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1

Mapping nanoscale variations in photochemical damage of polymer/fullerene solar cells with dissipation imaging.  

PubMed

We use frequency-modulated electrostatic force microscopy to track changes in cantilever quality factor (Q) as a function of photochemical damage in a model organic photovoltaic system poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

Cox, Phillip A; Waldow, Dean A; Dupper, Torin J; Jesse, Stephen; Ginger, David S

2013-11-26

2

19th International Conference on Photochemical Conversion and Storage of Solar Energy  

E-print Network

IPS-19 19th International Conference on Photochemical Conversion and Storage of Solar Energy 29@caltech.edu Prof. Harry Gray hbg@caltech.edu Prof. Jonas Peters jpeters@caltech.edu Dye-Sensitized & Polymer Solar Cells Advanced Photovoltaics Photocatalysis Solar Fuels Production Photoelectrochemistry

Goddard III, William A.

3

Photochemical solar cells based on d-band electrochemistry at transition metal diselenides. Technical progress report, second quarter, year one  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single crystals of the layered semiconductor tungsten diselenide have been grown by chemical vapor transport and evaluated as the photoanode in a n-WSeâ\\/1M KI-0.1mIâ\\/Pt photoelectrochemical cell. Progress is detailed. In situ topographic photogenerated carrier collection analysis with a scanning laser spot technique has verified that crystal edges exposed to the electrolyte are a major source of efficiency losses in the

B. A. Parkinson; T. E. Furtak

1980-01-01

4

Photochemical conversion of solar energy in the environment. Book chapter  

SciTech Connect

Past research on photochemistry in the environment has focused on gas phase reactions in the atmosphere. Recently, however, environmentally significant photoreactions have been discovered in natural waters (i.e., the sea, lakes, and rivers), on soil surfaces, and in atmospheric condensed phases. These new investigations have been stimulated in part by interest in developing a scientific understanding of the role of photochemical processes in the biogeochemical cycles of various elements. In addition, other studies have explored the role of natural photochemical processes in cleansing the environemnt of various waste materials or, in some cases, in converting the wastes to more toxic substances. In the paper, current research results on the photochemical conversion of solar energy in aquatic environments and on soil and metal oxide surfaces are presented. Rate equations and products for selected homogeneous and heterogeneous photoreactions that occur in these systems are described. Data are presented for direct and sensitized photoreactions and for sunlight-initiated free radical reactions. (Copyright (c) 1991 Kluwer Academic Publishers.)

Zepp, R.G.

1991-01-01

5

Solar photochemical process engineering for production of fuels and chemicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The engineering costs and performance of a nominal 25,000 scmd (883,000 scfd) photochemical plant to produce dihydrogen from water were studied. Two systems were considered, one based on flat-plate collector/reactors and the other on linear parabolic troughs. Engineering subsystems were specified including the collector/reactor, support hardware, field transport piping, gas compression equipment, and balance-of-plant (BOP) items. Overall plant efficiencies of 10.3 and 11.6 percent are estimated for the flat-plate and trough systems, respectively, based on assumed solar photochemical efficiencies of 12.9 and 14.6 percent. Because of the opposing effects of concentration ratio and operating temperature on efficiency, it was concluded that reactor cooling would be necessary with the trough system. Both active and passive cooling methods were considered. Capital costs and energy costs, for both concentrating and non-concentrating systems, were determined and their sensitivity to efficiency and economic parameters were analyzed. The overall plant efficiency is the single most important factor in determining the cost of the fuel.

Biddle, J. R.; Peterson, D. B.; Fujita, T.

6

Solar photochemical process engineering for production of fuels and chemicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The engineering costs and performance of a nominal 25,000 scmd (883,000 scfd) photochemical plant to produce dihydrogen from water were studied. Two systems were considered, one based on flat-plate collector/reactors and the other on linear parabolic troughs. Engineering subsystems were specified including the collector/reactor, support hardware, field transport piping, gas compression equipment, and balance-of-plant (BOP) items. Overall plant efficiencies of 10.3 and 11.6% are estimated for the flat-plate and trough systems, respectively, based on assumed solar photochemical efficiencies of 12.9 and 14.6%. Because of the opposing effects of concentration ratio and operating temperature on efficiency, it was concluded that reactor cooling would be necessary with the trough system. Both active and passive cooling methods were considered. Capital costs and energy costs, for both concentrating and non-concentrating systems, were determined and their sensitivity to efficiency and economic parameters were analyzed. The overall plant efficiency is the single most important factor in determining the cost of the fuel.

Biddle, J. R.; Peterson, D. B.; Fujita, T.

1984-05-01

7

Photochemical Studies of Chemistry in the Outer Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the proposed science investigation is to gain a quantitative understanding of chemical processes and their coupling with atmospheric dynamics in the reducing atmospheres of the outer solar system, with a particular focus on Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) observations and future experiments such as the Cassini Mission to Saturn and Titan. The proposed work is divided into two related tasks. We have carried out a systematic comparison between atmospheric models for every giant planet and Titan, which employ a consistent set of photochemical reactions. Combined with recent observations of hydrocarbon species by ISO, this can provide the most rigorous test of our current understanding of the photochemistry of hydrocarbon in the outer solar system. The emphasis will be on the methyl radical (CH3), first detected by IS0 in the atmospheres of Saturn and Neptune (Bezard et al. 1998). CH3 is one of the most important radicals in the hydrocarbon photochemistry because it is the primary product of methane photolysis and plays an essential role in forming C2H6, the most abundant and stable C2 species. A fundamental understanding of the distribution of CH3 provides unique insights into the chemistry of hydrocarbons as well as comparative planetology.

Yung, Yuk L.

2003-01-01

8

Solar Irradiation of Bilirubin: An Experiment in Photochemical Oxidation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment in photochemical oxidation, which deals with bilirubin, a well-known light-sensitive biological compound that is pedagogically ideal for photochemical experiments at tertiary institutes, is presented. The experiment would benefit students in chemistry who eventually branch out into the health sciences or biochemistry.

Pillay A. E.; Salih, F. M.

2006-01-01

9

Solar Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Heat Exchanger Method (HEM) produces high efficiency crystal ingots in an automated well-insulated furnace offering low equipment, labor and energy costs. The "grown" silicon crystals are used to make solar cells, or photovoltaic cells which convert sunlight directly into electricity. The HEM method is used by Crystal Systems, Inc. and was developed under a NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory contract. The square wafers which are the result of the process are sold to companies manufacturing solar panels.

1983-01-01

10

Photochemical approaches to T-cell activation  

PubMed Central

Despite decades of intensive research, T-cell activation has remained mysterious because of both the dizzying diversity of antigen recognition and the speed and comprehensiveness of the T-cell-receptor signalling network. Further progress will require new approaches and reagents that provide added levels of control. Photochemistry allows specific biochemical processes to be controlled with light and is well suited to mechanistic studies in complex cellular environments. In recent years, several laboratories have adopted approaches based on photoreactive peptide-major histocompatibility complex reagents in order to study T-cell activation and function with high precision. Here, I review these efforts and outline future directions for this exciting area of research. PMID:20406301

Huse, Morgan

2010-01-01

11

High-temperature photochemical destruction of toxic organic wastes using concentrated solar radiation  

SciTech Connect

Application of concentrated solar energy has been proposed to be a viable waste disposal option. Specifically, this concept of solar induced high-temperature photochemistry is based on the synergistic contribution of concentrated infrared (IR) radiation, which acts as an intense heating source, and near ultraviolet and visible (UV-VIS) radiation, which can induce destructive photochemical processes. Some significant advances have been made in the theoretical framework of high-temperature photochemical processes (Section 2) and development of experimental techniques for their study (Section 3). Basic thermal/photolytic studies have addressed the effect of temperature on the photochemical destruction of pure compounds (Section 4). Detailed studies of the destruction of reaction by-products have been conducted on selected waste molecules (Section 5). Some very limited results are available on the destruction of mixtures (Section 6). Fundamental spectroscopic studies have been recently initiated (Section 7). The results to date have been used to conduct some relatively simple scale-up studies of the solar detoxification process. More recent work has focused on destruction of compounds that do not directly absorb solar radiation. Research efforts have focused on homogeneous as well as heterogeneous methods of initiating destructive reaction pathways (Section 9). Although many conclusions at this point must be considered tentative due to lack of basic research, a clearer picture of the overall process is emerging (Section 10). However, much research remains to be performed and most follow several veins, including photochemical, spectroscopic, combustion kinetic, and engineering scale-up (Section 11).

Dellinger, B.; Graham, J.L.; Berman, J.M.; Taylor, P.H. [Dayton Univ., OH (United States)

1994-05-01

12

Photochemical, electrochemical and thermochemical transformation and storage of solar energy: Thermodynamic aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arguments of reversible and irreversible chemical thermodynamics are explained and applied to the transfer and storage of solar energy chemical and radiation potential. The key processes are identified as water splitting, carbon dioxide reduction and nitrogen reduction. Results on photochemical storage processes are reported.

G. Calzaferri

1985-01-01

13

The Impact of Aerosols on Solar Ultraviolet Radiation and Photochemical Smog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photochemical smog, or ground-level ozone, has been the most recalcitrant of air pollution problems, but reductions in emissions of sulfur and hydrocarbons may yield unanticipated benefits in air quality. While sulfate and some organic aerosol particles scatter solar radiation back into space and can cool Earth`s surface, they also change the actinic flux of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Observations and numerical

R. R. Dickerson; S. Kondragunta; G. Stenchikov; K. L. Civerolo; B. G. Doddridge; B. N. Holben

1997-01-01

14

The impact of aerosols on solar ultraviolet radiation an photochemical smog  

SciTech Connect

Photochemical smog, or ground-level ozone, has been the most recalcitrant of air pollution problems, but reductions in emissions of sulfur and hydrocarbons may yield unanticipated benefits in air quality. While sulfate and some organic aerosol particles scatter solar radiation back into space and can cool Earth`s surface, they also change the actinic flux of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Observations and numerical models show that UV-scattering particles in the boundary layer accelerate photochemical reactions and smog production, but UV-absorbing aerosols such as mineral dust and soot inhibit smog production. Results could have major implications for the control of air pollution. 19 refs., 4 figs.

Dickerson, R.R.; Kondragunta, S.; Stenchikov, G. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); and others

1997-10-31

15

Space solar cell research  

SciTech Connect

New solar cell technologies are emerging that could replace silicon cells in power-conversion applications. Gallium arsenide, indium phosphide, and other semiconducting compounds are the focal point of an expanding research effort. The primary subject matter of the article is divided into the following areas: Space vs. terrestrial cell efficiency; Space solar cells; Silicon Cells; Gallium arsenide cells; Other space solar cells; Indium phosphide cells; Superlattice solar cells.

Flood, D.J.

1989-04-01

16

Mars atmosphere loss and isotopic fractionation by solar-wind-induced sputtering and photochemical escape  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of loss of Mars atmospheric constituents by solar-wind-induced sputtering and by photochemical escape during the last 3.8 b.y. were examined. Sputtering is capable of efficiently removing all species from the upper atmosphere, including the light noble gases; N also is removed by photochemical processes. Due to the diffusive separation by mass above the homopause, removal from the top of the atmosphere will fractionate the isotopes of each species, with the lighter mass being preferentially lost. For C and O, this allows us to determine the size of nonatmospheric reservoirs that mix with the atmosphere; these reserviors can be accounted for by exchange with CO2 adsorbed in the regolith and with H2O in the polar ice deposits. Both simple analytical models and time-dependent models of the loss of volatiles from and supply to the Martian atmosphere were constructed. Both Ar and Ne require continued replenishment from outgassing over geologic time.

Jakosky, B. M.; Pepin, R. O.; Johnson, R. E.; Fox, J. L.

1993-01-01

17

Polymer solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progress in the development of polymer solar cells has improved power-conversion efficiencies from 3% to almost 9%. Based on semiconducting polymers, these solar cells are fabricated from solution-processing techniques and have unique prospects for achieving low-cost solar energy harvesting, owing to their material and manufacturing advantages. The potential applications of polymer solar cells are broad, ranging from flexible solar

Gang Li; Rui Zhu; Yang Yang

2012-01-01

18

Solar Photovoltaic Cells.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews information on solar radiation as an energy source. Discusses these topics: the key photovoltaic material; the bank theory of solids; conductors, semiconductors, and insulators; impurity semiconductors; solid-state photovoltaic cell operation; limitations on solar cell efficiency; silicon solar cells; cadmium sulfide/copper (I) sulfide…

Mickey, Charles D.

1981-01-01

19

An influence of solar activity on latitudinal distribution of atmospheric ozone and temperature in 2-D radiative-photochemical model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On the basis of the 2-D radiative-photochemical model of the ozone layer at heights 0 to 60 km in the Northern Hemisphere there are revealed and analyzed in detail the characteristic features of the season-altitude-latitude variations of ozone and temperature due to changes of the solar flux during the 11 year cycle, electron and proton precipitations.

Dyominov, I. G.

1989-01-01

20

Nanocoax Solar Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel architecture for high efficiency solar energy conversion, employing separated photo-- and --voltaic pathways and antenna-based light collection, is described. This material-independent architecture solves the ``thick-and-thin'' conundrum of solar photovoltaics, wherein solar cells must be thick enough to absorb light yet thin enough to allow for charge extraction. Our solar cells are comprised of arrays of high aspect ratio,

M. J. Naughton; K. Kempa; Z. F. Ren; J. Rybczynski; T. Paudel; Y. Gao; Y. Xu

2008-01-01

21

Heterojunction solar cell  

DOEpatents

A high-efficiency single heterojunction solar cell wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. The conversion effiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the emitter layer.

Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO)

1994-01-01

22

Heterojunction solar cell  

DOEpatents

A high-efficiency single heterojunction solar cell is described wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga[sub 0.52]In[sub 0.48]P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the emitter layer. 1 fig.

Olson, J.M.

1994-08-30

23

Solar cell encapsulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A polymer syrup for encapsulating solar cell assemblies. The syrup includes uncrosslinked poly(n-butyl)acrylate dissolved in n-butyl acrylate monomer. Preparation of the poly(n-butyl)acrylate and preparation of the polymer syrup is disclosed. Methods for applying the polymer syrup to solar cell assemblies as an encapsulating pottant are described. Also included is a method for solar cell construction utilizing the polymer syrup as a dual purpose adhesive and encapsulating material.

Gupta, Amitava (Inventor); Ingham, John D. (Inventor); Yavrouian, Andre H. (Inventor)

1983-01-01

24

Fundamentals of solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This text is addressed to upper level graduate students with background in solid state physics and to scientists and engineers involved in solar cell research. The author aims to present fundamental physical principles rather than the state-of-the-art. Specific devices are used to illustrate basic phenomena and to indicate possibilities for innovative design. Contents, abridged: Solar insolation. The calculation of solar

A. L. Farhenbruch; R. H. Bube

1983-01-01

25

Solar cell shingle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar cell shingle was made of an array of solar cells on a lower portion of a substantially rectangular shingle substrate made of fiberglass cloth or the like. The solar cells may be encapsulated in flourinated ethylene propylene or some other weatherproof translucent or transparent encapsulant to form a combined electrical module and a roof shingle. The interconnected solar cells were connected to connectors at the edge of the substrate through a connection to a common electrical bus or busses. An overlap area was arranged to receive the overlap of a cooperating similar shingle so that the cell portion of the cooperating shingle may overlie the overlap area of the roof shingle. Accordingly, the same shingle serves the double function of an ordinary roof shingle which may be applied in the usual way and an array of cooperating solar cells from which electrical energy may be collected.

Forestieri, A. F.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Sidorak, L. G. (inventors)

1977-01-01

26

TAT-mediated photochemical internalization results in cell killing by causing the release of calcium into the cytosol of cells  

PubMed Central

Background Lysis of endocytic organelles is a necessary step in many cellular delivery methodologies. This is achieved efficiently in the photochemical internalization approach but the cell death that accompanies this process remains a problem. Methods We investigate the mechanisms of cell death that accompanies photochemical internalization of the fluorescent peptide TMR-TAT. Results TMR-TAT kills cells after endocytosis and light irradiation. The lysis of endocytic organelles by TMR-TAT causes a rapid increase in the concentration of calcium in the cytosol. TMR-TAT co-localizes with endocytic organelles containing calcium prior to irradiation and photochemical internalization leads to the release of the lumenal content of these organelles. Ruthenium red and cyclosporin A, inhibitors of calcium import in mitochondria and of the mitochondria permeability transition pore, inhibit cell death. Conclusions TMR-TAT mediated photochemical internalization leads to a disruption of calcium homeostasis. The subsequent import of calcium in mitochondria is a causative factor of the cell death that accompanies photochemical internalization. General Significance Understanding how the lysis of endocytic organelles affects cellular physiology and causes cell death is crucial to the development of optimal delivery methodologies. PMID:22771830

Muthukrishnan, Nandhini; Johnson, Gregory A.; Lim, Jongdoo; Simanek, Eric E.; Pellois, Jean-Philippe

2012-01-01

27

Hydrogen as the solar energy translator. [in photochemical and photovoltaic processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many concepts are being investigated to convert sunlight to workable energy forms with emphasis on electricity and thermal energy. The electrical alternatives include direct conversion of photons to electricity via photovoltaic solar cells and solar/thermal production of electricity via heat-energy cycles. Solar cells, when commercialized, are expected to have efficiencies of about 12 to 14 percent. The cells would be active about eight hours per day. However, solar-operated water-splitting process research, initiated through JPL, shows promise for direct production of hydrogen from sunlight with efficiencies of up to 35 to 40 percent. The hydrogen, a valuable commodity in itself, can also serve as a storable energy form, easily and efficiently converted to electricity by fuel cells and other advanced-technology devices on a 24-hour basis or on demand with an overall efficiency of 25 to 30 percent. Thus, hydrogen serves as the fundamental translator of energy from its solar form to electrical form more effectively, and possibly more efficiently, than direct conversion. Hydrogen also can produce other chemical energy forms using solar energy.

Kelley, J. H.

1979-01-01

28

Effect of aerosols on solar UV irradiances during the Photochemical Activity and Solar Ultraviolet Radiation Campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface UV irradiances were measured at two different sites in Greece during June 1996 under noncloudy conditions. The measured UV irradiances are simulated by a radiative transfer model using measured ozone density and aerosol optical depth profiles. The absolute difference between model and measurements ranges between -5% and +5% with little dependence on wavelength. The temporal and solar zenith angle

A. Kylling; A. F. Bais; M. Blumthaler; J. Schreder; C. S. Zerefos; E. Kosmidis

1998-01-01

29

Laser-assisted solar cell metallization processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser-assisted processing techniques utilized to produce the fine line, thin metal grid structures that are required to fabricate high efficiency solar cells are examined. Two basic techniques for metal deposition are investigated; (1) photochemical decomposition of liquid or gas phase organometallic compounds utilizing either a focused, CW ultraviolet laser (System 1) or a mask and ultraviolet flood illumination, such as that provided by a repetitively pulsed, defocused excimer laser (System 2), for pattern definition, and (2) thermal deposition of metals from organometallic solutions or vapors utilizing a focused, CW laser beam as a local heat source to draw the metallization pattern.

Dutta, S.

1984-01-01

30

Solar cell radiation handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The handbook to predict the degradation of solar cell electrical performance in any given space radiation environment is presented. Solar cell theory, cell manufacturing and how they are modeled mathematically are described. The interaction of energetic charged particles radiation with solar cells is discussed and the concept of 1 MeV equivalent electron fluence is introduced. The space radiation environment is described and methods of calculating equivalent fluences for the space environment are developed. A computer program was written to perform the equivalent fluence calculations and a FORTRAN listing of the program is included. Data detailing the degradation of solar cell electrical parameters as a function of 1 MeV electron fluence are presented.

