pilot testing to meet the process objectives. It is capable of achieving the required P removal at pH 10 while not increasing soluble salts and producing rapid settling and filterable particles. Also, minimal carbonate removal was observed with residual solids generation being only 40% of a complete lime softening reaction. This paper describes the technical evaluation that led to the full-scale treatment system that was put into operation in late 2005. PMID:16889253

Wood, K; Wood, G; Prokop, D; Lewyille, F

2006-01-01

350

Extrapolating phosphorus production to estimate resource reserves.  

PubMed

Various indicators of resource scarcity and methods for extrapolating resource availability are examined for phosphorus. These include resource lifetime, and trends in resource price, ore grade and discovery rates, and Hubbert curve extrapolation. Several of these indicate increasing scarcity of phosphate resources. Calculated resource lifetime is subject to a number of caveats such as unanticipated future changes in resource discovery, mining and beneficiation technology, population growth or per-capita demand. Thus it should be used only as a rough planning index or as a relative indicator of potential scarcity. This paper examines the uncertainty in one method for estimating available resources from historical production data. The confidence intervals for the parameters and predictions of the Hubbert curves are computed as they relate to the amount of information available. These show that Hubbert-type extrapolations are not robust for predicting the ultimately recoverable reserves or year of peak production of phosphate rock. Previous successes of the Hubbert curve are for cases in which there exist alternative resources, which is not the situation for phosphate. It is suggested that data other than historical production, such as population growth, identified resources and economic factors, should be included in making such forecasts. PMID:21440285

Vaccari, David A; Strigul, Nikolay

2011-08-01

351

Daily phosphorus variation in a mountain stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monthly diel monitoring studies for phosphorus content were conducted (1995-1996 period) for multiple stations on Incline Creek, a mountain stream in the Lake Tahoe basin (California-Nevada). Large discharge and particulate P (PP) concentration fluctuations occurred during June in the early evening as snowmelt from higher elevations arrived at the lower stream reaches. June diel dissolved organic P (DOP) concentrations steadily increased, while soluble reactive P (SRP) concentrations remained constant. June diel PP concentrations associated with sand-sized particles (PPsand: >63 ?m) exhibited a clockwise hysteresis, indicating possible sediment source depletion on a daily timescale. June diel PP associated with silt- and clay-sized particles (PPSC: >0.45 ?m and <63 ?m) exhibited counterclockwise hysteresis behavior, suggesting a potential groundwater contribution to PPSC. PPSC comprised the majority of PP concentration, except during high-discharge events when PPsand concentration was dominant. Areal PP loading, specifically PPsand, appears to originate primarily from the lower eastern branch of Incline Creek during the spring snowmelt season. Possible sources include a ski resort/parking lot and a golf course. DOP and SRP areal loads were greatest from the undeveloped upper subwatershed, suggesting that natural factors such as slope are influencing loading of small-sized P fractions.

Hatch, Lorin K.; Reuter, John E.; Goldman, Charles R.

1999-12-01

352

Phosphorus and nitrogen in coral reef sediments  

SciTech Connect

The occurrence of P and N in the sediments has been investigated on Davies Reef in the central region of the Great Barrier Reef Complex. Concentrations of inorganic P and N in the water were typical of nutrient-depleted tropical surface water. Carbonate sediments were found to contain a uniform pool of P (300 ppm by wt), principally in the form of inorganic phosphate. The interstitial water of the surface layer of sediment contained micromolar concentrations of inorganic P and even higher concentrations of inorganic N, principally as ammonium. These nutrient concentrations were considered too low to compete significantly with the uptake of available phasphate into algae. The presence of ammonium and soluble P was associated with anaerobic redox potentials in the sediments just below the surface. Soluble phosphorus was in equilibrium with a small, rapidly exchangeable fraction of the sedimentary pool of inorganic phosphate. Analyses of P in growing tips of Halimeda and corals (which supply more than half of reef sediments) suggested that the skeletons provide a biological mechanism for the replenishment of at least some of the sedimentary pool. Ratios of C:N:P for a selection of benthic algae were used as a preliminary indicator of thier N and P status.

Entsch, B.; Boto, K.G.; Sim, R.G.; Wellington, J.T.

1983-05-01

353

Determination of Phosphorus in Cola Drinks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory experiments can improve student interest in science. However, the contrary effect could occur if they are not well designed and seem tedious, too laborious, and disconnected from daily life. Cola beverages are one of the most widely consumed drinks and are most popular among students. Much attention is being paid to possible consequences of excessive consumption for human health. Intensive efforts are being made to assess the erosive potential for teeth because of the beverages' acidity (1, 2); adverse effects secondary to high caffeine intake (e.g., hypertension, allergic reactions, gastrointestinal disturbances) (3 - 5); and adverse effects on calcium metabolism due to their high phosphoric acid content, which combined with low dietary calcium intake could increase the risk of suffering from bone diseases (6 - 9). We propose here the quantification of the phosphorus content in this kind of drinks by a different procedure from that previously described by Murphy in this Journal (10). We think this laboratory experiment will seem very interesting to students.

Lozano-Calero, Diego; Martìn-Palomeque, Pilar; Madueño-Lorguillo, Silvia

1996-12-01

354

Black phosphorus radio-frequency transistors.  

PubMed

Few-layer and thin film forms of layered black phosphorus (BP) have recently emerged as a promising material for applications in high performance nanoelectronics and infrared optoelectronics. Layered BP thin films offer a moderate bandgap of around 0.3 eV and high carrier mobility, which lead to transistors with decent on-off ratios and high on-state current densities. Here, we demonstrate the gigahertz frequency operation of BP field-effect transistors for the first time. The BP transistors demonstrated here show respectable current saturation with an on-off ratio that exceeds 2 × 10(3). We achieved a current density in excess of 270 mA/mm and DC transconductance above 180 mS/mm for hole conduction. Using standard high frequency characterization techniques, we measured a short-circuit current-gain cutoff frequency fT of 12 GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency fmax of 20 GHz in 300 nm channel length devices. BP devices may offer advantages over graphene transistors for high frequency electronics in terms of voltage and power gain due to the good current saturation properties arising from their finite bandgap, thus can be considered as a promising candidate for the future high performance thin film electronics technology for operation in the multi-GHz frequency range and beyond. PMID:25347787

Wang, Han; Wang, Xiaomu; Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Luhao; Jiang, Hao; Xia, Qiangfei; Chin, Matthew L; Dubey, Madan; Han, Shu-jen

2014-11-12

355

The role of diet in phosphorus demand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 50 years, there have been major changes in human diets, including a global average increase in meat consumption and total calorie intake. We quantified how changes in annual per capita national average diets affected requirements for mined P between 1961 and 2007, starting with the per capita availability of a food crop or animal product and then determining the P needed to grow the product. The global per capita P footprint increased 38% over the 46 yr time period, but there was considerable variability among countries. Phosphorus footprints varied between 0.35 kg P capita-1 yr-1 (DPR Congo, 2007) and 7.64 kg P capita-1 yr-1 (Luxembourg, 2007). Temporal trends also differed among countries; for example, while China’s P footprint increased almost 400% between 1961 and 2007, the footprints of other countries, such as Canada, decreased. Meat consumption was the most important factor affecting P footprints; it accounted for 72% of the global average P footprint. Our results show that dietary shifts are an important component of the human amplification of the global P cycle. These dietary trends present an important challenge for sustainable P management.

Metson, Geneviève S.; Bennett, Elena M.; Elser, James J.

2012-12-01

356

Metagenomic analysis of phosphorus removing sludgecommunities  

SciTech Connect

Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) is not wellunderstood at the metabolic level despite being one of the best-studiedmicrobially-mediated industrial processes due to its ecological andeconomic relevance. Here we present a metagenomic analysis of twolab-scale EBPR sludges dominated by the uncultured bacterium, "CandidatusAccumulibacter phosphatis." This analysis resolves several controversiesin EBPR metabolic models and provides hypotheses explaining the dominanceof A. phosphatis in this habitat, its lifestyle outside EBPR and probablecultivation requirements. Comparison of the same species from differentEBPR sludges highlights recent evolutionary dynamics in the A. phosphatisgenome that could be linked to mechanisms for environmental adaptation.In spite of an apparent lack of phylogenetic overlap in the flankingcommunities of the two sludges studied, common functional themes werefound, at least one of them complementary to the inferred metabolism ofthe dominant organism. The present study provides a much-needed blueprintfor a systems-level understanding of EBPR and illustrates thatmetagenomics enables detailed, often novel, insights into evenwell-studied biological systems.

Garcia Martin, Hector; Ivanova, Natalia; Kunin, Victor; Warnecke,Falk; Barry, Kerrie; McHardy, Alice C.; Yeates, Christine; He, Shaomei; Salamov, Asaf; Szeto, Ernest; Dalin, Eileen; Putnam, Nik; Shapiro, HarrisJ.; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L.; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Blackall, Linda Louise; McMahon, Katherine D.; Hugenholtz, Philip

2006-02-01

357

Grain boundary segregation of phosphorus in iron-vanadium alloys  

SciTech Connect

Grain boundary segregation of phosphorus has been studied in Fe-V-P and Fe-V-P-C alloys through fracture experiments in a scanning Auger microprobe with the objective of examining the effects of vanadium on the interaction processes operative under circumstances when the structure in the interior of the grain (in the present case carbide formation) and grain boundary segregation occur simultaneously. It is understood that to predict and analyze the behavior of an alloy, it is pertinent to consider the atomic interactions both at the grain boundaries and in the grain interior and that between the constituents and the grain boundaries. The study suggests that the determining factor for suppression or decrease in the migration of phosphorus to the grain boundaries is whether vanadium is present in the combined form (say, carbide) or is available in solid solution form. When vanadium is present in solid solution form, grain boundary segregation of phosphorus is low because of the chemical interaction of vanadium and phosphorus. However, as carbon is increasingly introduced in the alloy, vanadium now preferentially interacts with carbon in view of a higher interaction for carbon as compared to that of phosphorus. A consequence of this is an increase in the grain boundary concentration of phosphorus. In such a situation, the presence of excess carbon in addition to what is stoichiometrically required to precipitate the entire vanadium as vanadium carbides serves as a palliative with regard to the reduction in the intergranular concentration of phosphorus. This palliative behavior is explained in terms of the site-competition model. An effort is also made to examine the behavior of segregating elements in terms of a whole range of probable interactions (both at the grain boundaries and in the grain interior) and chemical interaction energies.

Misra, R.D.K. [Defence Metallurgical Research Lab., Hyderabad (India)] [Defence Metallurgical Research Lab., Hyderabad (India)

1996-11-01

358

Lead structures for applications in photodynamic therapy. 5. Synthesis and biological evaluation of water soluble phosphorus(V) 5,10,15,20-tetraalkylporphyrins for PDT.  

PubMed

Improved photosensitizers for use in photomedicine must possess good water-solubility and optimal photophysical properties. Phosphorus(V) porphyrins fulfill these criteria and are a class of porphyrins with significant potential applications in phototherapy. Five phosphorus(V) porphyrins bearing alkyl substituents have been synthesized. Reasonable to good yields were obtained for all P(V) insertions and all compounds underwent biological evaluation for their PDT activity on two esophageal cancer cell lines, OE33 and SKGT-4. Their cellular uptake was investigated using a high content screening method. Notably, three compounds displayed good uptake and using the MTS cell proliferation assay, two were shown to have photocytotoxicity comparable to mTHPC (Temoporfin(®)) with IC50 values of 6.5 and 5.5?M. PMID:25102162

Ryan, Aoife A; Ebrahim, Mothi M; Petitdemange, Rosine; Vaz, Gisela M; Paszko, Edyta; Sergeeva, Natalia N; Senge, Mathias O

2014-12-01

359

Phosphorus and phosphorus-nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes for ultrasensitive and selective molecular detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A first-principles approach is used to establish that substitutional phosphorus atoms within carbon nanotubes strongly modify the chemical properties of the surface, thus creating highly localized sites with specific affinity towards acceptor molecules. Phosphorus-nitrogen co-dopants within the tubes have a similar effect for acceptor molecules, but the P-N bond can also accept charge, resulting in affinity towards donor molecules. This molecular selectivity is illustrated in CO and NH3 adsorbed on PN-doped nanotubes, O2 on P-doped nanotubes, and NO2 and SO2 on both P- and PN-doped nanotubes. The adsorption of different chemical species onto the doped nanotubes modifies the dopant-induced localized states, which subsequently alter the electronic conductance. Although SO2 and CO adsorptions cause minor shifts in electronic conductance, NH3, NO2, and O2 adsorptions induce the suppression of a conductance dip. Conversely, the adsorption of NO2 on PN-doped nanotubes is accompanied with the appearance of an additional dip in conductance, correlated with a shift of the existing ones. Overall these changes in electric conductance provide an efficient way to detect selectively the presence of specific molecules. Additionally, the high oxidation potential of the P-doped nanotubes makes them good candidates for electrode materials in hydrogen fuel cells.

