Science.gov

Sample records for phosphorus fertilizer application

  1. Impact of fertilizer phosphorus application on phosphorus release kinetics in some calcareous soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinpur, A. R.; Biabanaki, F. S.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphate reactions and retention in the soil are of paramount importance from the perspective of plant nutrition and fertilizer use efficiency. The objective of this work was to study the kinetics of phosphorus (P) desorption in different soils of Hamadan in fertilized and unfertilized soils. Soils were fertilized with 200 mg P kg-1. Fertilized and unfertilized soils were incubated at 25 ± 1°C for 6 months. After that, release of P was studied by successive extraction with 0.5 M NaHCO3 over a period of 1,752 h. The results showed that phosphorus desorption from the fertilized and unfertilized soils began with a fast initial reaction, followed by a slow secondary reaction. The amount of P released after 1,752 h in fertilized and unfertilized soils ranged from 457 to 762.4 and 309.6 to 586.7 mg kg-1, respectively. The kinetics of cumulative P release was evaluated using the five kinetic equations. Phosphorus desorption kinetics were best described by parabolic diffusion law, first order, and power function equations. Rate constants of these equations were higher in fertilized than unfertilized soils. Results from this study indicate that release rate of P plays a significant role in supplying available P and released P in runoff.

  2. GROUNDWATER POLLUTION BY PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is a primary nutrient necessary for plant growth. When soil P level is below what is needed for plant needs, P is supplied to the soil by the addition of P fertilizer or organic residuals (i.e., manure). Because of P fertilizer use in the past few decades or application of manure, a g...

  3. Relationships between Extractable Soil Phosphorus and Phosphorus Saturation after Long-Term Fertilizer or Manure Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total soil P (TP), soil-test P (STP), and the degree of soil P saturation are affected by long-term P application but relationships between these measurements need to be established for grain production cropping systems to improve P management guidelines. This research studied these relationships fr...

  4. Reducing rice field algae and cyanobacteria abundance by altering phosphorus fertilizer applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In California’s water seeded rice systems algal/cyanobacterial biomass can be a problem during rice establishment. Algal/cyanobacterial growth may be stimulated by phosphorus (P) additions in freshwater habitats, so we set up experiments to evaluate the effects of fertilizer P management on algal/cy...

  5. PHOSPHORUS RUNOFF LOSS RISK ASSESSMENT FOR UNINCORPORATED MANURE AND FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wisconsin’s cropland phosphorus loss risk assessment for nutrient management planning (P Index) has been revised to account for the probability and potential volume of runoff events following manure applications. This P Index uses a simplified modeling approach to estimate annual unit area phosphoru...

  6. Phosphorus concentration and loading reductions following changes in fertilizer application and formulation on managed turf

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All current and future efforts to address water quality impairment must focus on phosphorus. Phosphorus is a natural element in the environment and is an essential element of all life. However, excess phosphorus, particularly in surface waters can lead to severe eutrophication. Identifying source ar...

  7. Effect of the time of application of phosphorus fertilizer on yield and quality parameters of melon crop amended with winery waste compost.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Requejo Mariscal, María Isabel; Cartagena, María Carmen; Villena Gordo, Raquel; Arce Martínez, Augusto; Ribas Elcorobarrutia, Francisco; Jesús Cabello Cabello, María; Castellanos Serrano, María Teresa

    2016-04-01

    In Spain, drip irrigation systems are widely used for horticultural crop production. In drip irrigation systems, emitter clogging has been identified as one of the most important concerns. Clogging is closely related to the quality of the irrigation water and the structure of the emitter flow path, and occurs as a result of multiple physical, biological and chemical factors. So, the use of acid fertilizers (e.g. phosphoric acid) in these systems is common to avoid the emitter clogging. Moreover, in this country the use of exhausted grape marc compost as source of nutrients and organic matter has been identified as a good management option of soil fertility, especially in grape-growing areas with a large generation of wastes from the wine and distillery industries. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of the time of application of phosphorus fertilizer with fertirrigation in a melon crop amended with winery waste compost on yield and quality parameters. During two years, the melon crop was grown under field conditions and beside the control treatment, three doses of compost were applied: 6.7, 13.3 and 20.0 t ha-1. All the compost treatments received 120 kg ha-1 of phosphorus fertilizer (phosphoric acid) for the season varying the time of application: The first year phosphorus application started after male and female flowering, and the second year the application started before flowering. Yield and quality parameters were evaluated to assess the suitability of these practices. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03. Keywords: Phosphorus fertilizer, exhausted grape marc compost, melon crop, yield and quality parameters.

  8. Glyphosate loss by runoff and its relationship with phosphorus fertilization.

    PubMed

    Sasal, María Carolina; Demonte, Luisina; Cislaghi, Andrea; Gabioud, Emmanuel A; Oszust, José D; Wilson, Marcelo G; Michlig, Nicolás; Beldoménico, Horacio R; Repetti, María Rosa

    2015-05-13

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between glyphosate and phosphate fertilizer application and their contribution to surface water runoff contamination. The study was performed in Aquic Argiudoll soil (Tezanos Pinto series). Four treatments were assessed on three dates of rainfall simulation after fertilizer and herbicide application. The soluble phosphorus in runoff water was determined by a colorimetric method. For the determination of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), a method based on fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (FMOC) group derivatization, solid phase extraction (SPE) purification, and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was employed. The application of phosphorus fertilizer resulted in an increased loss of glyphosate by runoff after 1 day of application. These results suggest the need for further study to understand the interactions and to determine appropriate application timing with the goal of reducing the pollution risk by runoff. PMID:25775388

  9. Changes in soil test phosphorus and phosphorus in runoff from calcareous soils receiving manure, compost, and fertilizer application with and without alum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensification of the dairy industry in southern Idaho had led to the over-application of manures and a buildup of soil phosphorus (P) which is a potential threat to water quality in the region. As the use of alum has been shown to reduce both soluble manure P and runoff P from alum treated manure...

  10. Phosphorus availability and microbial immobilization in a Nitisol with the application of mineral and organo-mineral fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Morais, Francisco A; Gatiboni, Luciano C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate P availability, P and C contained in the microbial biomass, and enzymatic activity (acid phosphatases and β-glucosidases) in a Nitisol with the application of mineral and organo-mineral fertilizers. The experiment was performed in a protected environment with control over air temperature and soil moisture. The experimental design was organized in a "5 x 4" factorial arrangement with five sources of P and four times of soil incubation. The sources were: control (without P), triple superphosphate, diammonium phosphate, natural Arad reactive rock phosphate, and organo-mineral fertilizer. The experimental units consisted of PVC columns filled with agricultural soil. The columns were incubated and broken down for analysis at 1, 20, 40, and 60 days after application of the fertilizers. In each column, samples were taken at the layers of 0-2.5, 2.5-5.0, and 5.0-15.0 cm below the zone of the fertilizers. The application of soluble phosphates and organo-mineral fertilizer temporarily increased P availability in the zone near the fertilizers (0-2.5 cm), with maximum availability occurring at approximately 32 days. Microbial immobilization showed behavior similar to P availability, and the greatest immobilizations occurred at approximately 30 days. The organo-mineral fertilizer was not different from soluble phosphates. PMID:26628018

  11. Production of fluid fertilizer from phosphorus furnace waste stream

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, J. C.

    1985-04-30

    Processes and compositions of matter are disclosed for the production of liquid fertilizers wherein wastewater from a phosphorus smelting furnace is incorporated in liquid fertilizer processes. The wastewater replaces water evaporated and the wastewater dissolves fertilizer salts. A serious water pollution problem is avoided when wastewater is incorporated in liquid fertilizers. The invention discloses a process for making orthophosphate suspension fertilizer wherein impure phosphoric acid is neutralized in the condensing system, water from the condensing system is bled off, and a suspending clay is added to produce orthophosphate suspension fertilizer. In this process, phosphorus sludge made at phosphorus furnaces is used to produce suspension fertilizer, and wastewater from phosphate smelting furnaces is recovered. New compositions of matter are disclosed. A process is disclosed for making phosphoric acid with low impurities content wherein phosphorus sludge is burned to make impure orthophosphoric acid and the impure acid is recycled to an agglomerating step in a process for making elemental phosphorus.

  12. Response of Louisiana ratoon sugarcane to phosphorus fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of phosphorus fertilizer on sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum Spp. cv. 'LCP 85-384') yield components and soil properties were evaluated at seven locations in Louisiana. Five rates of phosphorus fertilizer (0 - 84 kg P2O5 ha-1) were applied to first-, second- and third-ratoo...

  13. Assessing the Long Term Impact of Phosphorus Fertilization on Phosphorus Loadings Using AnnAGNPS

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yongping; Bingner, Ronald L.; Locke, Martin A.; Stafford, Jim; Theurer, Fred D.

    2011-01-01

    High phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields has been an environmental concern because of potential water quality problems in streams and lakes. To better understand the process of P loss and evaluate the effects of different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus losses, the USDA Annualized AGricultural Non-Point Source (AnnAGNPS) pollutant loading model was applied to the Ohio Upper Auglaize watershed, located in the southern portion of the Maumee River Basin. In this study, the AnnAGNPS model was calibrated using USGS monitored data; and then the effects of different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus loadings were assessed. It was found that P loadings increase as fertilization rate increases, and long term higher P application would lead to much higher P loadings to the watershed outlet. The P loadings to the watershed outlet have a dramatic change after some time with higher P application rate. This dramatic change of P loading to the watershed outlet indicates that a “critical point” may exist in the soil at which soil P loss to water changes dramatically. Simulations with different initial soil P contents showed that the higher the initial soil P content is, the less time it takes to reach the “critical point” where P loadings to the watershed outlet increases dramatically. More research needs to be done to understand the processes involved in the transfer of P between the various stable, active and labile states in the soil to ensure that the model simulations are accurate. This finding may be useful in setting up future P application and management guidelines. PMID:21776225

  14. Assessing the long term impact of phosphorus fertilization on phosphorus loadings using AnnAGNPS.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yongping; Bingner, Ronald L; Locke, Martin A; Stafford, Jim; Theurer, Fred D

    2011-06-01

    High phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields has been an environmental concern because of potential water quality problems in streams and lakes. To better understand the process of P loss and evaluate the effects of different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus losses, the USDA Annualized AGricultural Non-Point Source (AnnAGNPS) pollutant loading model was applied to the Ohio Upper Auglaize watershed, located in the southern portion of the Maumee River Basin. In this study, the AnnAGNPS model was calibrated using USGS monitored data; and then the effects of different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus loadings were assessed. It was found that P loadings increase as fertilization rate increases, and long term higher P application would lead to much higher P loadings to the watershed outlet. The P loadings to the watershed outlet have a dramatic change after some time with higher P application rate. This dramatic change of P loading to the watershed outlet indicates that a "critical point" may exist in the soil at which soil P loss to water changes dramatically. Simulations with different initial soil P contents showed that the higher the initial soil P content is, the less time it takes to reach the "critical point" where P loadings to the watershed outlet increases dramatically. More research needs to be done to understand the processes involved in the transfer of P between the various stable, active and labile states in the soil to ensure that the model simulations are accurate. This finding may be useful in setting up future P application and management guidelines. PMID:21776225

  15. Soil test phosphorus and cumulative phosphorus budgets in fertilized grassland.

    PubMed

    Messiga, Aimé Jean; Ziadi, Noura; Jouany, Claire; Virkajärvi, Perttu; Suomela, Raija; Sinaj, Sokrat; Bélanger, Gilles; Stroia, Ciprian; Morel, Christian

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed the linearity of relationships between soil test P (STP) and cumulative phosphorus (P) budget using data from six long-term fertilized grassland sites in four countries: France (Ercé and Gramond), Switzerland (Les Verrières), Canada (Lévis), and Finland (Maaninka and Siikajoki). STP was determined according to existing national guidelines. A linear-plateau model was used to determine the presence of deflection points in the relationships. Deflection points with (x, y) coordinates were observed everywhere but Maaninka. Above the deflection point, a significant linear relationship was obtained (0.33 < r (2) < 0.72) at four sites, while below the deflection point, the relationship was not significant, with a negligible rate of STP decrease. The relationship was not linear over the range of STP encountered at most sites, suggesting a need for caution when using the P budget approach to predict STP changes in grasslands, particularly in situations of very low P fertilization. Our study provides insights and description of a tool to improve global P strategies aimed at maintaining STP at levels adequate for grassland production while reducing the risk of P pollution of water. PMID:25681982

  16. Assessing long term impact of phosphorus fertilization on phosphorus loadings using AnnAGNPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields has been an environmental concern because of potential water quality problems in streams and lakes. To better understand the process of P loss and evaluate the different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus losses, the USDA Annualized AGricu...

  17. Assessing Long Term Impact of Phosphorus Fertilization on Phosphorus Loadings Using AnnAGNPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    High phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields has been an environmental concern because of potential water quality problems in streams and lakes. To better understand the process of P loss and evaluate the different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus losses, the US...

  18. Distribution of Phosphorus and Potassium Following Surface Banding of Fertilizer in Conservation Tillage Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Band application of liquid or granular fertilizers is a common practice in maize (Zea mays L.) production systems in some areas of the USA. Our objective in this field study was to determine the relative soil profile distribution of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) applied as a liquid fertilizer in ...

  19. Phosphorus content in long-term fertilized soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzeghello, D.; Morari, F.; Berti, A.; Nardi, S.; Giardini, L.

    2009-04-01

    Phosphorous (P) is often considered a limiting nutrient in crop production. However, particularly in intensive livestock and pig farming areas large surplus of P inputs associated with manure application to agricultural soils may result in an excessive P accumulation and a consequent gradual saturation of the soil P-sorption capacity. This event must be discouraged in order to contain possible eutrophication. In this study we investigated the impact of a long-term fertilization experiment on the accumulation in soil of different form of P. The experiment has been underway since 1964 on the University of Padova Experimental farm. The treatments derived from the factorial combination of 3 types of soil (clay, sandy and peaty) with 3 types of mineral, organic or mixed fertilization, organized in two randomized blocks. A total of 36 lysimeters (surface of 4 m2 and 80 cm deep) were cultivated. Fertilization rates were as follows: 0, no fertilization; F1 manure (20 t ha-1 y-1); M1, mineral fertilization (100 kg ha-1 y-1 N); F1M1, manure (20 t ha-1 y-1) + mineral fertilization (100 kg ha-1 y-1 N); F2 manure (40 t ha-1 y-1); M2, mineral fertilization (200 kg ha-1 y-1 N - 100 P2O5 - 280 K2O). Soil samples were taken using a 2-cm diameter auger from 0 to 100 cm depth, every 10 cm. P was analysed in term of total, organic and available (Olsen) phosphorus. Only treatments 0, M2 and F2 were subjected to soil sampling and chemical analyses. Results showed as the variables were affected by all the factors considered (treatment, soil and depth). Both farmyard manure and mineral fertilization increased the P content in function of soil types. In particular, as concerning the interaction between fertilization and depth, manure as well as mineral fertilization influenced the available P along soil profiles. The long-term fertilizer applications increased the P content at a level which resulted potentially hazardous for the environment.

  20. Effect of previous fertilization on phosphorus adsorption. Measurement of surface phosphorus by isotopic exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, S.C.; Barbaro, N.O.; De Tramontini, S.R. )

    1990-09-01

    Adsorption properties of a soil with previous additions of different phosphate fertilizers were characterized by means of the Langmuir isotherm. The best correlation with the Langmuir isotherm was obtained for low added-phosphorus concentration and for conditions of different amounts of initial soil phosphorus treatment. The phosphorus initially present in each soil sample was evaluated by isotopic exchange. (The use of different isotopic methodologies is discussed.) Carrier-free {sup 32}P was added to a soil-solution system in adsorption equilibrium after soil agitation with increasing phosphorus concentration solutions for 5 days; this allowed measurement of the adsorbed phosphorus that remained exchangeable phosphorus and equilibrium phosphorus concentration was found. The surface exchangeable phosphorus concentration at 0.3 ppm was used to estimate initial surface soil phosphorus. Taking these corrections into account, the authors found adsorption maximum and the bonding energy constant were similar in spite of the amount and kind of previous fertilizer addition. However, the behavior of superphosphate seemed to be modified in the presence of rock phosphate, especially in relation to exchange ability.

  1. Fertilizer Effectiveness of Phosphorus Recovered from Broiler Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) can be recovered from broiler litter using a new process (‘quick wash’). However, limited information is available on the beneficial reuse of this P product as plant fertilizer. The objective of this study was to determine the agronomic effectiveness of this P material. A 7-wk greenho...

  2. Effectiveness of Recovered Manure Phosphorus as Plant Fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) was recovered from liquid swine manure and poultry litter using new advanced treatment manure processes developed to recover this nutrient from manure. The high P concentration in the recovered P materials indicates that they likely have use as plant fertilizers. A study was conducted...

  3. Nutritive value response of forage chicory cultivars to phosphorus fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) is a productive plant that appears particularly well suited to improving summer yield of pastures in the USA. Poor palatability of some chicory cultivars in locations with low soil phosphorus fertility has been linked to high levels of sesquiterpene lactones, b...

  4. Yield and persistence response of forage chicory to phosphorus fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage chicory (Cichorium intybus) is a productive plant that appears particularly well suited to improving summer yield of pastures in the USA. Poor palatability of some chicory cultivars in locations with low soil phosphorus fertility has been linked to high levels of sesquiterpene lactone, a bit...

  5. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Nutrient Application (Phosphorus and Nitrogen ) for Fertilizer and Manure Applied to Crops (Cropsplit), 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the estimated amount of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers applied to selected crops for the year 2002, compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data set is based on 2002 fertilizer data (Ruddy and others, 2006) and tabulated by crop type per county (Alexander and others, 2007). The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River basins, contains

  6. Dairy manure biochar as a phosphorus fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy manure biochars, along with other manure biochars, contain sufficient concentrations of plant available nutrients, particularly phosphorous. For greenhouse studies using ryegrass, cotton, and soybean, manure biochars performed similar to commercial phosphorous fertilizers when applied at appro...

  7. Releasing phosphorus from calcium for struvite fertilizer production from anaerobically digested dairy effluent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianxi; Bowers, Keith E; Harrison, Joseph H; Chen, Shulin

    2010-01-01

    Being a non-renewable resource and a source of potential water pollution, phosphorus could be recovered from animal manure in the form of struvite (MgNH4PO4.6H2O) to be used as a slow-release fertilizer. It was found recently that the majority of phosphorus in anaerobically digested dairy effluent is tied up in a fine suspended calcium-phosphate solid, thus becoming unavailable for struvite formation. Acidification and use of a chelating agent were investigated for converting the calcium-associated phosphorus in the digested effluent to dissolved phosphate ions, so that struvite can be produced. The results demonstrated that the phosphorus in the effluent was released into the solution by lowering the pH. In addition, the phosphorus concentration in the solution increased significantly with increased ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) concentration, as EDTA has a high stability constant with calcium. Most of the phosphorus (91%) was released into the solution after adding EDTA. Further, the freed phosphorus ion precipitated out as struvite provided that sufficient magnesium ions (Mg2+) were present in the solution. Furthermore, the phase structure of the solid precipitate obtained from the EDTA treatment matched well with standard struvite, based on the data from X-ray diffraction analysis. These results provide methods for altering the forms of phosphorus for the design and application of phosphorus-removal technologies for dairy wastewater management. PMID:20112536

  8. The fate of phosphorus fertilizer in Amazon soya bean fields

    PubMed Central

    Riskin, Shelby H.; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Tubbesing, Carmen; Mahowald, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Fertilizer-intensive soya bean agriculture has recently expanded in southeastern Amazonia, and whereas intensive fertilizer use in the temperate zone has led to widespread eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems, the effects in tropical systems are less well understood. We examined the fate of fertilizer phosphorus (P) by comparing P forms and budgets across a chronosequence of soya bean fields (converted to soya beans between 2003 and 2008) and forests on an 800 km2 soya bean farm in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Soya bean fields were fertilized with 50 kg P ha−1 yr−1 (30 kg P ha−1 yr−1 above what is removed in crops). We used modified Hedley fractionation to quantify soil P pools and found increases in less-plant-available inorganic pools and decreases in organic pools in agricultural soils compared with forest. Fertilizer P did not move below 20 cm. Measurements of P sorption capacity suggest that while fertilizer inputs quench close to half of the sorption capacity of fast-reacting pools, most added P is bound in more slowly reacting pools. Our data suggest that this agricultural system currently has a low risk of P losses to waterways and that long time-scales are required to reach critical soil thresholds that would allow continued high yields with reduced fertilizer inputs. PMID:23610165

  9. The fate of phosphorus fertilizer in Amazon soya bean fields.

    PubMed

    Riskin, Shelby H; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Tubbesing, Carmen; Mahowald, Natalie

    2013-06-01

    Fertilizer-intensive soya bean agriculture has recently expanded in southeastern Amazonia, and whereas intensive fertilizer use in the temperate zone has led to widespread eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems, the effects in tropical systems are less well understood. We examined the fate of fertilizer phosphorus (P) by comparing P forms and budgets across a chronosequence of soya bean fields (converted to soya beans between 2003 and 2008) and forests on an 800 km(2) soya bean farm in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Soya bean fields were fertilized with 50 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) (30 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) above what is removed in crops). We used modified Hedley fractionation to quantify soil P pools and found increases in less-plant-available inorganic pools and decreases in organic pools in agricultural soils compared with forest. Fertilizer P did not move below 20 cm. Measurements of P sorption capacity suggest that while fertilizer inputs quench close to half of the sorption capacity of fast-reacting pools, most added P is bound in more slowly reacting pools. Our data suggest that this agricultural system currently has a low risk of P losses to waterways and that long time-scales are required to reach critical soil thresholds that would allow continued high yields with reduced fertilizer inputs. PMID:23610165

  10. Recovered phosphorus from animal manure and its use as fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Repeated land application of large amounts of manure from confined livestock facilities is an environmental concern frequently associated to excess phosphorus (P) in soils and a likely source for pollution of water resources. Animal waste treatments that include recovery of P from manure are a manag...

  11. Phosphorus update by potato from fertilizers recovered from anaerobic digestion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted in the Columbia Basin of South Central Washington to assess the yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum) in response to application of phosphorus enriched materials recovered from anaerobic digestion of manure. The treatments were comprised of four rates (0, 56, 112 and ...

  12. Relationships among plant available phosphorus, fertilizer sales, and water quality in northwestern Ohio.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Frank G; Bigham, Jerry M; Slater, Brian K

    2002-01-01

    Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) in northwestern Ohio river water has declined over the past 20 yr in response to decreased applications of fertilizer P. Our objective was to evaluate changes in soluble P (Bray-1 P) levels in the soil over time as influenced by fertilizer P management, cultivation practice, soil properties, and landscape factors. Because soil is the intermediary between added P and SRP measured in river water, we examined the relationship between fertilizer P, soluble soil P, and SRP. Using historical soil survey sample sites as a baseline for original soluble P concentrations (Por), we resampled Ap horizons to establish current levels of soluble P (Pcu). The Por baseline extended from 1953-1982 and Pcu from 1996-1998. Thirty percent of the Pcu values and 17% of the Por values were > or = 40 mg kg(-1). Log-transformed means for Pcu were significantly higher than for Por. The principal determining factors for Por were physiography, soil texture, and soil series. Current P is affected by present tillage practice and drainage class. Change in soluble P in the soil is not as responsive to fertilizer P sales as is SRP in river water. This suggests that as fertilizer P sales decline, a declining percentage of P added as fertilizer is annually dissolved and transported into the drainage system. Soluble P in soil is governed by a combination of fertilizer and tillage management, soil properties, and landscape factors interacting over time. PMID:11837442

  13. Negative interactive effects between biochar and phosphorus fertilization on phosphorus availability and plant yield in saline sodic soil.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Zhang, You; Sun, Junna; Shao, Hongbo

    2016-10-15

    Little is known about the interactive effects between biochar application and phosphorus (P) fertilization on plant growth and P uptake. For this purpose, five wheat straw biochars (produced at 25°C, 300°C, 400°C, 500°C and 600°C for 4h) with equal P (36mgkg(-1)) amount, with and without additional P fertilization (100mgkg(-1)) were applied in a pot experiment to investigate the growth of Suaeda salsa and their uptake of P from biochar and P fertilization amended saline sodic soil. Soil P fractions, dry matter yield, and plant P concentrations were determined after harvesting 90days. Our results confirmed that relatively lower pyrolysis temperature (<400°C) biochar retained P availability and increased plant growth. The plant P concentration was significantly correlated with NaHCO3-Pi (P<0.05), and NaOH-Pi (P<0.1) during early incubation time (4days) for biochar amended soil. As revealed by statistical analysis, a significant (P<0.05) negative (antagonistic) interaction occurred between biochar and P fertilization on the biomass production and plant P concentration. For plant biomass, the effects size of biochar (B), P, and their interaction followed the order of B×P (0.819)>B (0.569)≈P (0.568) based on the partial Eta squared values whereas the order changed as P (0.782)>B (0.562)>B×P (0.515) for plant P concentration. When biochar and P fertilization applied together, phosphate precipitation/sorption reaction occurred in saline sodic soil which explained the decreased plant P availability and plant yield in saline sodic soil. The negative interaction effects between biochar and P fertilization indicated limited utility value of biochar application in saline sodic soil. PMID:27328879

  14. [Effects of phosphorus fertilizer on the root system and its relationship with the aboveground part of flue-cured tobacco].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-li; Liu, Guo-shun; Ding, Song-shuang; Wang, Jing; Li, Yuan-bo; Dong, Xiao-li

    2015-05-01

    Using 'Yuyan 10' as the material, the effects of different phosphorus fertilizer application on root characteristics of tobacco, such as root dry mass and the difference of dry matter distribution and mineral nutrient accumulation between its above and underground parts were investigated. The results showed that the growth of flue-cured tobacco root system and the distribution of dry matter to the aboveground part were significantly promoted by phosphorus fertilizer application. The application of 30 kg P2O5 · hm(-2) led to the maximums of root dry mass, root volume, root activity and the minimum of root to shoot ratio. The maximum nutrient accumulation rates of root and leaf appeared 57-66 days after transplanting and 44-55 days after transplanting, respectively. Phosphorus could not only promote the mineral nutrition absorption of tobacco and the earlier appearance of maximum nutrient accumulation, but significantly promote the nutrient accumulation of the aboveground part. But, the positive effects described above would be weakened when the amount of phosphorus fertilizer was more than 30 kg P2O5 · hm(-2). Therefore, it's necessary to control the amount of phosphorus application to improve the quality of tobacco leaves. PMID:26571663

  15. Managing phosphorus fertilizer to reduce algae, maintain water quality, and sustain yields in water-seeded rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In water-seeded rice systems blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) hinder early-season crop growth by dislodging rice seedlings and reducing light. Since algae are often phosphorus (P) limited, we investigated whether changing the timing of P fertilizer application could reduce algae without reducing cro...

  16. County-level estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus from commercial fertilizer for the Conterminous United States, 1987–2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gronberg, Jo Ann M.; Spahr, Norman E.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment program requires nutrient input for analysis of the national and regional assessment of water quality. Detailed information on nutrient inputs to the environment are needed to understand and address the many serious problems that arise from excess nutrients in the streams and groundwater of the Nation. This report updates estimated county-level farm and nonfarm nitrogen and phosphorus input from commercial fertilizer sales for the conterminous United States for 1987 through 2006. Estimates were calculated from the Association of American Plant Food Control Officials fertilizer sales data, Census of Agriculture fertilizer expenditures, and U.S. Census Bureau county population. A previous national approach for deriving farm and nonfarm fertilizer nutrient estimates was evaluated, and a revised method for selecting representative states to calculate national farm and nonfarm proportions was developed. A national approach was used to estimate farm and nonfarm fertilizer inputs because not all states distinguish between farm and nonfarm use, and the quality of fertilizer reporting varies from year to year. For states that distinguish between farm and nonfarm use, the spatial distribution of the ratios of nonfarm-to-total fertilizer estimates for nitrogen and phosphorus calculated using the national-based farm and nonfarm proportions were similar to the spatial distribution of the ratios generated using state-based farm and nonfarm proportions. In addition, the relative highs and lows in the temporal distribution of farm and nonfarm nitrogen and phosphorus input at the state level were maintained—the periods of high and low usage coincide between national- and state-based values. With a few exceptions, nonfarm nitrogen estimates were found to be reasonable when compared to the amounts that would result if the lawn application rates recommended by state and university agricultural agencies were used. Also

  17. Six-year growth of Eucalyptus saligna plantings as affected by nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Whitesell, C.D.; DeBell, D.S.; Schubert, T.H.

    1987-10-01

    Growth responses of Eucalyptus saligna to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers were assessed in bioenergy plantations on abandoned sugarcane land in Hawaii. Fertilizers were applied three times (0.6, and 15 months after planting) in a factorial design with four dosages each of N(0, 25, 50, and 75 g urea per tree) and P(0, 30, 60, and 90 g triple superphosphate per tree). Phosphorus and the N x P interaction had little effect on tree growth. Effects of N, however, were dramatic during the first year, and benefits were sustained through 6 years. Effects of N on height growth and diameter growth dropped markedly during the third year and thereafter. Bioenergy plantations of E. saligna established on similar sites and soils will benefit from high dosages of N fertilizer and presumably from repeated applications.

  18. [Effects of phosphorus fertilization on biomass accumulation and phosphorus use efficiency of trellis-cultivated melon].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo-lang; Wu, Hai-hua; Luo, Jia; Hao, Li-na; Qi, Xiao-chen; Zhao, Ku

    2016-02-01

    A field experiment applying six rates of P fertilizer (P2O5, 0, 150, 225, 300, 375 and 450 kg . hm-2, respectively) was conducted to investigate the effects of P fertilization on dry matter accumulation (DMA), P uptake and accumulation (PUA) and P use efficiency (PUE) of trellis-cultivated melon. Results showed that, P application increased DMA and PUA, for 150 and 225 kg P2O5 . hm-2 treatments, being 19.9% and 26.3%, 23.0% and 26.3% higher than that in no P fertilizer treatment at fruiting stage. With plant growth, DMA and PUA of different organs and the whole plant gradually increased. DMA and PUA were mainly distributed in the leaves during the early stage of the growth and in the fruit during the latter stage. P application decreased the recovery efficiency of applied P (REP), agronomic efficiency of applied P (AEP) and partial factor productivity of applied P (PFP). At 150 kg . hm-2 P application rate, the maximum REP, AEP and PFP were 11.1%, 152.9 kg . kg-1 and 476.3 kg . kg-1, respectively. Compared with no P fertilizer treatment, melon yields of 150 and 225 kg P2O5 . hm2 treatments increased by 47.3% and 39.7%, respectively. In summary, the vining stage and fruit expanding stage were the key periods for P application in trellis-cultivated melon system. Based on synthesized economic yield and P fertilizer efficiency, the recommendation of P fertilizer for trellis-cultivated melon is 150-225 kg P2O5 . hm-2 under the climatic condition of the experimental area. PMID:27396125

  19. Phosphorus Accumulation and Sorption in Calcareous Soil under Long-Term Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Guo, Shengli; Li, Nana; Li, Rujian; Zhang, Yanjun; Jiang, Jishao; Wang, Zhiqi; Liu, Qingfang; Wu, Defeng; Sun, Qiqi; Du, Lanlan; Zhao, Man

    2015-01-01

    Application of phosphorus (P) fertilizers to P-deficient soils can also result in P accumulation. In this study, soil P status and P uptake by apple trees were investigated in 5-, 10-, and 15-year-old orchards in the semi-arid Loess Plateau, China, and subset soils with different soil P statuses (14–90 Olsen-P mg kg−1) were selected to evaluate the characteristic P adsorption. Due to the low P-use efficiency (4–6%), total soil P increased from 540 mg kg−1 to 904 mg kg−1, Olsen-P ranged from 3.4 mg kg−1 to 30.7 mg kg−1, and CaCl2-P increased from less than 0.1 mg kg−1 to 0.66 mg kg−1 under continuous P fertilization. The P sorption isotherms for each apple orchard were found to fit the Langmuir isotherm model (R2 = 0.91–0.98). K (binding energy) and Qm (P sorption maximum) decreased, whereas DPS (degree of phosphorus sorption) increased with increasing P concentration. CaCl2-P increased significantly with the increase of Olsen-P, especially above the change point of 46.1 mg kg−1. Application of surplus P could result in P enrichment in P-deficient soil which has high P fixation capacity, thus posing a significant environmental risk. PMID:26288011

  20. [Effects of phosphorus fertilization on yield of winter wheat and utilization of soil nitrogen].

    PubMed

    Xing, Dan; Li, Shu-wen; Xia, Bo; Wen, Hong-da

    2015-02-01

    In order to evaluate the threshold of phosphorus (P) application rate and improve the utilization efficiency of fertilizers in Baoding region of Hebei Province, a field experiment was conducted to examine the impacts of P fertilization on wheat yield, soil NO(3-)-N and nitrogen use efficiency. Results showed that, compared with the CK (P0), all treatments with P application (P1, 120 kg · hm(-2); P2, 240 kg · hm(-2) and P3, 480 kg · hm(-2)) increased the plant height, flag leaf areas and total leaf areas per plant of winter wheat, which was conducive to the accumulation of photosynthetic products. In addition, P application increased the spike number, kernels per spike and yield of winter wheat but slightly decreased the grain mass per 1000 seeds. Of the P-fertilized treatments, P2 had the highest wheat yield of 6102 kg · hm(-2), which was similar to P1 but significantly greater than those of P0 and P3. Furthermore, P fertilization reduced the NO(3-)-N content in top soil layer although the total accumulation of NO3- was still rather high. The N grain production efficiencies (GPE(N)) and N uptake efficiencies (UE(N)) of P1 and P2 were similar but greater than the other treatments. The use efficiency (UR(P)) , agronomic efficiency (AE(P)) and partial productivity of P fertilizer (PFP(P)) in P1 were significantly greater than P2 and P3. In conclusion, the P application rate of 120 kg · hm(-2) (P1) in this study could be an appropriate threshold in Baoding, Hebei, from the aspects of wheat yield, nitrogen and phosphate use efficiencies and accumulation of soil NO3-. PMID:26094458

  1. Reproductive response to nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization along the Hawaiian archipelago's natural soil fertility gradient.

    PubMed

    DiManno, Nicole M; Ostertag, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are the most important nutrients involved in plant reproduction and typically the most limiting in terrestrial ecosystems. The natural soil fertility gradient of the Hawaiian archipelago, in which younger islands are N limited and older islands are P limited, provides a model system to examine questions regarding allocation of nutrients. Using fertilized plots (+N or +P) at the extreme sites of the Hawaiian archipelago, vegetative productivity (e.g., net primary productivity, growth, and litterfall) and foliar nutrient responses have previously been studied for the dominant canopy tree, Metrosideros polymorpha. Here, we investigated whether the reproductive response of M. polymorpha mirrors the previously found vegetative productivity and foliar nutrient responses, by quantifying: (1) inflorescence and seed productivity, and (2) nutrient concentration of reproductive structures. Fertilization with N and P did not significantly affect the productivity of inflorescences or seeds, or seed viability at either site. However, nutrient concentrations increased after fertilization; %P increased in inflorescences in the +P treatment at the P-limited site. Seeds and inflorescences generally contained higher nutrient concentrations than leaves at both sites. Unlike foliar data, reproductive strategies of M. polymorpha differed depending on soil nutrient limitation with emphasis on quality (higher seed viability/greater nutrient concentrations) at the P-limited site. We suggest that in response to P additions M. polymorpha employs a nutrient conservation strategy for its inflorescences and an investment strategy for its seeds. Examining N and P simultaneously challenges a basic assumption that reproductive allocation follows a similar pattern to the often measured aboveground productivity. PMID:26404491

  2. Synthetic apatite nanoparticles as a phosphorus fertilizer for soybean (Glycine max).

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruiqiang; Lal, Rattan

    2014-01-01

    Some soluble phosphate salts, heavily used in agriculture as highly effective phosphorus (P) fertilizers, cause surface water eutrophication, while solid phosphates are less effective in supplying the nutrient P. In contrast, synthetic apatite nanoparticles could hypothetically supply sufficient P nutrients to crops but with less mobility in the environment and with less bioavailable P to algae in comparison to the soluble counterparts. Thus, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the fertilizing effect of synthetic apatite nanoparticles on soybean (Glycine max). The particles, prepared using one-step wet chemical method, were spherical in shape with diameters of 15.8 ± 7.4 nm and the chemical composition was pure hydroxyapatite. The data show that application of the nanoparticles increased the growth rate and seed yield by 32.6% and 20.4%, respectively, compared to those of soybeans treated with a regular P fertilizer (Ca(H2PO4)2). Biomass productions were enhanced by 18.2% (above-ground) and 41.2% (below-ground). Using apatite nanoparticles as a new class of P fertilizer can potentially enhance agronomical yield and reduce risks of water eutrophication. PMID:25023201

  3. Synthetic apatite nanoparticles as a phosphorus fertilizer for soybean (Glycine max)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ruiqiang; Lal, Rattan

    2014-07-01

    Some soluble phosphate salts, heavily used in agriculture as highly effective phosphorus (P) fertilizers, cause surface water eutrophication, while solid phosphates are less effective in supplying the nutrient P. In contrast, synthetic apatite nanoparticles could hypothetically supply sufficient P nutrients to crops but with less mobility in the environment and with less bioavailable P to algae in comparison to the soluble counterparts. Thus, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the fertilizing effect of synthetic apatite nanoparticles on soybean (Glycine max). The particles, prepared using one-step wet chemical method, were spherical in shape with diameters of 15.8 +/- 7.4 nm and the chemical composition was pure hydroxyapatite. The data show that application of the nanoparticles increased the growth rate and seed yield by 32.6% and 20.4%, respectively, compared to those of soybeans treated with a regular P fertilizer (Ca(H2PO4)2). Biomass productions were enhanced by 18.2% (above-ground) and 41.2% (below-ground). Using apatite nanoparticles as a new class of P fertilizer can potentially enhance agronomical yield and reduce risks of water eutrophication.

  4. AN EMPIRICAL MODEL FOR DISSOLVED PHOSPHORUS IN RUNOFF FROM SURFACE-APPLIED FERTILIZERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dissolved phosphorus (P) in runoff from surface-applied fertilizers can be relatively great, but commonly used field or watershed-scale computer models often do not simulate direct transfer of fertilizer P to runoff. Using data from our own simulated rainfall experiments and published runoff studies...

  5. Speciation And Distribution Of Phosphorus In A Fertilized Soil: A Synchrotron-Based Investigation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phosphorus availability is often a limiting factor for crop production around the world. The efficiency of P fertilizers in calcareous soils is limited by reactions that decrease P availability; however, fluid fertilizers have recently been shown, in highly calcareous soils of s...

  6. Phosphorus recovered from swine wastewater as a fertilizer for cotton grown with conservation tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current technologies for recycling phosphorus (P) from animal waste through precipitation result in non-conventional fertilizer products. The objective of this research was to evaluate the use of surface broadcasting recovered calcium phosphate as a P fertilizer source for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum...

  7. Nutrient losses from manure and fertilizer applications as impacted by time to first runoff event.

    PubMed

    Smith, D R; Owens, P R; Leytem, A B; Warnemuende, E A

    2007-05-01

    Nutrient losses to surface waters following fertilization contribute to eutrophication. This study was conducted to compare the impacts of fertilization with inorganic fertilizer, swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) manure or poultry (Gallus domesticus) litter on runoff water quality, and how the duration between application and the first runoff event affects resulting water quality. Fertilizers were applied at 35 kg P ha-1, and the duration between application and the first runoff event varied between 1 and 29 days. Swine manure was the greatest risk to water quality 1 day after fertilization due to elevated phosphorus (8.4 mg P L-1) and ammonium (10.3 mg NH4-N L-1) concentrations; however, this risk decreased rapidly. Phosphorus concentrations were 2.6 mg L-1 29 days after fertilization with inorganic fertilizer. This research demonstrates that manures might be more environmentally sustainable than inorganic fertilizers, provided runoff events do not occur soon after application. PMID:17029684

  8. Runoff, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses from purple slope cropland soil under rating fertilization in Three Gorges Region.

    PubMed

    Bouraima, Abdel-Kabirou; He, Binghui; Tian, Taiqiang

    2016-03-01

    Soil erosion along with soil particles and nutrients losses is detrimental to crop production. We carried out a 5-year (2010 to 2014) study to characterize the soil erosion and nitrogen and phosphorus losses caused by rainfall under different fertilizer application levels in order to provide a theoretical evidence for the agricultural production and coordinate land management to improve ecological environment. The experiment took place under rotation cropping, winter wheat-summer maize, on a 15° slope purple soil in Chongqing (China) within the Three Gorges Region (TGR). Four treatments, control (CK) without fertilizer, combined manure with chemical fertilizer (T1), chemical fertilization (T2), and chemical fertilizer with increasing fertilization (T3), were designed on experimental runoff plots for a long-term observation aiming to study their effects on soil erosion and nutrients losses. The results showed that fertilization reduced surface runoff and nutrient losses as compared to CK. T1, T2, and T3, compared to CK, reduced runoff volume by 35.7, 29.6, and 16.8 %, respectively and sediment yield by 40.5, 20.9, and 49.6 %, respectively. Regression analysis results indicated that there were significant relationships between soil loss and runoff volume in all treatments. The combined manure with chemical fertilizer (T1) treatment highly reduced total nitrogen and total phosphorus losses by 41.2 and 33.33 %, respectively as compared with CK. Through this 5-year experiment, we can conclude that, on the sloping purple soil, the combined application of manure with fertilizer is beneficial for controlling runoff sediments losses and preventing soil erosion. PMID:26517994

  9. Development of a biologically based fertilizer, incorporating Bacillus megaterium A6, for improved phosphorus nutrition of oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Xie, Lihua; Maul, Jude E; Yu, Changbing; Li, Yinshui; Zhang, Shujie; Liao, Xing

    2013-04-01

    Sustainable methods with diminished impact on the environment need to be developed for the production of oilseed rape in China and other regions of the world. A biological fertilizer consisting of Bacillus megaterium A6 cultured on oilseed rape meal improved oilseed rape seed yield (P < 0.0001) relative to the nontreated control in 2 greenhouse pot experiments using natural soil. This treatment resulted in slightly greater yield than oilseed rape meal without strain A6 in 1 of 2 experiments, suggesting a role for strain A6 in improving yield. Strain A6 was capable of solubilizing phosphorus from rock phosphate in liquid culture and produced enzymes capable of mineralizing organic phosphorus (acid phosphatase, phytase) in liquid culture and in the biological fertilizer. The biologically based fertilizer, containing strain A6, improved plant phosphorus nutrition in greenhouse pot experiments resulting in significantly greater available phosphorus in natural soil and in significantly greater plant phosphorus content relative to the nontreated control. Seed yield and available phosphorus in natural soil were significantly greater with a synthetic chemical fertilizer treatment, reduced in phosphorus content, than the biological fertilizer treatment, but a treatment containing the biological fertilizer combined with the synthetic fertilizer provided the significantly greatest seed yield, available phosphorus in natural soil, and plant phosphorus content. These results suggest that the biological fertilizer was capable of improving oilseed rape seed yield, at least in part, through the phosphorus-solubilizing activity of B. megaterium A6. PMID:23586746

  10. Surface and subsurface phosphorus losses from fertilized pasture systems in Ohio.

    PubMed

    Owens, L B; Shipitalo, M J

    2006-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential plant nutrient and critical to agricultural production, but it is also a problem when excessive amounts enter surface waters. Summer rotational grazing and winter feeding beef pasture systems at two fertility levels (56 and 28 kg available P ha(-1)) were studied to evaluate the P losses from these systems via surface runoff and subsurface flow using eight small (0.3-1.1 ha), instrumented watersheds and spring developments. Runoff events from a 14-yr period (1974-1988) were evaluated to determine the relationships between event size in mm, total dissolved reactive phosphorous (TDRP) concentration, and TDRP transport. Most of the TDRP transported was via surface runoff. There were strong correlations (r2 = 0.45-0.66) between TDRP transport and event size for all watersheds, but no significant (P = 0.05) correlations between TDRP concentration and event size. Flow-weighted average TDRP concentrations from the pasture watersheds for the 14-yr period ranged from 0.64 to 1.85 mg L(-1) with a few individual event concentrations as high as 85.7 mg L(-1). The highest concentrations were in events that occurred soon after P fertilizer application. Average seasonal flow-weighted TDRP concentrations for subsurface flow were < 0.05 mg L(-1). Applying P fertilizer to pastures in response to soil tests should keep TDRP concentrations in subsurface flow at environmentally acceptable levels. Management to reduce runoff and avoidance of P fertilizer application when runoff producing rainfall is anticipated in the next few days will help reduce the surface losses of P. PMID:16738395

  11. 40 CFR 422.20 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... phosphorus consuming subcategory. 422.20 Section 422.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Phosphorus Consuming Subcategory § 422.20 Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory... manufacture of phosphoric acid, phosphorus pentoxide, phosphorus pentasulfide, phosphorus trichloride,...

  12. 40 CFR 422.20 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... phosphorus consuming subcategory. 422.20 Section 422.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Phosphorus Consuming Subcategory § 422.20 Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory... manufacture of phosphoric acid, phosphorus pentoxide, phosphorus pentasulfide, phosphorus trichloride,...

  13. 40 CFR 422.20 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... phosphorus consuming subcategory. 422.20 Section 422.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Phosphorus Consuming Subcategory § 422.20 Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory... manufacture of phosphoric acid, phosphorus pentoxide, phosphorus pentasulfide, phosphorus trichloride,...

  14. 40 CFR 422.20 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... phosphorus consuming subcategory. 422.20 Section 422.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Phosphorus Consuming Subcategory § 422.20 Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory... manufacture of phosphoric acid, phosphorus pentoxide, phosphorus pentasulfide, phosphorus trichloride,...

  15. Evaluation of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer placement with strip tillage for irrigated Pacific Northwest corn production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient placement options with strip tillage (ST) can potentially improve plant nutrient utilization and increase crop yield compared to conventional fertilizer placement practices under conventional tillage (CT). The effects of tillage practice and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) placement on grai...

  16. PHOSPHORUS AVAILABILITY TO BARLEY FROM MANURES AND FERTILIZERS ON A CALCAREOUS SOIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is a limiting soil nutrient for many crops; however, P losses in runoff from agricultural lands are implicated in the degradation of water quality in many regions. We conducted a growth chamber study to determine the relative P solubility and plant P availability of manure and fertil...

  17. Effectiveness of biochar as a phosphorus fertilizer source for cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When processed via pyrolysis, livestock manures have the potential of providing energy and biochar. The biochars are high in nutrient content, especially potassium and phosphorus. Thus, they must be applied in accordance with their nutrient supplying capacity. This capacity will be affected by fa...

  18. Interactions between phosphorus deficiency and CO2 fertilization on cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) deficiency in acidic soils is a major limiting factor for crop production worldwide. A growth chamber experiment was conducted to study the limiting effect of P deficiency on cotton growth and photosynthesis (Pnet) on current and projected atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentratio...

  19. Phosphorus distribution in a soil fertilized with recovered manure phosphates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) can be recovered in a concentrated form from livestock manure and poultry litter. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the short-term leaching potential and plant availability of P from recovered P materials from liquid pig manure (SRP) and broiler litter (LRP) in a characteri...

  20. Fertilization and pH effects on processes and mechanisms controlling dissolved inorganic phosphorus in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devau, Nicolas; Hinsinger, Philippe; Le Cadre, Edith; Colomb, Bruno; Gérard, Frédéric

    2011-05-01

    We used of a set of mechanistic adsorption models (1-pK TPM, ion exchange and Nica-Donnan) within the framework of the component additive (CA) approach in an attempt to determine the effect of repeated massive application of inorganic P fertilizer on the processes and mechanisms controlling the concentration of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) in soils. We studied the surface layer of a Luvisol with markedly different total concentrations of inorganic P as the result of different P fertilizer history (i.e. massive or no application for 40 years). Soil pH was made to vary from acid to alkaline. Soil solutions were extracted with water and CaCl 2 (0.01 M). The occurrence of montmorillonite led us to determine the binding properties of P and Ca ions for this clay mineral. Satisfactory results were obtained using generic values for model parameters and soil-specific ones, which were either determined directly by measurements or estimated from the literature. We showed that adsorption largely controlled the variations of DIP concentration and that, because of kinetic constrains, only little Ca-phosphates may be precipitated under alkaline conditions, particularly in the P fertilized treatment. The mineral-P pool initially present in both P treatments did not dissolve significantly during the course of the experiments. The adsorption of Ca ions onto soil minerals also promoted adsorption of P ions through electrostatic interactions. The intensity of the mechanism was high under neutral to alkaline conditions. Changes in DIP concentration as a function of these environmental variables can be related to changes in the contribution of the various soil minerals to P adsorption. The extra P adsorbed in the fertilized treatment compared with the control treatment was mainly adsorbed onto illite. This clay mineral was the major P-fixing constituent from neutral to alkaline pH conditions, because the repulsion interactions between deprotonated hydroxyl surface sites and P

  1. Greenhouse evaluation and environmental impact assessment of different urine-derived struvite fertilizers as phosphorus sources for plants.

    PubMed

    Antonini, Samantha; Arias, Maria Alejandra; Eichert, Thomas; Clemens, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    A selection of six urine-derived struvite fertilizers generated by innovative precipitation technologies was assessed for their quality and their effectiveness as phosphorus sources for crops. Struvite purity was influenced by drying techniques and magnesium dosage. In a greenhouse experiment, the urine fertilizers led to biomass yields and phosphorus uptakes comparable to or higher than those induced by a commercial mineral fertilizer. Heavy metal concentrations of the different struvite fertilizers were below the threshold limits specified by the German Fertilizer and Sewage Sludge Regulations. The computed loading rates of heavy metals to agricultural land were also below the threshold limits decreed by the Federal Soil Protection Act. Urine-derived struvite contributed less to heavy metal inputs to farmland than other recycling products or commercial mineral and organic fertilizers. When combined with other soil conditioners, urine-derived struvite is an efficient fertilizer which covers the magnesium and more than half of the phosphorus demand of crops. PMID:22901433

  2. Three-year growth response of young Douglas-fir to nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus, and blended fertilizers in Oregon and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mainwaring, Douglas B.; Maguire, Douglas A.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of nutrient limitation in Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest focus predominantly on nitrogen, yet many stands demonstrate negligible or even negative growth response to nitrogen fertilization. To understand what nutrients other than nitrogen may limit forest productivity in this region, we tested six fertilizer treatments for their ability to increase stem volume growth response of dominant and co-dominant trees in young Douglas-fir plantations across a range of foliar and soil chemistry in western Oregon and Washington. We evaluated responses to single applications of urea, lime, calcium chloride, or monosodium phosphate at 16 sites, and to two site-specific nutrients blends at 12 of these sites. Across sites, the average stem volume growth increased marginally with urea, lime, and phosphorus fertilization. Fertilization responses generally aligned with plant and soil indicators of nutrient limitation. Response to nitrogen addition was greatest on soils with low total nitrogen and high exchangeable calcium concentrations. Responses to lime and calcium chloride additions were greatest at sites with low foliar calcium and low soil pH. Response to phosphorus addition was greatest on sites with low foliar phosphorus and high soil pH. Blended fertilizers yielded only marginal growth increases at one site, with no consistent effect across sites. Overall, our results highlight that calcium and phosphorus can be important growth limiting nutrients on specific sites in nitrogen-rich Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest.

  3. Twospotted spider mite population level, distribution, and damage on ivy geranium in response to different nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization regimes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Opit, George P; Jonas, Valerie M; Williams, Kimberly A; Nechols, James R; Margolies, David C

    2007-12-01

    The influence of plant nutrition on arthropod pests has often been studied by comparing plants provided suboptimal nutrients with those provided sufficient or luxurious nutrients, but such results have limited applicability to commercially produced crops because nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are almost never limiting in greenhouse production. We conducted a series of experiments with ivy geranium, Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Hŕ. ex Aiton 'Amethyst 96' to determine the response of twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae), to six combinations of N (8 or 24 mM) and P (0.32, 0.64, or 1.28 mM) that reflected commercial production practices. All six combinations resulted in saleable plants when plants were free of spider mites, but tissue N and P concentrations among fertilizer combinations were different. On mite-infested plants, no difference in mite numbers or plant damage was found in response to N fertilization rates. Phosphorus had no effect on mite population level until week 8, at which time plants fertilized with 0.64 mM P had slightly more mites than plants fertilized with 0.32 mM. However, overall quality and dry weight of plants fertilized by 0.32 mM P was lower than that of 0.64 and 1.28 mM, which suggests that ivy geranium plants fertilized with the higher P rates may better compensate for mite feeding damage. Positive correlations were found between within-plant distribution of mites and the corresponding tissue N and P concentrations in three foliage strata, suggesting that tissue nutrient content may influence mite selection of feeding sites. PMID:18232399

  4. Variable rate phosphorus fertilization experiment based on on-line visible and near infrared soil sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Boyan; Mouazen, Abdul

    2014-05-01

    Soil phosphorus is an important nutrient particularly for root and seed development, and deficiency of soil P could result in poor crop yield. However, over-application of Phosphorous causes waste of fertilizer and contamination to the environment. Variable rate (VR) fertilization may allow for a better phosphorous management in the soil, if within field variability in soil available P (P_av) can be characterized at a desirable fine scale. Visible and near infrared (vis-NIR) spectroscopy has been proven to be fast, cheap and non-destructive tool for the measurement of P_av. On-line vis-NIR sensors enable the collection of high resolution data on P_av with acceptable accuracy. The aim of this paper was to compare the economic and environmental benefits of VR phosphorous fertilization based on on-line vis-NIR soil sensing (OVR) against uniform rate (UR) and traditional precision farming variable rate (TVR). A trial plot experiment consisting of 9 plots was designed and implemented in a field with spring barely in 2013. Triplication plots (24 m width) for each of the three fertilization methods (OVR, UR and TVR) were randomly laid out in the field. Prior to the fertilization experiment, an on-line vis-NIR measurement was carried out to measure within field variation in P_av. Fertilizer input (P2O5 in kg ha-1) and yield output of each plot was measured to run a basic cost-benefit analysis. The validation of the on-line measurement with an independent validation set showed moderate measurement accuracy of P_av (R2= 0.72, RMSEP = 0.55 mg/100g and RPD = 1.99). The lowest amount of P2O5 was recommended and applied in OVR plots, which indicated a reduction of fertilizer use by 40 and 54 kg ha-1, as compared to UR and TPF method, respectively. Small yield difference was observed between the three treatments, although UR plots showed a slightly higher yield (6.990 kg ha-1). However, ANOVA analysis resulted in a smaller F value of 0.22 than F critical (3.22), which allows the

  5. Phosphorus Extraction by Cotton Fertilized with Broiler Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective management of litter to minimize or prevent the buildup of soil P requires knowledge of the amount of P extracted and removed by harvested crop. This knowledge does not exist or is not well documented for cotton fertilized with poultry litter. The objective of this research was to quanti...

  6. Both Phosphorus Fertilizers and Indigenous Bacteria Enhance Arsenic Release into Groundwater in Arsenic-Contaminated Aquifers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Yu; Wei, Chia-Cheng; Huang, Chi-Wei; Chang, Chun-Han; Hsu, Fu-Lan; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2016-03-23

    Arsenic (As) is a human carcinogen, and arsenic contamination in groundwater is a worldwide public health concern. Arsenic-affected areas are found in many places but are reported mostly in agricultural farmlands, yet the interaction of fertilizers, microorganisms, and arsenic mobilization in arsenic-contaminated aquifers remains uncharacterized. This study investigates the effects of fertilizers and bacteria on the mobilization of arsenic in two arsenic-contaminated aquifers. We performed microcosm experiments using arsenic-contaminated sediments and amended with inorganic nitrogenous or phosphorus fertilizers for 1 and 4 months under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The results show that microcosms amended with 100 mg/L phosphorus fertilizers (dipotassium phosphate), but not nitrogenous fertilizers (ammonium sulfate), significantly increase aqueous As(III) release in arsenic-contaminated sediments under anaerobic condition. We also show that concentrations of iron, manganese, potassium, sodium, calcium, and magnesium are increased in the aqueous phase and that the addition of dipotassium phosphate causes a further increase in aqueous iron, potassium, and sodium, suggesting that multiple metal elements may take part in the arsenic release process. Furthermore, microbial analysis indicates that the dominant microbial phylum is shifted from α-proteobacteria to β- and γ-proteobacteria when the As(III) is increased and phosphate is added in the aquifer. Our results provide evidence that both phosphorus fertilizers and microorganisms can mediate the release of arsenic to groundwater in arsenic-contaminated sediments under anaerobic condition. Our study suggests that agricultural activity such as the use of fertilizers and monitoring phosphate concentration in groundwater should be taken into consideration for the management of arsenic in groundwater. PMID:26937943

  7. County-level estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use in the United States, 1945 to 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, Richard B.; Smith, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use were made for counties in the United States for the period 1945 to 1985. County fertilizer use estimates were obtained through the disaggregation of state-level fertilizer use in proportion to the amount of state fertilized acreage reported to exist in counties. Numerical values of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use by county are not presented in the text of this report because of the size of the data file, but are available in machine-readable form upon request. Graphical summaries of national, state, and county nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use are presented to briefly describe the spatial and temporal variability that exist in the data.

  8. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Nutrient Application (Phosphorus and Nitrogen) for Fertilizer and Manure Applied to Crops (Cropsplit), 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the estimated amount of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers applied to selected crops for the year 2002, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set is based on 2002 fertilizer data (Ruddy and others, 2006) and tabulated by crop type per county (Alexander and others, 2007). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for MRB_E2RF1 catchments for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  9. Estimating Phosphorus Loss in Runoff from Manure and Fertilizer for a Phosphorus Loss Quantification Tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-point source pollution of fresh waters by phosphorus (P) is a concern because it contributes to accelerated eutrophication. Qualitative P Indexes that estimate the risk of field-scale P loss have been developed in the USA and Europe. However, given the state of the science concerning agricultura...

  10. Integrated physicochemical and biological treatment process for fluoride and phosphorus removal from fertilizer plant wastewater.

    PubMed

    Gouider, Mbarka; Mlaik, Najwa; Feki, Mongi; Sayadi, Sami

    2011-08-01

    The phosphate fertilizer industry produces highly hazardous and acidic wastewaters. This study was undertaken to develop an integrated approach for the treatment of wastewaters from the phosphate industry. Effluent samples were collected from a local phosphate fertilizer producer and were characterized by their high fluoride and phosphate content. First, the samples were pretreated by precipitation of phosphate and fluoride ions using hydrated lime. The resulting low- fluoride and phosphorus effluent was then treated with the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process to monitor the simultaneous removal of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Phosphorus removal included a two-stage anaerobic/aerobic system operating under continuous flow. Pretreated wastewater was added to the activated sludge and operated for 160 days in the reactor. The operating strategy included increasing the organic loading rate (OLR) from 0.3 to 1.2 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L.d. The stable and high removal rates of COD, NH4(+)-N, and PO4(3-)-P were then recorded. The mean concentrations of the influent were approximately 3600 mg COD/L, 60 mg N/L, and 14 mg P/L, which corresponded to removal efficiencies of approximately 98%, 86%, and 92%, respectively. PMID:21905410

  11. Ion chromatographic determination of phosphorus soluble in different extracting media in fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, Raffaele Antonio; Scuppa, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    A new method based on ion chromatography (IC) was developed for the determination of phosphorus in fertilizers. Fertilizers were extracted with water, mineral acids, and 2% formic acid, 2% citric acid, and neutral ammonium citrate solutions according to European Regulation No. 2003/2003 of the European Parliament and the Council of October 13, 2003, or the Decree of the Italian Agriculture Minister of June 17, 2002; the extracts were analyzed by direct injection, after simple filtration, by IC on an IonPac AS19 (250 x 4 mm id) column, using a KOH (21-50-21 mM) gradient and suppressed conductivity detection. The calibration plot was linear over the range of 5-50 mg/L (r(2) of >0.999). The method was evaluated by comparison with a gravimetric method according to established norms. Associated uncertainty at the 95% confidence level was established as 0.47% for the determination of 3-46% P2O5 by IC. A good chromatographic separation of phosphorus forms such as phosphates and phosphites, and some other important anions like nitrates, chlorides, and sulfates present in many commercial fertilizers was also possible, with a linear response over the range of 5-50 mg/L. After a more complete validation, this IC determination of phosphorus could replace more tedious methods such as those using gravimetric determinations. PMID:17042171

  12. Speciation and Distribution of Phosphorus in a Fertilized Soil: A Synchrotron-Based Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Lombi, E.; Scheckel, K.G.; Armstrong, R.D.; Forrester, S.; Cutler, J.N.; Paterson, D.

    2008-06-09

    Phosphorus availability is often a limiting factor for crop production around the world. The efficiency of P fertilizers in calcareous soils is limited by reactions that decrease P availability; however, fluid fertilizers have recently been shown, in highly calcareous soils of southern Australia, to be more efficient for crop (wheat [Triticum aestivum L.]) P nutrition than granular products. To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for this differential response, an isotopic dilution technique (E value) coupled with a synchrotron-based spectroscopic investigation were used to assess the reaction products of a granular (monoammonium phosphate, MAP) and a fluid P (technical-grade monoammonium phosphate, TG-MAP) fertilizer in a highly calcareous soil. The isotopic exchangeability of P from the fluid fertilizer, measured with the E-value technique, was higher than that of the granular product. The spatially resolved spectroscopic investigation, performed using nano x-ray fluorescence and nano x-ray absorption near-edge structure (n-XANES), showed that P is heterogeneously distributed in soil and that, at least in this highly calcareous soil, it is invariably associated with Ca rather than Fe at the nanoscale. 'Bulk' XANES spectroscopy revealed that, in the soil surrounding fertilizer granules, P precipitation in the form of octacalcium phosphate and apatite-like compounds is the dominant mechanism responsible for decreases in P exchangeability. This process was less prominent when the fluid P fertilizer was applied to the soil.