Tada, H. Y.; Carter, J. R., Jr.; Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.

1982-01-01

31

Quantum dot solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum dot (QD) solar cells have the potential to increase the maximum attainable thermodynamic conversion efficiency of solar photon conversion up to about 66% by utilizing hot photogenerated carriers to produce higher photovoltages or higher photocurrents. The former effect is based on miniband transport and collection of hot carriers in QD array photoelectrodes before they relax to the band edges

A. J Nozik

2002-01-01

32

Photovoltaic solar cell  

DOEpatents

A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

2013-11-26

33

Solar cell array interconnects  

DOEpatents

Electrical interconnects are disclosed for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value. 4 figs.

Carey, P.G.; Thompson, J.B.; Colella, N.J.; Williams, K.A.

1995-11-14

34

Photoelectrochemical Solar Cells.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This introduction to photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells reviews topics pertaining to solar energy conversion and demonstrates the ease with which a working PEC cell can be prepared with n-type silicon as the photoanode and a platinum counter electrode (both immersed in ethanolic ferrocene/ferricenium solutions). Experiments using the cell are…

McDevitt, John T.

1984-01-01

35

Inside a Solar Cell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based on a NOVA Online lesson, Teachers' Domain presents this interactive activity that provides reading material and animations to help students learn the basics of photovoltaic cells, including how a solar cell converts solar energy into electricity and the components of the unit (silicon layers, metal backing, antireflective coating, and metal conductor strips). On the site, visitors will also find a supplemental background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment from Teachers' Domain.

2010-10-06

36

Concentrator solar cell research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research related to concentrator solar cells has produced a new model for series resistance and the beginnings of a powerful device analysis code for personal computers. The Quasi-One-Dimensional series resistance model permits the evaluation and optimization of losses associated with the front surface collection grid of concentrator solar cells, including nonuniform illumination profiles. The Q-1-D model has been incorporated in

P. A. Basore

1985-01-01

37

Thin silicon solar cells  

SciTech Connect

The silicon-film design achieves high performance by using a dun silicon layer and incorporating light trapping. Optimally designed thin crystalline solar cells (<50 microns thick) have performance advantages over conventional thick devices. The high-performance silicon-film design employs a metallurgical barrier between the low-cost substrate and the thin silicon layer. Light trapping properties of silicon-film on ceramic solar cells are presented and analyzed. Recent advances in process development are described here.

Hall, R.B.; Bacon, C.; DiReda, V.; Ford, D.H.; Ingram, A.E.; Cotter, J.; Hughes-Lampros, T.; Rand, J.A.; Ruffins, T.R.; Barnett, A.M. [Astro Power Inc., Solar Park, Newark, DE (United States)

1992-12-01

38

Dynamic photochemical lipid micropatterning for manipulation of nonadherent mammalian cells.  

PubMed

Cell micropatterning methods with stimuli-responsive dynamic surfaces are getting a lot of attention in a wide variety of research fields, ranging from cell engineering to fundamental studies in cell biology. The surface of a slide coated with photo-cleavable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-lipid can be used to spatiotemporally control cell immobilization and release by light irradiation. On the basis of this surface, it is easy to design simple methods for making a fine micropattern of any kind of cell. Furthermore, target cells can be selectively and rapidly released from this surface by light irradiation. In this review, we first describe how to obtain the photo-cleavable PEG-lipid from commercially available compounds through a facile four-step synthesis. Next, as a cell-patterning method, the protocols of coating substrates with the PEG-lipid, irradiating a pattern of light onto the coated substrate, and loading cells onto the irradiated surface are described. These protocols require no expensive equipment and potentially apply to any substrates that can adsorb serum albumin or chemically expose amine moieties on their surfaces. Finally, as an advanced method, cell release from the PEG-lipid surface in microfluidic devices is introduced. We also discuss the advantages and the possible applications of the present dynamic cell-patterning method. PMID:24484661

Yamahira, Shinya; Takasaki, Yumi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Sumaru, Kimio; Kanamori, Toshiyuki; Nagamune, Teruyuki

2014-01-01

39

Welded solar cell interconnection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The efficiency of the welding of solar-cell interconnects is compared with the efficiency of soldering such interconnects, and the cases in which welding may be superior are examined. Emphasis is placed on ultrasonic welding; attention is given to the solar-cell welding machine, the application of the welding process to different solar-cell configurations, producibility, and long-life performance of welded interconnects. Much of the present work has been directed toward providing increased confidence in the reliability of welding using conditions approximating those that would occur with large-scale array production. It is concluded that there is as yet insufficient data to determine which of three methods (soldering, parallel gap welding, and ultrasonic welding) provides the longest-duration solar panel life.

Stofel, E. J.; Browne, E. R.; Meese, R. A.; Vendura, G. J.

1982-01-01

40

Four-cell solar tracker  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forty cm Sun tracker, consisting of optical telescope and four solar cells, stays pointed at Sun throughout day for maximum energy collection. Each solar cell generates voltage proportional to part of solar image it receives; voltages drive servomotors that keep image centered. Mirrored portion of cylinder extends acquisition angle of device by reflecting Sun image back onto solar cells.

Berdahl, C. M.

1981-01-01

41

Transparent solar cell module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modified solar cell module uses high transmission glass and adhesives, and heat dissipation to boost power per unit area by 25% (9.84% efficiency based on cell area at 60 C and 100 mW/sq cm flux). Design is suited for automatic production and is potentially more cost effective.

Antonides, G. J.; Dillard, P. A.; Fritz, W. M.; Lott, D. P.

1979-01-01

42

EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser  

E-print Network

7/21/2010 1 EE580 ­ Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser · Lecture 06 · Solar Cell Materials & Structures 1Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 6: Solar Cells Solar Cell Technologies · A) Crystalline Silicon · B) Thin Film · C) Group III-IV Cells 2Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 6: Solar

Kaiser, Todd J.

43

Broad spectrum solar cell  

DOEpatents

An alloy having a large band gap range is used in a multijunction solar cell to enhance utilization of the solar energy spectrum. In one embodiment, the alloy is In.sub.1-xGa.sub.xN having an energy bandgap range of approximately 0.7 eV to 3.4 eV, providing a good match to the solar energy spectrum. Multiple junctions having different bandgaps are stacked to form a solar cell. Each junction may have different bandgaps (realized by varying the alloy composition), and therefore be responsive to different parts of the spectrum. The junctions are stacked in such a manner that some bands of light pass through upper junctions to lower junctions that are responsive to such bands.

Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw (Kensington, CA); Yu, Kin Man (Lafayette, CA); Wu, Junqiao (Richmond, CA); Schaff, William J. (Ithaca, NY)

2007-05-15

44

Linking solar induced fluorescence and the photochemical reflectance index to carbon assimilation in a cornfield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the health and vigor of vegetation using high spectral resolution remote sensing techniques is a critical component in monitoring productivity from both natural and managed ecosystems and their feedbacks to climate. This presentation summarizes a field campaign conducted in a USDA-ARS experimental cornfield site located in Beltsville, MD, USA over a five-year period. The site is equipped with an instrumented tower which makes continuous eddy covariance measurements of CO2 along with incoming PAR. Hyperspectral reflectance observations were acquired over corn canopies with a USB4000 Miniature Fiber Optic Spectrometer (Ocean Optics Inc., Dunedin, Florida, USA) at multiple times a day at various stages through the growing season. On all field days, supporting plant information and leaf level data were acquired (e.g., CO2 gas exchange) as well as biophysical field data, including leaf area index (LAI), mid-day canopy PAR transmission, soil reflectivity, and soil moisture. The canopy optical measurements enabled retrievals of the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and solar induced fluorescence (SIF) centered at O2-A and -B bands. These two spectrally based bio-indicators have been widely utilized in studies to assess whether vegetation is performing near-optimally or exhibiting symptoms of environmental stress (e.g., drought or nutrient deficiency, non-optimal temperatures, etc.). Both SIF and PRI expressed diurnal dynamics and seasonal changes that followed environmental conditions and physiological status of the cornfield. We further investigated the correlation between these two retrievals and the flux tower based carbon assimilation observations (i.e. gross ecosystem production, GEP). We were able to successfully model the variation of GEP (r2=0.81; RMSE=0.18 mg CO2/m2/s) by utilizing both SIF and PRI. Several cross-validation algorithms were applied to the model to demonstrate the robustness and consistency of the model. Our results suggest great potential of using SIF and PRI to monitor photosynthetic activities. Further studies are needed at various ecosystems.

Cheng, Y.; Middleton, E.; Zhang, Q.; Corp, L.; Campbell, P. K.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Kustas, W.; Daughtry, C. S.; Dulaney, W. P.; Russ, A.

2012-12-01

45

Solar Cells and Photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photovoltaic solar cells are gaining wide acceptance for producing clean, renewable electricity. This has been based on more than 40 years of research that has benefited from the revolution in silicon electronics and compound semiconductors in optoelectronics. This chapter gives an introduction into the basic science of photovoltaic solar cells and the challenge of extracting the maximum amount of electrical energy from the available solar energy. In addition to the constraints of the basic physics of these devices, there are considerable challenges in materials synthesis. The latter has become more prominent with the need to reduce the cost of solar module manufacture as it enters mainstream energy production. The chapter is divided into sections dealing with the fundamentals of solar cells and then considering five very different materials systems, from crystalline silicon through to polycrystalline thin films. These materials have been chosen because they are all in production, although some are only in the early stages of production. Many more materials are being considered in research and some of the more exciting, polymer and dye-sensitised cells are mentioned in the conclusions. However, there is insufficient space to give these very active areas of research the justice they deserve. I hope the reader will feel sufficiently inspired by this topic to read further and explore one of the most exciting areas of semiconductor science. The need for high-volume production at low cost has taken the researcher along paths not normally considered in semiconductor devices and it is this that provides an exciting challenge.

Irvine, Stuart

46

Solar cell radiation handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for predicting the degradation of a solar array in a space radiation environment. Solar cell technology which emphasizes the cell parameters that degrade in a radiation environment, is discussed along with the experimental techniques used in the evaluation of radiation effects. Other topics discussed include: theoretical aspects of radiation damage, methods for developing relative damage coefficients, nature of the space radiation environment, method of calculating equivalent fluence from electron and proton energy spectrums and relative damage coefficients, and comparison of flight data with estimated degradation.

Carter, J. R., Jr.; Tada, H. Y.

1973-01-01

47

Flexible Solar Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar cell "modules" are plastic strips coated with thin films of photovoltaic silicon that collect solar energy for instant conversion into electricity. Lasers divide the thin film coating into smaller cells to build up voltage. Developed by Iowa Thin Film Technologies under NASA and DOE grants, the modules are used as electrical supply for advertising displays, battery rechargers for recreational vehicles, and to power model airplanes. The company is planning other applications both in consumer goods and as a power source in underdeveloped countries.

1994-01-01

48

Amorphous semiconductor solar cell  

DOEpatents

A solar cell comprising a back electrical contact, amorphous silicon semiconductor base and junction layers and a top electrical contact includes in its manufacture the step of heat treating the physical junction between the base layer and junction layer to diffuse the dopant species at the physical junction into the base layer.

Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE)

1981-01-01

49

NASA Facts, Solar Cells.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The design and function of solar cells as a source of electrical power for unmanned space vehicles is described in this pamphlet written for high school physical science students. The pamphlet is one of the NASA Facts Science Series (each of which consists of four pages) and is designed to fit in the standard size three-ring notebook. Review…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

50

Thin, Lightweight Solar Cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved design for thin, lightweight solar photovoltaic cells with front contacts reduces degradation of electrical output under exposure to energetic charged particles (protons and electrons). Increases ability of cells to maintain structural integrity under exposure to ultraviolet radiation by eliminating ultraviolet-degradable adhesives used to retain cover glasses. Interdigitated front contacts and front junctions formed on semiconductor substrate. Mating contacts formed on back surface of cover glass. Cover glass and substrate electrostatically bonded together.

Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; Weinberg, Irving

1991-01-01

51

Solar-cell panel simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy generated by solar cells can be transformed into ac power by means of inverters. In most cases these inverters cannot be tested under real conditions, since large solar-cell arrays are not yet available at reasonable prices. Therefore, a circuit that simulates a solar-cell array has been developed.

D. Baert

1979-01-01

52

EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser  

E-print Network

7/21/2010 1 EE580 ­ Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser · Lecture 08 · Solar Cell Characterization 1Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 8: Characterization Solar Cell Operation n Emitter p Base Rear completing the circuit 2Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 8: Characterization Solar Cell

Kaiser, Todd J.

53

Solar PV- How A Solar Cell Works  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this document which will help instructors or anyone who would like to understand the basics of solar power and solar cells. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Levander, Alejandro

2011-03-03

54

Very high efficiency solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency has initiated the Very High Efficiency Solar Cell (VHESC) program to address the critical need of the soldier for power in the field. Very High Efficiency Solar Cells for portable applications that operate at greater than 55 percent efficiency in the laboratory and 50 percent in production are being developed. We are integrating the optical design with the solar cell design, and have entered previously unoccupied design space that leads to a new architecture paradigm. An integrated team effort is now underway that requires us to invent, develop and transfer to production these new solar cells. Our approach is driven by proven quantitative models for the solar cell design, the optical design and the integration of these designs. We start with a very high performance crystalline silicon solar cell platform. Examples will be presented. Initial solar cell device results are shown for devices fabricated in geometries designed for this VHESC Program.

Barnett, Allen; Kirkpatrick, Douglas; Honsberg, Christiana

2006-08-01

55

High efficiency solar cell  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a high efficiency solar cell, it comprises: a germanium substrate having a front surface and a back surface; a back-metal contact on the back surface of the substrate; a buffer layer having a photovoltaic inhibited junction with the front surface of the substrate; the cell including a gallium-arsenide base of one conductivity type on the buffer layer; a gallium-arsenide emitter of the other conductivity type on the base; metal grid lines extending over and being coupled to the emitter.

Ho, F.F.; Linda, Y.; Yeh, M.Y.

1990-04-10

56

The feasibility of using time-dependent photochemical calculations to infer radical species concentrations from solar occultation absorption measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In connection with fast chemical reactions, short-lived stratospheric species experience rapid concentration variations at sunset and sunrise. For solar occultation absorption measurements, these rapid concentration variations may introduce significant errors with respect to the inference of atmospheric abundances for some species due to asymmetrical concentration distributions. Most retrieval algorithms assume that concentration distributions are spherically symmetric. The effect of this assumption on the accuracy of inferred concentrations has been studied by Kerr et al. (1977). The present investigation considers the feasibility of using a time-dependent one-dimensional photochemical model to provide detailed information about the asymmetrical distribution for use in the retrieval procedure. As shown by Boughner et al. (1980), diurnal effects can be represented by an inhomogeneity factor. It is found that the NO retrieval improves considerably with the inclusion of a correction factor containing the asymmetrical variations.

Larsen, J. C.; Boughner, R. E.

1981-01-01

57

Solar cell module lamination process  

DOEpatents

A solar cell module lamination process using fluoropolymers to provide protection from adverse environmental conditions and thus enable more extended use of solar cells, particularly in space applications. A laminate of fluoropolymer material provides a hermetically sealed solar cell module structure that is flexible and very durable. The laminate is virtually chemically inert, highly transmissive in the visible spectrum, dimensionally stable at temperatures up to about 200.degree. C. highly abrasion resistant, and exhibits very little ultra-violet degradation.

Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Aceves, Randy C. (Tracy, CA)

2002-01-01

58

Monolithic tandem solar cell  

DOEpatents

A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surface of the InP substrate, (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell; and (d) an optically transparent prismatic cover layer over the second subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched.

Wanlass, Mark W. (Golden, CO)

1994-01-01

59

Monolithic tandem solar cell  

DOEpatents

A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surface of the InP substrate, (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell; and (d) an optically transparent prismatic cover layer over the second subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched. 9 figs.

Wanlass, M.W.

1994-06-21

60

Floating emitter solar cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A front surface contact floating emitter solar cell transistor is provided in a semiconductor body (n-type), in which floating emitter sections (p-type) are diffused or implanted in the front surface. Between the emitter sections, a further section is diffused or implanted in the front surface, but isolated from the floating emitter sections, for use either as a base contact to the n-type semiconductor body, in which case the section is doped n+, or as a collector for the adjacent emitter sections.

Chih, Sah (inventor); Cheng, Li-Jen (inventor)

1987-01-01

61

Photochemical Internalization-Mediated Delivery of Chemotherapeutic Agents in Human Breast Tumor Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Breast-conservation surgery (BCS) is now utilized in patients with stage I and II invasive breast cancer. However, positive surgical margins are associated with recurrence, and therefore some form of localized postoperative therapy (radiation/chemotherapy) is necessary to eliminate remaining cancer cells. Existing modalities have significant treatment-limiting side effects; therefore, alternative forms of localized therapy need to be explored. We studied the ex vivo effects of photochemical internalization (PCI) using 4 chemotherapeutic agents: cisplatin, cisplatin analog [D prostanoid, DP], doxorubicin, and bleomycin) on 3 breast cancer cell lines: MCF-7, MDA-MB-435, and MDA-MB-231. Illumination was carried out using a 670-nm diode laser at 5 mW/cm2 following incubation in the photosensitizer with aluminum phthalocyanine disulfonate. Toxicity was investigated using colony-forming assays and the mechanism of cell death was determined using Annexin flow-cytometry. We found that toxicity of DP and bleomycin was significantly enhanced by PCI compared with drug alone but was unchanged for cisplatin and doxorubicin. PCI treatment caused a decrease in the percentage of viable cells, predominantly by enhancing apoptosis. The action was synergistic across all 3 cell lines tested for DP and bleomycin. Thus, with appropriate delivery devices and choice of chemotherapeutic agents, PCI holds the promise of enhancing tumor cell toxicity surrounding the cavity of BCS resection sites and thereby decreasing local recurrence. PMID:22591284

Mathews, Marlon S.; Vo, Van; Shih, En-Chung; Zamora, Genesis; Sun, Chung-Ho; Madsen, Steen J.; Hirschberg, Henry

2014-01-01

62

Polymer surface micropatterning by plasma and VUV-photochemical modification for controlled cell culture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface chemical micropatterns have been created by both low-pressure "cold" plasma, and by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photochemical modification of biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP). Oxygen, nitrogen and ammonia plasma, and ammonia-VUV treatments have been performed, including through metal masks with micrometer-sized openings. Surface analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to characterise the modified surfaces. Imaging time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) of partially masked regions has demonstrated the ability to produce micrometer scale chemical patterns of oxygen and nitrogen-containing functionalities, for example, hydroxyl and amine groups, contrasted with untreated hydrocarbon regions. Nitrogen and ammonia plasma patterned surfaces, and ammonia-VUV patterned surfaces have been used to control the immobilisation and growth of foetal bovine cerebellar neurons and growth plate chondrocytes cells in culture.

Bullett, Nial A.; Bullett, Diane P.; Truica-Marasescu, Florina-Elena; Lerouge, Sophie; Mwale, Fackson; Wertheimer, Michael R.

2004-08-01

63

Carbon nanotube solar cells.  