Cruz-Silva, Eduardo; Lopez-Urias, Florentino; Munoz-Sandoval, Emilio; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Terrones, Humberto; Charlier, Jean-Christophe; Meunier, Vincent; Terrones, Mauricio

2011-03-01

360

Phosphorus and phosphorus nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes for ultrasensitive and selective molecular detection  

SciTech Connect

A first-principles approach is used to establish that substitutional phosphorus atoms within carbon nanotubes strongly modify the chemical properties of the surface, thus creating highly localized sites with specific affinity towards acceptor molecules. Phosphorus nitrogen co-dopants within the tubes have a similar effect for acceptor molecules, but the P N bond can also accept charge, resulting in affinity towards donor molecules. This molecular selectivity is illustrated in CO and NH3 adsorbed on PN-doped nanotubes, O2 on P-doped nanotubes, and NO2 and SO2 on both P- and PN-doped nanotubes. The adsorption of different chemical species onto the doped nanotubes modifies the dopant-induced localized states, which subsequently alter the electronic conductance. Although SO2 and CO adsorptions cause minor shifts in electronic conductance, NH3, NO2, and O2 adsorptions induce the suppression of a conductance dip. Conversely, the adsorption of NO2 on PN-doped nanotubes is accompanied with the appearance of an additional dip in conductance, correlated with a shift of the existing ones. Overall these changes in electric conductance provide an efficient way to detect selectively the presence of specific molecules. Additionally, the high oxidation potential of the P-doped nanotubes makes them good candidates for electrode materials in hydrogen fuel cells.

Cruz Silva, Eduardo [ORNL; Lopez, Florentino [IPICyT; Munoz-Sandoval, Emilio [IPICyT; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto [ORNL; Charlier, Jean Christophe [Universite Catholique de Louvain; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL; Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio [ORNL

2011-01-01

361

Phosphorus and carbon segregation: Effects on fatigue and fracture of gas-carburized modified 4320 steel  

SciTech Connect

Phosphorus and carbon segregation to austenite grain boundaries and its effects on fatigue and fracture were studied in carburized modified 4320 steel with systematic variations, 0.005, 0.017, and 0.031 wt pct, in alloy phosphorus concentration. Specimens subjected to bending fatigue were characterized by light metallography, X-ray analyses for retained austenite and residual stress measurements, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of fracture surfaces. Scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) was used to determine intergranular concentrations of phosphorus and carbon. The degree of phosphorus segregation is directly dependent on alloy phosphorus and carbon content. The degree of carbon segregation, in the form of cementite, at austenite grain boundaries was found to be a function of alloy phosphorus concentration. The endurance limit and fracture toughness decreased slightly when alloy phosphorus concentration was increased from 0.005 to 0.017 wt pct. Between 0.017 and 0.031 wt pct phosphorus, the endurance limit and fracture toughness decreased substantially. Other effects related to increasing alloy phosphorus concentration include increased case carbon concentration, decreased case retained austenite, increased case compressive residual stresses, and increased case hardness. All of these results are consistent with the phosphorus-enhanced formation of intergranular cementite and a decrease in carbon solubility in intragranular austenite with increasing phosphorus concentration. Differences in fatigue and fracture correlate with the degree of cementite coverage on the austenite grain boundaries and the buildup of phosphorus at cementite/matrix interfaces because of the insolubility of phosphorus in cementite.

Hyde, R.S.; Krauss, G.; Matlock, D.K. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Advanced Steel Processing and Products Research Center)

1994-06-01

362

The "phosphorus pyramid": a visual tool for dietary phosphate management in dialysis and CKD patients.  

PubMed

Phosphorus retention plays a pivotal role in the onset of mineral and bone disorders (MBD) in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Phosphorus retention commonly occurs as a result of net intestinal absorption exceeding renal excretion or dialysis removal. The dietary phosphorus load is crucial since the early stages of CKD, throughout the whole course of the disease, up to dialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease.Agreement exits regarding the need for dietary phosphate control, but it is quite challenging in the real-life setting. Effective strategies to control dietary phosphorus intake include restricting phosphorus-rich foods, preferring phosphorus sourced from plant origin, boiling as the preferred cooking procedure and avoiding foods with phosphorus-containing additives. Nutritional education is crucial in this regard.Based on the existing literature, we developed the "phosphorus pyramid", namely a novel, visual, user-friendly tool for the nutritional education of patients and health-care professionals. The pyramid consists of six levels in which foods are arranged on the basis of their phosphorus content, phosphorus to protein ratio and phosphorus bioavailability. Each has a colored edge (from green to red) that corresponds to recommended intake frequency, ranging from "unrestricted" to "avoid as much as possible".The aim of the phosphorus pyramid is to support dietary counseling in order to reduce the phosphorus load, a crucial aspect of integrated CKD-MBD management. PMID:25603926

D'Alessandro, Claudia; Piccoli, Giorgina B; Cupisti, Adamasco

2015-01-01

363

Recovery of high purity phosphorus from municipal wastewater secondary effluent by a high-speed adsorbent.  

PubMed

High purity phosphorus was recovered from municipal wastewater secondary effluent as phosphate, using a newly developed phosphorus adsorption and recovery system. A high-speed adsorbent having a unique porous structure was used in this system. The secondary effluent, showing total phosphorus (TP) of 0.1-2.1 mg P/L, was passed through an adsorbent packed column at high space velocity (SV) of 15 h(-1). The TP of the treated water was as low as 0.02-0.04 mg P/L, indicating that 97% of phosphorus in the secondary effluent was removed. The removed phosphorus was desorbed from the adsorbent by passing a sodium hydroxide aqueous solution through the column. Calcium hydroxide was added to this solution to precipitate the phosphorus as calcium phosphate. This precipitate was neutralized with hydrochloric acid aqueous solution, washed with water, and then solid-liquid separation was performed for the phosphorus recovery. The main constituent of the recovered phosphorus was apatite-type calcium phosphate, with 16% phosphorus content, which matched that of high-grade phosphorus ore. The hazardous elements content of the recovered phosphorus was exceedingly low. Therefore the recovered phosphorus can be applied to an alternative for phosphorus ore, or to a phosphate fertilizer. PMID:19001714

Midorikawa, I; Aoki, H; Omori, A; Shimizu, T; Kawaguchi, Y; Kassai, K; Murakami, T

2008-01-01

364

Electron spectroscopic study of phosphorus segregated to ?-iron surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray photoelectron (XPS), electron excited Auger (AES), and electron energy loss (ELS) spectroscopic studies were performed on ?-iron crystal surfaces covered with phosphorus. The phosphorus concentrations cp in the bulk iron were varied between 0.08 and 10 wt%. For comparison, iron phosphide (Fe 3P) bulk material was investigated. In dependence on surface coverage and crystal temperature, two phosphorus species differing in bonding state were detected at the vacuum-solid interface. With increasing coverage, besides the P 2s and P 2p core lines originating from the chemisorptive P state, new photoemission lines emerged at ~ 1.0 eV higher binding energies. Comparative experiments performed on iron phosphide indicated that the additional P bonding state corresponds to the Fe-P bonding in the Fe 3P compound. From XPS peak area ratios and AES peak height ratios it is evident that the second phosphorus species is located in subsurface layers and its concentration is dependent on the phosphorus bulk concentration and the temperature. By means of ELS and AES, attempts were made to get supplemental bonding information by monitoring and analysing the d-band substructure.

Egert, B.; Panzner, G.

1982-06-01

365

Potentials of using nanofiltration to recover phosphorus from sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Due to the depletion of mineral phosphorus resources there is an increasing demand for efficient phosphorus recovery technologies. In this study the potential of nanofiltration to recover phosphorus from pre-treated sewage sludge is investigated. The efficiency of three commercial nanofiltration membranes (Desal 5DK, NP030; MPF34) was tested using model solutions. Desal 5DK showed the best selectivity for phosphorus. A pH of lower than 1.5 was found to be most suitable. Desal 5DK was used on four different sewage sludge ash eluates and on one sewage sludge. In these experiments it was shown that a separation of phosphorus from undesired components such as heavy metals was possible with significant variations in the efficiency for the different ash and sludge types. Additionally the achievable product recovery was investigated with model solutions. A product recovery of 57.1% was attained for pH 1 and 41.4% for pH 1.5. PMID:18401142

Niewersch, C; Koh, C N; Wintgens, T; Melin, T; Schaum, C; Cornel, P

2008-01-01

366

Phosphorus geochemistry of equatorial Pacific sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding phosphorus (P) geochemistry and burial in oceanic sediments is important because of the role of P for modulating oceanic productivity on long timescales. We investigated P geochemistry in seven equatorial Pacific sites over the last 53 m.y., using a sequential extraction technique to elucidate sedimentary P composition and P diagenesis within the sediments. The dominant P-bearing component in these sediments is authigenic P (61-86% of total P), followed in order of relative dominance by iron-bound P (7-17%), organic P (3-12%), adsorbed P (2-9%), and detrital P (0- 1 %). Clear temporal trends in P component composition exist. Organic P decreases rapidly in younger sediments in the eastern Pacific (the only sites with high sample resolution in the younger intervals), from a mean concentration of 2.3 ?mol P/g sediment in the 0-1 Ma interval to 0.4 ?mol/g in the 5- 6 Ma interval. Over this same time interval, decreases are also observed for iron-bound P (from 2.1 to 1.1 ?mol P/g) and adsorbed P (from 1.5 to 0.7 ?mol P/g). These decreases are in contrast to increases in authigenic P (from 6.0-9.6 ?mol P/g) and no significant changes in detrital P (0.1 ?mol P/g) and total P (12 ?mol P/g). These temporal trends in P geochemistry suggest that (1) organic matter, the principal shuttle of P to the seafloor, is regenerated in sediments and releases associated P to interstitial waters, (2) P associated with iron-rich oxyhydroxides is released to interstitial waters upon microbial iron reduction, (3) the decrease in adsorbed P with age and depth probably indicates a similar decrease in interstitial water P concentrations, and (4) carbonate fluorapatite (CFA), or another authigenic P-bearing phase, precipitates due to the release of P from organic matter and iron oxyhydroxides and becomes an increasingly significant P sink with age and depth. The reorganization of P between various sedimentary pools, and its eventual incorporation in CFA, has been recognized in a variety of continental margin environments, but this is the first time these processes have been revealed in deep-sea sediments. Phosphorus accumulation rate data from this study and others indicates that the global pre-anthropogenic input rate of P to the ocean (20 × 10 10 mol P/yr) is about a factor of four times higher than previously thought, supporting recent suggestions that the residence time of P in the oceans may be as short as 10,000-20,000 years.