  13. [Effects of phosphorus fertilization on leaf area index, biomass accumulation and allocation, and phosphorus use efficiency of intercropped maize].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan-Xue; Li, Han-Han; Zhou, Tao; Chen, Xin-Ping; Huang, Wei; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Chao-Chun; Xu, Kai-Wei

    2013-10-01

    A 2-year field experiment was conducted in 2011 and 2012 to investigate the effects of phosphorus (P) fertilization on the leaf area index (LAI), dry matter accumulation (DMA), and P use efficiency (PUE) of maize in wheat/maize/soybean intercropping system. Five P fertilization rates were installed, i.e., 0, 45, 90, 135, and 180 kg P2O5 x hm(-2) for wheat, marked as WP0, WP1, WP2, WP3, and WP4, respectively, and 0, 37.5, 75, 112.5, and 150 kg P2O5 x hm(-2) for maize, marked as MP0, MP1, MP2, MP3, and MP4, respectively. During the coexisted growth periods of wheat and maize, P fertilization increased the LAI, leaf area duration (LAD), and stem and leaf DMA of maize significantly. After the jointing stage of maize, the maize LAI, LAD, DMA, and crop growth rate (CGR) all decreased after an initial increase with the increasing P rate, with the maximum growth in treatment MP2 or MP3. During the reproductive stage of maize, the maize dry mass translocation from vegetative to reproductive organ increased with increasing P fertilization rate, and the grain yield of both maize and whole cropping system increased firstly and decreased then, with the maximum grain yield of maize and whole cropping system being 6588 and 11955 kg x hm(-2) in treatment P3, respectively. The P apparent recovery efficiency of maize was the highest (26.3%) in treatment MP2, being 82.6%, 38.4%, and 152.9% higher than that in MP1 (14.4%), MP3 (19.0%), and MP4 (10.4%), respectively. In sum, for the wheat/maize/soybean intercropping system, applying appropriate amount of P fertilizer could promote maize growth, alleviate the impact of wheat on maize, and consequently, increase the P apparent recovery efficiency of maize. In this study, the appropriate P fertilization rate was 75-112.5 kg P2O5 x hm(-2). PMID:24483073

  14. Field demonstration of reduction of lead availability in soil and cabbage (Brassica Chinensis L.) contaminated by mining tailings using phosphorus fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zheng-Miao; Wang, Bi-Ling; Sun, Ye-Fang; Li, Jing

    2006-01-01

    A field demonstration of reduction of lead availability in a soil and cabbage (Brassica Chinensis L.) contaminated by mining tailings, located in Shaoxing, China was carried out to evaluate the effects of applications of phosphorus fertilizers on Pb fractionation and Pb phyto-availability in the soil. It was found that the addition of all three P fertilizers including single super phosphate (SSP), phosphate rock (PR), and calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP) significantly decreased the percentage of water-soluble and exchangeable (WE) soil Pb and then reduced the uptake of Pb, Cd, and Zn by the cabbage compared to the control (CK). The results showed that the level of 300 g P/m(2) soil was the most cost-effective application rate of P fertilizers for reducing Pb availability at the first stage of remediation, and that at this P level, the effect of WE fraction of Pb in the soil decreased by three phosphorus fertilizers followed the order: CMP (79%)>SSP (41%)>PR (23%); Effectiveness on the reduction of Pb uptake by cabbage was in the order: CMP (53%)>SSP (41%)>PR (30%). Therefore our field trial demonstrated that it was effective and feasible to reduce Pb availability in soil and cabbage contaminated by mining tailings using P fertilizers in China and PR would be a most cost-effective amendment. PMID:16365925

  15. Field demonstration of reduction of lead availability in soil and cabbage (Brassica Chinensis L.) contaminated by mining tailings using phosphorus fertilizers*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zheng-miao; Wang, Bi-ling; Sun, Ye-fang; Li, Jing

    2006-01-01

    A field demonstration of reduction of lead availability in a soil and cabbage (Brassica Chinensis L.) contaminated by mining tailings, located in Shaoxing, China was carried out to evaluate the effects of applications of phosphorus fertilizers on Pb fractionation and Pb phytoavailability in the soil. It was found that the addition of all three P fertilizers including single super phosphate (SSP), phosphate rock (PR), and calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP) significantly decreased the percentage of water-soluble and exchangeable (WE) soil Pb and then reduced the uptake of Pb, Cd, and Zn by the cabbage compared to the control (CK). The results showed that the level of 300 g P/m2 soil was the most cost-effective application rate of P fertilizers for reducing Pb availability at the first stage of remediation, and that at this P level, the effect of WE fraction of Pb in the soil decreased by three phosphorus fertilizers followed the order: CMP (79%)>SSP (41%)>PR (23%); Effectiveness on the reduction of Pb uptake by cabbage was in the order: CMP (53%)>SSP (41%)>PR (30%). Therefore our field trial demonstrated that it was effective and feasible to reduce Pb availability in soil and cabbage contaminated by mining tailings using P fertilizers in China and PR would be a most cost-effective amendment. PMID:16365925

  16. 40 CFR 422.10 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... phosphorus production subcategory. 422.10 Section 422.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Phosphorus Production Subcategory § 422.10 Applicability; description of the phosphorus production... production of phosphorus and ferrophosphorus by smelting of phosphate ore....

  17. 40 CFR 422.10 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... phosphorus production subcategory. 422.10 Section 422.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Phosphorus Production Subcategory § 422.10 Applicability; description of the phosphorus production... production of phosphorus and ferrophosphorus by smelting of phosphate ore....

  18. 40 CFR 422.10 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... phosphorus production subcategory. 422.10 Section 422.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Phosphorus Production Subcategory § 422.10 Applicability; description of the phosphorus production... production of phosphorus and ferrophosphorus by smelting of phosphate ore....

  19. 40 CFR 422.10 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... phosphorus production subcategory. 422.10 Section 422.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Phosphorus Production Subcategory § 422.10 Applicability; description of the phosphorus production... production of phosphorus and ferrophosphorus by smelting of phosphate ore....

  20. 40 CFR 422.10 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... phosphorus production subcategory. 422.10 Section 422.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Phosphorus Production Subcategory § 422.10 Applicability; description of the phosphorus production... production of phosphorus and ferrophosphorus by smelting of phosphate ore....

  1. [Effects of different long-term fertilization on the activities of enzymes related to carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles in a red soil].

    PubMed

    Fan, Miao-zhen; Yin, Chang; Fan, Fen-liang; Song, A-lin; Wang, Bo-ren; Li, Dong-chu; Liang, Yong-chao

    2015-03-01

    Using a microplate fluorimetric assay method, five fertilization treatments, i.e. no-fertilizer control (CK) , sole application of nitrogen (N), balanced application of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizer (NPK), application of pig manure (M), and combination of pig manure with balanced chemical fertilizer (MNPK) were selected to investigate the effects of different long-term fertilization regimes on the activity of five enzymes (β-1, 4-glucosidase, βG; cellobiohydrolase, CBH; β-1, 4-xylosidase, βX; β-1, 4-N-acetylglucosaminidase, NAG; acid phosphatase, AP) in a red soil sampled from Qiyang, Hunnan Province. The results showed that compared with CK treatment, N treatment had no impact on βG, βX, CBH, and NAG activities but reduced AP activity, while NPK, M and MNPK treatments increased the activities of all the five enzymes. Correlation analysis indicated that all the five enzyme activities were positively correlated with the content of nitrate (r=0.465-0.733) , the content of available phosphorus (r=0.612-0.947) , soil respiration (r=0.781-0.949) and crop yield (r=0.735-0.960), while βG, CBH and AP were positively correlated with pH (r= 0.707-0.809), only AP was significantly correlated with dissolvable organic carbon (r = -0.480). These results suggested that the activities of the measured enzymes could be used as indicators of red soil fertility under different fertilization regimes, but the five enzymes tested provided limited information on the degree of acidification induced by application of mineral nitrogen. PMID:26211066

  2. Determination of phosphorus fertilizer soil reactions by Raman and synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Christian; Adam, Christian; Sekine, Ryo; Schiller, Tara; Lipiec, Ewelina; McNaughton, Don

    2013-10-01

    The reaction mechanisms of phosphate-bearing mineral phases from sewage sludge ash-based fertilizers in soil were determined by Raman and synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy. Different reaction mechanisms in wet soil were found for calcium and magnesium (pyro-) phosphates. Calcium orthophosphates were converted over time to hydroxyapatite. Conversely, different magnesium phosphates were transformed to trimagnesium phosphate. Since the magnesium phosphates are unable to form an apatite structure, the plant-available phosphorus remains in the soil, leading to better growth results observed in agricultural pot experiments. The pyrophosphates also reacted very differently. Calcium pyrophosphate is unreactive in soil. In contrast, magnesium pyrophosphate quickly formed plant-available dimagnesium phosphate. PMID:24067573

  3. Sewage sludge ash--A promising secondary phosphorus source for fertilizer production.

    PubMed

    Herzel, Hannes; Krüger, Oliver; Hermann, Ludwig; Adam, Christian

    2016-01-15

    Sewage sludge incineration is extensively practiced in some European countries such as the Netherlands, Switzerland, Austria and Germany. A survey of German sewage sludge ash showed that the recovery potential is high, approx. 19,000 t of phosphorus per year. However, the survey also discovered that the bioavailability of phosphorus in the sewage sludge ash is poor and that more than half of the ashes cannot be used as fertilizers due to high heavy metal content. A new thermochemical process for sewage sludge ash treatment was developed that transforms the ash into marketable fertilizer products. Sewage sludge ash was thermochemically treated with sodium and potassium additives under reducing conditions, whereby the phosphate-bearing mineral phases were transformed into plant available phosphates. High P-bioavailability was achieved with a molar Na/P ratio >1.75 in the starting materials. Sodium sulfate, carbonate and hydroxide performed comparably as additives for this calcination process. Potassium carbonate and -hydroxide have to be added in a molar K/P ratio >2.5 to achieve comparable P-solubility. The findings of the laboratory scale investigations were confirmed by an industrial demonstration trial for an ash treatment with sodium sulfate. Simultaneously, the volatile transition metal arsenic (61% removal) as well as volatile heavy metals such as cadmium (80%), mercury (68%), lead (39%) and zinc (9%) were removed via the off-gas treatment system. The product of the demonstration trial is characterized by high bioavailability and a toxic trace element mass fraction below the limit values of the German fertilizer ordinance, thus fulfilling the quality parameters for a P-fertilizer. PMID:26321235

  4. Drivers of Phosphorus Uptake by Barley Following Secondary Resource Application.

    PubMed

    Brod, Eva; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Frossard, Emmanuel; Oberson, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake is still poorly understood. Using radioactive-labeling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal, and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP) and an unfertilized control (NoP) in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil) and pH 6.2 (limed soil). In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥fish sludge ≥wood ash ≥meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare). The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilization and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers. PMID:27243015

  5. Drivers of Phosphorus Uptake by Barley Following Secondary Resource Application

    PubMed Central

    Brod, Eva; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Frossard, Emmanuel; Oberson, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake is still poorly understood. Using radioactive-labeling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal, and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP) and an unfertilized control (NoP) in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil) and pH 6.2 (limed soil). In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥fish sludge ≥wood ash ≥meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare). The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilization and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers. PMID:27243015

  6. Phosphorus recovery from pig manure solids prior to land application.

    PubMed

    Szögi, Ariel A; Vanotti, Matias B; Hunt, Patrick G

    2015-07-01

    Land disposal of pig manure is an environmental concern due to an imbalance of the nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P) ratio for crop production, leading to excess phosphorus (P) in soils and potential risks of water pollution. A process called "quick wash" was investigated for its feasibility to extract and recover P from pig manure solids. This process consists of selective dissolution of P from solid manure into a liquid extract using mineral or organic acid solutions, and recovery of P from the liquid extract by adding lime and an organic polymer to form a P precipitate. Laboratory tests confirmed the quick wash process selectively removed and recovered up to 90% of the total (TP) from fresh pig manure solids while leaving significant amounts of nitrogen (N) in the washed manure residue. As a result of manure P extraction, the washed solid residue became environmentally safer for land application with a more balanced N:P ratio for crop production. The recovered P can be recycled and used as fertilizer for crop production while minimizing manure P losses into the environment. PMID:25874587

  7. Black Phosphorus Nanosheets: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications.

    PubMed

    Eswaraiah, Varrla; Zeng, Qingsheng; Long, Yi; Liu, Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Black phosphorus (BP) is an emerging two-dimensional (2D) material with a natural bandgap, which has unique anisotropy and extraordinary physical properties. Due to its puckered structure, BP exhibits strong in-plane anisotropy unlike other layered materials. The bandgap tunability of BP enables a wide range of ultrafast electronics and high frequency optoelectronic applications ranging from telecommunications to thermal imaging covering the nearly entire electromagnetic spectrum, whereas no other 2D material has this functionality. Here, recent advances in the synthesis, fabrication, anisotropic physical properties, and BP-based devices including field effect transistors (FETs) and photodetectors, are discussed. Recent passivation approaches to address the degradation of BP, which is one of the main challenges to bring this material into real world applications, are also introduced. Finally, a comment is made on the recent developments in other emerging applications, future outlook and challenges ahead in BP research. PMID:27225670

  8. Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on the composition of rhizobacterial communities of two Chilean Andisol pastures.

    PubMed

    Jorquera, Milko A; Martínez, Oscar A; Marileo, Luis G; Acuña, Jacquelinne J; Saggar, Surinder; Mora, María L

    2014-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization on composition of rhizobacterial communities of volcanic soils (Andisols) from southern Chile at molecular level is poorly understood. This paper investigates the composition of rhizobacterial communities of two Andisols under pasture after 1- and 6-year applications of N (urea) and P (triple superphosphate). Soil samples were collected from two previously established sites and the composition of rhizobacterial communities was determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The difference in the composition and diversity between rhizobacterial communities was assessed by nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis and the Shannon-Wiener index. In Site 1 (fertilized for 1 year), PCR-DGGE targeting 16S rRNA genes and MDS analysis showed that moderate N application (270 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)) without P significantly changed the composition of rhizobacterial communities. However, no significant community changes were observed with P (240 kg P ha(-1) year(-1)) and N-P application (270 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) plus 240 kg P ha(-1) year(-1)). In Site 2 (fertilized for 6 years with P; 400 kg P ha(-1) year(-1)), PCR-DGGE targeting rpoB, nifH, amoA and alkaline phosphatase genes and MDS analysis showed changes in rhizobacterial communities only at the highest rate of N application (600 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)). Quantitative PCR targeting 16S rRNA genes also showed higher abundance of bacteria at higher N application. In samples from both sites, the Shannon-Wiener index did not show significant difference in the diversity of rhizobacterial communities. The changes observed in rhizobacterial communities coincide in N fertilized pastures with lower soil pH and higher pasture yields. This study indicates that N-P application affects the soil bacterial populations at molecular level and needs to be considered when developing fertilizer practices for Chilean pastoral Andisols. PMID

  9. Carbon and Phosphorus in soil particulate fraction: effect of continuous agriculture, tillage and fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyngaard, N.; Echeverrıa, H. E.; Vidaurreta, A.; Picone, L. I.; Divito, G. A.

    2012-04-01

    In Argentinean Pampas region, the practice of intensive agriculture has diminished total organic carbon (TOC) content in soil. This degradation process can impact over phosphorus (P) organic fractions associated to it, and therefore limit soil capacity to provide P through mineralization. Along this line, P content in soil particulate fraction (PF) has been proposed as an index to estimate this capacity. The aims of this work were to evaluate (1) the effect of continuous agriculture, tillage and P fertilization over TOC and P fractions content in soil and PF, and (2) the stability of P-PF as a mineralization index. To this end, a long term experiment initiated in 2001 in Balcarce, Argentina, under continuous agriculture, was analyzed. There, two tillage systems - conventional till (CT) and no till (NT) - and two fertilization treatments - nitrogen (N) and N + P (NP) - were evaluated. Phosphorus rate was 30 kg ha-1 year-1. In each plot, the following parameters were determined in 2002, 2005, 2008 and 2011: TOC, P Bray, total P (Pt), inorganic P (Pi), and organic P (Po) content in the whole soil and in the PF. Also, C supply by residues and P soil balance during the experiment were calculated, and the P sorption capacity was determined in samples from 2011. C supply was greater in CT (7% relative to NT) and in NP (14% relative to N). However, TOC in soil was not modified neither by tillage or fertilization. Even though, C in the PF decreased (3% annually) by the use of continuous agriculture. This reduction was positively associated to the one observed in other soil properties as Pt, Pi and Po in the PF. P fertilization lessened this reduction in Pt (18,9 mg kg-1 in N and 23,1 mg kg-1 in NP in 2011) and Pi (4,2 mg kg-1 in N and 6,2 mg kg-1 in NP in 2011), but not in Po. This indicates that, Po is affected by management practices and, contrary to Pt, is stable to fertilization. Therefore Po can be studied as a potential P mineralization index. The difference among P

  10. Manure and mineral fertilizer effects on seasonal dynamics of bioactive soil phosphorus fractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonal fluctuations in bioavailable soil phosphorus can influence soil test results and associated assessment of off-site transport risk. Our objective was to evaluate changes in soil P speciation and availability with time following applications of grain fed cattle (Bos taurus) manure or monoamm...

  11. Predicting the Soil Phosphorus Dynamics of the Ploughed Layer Under Continuous Cultivation and P Fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, C.; Augusto, L.; Gallet-Budynek, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    One major component of the biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus (P) in soils is the plant-available soil P. Its sound management, to minimize the loss of soil P to surface waters while ensuring enough P to sustain soil fertility, requires being able to predict the long term dynamics of plant-available soil P with the P budget. We examined the ability of a simple model to predict the change in plant-available soil P of the ploughed layer for almost 3 decades of continuous cultivation and P fertilization. We used a process-based assessment of plant-availability that considers both the concentration (Cp) of phosphate ions (Pi) in solution and the time-dependent amount (Pr) of Pi bound to the soil solid phase that can diffuse towards solution that equilibrates with time Pi in solution under the effect of a gradient of concentration. Soil analyses were performed in batch experiment on soil suspensions using a 32Pi-dilution method at steady-state. The modeling considered the difference between P inputs minus P outputs. This annual P budget was partitioned between Cp and Pr for one year. Every year the P budget was calculated as the added P to soil minus the P removed in grain yields and the P that leaves the plough layer by leaching estimated as the simulated Cp value multiplied by the annual volume of drainage water. Other fluxes that can play a role in P cycling such as atmospheric deposit, preferential, subsurface and surface flows were neglected. We analyzed archived soil samples, taken up every 3-4 years from a long-term field experiment (1972-2000) on a sandy soil under temperate climate. It comprised 4 replicates and 3 annual rates of P application as commercial superphosphate: 0, 44 and 96 kg Pha-1 yr-1. The crop was a monoculture of irrigated-maize. Grain yields and their P content were determined every year for all plots. The overall corn grain yield over almost 3 decades was: 11.6 t ha-1 yr-1 (mean P content of grain = 3.0 g P kg¬-1). The starting Cp value in

  12. Phytoextraction of Soil Phosphorus by Potassium-Fertilized Grass-Clover Swards.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Bart G H; van Eekeren, Nick

    2016-03-01

    In the development of the Dutch National Ecological Network, many hectares of arable land are converted to nature areas to protect plant and animal species. This encompasses development of species-rich grasslands. On former agricultural land on sandy soils, this development is often hampered by relatively high phosphorus (P) levels, which also cause eutrophication. Standard practices to decrease the amount of P are either topsoil removal or long-term mowing of low-yielding established grassland. Both methods have disadvantages, and there is a need for additional techniques. As an alternative, phytoextraction ("mining") of soil P has been proposed. We tested a new technique of mining without mineral N fertilizer by cropping an intensively mown grass-clover with potassium (K) fertilization that could potentially be used as cattle feed. A long-term field experiment was conducted, comparing soil P removal by grass-clover swards with and without supplementary K fertilization on a sandy soil. During the experiment, which ran from 2002 to 2009, soil P levels and nutrient contents of grass-clover were measured, and P and K balances were calculated. Our results show that grass-clover with K fertilization removed excess soil P (also at lower P levels) at a relatively high rate (34 kg P ha yr, significantly higher than without K fertilization; < 0.05) and produced reasonable yields of grass-clover. Our P balance suggested reduced leaching from the topsoil during this experiment. For nature restoration in agricultural areas, this tool opens many possibilities. PMID:27065418

  13. Cadmium accumulations and bioavailability in soils from long-term phosphorus fertilization

    SciTech Connect

    Mulla, D.J.; Page, A.L.; Ganje, T.J.

    1980-07-01

    Soils from citrus groves that had been fertilized with the equivalent of approximately 175 kg P/ha per year (as treble superphosphate (TSP)) over a 36-year period were sampled and analyzed for total P, Cd, and Zn as well as water-soluble P and Cd. A P fertilization rate of 175 kg/ha is much higher than normal field rates, which are typically about 30 kg/ha. Concentrations of total Cd in surface soil were highly correlated (r = 0.89) with concentrations of total P. The concentrations of Cd in surface soil receiving broadcast P for 36 years averaged 1.0 ..mu..g/g, and were considerably greater than those of the controls, which showed a mean concentration of 0.07 ..mu..g/g. Phosphorus in soil saturation paste extracts ranged from 0.10 ..mu..g/ml (controls) to 8.87 ..mu..g/ml in P fertilized soils. Water-soluble saturation extract Cd ranged from 0.008 ..mu..g/ml in controls to 0.017 ..mu..g/ml in fertilized soils, and was not well correlated with water-soluble P. Cadmium levels in barley (Hordeum vulgare var. U.C. 566) grain and leaves grown in the field on soil subject to long-term heavy P fertilization were not elevated above levels in barley grown on the control soil. Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla) was grown in the greenhouse on the above surface soils collected from the field. Although Cd levels averaging 1.6 ..mu..g/g in plant tissue were significantly elevated over those on the control soil (0.26 ..mu..g/gm), no yield depression was observed.

  14. Tile drainage phosphorus loss with long-term consistent cropping systems and fertilization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, T Q; Tan, C S; Zheng, Z M; Drury, C F

    2015-03-01

    Phosphorus (P) loss in tile drainage water may vary with agricultural practices, and the impacts are often hard to detect with short-term studies. We evaluated the effects of long-term (≥43 yr) cropping systems (continuous corn [CC], corn-oats-alfalfa-alfalfa rotation [CR], and continuous grass [CS]) and fertilization (fertilization [F] vs. no-fertilization [NF]) on P loss in tile drainage water from a clay loam soil over a 4-yr period. Compared with NF, long-term fertilization increased concentrations and losses of dissolved reactive P (DRP), dissolved unreactive P (DURP), and total P (TP) in tile drainage water, with the increments following the order: CS > CR > CC. Dissolved P (dissolved reactive P [DRP] and dissolved unreactive P [DURP]) was the dominant P form in drainage outflow, accounting for 72% of TP loss under F-CS, whereas particulate P (PP) was the major form of TP loss under F-CC (72%), F-CR (62%), NF-CS (66%), NF-CC (74%), and NF-CR (72%). Dissolved unreactive P played nearly equal roles as DRP in P losses in tile drainage water. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the concentration of P (DRP, DURP, and PP) in tile drainage flow, rather than event flow volume, was the most important factor contributing to P loss in tile drainage water, although event flow volume was more important in PP loss than in dissolved P loss. Continuous grass significantly increased P loss by increasing P concentration and flow volume of tile drainage water, especially under the fertilization treatment. Long-term grasslands may become a significant P source in tile-drained systems when they receive regular P addition. PMID:26023969

  15. Evaluating phosphorus loss from a Florida spodosol as affected by phosphorus-source application methods.

    PubMed

    Agyin-Birikorang, S; O'Connor, G A; Brinton, S R

    2008-01-01

    Incorporating applied phosphorus (P) sources can reduce P runoff losses and is a recommended best management practice. However, in soils with low P retention capacities, leaching can be a major mechanism for off-site P loss, and the P-source application method (surface or incorporation) may not significantly affect the total amount of off-site P loss. We utilized simulated rainfall protocols to investigate effects of P-source characteristics and application methods on the forms and amounts of P losses from six P sources, including five biosolids materials produced and/or marketed in Florida, and one inorganic fertilizer (triple superphosphate). A typical Florida Spodosol (Immokalee fine sand; sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Alaquods) was used for the study, to which the P sources were each applied at a rate of 224 kg P ha(-1) (approximately the P rate associated with N-based biosolids applications). The P sources were either surface-applied to the soil or incorporated into the soil to a depth of 5 cm. Amended soils were subjected to three simulated rainfall events, at 1-d intervals. Runoff and leachate were collected after each rainfall event and analyzed for P losses in the form of soluble reactive P (SRP), total dissolved P (TDP), total P (TP), and bioavailable P (BAP) (in runoff only). Cumulative masses (runoff + leachate for the three rainfall events) of P losses from all the P sources were similar, whether the amendments were surface-applied or incorporated into the soil. The solubility of the amendment, rather than application method, largely determines the P loss potential in poorly P-sorbing Florida Spodosols. PMID:18453437

  16. Macronutrients use efficiency and changes in chemical properties of an oxisol as influenced by phosphorus fertilization and tropical cover crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are important components of copping systems due to their beneficial effects on soil physical, chemical and biological properties. A green house experiment was conducted to evaluate influence of phosphorus (P) fertilization on nutrient use efficiency of 14 tropical cover crops. The P leve...

  17. [Regional difference of NPK fertilizers application and environmental risk assessment in Jiangsu Province, China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qin-pu

    2015-05-01

    It is of great importance to have a deep understanding of the spatial distribution of NPK fertilizers application and the potential threat to the ecological environment in Jiangsu Province, which is helpful for regulating the rational fertilization, strengthening the fertilizer use risk management and guidance, and preventing agricultural non-point pollution. Based on the environmental risk assessment model with consideration of different impacts of N, P, K fertilizers on environment, this paper researched the regional differentiation characteristic and environmental risk of intensity of NPK fertilizer usages in Jiangsu. Analystic hierarchy process ( AHP) was used to determine the weithts of N, P, K. The environmental safety thresholds of N, P, K were made according to the standard of 250 kg · hm(-2) for the construction of ecological counties sponsered by Chinese government and the proportion of 1:0.5:0.5 for N:P:K surposed by some developed countries. The results showed that the intensity of NPK fertilizer application currently presented a gradually increasing trend from south to north of Jiangsu, with the extremum ratio of 3.3, and the extremum ratios of nitrogen fertilizer, phosphorus fertilizer and potassium fertilizer were 3.3, 4.5 and 4.4, respectively. The average proportion of nitrogen fertilizer, phosphorus fertilizer and potassium fertilizer of 13 cities in Jiangsu was 1:0.39:0.26. Their proportion was relatively in equilibrium in southern Jiangsu, but the nutrient structure disorder was serious in northern Jiangsu. In Jiangsu, the environmental risk index of fertilization averaged at 0.69 and in the middle-range of environmental risk. The environmental risk index of fertilizer application in southern and central Jiangsu was respectively at the low and moderate levels, while that of cities in northern Jiangsu was at the moderate, serious or severe level. In Jiangsu, the regional difference of fertilizer application and environmental risk assessment were

  18. Influence of phosphorus application and arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on growth, foliar nitrogen mobilization, and phosphorus partitioning in cowpea plants.

    PubMed

    Taffouo, Victor Désiré; Ngwene, Benard; Akoa, Amougou; Franken, Philipp

    2014-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of phosphorus (P) application and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Funneliformis mosseae) on growth, foliar nitrogen mobilization, and phosphorus partitioning in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv. Vita-5) plants. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in pots containing a mixture of vermiculite and sterilized quartz sand. Mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cowpea plants were supplied with three levels of soluble P (0.1 (low P), 0.5 (medium P), or 1.0 mM (high P)).Cowpea plants supplied with low P fertilization showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher root colonization than those with medium and high P fertilization at both the vegetative and pod-filling stages. P uptake and growth parameters of cowpea plants were positively influenced by mycorrhizal inoculation only in the medium P fertilization treatment at the vegetative stage. Lack of these effects in the other treatments may be linked to either a very low P supply (in the low P treatment at the vegetative stage) or the availability of optimal levels of freely diffusible P in the substrate towards the pod-filling stage due to accumulation with time. The N concentration in leaves of all cowpea plants were lower at the pod-filling stage than at the vegetative stage, presumably as a result of N mobilization from vegetative organs to the developing pods. This was however not influenced by AM fungal inoculation and may be a consequence of the lack of an improved plant P acquisition by the fungus at the pod-filling stage. PMID:24322505

  19. Vertical distribution of phosphorus in a sandy soil fertilized with recovered manure phosphates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To evaluate the environmental fate of recovered manure phosphates to provide application recommendations for their use as crop fertilizers. Materials and methods: A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the leaching potential and vertical distribution of total and plant available phos...

  20. Matrix based fertilizers reduce nitrogen and phosphorus leaching in three soils.

    PubMed

    Entry, James A; Sojka, R E

    2008-05-01

    We compared the efficacy of matrix based fertilizers (MBFs) formulated to reduce NO3-, NH4+, and total phosphorus (TP) leaching, with Osmocoate 14-14-14, a conventional commercial slow release fertilizer (SRF) and an unamended control in three different soil textures in a greenhouse column study. The MBFs covered a range of inorganic N and P in compounds that are relatively loosely bound (MBF 1) to more moderately bound (MBF 2) and more tightly bound compounds (MBF 3) mixed with Al(SO4)3H2O and/or Fe2(SO4)3 and with high ionic exchange compounds starch, chitosan and lignin. When N and P are released, the chemicals containing these nutrients in the MBF bind N and P to a Al(SO4)3H2O and/or Fe2(SO4)3 starch-chitosan-lignin matrix. One milligram (8000 spores) of Glomus intradices was added to all formulations to enhance nutrient uptake. In all three soil textures the SRF leachate contained a higher amount of NH4+, NO3- and TP than leachate from all other fertilizers. In all three soils there were no consistent differences in the amount of NH4+, NO3- and TP in the MBF leachates compared to the control leachate. Plants growing in soils receiving SRF had greater shoot, root and total biomass than all MBFs regardless of Al(SO4)3H2O or Fe2(SO4)3 additions. Arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in plant roots did not consistently differ among plants growing in soil receiving SRF, MBFs and control treatments. Although the MBFs resulted in less plant growth in this experiment they may be applied to soils growing plants in areas that are at high risk for nutrient leaching to surface waters. PMID:17597286

  1. Phosphorus and cadmium availability in soil fertilized with biosolids and ashes.

    PubMed

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Brännvall, Evelina; Wolters, Martin; Skoglund, Nils; Čirba, Stasys; Aksamitauskas, Vladislovas Česlovas

    2016-05-01

    The recycling of hygienized municipal sewage sludge (biosolids) to soil as the source of phosphorus (P) is generally encouraged. The use of biosolids, however, has some concerns, such as the presence of elevated concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements, and the possible presence of pathogens, hormones and antibiotics. Organic substances are destroyed during combustion whereas trace elements could partly be separated from P in different ash fractions. Biomass combustion waste (ash) can instead be considered as an alternative P source. This study evaluates and compares the impact of biosolids and their combustion residues (ashes), when used as fertilizers, on P and Cd solubility in soil, plant growth and plant uptake of these elements. Biosolids were also amended with K and Ca to improve the composition and properties of P in ashes, and incinerated at either 800 °C or 950 °C. Combustion of biosolids improved the Cd/P ratio in ashes by 2-5 times, compared with the initial biosolids. The low Cd content in ashes (4-9 mg Cd (kg P)(-1)) makes this material a particularly attractive alternative to mineral fertilizers. Significantly higher pore water P (as well as total N) was measured in soils containing biosolids, but plants produced a higher biomass in soil fertilized with ashes. The K and Ca amendments prior to biosolids combustion generally decreased the total Cd in ash, but had little effect on P and Cd uptake and biomass growth. Similarly, the combustion temperature had negligible effect on these factors as well. PMID:26933903

  2. Contribution of anthropogenic phosphorus to agricultural soil fertility and food production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringeval, B.; Nowak, B.; Nesme, T.; Delmas, M.; Pellerin, S.

    2014-07-01

    Agricultural intensification over the last few decades has been accompanied by the extensive use of anthropogenic phosphorus (P) derived from mined phosphate rock. Given the increasing scarcity of P resources, accurate estimates of the reliance of agriculture on anthropogenic P are required. Here we propose a modeling approach for assessing the contribution of anthropogenic P to agricultural soil fertility and food production. We performed computations at country level, and France was chosen as a typical western European country with intensive agriculture. Four soil P pools were identified based on their bioavailability (labile versus stable) and origin (anthropogenic versus natural). Pool evolution between 1948 and 2009 was estimated by combining international databases and a simple biogeochemical model. An optimization procedure demonstrated the necessity of representing a stable P pool capable of replenishing the labile pool within 14 to 33 years in order to match country-scale observations. Mean simulated P pool sizes for 2009 (0-35 cm soil horizon) were 146, 616, 31, and 156 kgP/ha for natural stable, anthropogenic stable, natural labile, and anthropogenic labile pools, respectively. We found that, on average, 82% (min-max: 68-91%) of soil P (sum of labile and above defined stable) in that year was anthropogenic. The temporal evolution of this contribution is directly related to the integral of chemical fertilizer use over time, starting from 1948. The contribution of anthropogenic P to food production was similar at 84% (min-max: 72-91%), which is greater than budget-based estimates (~50-60%) commonly reported in the literature. By focusing on soil fertility and food production, this study provides a quantitative estimation of human perturbations of the P cycle in agroecosystems.

  3. Changes in Olsen Phosphorus Concentration and Its Response to Phosphorus Balance in Black Soils under Different Long-Term Fertilization Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Xiaoying; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Baoku; Zhu, Ping; Zhang, Shuxiang; Xu, Minggang

    2015-01-01

    The Olsen phosphorus (P) concentration of a soil is a key index that can be used to evaluate the P supply capacity of the soil and to estimate the optimal P fertilization rate. A study of the relationship between the soil Olsen P concentration and the P balance (P input minus P output) and their variations among different fertilization patterns will help to provide useful information for proper management of P fertilization. In this paper, the two investigated long-term experiments were established on black soils in the northeast region of China. Six fertilization treatments were selected: (1) unfertilized (CK); (2) nitrogen only (N); (3) nitrogen and potassium (NK); (4) nitrogen and phosphorus (NP); (5) nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK); and (6) nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and manure (NPKM). The results showed that the average Olsen P concentrations in the black soils at Gongzhuling and Harbin (16- and 31-year study periods, respectively), decreased by 0.49 and 0.56 mg kg-1 a-1, respectively, without P addition and increased by 3.17 and 1.78 mg kg-1 a-1, respectively, with P fertilization. The changes in soil Olsen P concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) correlated with the P balances at both sites except for the NP and NPK treatments at Gongzhuling. Under an average deficit of 100 kg ha-1 P, the soil Olsen P concentration at both sites decreased by 1.36~3.35 mg kg-1 in the treatments without P addition and increased by 4.80~16.04 mg kg-1 in the treatments with 100 kg ha-1 of P accumulation. In addition, the changes in Olsen P concentrations in the soil with 100 kg ha-1of P balance were significantly correlated with the P activation coefficient (PAC, percentage of Olsen P to total P, r=0.99, P<0.01) and soil organic matter content (r=0.91, P<0.01). A low pH was related to large changes of Olsen P by 1 kg ha-1 of P balance. These results indicated that soil organic matter and pH have important effects on the change in soil Olsen P by 1 kg ha-1 of P

  4. Phosphorus in manure and sewage sludge more recyclable than in soluble inorganic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Kahiluoto, H; Kuisma, M; Ketoja, E; Salo, T; Heikkinen, J

    2015-02-17

    Phosphorus (P) flow from deposits through agriculture to waterways leads to eutrophication and depletion of P reserves. Therefore, P must be recycled. Low and unpredictable plant availability of P in residues is considered to be a limiting factor for recycling. We identified the determinants for the plant-availability of P in agrifood residues. We quantified P in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and in field soil fractions with different plant availabilities of P as a response to manure and sewage sludge with a range of P capture and hygienization treatments. P was more available in manure and in sludge, when it was captured biologically or with a moderate iron (Fe)/P (1.6), than in NPK. Increasing rate of sludge impaired P recovery and high Fe/P (9.8) prevented it. Anaerobic digestion (AD) reduced plant-availability at relevant rates. The recovery of P was increased in AD manure via composting and in AD sludge via combined acid and oxidizer. P was not available to plants in the sludge hygienized with a high calcium/P. Contrary to assumed knowledge, the recyclability of P in appropriately treated residues can be better than in NPK. The prevention of P sorption in soil by organic substances in fertilizers critically enhances the recyclability of P. PMID:25569114

  5. Bone char: a clean and renewable phosphorus fertilizer with cadmium immobilization capability.

    PubMed

    Siebers, Nina; Leinweber, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Soil contamination with Cd from P fertilizer and other anthropogenic and geogenic sources is a serious problem. In situ immobilization by P application to soil is known as an applicable remediation technique leading to reduced Cd uptake by plants, and use of a Cd-free P fertilizer from renewable sources would be most favorable. Bone char (BC) (15% P, 28% Ca, 0.7% Mg) may be used as such a quality P fertilizer, but it is unknown if its dissolution in soil provides sufficient P and immobilizes Cd in moderately contaminated soils. We incubated BC and triple superphosphate (TSP) in 11 soils that contained between 0.3 to 19.6 mg Cd kg and determined the kinetics of P dissolution during a time period of 145 d. The concomitant Cd immobilization was determined by extracting the mobile Cd with 1 mol L NHNO solution. For most soils, BC increased the concentration of labile P immediately after application, reaching a maximum after 34 d, although the solubility was below that of TSP (2.9-19.3 vs. 4.1-24.0%). Among five kinetic models, the Langmuir-type equation provided the best description of P dissolution from BC and TSP. The Cd immobilization resulting from BC dissolution exceeded that of TSP by a factor of 1.4 to 2.7. The P dissolution from BC was negatively correlated with pH and positively with P sorption capacity, whereas Cd immobilization was positively correlated with soil pH. These causal relationships were expressed in multiple equations that enable predictions of P dissolution and Cd immobilization and thus may help to introduce BC as sustainable P fertilizer and useful soil amendment. PMID:23673832

  6. Thermochemical treatment of sewage sludge ash with sodium salt additives for phosphorus fertilizer production--Analysis of underlying chemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Stemann, Jan; Peplinski, Burkhard; Adam, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Stocks of high grade phosphate rock are becoming scarce, and there is growing concern about potentially harmful impurities in conventional phosphorus fertilizers. Sewage sludge ash is a promising secondary phosphorus source. However, to remove heavy metals and convert the phosphorus contained in sewage sludge ash into mineral phases available to plants, an after-treatment is required. Laboratory-scale calcination experiments of sewage sludge ash blended with sodium salts using dried sewage sludge as a reducing agent were carried out at 1000°C. Thus, the Ca3(PO4)2 or whitlockite component of raw sewage sludge ash, which is not readily plant available, was converted to CaNaPO4 (buchwaldite). Consequently, nearly complete phosphorus solubility in ammonium citrate (a well-established indicator for plant availability) was achieved. Moreover, it was shown that Na2CO3 may be replaced by moderately priced Na2SO4. However, molar ratios of Na/P>2 were required to achieve >80% phosphorus solubility. Such over-stoichiometric Na consumption is largely caused by side reactions with the SiO2 component of the sewage sludge ash - an explanation for which clear evidence is provided for the first time. PMID:26219587

  7. An Application of the Phosphorus Consistent Rule for Environmentally Acceptable Cost-Efficient Management of Broiler Litter in Crop Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paudel, Krishna P.; Limaye, Ashutosh; Adhikari, Murali; Martin, Neil R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    We calculated the profitability of using broiler litter as a source of plant nutrients using the phosphorus consistent litter application rule. The cost saving by using litter is 37% over the use of chemical fertilizer-only option to meet the nutrient needs of major crops grown in Alabama. In the optimal solution, only a few routes of all the possible routes developed were used for inter- and intra- county litter hauling. If litter is not adopted as the sole source of crop nutrients, the best environmental policy may be to pair the phosphorus consistent rule with taxes, marketable permits, and subsidies.flaws

  8. Leachate Concentrations of Ammonium, Nitrate, and Phosphorus as Affected by Nutrient Release From Four Different Types of Controlled-Release Fertilizers and Crop Development of Containerized Azaleas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, and phosphorus in irrigation leachate were measured weekly over a 47-week period from a low-fertility, acid-based substrate into which four types of 12-month controlled-release fertilizers (Osmocote, Nutricote, Polyon, or Multicote) were incorporated. Containers ...

  9. Leachate Concentrations of Ammonium, Nitrate, and Phosphorus as Affected by Nutrient Release from Four Different Types of Controlled-Release Fertilizers and Crop Development of Containerized Waxleaf Privet.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, and phosphorus in irrigation leachate were measured weekly over a 47-week period from a high-fertility, neutral-pH substrate into which four types of 12-month controlled-release fertilizers (Osmocote, Nutricote, Polyon, or Multicote) were incorporated. Containers...

  10. Black Phosphorus: Narrow Gap, Wide Applications.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2015-11-01

    The recent isolation of atomically thin black phosphorus by mechanical exfoliation of bulk layered crystals has triggered an unprecedented interest, even higher than that raised by the first works on graphene and other two-dimensionals, in the nanoscience and nanotechnology community. In this Perspective, we critically analyze the reasons behind the surge of experimental and theoretical works on this novel two-dimensional material. We believe that the fact that black phosphorus band gap value spans over a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum (interesting for thermal imaging, thermoelectrics, fiber optics communication, photovoltaics, etc.) that was not covered by any other two-dimensional material isolated to date, its high carrier mobility, its ambipolar field-effect, and its rather unusual in-plane anisotropy drew the attention of the scientific community toward this two-dimensional material. Here, we also review the current advances, the future directions and the challenges in this young research field. PMID:26600394

  11. Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilization on Soil Carbon Fractions in Alpine Meadows on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin Hua; Yang, Yu Jie; Li, Bo Wen; Li, Wen Jin; Wang, Gang; Knops, Johannes M. H.

    2014-01-01

    In grassland ecosystems, N and P fertilization often increase plant productivity, but there is no concensus if fertilization affects soil C fractions. We tested effects of N, P and N+P fertilization at 5, 10, 15 g m−2 yr−1 (N5, N10, N15, P5, P10, P15, N5P5, N10P10, and N15P15) compared to unfertilized control on soil C, soil microbial biomass and functional diversity at the 0–20 cm and 20–40 cm depth in an alpine meadow after 5 years of continuous fertilization. Fertilization increased total aboveground biomass of community and grass but decreased legume and forb biomass compared to no fertilization. All fertilization treatments decreased the C:N ratios of legumes and roots compared to control, however fertilization at rates of 5 and 15 g m−2 yr−1 decreased the C:N ratios of the grasses. Compared to the control, soil microbial biomass C increased in N5, N10, P5, and P10 in 0–20 cm, and increased in N10 and P5 while decreased in other treatments in 20–40 cm. Most of the fertilization treatments decreased the respiratory quotient (qCO2) in 0–20 cm but increased qCO2 in 20–40 cm. Fertilization increased soil microbial functional diversity (except N15) but decreased cumulative C mineralization (except in N15 in 0–20 cm and N5 in 20–40 cm). Soil organic C (SOC) decreased in P5 and P15 in 0–20 cm and for most of the fertilization treatments (except N15P15) in 20–40 cm. Overall, these results suggested that soils will not be a C sink (except N15P15). Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization may lower the SOC pool by altering the plant biomass composition, especially the C:N ratios of different plant functional groups, and modifying C substrate utilization patterns of soil microbial communities. The N+P fertilization at 15 g m−2 yr−1 may be used in increasing plant aboveground biomass and soil C accumulation under these meadows. PMID:25075624

  12. Closing the Phosphorus Loop by Recovering Phosphorus From Waste Streams With Layered Double Hydroxide Nanocomposites and Converting the Product into an Efficient Fertilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, H.; Shih, K.

    2015-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) recovery has been frequently discussed in recent decades due to the uncertain availability and uneven distribution of global phosphate rock reserves. Sorption technology is increasingly considered as a reliable, efficient and environmentally friendly P removal method from aqueous solution. In this study, a series of Mg-Al-based layered double hydroxide nanocomposites and their corresponding calcined products were fabricated and applied as phosphate adsorbents. The prepared samples were with average size at ~50 nm and self-assembled into larger particles in irregular shapes. The results of batch adsorption experiments demonstrated that calcination significantly enhanced the adsorption ability of LDHs for phosphorus, and the maximum adsorption capacity of calcined Mg-Al-LDH was as high as 100.7 mg-P/g. Furthermore, incorporation of Zr4+ and La3+ into LDH materials increases the sorption selectivity as well as sorption amount of phosphorus in LDHs, which was confirmed by experiments operated in synthetic human urine. For the first time ammonia (NH4OH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions were employed to desorb the P-loaded LDH. Identification of solids derived from two eluting solutions showed that struvite (MgNH4PO4•6H2O, MAP) was precipitated in ammonia solution while most phosphate was desorbed into liquid phase in KOH system without crystallization of potassium struvite (MgKPO4•6H2O) due to its higher solubility. Quantitative X-ray diffraction technique was used to determine struvite contents in obtained solids and the results revealed that ~ 30% of adsorbed P was transferred into struvite form in the sample extracted by 0.5M NH4OH. Leaching tests suggested that the phosphorus releasing kinetics of ammonia treated LDH was comparable to that of pure struvite product, indicating that postsorption Mg-Al-LDH desorbed with ammonia could serve as a slow-releasing fertilizer in agriculture (see Figure 1).

  13. Effect of Vermicompost Alone and Its Combination with Recommended Dose of Fertilizers on Available Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium in Rice Field.

    PubMed

    Shwetha, S; Narayana, J

    2014-01-01

    Rice variety KMP101 was treated with both organic and inorganic manure. The field and experimental studies were conducted, before applying organic and inorganic manures.The values obtained for available nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium were 360 kg/ha, 12 kg/ha and 166 kg/ha respectively. After treatment and harvest there was a gradual increase in available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium ranging between 335-415, 14 -23 and 173- 235 kg/ha respectively among the treatments. Applying 15 t of vermicompost /ha and 10 t of vermicompost /ha and recommended dose of fertilizer showed a greater availability of nitrogen and phosphorus. It is revealed that after addition of organics into the soil year-wise, the soil became more stable. Also, the biological activity increased in the soil and was influenced to maintain the available nitrogen in the soil. Therefore, it is evident that vermicompost significantly increases the availability of available nutrients. PMID:26445754

  14. Efficient Phosphorus Cycling in Food Production: Predicting the Phosphorus Fertilization Effect of Sludge from Chemical Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Falk Øgaard, Anne; Brod, Eva

    2016-06-22

    This study examined the P fertilization effects of 11 sewage sludges obtained from sewage treated with Al and/or Fe salts to remove P by a pot experiment with ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and a nutrient-deficient sand-peat mixture. Also it investigated whether fertilization effects could be predicted by chemical sludge characteristics and/or by P extraction. The mineral fertilizer equivalent (MFE) value varied significantly but was low for all sludges. MFE was best predicted by a negative correlation with ox-Al and ox-Fe in sludge, or by a positive correlation with P extracted with 2% citric acid. Ox-Al had a greater negative impact on MFE than ox-Fe, indicating that Fe salts are preferable as a coagulant when aiming to increase the plant availability of P in sludge. The results also indicate that sludge liming after chemical wastewater treatment with Al and/or Fe salts increases the P fertilization effect. PMID:27245702

  15. Spectroscopic investigation in the mid- and far-infrared regions of phosphorus fertilizers derived from thermochemically treated sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Christian; Kohl, Anka; Adam, Christian

    2011-03-01

    Inorganic phosphorus and nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (NPK) fertilizers based on phosphates from thermochemically treated sewage sludge ash were analyzed using mid-infrared (mid-IR) and far-infrared (FIR) spectroscopy. The different compounds present in the fertilizers were qualitatively determined with the help of recorded reference spectra of pure substances. Differentiation between various phosphates and other compounds such as sulfates, nitrates, and oxides was possible using combined interpretation of the mid-IR and FIR spectra. The results are in agreement with previous X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements of the same samples. The main phosphate phases detected were NH(4)H(2)PO(4), MgHPO(4)·3H(2)O, Mg(3)(PO(4))(2), Ca(5)(PO(4))(5)Cl, CaHPO(4)·2H(2)O, Ca(H(2-)PO(4))(2)·H(2)O, and AlPO(4). Furthermore, K(2)SO(4), NH(4)NO(3), Fe(2)O(3), and SiO(2) were identified in the IR spectra. However, ammonium and sulfate compounds were only identified in the mid-IR region but were not detectable in the FIR region. PMID:21352646

  16. Spring nitrogen fertilization of ryegrass-bermudagrass for phytoremediation of phosphorus-enriched soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen fertilization of forage grasses is critical for optimizing biomass and utilization of manure soil nutrients. Field studies were conducted in 2007-09 to determine the effects of spring N fertilization on amelioration of high soil P when cool-season, annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) is...

  17. Aqueous and gaseous nitrogen losses induced by fertilizer application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Chuanhui; Maggi, F.; Riley, W. J.; Hornberger, G. M.; Xu, T.; Oldenburg, C. M.; Spycher, N.; Miller, N. L.; Venterea, R. T.; Steefel, C.

    2009-03-01

    In recent years, concern has grown over the contribution of nitrogen (N) fertilizer use to nitrate (NO3-) water pollution and nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO), and ammonia (NH3) atmospheric pollution. Characterizing soil N effluxes is essential in developing a strategy to mitigate N leaching and emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, a previously described and tested mechanistic N cycle model (TOUGHREACT-N) was successfully tested against additional observations of soil pH and N2O emissions after fertilization and irrigation and before plant emergence. We used TOUGHREACT-N to explain the significantly different N gas emissions and nitrate leaching rates resulting from the different N fertilizer types, application methods, and soil properties. The N2O emissions from NH4+-N fertilizer were higher than from urea and NO3--N fertilizers in coarse-textured soils. This difference increased with decreases in fertilization application rate and increases in soil buffering capacity. In contrast to methods used to estimate global terrestrial gas emissions, we found strongly nonlinear N2O emissions as a function of fertilizer application rate and soil calcite content. Speciation of predicted gas N flux into N2O and N2 depended on pH, fertilizer form, and soil properties. Our results highlighted the need to derive emission and leaching factors that account for fertilizer type, application method, and soil properties.

  18. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Phosphorus Considerations - Module 19, Objectives, and Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    The treatment of wastewater phosphorus via land application includes both chemical and biological mechanisms. Chemically, phosphorus reacts with iron, aluminum, and calcium compounds in the soil providing efficient removal over a wide range of pH values. Phosphorus is also absorbed by rooted plants which, upon harvest, constitute a further removal…

  19. Hydrothermal Detoxization of Slate Containing Asbestos and the Possibility of Application for Fertilizer of its Products

    SciTech Connect

    Myojin, Sachi; Yamasaki, Chizuko; Yamasaki, Nakamichi; Kuroki, Toshihiro; Manabe, Wataru

    2010-11-24

    Hydrothermal decomposition of slate (building materials) containing asbestos has been attempted by using a NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} solution. Firstly, the alteration of chrysotile as a starting material was investigated under hydrothermal conditions of 200 deg. C, 12 hrs of reaction time and with a phosphate solution. It was confirmed that the original fibrous form of chrysotile had been perfectly collapsed by the SEM observation. The chrysotile (asbestos) disappeared to form Mg-Ca-Silicate (Ca{sub 7}Mg{sub 2}P{sub 6}O{sup 24}) estimated by XRD. The composition and chemical form of reaction products (Mg-Ca-Silicate) was predicted to application as a fertilizer. Fertilizer effect of these resulted product on cultivations of Japanese radish (leaves), soybeans and tomatoes, was examined by using a special medium of mixed soil with a low content of N, P, K and a thermal-treated zeolite one. The fertilizer effects of the product were compared to commercial fertilizers such as N, N-K-P and P types. In order to estimate the fertilizer effect, the size of crops, number of fruits and number of leaves were measured everyday. As a result, these hydrothermal products of slate containing asbestos were as good as commercial fertilizers on the market. Fruits groups especially had a good crop using the hydrothermal slate product. These results show that the main components of hydrothermal treatments slate are calcium silicate and magnesium phosphate. Its decomposition reaction products may have the possibility of application for fertilization of crops which require nucleic acid--phosphorus.

  20. Balance sheet for phosphorus in the UK.

    PubMed

    Bowman, J C

    A balance sheet for the inputs, uses and outputs of phosphorus in the UK economy has been drawn up. The major import is fertilizer, amounting to about 200 kt P per year. After fertilizers, the other imports (in kt P) are in animal feeds (63), detergents (38) and human food (14). The major outputs are sewage (50), animal excreta (26) and refuse (21); soil losses are about 20 kt. The flowpaths for phosphorus through humans, animals and plants are described. The discrepancy of about 210 kt P/yr is explained by the fact that the amount of phosphorus in the soil increases each year by almost as much as the amount of fertilizer phosphorus added. In view of UK dependence on this imported resource it is suggested that priority is given to work which might eventually have some practical application in preventing or reversing the immobilization of phosphorus in the soil. PMID:249678

  1. Phosphorus mobility in soil columns treated with dairy manures and commercial fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentration of animal production in some areas of the United States has led to concern about the environmental fate of manure derived phosphorus (P) in soils. A column study was conducted to quantify P leaching in a calcareous soil treated with mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP), two solid dairy m...

  2. Distribution of phosphorus in an Ultisol fertilized with recovered manure phosphates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) can be recovered in concentrated form from livestock manure and poultry litter. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the the short-term leaching potential and plant availability of P from recovered P materials from liquid pig manure (SRP) and broiler litter (LRP) in a characte...

  3. Optimizing phosphorus diffusion for photovoltaic applications: Peak doping, inactive phosphorus, gettering, and contact formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Hannes; Dastgheib-Shirazi, Amir; Min, Byungsul; Morishige, Ashley E.; Steyer, Michael; Hahn, Giso; del Cañizo, Carlos; Buonassisi, Tonio; Altermatt, Pietro P.

    2016-05-01

    The phosphosilicate glass (PSG), fabricated by tube furnace diffusion using a POCl3 source, is widely used as a dopant source in the manufacturing of crystalline silicon solar cells. Although it has been a widely addressed research topic for a long time, there is still lack of a comprehensive understanding of aspects such as the growth, the chemical composition, possible phosphorus depletion, the resulting in-diffused phosphorus profiles, the gettering behavior in silicon, and finally the metal-contact formation. This paper addresses these different aspects simultaneously to further optimize process conditions for photovoltaic applications. To do so, a wide range of experimental data is used and combined with device and process simulations, leading to a more comprehensive interpretation. The results show that slight changes in the PSG process conditions can produce high-quality emitters. It is predicted that PSG processes at 860 °C for 60 min in combination with an etch-back and laser doping from PSG layer results in high-quality emitters with a peak dopant density Npeak = 8.0 × 1018 cm-3 and a junction depth dj = 0.4 μm, resulting in a sheet resistivity ρsh = 380 Ω/sq and a saturation current-density J0 below 10 fA/cm2. With these properties, the POCl3 process can compete with ion implantation or doped oxide approaches.

  4. Soil phosphorus mobilization in the rhizosphere of cover crops has little effect on phosphorus cycling in California agricultural soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    External phosphorus (P) inputs to agricultural soils are needed to replace soil P removed by harvest and maintain soil fertility. Alternative fertilization approaches that maintain soil fertility while reducing P inputs could improve current practices that often result in excessive P application and...

  5. Distributions and stoichiometry of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus in the iron-fertilized region near Kerguelen (Southern Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blain, S.; Capparos, J.; Guéneuguès, A.; Obernosterer, I.; Oriol, L.

    2015-01-01

    During KEOPS2 (Kerguelen Ocean and Plateau Compared Study 2), we determined dissolved inorganic and organic nitrogen and phosphorus species in the naturally fertilized region of Kerguelen Island (Southern Ocean). Above 150 m, stations were clearly separated by the polar front (PF), with concentrations of NO3-, NO2- and PO43- overall lower north of the PF than south. Though less pronounced, a similar trend was detectable for dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP). At all stations offshore and above the plateau, a subsurface maximum of NH4+ was observed between 50 and 150 m. We examined nutrient stoichiometry by calculating the linear combination N* = [NO3-]-16 [PO43-]. The majority of stations and depths revealed N* close to -3 μM; however, for surface waters north of the PF, N* increased up to 6 μM. This suggests a preferential uptake of PO43- versus NO3- by fast-growing diatoms. Using the tracer TNxs = [TDN]-16[TDP] (TDN, total dissolved nitrogen; TDP, total dissolved phosphorus) revealed that the dissolved organic fraction significantly contributed to changes in TNxs. TNxs values were negative for most stations and depths, and relatively constant in the 0-500 m layer. As for N*, the stations north of the PF had higher TNxs in the 0-100 m layer. We discuss this stoichiometric anomaly with respect to possible external sources and sinks of N and P. Additional data collected in February 2013 at two sites revealed the occurrence of a subsurface minimum of N* located just below the pycnocline, which denotes a layer where remineralization of particulate organic matter with low N : P ratio P, possibly associated with preferential remineralization of P versus N, persists throughout the season.

  6. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium release from two compressed fertilizers: column experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Sanjurjo, M. J.; Alvarez-Rodríguez, E.; Núñez-Delgado, A.; Fernández-Marcos, M. L.; Romar-Gasalla, A.

    2014-07-01

    We used soil columns to study nutrients release from two compressed NPK fertilizers. The columns were filled with soil material from the surface horizon of a granitic soil. Tablets of two slow-release NPK fertilizers (11-18-11 or 8-8-16) were placed into the soil, and then water was percolated through the columns in a saturated regime. Percolates were analyzed for N, P, K, Ca and Mg. These nutrients were also determined in soil and fertilizer tablets at the end of the trials. Nutrient concentrations were high in the first percolates, reaching a steady state when 1426 mm water have percolated, which is equivalent to approximately 1.5 years of rainfall in the geographic area. In the whole trial, both tablets lost more than 80% of their initial N, P and K contents. However, K, Ca and Mg were the most leached, whereas N and P were lost in leachates to a lesser extent. Nutrient release was slower from the tablet with composition 8-8-16 than from the 11-18-11 fertilizer. In view of that, the 8-8-16 tablet can be considered more adequate for crops with a nutrient demand sustained over time. At the end of the trial, the effects of these fertilizers on soil chemical parameters were still evident.

  7. Tomato response to starter fertilizer, polyethylene mulch, and level of soil phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Grubinger, V.P.; Minotti, P.L.; Wien, H.C.; Turner, A.D. . Dept. of Fruit and Vegetable Science)

    1993-03-01

    Unmulched and polyethylene-mulched tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were grown with and without starter fertilizer (SF) in four field experiments. The field varied as to residual P level and the amount of P incorporated before planting. No benefits from SF were obtained on a soil with high residual P that was moderately fertilized with P before transplanting or on a soil with low residual P that was heavily fertilized with P. A positive effect from SF was observed only when residual P was low and no P was broadcast, and this was true in mulched and unmulched plots. No significant SF by mulch interaction was obtained in these experiments even though mulching consistently increased shoot P concentrations and fruit yield. The mulch was beneficial even under conditions where unmulched tomato leaves contained 0.4% P 3 weeks after transplanting, indicating that factors in addition to improved P nutrition are also involved in the mulch effect.

  8. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium release from two compressed fertilizers: column experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Sanjurjo, M. J.; Alvarez-Rodríguez, E.; Núñez-Delgado, A.; Fernández-Marcos, M. L.; Romar-Gasalla, A.

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this work was to study nutrients release from two compressed nitrogen-potassium-phosphorous (NPK) fertilizers. In the Lourizán Forest Center, tablet-type controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) were prepared by compressing various mixtures of fertilizers without covers or binders. We used soil columns (50 cm long and 7.3 cm inner diameter) that were filled with soil from the surface layer (0-20 cm) of an A horizon corresponding to a Cambic Umbrisol. Tablets of two slow-release NPK fertilizers (11-18-11 or 8-8-16) were placed into the soil (within the first 3 cm), and then water was percolated through the columns in a saturated regime for 80 days. Percolates were analyzed for N, P, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. These elements were also determined in soil and fertilizer tablets at the end of the trials. Nutrient concentrations were high in the first leachates and reached a steady state when 1426 mm of water had been percolated, which is equivalent to approximately 1.5 years of rainfall in this geographic area. In the whole trial, both tablets lost more than 80% of their initial N, P and K contents. However, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were the most leached, whereas N and P were lost in leachates to a lesser extent. Nutrient release was slower from the tablet with a composition of 8-8-16 than from the 11-18-11 fertilizer. In view of that, the 8-8-16 tablet can be considered more adequate for crops with a nutrient demand sustained over time. At the end of the trial, the effects of these fertilizers on soil chemical parameters were still evident, with a significant increase of pH, available Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, P and effective cation exchange capacity (eCEC) in the fertilized columns, as well as a significant decrease in exchangeable Al3+, reaching values < 0.08 cmol (+) kg-1.

  9. Optimizing Available Phosphorus in Calcareous Soils Fertilized with Diammonium Phosphate and Phosphoric Acid Using Freundlich Adsorption Isotherm

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    In calcareous soils, phosphorus (P) retention and immobilization take place due to precipitation and adsorption. Since soil pH is considered a major soil variable affecting the P sorption, an acidic P fertilizer could result in low P adsorption compared to alkaline one. Therefore, P adsorption from DAP and phosphoric acid (PA) required to produce desired soil solution P concentration was estimated using Freundlich sorption isotherms. Two soils from Faisalabad and T. T. Singh districts were spiked with 0, 10, and 20 % CaCO3 for 15 days. Freundlich adsorption isotherms (P = aCb/a) were constructed, and theoretical doses of PA and DAP to develop a desired soil solution P level (i.e., 0.20 mg L−1) were calculated. It was observed that P adsorption in soil increased with CaCO3. Moreover, at all the levels of CaCO3, P adsorption from PA was lower compared to that from DAP in both the soils. Consequently, lesser quantity of PA was required to produce desired solution P, 0.2 mg L−1, compared to DAP. However, extrapolating the developed relationship between soil CaCO3 contents and quantity of fertilizer to other similar textured soils needs confirmation. PMID:24307878

  10. Phosphorus in China's intensive vegetable production systems: over-fertilization,soil enrichment, and enviromental implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    China’s vegetable production has experienced a rapid growth in recent years. Total production amounted to 522.7 million Mg in 2009, which was more than nine times that in 1980 and represented >50% of the world production.Meanwhile, excessive use of animal manure and chemical fertilizers in vegetab...

  11. Managing acute phosphorus loss with fertilizer source and placement: Proof of concept

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface water eutrophication is a pervasive global problem, with P losses from agriculture often identified as a contributor. This study was conducted to evaluate the implications of fertilizer source and placement on potential soluble P (SP) runoff. National P Runoff Project protocols were used f...