PubMed

We present proof-of-concept all-carbon solar cells. They are made of a photoactive side of predominantly semiconducting nanotubes for photoconversion and a counter electrode made of a natural mixture of carbon nanotubes or graphite, connected by a liquid electrolyte through a redox reaction. The cells do not require rare source materials such as In or Pt, nor high-grade semiconductor processing equipment, do not rely on dye for photoconversion and therefore do not bleach, and are easy to fabricate using a spray-paint technique. We observe that cells with a lower concentration of carbon nanotubes on the active semiconducting electrode perform better than cells with a higher concentration of nanotubes. This effect is contrary to the expectation that a larger number of nanotubes would lead to more photoconversion and therefore more power generation. We attribute this to the presence of metallic nanotubes that provide a short for photo-excited electrons, bypassing the load. We demonstrate optimization strategies that improve cell efficiency by orders of magnitude. Once it is possible to make semiconducting-only carbon nanotube films, that may provide the greatest efficiency improvement. PMID:22655070

Klinger, Colin; Patel, Yogeshwari; Postma, Henk W Ch

2012-01-01

64

Thin film solar cell workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summation of responses to questions posed to the thin-film solar cell workshop and the ensuing discussion is provided. Participants in the workshop included photovoltaic manufacturers (both thin film and crystalline), cell performance investigators, and consumers.

Armstrong, Joe; Jeffrey, Frank

1993-01-01

65

Flexible solar cells for clothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integration of flexible solar cells into clothing can provide power for portable electronic devices. Photovoltaics is the most advanced way of providing electricity far from any mains supply, although it suffers from the limits of ambient light intensity. But the energy demand of portable devices is now low enough that clothing-integrated solar cells are able to power most mobile electronics.

Markus B. Schubert; Jürgen H. Werner

2006-01-01

66

The challenges of organic polymer solar cells  

E-print Network

The technical and commercial prospects of polymer solar cells were evaluated. Polymer solar cells are an attractive approach to fabricate and deploy roll-to-roll processed solar cells that are reasonably efficient (total ...

Saif Addin, Burhan K. (Burhan Khalid)

2011-01-01

67

Commercialization of Novel Organic Solar Cells  

E-print Network

Commercialization of Novel Organic Solar Cells Master of Engineering Final Report Shanel C. Miller ........................ 18 2.3 Novel 3D Organic Solar Cells............................................................................................................ 26 3. Manufacturing Process for 3D Organic Solar Cells

Kassegne, Samuel Kinde

68

GaAs Solar Cell Radiation Handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

History of GaAs solar cell development is provided. Photovoltaic equations are described along with instrumentation techniques for measuring solar cells. Radiation effects in solar cells, electrical performance, and spacecraft flight data for solar cells are discussed. The space radiation environment and solar array degradation calculations are addressed.

Anspaugh, B. E.

1996-01-01

69

Germanium Nanocrystal Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere are approaching historically unprecedented levels from burning fossil fuels to meet the ever-increasing world energy demand. A rapid transition to clean energy sources is necessary to avoid the potentially catastrophic consequences of global warming. The sun provides more than enough energy to power the world, and solar cells that convert sunlight to electricity are commercially available. However, the high cost and low efficiency of current solar cells prevent their widespread implementation, and grid parity is not anticipated to be reached for at least 15 years without breakthrough technologies. Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) show promise for cheap multi-junction photovoltaic devices. To compete with photovoltaic materials that are currently commercially available, NCs need to be inexpensively cast into dense thin films with bulk-like electrical mobilities and absorption spectra that can be tuned by altering the NC size. The Group II-VI and IV-VI NC communities have had some success in achieving this goal by drying and then chemically treating colloidal particles, but the more abundant and less toxic Group IV NCs have proven more challenging. This thesis reports thin films of plasma-synthesized Ge NCs deposited using three different techniques, and preliminary solar cells based on these films. Germanium tetrachloride is dissociated in the presence of hydrogen in a nonthermal plasma to nucleate Ge NCs. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction indicate that the particles are nearly monodisperse (standard deviations of 10-15% the mean particle diameter) and the mean diameter can be tuned from 4-15 nm by changing the residence time of the Ge NCs in the plasma. In the first deposition scheme, a Ge NC colloid is formed by reacting nanocrystalline powder with 1-dodecene and dispersing the functionalized NCs in a solvent. Films are then formed on substrates by drop-casting the colloid and allowing it to dry. As-deposited films are electrically insulating due to the long hydrocarbon molecules separating neighboring particles; however, mass spectrometry shows that annealing treatments successfully decompose these molecules. After annealing at 250 °C, Ge NC films exhibit conductivities as large as 10-6 S/cm. In the second film deposition scheme, a Ge NC colloid is formed by dispersing Ge NCs in select solvents without further surface modification. While these "bare" NCs quickly agglomerate and flocculate in nearly all non-polar solvents, they remain stable in benzonitrile and 1,2-dichlorobenzene, among others. Thin-film field-effect transistors have been fabricated by spinning Ge NC colloids onto substrates and the films have been subjected to various annealing procedures. The devices show n-type, p -type, or ambipolar behavior depending on the annealing conditions, with Ge NC films annealed at 300°C exhibiting electron saturation mobilities greater than 10-2 cm2/Vs and on-to-off ratios of 104. The final film deposition scheme involves the impaction of Ge NCs onto substrates downstream of the synthesis plasma via acceleration of the NCs through an orifice. This technique produces highly uniform films with densities greater than 50% of the density of bulk Ge. By varying the size of the Ge NCs, we have measured films with band gaps ranging from the bulk value of 0.7 eV to over 1.1 eV for films of 4 nm Ge NCs. Having deposited dense thin films with tunable band gaps and respectable mobilities, we have begun fabricating bilayer solar cells consisting of heterojunctions between Ge NC films and P3HT, Si NCs, or Si wafers. Preliminary devices exhibit opencircuit voltages and short-circuit currents as large as 0.3 V and 4 mA/cm 2, respectively.

Holman, Zachary Charles

70

Integrating Solar Induced Fluorescence and the Photochemical Reflectance Index for Estimating Gross Primary Production in a Cornfield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utilization of remotely sensed observations for light use efficiency (LUE) and tower-based gross primary production (GPP) estimates was studied in a USDA cornfield. Nadir hyperspectral reflectance measurements were acquired at canopy level during a collaborative field campaign conducted in four growing seasons. The Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) and solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), were derived. SIF retrievals were accomplished in the two telluric atmospheric oxygen absorption features centered at 688 nm (O2-B) and 760 nm (O2-A). The PRI and SIF were examined in conjunction with GPP and LUE determined by flux tower-based measurements. All of these fluxes, environmental variables, and the PRI and SIF exhibited diurnal as well as day-to-day dynamics across the four growing seasons. Consistent with previous studies, the PRI was shown to be related to LUE (r2 = 0.54 with a logarithm fit), but the relationship varied each year. By combining the PRI and SIF in a linear regression model, stronger performances for GPP estimation were obtained. The strongest relationship (r2 = 0.80, RMSE = 0.186 mg CO2/m2/s) was achieved when using the PRI and SIF retrievals at 688 nm. Cross-validation approaches were utilized to demonstrate the robustness and consistency of the performance. This study highlights a GPP retrieval method based entirely on hyperspectral remote sensing observations.

Cheng, Yen-Ben; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Zhang, Qingyuan; Huemmrich, Karl F.; Campbell, Petya K. E.; Corp, Lawrence A.; Cook, Bruce D.; Kustas, William P.; Daughtry, Criag S.

2013-01-01

71

Solar electron source and thermionic solar cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Common solar technologies are either photovoltaic/thermophotovoltaic, or use indirect methods of electricity generation such as boiling water for a steam turbine. Thermionic energy conversion based on the emission of electrons from a hot cathode into vacuum and their collection by an anode is also a promising route. However, thermionic solar conversion is extremely challenging as the sunlight intensity is too low for heating a conventional cathode to thermionic emission temperatures in a practical manner. Therefore, compared to other technologies, little has been done in this area, and the devices have been mainly limited to large experimental apparatus investigated for space power applications. Based on a recently observed "Heat Trap" effect in carbon nanotube arrays, allowing their efficient heating with low-power light, we report the first compact thermionic solar cell. Even using a simple off-the-shelf focusing lens, the device delivered over 1 V across a load. The device also shows intrinsic storage capacity.

Yaghoobi, Parham; Vahdani Moghaddam, Mehran; Nojeh, Alireza

2012-12-01

72

Module level solutions to solar cell polarization  

DOEpatents

A solar cell module includes interconnected solar cells, a transparent cover over the front sides of the solar cells, and a backsheet on the backsides of the solar cells. The solar cell module includes an electrical insulator between the transparent cover and the front sides of the solar cells. An encapsulant protectively packages the solar cells. To prevent polarization, the insulator has resistance suitable to prevent charge from leaking from the front sides of the solar cells to other portions of the solar cell module by way of the transparent cover. The insulator may be attached (e.g., by coating) directly on an underside of the transparent cover or be a separate layer formed between layers of the encapsulant. The solar cells may be back junction solar cells.

Xavier, Grace (Fremont, CA), Li; Bo (San Jose, CA)

2012-05-29

73

The solar flare of 18 August 1979: Incoherent scatter radar data and photochemical model comparisons  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of electron density at seven D-region altidues were made with the Arecibo radar during a Class-X solar flare on 18 August 1979. Measurements of solar x-ray fluxes during the same period were available from the GOES-2 satellite (0.5 to 4 /angstrom/ and 1 to 8 /angstrom/) and from ISEE-3 (in four bands between 26 and 400 keV). From the x-ray flux data we computed ionization rates in the D-region and the associated chemical changes, using a coupled atmospheric chemistry and diffusion model (with 836 chemical reactions and 19 vertical levels). The computed electron densities matched the data fairly well after we had adjusted the rate coefficients of two reactions. We discuss the hierarchies among the many flare-induced chemical reactions in two altitude ranges within the D-region and the effects of adjusting several other rate coefficients. 51 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Zinn, J.; Sutherland, C.D.; Fenimore, E.E.; Ganguly, S.

1988-04-01

74

Photochemical solar energy conversion utilizing semiconductors localized in membrane-mimetic systems  

SciTech Connect

Extending the frontiers of colloidal photochemistry and colloidal electrochemistry to solar photochemistry research had been the main objective of this research. More specific objectives of this proposal include the examination of semiconductor-particle-mediated photoelectron transfer and photoelectric effects in different membrane mimetic systems. Emphasis had been placed on developing bilayer lipid membranes and Langmuir-Blodgett films as new membrane-mimetic systems, as well as on the characterization and utilization of these systems.

Fendler, J.H.

1991-08-31

75

Role of superoxide dismutase in the photochemical response of cultured RPE cells to laser exposure at 413 nm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thresholds for photochemical damage were performed in RPE cell lines (artificially pigmented) taken from either human (hTERT-RPE1), wild type (wt) mouse, or transgenic mice deficient (+/-) in either superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) or SOD2. The four cell lines were characterized by immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses to determine relative abundance of the SOD proteins. There was no difference in sensitivity between the human, murine wt and murine SOD1-deficient cells, whereas there was a dramatic (2 fold) increase in threshold irradiance value for the murine SOD2-deficient cells. Possible explanations for the unexpected result are provided.

Denton, Michael L.; Foltz, Michael S.; Schuster, Kurt J.; Estlack, Larry E.; Thomas, Robert J.

2008-02-01

76

A study of stainless steel-based dye-sensitized solar cells and modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steel (StSt) has been applied as substrate material for efficient, flexible, nanoporous TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with the aim of improving the photochemical properties of current plastic-based flexible DSSCs. DSSCs with a StSt substrate show almost equivalent properties in efficiency and convenience to cells with a F-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate. Specifically, the metal substrate allows application

Yongseok Jun; Jongdae Kim; Man Gu Kang

2007-01-01

77

Photochemically immobilized polymer coatings: effects on protein adsorption, cell adhesion, and leukocyte activation.  

PubMed

Amphiphilic chains of 4-benzoylbenzoic acid moieties and polymer were photochemically immobilized onto silicone rubber to ask whether the covalently coupled polymers would passivate the silicone rubber by inhibiting protein adsorption and subsequent cell adhesion and activation. Three groups of polymers were utilized: the hydrophilic synthetic polymers of polyacrylamide, polyethylene glycol, and polyvinylpyrrolidone; the glycosaminoglycan, hyaluronic acid; and poly(glycine-valine-glycine-valine-proline), a polypeptide derived from the sequence of elastin. Each coating variant decreased the adsorption of fibrinogen and immunoglobulin G compared to uncoated silicone rubber. All except the methoxy-polyethylene glycol coating nearly abolished fibroblast growth, but none of the coating variants inhibited monocyte or polymorphonuclear leukocyte adhesion. Interleukin-1beta, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion by leukocytes were not statistically different between any of the coating variants and uncoated silicone rubber. However, the methoxy-polyethylene glycol and elastin-based polypeptide coatings, which supported the highest numbers of adherent monocytes, also elicited the lowest levels of proinflammatory cytokine secretion. When these in vitro data were collectively evaluated, the coating that most effectively passivated silicone rubber was the polypeptide derived from elastin. PMID:10591132

Defife, K M; Hagen, K M; Clapper, D L; Anderson, J M

1999-01-01

78

Solar cell with back side contacts  

DOEpatents

A III-V solar cell is described herein that includes all back side contacts. Additionally, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact compoud semiconductor layers of the solar cell other than the absorbing layer of the solar cell. That is, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact passivating layers of the solar cell.

Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Clews, Peggy J

2013-12-24

79

EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser  

E-print Network

7/21/2010 1 EE580 ­ Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser · Lecture 10 · Summary 1Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 10: Summary Summer 2010 Class Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 10: Summary 2 Solar Cell Operation n Emitter p Base Rear Contact Antireflection coating Absorption of photon

Kaiser, Todd J.

80

CCMR: Nanocrystal Sensitized Solar Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nanocrystal sensitized solar cells demonstrate a possible cheap solution to practical device manufacture. This research examined the feasibility of using lead sulfide nanocrystals to sensitize tin dioxide and titanium dioxide substrates for the purpose of making a functioning photovoltaic device. Challenges included optimizing the substrate materials as well as the thin films made from them. Results indicate that titanium dioxide produces more suitable thin films than tin dioxide. Also, the methods employed did produce a functioning solar cell after optimization.

Perry, Alexis

2009-08-15

81

Dust removal from solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar panel cleaning device includes a solar panel having a plurality of photovoltaic cells arranged in rows and embedded in the solar panel with space between the rows. A transparent dielectric overlay is affixed to the solar panel. A plurality of electrode pairs each of which includes an upper and a lower electrode are arranged on opposite sides of the transparent dielectric and are affixed thereto. The electrodes may be transparent electrodes which may be arranged without concern for blocking sunlight to the solar panel. The solar panel may be a dielectric and its dielectric properties may be continuously and spatially variable. Alternatively the dielectric used may have dielectric segments which produce different electrical field and which affects the wind "generated."

Ashpis, David E. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

82

Natural Variants of Photosystem II Subunit D1 Tune Photochemical Fitness to Solar Intensity*  

PubMed Central

Photosystem II (PSII) is composed of six core polypeptides that make up the minimal unit capable of performing the primary photochemistry of light-driven charge separation and water oxidation in all oxygenic phototrophs. The D1 subunit of this complex contains most of the ligating amino acid residues for the Mn4CaO5 core of the water-oxidizing complex (WOC). Most cyanobacteria have 3–5 copies of the psbA gene coding for at least two isoforms of D1, whereas algae and plants have only one isoform. Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 contains two D1 isoforms; D1:1 is expressed under low light conditions, and D1:2 is up-regulated in high light or stress conditions. Using a heterologous psbA expression system in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we have measured growth rate, WOC cycle efficiency, and O2 yield as a function of D1:1, D1:2, or the native algal D1 isoform. D1:1-PSII cells outcompete D1:2-PSII cells and accumulate more biomass in light-limiting conditions. However, D1:2-PSII cells easily outcompete D1:1-PSII cells at high light intensities. The native C. reinhardtii-PSII WOC cycles less efficiently at all light intensities and produces less O2 than either cyanobacterial D1 isoform. D1:2-PSII makes more O2 per saturating flash than D1:1-PSII, but it exhibits lower WOC cycling efficiency at low light intensities due to a 40% faster charge recombination rate in the S3 state. These functional advantages of D1:1-PSII and D1:2-PSII at low and high light regimes, respectively, can be explained by differences in predicted redox potentials of PSII electron acceptors that control kinetic performance. PMID:23271739

Vinyard, David J.; Gimpel, Javier; Ananyev, Gennady M.; Cornejo, Mario A.; Golden, Susan S.; Mayfield, Stephen P.; Dismukes, G. Charles

2013-01-01

83

Space solar cells—tradeoff analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the study that had the objective to tradeoff space solar cells and solar array designs to determine the best choice of solar cell and array technology that would be more beneficial in terms of mass, area and cost for different types of space missions. Space solar cells, which are commercially now available in the market and to

M. Raja Reddy

2003-01-01

84

Gridded thin film solar cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved transparent conductor structure for thin film solar cells comprising a plurality of metallic strip conductors deposited on a transparent conductor and aligned substantially with the principal direction of current flow. The strip conductors preferably originate at an edge of the transparent conductor to which an adjacent cell back conductor is connected and are preferably interconnected along that edge

D. P. Tanner; R. R. Gay; D. L. Morel

1985-01-01

85

Interdigitated back contact solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interdigitated back contact solar cell (IBC cell) was shown to possess a number of advantages for silicon solar cells, which operate at high concentration. A detailed discussion of the factors which need to be considered in the analysis of semiconducting devices which utilize heavily doped regions such as those which are found in solar cells in both the emitter and in the back surface field regions is given. This discussion covers the questions of: how to handle degeneracy, how to compute carrier concentrations in the absence of knowledge of the details of the band structure under heavily doped conditions, and how to reconcile the usual interpretation of heavy doping as a rigid shift of the bands with the band tailing and impurity level conduction models. It also discusses the reasons for the observed discrepancies between various experimental measurements of bandgap narrowing.

Lundstrom, M. S.; Schwartz, R. J.

1980-08-01

86

Stable, high-efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells with low hydrogen content  

SciTech Connect

Results and conclusions obtained during a research program of the investigation of amorphous silicon and amorphous silicon based alloy materials and solar cells fabricated by photo-chemical vapor and glow discharge depositions are reported. Investigation of the effects of the hydrogen content in a-si:H i-layers in amorphous silicon solar cells show that cells with lowered hydrogen content i-layers are more stable. A classical thermodynamic formulation of the Staebler-Wronski effect has been developed for standard solar cell operating temperatures and illuminations. Methods have been developed to extract a lumped equivalent circuit from the current voltage characteristic of a single junction solar cell in order to predict its behavior in a multijunction device.

Fortmann, C.M.; Hegedus, S.S. (Institute of Energy Conversion, Newark, DE (United States))

1992-12-01

87

Gap/silicon Tandem Solar Cell with Extended Temperature Range  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-junction solar cell has a bottom solar cell junction of crystalline silicon, and a top solar cell junction of gallium phosphide. A three (or more) junction solar cell has bottom solar cell junctions of silicon, and a top solar cell junction of gallium phosphide. The resulting solar cells exhibit improved extended temperature operation.