Filippelli, Gabriel M.; Delaney, Margaret Lois

1996-05-01

367

Pyromineralization of soil phosphorus in savanna ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The weathering of rock supplies phosphorus (P) to ecosystems. Phosphorus limitation of ecosystems can be severe in thicker or older soils, where soil production rates from rock and therefore release of P is slower than in thinner or younger soils. Limitation may be especially pronounced in drier ecosystems that are experiencing increasing N deposition. Our savanna field sites in Kruger National Park, South Africa meet all three of these criteria: soil residence times average 250 ky, the climate is semiarid, and N inputs average 20 kg ha-1 y-1. Not all soil P is plant-available, and because our field sites experience occasional fires, our objectives were to quantify the importance of pyromineralization of soil P, the transfer by fire of soil P from recalcitrant to labile (HCO3- extractable) pools. We quantified these soil P pools using a modified Hedley scheme (an array of chemical extractants). Three sets of soils were fractionated: 1. soils from 10 profiles along an intensively studied hillslope, bracketing a pronounced structural and functional ecotone; 2. surface soils from these 10 profiles after a simulated burn; and 3. surface soils from the Shabeni Experimental Plots, where 4 fire treatments have been maintained for decades: no fire, annual fire in the dry season, triennial fire in the dry season, and triennial fire in the wet season. Total P for hillslope soils ranged from 45 to 135 g m-2 (to 50 cm depth) and from 8 to 15 g m-2 (to 5 cm depth). Total soil P was lowest in midslope soils, where upslope sandy soils dominated by broad-leafed vegetation shift abruptly to downslope clayey soils with fine-leafed vegetation. Simulated fire for the hillslope soils reduced total P slightly, but boosted labile P by 1.7 g m-2 (to 5 cm), representing 17% of total P in the surface 5 cm. This pyromineralization effect was not uniform across the hillslope: downslope soils gained about 50% more labile P than midslope soils with simulated burning. With a fire return interval of 4 years, pyromineralization produces a flux of P into plant-available pools of +0.4 g m-2 y-1, a flux that approximates plant uptake of labile P based on foliar P. We observed the same general patterns for soils burnt triennially in the wet season. There, the difference in labile P was greatest between treatment and control plots (10 ug g-1 or 0.9 g m-2 to 5 cm depth), producing a flux of labile P of +0.3 g m-2 y-1. Soils from the other two fire treatments contained less labile P than the control plot, with the most pronounced deficit (-0.25 g m-2 to 5 cm) for the plots burnt triennially in the dry season. Infrequent, high severity fires may prevent the incorporation of biomass P into soils, eliminating the opportunity for pyromineralization of recalcitrant P. These fire-mediated transfers from recalcitrant to labile P pools are nearly 1000 times greater than our estimated flux from rock to soil of total P (0.0008 g P2O5 m-2 y-1). These patterns suggest that pyromineralization represents a significant input of labile P to these P-limited ecosystems, where low chemical weathering rates lead to intense cycling of rock-derived nutrients.

Hartshorn, A.; Coetsee, C.; Chadwick, O.

2007-12-01

368

Making Photosynthetic Biofuel Renewable: Recovering Phosphorus from Residual Biomass J. M. Gifford and P. Westerhoff  

E-print Network

Making Photosynthetic Biofuel Renewable: Recovering Phosphorus from Residual Biomass J. M. Gifford to global warming. Biofuel from phototrophic microbes like algae and bacteria provides a viable substitute improves biofuel sustainability by refining phosphorus recycling. Biomass Production Residual Biomass

Hall, Sharon J.

369

Inorganic and organic phosphorus pools in earthworm casts (Glossoscolecidae) and a Brazilian rainforest Oxisol  

E-print Network

, which included large earthworms Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38 (2006) 553­560 wwwInorganic and organic phosphorus pools in earthworm casts (Glossoscolecidae) and a Brazilian We compared differences in soil phosphorus fractions between large earthworm casts (Family

Lehmann, Johannes

370

PHOSPHORUS-DEFECT INTERACTIONS DURING THERMAL ANNEALING OF ION IMPLANTED SILICON  

E-print Network

PHOSPHORUS-DEFECT INTERACTIONS DURING THERMAL ANNEALING OF ION IMPLANTED SILICON By PATRICK HENRY for providing the CVD grown boron spike material and performing several of the phosphorus implants. I would also

Florida, University of

371

Recent Changes in Soil Total Phosphorus in the Everglades: Water Conservation Area 3  

E-print Network

Recent Changes in Soil Total Phosphorus in the Everglades: Water Conservation Area 3 Gregory L nutrient loading from drained agricul- tural lands, annual phosphorus (P) inputs to the Water Conservation

Grunwald, Sabine

372

ECOLOGICAL STUDIES AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF 'CLADOPHORA' IN LAKE HURON: 2. PHOSPHORUS UPTAKE KINETICS (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory experiments were conducted with field populations of Cladophora glomerata to examine the phosphorus uptake process. Results from 35 experiments conducted over two field seasons emphasize the importance of two factors in regulating phosphorus uptake: dissolved phosphoru...

373

Use of reactive materials to bind phosphorus.  

PubMed

Phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural soils have caused surface water quality impairment in many regions of the world, including The Netherlands. Due to the large amounts of P accumulated in Dutch soils, the generic fertilizer and manure policy will not be sufficient to reach in time the surface water quality standards of the European Water Framework Directive. Additional measures must be considered to further reduce P enrichment of surface waters. One option is to immobilize P in soils or manure or to trap P when it moves through the landscape by using reactive materials with a large capacity to retain P. We characterized and tested two byproducts of the process of purification of deep groundwater for drinking water that could be used as reactive materials: iron sludge and iron-coated sand. Both materials contain low amounts of inorganic contaminants, which also have a low (bio)availability, and bound a large amount of P. We could describe sorption of P to the iron sludge in batch experiments well with the kinetic Freundlich equation (Q = × t (m) × C(n)). Kinetics had a large influence on P sorption in batch and column experiments and should be taken into account when iron-containing materials are tested for their capability to immobilize or trap P. A negative aspect of the iron sludge is its low hydraulic conductivity; even when mixed with pure sand to a mixture containing 20% sludge, the conductivity was very low, and only 10% sludge may be needed before application is possible in filters or barriers for removing P from groundwater. Due to its much higher hydraulic conductivity, iron-coated sand has greater potential for use under field conditions. Immobilizing P could be an option for using iron sludge as a reactive material. PMID:22565245

Chardon, Wim J; Groenenberg, Jan E; Temminghoff, Erwin J M; Koopmans, Gerwin F

2012-01-01

374

Non-equilibrium grain-boundary segregation of phosphorus in an Ni–Cr steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to confirm the segregation characteristic of phosphorus in Ni–Cr steel at grain boundary, a grain boundary segregation kinetic curve of phosphorus is obtained using Auger electron spectroscopy. The results show that a peak concentration of phosphorus appears at about 60min during isothermal ageing at 600°C after quenching from 1000°C. The boundary concentration of phosphorus decreases with decreasing (increasing)

Kai Wang; Hong Si; Chun Yang; Tingdong Xu; Chong Shao; Xianmiao Chen

2011-01-01

375

Net anthropogenic phosphorus inputs: spatial and temporal variability in the Chesapeake Bay region  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimated net anthropogenic phosphorus inputs (NAPI) in the Chesapeake Bay region. NAPI is an index of phosphorus pollution\\u000a potential. NAPI was estimated by quantifying all phosphorus inputs and outputs for each county. Inputs include fertilizer\\u000a applications and non-food phosphorus uses, while trade of food and feed can be an input or an output. The average of 1987,\\u000a 1992, 1997,

Marc J. Russell; Donald E. Weller; Thomas E. Jordan; Kevin J. Sigwart; Kathryn J. Sullivan

2008-01-01

376

Phosphorus removal from secondary effluents through integrated constructed treatment system.  

PubMed

The treatment capacity of an integrated constructed treatment system (CTS) was explored which was designed to reduce phosphorus (P) from secondary effluents. The integrated CTS was combined with vertical-flow constructed wetland, floating bed and sand filter. The vertical wetland was filled from the bottom to the top with gravels, steel slag and peat. Vetiverzizanioides (L.) Nash was selected to grow in the vertical constructed wetland while Coixlacrymajobi L. was grown in floating bed. The results suggested that integrated CTS displayed excellent removal efficiency for chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved phosphorus (DP), and total phosphorus (TP). The average COD removal efficiency of the integrated CTS was 90.45% after 40 days of operation, the average DP and TP removal efficiencies of the integrated CTS were 97.43% and 96.40%, respectively. The integrated CTS has good potential in removing COD as well as P from secondary effluents. PMID:21570097

Xiong, Jibing; Qin, Yong; Mahmood, Qaisar; Liu, Hanhu; Yang, Dejun

2011-01-01

377

Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge ash through an electrodialytic process.  

PubMed

The electrodialytic separation process (ED) was applied to sewage sludge ash (SSA) aiming at phosphorus (P) recovery. As the SSA may have high heavy metals contents, their removal was also assessed. Two SSA were sampled, one immediately after incineration (SA) and the other from an open deposit (SB). Both samples were ED treated as stirred suspensions in sulphuric acid for 3, 7 and 14 days. After 14 days, phosphorus was mainly mobilized towards the anode end (approx. 60% in the SA and 70% in the SB), whereas heavy metals mainly electromigrated towards the cathode end. The anolyte presented a composition of 98% of P, mainly as orthophosphate, and 2% of heavy metals. The highest heavy metal removal was achieved for Cu (ca. 80%) and the lowest for Pb and Fe (between 4% and 6%). The ED showed to be a viable method for phosphorus recovery from SSA, as it promotes the separation of P from the heavy metals. PMID:24656469

Guedes, Paula; Couto, Nazaré; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

2014-05-01

378

Phosphorus in the Young Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A  

E-print Network

Phosphorus ($^{31}$P), which is essential for life, is thought to be synthesized in massive stars and dispersed into interstellar space when these stars explode as supernovae (SNe). Here we report on near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the young SN remnant Cassiopeia A, which show that the abundance ratio of phosphorus to the major nucleosynthetic product iron ($^{56}$Fe) in SN material is up to 100 times the average ratio of the Milky Way, confirming that phosphorus is produced in SNe. The observed range is compatible with predictions from SN nucleosynthetic models but not with the scenario in which the chemical elements in the inner SN layers are completely mixed by hydrodynamic instabilities during the explosion.

Koo, Bon-Chul; Moon, Dae-Sik; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Raymond, John C

2013-01-01

379

Phosphorus in the young supernova remnant Cassiopeia A.  

PubMed

Phosphorus ((31)P), which is essential for life, is thought to be synthesized in massive stars and dispersed into interstellar space when these stars explode as supernovae (SNe). Here, we report on near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the young SN remnant Cassiopeia A, which show that the abundance ratio of phosphorus to the major nucleosynthetic product iron ((56)Fe) in SN material is up to 100 times the average ratio of the Milky Way, confirming that phosphorus is produced in SNe. The observed range is compatible with predictions from SN nucleosynthetic models but not with the scenario in which the chemical elements in the inner SN layers are completely mixed by hydrodynamic instabilities during the explosion. PMID:24337291

Koo, Bon-Chul; Lee, Yong-Hyun; Moon, Dae-Sik; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Raymond, John C

2013-12-13

380

Phosphorus: The Noose of Sustainability and Renewability in Steelmaking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With rising ore prices and the continued demand for higher quality steels, much work has been carried out into refining and control prospects of steel chemistry. As several technologies around the world are exploring the control of phosphorus with high priority, an overview of current knowledge, ongoing research, and specific interest areas is presented. The reliance of the basic oxygen furnace steelmaking on iron ore quality is considered with regard to impurity levels, as well as the phosphorus content of direct reduced iron introduction to the electric arc furnace process. This article reviews methods to control phosphorus in steelmaking and proposes a practical approach based on laboratory-scale equilibrium experiments. The article ends by exploring energy savings in steelmaking as well as speculating on further avenues of steel production profitability.

Tayeb, Mohammed A.; Spooner, Stephen; Sridhar, Seetharaman

2014-09-01

381

Magnetic spin resonance of hydrogenic phosphorus donors in silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements of an ensemble of phosphorus donors in silicon has lead to following intriguing discoveries. Electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) at low magnetic fields (<200G) has revealed transitions involving superposition states between phosphorus electron and nuclear spins. Such states emerge because the hyperfine term overwhelm the electron Zeeman term at such low magnetic fields. A continuous control of the degree of the superposition by applied magnetic field has been demonstrated. Extremely long coherence times ˜0.6 s at 2K of electron spins bound to phosphorus and ˜3 s at 6K of ^31P nuclear spins have been obtained by pulse-EPR and ENDOR of an isotopically enriched ^28Si single crystal (99.992%). Making the Si crystal nearly monoisotopic led to elimination of docoherence due to ^29Si nuclear spins. Not only the electron spin but also phosphorus nuclear spin decoherence time was found to depend strongly on the phosphorus concentration in the range 8x10^13-4x10^15 cm-3. Unexpected observation of shifts in ^31P nuclear transition energies (ENDOR peak positions) with the change in the background silicon isotopic composition is also reported. The four nearest neighbor silicon isotopes of phosphorus are shown to affect strongly the nuclear transition energy of ^31P. Experimental results will be discussed in the context of isotope effect arising from differences in the nuclear mass and spins. This work has been performed in collaborations with S. Tojo, H. Morishita, M. Eto, L. S. Vlasenko, and groups lead by K. Semba, M. L. W. Thewalt, S. A. Lyon, J. J. L. Morton, and M. S. Brandt. Financial supports by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research #18001002, NONOQUINE, JST-DFG Strategic Cooperative Program, and Global Center of Excellence at Keio University are greatly appreciated.