  12. Forage cutting height and interval: Relationship to phosphorus uptake by bermudagrass fertilized with boiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter applied to meet bermudagrass N requirement contains more P than required for optimum forage production. Maximizing P uptake would facilitate greater P removal from hay fields fertilized with litter and decrease the potential for P transport by runoff or leaching that may cause eutroph...

  13. Aqueous and gaseous nitrogen losses induced by fertilizer application

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, C.; Maggi, F.; Riley, W.J.; Hornberger, G.M.; Xu, T.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Spycher, N.; Miller, N.L.; Venterea, R.T.; Steefel, C.

    2009-01-15

    In recent years concern has grown over the contribution of nitrogen (N) fertilizer use to nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) water pollution and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), nitric oxide (NO), and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) atmospheric pollution. Characterizing soil N effluxes is essential in developing a strategy to mitigate N leaching and emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, a previously described and tested mechanistic N cycle model (TOUGHREACT-N) was successfully tested against additional observations of soil pH and N{sub 2}O emissions after fertilization and irrigation, and before plant emergence. We used TOUGHREACT-N to explain the significantly different N gas emissions and nitrate leaching rates resulting from the different N fertilizer types, application methods, and soil properties. The N{sub 2}O emissions from NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N fertilizer were higher than from urea and NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N fertilizers in coarse-textured soils. This difference increased with decreases in fertilization application rate and increases in soil buffering capacity. In contrast to methods used to estimate global terrestrial gas emissions, we found strongly non-linear N{sub 2}O emissions as a function of fertilizer application rate and soil calcite content. Speciation of predicted gas N flux into N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2} depended on pH, fertilizer form, and soil properties. Our results highlighted the need to derive emission and leaching factors that account for fertilizer type, application method, and soil properties.

  14. Management strategy 3: fixed rate fertilizer applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous chapters outlined management strategies for pond fertilization that take into account specific individual pond nutrient needs. Those methods would most likely be more ecologically efficient than a pre-determined fixed-rate nutrient addition strategy. However, the vast majority of available ...

  15. Phosphorus and nitrogen in runoff after phosphorus- or nitrogen-based manure applications.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jim J; Chanasyk, David S; Curtis, Tony W; Olson, Barry M

    2011-01-01

    Application of beef cattle () manure based on nitrogen (N) requirements of crops has resulted in elevated concentrations of soil test phosphorus (P) in surface soils, and runoff from this cropland can contribute to eutrophication of surface waters. We conducted a 3-yr field study (2005-2007) on a Lethbridge loam soil cropped to dryland barley () in southern Alberta, Canada to evaluate the effect of annual and triennial P-based and annual N-based feedlot manure on P and N in runoff. The manure was spring applied and incorporated. There was one unamended control plot. A portable rainfall simulator was used to generate runoff in the spring of each year after recent manure incorporation, and the runoff was analyzed for total P, total dissolved P, total particulate P, dissolved reactive P, total N, total dissolved N, total particulate N, NO-N, and NH-N. Annual or triennial P-based application resulted in significantly ( ≤ 0.05) lower (by 50 to 94%) concentrations or loads of mainly dissolved P fractions in runoff for some years compared with annual N-based application, and this was related to lower rates of annual manure P applied. For example, mean dissolved reactive P concentrations in 2006 and 2007 were significantly lower for the annual P-based (0.12-0.20 mg L) than for the annual N-based application (0.24-0.48 mg L), and mean values were significantly lower for the triennial P-based (0.06-0.13 mg L) than for the annual N-based application. In contrast, other P fractions in runoff were unaffected by annual P-based application. Our findings suggested no environmental benefit of annual P-based application over triennial P-based application with respect to P and N in runoff. Similar concentrations and loads of N fractions in runoff for the P- and N-based applications indicated that shifting to a P-based application would not significantly influence N in runoff. PMID:21546681

  16. Legacy phosphorus in calcareous soils: effects of long-term poultry litter application on phosphorus distribution in Texas Blackland Vertisol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequential fractionation techniques, coupled with phosphatase hydrolysis, have allowed for greater understanding of manure/litter effects on soil phosphorus (P) distribution. We evaluated the effect of long-term (> 10 years) poultry litter (broiler and turkey litter) application at rates of 4.5, 6.7...

  17. Phosphorus losses in runoff after application of litter from broilers fed high-available phosphorus corn feed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent efforts to reduce phosphorus (P) content of corn grain fed to poultry have led to the development of low phytic acid corn. Research is needed to evaluate the environmental impact of the application to crop land of manure from animals fed low phytic acid corn. The purpose of this research was ...

  18. [Effects of different fertilizer application on soil active organic carbon].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Gui-Long; Ji, Yan-Yan; Li, Gang; Chang, Hong; Yang, Dian-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The variation characteristics of the content and components of soil active organic carbon under different fertilizer application were investigated in samples of calcareous fluvo-aquic soil from a field experiment growing winter wheat and summer maize in rotation in the North China Plain. The results showed that RF (recommended fertilization), CF (conventional fertilization) and NPK (mineral fertilizer alone) significantly increased the content of soil dissolved organic carbon and easily oxidized organic carbon by 24.92-38.63 mg x kg(-1) and 0.94-0.58 mg x kg(-1) respectively compared to CK (unfertilized control). The soil dissolved organic carbon content under OM (organic manure) increased greater than those under NPK and single fertilization, soil easily oxidized organic carbon content under OM and NPK increased greater than that under single chemical fertilization. OM and NPK showed no significant role in promoting the soil microbial biomass carbon, but combined application of OM and NPK significantly increased the soil microbial biomass carbon content by 36.06% and 20.69%, respectively. Soil easily oxidized organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon accounted for 8.41% - 14.83%, 0.47% - 0.70% and 0.89% - 1.20% of the total organic carbon (TOC), respectively. According to the results, the fertilizer application significantly increased the proportion of soil dissolved organic carbon and easily oxidized organic carbon, but there was no significant difference in the increasing extent of dissolved organic carbon. The RF and CF increased the proportion of soil easily oxidized organic carbon greater than OM or NPK, and significantly increased the proportion of microbial biomass carbon. OM or RF had no significant effect on the proportion of microbial biomass carbon. Therefore, in the field experiment, appropriate application of organic manure and chemical fertilizers played an important role for the increase of soil active organic carbon

  19. 40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70 Section 418.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.70 Applicability; description...

  20. 40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70 Section 418.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.70 Applicability; description...

  1. 40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70 Section 418.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.70 Applicability; description...

  2. 40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70 Section 418.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.70 Applicability; description...

  3. Effect of long-term compost and inorganic fertilizer application on background N2O and fertilizer-induced N2O emissions from an intensively cultivated soil.

    PubMed

    Ding, Weixin; Luo, Jiafa; Li, Jie; Yu, Hongyan; Fan, Jianling; Liu, Deyan

    2013-11-01

    The influence of inorganic fertilizer and compost on background nitrous oxide (N2O) and fertilizer-induced N2O emissions were examined over a maize-wheat rotation year from June 2008 to May 2009 in a fluvo-aquic soil in Henan Province of China where a field experiment had been established in 1989 to evaluate the long-term effects of manure and fertilizer on soil organic status. The study involved five treatments: compost (OM), fertilizer NPK (nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium, NPK), half compost N plus half fertilizer N (HOM), fertilizer NK (NK), and control without any fertilizer (CK). The natural logarithms of the background N2O fluxes were significantly (P<0.05) correlated with soil temperature, but not with soil moisture, during the maize or wheat growing season. The 18-year application of compost alone and inorganic fertilizer not only significantly (P<0.05) increased soil organic carbon (SOC) by 152% and 10-43% (respectively), but also increased background N2O emissions by 106% and 48-76% (respectively) compared with the control. Total N in soils was a better indicator for predicting annual background N2O emission than SOC. The estimated emission factor (EF) of mineralized N, calculated by dividing annual N2O emission by mineralized N was 0.13-0.19%, significantly (P<0.05) lower than the EF of added N (0.30-0.39%). The annual N2O emission in the NPK, HOM and OM soils amended with 300 kg ha(-1) organic or inorganic N was 1427, 1325 and 1178 g N ha(-1), respectively. There was a significant (P<0.05) difference between the NPK and OM. The results of this study indicate that soil indigenous N was less efficiently converted into N2O compared with exogenous N. Increasing SOC by compost application, then partially increasing N supply to crops instead of adding inorganic N fertilizer, may be an effective measure to mitigate N2O emissions from arable soils in the North China plain. PMID:23229048

  4. 40 CFR 422.20 - Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the phosphorus consuming subcategory. 422.20 Section 422.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphorus Consuming Subcategory §...

  5. Potential negative consequences of adding phosphorus-based fertilizers to immobilize lead in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgour, Douglas W.; Moseley, Rebecca A.; Savage, Kaye S; Jardine, Philip M

    2008-09-01

    A study of the potential negative consequences of adding phosphate (P)-based fertilizers as amendments to immobilize lead (Pb) in contaminated soils was conducted. Lead-contaminated firing range soils also contained elevated concentrations of antimony (Sb), a common Pb hardening agent, and some arsenic (As) of unknown (possibly background) origin. After amending the soils with triple superphosphate, a relatively soluble P source, column leaching experiments revealed elevated concentrations of Sb, As, and Pb in the leachate, reflecting an initial spike in soluble Pb and a particularly dramatic increase in Sb and As mobility. Minimal As, Sb, and Pb leaching was observed during column tests performed on non-amended control soils. In vitro extractions tests were performed to assess changes in Pb, As, and Sb bioaccessibility on P amendment. Lead bioaccessibility was systematically lowered with increasing P dosage, but there was much less of an effect on As and Sb bioaccessibility than on mobility. Our results indicate that although P amendments may aid in lowering the bioaccessibility of soil-bound Pb, it may also produce an initial increase in Pb mobility and a significant release of Sb and As from the soil, dramatically increasing their mobility and to a lesser extent their bioavailability.

  6. Potential negative consequences of adding phosphorus-based fertilizers to immobilize lead in soil.

    PubMed

    Kilgour, Douglas W; Moseley, Rebecca B; Barnett, Mark O; Savage, Kaye S; Jardine, Philip M

    2008-01-01

    A study of the potential negative consequences of adding phosphate (P)-based fertilizers as amendments to immobilize lead (Pb) in contaminated soils was conducted. Lead-contaminated firing range soils also contained elevated concentrations of antimony (Sb), a common Pb hardening agent, and some arsenic (As) of unknown (possibly background) origin. After amending the soils with triple superphosphate, a relatively soluble P source, column leaching experiments revealed elevated concentrations of Sb, As, and Pb in the leachate, reflecting an initial spike in soluble Pb and a particularly dramatic increase in Sb and As mobility. Minimal As, Sb, and Pb leaching was observed during column tests performed on non-amended control soils. In vitro extractions tests were performed to assess changes in Pb, As, and Sb bioaccessibility on P amendment. Lead bioaccessibility was systematically lowered with increasing P dosage, but there was much less of an effect on As and Sb bioaccessibility than on mobility. Our results indicate that although P amendments may aid in lowering the bioaccessibility of soil-bound Pb, it may also produce an initial increase in Pb mobility and a significant release of Sb and As from the soil, dramatically increasing their mobility and to a lesser extent their bioavailability. PMID:18689734

  7. Reduced Environmental Impact of Fertilizers Using PGPR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of fertilizers is becoming a threat to sustainability in agriculture. Inorganic fertilizer is linked to nitrate contamination of groundwater and phosphorus runoff. Even with organic fertilizers, such as poultry litter, high phosphorus bioavailability, nitrogen accumulation, and leaching may ...

  8. Phosphorus recovery from pig manure solids prior to land application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land disposal of pig manure is an environmental concern due to an imbalance of the nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P) ratio for crop production, leading to excess phosphorus (P) in soils and potential risks of water pollution. A process called “quick wash” was investigated for its feasibility to extract ...

  9. Effect of land application of phosphorus-saturated gypsum on soil phosphorus in a laboratory incubation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural drainage ditches can deliver high loads of phosphorus (P) to surface water. Installation of filter structures containing P sorbing materials (PSMs), including gypsum, is an emerging practice that has shown promise to reduce these P loads. The objective of this study was to evaluate what...

  10. Soil Fertility, Phosphorus Fractions, and Maize Yield as Affected by Poultry Manure and Single Superphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, A. O.; Adetunji, M. T.; Okeleye, K. A.; Adejuyigbe, C. O.

    2015-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted in 2007 and 2008 on a slightly acidic alfisol. Poultry manure (PM) was applied at 0, 5 t ha−1, 10 t ha−1, 15 t ha−1, and 20 t ha−1 in combination with SSP at 0, 15 kg P ha−1, 30 kg P ha−1, 45 kg P ha−1, and 60 kg P ha−1, which was replicated three times. The pH and organic C were significantly increased by the application of PM alone while available P was highly increased by the sole application of SSP. Plant tissue P was significantly increased with the application of 30 kg P ha−1 while the largest grain yield was obtained when PM at 20 t ha−1 was combined with SSP at 60 kg P ha−1. The buildup of organic P was observed when PM was applied at 15 t ha−1 while the combination of the two treatments increased residual P and Fe-P. However, P occlusion was effectively reduced with the sole application of PM. Organic P and residual P however had a strong positive relationship with the grain yield. Comparing the sole and combined application of the treatments, the combined application was more effective for most of the parameters observed. PMID:27347532

  11. Soil Fertility, Phosphorus Fractions, and Maize Yield as Affected by Poultry Manure and Single Superphosphate.

    PubMed

    Ojo, A O; Adetunji, M T; Okeleye, K A; Adejuyigbe, C O

    2015-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted in 2007 and 2008 on a slightly acidic alfisol. Poultry manure (PM) was applied at 0, 5 t ha(-1), 10 t ha(-1), 15 t ha(-1), and 20 t ha(-1) in combination with SSP at 0, 15 kg P ha(-1), 30 kg P ha(-1), 45 kg P ha(-1), and 60 kg P ha(-1), which was replicated three times. The pH and organic C were significantly increased by the application of PM alone while available P was highly increased by the sole application of SSP. Plant tissue P was significantly increased with the application of 30 kg P ha(-1) while the largest grain yield was obtained when PM at 20 t ha(-1) was combined with SSP at 60 kg P ha(-1). The buildup of organic P was observed when PM was applied at 15 t ha(-1) while the combination of the two treatments increased residual P and Fe-P. However, P occlusion was effectively reduced with the sole application of PM. Organic P and residual P however had a strong positive relationship with the grain yield. Comparing the sole and combined application of the treatments, the combined application was more effective for most of the parameters observed. PMID:27347532

  12. Nitrogen Fertilizer Applications for Corn Based on Sufficiency Index Calculations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn was grown in both continuous corn and corn/soybean cropping systems under irrigation in the Platte Valley of Nebraska. The objective of the study was to determine whether in-season N stress measured by using chlorophyll meters could be used to determine N fertilizer applications. Four corn hyb...

  13. Fertility awareness-based mobile application for contraception

    PubMed Central

    Berglund Scherwitzl, Elina; Gemzell Danielsson, Kristina; Sellberg, Jonas A.; Scherwitzl, Raoul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness of a fertility awareness-based method supported by a mobile-based application to prevent unwanted pregnancies as a method of natural birth control. Methods: In a retrospective analysis, the application’s efficiency as a contraceptive method was examined on data from 4054 women who used the application as contraception for a total of 2085 woman-years. Results: The number of identified unplanned pregnancies was 143 during 2053 woman-years, giving a Pearl Index of 7.0 for typical use. Ten of the pregnancies were due to the application falsely attributing a safe day within the fertile window, producing a perfect-use Pearl Index of 0.5. Calculating the cumulative pregnancy probability by life-table analysis resulted in a pregnancy rate of 7.5% per year (95% confidence interval 5.9%, 9.1% per year). Conclusions: The application appears to improve the effectiveness of fertility awareness-based methods and can be used to prevent pregnancies if couples consistently protect themselves on fertile days. PMID:27003381

  14. Black Phosphorus (BP) Nanodots for Potential Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Uk; Park, So Young; Lee, Soon Chang; Choi, Saehae; Seo, Soonjoo; Kim, Hyeran; Won, Jonghan; Choi, Kyuseok; Kang, Kyoung Suk; Park, Hyun Gyu; Kim, Hee-Sik; An, Ha Rim; Jeong, Kwang-Hun; Lee, Young-Chul; Lee, Jouhahn

    2016-01-13

    Recently, the appeal of 2D black phosphorus (BP) has been rising due to its unique optical and electronic properties with a tunable band gap (≈0.3-1.5 eV). While numerous research efforts have recently been devoted to nano- and optoelectronic applications of BP, no attention has been paid to promising medical applications. In this article, the preparation of BP-nanodots of a few nm to <20 nm with an average diameter of ≈10 nm and height of ≈8.7 nm is reported by a modified ultrasonication-assisted solution method. Stable formation of nontoxic phosphates and phosphonates from BP crystals with exposure in water or air is observed. As for the BP-nanodot crystals' stability (ionization and persistence of fluorescent intensity) in aqueous solution, after 10 d, ≈80% at 1.5 mg mL(-1) are degraded (i.e., ionized) in phosphate buffered saline. They showed no or little cytotoxic cell-viability effects in vitro involving blue- and green-fluorescence cell imaging. Thus, BP-nanodots can be considered a promising agent for drug delivery or cellular tracking systems. PMID:26584654

  15. Rational Phosphorus Application Facilitates the Sustainability of the Wheat/Maize/Soybean Relay Strip Intercropping System

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke; Liu, Jing; Lu, Junyu; Xu, Kaiwei

    2015-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/maize (Zea mays L.)/soybean (Glycine max L.) relay strip intercropping (W/M/S) system is commonly used by the smallholders in the Southwest of China. However, little known is how to manage phosphorus (P) to enhance P use efficiency of the W/M/S system and to mitigate P leaching that is a major source of pollution. Field experiments were carried out in 2011, 2012, and 2013 to test the impact of five P application rates on yield and P use efficiency of the W/M/S system. The study measured grain yield, shoot P uptake, apparent P recovery efficiency (PRE) and soil P content. A linear-plateau model was used to determine the critical P rate that maximizes gains in the indexes of system productivity. The results show that increase in P application rates aggrandized shoot P uptake and crops yields at threshold rates of 70 and 71.5 kg P ha-1 respectively. With P application rates increasing, the W/M/S system decreased the PRE from 35.9% to 12.3% averaged over the three years. A rational P application rate, 72 kg P ha-1, or an appropriate soil Olsen-P level, 19.1 mg kg-1, drives the W/M/S system to maximize total grain yield while minimizing P surplus, as a result of the PRE up to 28.0%. We conclude that rational P application is an important approach for relay intercropping to produce high yield while mitigating P pollution and the rational P application-based integrated P fertilizer management is vital for sustainable intensification of agriculture in the Southwest of China. PMID:26540207

  16. Graphene Oxide: A Fertile Nanosheet for Various Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obata, Seiji; Saiki, Koichiro; Taniguchi, Takaaki; Ihara, Toshihiro; Kitamura, Yusuke; Matsumoto, Yasumichi

    2015-12-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is chemically exfoliated graphene with various oxygen functional groups bound to its sp2 basal plane. GO is not only a precursor for graphene in large-scale production but provides a fertile platform for applications from electronics to biology owing to its outstanding characteristics. In this review, we introduce the preparation and reduction methods and discuss recent application examples on electrochemistry and biological sensors.

  17. Subsurface Band Application of Poultry Litter and Its Influence on Phosphorus Concentration and Retention after Runoff from Permanent Pastures.

    PubMed

    Watts, Dexter B; Way, Thomas R; Torbert, H Allen; Armstrong, Shalamar D

    2015-11-01

    Excessive phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields is a major cause of eutrophication to rivers, lakes, and streams. To mitigate P loss after poultry litter (PL) applications, technology is being developed to apply litter below the soil surface. Thus, research was conducted to evaluate the effects of subsurface PL banding on soil P under pasture management. Treatments consisted of surface-broadcasted or subsurface-banded PL (38 cm apart) at 9 Mg ha, surface-broadcasted commercial fertilizer (CF; urea and triple superphosphate blend) at N (330 kg N ha) and P (315 kg N ha) application rates equivalent to PL, and a nonfertilized control. Runoff events lasting 40 min were simulated in bermudagrass ( L.) pastures on common soil types of the Coastal Plain and Piedmont regions. One day later, Mehlich-1 and water-soluble P concentrations in soil were measured at depths of 0 to 5 cm and 5 to 10 cm to determine P distribution and movement. The greatest P concentrations were observed at the shallow depth for all treatments. Phosphorus measurements at the point of application for PL bands were greater than for the surface-applied treatments (PL and CF) and control. Measurements between subsurface PL bands were slightly higher than the control but were statistically similar, suggesting that this application method can abate short-term P movement. Results obtained from this study show that subsurface band applying PL could increase P retention and reduce movement by precluding contact between surface water and litter nutrients. PMID:26641345

  18. Phosphorus recovery from wastes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is an important macro-nutrient essential for all living organisms and phosphate rock is the main raw material for all inorganic P fertilizers. It is expected that there will be a P peak and resulting P fertilizer shortage in near future. In general, phosphorus use efficiency is low a...

  19. Legacy phosphorus in calcareous soils: Effects of long-term poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of manure application on soil phosphorus has been intensively studied with modifications of the Hedley sequential fractionation procedure, X ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy, and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance. Modern sequential fractionation techniques, coupled with phosph...

  20. Analysis of broadcast and banded fertilizer applications for corn production on reconstructed coal mine soil

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, J.A.; Dumenil, L.C.; Henning, S.J.

    1980-12-01

    Multiple-regression analysis was used to analyze the data from a fertility experiment conducted on reconstructed soil at the Iowa Coal Project Demonstration Mine in Mahaska County, Iowa. In this experiment, the effects of broadcast and row-applied fertilizer on corn yield were compared. The corn yield responses to the fertilizer treatments were masked by variability caused by uncontrolled reclamation conditions and environmental factors. Only 12% of the yield variation (with block effects removed) could be explained by the fertilizer treatments with use of conventional analysis of variance procedures. When the regression technique was used with selected covariables, about 72% of the yield variation could be explained, and the effect of each fertility treatment on corn yield could be determined. The response of yield to each fertility treatment was influenced by the date of corn silking. At early silking, broadcast phosphorus and banded nitrogen fertilizer increased yield, but at late silking, they decreased yield. However, banded phosphorus fertilizer decreased and increased yield at early and late silking, respectively.

  1. Phosphorus Determination by Derivative Activation Analysis: A Multifaceted Radiochemical Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleppinger, E. W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Although determination of phosphorus is important in biology, physiology, and environmental science, traditional gravimetric and colorimetric methods are cumbersome and lack the requisite sensitivity. Therefore, a derivative activation analysis method is suggested. Background information, procedures, and results are provided. (JN)

  2. Polyimides Containing Fluorine and Phosphorus for Potential Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Watson, Kent A.

    2000-01-01

    As part of an effort to develop low color, ultraviolet (UV) radiation and atomic oxygen resistant polyimides for potential space applications, a novel diamine containing fluorine and phosphorus was synthesized and used to prepare polyimides. The approach was to combine attributes from colorless, UV resistant polyimides and atomic oxygen (AO) resistant polymers into a single material. Preparation of colorless polyimides has focused on minimization of charge transfer complex formation by incorporation of bulky substituents and disrupting conjugation by using meta-catenated monomers. AO resistant polymer technology development has focused on placing phenylphosphine oxide groups into the backbone of aromatic polymers. However, polyimides prepared utilizing this approach thus far have all exhibited significant color. Thus in an attempt to combine these features in a polyimide a new diamine, bis(3-aminophenyl)-3,5-di(trifluoromethyl)phenylphosphine oxide (TFMDA) was synthesized and used to prepare polyimides. The polyimides were cast into films and characterized for physical and mechanical properties, optical transmission and AO and UV resistance.

  3. Factors affecting 137Cs bio- availability under the application of different fertilizing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorkova, M. V.; Belova, N. I.

    2012-04-01

    : soil pH< available phosphorus < humus content < exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+ < exchangeable K+. Inorganic fertilizers in high and temperate rates decrease 137Cs transfer to crops in 2.3-5.5 times. Organic fertilizers are less efficient, but its application can decrease 137Cs accumulation by farm crops during 2-3 years. Correlation analysis shows inversely proportional dependence between organic matter content and exchangeable form of 137Cs in soil (r2 = 0.81). A linear relation between 137Cs transfer factors (TF) to plants and exchangeable radionuclide content has been found (r2=0.68). Inversely proportional relation between the mobility level of potassium, its mobile form content and TF 137Cs was detected (r2 = 0.78).

  4. Manure and nitrogen application enhances soil phosphorus mobility in calcareous soil in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhengjuan; Chen, Shuo; Li, Junliang; Alva, Ashok; Chen, Qing

    2016-10-01

    Over many years, high phosphorus (P) loading for intensive vegetable cropping in greenhouses of North China has contributed to excessive P accumulation, resulting in environmental risk. In this study, the influences of manure and nitrogen (N) application on the transformation and transport of soil P were investigated after nine years in a greenhouse tomato double cropping system (winter-spring and autumn-winter seasons). High loading of manure significantly increased the soil inorganic P (Pi), inositol hexakisphosphate (IHP), mobile P and P saturation ratio (PSR, >0.7 in 0-30 cm depth soil; PSR was estimated from P/(Fe + Al) in an oxalate extract of the soil). The high rate of N fertilizer application to the studied calcareous soil with heavy loading of manure increased the following: (i) mobile organic P (Po) and Pi fractions, as evidenced by the decrease in the ratio of monoesters to diesters and the proportion of stable Pi (i.e., HCl-Pi) in total P (Pt) in 0-30 cm depth soil; (ii) relative distribution of Po in the subsoil layer; and (iii) P leaching to soil depths below 90 cm and the proportion of Po in Pt in the leachate. More acidic soil due to excessive N application increased P mobility and leaching. The increase in Ox-Al (oxalate-extractable Al) and the proportion of microbe-associated Po related to N application at soil depths of 0-30 cm suggested decrease in the net Po mineralization, which may contribute to downward transport of Po in the soil profile. PMID:27300290

  5. Microrobots for in vitro fertilization applications.

    PubMed

    Boukallel, M; Gauthier, M; Piat, E; Abadie, J; Roux, C

    2004-05-01

    The Micromanipulation and Micro-actuation Research Group at the LAB has activities related to biological and surgical applications. Concerning cells micromanipulation, our laboratory works in collaboration with the research team "Genetic and Reproduction" of the Besançon's hospital (France). The global final objective is the development of an automatic intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) device in order to improve performances and ergonomics of current devices. In the future this new device will contain various modules: module for removal of cumulus cells, modules for characterization of oocytes, microinjection module, cells transport system. The first subsystem developed is a new single cell transport system. It consists in a so-called micropusher which pushes single cells without having contact with the external environment. This micropusher is a ferromagnetic particle (from 400 x 400 x 20 microm3 to 100 x 100 x 5 microm3) which follows the movement of a permanent magnet located under the biological medium. A 2D micro-positioning table moves this magnet under the glass slide. The pusher and cells positions are measured through an optical microscope with a CCD camera located above the biological medium. The second subsystem is developed to measure oocytes mechanical stiffness in order to sort them. We have then developed a micro/nano-force sensor based on the diamagnetic levitation principle: a glass tip end-effector (with 20 microm in diameter) is fixed on the equipment which is in levitation (0.5 mm in diameter, 100 mm in length). When a force is applied to the levitated glass tip, it moves to a new equilibrium position. Thanks to themeasurement of this displacement, the applied force can be measured. Since there is no contact and friction between the levitated tip and the fixed part, the resolution of this sensor is very high (10 nN). PMID:15209347

  6. The spatial distribution of acid phosphatase activity in ectomycorrhizal tissues depends on soil fertility and morphotype, and relates to host plant phosphorus uptake.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Maricel; Huygens, Dries; Díaz, Leila Milena; Villanueva, Claudia Añazco; Heyser, Wolfgang; Boeckx, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Acid phosphatase (ACP) enzymes are involved in the mobilization of soil phosphorus (P) and polyphosphate accumulated in the fungal tissues of ectomycorrhizal roots, thereby influencing the amounts of P that are stored in the fungus and transferred to the host plant. This study evaluated the effects of ectomycorrhizal morphotype and soil fertility on ACP activity in the extraradical mycelium (ACP(myc)), the mantle (ACP(mantle)) and the Hartig net region (ACP(Hartig)) of ectomycorrhizal Nothofagus obliqua seedlings. ACP activity was quantified in vivo using enzyme-labelled fluorescence-97 (ELF-97) substrate, confocal laser microscopy and digital image processing routines. There was a significant effect of ectomycorrhizal morphotype on ACP(myc), ACP(mantle) and ACP(Hartig), while soil fertility had a significant effect on ACP(myc) and ACP(Hartig). The relative contribution of the mantle and the Hartig net region to the ACP activity on the ectomycorrhizal root was significantly affected by ectomycorrhizal morphotype and soil fertility. A positive correlation between ACP(Hartig) and the shoot P concentration was found, providing evidence that ACP activity at the fungus:root interface is involved in P transfer from the fungus to the host. It is concluded that the spatial distribution of ACP in ectomycorrhizas varies as a function of soil fertility and colonizing fungus. PMID:21902696

  7. 31P NMR characterization and efficiency of new types of water-insoluble phosphate fertilizers to supply plant-available phosphorus in diverse soil types.

    PubMed

    Erro, Javier; Baigorri, Roberto; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Garcia-Mina, Jose M

    2011-03-01

    Hydroponic plant experiments demonstrated the efficiency of a type of humic acid-based water-insoluble phosphate fertilizers, named rhizosphere controlled fertilizers (RCF), to supply available phosphorus (P) to different plant species. This effect was well correlated to the root release of specific organic acids. In this context, the aims of this study are (i) to study the chemical nature of RCF using solid-state (31)P NMR and (ii) to evaluate the real efficiency of RCF matrix as a source of P for wheat plants cultivated in an alkaline and acid soil in comparison with traditional water-soluble (simple superphosphate, SSP) and water-insoluble (dicalcium phosphate, DCP) P fertilizers. The (31)P NMR study revealed the formation of multimetal (double and triple, MgZn and/or MgZnCa) phosphates associated with chelating groups of the humic acid through the formation of metal bridges. With regard to P fertilizer efficiency, the results obtained show that the RCF matrix produced higher plant yields than SSP in both types of soil, with DCP and the water-insoluble fraction from the RCF matrix (WI) exhibiting the best results in the alkaline soil. By contrast, in the acid soil, DCP showed very low efficiency, WI performed on a par with SSP, and RCF exhibited the highest efficiency, thus suggesting a protector effect of humic acid from soil fixation. PMID:21254775

  8. Response of Sugarcane in a Red Ultisol to Phosphorus Rates, Phosphorus Sources, and Filter Cake

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Renato de Mello; Campos, Cid Naudi Silva; Rosatto Moda, Leandro; de Lima Vasconcelos, Ricardo; Pizauro Júnior, João Martins

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of phosphorus application rates from various sources and in the presence or absence of filter cake on soil phosphorus, plant phosphorus, changes in acid phosphatase activity, and sugarcane productivity grown in Eutrophic Red Ultisol. Three P sources were used (triple superphosphate, Araxa rock phosphate, and Bayovar rock phosphate) and four application rates (0, 90, 180, and 360 kg ha−1 of P2O5) in the presence or absence of filter cake (7.5 t ha−1, dry basis). The soil P, the accumulated plant P, the leaf acid phosphatase activity and straw, the stalk productivity, the concentration of soluble solids in the juice (Brix), the juice sucrose content (Pol), and the purity were the parameters evaluated. We found that P applications increased levels of soil, leaf, and juice phosphorus and led to higher phosphorus accumulation and greater stalk and straw productivity. These levels were highest in the presence of filter cake. Acid phosphatase activity decreased with increasing plant phosphorus concentration. Phosphate fertilization did not show effect on sugarcane technological quality. We concluded that P application, regardless of source, improved phosphorus nutrition and increased productivity in sugarcane and, when associated with filter cake, reduced the need for mineral fertilizer. PMID:26078993

  9. Response of Sugarcane in a Red Ultisol to Phosphorus Rates, Phosphorus Sources, and Filter Cake.

    PubMed

    Caione, Gustavo; Prado, Renato de Mello; Campos, Cid Naudi Silva; Rosatto Moda, Leandro; de Lima Vasconcelos, Ricardo; Pizauro Júnior, João Martins

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of phosphorus application rates from various sources and in the presence or absence of filter cake on soil phosphorus, plant phosphorus, changes in acid phosphatase activity, and sugarcane productivity grown in Eutrophic Red Ultisol. Three P sources were used (triple superphosphate, Araxa rock phosphate, and Bayovar rock phosphate) and four application rates (0, 90, 180, and 360 kg ha(-1) of P2O5) in the presence or absence of filter cake (7.5 t ha(-1), dry basis). The soil P, the accumulated plant P, the leaf acid phosphatase activity and straw, the stalk productivity, the concentration of soluble solids in the juice (Brix), the juice sucrose content (Pol), and the purity were the parameters evaluated. We found that P applications increased levels of soil, leaf, and juice phosphorus and led to higher phosphorus accumulation and greater stalk and straw productivity. These levels were highest in the presence of filter cake. Acid phosphatase activity decreased with increasing plant phosphorus concentration. Phosphate fertilization did not show effect on sugarcane technological quality. We concluded that P application, regardless of source, improved phosphorus nutrition and increased productivity in sugarcane and, when associated with filter cake, reduced the need for mineral fertilizer. PMID:26078993

  10. Effects of farmyard manure and nitrogen fertilizers on mobility of phosphorus and sulphur in wheat and activity of selected hydrolases in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemanowicz, Joanna; Siwik-Ziomek, Anetta; Koper, Jan

    2014-03-01

    The paper demonstrates the results of research on the mobility of phosphorus and sulphur in winter wheat fertilized with several rates (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 t ha-1) of farmyard manure and nitrogen (0, 40, 80, 120 kg N ha-1). The content of these nutrients was related to the activity of acid phosphatase and arylsulphatase in a Haplic Luvisol. The highest content of available phosphorus (91.58 mg P kg-1) was reported in the soil amended with farmyard manure at the rate of 60 t ha-1. The content of sulphates (VI) in the Haplic Luvisol was high and, on average, equal to 25.22 mg kg-1. The activity of acid phosphatase in the soil increased with increasing mineral nitrogen rates. The highest content of sulphates (VI) and the lowest activity of arylsulphatase were identified at the nitrogen rate of 40 kg N ha-1. The mobility of phosphorus in winter wheat was the highest when farmyard manure at the rate of 60 t ha-1 and mineral nitrogen at the rate of 120 kg N ha-1 were incorporated into the soil. The greatest translocation of sulphur was reported at the high farmyard manure rates (40, 60 and 80 t ha-1) and the nitrogen rate of 80 kg N ha-1.

  11. Phosphorus Containing Flame Retardants and Their Textile Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, we discuss the new challenge phosphorus containing flame retardant compounds and the properties for covalently bonded cotton’s surface. We showed the design, synthesis, and characterization of (2-methyl-oxiranylmethyl)-phosphonic acid dimethyl ester and [2-(dimethoxy-phosphorylmethyl)...

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are an alternative to the application of chemical fertilizer in the production of the medicinal and aromatic plant Coriandrum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rui S; Ma, Ying; Rocha, Inês; Carvalho, Maria F; Vosátka, Miroslav; Freitas, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The widespread use of agrochemicals is detrimental to the environment and may exert harmful effects on human health. The consumer demand for organic food plants has been increasing. There is thus a rising need for alternatives to agrochemicals that can foster sustainable plant production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus as an alternative to application of chemical fertilizer for improving growth performance of the medicinal and aromatic plant Coriandrum sativum. Plants were inoculated with the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis BEG163 and/or supplemented with a commercial chemical fertilizer (Plant Marvel, Nutriculture Bent Special) in agricultural soil. Plant growth, nutrition, and development of AM fungus were assessed. Plants inoculated with R. irregularis and those supplemented with chemical fertilizer displayed significantly improved growth performances when compared with controls. There were no significant differences in total fresh weight between plants inoculated with R. irregularis or those supplemented with chemical fertilizer. Leaf chlorophyll a + b (82%), shoot nitrogen (44%), phosphorus (254%), and potassium (27%) concentrations increased in plants inoculated with R. irregularis compared to controls. Application of chemical fertilizer inhibited root mycorrhizal colonization and the length of the extraradical mycelium of R. irregularis. Inoculation with R. irregularis was equally or more efficient than application of chemical fertilizer in promoting growth and nutrition of C. sativum. AM fungi may thus contribute to improve biologically based production of food plants and reduce the dependence on agrochemicals in agriculture. PMID:27077563

  13. Effect of phosphorus availability on the selection of species with different ploidy levels and genome sizes in a long-term grassland fertilization experiment.

    PubMed

    Šmarda, Petr; Hejcman, Michal; Březinová, Alexandra; Horová, Lucie; Steigerová, Helena; Zedek, František; Bureš, Petr; Hejcmanová, Pavla; Schellberg, Jürgen

    2013-11-01

    Polyploidy and increased genome size are hypothesized to increase organismal nutrient demands, namely of phosphorus (P), which is an essential and abundant component of nucleic acids. Therefore, polyploids and plants with larger genomes are expected to be selectively disadvantaged in P-limited environments. However, this hypothesis has yet to be experimentally tested. We measured the somatic DNA content and ploidy level in 74 vascular plant species in a long-term fertilization experiment. The differences between the fertilizer treatments regarding the DNA content and ploidy level of the established species were tested using phylogeny-based statistics. The percentage and biomass of polyploid species clearly increased with soil P in particular fertilizer treatments, and a similar but weaker trend was observed for the DNA content. These increases were associated with the dominance of competitive life strategy (particularly advantageous in the P-treated plots) in polyploids and the enhanced competitive ability of dominant polyploid grasses at high soil P concentrations, indicating their increased P limitation. Our results verify the hypothesized effect of P availability on the selection of polyploids and plants with increased genome sizes, although the relative contribution of increased P demands vs increased competitiveness as causes of the observed pattern requires further evaluation. PMID:23819630

  14. Environmental Benefits and Burdens of Phosphorus Recovery from Municipal Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bradford-Hartke, Zenah; Lane, Joe; Lant, Paul; Leslie, Gregory

    2015-07-21

    The environmental benefits and burdens of phosphorus recovery in four centralized and two decentralized municipal wastewater systems were compared using life cycle assessment (LCA). In centralized systems, phosphorus recovered as struvite from the solids dewatering liquid resulted in an environmental benefit except for the terrestrial ecotoxicity and freshwater eutrophication impact categories, with power and chemical use offset by operational savings and avoided fertilizer production. Chemical-based phosphorus recovery, however, generally required more resources than were offset by avoided fertilizers, resulting in a net environmental burden. In decentralized systems, phosphorus recovery via urine source separation reduced the global warming and ozone depletion potentials but increased terrestrial ecotoxicity and salinization potentials due to application of untreated urine to land. Overall, mineral depletion and eutrophication are well-documented arguments for phosphorus recovery; however, phosphorus recovery does not necessarily present a net environmental benefit. While avoided fertilizer production does reduce potential impacts, phosphorus recovery does not necessarily offset the resources consumed in the process. LCA results indicate that selection of an appropriate phosphorus recovery method should consider both local conditions and other environmental impacts, including global warming, ozone depletion, toxicity, and salinization, in addition to eutrophication and mineral depletion impacts. PMID:26121005

  15. Dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) application in acidic sandy soil in reducing leaching of phosphorus and heavy metals-a column leaching study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuangen; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe; Stoffella, Peter J

    2013-06-01

    A column leaching study was designed to investigate the leaching potential of phosphorus (P) and heavy metals from acidic sandy soils applied with dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) fertilizers containing varying amounts of DPR material and N-Viro soils. DPR fertilizers were made from DPR materials mixing with N-Viro soils at the ratios of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 %, and applied in acidic sandy soils at the level of 100 mg available P per kilogram soil. A control and a soluble P chemical fertilizer were also included. The amended soils were incubated at room temperature with 70 % field water holding capacity for 21 days before packed into a soil column and subjected to leaching. Seven leaching events were conducted at days 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 70, respectively, and 258.9 mL of deionized water was applied at each leaching events. The leachate was collected for the analyses of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), major elements, and heavy metals. DPR fertilizer application resulted in elevations up to 1 unit in pH, 7-10 times in EC, and 20-40 times in K and Ca concentrations, but 3-10 times reduction in P concentration in the leachate as compared with the chemical fertilizer or the control. After seven leaching events, DPR fertilizers with adequate DPR materials significantly reduced cumulative leaching losses of Fe, P, Mn, Cu, and Zn by 20, 55, 3.7, 2.7, and 2.5 times than chemical fertilizer or control. Even though higher cumulative losses of Pb, Co, and Ni were observed after DPR fertilizer application, the loss of Pb, Co, and Ni in leachate was <0.10 mg (in total 1,812 mL leachate). Significant correlations of pH (negative) and DOC (positive) with Cu, Pb, and Zn (P<0.01) in leachate were observed. The results indicated that DPR fertilizers had a great advantage over the soluble chemical fertilizer in reducing P loss from the acidic sandy soil with minimal likelihood of heavy metal risk to the water environment. pH elevation and high

  16. Assessing the impact of manure application method on runoff phosphorus using controlled and natural rainfall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land application of manure is a cost-effective method for recycling nutrients from livestock operations. Increasingly, there has been interest in promoting alternative methods of manure application that minimize nonpoint source phosphorus pollution. Watershed and nutrient trading programs rely upon ...

  17. Anisotropic Black Phosphorus Synaptic Device for Neuromorphic Applications.

    PubMed

    Tian, He; Guo, Qiushi; Xie, Yujun; Zhao, Huan; Li, Cheng; Cha, Judy J; Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Han

    2016-07-01

    The first black-phosphorus synaptic device is demonstrated, which offers intrinsic anisotropy in its synaptic characteristics directly resulting from its low crystalline symmetry. Key features of biological synapses, such as long-term plasticity with heterogeneity, including long-term potentiation/depression and spike-timing-dependent plasticity, are mimicked. This demonstration represents an important step toward introducing intrinsic heterogeneity to artificial neuromorphic systems. PMID:27119423

  18. 40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70 Section 418.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.70 Applicability; description...

  19. Reduction of high soil test phosphorus by bermudagrass and ryegrass-bermudagrass following the cessation of broiler litter applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus accumulation occurs in soils that are over fertilized with manure. Previous studies indicate overseeding bermudagrass with annual ryegrass can remove more nutrients from manure-treated soils than bermudagrass winter-fallow system. This study determined if harvesting ryegrass hay in additi...

  20. Fertilizer Nutrient Leaching and Nutrient Mobility: A Simple Laboratory Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, D. S.; Johnson, G. V.

    1996-01-01

    Describes an exercise developed to demonstrate the degree to which nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers move through different soils. The results support the common practices of broadcasting nitrogen fertilizer and banding phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. (DDR)

  1. A combined application of biochar and phosphorus alleviates heat-induced adversities on physiological, agronomical and quality attributes of rice.

    PubMed

    Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Tanveer, Mohsin; Ihsan, Muhammad Zahid; Shah, Adnan Noor; Ullah, Abid; Nasrullah; Khan, Fahad; Ullah, Sami; Alharby, Hesham; Nasim, Wajid; Wu, Chao; Huang, Jianliang

    2016-06-01

    Present study examined the influence of high-temperature stress and different biochar and phosphorus (P) fertilization treatments on the growth, grain yield and quality of two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan). Plants were subjected to high day temperature-HDT (35 °C ± 2), high night temperature-HNT (32 °C ± 2), and control temperature-CT (28 °C ± 2) in controlled growth chambers. The different fertilization treatments were control, biochar alone, phosphorous (P) alone and biochar + P. High-temperature stress severely reduced the photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, and increased the leaf water potential of both rice cultivars. Grain yield and its related attributes except for number of panicles, were reduced under high temperature. The HDT posed more negative effects on rice physiological attributes, while HNT was more destructive for grain yield. High temperature stress also hampered the grain appearance and milling quality traits in both rice cultivars. The Huanghuazhan performed better than IR-64 under high-temperature stress with better growth and higher grain yield. Different soil fertilization treatments were helpful in ameliorating the detrimental effects of high temperature. Addition of biochar alone improved some growth and yield parameters but such positive effects were lower when compared with the combined application of biochar and P. The biochar+P application recorded 7% higher grain yield (plant(-1)) of rice compared with control averaged across different temperature treatments and cultivars. The highest grain production and better grain quality in biochar+P treatments might be due to enhanced photosynthesis, water use efficiency, and grain size, which compensated the adversities of high temperature stress. PMID:26995314

  2. Release of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium during the decomposition of apple (Malus domestica) leaf litter under different fertilization regimes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The decomposition of apple (Malus domestica) leaf litters has a pivotal role in nutrient release in orchard ecosystems. We have studied the decomposition rate and subsequent release of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) nutrients over 24-months using litterbags method. From three types ...

  3. Growth, Root Formation, and Nutrient Value of Triticale Plants Fertilized with Biosolids

    PubMed Central

    Rauw, Wendy Mercedes; Teglas, Michael Bela; Chandra, Sudeep; Forister, Matthew Lewis

    2012-01-01

    Biosolids are utilized as nutrient rich fertilizer. Little material is available on benefits to forage crops resulting from fertilization with biosolids. This paper aimed to compare the effects of fertilization with biosolids versus commercial nitrogen fertilizer on growth, root formation, and nutrient value of triticale plants in a greenhouse experiment. Per treatment, five pots were seeded with five triticale seeds each. Treatments included a nonfertilized control, fertilization with 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ml biosolids per pot, and fertilization with a commercial nitrogen fertilizer at the recommended application rate and at double that rate. Biomass production, root length, root diameter, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium concentration were analyzed at harvest. Fertilization with biosolids increased triticale production (P < 0.001); production was similar for the 100 to 400 mL treatments. Root length, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentration increased, and potassium concentration decreased linearly with application rate. At the recommended rate, biomass production was similar between fertilization with biosolids and commercial fertilizer. However, plants fertilized with commercial fertilizer had considerably longer roots (P < 0.001), higher nitrogen concentration (P < 0.05), and lower potassium concentration (P < 0.01) than those fertilized with biosolids. Our results indicate that at the recommended application rate, biomass production was similar between fertilization with biosolids and with commercial nitrogen fertilizer, indicating the value of biosolids fertilization as a potential alternative. PMID:22593686

  4. Effect of slurry application and one season of cropping on aggregates and carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus pools in grassland soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsler, D.; Geisseler, D.; Taube, F.; Loges, R.; Ludwig, B.

    2012-04-01

    The temporal dynamics of one season of cropping and slurry application in grassland soils on phosphorus (P), nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) pools are not completely understood. The objective was to study the long-term effects of one season of cropping and five years (2005-2010) of slurry application on soil organic matter (SOM), water stable aggregates and total and labile pools of C, N and P in grassland soils. Soil samples were taken in April 2010 at three depths (0 - 10 cm, 10 - 25 cm and 25 - 40 cm) from loamy sandy soils five years after the insertion of one season of cropping and the commencement of fertilization with cattle slurry. Treatments included permanent grassland (PG, since 1994) and tillage of a grassland followed by one season of winter wheat and grassland (WW). The plots were split and received either cattle slurry totalling 240 kg N per ha and year (+) or no slurry fertilization (-). The application of slurry over a period of five years led to only slightly higher organic C stocks in the corresponding PG and WW treatments. The application of slurry did have a positive effect on the contents of the large macroaggregates (aggregates >2000 µm) in the soil profile (0 - 40 cm), but had a negative effect on the other two macroaggregate size classes (aggregate size classes 1000 - 2000 µm and 250 - 1000 µm). Furthermore, the SOM contents of the free light fraction were 37 - 66% higher in the unfertilized plots in the top 25 cm soil depth. For the occluded light fraction this effect was also visible, but less pronounced. This might be an effect of the different plant species' composition between the fertilized and unfertilized plots. The fertilization had a positive effect on the labile pools of C, N and P, whereas the effects on the total pools were very small. The one season of cropping five years before sampling led to 10% and 11% lower organic C stocks in the WW than in the PG treatments in the soil profile of the fertilized and unfertilized plots

  5. Phosphorus dynamics in Swedish agricultural soils as influenced by fertilization and mineralogical properties: Insights gained from batch experiments and XANES spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Ann Kristin; Hesterberg, Dean; Klysubun, Wantana; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2016-10-01

    The soil chemistry of phosphorus (P) is important for understanding the processes governing plant availability as well as the risk of environmental losses of P. The objective of this research was to investigate both the speciation and the pH-dependent solubility patterns of P in clayey agricultural soils in relation to soil mineralogy and fertilization history. The study focused on soil samples from six fields that were subjected to different P fertilization regimes for periods of 45 to 57years. Soil P speciation was analyzed by P K-edge XANES spectroscopy and chemical fractionation, sorption isotherms were constructed, and dissolved P was measured as a function of pH. The XANES fitting results showed that organic P and P adsorbed to Fe and Al (hydr)oxides were common P constituents in all soils. Calcium phosphates were identified in five of six soil samples. The XANES results also indicated an increase in P adsorbed to Al and to a lesser extent Fe (hydr)oxides as a result of fertilization. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity from the P K-edge XANES analysis was most strongly correlated with HCl-digestible P (r=0.81***). Consistent with the XANES analysis, laboratory sorption isotherm models showed that the Freundlich sorption coefficient (KF) was most closely related to oxalate-extractable Al. Greater proportions of Ca phosphate in two of the heavily fertilized soils in combination with enhanced PO4 solubilization upon sample acidification indicated neoformation of Ca-phosphate precipitates. The results for the unfertilized soil samples generally showed a minimum in dissolved PO4 between pH6.5 and 7.5, with increases particularly at lower pH. This behavior can be explained either by the dissolution of Al-hydroxide-type sorbents or Ca phosphates at lower pH. In fertilized soils, there was no consistent trend in pH-dependent solubilization of P, with a complex relationship to solid-phase speciation. To conclude, inorganic P species changed most dynamically in

  6. Effect of Different Fertilizer Application on the Soil Fertility of Paddy Soils in Red Soil Region of Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wenyi; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Huimin; Dai, Xiaoqin; Sun, Xiaomin; Qiu, Weiwen; Yang, Fengting

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate fertilizer application is an important management practice to improve soil fertility and quality in the red soil regions of China. In the present study, we examined the effects of five fertilization treatments [these were: no fertilizer (CK), rice straw return (SR), chemical fertilizer (NPK), organic manure (OM) and green manure (GM)] on soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C/N ratio and available nutrients (AN, AP and AK) contents in the plowed layer (0–20 cm) of paddy soil from 1998 to 2009 in Jiangxi Province, southern China. Results showed that the soil pH was the lowest with an average of 5.33 units in CK and was significantly higher in NPK (5.89 units) and OM (5.63 units) treatments (P<0.05). The application of fertilizers have remarkably improved SOC and TN values compared with the CK, Specifically, the OM treatment resulted in the highest SOC and TN concentrations (72.5% and 51.2% higher than CK) and NPK treatment increased the SOC and TN contents by 22.0% and 17.8% compared with CK. The average amounts of C/N ratio ranged from 9.66 to 10.98 in different treatments, and reached the highest in OM treatment (P<0.05). During the experimental period, the average AN and AP contents were highest in OM treatment (about 1.6 and 29.6 times of that in the CK, respectively) and second highest in NPK treatment (about 1.2 and 20.3 times of that in the CK). Unlike AN and AP, the highest value of AK content was observed in NPK treatments with 38.10 mg·kg−1. Thus, these indicated that organic manure should be recommended to improve soil fertility in this region and K fertilizer should be simultaneously applied considering the soil K contents. Considering the long-term fertilizer efficiency, our results also suggest that annual straw returning application could improve soil fertility in this trial region. PMID:23028550

  7. Phosphorus in Soil and Runoff Following Swine Manure Injection with a Low-Disturbance Applicator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Injection of liquid swine manure disturbs surface soil, making it susceptible to erosion. Runoff from treated lands can transport nutrients and pathogens to surface waters. Our objective in this field study was to determine the effect of two swine manure application methods on phosphorus (P) fate an...

  8. Phosphorus leaching through intact soil cores as influenced by type and duration of manure application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaching of phosphorus (P) in manure-amended soils has received increased attention as a significant source of non-point source P pollution. Intact soil cores were collected from fields on a farm in Southern New York to test the effects of long-term dairy or poultry manure application on P leaching....

  9. Legacy phosphorus in calcareous soils: Effects of long-term poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of manure application on soil phosphorus (P) has been intensively studied with modifications of the Hedley sequential fractionation procedure, X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy, and 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance. Modern sequential fractionation techniques, coupled with ph...

  10. Application of Polyacrylamide to Reduce Phosphorus Losses from Chinese Purple Soil: A Laboratory and Field Investigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) for the control of phosphorus (P) losses from a steeply sloping Chinese purple soil was studied in both a laboratory soil column experiment and a field experiment. The results showed that PAM has an important inhibitory impact on vertical P transport i...

  11. Phosphorus recovery prior to land application of biosolids using the "quick wash" process developed by USDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excess soil phosphorus (P) beyond the assimilative capacity of soils is a major factor to discontinue application of biosolids to land nearby municipal wastewater treatment plants. For this reason, municipalities incur in hefty fees for transportation and landfilling biosolids that otherwise could b...

  12. PHOSPHORUS RECOVERY FROM SEWAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phosphorus is a growth limiting nutrient that is mined from rock ore, refined, used in fertilizers, and discharged to the environment through municipal sewage. The impacts of phosphorus discharge include severe eutrophication of fresh water bodies. The future sustainable use of...

  13. Total and available phosphorus at the field scale after long-term manure application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado Siqueira, Glécio; da Silva Días, Rosane; Garcia Tomillo, Aitor; Vidal Vázquez, Eva

    2013-04-01

    long-term manure application. Linear correlations coefficients between the four P forms analyzed were highly significant; however a two-straight-line model or a quadratic relationship was more adequate for describing the dependence between the two determination procedures after M3 extraction, i.e. M3-COL-P and M3-ICP-P. Coefficients of variation varied from 25 to 54 % and ranked as M3-COL-P < Total P < M3-ICP-P < AER-P, indicating medium to high variability of the P concentrations in the experimental field. This study confirms that Mehlich 3 soil tests are a rapid and effective means for evaluating the phosphorus status of agricultural soils with excess levels and high inputs of organic fertilizers. Both, colorimetric and ICP-MS determination methods were capable to evaluate excessive soil P at the topsoil. On the other hand, geostatistical analysis showed spatial dependence of all the four studied P forms, characterized by semivariograms with small nugget effect and ranges of spatial dependence from 60 to 140 m. Kriging maps showed the highest P accumulations at the lowest border of the field, suggesting sheet erosion and tillage erosion as main factors responsible for P spatial distribution in this field. Most overload patches within the field exhibited three to four times more P concentrations than those with the lowest accumulation.

  14. The application of soil amendments benefits to the reduction of phosphorus depletion and the growth of cabbage and corn.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Ji, Hongli; Kerr, Philip; Wu, Yonghong; Fang, Yanming

    2015-11-01

    The loss of phosphorus from agricultural intensive areas can cause ecological problems such as eutrophication in downstream surface waters. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to control the phosphorus loss using environmentally benign soil amendments, viz, ferrous sulfate (FES), aluminum sulfate (ALS), and polyacrylamide (PAM). The phosphorus concentration changes in soil and leaching solution, the morphological index of plant (including stem and root), and root activity and quality (represented by chlorophyll and soluble sugar) at different growth stages of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) were monitored in a pilot experiment. Phosphorus contents in soil and runoff were also investigated in field experiments cultivated with corn (Zea mays L.). The results show that the application of these amendments improved the phosphorus uptake by cabbage and corn, resulting in the enhanced morphologies of root and stem as well as the root activity at the early and middle stages of cabbage growth. The soil total phosphorus and available phosphorus in soils treated with FES, ALS, and PAM declined, resulting in lower concentrations of phosphorus in the leachate and the soil runoff. During the use of the soil amendments, the cabbage quality measures, determined as chlorophyll and soluble sugar in leaves, were not significantly different from those in the control. It is suggested that the application of these soil amendments is safe for cabbage production under single season cropping conditions, and the use of these three amendments is a promising measure to reduce phosphorus loss in intensive agricultural areas. PMID:26092358

  15. Development of a biologically based fertilizer, incorporating Bacillus megaterium A6, for improved phosphorus nutrition of oilseed rape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable methods with diminished impact on the environment need to be developed for the production of oilseed rape in China and other regions of the world. A biological fertilizer consisting of Bacillus megaterium A6 cultured on oilseed rape meal doubled oilseed rape seed yield (P < 0.0001) rela...

  16. Phosphorus applications improved the soil microbial responses under nitrogen additions in Chinese fir plantations of subtropical China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Li, Dandan; Yang, Yang; Tang, Yuqian; Wang, Huimin; Chen, Fusheng; Sun, Xiaomin

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition and low soil phosphorus (P) content aggravate the P limitation in subtropical forest soils. However, the responses of soil microbial communities, enzyme kinetics, and N cycling genes to P additions in subtropical plantations are still not clear. The hypothesis that P application can alleviate the limitation and improve the soil microbial properties was tested by long term field experiment in the Chinese fir plantations in subtropical China. Thirty 20m×20m plots were established in November 2011 and six different treatments were randomly distributed with five replicates. The treatments are control (CK, no N and P application), low N addition (N1: 50 kg N ha-1 yr-1), high N addition (N2: 100 kg N ha-1 yr-1), P addition (P: 50 kg P ha-1 yr-1), low N and P addition (N1P: 50 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and 50 kg P ha-1 yr-1) and high N and P addition (N2P: 100 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and 50 kg P ha-1 yr-1). A suite of responses of soil microorganism across four years (2012-2015) during three seasons (spring, summer and autumn) were measured. Following 4 years of N amendments, fertilized soils were more acidic and had lower soil microbial biomass carbon contents than CK. However, P alleviated the soil acidification and increased the soil microbial biomass carbon contents. Increases in microbial PLFA biomarkers and exoenzyme kinetics in N fertilized plots were observed in the initial year (2013) but reduced since then (2014 and 2015). Whereas P amendments increased the soil PLFA biomarkers and exoenzyme kinetics through the four years except that the acid phosphatase activities declined after 3 years applications. P applications enhanced the soil N cycling by increases the abundances of nitrifiers (ammonia-oxidizing archea) and denitrifiers (nos Z, norG, and nirK). The bacterial and fungal residue carbons (calculated by amino sugar indicators) were higher under NP fertilizations than the other treatments. Our results suggest that P application could improve the soil

  17. Modeling biogeochemical processes of phosphorus for global food supply.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Marion; Frossard, Emmanuel; Scholz, Roland W

    2011-08-01

    Harvests of crops, their trade and consumption, soil erosion, fertilization and recycling of organic waste generate fluxes of phosphorus in and out of the soil that continuously change the worldwide spatial distribution of total phosphorus in arable soils. Furthermore, due to variability in the properties of the virgin soils and the different histories of agricultural practices, on a planetary scale, the distribution of total soil phosphorus is very heterogeneous. There are two key relationships that determine how this distribution and its change over time affect crop yields. One is the relationship between total soil phosphorus and bioavailable soil phosphorus and the second is the relationship between bioavailable soil phosphorus and yields. Both of these depend on environmental variables such as soil properties and climate. We propose a model in which these relationships are described probabilistically and integrated with the dynamic feedbacks of P cycling in the human ecosystem. The model we propose is a first step towards evaluating the large-scale effects of different nutrient management scenarios. One application of particular interest is to evaluate the vulnerability of different regions to an increased scarcity in P mineral fertilizers. Another is to evaluate different regions' deficiency in total soil phosphorus compared with the level at which they could sustain their maximum potential yield without external mineral inputs of phosphorus but solely by recycling organic matter to close the nutrient cycle. PMID:21463882

  18. Short-term fertilizer application alters phenotypic traits of symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Anna K; Han, Shery; Rekret, Phil; Rentschler, Christine S; Heath, Katy D; Stinchcombe, John R

    2015-01-01

    Fertilizer application is a common anthropogenic alteration to terrestrial systems. Increased nutrient input can impact soil microbial diversity or function directly through altered soil environments, or indirectly through plant-microbe feedbacks, with potentially important effects on ecologically-important plant-associated mutualists. We investigated the impacts of plant fertilizer, containing all common macro and micronutrients on symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia), a group of bacteria that are important for plant productivity and ecosystem function. We collected rhizobia nodule isolates from natural field soil that was treated with slow-release plant fertilizer over a single growing season and compared phenotypic traits related to free-living growth and host partner quality in these isolates to those of rhizobia from unfertilized soils. Through a series of single inoculation assays in controlled glasshouse conditions, we found that isolates from fertilized field soil provided legume hosts with higher mutualistic benefits. Through growth assays on media containing variable plant fertilizer concentrations, we found that plant fertilizer was generally beneficial for rhizobia growth. Rhizobia isolated from fertilized field soil had higher growth rates in the presence of plant fertilizer compared to isolates from unfertilized field soil, indicating that plant fertilizer application favoured rhizobia isolates with higher abilities to utilize fertilizer for free-living growth. We found a positive correlation between growth responses to fertilizer and mutualism benefits among isolates from fertilized field soil, demonstrating that variable plant fertilizer induces context-dependent genetic correlations, potentially changing the evolutionary trajectory of either trait through increased trait dependencies. Our study shows that short-term application is sufficient to alter the composition of rhizobia isolates in the population or community, either directly

  19. Short-term fertilizer application alters phenotypic traits of symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Han, Shery; Rekret, Phil; Rentschler, Christine S.; Heath, Katy D.; Stinchcombe, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Fertilizer application is a common anthropogenic alteration to terrestrial systems. Increased nutrient input can impact soil microbial diversity or function directly through altered soil environments, or indirectly through plant-microbe feedbacks, with potentially important effects on ecologically-important plant-associated mutualists. We investigated the impacts of plant fertilizer, containing all common macro and micronutrients on symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia), a group of bacteria that are important for plant productivity and ecosystem function. We collected rhizobia nodule isolates from natural field soil that was treated with slow-release plant fertilizer over a single growing season and compared phenotypic traits related to free-living growth and host partner quality in these isolates to those of rhizobia from unfertilized soils. Through a series of single inoculation assays in controlled glasshouse conditions, we found that isolates from fertilized field soil provided legume hosts with higher mutualistic benefits. Through growth assays on media containing variable plant fertilizer concentrations, we found that plant fertilizer was generally beneficial for rhizobia growth. Rhizobia isolated from fertilized field soil had higher growth rates in the presence of plant fertilizer compared to isolates from unfertilized field soil, indicating that plant fertilizer application favoured rhizobia isolates with higher abilities to utilize fertilizer for free-living growth. We found a positive correlation between growth responses to fertilizer and mutualism benefits among isolates from fertilized field soil, demonstrating that variable plant fertilizer induces context-dependent genetic correlations, potentially changing the evolutionary trajectory of either trait through increased trait dependencies. Our study shows that short-term application is sufficient to alter the composition of rhizobia isolates in the population or community, either directly

  20. The core root microbiome of sugarcanes cultivated under varying nitrogen fertilizer application.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, Yun Kit; Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Chanyarat; Dennis, Paul G; Robinson, Nicole; Ragan, Mark A; Schmidt, Susanne; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2016-05-01

    Diazotrophic bacteria potentially supply substantial amounts of biologically fixed nitrogen to crops, but their occurrence may be suppressed by high nitrogen fertilizer application. Here, we explored the impact of high nitrogen fertilizer rates on the presence of diazotrophs in field-grown sugarcane with industry-standard or reduced nitrogen fertilizer application. Despite large differences in soil microbial communities between test sites, a core sugarcane root microbiome was identified. The sugarcane root-enriched core taxa overlap with those of Arabidopsis thaliana raising the possibility that certain bacterial families have had long association with plants. Reduced nitrogen fertilizer application had remarkably little effect on the core root microbiome and did not increase the relative abundance of root-associated diazotrophs or nif gene counts. Correspondingly, low nitrogen fertilizer crops had lower biomass and nitrogen content, reflecting a lack of major input of biologically fixed nitrogen, indicating that manipulating nitrogen fertilizer rates does not improve sugarcane yields by enriching diazotrophic populations under the test conditions. Standard nitrogen fertilizer crops had improved biomass and nitrogen content, and corresponding soils had higher abundances of nitrification and denitrification genes. These findings highlight that achieving a balance in maximizing crop yields and minimizing nutrient pollution associated with nitrogen fertilizer application requires understanding of how microbial communities respond to fertilizer use. PMID:26032777

  1. Role of phosphate fertilizers in heavy metal uptake and detoxification of toxic metals.

    PubMed

    Gupta, D K; Chatterjee, S; Datta, S; Veer, V; Walther, C

    2014-08-01

    As a nonrenewable resource, phosphorus (P) is the second most important macronutrient for plant growth and nutrition. Demand of phosphorus application in the agricultural production is increasing fast throughout the globe. The bioavailability of phosphorus is distinctively low due to its slow diffusion and high fixation in soils which make phosphorus a key limiting factor for crop production. Applications of phosphorus-based fertilizers improve the soil fertility and agriculture yield but at the same time concerns over a number of factors that lead to environmental damage need to be addressed properly. Phosphate rock mining leads to reallocation and exposure of several heavy metals and radionuclides in crop fields and water bodies throughout the world. Proper management of phosphorus along with its fertilizers is required that may help the maximum utilization by plants and minimum run-off and wastage. Phosphorus solubilizing bacteria along with the root rhizosphere of plant integrated with root morphological and physiological adaptive strategies need to be explored further for utilization of this extremely valuable nonrenewable resource judiciously. The main objective of this review is to assess the role of phosphorus in fertilizers, their uptake along with other elements and signaling during P starvation. PMID:24560283

  2. Online measurement of contents in compound fertilizer and application research using VIS-NIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhidan; Wang, Yubing; Wang, Rujing; Liu, Jing; Lu, Cuiping; Wang, Liusan

    2015-10-01

    The on-line measurement of the main component contents is essential for production, detection and identification of compound fertilizer. Using developed VIS-NIR sensors for on-line measurement of the main component contents in compound fertilizer, primary results about nitrogen (N), phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) and potassium oxide (K2O) were reported. A visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) spectrophotometer (Ocean Optics), with a measurement range of 360.18-2221.53 nm was used to measure fertilizer spectra in reflectance mode. By using principal component analysis (PCA) and mahalanobis distance method, 3 outlier samples were detected and eliminated from 174 samples firstly. Then these models of three components with the 124 samples in calibration set were established using principal component regress (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLS) coupled respectively with the full cross-validation technique after preprocessing the original spectrum with different methods. These models were used to estimate the contents of N, P2O5 and K2O of the other 47 samples in predicted set. The research results showed that the method could be applied to rapid measurement to the main component contents in compound fertilizer. Compared with the traditional analysis method, the on-line measurement could do it rapidly, inexpensively and pollution-freely. It suggested the potential use of the VIS-NIR sensing system for on-line measurement in the production, detection and identification process of compound fertilizer.