Landis, Geoffrey A. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

88

Simultaneous Light-Directed Synthesis of Mirror-Image Microarrays in a Photochemical Reaction Cell with Flare Suppression  

PubMed Central

The use of photolabile protecting groups is a versatile and well-established means of synthesizing high complexity microarrays of biopolymers, such as nucleic acids and peptides, for high-throughput analysis. The synthesis takes place in a photochemical reaction cell which positions the microarray substrate at the focus of the optical system delivering the light and which can be connected to a fluidics system which delivers appropriate reagents to the surface in synchrony with the light exposure. Here we describe a novel photochemical reaction cell which allows for the simultaneous synthesis of microarrays on two substrates. The reaction cell positions both substrates within the limited depth-of-focus of the optical system while maintaining the necessary reagent flow conditions. The resulting microarrays are mirror images of each other but otherwise essentially identical. The new reaction cell doubles the throughput of microarray synthesis without increasing the consumption of reagents. In addition, a secondary flow chamber behind the reaction cell can be filled with an absorbent and index-matching fluid to eliminate reflections from light exiting the reaction cell assembly, greatly reducing unintended light exposure that reduces the sequence fidelity of the microarray probes. PMID:23968455

2013-01-01

89

Quantum dot sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal sulfide (CdS or PbS) quantum dots were synthesized in nanoporous TiO2 films for applications in solar energy conversion devices. Several electrolytes were investigated for the functioning redox activity in sandwich type regenerative solar cells, based on the quantum dots sensitized TiO2 film. A high IPCE was attained by optimizing the polysulfide electrolyte composition. The CdS QD shows a higher

Y. Tachibana; H. Y. Akiyama; K. Umekita; Y. Otsuka; T. Torimoto; S. Kuwabata

2008-01-01

90

PHOTOCHEMICAL PRODUCTS IN URBAN MIXTURES ENHANCE INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES IN LUNG CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Complex urban air mixtures that realistically mimic urban smog can be generated for investigating adverse health effects. "Smog chambers" have been used for over 30 yr to conduct experiments for developing and testing photochemical models that predict ambient ozone (O(3)) concent...

91

Coupling light to solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Efficiencies of more than 33% have been achieved today in the photovoltaic conversion of solar energy into electricity. Part of this achievement is due to a effective coupling of sunlight to the solar cell. In particular three aspects of light-cell coupling are studied here: (a) the achievement of high irradiance on the cell; that is, the study of concentration; (b) the increase of the absorption in the cell and (c) the matching of the sun spectrum to the cell, with the use of several cells or thermo-photovoltaic devices. Finally, the ultimate limits of the efficiency of solar cells, and photovoltaic devices in general, are studied. It is found that efficiencies in the range of 85% (depending on the spectrum of the sun) are theoretically possible. Also the conditions for thermodynamically reversible operation are analyzed. Some laboratory results are presented and the role of the light-cell coupling in the achievement of this high efficiency is stressed. 70 refs., 30 figs., 6 tabs.

Luque, A. [Univ. Polytecnica de Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Energia Solar; [Ciudad Univ., Madrid (Spain). E.T.S.I. Telecomunicacion

1993-11-01

92

PHOTOCHEMICAL BOX MODEL (PBM)  

EPA Science Inventory

This magnetic tape contains the FORTRAN source code, sample input data, and sample output data for the Photochemical Box Model (PBM). The PBM is a simple stationary single-cell model with a variable height lid designed to provide volume-integrated hour averages of O3 and other ph...

93

Performance of silicon solar cell assemblies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar cell assembly current-voltage characteristics, thermal-optical properties, and power performance were determined. Solar cell cover glass thermal radiation, optical properties, confidence limits, and temperature intensity effects on maximum power were discussed.

Ross, R. G., Jr.; Yasui, R. K.; Jaworski, W.; Wen, L.; Cleland, E. L.

1972-01-01

94

Photochemical bonding of epithelial cell-seeded collagen lattice to rat muscle layer for esophageal tissue engineering: a pilot study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bilayered tube structures consist of epithelial cell-seeded collagen lattice and muscle layer have been fabricated for esophageal tissue engineering. Good adhesion between layers in order to facilitate cell infiltration and neovascularization in the collagen lattice is required. Previous efforts include using other bioglues such as fibrin glue and silicone tube as the physical support. However, the former is subjected to chances of transmitting blood-born infectious disease and is time consuming while the latter requires a second surgical procedure. The current project aimed to bond the cell-seeded collagen lattice to muscle layer using photochemical bonding, which has previously been demonstrated a rapid and non-thermal procedure in bonding collagenous tissues. Rat esophageal epithelial cells were seeded on collagen lattice and together with the latissimus dorsi muscle layer, were exposed to a photosensitizer rose Bengal at the bonding surface. An argon laser was used to irradiate the approximated layers. Bonding strength was measured during the peeling test of the collagen layer from the muscle layer. Post-bonding cell viability was assessed using a modified NADH-diaphorase microassay. A pilot in vivo study was conducted by directly bonding the cell-seeded collagen layer onto the muscle flap in rats and the structures were characterized histologically. Photochemical bonding was found to significantly increase the adherence at the bonding interface without compromising the cell viability. This indicates the feasibility of using the technique to fabricate multi-layered structures in the presence of living cells. The pilot animal study demonstrated integration of the collagen lattice with the muscle layer at the bonding interface although the subsequent surgical manipulation disturbed the integration at some region. This means that an additional procedure removing the tube could be avoided if the approximation and thus the bonding are optimized. Cell infiltration and neovascularization were also evident demonstrating that direct bonding of engineered tissue structures in particular those with low processability such as collagen lattice to the host tissue is feasible.

Chan, Barbara P.; Sato, M.; Vacanti, Joseph P.; Kochevar, Irene E.; Redmond, Robert W.

2005-04-01

95

Low cost solar cell arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Limitations in both space and terrestial markets for solar cells are described. Based on knowledge of the state-of-the-art, six cell options are discussed; as a result of this discussion, the three most promising options (involving high, medium and low efficiency cells respectively) were selected and analyzed for their probable costs. The results showed that all three cell options gave promise of costs below $10 per watt in the near future. Before further cost reductions can be achieved, more R and D work is required; suggestions for suitable programs are given.

Iles, P. A.; Mclennan, H.

1975-01-01

96

Multicrystalline silicon bifacial solar cells  

SciTech Connect

The authors analyze the results of several batches of multicrystalline silicon bifacial solar cells (HEM and cast). They measured the I-V curves under front and back illuminations and also in the dark. In the last case they carried out measurements at several temperatures. It was concluded that HEM wafers might be used to manufacture commercial bifacial cells, while the high base recombination prevents the use of cast wafers for this purpose.

Jimeno, J.C.; Luque, A.

1984-05-01

97

Key Physical Mechanisms in Nanostructured Solar Cells  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the project was to study both theoretically and experimentally the excitation, recombination and transport properties required for nanostructured solar cells to deliver energy conversion efficiencies well in excess of conventional limits. These objectives were met by concentrating on three key areas, namely, investigation of physical mechanisms present in nanostructured solar cells, characterization of loss mechanisms in nanostructured solar cells and determining the properties required of nanostructured solar cells in order to achieve high efficiency and the design implications.

Dr Stephan Bremner

2010-07-21

98

EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser  

E-print Network

7/21/2010 1 EE580 ­ Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser · Lecture 02 Microfabrication ­ A combination · Photolithograpy · Depostion · Etching 1 Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 2: Microfabrication Flow Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 2: Microfabrication Questions · What is heat? · Heat

Kaiser, Todd J.

99

Nanostructured Materials for Solar Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of both inorganic and organic nanostructured materials in producing high efficiency photovoltaics is discussed in this paper. Recent theoretical results indicate that dramatic improvements in device efficiency may be attainable through the use of semiconductor quantum dots in an ordinary p-i-n solar cell. In addition, it has also recently been demonstrated that quantum dots can also be used to improve conversion efficiencies in polymeric thin film solar cells. A similar improvement in these types of cells has also been observed by employing single wall carbon nanotubes. This relatively new carbon allotrope may assist both in the disassociation of excitons as well as carrier transport through the composite material. This paper reviews the efforts that are currently underway to produce and characterize these nanoscale materials and to exploit their unique properties.

Bailey, Sheila; Raffaelle, Ryne; Castro, Stephanie; Fahey, S.; Gennett, T.; Tin, P.

2003-01-01

100

Cascade Solar Cell Workshop report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Issues related to the feasibility, research and development, and demonstration of a 30% AMO cascade solar cell discussed include the material selection, growth and fabrication techniques, and device development strategy for a monolithic (two terminal) cascade cell, a hybrid (four terminal) cascade cell, and a spectral splitting device (three cells). Workshop recommendations include: (1) initiate a long range research program to develop a three junction, monolithic, cascade cell using either AlGaAsSb-GaAsSb or AlGaInAs-GaInAs material system; (2) emphasize OM-CVD epitaxial growth technique, perhaps combined with other technologies in the near term to obtain tunnel junctions; (3) develop a two junction device first; (4) initiate a cascade solar cell modeling program to study and compare performance of two and four terminal cascade devices exposed to electron and proton irradiation; and (5) encourage and be open to new ideas for developing four terminal, hybrid, cascade cells exploiting novel component cell interconnect technologies.

Hutchby, J. A.

1980-01-01

101

Photochemical reactions for commercial synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Photochemical reactions are conducted using floating polymer beads on the surface of a moving body of water. The polymer bead is impregnated with a reactant, floated on the water in direct sunlight so as to expose the reactant to solar radiation, collected at a downstream location, treated to remove product from the polymer, and then the bead can be recycled. The process can be used to collect and store solar energy in chemical form, or for conducting photochemical synthesis to produce useful chemical products.

Guillet, J. E.

1985-06-25

102

A flight experiment to determine GPS photochemical contamination accumulation rates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was recently suggested that photochemically deposited contamination, originating from volatiles outgassed by a spacecraft, may be responsible for the anomalous degradation in power seen on the GPS Block 1 vehicles. In an attempt to confirm, or deny, the photochemical deposition rates predicted, a study was undertaken to design a flight experiment to be incorporated on the GPS vehicles currently in production. The objective was to develop an inexpensive, light weight instrument package that would give information on the contamination levels within a few months of launch. Three types of apparatus were studied, Quartz Crystal Microbalances, (QCM's), modified solar cells, and calorimeters. A calorimeter was selected due primarily to its impact on the production schedule of the GPS vehicles. An analysis of the sensitivity of the final design is compared to the predicted contamination accumulation rates in order to determine how long after launch it will take the experiment to show the effects of photochemical contamination.

Tribble, A. C.; Haffner, J. W.

1990-01-01

103

Biological solar cell  

SciTech Connect

Recent reports have demonstrated the possibility of employing photoactive, biological membrane components in photoelectrochemical cells. Present studies in our laboratories have led to the attachment of a much simpler biological complex, the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center isolated from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides, directly onto a SnO/sub 2/ semiconductor electrode. Light-induced photovoltages (70mV) and photocurrents (0.5 ..mu..A/cm/sup 2/) not attributable to Dember effects have been observed in photoelectrochemical cells employing reaction-center-coated, SnO/sub 2/ working electrodes. Such reaction-center electrodes may serve as model systems for future organic photovoltaic devices.

Seibert, M.; Janzen, A.F.

1980-04-01

104

Mixed ternary heterojunction solar cell  

DOEpatents

A thin film heterojunction solar cell and a method of making it has a p-type layer of mixed ternary I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductor material in contact with an n-type layer of mixed binary II-VI semiconductor material. The p-type semiconductor material includes a low resistivity copper-rich region adjacent the back metal contact of the cell and a composition gradient providing a minority carrier mirror that improves the photovoltaic performance of the cell. The p-type semiconductor material preferably is CuInGaSe.sub.2 or CuIn(SSe).sub.2.

Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA); Stewart, John M. (Seattle, WA)

1992-08-25

105

Flexibility in space solar cell production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wide range of cells that must be available from present-day production lines for space solar cells are described. After over thirty years of space-cell use, there is very little standardization in solar cell design. It is not generally recognized what a wide range of designs must remain available on cell production lines. This range of designs is surveyed.

Khemthong, Scott; Iles, Peter A.

1989-01-01

106

Towards stable silicon nanoarray hybrid solar cells  

PubMed Central

Silicon nanoarray hybrid solar cells benefit from the ease of fabrication and the cost-effectiveness of the hybrid structure, and represent a new research focus towards the utilization of solar energy. However, hybrid solar cells composed of both inorganic and organic components suffer from the notorious stability issue, which has to be tackled before the hybrid solar cells could become a viable alternative for harvesting solar energy. Here we show that Si nanoarray/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells with improved stability can be fabricated via eliminating the water inclusion in the initial formation of the heterojunction between Si nanoarray and PEDOT:PSS. The Si nanoarray hybrid solar cells are stable against rapid degradation in the atmosphere environment for several months without encapsulation. This finding paves the way towards the real-world applications of Si nanoarray hybrid solar cells. PMID:24430057

He, W. W.; Wu, K. J.; Wang, K.; Shi, T. F.; Wu, L.; Li, S. X.; Teng, D. Y.; Ye, C. H.

2014-01-01

107

GaAs Solar Cell Radiation Handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The handbook discusses the history of GaAs solar cell development, presents equations useful for working with GaAs solar cells, describes commonly used instrumentation techniques for assessing radiation effects in solar cells and fundamental processes occurring in solar cells exposed to ionizing radiation, and explains why radiation decreases the electrical performance of solar cells. Three basic elements required to perform solar array degradation calculations: degradation data for GaAs solar cells after irradiation with 1 MeV electrons at normal incidence; relative damage coefficients for omnidirectional electron and proton exposure; and the definition of the space radiation environment for the orbit of interest, are developed and used to perform a solar array degradation calculation.

Anspaugh, B. E.

1996-01-01

108

24% efficient silicon solar cells  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports significant progress in silicon solar cell performance, taking confirmed efficiency beyond 24% for the first time. This progress has been achieved by a combination of several mechanisms. One is the reduction of recombination at the cell front surface by improved passivation of the silicon/silicon dioxide interface. Resistive losses in the cell have been reduced by a double-plating process which increases the thickness for the coarse cell metallization features. Finally, reflective losses have been reduced by the application of a double layer anti-reflection (DLAR) coating. Another advantage of DLAR coating is that it will give further 3% higher current density than the SiO{sub 2} single layer anti-reflection (SLAR) coated cells when encapsulated into modules. The cells display a monochromatic light energy conversion efficiency of 46.3% for 1.04 {micro}m wavelength light, also the highest ever for a silicon device.

Zhao, J.; Wang, A.; Altermatt, P.P.; Wenham, S.R.; Green, M.A. [Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia). Centre for Photovoltaic Devices and Systems

1994-12-31

109

High efficiency GaAs solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present status of the GaAlAs/GaAs heteroface solar cell program is reported. Studies have been concentrated on GaAlAs/GaAs heteroface solar cells; however, some research has been conducted on thin junction, diffused GaAs solar cells. Emphasis has been on obtaining high efficiency (18% to 20%) GaAs solar cells. Two problems that have limited the efficiency of GaAs solar cells are the high recombination velocity of carriers near the surface and the low minority carrier diffusion length in n-GaAs.

Walker, G. H.; Conway, E. J.; Byvik, C. E.

1977-01-01

110

Organic Semiconductor Solar Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several aspects of organic photoconductors investigated for photovoltaic (PV) applications are addressed: material selection criteria, device modelling, and the characterization techniques of I-V, capacitance-voltage (C-V), I _{sc} vs. V_{oc }, and internal photoemission. Experimental results are presented for chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (ClAlPc) Schottky barrier and p-n heterojunction cells. The principal limitation of organic PV materials is a low field-dependent photocarrier generation

Jonathan B. Whitlock

1992-01-01

111

Solar Cells, 3 (1981) 337 -340 337 HIGH EFFICIENCY BIFACIAL BACK SURFACE FIELD SOLAR CELLS  

E-print Network

. CUEVAS, A. LUQUE, J. EGUREN and J. DEL ALAMO Instituto de Energia Solar, Escuela Tdcnica Superior deSolar Cells, 3 (1981) 337 - 340 337 HIGH EFFICIENCY BIFACIAL BACK SURFACE FIELD SOLAR CELLS A solar cells are presented. Effi- ciencies of 15.7% and 13.6% were measured under front and back air mass

del Alamo, Jesús A.

112

Study of solar cell welds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal imaging technique was evaluated for its capabilities in the nondestructive evaluation of solar cell welds. The temperature and spatial resolution of state of the art instrumentation was sufficient for both qualitative and quantitative determination of the quality of solar cell welds. The addition of color digitized thermography enhanced the aspects of the thermographic display and allowed easily computerized testing procedures. For automated testing systems an accurate correlation of weld quality with temperature profiles of the welds needs to be performed. In comparison, the holographic technique was complementary with the thermal imaging technique, except that the holographic analysis appeared to be more quantitative at the present time. However, the thermal imaging approach is much more versatile in overall capabilities.

Workman, G. L.

1978-01-01

113

Organic Semiconductor Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several aspects of organic photoconductors investigated for photovoltaic (PV) applications are addressed: material selection criteria, device modelling, and the characterization techniques of I-V, capacitance-voltage (C-V), I _{sc} vs. V_{oc }, and internal photoemission. Experimental results are presented for chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (ClAlPc) Schottky barrier and p-n heterojunction cells. The principal limitation of organic PV materials is a low field-dependent photocarrier generation efficiency. P -n heterojunction cells have advantages over Schottky cells, having better spectral coverage and the ability to utilize Forster transfer for the transport and concentration of excitons to a high field region. A promising approach pairs a phthalocyanine and a perylene. A simpler Schottky barrier system is modelled using parameters for the field -dependent generation of metal-free phthalocyanine. The effects of doping level, alpha, and other parameters on the external cell characteristics are calculated based on the electric field in the depletion region. Although this modelling does not include the effects of exciton diffusion, the wavelength dependence of the external quantum efficiency mimics results thought to indicate an exciton diffusion process. The device fabrication procedure utilizes vacuum deposition of organic semiconductors purified by entrainment sublimation. Films deposited at different substrate temperatures are characterized with optical absorption, x-ray, and scanning electron microscopy. A hydration mechanism for ClAlPc is uncovered, and powder x-ray results are presented. The photoresponses for a perylene derivative paired with ClAlPc and PcAlOAlPc are presented. The C-V spectroscopy methods are reviewed, and the small signal method is argued to be preferable to the triangle voltage sweep method due to the likely presence of deep traps and interface states. C -V results are shown to bias hold-time dependent so that straight 1/C^2 vs. V plots should be interpreted with caution. Experiments under vacuum, air, dry oxygen, water vapor, and oxygen with water vapor ambients show water and oxygen are necessary for the ClAlPc to exhibit significant conductivity and C-V response. This suggests that water and oxygen must both be present for significant doping effects.

Whitlock, Jonathan B.

1992-01-01

114

High Temperature Solar Cell Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The majority of satellites and near-earth probes developed to date have used photovoltaic arrays for power generation. If future mission to probe environments close to the sun will be able to use photovoltaic power, solar cells that can function at high temperatures, under high light intensity, and high radiation conditions must be developed. In this paper, we derive the optimum bandgap as a function of the operating temperature.

Landis, Geoffrey A.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Merritt, Danielle

2004-01-01

115

EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser  

E-print Network

Lecture 9: PV Systems Specifications of PV Modules · Type ­ c:Si, a-Si:H, CdTe · Rated Power Max: Pmax (Wp Cells loose efficiency with the increase in temperature Colder is better Solar Heating Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 9: PV Systems 11 Solar heating (70-90%) is more efficient than photovoltaic

Kaiser, Todd J.