Itoh, Kohei

2010-03-01

382

Degradation Mechanisms of SOFC Anodes in Coal Gas Containing Phosphorus  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of phosphorus in synthetic coal gas with the nickel-based anode of solid oxide fuel cells has been investigated. Tests with both anode-supported and electrolyte-supported button cells were performed at 700 to 800oC in synthetic coal gas containing 0.5 to 10 ppm phosphorus, introduced as phosphine. Two primary modes of degradation were observed. The most obvious was the formation of a series of bulk nickel phosphide phases, of which Ni3P, Ni5P2, Ni12P5 and Ni2P were identified. Phosphorus was essentially completely captured by the anode, forming a sharp boundary between converted and unconverted anode portions. These products partially coalesced into large grains, which eventually affected electronic percolation through the anode support. Thermodynamic calculations predict that formation of the first binary nickel phosphide phase is possible at sub-parts per billion concentrations in coal gas at temperatures relevant to fuel cell operation. A second mode of degradation is attributed to surface diffusion of phosphorus to the active anode/electrolyte interface to form an adsorption layer. Direct evidence for the presence of such an adsorption layer on nickel was obtained by surface spectroscopies on fracture surfaces. Further, cell performance losses were observed well before the entire anode was converted to bulk nickel phosphide. Impedance spectroscopy revealed that these losses were primarily due to growth in electrodic resistance, whereas large ohmic increases were visible when the entire anode was converted to nickel phosphide phases. The rate of resistance growth for anode-supported cells showed a very low dependence on phosphorus concentration, attributed to phosphorus activity control within the anode by bulk nickel phosphide products.

Marina, Olga A.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Edwards, Danny J.; Coffey, Greg W.; Pederson, Larry R.

2010-01-22

383

Phosphorus removal performance of acid mine drainage from wastewater.  

PubMed

Acid mine drainage (AMD) in Yunfu iron sulfide mine contain Fe(2+), Fe(3+), and Al(3+) up to 8000, 1700 and 1200 mg/L, respectively. Phosphorus removal from synthetic wastewater with 10mg/L of total phosphorus (TP) concentration and second municipal effluent with 3.5-4.0mg/L of TP concentration were conducted with the AMD by jar tests. Dosage of the AMD and initial pH of water are the two most important parameters affecting the performance of phosphorus removal of the AMD. The optimal phosphorus removal efficiency and residual iron ions (TFe) concentration are 97.0% and 3.0mg/L, respectively, at 1.61 Fe/P molar ratio and pH 8.03 for synthetic wastewater, and 92.1% and 0.32 mg/L, respectively, for second municipal effluent at 1.41 Fe/P molar ratio and pH 7.3. Resultant heavy metal concentration in effluents and precipitate was very low, and the risk of resultant heavy metal contamination was very small. The phosphorus removal performance of the AMD was much similar to that of ferric sulfate (FS) and polyferric sulfate (PFS), and better than that of FeSO(4). And residual TFe concentration in treated water arising from utilization of the AMD was similar to that of FeSO(4), and higher than that of FS and PFS. The AMD could be used as coagulant for phosphorus removal from wastewater directly due to the presence of Fe(2+), Fe(3+), and Al(3+) largely. PMID:21514994

Ruihua, Li; Lin, Zhu; Tao, Tao; Bo, Liu

2011-06-15

384

Climate change effects on runoff, catchment phosphorus loading and lake ecological state, and potential adaptations.  

PubMed

Climate change may have profound effects on phosphorus (P) transport in streams and on lake eutrophication. Phosphorus loading from land to streams is expected to increase in northern temperate coastal regions due to higher winter rainfall and to a decline in warm temperate and arid climates. Model results suggest a 3.3 to 16.5% increase within the next 100 yr in the P loading of Danish streams depending on soil type and region. In lakes, higher eutrophication can be expected, reinforced by temperature-mediated higher P release from the sediment. Furthermore, a shift in fish community structure toward small and abundant plankti-benthivorous fish enhances predator control of zooplankton, resulting in higher phytoplankton biomass. Data from Danish lakes indicate increased chlorophyll a and phytoplankton biomass, higher dominance of dinophytes and cyanobacteria (most notably of nitrogen fixing forms), but lower abundance of diatoms and chrysophytes, reduced size of copepods and cladocerans, and a tendency to reduced zooplankton biomass and zooplankton:phytoplankton biomass ratio when lakes warm. Higher P concentrations are also seen in warm arid lakes despite reduced external loading due to increased evapotranspiration and reduced inflow. Therefore, the critical loading for good ecological state in lakes has to be lowered in a future warmer climate. This calls for adaptation measures, which in the northern temperate zone should include improved P cycling in agriculture, reduced loading from point sources, and (re)-establishment of wetlands and riparian buffer zones. In the arid Southern Europe, restrictions on human use of water are also needed, not least on irrigation. PMID:19704137

Jeppesen, Erik; Kronvang, Brian; Meerhoff, Mariana; Søndergaard, Martin; Hansen, Kristina M; Andersen, Hans E; Lauridsen, Torben L; Liboriussen, Lone; Beklioglu, Meryem; Ozen, Arda; Olesen, Jørgen E

2009-01-01

385

[Study on the nitrogen and phosphorus uptake ability of four plants cultivated on floating-bed].  

PubMed

Plant floating-bed tested engineering was constructed for eutrophication control in Dian-shan Lake, the characteristics and nutrient uptake abilities of Canna indica, Iris pseudacorus, Thalia dealbata and Lythrum salicaria were compared. It shows that using upper and lower nylon nets to fix the plants on the floating-bed is beneficial for them to grow and reproduce rapidly. Survival rates of Canna indica, lris pseudacorus, Thalia dealbata and Lythrum salicaria are 83.33%, 83.33%, 76.67% and 53.33% respectively. Ramets of Canna indica and Thalia dealbata are 64 and 78 respectively in November, and the biomass (fresh weight) of these two plants are 32.0 and 38.6 kg per individual plant. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) content in stems/leaves of Canna indica and Thalia dealbata are greater than those in roots. The ratio between stems/leaves and roots of N, P content in Canna indica are 1.40 and 1.21 respectively, while 1.59 and 1.08 in Thalia dealbata. The difference of cumulative N, P content in plants is mostly on account of different plant biomass. N uptake ability of Thalia dealbata is the highest, which is 457.11 g per square; Canna indica has the highest P uptake ability, which is 41.29 g per square. N, P uptake ability of stems/leaves in Canna indica are 2.17 and 1.86 times higher than that of roots, while 1.73 and 1.17 times higher respectively in Thalia dealbata. Thus, Canna indica and Thalia dealbata are recommended as the floating-bed plants to control the eutrophication in Dian-shan Lake. PMID:21717738

Wu, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Min; Wu, Jian; Jiang, Yue; Sun, Cong-Jun; Cao, Yong

2011-04-01

386

Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Phosphorus Considerations - Module 19, Objectives, and Script.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The treatment of wastewater phosphorus via land application includes both chemical and biological mechanisms. Chemically, phosphorus reacts with iron, aluminum, and calcium compounds in the soil providing efficient removal over a wide range of pH values. Phosphorus is also absorbed by rooted plants which, upon harvest, constitute a further removal…

Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

387

Technology for recovery of phosphorus from animal wastewater through calcium phosphate precipitation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A wastewater treatment process was developed for removal of phosphorus from livestock wastewater. The phosphorus is recovered as calcium phosphate with addition of only small quantities of liquid lime. The process is based on the distinct chemical equilibrium between phosphorus and calcium ions when...

388

Nonequilibrium Grain Boundary Segregation of Phosphorus in Ni-Cr-Fe Superalloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In virtue of Auger electron spectroscopy, the grain boundary concentrations of phosphorus in Ni-Cr-Fe superalloy are measured after solution treatment at 1180 °C for 45 min. The results show that a peak of phosphorus concentration occurs at about 180 min during isothermal ageing at 500 °C, and a maximum concentration of phosphorus appears also at about 500 °C for all

Kai WANG; Hong SI; Chun YANG; Ting-dong XU

2011-01-01

389

PREDICTING CONCENTRATION OF TOTAL PHOSPHORUS AND CHLOROPHYLL 'A' IN A LAKE WITH SHORT HYDRAULIC RESIDENCE TIME  

EPA Science Inventory

The relationship between total phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentration was determined for Skinner Lake, Indiana over an annual cycle in 1978-79. Total nitrogen: total phosphorus ratios in the epilimnion ranged from 19 to 220 suggesting a phosphorus-dependent algal yield in the...

390

Increased plant growth from nitrogen addition should conserve phosphorus in terrestrial ecosystems  

E-print Network

processes. nitrogen cycle nitrogen inputs phosphorus cycle phosphorus retention Human activities have causedIncreased plant growth from nitrogen addition should conserve phosphorus in terrestrial ecosystems, 2007) Inputs of available nitrogen (N) to ecosystems have grown over the recent past. There is limited

391

A Phosphorus Budget, Model, and Load Reduction Strategy For Lake Champlain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phosphorus budget and mass balance model were developed for Lake Champlain in order to identify load reductions necessary to attain interim in-lake total phosphorus concentration criteria established in a water quality agreement between New York, Quebec, and Vermont Total phosphorus loadings were measured from 31 tributaries, 88 wastewater discharges, and direct precipitation. Mean annual tributary loadings were estimated using

Eric Smeltzer; Scott Quinn

1996-01-01

392

Using extension phosphorus uptake research to improve Idaho's nutrient management planning program  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Irrigated silage corn is the main crop used for phosphorus removal; however little is known about the actual amounts of phosphorus removed under southern Idaho growing conditions. The purpose of this study was to survey phosphorus removal by irrigated corn grown for silage in southern Idaho under va...

393

A Phosphorus-Bromine Flame Retardant for Engineering Thermoplastics—A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brominated phosphate was evaluated as a flame retardant in a polycarbonate and various polycarbonate blends. This flame retardant was found to be significantly more effective than an all-bromine and an all- phosphorus flame retardant, and bromine-phosphorus synergy was demon strated. The synergy is more pronounced when both the bromine and phosphorus are in the same molecule. The brominated phosphate

Joseph Green

1994-01-01

394

Assessing Nonpoint Phosphorus Control in the LaPlatte River Watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus loading from agricultural activities such as manure and fertilizer applications often contributes to eutrophication of surface waters. The primary goal of the LaPlatte River Watershed Project in northwestern Vermont was to reduce phosphorus loading from farmland through implementation of best management practices (BMPs). Eleven years of monitoring did not show a dramatic decrease in phosphorus concentration or load from

Donald W. Meals

1993-01-01

395

Author's personal copy Field flume reveals aquatic vegetation's role in sediment and particulate phosphorus  

E-print Network

phosphorus transport in a shallow aquatic ecosystem Judson W. Harvey , Gregory B. Noe, Laurel G. Larsen Available online 7 April 2010 Keywords: Hydroecology Sediment transport Floc Wetland Everglades Phosphorus sediment was enriched in phosphorus (by approximately twenty times) compared with bulk sediment on the bed

396

Project EARTH-11-TM1: Volcanoes and the global atmospheric phosphorus cycle  

E-print Network

Project EARTH-11-TM1: Volcanoes and the global atmospheric phosphorus cycle Supervisors: Dr Tamsin Mather and Prof. David Pyle Phosphorus is an important nutrient for terrestrial and ocean ecosystems, rivalling carbon and nitrogen in importance. Atmospheric total phosphorus (TP) is mainly transported

Henderson, Gideon

397

Africa Phosphorus in Manure Production Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1  

E-print Network

Africa Phosphorus in Manure Production Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Amount of phosphorus://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/data/collection/fertilizer-and-manure 0 500 Kilometers Kg/ha of Phosphorus Manure produced per grid cell: 0 0.1 -2 2.1 -5 5.1 -10 10

Columbia University

398

Author's personal copy Roles of sorption and tube-dwelling benthos in the cycling of phosphorus  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Roles of sorption and tube-dwelling benthos in the cycling of phosphorus Climate change Continental shelves Phosphorus cycle a b s t r a c t Adsorption of dissolved phosphate onto iron-hydroxides has been shown to be one of the primary regulators of phosphorus cycling in sediments

Shull, David H.