  3. Polymers containing phosphorus groups and polyethers: from synthesis to application

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Phosphorus-containing high performance polymers have aroused wide interest, mainly due to good mechanical properties and their excellent fire resistance. The flexibility of synthetic polyphosphoesters allows the development of polymers in order to obtain solid polymer electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries based on solid films with superior fire resistance. Results Novel linear Phosphonate-PEG polymers were synthesized by solution polycondensation of 4-chlorophenyldichlorophosphonate as a linking agent and poly(ethylene glycol)s with different molecular weights in the presence of triethylamine or 1-methylimidazole as acid scavenger. The yields were between 54% and 88% and inherent viscosity between 0.18-0.48 dl/g. Molar masses, Mn were about 26300 g/mol for polyphosphonates with PEG 2000 and 4600 g/mol for polyphosphonates with PEG 200. The LOI values for these polymers and membranes are in the range of 26–29. The membranes based on polyphosphonate with PEG 200 and 2000 showed conductivity between 6 × 10-8 S.cm-1 and 6 × 10-7 S.cm-1 at room temperature and total ionic transference number between 0.87- 0.96. The evolution of conductivity vs. temperature is linear. Conclusions 1-methylimidazole was found to be better HCl scavenger than triethylamine, and allowed higher yields and more eco-friendly synthesis of the Phosphonate-PEG polymers for SPE. These polymers and membranes based on these polymers showed good LOI values and indicate an improvement of the safety of lithium batteries. The membranes present conductivities around 6 × 10-7 S.cm-1at room temperature and total ionic transference number is higher for membranes based on polymers with high EG unit content. Best results yield 88%, inherent viscosities 0.48 dl/g and Mn 26000 were obtained with 1-methylimidazole and PEG 2000. These membranes based on these polymers showed good LOI values (in the range 26-29%) and indicate an improvement of the safety of lithium batteries. PMID:23134834

  4. Calculation of Effective Gas Flux from Soil following Band Application of Manure or Fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse gases are emitted following application of manure and nitrogen-containing fertilizers to soil. Manure and fertilizers are often applied in subsurface bands in the soil, or in bands on the soil surface. This article presents a method that has been developed for calculating the effective ...

  5. Corn grain yield and nutrient uptake from application of enhanced-efficiency nitrogen fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing demand for food and agricultural products directly impact the use of chemical fertilizers particularly nitrogen (N). This study examined corn grain yield and nutrient uptake resulting from applications of different N fertilizer sources, urea (U), urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN), ammonium nitr...

  6. Study of the operation of a neutralization plant intended to prepare waste water for reuse in the production of phosphorus fertilizers

    SciTech Connect

    Yakubov, R.Y.; Mirkhodzhaev, M.M.; Ivanov, V.V.

    1983-04-01

    In the production of phosphorus fertilizers, fluorine-containing waste waters are formed mainly in production of wet-process phosphoric acid (WPA). For a typical WPA plant processing Karatau phosphorites they are produced in the amount of 350-400 m/sup 3//hr. In order to eliminate the discharge of fluorine-containing waste waters into rivers, lakes and streams, they are treated with milk of lime and clarified in a neutralization plant, and then reused in the main plants. The five years of experience at the Almalyk Chemical Works (ACW), where zero-waste production of WPA and ammophos according to this principle was first accomplished in the branch, have demonstrated the validity of this direction. The basis of this study consists of the results of a survey of this plant carried out by NIUIF and its Voskresensk branch in 1975 and also the experience with similar plants at the Samarkand superphosphate works, the Balakovsk and Cherepovetsk chemical plants and the Voskresensk Minudobreniya PA.

  7. Can repeated fertilizer applications to young Norway spruce enhance avian diversity in intensively managed forests?

    PubMed

    Edenius, Lars; Mikusiński, Grzegorz; Bergh, Johan

    2011-07-01

    Repeated fertilization of forests to increase biomass production is an environmentally controversial proposal, the effects of which we assessed on breeding birds in stands of young Norway spruce (Picea abies), in an intensively managed forest area in southern Sweden. Our results show that fertilized stands had 38% more species and 21% more individuals than unfertilized stands. Compared with stands under traditional management, the further intensification of forestry by repeated applications of fertilizers thus seemed to enhance species richness and abundance of forest birds. We cannot conclude at this stage whether the response in the bird community was caused by changes in food resources or increased structural complexity in the forest canopy due to the skid roads used for the application of the fertilizers. Future studies should focus on structural and compositional effects of fertilization processes during the entire rotation period and at assessing its effects in a landscape PMID:21848140

  8. [Effects of fertilizer application on greenhouse vegetable yield: a case study of Shouguang].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Li, Yan; Jiang, Li-Hua; Liu, Zhao-Hui; Gao, Xin-Hao; Lin, Hai-Tao; Zheng, Fu-Li; Shi, Jing

    2014-06-01

    Data collected from 51 representative greenhouses of Shouguang through questionnaire survey were analyzed to investigate the effect of chemical fertilizers on vegetable yield, relationship between application of organic manure and yield, and influence factors and evolution rule of fertilizer application rate. The results showed that averages of 3338 kg N x hm(-2), 1710 kg P2O5 x hm(-2) 3446 kg K2O x hm(-2) were applied to greenhouse vegetables annually in Shouguang, 6-14 times as that in the local wheat-maize rotation system. The application rates of chemical N, P, and K fertilizers accounted for about 35%, 49% and 42% of the total input. Increasing application of chemical fertilizers had no significant effect on vegetable yields, while organic manure input significantly increased the vegetable yields. With the increase of greenhouse cultivating time, no significant changes in the input of chemical N, P, and K fertilizers were observed in greenhouse vegetable production while organic manure input decreased significantly. Differences in vegetable species, planting pattern and cultivating time of greenhouses was one of the reasons for large variations in nutrient application rate. In recent more than ten years, organic manure nutrient input increased significantly, chemical N and P fertilizer input presented a downward trend, chemical K fertilizer input increased significantly, and the N/P/K ratio became more and more reasonable in greenhouse vegetable production in Shouguang. PMID:25223034

  9. Dynamic adjustment in agricultural practices to economic incentives aiming to decrease fertilizer application.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shanxia; Delgado, Michael S; Sesmero, Juan P

    2016-07-15

    Input- and output-based economic policies designed to reduce water pollution from fertilizer runoff by adjusting management practices are theoretically justified and well-understood. Yet, in practice, adjustment in fertilizer application or land allocation may be sluggish. We provide practical guidance for policymakers regarding the relative magnitude and speed of adjustment of input- and output-based policies. Through a dynamic dual model of corn production that takes fertilizer as one of several production inputs, we measure the short- and long-term effects of policies that affect the relative prices of inputs and outputs through the short- and long-term price elasticities of fertilizer application, and also the total time required for different policies to affect fertilizer application through the adjustment rates of capital and land. These estimates allow us to compare input- and output-based policies based on their relative cost-effectiveness. Using data from Indiana and Illinois, we find that input-based policies are more cost-effective than their output-based counterparts in achieving a target reduction in fertilizer application. We show that input- and output-based policies yield adjustment in fertilizer application at the same speed, and that most of the adjustment takes place in the short-term. PMID:27100331

  10. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Accumulation in Pasture Soil from Repeated Poultry Litter Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is a traditionally inexpensive and effective fertilizer to improve soil quality and agricultural productivity. However, over application to soil has raised concern because excess nutrients in runoff could accelerate the eutrophication of fresh water. In this work, we determined the co...

  11. Does nitrogen fertilizer application rate to corn affect nitrous oxide emissions from the rotated soybean crop?

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Javed; Mitchell, David C; Barker, Daniel W; Miguez, Fernando; Sawyer, John E; Pantoja, Jose; Castellano, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    Little information exists on the potential for N fertilizer application to corn ( L.) to affect NO emissions during subsequent unfertilized crops in a rotation. To determine if N fertilizer application to corn affects NO emissions during subsequent crops in rotation, we measured NO emissions for 3 yr (2011-2013) in an Iowa, corn-soybean [ (L.) Merr.] rotation with three N fertilizer rates applied to corn (0 kg N ha, the recommended rate of 135 kg N ha, and a high rate of 225 kg N ha); soybean received no N fertilizer. We further investigated the potential for a winter cereal rye ( L.) cover crop to interact with N fertilizer rate to affect NO emissions from both crops. The cover crop did not consistently affect NO emissions. Across all years and irrespective of cover crop, N fertilizer application above the recommended rate resulted in a 16% increase in mean NO flux rate during the corn phase of the rotation. In 2 of the 3 yr, N fertilizer application to corn (0-225 kg N ha) did not affect mean NO flux rates from the subsequent unfertilized soybean crop. However, in 1 yr after a drought, mean NO flux rates from the soybean crops that received 135 and 225 kg N ha N application in the corn year were 35 and 70% higher than those from the soybean crop that received no N application in the corn year. Our results are consistent with previous studies demonstrating that cover crop effects on NO emissions are not easily generalizable. When N fertilizer affects NO emissions during a subsequent unfertilized crop, it will be important to determine if total fertilizer-induced NO emissions are altered or only spread across a greater period of time. PMID:26024252

  12. Stabilized nitrogen fertilizers and application rate influence nitrogen losses under rainfed spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) losses associated with fertilizer application have negative economic and environmental consequences, but urease and nitrification inhibitors have potential to reduce N losses. The effectiveness of these inhibitors has been studied extensively in irrigated but not rainfed systems. Theref...

  13. AN AMMONIA EMISSION INVENTORY FOR FERTILIZER APPLICATION IN THE UNITED STATES. (R826371C006)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fertilizer application represents a significant fraction of ammonia emissions from all sources in the United States. Previously published ammonia inventories have generally suffered from poor spatial and temporal resolution, erroneous activity levels, and highly uncertain emis...

  14. Filtering fens: mechanisms explaining phosphorus-limited hotspots of biodiversity in wetlands adjacent to heavily fertilized areas.

    PubMed

    Cusell, Casper; Kooijman, Annemieke; Fernandez, Filippo; van Wirdum, Geert; Geurts, Jeroen J M; van Loon, E Emiel; Kalbitz, Karsten; Lamers, Leon P M

    2014-05-15

    The conservation of biodiverse wetland vegetation, including that of rich fens, has a high priority at a global scale. Although P-eutrophication may strongly decrease biodiversity in rich fens, some well-developed habitats do still survive in highly fertilized regions due to nutrient filtering services of large wetlands. The occurrence of such nutrient gradients is well-known, but the biogeochemical mechanisms that determine these patterns are often unclear. We therefore analyzed chemical speciation and binding of relevant nutrients and minerals in surface waters, soils and plants along such gradients in the large Ramsar nature reserve Weerribben-Wieden in the Netherlands. P-availability was lowest in relatively isolated floating rich fens, where plant N:P ratios indicated P-limitation. P-limitation can persist here despite high P-concentrations in surface waters near the peripheral entry locations, because only a small part of the P-input reaches the more isolated waters and fens. This pattern in P-availability appears to be primarily due to precipitation of Fe-phosphates, which mainly occurs close to entry locations as indicated by decreasing concentrations of Fe- and Al-bound P in the sub-aquatic sediments along this gradient. A further decrease of P-availability is caused by biological sequestration, which occurs throughout the wetland as indicated by equal concentrations of organic P in all sub-aquatic sediments. Our results clearly show that the periphery of large wetlands does indeed act as an efficient P-filter, sustaining the necessary P-limitation in more isolated parts. However, this filtering function does harm the ecological quality of the peripheral parts of the reserve. The filtering mechanisms, such as precipitation of Fe-phosphates and biological uptake of P, are crucial for the conservation and restoration of biodiverse rich fens in wetlands that receive eutrophic water from their surroundings. This seems to implicate that biodiverse wetland

  15. Aqeuous and Gaseous Nitrogen Losses Induced by Fertilizer Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years concern has grown over the contribution of nitrogen (N) fertilizers to nitrate (NO3-) water pollution and atmospheric pollution of nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO), and ammonia (NH3). Characterizing the amount and species of N losses is therefore essential in developing a strat...

  16. Fertilizer applications for container-grown ornamental tree production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of better utilization of nutrients during the growing season is needed to produce marketable container-grown ornamental shade trees economically. Fertilizer practices to grow Acer rubrum ‘Red Sunset’ trees in two separate fields (each containing four plots) irrigated with either city or po...

  17. Phytic acid in green leaves of herbaceous plants-temporal variation in situ and response to different nitrogen/phosphorus fertilizing regimes.

    PubMed

    Alkarawi, Hassan Hadi; Zotz, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Phytic acid is the major storage compound for phosphorus (P) in plants. While accounting for up to 90 % in many seeds, usually only <10 % of total P is found in phytic acid in green leaves. This study follows up on the findings of a recent review of the occurrence of phytic acid in green leaves which revealed that (i) the current knowledge of phytic acid in leaves is mostly based on data from (fertilized) crop plants and (ii) the proportion of total P in phytic acid seems to decrease with improved P status in leaves in contrast to an increase in seeds and fruit. We studied five species of wild herbaceous plants in the field and under controlled conditions. Foliar P concentrations were much lower than those of the crops of earlier studies, but the proportion of P in phytic acid was similar, with little variation during the observation period. Both the field data and the experimental data showed a statistically indistinguishable negative correlation of phytic acid-P/total P and total P. In contrast to our expectation, this negative relationship was not related to differences in relative growth rates. We conclude that (i) our data of phytic acid concentrations in leaves of wild plants are in line with earlier observations on crops, and (ii) the trend towards lower proportions of phytic acid-P with increasing P status is probably a general phenomenon. Currently lacking a convincing explanation for the second observation, the role of phytic acid in foliar P metabolism is still unclear. PMID:25125697

  18. [Mechanisms for the increased fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency of rice in wheat-rice rotation system under combined application of inorganic and organic fertilizers].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Ren; Li, Xiang; Yu, Jie; Shen, Qi-Rong; Xu, Yang-Chun

    2012-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the nitrogen uptake by rice and the nitrogen supply by soil in a wheat-rice rotation system, and approach the mechanisms for the increased fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency of rice under the combined fertilization from the viewpoint of microbiology. Comparing with applying inorganic fertilizers, combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers decreased the soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and soil mineral nitrogen contents before tillering stage, but increased them significantly from heading to filling stage. Under the combined fertilization, the dynamics of soil nitrogen supply matched best the dynamics of rice nitrogen uptake and utilization, which promoted the nitrogen accumulation in rice plant and the increase of rice yield and biomass, and increased the fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency of rice significantly. Combined application of inorganic and organic fertilizers also promoted the propagation of soil microbes, and consequently, more mineral nitrogen in soil was immobilized by the microbes at rice early growth stage, and the immobilized nitrogen was gradually released at the mid and late growth stages of rice, being able to better satisfy the nitrogen demand of rice in its various growth and development stages. PMID:22489483

  19. Phosphorus release capacity of soluble P fertilizers and insoluble rock phosphate in response to phosphate solubilizing bacteria and poultry manure and their effect on plant growth promotion and P utilization efficiency of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, M. K.; Musa, N.; Manzoor, M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of soil microorganisms and organic manures to convert insoluble phosphorus (P) to an accessible form offers a biological rescue system for improving P solubilization and utilization in soil-plant systems. Our objective was to examine the P supplying capacity of soluble P fertilizers (SPF) i.e. single super phosphate (SSP) and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) and insoluble rock phosphate (RP) after adding phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and poultry manure (PM) and their subsequent effect on the growth, yield and P-utilization efficiency (PUE) of chill (Capsicum annuum L.). An incubation study was carried-out on a sandy loam neutral soil with twelve treatments including T0: control; T1: RP; T2: SSP; T3: DAP; T4: PM; T5: 1/2 RP + 1/2 SSP; T6: 1/2 RP + 1/2 DAP; T7: 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM; T8: RP + PSB; T9: 1/2 RP + 1/2 SSP + PSB; T10: 1/2 RP + 1/2 DAP + PSB; T11: 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM + PSB. Phosphorus release capacity of added amendments was measured by analyzing extractable P from the amended soil incubated under controlled condition at 25 °C for 0, 5, 15, 25, 35, 60 days period. To complement the incubation study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in pots with chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) used as a test crop. Growth, yield, P-uptake and PUE of the chilli was determined during the study. Results indicated that P release capacity of soil amended with RP varied between 6.0 and 11.5 mg kg-1 while the soluble P fertilizers i.e. SSP and DAP displayed a maximum of 73 and 68 mg P kg-1 at the start of the experiment (day 0). However, the P released tendency from SSP and DAP declined during incubation and at the end 82 and 79% of P initially present had been lost from the mineral pool. Integrated use of PSB and PM with RP in 1/2 RP + 1/2 PM + PSB treatment stimulated P mineralization by releasing a maximum of 25 mg P kg-1 that was maintained at high levels without any loss. Application of PSB tended to decrease pH showing an acidifying effect on soil. In the greenhouse

  20. Differences in Chemical Composition of Soil Organic Carbon Resulting From Long-Term Fertilization Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zengqiang; Zhao, Bingzi; Wang, Qingyun; Cao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jiabao

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition of soil organic carbon (SOC) is central to soil fertility. We hypothesize that change in SOC content resulting from various long-term fertilization strategies accompanies the shift in SOC chemical structure. This study examined the effect of fertilization strategies along with the time of fertilizer application on the SOC composition by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The soils (Aquic Inceptisol) subjected to seven fertilizer treatments were collected in 1989, 1999 and 2009, representing 0, 10 and 20 years of fertilization, respectively. The seven fertilizer treatments were (1–3) balanced fertilization with application of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) including organic compost (OM), half organic compost plus half chemical fertilizer (1/2OM), and pure chemical NPK fertilizer (NPK); (4–6) unbalanced chemical fertilization without application of one of the major elements including NP fertilizer (NP), PK fertilizer (PK), and NK fertilizer (NK); and (7) an unamended control (CK). The SOC content in the balanced fertilization treatments were 2.3–52.6% and 9.4–64.6% higher than in the unbalanced fertilization/CK treatments in 1999 and 2009, respectively, indicating significant differences in SOC content with time of fertilizer application between the two treatment groups. There was a significantly greater proportion of O-alkyl C and a lower proportion of aromatic C in the balanced fertilization than in unbalanced fertilization/CK treatments in 1999, but not in 2009, because their proportions in the former treatments approached the latter in 2009. Principal component analysis further showed that the C functional groups from various fertilization strategies tended to become compositionally similar with time. The results suggest that a shift in SOC chemical composition may be firstly dominated by fertilization strategies, followed by fertilization duration. PMID:25884713

  1. [Effects of organic fertilizer application rate on leaf photosynthetic characteristics and grain yield of dryland maize].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Juan; Jia, Zhi-Kuan; Liang, Lian-You; Ding, Rui-Xia; Wang, Min; Li, Han

    2012-02-01

    A 4-year field experiment was conducted at the Heyang Research Station in Weibei dryland to study the effects of organic fertilizer application rate on the leaf photosynthetic characteristics and grain yield of dryland maize. Comparing with applying chemical fertilizer, applying organic fertilizer increased the leaf photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, but decreased the leaf intercellular CO2 concentration at each growth stage of maize significantly. With the increasing application rate of organic fertilizer, the leaf photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance at each growth stage of maize had a gradual increase, while the leaf intercellular CO2 concentration had a gradual decrease. The leaf photosynthesis of maize at each growth stage was controlled by non-stomatal factors, and the application of organic fertilizer reduced the non-stomatal limitation on the photosynthesis performance significantly. The 4-year application of organic fertilizer improved soil nutrient status, and soil nutrients were no longer the main factors limiting the leaf photosynthetic rate and grain yield of maize. PMID:22586967

  2. Fertilizer trends

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.

    1992-12-31

    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  3. Fertilizer trends

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.

    1992-01-01

    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  4. Effects of nitrogen source and rate and method of fertilizer application on yield and fruit size in 'Bluecrop' highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was done to determine the effects of N source and rate and two common methods of fertilizer application on yield and fruit size in a maturing field of highbush blueberry. Plants were fertilized by drip fertigation or with granular fertilizer using urea or ammonium sulfate applied at a rate o...

  5. Changes phosphorus associated to phosphatase activity because of application of carbon, nitrogen and manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes, Cecilia; Gianfreda, Liliana; Mora, María de la Luz

    2015-04-01

    The Chilean Andisols are of great importance in the economy of southern Chile supporting the bulk of agricultural production. The major characteristics of Chilean volcanic soils are the high adsorption capacity of P with a concomitant low P availability to plants. Studies preliminary using dairy cattle dung suggest that we can improve P availability using organic P sources within the soil because of microorganism. Phosphorous solubilization by microorganisms is a complex phenomenon, which depends on many factors such as nutritional, physiological and growth condition of the culture. The principal mechanism for mineral phosphate solubilization is the production of organic acids where the enzyme phosphatases play a major role in the mineralization of organic phosphorous in soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in soil phosphorus fractions due to application the cattle dung, glucose, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). In this experiment we incubated soil samples with 300 g of cattle dung, 30 mg kg-1 of N and P and 1000 mg glucose kg-1. The soil samples were moistened to field capacity and incubated in plastic bags to room temperature by different time. The changes in P forms in soil were monitored through the Hedley fractionation procedure and phosphatase activity. Our preliminary results indicated that the application of cattle dung, glucose nitrogen and phosphorus, caused the increased phosphatase activity until to 7 days and then apparently return to normal values. Interestingly, we observed a rise in the inorganic P fraction extracted by NaHCO3 in the same period. In summary, the increase biological activity by carbon and nitrogen increase P availability. Acknowledgements: The authors thank Fondecyt 1141247 Project.

  6. PHOSPHORUS AND NITRATE NITROGEN IN RUNOFF FOLLOWING FERTILIZER APPLICATION TO TURFGRASS. (R828007)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  7. Yield, nutrient removal, and quality of sorghum grain and biomass as influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization

    SciTech Connect

    Moresco, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during 1983 and 1984 at two locations using one conventional (ATx399xRTx430) and two high energy sorghum hybrids (Sorghum bicolor L., Moench) to evaluate the effects of N and P applications on grain, biomass, and fermentable carbohydrate production. Genotype and N most influenced grain and biomass yields at both locations. Cultivars ATx399xRTx430 and ATx623xRTx430 produced more grain, but less biomass than ATx623xRio. Applied N increased grain yields at College Station more in 1984 than in 1983, indicating a decrease in soil N after one year of total dry matter removal. Less yield response to N was observed at Weslaco. Applied P had little effect on grain or biomass production at either location. Applied N increased grain and biomass concentrations and uptake of most nutrients. Increased nutrient removals generally resulted more from increases in dry matter production than from changes in nutrient concentrations. Apparent N uptake efficiency was higher at College Station (41 to 53%) than at Weslaco (24 to 37%). Complete aboveground dry matter removal of high energy sorghums resulted in an additional removal of 100 to 180 kg K and 40 to 50 kg N/ha when compared with conventional sorghum produced for grain only. Genotype influenced stalk fermentable carbohydrate yields, with ATx623xRio producing substantially greater amounts than the other hybrids. Applied N decreased structural carbohydrates, while nonstructural carbohydrates remained unchanged. Stalk fermentable carbohydrate fuels, however, increased linearly with N application because of higher biomass yields with applied N.

  8. Changes in fertility parameters and contents of heavy metals of soddy-podzolic soils upon the long-term application of sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasbieva, M. T.; Kosolapova, A. I.

    2015-05-01

    The effect of the long-term sewage sludge (SS) application on the chemical, agrophysical, and biological properties of a soddy-podzolic soil ( Umbric Albeluvisols Abruptic) was studied. Regular SS application in the course of five crop rotations (1976-2013) ensured the improvement of the soil fertility parameters, i.e., a rise in the contents of humus, available phosphorus, and exchangeable potassium; a better state of the soil adsorption complex, bulk density, and aggregation; and higher cellulolytic, nitrification, and urease activities. The efficiencies of SS and the traditional organic fertilizer (cattle manure) were compared. The effect of the long-term application of SS on the accumulation of heavy metals in the soils was also studied. It was found that the application of SS caused a rise in the bulk content of heavy metals and in the contents of their acid-extractable and mobile forms by 1.1-6.0 times. However, the maximum permissible concentrations of heavy metals in the soils were not exceeded. In the soil subjected to the application of SS for more than 25 years, the cadmium concentration somewhat exceeded the maximum permissible concentration.

  9. The impact of biochars prepared from agricultural residues on phosphorus release and availability in two fertile soils.

    PubMed

    Manolikaki, Ioanna I; Mangolis, Argirios; Diamadopoulos, Evan

    2016-10-01

    significant differences were observed in alkaline soil. These results suggest that biochars derived from agricultural residues may act as a source of P in agronomic applications and improve plant growth, although soil conditions may play a significant role. PMID:27429359

  10. Nitrogen Fertigation is Less Efficient but Safer than Granular Fertilizer Application in Newly-Planted Blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen fertilizer methods and rates were evaluated in a new field of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. ‘Bluecrop’). Treatments included four application methods (split fertigation, continuous fertigation, and two non-fertigated controls) and four rates of N application (0, 50, 100, and 1...

  11. Accumulation of uranium derived from long-term fertilizer applications in a cultivated Andisol.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Akira; Tsukada, Hirofumi; Takaku, Yuichi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Nanzyo, Masami

    2006-08-31

    The U concentrations in the soils of experimental fields with continuous fertilizer applications and in neighboring non-agricultural soils were determined. The surface soils in the three experimental fields with fertilizer applications contained higher amounts of U compared with the non-agricultural surface soils. The amount of U elevated in the soil was estimated by the vertical profile of U concentration, and an increase of about 200 mg m-2 of U was found in the soils at 0-35 cm depth during a 61-year cultivation period. The estimated value was almost the same as the amount of U added through the fertilizers as calculated from U concentrations in the applied fertilizers. Therefore, almost all the U from the fertilizers would still remain in the upper part of the soils. Chemical extraction results suggested that organic substances and noncrystalline clay minerals in the surface soil should play an important role for accumulation of U derived from the fertilizers. PMID:16487995

  12. New industrial heat pump applications to phosphate fertilizer production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    In this study Process Integration techniques based on Pinch Technology have been applied to Chevron's fertilizer complex in Rock Springs, Wyoming. The objectives of the study were to: identify heat pump opportunities and to determine the cost effectiveness of heat pumping compared to other process improvements. Significance of this Work Chevron's fertilizer complex is an example of an exothermic process. The sulfuric acid plant produces more heat than is needed for the rest of the site. The complex has, therefore, no need for a heating utility. The heat created in the sulfuric acid plant is used to produce high pressure steam, which is let down through a turbo generator satisfying most of the site's electrical needs. This type of process would normally not be considered for heat pumping because there is no heating utility load to reduce. However, reducing the requirements for extraction steam will liberate more steam for power generation. Heat recovery and heat pumping, therefore, have the unusual effect of an increase in electricity production, resulting in a reduction in electricity import, rather than a reduction in fuel consumption. Heat recovery opportunities show promise at both the sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid plants. No economically attractive opportunities were found for heat pumps in the process units when they were considered individually; however, the study identified that significant energy savings can be achieved by heat integration between the sulfuric acid plant and the phosphoric acid plant. 16 figs.

  13. Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics

    PubMed Central

    Hanlon, Damien; Backes, Claudia; Doherty, Evie; Cucinotta, Clotilde S.; Berner, Nina C.; Boland, Conor; Lee, Kangho; Harvey, Andrew; Lynch, Peter; Gholamvand, Zahra; Zhang, Saifeng; Wang, Kangpeng; Moynihan, Glenn; Pokle, Anuj; Ramasse, Quentin M.; McEvoy, Niall; Blau, Werner J.; Wang, Jun; Abellan, Gonzalo; Hauke, Frank; Hirsch, Andreas; Sanvito, Stefano; O'Regan, David D.; Duesberg, Georg S.; Nicolosi, Valeria; Coleman, Jonathan N.

    2015-01-01

    Few-layer black phosphorus (BP) is a new two-dimensional material which is of great interest for applications, mainly in electronics. However, its lack of environmental stability severely limits its synthesis and processing. Here we demonstrate that high-quality, few-layer BP nanosheets, with controllable size and observable photoluminescence, can be produced in large quantities by liquid phase exfoliation under ambient conditions in solvents such as N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone (CHP). Nanosheets are surprisingly stable in CHP, probably due to the solvation shell protecting the nanosheets from reacting with water or oxygen. Experiments, supported by simulations, show reactions to occur only at the nanosheet edge, with the rate and extent of the reaction dependent on the water/oxygen content. We demonstrate that liquid-exfoliated BP nanosheets are potentially useful in a range of applications from ultrafast saturable absorbers to gas sensors to fillers for composite reinforcement. PMID:26469634

  14. Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Damien; Backes, Claudia; Doherty, Evie; Cucinotta, Clotilde S; Berner, Nina C; Boland, Conor; Lee, Kangho; Harvey, Andrew; Lynch, Peter; Gholamvand, Zahra; Zhang, Saifeng; Wang, Kangpeng; Moynihan, Glenn; Pokle, Anuj; Ramasse, Quentin M; McEvoy, Niall; Blau, Werner J; Wang, Jun; Abellan, Gonzalo; Hauke, Frank; Hirsch, Andreas; Sanvito, Stefano; O'Regan, David D; Duesberg, Georg S; Nicolosi, Valeria; Coleman, Jonathan N

    2015-01-01

    Few-layer black phosphorus (BP) is a new two-dimensional material which is of great interest for applications, mainly in electronics. However, its lack of environmental stability severely limits its synthesis and processing. Here we demonstrate that high-quality, few-layer BP nanosheets, with controllable size and observable photoluminescence, can be produced in large quantities by liquid phase exfoliation under ambient conditions in solvents such as N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone (CHP). Nanosheets are surprisingly stable in CHP, probably due to the solvation shell protecting the nanosheets from reacting with water or oxygen. Experiments, supported by simulations, show reactions to occur only at the nanosheet edge, with the rate and extent of the reaction dependent on the water/oxygen content. We demonstrate that liquid-exfoliated BP nanosheets are potentially useful in a range of applications from ultrafast saturable absorbers to gas sensors to fillers for composite reinforcement. PMID:26469634

  15. Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilized few-layer black phosphorus for applications beyond electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanlon, Damien; Backes, Claudia; Doherty, Evie; Cucinotta, Clotilde S.; Berner, Nina C.; Boland, Conor; Lee, Kangho; Harvey, Andrew; Lynch, Peter; Gholamvand, Zahra; Zhang, Saifeng; Wang, Kangpeng; Moynihan, Glenn; Pokle, Anuj; Ramasse, Quentin M.; McEvoy, Niall; Blau, Werner J.; Wang, Jun; Abellan, Gonzalo; Hauke, Frank; Hirsch, Andreas; Sanvito, Stefano; O'Regan, David D.; Duesberg, Georg S.; Nicolosi, Valeria; Coleman, Jonathan N.

    2015-10-01

    Few-layer black phosphorus (BP) is a new two-dimensional material which is of great interest for applications, mainly in electronics. However, its lack of environmental stability severely limits its synthesis and processing. Here we demonstrate that high-quality, few-layer BP nanosheets, with controllable size and observable photoluminescence, can be produced in large quantities by liquid phase exfoliation under ambient conditions in solvents such as N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone (CHP). Nanosheets are surprisingly stable in CHP, probably due to the solvation shell protecting the nanosheets from reacting with water or oxygen. Experiments, supported by simulations, show reactions to occur only at the nanosheet edge, with the rate and extent of the reaction dependent on the water/oxygen content. We demonstrate that liquid-exfoliated BP nanosheets are potentially useful in a range of applications from ultrafast saturable absorbers to gas sensors to fillers for composite reinforcement.

  16. Comparison of sludge and fertilizer applications on establishment and growth of seedlings of two sweetgum ecotypes endomycorrhizal with Glomus mosseae and Glomus etunicatus. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kormanik, P.P.

    1982-01-01

    A 3 part study was conducted. Part 1 investigated the effects of sludge or fertilizer applications on the development of sweetgum progeny from two mother trees. Significant differences were found between the genetically different half-sib progeny. Non fertilized control seedlings had significantly better survival rates than treated trees. This can be directly correlated to competition between trees and grass. In a second study the grass was controlled, and only fertilizer and endomycorrhizal symbionts were used. Trees in this study are significantly taller than the previous study which demonstrates the importance of grass control. At the time of planting, nonmycorrhizal trees were 15% taller than mycorrhizal trees. Nonmycorrhizal trees received 800 ppM P while mycorrhizal trees received 30 ppM P. Most significant is that all trees were mycorrhizal at the end of the second year. A third outplanting experiment was installed to compare root collar diameters of progeny from two genotypic lines of sweetgum. Data suggest that root collar diameters of nonmycorrhizal seedlings grown under low soil phosphorus regimes are a good indicator of future vigor.

  17. Impact of treated sewage sludge application on phosphorus release kinetics in some calcareous soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinpur, Alireza; Pashamokhtari, Hamed

    2008-09-01

    Treated sewage sludge contains significant amount of phosphorus and is widely used in agriculture. Kinetics of P release in soils is a subject of importance in soil and environmental sciences. There are few studies about P release kinetics in treated sewage sludge amended soils. For this purpose, sludge was mixed with ten soils at a rate equivalent to 100 Mg sludge ha-1, and P desorption was determined by successive extraction using 0.01 M CaCl2 over a period of 65 days at 25 ± 1°C. Phosphorus release rate was rapid at first (until about first 360 h) and then became slower until equilibrium was approached. Average of P released within 360 h for the unamended and amended soils was about 65 and 73% of the total desorbed P, respectively. Zero-order, first-order, second-order, power function, simplified Elovich and parabolic diffusion law kinetics models were used to describe P release. First-order, Elovich, power function and parabolic diffusion models could well describe P release in the unamended and amended soils. Correlation coefficients between P release rate parameters and selected soil properties showed that in the control soils, calcium carbonate equivalent and Olsen-extractable P; and in the amended soils, calcium carbonate equivalent, cation exchange capacity, organic matter and Olsen-extractable P were significantly correlated with P release parameters. The results of this study showed that application of sewage sludge can change P release characteristics of soils and increase P in runoff.

  18. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in October 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industries. Yearly production and forecasts are given for 1987 through 1997. Fertilizers reported on include: ammonium sulfate, nitric acid, wet-process superphosphoric acid, normal superphosphate, elemental phosphorus, potassium sulfate, and sulfate of potash/magnesia.

  19. Distribution of phosphorus in manure slurry and its infiltration after application to soils.

    PubMed

    Vadas, Peter A

    2006-01-01

    Computer models help identify agricultural areas where P transport potential is high, but commonly used models do not simulate surface application of manures and P transport from manures to runoff. As part of an effort to model such P transport, we conducted manure slurry separation and soil infiltration experiments to determine how much slurry P infiltrates into soil after application but before rain, thus becoming less available to runoff. We applied dairy and swine slurry to soil columns and after both 24 and 96 h analyzed solids remaining on the soil surface for dry matter, total phosphorus (TP), and water-extractable inorganic (WEIP) and organic (WEOP) phosphorus. We analyzed underlying soils for Mehlich-3 and water-extractable P. We also conducted slurry separation experiments by sieving, centrifuging, and suction-filtering to determine which method could easily estimate slurry P infiltration into soils. About 20% of slurry solids and 40 to 65% of slurry TP and WEIP infiltrated into soil after application, rendering this P less available to transport in runoff. Slurry separation by suction-filtering through a screen with 0.75-mm-diameter openings was the best method to estimate this slurry P infiltration. Measured quantities of manure WEOP changed too much during experiments to estimate WEOP infiltration into soil or what separation method can approximate infiltration. Applying slurries to soils always increased soil P in the top 0 to 1 cm of soil, frequently in the 1- to 2-cm depth of soil, but rarely below 2 cm. Future research should use soils with coarser texture or large macropores, and slurry with low dry matter content (1-2%). PMID:16455855

  20. Reducing fertilizer-derived N2O emission: Point injection vs. surface application of ammonium-N fertilizer at a loamy sand site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deppe, Marianna; Well, Reinhard; Giesemann, Anette; Kücke, Martin; Flessa, Heinz

    2013-04-01

    N2O emitted from soil originates either from denitrification of nitrate and/or nitrification of ammonium. N fertilization can have an important impact on N2O emission rates. Injection of nitrate-free ammonium-N fertilizer, in Germany also known as CULTAN (Controlled Uptake Long-Term Ammonium Nutrition), results in fertilizer depots with ammonium concentrations of up to 10 mg N g-1 soil-1. High concentrations of ammonium are known to inhibit nitrification. However, it has not yet been clarified how N2O fluxes are affected by CULTAN. In a field experiment, two application methods of nitrogen fertilizer were used at a loamy sand site: Ammonium sulphate was applied either by point injection or by surface application. 15N-ammonium sulphate was used to distinguish between N2O originating from either fertilizer-N or soil-N. Unfertilized plots and plots fertilized with unlabeled ammonium sulphate served as control. N2O emissions were measured using static chambers, nitrate and ammonium concentrations were determined in soil extracts. Stable isotope analysis of 15N in N2O, nitrate and ammonium was used to calculate the contribution of fertilizer N to N2O emissions and the fertilizer turnover in soil. 15N analysis clearly indicated that fertilizer derived N2O fluxes were higher from surface application plots. For the period of the growing season, about 24% of the flux measured in surface application treatment and less than 10% from injection treatment plots originated from the fertilizer. In addition, a lab experiment was conducted to gain insight into processes leading to N2O emission from fertilizer depots. One aim was to examine whether the ratio of N2O to nitrate formation differs depending on the ammonium concentration. Loamy sand soil was incubated in microcosms continuously flushed with air under conditions favouring nitrification. 15N-labeled nitrate was used to differentiate between nitrification and denitrification. Stable isotope analyses of 15N were performed on

  1. Swine manure injection with a low-disturbance applicator and cover crops reduce phosphorus losses in runoff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Injection of liquid swine manure disturbs surface soil, so that runoff from treated lands can transport sediment and nutrients to surface waters. With a field study we determined the effect of two swine manure application methods on phosphorus (P) fate in a corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean (Glycine max L....

  2. Application of manure to no-till soils: Phosphorus losses by sub-surface and surface pathways

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concern over the acceleration of eutrophication by agricultural runoff has focused attention on manure management in no-till. We evaluated losses of phosphorus (P) in sub-surface and surface flow as a function of dairy manure application to no-till soils on a dairy farm in north-central Pennsylvania...

  3. [Further reduction of nitrogen fertilizer application in paddy field under green manuring of Taihu Area, China].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong; Yan, Ting-mei; Qiao, Jun; Yang, Lin-zhang; Tang, Fang; Song, Yun-fei

    2015-06-01

    This study focused on the nitrogen loss via runoff, change of nitrogen in different forms in surface water in paddy field, and grain yield, through further reduction of nitrogen fertilizer application rate under green manuring without basal dressing. Results showed that with 150 kg · hm(-2) inorganic N fertilizer input after return of green manure to soil, no basal dressing could not only sharply reduce N concentration in surface water and decrease 17.2% of N loss, but also increase 2.8% of grain yield in comparison with basal dressing. It was a worthwhile farming method that inorganic nitrogen fertilizer was not used for basal dressing but for topdressing after return of green ma- nure to soil in Taihu Area. However, the grain yield would decrease if the rate of topdressing nitro- gen was excessively reduced or increased. After all, it was feasible to realize harmonization of grain yield and environmental benefits in Taihu Area, with 133 kg · hm(-2) inorganic N fertilizer input after return of green manure to soil as well as no application of basal dressing, which could greatly reduce N fertilizer input and N loss as well as ensure rice yield. PMID:26572018

  4. Global baseline data on phosphorus pollution of large lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Gabriel; Flörke, Martina; Alcamo, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Lakes are exposed to harmful eutrophication which is the most concerning water quality issue on global scale. Eutrophication is caused by phosphorous pollution in most lakes. Hence, global consistent base line data on phosphorus loadings are needed to assess future sustainable development. We used the modeling framework WaterGAP3 to calculate present total phosphorus loadings to the world's largest lakes. Estimates of modeled total phosphorus (TP) loadings as well as the contributions of different sectors were successfully validated against measured data. Based on these findings, annual total phosphorus loadings to lakes were calculated for diffuse and point sources according to the different sectors domestic, manufacturing, urban surface runoff, agriculture and background for the time period 1990 to 2010. Our results show high phosphorus loadings into lakes in southern latitudes. On global average, industrial fertilizer is the main anthropogenic source while background loadings are low in comparison. Nevertheless, both features indicate a high potential to reduce the exposure to eutrophication in lakes which are faced with high phosphor inputs. The global average of TP loadings was 7% higher in the time period 2005-2010 than in the period 1990-1995. The global average in 2005-2010 results from an increase in TP loadings of 79% in South America, which was dampened by a decrease in Europe, North America, and Asia. Chinese lakes were exposed to massive increasing phosphorus loadings, too. Both increasing and decreasing trends are caused primarily by changing industrial fertilizer application rates. In conclusion, this study provides a consistent and model based synopsis of global trends and sources of phosphorus loadings to large lakes. The estimates of phosphorus pollution of lakes present a basis for assessing and managing the global eutrophication problem.

  5. Development and initial application of δ18Op to understand phosphorus cycling in river, lake and groundwater ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surridge, Ben; Gooddy, Daren; Newton, Rob; Moore, Oliver; Heaton, Timothy; Lapworth, Daniel; Davies, Ceri

    2014-05-01

    Variation in the stable isotope composition of oxygen within dissolved phosphate (δ18Op) represents a novel and potentially powerful environmental tracer. In freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, δ18Op can act as an inherent label for the sources of phosphorus and the extent to which phosphorus from different sources is metabolised. This paper focuses on the methodological development and initial application of δ18Op across a range of freshwater ecosystems. Initially, we report modifications to the analytical protocol for δ18Op that are designed to minimise incorporation of contaminant oxygen in the final silver phosphate precipitate prior to pyrolysis. This is critical given the range of possible sources of contaminant oxygen within freshwater matrices. Subsequently, we consider the potential utility of δ18Opthrough application of the technique within a range of freshwater ecosystems in England, UK. Firstly, we characterise δ18Opin river water and effluents from Sewage Treatment Works (STW), and examine the opportunity to use the δ18Op of STW effluents to trace the entry and downstream fate of phosphorus from these point sources in rivers. Secondly, we analyse δ18Opto gain insights into variations in the sources and biological cycling of phosphorus in a seasonally-stratified lake ecosystem. Thirdly, we characterise δ18Op in shallow and deep groundwater samples, considering whether δ18Op might provide evidence for variation in source and extent of metabolism for phosphorus in groundwater ecosystems. Taken together, these data extend the catalogue of δ18Op in freshwater ecosystems, and further the scope of δ18Op as a tool to better understand phosphorus biogeochemistry.

  6. Nutrient and Estrogenic Activity of Runoff Post–Application of Animal Waste-Based Fertilizer to Frozen Fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While nutrient loading of surface waters from agricultural use of fertilizer has long been an environmental concern, recently attention has focused on hormonal contamination of waters from application of animal wastes as fertilizer. Application of manure to frozen fields may further increase the env...

  7. Nitrification and acidification from urea application in red soil (Ferralic Cambisol) after different long-term fertilization treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose. Long-term manure applications can prevent or reverse soil acidification by chemical nitrogen (N) fertilizer. However, the resistance to re-acidification from further chemical fertilization is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of urea application on nitrification and a...

  8. Nitrous Oxide Gas Fluxes in a Potato Field Following Application of Urea and Coated Urea Fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of urea and other forms of nitrogen (N) fertilizer can generate atmospheric emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), which is a potent greenhouse gas. Field experiments were conducted on a loamy sand soil in Becker, Minnesota to evaluate the effects of soluble and coated forms of urea on N2O fl...

  9. Poultry Littler Application Increases Nitrogen Cycling Compared with Inorganic Nitrogen Fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter, an inexpensive source of nutrients and available in abundant amounts in the southeastern USA, may increase N cycling and reduce N losses compared with inorganic N fertilization if applied in crop production. We evaluated the effect of long-term application of poultry litter and inorg...

  10. Reducing phosphorus in swine effluent with aluminum chloride treatment during lagoon cleanout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) runoff from agricultural lands fertilized with swine manure can be a significant environmental issue. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of aluminum chloride (AlCl3) applications to a swine lagoon during total clean out on P concentrations in manure and runoff wat...

  11. The content of available mineral phosphorus compounds in chestnut soils of Northern Mongolia upon application of different forms of phosphorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubugunov, L. L.; Enkhtuyaa, B.; Merkusheva, M. G.

    2015-06-01

    The effect of different forms of phosphorite (activated and crude ground) of the Burenkhansk deposit on the phosphate status of chestnut soils and the productivity of spring wheat was studied in Northern Mongolia. It was found that the transformation of mineral soil phosphates upon the application of activated phosphorite (together with NK) is similar to that upon superphosphate application, and the available phosphorus concentration is even a gradation higher. The application of crude ground phosphorite helped to preserve the content of mineral phosphates in the soil at the initial level. Optimum concentrations of available phosphorus and the sum of loosely bound and calcium phosphates in the plow horizon were estimated 33-35 mg/kg) and 16-18 mg/100 g, respectively. Under these concentrations, high and sustainable yields of spring wheat were obtained upon application of activated phosphorite.

  12. Contrasting effects of exogenous phosphorus application on N2O emissions from two tropical forest soils with contrasting phosphorus availability.

    PubMed

    Mori, Taiki; Yokoyama, Daiki; Kitayama, Kanehiro

    2016-01-01

    An incubation study was conducted to test the effects of phosphorus (P) addition on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from the soils taken from two tropical rain forests established on different parent materials [meta-sedimentary (MS) and ultrabasic (UB) rock] on Mt. Kinabalu, Borneo. Earlier studies suggest that the forest on UB soils is more strongly limited by P than that on MS soils is. In MS soils, P addition significantly reduced N2O emissions. Since neither ammonium (NH4 (+)) nor nitrate (NO3 (-)) contents were reduced by P addition, we assumed that the decrease in N2O emissions were not due to the previously-reported mechanism: P addition stimulated microbial nitrogen (N) immobilization and collateral inorganic N consumption, reducing resources for producing N2O. Since P addition enhanced the ratios of microbial biomass to CO2 and N2O emissions (indicators of nitrifying and/or denitrifying respiratory efficiency), it was suggested that the N required for the respiration of nitrifying and/or denitrifying bacteria was reduced, leading to reduced N2O emissions. On the other hand, P addition had no effects on N2O emissions in UB soils. The respiratory efficiency did not change significantly by P addition, possibly because the microbial community in the highly-P-depleted UB soils shifted by P addition, with which the enhancement of respiration efficiency did not co-vary. We concluded that (1) P addition may control N2O emissions through increasing respiratory efficiency, and (2) the effects may be different depending on the differences in P availability. PMID:27536520

  13. Predicting Nitrogen in Streams: A Comparison of Two Estimates of Fertilizer Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehaffey, M.; Neale, A.

    2011-12-01

    Decision makers frequently rely on water and air quality models to develop nutrient management strategies. Obviously, the results of these models (e.g., SWAT, SPARROW, CMAQ) are only as good as the nutrient source input data and recently the Nutrient Innovations Task Group has called for a better accounting of nonpoint nutrient sources. Currently, modelers frequently rely on county level fertilizer sales records combined with acreage of crops to estimate nitrogen sources from fertilizer for counties or watersheds. However, since fertilizer sales data are based on reported amounts they do not necessarily reflect actual use on the fields. In addition the reported sales data quality varies by state resulting in differing accuracy between states. In this study we examine an alternative method potentially providing a more uniform, spatially explicit, estimate of fertilizer use. Our nitrogen application data is estimated at a 30m pixel resolution which allows for scalable inputs for use in water and air quality models. To develop this dataset we combined raster data from the National Cropland data layer (CDL) data with the National Land Cover Data (NLCD). This process expanded the NLCD's 'cultivated crops' classes to included major grains, cover crops, and vegetable and fruits. The Agriculture Resource Management Survey chemical fertilizer application rate data were summarized by crop type and year for each state, encompassing the corn, soybean, spring wheat, and winter wheat crop types (ARMS, 2002-2005). The chemical fertilizer application rate data were then used to estimate annual application parameters for nitrogen, phosphate, potash, herbicide, pesticide, and total pesticide, all expressed on a mass-per-unit-crop-area basis for each state for each crop type. By linking crop types to nitrogen application rates, we can better estimate where applied fertilizer would likely be in excess of the amounts used by crops or where conservation practices may improve retention

  14. Future directions for agricultural phosphorus research

    SciTech Connect

    Sikora, F.J.

    1992-03-01

    Future Directions for Agricultural Phosphorus Research is a collection of papers presented at a workshop in Muscle Shoals, Alabama, on July 18 and 19, 1990. The objective of the workshop was to gather representatives of academia, government, and industry to discuss and debate research needs with phosphorus in agriculture, ranging from basic to applied research. The enclosed papers present information on current knowledge in the areas of (1) identifying phosphorus solid phases in soil, (ii) enhanced phosphorus bioavailability through microbial activity, (iii) phosphorus rock quality, (iv) environmental issues regarding phosphorus in agriculture, (v) predicting phosphorus bioavailability in soil, and (vi) fertilizer management effects on phosphorus availability. Within each paper, the authors suggest future research needs in their area. With the discussion of current knowledge and future research needs, this publication was designed to benefit organizations formulating and developing research plans concerning phosphorus in agricultural systems.

  15. Reducing environmental risk of excessively fertilized soils and improving cucumber growth by Caragana microphylla-straw compost application in long-term continuous cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yongqiang; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Weihua; Gao, Lihong

    2016-02-15

    Continuous cropping is a common agricultural practice in the word. In China, farmers often apply excessive fertilizers to fields in an attempt to maintain yields in continuous cropping systems. However, this practice often results in high nutrient concentrations in soils, nutrient pollution in leaching water and more crop disease. Here, we investigated 8 different soils from continuously cropped cucumbers in Northern China that grouped into those with extremely high nutrient levels (EHNL) and those with lower nutrient levels (LNL). All soils were treated with Caragana microphylla-straw (CMS) compost addition, and then were used to measure soil physiochemical and microbial properties, leaching water quality, plant root growth and cucumber fruit yield. In general, the EHNL-soil showed higher nitrate, phosphorus and potassium concentrations in the leaching water compared to the LNL-soil. However, the CMS compost application increased soil nutrient and water holding capacities, total microbial biomass (bacteria and fungi), root length, plant biomass and fruit yields, but decreased nutrient concentrations in the leaching water from the EHNL-soil. In addition, the CMS compost decreased the number of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum in soils with very high concentration of mineral nitrogen. Our results infer that CMS compost application was an effective method for reducing environmental risk of excessively fertilized soils. PMID:26657371

  16. Speciation of Phosphorus by coupled HPLC-ICPMS: Application for quantification of reduced forms of phosphorus in rocks and natural waters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atlas, Z. D.; Pasek, M. A.; Sampson, J.

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus is a geologically important element making up approximately 0.12 % of the Earth's crust. It is commonly found as relatively insoluble apatite and this causes phosphorus to be a limiting nutrient in biologic processes. Despite this, phosphorus is a key element in DNA, RNA and other cellular materials. Recent works suggest that reduced phosphorus played a substantial role in the development of life on the early Earth. Reduced phosphorus is considerably more soluble than oxidized phosphorus, and reduced phosphorus may continue to play a role in biologic productivity. This study examines a new methodology for quantification of reduced phosphorus separated by coupled HPLC - ICP-MS. We show that phosphorus species (P1+, P3+ and P5+) are cleanly separated in the HPLC and coupled with the ICP-MS reaction cell (using O2 gas) effectively convert elemental P to P-O producing lower background and flatter baseline chromatography. Results suggest very low detection limits (0.05 mM) for P species analyzed as P-O at M/Z = 47. Additionally this technique has potential to speciate at least 5 other metastable forms of phosphorus. We verified this method on numerous materials including leached Archean rocks to suburban retention pond waters and many samples show small but detectible levels of reduced phosphorus. These data highlight a significant role of redox processing of phosphorus throughout the history of the Earth, with the reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds, phosphite and hypophosphite, potentially acting as significant constituents in the anaerobic environment.

  17. Application of LIDAR to Improve Implementation of the Phosphorus Index in Flat and Steeply Sloping Terrain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Phosphorus Index is a central component of modern nutrient management planning that targets nutrient reduction measures to critical source areas in the landscape. While the Phosphorus Index has widely been adopted throughout the U.S., the technique can be costly to implement and is prone to hum...

  18. Net nitrogen mineralization from past year's manure and fertilizer applications.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure from the semiarid West’s dairy industries is a rich nutrient source, but its use for crops can be problematic because soil N availability from manure may vary substantially depending on the year of application. Experimental plots established in Idaho on a Portneuf silt loam (coarse silty, mi...

  19. The effect of phosphate bio-fertilizer (Barvar-2) on the growth of marigold.

    PubMed

    Zaredost, Fatemeh; Hashemabadi, Davood; Ziyabari, Maryam Barari; Torkashvand, Ali Mohammadi; Kaviani, Behzad; Solimandarabi, Maryam Jadid; Zarchini, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    The present study was conducted to study the individual and combined effect of bio-fertilizer (Barvar-2) and chemical phosphate fertilizer on the floral quality of marigold (Tagetes erecta L.). A factorial experiment was carried out which consisted of two factors: i) inoculation of seed, root and seed + root with bio-fertilizer (Barvar-2) and control; application of chemical phosphorus at 100 mg I(-1), 200 mg l(-1), 300 mg l(-1) and 400 mg l(-1) levels. In this study, flowering time, display life, fresh and dry weight of flower, available soil phosphorus, shoot phosphorus and carotenoid content were evaluated. Results showed that the combined effect of bio- and chemical fertilizer was insignificant (p < 1 and 5%) for most of the characteristics studied except for shoot phosphorus and carotenoid content in petals. The lowest time to flowering (64.67 days) was obtained in seeds and transplant roots inoculation to bio-fertilizer x 400 mg I(-1) P. Maximum display life (25.35), fresh weight (16.20 g), carotenoid content (3.903 mg g(-1) d. wt.) and concentration of P in shoots (0.352%) were observed in transplant roots inoculation to bio-fertilizer x 400 mg I(-1) P. PMID:24665775

  20. [Effects of bio-organic fertilizer and fungicide application on continuous cropping obstacles of cut chrysanthemum].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Zhao, Shuang; Yao, Jian-jun; Ye, Yan-ping; Song, Ai-ping; Chen, Fa-di; Chen, Su-mei; Dong, Xue-na

    2015-04-01

    Abstract: Fusarium wilt is a soil borne disease caused by plant continuous cropping in monoculture Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Youxiang' monoculture not only declines plant quality and yield but also decreases soil enzymes and soil microbial diversity over successive cultivation. In this article, the effects of fungicide (Carbendazim MBC), antifungal enhanced bio-organic fertilizer (BOF), and their combined application on the quality and soil enzymes activities of Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Youxiang' in continuous cropping systems were investigated. The results showed that both bioorganic fertilizer (BOF) and fungicide (MBC) single application could effectively prevent the occurrence of Fusarium wilt disease of cut chrysanthemum. Bio-organic fertilizer application was more effective on root activity, soil enzymes activities and quality (shoot height, stem diameter, leaf SPAD value, ray floret number, shoot fresh mass) improvement of cut chrysanthemum, while fungicide single application was responsible for soil enzymatic activities suppression to some extent. The combined application treatment (MBC+BOF) showed the best effects on quality improvement and soil enzyme activities promotion. PMID:26259468

  1. Increase of available phosphorus by fly-ash application in paddy soils

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.H.; Lee, H.; Lee, Y.B.; Chang, H.H.; Ali, M.A.; Min, W.; Kim, S.; Kim, P.J.

    2007-07-01

    Fly ash from the coal- burning industry may be a potential inorganic soil amendment to increase rice productivity and to restore the soil nutrient balance in paddy soil. In this study, fly ash was applied at rates of 0, 40, 80, and 120 Mg ha{sup -1} in two paddy soils (silt loam in Yehari and loamy sand in Daegok). During rice cultivation, available phosphorus (P) increased significantly with fly ash application, as there was high content of P (786 mg kg{sup -1}) in the applied fly ash. In addition, high content of silicon (Si) and high pH of fly ash contributed to increased available-P content by ion competition between phosphate and silicate and by neutralization of soil acidity, respectively. With fly-ash application, water-soluble P (W-P) content increased significantly together with increasing aluminum- bound P (Al- P) and calcium- bound P (Ca- P) fractions. By contrast, iron- bound P (Fe- P) decreased significantly because of reduction of iron under the flooded paddy soil during rice cultivation. The present experiment indicated that addition of fly ash had a positive benefit on increasing the P availability.