116

Silicon Carbide Solar Cells Investigated  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The semiconductor silicon carbide (SiC) has long been known for its outstanding resistance to harsh environments (e.g., thermal stability, radiation resistance, and dielectric strength). However, the ability to produce device-quality material is severely limited by the inherent crystalline defects associated with this material and their associated electronic effects. Much progress has been made recently in the understanding and control of these defects and in the improved processing of this material. Because of this work, it may be possible to produce SiC-based solar cells for environments with high temperatures, light intensities, and radiation, such as those experienced by solar probes. Electronics and sensors based on SiC can operate in hostile environments where conventional silicon-based electronics (limited to 350 C) cannot function. Development of this material will enable large performance enhancements and size reductions for a wide variety of systems--such as high-frequency devices, high-power devices, microwave switching devices, and high-temperature electronics. These applications would supply more energy-efficient public electric power distribution and electric vehicles, more powerful microwave electronics for radar and communications, and better sensors and controls for cleaner-burning, more fuel-efficient jet aircraft and automobile engines. The 6H-SiC polytype is a promising wide-bandgap (Eg = 3.0 eV) semiconductor for photovoltaic applications in harsh solar environments that involve high-temperature and high-radiation conditions. The advantages of this material for this application lie in its extremely large breakdown field strength, high thermal conductivity, good electron saturation drift velocity, and stable electrical performance at temperatures as high as 600 C. This behavior makes it an attractive photovoltaic solar cell material for devices that can operate within three solar radii of the Sun.

Bailey, Sheila G.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.

2001-01-01

117

Recent Advances in Solar Cell Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advances in solar cell efficiency, radiation tolerance, and cost over the last decade are reviewed. Potential performance of thin-film solar cells in space are discussed, and the cost and the historical trends in production capability of the photovoltaics industry are considered with respect to the requirements of space power systems. Concentrator cells with conversion efficiency over 30%, and nonconcentrating solar cells with efficiency over 25% are now available, and advanced radiation-tolerant cells and lightweight, thin-film arrays are both being developed. Nonsolar applications of solar cells, including thermophotovoltaics, alpha- and betavoltaics, and laser power receivers, are also discussed.

Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.

1996-01-01

118

Silicon solar cell fabrication technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The laser cell scanner was used to characterize a number of solar cells made in various materials. An electron beam-induced current (EBIC) study was performed using a stereoscan scanning electron microscope. Planar p-n junctions were analyzed. A theory for the EBIC based on the analytical solution of the ambipolar diffusion equation under the influence of electron beam excitation parameter z (which is related to beam penetration), the junction depth Z sub j, the beam current and the surface recombination, was formulated and tested. The effect of a grain boundary was studied.

Stafsudd, O. M.

1979-01-01

119

heat treatment for solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CdTe is an important compound semiconductor for solar cells, and its use in nanowire-based heterostructures may become a critical requirement, owing to the potential scarcity of tellurium. The effects of the CdCl2 heat treatment are investigated on the physical properties of vertically aligned ZnO/CdTe core-shell nanowire arrays grown by combining chemical bath deposition with close space sublimation. It is found that recrystallization phenomena are induced by the CdCl2 heat treatment in the CdTe shell composed of nanograins: its crystallinity is improved while grain growth and texture randomization occur. The presence of a tellurium crystalline phase that may decorate grain boundaries is also revealed. The CdCl2 heat treatment further favors the chlorine doping of the CdTe shell with the formation of chlorine A-centers and can result in the passivation of grain boundaries. The absorption properties of ZnO/CdTe core-shell nanowire arrays are highly efficient, and more than 80% of the incident light can be absorbed in the spectral range of the solar irradiance. The resulting photovoltaic properties of solar cells made from ZnO/CdTe core-shell nanowire arrays covered with CuSCN/Au back-side contact are also improved after the CdCl2 heat treatment. However, recombination and trap phenomena are expected to operate, and the collection of the holes that are mainly photo-generated in the CdTe shell from the CuSCN/Au back-side contact is presumably identified as the main critical point in these solar cells.

Consonni, Vincent; Renet, Sébastien; Garnier, Jérôme; Gergaud, Patrice; Artús, Lluis; Michallon, Jérôme; Rapenne, Laetitia; Appert, Estelle; Kaminski-Cachopo, Anne

2014-05-01

120

Status of multijunction solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes Applied Solar's present activity on Multijunction (MJ) space cells. We have worked on a variety of MJ cells, both monolithic and mechanically stacked. In recent years, most effort has been directed to GaInP2/GaAs monolithic cells, grown on Ge substrates, and the status of this cell design will be reviewed here. MJ cells are in demand to provide satellite power because of the acceptance of the overwhelming importance of high efficiency to reduce the area, weight and cost of space PV power systems. The need for high efficiencies has already accelerated the production of GaAs/Ge cells, with efficiencies 18.5-19%. When users realized that MJ cells could provide higher efficiencies (from 22% to 26%) with only fractional increase in costs, the demand for production MJ cells increased rapidly. The main purpose of the work described is to transfer the MOCVD growth technology of MJ high efficiency cells to a production environment, providing all the space requirements of users.

Yeh, Y. C. M.; Chu, C. L.

1996-01-01

121

Supramolecular photochemistry and solar cells  

PubMed

Supramolecular photochemistry as well as solar cells are fascinating topics of current interest in Inorganic Photochemistry and very active research fields which have attracted wide attention in last two decades. A brief outline of the investigations in these fields carried out in our Laboratory of Inorganic Photochemistry and Energy Conversion is given here with no attempt of an exhaustive coverage of the literature. The emphasis is placed on recent work and information on the above mentioned subjects. Three types of supramolecular systems have been the focus of this work: (i) cage-type coordination compounds; (ii) second-sphere coordination compounds, exemplified by ion-pair photochemistry of cobalt complexes and (iii) covalently-linked systems. In the latter, modulation of the photoluminescence and photochemistry of some rhenium complexes are discussed. Solar energy conversion and development of thin-layer photoelectrochemical solar cells based on sensitization of nanocrystalline semiconductor films by some ruthenium polypyridyl complexes are presented as an important application that resulted from specifically engineered artificial assemblies. PMID:10932106

Iha

2000-01-01

122

Changes in photochemically significant solar UV spectral irradiance as estimated by the composite Mg II index and scale factors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantitative assessment of the impact of solar ultraviolet irradiance variations on stratospheric ozone abundances currently requires the use of proxy indicators. The Mg II core-to-wing index has been developed as an indicator of solar UV activity between 175-400 nm that is independent of most instrument artifacts, and measures solar variability on both rotational and solar cycle time scales. Linear regression fits have been used to merge the individual Mg II index data sets from the Nimbus-7, NOAA-9, and NOAA-11 instruments onto a single reference scale. The change in 27-dayrunning average of the composite Mg II index from solar maximum to solar minimum is approximately 8 percent for solar cycle 21, and approximately 9 percent for solar cycle 22 through January 1992. Scaling factors based on the short-term variations in the Mg II index and solar irradiance data sets have been developed to estimate solar variability at mid-UV and near-UV wavelengths. Near 205 nm, where solar irradiance variations are important for stratospheric photo-chemistry and dynamics, the estimated change in irradiance during solar cycle 22 is approximately 10 percent using the composite Mg II index and scale factors.

Deland, Matthew T.; Cebula, Richard P.

1994-01-01

123

Energy Conversion: Nano Solar Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problems of fossil-fuel-induced climate change have sparked a demand for sustainable energy supply for all sectors of economy. Most laboratories continue to search for new materials and new technique to generate clean energy at affordable cost. Nanotechnology can play a major role in solving the energy problem. The prospect for solar energy using Si-based technology is not encouraging. Si photovoltaics can produce electricity at 20-30 c//kWhr with about 25% efficiency. Nanoparticles have a strong capacity to absorb light and generate more electrons for current as discovered in the recent work of organic and dye-sensitized cell. Using cheap preparation technique such as screen-printing and self-assembly growth, organic cells shows a strong potential for commercialization. Thin Films research group at National University Malaysia has been actively involved in these areas, and in this seminar, we will present a review works on nanomaterials for solar cells and particularly on hybrid organic solar cell based on ZnO nanorod arrays. The organic layer consisting of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene] (MEHPPV) and [6, 6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid 3-ethylthiophene ester (PCBE) was spin-coated on ZnO nanorod arrays. ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on FTO glass substrates which were pre-coated with ZnO nanoparticles using a low temperature chemical solution method. A gold electrode was used as the top contact. The device gave a short circuit current density of 2.49×10-4 mA/cm2 and an open circuit voltage of 0.45 V under illumination of a projector halogen light at 100 mW/cm2.

Yahaya, Muhammad; Yap, Chi Chin; Mat Salleh, Muhamad

2009-09-01

124

Deposition and performance of CdS thin films on various substrates for photochemical cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A photoelectrochemical study of CdS semiconductor electrodes with various metal substrates is presented. The current and voltage were measured by performing the experiments in a polysulphide electrolyte using a carbon counterelectrode. The electrodes were prepared by depositing a thin film of CdS by slurry painting, chemical-bath deposition, or electroplating in a non-aqueous solvent. The highest short-circuit current (0.9 mA) and open-circuit voltage (0.51 V) in a sun intensity of 70 mW/sq cm were obtained with slurry-painted electrodes after the films had been doped and etched. It appears that the efficiency of photochemical devices using polycrystal line CdS films can be improved to be comparable with that of single-crystal semiconductor material, with the advantages of low cost and simple technology.

Bhardwaj, R. C.; Jadhav, C. M.; Taqui Khan, M. M.

1984-09-01

125

Immersion Cooling of Photovoltaic Cells in Highly Concentrated Solar Beams.  

E-print Network

??Concentrated solar radiation can be utilized to generate electrical power from photovoltaic cells, but concentrated solar radiation increases the photovoltaic cell’s temperature. This increase in… (more)

Darwish, Ahmed

2011-01-01

126

Solar cell system having alternating current output  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A monolithic multijunction solar cell was modified by fabricating an integrated circuit inverter on the back of the cell to produce a device capable of generating an alternating current output. In another embodiment, integrated curcuit power conditioning electronics was incorporated in a module containing a solar cell power supply.

Evans, J. C., Jr. (inventor)

1980-01-01

127

Solar Cell Modules With Improved Backskin  

DOEpatents

A laminated solar cell module comprises a front light transmitting support, a plurality of interconnected solar cells encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant material, and an improved backskin formed of an ionomer/nylon alloy. The improved backskin has a toughness and melting point temperature sufficiently great to avoid any likelihood of it being pierced by any of the components that interconnect the solar cells.

Gonsiorawski, Ronald C. (Danvers, MA)

2003-12-09

128

Bypass diode for a solar cell  

DOEpatents

Bypass diodes for solar cells are described. In one embodiment, a bypass diode for a solar cell includes a substrate of the solar cell. A first conductive region is disposed above the substrate, the first conductive region of a first conductivity type. A second conductive region is disposed on the first conductive region, the second conductive region of a second conductivity type opposite the first conductivity type.

Rim, Seung Bum (Palo Alto, CA); Kim, Taeseok (San Jose, CA); Smith, David D. (Campbell, CA); Cousins, Peter J. (Menlo Park, CA)

2012-03-13

129

Solar cells using quantum funnels.  

PubMed

Colloidal quantum dots offer broad tuning of semiconductor bandstructure via the quantum size effect. Devices involving a sequence of layers comprised of quantum dots selected to have different diameters, and therefore bandgaps, offer the possibility of funneling energy toward an acceptor. Here we report a quantum funnel that efficiently conveys photoelectrons from their point of generation toward an intended electron acceptor. Using this concept we build a solar cell that benefits from enhanced fill factor as a result of this quantum funnel. This concept addresses limitations on transport in soft condensed matter systems and leverages their advantages in large-area optoelectronic devices and systems. PMID:21827197

Kramer, Illan J; Levina, Larissa; Debnath, Ratan; Zhitomirsky, David; Sargent, Edward H

2011-09-14

130

Thin GaAs solar cell structures  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a solar cell, comprising: a layer of p-type gallium arsenide having a thickness of not greater than about 0.5 micrometers; a layer of n-type gallium arsenide. The layer of p-type gallium arsenide and the layer of n-type gallium arsenide together constitutes an active semiconductor solar cell; a glass cover in contact with the active semiconductor solar cell. The solar cell has no charge recombination inhibitory layer in contact with the layer of p-type gallium arsenide.

Ellion, M.E.; Wolff, G.

1987-09-08

131

Fabrication and Characterization of Organic Solar Cells.  

E-print Network

??Bulk heterojunction organic solar cells have recently drawn tremendous attention because of their technological advantages for actualization of large-area and cost effective fabrication. Two important… (more)

Yengel, Emre

2010-01-01

132

Front contact solar cell with formed emitter  

DOEpatents

A bipolar solar cell includes a backside junction formed by an N-type silicon substrate and a P-type polysilicon emitter formed on the backside of the solar cell. An antireflection layer may be formed on a textured front surface of the silicon substrate. A negative polarity metal contact on the front side of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the substrate, while a positive polarity metal contact on the backside of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the polysilicon emitter. An external electrical circuit may be connected to the negative and positive metal contacts to be powered by the solar cell. The positive polarity metal contact may form an infrared reflecting layer with an underlying dielectric layer for increased solar radiation collection.

Cousins, Peter John (Menlo Park, CA)

2012-07-17

133

Low-temperature photo-activated inorganic electron transport layers for flexible inverted polymer solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple and versatile route of forming sol-gel-derived metal oxide n-type electron transport layers (ETLs) for flexible inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) is proposed using low-temperature photochemical activation process. The photochemical activation, which is induced by deep ultraviolet irradiation on sol-gel films, allows formation of metal oxide n-type ETLs such as zinc oxide (ZnO) and indium gallium zinc oxide films at a low temperature. Compared to poly(3-hexylthiophene)/phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester inverted PSCs with thermally annealed ZnO ETLs (optimized efficiency of 3.26 ± 0.03 %), the inverted PSCs with photo-activated ZnO ETLs showed an improved efficiency of 3.60 ± 0.02 %. The enhanced photovoltaic property is attributed to efficient charge collection from low overall series resistance and high surface area-to-geometric area ratio by the photo-activated ZnO ETLs.

Lee, Jung-Wook; Lee, Soo-Hyoung; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Park, Sung Kyu

2014-09-01

134

GPS patch antenna with photovoltaic solar cells for vehicular applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the application of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells in planar antenna structures. The radiating patch element of a planar antenna is replaced by a solar cell. The original feature of a solar cell (DC current generation) remains, but additionally the cell is now able to receive and transmit electromagnetic waves. Both single solar cells as well as solar

Norbert Henze; Andre Giere; Henning Früchting; Pascal Hofmann

2003-01-01

135

Current status of silicon solar cell technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In quest of higher efficiency, major progress has occurred in solar cell technology. Cell efficiency has climbed about 50 percent. Technical approaches leading to increased output include back surface fields, shallow junctions, improved antireflection coatings, surface texturizing, and fine grid patterns on the cell surface. The status of current solar cell technology and its incorporation into cell production is discussed. Research and development leading to improved performance and reduced cost are also described.

Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

1975-01-01

136

Current and lattice matched tandem solar cell  

DOEpatents

A multijunction (cascade) tandem photovoltaic solar cell device is fabricated of a Ga.sub.x In.sub.1-x P (0.505.ltoreq.X.ltoreq.0.515) top cell semiconductor lattice matched to a GaAs bottom cell semiconductor at a low-resistance heterojunction, preferably a p+/n+ heterojunction between the cells. The top and bottom cells are both lattice matched and current matched for high efficiency solar radiation conversion to electrical energy.

Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO)

1987-01-01

137

New materials for solar cells - Tandem cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cost efficiency in the manufacturing processes of the solar cell panels is discussed, noting the utilization of the III-V compound semiconductors (such as InSb or Ge) instead of silicon or gallium arsenide which have a complicated and expensive technology. A computation program is presented for a p-n junction using a set of nonlinear differential equations and taking into consideration such parameters as the mobility, the life space and the forbidden band. It is concluded that new, economic technologies should be directed toward blocking the UV light, acrylic elastomers, waterproof wood and paper materials and cost efficient silicon and fluorocarbon materials.

Dolocan, V.

138

Method for processing silicon solar cells  

DOEpatents

The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystallline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wafer by forming a porous silicon layer on the surface of a silicon substrate and a method of gettering impurities. Also contemplated by the invention are methods of surface passivation, forming novel solar cell structures, and hydrogen passivation.

Tsuo, Y. Simon (Golden, CO); Landry, Marc D. (Lafayette, CO); Pitts, John R. (Lakewood, CO)

1997-01-01

139

Method for processing silicon solar cells  

DOEpatents

The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystalline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wafer by forming a porous silicon layer on the surface of a silicon substrate and a method of gettering impurities. Also contemplated by the invention are methods of surface passivation, forming novel solar cell structures, and hydrogen passivation. 2 figs.

Tsuo, Y.S.; Landry, M.D.; Pitts, J.R.

1997-05-06

140

Radiation damage in biomimetic dye molecules for solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant obstacle to organic photovoltaics is radiation damage, either directly by photochemical reactions or indirectly via hot electrons. Such effects are investigated for biomimetic dye molecules for solar cells (phthalocyanines) and for a biological analog (the charge transfer protein cytochrome c). Both feature a central transition metal atom (or H2) surrounded by nitrogen atoms. Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy are used to identify three types of radiation-induced changes in the electronic structure of these molecules. (1) The peptide bonds along the backbone of the protein are readily broken, while the nitrogen cage remains rather stable in phthalocyanines. This finding suggests minimizing peptide attachments to biologically inspired molecules for photovoltaic applications. (2) The metal atom in the protein changes its 3d electron configuration under irradiation. (3) The Fermi level EF shifts relative to the band gap in phthalocyanine films due to radiation-induced gap states. This effect has little influence on the optical absorption, but it changes the lineup between the energy levels of the absorbing dye and the acceptor/donor electrodes that collect the charge carriers in a solar cell.

Cook, Peter L.; Johnson, Phillip S.; Liu, Xiaosong; Chin, An-Li; Himpsel, F. J.

2009-12-01

141

Radiation damage in biomimetic dye molecules for solar cells.  

PubMed

A significant obstacle to organic photovoltaics is radiation damage, either directly by photochemical reactions or indirectly via hot electrons. Such effects are investigated for biomimetic dye molecules for solar cells (phthalocyanines) and for a biological analog (the charge transfer protein cytochrome c). Both feature a central transition metal atom (or H(2)) surrounded by nitrogen atoms. Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy are used to identify three types of radiation-induced changes in the electronic structure of these molecules. (1) The peptide bonds along the backbone of the protein are readily broken, while the nitrogen cage remains rather stable in phthalocyanines. This finding suggests minimizing peptide attachments to biologically inspired molecules for photovoltaic applications. (2) The metal atom in the protein changes its 3d electron configuration under irradiation. (3) The Fermi level E(F) shifts relative to the band gap in phthalocyanine films due to radiation-induced gap states. This effect has little influence on the optical absorption, but it changes the lineup between the energy levels of the absorbing dye and the acceptor/donor electrodes that collect the charge carriers in a solar cell. PMID:19968355

Cook, Peter L; Johnson, Phillip S; Liu, Xiaosong; Chin, An-Li; Himpsel, F J

2009-12-01

142

Monolithic cells for solar fuels.  