399

Planktonic phosphorus pool sizes and cycling efficiency in coastal and interior British Columbia lakes  

E-print Network

Planktonic phosphorus pool sizes and cycling efficiency in coastal and interior British Columbia long acknowledged the importance of phosphorus (P) in determining the organism biomass and productivity of precise measurements of the dissolved inorganic phosphorus (PO3Ã? 4 ) and (2) accurate or complete

Mazumder, Asit

400

Effect of phosphorus impurity on tricalcium silicate T1: from synthesis to structural characterization  

E-print Network

Effect of phosphorus impurity on tricalcium silicate T1: from synthesis to structural the effect of phosphorus on C3S and its consequences on reactivity with water. This paper deals-microprobe analysis (EMPA). The appearance of a phase rich in phosphorus is shown. It displays a structure derivative

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

401

The LPB1 Gene Is Important for Acclimation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to Phosphorus  

E-print Network

The LPB1 Gene Is Important for Acclimation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to Phosphorus and Sulfur of these responses are specific for phosphorus limitation, including responses that enable cells to efficiently than wild- type cells during phosphorus limitation. The responses of this mutant to nitrogen limitation

Wykoff, Dennis D.

402

Effects of phosphorus implantation and subsequent growth on diamond Euo Sik Choa,*, Cheon An Leea  

E-print Network

Effects of phosphorus implantation and subsequent growth on diamond Euo Sik Choa,*, Cheon An Leea of diamond, phosphorus implantation was done during the growth of diamond films. The diamond films implanted with phosphorus were subsequently grown again by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD). Fabricated

Lee, Jong Duk

403

Phytate phosphorus utilization in the growing pig A. POINTILLART, Marie-Elise JAY, Nicole FONTAINE  

E-print Network

Phytate phosphorus utilization in the growing pig A. POINTILLART, Marie-Elise JAY, Nicole FONTAINE LN.R.A., Station de Recherche.; de Nutrition, 78350 Jouy-en-Josns At least 2/3 of the phosphorus consumed by the pig are phytates. To analyse the interrelationships between phytate phosphorus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

404

Properties of phosphorus compounds by density functional theory: CH3P species as a test case  

E-print Network

Properties of phosphorus compounds by density functional theory: CH3P species as a test case Minh and energetic properties of low-coordinated phosphorus compounds is reported. While DFT methods include both assessment and in connection with our continuing theoretical study of low- coordinated phosphorus compounds

Nguyen, Minh Tho

405

Carbon and phosphorus relations in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal pine seedlings  

E-print Network

Carbon and phosphorus relations in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal pine seedlings J.V.D. Rousseau C physiological and developmental responses to mycorrhizal fungus inocula- tion and applied phosphorus were exam- ined to determine which responses were similar to enhanced phosphorus nutrition and which were more

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

406

Phosphorus removal from municipal wastewater in an experimental two-stage vertical flow constructed wetland  

E-print Network

Phosphorus removal from municipal wastewater in an experimental two-stage vertical flow constructed may be used in separate, exchangeable filter units in constructed wetland systems to remove phosphorus-units to study phosphorus removal. The hydraulic loading rate varied between 1.7 and 6.2 m3/d. The residence time

Brix, Hans

407

An evaluation of methods for the determination of total phosphorus in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of total soil phosphorus from 16 contrasting soils by nitric-hydrofluoric acid decomposition, perchloric acid digestion, and sodium carbonate fusion was compared. The phosphorus released was determined by colorimetric methods, and the values by each procedure were compared with the Lorenz gravimetric method.Pcrchloric acid did not complctcly release the phosphorus from many of the soils even after prolonged digestion.

C. G. Sherrell; W. M. H. Saunders

1966-01-01

408

A simple route for the preparation of red phosphorus microcapsule with fine particle distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melamine-formaldehyde resin microencapsulated red phosphorus was successfully prepared for the first time using montmorillonite as a stabilizer. The microencapsulated red phosphorus was characterized with FTIR, XPS and SEM. Meanwhile, its water absorption, ignition point and particle size distribution were also determined. Particle size analysis showed that montmorillonite could function as an effective stabilizer during the microencapsulation process of red phosphorus,

Haitao Wang; Xiangfu Meng; Bin Wen; Xiaowei Gao; Shimin Zhang; Mingshu Yang

2008-01-01

409

Assessing the Health Impact of Phosphorus in the Food Supply: Issues and Considerations123  

PubMed Central

The Western dietary pattern of intake common to many Americans is high in fat, refined carbohydrates, sodium, and phosphorus, all of which are associated with processed food consumption and higher risk of life-threatening chronic diseases. In this review, we focus on the available information on current phosphorus intake with this Western dietary pattern, and new knowledge of how the disruption of phosphorus homeostasis can occur when intake of phosphorus far exceeds nutrient needs and calcium intake is limited. Elevation of extracellular phosphorus, even when phosphorus intake is seemingly modest, but excessive relative to need and calcium intake, may disrupt the endocrine regulation of phosphorus balance in healthy individuals, as it is known to do in renal disease. This elevation in serum phosphate, whether episodic or chronically sustained, may trigger the secretion of regulatory hormones, whose actions can damage tissue, leading to the development of cardiovascular disease, renal impairment, and bone loss. Therefore, we assessed the health impact of excess phosphorus intake in the context of specific issues that reflect changes over time in the U.S. food supply and patterns of intake. Important issues include food processing and food preferences, the need to evaluate phosphorus intake in relation to calcium intake and phosphorus bioavailability, the accuracy of various approaches used to assess phosphorus intake, and the difficulties encountered in evaluating the relations of phosphorus intake to chronic disease markers or incident disease. PMID:24425729

Calvo, Mona S.; Moshfegh, Alanna J.; Tucker, Katherine L.

2014-01-01

410

Effect of microflora and lactose on the absorption of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium  

E-print Network

Effect of microflora and lactose on the absorption of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, magnesium and phosphorus was determined in the ileum, caecum, large intestine and faeces by the mineral/Tio2 and magnesium but did have an unfavorable influence on phosphorus absorption. Lactose increased calcium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

411

Early metal bis(phosphorus-stabilised)carbene chemistry.  

PubMed

Since the discovery of covalently-bound mid- and late-transition metal carbenes there has been a spectacular explosion of interest in their chemistry, but their early metal counterparts have lagged behind. In recent years, bis(phosphorus-stabilised)carbenes have emerged as valuable ligands for metals across the periodic table, and their use has in particular greatly expanded covalently-bound early metal carbene chemistry. In this tutorial review we introduce the reader to bis(phosphorus-stabilised)carbenes, and cover general preparative methods, structure and bonding features, and emerging reactivity studies of early metal derivatives (groups 1-4 and the f-elements). PMID:21321726

Liddle, Stephen T; Mills, David P; Wooles, Ashley J

2011-05-01

412

Auger parameter measurements of phosphorus compounds for characterization of phosphazenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents x-ray generated photoelectron and Auger transition data for several phosphorus reference compounds, including PClâ, PâNâ, PâOâ, (CâHâ)âP(CâHâ), (CâHâ)âPBr, KHâPOâ (KDP), NHâHâPOâ (ADP), and NHâPFâ. This data has been used to determine the relative ionicity and polarizability of phosphorus in the chlorophosphazene trimer ((NPClâ)â) and polymer ((NPClâ)\\/sub n\\/). The results support recent molecular orbital calculations that predict a

L. S. Dake; D. R. Baer; D. M. Friedrich

1988-01-01

413

Fire-resistant phosphorus containing polyimides and copolyimides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phosphorus-containing polyimides and copolyimides are synthesized in a two-step polycondensation reaction from 1- (diorganooxyphosphonl)methly 2,4- and 2,6-diaminobenzenes and tetracarboxylic anhydride. The diorgano position of the diorganooxyphosphonyl group includes alkyl, such as ethyl, substituted alkyl, such as 2-chloroethyl, and aryl such as phenyl. The tetracarboxylic anhydries include compounds such as pyrometallitic dianhydride and benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polyimides is reduced by incorporation of the (dialkoxyphosphonyl)methyl groups. The phosphorus-containing copolyimides show a considerably higher degree of fire-resistance as compared to that of the corresponding common polyimides.

Mikroyannidis, J. A. (inventor)

1985-01-01

414

Intruder Configurations in the A=33 Isobars: {sup 33}Mg and {sup 33}Al  

SciTech Connect

The {beta} decay of {sup 33}Mg (N=21) presented in this Letter reveals intruder configurations in both the parent and the daughter nucleus. The lowest excited states in the N=20 daughter nucleus, {sup 33}Al, are found to have nearly 2p-2h intruder configuration, thus extending the 'island of inversion' beyond Mg. The allowed direct {beta}-decay branch to the 5/2{sup +} ground state of the daughter nucleus {sup 33}Al implies positive parity for the ground state of the parent {sup 33}Mg, contrary to an earlier suggestion of negative parity from a g-factor measurement. An admixture of 1p-1h and 3p-3h configurations is proposed for the ground state of {sup 33}Mg to explain all of the experimental observables.

Tripathi, Vandana; Tabor, S. L.; Bender, P.; Hoffman, C. R.; Lee, Sangjin; Perry, M.; Pepper, K.; Volya, A. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States); Mantica, P. F. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Utsuno, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Cook, J.; Pereira, J.; Weisshaar, D. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Otsuka, T. [Department of Physics and Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); RIKEN, Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Pinter, J. S.; Stoker, J. [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

2008-10-03

415

Removal of phosphorus from livestock effluents.  

PubMed

For removal of phosphorus (P) from swine liquid manure before land application, we developed a treatment process that produces low P effluents and a valuable P by-product with minimal chemical addition and ammonia losses. The new wastewater process included two sequential steps: (i) biological nitrification and (ii) increasing the pH of the nitrified wastewater to precipitate P. We hypothesized that by reduction of inorganic buffers (NH(4)(+) and carbonate alkalinity) via nitrification, P could be selectively removed by subsequent hydrated lime [Ca(OH)(2)] addition. The objective of the study was to assess if this new treatment could consistently reduce inorganic buffer capacity with varied initial concentrations of N (100-723 mg NH(4)(+) L(-1)), P (26-85 mg TP L(-1)), and alkalinity (953-3063 mg CaCO(3) L(-1)), and then efficiently remove P from swine lagoon liquid. The process was tested with surface lagoon liquids from 10 typical swine farms in North Carolina. Each lagoon liquid received treatment in a nitrification bioreactor, followed by chemical treatment with Ca(OH)(2) at Ca rates of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 mmol L(-1) to precipitate P. This configuration was compared with a control that received the same Ca rates but without the nitrification pretreatment. The new process significantly reduced >90% the inorganic buffers concentrations compared with the control and prevented ammonia losses. Subsequent lime addition resulted in efficient pH increase to > or = 9.5 for optimum P precipitation in the nitrified liquid and significant reduction of effluent total P concentration versus the control. With this new process, the total P concentration in treated liquid effluent can be adjusted for on-farm use with up to >90% of P removal. The recovered solid Ca phosphate material can be easily exported from the farm and reused as P fertilizer. Therefore, the new process can be used to reduce the P content in livestock effluents to levels that would diminish problems of excess P accumulation in waste-amended soils. PMID:19202028

Szogi, Ariel A; Vanotti, Matias B

2009-01-01

416

Phosphorus Chemistry and Bacterial Community Composition Interact in Brackish Sediments Receiving Agricultural Discharges  