  2. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Nutrient Inputs from Fertilizer and Manure, Nitrogen and Phosphorus (N&P), 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the estimated amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in kilograms for the year 2002, compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data set is County-Level Estimates of Nutrient Inputs to the Land Surface of the Conterminous United States, 1982-2001 (Ruddy and others, 2006). The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River basins, contains NHDPlus Production

  3. Chinese Tallow Trees (Triadica sebifera) from the Invasive Range Outperform Those from the Native Range with an Active Soil Community or Phosphorus Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Yaojun; Wang, Hong; Zou, Jianwen; Siemann, Evan

    2013-01-01

    Two mechanisms that have been proposed to explain success of invasive plants are unusual biotic interactions, such as enemy release or enhanced mutualisms, and increased resource availability. However, while these mechanisms are usually considered separately, both may be involved in successful invasions. Biotic interactions may be positive or negative and may interact with nutritional resources in determining invasion success. In addition, the effects of different nutrients on invasions may vary. Finally, genetic variation in traits between populations located in introduced versus native ranges may be important for biotic interactions and/or resource use. Here, we investigated the roles of soil biota, resource availability, and plant genetic variation using seedlings of Triadica sebifera in an experiment in the native range (China). We manipulated nitrogen (control or 4 g/m2), phosphorus (control or 0.5 g/m2), soil biota (untreated or sterilized field soil), and plant origin (4 populations from the invasive range, 4 populations from the native range) in a full factorial experiment. Phosphorus addition increased root, stem, and leaf masses. Leaf mass and height growth depended on population origin and soil sterilization. Invasive populations had higher leaf mass and growth rates than native populations did in fresh soil but they had lower, comparable leaf mass and growth rates in sterilized soil. Invasive populations had higher growth rates with phosphorus addition but native ones did not. Soil sterilization decreased specific leaf area in both native and exotic populations. Negative effects of soil sterilization suggest that soil pathogens may not be as important as soil mutualists for T. sebifera performance. Moreover, interactive effects of sterilization and origin suggest that invasive T. sebifera may have evolved more beneficial relationships with the soil biota. Overall, seedlings from the invasive range outperformed those from the native range, however, an

  4. Chinese tallow trees (Triadica sebifera) from the invasive range outperform those from the native range with an active soil community or phosphorus fertilization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Yaojun; Wang, Hong; Zou, Jianwen; Siemann, Evan

    2013-01-01

    Two mechanisms that have been proposed to explain success of invasive plants are unusual biotic interactions, such as enemy release or enhanced mutualisms, and increased resource availability. However, while these mechanisms are usually considered separately, both may be involved in successful invasions. Biotic interactions may be positive or negative and may interact with nutritional resources in determining invasion success. In addition, the effects of different nutrients on invasions may vary. Finally, genetic variation in traits between populations located in introduced versus native ranges may be important for biotic interactions and/or resource use. Here, we investigated the roles of soil biota, resource availability, and plant genetic variation using seedlings of Triadica sebifera in an experiment in the native range (China). We manipulated nitrogen (control or 4 g/m(2)), phosphorus (control or 0.5 g/m(2)), soil biota (untreated or sterilized field soil), and plant origin (4 populations from the invasive range, 4 populations from the native range) in a full factorial experiment. Phosphorus addition increased root, stem, and leaf masses. Leaf mass and height growth depended on population origin and soil sterilization. Invasive populations had higher leaf mass and growth rates than native populations did in fresh soil but they had lower, comparable leaf mass and growth rates in sterilized soil. Invasive populations had higher growth rates with phosphorus addition but native ones did not. Soil sterilization decreased specific leaf area in both native and exotic populations. Negative effects of soil sterilization suggest that soil pathogens may not be as important as soil mutualists for T. sebifera performance. Moreover, interactive effects of sterilization and origin suggest that invasive T. sebifera may have evolved more beneficial relationships with the soil biota. Overall, seedlings from the invasive range outperformed those from the native range, however

  5. P-31 NMR characterization of fertilizer residual P in cotton/corn fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient. However, over application of P to soils has raised concerns because excess P in runoff could result in eutrophication of fresh water bodies. A field experiment of poultry litter (PL) and chemical fertilizer (CF) to a Cecil soil used for cotton and corn...

  6. Phosphorus Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Phosphorus Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... else I should know? How is it used? Phosphorus tests are most often ordered along with other ...

  7. Prospects for phosphorus recovery from poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Szogi, A A; Vanotti, M B

    2009-11-01

    Land disposal of poultry litter is an environmental concern often associated to excess phosphorus (P) in soils and potential water pollution in regions with intense poultry production. Although poultry litter can be moved off the farm and traded as fertilizer, its transportation becomes less economical with increasing distances from the farm. Thus, new litter management alternatives are needed to reduce the environmental impact of P litter application to land. This paper summarizes established and emerging alternative technologies in the U.S. that facilitate handling, concentration, and transporting of litter P. Furthermore, it examines the potential integration of technologies into poultry litter management systems that could reduce poultry litter volume and increase P content in litter byproducts. The adoption of alternative technologies may encourage new opportunities to produce bio-energy, fertilizer, and other valuable P byproducts from poultry litter while reducing environmental impact and promoting sustainable poultry production. PMID:19394817

  8. Fertilization Effects on Bermudagrass Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bermudagrass is the backbone perennial grass forage for Southern United States. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilization are essential for forage yield and quality. Limited studies have been conducted on how varying rates of fertilizer affect the quality of bermudagrass. Six rates of nitr...

  9. Fertilizer Applied for Agricultural Purposes

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes the use of the three major fertilizers (nitrogen [N], phosphorus [P], and potash [K]) in pounds per acre of land per year used for crop production from 1960 to 2006, based on annual fertilizer sales data and nationwide surveys. ...

  10. Total soil phosphorus zinc and copper concentrations as affected by long-term tillage and fertilization choices in a Cecil soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adoption of conservation tillage and use of animal waste as an alternative fertilizer source is increasing. The environmental consequences of the conbination of these farm management choices needs to be thoroughly evaluated. Poultry litter (PL) for example, while being an inexpensive and effective s...

  11. NH3 Emission from Fertilizer Application: A Collaborative Study in the Midwestern U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myles, L.; Koloutsou-Vakakis, S.; Bernacchi, C.; Lehmann, C.; Saylor, R. D.; Heuer, M.; Sibble, D.; Caldwell, J. A.; Balasubramanian, S.; Nelson, A. J.; Rood, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) is a precursor for secondary particulate matter and a contributor to soil acidification and eutrophication when deposited to land and surface waters. Fertilizer application is a major source of atmospheric NH3, particularly in intensive agricultural regions such as the Midwestern U.S. Quantification of NH3 emission from fertilized crops remains highly uncertain, which limits the representativeness of NH3 emissions that are used in air quality models. A collaborative study to improve understanding of NH3 emission from fertilizer application focused on [1] measurement of above-canopy NH3 fluxes from a fertilized corn field in Illinois using the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) and flux gradient methods and in-canopy fluxes with the inverse Lagrangian dispersion analysis method, [2] estimation of NH3 emissions at the regional scale using a process-based approach with available archived independent variables, and the currently used top-down approach, in order to compare and determine differences in predicted spatial and temporal variability of NH3 emissions, and [3] performance of spatial analysis to determine spatial and temporal patterns of ammonia emissions and relate them to independent variables characteristic of land use, soil, meteorology, and agricultural management practices. NH3 flux was measured over and within a maize canopy from pre-cultivation through senescence (May-September 2014) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) Energy Biosciences Institute Energy Farm, and data from the field study was incorporated into models to facilitate connection of local emissions with the regional scale and to improve understanding of the processes that drive emission and deposition.

  12. Phosphorus recovery from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash.

    PubMed

    Kalmykova, Yuliya; Fedje, K Karlfeldt

    2013-06-01

    The potential of phosphorus (P) recycling from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residue is investigated. Vast and ever increasing amounts of incineration residues are produced worldwide; these are an environmental burden, but also a resource, as they are a major sink for the material flows of society. Due to strict environmental regulations, in combination with decreasing landfilling space, the disposal of the MSWI residues is problematic. At the same time, resource scarcity is recognized as a global challenge for the modern world, and even more so for future generations. This paper reports on the methods and efficiency of P extraction from MSWI fly ash by acid and base leaching and precipitation procedures. Phosphorus extracted from the MSWI residues generated each year could meet 30% of the annual demand for mineral phosphorus fertiliser in Sweden, given a recovery rate of 70% achieved in this initial test. The phosphorus content of the obtained product is slightly higher than in sewage sludge, but due to the trace metal content it is not acceptable for application to agricultural land in Sweden, whereas application in the rest of the EU would be possible. However, it would be preferable to use the product as a raw material to replace rock phosphate in fertilizer production. Further development is currently underway in relation to procedure optimization, purification of the phosphorus product, and the simultaneous recovery of other resources. PMID:23490361

  13. [Nutrient use efficiency and yield-increasing effect of single basal application of rice specific controlled release fertilizer].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiansheng; Xu, Peizhi; Tang, Shuanhu; Zhang, Fabao; Xie, Chunsheng

    2005-10-01

    A series of pot and field experiments and field demonstrations showed that in comparing with the commonly used specific-fertilizers containing same amounts of nutrients, single basal application of rice-specific controlled release fertilizer could increase the use efficiency of N and P by 12.2% - 22.7% and 7.0% - 35.0%, respectively in pot experiment, and the use efficiency of N by 17.1% in field experiment. In 167 field demonstrations successively conducted for 3 years in various rice production areas of Guangdong Province, single basal application of the fertilizer saved the application rate of N and P by 22.1% and 21.8%, respectively, and increased the yield by 8.2%, compared with normal split fertilization. PMID:16422505

  14. Eco-stoichiometric alterations in paddy soil ecosystem driven by phosphorus application.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Wang, Hang; Gan, Shaohua; Jiang, Daqian; Tian, Guangming; Zhang, Zhijian

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural fertilization may change processes of elemental biogeochemical cycles and alter the ecological function. Ecoenzymatic stoichiometric feature plays a critical role in global soil carbon (C) metabolism, driving element cycles, and mediating atmospheric composition in response to agricultural nutrient management. Despite the importance on crop growth, the role of phosphorous (P) in compliance with eco-stoichiometry on soil C and nitrogen (N) sequestration in the paddy field remains poorly understood in the context of climate change. Here, we collected soil samples from a field experiment after 6 years of chemical P application at a gradient of 0 (P-0), 30 (P-30), 60 (P-60), and 90 (P-90) kg ha(-1) in order to evaluate the role of P on stoichiometric properties in terms of soil chemical, microbial biomass, and eco-enzyme activities as well as greenhouse gas (GHG: CO2, N2O and CH4) emissions. Continuous P input increased soil total organic C and N by 1.3-9.2% and 3%-13%, respectively. P input induced C and N limitations as indicated by the decreased ratio of C:P and N:P in the soil and microbial biomass. A synergistic mechanism among the ecoenzymatic stoichiometry, which regulated the ecological function of microbial C and N acquisition and were stoichiometrically related to P input, stimulated soil C and N sequestration in the paddy field. The lower emissions of N2O and CH4 under the higher P application (P-60 and P-90) in July and the insignificant difference in N2O emission in August compared to P-30; however, continuous P input enhanced CO2 fluxes for both samplings. There is a technical conflict for simultaneously regulating three types of GHGs in terms of the eco-stoichiometry mechanism under P fertilization. Thus, it is recommended that the P input in paddy fields not exceed 60 kg ha(-1) may maximize soil C sequestration, minimize P export, and guarantee grain yields. PMID:23667435

  15. Application of (31P) NMR in analyzing the degradation efficiency of organic phosphorus degrading-bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang; Sun, Xin; Ji, Si-Yao; Wang, Jian-Feng; Huang, Yao-Jian; Zhao, Yu-Fen; Xu, Peng-Xiang

    2007-07-01

    HPLC and HPLC-MS are the fastest and most accurate techniques for analysis of organic phosphorus pesticide (OPP) at the present time. Using these techniques, 14 strains of methamidopho (MAP) degrading-bacteria from the area contaminated with MAP have been identified. The results from HPLC and HPLC-MS analyses showed that the highest degradation rate was 73% after 7 days. In order to determine what metabolites will be formed after degradation, a key issue that has been neglected for a long time, we used ((31)P) NMR to track the degradation process. The results showed that different strains produced different metabolites. Ten strains were divided into three groups (groups A, B and C) by their metabolic profiling. Strains in group A degraded MAP into phosphor acid by breaking down all P-N, P-O and P-S bonds in 7 days. Strains in groups B and C had only broken down partially P-N and P-S bonds at the same time. Therefore, the bacterial strains in group A had a greater application potential than the other two groups. In addition, most metal phosphates are unsolvable in water. The analysis of X-ray showed, that the phosphate radicals generated by bacterial degradation induce crystallogenesis of heavy metal salts in water phase and also cause the chemical sedimentation of their crystals. Furthermore, these crystals are hydrogen phosphates. The results suggested that the MAP-degrading bacteria could be used for cleaning up not only the organic phosphorous pesticide contamination but also the phosphorous and heavy metal contamination in water environment simultaneously. PMID:17072553

  16. Response of seed tocopherols in oilseed rape to nitrogen fertilizer sources and application rates* #

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Nazim; Li, Hui; Jiang, Yu-xiao; Jabeen, Zahra; Shamsi, Imran Haider; Ali, Essa; Jiang, Li-xi

    2014-01-01

    Tocopherols (Tocs) are vital scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and important seed oil quality indicators. Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important fertilizers in promoting biomass and grain yield in crop production. However, the effect of different sources and application rates of N on seed Toc contents in oilseed rape is poorly understood. In this study, pot trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of two sources of N fertilizer (urea and ammonium nitrate). Each source was applied to five oilseed rape genotypes (Zheshuang 72, Jiu-Er-1358, Zheshuang 758, Shiralee, and Pakola) at three different application rates (0.41 g/pot (N1), 0.81 g/pot (N2), and 1.20 g/pot (N3)). Results indicated that urea increased α-, γ-, and total Toc (T-Toc) more than did ammonium nitrate. N3 was proven as the most efficient application rate, which yielded high contents of γ-Toc and T-Toc. Highly significant correlations were observed between Toc isomers, T-Toc, and α-/γ-Toc ratio. These results clearly demonstrate that N sources and application rates significantly affect seed Toc contents in oilseed rape. PMID:24510711

  17. North American fertilizer capacity data. Supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in October 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industries. Yearly production and forecasts are given for 1987 through 1997. Fertilizers reported on include: ammonium sulfate, nitric acid, wet-process superphosphoric acid, normal superphosphate, elemental phosphorus, potassium sulfate, and sulfate of potash/magnesia.

  18. Increase of As release and phytotoxicity to rice seedlings in As-contaminated paddy soils by Si fertilizer application.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Hsing; Huang, Hsuan-Han; Syu, Chien-Hui; Lin, Tzu-Huei; Lee, Dar-Yuan

    2014-07-15

    Silicon (Si) was shown to be able to reduce arsenic (As) uptake by rice in hydroponic culture or in low As soils using high Si application rates. However, the effect of Si application on As uptake of rice grown in As-contaminated soils using Si fertilizer recommendation rate has not been investigated. In this study, the effect of Si application using Si fertilizer recommendation rate on As release and phytotoxicity in soils with different properties and contents of As was examined. The results show that the concentrations of As in soil solutions increased after Si applications due to competitive adsorption between As and Si on soil solids and the Si concentrations in soil solutions were also elevated to beneficial levels for rice growth. The rice seedlings accumulated more As and its growth was inhibited by Si application in As contaminated/spiked soils. The results indicate that there is an initial aggravation in As toxicity before the beneficial effects of Si fertilizing to rice were revealed when Si application based on fertilizer recommendation rate to As-contaminated paddy soils. Therefore, for As-contaminated paddy soils with high levels of As, the application of Si fertilizer could result in increasing As phytotoxicity and uptake by rice. PMID:24892775

  19. Lime and Soil Moisture Effects on Nitrogen gas Loss Following Fertilizer Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, C.; Maggi, F.; Riley, W.; Oldenburg, C.

    2007-12-01

    The loss of nitrogen from fertilizer application through ammonia volatilization and nitrous oxide emissions are of major environmental concern. Liming has been regarded as a mitigation option for lowering soil nitrogen gas emissions following the addition of fertilizers. A mechanistic nitrogen-cycle model (TOUGHREACT-N) has been developed to simulate the interaction of water saturation variation with biogeochemical processes, and the balance between liming and soil buffering capacity. The model was tested with data from a laboratory soil incubation following the addition of synthetic urine (500 kg N ha-1). Simulation results agreed well with measured N2O emissions and soil inorganic-N concentrations. The study indicated that liming significantly increase NH3 volatilization, while the reduction in cumulative N2O emissions depended strongly on water regime. The cumulative N2O emissions under relatively dry conditions were reduced by up to 243% with liming. However, the cumulative N2O and N2 emissions were predicted to increase by up to 346% following liming because the resulting NO3--N pools (from enhanced nitrification) were susceptible to enhanced N2O and N2 losses during subsequent water application. Consequently, short-term (i.e., days ¡§C weeks) gains made in reducing soil N2O emissions by liming can be offset, and potentially reversed, by emissions later in the growing season. We describe an approach using the modeling framework to optimize N gas reductions using liming under various edaphic, crop type, fertilizer and irrigation application rates, and climate conditions.

  20. Slug responses to grassland cutting and fertilizer application under plant functional group removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everwand, Georg; Scherber, Christoph; Tscharntke, Teja

    2013-04-01

    Current studies on trophic interactions in biodiversity experiments have largely relied on artificially sown gradients in plant diversity, but removal experiments with their more natural plant community composition are more realistic. Slugs are a major part of the invertebrate herbivore community, with some species being common pests in agriculture. We therefore investigated how strongly slugs are influenced by grassland management, plant biodiversity and composition. Here we analysed the effects of cutting frequency, fertilizer application and plant functional group composition on slug densities and their contribution to herbivory on Rumex acetosa in a removal experiment within a >100-year old grassland in Northern Germany. The experiment was laid out as a Latin rectangle with full factorial combinations of (i) plant functional group removal (3 levels) using herbicides, (ii) fertilizer application (2 levels) and (iii) cutting frequency (2 levels). The resulting 12 treatment combinations were replicated 6 times, resulting in 72 plots. We collected a total of 1020 individuals belonging to three species Arion distinctus (60.4% of individuals), Deroceras reticulatum (34.7%) and Arion lusitanicus (4.9%) using a cover board technique and additionally measured herbivore damage to R. acetosa. We found the highest slug abundance on plots with a low cutting frequency and high food resource availability (increased cover of forbs and taller vegetation). Fertilizer application had no significant effect on slug abundance, but caused higher herbivore damage to on R. acetosa, possibly as a result of increased tissue quality. The negative effect of higher cutting frequency on slug abundance was lowest in control plots with their naturally developed graminoid-forb communities (cutting reduced slug density by 6% in the control vs. 29% in herbicide plots). Our experiments therefore support the idea that more natural plant species compositions reduce the impact of disturbances (e

  1. Modelling of catchment nitrogen concentrations response to observed varying fertilizer application intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jomaa, Seifeddine; Jiang, Sanyuan; Yang, Xiaoqiang; Rode, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Eutrophication is a serious environmental problem. Despite numerous experimental and modelling efforts, understanding of the effect of land use and agriculture practices on in-stream nitrogen fluxes is still not fully achieved. This study combined intensive field monitoring and numerical modelling using 30 years of surface water quality data of a drinking water reservoir catchment in central Germany. The Weida catchment (99.5 km2) is part of the Elbe river basin and has a share of 67% of agricultural land use with significant changes in agricultural practices within the investigation period. The geology of the Weida catchment is characterized by clay schists and eruptive rocks, where rocks have low permeability. The semi-distributed hydrological water quality HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment) model was used to reproduce the measured data. First, the model was calibrated for discharge and nitrate-N concentrations (NO3-N) during the period 1997-2000. Then, the HYPE model was validated successfully for three different periods 1983-1987, 1989-1996 and 2000-2003, which are charaterized by different fertilizer application rates (with lowest discharge prediction performance of NSE = 0.78 and PBIAS = 3.74%, considering calibration and validation periods). Results showed that the measured as well as simulated in-stream nitrate-N concentration respond quickly to fertilizer application changes (increase/decrease). This rapid response can be explained with short residence times of interflow and baseflow runoff components due to the hardrock geological properties of the catchment. Results revealed that the surface runoff and interflow are the most dominant runoff components. HYPE model could reproduce reasonably well the NO3-N daily loads for varying fertilizer application, when detailed input data in terms of crop management (field-specific survey) are considered.

  2. A literature review of nonbiological remediation technologies which may be applicable to fertilizer/agrichemical dealer sites

    SciTech Connect

    Enlow, P.D.

    1990-10-01

    The National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center at TVA has initiated a Window of Opportunity (WOO) project for the ``Development of Waste Treatment and Site Remediation Technologies for Fertilizer Dealers.`` The overall objectives of this project are ``to identify, evaluate, modify, research, develop, demonstrate, introduce, and market waste treatment and site remediation technologies/strategies for fertilizer dealers.`` This bulletin supports the WOO project by providing a general literature overview of the more prominent nonbiological remediation technologies that may be applicable to fertilizer/agrichemical dealer sites. The technologies discussed are: incineration, anaerobic pyrolysis, in situ vitrification, thermal desorption, air stripping (soil), air stripping (water), steam stripping, soil washing, solvent extraction, solidification/stabilization, supercritical fluid extraction, and supercritical water oxidation. The advantages, disadvantages, applicability to remediation of contaminated sites, and need for further research are discussed.

  3. A literature review of nonbiological remediation technologies which may be applicable to fertilizer/agrichemical dealer sites

    SciTech Connect

    Enlow, P.D.

    1990-10-01

    The National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center at TVA has initiated a Window of Opportunity (WOO) project for the Development of Waste Treatment and Site Remediation Technologies for Fertilizer Dealers.'' The overall objectives of this project are to identify, evaluate, modify, research, develop, demonstrate, introduce, and market waste treatment and site remediation technologies/strategies for fertilizer dealers.'' This bulletin supports the WOO project by providing a general literature overview of the more prominent nonbiological remediation technologies that may be applicable to fertilizer/agrichemical dealer sites. The technologies discussed are: incineration, anaerobic pyrolysis, in situ vitrification, thermal desorption, air stripping (soil), air stripping (water), steam stripping, soil washing, solvent extraction, solidification/stabilization, supercritical fluid extraction, and supercritical water oxidation. The advantages, disadvantages, applicability to remediation of contaminated sites, and need for further research are discussed.

  4. Dynamic spatially-explicit mass-balance modeling for targeted watershed phosphorus management II: Model Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cost-effective nonpoint source phosphorus (P) control should target the land areas at greatest risk for P loss. We combined mass-balance modeling and geographic analysis to identify and map high-risk areas for P export by integrating long-term P input/output accounting with spatially variable physi...

  5. Stratification of phosphorus forms from long-term conservation tillage and poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) stratification leaves high P concentrations at the soil surface, which are vulnerable to loss in runoff. Understanding P forms at the soil surface may help control P loss, but little information is available on how P forms stratify in soil. We used 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spec...

  6. Foliar Application of Phosphorus Has Minimal Impact on 'Pinot noir' Growth, Mycorrhizal Colonization, or Fruit Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevines grown in low phosphorus (P) soils typical of western Oregon vineyards may benefit from additional P applied to the canopy using foliar sprays. Alternatively, vines may be negatively affected by foliar P sprays because lower root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could red...

  7. Downstream approaches to phosphorus management in agricultural landscapes: Regional applicability and use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review provides a synthesis of conservation practices that are aimed at improving water quality by retaining phosphorus (P) downstream of runoff genesis. The review is structured around specific downstream practices that are prevalent in various parts of the United States, but also focuses on t...

  8. Land application of spent gypsum from ditch filters: phosphorus source or sink?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural drainage ditches can provide a direct connection between fields and surface waters, and some have been shown to deliver high loads of phosphorus (P) to sensitive water bodies. A potential way to reduce nutrient loads in drainage ditches is to install filter structures containing P sorbi...

  9. Application of dithionite reduction to explore insoluble Fe-associated phosphorus in organic wastes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural soil has been identifed as a major non-point factor affecting water quality in streams, rivers and lakes through its effect on eutrophication processes. Research has shown that redox status plays improtant roles in P bioavailability as Fe(II)-P speices are more...

  10. Reduction of phosphorus concentration in mineral supplement on fertility rate, maternal ability and costs of beef cows reared in pastures of Urochloa decumbens.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rogério Magnoli; Ponsano, Elisa Helena Giglio; de Souza, Vinícius Carneiro; Malafaia, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    Manufacturing and marketing of mineral mixtures with less than 40 g kg(-1) phosphorus (P) is prohibited under Brazilian regulations, although scientific evidence rejects this recommendation. Considering the hypothesis that P levels in commercial mineral supplements can be reduced without affecting animal performance and health, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of reducing the concentration of P in the mineral supplement (from 40 to 18 g kg(-1)) of a herd of beef cows grazing tropical pastures of signal grass (Urochloa decumbens). The experiment was carried out in the savanna region of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, during the years 2011 to 2013. Variables analyzed included pregnancy rate, calving interval, weight of calves at weaning, and cost of mineral supplementation. There were no changes in the reproductive parameters of the herd and the weight at weaning of the calves. However, the cost of mineral supplementation was significantly lower when the herd was supplemented with the mineral mix containing only 18 g kg(-1) P. Phosphorus concentration of the forage was analyzed monthly during 1 year and averaged 1.9 ± 0.45 g kg(-1) DM. Thus, it appears possible to reduce P content and cost of mineral supplementation without any adverse effects on the health and productivity of beef cattle herds in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. However, the final decision should be made based on the clinical-nutritional examination and by constant technical assistance to the farm. PMID:26685846

  11. Transition of fertilizer application and agricultural pollution loads: a case study in the Nhue-Day River basin.

    PubMed

    Giang, P H; Harada, H; Fujii, S; Lien, N P H; Hai, H T; Anh, P N; Tanaka, S

    2015-01-01

    Rapid socio-economic development in suburban areas of developing countries has induced changes in agricultural waste and nutrient management, resulting in water pollution. The study aimed at estimating agricultural nutrient cycles and their contribution to the water environment. A material flow model of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) was developed focusing on agricultural activities from 1980 to 2010 in Trai hamlet, an agricultural watershed in Nhue-Day River basin, Vietnam. The model focused on the change in household management of human excreta and livestock excreta, and chemical fertilizer consumption. The results showed that the proportion of nutrients from compost/manure applied to paddy fields decreased from 85 to 41% for both N and P between 1980 and 2010. The nutrient inputs derived from chemical fertilizer decreased 6% between 1980 and 2000 for both N and P. Then, these nutrients increased 1.4 times for N and 1.2 times for P from 2000 to 2010. As of 2010, the total inputs to paddy fields have amounted to 435 kg-N/ha/year and 90 kg-P/ha/year. Of these nutrient inputs, 40% of N and 65% of P were derived from chemical fertilizer. Thirty per cent (30%) of total N input was discharged to the water bodies through agricultural runoff and 47% of total P input accumulated in soil. PMID:26398021

  12. Response of nitric and nitrous oxide fluxes to N fertilizer application in greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in southeast China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaojun; Lin, Feng; Jin, Yaguo; Wang, Xiaofei; Liu, Shuwei; Zou, Jianwen

    2016-01-01

    It is of great concern worldwide that active nitrogenous gases in the global nitrogen cycle contribute to regional and global-scale environmental issues. Nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) are generally interrelated in soil nitrogen biogeochemical cycles, while few studies have simultaneously examined these two gases emission from typical croplands. Field experiments were conducted to measure N2O and NO fluxes in response to chemical N fertilizer application in annual greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in southeast China. Annual N2O and NO fluxes averaged 52.05 and 14.87 μg N m−2 h−1 for the controls without N fertilizer inputs, respectively. Both N2O and NO emissions linearly increased with N fertilizer application. The emission factors of N fertilizer for N2O and NO were estimated to be 1.43% and 1.15%, with an annual background emission of 5.07 kg N2O-N ha−1 and 1.58 kg NO-N ha−1, respectively. The NO-N/N2O-N ratio was significantly affected by cropping type and fertilizer application, and NO would exceed N2O emissions when soil moisture is below 54% WFPS. Overall, local conventional input rate of chemical N fertilizer could be partially reduced to attain high yield of vegetable and low N2O and NO emissions in greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in China. PMID:26848094

  13. Response of nitric and nitrous oxide fluxes to N fertilizer application in greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yaojun; Lin, Feng; Jin, Yaguo; Wang, Xiaofei; Liu, Shuwei; Zou, Jianwen

    2016-02-01

    It is of great concern worldwide that active nitrogenous gases in the global nitrogen cycle contribute to regional and global-scale environmental issues. Nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) are generally interrelated in soil nitrogen biogeochemical cycles, while few studies have simultaneously examined these two gases emission from typical croplands. Field experiments were conducted to measure N2O and NO fluxes in response to chemical N fertilizer application in annual greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in southeast China. Annual N2O and NO fluxes averaged 52.05 and 14.87 μg N m-2 h-1 for the controls without N fertilizer inputs, respectively. Both N2O and NO emissions linearly increased with N fertilizer application. The emission factors of N fertilizer for N2O and NO were estimated to be 1.43% and 1.15%, with an annual background emission of 5.07 kg N2O-N ha-1 and 1.58 kg NO-N ha-1, respectively. The NO-N/N2O-N ratio was significantly affected by cropping type and fertilizer application, and NO would exceed N2O emissions when soil moisture is below 54% WFPS. Overall, local conventional input rate of chemical N fertilizer could be partially reduced to attain high yield of vegetable and low N2O and NO emissions in greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in China.

  14. Response of nitric and nitrous oxide fluxes to N fertilizer application in greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in southeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaojun; Lin, Feng; Jin, Yaguo; Wang, Xiaofei; Liu, Shuwei; Zou, Jianwen

    2016-01-01

    It is of great concern worldwide that active nitrogenous gases in the global nitrogen cycle contribute to regional and global-scale environmental issues. Nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) are generally interrelated in soil nitrogen biogeochemical cycles, while few studies have simultaneously examined these two gases emission from typical croplands. Field experiments were conducted to measure N2O and NO fluxes in response to chemical N fertilizer application in annual greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in southeast China. Annual N2O and NO fluxes averaged 52.05 and 14.87 μg N m(-2) h(-1) for the controls without N fertilizer inputs, respectively. Both N2O and NO emissions linearly increased with N fertilizer application. The emission factors of N fertilizer for N2O and NO were estimated to be 1.43% and 1.15%, with an annual background emission of 5.07 kg N2O-N ha(-1) and 1.58 kg NO-N ha(-1), respectively. The NO-N/N2O-N ratio was significantly affected by cropping type and fertilizer application, and NO would exceed N2O emissions when soil moisture is below 54% WFPS. Overall, local conventional input rate of chemical N fertilizer could be partially reduced to attain high yield of vegetable and low N2O and NO emissions in greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in China. PMID:26848094

  15. Comparison of sludge and fertilizer applications on establishment and growth of seedlings of two sweetgum ecotypes endomycorrhizal with Glomus mosseae and Glomus etunicatus. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kormanik, P.P.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment was installed to compare plantation performance of 4 sweetgum trees using 2 VA mycorrhizal fungi or high phosphorus fertility regimes. The plantation was fertilized with 250 lb/acre of NH/sub 4/ NO/sub 3/ during April and disked twice to control weeds. Two-hundred seedlings were excavated during April and June (1980) and root samples were processed to determine mycorrhizal status. All root systems were heavily endomcorrhizal. Additional root samples will be taken in December for analysis.

  16. Fertilizer summary data 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.T.; Hargett, N.L.

    1991-05-01

    Fertilizer Summary Data, published biennially by the National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC), combines fertilizer application and consumption statistics, crop acreage, and farm income/expense data by state and region for the period 1970 through 1990. This sixteenth edition contains statistics on commercial fertilizers sold for farm and nonfarm use, fertilizer distribution by class, and the leading fertilizer grades. Fertilizers are classified as single- or multiple-nutrient materials. Single-nutrient fertilizers, such as anhydrous ammonia (82-0-0), contain only one primary plant nutrient. Multiple-nutrient fertilizers contain two or more plant nutrients and include the ammonium phosphates and grades manufactured by dry or fluid mixing or chemical processing. In some cases, States report materials used in blending multiple-nutrient fertilizers as single-nutrient ingredients lather than the final manufactured product. Fertilizer consumption statistics for 1970 through 1980 are from US Department of Agriculture annual reports. Annual consumption data for 1985 through 1990 are based on the tabulation of individual state fertilizer tonnage reports submitted annually to TVA for inclusion in the National record of fertilizer consumption, Commercial Fertilizers. Crop statistics, fertilizer application rates, and farm income and expense data are supplied by the National Agricultural Statistics Service and the Economic Research Service, USDA.

  17. Determination of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium Release Rates of Slow- and Controlled-Release Fertilizers: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2015.15.

    PubMed

    Thiex, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    A previously validated method for the determination of nitrogen release patterns of slow- and controlled-release fertilizers (SRFs and CRFs, respectively) was submitted to the Expert Review Panel (ERP) for Fertilizers for consideration of First Action Official Method(SM) status. The ERP evaluated the single-laboratory validation results and recommended the method for First Action Official Method status and provided recommendations for achieving Final Action. The 180 day soil incubation-column leaching technique was demonstrated to be a robust and reliable method for characterizing N release patterns from SRFs and CRFs. The method was reproducible, and the results were only slightly affected by variations in environmental factors such as microbial activity, soil moisture, temperature, and texture. The release of P and K were also studied, but at fewer replications than for N. Optimization experiments on the accelerated 74 h extraction method indicated that temperature was the only factor found to substantially influence nutrient-release rates from the materials studied, and an optimized extraction profile was established as follows: 2 h at 25°C, 2 h at 50°C, 20 h at 55°C, and 50 h at 60°C. PMID:26987312

  18. A simple and fast method for assessment of the nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium rating of fertilizers using high-resolution continuum source atomic and molecular absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechlin, Marcos André; Fortunato, Felipe Manfroi; da Silva, Ricardo Moutinho; Ferreira, Edilene Cristina; Gomes Neto, José Anchieta

    2014-11-01

    The determination of N, P, and K in fertilizers by high-resolution continuum source flame atomic and molecular absorption spectrometry is proposed. Under optimized conditions, measurements of the diatomic molecules NO and PO at 215.360 and 247.620 nm, respectively, and K using the wing of the alternative line at 404.722 nm allowed calibration curves to be constructed in the ranges 500-5000 mg L- 1 N (r = 0.9994), 100-2000 mg L- 1 P (r = 0.9946), and 100-2500 mg L- 1 K (r = 0.9995). Commercial fertilizers were analyzed by the proposed method and the concentrations of N, P, and K were found to be in agreement with those obtained by Kjeldahl, spectrophotometric, and flame atomic emission spectrometry methods, respectively, at a 95% confidence level (paired t-test). A phosphate rock certified reference material (CRM) was analyzed and the results for P and K were in agreement with the reference values. Recoveries from spiked CRM were in the ranges 97-105% (NO3--N), 95-103% (NH4+-N), 93-103% (urea-N), 99-108% (P), and 99-102% (K). The relative standard deviations (n = 12) for N, P, and K were 6, 4, and 2%, respectively.

  19. [Relation between mineral fertilization and supply of potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus to the population under conditions of intensive plant production in East Germany].

    PubMed

    Römer, W; Merbach, W

    1982-01-01

    In the past 25 years, mineral fertilization increased considerably in the GDR in the course of the intensification of plant production. This happened on the basis of computer-assisted advice on mineral fertilizing and resulted in the improvement of the mineral contents of the soil and also in a considerable increase in crop yields, the mineral contents typical of the respective plants remaining mostly unchanged or being in part increased. During the same period, the proportion of vegetable foods in the mineral supply to man decreased due to changes in food habits. Nevertheless, most of the P, K and Mg consumed in the nutrition still originates from vegetable products; only in case of Ca, milk is the main course. In the course of this development, the amounts of P, K and Ca consumed in the human nutrition increased, whereas the amount of Mg remained almost unchanged. There is some evidence of the (at last potential) danger of an insufficient supply of Ca and Mg. As the intensive plant production in the GDR furnishes high-mineral crops in sufficient quantity, a better supply of these minerals might be realized by reducing the losses due to processing (extraction rate of cereals, preservation) and by changing the food habits (more vegetable foods, greens). PMID:7099246

  20. [Fertility and Environmental Impacts of Urban Scattered Human Feces Used as Organic Granular Fertilizer for Leaf Vegetables].

    PubMed

    Lü, Wen-zhou; Qiao, Yu-xiang; Yu, Ning; Shi, Rong-hua; Wang, Guang-ming

    2015-09-01

    The disposal of urban scattered human feces has become a difficult problem for the management of modern city. In present study, the scattered human feces underwent the collection, scum removal, flocculation and dehydration, finally became the granular fertilizer; the effects of the ratio of fertilizer to soil on the growth of the pakchoi and the quality of soil and leaching water were evaluated, and the feasibility of granular fertilizer manuring the pakchoi was discussed by pot experiments. The results showed that the granular fertilizer significantly enhanced the production of the pakchoi which were not polluted by the intestinal microorganisms under the experiment conditions; meanwhile, at the proper ratio of fertilizer to soil, the concentration of these microorganisms in the leaching water was lower than that in the control check. Chemical analyses of soil revealed that the nutrient content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic matters in soil became much richer in all treatments. In addition, the granular fertilizer improved the physical- chemical properties of soil, including raising the level of soil porosity and reducing the volume weight of soil. Application of granular fertilizer won't pollute the soil or leaching water; instead, it can also prevent nitrogen, potassium and intestinal microorganisms from leaching inio ground water at the proper ratio of granular fertilizer to soil. PMID:26717716

  1. Phosphorus dynamics within agricultural drainage ditches in the lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive phosphorus loading from fertilizers in agriculture results in enriched runoff and downstream freshwater and saltwater aquatic system eutrophication. This study evaluated phosphorus dynamics in agricultural drainage ditches across eight sites within the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LM...

  2. Dissolved phosphorus speciation of flash carbonization, slow pyrolysis, and fast pyrolysis biochars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyrolysis of waste biomass is a promising technology to produce sterile and renewable organic phosphorus fertilizers. Systematic studies are necessary to understand how different pyrolysis platforms influence the chemical speciation of dissolved (bioavailable) phosphorus. This study employed solut...

  3. Resource recovery from wastewater: application of meta-omics to phosphorus and carbon management.

    PubMed

    Sales, Christopher M; Lee, Patrick K H

    2015-06-01

    A growing trend at wastewater treatment plants is the recovery of resources and energy from wastewater. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal and anaerobic digestion are two established biotechnology approaches for the recovery of phosphorus and carbon, respectively. Meta-omics approaches (meta-genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) are providing novel biological insights into these complex biological systems. In particular, genome-centric metagenomics analyses are revealing the function and physiology of individual community members. Querying transcripts, proteins and metabolites are emerging techniques that can inform the cellular responses under different conditions. Overall, meta-omics approaches are shedding light into complex microbial communities once regarded as 'blackboxes', but challenges remain to integrate information from meta-omics into engineering design and operation guidelines. PMID:25827118

  4. The Relevance of Phosphorus and Iron Chemistry to the Recovery of Phosphorus from Wastewater: A Review.

    PubMed

    Wilfert, Philipp; Kumar, Prashanth Suresh; Korving, Leon; Witkamp, Geert-Jan; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2015-08-18

    The addition of iron is a convenient way for removing phosphorus from wastewater, but this is often considered to limit phosphorus recovery. Struvite precipitation is currently used to recover phosphorus, and this approach has attracted much interest. However, it requires the use of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). EBPR is not yet widely applied and the recovery potential is low. Other phosphorus recovery methods, including sludge application to agricultural land or recovering phosphorus from sludge ash, also have limitations. Energy-producing wastewater treatment plants increasingly rely on phosphorus removal using iron, but the problem (as in current processes) is the subsequent recovery of phosphorus from the iron. In contrast, phosphorus is efficiently mobilized from iron by natural processes in sediments and soils. Iron-phosphorus chemistry is diverse, and many parameters influence the binding and release of phosphorus, including redox conditions, pH, presence of organic substances, and particle morphology. We suggest that the current poor understanding of iron and phosphorus chemistry in wastewater systems is preventing processes being developed to recover phosphorus from iron-phosphorus rich wastes like municipal wastewater sludge. Parameters that affect phosphorus recovery are reviewed here, and methods are suggested for manipulating iron-phosphorus chemistry in wastewater treatment processes to allow phosphorus to be recovered. PMID:25950504

  5. Effects of combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers plus nitrification inhibitor DMPP on nitrogen runoff loss in vegetable soils.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiaogang; Ma, Junwei; Zou, Ping; Lin, Hui; Sun, Wanchun; Yin, Jianzhen; Fu, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    The application of nitrogen fertilizers leads to various ecological problems such as large amounts of nitrogen runoff loss causing water body eutrophication. The proposal that nitrification inhibitors could be used as nitrogen runoff loss retardants has been suggested in many countries. In this study, simulated artificial rainfall was used to illustrate the effect of the nitrification inhibitor DMPP (3,4-dimethyl pyrazole phosphate) on nitrogen loss from vegetable fields under combined organic and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer application. The results showed that during the three-time simulated artificial rainfall period, the ammonium nitrogen content in the surface runoff water collected from the DMPP application treatment increased by 1.05, 1.13, and 1.10 times compared to regular organic and inorganic combined fertilization treatment, respectively. In the organic and inorganic combined fertilization with DMPP addition treatment, the nitrate nitrogen content decreased by 38.8, 43.0, and 30.1% in the three simulated artificial rainfall runoff water, respectively. Besides, the nitrite nitrogen content decreased by 95.4, 96.7, and 94.1% in the three-time simulated artificial rainfall runoff water, respectively. A robust decline in the nitrate and nitrite nitrogen surface runoff loss could be observed in the treatments after the DMPP addition. The nitrite nitrogen in DMPP addition treatment exhibited a significant low level, which is near to the no fertilizer application treatment. Compared to only organic and inorganic combined fertilizer treatment, the total inorganic nitrogen runoff loss declined by 22.0 to 45.3% in the organic and inorganic combined fertilizers with DMPP addition treatment. Therefore, DMPP could be used as an effective nitrification inhibitor to control the soil ammonium oxidation in agriculture and decline the nitrogen runoff loss, minimizing the nitrogen transformation risk to the water body and being beneficial for the ecological environment

  6. How can we reduce phosphorus export from lowland polders? Implications from a sensitivity analysis of a coupled model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiacong; Gao, Junfeng; Yan, Renhua

    2016-08-15

    Phosphorus (P) export from lowland polders has caused severe water pollution. Numerical models are an important resource that help water managers control P export. This study coupled three models, i.e., Phosphorus Dynamic model for Polders (PDP), Integrated Catchments model of Phosphorus dynamics (INCA-P) and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), to describe the P dynamics in polders. Based on the coupled models and a dataset collected from Polder Jian in China, sensitivity analysis were carried out to analyze the cause-effect relationships between environmental factors and P export from Polder Jian. The sensitivity analysis results showed that P export from Polder Jian were strongly affected by air temperature, precipitation and fertilization. Proper fertilization management should be a strategic priority for reducing P export from Polder Jian. This study demonstrated the success of model coupling, and its application in investigating potential strategies to support pollution control in polder systems. PMID:27148646

  7. Determination of Phosphorus and Potassium in Commercial Inorganic Fertilizers by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2015.18.

    PubMed

    Thiex, Nancy J

    2016-07-01

    A previously validated method for the determination of both citrate-EDTA-soluble P and K and acid-soluble P and K in commercial inorganic fertilizers by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry was submitted to the expert review panel (ERP) for fertilizers for consideration of First Action Official Method(SM) status. The ERP evaluated the single-laboratory validation results and recommended the method for First Action Official Method status and provided recommendations for achieving Final Action. Validation materials ranging from 4.4 to 52.4% P2O5 (1.7-22.7% P) and 3-62% K2O (2.5-51.1% K) were used for the validation. Recoveries from validation materials for citrate-soluble P and K ranged from 99.3 to 124.9% P and from 98.4 to 100.7% K. Recoveries from validation materials for acid-soluble "total" P and K ranged from 95.53 to 99.40% P and from 98.36 to 107.28% K. Values of r for citrate-soluble P and K, expressed as RSD, ranged from 0.28 to 1.30% for P and from 0.41 to 1.52% for K. Values of r for total P and K, expressed as RSD, ranged from 0.71 to 1.13% for P and from 0.39 to 1.18% for K. Based on the validation data, the ERP recommended the method (with alternatives for the citrate-soluble and the acid-soluble extractions) for First Action Official Method status and provided recommendations for achieving Final Action status. PMID:27455933

  8. Timescales and controls on phosphorus loss from a grassland hillslope following a cessation in P application.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, Rachel; Doody, Donnacha; Watson, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    Despite the implementation of EU regulations controlling the use of fertilisers in agriculture, reserves of phosphorus (P) in soils continue to pose a threat to water quality. Mobilisation and transport of legacy P from soil to surface waters has been highlighted as a probable cause of many water bodies continuing to fail to achieve targets under the Water Framework Directive. However, the rates and quantities lost from farmland, and the timescales for positive change to water quality, following cessation of P inputs, remain poorly understood. Monitoring data from an instrumented grassland research site in Northern Ireland provide some insights. The site is located in a hydrologically 'flashy' landscape characterised by steep gradients and poorly drained soils over impermeable bedrock. Between 2000 and 2005 soil Olsen P concentrations were altered in five 0.2 ha hydrologically isolated grazed grassland plots through chemical fertiliser applications of 0, 10, 20, 40, 80 kg P ha‑1yr‑1. By 2004 this had resulted in soil Olsen P concentrations of 19, 24, 28, 38 and 67 mg P L‑1 across the plots, after which applications ceased. Subsequently, until 2012, changes in soil Olsen P across the plots and losses to overland flow and drainage were monitored, with near-continuous flow measurement and water samples abstracted for chemical analysis. Runoff events were sampled at 20 minute intervals while drainage flows were taken as a weekly composite of 4-hourly samples. Overland flow events were defined by at least 24 hours without flow being recorded at the respective plot outlets. Drainage flow was examined on a weekly basis as it was continuous except during prolonged dry periods. To examine the hydrological drivers of overland flow and drainage losses the dissolved reactive P (DRP) and total P (TP) time series were synchronised with rainfall data and modelled soil moisture deficits. Results demonstrated that from 2005-2012 there was no significant difference among plots

  9. Parameterization of DFTB3/3OB for Sulfur and Phosphorus for Chemical and Biological Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report the parametrization of the approximate density functional tight binding method, DFTB3, for sulfur and phosphorus. The parametrization is done in a framework consistent with our previous 3OB set established for O, N, C, and H, thus the resulting parameters can be used to describe a broad set of organic and biologically relevant molecules. The 3d orbitals are included in the parametrization, and the electronic parameters are chosen to minimize errors in the atomization energies. The parameters are tested using a fairly diverse set of molecules of biological relevance, focusing on the geometries, reaction energies, proton affinities, and hydrogen bonding interactions of these molecules; vibrational frequencies are also examined, although less systematically. The results of DFTB3/3OB are compared to those from DFT (B3LYP and PBE), ab initio (MP2, G3B3), and several popular semiempirical methods (PM6 and PDDG), as well as predictions of DFTB3 with the older parametrization (the MIO set). In general, DFTB3/3OB is a major improvement over the previous parametrization (DFTB3/MIO), and for the majority cases tested here, it also outperforms PM6 and PDDG, especially for structural properties, vibrational frequencies, hydrogen bonding interactions, and proton affinities. For reaction energies, DFTB3/3OB exhibits major improvement over DFTB3/MIO, due mainly to significant reduction of errors in atomization energies; compared to PM6 and PDDG, DFTB3/3OB also generally performs better, although the magnitude of improvement is more modest. Compared to high-level calculations, DFTB3/3OB is most successful at predicting geometries; larger errors are found in the energies, although the results can be greatly improved by computing single point energies at a high level with DFTB3 geometries. There are several remaining issues with the DFTB3/3OB approach, most notably its difficulty in describing phosphate hydrolysis reactions involving a change in the coordination number of

  10. Novel Applications for Oxalate-Phosphate-Amine Metal-Organic-Frameworks (OPA-MOFs): Can an Iron-Based OPA-MOF Be Used as Slow-Release Fertilizer?

    PubMed

    Anstoetz, Manuela; Rose, Terry J; Clark, Malcolm W; Yee, Lachlan H; Raymond, Carolyn A; Vancov, Tony

    2015-01-01

    A porous iron-based oxalate-phosphate-amine metal-organic framework material (OPA-MOF) was investigated as a microbially-induced slow-release nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizer. Seedling growth, grain yields, nutrient uptake of wheat plants, and soil dynamics in incubated soil, were investigated using OPA-MOF vs standard P (triple-superphosphate) and N (urea) fertilizers in an acidic Ferralsol at two application rates (equivalent 120 and 40 kg N ha(-1)). While urea hydrolysis in the OPA-MOF treatment was rapid, conversion of ammonium to nitrate was significantly inhibited compared to urea treatment. Reduced wheat growth in OPA-MOF treatments was not caused by N-deficiency, but by limited P-bioavailability. Two likely reasons were slow P-mobilisation from the OPA-MOF or rapid P-binding in the acid soil. P-uptake and yield in OPA-MOF treatments were significantly higher than in nil-P controls, but significantly lower than in conventionally-fertilised plants. OPA-MOF showed potential as enhanced efficiency N fertilizer. However, as P-bioavailability was insufficient to meet plant demands, further work should determine if P-availability may be enhanced in alkaline soils, or whether central ions other than Fe, forming the inorganic metal-P framework in the MOF, may act as a more effective P-source in acid soils. PMID:26633174

  11. Novel Applications for Oxalate-Phosphate-Amine Metal-Organic-Frameworks (OPA-MOFs): Can an Iron-Based OPA-MOF Be Used as Slow-Release Fertilizer?

    PubMed Central

    Anstoetz, Manuela; Rose, Terry J.; Clark, Malcolm W.; Yee, Lachlan H.; Raymond, Carolyn A.; Vancov, Tony

    2015-01-01

    A porous iron-based oxalate-phosphate-amine metal-organic framework material (OPA-MOF) was investigated as a microbially-induced slow-release nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizer. Seedling growth, grain yields, nutrient uptake of wheat plants, and soil dynamics in incubated soil, were investigated using OPA-MOF vs standard P (triple-superphosphate) and N (urea) fertilizers in an acidic Ferralsol at two application rates (equivalent 120 and 40 kg N ha-1). While urea hydrolysis in the OPA-MOF treatment was rapid, conversion of ammonium to nitrate was significantly inhibited compared to urea treatment. Reduced wheat growth in OPA-MOF treatments was not caused by N-deficiency, but by limited P-bioavailability. Two likely reasons were slow P-mobilisation from the OPA-MOF or rapid P-binding in the acid soil. P-uptake and yield in OPA-MOF treatments were significantly higher than in nil-P controls, but significantly lower than in conventionally-fertilised plants. OPA-MOF showed potential as enhanced efficiency N fertilizer. However, as P-bioavailability was insufficient to meet plant demands, further work should determine if P-availability may be enhanced in alkaline soils, or whether central ions other than Fe, forming the inorganic metal-P framework in the MOF, may act as a more effective P-source in acid soils. PMID:26633174

  12. Impact of tillage and fertilizer application method on gas emissions in a corn cropping system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tillage and fertilization practices used in row crop production are thought to alter greenhouse gas emissions from soil. This study was conducted to determine the impact of fertilizer sources, land management practices, and fertilizer placement methods on greenhouse gas emissions. A new prototype i...

  13. Plant Growth-promoting Rhizobacteria Allow Reduced Application Rates of Chemical Fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efforts to reduce fertilizer rates while increasing nutrient uptake to maintain high yields are very important due to the increasing cost of fertilizers and their potential negative environmental impacts. The objectives of this study were to determine (i) if reduced rates of inorganic fertilizer cou...

  14. VARIABLE SOURCE N FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS TO OPTIMIZE CROP N USE EFFICIENCY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer in corn has long been essential for improving yields and increasing economic returns. The efficient utilization of N fertilizer is becoming increasingly more important because of rising fertilizer costs and the possible negative impact of environmental N loss. The lo...

  15. Bronx River bed sediments phosphorus pool and phosphorus compound identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Pant, H. K.

    2008-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) transport in the Bronx River degraded water quality, decreased oxygen levels, and resulted in bioaccumulation in sediment potentially resulting in eutrophication, algal blooms and oxygen depletion under certain temperature and pH conditions. The anthropogenic P sources are storm water runoff, raw sewage discharge, fertilizer application in lawn, golf course and New York Botanical Garden; manure from the Bronx zoo; combined sewoverflows (CSO's) from parkway and Hunts Point sewage plant; pollutants from East River. This research was conducted in the urban river system in New York City area, in order to control P source, figure out P transport temporal and spatial variations and the impact on water quality; aimed to regulate P application, sharing data with Bronx River Alliance, EPA, DEP and DEC. The sediment characteristics influence the distribution and bioavailbility of P in the Bronx River. The P sequential extraction gave the quantitative analysis of the P pool, quantifying the inorganic and organic P from the sediments. There were different P pool patterns at the 15 sites, and the substantial amount of inorganic P pool indicated that a large amount P is bioavailable. The 31P- NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy) technology had been used to identify P species in the 15 sites of the Bronx River, which gave a qualitative analysis on phosphorus transport in the river. The P compounds in the Bronx River bed sediments are mostly glycerophophate (GlyP), nucleoside monophosphates (NMP), polynucleotides (PolyN), and few sites showed the small amount of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), glycerophosphoethanoamine (GPEA), phosphoenopyruvates (PEP), and inosine monophosphate (IMP). The land use spatial and temporal variations influence local water P levels, P distributions, and P compositions.

  16. Use of Alfalfa for Soil Phosphorus Removal Following Long-Term Manure Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to examine alfalfa remediation effects on a cornfield treated during a 10-yr period with manure at rates matching either the N (MN) or P (MP) requirements of silage corn (Zea mays L.). A commercial fertilizer (NCK) was used as a control. The site was removed from corn prod...

  17. Semiconducting layered blue phosphorus: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

    2014-05-01

    We investigate a previously unknown phase of phosphorus that shares its layered structure and high stability with the black phosphorus allotrope. We find the in-plane hexagonal structure and bulk layer stacking of this structure, which we call "blue phosphorus," to be related to graphite. Unlike graphite and black phosphorus, blue phosphorus displays a wide fundamental band gap. Still, it should exfoliate easily to form quasi-two-dimensional structures suitable for electronic applications. We study a likely transformation pathway from black to blue phosphorus and discuss possible ways to synthesize the new structure. PMID:24836265

  18. Impact of implanted phosphorus on the diffusivity of boron and its applicability to silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrof, Julian; Müller, Ralph; Reedy, Robert C.; Benick, Jan; Hermle, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Boron diffusivity reduction in extrinsically doped silicon was investigated in the context of a process combination consisting of BBr3 furnace diffusion and preceding Phosphorus ion implantation. The implantation of Phosphorus leads to a substantial blocking of Boron during the subsequent Boron diffusion. First, the influences of ion implantation induced point defects as well as the initial P doping on B diffusivity were studied independently. Here, it was found that not the defects created during ion implantation but the P doping itself results in the observed B diffusion retardation. The influence of the initial P concentration was investigated in more detail by varying the P implantation dose. A secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis of the BSG layer after the B diffusion revealed that the B diffusion retardation is not due to potential P content in the BSG layer but rather caused by the n-type doping of the crystalline silicon itself. Based on the observations the B diffusion retardation was classified into three groups: (i) no reduction of B diffusivity, (ii) reduced B diffusivity, and (iii) blocking of the B diffusion. The retardation of B diffusion can well be explained by the phosphorus doping level resulting in a Fermi level shift and pairing of B and P ions, both reducing the B diffusivity. Besides these main influences, there are probably additional transient phenomena responsible for the blocking of boron. Those might be an interstitial transport mechanism caused by P diffusion that reduces interstitial concentration at the surface or the silicon/BSG interface shift due to oxidation during the BBr3 diffusion process. Lifetime measurements revealed that the residual (non-blocked) B leads to an increased dark saturation current density in the P doped region. Nevertheless, electrical quality is on a high level and was further increased by reducing the B dose as well as by removing the first few nanometers of the silicon surface after the BBr3

  19. Impact of implanted phosphorus on the diffusivity of boron and its applicability to silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schrof, Julian Müller, Ralph; Benick, Jan; Hermle, Martin; Reedy, Robert C.

    2015-07-28

    Boron diffusivity reduction in extrinsically doped silicon was investigated in the context of a process combination consisting of BBr{sub 3} furnace diffusion and preceding Phosphorus ion implantation. The implantation of Phosphorus leads to a substantial blocking of Boron during the subsequent Boron diffusion. First, the influences of ion implantation induced point defects as well as the initial P doping on B diffusivity were studied independently. Here, it was found that not the defects created during ion implantation but the P doping itself results in the observed B diffusion retardation. The influence of the initial P concentration was investigated in more detail by varying the P implantation dose. A secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis of the BSG layer after the B diffusion revealed that the B diffusion retardation is not due to potential P content in the BSG layer but rather caused by the n-type doping of the crystalline silicon itself. Based on the observations the B diffusion retardation was classified into three groups: (i) no reduction of B diffusivity, (ii) reduced B diffusivity, and (iii) blocking of the B diffusion. The retardation of B diffusion can well be explained by the phosphorus doping level resulting in a Fermi level shift and pairing of B and P ions, both reducing the B diffusivity. Besides these main influences, there are probably additional transient phenomena responsible for the blocking of boron. Those might be an interstitial transport mechanism caused by P diffusion that reduces interstitial concentration at the surface or the silicon/BSG interface shift due to oxidation during the BBr{sub 3} diffusion process. Lifetime measurements revealed that the residual (non-blocked) B leads to an increased dark saturation current density in the P doped region. Nevertheless, electrical quality is on a high level and was further increased by reducing the B dose as well as by removing the first few nanometers of the silicon surface after

  20. Modelling of microalgal growth and lipid production in Dunaliella tertiolecta using nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer medium in sintered disk chromatographic glass bubble column.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anup; Guria, Chandan; Chitres, G; Chakraborty, Arunangshu; Pathak, A K

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive mathematical model involving NPK-10:26:26 fertilizer, NaCl, NaHCO3, light and temperature operating variables for Dunaliella tertiolecta cultivation is formulated to predict microalgae-biomass and lipid productivity. Proposed model includes Monod/Andrews kinetics for the absorption of essential nutrients into algae-biomass and Droop model involving internal nutrient cell quota for microalgae growth, assuming algae-biomass is composed of sugar, functional-pool and neutral-lipid. Biokinetic model parameters are determined by minimizing the residual-sum-of-square-errors between experimental and computed microalgae-biomass and lipid productivity using genetic algorithm. Developed model is validated with the experiments of Dunaliella tertiolecta cultivation using air-agitated sintered-disk chromatographic glass-bubble column and the effects of operating variables on microalgae-biomass and lipid productivity is investigated. Finally, parametric sensitivity analysis is carried out to know the sensitivity of model parameters on the obtained results in the input parameter space. Proposed model may be helpful in scale-up studies and implementation of model-based control strategy in large-scale algal cultivation. PMID:27450983

  1. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lin; Ruan, Yunze; Tao, Chengyuan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and culture-dependent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (CD-DGGE). The results showed that BIO application significantly reduced disease incidences and increased crop yields, respectivly. And the stabilized general bacterial metabolic potential, especially for the utilization of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds, was induced by BIO application. DGGE profiles demonstrated that resilient community structure of culturable rhizobacteria with higher richness and diversity were observed in BIO treated soils. Morever, enriched culturable bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were also detected. In total, continuous application of BIO effectively suppressed Fusarium wilt disease by stabilizing culturable bacterial metabolic potential and community structure. This study revealed a new method to control Fusarium wilt of banana for long term banana cultivation. PMID:27306096

  2. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Lin; Ruan, Yunze; Tao, Chengyuan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and culture-dependent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (CD-DGGE). The results showed that BIO application significantly reduced disease incidences and increased crop yields, respectivly. And the stabilized general bacterial metabolic potential, especially for the utilization of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds, was induced by BIO application. DGGE profiles demonstrated that resilient community structure of culturable rhizobacteria with higher richness and diversity were observed in BIO treated soils. Morever, enriched culturable bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were also detected. In total, continuous application of BIO effectively suppressed Fusarium wilt disease by stabilizing culturable bacterial metabolic potential and community structure. This study revealed a new method to control Fusarium wilt of banana for long term banana cultivation. PMID:27306096

  3. Distribution of uranium in soil components of agricultural fields after long-term application of phosphate fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, N; Kawasaki, A; Iiyama, I

    2009-02-01

    Long-term application of phosphate fertilizers causes accumulation of U in the surface soil of agricultural fields. We investigated the soil constituents that contribute to the accumulation of U by using chemical extraction methods. Surface soil samples were obtained from upland fields, pastures, and paddy fields cultivated without any phosphate fertilizer (control site), with NPK fertilizer (NPK site), and with both NPK fertilizer and compost (NPK+compost site) for more than 20 years. In addition to the total U (Ut) concentration in soil, the concentrations of pyrophosphate- and acid oxalate-extractable U were determined as a measure of U associated with soil organic matter and poorly crystalline Fe/Al minerals in soil, respectively. The total, pyrophosphate-extractable, and acid oxalate-extractable U concentrations were higher in the soil obtained from the NPK and NPK+compost sites than in that obtained from the control site. The difference in the U concentrations between the NPK or NPK+compost site and the control site corresponded with the increased U concentration observed after the application of the phosphate fertilizer or both the fertilizer and compost. In the upland field and pasture soil, the increase in pyrophosphate-extractable U was 83-94% of that in Ut. On the other hand, the increase in acid oxalate-extractable U was 44-58% of that in Ut in the upland field and pasture soil, but it was almost equivalent to the increase in Ut in the paddy soil with NPK. In conclusion, most of the phosphate fertilizer-derived U was either incorporated into the soil organic matter or poorly crystalline Fe/Al minerals in the surface soil of agricultural fields. Thus, soil organic matter is an important pool of U in upland field and pasture soil, whereas poorly crystalline Fe/Al minerals are important pools of U in paddy soil experiencing alternating changes in redox conditions. PMID:19033080

  4. Towards global phosphorus security: a systems framework for phosphorus recovery and reuse options.

    PubMed

    Cordell, D; Rosemarin, A; Schröder, J J; Smit, A L

    2011-08-01

    Human intervention in the global phosphorus cycle has mobilised nearly half a billion tonnes of the element from phosphate rock into the hydrosphere over the past half century. The resultant water pollution concerns have been the main driver for sustainable phosphorus use (including phosphorus recovery). However the emerging global challenge of phosphorus scarcity with serious implications for future food security, means phosphorus will also need to be recovered for productive reuse as a fertilizer in food production to replace increasingly scarce and more expensive phosphate rock. Through an integrated and systems framework, this paper examines the full spectrum of sustainable phosphorus recovery and reuse options (from small-scale low-cost to large-scale high-tech), facilitates integrated decision-making and identifies future opportunities and challenges for achieving global phosphorus security. Case studies are provided rather than focusing on a specific technology or process. There is no single solution to achieving a phosphorus-secure future: in addition to increasing phosphorus use efficiency, phosphorus will need to be recovered and reused from all current waste streams throughout the food production and consumption system (from human and animal excreta to food and crop wastes). There is a need for new sustainable policies, partnerships and strategic frameworks to develop renewable phosphorus fertilizer systems for farmers. Further research is also required to determine the most sustainable means in a given context for recovering phosphorus from waste streams and converting the final products into effective fertilizers, accounting for life cycle costs, resource and energy consumption, availability, farmer accessibility and pollution. PMID:21414650

  5. Effect of long-term combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on soil nematode communities within aggregates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xiaoke; Mahamood, Md; Zhang, Shuiqing; Huang, Shaomin; Liang, Wenju

    2016-01-01

    A long-term fertilization experiment was conducted to examine the effects of different fertilization practices on nematode community composition within aggregates in a wheat-maize rotation system. The study was a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The experiment involved the following four treatments: no fertilizer, inorganic N, P and K fertilizer (NPK), NPK plus manure (NPKM) and NPK plus maize straw (NPKS). Soil samples were taken at 0-20 cm depth during the wheat harvest stage. Based on our results, NPKS contributed to soil aggregation and moisture retention, with a positive effect on soil total nitrogen accumulation, particularly within small macroaggregates (0.25-1 mm) and microaggregates (<0.25 mm). The C/N ratio was correlated to the distribution of the soil nematode community. Both manure application and straw incorporation increased the nematode functional metabolic footprints within all aggregates. Additionally, the functional metabolic footprints decreased with a decline in aggregate size. The accumulation of total nitrogen within <1 mm aggregates under NPKS might play a key role in maintaining the survival of soil nematodes. In our study, both crop straw incorporation and inorganic fertilizer application effectively improved soil physicochemical properties and were also beneficial for nematode survival within small aggregate size fractions. PMID:27502433

  6. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers application on the phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P₂O₅:10% K₂O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P₂O₅, 15% K₂O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb. PMID:24013410

  7. Effect of long-term combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on soil nematode communities within aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xiaoke; Mahamood, Md.; Zhang, Shuiqing; Huang, Shaomin; Liang, Wenju

    2016-01-01

    A long-term fertilization experiment was conducted to examine the effects of different fertilization practices on nematode community composition within aggregates in a wheat-maize rotation system. The study was a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The experiment involved the following four treatments: no fertilizer, inorganic N, P and K fertilizer (NPK), NPK plus manure (NPKM) and NPK plus maize straw (NPKS). Soil samples were taken at 0–20 cm depth during the wheat harvest stage. Based on our results, NPKS contributed to soil aggregation and moisture retention, with a positive effect on soil total nitrogen accumulation, particularly within small macroaggregates (0.25–1 mm) and microaggregates (<0.25 mm). The C/N ratio was correlated to the distribution of the soil nematode community. Both manure application and straw incorporation increased the nematode functional metabolic footprints within all aggregates. Additionally, the functional metabolic footprints decreased with a decline in aggregate size. The accumulation of total nitrogen within <1 mm aggregates under NPKS might play a key role in maintaining the survival of soil nematodes. In our study, both crop straw incorporation and inorganic fertilizer application effectively improved soil physicochemical properties and were also beneficial for nematode survival within small aggregate size fractions. PMID:27502433

  8. Characterization and sonochemical synthesis of black phosphorus from red phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldave, Sandra H.; Yogeesh, Maruthi N.; Zhu, Weinan; Kim, Joonseok; Sonde, Sushant S.; Nayak, Avinash P.; Akinwande, Deji

    2016-03-01

    Phosphorene is a new two-dimensional material which is commonly prepared by exfoliation from black phosphorus bulk crystals that historically have been synthesized from white phosphorus under high-pressure conditions. The few layers of phosphorene have a direct band gap in the range of 0.3-2 eV and high mobility at room temperature comparable to epitaxial graphene. These characteristics can be used for the design of high speed digital circuits, radio frequency circuits, flexible and printed systems, and optoelectronic devices. In this work, we synthesized black phosphorus from red phosphorus, which is a safer solid precursor, using sonochemistry. Furthermore, via a variety of microscopy and spectroscopy techniques, we report characterization results of the sonochemically synthesized black phosphorus in addition to the commercial black phosphorus. Finally, we describe the air stability of black phosphors and the crystalline structure of the synthesized material. This is the first result of sonochemical or solution-based synthesis of black phosphorus based on readily available low-cost red phosphorus. This solution-based synthesis of black phosphorus is suitable for printable applications of nanomaterial.