PubMed

Hybrid energy generation models based on a variety of alternative energy supply technologies are considered the best way to cope with the depletion of fossil energy resources and to limit global warming. One of the currently missing technologies is the mimic of natural photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide and water into chemical fuel using sunlight. This idea has been around for decades, but artificial photosynthesis of organic molecules is still far away from providing real-world solutions. The scientific challenge is to perform in an efficient way the multi-electron transfer reactions of water oxidation and carbon dioxide reduction using holes and single electrons generated in an illuminated semiconductor. In this tutorial review the design of photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells that combine solar water oxidation and CO2 reduction is discussed. In such PEC cells simultaneous transport and efficient use of light, electrons, protons and molecules has to be managed. It is explained how efficiency can be gained by compartmentalisation of the water oxidation and CO2 reduction processes by proton exchange membranes, and monolithic concepts of artificial leaves and solar membranes are presented. Besides transferring protons from the anode to the cathode compartment the membrane serves as a molecular barrier material to prevent cross-over of oxygen and fuel molecules. Innovative nano-organized multimaterials will be needed to realise practical artificial photosynthesis devices. This review provides an overview of synthesis techniques which could be used to realise monolithic multifunctional membrane-electrode assemblies, such as Layer-by-Layer (LbL) deposition, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), and porous silicon (porSi) engineering. Advances in modelling approaches, electrochemical techniques and in situ spectroscopies to characterise overall PEC cell performance are discussed. PMID:24526085

Rongé, Jan; Bosserez, Tom; Martel, David; Nervi, Carlo; Boarino, Luca; Taulelle, Francis; Decher, Gero; Bordiga, Silvia; Martens, Johan A

2014-11-01

143

Introduction to basic solar cell measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic approaches to solar cell performance and diagnostic measurements are described. The light sources, equipment for I-V curve measurement, and the test conditions and procedures for performance measurement are detailed. Solar cell diagnostic tools discussed include analysis of I-V curves, series resistance and reverse saturation current determination, spectral response/quantum yield measurement, and diffusion length/lifetime determination.

Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

1976-01-01

144

Thin solar cell and lightweight array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thin, lightweight solar cell that utilizes front contact metallization is presented. Both the front light receiving surface of the solar cell and the facing surface of the cover glass are recessed to accommodate this metallization. This enables the two surfaces to meet flush for an optimum seal.

Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr. (inventor); Weinberg, Irving (inventor)

1991-01-01

145

EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser  

E-print Network

that makes electrons move (difference in height makes water flow) 9Montana State University: Solar Cells · Symbolic information: electronics Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 7: EE Fundamentals 2 Review · Electric charge is produced by electrons and protons · Electrons are negatively charged and protons

Kaiser, Todd J.

146

Nanowire-based All Oxide Solar Cells  

SciTech Connect

We present an all-oxide solar cell fabricated from vertically oriented zinc oxide nanowires and cuprous oxide nanoparticles. Our solar cell consists of vertically oriented n-type zinc oxide nanowires, surrounded by a film constructed from p-type cuprous oxide nanoparticles. Our solution-based synthesis of inexpensive and environmentally benign oxide materials in a solar cell would allow for the facile production of large-scale photovoltaic devices. We found that the solar cell performance is enhanced with the addition of an intermediate oxide insulating layer between the nanowires and the nanoparticles. This observation of the important dependence of the shunt resistance on the photovoltaic performance is widely applicable to any nanowire solar cell constructed with the nanowire array in direct contact with one electrode.

Yang*, Benjamin D. Yuhas and Peidong; Yang, Peidong

2008-12-07

147

Planar multijunction high voltage solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical considerations, preliminary results, and fabrication details are discussed for a family of high-voltage planar multi-junction (PMJ) solar cells which combine the attractive features of planar cells with conventional or interdigitated back contacts and the vertical multijunction (VMJ) solar cell. The PMJ solar cell is internally divided into many voltage-generating regions, called unit cells, which are internally connected in series. The key to obtaining reasonable performance from this device was the separation of top surface field regions over each active unit cell. Using existing solar cell fabricating methods, output voltages in excess of 20 volts per linear centimeter are possible. Analysis of the new device is complex, and numerous geometries are being studied which should provide substantial benefits in both normal sunlight usage as well as with concentrators.

Evans, J. C., Jr.; Chai, A. T.; Goradia, C.

1980-01-01

148

Coating Processes Boost Performance of Solar Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA currently has spacecraft orbiting Mercury (MESSENGER), imaging the asteroid Vesta (Dawn), roaming the red plains of Mars (the Opportunity rover), and providing a laboratory for humans to advance scientific research in space (the International Space Station, or ISS). The heart of the technology that powers those missions and many others can be held in the palm of your hand - the solar cell. Solar, or photovoltaic (PV), cells are what make up the panels and arrays that draw on the Sun s light to generate electricity for everything from the Hubble Space Telescope s imaging equipment to the life support systems for the ISS. To enable NASA spacecraft to utilize the Sun s energy for exploring destinations as distant as Jupiter, the Agency has invested significant research into improving solar cell design and efficiency. Glenn Research Center has been a national leader in advancing PV technology. The Center s Photovoltaic and Power Technologies Branch has conducted numerous experiments aimed at developing lighter, more efficient solar cells that are less expensive to manufacture. Initiatives like the Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiments I and II in which PV cells developed by NASA and private industry were mounted outside the ISS have tested how various solar technologies perform in the harsh conditions of space. While NASA seeks to improve solar cells for space applications, the results are returning to Earth to benefit the solar energy industry.

2012-01-01

149

High-Temperature Solar Cell Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vast majority of satellites and near-earth probes developed to date have relied upon photovoltaic power generation. If future missions to probe environments close to the sun will be able to use photovoltaic power, solar cells that can function at high temperatures, under high light intensity, and high radiation conditions must be developed. For example, the equilibrium temperature of a Mercury surface station will be about 450 C, and the temperature of solar arrays on the proposed "Solar Probe" mission will extend to temperatures as high as 2000 C (although it is likely that the craft will operate on stored power rather than solar energy during the closest approach to the sun). Advanced thermal design principles, such as replacing some of the solar array area with reflectors, off-pointing, and designing the cells to reflect rather than absorb light out of the band of peak response, can reduce these operating temperature somewhat. Nevertheless, it is desirable to develop approaches to high-temperature solar cell design that can operate under temperature extremes far greater than today's cells. Solar cells made from wide bandgap (WBG) compound semiconductors are an obvious choice for such an application. In order to aid in the experimental development of such solar cells, we have initiated a program studying the theoretical and experimental photovoltaic performance of wide bandgap materials. In particular, we have been investigating the use of GaP, SiC, and GaN materials for space solar cells. We will present theoretical results on the limitations on current cell technologies and the photovoltaic performance of these wide-bandgap solar cells in a variety of space conditions. We will also give an overview of some of NASA's cell developmental efforts in this area and discuss possible future mission applications.

Landis, Geoffrey A.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Merritt, Danielle

2004-01-01

150

Solar cells for terrestrial applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The power efficiency curves of photovoltaic solar cells were investigated as a function of the forbidden energy gap (E sub g) and the current-voltage characteristic of the diode. Minority carrier injection, depletion layer recombination, and interface recombination terms were considered in models for the I-V characteristic. The collection efficiency for photons with energy between (E sub g) and an upper energy cutoff (E sub w) was assumed to be 100% and zero otherwise. Results are presented in terms of a single parameter related to the ratio of depletion layer width and minority carrier diffusion length. It was found that increasing depletion layer recombination shifts the efficiency curves to larger values of the energy without changing the shape of the efficiency curve appreciably. It is believed that similar results would be obtained whenever the quality factors in the exponential energy gap and forward bias terms are equal.

Chernow, F.

1975-01-01

151

Porphyrin-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Nature has chosen chlorophylls in plants as antennae to harvest light for the conversion of solar energy in complicated photosynthetic processes. Inspired by natural photosynthesis, scientists utilized artificial chlorophylls - the porphyrins - as efficient centres to harvest light for solar cells sensitized with a porphyrin (PSSC). After the first example appeared in 1993 of a porphyrin of type copper chlorophyll as a photosensitizer for PSSC that achieved a power conversion efficiency of 2.6%, no significant advance of PSSC was reported until 2005; beta-linked zinc porphyrins were then reported to show promising device performances with a benchmark efficiency of 7.1% reported in 2007. Meso-linked zinc porphyrin sensitizers in the first series with a push-pull framework appeared in 2009; the best cell performed comparably to that of a N3-based device, and a benchmark 11% was reported for a porphyrin sensitizer of this type in 2010. With a structural design involving long alkoxyl chains to envelop the porphyrin core to suppress the dye aggregation for a push-pull zinc porphyrin, the PSSC achieved a record 12.3% in 2011 with co-sensitization of an organic dye and a cobalt-based electrolyte. The best PSSC system exhibited a panchromatic feature for light harvesting covering the visible spectral region to 700 nm, giving opportunities to many other porphyrins, such as fused and dimeric porphyrins, with near-infrared absorption spectral features, together with the approach of molecular co-sensitization, to enhance the device performance of PSSC. According to this historical trend for the development of prospective porphyrin sensitizers used in PSSC, we review systematically the progress of porphyrins of varied kinds, and their derivatives, applied in PSSC with a focus on reports during 2007-2012 from the point of view of molecular design correlated with photovoltaic performance. PMID:23023240

Li, Lu-Lin; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

2013-01-01

152

Silicon solar cell efficiency: Practice and promise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The maximum efficiency of silicon solar cells was calculated and yielded a value near 18%. Additionally, the performance of these high efficiency cells in a synchronous orbit radiation field was calculated and it is suggested that these cells would be superior to present silicon cells. The performance of conventional cells was analyzed and several areas in which performance gains may be achieved are discussed. These areas include improvements in diffused region profile, in reduction of excess forward currents in cells made from low resistivity material, and in the theory for describing complex solar cell structures.

Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

1972-01-01

153

Nanocomposite enables sensitized solar cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dye Sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are a promising candidate for next generation photovoltaic panels due to their low cost, easy fabrication process, and relative high efficiency. Despite considerable effort on the advancement of DSSCs, the efficiency has been stalled for nearly a decade due to the complex interplay among various DSSC components. DSSCs consist of a photoanode on a conducting substrate, infiltrated dye for light absorption and electron injection, and an electrolyte to regenerate the dye. On the photoanode is a high band-gap semiconducting material, primarily of a nanostructure morphology of titanium (II) dioxide (TiO2), dye molecules whose molar absorption is typically in the visible spectrum, are adsorbed onto the surface of TiO 2. To improve the current DSSCs, there are many parameters that can be investigated. In a conventional DSSC, a thick semiconducting layer such as the nanoparticle TiO2 layer induces charge separation efficiently while concurrently increasing the charge transport distance, leading the cell to suffer from more charge recombination and deterioration in charge collection efficiency. To improve on this limitation, TiO2 nanowires (NW) and nanotubes (NT) are explored to replace the nanoparticle photoanode. One-dimensional nanostructures are known for the excellent electron transport properties as well as maintaining a relatively high surface area. Hence one of the focuses of this thesis explores at using different morphologies and composition of TiO2 nanostructures to enhance electron collection efficiency. Another challenge in conventional DSSCs is the limit in light absorption of solar irradiation. Dyes are limited to absorption only in the visible range, and have a low molar absorption coefficient in the near infrared (NIR). Tuning dyes is extremely complicated and may have more disadvantages than simply by extending light harvesting. Therefore our strategy is to incorporate quantum dots to replace the dye, as well as prepare a cell for the possibility of co-sensitization, thereby extending the absorption of light in the visible and NIR. The first phase of the thesis involves the synthesis and characterization of the materials used for the cell. We successfully synthesized TiO2 nanowires and nanotubes and characterized them for the use as the photoanode. Both one-dimensional structures proved to have low resistivity, chemical stability, and high density. We also synthesized lead (II) sulfide (PbS) quantum dots (QDs) and explored at modifying their diameter in order to properly control their light harvesting potential into the NIR region. The electron transport kinetics proved to be faster in one-dimensional nanostructure due to their high crystallinity order and reduced elastic scattering of the electrons during transport. Furthermore, quantum dots were synthesized such that their band-gap allowed for the absorption of NIR light. This result extended the harvesting potential of our solar cell and suggests the possibility for co-sensitization in DSSCs using dye molecules and quantum dots. Hence, the focus of this thesis work is to systematically explore a transformative way to fundamentally enhance charge transport and extend light absorption by in the incorporation of two sensitizing agents.

Phuyal, Dibya D.

154

Tandem photovoltaic solar cells and increased solar energy conversion efficiency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tandem photovoltaic cells, as proposed by Jackson (1955) to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion, involve the construction of a system of stacked p/n homojunction photovoltaic cells composed of different semiconductors. It had been pointed out by critics, however, that the total power which could be extracted from the cells in the stack placed side by side was substantially greater than the power obtained from the stacked cells. A reexamination of the tandem cell concept in view of the development of the past few years is conducted. It is concluded that the use of tandem cell systems in flat plate collectors, as originally envisioned by Jackson, may yet become feasible as a result of the development of economically acceptable solar cells for large scale terrestrial power generation.

Loferski, J. J.

1976-01-01

155

Semiconductor quantum dot-sensitized solar cells  

PubMed Central

Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been drawing great attention recently as a material for solar energy conversion due to their versatile optical and electrical properties. The QD-sensitized solar cell (QDSC) is one of the burgeoning semiconductor QD solar cells that shows promising developments for the next generation of solar cells. This article focuses on recent developments in QDSCs, including 1) the effect of quantum confinement on QDSCs, 2) the multiple exciton generation (MEG) of QDs, 3) fabrication methods of QDs, and 4) nanocrystalline photoelectrodes for solar cells. We also make suggestions for future research on QDSCs. Although the efficiency of QDSCs is still low, we think there will be major breakthroughs in developing QDSCs in the future. PMID:24191178

Tian, Jianjun; Cao, Guozhong

2013-01-01

156

Silicon solar cells improved by lithium doping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of conference on characteristics of lithium-doped silicon solar cells and techniques required for fabrication indicate that output of cells has been improved to point where cells exhibit radiation resistance superior to those currently in use, and greater control and reproducibility of cell processing have been achieved.

Berman, P. A.

1970-01-01

157

Comprehensive silicon solar-cell computer modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive silicon solar cell computer modeling scheme was developed to perform the following tasks: (1) model and analysis of the net charge distribution in quasineutral regions; (2) experimentally determined temperature behavior of Spire Corp. n+pp+ solar cells where n+-emitter is formed by ion implantation of 75As or 31P; and (3) initial validation results of computer simulation program using Spire Corp. n+pp+ cells.

Lamorte, M. F.

1984-01-01

158

Emitter wrap-through solar cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a new solar cell concept (emitter wrap-through or EWT) for a back-contact cell. The cell has laser-drilled vias to wrap the emitter on the front surface to contacts on the back surface and uses a potentially low-cost process sequence. Modeling calculations show that efficiencies of 18 and 21% are possible with large-area solar-grade multi- and monocrystalline silicon

James M. Gee; W. Kent Schubert; Paul A. Basore

1993-01-01

159

Development of gallium arsenide solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential of ion implantation as a means of developing gallium arsenide solar cells with high efficiency performance was investigated. Computer calculations on gallium arsenide cell characteristics are presented to show the effects of surface recombination, junction space-charge recombination, and built-in fields produced by nonuniform doping of the surface region. The fabrication technology is summarized. Electrical and optical measurements on samples of solar cells are included.

1973-01-01

160

Dye-sensitized Solar Cells for Solar Energy Harvesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) also known as Gratzel cells, have attracted the interests of researchers to a great extent because of its cost effective and easy manufacturing process without involving highly sophisticated lithographic technique and high cost raw materials as usually seen in conventional solar cell. Based on simple photo-electrochemical process, it has got immense potential in converting solar energy to electrical power in remote and desert area where the supply of conventional power is not possible. The overall peak power-production efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells has been reported around 11 percent, so they are best suited to low-density applications and the price-to-performance ratio obtained through these solar cells is superior to others. DSSCs have ability to absorb even diffused sunlight and therefore work in cloudy whether as well without much impact over the efficiency. The present communication deals with a review of our work on DSSCs wherein we have used cost effective natural dyes/pigments as a sensitizer of nc-TiO2 and discussed about various key factors affecting the conversion efficiency of DSSC.

Roy, M. S.; Deol, Y. S.; Kumar, Manish; Prasad, Narottam; Janu, Yojana

2011-10-01

161

Non-photochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching and structural rearrangements induced by low pH in intact cells of Chlorella fusca (Chlorophyceae) and Mantoniella squamata (Prasinophyceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and chlorophyll fluorescence induction measurements in order to examine\\u000a low-pH-induced changes in the chiral macro-organization of the chromophores and in the efficiency of non-photochemical quenching\\u000a of the chlorophyll a fluorescence (NPQ) in intact, dark-adapted cells of Chlorella fusca (Chlorophyceae) and Mantoniella squamata (Prasinophyceae). We found that: (i) high proton concentrations enhanced the formation

Reimund Goss; Gyözö Garab

2001-01-01

162

Development of GaAs solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calculations of GaAs solar cell output parameters were refined and a computer model was developed for parameter optimization. The results were analyzed to determine the material characteristics required for a high efficiency solar cell. Calculated efficiencies for a P/N cell polarity are higher than an N/P cell. Both cell polarities show efficiency to have a larger dependence on short circuit current than an open circuit voltage under nearly all conditions considered. The tolerances and requirements of a cell fabrication process are more critical for an N/P type than for a P/N type cell. Several solar cell fabrication considerations relative to junction formation using ion implantation are also discussed.

Mcnally, P. J.

1972-01-01

163

Cascade solar cell having conductive interconnects  

DOEpatents

Direct ohmic contact between the cells in an epitaxially grown cascade solar cell is obtained by means of conductive interconnects formed through grooves etched intermittently in the upper cell. The base of the upper cell is directly connected by the conductive interconnects to the emitter of the bottom cell. The conductive interconnects preferably terminate on a ledge formed in the base of the upper cell.

Borden, Peter G. (Menlo Park, CA); Saxena, Ram R. (Saratoga, CA)

1982-10-26

164

Teachers' Domain: Inside a Solar Cell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash tutorial shows how photovoltaic cells in solar panels convert sunlight into electrical current. It provides a close-up look at each layer of the basic solar panel, with particular emphasis on how electrons cross over the junction that joins the two silicon layers in the cell. When the concentration of negative and positive charge between the two layers reaches equilibrium, an electric field is produced -- the solar cell is ready to capture photons. Teachers' Domain is a collection of more than 1,000 free educational resources compiled by researchers and experienced teachers to promote the use of digital resources in the classroom.

2012-08-21

165

Heterojunction solar cell with passivated emitter surface  

DOEpatents

A high-efficiency heterojunction solar cell wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. A passivating window layer of defined composition is disposed over the emitter layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the window layer.

Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO); Kurtz, Sarah R. (Golden, CO)

1994-01-01

166

Bypass diode for a solar cell  

DOEpatents

Methods of fabricating bypass diodes for solar cells are described. In once embodiment, a method includes forming a first conductive region of a first conductivity type above a substrate of a solar cell. A second conductive region of a second conductivity type is formed on the first conductive region. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a first conductive region of a first conductivity type above a substrate of a solar cell. A second conductive region of a second conductivity type is formed within, and surrounded by, an uppermost portion of the first conductive region but is not formed in a lowermost portion of the first conductive region.

Rim, Seung Bum; Kim, Taeseok; Smith, David D; Cousins, Peter J

2013-11-12

167

Heterojunction solar cell with passivated emitter surface  

DOEpatents

A high-efficiency heterojunction solar cell is described wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga[sub 0.52]In[sub 0.48]P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. A passivating window layer of defined composition is disposed over the emitter layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the window layer. 1 fig.

Olson, J.M.; Kurtz, S.R.