PubMed Central

Background External nutrient discharges have caused eutrophication in many estuaries and coastal seas such as the Baltic Sea. The sedimented nutrients can affect bacterial communities which, in turn, are widely believed to contribute to release of nutrients such as phosphorus from the sediment. Methods We investigated relationships between bacterial communities and chemical forms of phosphorus as well as elements involved in its cycling in brackish sediments using up-to-date multivariate statistical methods. Bacterial community composition was determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and cloning of the 16S rRNA gene. Results and Conclusions The bacterial community composition differed along gradients of nutrients, especially of different phosphorus forms, from the estuary receiving agricultural phosphorus loading to the open sea. This suggests that the chemical composition of sediment phosphorus, which has been affected by riverine phosphorus loading, influenced on bacterial communities. Chemical and spatial parameters explained 25% and 11% of the variation in bacterial communities. Deltaproteobacteria, presumptively sulphate and sulphur/iron reducing, were strongly associated to chemical parameters, also when spatial autocorrelation was taken into account. Sulphate reducers correlated positively with labile organic phosphorus and total nitrogen in the open sea sediments. Sulphur/iron reducers and sulphate reducers linked to iron reduction correlated positively with aluminium- and iron-bound phosphorus, and total iron in the estuary. The sulphate and sulphur/iron reducing bacteria can thus have an important role both in the mineralization and mobilization of nutrients from sediment. Significance Novelty in our study is that relationships between bacterial community composition and different phosphorus forms, instead of total phosphorus, were investigated. Total phosphorus does not necessarily bring out interactions between bacteria and phosphorus chemistry since proportions of easily usable mobile (reactive) phosphorus and immobile phosphorus forms in different sediments can vary. Our study suggested possible feedbacks between different forms of phosphorus and bacterial community composition. PMID:21747910

Sinkko, Hanna; Sihvonen, Leila M.; Sivonen, Kaarina; Leivuori, Mirja; Rantanen, Matias; Paulin, Lars; Lyra, Christina

2011-01-01

417

Nuclear Resonance Spectroscopy in PHOSPHORUS-30  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reactions ^{29}Si(p, gamma)^{30} P, ^{29}Si(p,p _{1}gamma) ^{29}Si, and ^{29 }Si(p,p_{2}gamma )^{29}Si were measured over the energy range E_{rm p } = 2.00-3.33 MeV with an overall energy resolution of <=q400 eV. The motivation for these measurements was provided by results for the N = Z, odd-odd nucleus ^{26}Al. There the fluctuation properties were partially chaotic for all energies and appeared to be independent of isospin. Study of the nucleus ^{30}P should provide additional experimental data to confirm these results. As a first step towards determining the complete spectroscopy of ^{30} P, the gamma-ray yields from the capture and inelastic scattering reactions were measured. These measurements identify 14 resonances which had not been observed previously in any reaction. When combined with capture data from lower energies, a total of 24 resonances were identified in the energy range E_{ rm p} = 0.95-3.33 MeV which had not been observed in charged particle scattering data. A careful high resolution study of the ^{29} Si(p,p)^{29}Si reaction was performed for these 24 resonances. Available spectroscopic information for ^{30 }P levels in the resonance region was compiled and evaluated, and this information was used to identify analogs of the parent states in ^{30 }Si. This information was combined with previous experimental results to provide the most complete level scheme possible for the energy range E_ {rm x} = 0.0-8.8 MeV in ^{30}P. At present there are some 156 levels identified in ^{30} P.

Frankle, Stephanie Cate

1991-02-01

418

Potential role of inorganic polyphosphate in the cycling of phosphorus within the hypoxic water column of Effingham Inlet, British Columbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upper basin of Effingham Inlet possesses permanently anoxic bottom waters, with a water column redox transition zone typically occurring at least 40 m above the sediment-water interface. During our sampling campaign in April and July 2007, this redox transition zone was associated with sharp peaks in a variety of parameters, including soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total particulate phosphorus (TPP). Based on sequential extraction results, TPP maxima exhibited preferential accumulation of an operationally defined class of loosely adsorbed organic phosphorus (P), which may contain a substantial fraction of polyphosphate (poly-P). This poly-P may furthermore be involved in the redox-dependent remobilization of SRP. For example, direct fluorometric analysis of poly-P content revealed that particulate inorganic poly-P was present at concentrations ranging from 1 to 9 nM P within and several meters above the TPP maximum. Below the depth of 1% oxygen saturation, however, particulate inorganic poly-P was undetectable (<0.8 nM in situ). Assuming this concentration profile reflects the remineralization of inorganic poly-P to SRP across the redox transition, inorganic poly-P degradation accounted for as much as 4 ± 3% (average ± standard deviation) to 9 ± 8% of the vertical turbulent diffusive SRP flux. This finding is a conservative estimate due in part to sample storage effects associated with our analysis of poly-P content. By comparison, iron-linked P cycling accounted for at most 65 ± 33% of the diffusive SRP flux, leaving ˜25% unaccounted for. Thus, while redox-sensitive poly-P remineralization in Effingham Inlet appears modest based on our direct conservative estimate, it may be higher from a mass balance viewpoint. Poly-P cycling may therefore be an overlooked mechanism for the redox-sensitive cycling of P in some hypoxic/anoxic boundaries, especially iron-poor marine oxygen minimum zones.

Diaz, Julia M.; Ingall, Ellery D.; Snow, Samuel D.; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R.; Taillefert, Martial; Brandes, Jay A.

2012-06-01

419

Synthesis, structure and reactivity of rare-earth metal complexes containing anionic phosphorus ligands.  

PubMed

A comprehensive review of structurally characterized rare-earth metal complexes containing anionic phosphorus ligands is presented. Since rare-earth elements form hard ions and phosphorus is considered as a soft ligand, the rare-earth metal phosphorus coordination is regarded as a less favorite combination. Three classes of phosphorus ligands, (1) the monoanionic organophosphide ligands (PR2(-)) bearing one negative charge on the phosphorus atom; (2) the dianionic phosphinidene (PR(2-)) and P(3-) ligands; and (3) the pure inorganic polyphosphide ligands (Pn(x-)), are included here. Particular attention has been paid to the synthesis, structure, and reactivity of the rare-earth metal phosphides. PMID:23945727

Li, Tianshu; Kaercher, Sabrina; Roesky, Peter W

2014-01-01

420

Classical syndromes in occupational medicine: phosphorus necrosis--a classical occupational disease  

SciTech Connect

A disease nearly extinct in occupational health history is phosphorus necrosis, previously seen in near-epidemic proportions among workers making phosphorus-containing matches. Similar destructive lesions were encountered early in the 20th century among personnel fabricating fireworks. Through the diligent efforts of an economist and a supportive congressman, legislation was passed in 1912 placing a tax on phosphorus matches, and because of the fiscal burden resulting, a nontoxic substitute for elemental phosphorus was adopted by all manufacturers. Today phosphorus necrosis is extremely rare, but the former presence of the disease points up both apathy and courage in the identification and eradication of a remarkably disfiguring work-caused disease.

Felton, J.S.

1982-01-01

421

6 CFR 37.33 - DMV databases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false DMV databases. 37.33 Section 37.33 Domestic... Other Requirements § 37.33 DMV databases. (a) States must maintain a State motor vehicle database that contains, at a minimum—...

2013-01-01

422

6 CFR 37.33 - DMV databases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false DMV databases. 37.33 Section 37.33 Domestic... Other Requirements § 37.33 DMV databases. (a) States must maintain a State motor vehicle database that contains, at a minimum—...

2012-01-01

423

6 CFR 37.33 - DMV databases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false DMV databases. 37.33 Section 37.33 Domestic... Other Requirements § 37.33 DMV databases. (a) States must maintain a State motor vehicle database that contains, at a minimum—...

2011-01-01

424

6 CFR 37.33 - DMV databases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false DMV databases. 37.33 Section 37.33 Domestic... Other Requirements § 37.33 DMV databases. (a) States must maintain a State motor vehicle database that contains, at a minimum—...

2014-01-01

425

6 CFR 37.33 - DMV databases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false DMV databases. 37.33 Section 37.33 Domestic... Other Requirements § 37.33 DMV databases. (a) States must maintain a State motor vehicle database that contains, at a minimum—...

2010-01-01

426

40 CFR 160.33 - Study director.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Study director. 160.33 Section 160.33 Protection...STANDARDS Organization and Personnel § 160.33 Study director. For each study, a scientist or other professional of...

2010-07-01

427

40 CFR 160.33 - Study director.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Study director. 160.33 Section 160.33 Protection...STANDARDS Organization and Personnel § 160.33 Study director. For each study, a scientist or other professional of...

2011-07-01

428

21 CFR 58.33 - Study director.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Study director. 58.33 Section 58.33 Food...LABORATORY PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Organization and Personnel § 58.33 Study director. For each nonclinical...

2010-04-01

429

21 CFR 58.33 - Study director.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Study director. 58.33 Section 58.33 Food...LABORATORY PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Organization and Personnel § 58.33 Study director. For each nonclinical...

2011-04-01

430

40 CFR 792.33 - Study director.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Study director. 792.33 Section 792.33 Protection...STANDARDS Organization and Personnel § 792.33 Study director. For each study, a scientist or other professional of...

2011-07-01

431

28 CFR 544.33 - Movies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Movies. 544.33 Section 544.33 Judicial Administration... Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.33 Movies. If there is a program to show movies, the Supervisor of Education shall ensure...

2011-07-01

432

28 CFR 544.33 - Movies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Movies. 544.33 Section 544.33 Judicial Administration... Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.33 Movies. If there is a program to show movies, the Supervisor of Education shall ensure...

2010-07-01

433

28 CFR 544.33 - Movies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Movies. 544.33 Section 544.33 Judicial Administration... Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.33 Movies. If there is a program to show movies, the Supervisor of Education shall ensure...

2013-07-01

434

28 CFR 544.33 - Movies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Movies. 544.33 Section 544.33 Judicial Administration... Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.33 Movies. If there is a program to show movies, the Supervisor of Education shall ensure...

2014-07-01

435

28 CFR 544.33 - Movies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Movies. 544.33 Section 544.33 Judicial Administration... Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.33 Movies. If there is a program to show movies, the Supervisor of Education shall ensure...

2012-07-01

436

50 CFR 27.33 - Water skiing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water skiing. 27.33 Section 27.33 Wildlife and Fisheries...Disturbing Violations: With Vehicles § 27.33 Water skiing. When water skiing is permitted upon national wildlife...

2010-10-01

437

28 CFR 115.33 - Inmate education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Inmate education. 115.33 Section 115.33 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Training and Education § 115.33 Inmate...

2013-07-01

438

7 CFR 550.33 - Administrative supervision.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Administrative supervision. 550.33 Section 550.33 Agriculture...Management § 550.33 Administrative supervision. REE employees are prohibited...solely responsible for the administrative supervision of its...

2010-01-01

439

7 CFR 550.33 - Administrative supervision.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Administrative supervision. 550.33 Section 550.33 Agriculture...Management § 550.33 Administrative supervision. REE employees are prohibited...solely responsible for the administrative supervision of its...

2011-01-01

440

31 CFR 8.33 - Accuracy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accuracy. 8.33 Section 8.33 Money and Finance: Treasury... Duties and Restrictions Relating to Practice § 8.33 Accuracy. Each attorney, certified public accountant, and...

2011-07-01

441

31 CFR 8.33 - Accuracy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accuracy. 8.33 Section 8.33 Money and Finance: Treasury... Duties and Restrictions Relating to Practice § 8.33 Accuracy. Each attorney, certified public accountant, and...

2012-07-01

442

31 CFR 8.33 - Accuracy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accuracy. 8.33 Section 8.33 Money and Finance: Treasury... Duties and Restrictions Relating to Practice § 8.33 Accuracy. Each attorney, certified public accountant, and...

2014-07-01

443

31 CFR 8.33 - Accuracy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accuracy. 8.33 Section 8.33 Money and Finance: Treasury... Duties and Restrictions Relating to Practice § 8.33 Accuracy. Each attorney, certified public accountant, and...

2013-07-01

444

31 CFR 8.33 - Accuracy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accuracy. 8.33 Section 8.33 Money and Finance: Treasury... Duties and Restrictions Relating to Practice § 8.33 Accuracy. Each attorney, certified public accountant, and...