  9. Accumulation, availability, and uptake of heavy metals in a red soil after 22-year fertilization and cropping.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shiwei; Liu, Jing; Xu, Minggang; Lv, Jialong; Sun, Nan

    2015-10-01

    Fertilization is important to increase crop yields, but long-term application of fertilizers probably aggravated the risk of heavy metals in acidic soils. In this study, the effect of 22-year fertilization and cropping on accumulation, availability, and uptake of heavy metals in red soil was investigated. The results showed that pig manure promoted significantly cadmium (Cd) accumulation (average 1.1 mg kg(-1)), nearly three times higher than national soil standards and, thus, increased metal availability. But the enrichment of heavy metals decreased remarkably by 50.5 % under manure fertilization, compared with CK (control without fertilization). On the contrary, chemical fertilizers increased greatly lead (Pb) availability and Cd activity; in particular, exceeding 85 % of soil Cd became available to plant under N (nitrogen) treatment during 9-16 years of fertilization, which correspondingly increased their enrichment by 29.5 %. Long-term application of chemical fertilizers caused soil acidification and manure fertilization led to the increase in soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM), and available phosphorus (Olsen P), which influenced strongly metal behavior in red soil, and their effect had extended to deeper soil layer (20∼40 cm). It is advisable to increase application of manure alone with low content of heavy metals or in combination with chemical fertilizers to acidic soils in order to reduce toxic metal risk. PMID:26004564

  10. Development of a web-based runoff forecasting tool to guide fertilizer and manure application in the Chesapeake Bay watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managing the land application of fertilizers and manures is critical to protecting water quality in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. While modern nutrient management tools are designed to help farmers with their long-term field management planning, they do not support daily decisions such as when to a...

  11. A laboratory evaluation of ammonia volatilization and nitrate leaching following nitrogen fertilizer application on a coarse-textured soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a series of field studies, differing rainfall patterns within the first month after nitrogen (N) fertilizer application to a coarse-textured soil significantly affected yields and N-use efficiency of irrigated corn (Zea mays L.), and responses varied with N source. A laboratory study was conducte...

  12. African dust phosphorus fertilizing the Amazon and the Atlantic Ocean is derived from marine sediments and igneous rocks - no indication for Bodélé diatomite contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Avner; Castido, Danilo; Pio, Casimero; Angert, Alon

    2013-04-01

    Dust eroded from West Africa is blown across the Atlantic Ocean towards the tropics and constitutes a major external source of phosphorus (P) to the Amazon and marine surface waters. It is usually assumed that the P concentration in dust is ~700 µg P g/dust based on the average concentrations in crust material. In addition, previous studies have claimed that diatomites from the Bodélé depression in Chad are a major source of P to the equatorial Atlantic Ocean and the Amazon. In this study we have utilized the oxygen isotopes in resin extractable inorganic phosphate (δ18OP) of dust particles to identify their P sources. The data presented here is from over 100 PM10 dust samples, collected during major dust events in October- April 2011 and 2012, as part of the CV-DUST project in Cape-Verde. This archipelago is located downwind of the Sahara and Sahel dust producing areas, and is thus well suited for collecting dust blown out from Africa. Air mass back trajectories computations show that the dust origin can be classified to 3 sectors: the north and west Saharan sector, south and central Saharan sector and the Sahel sector. Dust particles approaching from these 3 sectors shows distinct resin-P concentrations (in the range of 1160 µg P g/dust to 7260 µg P g/dust) and distinct δ18OP values which ranges from 7.2‰ to 21.7‰. Major elements concentrations also showed distinct pattern. Dust particles approaching from the north and west Saharan sector shows the lowest P concentrations and a δ18OP values of ~21‰ which are typical for P originating from marine sediments at the Sahara area. Dust particles from the south west Saharan sector are richest in P and have the lowest δ18OP values of 7.2‰ , which are typical for P originated from igneous source. Dust approaching from the Sahel sector shows mid-range P concentrations and δ18OP values of ~14‰ , and fall on isotopic mixing line (R2=0.91) between the dust samples with igneous and marine sedimentary

  13. The application of biosorption for production of micronutrient fertilizers based on waste biomass.

    PubMed

    Tuhy, Lukasz; Samoraj, Mateusz; Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2014-10-01

    In the present paper, new environmental-friendly fertilizer components were produced in biosorption process by the enrichment of the biomass with zinc, essential in plant cultivation. The obtained new preparations can be used as controlled release micronutrient fertilizers because microelements are bound to the functional groups present in the cell wall structures of the biomass. It is assumed that new fertilizing materials will be characterized by higher bioavailability, gradual release of micronutrients required by plants, and lower leaching to groundwater. The biological origin of the material used in plant fertilization results in the elimination of toxic effect towards plants and groundwater mainly caused by low biodegradability of fertilizers. Utilitarian properties of new formulations enable to reduce negative implications of fertilizers for environmental quality and influence ecological health. In this work, the utilitarian properties of materials such as peat, bark, seaweeds, seaweed post-extraction residues, and spent mushroom substrate enriched via biosorption with Zn(II) ions were examined in germination tests on Lepidium sativum. Obtained results were compared with conventional fertilizers-inorganic salt and chelate. It was shown that zinc fertilization led to biofortification of plant in these micronutrients. Moreover, the mass of plants fertilized with zinc was higher than in the control group. PMID:25108517

  14. Reducing soluble phosphorus in dairy effluents through application of mine drainage residuals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibrell, Philip L.; Penn, Chad J.; Hedin, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Three different dairy manure wastewater effluent samples were amended with mine drainage residuals (MDR) to evaluate the suitability of MDR for sequestration of phosphorus (P). Geochemical modeling of the manure wastewater compositions indicated that partially soluble P-bearing minerals including hydroxyapatite, octacalcium phosphate, and vivianite were all oversaturated in each of the manure wastewater samples. Initial MDR amendment test results indicated that these partially soluble P minerals suspended in the wastewater replenished P in the water phase as it was sorbed by the MDR samples. Further investigations revealed that the MDR samples were effective in decreasing soluble P when the amended manure was tested using the water-extractable P procedure. Under these conditions, up to 90 percent of the soluble P in the manure was converted to a sorbed, water-insoluble state. Water contamination and large-scale validation tests of the process were also conducted.

  15. Application of image analysis techniques to evaluate the effect of urban residuals fertilization on corn (Zea mays) production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menesatti, P.; D'Andrea, S.; Socciarelli, S.

    2007-09-01

    The work focused the application of an image analysis technique to determine corn leaves morphology as objective indicator of the growth performance of corn (Zea mays) resulting from the urban residual fertilization. The analyses were related to six fertilization plots: original soil; chemical fertilizer (160 and 200 kg ha-1 of nitrogen); organic fertilizer (32 t ha-1) and two different doses of urban residues (sewage sludges) (7.5 and 22.5 t ha-1, this last amount corresponds to is the maximum level permitted from the Italian law in three year of fertilization). Those tests were realized by full randomized plots, with two three repetitions for each treatment. Measurements were performed for the first year of the trials in the period proximate to harvest (Rome, Italy - July 2000). Four plants for each plot were harvested and stripped of all leaves, whose RGB images were acquired by a digital photo camera (Kodak Ltd). Image analysis was performed first through the separation of RGB channels into single monochromatic 8-bit distribution, than the blue channel images, the most informative, were then submitted to enhancement, low pass filtering to reduce noise, threshold of binarization (based on statistical parameter affected on Gaussian grey levels distribution), binary morphology and object measurement. For ach single leaf the length, the width, the area were measured. The test results indicated positive and significant responses in relation between the crop growth (leaves area, length and width greater) and the different doses of urban residues (sewage sludges).

  16. Farmland Runoff of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Songhuajiang Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ruixia; Wang, Zhaohui; Song, Xinshan; Liu, Jianshe; Dong, Jianwei

    2010-05-01

    Qianguo Irrigation District is typical soda saline-alkaline land of Songhuajiang Watershed, where the excess irrigation for leaching Na+ from the root zone has aggravated the non-point source pollution (NPS) from agricultural system and therefore threatened the water quality of Chagan Lake, a national nature reserve. A field experiment with independent irrigation system was conducted to elucidate the dynamic characteristics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in surface water of paddy field under different hydrotechnic conditions and their potential environmental impact in 2009. The results showed that split N fertilizer application with four times and single basal application of P fertilizer greatly increased the concentration of nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N), total nitrogen (TN), soluble phosphorus (SP) and total phosphorus in surface water, and then subsequently declined. During all the experimental period, the concentration of N and P in paddy field runoff in the investigated area were TN 1.08~3.90 mg/L, TP 1.32~3.87 mg/L respectively, higher than the surface water quality criteria of Class III and Class V in China, therefore N and P losses from paddy soils during each drainage were contributing to downstream water eutrophication. N and P in runoff mainly consist of particulate phosphorus (PP) and NO3--N, respectively. During rainfall or paddy growth period, the concentration of N and P in the runoff tended to temporal decrease, but showed great fluctuation during irrigation and heavy rainfall. Pollution load of the experimental plot showed that either N and P loss amount or the variation coefficient of TN and TP concentration in drainage was significantly positively correlated with the hydrotechnic conditions. N and P runoff from paddy field directly affected the eutrophication level of offtakes and hence deteriorated the downstream aquatic environment. The ammonia concentration of the return water from farmland was rather high, thus threatening the fish farming in

  17. Evaluating causes of trends in long-term dissolved reactive phosphorus loads to Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Daloğlu, Irem; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Scavia, Donald

    2012-10-01

    Renewed harmful algal blooms and hypoxia in Lake Erie have drawn significant attention to phosphorus loads, particularly increased dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) from highly agricultural watersheds. We use the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model DRP in the agriculture-dominated Sandusky watershed for 1970-2010 to explore potential reasons for the recent increased DRP load from Lake Erie watersheds. We demonstrate that recent increased storm events, interacting with changes in fertilizer application timing and rate, as well as management practices that increase soil stratification and phosphorus accumulation at the soil surface, appear to drive the increasing DRP trend after the mid-1990s. This study is the first long-term, detailed analysis of DRP load estimation using SWAT. PMID:22962949

  18. Uniform and variable-rate application of potassium fertilizers in Louisiana sugarcane production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    If sugar and cane yields are to be optimized and profitability improved, it is critical that a sugarcane crop receive the proper levels of plant nutrients. Under-fertilization can result in reduced cane yields, while over-fertilization can reduce sugar recovery. Potassium (K) has been associated wit...

  19. Fertilizer Application Timing Influences Greenhouse Gas Fluxes Over a Growing Season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial production and consumption of greenhouse gases (GHG) is influenced by temperature and nutrients, especially during the first few weeks after agricultural fertilization. The effect of fertilization on GHG fluxes should be sensitive to environmental conditions during and shortly after appli...

  20. Nitrous oxide emissions from a golf course fairway and rough following application of different nitrogen fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas that destroys stratospheric ozone. There is limited research of golf course N2O emission and the effects of frequent fertilization and irrigation. Three enhanced efficiency nitrogen fertilizers (EENFs) were applied to a Colorado golf course fairway and ...

  1. Application of gypsum to control P runoff from poultry litter fertilization of pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper will discuss the utilization of gypsum (CaSO4 .2H2O) to reduce P losses from surface runoff when poultry litter is used as a fertilizer source in agriculture. Utilization of poultry litter as a fertilizer source is common in regions with intense poultry production. While poultry litter ...

  2. MEETING PHOSPHORUS REQUIREMENTS OF RUMINANTS IN AN ENVIRONMENTALLY RESPONSIBLE WAY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus entering lakes and streams from agricultural activity is a major stimulant to algae growth. The livestock industry, through soil application of manure, is a significant contributor of this phosphorus. One way to reduce phosphorus content of manure is to feed phosphorus to meet the anima...

  3. Determinants of fertility control in Taiwan: an application of the Easterlin framework.

    PubMed

    Chang, M C

    1984-03-01

    The study purpose was to test and implement empirically with the 1980 Taiwan knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) data the theoretical view embodied in the synthesis framework of fertility determination formulated by Richard A. Easterlin. The analysis involves 3 types of considerations--motivation, attitudes, and access. The motivation for fertility regulation stems from concerns about the excess of potential family size over desired family size. Attitudes toward fertility regulation embrace both approval or disapproval of family planning in general and subjective considerations about appropriateness of specific practices. Access pertains to the costs in time and money resulting from the availability of birth control services and supplies. In general, fertility regulation is a function of the degree of motivation, favorableness of attitudes, and extent of access. According to the Easterlin framework, it is plausible that fertility becomes regulated when an excess family size situation exists and the disadvantages of unwanted children are greater than costs of fertility regulation, including both subjective disadvantages of regulation and the economic costs of control. Other things being equal, the larger this excess the greater is the potential burden of unwanted children and consequently the greater is a couple's motivation to limit its fertility. Multiple regression technique was used to carry out the 3 stages of analysis. The results obtained showed that the use of fertility regulation became almost universal in Taiwan in 1980. About 94% of the female population near the end of their reproductive careers had at some time used a form of deliberate fertility regulation; only the minority or 6% remained under natural fertility regulations. In general, the regulating population tended to have higher levels of natural fertility and lower infant and child mortality conditions than the natural fertility group. Regulators were slightly more aware of fertility

  4. Phosphorus recovery prior to land application of biosolids using the “Quick Wash” process developed by USDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: To present the case study of a new treatment process, called “quick wash”, that was developed by the USDA-ARS for extraction and recovery of phosphorus from animal manure solids but research has shown the approach is equally effective to recover phosphorus from biosolids prior to applica...

  5. Design of best management practice applications for diffuse phosphorus pollution using interactive GIS.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, A S; Honti, M; Clement, A

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a complex environmental engineering tool, which is appropriate to support decision making in watershed management. The PhosFate tool allows planning best management practices (BMPs) in catchments and simulating their possible impacts on immissions. The method has two parts: (a) a simple phosphorus (P) fate model to calculate diffuse P emissions and their surface transport, and (b) an interactive tool to design BMPs in small catchments. The fate model calculates diffuse P emissions via surface pathways. It is a conceptual, distributed parameter and long-term (annual) average model. The model also follows the fate of emitted P from each cell to the catchment outlets and calculates the field and in-stream retention. The fate model performed well in the Zala River catchment as a case study. Finally, an interactive design tool was developed to plan BMPs in the catchments and simulate their possible impacts on diffuse P fluxes. Different management scenarios were worked out and their effects evaluated and compared to each other. The results show that the approach is suitable to test BMP scenarios at small catchment scale. PMID:18547923

  6. Association of manganese effluent with the application of fertilizer and manure on tea field.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yuko; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Baba, Yoshiteru; Nagafuchi, Yoshitaka; Imato, Toshihiko; Hirata, Tatemasa

    2004-07-01

    Manganese (Mn) concentrations in the tea field effluent were 1.1-3.5 mg/l over a 2 year period from June 1997 to May 1998 (first water year) and June 1998 to May 1999 (second water year). The annual Mn loads were 38,000 g/ha in the first water year and 19,000 g/ha in the second. The highest Mn loads were observed, respectively, in July 1997 (10,000 g/ha) in the first water year and in June 1998 (4100 g/ha) in the second. The water-soluble Mn content of soil of the tea field increased abruptly with decreasing soil pH in the pH region below 4.5. The large Mn load from the tea field during the rainy season is likely due to application of excess fertilizer and manure before the rainy season, which may lead to acidification of the soil. PMID:15223275

  7. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Loads in an Agricultural Watershed Affected by Poultry Litter Application and Wastewater Effluent, Northeastern Oklahoma and Northwestern Arkansas, 2002-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esralew, R.; Tortorelli, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    The Eucha-Spavinaw Basin in Northeastern Oklahoma and Northwestern Arkansas is the source of water for Lake Eucha and Spavinaw Lake, which are part of the water supply for the city of Tulsa, Oklahoma. Lake Eucha and Spavinaw Lakes have experienced deteriorating water quality largely due to growth of algae, notably cyanobacteria, from the excess input of nutrients. As a result, the city of Tulsa has spent millions of dollars to eliminate taste and odor problems resulting from production of algal and bacterial byproducts. To evaluate changes in nutrient loading resulting from a reduction in land application of poultry litter, installation of best management practices, and reductions in the phosphorus concentrations in wastewater effluent, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations from samples collected during baseflow and runoff and used regression models to estimate nitrogen and phosphorus loads, yields, and flow-weighted concentrations in two major tributaries to Lake Eucha, Spavinaw and Beaty Creeks, for the period 2002-2009. Estimated mean flow-weighted total unfiltered nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in the basin were about 5 to 10 times greater than the 75th percentile of flow-weighted nutrient concentrations in other mostly undeveloped basins of the United States. Spavinaw and Beaty Creeks contributed an estimated mean annual total load of about 762,500 kilograms of nitrogen and 49,200 kilograms of phosphorus per year, 76 to 91 percent of which was transported to Lake Eucha by runoff. Thirty-four percent of the nitrogen load and 48 percent of the phosphorus load to Lake Eucha occurred during the year 2008 which was the wettest year on record for the Eucha-Spavinaw Basin. The results of this analysis indicate that although efforts were made to control nutrient loading, nutrient concentrations, especially phosphorus, were substantially augmented by non-point sources and that most loading occurs during runoff events

  8. Uranium and trace elements in phosphate fertilizers--Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Khater, Ashraf E M

    2012-01-01

    Manufactured phosphate fertilizers and their agricultural applications are considerable sources of environmental pollution. In this study, composite samples of phosphate fertilizer (PF) of different physical forms (granular, G, and water soluble powder, L) were collected. The activity concentration of 238U in Bq kg(-1) was measured using gamma ray spectrometers, and the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and selenium in mg kg(-1) were measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometers (ICP-OES). The main aims of this study were to evaluate PF quality according to its physical form, determine manufacturers (local, L, or imported, I), and estimate the hazardous impacts of long-term phosphate fertilization. There was significant variation in the concentration of uranium and other elements in PF samples. In order to have globally normalized data, it is highly recommended to express the concentration of trace elements as per phosphorus mass instead of fertilizer mass. The annual addition of these elements to soil due to phosphate fertilization was calculated. The possible accumulation of added uranium and other trace elements due to fertilization in the subsurface soil layer and/or shallow underground water should be studied in the soil environment of Saudi Arabia. PMID:22134079

  9. Effects of fertilizer application to sweet corn (Zea mays.) grown on sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Orosz, Ferenc; Jakab, Samuel; Losak, Tomas; Slezak, Katalin

    2009-11-01

    In our experiment we tried to find out what kind of eventual changes in the environment and in plant chemical composition occurred in response to different fertilizer treatments applied to sweet corn (Zea mays convar. saccharata) grown on sandy soil with low humus content. The ploughed layer contained <1% CaCO3 and around 1% humus. The soil was very well supplied with P, well supplied with K, Mg, Mn and Cu, and weakly supplied with N and Ca. The treatments were planned in accordance with the recommendations, with a planned unhusked ear yield of 16 tons per hectare, of the new environmental friendly advisory system recently elaborated for field vegetable crops in Hungary. The treatments applied included: G1 (blank control)(N0P0K0), G2(N222.5P22.2K143), G3(N445 P22.5 K143), G4(N222.5 P22.5K143), G5(N222.5P22.5 K286), G6(N222.5 P22.5 K143) + Mg(1.52). According to our findings, of the composition parameters of the grains of the treatments with no fertilizer application, the invert and reducing sugar contents (4.42%, respectively 2.59% relative to fresh weight(-1)) in grains were the highest among the treatments. The same conclusion was drawn on the K 120.2, Mg 13.3, Fe 0.24, Cu 0.66 mg 100 g(-1) grain dry weight levels among minerals. In the case of the basic treatment (G2) recommended by the advisory system we obtained favourable results for the measured parameters, including yields. Invert and reducing sugar contents were (3.26% respectively 1.97% relative to fresh weight(-1)), and mineral contents K 101.9; Mg 11.8; Fe 0.21; Cu 0.56 mg 100 g(-1) dry weight. In the grains, no translocation of toxic elements was observed in response to the direct or indirect effect of the treatments. PMID:20329385

  10. Long-term fertilization effects on soil organic carbon fractions in a red soil of southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, X.; Xu, M.; Wang, X.; Zhang, W.; Cong, R.

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents a study of long-term (17 years) fertilization effects on soil organic carbon (SOC) fractions in a typical red soil (Ferralic Cambisol) under intensive cropping with maize-wheat with various fertilizations in Hunan, China. The fertilization treatments include non-fertilization (Control), mineral nitrogen (N), mineral nitrogen-phosphorus (NP), nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium combination (NPK), and mineral NPK combined with organic amendments (e.g., pig manure and straw). Two sets of soil samples were used: (1) collected in 1990, and (2) collected in 2007. Soil samples were separated to measure free particulate organic C (fPOC), intra-microaggregate particulate organic C (iPOC), and mineral associated organic C (MOC) with physical fractionation. The percentage of SOC fractions in all treatments follows an order: MOC (45-89%) >fPOC (7-35%) >iPOC (11-20%), suggesting that MOC is the primary organic carbon pool in the red soil. Compared with the control, there is no increase in iPOC and MOC under imbalanced mineral fertilizer applications (i.e., N, NP). However, all SOC fractions show a significant increase under balanced mineral fertilizer application (NPK), and mineral NPK applied with organic amendments. Particularly, manure application results in an increase of 290.6-408.3 kg ha-1 yr-1 for fPOC, 162.0-179.2 kg ha-1 yr-1 for iPOC and 322.9-514.5 kg ha-1 yr-1 for MOC.

  11. Few-layer black phosphorus nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sofer, Zdenek; Bouša, Daniel; Luxa, Jan; Mazanek, Vlastimil; Pumera, Martin

    2016-01-28

    Herein, black phosphorus quantum dots and nanoparticles of a few layer thickness were prepared and characterized using STEM, AFM, dynamic light scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence. Impact electrochemistry of the induvidual black phosphorus nanoparticles allows their size determination. The centrifugation of colloidal black phosphorus nanoparticles allowed separation of quantum dots with sizes up to 15 nm. These black phosphorus nanoparticles exhibit a large band gap and are expected to find a wide range of applications from semiconductors to biomolecule tags. The use of black phosphorus nanoparticles for vapour sensing was successfully demonstrated. PMID:26691583

  12. [Effects and mechanism of alkaline wastes application and zinc fertilizer addition on Cd bioavailability in contaminated soil].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao-Bing; Ji, Xiong-Hui; Tian, Fa-Xiang; Peng, Hua; Wu, Jia-Mei; Shi, Li-Hong

    2011-04-01

    The effects of paper mill sludge, red mud and zinc fertilizer addition on remediation of acid cadmium contaminated paddy soil were studied in a pot experiment, and their beneficial effects were verified in a field experiment, by using lime as comparison. The pot experiment results showed that a single application (2 g x kg(-1)) of lime, paper mill sludge or red mud increased soil pH significantly. Compared with no applying alkaline substances, the soil exchangeable Ca content was increased by 33.1%-76.0% at 7 days after applying alkaline substances and 31.0%-78.3% at 30 days after rice transplanting, respectively. The soil available Cd content was significantly decreased by 38.4%-45.0% at 7 days after the three alkaline substances applications, and was decreased by 37.4%-52.9% and 33.2%-38.7% at 30 days and 60 days after rice transplanting, respectively. The Cd content in rice root and brown rice was decreased by 24.0%-48.5% and 26.3%-44.7%, respectively. With equal applications of lime, paper mill sludge and red mud, the effects on increase of soil pH and decrease in Cd accumulation by rice was lime > red mud > paper mill sludge. Compared with a single application (2 g x kg(-1)) of paper mill sludge or red mud, Cd accumulation decreased significantly following the application of zinc fertilizer (0.2 g x kg(-1)) field experimental results were similar to the pot experiment that Cd accumulation apparently declined in the first and second crops (late rice and autumn rape) following the application of paper mill sludge, red mud and addition of zinc fertilizer. The Cd content in brown rice and rape seeds was decreased by 27.1-65.1% and 16.4%-41.6%, respectively, compared with no alkaline substances application. The Cd content in brown rice reached the National Hygienic Standard for Grains (GB 2715-2005). Therefore, combined application of paper mill sludge or red mud with zinc fertilizer was a feasible method to remediate acid cadmium contaminated paddy soil. Rice

  13. Microheater as an alternative to lasers for in-vitro fertilization applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanker, Daniel V.; Turovets, Igor; Glazer, Rima; Reubinoff, Benjamin E.; Hilman, Dalia; Lewis, Aaron

    1999-06-01

    During the last decade various lasers have been applied to drilling of the micrometer-sized holes in the zona pellucida of oocytes for in-vitro fertilization applications. In this paper we describe an alternative approach to laser instrumentation based on microfabricated device capable of precise drilling of uniform holes in the zona pellucida of oocytes. This device consists of a thin (1 micrometer) film microheater built on the tip of glass capillary with a diameter varying between a few to a few tens of micrometers. Duration of the pulse of heat produced by this microheater determines the spatial confinement of the heat wave in the surrounding liquid medium. We have demonstrated that gradual microdrilling of the zona pellucida can be accomplished using a series of pulses with duration of about 300 microseconds when the microheater was held in contact with the zona pellucida. Pulse energy applied to 20 micrometer tip was about 4 (mu) J. In vitro development and hatching of 127 micromanipulated embryos was compared to 103 non-drilled control embryos. The technique was found to be highly efficient in creating round, uniform, well defined holes with a smooth wall surface, matching the size of the heating source. The architecture of the surrounding zona pellucida was unaffected by the drilling, as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy. Micromanipulated embryos presented no signs of thermal damage under light microscopy. The rate of blastocyst formation and hatching was similar in the micromanipulated and control groups. Following further testing in animal models, this methodology may be used as a cost- effective alternative to laser-based instrumentation in clinical applications such as assisted hatching and embryo biopsy.

  14. Supporting phosphorus management in Austria: Potential, priorities and limitations.

    PubMed

    Zoboli, Ottavia; Zessner, Matthias; Rechberger, Helmut

    2016-09-15

    Protecting water bodies from eutrophication, ensuring long-term food security and shifting to a circular economy represent compelling objectives to phosphorus management strategies. This study determines how and to which extent the management of phosphorus in Austria can be optimized. A detailed national model, obtained for the year 2013 through Material Flow Analysis, represents the reference situation. Applicability and limitations are discussed for a range of actions aimed at reducing consumption, increasing recycling, and lowering emissions. The potential contribution of each field of action is quantified and compared using three indicators: Import dependency, Consumption of fossil-P fertilizers and Emissions to water bodies. Further, the uncertainty of this assessment is characterized and priorities for the upgrade of data collection are identified. Moreover, all the potential gains discussed in the article are applied to the reference situation to generate an ideal target model. The results show that in Austria a large scope for phosphorus stewardship exists. Strategies based exclusively either on recycling or on the decline of P consumption hold a similar potential to reduce import dependency by 50% each. An enhanced P recycling from meat and bone meal, sewage sludge and compost could replace the current use of fossil-P fertilizers by 70%. The target model, i.e. the maximum that could be achieved taking into account trade-offs between different actions, is characterized by an extremely low import dependency of 0.23kgPcap(-1)y(-1) (2.2kgPcap(-1)y(-1) in 2013), by a 28% decline of emissions to water bodies and by null consumption of fossil-P fertilizers. This case study shows the added value of using Material Flow Analysis as a basis to design sound management strategies. The systemic approach inherent to it allows performing a proper comparative assessment of different actions, identifying priorities, and visualizing a target model. PMID:27177138

  15. Phosphorus mobilizing consortium Mammoth P(™) enhances plant growth.

    PubMed

    Baas, Peter; Bell, Colin; Mancini, Lauren M; Lee, Melanie N; Conant, Richard T; Wallenstein, Matthew D

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical nutrient used to maximize plant growth and yield. Current agriculture management practices commonly experience low plant P use efficiency due to natural chemical sorption and transformations when P fertilizer is applied to soils. A perplexing challenge facing agriculture production is finding sustainable solutions to deliver P more efficiently to plants. Using prescribed applications of specific soil microbial assemblages to mobilize soil bound-P to improve crop nutrient uptake and productivity has rarely been employed. We investigated whether inoculation of soils with a bacterial consortium developed to mobilize soil P, named Mammoth P(TM), could increase plant productivity. In turf, herbs, and fruits, the combination of conventional inorganic fertilizer combined with Mammoth P(TM) increased productivity up to twofold compared to the fertilizer treatments without the Mammoth P(TM) inoculant. Jalapeño plants were found to bloom more rapidly when treated with either Mammoth P. In wheat trials, we found that Mammoth P(TM) by itself was able to deliver yields equivalent to those achieved with conventional inorganic fertilizer applications and improved productivity more than another biostimulant product. Results from this study indicate the substantial potential of Mammoth P(TM) to enhance plant growth and crop productivity. PMID:27326379

  16. Phosphorus mobilizing consortium Mammoth P™ enhances plant growth

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Colin; Mancini, Lauren M.; Lee, Melanie N.; Conant, Richard T.; Wallenstein, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical nutrient used to maximize plant growth and yield. Current agriculture management practices commonly experience low plant P use efficiency due to natural chemical sorption and transformations when P fertilizer is applied to soils. A perplexing challenge facing agriculture production is finding sustainable solutions to deliver P more efficiently to plants. Using prescribed applications of specific soil microbial assemblages to mobilize soil bound—P to improve crop nutrient uptake and productivity has rarely been employed. We investigated whether inoculation of soils with a bacterial consortium developed to mobilize soil P, named Mammoth PTM, could increase plant productivity. In turf, herbs, and fruits, the combination of conventional inorganic fertilizer combined with Mammoth PTM increased productivity up to twofold compared to the fertilizer treatments without the Mammoth PTM inoculant. Jalapeño plants were found to bloom more rapidly when treated with either Mammoth P. In wheat trials, we found that Mammoth PTM by itself was able to deliver yields equivalent to those achieved with conventional inorganic fertilizer applications and improved productivity more than another biostimulant product. Results from this study indicate the substantial potential of Mammoth PTM to enhance plant growth and crop productivity. PMID:27326379

  17. Downstream approaches to phosphorus management in agricultural landscapes: regional applicability and use.

    PubMed

    Kröger, R; Dunne, E J; Novak, J; King, K W; McLellan, E; Smith, D R; Strock, J; Boomer, K; Tomer, M; Noe, G B

    2013-01-01

    This review provides a critical overview of conservation practices that are aimed at improving water quality by retaining phosphorus (P) downstream of runoff genesis. The review is structured around specific downstream practices that are prevalent in various parts of the United States. Specific practices that we discuss include the use of controlled drainage, chemical treatment of waters and soils, receiving ditch management, and wetlands. The review also focuses on the specific hydrology and biogeochemistry associated with each of those practices. The practices are structured sequentially along flowpaths as you move through the landscape, from the edge-of-field, to adjacent aquatic systems, and ultimately to downstream P retention. Often practices are region specific based on geology, cropping practices, and specific P related problems and thus require a right practice, and right place mentality to management. Each practice has fundamental P transport and retention processes by systems that can be optimized by management with the goal of reducing downstream P loading after P has left agricultural fields. The management of P requires a system-wide assessment of the stability of P in different biogeochemical forms (particulate vs. dissolved, organic vs. inorganic), in different storage pools (soil, sediment, streams etc.), and under varying biogeochemical and hydrological conditions that act to convert P from one form to another and promote its retention in or transport out of different landscape components. There is significant potential of hierarchically placing practices in the agricultural landscape and enhancing the associated P mitigation. But an understanding is needed of short- and long-term P retention mechanisms within a certain practice and incorporating maintenance schedules if necessary to improve P retention times and minimize exceeding retention capacity. PMID:23178830

  18. Application of Magnesium Modified Corn Biochar for Phosphorus Removal and Recovery from Swine Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ci; Zhang, Tao; Li, Ping; Jiang, Rong-feng; Wang, Ying-cai

    2014-01-01

    The recycling of lost phosphorus (P) is important in sustainable development. In line with this objective, biochar adsorption is a promising method of P recovery. Therefore, our study investigates the efficiency and selectivity of magnesium modified corn biochar (Mg/biochar) in relation to P adsorption. It also examines the available P derived from postsorption Mg/biochar. Mg/biochar is rich in magnesium nanoparticles and organic functional groups, and it can adsorb 90% of the equilibrium amount of P within 30 min. The Mg/biochar P adsorption process is mainly controlled by chemical action. The maximum P adsorption amount of Mg/biochar is 239 mg/g. The Langmuir-Freundlich model fits the P adsorption isotherm best. Thermodynamics calculation shows ∆H > 0, ∆G < 0, ∆S > 0, and it demonstrates the P adsorption process is an endothermic, spontaneous, and increasingly disordered. The optimal pH is 9. The amounts of P adsorbed by Mg/B300, Mg/B450, and Mg/B600 from swine wastewater are lower than that adsorbed from synthetic P wastewater by 6.6%, 4.8%, and 4.2%, respectively. Mg/biochar is more resistant to pH and to the influence of coexisting ions than biochar. Finally, postsorption Mg/biochar can release P persistently. The P release equilibrium concentrations are ordered as follows: Mg/B600 > Mg/B450 > Mg/B300. The postsorption Mg/B300, Mg/B450, and Mg/B600 can release 3.3%, 3.9%, and 4.4% of the total adsorbed P, respectively, per interval time. PMID:25198685

  19. White phosphorus

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    White phosphorus ; CASRN 7723 - 14 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  20. Seasonal exports of phosphorus from intensively fertilised nested grassland catchments.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ciaran; Rafique, Rashad; Foley, Nelius; Leahy, Paul; Morgan, Gerard; Albertson, John; Kumar, Sandeep; Kiely, Gerard

    2013-09-01

    We carried out a one year (2002) study of phosphorus (P) loss from soil to water in three nested grassland catchments with known P input in chemical fertilizer and animal liquid slurry applications. Chemical fertilizer was applied to the grasslands between March and September and animal slurry was applied over the twelve months. The annual chemical P fertilizer applications for the 17 and 211 ha catchments were 16.4 and 23.7 kg P/ha respectively and the annual slurry applications were 10.7 and 14.0 kg P/ha, respectively. The annual total phosphorus (TP) export in stream-flow was 2.61, 2.48 and 1.61 kg P/ha for the 17, 211 and 1524 ha catchments, respectively, compared with a maximum permissible (by regulation) annual export of ca. 0.35 kg P/ha. The export rate (ratio of P export to P in land applications) was 9.6% and 6.6% from the 17 and 211 ha catchments, respectively. On average, 70% of stream flow and 85% of the P export occurred during the five wet months (October to February) indicating that when precipitation is much greater than evaporation, the hydrological conditions are most favourable for P export. However the soil quality and land use history may vary the results. Particulate P made up 22%, 43% and 37% of the TP export at the 17, 211 and 1524 ha catchment areas, respectively. As the chemical fertilizer was spread during the grass growth months (March to September), it has less immediate impact on stream water quality than the slurry applications. We also show that as the catchment scale increases, the P concentrations and P export decrease, confirming dilution due to increasing rural catchment size. In the longer term, the excess P from fertilizer maintains high soil P levels, an antecedent condition favourable to P loss from soil to water. This study confirms the significant negative water quality impact of excess P applications, particularly liquid animal slurry applications in wet winter months. The findings suggest that restricted P application in

  1. Effect of chemical amendments to dairy soiled water and time between application and rainfall on phosphorus and sediment losses in runoff.

    PubMed

    Serrenho, A; Fenton, O; Murphy, P N C; Grant, J; Healy, M G

    2012-07-15

    Dairy soiled water (DSW) is a dilute, low nutrient effluent produced on Irish dairy farms through the regular washing down of milking parlours and holding areas. In Ireland, there is no closed period for the land application of DSW except where heavy rain is forecast within 48 h. Chemical amendments have the potential to decrease phosphorus (P) and suspended sediment (SS) loss from DSW applied to land. This study examined the impact of three time intervals (12, 24 and 48 h) between DSW application and rainfall and five treatments (control, unamended DSW, and DSW amended with lime, alum or ferric chloride (FeCl(2))) on P and sediment losses from an intact grassland soil in runoff boxes. Rainfall was simulated at 10.5 ± 1 mm h(-1). Phosphorus concentrations (1-1.6 mg L(-1)) in runoff from DSW application, while not quantitative measures of P loss to surface waters in the field, indicated the importance of incidental P losses and that the current 48 h restriction in Ireland is prudent. Unamended DSW application increased P loss by, on average, 71%, largely due to an increase in particulate phosphorus (PP) loss. All three amendments were effective in decreasing P and SS losses in runoff and, apart from the SS results for lime, were significantly different (p<0.05) to the control at at least one time point. Lime (a 64% reduction in total phosphorus (TP) in comparison with DSW only) was less effective than alum or FeCl(2), likely due to the lower solubility of CaCO(3) in water. Chemical amendment showed potential to decrease P losses from land application of DSW, but the efficacy of such amendments would need to be assessed in field trials and a cost-benefit analysis conducted to further examine whether they could be practically implemented on farms. PMID:22609958

  2. Phosphorus budgets and riverine phosphorus export in northwestern Ohio watersheds.

    PubMed

    Baker, David B; Richards, R Peter

    2002-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) budgets for large watersheds are often used to predict trends in riverine P export. To test such predictions, we calculated annual P budgets for 1975-1995 for soils of the Maumee and Sandusky watersheds of northwestern Ohio and compared them with riverine P export from these watersheds. Phosphorus inputs to the soils include fertilizers, manure, rainfall, and sludge while outputs include crop removal and nonpoint-source export via rivers. Annual P inputs decreased due to reductions in fertilizer and manure inputs. Annual outputs increased due to increasing crop yields. Net P accumulation decreased from peak values of 13.4 and 9.5 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) to 3.7 and 2.6 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) for the Maumee and Sandusky watersheds, respectively. Thus, P budget analysis suggests that riverine P export should have increased throughout the study period, with smaller increases during more recent years. However, detailed water quality studies show that riverine export of total phosphorus (TP) has decreased by 25 to 40% and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) by 60 to 89%, both due primarily to decreases from nonpoint sources. We suggest that these decreases are associated with farmers' adoption of practices that minimize transport of recently applied P fertilizer and of sediments via surface runoff, coupled with changes in winter weather conditions. In comparison with most Midwestern watersheds, rivers draining these watersheds have high unit area yields of TP, low unit area yields of SRP, and high ratios of nonpoint source- to point source-derived P. PMID:11837450

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in soil and roots respond differently to phosphorus inputs in an intensively managed calcareous agricultural soil

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Yunlong; Jiang, Shanshan; Deng, Yan; Christie, Peter; Murray, Philip J.; Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Junling

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the diversity and community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is important for potentially optimizing their role in mining phosphorus (P) in agricultural ecosystems. Here, we conduct a comprehensive study to investigate the vertical distribution of AMF in a calcareous field and their temporal structure in maize-roots with fertilizer P application over a three-year period. The results showed that soil available-P response to P fertilization but maize yields did not. Phosphorus fertilization had no-significant effect on richness of AMF except at greater soil-depths. High P-supply reduced root colonization while optimum-P tended to increase colonization and fungal richness on all sampling occasions. Crop phenology might override P-supply in determining the community composition of active root inhabiting fungi. Significant differences in the community structure of soil AMF were observed between the controls and P treatments in surface soil and the community shift was attributable mainly to available-P, N/P and pH. Vertical distribution was related mainly to soil electrical conductivity and Na content. Our results indicate that the structure of AMF community assemblages is correlated with P fertilization, soil depth and crop phenology. Importantly, phosphorus management must be integrated with other agricultural-practices to ensure the sustainability of agricultural production in salinized soils. PMID:27102357

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in soil and roots respond differently to phosphorus inputs in an intensively managed calcareous agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Yunlong; Jiang, Shanshan; Deng, Yan; Christie, Peter; Murray, Philip J; Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Junling

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the diversity and community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is important for potentially optimizing their role in mining phosphorus (P) in agricultural ecosystems. Here, we conduct a comprehensive study to investigate the vertical distribution of AMF in a calcareous field and their temporal structure in maize-roots with fertilizer P application over a three-year period. The results showed that soil available-P response to P fertilization but maize yields did not. Phosphorus fertilization had no-significant effect on richness of AMF except at greater soil-depths. High P-supply reduced root colonization while optimum-P tended to increase colonization and fungal richness on all sampling occasions. Crop phenology might override P-supply in determining the community composition of active root inhabiting fungi. Significant differences in the community structure of soil AMF were observed between the controls and P treatments in surface soil and the community shift was attributable mainly to available-P, N/P and pH. Vertical distribution was related mainly to soil electrical conductivity and Na content. Our results indicate that the structure of AMF community assemblages is correlated with P fertilization, soil depth and crop phenology. Importantly, phosphorus management must be integrated with other agricultural-practices to ensure the sustainability of agricultural production in salinized soils. PMID:27102357

  5. The effect of fertilization on the below-ground diversity and community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla).

    PubMed

    Wright, Shannon H A; Berch, Shannon M; Berbee, Mary L

    2009-04-01

    Fertilization typically reduces ectomycorrhizal diversity shortly after its application but less is known about its longer-term influence on fungal species. Long-term effects are important in forests where fertilizer is rarely applied. We compared fungal species composition in western hemlock control plots with plots last fertilized 7 years ago with nitrogen (N) or nitrogen plus phosphorus (N + P). The N + P fertilization had a significant lingering effect, increasing the tree size and foliar P content of the western hemlocks. From ectomycorrhizal roots of 24-year-old trees from northern Vancouver Island, Canada, we identified fungi from 12 samples per treatment, by amplifying, cloning, and sequencing fungal ribosomal DNA fragments, placing sequences with 97% or more identity in the same operational taxonomic unit (OTU). Diversity was high across treatments; we detected 77 fungal OTUs, 52 from ectomycorrhizal genera, among 922 clone sequences. The five most frequent OTUs were similar in abundance across treatments. Only 19 OTUs matched any of the 197 previously reported ectomycorrhizal species of western hemlock. Species composition but not diversity in nitrogen plus phosphorus plots differed significantly from control or nitrogen plots. Two Cortinarius OTUs were indicator species for nitrogen plus phosphorus plots and presence of Cortinarius cinnamomeus was correlated with control or nitrogen plots. After 7 years, fertilization history had made no detectable difference in ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity, but long-lasting changes in environment resulting from fertilization had a lingering effect on fungal ectomycorrhizal species composition. PMID:19139932

  6. Response of hydrolytic enzyme activities and nitrogen mineralization to fertilizer and organic matter application in subtropical paddy soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kader, Mohammed Abdul; Yeasmin, Sabina; Akter, Masuda; Sleutel, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Driving controllers of nitrogen (N) mineralization in paddy soils, especially under anaerobic soil conditions, remain elusive. The influence of exogenous organic matter (OM) and fertilizer application on the activities of five relevant enzymes (β-glucosaminidase, β-glucosidase, L-glutaminase, urease and arylamidase) was measured in two long-term field experiments. One 18-years field experiment was established on a weathered terrace soil with a rice-wheat crop rotation at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU) having five OM treatments combined with two mineral N fertilizer levels. Another 30-years experiment was established on a young floodplain soil with rice-rice crop rotation at the Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU) having eight mineral fertilizer treatments combined with organic manure. At BSMRAU, N fertilizer and OM amendments significantly increased all enzyme activities, suggesting them to be primarily determined by substrate availability. At BAU, non-responsiveness of β-glucosidase activity suggested little effect of the studied fertilizer and OM amendments on general soil microbial activity. Notwithstanding probably equal microbial demand for N, β-glucosaminidase and L-glutaminase activities differed significantly among the treatments (P>0.05) and followed strikingly opposite trends and correlations with soil organic N mineralization. So enzymatic pathways to acquire N differed by treatment at BAU, indicating differences in soil N quality and bio-availability. L-glutaminase activity was significantly positively correlated to the aerobic and anaerobic N mineralization rates at both field experiments. Combined with negative correlations between β-glucosaminidase activity and N mineralization rates, it appears that terminal amino acid NH2 hydrolysis was a rate-limiting step for soil N mineralization at BAU. Future investigations with joint quantification of polyphenol accumulation and binding of N, alongside an

  7. Dairy manure biochar as a phosphorus fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Future manure management practices will need to remove large amounts of organic waste as well as harness energy to generate value-added products. Manures can be processed using thermochemical conversion technologies to generate a solid product called biochar. Dairy manure biochars contain sufficient...

  8. Quantifying Uncertainties in N2O Emission Due to N Fertilizer Application in Cultivated Areas

    PubMed Central

    Philibert, Aurore; Loyce, Chantal; Makowski, David

    2012-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential approximately 298 times greater than that of CO2. In 2006, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimated N2O emission due to synthetic and organic nitrogen (N) fertilization at 1% of applied N. We investigated the uncertainty on this estimated value, by fitting 13 different models to a published dataset including 985 N2O measurements. These models were characterized by (i) the presence or absence of the explanatory variable “applied N”, (ii) the function relating N2O emission to applied N (exponential or linear function), (iii) fixed or random background (i.e. in the absence of N application) N2O emission and (iv) fixed or random applied N effect. We calculated ranges of uncertainty on N2O emissions from a subset of these models, and compared them with the uncertainty ranges currently used in the IPCC-Tier 1 method. The exponential models outperformed the linear models, and models including one or two random effects outperformed those including fixed effects only. The use of an exponential function rather than a linear function has an important practical consequence: the emission factor is not constant and increases as a function of applied N. Emission factors estimated using the exponential function were lower than 1% when the amount of N applied was below 160 kg N ha−1. Our uncertainty analysis shows that the uncertainty range currently used by the IPCC-Tier 1 method could be reduced. PMID:23226430

  9. Water treatment residuals and biosolids co-applications affect semi-arid rangeland phosphorus cycling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land co-application of water treatment residuals (WTR) with biosolids has not been extensively researched, but the limited studies performed suggest that WTR sorb excess biosolids-borne P. To understand the long-term effects of a single co-application and the short-term impacts of a repeated co-app...

  10. Matrix-based fertilizer: A new fertilizer formulation concept to reduce nutrient leaching

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared the efficacy of matrix based fertilizers (MBFs) formulated to reduce nitrate, ammonium, and total phosphorus (TP) leaching, with Osmocoate® 14-14-14, a conventional commercial slow release fertilizer (SRF), and with an unamended control in greenhouse column studies. The MBF formulations...

  11. Facile and Scale Up Synthesis of Red Phosphorus-Graphitic Carbon Nitride Heterostructures for Energy and Environment Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Sajid Ali; Ansari, Mohammad Omaish; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2016-06-01

    The development of heterostructured materials for efficient solar energy conversion and energy storage devices are essential for practical applications. In this study, a simple and relatively inexpensive method was used to improve the visible light-driven photocatalytic activity and electrochemical supercapacitor behavior of the graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) by elemental red phosphorus (RPh). The as-prepared RPh-g-C3N4 was characterized in detail using a range of spectroscopic techniques to understand the structure, morphology, chemical interaction, and chemical state of the materials. The visible light-driven photocatalytic activity and supercapacitive electrode performance were assessed by the photodegradation of model colored, non-colored organic pollutants, and electrochemical half-cell measurements, respectively. The RPh-g-C3N4 heterostructure with 30 weight percent of RPh exhibited remarkably high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of pollutants compared to the bare constituent materials, which was further confirmed by the photoelectrochemical study under similar visible photoirradiation conditions. The RPh-g-C3N4 heterostructure supercapacitor electrode displayed a high capacitance of 465 F/g and excellent cyclic stability with capacitance retention of 90% after 1000 cycles at a current of 10 A/g. The superior performance was attributed mainly to the narrow band gap, high surface area, capacitive nature of RPh, and nitrogen-rich skeleton of g-C3N4.

  12. Facile and Scale Up Synthesis of Red Phosphorus-Graphitic Carbon Nitride Heterostructures for Energy and Environment Applications.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Sajid Ali; Ansari, Mohammad Omaish; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The development of heterostructured materials for efficient solar energy conversion and energy storage devices are essential for practical applications. In this study, a simple and relatively inexpensive method was used to improve the visible light-driven photocatalytic activity and electrochemical supercapacitor behavior of the graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) by elemental red phosphorus (RPh). The as-prepared RPh-g-C3N4 was characterized in detail using a range of spectroscopic techniques to understand the structure, morphology, chemical interaction, and chemical state of the materials. The visible light-driven photocatalytic activity and supercapacitive electrode performance were assessed by the photodegradation of model colored, non-colored organic pollutants, and electrochemical half-cell measurements, respectively. The RPh-g-C3N4 heterostructure with 30 weight percent of RPh exhibited remarkably high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of pollutants compared to the bare constituent materials, which was further confirmed by the photoelectrochemical study under similar visible photoirradiation conditions. The RPh-g-C3N4 heterostructure supercapacitor electrode displayed a high capacitance of 465 F/g and excellent cyclic stability with capacitance retention of 90% after 1000 cycles at a current of 10 A/g. The superior performance was attributed mainly to the narrow band gap, high surface area, capacitive nature of RPh, and nitrogen-rich skeleton of g-C3N4. PMID:27291097

  13. Facile and Scale Up Synthesis of Red Phosphorus-Graphitic Carbon Nitride Heterostructures for Energy and Environment Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Sajid Ali; Ansari, Mohammad Omaish; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The development of heterostructured materials for efficient solar energy conversion and energy storage devices are essential for practical applications. In this study, a simple and relatively inexpensive method was used to improve the visible light-driven photocatalytic activity and electrochemical supercapacitor behavior of the graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) by elemental red phosphorus (RPh). The as-prepared RPh-g-C3N4 was characterized in detail using a range of spectroscopic techniques to understand the structure, morphology, chemical interaction, and chemical state of the materials. The visible light-driven photocatalytic activity and supercapacitive electrode performance were assessed by the photodegradation of model colored, non-colored organic pollutants, and electrochemical half-cell measurements, respectively. The RPh-g-C3N4 heterostructure with 30 weight percent of RPh exhibited remarkably high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of pollutants compared to the bare constituent materials, which was further confirmed by the photoelectrochemical study under similar visible photoirradiation conditions. The RPh-g-C3N4 heterostructure supercapacitor electrode displayed a high capacitance of 465 F/g and excellent cyclic stability with capacitance retention of 90% after 1000 cycles at a current of 10 A/g. The superior performance was attributed mainly to the narrow band gap, high surface area, capacitive nature of RPh, and nitrogen-rich skeleton of g-C3N4. PMID:27291097

  14. [Elucidation of the mechanism of fertilization and clinical application of assisted reproductive technology].

    PubMed

    Hiroi, M

    1996-08-01

    Fertilization is the process including many events such as maturation of egg and sperm, attachment, binding, acrosomal reaction, penetration, fusion, cortical reaction, zona reaction and nuclear fusion of both gamete, whereby individual gametes from the female and male unite to create offspring. Although the reason for mechanism of fertilization is still not clearly understood, this process may accelerate the rate adaptation in evolution. In this special lecture, I would like to present our experimental and clinical results especially concerning with morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular approach on the mechanism of fertilization. 1. Development and maturation of follicles and oocytes. It is well known that pituitary FSH, LH control the ovarian function. Follicular development and ovum maturation are also controlled by both pituitary gonadotropins and local factors such as autocrine and paracrine agents. When hMG is injected during 1-6 day of menstrual cycle, several dominant follicles are developed. If hMG is injected after selection of dominant follicles, only one dominant follicle develop in the ovary. When PMS-treated immature rats were injected with immature or mature follicle fluids, rats injected with mature follicular fluid showed strongly suppress in the ovarian weights and numbers of ovulated follicles. Also mature follicle suppress aromatization from and androstenedione to estradiol. These findings mean that mature follicular fluid contains inhibitory factors. Apoptosis of granulosa cells and follicular steroids are related to fertilization. 2. Intracellular calcium of oocyte. Intracellular calcium concentration is known to start to increase in a periodic manner after fertilization in oocytes of mammalians. In 65% of tested mouse oocytes, fertilization occurred during 4 hours observation after sperm insemination in vitro. An initial long lasting intracellular calcium concentration was observed and followed by periodic manner. This

  15. [Quantitative analysis of contents in compound fertilizer and application research using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Song, Le; Zhang, Hong; Ni, Xiao-Yu; Wu, Lin; Liu, Bin-Mei; Yu, Li-Xiang; Wang, Qi; Wu, Yue-Jin

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a new approach to fast determining the content of urea, biuret and moisture in compound fertilizer composed of urea, ammonium dihydrogenphosphate and potassium chloride was proposed by using near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. After preprocessing the original spectrum, partial least squares (PLS) models of urea, biuret and moisture were built with the R2 values of 0.9861, 0.9770 and 0.9713 respectively, the root mean square errors of cross validation were 2.59, 0.38, 0.132 respectively. And the prediction correlation factors were 0.9733, 0.9215 and 0.9679 respectively. The authors detected six kinds of compound fertilizer in market for the model verification, the correlation factors were 0.9237, 0.9786 and 0.9874 respectively. The data implied that the new method can be used for situ quality control in the production process of compound fertilizer. PMID:24783536

  16. The management of phosphorus in poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for phosphorus (P) surplus at the farm scale can increase when farming systems change from cropping to intensive poultry and animal production, as P inputs become dominated by animal feed rather than fertilizer. Cost-effective and innovative solutions are needed to expand the range of ...

  17. Modeling Phosphorus in the Environment Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is a key component of fertilizer inputs in plant agriculture and a critical ingredient of diets in animal nutrition. Elevated levels of environmental P and nitrogen have often resulted in algal blooms and accelerated eutrophication of lakes and streams, and degrade fragile ecosystems...

  18. Phosphorus recovery and reuse from waste streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is a macronutrient essential for all living organisms. Regrettably, it is a finite resource since phosphate rock (PR) is the main material used for production of P fertilizers. Globally, the demand for quality PR is escalating due to many factors including increasing human population....

  19. [Effects of phosphorus application on translocation of lead, zinc and cadmium in the soil-plant system].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bi-Ling; Xie, Zheng-Miao

    2008-11-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to determine the influence of phosphorus (P) application on the translocation and accumulation of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) in a soil solid-liquid-plant system using a plant Swamp Morningglory (Ipomoea aquatica Forak) as an indicator and Visual MINTEQ model. A contaminated soil containing 22,830 mg x kg(-1) Pb, 746 mg x kg(-1) Zn, and 10 mg x kg(-1) Cd was in the root was significantly decreased after P application, while the Zn concentration were increased, but no impact on Cd concentration after P application, compared to the control. Further more, concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd in plant tissue were sharply reduced after P application by 53%-92%, 35%-71%, and 59%-86%, respectively; Concentrations decreased exponentially with increasing amount of P; Relationship between Pb and Zn (r = 0.993, p < 0.01), between Pb and Cd (r = 0.986, p < 0.01) suggested that there was a positive relationship between the mechanisms controlling the phytoavailability of Pb, Zn, and Cd. It was suggested that Cd concentrations in the soil solution were reduced generally by P application as a result of the increased soil pH, and Zn concentrations were no change, but Pb concentrations were increased. Species distribution showed that PbHPO4, PbOH+ and PbH2PO4+ were the main complexation species of Pb in the soil equilibrium solution after P application. It was also suggested that Pb accumulation by root were negatively correlated to Pb in soil solution with coefficient of -0.872 (p < 0.05), and that water soluble Zn and Cd concentrations were reduced while the concentrations in root tissues were increased after P addition. These results indicate the difference between Zn, Cd and Pb and suggest that P as KH2PO4 successfully decreased the phytotoxicity of Pb, Zn, and Cd in the contaminated soil. PMID:19186832

  20. A novel mobile dual-wavelength laser altimetry system for improved site-specific Nitrogen fertilizer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eitel, J.; Magney, T. S.; Vierling, L. A.; Brown, T. T.; Huggins, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    Reducing fertilizer inputs while maintaining yield would increase farmer's profits and similarly lessen the adverse environmental effects of production agriculture. The development of technologies that allow precise, site-specific application of Nitrogen (N) fertilizer has thus been an important research goal over the past decades. Remote sensing of foliar crop properties and function with tractor-mountable optical sensors has thought to be useful to optimize N fertilizer applications. However, on-the-go sensing of foliar crop properties and function has proven difficult, particularly during early crop growth stages when fertilizer decisions are often made. This difficulty arises from the fact that the spectral signal measured by on-the-go sensors is dominated by soil reflectance during early crop growth stages. Here, we present the basic principles behind a novel, dual-wavelength, tractor mountable laser altimetry system that measures the laser return intensity of the reflected green and red laser light. The green (532 nm) and the red (660 nm) wavelength combination allows calculation of a modified Photochemical Reflectance Index (mPRI) that have shown to be sensitive to both crop function and foliar chemistry. The small field of view of the laser points (diameter: 4 mm) combined with its high sampling rate (1000 points sec-1) allows vegetation returns to be isolated from ground returns by using simple thresholds. First tests relating foliar N of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with laser derived mPRI are promising (r2 = 0.72). Further research is needed to test the relationship between laser derived spectral indices and crop function.

  1. A literature review of biological treatment and bioremediation technologies which may be applicable at fertilizer/agrichemical dealer sites

    SciTech Connect

    Norwood, V.M.; Randolph, M.E.

    1990-10-01

    Pesticide and fertilizer products, as well as petroleum fuels and oils, are handled by several thousand fertilizer/agrichemical dealers in the United States. Incidental spillage of these products, as well as improper disposal or recycling of equipment and container rinsewaters, can result in contamination of soil, surface, and groundwaters with hazardous chemicals. Past accidental spills and previously acceptable disposal and management practices are another source of contamination. As dealers continue their efforts to contain, collect, and recycle their wastes and spills, there will be an increasing need for safe, efficient, and cost-effective waste treatment and site remediation technologies to address this issue of pesticide and fertilizer product contamination of soil and water media at dealer sites. The National Fertilizer & Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has initiated an effort to modify, research, develop, demonstrate, introduce, and market waste treatment and site remediation technologies for dealers. This report supports this effort by providing a review of the literature concerning the biodegradability of specific classes of pesticides, as well as biological treatment and bioremediation technologies which may be applicable to the wastes generated by dealers. Biological treatment technologies include the trickling filter and activated sludge processes. Bioremediation technologies for contaminated soil at dealer sites include land application, soil mounds, and composting. Commercial firms offer several other bioremediation technologies including in situ bioremediation and slurry-phase biodegradation. Site characterization factors required prior to implementing bioremediation technologies are discussed in this report. Finally, a case history concerning the bioremediation of pesticide-contaminated soil and groundwater is summarized, and conclusions drawn from this information are presented.

  2. A literature review of biological treatment and bioremediation technologies which may be applicable at fertilizer/agrichemical dealer sites

    SciTech Connect

    Norwood, V.M.; Randolph, M.E.