1994-05-31

168

Pharmacologic Alternatives to Riboflavin Photochemical Corneal Cross-Linking: A Comparison Study of Cell Toxicity Thresholds  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The efficacy of therapeutic cross-linking of the cornea using riboflavin photochemistry (commonly abbreviated as CXL) has caused its use to become widespread. Because there are known chemical agents that cross-link collagenous tissues, it may be possible to cross-link tissue pharmacologically. The present study was undertaken to compare the cell toxicity of such agents. Methods. Nine topical cross-linking agents (five nitroalcohols, glyceraldehyde [GLYC], genipin [GP], paraformaldehyde [FA], and glutaraldehyde [GLUT]) were tested with four different cell lines (immortalized human corneal epithelial cells, human skin fibroblasts, primary bovine corneal endothelial cells, and immortalized human retinal pigment epithelial cells [ARPE-19]). The cells were grown in planar culture and exposed to each agent in a range of concentrations (0.001 mM to 10 mM) for 24 hours followed by a 48-hour recovery phase. Toxicity thresholds were determined by using the trypan blue exclusion method. Results. A semiquantitative analysis using five categories of toxicity/fixation was carried out, based on plate attachment, uptake of trypan blue stain, and cellular fixation. The toxicity levels varied by a factor of 103 with the least toxic being mononitroalcohols and GLYC, intermediate toxicity for a nitrodiol and nitrotriol, and the most toxic being GLUT, FA, GP, and bronopol, a brominated nitrodiol. When comparing toxicity between different cell lines, the levels were generally in agreement. Conclusions. There are significant differences in cell toxicity among potential topical cross-linking compounds. The balance between cross-linking of tissue and cell toxicity should be borne in mind as compounds and strategies to improve mechanical tissue properties through therapeutic tissue cross-linking continue to develop. PMID:24722697

Kim, MiJung; Takaoka, Anna; Hoang, Quan V.; Trokel, Stephen L.; Paik, David C.

2014-01-01

169

Materials refining for solar cell silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metallurgical refining processes for the production of solar cell silicon are described. The aim is to obtain an optimum purification effect with a minimum of process steps. The characterization of refined silicon is limited to chemical purity and its correlation with solar quality. Hydrometallurgical refining and pyrometallurgical refining (liquid-liquid extraction, liquid-gas extraction, and recrystallization in aluminum) are treated.

Dietl, J.

170

Indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells  

DOEpatents

A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

Feng, Tom (Morris Plains, NJ); Ghosh, Amal K. (New Providence, NJ)

1982-12-28

171

Solar cell anomaly detection method and apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is provided for detecting cracks and other imperfections in a solar cell, which includes scanning a narrow light beam back and forth across the cell in a raster pattern, while monitoring the electrical output of the cell to find locations where the electrical output varies significantly. The electrical output can be monitored on a television type screen containing a raster pattern with each point on the screen corresponding to a point on the solar cell surface, and with the brightness of each point on the screen corresponding to the electrical output from the cell which was produced when the light beam was at the corresponding point on the cell. The technique can be utilized to scan a large array of interconnected solar cells, to determine which ones are defective.

Miller, Emmett L. (Inventor); Shumka, Alex (Inventor); Gauthier, Michael K. (Inventor)

1981-01-01

172

Photochemical solar energy conversion utilizing semiconductors localized in membrane-mimetic systems. Performance report, April 1, 1989--August 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Extending the frontiers of colloidal photochemistry and colloidal electrochemistry to solar photochemistry research had been the main objective of this research. More specific objectives of this proposal include the examination of semiconductor-particle-mediated photoelectron transfer and photoelectric effects in different membrane mimetic systems. Emphasis had been placed on developing bilayer lipid membranes and Langmuir-Blodgett films as new membrane-mimetic systems, as well as on the characterization and utilization of these systems.

Fendler, J.H.

1991-08-31

173

Radiation Damage Workshop report. [solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The starting material, cell design/geometry, and cell processing/fabrication for silicon and gallium arsenide solar cells are addressed with reference to radiation damage. In general, it is concluded that diagnostic sensitivities and material purities are basic to making significant gains in end-of-life performance and thermal annealability. Further, GaAs material characterization is so sketchy that a well defined program to evaluate such material for solar cell application is needed to maximize GaAs cell technology benefits.

Rahilly, W. P.

1980-01-01

174

Towards high performance inverted polymer solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells that can be fabricated by solution processing techniques are under intense investigation in both academic institutions and industrial companies because of their potential to enable mass production of flexible and cost-effective alternative to silicon-based electronics. Despite the envisioned advantages and recent technology advances, so far the performance of polymer solar cells is still inferior to inorganic counterparts in terms of the efficiency and stability. There are many factors limiting the performance of polymer solar cells. Among them, the optical and electronic properties of materials in the active layer, device architecture and elimination of PEDOT:PSS are the most determining factors in the overall performance of polymer solar cells. In this presentation, I will present how we approach high performance of polymer solar cells. For example, by developing novel materials, fabrication polymer photovoltaic cells with an inverted device structure and elimination of PEDOT:PSS, we were able to observe over 8.4% power conversion efficiency from inverted polymer solar cells.

Gong, Xiong

2013-03-01

175

Large area polymer solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fabrication of very large area polymer based solar cell modules with a total aperture area of 1000 cm2 has been accomplished. The substrate was polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) foil with a pre-etched pattern of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) anodes. The module was constructed as a matrix of 91 devices comprising 7 rows connected in parallel with each row having 13 individual cells connected in series. The printing of the organic layer employed screen printing of a chlorobenzene solution of the active material that consisted of either poly-1,4-(2-methoxy-5-ethylhexyloxy) phenylenevinylene (MEH-PPV) on its own or a 1:1 mixture (w/w) of MEH-PPV and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butanoic acid methyl ester (PCBM). Our first results employed e-beam evaporation of the aluminium cathode directly onto the active layer giving devices with very poor performance that was discouragingly lower than expected by about three orders of magnitude. We found that e-beam radiation leads to a much poorer performance and thermal evaporation of the aluminium using a basket heater improved these values by an order of magnitude in efficiency for the geometry ITO/MEH-PPV/C60/Al. Finally the lifetimes (?1/2) of the modules were established and were found to improve significantly when a sublimed layer of C60 was included between the polymer and the aluminium electrode. Values for the half life of 150 hours were typically obtained. This short lifetime is linked to reaction between the reactive metal electrode (aluminium) and the constituents of the active layer.

Krebs, Frederik C.; Alstrup, Jan; Biancardo, Matteo; Spanggaard, Holger

2005-10-01

176

Status of silicon solar cell technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that during the time from 1970 to 1976 the efficiency of solar cells has increased from 10.5 to 15.5%. Most of the increased output has resulted from increased short circuit current. Advances leading to this improvement in performance are discussed, taking into account a reduction in the area covered by the grid pattern, the use of antireflection coatings, and the employment of surface texturizing. A widespread use of solar cells for nonspace applications requires a reduction in the cost of solar cell arrays from the present $20 per watt to 10 to 50 cents per watt. Approaches for achieving this objective are considered. Attention is given to an automated, high volume production of solar cells made from ribbon silicon or thin film layers.

Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

1976-01-01

177

Perovskite solar cells: Continuing to soar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dream of printing highly efficient solar cells is closer than ever to being realized. Solvent engineering has enabled the deposition of uniform perovskite semiconductor films that yield greater than 15% power-conversion efficiency.

McGehee, Michael D.

2014-09-01

178

Texturization of multicrystalline silicon solar cells  

E-print Network

A significant efficiency gain for crystalline silicon solar cells can be achieved by surface texturization. This research was directed at developing a low-cost, high-throughput and reliable texturing method that can create ...

Li, Dai-Yin

2010-01-01

179

Photochemical Production and Behavior of Hydroperoxyacids in Heterotrophic Bacteria Attached to Senescent Phytoplanktonic Cells  

PubMed Central

The photooxidation of cellular monounsaturated fatty acids was investigated in senescent phytoplanktonic cells (Emiliania huxleyi) and in their attached bacteria under laboratory controlled conditions. Our results indicated that UV-visible irradiation of phytodetritus induced the photooxidation of oleic (produced by phytoplankton and bacteria) and cis-vaccenic (specifically produced by bacteria) acids. These experiments confirmed the involvement of a substantial singlet oxygen transfer from senescent phytoplanktonic cells to attached bacteria, and revealed a significant correlation between the concentration of chlorophyll, a photosensitizer, in the phytodetritus and the photodegradation state of bacteria. Hydroperoxyacids (fatty acid photoproducts) appeared to be quickly degraded to ketoacids and hydroxyacids in bacteria and in phytoplanktonic cells. This degradation involves homolytic cleavage (most likely induced by UV and/or transition metal ions) and peroxygenase activity (yielding epoxy acids). PMID:23736689

Petit, Morgan; Sempere, Richard; Vaultier, Frederic; Rontani, Jean-Francois

2013-01-01

180

Photochemical production and behavior of hydroperoxyacids in heterotrophic bacteria attached to senescent phytoplanktonic cells.  

PubMed

The photooxidation of cellular monounsaturated fatty acids was investigated in senescent phytoplanktonic cells (Emiliania huxleyi) and in their attached bacteria under laboratory controlled conditions. Our results indicated that UV-visible irradiation of phytodetritus induced the photooxidation of oleic (produced by phytoplankton and bacteria) and cis-vaccenic (specifically produced by bacteria) acids. These experiments confirmed the involvement of a substantial singlet oxygen transfer from senescent phytoplanktonic cells to attached bacteria, and revealed a significant correlation between the concentration of chlorophyll, a photosensitizer, in the phytodetritus and the photodegradation state of bacteria. Hydroperoxyacids (fatty acid photoproducts) appeared to be quickly degraded to ketoacids and hydroxyacids in bacteria and in phytoplanktonic cells. This degradation involves homolytic cleavage (most likely induced by UV and/or transition metal ions) and peroxygenase activity (yielding epoxy acids). PMID:23736689

Petit, Morgan; Sempéré, Richard; Vaultier, Frédéric; Rontani, Jean-François

2013-01-01

181

Monolithic solar cell panel of amorphous silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monolithic solar cell panel has been fabricated using hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) as the semiconductor material. This device consists of a plate glass substrate bearing a number of long, narrow, parallel cells electrically connected in series along the lengths of the cells. It features several characteristics which make it uniquely attractive for large area devices (up to several sq

J. J. Hanak

1979-01-01

182

Composite solar cell matrix is reliable, lightweight and flexible  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conducting strips mechanically and electrically connect individual solar cells into a linear array of cells, called a solar submodule, and then connect in series two or more submodules to form a solar cell matrix. Tiny perforations in the strip make it easy to solder them directly to the individual solar cells.

Yasui, R. K.

1967-01-01

183

Space solar cells: High efficiency and radiation damage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The progress and status of efforts to increase the end-of-life efficiency of solar cells for space use is assessed. High efficiency silicon solar cells, silicon solar cell radiation damage, GaAs solar cell performance and radiation damage and 30 percent devices are discussed.

Brandhorst, H., Jr.; Bernatowicz, D. T.

1980-01-01

184

Criteria for Choice of Material for Building Organic Solar Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic solar cells, which are a promising low cost alternative to inorganic solar cells, offer a seemingly unlimited choice of material with which one can build the devices. In this talk, the physics of operation of organic solar cells will be explained, bringing out its distinctiveness with respect to that for the traditional inorganic solar cells. Based on this, the

S. Sundar Kumariyer; Kumar Iyer

2011-01-01

185

Laser-assisted solar cell metallization processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser assisted processing techniques utilized to produce the fine line, thin metal grid structures that are required to fabricate high efficiency solar cells are investigated. The tasks comprising these investigations are summarized. Metal deposition experiments are carried out utilizing laser assisted pyrolysis of a variety of metal bearing polymer films and metalloorganic inks spun onto silicon substrates. Laser decomposition of spun on silver neodecanoate ink yields very promising results. Solar cell comb metallization patterns are written using this technique.

Dutta, S.

1984-01-01

186

High-temperature Solar Cell Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vast majority of space probes to date have relied upon photovoltaic power generation. If future missions designed to probe environments close to the sun (Figure 1) will be able to use such power generation, solar cells that can function at high temperatures, under high light intensity, and high radiation conditions must be developed. The significant problem is that solar cells lose performance at high temperatures.

Landis, Geoffrey A.; Merritt, Danielle; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Scheiman, David

2005-01-01

187

Nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excitonic solar cells-including organic, hybrid organic-inorganic and dye-sensitized cells (DSCs)-are promising devices for inexpensive, large-scale solar energy conversion. The DSC is currently the most efficient and stable excitonic photocell. Central to this device is a thick nanoparticle film that provides a large surface area for the adsorption of light-harvesting molecules. However, nanoparticle DSCs rely on trap-limited diffusion for electron transport,

Matt Law; Lori E. Greene; Justin C. Johnson; Richard Saykally; Peidong Yang

2005-01-01

188

Comparative values of advanced space solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology for deriving a first order dollar value estimate for advanced solar cells which consists of defining scenarios for solar array production and launch to orbit and the associated costs for typical spacecraft, determining that portion affected by cell design and performance and determining the attributable cost differences is presented. Break even values are calculated for a variety of cells; confirming that efficiency and related effects of radiation resistance and temperature coefficient are major factors; array tare mass, packaging and packing factor are important; but cell mass is of lesser significance. Associated dollar values provide a means of comparison.

Slifer, L. W., Jr.

1982-01-01

189

Manufacture of Solar Cells on the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the space exploration initiative a new architecture for the production of solar cells on the lunar surface is devised. The paper discusses experimental data on the fabrication and properties of lunar glass substrates, evaporated lunar regolith thin film (antireflect coatings and insulators), and preliminary attempts in the fabrication of thin film (silicon/II-VI) photovoltaic materials on lunar regolith substrates. A conceptual design for a solar powered robotic rover capable of fabricating solar cells directly on the lunar surface is provided. Technical challenges in the development of such a facility and strategies to alleviate perceived difficulties are discussed. Finally, preliminary cost benefit ratio analysis for different in situ solar cell production scenarios (using exclusively in-situ planetary resources or hybrid) are discussed.

Freundich, Alex; Ignatiev, Alex; Horton, Charles; Duke, Mike; Curren, Peter; Sibille, Laurent

2005-01-01

190

Functionalized fullerenes mediate photodynamic killing of cancer cells: Type I versus Type II photochemical mechanism  

PubMed Central

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) employs the combination of non-toxic photosensitizers (PS) and harmless visible light to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and kill cells. Most clinically studied PS are based on the tetrapyrrole structure of porphyrins, chlorins and related molecules, but new non-tetrapyrrole PS are being sought. Fullerenes are soccer-ball shaped molecules composed of sixty or seventy carbon atoms and have attracted interest in connection with the search for biomedical applications of nanotechnology. Fullerenes are biologically inert unless derivatized with functional groups, whereupon they become soluble and can act as PS. We have compared the photodynamic activity of six functionalized fullerenes with 1, 2, or 3 hydrophilic or 1, 2, or 3 cationic groups. The octanol-water partition coefficients were determined and the relative contributions of Type I photochemistry (photogeneration of superoxide in the presence of NADH) and Type II photochemistry (photogeneration of singlet oxygen) were studied by measurement of oxygen consumption, 1270-nm luminescence and EPR spin-trapping of the superoxide product. We studied three mouse cancer cell lines: (J774, LLC and CT26) incubated for 24 h with fullerenes and illuminated with white light. The order of effectiveness as PS was inversely proportional to the degree of substitution of the fullerene nucleus for both the neutral and cationic series. The mono-pyrrolidinium fullerene was the most active PS against all cell lines and induced apoptosis 4–6 hours after illumination. It produced diffuse intracellular fluorescence when dichlorodihydrofluorescein was added as an ROS probe suggesting a Type I mechanism for phototoxicity. We conclude that certain functionalized fullerenes have potential as novel PDT agents and phototoxicity may be mediated both by superoxide and by singlet oxygen. PMID:17664135

Mroz, Pawel; Pawlak, Anna; Satti, Minahil; Lee, Haeryeon; Wharton, Tim; Gali, Hariprasad; Sarna, Tadeusz; Hamblin, Michael R.

2007-01-01

191

Photochemical internalization (PCI) of immunotoxins targeting CD133 is specific and highly potent at femtomolar levels in cells with cancer stem cell properties.  

PubMed

CD133 is a putative cancer stem cell (CSC) marker for a number of different cancers and is suggested to be a therapeutic target. Since also normal stem cells express CD133 it is of paramount importance that targeting strategies provide a specific and efficient delivery of cytotoxic drugs in only CD133-positive CSCs. In this study, we have employed photochemical internalization (PCI), a minimally invasive method for light-controlled, specific delivery of membrane-impermeable macromolecules from endocytic vesicles to the cytosol, to specifically target CD133-positive cancer cells. We demonstrate that PCI increases the cytotoxic effect of an immunotoxin (IT) targeting CD133-expressing cancer cells of colon (WiDr and HCT116) and pancreas (BxPC-3) origin. The IT consisted of the mAb CD133/1 (AC133) bound to the ribosome inactivating plant toxin saporin (anti-CD133/1-sap). We show that TPCS2a-PCI of anti-CD133/1-sap is specific, and highly cytotoxic at femto-molar concentrations. Specific binding and uptake of CD133/1, was shown by fluorescence microscopy and co-localization with TPCS2a in endosomes/lysosomes was determined by confocal microscopy. CD133(high) WiDr cells, isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting, had a 7-fold higher capacity to initiate spheroids than CD133(low) cells (P<0.001) and were resistant to photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, PDT-resistance was bypassed by the PCI strategy. Tumor initiation and aggressive growth in athymic nude mice was obtained with only 10 CD133(high) cells in contrast to CD133(low) cells where substantially higher cell numbers were needed. The excellent high efficacy and selectivity of eliminating CD133-expressing cells by PCI warrant further pre-clinical evaluations of this novel therapeutic approach. PMID:23567040

Bostad, Monica; Berg, Kristian; Høgset, Anders; Skarpen, Ellen; Stenmark, Harald; Selbo, Pål K

2013-06-28

192

Nanoscale Charge Transport in Excitonic Solar Cells  

SciTech Connect

Excitonic solar cells, including all-organic, hybrid organic-inorganic and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), offer strong potential for inexpensive and large-area solar energy conversion. Unlike traditional inorganic semiconductor solar cells, where all the charge generation and collection processes are well understood, these excitonic solar cells contain extremely disordered structures with complex interfaces which results in large variations in nanoscale electronic properties and has a strong influence on carrier generation, transport, dissociation and collection. Detailed understanding of these processes is important for fabrication of highly efficient solar cells. Efforts to improve efficiency are underway at a large number of research groups throughout the world focused on inorganic and organic semiconductors, photonics, photophysics, charge transport, nanoscience, ultrafast spectroscopy, photonics, semiconductor processing, device physics, device structures, interface structure etc. Rapid progress in this multidisciplinary area requires strong synergetic efforts among researchers from diverse backgrounds. Such effort can lead to novel methods for development of new materials with improved photon harvesting and interfacial treatments for improved carrier transport, process optimization to yield ordered nanoscale morphologies with well defined electronic structures.

Venkat Bommisetty, South Dakota State University

2011-06-23

193

Advanced Solar Cells for Satellite Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The multiple natures of today's space missions with regard to operational lifetime, orbital environment, cost and size of spacecraft, to name just a few, present such a broad range of performance requirements to be met by the solar array that no single design can suffice to meet them all. The result is a demand for development of specialized solar cell types that help to optimize overall satellite performance within a specified cost range for any given space mission. Historically, space solar array performance has been optimized for a given mission by tailoring the features of silicon solar cells to account for the orbital environment and average operating conditions expected during the mission. It has become necessary to turn to entirely new photovoltaic materials and device designs to meet the requirements of future missions, both in the near and far term. This paper will outline some of the mission drivers and resulting performance requirements that must be met by advanced solar cells, and provide an overview of some of the advanced cell technologies under development to meet them. The discussion will include high efficiency, radiation hard single junction cells; monolithic and mechanically stacked multiple bandgap cells; and thin film cells.