2010-07-01

445

22 CFR 192.33 - Dispute.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Dispute. 192.33 Section 192.33 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Medical Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.33 Dispute. Any dispute between the Office and...

2014-04-01

446

14 CFR 33.37 - Ignition system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ignition system. 33.37 Section 33.37 Aeronautics...Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.37 Ignition system. Each spark ignition engine must have a dual ignition system...

2010-01-01

447

14 CFR 33.69 - Ignitions system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ignitions system. 33.69 Section 33.69...Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.69 Ignitions system. Each engine must be equipped with an ignition system for starting the engine on...

2010-01-01

448

25 CFR 163.33 - Administrative appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 163.33 Section 163.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.33 Administrative appeals. Any challenge to action...

2014-04-01

449

25 CFR 163.33 - Administrative appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 163.33 Section 163.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.33 Administrative appeals. Any challenge to action...

2010-04-01

450

25 CFR 163.33 - Administrative appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 163.33 Section 163.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.33 Administrative appeals. Any challenge to action...

2012-04-01

451

25 CFR 163.33 - Administrative appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 163.33 Section 163.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.33 Administrative appeals. Any challenge to action...

2013-04-01

452

25 CFR 163.33 - Administrative appeals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 163.33 Section 163.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.33 Administrative appeals. Any challenge to action...

2011-04-01

453

Sensitivity analysis of the Ohio phosphorus risk index  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Phosphorus (P) Index is a widely used tool for assessing the vulnerability of agricultural fields to P loss; yet, few of the P Indices developed in the U.S. have been evaluated for their accuracy. Sensitivity analysis is one approach that can be used prior to calibration and field-scale testing ...

454

Phosphorus Scavenging in the Unicellular Marine Diazotroph Crocosphaera watsonii  

PubMed Central

Through the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen and photosynthesis, marine diazotrophs play a critical role in?the global cycling of nitrogen and carbon. Crocosphaera watsonii is a recently described unicellular diazotroph that may significantly contribute to marine nitrogen fixation in tropical environments. One of the many factors that can constrain the growth and nitrogen fixation rates of marine diazotrophs is phosphorus bioavailability. Using genomic and physiological approaches, we examined phosphorus scavenging mechanisms in strains of C. watsonii from both the Atlantic and the Pacific. Observations from the C. watsonii WH8501 genome suggest that this organism has the capacity for high-affinity phosphate transport (e.g., homologs of pstSCAB) in low-phosphate, oligotrophic systems. The pstS gene (high-affinity phosphate binding) is present in strains isolated from both the Atlantic and the Pacific, and its expression was regulated by the exogenous phosphate supply in strain WH8501. Genomic observation also indicated a broad capacity for phosphomonoester hydrolysis (e.g., a putative alkaline phosphatase). In contrast, no clear homologs of genes for phosphonate transport and hydrolysis could be identified. Consistent with these genomic observations, C. watsonii WH8501 is able to grow on phosphomonoesters as a sole source of added phosphorus but not on the phosphonates tested to date. Taken together these data suggest that C. watsonii has a robust capacity for scavenging phosphorus in oligotrophic systems, although this capacity differs from that of other marine cyanobacterial genera, such as Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus, and Trichodesmium. PMID:16461699

Dyhrman, Sonya T.; Haley, Sheean T.

2006-01-01

455

PREDICTING MANAGEMENT EFFECTS ON PHOSPHORUS LOSS FROM FARMING SYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A process-level soil phosphorus (P) model including surface and subsurface components was developed and incorporated into the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM). Preliminary evaluation indicated that the model accurately predicted soluble P losses, but under-predicted total P losses due to under-pr...

456

Validating soil phosphorus routines in the SWAT model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus transfer from agricultural soils to surface waters is an important environmental issue. Commonly used models like SWAT have not always been updated to reflect improved understanding of soil P transformations and transfer to runoff. Our objective was to validate the ability of the P routin...

457

Soil phosphorus changes impacted by potato cropping management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato crops generally require high amounts of phosphorus (P) fertilizer to reach economically acceptable yields as the low root density of potato plants makes mobilization and acquisition of phosphate a key factor in potato plant growth. In this work, we evaluated soil P changes in 10 potato fields...

458

PRODUCTION AND FEEDING STRATEGIES FOR PHOSPHORUS MANAGEMENT ON DAIRY FARMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The long-term accumulation of soil phosphorus (P) is becoming an important concern on some watersheds heavily populated with dairy farms. Management changes in crop production and feeding may be useful in reducing this accumulation of excess P, but farm profitability must be maintained or improved t...

459

Nutritive value response of forage chicory cultivars to phosphorus fertility  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) is a productive plant that appears particularly well suited to improving summer yield of pastures in the USA. Poor palatability of some chicory cultivars in locations with low soil phosphorus fertility has been linked to high levels of sesquiterpene lactones, b...

460

Response of Forage Chicory Seedlings to Available Soil Phosphorus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus fertility may be responsible for observed differences in chemical composition of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) on West Virginia and Pennsylvania soils, but P effects on chicory growth on these soils are unclear. We evaluated the effect of available soil P (ASP) on ‘Puna’, ‘Lacert...

461

Method for recovery of phosphorus from animal wastewater  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A wastewater treatment process and systems were developed to extract and concentrate phosphates from livestock wastewater. The research was conducted over a 10-year period and went from initial bench studies to pilot module development to full-scale demonstrations of the phosphorus module on swine f...

462

NUMERICAL MODELING OF PHOSPHORUS CYCLE IN A SHALLOW OXBOW LAKE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A three-dimensional model was developed for simulating the phosphorus concentration in a shallow oxbow lake. The processes of mineralization, settling, adsorption, desorption, bed release (diffusion), growth and death of phytoplankton, etc, were considered, and the concentration of organic phosphoru...

463

Using Oxygen Isotopes of Phosphate To Trace Phosphorus Sources and  

E-print Network

eutrophication. 1. Introduction Lake Erie has had a history of water quality problems, peaking in the early 1970sUsing Oxygen Isotopes of Phosphate To Trace Phosphorus Sources and Cycling in Lake Erie K A T Y E. Accepted February 26, 2009. Water samples collected during three sampling trips to Lake Erie displayed

Paytan, Adina

464

IMPACT OF EXCESSIVE AERATION ON BIOLOGICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been reported that deterioration of biological phosphorus removal (BPR) efficiency at some wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) regularly occurred after heavy rainfall or weekends. The deterioration has been attributed to low plant loading that took place during such events. However, it is hypothesized in this study that the cause of such deterioration may have been the excessive aeration that

D. BRDJANOVIC; A. SLAMET; M. C. M. VAN LOOSDRECHT; C. M. HOOIJMANS; G. J. ALAERTS; J. J. HEIJNEN

1998-01-01

465

A critical evaluation of the Kentucky phosphorus index  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Natural Resource Conservation Service (USDA-NRCS) is currently revising its 590 standard. As part of this revision, USDA-NRCS is considering requiring that states test the accuracy of their phosphorus (P) index using either measured P loss data or simulated P-los...

466

Bone calcium, phosphorus detection by Auger electron spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auger electron spectroscopy was used to detect calcium and phosphorus of cortical bone from rat femoral neck and rear tibia. Spectra were taken from bone pieces as well as from disks prepared from grinded bone material. Experimental conditions were found whereby the samples could be analyzed without conductive coatings. The results of this preliminary investigation demonstrate that Auger electron spectroscopy

Margaret Tzaphlidou; Panagiotis Berillis; Demetrios Matthopoulos

2005-01-01

467

Phosphorus interdiffusivity in alpha-Fe binary and alloy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isothermal segregation kinetics of phosphorus to Fe and Fe-based alloy surfaces have been monitored from 783 to 923 K using Auger electron spectroscopy. The P segregation kinetics are consistent with a model which assumes bulk diffusion of P to be the rate controlling mechanism in the segregation process. The activation energy and preexponential for P diffusion in Fe calculated

Gregory Luckman; Richard A. Didio; William R. Graham

1981-01-01

468

Simplified classification of hydrological terminology for phosphorus transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the importance of surface and subsurface hydrological pathways is critical to effectively manage diffuse transfers of phosphorus (P) from agricultural soils. However, limited understanding of the complexities inherent within the hydrological regime and unfamiliarity with hydrological terminology, can sometimes be a source of confusion for agronomists and soil scientists concerned with P transfer. Consistent use of terminology can help

NEIL PREEDY; PHIL HAYGARTH; RACHEL MATTHEWS; LOUISE HEATHWAITE

1999-01-01

469

Manure Phosphorus and Surface Water Protection III: Transport Factors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson addresses transport factors that may contribute to phosphorus (P) delivery to surface waters.  Erosion, runoff, subsurface flow, drainage, and distance to surface water are the main factors.  In some places, wind erosion may also be important.  The effects of management practices on P transport are discussed, and water-related P transport processes are described in detail. 

470

Phosphorus in drainage waters of the Atlantic Coastal Plain  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Atlantic Coastal Plain region has had a long history of experimental and applied efforts to exclude phosphorus (P) from drainage waters. Early research focusing upon the chemical controls of soil and sediment P has given way to field studies aimed at refining our understanding of hydrologic path...

471

THE TROPHIC STATUS AND PHOSPHORUS LOADINGS OF LAKE CHAMPLAIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Information on the trophic status of the several basins of Lake Champlain is summarized, the amounts and distribution of total phosphorus loading into the lake are evaluated, and recommendations for further study are made. The general objective is to provide basic background info...

472

Phosphorus recovery from centralised municipal water recycling plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depletion of world phosphorus reserves is driving research into options to recover and recycle this essential, non-renewable resource. Phosphate (PO43?) recovery at centralised wastewater treatment plants can be achieved through biosolids reuse or sidestream precipitation though the PO43? levels are low compared with decentralised systems based on source separation. However, the recent growth in membrane based water recycling projects, where

Zenah Bradford-Hartke; Paul Lant; Gregory Leslie

473

Phosphorus Losses from Agricultural Watersheds in the Mississippi Delta  

EPA Science Inventory

High phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields has been an environmental concern because of potential water quality problems in streams and lakes. To better understand the process of P loss, rainfall, surface runoff, sediment, ortho-P and total P (TP) were measured (1996 to 2...

474

REDUCING MANURE PHOSPHORUS SOLUBILITY WITH ALUM AND COAL COMBUSTION BYPRODUCTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Animal manures contain large amounts of soluble phosphorus (P). This P is prone to runoff losses when manure is surface applied, contributing to water quality decline and eutrophication of streams and rivers. Here we report the efficacy of alum and three coal combustion byproducts in reducing P so...

475

Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus transport by world rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The various forms (dissolved and particulate, organic and inorganic) of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in world rivers are reviewed from literature data. Natural levels are based mainly on major rivers for the subarctic and tropical zones which are still unpolluted and on smaller streams for the temperate zone. Atmospheric fallout is also reviewed. Natural contents of dissolved organic carbon (DOC)

M. Meybeck

1982-01-01

476

Investigation of benthic phosphorus flux controls in Lake Waco, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations were completed to quantify the amount of phosphorus (P) available for release from the sediment of Lake Waco, Texas, as part of the Lake Waco Comprehensive Lake Management Study. Sediment oxygen demand and benthic nutrient flux measurements were obtained using an in situ chamber and an in situ nutrient analyzer available from Systea Inc. Sediment samples were also collected

Marie E. Esten; Kenneth J. Wagner

2010-01-01

477

Managing agricultural phosphorus for water quality protection: principles for progress  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The eutrophication of aquatic systems due to diffuse pollution of agricultural phosphorus (P) is a local, even regional, water quality problem that can be found world-wide. Sustainable management of P requires prudent tempering of agronomic practices, recognizing that additional steps are often requ...

478

Sulfolipids dramatically decrease phosphorus demand by picocyanobacteria in oligotrophic  

E-print Network

deserts, are now recognized to play an important role in the global carbon cycle (1, 2). Collectively cyanobacteria genomics lipids marine phosphorus cycle The oceans' subtropical gyres, once likened to marine, these regions are responsible for as much as half of the total organic carbon export to the deep sea (3). Yet

479

A TOOL FOR ASSESSING BMP EFFECTIVENESS FOR PHOSPHORUS POLLUTION CONTROL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A Best Management Practice (BMP) assessment tool was developed as a part of an effort to address the phosphorus (P) pollution and associated eutrophication problem affecting the Cannonsville Reservoir, part of the New York City water supply system. P reaching the reservoir is thought to emanate fro...