    1990-10-01

    Pesticide and fertilizer products, as well as petroleum fuels and oils, are handled by several thousand fertilizer/agrichemical dealers in the United States. Incidental spillage of these products, as well as improper disposal or recycling of equipment and container rinsewaters, can result in contamination of soil, surface, and groundwaters with hazardous chemicals. Past accidental spills and previously acceptable disposal and management practices are another source of contamination. As dealers continue their efforts to contain, collect, and recycle their wastes and spills, there will be an increasing need for safe, efficient, and cost-effective waste treatment and site remediation technologies to address this issue of pesticide and fertilizer product contamination of soil and water media at dealer sites. The National Fertilizer Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has initiated an effort to modify, research, develop, demonstrate, introduce, and market waste treatment and site remediation technologies for dealers. This report supports this effort by providing a review of the literature concerning the biodegradability of specific classes of pesticides, as well as biological treatment and bioremediation technologies which may be applicable to the wastes generated by dealers. Biological treatment technologies include the trickling filter and activated sludge processes. Bioremediation technologies for contaminated soil at dealer sites include land application, soil mounds, and composting. Commercial firms offer several other bioremediation technologies including in situ bioremediation and slurry-phase biodegradation. Site characterization factors required prior to implementing bioremediation technologies are discussed in this report. Finally, a case history concerning the bioremediation of pesticide-contaminated soil and groundwater is summarized, and conclusions drawn from this information are presented.

  3. Root versus shoot biomass: Responses to water, nitrogen, and phosphorus applications for Agave lechuguilla

    SciTech Connect

    Nobel, P.S. ); Quero, E.; Linares, H. )

    1989-12-01

    Shoot and root growth of Agave lechuguilla, a Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) succulent widespread in the Chihuahuan Desert, was examined under natural conditions and with two watering regimes, five treatments involving N application to the soil surface, and three treatments involving P application. Under natural conditions root of A. lechuguilla made up only 3.7% of the total plant dry weight, suggesting that this species may be especially sensitive to changes in soil resources. Over the 2-yr study period, increasing the availability of soil water by weekly irrigation increased shoot dry weight of A. lechuguilla by 40% and root dry weight by 75%, which represented a doubling of the increment in plant growth compared with control plants receiving only rainfall. This doubling is consistent with changes in the Water Index (a relative measure of net CO{sub 2} uptake that has a maximum value of unity under wet conditions), which was predicted to be twice as large for the irrigated condition. The greater enhancement of root compared with shoot growth caused by increased water availability should lead to slightly more water uptake, which can compensate for the slightly greater reliance on daytime CO{sub 2} uptake by A. lechuguilla under wet conditions. The leaf N level tended to rise with the application level of N, the increase being 15% at 500 kg N ha{sup {minus}1}, whereas the leaf P level was little affected by P applications up to 500 kg ha{sup {minus}1}. Application of 100 kg N ha{sup {minus}1} increased shoot dry weight by 51% over the 2-yr study period with no effect on root dry weight, and application of 500 kg P ha{sup {minus}1} increased shoot dry weight by 40% but decreased root dry weight by 37%. At these application levels, which were optimal for shoot growth, the roots of A. lechuguilla made up only about 2% of the total plant dry weight.

  4. Nitrous Oxide Fluxes in Fertilized L. Plantations across a Gradient of Soil Drainage Classes.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Raj K; Strahm, Brian D; Sucre, Eric B

    2014-11-01

    The effect of fertilizer management on nitrous oxide (NO) fluxes in agricultural ecosystems is well documented; however, our knowledge of these effects in managed forests is minimal. We established a comprehensive research study to address this knowledge gap across a range of soil drainage classes (poorly, moderately, and well drained) common in southern pine plantation management. Fertilizer treatments in each drainage class comprised of control (no fertilizer), urea + phosphorus (P), and P-coated urea fertilizer (CUF). Fertilization (168 kg N ha) occurred independently during the spring, summer, and fall to assess the effects of application timing. Nitrous oxide sampling, using vented static chambers, started immediately after seasonal fertilizer application and was performed every 6 wk for more than 1 yr. Time-integrated net annual NO emissions increased with urea (1.15 kg NO-N ha) and CUF (0.88 kg NO-N ha) application compared with unfertilized control (0.22 kg NO-N ha). Mean annual NO flux was significantly increased with fall fertilization (1.17 kg NO-N ha) relative to spring (0.73 kg NO-N ha) or summer (0.33 kg NO-N ha). Similarly, average annual NO flux was higher in poorly drained soils (1.40 kg NO-N ha) than in moderately drained (0.46 kg NO-N ha) and well-drained soils (0.39 kg NO-N ha). This study suggests that NO emissions after fertilization can be minimized by avoiding fall fertilization and poorly drained soils and by selecting enhanced-efficiency N fertilizers over urea. PMID:25602199

  5. Legacy phosphorus in calcareous soils: effects of long-term poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequential fractionation techniques, coupled with phosphatase hydrolysis, have allowed for greater understanding of manure/litter effects on soil P distribution. We evaluated the effect of long-term (> 10 years) poultry litter (broiler and turkey litter) application at annual rates of 4.5, 6.7, 9.0,...

  6. Legacy phosphorus in calcareous soils: effects of long-term poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequential fractionation techniques, coupled with phosphatase hydrolysis, have allowed for greater understanding of manure/litter effects on soil P distribution. We evaluated the effect of long-term (greater than 10 years) poultry litter (broiler and turkey litter) application at annual rates of 4.5...

  7. Anthropogenic phosphorus flow analysis of Hefei City, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Sisi; Yuan, Zengwei; Bi, Jun; Wu, Huijun

    2010-11-01

    The substance flow analysis (SFA) method was employed to examine phosphorus flow and its connection to water pollution in the city of Hefei, China, in 2008. As human activity is the driving force of phosphorus flux from the environment to the economy, the study provides a conceptual framework for analyzing an anthropogenic phosphorus cycle that includes four stages: extraction, fabrication and manufacturing, use, and waste management. Estimates of phosphorus flow were based on existing data as well as field research, expert advice, local accounting systems, and literature. The total phosphorus input into Hefei in 2008 reached 7810 tons, mainly as phosphate ore, chemical fertilizer, pesticides, crops and animal products. Approximately 33% of the total phosphorus input left the area, and nearly 20% of that amount was discharged as waste to surface water. Effluent containing excessive fertilizer from farming operations plays an important role in phosphorus overloads onto surface water; the other major emission source is sewage discharge. We also provide suggestions for reducing phosphorus emissions, for example reducing fertilizer use, recycling farming residues, and changing human consumption patterns. PMID:20863550

  8. DESIGN MANUAL: PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual summarizes process design information for the best developed methods for removing phosphorus from wastewater. his manual discusses several proven phosphorus removal methods, including phosphorus removal obtainable through biological activity as well as chemical precip...

  9. Carbon balance in an irrigated corn field after inorganic fertilizer or manure application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about inorganic fertilizer or manure effects on organic carbon (OC) and inorganic C (IC) losses from a furrow irrigated field, particularly in the context of other system C gains or losses. In 2003 and 2004, we measured dissolved organic and inorganic C (DOC, DIC), particulate OC an...

  10. Do nitrogen fertilizer rate and application timing make a difference in corn production?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high prices of nitrogen fertilizer have forced corn producers to consider strategies to increase nitrogen use efficiency. Improving nitrogen management in corn could involve the implementation of several management strategies. Side dressing, adjustment of nitrogen levels according to the site’s...

  11. A Comparison of Continuous Nitrogen Fertigation to Conventional Granular Fertilizer Application in Highbush Blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen fertigation practices are currently being evaluated and compared to conventional fertilizer aplication on 0.6 acres of 'Bluecrop' blueberry planted April 2006 in Corvallis, OR. Plants are spaced 2.5 x 10 ft. apart and growing on mulched, raised beds. Treatments include two methods of fert...

  12. Derivation of a Variable Rate Nitrogen Application Model for In-Season Fertilization of Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen fertilizers used in crop production contribute to pollution of groundwater by nitrate and occurrence of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Economic and environmental pressures are forcing producers to improve nitrogen use efficiency. The objective of this study was to develop a production-based...

  13. EFFECT OF ORGANIC FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS ON GROWTH YIELD AND PESTS OF VEGETABLE CROPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted to measure the yield response of Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo), pepper (Capsicum annuum), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) to an organic fertilizer derived from hydrolyzed feather, meat, bone, and blood meal, sulfate of potash and langeinite (Nature Safe 10-2-8). Th...

  14. [Application of ICP-MS to detecting ten kinds of heavy metals in KCl fertilizer].

    PubMed

    Rui, Yu-kui; Shen, Jian-bo; Zhang, Fu-suo; Yan, Yun; Jing, Jing-ying; Meng, Qing-feng

    2008-10-01

    With the rapid development of society, more and more attention has been focused on environmental safety, especially on the pollutions of heavy metals, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants and deleterious microorganism. Heavy metals are difficult to metabolize in human body are quite harmful, so research on the pollution of heavy metals is increasingly important. There are many pollution sources of heavy metals, including waste residue, waste water and exhaust gas from industry and automobile, and garbage from human life. The contents of 10 kinds of heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, Sn, Sb, Hg, Tl and Pb) in potassium fertilizer (KCl) from Russia were analyzed by ICP-MS. The results showed that potassium fertilizer (KCl) contained less heavy metals than organic-inorganic compound fertilizer; the content of heavy metals Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, Sn, Sb, Hg, Tl and Pb is 0.00, 65.54, 238.85, 190.60, 0.98, 14.98, 2.97, 10.04, 1.28 and 97.42 ng x g(-1), respectively, which accords with the correlative standards. All the data showed that if potassium fertilizer (KCl) is manufactured through normal channel, the content of heavy metals should be little and safe. PMID:19123423

  15. Application of microbial inoculants as tools for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from different nitrogen fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) are increasing due to several factors, including increased use of nitrogen fertilizers. New management tools are needed to reduce N2O emissions from production agriculture. One potential such tool is the use of microbial inoculants, which are increasingly being used ...

  16. FERTILIZATION BY SPERM MICROINJECTION AND ZONA DRILLING: APPLICATIONS IN THE BASIC AND CLINICAL SCIENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental manipulation of fertilization provides an exciting research approach for studying mechanisms involved in sperm/egg interaction and holds great promise as a means for overcoming some forms of human infertility. The report will focus on three methods for assisted ferti...

  17. Phosphorus leaching in an acid tropical soil "recapitalized" with phosphate rock and triple superphosphate.

    PubMed

    Gikonyo, Esther W; Zaharah, Abdul R; Hanafi, Mohamed M; Anuar, Rahim A

    2010-01-01

    With high rates of phosphorus applied to increase "capital P" as a stock for plant uptake over several years, the question of P leaching is inevitable. We conducted an intact soil column experiment in the field to evaluate P leached from soils treated with triple superphosphate (TSP) and Gafsa phosphate rock (GPR) at 300, 600, and 900 kg P ha-1 with and without integration of cattle manure. The lysimeters, made from PVC tubes of 30-cm length, were inserted into the soil up to the 25-cm depth. The tubes were fitted with a resin bag containing a mixture of cation and anion exchange resin (50:50) at the lower end of the tube inserted into the soil. The tubes, arranged in a completely randomized design, were sampled randomly at 10-week intervals for 12 months. Phosphorus extractable from the top- and subsoil at the end of experiment and leached P were determined. More P was leached out from TSP (threefold) compared to GPR, and the amount of P leached increased with increasing rates of P fertilizer applied. Application of manure intensified the amounts of P leached from TSP, particularly at the 6-month sampling time. There was hardly any substantial P leached from the soil treated with GPR. Thus, for effective and efficient long-term P fertilizer management strategies, choosing the right P fertilizer source and monitoring P losses through leaching has to be done for enhanced fertilizer use efficiency and thus reducing P pollution of ground waters. PMID:20694445

  18. Biotechnology for aerobic conversion of food waste into organic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Stabnikova, Olena; Ding, Hong-Bo; Tay, Joo-Hwa; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2005-02-01

    A biotechnology for aerobic conversion of food waste into organic fertilizer under controlled aeration, stirring, pH and temperature at 55-65 degrees C, is proposed. To maintain neutral pH at the beginning of the bioconversion 5% CaCO3 was added to the total solids of the food waste. The addition of 20% horticultural waste compost as a bulking agent to the food wastes (w.w./w.w.), improved the bioconversion and increased the stability of the final product. No starter culture was needed for aerobic bioconversion of food waste into organic fertilizer for 10 days. The low contents of heavy metals in the raw materials used in the bioconversions ensured the safety of fertilizer from food waste for application in agriculture. The addition of 4% organic fertilizer to the subsoil increased the yield and growth of Ipomoea aquatica (Kang Kong) by 1.5 to 2 times. The addition of phosphorus is required to enhance the positive effect of organic fertilizer on plant growth. PMID:15751394

  19. Black Phosphorus Optoelectronics and Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Fengnian

    Black phosphorus recently emerged as a promising new 2D material due to its widely tunable and direct bandgap, high carrier mobility and remarkable in-plane anisotropic electrical, optical and phonon properties. It serendipitously bridges the zero-gap graphene and the relatively large-bandgap transition metal dichalcogenides such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) . In this talk, I will first cover the basic properties of few-layer and thin-film black phosphorus, followed by a discussion of recent observation of highly anisotropic robust excitons in monolayer black phosphorus. Finally I will present a few potential applications of black phosphorus such as radio-frequency transistors and wideband photodetectors. We acknowledge support from the Office of Naval Research, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the National Science Foundation and Yale University.

  20. [Dynamic simulation of nitrogen application level effects on rice yield and optimization analysis of fertilizer supply in paddy field].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingping; Jiang, Ning; Chen, Jie

    2003-10-01

    Field and water tank plot experiments were conducted in Zhejiang Province in 1999 to determine the effects of nitrogen application amount and times on rice growth and yield, and rice growth simulation model ORYZA-0 and nitrogen management module were used to establish a modified nitrogen effect-rice growth model. The simulated results presented a higher positive relationship with the measured results. According to the simulated and measured results, 160 kg.hm-2 was the economic nitrogen application amount for two rice varieties production, and the nitrogen application strategies were: 1) < 100 kg.hm-2 nitrogen fertilizer should be applied within 35 days after transplanting; 2) when the nitrogen application level was between 100-200 kg.hm-2, it should be applied within 45 days after transplanting; 3) if the nitrogen application amount exceeded 200 kg.hm-2, it should be put into paddy field within 60 days after transplanting; 4) as the nitrogen application amount increased, the nitrogen supply at the later rice growth stage should be increased. As for the second cropping rice, the more times the nitrogen applied in the field, the more closeness the rice yield reached the APCUM curve(optimized nitrogen curve) suggested. But in real rice production, it is impossible for farmers to adopt more times of N applying, since labor and cost will increase. Based on the experimental parameters and real rice production situation, the reasonable nitrogen application under 160 kg.hm-2 levels for high yielding second cropping rice was split into 4 times with fraction 0.2:0.3:0.3:0.2 at 5, 20, 30, 40 days after transplanting. The rice yield could reach 5,916 kg.hm-2, resulted in a 3.12% increase as compared with the yield under actual fertilizer application amount and timing. PMID:14986359

  1. Phosphorus leaching in sandy outwash soils following potato-processing wastewater application.

    PubMed

    Zvomuya, Francis; Gupta, Satish C; Rosen, Carl J

    2005-01-01

    Land application of wastewater presents potential for ground water pollution if not properly managed. In situ breakthrough tests were conducted using potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)-processing wastewater and a Br tracer to characterize P leaching in seasonally frozen sandy outwash soils. In the first test, P and Br breakthrough were measured in a 7-m deep well following wastewater [2.94 mg L(-1) total P (TP); 280 mg L(-1) Br] application at the site that had 13.1 mg water-extractable P (WEP) kg(-1)and 94.4 mg Bray-1 P kg(-1). Bromide was detected in the well after approximately 0.4 pore volumes, but there was no P break-through after 7 pore volumes. In the second breakthrough test, wastewater containing 3.6 mg L(-1) TP and 259 mg L(-1) Br was applied on 1.5-m deep lysimeters at low (0.8 mg WEP kg(-1); 12.1 mg Bray-1 P kg(-1)) and high soil test P sites (104 mg WEP kg(-1); 585 mg Bray-1 P kg(-1)). Leachate TP concentration during the test remained constant (0.04 mg L(-1)) at the low P sites but increased from approximately 3.5 to 5.6 mg L(-1) at the high P sites. These results indicate no P leaching in low P soils, but leaching in high P soils, thus suggesting that most of the P leached at the high P sites was mainly due to desorption and dissolution of weakly adsorbed P from prior P applications. This was consistent with P transport simulations using the convective-dispersive equation. We conclude that P concentration in land-applied wastewater should be regulated based on soil test-P level plus wastewater P loading. PMID:15998849

  2. The phosphorus cost of agricultural intensification in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Roy, Eric D; Richards, Peter D; Martinelli, Luiz A; Coletta, Luciana Della; Lins, Silvia Rafaela Machado; Vazquez, Felipe Ferraz; Willig, Edwin; Spera, Stephanie A; VanWey, Leah K; Porder, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural intensification in the tropics is one way to meet rising global food demand in coming decades(1,2). Although this strategy can potentially spare land from conversion to agriculture(3), it relies on large material inputs. Here we quantify one such material cost, the phosphorus fertilizer required to intensify global crop production atop phosphorus-fixing soils and achieve yields similar to productive temperate agriculture. Phosphorus-fixing soils occur mainly in the tropics, and render added phosphorus less available to crops(4,5). We estimate that intensification of the 8-12% of global croplands overlying phosphorus-fixing soils in 2005 would require 1-4 Tg P yr(-1) to overcome phosphorus fixation, equivalent to 8-25% of global inorganic phosphorus fertilizer consumption that year. This imposed phosphorus 'tax' is in addition to phosphorus added to soils and subsequently harvested in crops, and doubles (2-7 Tg P yr(-1)) for scenarios of cropland extent in 2050(6). Our estimates are informed by local-, state- and national-scale investigations in Brazil, where, more than any other tropical country, low-yielding agriculture has been replaced by intensive production. In the 11 major Brazilian agricultural states, the surplus of added inorganic fertilizer phosphorus retained by soils post harvest is strongly correlated with the fraction of cropland overlying phosphorus-fixing soils (r(2) = 0.84, p < 0.001). Our interviews with 49 farmers in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso, which produces 8% of the world's soybeans mostly on phosphorus-fixing soils, suggest this phosphorus surplus is required even after three decades of high phosphorus inputs. Our findings in Brazil highlight the need for better understanding of long-term soil phosphorus fixation elsewhere in the tropics. Strategies beyond liming, which is currently widespread in Brazil, are needed to reduce phosphorus retention by phosphorus-fixing soils to better manage the Earth

  3. Emerging technology for utilizing phosphorus sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper outlines a program at the Tennessee Valley Authority plant in Muscle Shoals, Alabama, to recycle phosphorus sludge produced by phosphate smelting. The recovery of phossy water and elemental phosphorus is addressed, as well as the recycle of inorganic solids from precipitator dust. Two processes for phossy water recycle were developed, which included separating phosphorus sludge from phossy water, waste clarification, and fluorine concentration control. The phossy water was used to make orthophosphate suspension fertilizer. For the recovery of elemental phosphorus, centrifuging and distillation were investigated. Centrifuging recovered 80 percent of the phosphorus in the sludge, but was difficult to operate and emitted toxic fumes. The pilot plant still did not completely volatilize the phosphorus, but was an improvement over other industry stills. A patented process for recycling precipitator dust is briefly described. It is estimated that the waste processing and recovery program will have a value of approximately $100 million, including the value of elemental phosphorus and the recovery of 93 acres of land.

  4. Exploring the promising properties of 2D exfoliated black phosphorus for optoelectronic applications under 1.55 μm optical excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penillard, A.; Tripon-Canseliet, C.; Maksimovic, I.; Rosticher, M.; Servet, B.; Liu, Z.; Géron, E.

    2016-04-01

    A great interest has been lately initiated in the optoelectronics field for 2D materials with a tunable bandgap. Being able to choose the bandgap of a material is a huge progress in optoelectronics, since it would permit to overcome the limitation imposed by the graphene lack of energy bandgap, but also the restriction imposed by already used semiconductor whose bandgap are fixed and cannot apply for IR-NIR applications. From DFT simulations predictions, Black Phosphorus (bP) becomes a bidimensional semiconducting material with a direct tunable energy bandgap from 0.3 eV to 2 eV by controlling number of layers. This material also has a picosecond carrier response and exceptional mobilities under external excitation. Hence black phosphorus is a promising 2D material candidate for photoconductive switching under a NIR optical excitation as in telecommunication wavelength range of 1.55 μm. In this paper, material electromagnetic properties analysis is described in a large frequency band from optical to microwave measurements executed on different samples allowing energy bandgap and work function dependency to fabrication techniques, anisotropy and multiscale optoelectronic device realization by switch contact engineering and material passivation or encapsulation. Material implementation in microwave devices opens the route to new broadband electronic functionalities triggered by optics, thanks to light/matter extreme confinement degree. In this paper we present fabrication method of bP based microwave photoconductive switch, with a focus on black phosphorus Raman characterization, and obtained performances.

  5. [Soil biological activities at maize seedling stage under application of slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizers].

    PubMed

    Li, Dongpo; Wu, Zhijie; Chen, Lijun; Liang, Chenghua; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Weicheng; Yang, Defu

    2006-06-01

    With pot experiment and simulating field ecological environment, this paper studied the effects of different slow/ controlled release N fertilizers on the soil nitrate - reductase and urease activities and microbial biomass C and N at maize seedling stage. The results showed that granular urea amended with dicyandiamide (DCD) and N-(n-bultyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) induced the highest soil nitrate-reductase activity, granular urea brought about the highest soil urease activity and microbial biomass C and N, while starch acetate (SA)-coated granular urea, SA-coated granular urea amended with DCD, methyl methacrylate (MMA) -coated granular urea amended with DCD, and no N fertilization gave a higher soil urease activity. Soil microbial C and N had a similar variation trend after applying various kinds of test slow/controlled release N fertilizers, and were the lowest after applying SA-coated granular urea amended with DCD and NBPT. Coated granular urea amended with inhibitors had a stronger effect on soil biological activities than coated granular urea, and MMA-coating had a better effect than SA-coating. PMID:16964940

  6. Phosphorus Recycling from an Unexplored Source by Polyphosphate Accumulating Microalgae and Cyanobacteria-A Step to Phosphorus Security in Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Chandan; Chowdhury, Rajojit; Ray, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P), an essential element required for crop growth has no substitute. The global food security depends on phosphorus availability in soil for crop production. World phosphorus reserves are fast depleting and with an annual increase of 2.3% in phosphorus demand, the current reserves will be exhausted in coming 50-100 years. India and other Western countries are forced to import phosphorus fertilizers at high costs to meet their agricultural demands due to uneven distribution of phosphate rocks on earth. The present study from India, aims to draw attention to an unnoticed source of phosphorus being wasted as parboiled rice mill effluent and subsequent bio-recovery of the valuable element from this unconventional source. The research was conducted in West Bengal, India, a state with the highest number of parboiled rice mills where its effluent carries on an average ~40 mg/L of soluble phosphorus. Technology to recover and recycle this wastewater P in India in a simple, inexpensive mode is yet to be optimized. Our strategy to use microalgae, Chlorella sp. and cyanobacteria, Cyanobacterium sp., Lyngbya sp., and Anabaena sp. to sequester the excess phosphorus from the effluent as polyphosphate inclusions and its subsequent recycling as slow and moderate release phosphorus biofertilizers to aid plant growth, preventing phosphorus loss and pollution, is a contemporary venture to meet the need of the hour. These polyphosphate accumulating microorganisms play a dual role of remediation and recovery of phosphorus, preliminarily validated in laboratory scale. PMID:26733966

  7. Phosphorus Recycling from an Unexplored Source by Polyphosphate Accumulating Microalgae and Cyanobacteria—A Step to Phosphorus Security in Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Chandan; Chowdhury, Rajojit; Ray, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P), an essential element required for crop growth has no substitute. The global food security depends on phosphorus availability in soil for crop production. World phosphorus reserves are fast depleting and with an annual increase of 2.3% in phosphorus demand, the current reserves will be exhausted in coming 50–100 years. India and other Western countries are forced to import phosphorus fertilizers at high costs to meet their agricultural demands due to uneven distribution of phosphate rocks on earth. The present study from India, aims to draw attention to an unnoticed source of phosphorus being wasted as parboiled rice mill effluent and subsequent bio-recovery of the valuable element from this unconventional source. The research was conducted in West Bengal, India, a state with the highest number of parboiled rice mills where its effluent carries on an average ~40 mg/L of soluble phosphorus. Technology to recover and recycle this wastewater P in India in a simple, inexpensive mode is yet to be optimized. Our strategy to use microalgae, Chlorella sp. and cyanobacteria, Cyanobacterium sp., Lyngbya sp., and Anabaena sp. to sequester the excess phosphorus from the effluent as polyphosphate inclusions and its subsequent recycling as slow and moderate release phosphorus biofertilizers to aid plant growth, preventing phosphorus loss and pollution, is a contemporary venture to meet the need of the hour. These polyphosphate accumulating microorganisms play a dual role of remediation and recovery of phosphorus, preliminarily validated in laboratory scale. PMID:26733966

  8. Potential Impact of Dietary Choices on Phosphorus Recycling and Global Phosphorus Footprints: The Case of the Average Australian City.

    PubMed

    Metson, Geneviève S; Cordell, Dana; Ridoutt, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Changes in human diets, population increases, farming practices, and globalized food chains have led to dramatic increases in the demand for phosphorus fertilizers. Long-term food security and water quality are, however, threatened by such increased phosphorus consumption, because the world's main source, phosphate rock, is an increasingly scarce resource. At the same time, losses of phosphorus from farms and cities have caused widespread water pollution. As one of the major factors contributing to increased phosphorus demand, dietary choices can play a key role in changing our resource consumption pathway. Importantly, the effects of dietary choices on phosphorus management are twofold: First, dietary choices affect a person or region's "phosphorus footprint" - the magnitude of mined phosphate required to meet food demand. Second, dietary choices affect the magnitude of phosphorus content in human excreta and hence the recycling- and pollution-potential of phosphorus in sanitation systems. When considering options and impacts of interventions at the city scale (e.g., potential for recycling), dietary changes may be undervalued as a solution toward phosphorus sustainability. For example, in an average Australian city, a vegetable-based diet could marginally increase phosphorus in human excreta (an 8% increase). However, such a shift could simultaneously dramatically decrease the mined phosphate required to meet the city resident's annual food demand by 72%. Taking a multi-scalar perspective is therefore key to fully exploring dietary choices as one of the tools for sustainable phosphorus management. PMID:27617261

  9. Potential Impact of Dietary Choices on Phosphorus Recycling and Global Phosphorus Footprints: The Case of the Average Australian City

    PubMed Central

    Metson, Geneviève S.; Cordell, Dana; Ridoutt, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Changes in human diets, population increases, farming practices, and globalized food chains have led to dramatic increases in the demand for phosphorus fertilizers. Long-term food security and water quality are, however, threatened by such increased phosphorus consumption, because the world’s main source, phosphate rock, is an increasingly scarce resource. At the same time, losses of phosphorus from farms and cities have caused widespread water pollution. As one of the major factors contributing to increased phosphorus demand, dietary choices can play a key role in changing our resource consumption pathway. Importantly, the effects of dietary choices on phosphorus management are twofold: First, dietary choices affect a person or region’s “phosphorus footprint” – the magnitude of mined phosphate required to meet food demand. Second, dietary choices affect the magnitude of phosphorus content in human excreta and hence the recycling- and pollution-potential of phosphorus in sanitation systems. When considering options and impacts of interventions at the city scale (e.g., potential for recycling), dietary changes may be undervalued as a solution toward phosphorus sustainability. For example, in an average Australian city, a vegetable-based diet could marginally increase phosphorus in human excreta (an 8% increase). However, such a shift could simultaneously dramatically decrease the mined phosphate required to meet the city resident’s annual food demand by 72%. Taking a multi-scalar perspective is therefore key to fully exploring dietary choices as one of the tools for sustainable phosphorus management. PMID:27617261

  10. Application of nitrogen and phosphorus criteria for streams in agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Chambers, P A; Benoy, G A; Brua, R B; Culp, J M

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to control eutrophication of water resources in agriculturally dominated ecosystems have focused on managing on-farm activities to reduce nutrient loss; however, another management measure for improving water quality is adoption of environmental performance criteria (or 'outcome-based standards'). Here, we review approaches for setting environmental quality criteria for nutrients, summarize approaches developed in Canada for setting 'ideal' and 'achievable' nutrient criteria for streams in agricultural watersheds, and consider how such criteria could be applied. As part of a 'National Agri-Environmental Standards Initiative', the Government of Canada committed to the development of non-regulatory environmental performance standards that establish total P (TP) and total N (TN) concentrations to protect ecological condition of agricultural streams. Application of four approaches for defining ideal standards using only chemistry data resulted in values for TP and TN spanning a relatively narrow range of concentrations within a given ecoregion. Cross-calibration of these chemically derived standards with information on biological condition resulted in recommendations for TP and TN that would likely protect aquatic life from adverse effects of eutrophication. Non-point source water quality modelling was then conducted in a specific watershed to estimate achievable standards, i.e. chemical conditions that could be attained using currently available and recommended management practices. Our research showed that, taken together, short-term achievable standards and ultimate ideal standards could be used to set policy targets that should, if realized, lower N and P concentrations in Canadian agricultural streams and improve biotic condition. PMID:22156121

  11. Nitrification and N2O production processes in soil incubations after ammonium fertilizer application at high concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deppe, Marianna; Well, Reinhard; Giesemann, Anette; Flessa, Heinz

    2016-04-01

    High concentrations of ammonium as they occur, e.g., after point-injection of ammonium fertilizer solution according to the CULTAN fertilization technique may retard nitrification. Potential advantages in comparison to conventional fertilization include a higher N efficiency of crops, reduced nitrate leaching, and lower N2O and N2 emissions. Dynamics of nitrification due to plant uptake and dilution processes, leading to decreasing ammonium concentrations in fertilizer depots, has only poorly been studied before. Furthermore, there is little information about the relative contribution of different N2O production processes under these conditions. To elucidate the process dynamics a laboratory incubation study was conducted. After fertilization with ammonium sulfate at 5 levels (from 0 to 5000 mg NH4+-N kg‑1; 20mg NO3‑-N kg‑1 each), sandy loam soil was incubated in dynamic soil microcosms for 21 days. N2O, CH4 and CO2 fluxes as well as isotope signatures of N2O and, at three dates, NO3‑ and NH4+ were measured. To identify N2O production processes, acetylene inhibition (0.01 vol.%), 15N tracer approaches, and isotopomer data (15N site preference and δ18O) were used. N2O emissions were highest at 450mg NH4+-N kg‑1 and declined with further increasing concentrations. At 5000 mg NH4+-N kg‑1 nitrification was completely inhibited. However, approximately 90% of N2O production was inhibited by acetylene application, and there was no change in the relative contribution of nitrification and denitrification to N2O production with N level. Applying the non-equilibrium technique to our 15N tracer data revealed heterogeneous distribution of denitrification in soil, with at least two distinct NO3‑ pools, and spatial separation of NO3‑ formation and consumption. In comparison with the acetylene inhibition and 15N tracer approaches the results of the isotopomer approach were reasonable and indicated substantial contribution of nitrifier-denitrification (10-40%) to

  12. Multifunctional Environmental Smart Fertilizer Based on l-Aspartic Acid for Sustained Nutrient Release.

    PubMed

    Lü, Shaoyu; Feng, Chen; Gao, Chunmei; Wang, Xinggang; Xu, Xiubin; Bai, Xiao; Gao, Nannan; Liu, Mingzhu

    2016-06-22

    Fertilizer is one of the most important elements of modern agriculture. However, conventional fertilizer, when applied to crops, is vulnerable to losses through volatilization, leaching, nitrification, or other means. Such a loss limits crop yields and pollutes the environment. In an effort to enhance nutrient use efficiency and reduce environmental pollution, an environmental smart fertilizer was reported in the current study. Poly(aspartic acid) and a degradable macro-cross-linker based on l-aspartic acid were synthesized and introduced into the fertilizer as a superabsorbent to improve the fertilizer degradability and soil moisture-retention capacity. Sustained release behavior of the fertilizer was achieved in soil. Cumulative release of nitrogen and phosphorus was 79.8% and 64.4% after 30 days, respectively. The water-holding and water-retention capacities of soil with the superabsorbent are obviously higher than those of the control soil without superabsorbent. For the sample of 200 g of soil with 1.5 g of superabsorbent, the water-holding capacity is 81.8%, and the water-retention capacity remains 22.6% after 23 days. All of the current results in this study indicated that the as-prepared fertilizer has a promising application in sustainable modern agriculture. PMID:27244106

  13. Quantifying cradle-to-farm gate life-cycle impacts associated with fertilizer used for corn, soybean, and stover production

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, Susan E.

    2005-05-01

    Fertilizer use can cause environmental problems, particularly eutrophication of water bodies from excess nitrogen or phosphorus. Increased fertilizer runoff is a concern for harvesting corn stover for ethanol production.

  14. ESTIMATING SURFACE RUNOFF LOSS OF DISSOLVED PHOSPHORUS FROM MANURE APPLICATIONS TO CROPLAND FOR THE WISCONSIN PHOSPHOROUS INDEX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Wisconsin Phosphorus (P) Index is a field-level runoff P loss risk assessment tool for evaluating agricultural management practices. It assigns an annual risk ranking to a field by estimating annual sediment-bound and dissolved P losses to the nearest surface water. On cropland with no recent ma...

  15. Runoff phosphorus in a small rotationally-grazed pasture in Georgia with no history of broiler litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pastures are sources of phosphorus (P) into water sources and can contribute to eutrophication and impairment. Close to 4 million ha of land in the Southern Coastal Plain and the Southern Piedmont in eastern USA is used for pasture and hay production. We present an 11-yr (1999 to 2009) of dissolved ...

  16. N2O emissions due to nitrogen fertilizer applications in two regions of sugarcane cultivation in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signor, D.; Cerri, C. E. P.; Conant, R.

    2013-03-01

    Among the main greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O), N2O has the highest global warming potential. N2O emission is mainly connected to agricultural activities, increasing as nitrogen concentrations increase in the soil with nitrogen fertilizer application. We evaluated N2O emissions due to application of increasing doses of ammonium nitrate and urea in two sugarcane fields in the mid-southern region of Brazil: Piracicaba (São Paulo state) and Goianésia (Goiás state). In Piracicaba, N2O emissions exponentially increased with increasing N doses and were similar for urea and ammonium nitrate up to a dose of 107.9 kg ha-1 of N. From there on, emissions exponentially increased for ammonium nitrate, whereas for urea they stabilized. In Goianésia, N2O emissions were lower, although the behavior was similar to that at the Piracicaba site. Ammonium nitrate emissions increased linearly with N dose and urea emissions were adjusted to a quadratic equation with a maximum amount of 113.9 kg N ha-1. This first effort to measure fertilizer induced emissions in Brazilian sugarcane production not only helps to elucidate the behavior of N2O emissions promoted by different N sources frequently used in Brazilian sugarcane fields but also can be useful for future Brazilian ethanol carbon footprint studies.

  17. Estimating NH3 emissions from agricultural fertilizer application in China using the bi-directional CMAQ model coupled to an agro-ecosystem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, X.; Wang, S. X.; Ran, L. M.; Pleim, J. E.; Cooter, E.; Bash, J. O.; Benson, V.; Hao, J. M.

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) plays an important role in atmospheric aerosol chemistry. China is one of the largest NH3 emitting countries with the majority of NH3 emissions coming from agricultural practices, such as fertilizer application and livestock production. The current NH3 emission estimates in China are mainly based on pre-defined emission factors that lack temporal or spatial details, which are needed to accurately predict NH3 emissions. This study provides the first online estimate of NH3 emissions from agricultural fertilizer application in China, using an agricultural fertilizer modeling system which couples a regional air quality model (the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model, or CMAQ) and an agro-ecosystem model (the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model, or EPIC). This method improves the spatial and temporal resolution of NH3 emissions from this sector. We combined the cropland area data of 14 crops from 2710 counties with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land use data to determine the crop distribution. The fertilizer application rates and methods for different crops were collected at provincial or agricultural region levels. The EPIC outputs of daily fertilizer application and soil characteristics were input into the CMAQ model and the hourly NH3 emissions were calculated online with CMAQ running. The estimated agricultural fertilizer NH3 emissions in this study were approximately 3 Tg in 2011. The regions with the highest modeled emission rates are located in the North China Plain. Seasonally, peak ammonia emissions occur from April to July. Compared with previous researches, this study considers an increased number of influencing factors, such as meteorological fields, soil and fertilizer application, and provides improved NH3 emissions with higher spatial and temporal resolution.

  18. Effects of white phosphorus on mallard reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vann, S.I.; Sparling, D.W.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Extensive waterfowl mortality involving thousands of ducks, geese, and swans has occurred annually at Eagle River Flats, Alaska since at least 1982. The primary agent for this mortality has been identified as white phosphorus. Although acute and subacute lethality have been described, sublethal effects are less well known. This study reports on the effects of white phosphorus on reproductive function in the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) in captivity. Fertility, hatching success, teratogenicity, and egg laying frequency were examined in 70 adult female mallards who received up to 7 daily doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg of white phosphorus. Measurements of fertility and hatchability were reduced by the white phosphorus. Teratogenic effects were observed in embryos from hens dosed at all treatment levels. Egg laying frequency was reduced even at the lowest treatment level; treated hens required a greater number of days to lay a clutch of 12 eggs than control hens. After two doses at 2.0 mg/kg, all females stopped laying completely for a minimum of 10 days and laying frequency was depressed for at least 45 days. Fertility of 10 adult male mallards dosed with 1.0 mg/kg of white phosphorus did not differ from 10 controls, but plasma testosterone levels were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in the treated males 1 day after dosing ended. These results provide evidence that productivity of free-ranging mallards may be impaired if they are exposed to white phosphorus at typical field levels.

  19. The dissipation of phosphorus in sewage and sewage effluents.

    PubMed

    Collingwood, R W

    Of the 41 kt of phosphorus reaching the sewage works in England and Wales 15 kt is removed in sewage sludge and the remainder is disposed of to rivers. 60% of the sewage sludge is now used as fertilizer and this proportion will no doubt increase in the future. The total use of sewage sludge, however, represents only about 5% of the current annual usage of artificial phosphorus fertilizer. At present there is no general economic incentive to make better use of the phosphorus in effluents. Phosphorus removal is expensive--about 2--3 pence/m3. If all the sewage effluents in England and Wales were to be so treated the cost would be about 100--150 million pounds annually, that is about 50% of the present costs of sewage treatment. In certain cases, but rarely in the UK, phosphate is removed, not to conserve phosphorus but to minimize the problems it creates in the environment. The phosphorus removed has little value as fertilizer. Alternative methods of using the phosphorus in effluents by the production and harvesting of crops of algae or aquatic plants have so far proved uneconomic. However, these methods need to be reviewed periodically as they may in the future become economically more attractive, especially in warmer climates where plant growth can be maintained throughout the year. PMID:357121

  20. Long-term accumulation and transport of anthropogenic phosphorus in three river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Stephen M.; Bruulsema, Thomas W.; Burt, Tim P.; Chan, Neng Iong; Elser, James J.; Haygarth, Philip M.; Howden, Nicholas J. K.; Jarvie, Helen P.; Lyu, Yang; Peterson, Heidi M.; Sharpley, Andrew N.; Shen, Jianbo; Worrall, Fred; Zhang, Fusuo

    2016-05-01

    Global food production depends on phosphorus. Phosphorus is broadly applied as fertilizer, but excess phosphorus contributes to eutrophication of surface water bodies and coastal ecosystems. Here we present an analysis of phosphorus fluxes in three large river basins, including published data on fertilizer, harvested crops, sewage, food waste and river fluxes. Our analyses reveal that the magnitude of phosphorus accumulation has varied greatly over the past 30-70 years in mixed agricultural-urban landscapes of the Thames Basin, UK, the Yangtze Basin, China, and the rural Maumee Basin, USA. Fluxes of phosphorus in fertilizer, harvested crops, food waste and sewage dominate over the river fluxes. Since the late 1990s, net exports from the Thames and Maumee Basins have exceeded inputs, suggesting net mobilization of the phosphorus pool accumulated in earlier decades. In contrast, the Yangtze Basin has consistently accumulated phosphorus since 1980. Infrastructure modifications such as sewage treatment and dams may explain more recent declines in total phosphorus fluxes from the Thames and Yangtze Rivers. We conclude that human-dominated river basins may undergo a prolonged but finite accumulation phase when phosphorus inputs exceed agricultural demand, and this accumulated phosphorus may continue to mobilize long after inputs decline.

  1. Residual soil phosphorus as the missing piece in the global phosphorus crisis puzzle.

    PubMed

    Sattari, Sheida Z; Bouwman, Alexander F; Giller, Ken E; van Ittersum, Martin K

    2012-04-17

    Phosphorus (P) is a finite and dwindling resource. Debate focuses on current production and use of phosphate rock rather than on the amounts of P required in the future to feed the world. We applied a two-pool soil P model to reproduce historical continental crop P uptake as a function of P inputs from fertilizer and manure and to estimate P requirements for crop production in 2050. The key feature is the consideration of the role of residual soil P in crop production. Model simulations closely fit historical P uptake for all continents. Cumulative inputs of P fertilizer and manure for the period 1965-2007 in Europe (1,115 kg . ha(-1) of cropland) grossly exceeded the cumulative P uptake by crops (360 kg ha(-1)). Since the 1980s in much of Europe, P application rates have been reduced, and uptake continues to increase due to the supply of plant-available P from residual soil P pool. We estimate that between 2008 and 2050 a global cumulative P application of 700-790 kg . ha(-1) of cropland (in total 1,070-1,200 teragrams P) is required to achieve crop production according to the various Millennium Ecosystem Assessment scenarios [Alcamo J, Van Vuuren D, Cramer W (2006) Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Scenarios, Vol 2, pp 279-354]. We estimate that average global P fertilizer use must change from the current 17.8 to 16.8-20.8 teragrams per year in 2050, which is up to 50% less than other estimates in the literature that ignore the role of residual soil P. PMID:22431593

  2. Carbon Balance in an Irrigated Corn Field after Inorganic Fertilizer or Manure Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentz, R. D.; Lehrsch, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about inorganic fertilizer or manure effects on organic carbon (OC) and inorganic C (IC) losses from a furrow irrigated field, particularly in the context of other system C gains or losses. In 2003 and 2004, we measured dissolved organic and inorganic C (DOC, DIC), particulate OC and IC (POC, PIC) concentrations in irrigation inflow, runoff, and percolation waters (6-7 irrigations/y); C inputs from soil amendments and crop biomass; harvested C; and gaseous C emissions from field plots cropped to silage corn (Zea mays L.) in southern Idaho. Annual treatments included: (M) 13 (y 1) and 34 Mg/ha (y 2) stockpiled dairy manure; (F) 78 (yr 1) and 195 kg N/ha (y 2) inorganic N fertilizer; or (NA) no amendment--control. The mean annual total C input into M plots averaged 16.1 Mg/ha, 1.4-times greater than that for NA (11.5 Mg/ha) or F (11.1 Mg/ha), while total C outputs for the three treatments were similar, averaging 11.8 Mg/ha. Thus, the manure plots ended each growing season with an average net gain of 3.8 Mg C/ha (a positive net C flux), while the control (-0.5 Mg C/ha) and fertilizer (-0.4 Mg C/ha) treatments finished the season with a net C loss. Atmospheric CO2 incorporated into the crop biomass contributed 96% of the mean annual C input to NA and F plots but only 68% to M plots. We conclude that nutrient amendments substantially influence the short-term carbon balance of our furrow-irrigated system. Amendments had both direct and indirect influences on individual C components, such as the losses of DIC and POC in runoff and DOC in percolation water, producing temporally complex outcomes which may depend on environmental conditions external to the field.

  3. Quantifying Uncertainty in Daily Temporal Variations of Atmospheric NH3 Emissions Following Application of Chemical Fertilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, S.; Koloutsou-Vakakis, S.; Rood, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Improving modeling predictions of atmospheric particulate matter and deposition of reactive nitrogen requires representative emission inventories of precursor species, such as ammonia (NH3). Anthropogenic NH3 is primarily emitted to the atmosphere from agricultural sources (80-90%) with dominant contributions (56%) from chemical fertilizer usage (CFU) in regions like Midwest USA. Local crop management practices vary spatially and temporally, which influence regional air quality. To model the impact of CFU, NH3 emission inputs to chemical transport models are obtained from the National Emission Inventory (NEI). NH3 emissions from CFU are typically estimated by combining annual fertilizer sales data with emission factors. The Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) model is used to disaggregate annual emissions to hourly scale using temporal factors. These factors are estimated by apportioning emissions within each crop season in proportion to the nitrogen applied and time-averaged to the hourly scale. Such approach does not reflect influence of CFU for different crops and local weather and soil conditions. This study provides an alternate approach for estimating temporal factors for NH3 emissions. The DeNitrification DeComposition (DNDC) model was used to estimate daily variations in NH3 emissions from CFU at 14 Central Illinois locations for 2002-2011. Weather, crop and soil data were provided as inputs. A method was developed to estimate site level CFU by combining planting and harvesting dates, nitrogen management and fertilizer sales data. DNDC results indicated that annual NH3 emissions were within ±15% of SMOKE estimates. Daily modeled emissions across 10 years followed similar distributions but varied in magnitudes within ±20%. Individual emission peaks on days after CFU were 2.5-8 times greater as compared to existing estimates from SMOKE. By identifying the episodic nature of NH3 emissions from CFU, this study is expected to provide improvements

  4. Comparative effects of nitrogen fertigation and granular fertilizer application on growth and availability of soil nitrogen during establishment of highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 2-year study was done to compare the effects of nitrogen (N) fertigation and granular fertilizer application on growth and availability of soil N during establishment of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. ‘Bluecrop’). Treatments included four methods of N application (split fertigation, ...

  5. Commercial-scale out-of-season cryopreservation of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) sperm and its application for fertilization.

    PubMed

    Bernáth, G; Bokor, Z; Żarski, D; Várkonyi, L; Hegyi, Á; Staszny, Á; Urbányi, B; Radóczi Ifj, J; Horváth, Á

    2016-07-01

    The quality and fertilizing capacity of perch (Perca fluviatilis) sperm collected outside of the spawning season (off-season) and cryopreserved at a commercial scale, were tested. Basic parameters (equilibration time, dilution ratio, sperm concentration, post-thaw motility duration) which can have a significant effect on cryopreservation success were systematically investigated for effects on sperm quality using computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA). No significant decrease in progressive motility (pMOT) and straightness (STR) of fresh-diluted sperm was recorded among groups equilibrated for 0, 30 or 60min in an extender with cryoprotectants. Curvilinear velocity (VCL) was reduced significantly after 30min (30min: 146±15μm/s, 60min: 124±18μm/s) of equilibration compared to the control (174±9μm/s). After thawing, no decrease in pMOT or VCL was observed at different equilibration times in any of the analyzed groups. No correlation was observed among progressive motility, dilution ratios (p=0.7) and cell concentrations (p=0.1). The use of different activating solutions resulted in similar pMOT and VCL in the first 120s post-thaw. Nevertheless, post-thaw sperm motility was reduced after 30s using all activators. Motility parameters with low variation were recorded after thawing of 57 straws (pMOT: 37±7%, VCL: 92±10μm/s, STR: 89±3%). Ten randomly selected straws from commercial-scale cryopreservation resulted in a high fertilization rate (cryopreserved sperm: 72±14%, fresh control: 94±2%). An optimized commercial-scale cryopreservation protocol was successfully developed for Eurasian perch. The applicability of the off-season collected perch sperm for cryopreservation and fertilization was demonstrated. PMID:27236377

  6. Effects of fertilizer application and dry/wet processing of Miscanthus x giganteus on bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Boakye-Boaten, Nana Abayie; Xiu, Shuangning; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Wang, Lijun; Li, Rui; Mims, Michelle; Schimmel, Keith

    2016-03-01

    The effects of wet and dry processing of miscanthus on bioethanol production using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process were investigated, with wet samples showing higher ethanol yields than dry samples. Miscanthus grown with no fertilizer, with fertilizer and with swine manure were sampled for analysis. Wet-fractionation was used to separate miscanthus into solid and liquid fractions. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment was employed and the SSF process was performed with saccharomyces cerevisiae and a cocktail of enzymes at 35°C. After pretreatment, cellulose compositions of biomass of the wet samples increased from 61.0-67.0% to 77.0-87.0%, which were higher than the compositions of dry samples. The highest theoretical ethanol yield of 88.0% was realized for wet processed pretreated miscanthus, grown with swine manure. Changes to the morphology and chemical composition of the biomass samples after pretreatment, such as crystallinity reduction, were observed using SEM and FTIR. These changes improved ethanol production. PMID:26773953

  7. The effect of long-term fertilizer application on the group and fractional composition of humus in a soddy-podzolic light loamy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapa, V. V.; Seraya, T. M.; Bogatyreva, E. N.; Biryukova, O. M.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of lime and organic and mineral fertilizers on the fractional and group composition of the humus in a light loamy soddy-podzolic soil was studied in a long-term experiment. The application of lime increased the content of the agronomically valuable fraction of humic acids (HA-2) by 2.6 times on the average. The application of mineral fertilizers at the rate of N83P61K112 (kg/ha per year) increased the mobility of the humic substances; the application of farmyard manure (12.5 t/ha per) has an opposite effect. In general, various fertilizer systems exerted a favorable effect on the qualitative composition of the humus with an increase in the percentage of humic acids, though the humate-fulvate type of humus was preserved in all the variants of the experiment.

  8. Comparative Effects of Nitrogen Fertigation and Granular Fertilizer Application on Growth and Availability of Soil Nitrogen during Establishment of Highbush Blueberry

    PubMed Central

    Bryla, David R.; Machado, Rui M. A.

    2011-01-01

    A 2-year study was done to compare the effects of nitrogen (N) fertigation and granular fertilizer application on growth and availability of soil N during establishment of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. “Bluecrop”). Treatments included four methods of N application (weekly fertigation, split fertigation, and two non-fertigated controls) and four levels of N fertilizer (0, 50, 100, and 150 kg·ha−1 N). Fertigation treatments were irrigated by drip and injected with a liquid urea solution; weekly fertigation was applied once a week from leaf emergence to 60 d prior to the end of the season while split fertigation was applied as a triple-split from April to June. Non-fertigated controls were fertilized with granular ammonium sulfate, also applied as a triple-split, and irrigated by drip or microsprinklers. Weekly fertigation produced the smallest plants among the four fertilizer application methods at 50 kg·ha−1 N during the first year after planting but the largest plants at 150 kg·ha−1 N in both the first and second year. The other application methods required less N to maximize growth but were less responsive than weekly fertigation to additional N fertilizer applications. In fact, 44–50% of the plants died when granular fertilizer was applied at 150 kg·ha−1 N. By comparison, none of the plants died with weekly fertigation. Plant death with granular fertilizer was associated with high ammonium ion concentrations (up to 650 mg·L−1) and electrical conductivity (>3 dS·m−1) in the soil solution. Early results indicate that fertigation may be less efficient (i.e., less plant growth per unit of N applied) at lower N rates than granular fertilizer application but is also safer (i.e., less plant death) and promotes more growth when high amounts of N fertilizer is applied. PMID:22639596

  9. [Effects of different fertilization ways on the contents of N, P, K in new shoots and photo- biological characters of tea tree].

    PubMed

    Luo, Fan; Zhang, Ting; Gong, Xue-jiao; Du, Xiao; Ma, Wei-wei

    2014-12-01

    The variety of the contents of N, P, K and photo-biological characters in a bud and two leaves tea tree new shoots were determined to investigate the effects of different fertilization ways, i.e., single or combined N, P, K fertilizer. The regression equations of net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of tea tree in spring, summer and autumn were set up by stepwise regression analysis. The results showed that fertilization ways significantly affected the contents of N, P, K in new shoot. In the same fertilization ways, the contents of N, P in the new shoot was less in summer and autumn than in spring, but the content of K was in contrast. Combined application of N, P and K fertilizer improved Pn of the tea trees in spring. Single application of P fertilizer inhibited the Pn of the tea trees in summer and autumn, while single application of N fertilizer significantly improved it. In the same fertilization ways, the Pn of the tea trees in summer and autumn was higher than in spring. The stomatal conductance (g(s)) and transpiration rate (T(r)) had positive correlations to P, in summer and autumn. Regression and correlation analysis showed that the physiological factors affecting Pn of the tea trees varied with seasons, and the common factors were the Ci and the content of P. Ci had some subduction to Pn, and it was improved by the content of phosphorus. PMID:25876400

  10. Applicability and limitations of enzyme addition assays for the characterisation of soil organic phosphorus across a range of soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosch, Klaus; Doolette, Ashlea; Smernik, Ronald; Frossard, Emmanuel; Bünemann, Else K.

    2014-05-01

    -like P (10 - 47%) and DNA-like P (0 - 15%). The four soil organic P classes detected by either 31P NMR spectroscopy or enzyme addition assays were well correlated with each other (R2 0.93 - 0.99). In soil:water filtrates, 0.1 - 4.1 mg enzyme-labile P kg-1 soil were detected, which consisted mainly of inositol phosphate-like P. In some soils, a low absolute amount of water-soluble organic P hindered a more detailed characterisation. In soil:water suspensions, enzyme-labile organic P ranged from 4.3 - 12.6 mg P kg-1 soil. However, the enzyme addition assay was only applicable on three soils, since in the other soils i) added enzymes were partly inhibited in soil:water suspensions and ii) the hydrolysis of organic P classes by soil intrinsic enzymes could not be accounted for. In conclusion, enzyme addition assays appear to be a promising approach for a rapid determination of four main soil organic P classes in NaOH-EDTA extracts. Especially the small amount of required sample size (< 1ml) and the relatively simple instrumentation facilitate a rapid and cheap analysis on these extracts. Application of this method is also possible on soil:water filtrates, but low amounts of organic P may hinder detailed analysis. Key words: soil organic phosphorus characterisation, enzyme addition assays, 31P NMR spectroscopy, soil suspensions, soil filtrate

  11. Influence of water management and fertilizer application on (137)Cs and (133)Cs uptake in paddy rice fields.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Shokichi; Itoh, Sumio; Kihou, Nobuharu; Matsunami, Hisaya; Hachinohe, Mayumi; Hamamatsu, Shioka; Takahashi, Shigeru

    2016-06-01

    Cesium-137 derived from the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident contaminated large areas of agricultural land in Eastern Japan. Previous studies before the accident have indicated that flooding enhances radiocesium uptake in rice fields. We investigated the influence of water management in combination with fertilizers on (137)Cs concentrations in rice plants at two fields in southern Ibaraki Prefecture. Stable Cs ((133)Cs) in the plants was also determined as an analogue for predicting (137)Cs behavior after long-term aging of soil (137)Cs. The experimental periods comprised 3 y starting from 2012 in one field, and 2 y from 2013 in another field. These fields were divided into three water management sections: a long-flooding section without midsummer drainage, and medial-flooding, and short-flooding sections with one- or two-week midsummer drainage and earlier end of flooding than the long-flooding section. Six or four types of fertilizer subsections (most differing only in potassium application) were nested in each water management section. Generally, the long-flooding treatment led to higher (137)Cs and (133)Cs concentrations in both straw and brown rice than medial- and short-flooding treatments, although there were some notable exceptions in the first experimental year at each site. Effects of differing potassium fertilizer treatments were cumulative; the effects on (137)Cs and (133)Cs concentrations in rice plants were not obvious in 2012 and 2013, but in 2014, these concentrations were highest where potassium fertilizer had been absent and lowest where basal dressings of K had been tripled. The relationship between (137)Cs and (133)Cs in rice plants was not correlative in the first experimental year at each site, but correlation became evident in the subsequent year(s). This study demonstrates a novel finding that omitting midsummer drainage and/or delaying drainage during the grain-filling period enhances

  12. Phosphorus from wastewater to crops: An alternative path involving microalgae.

    PubMed

    Solovchenko, Alexei; Verschoor, Antonie M; Jablonowski, Nicolai D; Nedbal, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a non-renewable resource, a major plant nutrient that is essential for modern agriculture. Currently, global food and feed production depends on P extracted from finite phosphate rock reserves mainly confined to a small number of countries. P limitation and its potential socio-economic impact may well exceed the potential effects of fossil fuel scarcity. The efficiency of P usage today barely reaches 20%, with the remaining 80% ending up in wastewater or in surface waters as runoff from fields. When recovered from wastewater, either chemically or biologically, P is often present in a form that does not meet specifications for agricultural use. As an alternative, the potential of microalgae to accumulate large quantities of P can be a way to direct this resource back to crop plants. Algae can acquire and store P through luxury uptake, and the P enriched algal biomass can be used as bio-fertilizer. Technology of large-scale algae cultivation has made tremendous progress in the last decades, stimulated by perspectives of obtaining third generation biofuels without requiring arable land or fresh water. These new cultivation technologies can be used for solar-driven recycling of P and other nutrients from wastewater into algae-based bio-fertilizers. In this paper, we review the specifics of P uptake from nutrient-rich waste streams, paying special attention to luxury uptake by microalgal cells and the potential application of P-enriched algal biomass to fertilize crop soils. PMID:26795876

  13. Nanomaterials in plant protection and fertilization: current state, foreseen applications, and research priorities.

    PubMed

    Gogos, Alexander; Knauer, Katja; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2012-10-01

    Scientific publications and patents on nanomaterials (NM) used in plant protection or fertilizer products have exponentially increased since the millennium shift. While the United States and Germany have published the highest number of patents, Asian countries released most scientific articles. About 40% of all contributions deal with carbon-based NM, followed by titanium dioxide, silver, silica, and alumina. Nanomaterials come in many diverse forms (surprisingly often ≫100 nm), from solid doped particles to (often nonpersistent) polymer and oil-water based structures. Nanomaterials serve equally as additives (mostly for controlled release) and active constituents. Product efficiencies possibly increased by NM should be balanced against enhanced environmental NM input fluxes. The dynamic development in research and its considerable public perception are in contrast with the currently still very small number of NM-containing products on the market. Nanorisk assessment and legislation are largely in their infancies. PMID:22963545

  14. Phosphorus Retention Models for Tennessee Valley Authority Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, John M.; Kim, Byung R.

    1981-06-01

    Data for the 18 largest Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) reservoirs are compared with previously developed models for predicting steady state phosphorus concentrations in lakes. A plug flow model is presented for lakes and reservoirs which have significant longitudinal variation in phosphorus concentration. The results indicate that phosphorus sedimentation and retention coefficients developed for natural lakes are not directly applicable to TVA reservoirs. The apparent settling velocity of phosphorus in TVA reservoirs was substantially higher than previously reported values for natural lakes. Application of the plug flow model to Cherokee Reservoir showed good agreement with measured in-lake phosphorus concentrations.

  15. Bioremediation with oleophilic fertilizer

    SciTech Connect

    Basseres, A.; Ladousse, A.

    1993-12-31

    To enhance hydrocarbon breakdown by indigenous microbial communities, a fertilizer formulation that would keep nutrients in contact with oil, was designed ten years ago by ELF AQUITAINE. The fertilizer known as INIPOL EAP 22 is an oil soluble additive but also an easily biodegradable carbon source (oleic acid). Numerous experiments, in both laboratory and field, have shown that the application of this fertilizer increases the number of hydrocarbon degrading organisms and the extent and rate of hydrocarbon biodegradation Laboratory experiments with radiolabelled hydrocarbons have shown that in addition to its physico chemical role, oleic acid acts as a biological starter, increasing the biomass and the rate of biodegradation. A large bioremediation project in ALASKA has shown that it its possible to enhance the biodegradation of oil through the application of such a fertilizer, on coarse sediments. Recently, on sandy sediments, the use of INIPOL EAP 22 shown a clear development in hydrocarbon specific bacteria, and an increase of the rate of biodegradation.

  16. Phosphorus and carbon competitive sorption-desorption and associated non-point loss respond to natural rainfall events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yang; Zhu, Bo; He, Nianpeng; Yu, Guirui; Wang, Tao; Chen, Weiliang; Tian, Jing

    2014-09-01

    Long-term application of fertilizer or manure can increase the potential for P loss risk to ground and surface waters due to C and P competitive sorption-desorption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term agricultural fertilizer application on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved total phosphorus (DTP) loss. The study was conducted at the Yanting Agro-Ecological Experimental Station in Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China, during the 2012 rainy season. The results show that the variations in C and P leaching effects in fertilized soils exposed to natural rainfall events. As expected, application of inorganic and organic fertilizers increases DOC and DTP concentrations in soil and decreases the C:P ratio. Similarly, application of inorganic and organic fertilizers results in greater C and P leaching than that seen in unfertilized soils. The DOC flux was higher in subsurface runoff than in overland flow. In contrast, overland flow was the main pathway for P transport; subsurface runoff accounted for a smaller proportion of the total P transport. The increase of DOC and DTP was higher after use of organic manures than after treatment with inorganic fertilizers. DOC derived from surface-applied organic manures was found to leach at higher rates than that seen for DTP derived from the same source. However, organic manure-derived DOC was found to transport from soil prior to P, when they are surface-applied, demonstrating a higher sorption affinity of P over DOC compared to inorganic fertilization. Therefore, we should pay more attention to the P mobilized through long-term fertilization and enhance the P uptake due to C and P competitive sorption-desorption, and avoid potential leaching loss of P during rainfall process.

  17. Assessment of fertilizer potential of the struvite produced from the treatment of methanogenic landfill leachate using low-cost reagents.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Alessio

    2016-03-01

    Leachates generated in methanogenic landfills contain high strength of ammonium nitrogen which removal is hard to be accomplished by means of conventional techniques. The chemical precipitation of struvite, which is a mineral that could be reused as a slow-release fertilizer, is an effective process in the removal and recovery of NH4 amount of high-concentrated wastewaters. In this paper, a struvite precipitation process using unconventional reagents is proposed for a sustainable recovery of nitrogen content. In particular, seawater bittern, a by-product of marine salt manufacturing, and bone meal, a by-product of the thermal treatment of meat waste, have been used as low-cost sources of magnesium and phosphorus, respectively. The process enables the removal of more than 98 % ammonia load, the recovery about 99 and 95 % of phosphorus and magnesium, respectively, and the production of a precipitate containing struvite crystals. Heavy metals concentrations of produced precipitate were below the threshold values specified by the EC Directive for use of sewage sludges as fertilizers. Specific agronomic tests were conducted to investigate the fertilizing value of precipitate recovered from landfill leachate. The fertilizing effect of struvite deposit in cultivating Spinacia oleracea was compared with that of vegetable soil and commercial fertilizer. The growth of selected vegetable in the pots with struvite precipitate resulted significantly greater in both than those in the control pots and in the pots with the complex fertilizer. Furthermore, the struvite application as fertilizer did not result in more heavy metals in the vegetables respect those from soil and model fertilizer. PMID:26604197

  18. Engineered biochar reclaiming phosphate from aqueous solutions: mechanisms and potential application as a slow-release fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ying; Gao, Bin; Chen, Jianjun; Yang, Liuyan

    2013-08-01

    This work explored the potential application of an engineered biochar prepared from Mg-enriched tomato tissues to reclaim and reuse phosphate (P) from aqueous solution. Findings from batch sorption experiments suggested that, although sorption of P on the biochar was controlled by relatively slow kinetics, the maximum P sorption capacity of the biochar could reach >100 mg·g(-1). Mathematical modeling and postsorption characterization results indicated that the sorption was mainly controlled by two mechanisms: precipitation of P through chemical reaction with Mg particles and surface deposition of P on Mg crystals on biochar surfaces. Most of the P retained in the engineered biochar was bioavailable and could be released equally at multiple successive extractions. In addition, the P-laden biochar significantly stimulated grass seed germination and growth. These results suggested the postsorption biochar can be cycled back directly to soils as an effective slow-release P-fertilizer. PMID:23848524

  19. Edge phonons in black phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, H. B.; Villegas, C. E. P.; Bahamon, D. A.; Muraca, D.; Castro Neto, A. H.; de Souza, E. A. T.; Rocha, A. R.; Pimenta, M. A.; de Matos, C. J. S.

    2016-07-01

    Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new layered crystal that, due to its peculiar and anisotropic crystalline and electronic band structures, may have important applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Despite the fact that the edges of layered crystals host a range of singular properties whose characterization and exploitation are of utmost importance for device development, the edges of black phosphorus remain poorly characterized. In this work, the atomic structure and behaviour of phonons near different black phosphorus edges are experimentally and theoretically studied using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Polarized Raman results show the appearance of new modes at the edges of the sample, and their spectra depend on the atomic structure of the edges (zigzag or armchair). Theoretical simulations confirm that the new modes are due to edge phonon states that are forbidden in the bulk, and originated from the lattice termination rearrangements.

  20. Edge phonons in black phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, H B; Villegas, C E P; Bahamon, D A; Muraca, D; Castro Neto, A H; de Souza, E A T; Rocha, A R; Pimenta, M A; de Matos, C J S

    2016-01-01

    Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new layered crystal that, due to its peculiar and anisotropic crystalline and electronic band structures, may have important applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Despite the fact that the edges of layered crystals host a range of singular properties whose characterization and exploitation are of utmost importance for device development, the edges of black phosphorus remain poorly characterized. In this work, the atomic structure and behaviour of phonons near different black phosphorus edges are experimentally and theoretically studied using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Polarized Raman results show the appearance of new modes at the edges of the sample, and their spectra depend on the atomic structure of the edges (zigzag or armchair). Theoretical simulations confirm that the new modes are due to edge phonon states that are forbidden in the bulk, and originated from the lattice termination rearrangements. PMID:27412813

  1. Edge phonons in black phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, H. B.; Villegas, C. E. P.; Bahamon, D. A.; Muraca, D.; Castro Neto, A. H.; de Souza, E. A. T.; Rocha, A. R.; Pimenta, M. A.; de Matos, C. J. S.

    2016-01-01

    Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new layered crystal that, due to its peculiar and anisotropic crystalline and electronic band structures, may have important applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Despite the fact that the edges of layered crystals host a range of singular properties whose characterization and exploitation are of utmost importance for device development, the edges of black phosphorus remain poorly characterized. In this work, the atomic structure and behaviour of phonons near different black phosphorus edges are experimentally and theoretically studied using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Polarized Raman results show the appearance of new modes at the edges of the sample, and their spectra depend on the atomic structure of the edges (zigzag or armchair). Theoretical simulations confirm that the new modes are due to edge phonon states that are forbidden in the bulk, and originated from the lattice termination rearrangements. PMID:27412813

  2. Effect of Fertilization on Soil Fertility and Nutrient Use Efficiency at Potatoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neshev, Nesho; Manolov, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    The effect of fertilization on soil fertility, yields and nutrient use efficiency of potatoes grown under field experimental conditions was studied. The trail was conducted on shallow brown forest soil (Cambisols-coarse) during the vegetation periods of 2013 to 2015. The variants of the experiment were: control, N140; P80; K100; N140P80; N140K100; P80K100; N140P80K100; N140P80K100Mg33. The applied fertilization slightly decreased soil's pH after the harvest of potatoes compared to the soil pH their planting. Decreasing of pH was more severe at variant N (from 5,80 to 4,19 in 2014). The mineral nitrogen content in the soil after the harvest of potatoes was lower for the variants P, K and PK. The positive effect of fertilization on soil fertility after the end of the trails was more pronounced at variants NPK and NPKMg. The content of available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium forms for these variants was the highest for each year. The highest content of mineral nitrogen was observed in 2013 (252,5 and 351,1 mg/1000g, respectively for variants NPK and NPKMg). It was due to extremely dry weather conditions during the vegetation in this year. Soil content of mineral N for the next two years was lower. The same tendency was observed for phosphorus and potassium was observed. In 2013 the P2O5 and K2O content in soil was the highest for the variants with full mineral fertilization - NPK (64,4 and 97,6 mg 100g-1 respectively for P2O5 and K2O) and NPKMg (65,2 and 88,0 mg 100g-1 respectively for P2O5 and K2O). The highest yields were recorded at variants NPK and NPKMg - 24,21 and 22,01 t ha-1, average for the studied period. The yield of variant NPK was 25 % higher than the yield from variant NP and 68 % higher than control. The partial factor productivity (PFPN, PFPP and PFPK) of the applied fertilizers was the highest at variant NPK. The PFPN (80,10 kg kg-1) for the yields of variant N was 57 % lower than the PFPN at variant NPK (180,36 kg kg-1). The PFPP and PFPK at

  3. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    This listing of fertilizer producers and their production capacities was compiled in February 1993 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. TVA does not guarantee the completeness or accuracy of the information. Capacity is only an indicator of supply. Nameplate capacity differs from planned production levels or actual production because plants often operate above or below design capacity. Unless reported otherwise, plant capacities are based on 340 days per year of operation. No adjustment is made for partial year operation. Information is given on the following types of fertilizers: ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, ammonium sulfate, phosphate rock, wet-process phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphates, concentrated superphosphates, potash, nitric acid, superphosphoric acid, upgraded phosphoric acids, normal superphosphate, elemental phosphorus, potassium sulfate, and sulfate of potash/magnesia.

  4. Land-use intensification impact on phosphorus fractions in highly weathered tropical soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maranguit, Deejay; Guillaume, Thomas; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-04-01

    Deforestation and land-use intensification in tropics have increased over the past decades, driven by the demand for agricultural products. Despite the fact that phosphorus (P) is one of the main limiting nutrients for agricultural productivity in the tropics, the effect of land-use intensification on P availability remains unclear. The objective was to assess the impacts of land-use intensification on soil inorganic and organic P fractions of different availability (Hedley sequential fractionation) and P stocks in highly weathered tropical soils. We compared the P availability under extensive land-use (rubber agroforest) and intensive land-use with moderate fertilization (rubber monoculture plantations) or high fertilization (oil palm monoculture plantations) in Indonesia. The phosphorus stock was dominated by inorganic forms (60 to 85%) in all land-use types. Fertilizer application increased easily-available inorganic P (i.e., H2O-Pi, NaHCO3-Pi) in intensive rubber and oil palm plantations compared to agroforest. However, the easily-available organic P (NaHCO3-extractable Po) was reduced by half under oil palm and rubber. The decrease of moderately available and non-available P by land-use intensification means that fertilization maintains only short-term soil fertility that is not sustainable in the long run due to the depletion of P reserves. The mechanisms of this P reserve depletion are: soil erosion (here assessed by C/P ratio), mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) and export of P with yield products. Easily-available P fractions (i.e., H2O-Pi, NaHCO3-Pi and Po) and total organic P were strongly positively correlated with carbon content suggesting that SOM plays a critical role in maintaining P availability. Therefore, the ecologically based management is necessary in mitigating SOM losses to increase the sustainability of agricultural production in P limited highly weathered tropical soils.

  5. [Effect of long-term application of nitrogen fertilizer on the diversity of nitrifying genes (amoA and hao) in paddy soil].

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-lan; Wu, Min-na; Wei, Wen-xue

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of long-term (16 years) application of nitrogen fertilizer on the diversity of nitrifying genes (amoA and hao) in paddy soil on the basis of long-term paddy field experimental station (started in 1990) located in Taoyuan, with the molecular approaches of PCR, constructing libraries and sequencing. The fertilizer was urea and no fertilizer was as control. The Shannon index showed that long-term application of nitrogen fertilizer made the diversity of amoA gene descend while no effect on the diversity of hao gene. The LIBSHUFF statistical analyses demonstrated that both amoA and hao libraries of CK and N treatments were significantly different from each other and the rarefaction curves of libraries failed to meet the plateaus indicating that there were lots kinds of genes haven't been detected. The results of blasting with GenBank and the phylogenetic tree showed that the amoA genes detected in our study had a similarity with the uncultured gene of amoA, which showed some similar to Nitrosospira. Otherwise, the hao genes cloned showed a relationship to the genes of cultured bacteria such as Silicibacteria, Nitrosospira and Methylococcus, and the hao genes found in the N treatment dominated in alpha-Proteobacteria. These results suggest that long-term fertilization of nitrogen had significant impacts on the diversity or community of amoA and hao genes. PMID:21780610

  6. Runoff Losses of N and P After Low Phosphorus Swine Slurry Application to No-Tillage Sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine (Sus scrofa) manure can serve as a fertilizer source for crop production. Manure typically contains more P relative to N than the crop requires. This imbalance often results in accumulation of soil P creating the potential for negative environmental impacts due to P losses in runoff. Low phyta...

  7. Effect of pollinator abundance on self-fertilization and gene flow: application to GM Canola.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, Martin; Hayter, Katrina; Cresswell, James E

    2007-10-01

    Cross-pollination from fields of transgenic crops is of great public concern. Although cross-pollination in commercial canola (Brassica napus) fields has been empirically measured, field trials are expensive and do not identify the causes of cross-pollination. Therefore, theoretical models can be valuable because they can provide estimates of cross-pollination at any given site and time. We present a general analytical model of field-to-field gene flow due to the following competing mechanisms: the wind, bees, and autonomous pollination. We parameterize the model for the particular case of field-to-field cross-pollination of genetically modified (GM) canola via the wind and via bumble bees (Bombus spp.) and honey bees (Apis mellifera). We make extensive use of the large data set of bee densities collected during the recent U.K. Farm Scale Evaluations. We predict that canola approaches almost full seed set without pollinators and that autonomous pollination is responsible for > or = 25% of seed set, irrespective of pollinator abundance. We do not predict the relative contribution of bees vs. the wind in landscape-scale gene flow in canola. However, under model assumptions, we predict that the maximum field-to-field gene flow due to bumble bees is 0.04% and 0.13% below the current EU limit for adventitious GM presence for winter- and spring-sown canola, respectively. We predict that gene flow due to bees is approximately 3.1 times higher at 20% compared to 100% male-fertility, and due to the wind, 1.3 times higher at 20% compared to 100% male-fertility, for both winter- and spring-sown canola. Bumble bee-mediated gene flow is approximately 2.7 times higher and wind-mediated gene flow approximately 1.7 times lower in spring-sown than in winter-sown canola, regardless of the degree of male-sterility. The model of cross-pollination due to the wind most closely predicted three previously published observations: field-to-field gene flow is low; gene flow increases with

  8. Magnesium phosphate pentahydrate nanosheets: Microwave-hydrothermal rapid synthesis using creatine phosphate as an organic phosphorus source and application in protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Qi, Chao; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Wu, Cheng-Tie; Sun, Tuan-Wei; Chen, Feng; Wu, Jin

    2016-01-15

    Magnesium phosphate materials have aroused interest of researchers in recent years and are promising for biomedical applications due to their good biocompatibility and biodegradability. In this work, we report the microwave-hydrothermal rapid synthesis of magnesium phosphate pentahydrate nanosheets (MPHSs) using biocompatible creatine phosphate as an organic phosphorus source. This method is facile, rapid, surfactant-free and environmentally friendly. The as-prepared MPHSs have an obvious pH-dependent dissolution performance which can be used as an ideal pH-responsive nanocarrier for drug and gene delivery. Moreover, the MPHSs have a good cytocompatibility and a high ability to promote osteoblast MC-3T3 adhesion and spreading, as well as a relatively high protein adsorption ability using hemoglobin (Hb) as a model protein. Thus, the MPHSs are promising for the applications in biomedical fields such as protein adsorption and bone regeneration. PMID:26473279

  9. Controlling Fertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnay, France

    1991-01-01

    Recent developments in fertility control are presented in relation to the global demographic situation. Discussion focuses on changes in scientific knowledge and concepts that have shifted the focus from birth control to planned parenthood to the notion of controlled fertility. The place of family planning programs, including their socioeconomic…

  10. Biochar helps enhance maize productivity and reduce greenhouse gas emissions under balanced fertilization in a rainfed low fertility inceptisol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dengxiao; Pan, Genxing; Wu, Gang; Kibue, Grace Wanjiru; Li, Lianqing; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Zheng, Jufeng; Cheng, Kun; Joseph, Stephen; Liu, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    Maize production plays an important role in global food security, especially in arid and poor-soil regions. Its production is also increasing in China in terms of both planting area and yield. However, maize productivity in rainfed croplands is constrained by low soil fertility and moisture insufficiency. To increase the maize yield, local farmers use NPK fertilizer. However, the fertilization regime (CF) they practice is unbalanced with too much nitrogen in proportion to both phosphorus and potassium, which has led to low fertilizer use efficiency and excessive greenhouse gases emissions. A two-year field experiment was conducted to assess whether a high yielding but low greenhouse gases emission system could be developed by the combination of balanced fertilization (BF) and biochar amendment in a rainfed farmland located in the Northern region of China. Biochar was applied at rates of 0, 20, and 40 t/ha. Results show that BF and biochar increased maize yield and partial nutrient productivity and decreased nitrous oxide (N2O) emission. Under BF the maize yield was 23.7% greater than under CF. N2O emissions under BF were less than half that under CF due to a reduced N fertilizer application rate. Biochar amendment decreased N2O by more than 31% under CF, while it had no effect on N2O emissions under BF. Thus BF was effective at maintaining a high maize yield and reducing greenhouse gases emissions. If combined with biochar amendment, BF would be a good way of sustaining low carbon agriculture in rainfed areas. PMID:25959223

  11. [Effects of long-term application of organic fertilizer and superphosphate on accumulation and leaching of Olsen-P in Fluvo-aquic soil].

    PubMed

    Huang, Shao-Min; Guo, Dou-Dou; Zhang, Shui-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Based on a 20-year experiment of fertilization with organic and chemical fertilizers on a Fluvo-aquic soil under wheat-corn cropping system, this paper studied the relationships between Olsen-P concentration in plough layer and crop yields as well as the accumulation and vertical translocation of Olsen-P in soil profile. The results showed that when the Olsen-P concentration in plough layer maintained at 10-40 mg x kg(-1), the grain yields of wheat and corn were higher, whereas when the concentration of Olsen-P in plough layer was higher than 40 mg x kg(-1), it started to leach, which meant that in light loam Fluvo-aquic soil, the threshold value for P leaching might be 40 mg x kg(-1). In the treatments of chemical fertilization (NPK) and corn straw returning (SNPK) with the P application rate of 77-90 kg x hm(-2), the Olsen-P concentration in plough layer was increased by 0.63-0.72 mg x kg(-1) per 100 kg x hm(-2) of applied P, with an annual increment of 0.49-0.65 mg x kg(-1) and needed 45-60 years for reaching the threshold value for P leaching. In the treatments of chemical fertilization combined with manure application (MNPK, MNPK2, and 1.5MNPK), the formula of Olsen-P accumulation in 0-20 cm soil layer were Y(MNPK) = 3.1097x + 6.9615 (R2 = 0.8562), Y(MNPK2) = 2.4765x + 13.563 (R2 = 0.9307), and Y1.5MNPK = 4.506x + 6.4464 (R2 = 0.8862). It might take 8 years to reach the threshold value for Olsen-P leaching when the P application rate in treatment 1.5MNPK was 210 kg x hm(-2), 11 years when the P application rate in treatments MNPK2 and MNPK was 125 and 140 kg x hm(-2). Organic fertilization combined with chemical fertilization increased the Olsen-P accumulation rate being 2.5 times higher than chemical fertilization. Excessive application of organic fertilizer could increase the accumulation and leaching of Olsen-P in soil profile. PMID:21548294

  12. Phosphorus: Riverine system transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transport and transformation of phosphorus (P) in riverine systems fundamentally affects the outcome of watershed mitigation strategies aimed at curbing downstream eutrophication. Phosphorus transport and transformations in streams and rivers are mediated by physical (sediment deposition and res...

  13. Utilization of solar energy in sewage sludge composting: Fertilizer effect and application

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yiqun; Yu, Fang; Liang, Shengwen; Wang, Zongping Liu, Zizheng; Xiong, Ya

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Solar energy technologies were utilized in aerobic sewage sludge composting. • Greenhouse and solar reactors were constructed to compare impacts on the composting. • Impatiens balsamina was planted in pot experiments to evaluate fertilizer effect. - Abstract: Three reactors, ordinary, greenhouse, and solar, were constructed and tested to compare their impacts on the composting of municipal sewage sludge. Greenhouse and solar reactors were designed to evaluate the use of solar energy in sludge composting, including their effects on temperature and compost quality. After 40 days of composting, it was found that the solar reactor could provide more stable heat for the composting process. The average temperature of the solar reactor was higher than that of the other two systems, and only the solar reactor could maintain the temperature above 55 °C for more than 3 days. Composting with the solar reactor resulted in 31.3% decrease in the total organic carbon, increased the germination index to 91%, decreased the total nitrogen loss, and produced a good effect on pot experiments.

  14. Effect of inorganic fertilizers (N, P, K) on methane emission from tropical rice field of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, A.; Santra, S. C.; Adhya, T. K.

    2013-02-01

    In the tropical experimental rice field of Central Rice Research Institute, Odisha, India, an experiment was conducted during the dry season (January-April) and wet season (July-November) of rice cultivation to study the effect of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilizer application on grain yield and methane (CH4) emission. The experiment was carried out with five treatments (No fertilizer (control), N-fertilizer, P-fertilizer, K-fertilizer and N + P + K fertilizer) with three replicates of each under a completely randomized block design. Significantly higher CH4 emission was recorded from all plots during wet season. Among fertilizer applied plots, significantly higher CH4 emission was recorded from N-fertilizer applied plots (dry season: 80.27 kg ha-1; wet season: 451.27 kg ha-1), while significantly lower CH4 emission was recorded from N + P + K applied plots (dry season: 34.60 kg ha-1; wet season: 233.66 kg ha-1). Low cumulative CH4 emission to grain yield ratio was recorded from N + P + K applied plots during both seasons (83.57 kg Mg-1 grain yield during dry season and 77.14 kg Mg-1 grain yield during wet season). CH4 emission from different treatment was positively correlated with microbial biomass carbon (r = 0.516), readily mineralizable carbon (r = 0.621) and sugar (r = 0.340) content of the soil. Negative CH4 emission was recorded during the fallow period which may be attributed to higher methanotrophic bacterial population. Study suggests that the effects of P and K-fertilizer on CH4 emission from rice field along with the CH4 emission during the fallow period need to be considered to reduce the uncertainty in upscaling process.

  15. Metallic Nanoparticle (TiO2 and Fe3O4) Application Modifies Rhizosphere Phosphorus Availability and Uptake by Lactuca sativa.

    PubMed

    Zahra, Zahra; Arshad, Muhammad; Rafique, Rafia; Mahmood, Arshad; Habib, Amir; Qazi, Ishtiaq A; Khan, Saud A

    2015-08-12

    Application of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) with respect to nutrient uptake in plants is not yet well understood. The impacts of TiO2 and Fe3O4 NPs on the availability of naturally soil-bound inorganic phosphorus (Pi) to plants were studied along with relevant parameters. For this purpose, Lactuca sativa (lettuce) was cultivated on the soil amended with TiO2 and Fe3O4 (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg kg(-1)) over a period of 90 days. Different techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Raman, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to monitor translocation and understand the possible mechanisms for phosphorus (P) uptake. The trends for P accumulation were different for roots (TiO2 > Fe3O4 > control) and shoots (Fe3O4 > TiO2 > control). Cystine and methionine were detected in the rhizosphere in Raman spectra. Affinities of NPs to adsorb phosphate ions, modifications in P speciation, and NP stress in the rhizosphere had possibly contributed to enhanced root exudation and acidification. All of these changes led to improved P availability and uptake by the plants. These promising results can help to develop an innovative strategy for using NPs for improved nutrient management to ensure food security. PMID:26194089

  16. Municipal sewage sludge and phosphorus as amendments for minesoils on the Cumberland Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.L.; Ammons, J.T.; Reynolds, J.H.; Dimmick, R.W.

    1996-12-31

    A study was conducted to evaluate the benefit of applying municipal sewage sludge and/or phosphorus on surface mined land on the Cumberland Plateau in Fentress County, Tennessee. The objective of the study was to evaluate minesoil fertility and plant response after treatment. The site was prepared according to surface mine regulations and sampled before and after treatment. The experiment was conducted as a split, split, split block arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Each replication contained a sludge treatment, a phosphorus treatment, a sludge/phosphorus combination treatment and a control. Minesoils amended with sludge alone had the greatest increase in fertility and plant response. Phosphorus alone had a comparable, though slightly lower response of plant growth on the sludge. Legume species responded particularly well on phosphorus. A combination of sludge and phosphorus had a slightly suppressive effect on some plant growth responses compared to sludge alone.

  17. Estrogenic Activity in Runoff – Effect of Animal Waste-Based Fertilizer Application to Frozen Fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for contamination of surface waters with estrogenic activity from agricultural animal waste has been of recent concern. Application of manure to frozen fields is currently permitted in some states, but requires a 100 ft vegetative buffer between application area and any waterway or til...

  18. Comparison of sludge and fertilizer applications on establishment and growth of seedlings of two sweetgum ecotypes endomycorrhizal with glomus mosseae and glomus etunicatus. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kormanik, P.P.

    1983-11-01

    A study of sludge and fertilizer applications on the development of sweetgum progeny from two different mother trees. There are significant differences in survival between the genetically different half-sib progeny. Half-sib progeny from mother tree 76-11 had 72% survival, while those from 76-9 had only 56% survival. A second study had only one level of a commercial fertilizer which was used for all genetic tree lines. The third outplanting experiment was installed to compare root coolar diameters of progeny from two genotypic lines of sweetgum.

  19. Soil Warming and Fertilization Effects on Growth Ring Widths of Arctic Shrubs - Application of a Novel Dendroecological Approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iturrate Garcia, M.; Heijmans, M.; Schweingruber, F. H.; Niklaus, P. A.; Schaepman-Strub, G.

    2015-12-01

    Climate warming is suggested as the main driver of shrub expansion in arctic tundra regions. Shrub expansion may have consequences on biodiversity and climate, especially through its feedbacks with the energy budget. A better understanding of shrub expansion mechanisms, including growth rate patterns and stem anatomy changes, and their sensitivity to climate is needed in order to quantify related feedbacks. We present a novel dendroecological approach to determine the response of three arctic shrub species to increased soil temperature and nutrients. A full factorial block-design experiment was run for four years with a total of thirty plots. Six individuals of each species were sampled from each plot to test for treatment effects on growth rate and stem anatomy. We compared the ring width of the four years of experiment with the one of the four previous years. The preliminary results for Betula nana and Salix pulchra suggest a significant effect of the treatments on the growth ring width. The response is stronger in Salix pulchra than in Betula nana individuals. And, while Salix pulchra is more sensitive to the combined soil warming and fertilization treatment, Betula nana is to the fertilization treatment. We could not observe an effect of treatment on the stem anatomy, likely because bark thickness co-varies with age. We found significant positive correlations of cork, cortex and phloem thickness with xylem thickness (used as a proxy of age), and a significant difference in stem anatomy between species. The results suggest species-specific growth sensitivity to soil warming and nutrient enhancement. The use of experimental dendroecology by manipulating environmental conditions according to future climate scenarios and testing effects on shrub anatomy and annual growth will increase our understanding on shrub expansion mechanisms. Ongoing plant trait analysis and consecutive application in a 3D radiative transfer model will allow to quantify the feedback of

  20. Assessing groundwater phosphorus in forage-based agroecosystem with cow-calf operation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) fertilization is a vital component of productive farming. Phosphorus is an essential macronutrient that is required to meet global food requirements and make crop and livestock production profitable. While adequate levels of P soils are essential to grow crops, P has the potential to...

  1. Agricultural NPS control of phosphorus in the New York State, Lake Ontario Basin. Volume 2. Fertilizer trials on organic soils in the Lake Ontario Drainage Basin. Final report, 1985-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Klausner, S.; Duxbury, J.; Goyette, E.

    1991-02-01

    There are approximately 2.3 million hectares of cropland in New York. Cultivated organic soils comprise about 12,000 hectares or 0.5% of the total cropped land. The organic soils are used exclusively for intensive vegetable production with onions being the primary crop. About 50% of these soils are located within the Lake Ontario drainage basin. A comprehensive field study was conducted to evaluate the yield response of onions across a broad range of N, P, and K fertilizer inputs and to correlate the level of response with soil testing parameters. A primary objective was to develop an estimate of P loss in drainage water to the Lake Ontario drainage basin and how this loss is influenced by P fertilizer management.

  2. Wood ash as a magnesium source for phosphorus recovery from source-separated urine.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, S Ramesh; Tilley, Elizabeth; Udert, Kai M

    2012-03-01

    Struvite precipitation is a simple technology for phosphorus recovery from source-separated urine. However, production costs can be high if expensive magnesium salts are used as precipitants. Therefore, waste products can be interesting alternatives to industrially-produced magnesium salts. We investigated the technical and financial feasibility of wood ash as a magnesium source in India. In batch experiments with source-separated urine, we could precipitate 99% of the phosphate with a magnesium dosage of 2.7 mol Mg mol P(-1). The availability of the magnesium from the wood ash used in our experiment was only about 50% but this could be increased by burning the wood at temperatures well above 600 °C. Depending on the wood ash used, the precipitate can contain high concentrations of heavy metals. This could be problematic if the precipitate were used as fertilizer depending on the applicable fertilizer regulations. The financial study revealed that wood ash is considerably cheaper than industrially-produced magnesium sources and even cheaper than bittern. However, the solid precipitated with wood ash is not pure struvite. Due to the high calcite and the low phosphorus content (3%), the precipitate would be better used as a phosphorus-enhanced conditioner for acidic soils. The estimated fertilizer value of the precipitate was actually slightly lower than wood ash, because 60% of the potassium dissolved into solution during precipitation and was not present in the final product. From a financial point of view and due to the high heavy metal content, wood ash is not a very suitable precipitant for struvite production. Phosphate precipitation from urine with wood ash can be useful if (1) a strong need for a soil conditioner that also contains phosphate exists, (2) potassium is abundant in the soil and (3) no other cheap precipitant, such as bittern or magnesium oxide, is available. PMID:22297249

  3. Improving Phosphorus Availability in an Acid Soil Using Organic Amendments Produced from Agroindustrial Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab.

    2014-01-01

    In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments. PMID:25032229

  4. Improving phosphorus availability in an acid soil using organic amendments produced from agroindustrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab

    2014-01-01

    In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments. PMID:25032229

  5. The subtle danger of symmetry restrictions in time series regressions, with application to fertility models.

    PubMed

    Haynes, S E

    1983-10-01

    It is widely known that linear restrictions involve bias. What is not known is that some linear restrictions are especially dangerous for hypothesis testing. For some, the expected value of the restricted coefficient does not lie between (among) the true unconstrained coefficients, which implies that the estimate is not a simple average of these coefficients. In this paper, the danger is examined regarding the additive linear restriction almost universally imposed in statistical research--the restriction of symmetry. Symmetry implies that the response of the dependent variable to a unit decrease in an expanatory variable is identical, but of opposite sign, to the response to a unit increase. The 1st section of the paper demonstrates theoretically that a coefficient restricted by symmetry (unlike coefficients embodying other additive restrictions) is not a simple average of the unconstrained coefficients because the relevant interacted variables are inversly correlated by definition. The next section shows that, under the restriction of symmetry, fertility in Finland from 1885-1925 appears to respond in a prolonged manner to infant mortality (significant and positive with a lag of 4-6 years), suggesting a response to expected deaths. However, unscontrained estimates indicate that this finding is spurious. When the restriction is relaxed, the dominant response is rapid (significant and positive with a lag of 1-2 years) and stronger for declines in mortality, supporting an aymmetric response to actual deaths. For 2 reasons, the danger of the symmetry restriction may be especially pervasive. 1st, unlike most other linear constraints, symmetry is passively imposed merely by ignoring the possibility of asymmetry. 2nd, modles in a wide range of fields--including macroeconomics (e.g., demand for money, consumption, and investment models, and the Phillips curve), international economics (e.g., intervention models of central banks), and labor economics (e.g., sticky wage

  6. [Effect of Long-term Fertilizer Application on the Stability of Organic Carbon in Particle Size Fractions of a Paddy Soil in Zhejiang Province, China].

    PubMed

    Mao, Xia-li; Lu, Kou-ping; Sun, Tao; Zhang, Xiao-kai; He, Li-zhi; Wang, Hai-long

    2015-05-01

    Effects of chemical fertilizers and organic manure on the soil organic carbon (SOC) content in particle size fractions of paddy soil were investigated in a 17-year long-term fertilization field experiment in Zhejiang Province, China. The inherent chemical composition of silt- and clay-associated SOC was evaluated with solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Compared to CK (no fertilizer treatment), NPKRS (NPK fertilizers plus rice straw) , NPKOM (NPK fertilizers plus organic manure) , NPK (NPK fertilizers) and OM (organic manure alone) treatments significantly (P <0. 05) increased the SOC content of sand- (2-0.02 mm), silt- (0.02-0.002 mm) and clay-sized (< 0.002 mm) fractions. However, no significant difference was observed in the accumulation of silt- and clay-associated SOC between CK and rice straw (RS) treatments. Besides, in comparison with plots applied with NPK fertilizers alone, combined application of organic amendments and NPK fertilizers facilitated the storage of newly sequestered SOC in silt- and clay-sized fractions, which could be more conducive to the stability of SOC. Based on 13C-NMR spectra, both silt and clay fractions were composed of Alkyl-C, O-alkyl-C, Aromatic-C and carbonyl-C. Changes in the relative proportion of different C species were observed between silt and clay fractions: the clay fraction had relatively more Alkyl-C, carbonyl-C and less O-alkyl-C, Aromatic-C than those in the silt fraction. This might be ascribed to the fact that the organic matter complexed with clay was dominated by microbial products, whereas the silt appeared to be rich in aromatic residues derived from plants. The spectra also showed that the relative proportion of different C species was modified by fertilization practices. In comparison with organic amendments alone, the relative proportion of Alkyl-C was decreased by 9.1%-11.9% and 13.7%-19.9% under combined application of organic amendments and chemical fertilizers, for silt and clay, respectively, and that of

  7. Biochar application to temperate soils - effects on soil fertility and crop yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloss, S.; Zehetner, F.; Feichtmair, S.; Wimmer, B.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Kitzler, B.; Watzinger, A.; Soja, G.

    2012-04-01

    Biochar (BC) application to soil as a potential soil amendment is currently intensively explored. Depending on feedstock and highest treatment temperature (HTT), BC application to soil may contribute to the soil nutrient status by directly adding nutrients to the soil as well as by increasing pH, cation exchange and water holding capacity. These parameters are known to play an important role in the soil nutrient status and nutrient availability. A positive effect on plant growth after BC application to tropical soils has been observed repeatedly; however, the effect of BC application to soils in temperate climate regions is much less explored. We investigated the effect of BC to temperate soils and crop yield using a randomized pot experiment in a greenhouse with three agricultural soils (Planosol, Cambisol, Chernozem) and four BC types (from straw, mixed woodchips and vineyard pruning, all pyrolyzed at 525°C). In order to analyze the effect of pyrolysis temperature, we additionally applied vineyard pruning BC pyrolyzed at 400°C. Selected treatments were planted with mustard (Sinapis alba L.), followed by barley (Hordeum vulgare). Soil sampling was carried out after barley harvest. Investigated soil parameters included pH, electrical conductivity (EC), C/N ratio, cation exchange capacity (CEC), CAL-extractable P and K, EDTA extractable Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn as well as nitrogen supplying potential (NSP). Biomass production of the two crops was determined as well as its elemental composition. Biochar application (3% wood-based BC) caused a considerable pH increase for the acidic Planosol. The effect of BC application on CEC was dependent on the original status of the soil, notably soil pH and texture. 3 % BC application (wood) decreased CEC by 3.5 % and 10 % for the Chernozem and Cambisol, respectively, but increased CEC by 35 % for the acidic, sandy Planosol, which may be due to the strong liming effect found for the Planosol. BC application significantly raised CAL

  8. Fertility Awareness

    MedlinePlus

    ... planning, periodic abstinence, and the rhythm method. How Does It Work? If a couple doesn't have ... get pregnant should not have sex. How Well Does It Work? Fertility awareness is not a reliable ...

  9. Modelling crop yield, soil organic C and P under variable long-term fertilizer management in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Xu, Guang; Xu, Minggang; Balkovič, Juraj; Azevedo, Ligia B.; Skalský, Rastislav; Wang, Jinzhou; Yu, Chaoqing

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a major limiting nutrient for plant growth. P, as a nonrenewable resource and the controlling factor of aquatic entrophication, is critical for food security and human future, and concerns sustainable resource use and environmental impacts. It is thus essential to find an integrated and effective approach to optimize phosphorus fertilizer application in the agro-ecosystem while maintaining crop yield and minimizing environmental risk. Crop P models have been used to simulate plant-soil interactions but are rarely validated with scattered long-term fertilizer control field experiments. We employed a process-based model named Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model (EPIC) to simulate grain yield, soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil available P based upon 8 field experiments in China with 11 years dataset, representing the typical Chinese soil types and agro-ecosystems of different regions. 4 treatments, including N, P, and K fertilizer (NPK), no fertilizer (CK), N and K fertilizer (NK) and N, P, K and manure (NPKM) were measured and modelled. A series of sensitivity tests were conducted to analyze the sensitivity of grain yields and soil available P to sequential fertilizer rates in typical humid, normal and drought years. Our results indicated that the EPIC model showed a significant agreement for simulating grain yields with R2=0.72, index of agreement (d)=0.87, modeling efficiency (EF)=0.68, p<0.01 and SOC with R2=0.70, d=0.86, EF=0.59, and p<0.01. EPIC can well simulate soil available P moderately and capture the temporal changes in soil P reservoirs. Both of Crop yields and soil available were found more sensitive to the fertilizer P rates in humid than drought year and soil available P is closely linked to concentrated rainfall. This study concludes that EPIC model has great potential to simulate the P cycle in croplands in China and can explore the optimum management practices.

  10. Concentrations and export of phosphorus during the cranberry harvest flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, C. D.; Kleinman, P. J. A.; DeMoranville, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The cranberry industry occupies a unique place in the history of southeastern Massachusetts, where commercial production of cranberries has existed for nearly two centuries. Currently, water quality represents one of the greatest challenges facing the industry, with federal regulations limiting the use of phosphorus (P) fertilizer via total maximum daily load (TMDL) implementation. In response to environmental concerns, cranberry growers have decreased their annual P fertilizer application rates by a factor of four, from ~40 kg P ha-1 in the early 1970s to ~10 kg P ha-1 in 2013. Despite these industry-wide reductions, legacy P derived from periods of high P fertilizer application likely make cranberry farms non-point sources of P to surface water. In this study, concentrations and export of P were determined to characterize the sources and transport pathways of P in harvest floodwaters for four cranberry farms. Among the sites, a general pattern emerged of sharp increases in concentrations of total dissolved P (TDP) and total particulate P (TPP) during the later part of the flood release. Differences in the exact timing of increases in TDP and TPP were interpreted to represent distinct transport pathways: (1) near-surface transport of TDP derived from soils, and (2) subsurface transport of TPP resulting from resuspension and erosion of ditch sediments. Values of total P (TP = TDP + TPP) export were relatively low for three sites (0.3-0.8 kg P ha-1) and high for one site (5.3 kg P ha-1). Export of TP from the high-P site accounted for roughly half of the annual value allocated to cranberry farms in a recent TMDL. Historical P fertilizer records from 2005-2013 showed similar present-day application rates among the sites (~10 kg P ha-1), but higher rates between 2005 and 2007 for the high-P site (30 vs. 10 kg P ha-1). Although other factors likely contribute, legacy P derived from past fertilizer applications imparts an important control on P export in cranberry

  11. Nitrogen use efficiency in a wheat-corn cropping system from 15 years of manure and fertilizer applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and adverse environmental impacts caused by N fertilization increasingly threaten the sustainability of agriculture. To develop strategies for efficient nutrient management, we investigated the effects of long-term (1991-2005) various fertilization regimes on yield,...

  12. [Effects of continuous application of bio-organic fertilizer on banana production and cultural microflora of bulk soil in orchard with serious disease incidence].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shu-tang; Shen, Zong-zhuan; Sun, Yi-fei; Lyu, Na-na; Ruan, Yun-ze; Li, Rong; Shen, Qi-rong

    2015-02-01

    A field experiment was conducted for two years to investigate the effects of different fertilization applications on the suppression of banana fusarium wilt disease, crop yield, fruit quality and culturable microflora in a banana orchard which has been monocultured with banana for 12 years and suffered serious banana fusarium wilt disease. The fertilizers included chemical fertilizer (CF), cow manure compost (CM), pig manure compost (PM) and bio-organic fertilizer (BIO). The banana soil microflora was invested using plate-counting method and culture-dependent polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis method (CD PCR-DGGE). Results showed that, compared with the other treatments, 2-year consecutive application of BIO significantly reduced the banana fusarium wilt disease incidence, and improved the banana mass per tree, crop yield, total soluble sugar content and the ratio of total soluble sugar to titratable acidity of fruits (sugar/acid ratio). Moreover, the analysis of culturable microflora showed that BIO application significantly increased the soil microbial biomass, soil culturable bacteria, bacillus and actinomycetes, and the ratio of bacteria to fungi (B/F) , while decreased the Fusarium oxysporum. Based on the CD PCR-DGGE results, the BIO application significantly altered the soil culturable bacterial structure and showed highest richness and diversity after 2 years of BIO application. The phylogenetic analysis of the selected bands showed that BIO application enriched the soil with the species of Paenibacillus sp., Burkholderia sp., uncultured Verrucomicrobia sp. and Bacillus aryabhattai, and depressed the species of Ralstonia sp., Chryseobacterium gleum, Fluviicola taffensis, Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus megaterium. These results confirmed that the continuous application of BIO effectively controlled the fusarium wilt disease, improved the crop yield and fruit quality, and modulated the soil culturable microflora under field

  13. Fertilizer Application Timing Influences Greenhouse Gas Fluxes Over a Growing Season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial production and consumption of greenhouse gases (GHG) at the soil surface is influenced by temperature and nutrients, so effects of nutrient application on GHG fluxes should be greater as conditions warm during the growing season. We designed a replicated (n=5) field experiment to test for...

  14. Corn response to long-term applications of cattle manure, swine effluent, and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle (Bos taurus) manure and swine (Sus scrofa) effluent are applied to cropland to recycle nutrients, build soil quality, and increase crop productivity. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effects of land application of cattle manure and swine effluent using the Kansas Nut...

  15. Factors affecting phosphorus transport at a conventionally-farmed site in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1992-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galeone, Daniel G.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Bureau of Land and Water Conservation of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection conducted a cooperative study to determine the effects of manure application and antecedent soil-phosphorus concentrations on the transport of phosphorus from the soil of a typical farm site in Lancaster County, Pa., from September 1992 to March 1995. The relation between concentrations of soil phosphorus and phosphorus transport needs to be identified because excessive phosphorus concentrations in surface-water bodies promote eutrophication. The objective of the study was to quantify and determine the significance of chemical, physical, and hydrologic factors that affected phosphorus transport. Three study plots less than 1 acre in size were tilled and planted in silage corn. Phosphorus in the form of liquid swine and dairy manure was injected to a depth of 6-8 inches on two of the three study plots in May 1993 and May 1994. Plot 1 received no inputs of phosphorus from manure while plots 2 and 3 received an average of 56 and 126 kilograms of phosphorus per acre, respectively, from the two manure applications. No other fertilizer was applied to any of the study plots. From March 30, 1993, through December 31, 1993, and March 10, 1994, through August 31, 1994 (the study period), phosphorus and selected cations were measured in precipitation, manure, soil, surface runoff, subsurface flow (at 18 inches below land surface), and corn plants before harvest. All storm events that yielded surface runoff and subsurface flow were sampled. Surface runoff was analyzed for dissolved (filtered through a 0.45-micron filter) and total concentrations. Subsurface flow was only analyzed for dissolved constituents. Laboratory soil-flask experiments and geochemical modeling were conducted to determine the maximum phosphate retention capacity of sampled soils after manure applications and primary mineralogic controls in the soils that affect phosphate

  16. Controlled Release Fertilizers: An Environmentally Sound and Efficient Method for Greenhouse Crop Fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lake Erie is the most polluted of all the Great Lakes. In fact, the Maumee River Watershed alone contributes most of Lake Erie’s phosphorus and sediment load but only 3% of its water, due to the large concentration of agriculture in this portion of the state. The use of controlled release fertilize...

  17. An inventory of the emission of ammonia from agricultural fertilizer application in China for 2010 and its high-resolution spatial distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peng; Zhang, Yisheng; Gong, Weiwei; Hou, Xikang; Kroeze, Carolien; Gao, Wei; Luan, Shengji

    2015-08-01

    In an agricultural county like China, agricultural fertilizers are the source of ammonia (NH3) emissions. However, the spatial variability in NH3 emissions is large, and the associated uncertainties affect the reliability of total NH3 emission estimates. In this study, an inventory is presented for NH3 emissions from China's agricultural fertilizer application at the city-level, and on a 1 × 1 km grid for croplands in 2010. We present NH3 emissions by source, the temporal and spatial patterns, and the associated uncertainties. The inventory is based on high-resolution activity data, regional emission factors (EFs) and related parameters that are derived from local studies. We compare our emissions estimates with previous inventories from EDGAR and other studies. The total NH3 emissions from China's agricultural fertilizer is 10.7 (8.9-12.3) TgNH3·yr-1. Livestock manure spreading contributes 47.5% to the total emissions, and synthetic fertilizer use by 41.9%. Rural excrement (5.0%) and cake fertilizer (5.5%) are relatively small sources. The spatial pattern of NH3 emissions from China's agricultural fertilizer were primarily concentrated in the North China Plain, the Songliao Plain, the Huaihe River Basin, the Middle-Lower Yangtze Plain, the Pearl River Delta Plain, the Sichuan Basin, the Tarim basin and the Leizhou Peninsula. Approximately 50% of the emissions are from only 76 cities. Our temporal analysis reveals a clear seasonal pattern in NH3 emissions: highest and lowest emissions are calculated for summer and winter, accounting for 42% and 14% of the total emissions, respectively. Peak emissions are calculated for July (1.7 TgNH3·yr-1) and lowest emissions for January (0.5 TgNH3·yr-1). The emissions are correlated with temperature, planting time and cultivation practices.

  18. Response of green gram (Vigna radiata L.) to an application of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer grown on Olasiti soils from Minjingu-Manyara, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kisetu, Eliakira; Teveli, Christina Ngomzee Medutieki

    2013-11-15

    A screen-house pot experiment was conducted to assess the response of green gram (Vigna radiata L.) to the application of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer (31% P2O5) on Olasiti soil, Manyara Region-Tanzania. This study was prompted by very low or limited use of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer by smallholder farmers in the country while yields turnout of most crops, green gram inclusive, is not promising. The soil was clay with medium pH (pH 5.5-7.0) and neutral reaction (pH 6.6-7.3). The results showed that the number of pods and seeds increased from 3-6 and 7-9, respectively, at 40 to 160 mg per 4 kg soil of fertilizer applied. Similarly, the tissue N and P increased with treatment levels. The number of pods per plant and seeds per pod showed similar increase, signifying the role of these nutrients in protein synthesis in leguminous plants like green gram. Soil properties could be the spearhead to low responses obtained at low (< 80 mg per 4 kg soil) and high (> 320 mg per 4 kg soil) rates of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer applied. It was concluded that to optimize green gram production in Olasiti soil, Minjingu Mazao fertilizer containing 31% P2O5 should be applied at a rate of 160-320 kg ha(-1) while considering other necessary agronomic practices. However, field studies to confirm the findings of this study and verify the usefulness of this fertilizer brand to green gram in Olasiti soil under field conditions could practically be the viable option before its recommendation to the smallholder farmers. PMID:24511709

  19. The composition, dynamics, and ecological significance of soil organic phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, B. L.

    2011-12-01

    Studies of plant nutrition often consider only inorganic phosphate to be biologically available, yet organic phosphorus is abundant in soils and its turnover can account for the majority of the phosphorus taken up by natural vegetation. Soil organic phosphorus occurs in a variety of chemical forms, including phosphomonoesters, phosphodiesters, phosphonates, and organic polyphosphates, which can be determined conveniently by alkaline extraction and solution phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The inositol phosphates are of particular interest, because they are widespread in soils, yet only one of the four stereoisomers of inositol hexakisphosphate present in soils has been detected elsewhere in the environment. The mobility and bioavailability of the various organic phosphorus compounds differs depending on factors such as their interaction with metal oxide surfaces, which leads to a disparity between the forms of organic phosphorus entering the soil and the composition of the stable soil organic phosphorus pool. During long-term pedogenesis, organic phosphorus accumulates in the early nitrogen-limited stages of ecosystem development, but then declines as phosphorus-limitation strengthens in old soils. At the same time, the composition of the organic phosphorus varies; for example, the inositol phosphates decline to become a small proportion of the total organic phosphorus in old soils, presumably indicating their potential availability under conditions of strong phosphorus limitation. Plants have evolved a variety of mechanisms to acquire phosphorus from organic compounds, including the synthesis of phosphatase enzymes and the secretion of organic anions. Phosphatase activity is linked strongly to soil organic phosphorus concentrations, as indicated by broad surveys of tropical forest soils, fertilization experiments, and patterns observed during long-term ecosystem development. Organic anion secretion is often linked to inorganic phosphate

  20. ASSESSMENT OF PERCHLORATE IN FERTILIZERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perchlorate has been positively detected only in those materials known to be derived from Chilean caliche, which constitute less than 0.2% of U.S. fertilizer application. The data obtained in the preponderance of investigations suggest that fertilizers do not contribute to envir...

  1. Total phosphorous, calcium, aluminum and iron levels in Cecil soil after ten years of poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter (PL) is a traditionally inexpensive and effective organic fertilizer to improve soil quality and agricultural productivity. However, there is concern with over application as this can lead to excess releases of nutrients, especially phosphorus, and metals into fresh water bodies resul...

  2. Soil Fertility Map for Food Legumes Production Areas in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Yang, Tao; Redden, Robert; He, Weifeng; Zong, Xuxiao

    2016-01-01

    Given the limited resources of fossil energy, and the environmental risks of excess fertilizer on crops, it is time to reappraise the potential role of food legume biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) as sources of nitrogen for cropping systems in China. 150 soil samples across 17 provinces and 2 municipalities of China were collected and analyzed. A distribution map of the soil fertilities and their patterns of distribution was constructed. The pH results indicated that soils were neutral to slightly alkaline overall. The soil organic matter (SOM) and the available nitrogen (AN) content were relatively low, while the available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK) contents were from moderate to high. Production areas of food legumes (faba bean, pea, adzuki bean, mung bean and common bean) were clearly separated into 4 soil fertility type clusters. In addition, regions with SOM, AN, AP and AK deficiency, high acidity and high alkalinity were listed as target areas for further soil improvement. The potential was considered for biological nitrogen fixation to substitute for the application of mineral nitrogen fertiliser. PMID:27212262

  3. Soil Fertility Map for Food Legumes Production Areas in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling; Yang, Tao; Redden, Robert; He, Weifeng; Zong, Xuxiao

    2016-01-01

    Given the limited resources of fossil energy, and the environmental risks of excess fertilizer on crops, it is time to reappraise the potential role of food legume biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) as sources of nitrogen for cropping systems in China. 150 soil samples across 17 provinces and 2 municipalities of China were collected and analyzed. A distribution map of the soil fertilities and their patterns of distribution was constructed. The pH results indicated that soils were neutral to slightly alkaline overall. The soil organic matter (SOM) and the available nitrogen (AN) content were relatively low, while the available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK) contents were from moderate to high. Production areas of food legumes (faba bean, pea, adzuki bean, mung bean and common bean) were clearly separated into 4 soil fertility type clusters. In addition, regions with SOM, AN, AP and AK deficiency, high acidity and high alkalinity were listed as target areas for further soil improvement. The potential was considered for biological nitrogen fixation to substitute for the application of mineral nitrogen fertiliser. PMID:27212262

  4. Soil phosphorus changes impacted by potato cropping management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato crops generally require high amounts of phosphorus (P) fertilizer to reach economically acceptable yields as the low root density of potato plants makes mobilization and acquisition of phosphate a key factor in potato plant growth. In this work, we evaluated soil P changes in 10 potato fields...

  5. Response of Forage Chicory Seedlings to Available Soil Phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus fertility may be responsible for observed differences in chemical composition of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) on West Virginia and Pennsylvania soils, but P effects on chicory growth on these soils are unclear. We evaluated the effect of available soil P (ASP) on ‘Puna’, ‘Lacert...

  6. Effects of poultry manure on phosphorus availability to perennial ryegrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil phosphorus (P) exists in numerous forms that differ in plant availability. High-P organic fertilizers, including poultry manure (PM), can alter the balance of these soil P forms and may affect plant nutrient status. To investigate the effects of PM on soil P distribution and plant utilization...

  7. Phosphorus speciation by coupled HPLC-ICPMS: low level determination of reduced phosphorus in natural materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atlas, Zachary; Pasek, Matthew; Sampson, Jacqueline

    2015-04-01

    Phosphorus is a geologically important minor element in the Earth's crust commonly found as relatively insoluble apatite. This constraint causes phosphorus to be a key limiting nutrient in biologic processes. Despite this, phosphorus plays a direct role in the formation of DNA, RNA and other cellular materials. Recent works suggest that since reduced phosphorus is considerably more soluble than oxidized phosphorus that it was integrally involved in the development of life on the early Earth and may continue to play a role in biologic productivity to this day. This work examines a new method for quantification and identification of reduced phosphorus as well as applications to the speciation of organo-phosphates separated by coupled HPLC - ICP-MS. We show that reduced phosphorus species (P1+, P3+ and P5+) are cleanly separated in the HPLC and coupled with the ICPMS reaction cell, using oxygen as a reaction gas to effectively convert elemental P to P-O. Analysis at M/Z= 47 producing lower background and flatter baseline chromatography than analyses performed at M/Z = 31. Results suggest very low detection limits (0.05 μM) for P species analyzed as P-O. Additionally we show that this technique has potential to speciate at least 5 other forms of phosphorus compounds. We verified the efficacy of method on numerous materials including leached Archean rocks, suburban retention pond waters, blood and urine samples and most samples show small but detectible levels of reduced phosphorus and or organo-phaospates. This finding in nearly all substances analyzed supports the assumption that the redox processing of phosphorus has played a significant role throughout the history of the Earth and it's presence in the present environment is nearly ubiquitous with the reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds, phosphite and hypophosphite, potentially acting as significant constituents in the anaerobic environment.

  8. Recovery of phosphates from elemental phosphorus bearing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.E.; Moore, O.E.; Sullivan, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    A process for oxidizing aqueous elemental phosphorus containing residues (sludges) to produce orthophosphate containing slurries suitable for subsequent reaction with ammonia to produce nitrogen and phosphate containing fertilizer products is presented. It comprises reacting aqueous elemental phosphorus containing residues with certain special mixtures of concentrated nitric acid and sulfuric acid to effect the conversion of the elemental phosphorus into mostly orthophosphoric acid and very little orthophosphorus acid with the relative ratios of the two acids being dependent upon the mole ratio of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}:HNO{sub 3} employed in the processing. The resulting aqueous reaction intermediate is neutralized with ammonia during processing to a fluid or solid fertilizer product. Prior to the conversion to products, the aqueous reaction intermediate may be subjected to a solids separation step to remove insoluble salts of certain environmentally undesirable metals, such as Pb, Cd, Ba, and Cr.

  9. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium effects on biomass yield and flavonoid content of American Skullcap (Scutellaria Lateriflora)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information on optimum dosage of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilizer for high dry matter yield and flavonoid yield of American Skullcap is lacking. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effects of N, P and K fertilizer on biomass yield and flavonoid content of...

  10. Potassium and phosphorus effects on disease severity of charcoal rot of soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers on charcoal rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] are unknown. Therefore, the severity of charcoal rot was studied at five levels of K (0, 37, 75, 111 and 149 kg K ha-1) and a level that was equal to the recommended fertilizer applicatio...

  11. Potassium and Phosphorus effects on disease severity of charcoal rot of soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers on charcoal rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] are unknown. Therefore, the severity of charcoal rot was studied at five levels of K (0, 37, 75, 111 and 149 kg K ha-1) and a level that was equal to the recommended fertilizer applicatio...

  12. Differences in modified Morgan phosphorus levels determined by colorimetric and inductively coupled plasma methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) fertilization is frequently needed for profitable crop production. Modified Morgan P (MMP) is a soil test P used to estimate plant available P in soils. The critical values of MMP for P fertilization and maintenance recommendations are based on the P concentrations measured by a commo...

  13. Inorganic and Organic Phosphorus in Soil Affected by Compost, Tillage and Cropping System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive fertilization with organic or inorganic phosphorus (P) amendments increases the potential risk of P losses to surface waters. An understanding of the P fractions in soil is essential for proper management of fertilizer amendments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the distributio...

  14. Blended fertilizers as draw solutions for fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis desalination.

    PubMed

    Phuntsho, Sherub; Shon, Ho Kyong; Majeed, Tahir; El Saliby, Ibrahim; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Kandasamy, Jaya; Hong, Seungkwan; Lee, Sangyoup

    2012-04-17

    In fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) desalination, the final nutrient concentration (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium (NPK)) in the product water is essential for direct fertigation and to avoid over fertilization. Our study with 11 selected fertilizers indicate that blending of two or more single fertilizers as draw solution (DS) can achieve significantly lower nutrient concentration in the FDFO product water rather than using single fertilizer alone. For example, blending KCl and NH(4)H(2)PO(4) as DS can result in 0.61/1.35/1.70 g/L of N/P/K, which is comparatively lower than using them individually as DS. The nutrient composition and concentration in the final FDFO product water can also be adjusted by selecting low nutrient fertilizers containing complementary nutrients and in different ratios to produce prescription mixtures. However, blending fertilizers generally resulted in slightly reduced bulk osmotic pressure and water flux in comparison to the sum of the osmotic pressures and water fluxes of the two individual DSs as used alone. The performance ratio or PR (ratio of actual water flux to theoretical water flux) of blended fertilizer DS was observed to be between the PR of the two fertilizer solutions tested individually. In some cases, such as urea, blending also resulted in significant reduction in N nutrient loss by reverse diffusion in presence of other fertilizer species. PMID:22404621

  15. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V., Jr.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  16. Stoichiometric Effects of Phosphorus Enrichment in the Kuparuk River Food web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benstead, J. P.; Deegan, L. A.; Huryn, A. D.; Peterson, B. J.

    2005-05-01

    A 3-km reach of the oligotrophic Kuparuk River (Alaska) has been fertilized with phosphorus (10 μg/L) for 22 consecutive Arctic summers. In 2004 we added a high-P (30 μg/L) reach to the experiment. As in previous years, phosphorus addition significantly increased chlorophyll a and decreased epilithon C:P ratio relative to the reference reach. Higher algal biomass or lower epilithon C:P in fertilized reaches caused faster growth of some primary consumers (e.g., Orthocladius rivulorum) but not others (e.g., Acentrella sp.), presumably because threshold C:P ratios varied among taxa. Young-of-year Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) showed a significant step response to phosphorus addition. Some insect primary consumers are known to contain more phosphorus in fertilized reaches, because of storage or higher RNA content. Higher phosphorus content of insect prey may explain higher grayling growth rates in fertilized reaches, because production budgets suggest that carbon limitation of grayling growth is unlikely under natural prey densities, at which models of mass balance constraints indicate phosphorus limitation. Such an interaction would be evidence for increased growth of a nutrient-limited predator in response to modified carbon:nutrient ratios at two lower trophic levels - a fundamentally different effect of fertilization from that classically mediated by increased primary production.

  17. Responses in sediment phosphorus and lanthanum concentrations and composition across 10 lakes following applications of lanthanum modified bentonite.

    PubMed

    Dithmer, Line; Nielsen, Ulla Gro; Lürling, Miquel; Spears, Bryan M; Yasseri, Said; Lundberg, Daniel; Moore, Alanna; Jensen, Nicholai D; Reitzel, Kasper

    2016-06-15

    A combined field and laboratory scale study of 10 European lakes treated between 2006 and 2013 with a lanthanum (La) modified bentonite (LMB) to control sediment phosphorus (P) release was conducted. The study followed the responses in sediment characteristics including La and P fractions and binding forms, P adsorption capacity of discrete sediment layers, and pore water P concentrations. Lanthanum phosphate mineral phases were confirmed by solid state (31)P MAS NMR and LIII EXAFS spectroscopy. Rhabdophane (LaPO4 · nH2O) was the major phase although indications of monazite (LaPO4) formation were also reported, in the earliest treated lake. Molar ratios between La and P in the sediments were generally above 1, demonstrating excess La relative to P. Lanthanum was vertically mixed in the sediment down to a depth of 10 cm for eight of the ten lakes, and recovery of La in excess of 100% of the theoretical aerial load indicated translocation of the LMB towards the deepest areas of the lakes. Lanthanum was generally recovered from bed sediment samples following sequential chemical extraction from the HCl fraction. Soluble reactive P (SRP) release experiments on intact sediment cores indicated conditions of P retention (with the exception of two lakes) by sediments, indicating effective control of sediment P release, i.e. between two and nine years after treatment. PMID:26971297

  18. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Nutrient Inputs from Fertilizer and Manure, Nitrogen and Phosphorus (N&P), 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the total amount of nitrogen and phosphorus, in kilograms for the year 2002, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set is County-Level Estimates of Nutrient Inputs to the Land Surface of the Conterminous United States, 1982-2001 (Ruddy and others, 2006). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  19. Nonsurgical fertility control for managing free-roaming dog populations: a review of products and criteria for field applications.

    PubMed

    Massei, Giovanna; Miller, Lowell A

    2013-11-01

    About 75% of dogs worldwide are free to roam and reproduce, thus creating locally overabundant populations. Problems caused by roaming dogs include diseases transmitted to livestock and humans, predation on livestock, attacks on humans, road traffic accidents, and nuisance behavior. Nonsurgical fertility control is increasingly advocated as more cost-effective than surgical sterilization to manage dog populations and their impact. The aims of this review were to 1) analyze trends in numbers of scientific publications on nonsurgical fertility control for dogs; 2) illustrate the spectrum of fertility inhibitors available for dogs; 3) examine how differences between confined and free-roaming dogs might affect the choice of fertility inhibitors to be used in dog population management; and 4) provide a framework of criteria to guide decisions regarding the use of nonsurgical fertility control for dog population management. The results showed that the 117 articles published between 1982 and 2011 focussed on long-term hormonal contraceptives, such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, immunocontraceptives, and male chemical sterilants. The number of articles published biennially increased from one to five papers produced in the early 1980s to 10 to 20 in the past decade. Differences between confined dogs and free-roaming dogs include reproduction and survival as well as social expectations regarding the duration of infertility, the costs of sterilization, and the responsibilities for meeting these costs. These differences are likely to dictate which fertility inhibitors will be used for confined or free-roaming dogs. The criteria regarding the use of fertility control for dog population management, presented as a decision tree, covered social acceptance, animal welfare, effectiveness, legal compliance, feasibility, and sustainability. The review concluded that the main challenges for the future are evaluating the feasibility, effectiveness, sustainability, and

  20. Effect of silicon-based fertilizer applications on the reproduction and development of the citrus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) feeding on green coleus.

    PubMed

    Hogendorp, Brian K; Cloyd, Raymond A; Swiader, John M

    2009-12-01

    Mealybugs are major insect pests of greenhouses, interiorscapes, and conservatories because they feed on a wide-range of horticultural crops. Furthermore, mealybugs are difficult to regulate with insecticides due to the presence of a nearly impervious protective waxy covering, which means that alternative management strategies are required. As such, this study, involving two replicated experiments, was designed to determine the value of applying silicon-based fertilizers, as potassium silicate, to coleus, Solenstemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd, plants as a way to prevent outbreaks of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). The first experiment evaluated the effects of different application methods (foliar and drench), at 50 ppm silicon, using the commercially-available product, ProTek 0-0-3 The Silicon Solution. The second experiment entailed applying the silicon-based fertilizer as a drench to the growing medium at different rates (0, 100, 400, 800, and 1,600 ppm silicon). We determined the effects of the silicon-based fertilizer treatments on citrus mealybug life history parameters including number of eggs laid by the adult female, body size, and developmental time from first instar to ovipositing adult female. Furthermore, we used a plant alkaline fusion technique to assess the concentration (milligrams per kilogram or ppm) of silicon in the coleus plant tissues at variable time intervals (days). In general, this technique involved dry-ashing plant tissue in a muffle furnace, followed by alkaline fusion and then colormetric analysis. The silicon-based fertilizer application treatments, in both experiments, did not negatively affect any of the citrus mealybug life history parameters measured. In the first experiment, citrus mealybug female egg load ranged from 199.5 (drench application) to 219.4 (combination spray and drench application), and developmental time (days) from first instar crawler to ovipositing female ranged from