480

Adsorption Capacity Comparison among Three Filter Media for Phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments on adsorption for phosphorus by activated carbon, zeolite and ceramisite were conducted. The results show that adsorption capacity order of three filter media from high to low is activated carbon, zeolite and ceramisite. Influential factors which affect the adsorption capacity were surveyed. According to the analysis, the first factor is that surface isoelectric point pH of activated carbon is

Junling Wang; Yajun Zhang; Cuimin Feng; Huizhen Wang; Lihua Wang

2010-01-01

481

Endocrine regulation of calcium and phosphorus concentration in camel's milk.  

E-print Network

Endocrine regulation of calcium and phosphorus concentration in camel's milk. F Riad M Ben Goumi JCIAVHassan Il, Rabat, Maroc; 31NRA, Theix, France Some qualitative aspects of the milk of the dromedary suggest that the ability to produce milk of high nutritive value for offspring or for human beings during long periods

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

482

PARALYTIC DISORDERS ASSOCIATED WITH PHOSPHORUS DEFICIENCY IN BUFFALOES  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was carried out during the month of May to August 2001 to diagnose hind limbs paralysis in buffaloes of Buner area of NWFP. Serum concentrations of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) in 40 buffaloes (29 affected and 11 normal) from six different villages were measured together with feed and soil samples analysed for different macro and micro minerals.

G. Habib; G. Jabbar; M. M. Siddiqui; Z. Shah

2004-01-01

483

Saprotrophic fungi transform organic phosphorus from spruce needle litter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal decomposition of and phosphorus transformation from spruce litter needles (Picea abies) were simulated in systems containing litter needles inoculated with individual saprotrophic fungal strains and their mixtures. Fungal strains of Setulipes androsaceus (L.) Antonín, Chalara longipes (Preus) Cooke, Ceuthospora pinastri (Fr.) Höhn., Mollisia minutella (Sacc.) Rehm, Scleroconidioma sphagnicola Tsuneda, Currah & Thormann and an unknown strain NK11 were used

Ond?ej Koukol; František Novák; Richard Hrabal; Miroslav Vosátka

2006-01-01

484

Seed Phosphorus and the development of low-phytate crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytic acid (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate or InsP6) represents 60% to 80% of mature seed total phosphorus (P), and is important to the nutritional quality of seeds when used in foods and feeds. Studies of the biochemistry of seed phytic acid synthesis indicates a complex, multibranched...

485

Phosphorus uptake into algal biofilms in a lowland chalk river  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the growth and uptake of phosphorus into algal biofilms in the River Kennet, a lowland chalk (Cretaceous-age) stream in southern England. Algal biofilms were grown on artificial plastic substrates (templates) placed (i) on the riverbed and (ii) within the mid-water column. Experiments were set up to examine differences in growth rates of newly colonising biofilms compared with

H. P Jarvie; C Neal; A Warwick; J White; M Neal; H. D Wickham; L. K Hill; M. C Andrews

2002-01-01

486

Dietary calcium and phosphorus manipulations in thyroparathyroidectomized pregnant rats  

E-print Network

Dietary calcium and phosphorus manipulations in thyroparathyroidectomized pregnant rats and fetal vitamin D3 meta- bolite injection to the mothers when their plasma calcium is low or slightly elevated. To determine the putative role of calcium in these experiments, we elevated TPTX maternal plasma calcium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

487

Phosphorus and calcium retention in serially harvested cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Data from 3 serial harvest trials were utilized to calculate phosphorus and calcium retention in cattle. Trial 1 evaluated three rates of gain during a growing period followed by a common finishing diet utilizing British crossbred steers. Four steers were harvested from each treatment following th...

488

Development and testing of a new phosphorus index for Kentucky  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The phosphorus index (PI) is a field-scale assessment tool developed by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) to identify fields most vulnerable to P loss that has been adopted in some form across 48 states. Due to concerns that the use of the PI has not resulted in intended reduct...

489

Dairy heifer diets, manure management, and runoff phosphorus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Manure application to cropland can contribute to runoff losses of phosphorus and eutrophication of surface waters. We conducted a series of three rainfall simulation experiments to assess the effects of dairy heifer diet P, manure incorporation, application rate, and soil test P on runoff P losses f...

490

Phosphorus recovery from wastewater by struvite crystallization: property of aggregates.  

PubMed

Struvite crystallization is a promising method to remove and recover phosphorus from wastewater to ease both the scarcity of phosphorus rock resources and water eutrophication worldwide. To date, although various kinds of reactor systems have been developed, supporting methods are required to control the struvite fines flushing out of the reactors. As an intrinsic property, aggregation is normally disregarded in the struvite crystallization process, although it is the key factor in final particle size and therefore guarantees phosphorus recovery efficiency. The present study developed a method to analyze the characteristics of struvite aggregates using fractal geometry, and the influence of operational parameters on struvite aggregation was evaluated. Due to its typical orthorhombic molecular structure, struvite particles are prone to crystallize into needle or rod shapes, and aggregate at the corners or edges of crystals. The determined fractal dimension (Dpf) of struvite aggregates was 1.52-1.31, with the corresponding range of equivalent diameter (d0.5) at 295.9-85.4 ?m. Aggregates formed in relatively low phosphorus concentrations (3.0-5.0 mmol/L) and mildly alkaline conditions (pH 9.0-9.5) displayed relatively compact structures, large aggregate sizes and high aggregation strength. Increasing pH values led to continuous decrease of aggregate sizes, while the variation of Dpf was insignificant. As to the aggregate evolution, fast growth in a short time followed by a long steady stage was observed. PMID:25079629

Ye, Zhilong; Shen, Yin; Ye, Xin; Zhang, Zhaoji; Chen, Shaohua; Shi, Jianwen

2014-05-01

491

Struvite precipitation and phosphorus removal using magnesium sacrificial anode.  

PubMed

Struvite precipitation using magnesium sacrificial anode as the only source of magnesium is presented. High-purity magnesium alloy cast anode was found to be very effective in recovery of high-quality struvite from water solutions and from supernatant of fermented waste activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant that does not practice enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Struvite purity was strongly dependent on the pH and the electric current density. Optimum pH of the 24 mM phosphorus and 46 mM ammonia solution (1:1.9 P:N ratio) was in the broad range between 7.5 and 9.3, with struvite purity exceeding 90%. Increasing the current density resulted in elevated struvite purity. No upper limits were observed in the studied current range of 0.05-0.2 A. Phosphorus removal rate was proportional to the current density and comparable for tests with water solutions and with the supernatant from fermented sludge. The highest P-removal rate achieved was 4.0 mg PO4-P cm(-2) h(-1) at electric current density of 45 A m(-2). Initial substrate concentrations affected the rate of phosphorus removal. The precipitated struvite accumulated in bulk liquid with significant portions attached to the anode surface from which regular detachment occurred. PMID:24387911

Kruk, Damian J; Elektorowicz, Maria; Oleszkiewicz, Jan A

2014-04-01

492

Phosphorus Loading Trends in Lake Michigan: A Historic Surprise  

EPA Science Inventory

Total phosphorus (TP) loads to the Great Lakes have been of interest to researchers since the 1960s. The International Joint Commission (IJC) was the primary source of Great Lakes TP loading data during the 1970s and 1980s when the IJC released annual reports detailing Great Lake...

493

A high-pressure polymorph of phosphorus nitride imide.  

PubMed

Phosphorus nitride imide, PN(NH), is of great scientific importance because it is isosteric with silica (SiO2). Accordingly, a varied structural diversity could be expected. However, only one polymorph of PN(NH) has been reported thus far. Herein, we report on the synthesis and structural investigation of the first high-pressure polymorph of phosphorus nitride imide, ?-PN(NH); the compound has been synthesized using the multianvil technique. By adding catalytic amounts of NH4Cl as a mineralizer, it became possible to grow single crystals of ?-PN(NH), which allowed the first complete structural elucidation of a highly condensed phosphorus nitride from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The structure was confirmed by FTIR and (31)P and (1)H solid-state NMR spectroscopy. We are confident that high-pressure/high-temperature reactions could lead to new polymorphs of PN(NH) containing five-fold- or even six-fold-coordinated phosphorus atoms and thus rivalling or even surpassing the structural variety of SiO2. PMID:24574033

Marchuk, Alexey; Pucher, Florian J; Karau, Friedrich W; Schnick, Wolfgang

2014-02-24

494

Phosphorus Concentrations and Loads in Runoff Water under Crop Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport of phosphorus (P) through surface runoff from agricul- ture is suspected to contribute to the eutrophication of surface waters in South Florida and elsewhere. There is minimal quantitative infor- mation on the concentrations and loads of various P forms in surface runoff water on a field-scale. The objective of this study was to eval- uate the annual loads of

Z. L. He; M. K. Zhang; P. J. Stoffella; X. E. Yang; D. J. Banks

2006-01-01

495

Sorption Dynamics of Organic and Inorganic Phosphorus Compounds in Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus retention in soils is influenced by the form of P added. The potential impact of one P compound on the sorption of other P compounds in soils has not been widely reported. Sorption isotherms were utilized to quantify P retention by benchmark soils from Indiana, Missouri, and North Carolina when P was added as inorganic P (Pi) or organic

A. S. Berg; B. C. Joern

2006-01-01

496

A Systematic Presentation of Organic Phosphorus and Sulfur Compounds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because the names, interrelations, and oxidation levels of the organic compounds of phosphorus and sulfur tend to confuse students, a simple way to organize these compounds has been developed. The system consists of grouping them by oxidation state and extent of carbon substitution. (JN)

Hendrickson, James B.

1985-01-01

497

FGD gypsum filters remove soluble phosphorus from agricultural drainage waters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Decades of chicken litter applications has led to phosphorus (P) levels up to ten times the agronomic optimum in soils of the Delmarva Peninsula. This legacy P is a major source of P entering drainage ditches that eventually empty into the Chesapeake Bay. A Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) gypsum ditc...

498

Divergent Selection for Phosphorus Concentration in Orchardgrass and Reed Canarygrass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus is a vital nonrenewable natural resource that is essential for plant and animal growth. Grass swards and/or buffer strips can be utilized to reduce P losses that occur by soil erosion, surface runoff, or leaching. The objective of this study was to conduct one cycle of divergent selectio...

499

Reduction of dietary phosphorus absorption by oral phoshorus binders.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to study a possible new non-aluminum phosphate-binder to limit hyperphosphatemia in patients with renal failure. Zirconyl chloride octahydrate was evaluated as a dietary phosphate binder in rats. Aluminum chloride hexahydrate was used as a reference. Animals were divided into six groups (6 animals per group): One - control group (C), two - aluminum groups (Al1 and Al2) and three - zirconium groups (Zr1, Zr2 and Zr3) receiving different doses of zirconyl chloride octahydrate. Urines were collected during the experimental period. At the end of the treatment, the animals were sacrified and plasma and different organs were collected (liver, spleen, kidneys, brain and femur). Determination of phosphorus and calcium levels in plasma indicated that zirconyl chloride octahydrate yielded as good results as aluminum chloride hexahydrate did. Zirconyl chloride octahydrate significantly (p<0.01) reduced bone phosphorus burden. Urinary excretion of phosphorus indicated a severe phosphorus depletion in all treatments. Not even traces of zirconium could be determined in the different tissues, in urines or in plasma. Consequently, it is important to carry out experiments with zirconium compounds in order to develop non-aluminum-containing phosphate binders. PMID:8746485

Graff, L; Burnel, D

1995-12-01

500

Sources of phosphorus exported from an agricultural watershed in Pennsylvania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater eutrophication is usually controlled by inputs of phosphorus (P). As point source controls have decreased P inputs, the relative contributions of nonpoint inputs from agriculture have increased. Thus, remedial strategies are now being directed towards minimizing P export from agriculture. To identify critical sources of P, we investigated chemical and hydrologic factors controlling P export from a mixed land

Andrew N. Sharpley; William J. Gburek; G. Folmar; H. B. Pionke

1999-01-01