Flood, Dennis J.; Weinberg, Irving

1994-01-01

194

Cardiff University Distinguished Lecture Symposium Advances in Solar Energy  

E-print Network

Cardiff University Distinguished Lecture Symposium Advances in Solar Energy Thursday 22nd March prospects for inorganic thin film photovoltaic solar cells for large scale energy generation 2:55 Dr Emyr:50 Professor James Durrant (Imperial College London, England) Photochemical approaches to solar energy

Martin, Ralph R.

195

Nanoparticle Solar Cell Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this work was to demonstrate all-inorganic nanoparticle-based solar cells with photovoltaic performance extending into the near-IR region of the solar spectrum as a pathway towards improving power conversion efficiencies. The field of all-inorganic nanoparticle-based solar cells is very new, with only one literature publication in the prior to our project. Very little is understood regarding how these devices function. Inorganic solar cells with IR performance have previously been fabricated using traditional methods such as physical vapor deposition and sputtering, and solution-processed devices utilizing IR-absorbing organic polymers have been investigated. The solution-based deposition of nanoparticles offers the potential of a low-cost manufacturing process combined with the ability to tune the chemical synthesis and material properties to control the device properties. This work, in collaboration with the Sue Carter research group at the University of California, Santa Cruz, has greatly expanded the knowledge base in this field, exploring multiple material systems and several key areas of device physics including temperature, bandgap and electrode device behavior dependence, material morphological behavior, and the role of buffer layers. One publication has been accepted to Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells pending minor revision and another two papers are being written now. While device performance in the near-IR did not reach the level anticipated at the beginning of this grant, we did observe one of the highest near-IR efficiencies for a nanoparticle-based solar cell device to date. We also identified several key parameters of importance for improving both near-IR performance and nanoparticle solar cells in general, and demonstrated multiple pathways which showed promise for future commercialization with further research.

Breeze, Alison, J; Sahoo, Yudhisthira; Reddy, Damoder; Sholin, Veronica; Carter, Sue

2008-06-17

196

Plastic Schottky-barrier solar cells  

DOEpatents

A photovoltaic cell structure is fabricated from an active medium including an undoped polyacetylene, organic semiconductor. When a film of such material is in rectifying contact with a metallic area electrode, a Schottky-barrier junction is obtained within the body of the cell structure. Also, a gold overlayer passivates a magnesium layer on the undoped polyacetylene film. With the proper selection and location of elements a photovoltaic cell structure and solar cell are obtained.

Waldrop, J.R.; Cohen, M.J.

1981-12-30

197

Progress in quantum well solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantum well solar cell is a special multiple-band gap device with intermediate properties between heterojunction cells (sum of the currents generated in the different materials but voltage controlled by the lowest of the two band gaps) and tandem cells (sum of the voltages but current determined by the worst of the two sub-cells).Strain-balanced GaAsP\\/InGaAs multi-quantum wells move the absorption

M. Mazzer; K. W. J. Barnham; I. M. Ballard; A. Bessiere; A. Ioannides; D. C. Johnson; M. C. Lynch; T. N. D. Tibbits; J. S. Roberts; G. Hill; C. Calder

2006-01-01

198

High voltage planar multijunction solar cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high voltage multijunction solar cell is provided wherein a plurality of discrete voltage generating regions or unit cells are formed in a single generally planar semiconductor body. The unit cells are comprised of doped regions of opposite conductivity type separated by a gap or undiffused region. Metal contacts connect adjacent cells together in series so that the output voltages of the individual cells are additive. In some embodiments, doped field regions separated by a overlie the unit cells but the cells may be formed in both faces of the wafer.

Evans, J. C., Jr.; Chai, A. T.; Goradia, C. P. (inventors)

1982-01-01

199

Advanced Modelling of Silicon Wafer Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modelling of solar cells today is general practice in research and widely-used in industry. Established modelling software is typically limited to one dimension and/or to small scales. Additionally, novel effects, like, e.g., the use of diffractive structures or luminescent materials, are not established. In this paper we discuss how the combination of different modelling techniques can be used to overcome these limitations. In this context two examples are presented. The first example concerns the combination of the open source simulation software PC1D with circuit modelling to investigate the effect of local shunts on the global characteristics of a silicon wafer solar cell. For the investigated example (4.5 cm2 cell area) we find that a local point shunt reduces the solar cell efficiency by 4% relative. The second example concerns the modelling of diffractive gratings for thin silicon wafer solar cells. For this purpose, we use the rigorous coupled wave analysis to simulate Sentaurus technical computer-aided design (TCAD) is combined with the rigorous coupled wave analysis, a method to solve Maxwell's equations for periodic structures. Here we show that a grating can be used to improve the absorption in a thin silicon wafer solar cell considerably.

Peters, Marius; Fajun, Ma; Siyu, Guo; Hoex, Bram; Blaesi, Benedikt; Glunz, Stefan; Aberle, Armin; Luther, Joachim

2012-10-01

200

Developing an Advanced Module for Back-Contact Solar Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel concept for integrating ultrathin solar cells into modules. It is conceived as a method for fabricating solar panels starting from back-contact crystalline silicon solar cells. However, compared to the current state of the art in module manufacturing for back-contact solar cells, this novel concept aims at improvements in performance, reliability, and cost through the use

Jonathan Govaerts; Jo Robbelein; Mario Gonzalez; Ivan Gordon; Kris Baert; Ingrid De Wolf; Frederick Bossuyt; Steven Van Put; Jan Vanfleteren

2011-01-01

201

Third Working Meeting on Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research results are reported for GaAs Schottky barrier solar cells, GaAlAs/GaAs heteroface solar cells, and GaAlAs graded band gap solar cells. Related materials studies are presented. A systems study for GaAs and Si solar concentrator systems is given.

Walker, G. H. (compiler)

1976-01-01

202

Mechanically stacked concentrator tandem solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four-terminal mechanically stacked solar cells were developed for advanced space arrays with line-focus reflective concentrators. The top cells are based on AlGaAs/GaAs multilayer heterostructures prepared by low temperature liquid phase epitaxy. The bottom cells are based on heteroepitaxial InP/InGaAs liquid phase epitaxy or on homo-junction GaSb, Zn-diffused structures. The sum of the highest reached efficiencies of the top and bottom cells is 29.4 percent. The best four-terminal tandems have an efficiency of 27 to 28 percent. Solar cells were irradiated with 1 MeV electrons and their performances were determined as a function of fluence up to 10(exp 16) cm(exp-2). It was shown that the radiation resistance of developed tandem cells is similar to the most radiative stable AlGaAs/GaAs cells with a thin p-GaAs photoactive layer.

Andreev, V. M.; Rumyantsev, V. D.; Karlina, L. B.; Kazantsev, A. B.; Khvostikov, V. P.; Shvarts, M. Z.; Sorokina, S. V.

1995-01-01

203

Optical designs for improved solar cell performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar resource is the most abundant renewable resource on earth, yet it is currently exploited with relatively low efficiencies. To make solar energy more affordable, we can either reduce the cost of the cell or increase the efficiency with a similar cost cell. In this thesis, we consider several different optical approaches to achieve these goals. First, we consider a ray optical model for light trapping in silicon microwires. With this approach, much less material can be used, allowing for a cost savings. We next focus on reducing the escape of radiatively emitted and scattered light from the solar cell. With this angle restriction approach, light can only enter and escape the cell near normal incidence, allowing for thinner cells and higher efficiencies. In Auger-limited GaAs, we find that efficiencies greater than 38% may be achievable, a significant improvement over the current world record. To experimentally validate these results, we use a Bragg stack to restrict the angles of emitted light. Our measurements show an increase in voltage and a decrease in dark current, as less radiatively emitted light escapes. While the results in GaAs are interesting as a proof of concept, GaAs solar cells are not currently made on the production scale for terrestrial photovoltaic applications. We therefore explore the application of angle restriction to silicon solar cells. While our calculations show that Auger-limited cells give efficiency increases of up to 3% absolute, we also find that current amorphous silicion-crystalline silicon heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) cells give significant efficiency gains with angle restriction of up to 1% absolute. Thus, angle restriction has the potential for unprecedented one sun efficiencies in GaAs, but also may be applicable to current silicon solar cell technology. Finally, we consider spectrum splitting, where optics direct light in different wavelength bands to solar cells with band gaps tuned to those wavelengths. This approach has the potential for very high efficiencies, and excellent annual power production. Using a light-trapping filtered concentrator approach, we design filter elements and find an optimal design. Thus, this thesis explores silicon microwires, angle restriction, and spectral splitting as different optical approaches for improving the cost and efficiency of solar cells.

Kosten, Emily Dell

204

Microstructural analysis of solar cell welds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parallel-gap resistance welding of silicon solar cells with copper interconnects results in complex microstructural variations that depend on the welding variables. At relatively low heat input solid-state welds are produced. At medium heat the Ag-Cu eutectic forms resulting in a braze joint. High heat produces a fusion weld with complete melting of the silver layer on the silicon solar cell. If the silicon is also melted, cracking occurs in the silicon cell below the weld nugget. These determinations were made using light microscopy, microprobe, and scanning electron microscopy analyses.

Moore, T. J.; Watson, G. K.; Baraona, C. R.

205

Microstructural analysis of solar cell welds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parallel-gap resistance welding of silicon solar cells with copper interconnects results in complex microstructural variations that depend on the welding variables. At relatively low heat input solid-state welds are produced. At medium heat the Ag-Cu eutectic forms resulting in a braze joint. High heat produces a fusion weld with complete melting of the silver layer on the silicon solar cell. If the silicon is also melted, cracking occurs in the silicon cell below the weld nugget. These determinations were made using light microscopy, microprobe, and scanning electron microscopy analyses.

Moore, T. J.; Watson, G. K.; Baraona, C. R.

1982-01-01

206

Radiation tests of SEP solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar cells specially designed for Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) were tested with radiation fluences up to 10 to the 12th power protons having energies of 1.5, 1.0, and 0.5 MeV, and with fluences up to 10 to the 16th power electrons having 1.0 MeV energy. Spectrolab cells having a back-surface field were also irradiated with the same particles and fluences. Cell performances are described by curves in which normalized and absolute values of maximum power, maximum-power voltage, short-circuit current, and open-circuit voltage are plotted as a function of fluence.

Oman, H.

1977-01-01

207

Solar cell calibration and measurement techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing complexity of space power solar cells and the increasing international markets for both cells and arrays has resulted in workshops jointly sponsored by NASDA, ESA and NASA. These workshops are designed to obtain international agreement on standardized values for the AM0 spectrum and constant, recommend laboratory measurement practices and establish a set of protocols for international comparison of

Sheila Bailey; Dave Brinker; Henry Curtis; Phillip Jenkins; D. Scheiman

1997-01-01

208

Method of restoring degraded solar cells  

DOEpatents

Amorphous silicon solar cells have been shown to have efficiencies which degrade as a result of long exposure to light. Annealing such cells in air at a temperature of about 200.degree. C. for at least 30 minutes restores their efficiency.

Staebler, David L. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1983-01-01

209

Photovoltaic solar cells performance at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that efficiency of photovoltaic solar cells decreases with an increase of temperature, and cooling is necessary at high illumination conditions such as concentrated sunlight, or cosmic or tropical conditions. The purpose of present study was to investigate the opposite option: to make a cell work at relatively high temperature (around 100–200 °C) and use the excessive

David Meneses-Rodr??guez; Paul P. Horley; Jesús González-Hernández; Yuri V. Vorobiev; Peter N. Gorley

2005-01-01

210

Solar Cell Calibration and Measurement Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The increasing complexity of space solar cells and the increasing international markets for both cells and arrays has resulted in workshops jointly sponsored by NASDA, ESA and NASA. These workshops are designed to obtain international agreement on standardized values for the AMO spectrum and constant, recommend laboratory measurement practices and establish a set of protocols for international comparison of laboratory measurements. A working draft of an ISO standard, WDI 5387, 'Requirements for Measurement and Calibration Procedures for Space Solar Cells' was discussed with a focus on the scope of the document, a definition of primary standard cell, and required error analysis for all measurement techniques. Working groups addressed the issues of Air Mass Zero (AMO) solar constant and spectrum, laboratory measurement techniques, and the international round robin methodology. A summary is presented of the current state of each area and the formulation of the ISO document.

Bailey, Sheila; Brinker, Dave; Curtis, Henry; Jenkins, Phillip; Scheiman, Dave

1997-01-01

211

Stable, high-efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells with low hydrogen content. Annual subcontract report, 1 March 1991--31 January 1992  

SciTech Connect

Results and conclusions obtained during a research program of the investigation of amorphous silicon and amorphous silicon based alloy materials and solar cells fabricated by photo-chemical vapor and glow discharge depositions are reported. Investigation of the effects of the hydrogen content in a-si:H i-layers in amorphous silicon solar cells show that cells with lowered hydrogen content i-layers are more stable. A classical thermodynamic formulation of the Staebler-Wronski effect has been developed for standard solar cell operating temperatures and illuminations. Methods have been developed to extract a lumped equivalent circuit from the current voltage characteristic of a single junction solar cell in order to predict its behavior in a multijunction device.

Fortmann, C.M.; Hegedus, S.S. [Institute of Energy Conversion, Newark, DE (United States)

1992-12-01

212

Silicon solar cell process. Development, fabrication and analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar cells were fabricated from unconventional silicon sheets, and the performances were characterized with an emphasis on statistical evaluation. A number of solar cell fabrication processes were used and conversion efficiency was measured under AMO condition at 25 C. Silso solar cells using standard processing showed an average efficiency of about 9.6%. Solar cells with back surface field process showed about the same efficiency as the cells from standard process. Solar cells from grain boundary passivation process did not show any improvements in solar cell performance.

Yoo, H. I.; Iles, P. A.; Tanner, D. P.

1978-01-01

213

Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoplasmonics recently has emerged as a new frontier of photovoltaic research. Noble metal nanostructures that can concentrate and guide light have demonstrated great capability for dramatically improving the energy conversion efficiency of both laboratory and industrial solar cells, providing an innovative pathway potentially transforming the solar industry. However, to make the nanoplasmonic technology fully appreciated by the solar industry, key challenges need to be addressed; including the detrimental absorption of metals, broadband light trapping mechanisms, cost of plasmonic nanomaterials, simple and inexpensive fabrication and integration methods of the plasmonic nanostructures, which are scalable for full size manufacture. This article reviews the recent progress of plasmonic solar cells including the fundamental mechanisms, material fabrication, theoretical modelling and emerging directions with a distinct emphasis on solutions tackling the above-mentioned challenges for industrial relevant applications.

Gu, Min; Ouyang, Zi; Jia, Baohua; Stokes, Nicholas; Chen, Xi; Fahim, Narges; Li, Xiangping; Ventura, Michael James; Shi, Zhengrong

2012-12-01

214

Black silicon for solar cell applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present experimental results and rigorous numerical simulations on the optical properties of Black Silicon surfaces and their implications for solar cell applications. The Black Silicon is fabricated by reactive ion etching of crystalline silicon with SF6 and O2. This produces a surface consisting of sharp randomly distributed needle like features with a characteristic lateral spacing of about a few hundreds of nanometers and a wide range of aspect ratios depending on the process parameters. Due to the very low reflectance over a broad spectral range and a pronounced light trapping effect at the silicon absorption edge such Black Silicon surface textures are beneficial for photon management in photovoltaic applications. We demonstrate that those light trapping properties prevail upon functionalization of the Black Silicon with dielectric coatings, necessary to construct a photovoltaic system. The experimental investigations are accompanied by rigorous numerical simulations based on three dimensional models of the Black Silicon structures. Those simulations allow insights into the light trapping mechanism and the influence of the substrate thickness onto the optical performance of the Black Silicon. Finally we use an analytical solar cell model to relate the optical properties of Black Silicon to the maximum photo current and solar cell efficiency in dependence of the solar cell thickness. The results are compared to standard light trapping schemes and implications especially for thin solar cells are discussed.

Kroll, Matthias; Otto, Martin; Käsebier, Thomas; Füchsel, Kevin; Wehrspohn, Ralf; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas; Pertsch, Thomas

2012-06-01

215

Nanocluster production for solar cell applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research focuses on the fabrication and characterization of silver (Ag) and silicon (Si) nanoclusters that might be used for solar cell applications. Silver and silicon nanoclusters have been synthesized by means of dc magnetron sputtering and inert gas condensation inside an ultra-high vacuum compatible system. We have found that nanocluster size distributions can be tuned by various source parameters, such as the sputtering discharge power, flow rate of argon inert gas, and aggregation length. Quadrupole mass filter and transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate the size distribution of Ag and Si nanoclusters. Ag nanoclusters with average size in the range of 3.6-8.3 nm were synthesized (herein size refers to the nanocluster diameter), whereas Si nanoclusters' average size was controlled to range between 2.9 and 7.4 nm by controlling the source parameters. This work illustrates the ability of controlling the Si and Ag nanoclusters' sizes by proper optimization of the operation conditions. By controlling nanoclusters' sizes, one can alter their surface properties to suit the need to enhance solar cell efficiency. Herein, Ag nanoclusters were deposited on commercial polycrystalline solar cells. Short circuit current (ISC), open circuit voltage (VOC), fill factor, and efficiency (?) were obtained under light source with an intensity of 30 mW/cm2. A 22.7% enhancement in solar cell efficiency could be measured after deposition of Ag nanoclusters, which demonstrates that Ag nanoclusters generated in this work are useful to enhance solar cell efficiency.

Al Dosari, Haila M.; Ayesh, Ahmad I.

2013-08-01

216

Method of fabricating a solar cell array  

DOEpatents

A first set of pre-tabbed solar cells are assembled in a predetermined array with at least part of each tab facing upward, each tab being fixed to a bonding pad on one cell and abutting a bonding pad on an adjacent cell. The cells are held in place with a first vacuum support. The array is then inverted onto a second vacuum support which holds the tabs firmly against the cell pads they abut. The cells are exposed to radiation to melt and reflow the solder pads for bonding the tab portions not already fixed to bonding pads to these pads.

Lazzery, Angelo G. (Oaklyn, NJ); Crouthamel, Marvin S. (Pennsauken, NJ); Coyle, Peter J. (Oaklyn, NJ)

1982-01-01

217

Nanocrystal-polymer solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to structure materials on a nanometer dimension enables the processes of solar energy conversion to be optimized at their most fundamental length scale. In semiconducting nanocrystals, optical absorption and electrical transport can be tailored by changing their radius and length, respectively. The unique features of quantum confinement and shape manipulation characteristic for inorganic nanocrystals can be utilized to

Wendy Uyen Huynh

2002-01-01

218

Space solar cell research - Problems and potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The value of a passive, maintenance-free, renewable energy source was immediately recognized in the early days of the space program, and the silicon solar cell, despite its infancy, was quickly pressed into service. Efficiencies of those early space solar arrays were low, and lifetimes shorter than hoped for, but within a decade significant advances had been made in both areas. Better performance was achieved because of a variety of factors, ranging from improvements in silicon single crystal material, to better device designs, to a better understanding of the factors that affect the performance of a solar cell in space. Chief among the latter, particularly for the mid-to-high altitude (HEO) and geosynchronous (GEO) orbits, are the effects of the naturally occurring particulate radiation environment. Although not as broadly important to the photovoltaic community at large as increased efficiency, the topic of radiation damage is critically important to use of solar cells in space, and is a major component of the NASA research program in space photovoltaics. This paper will give a brief overview of some of the opportunities and challenges for space photovoltaic applications, and will discuss some of the current reseach directed at achieving high efficiency and controlling the effects of radiation damage in space solar cells.

Flood, Dennis J.

1986-01-01

219

Space solar cell research: Problems and potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The value of a passive, maintenance-free, renewable energy source was apparent in the early days of the space program, and the silicon solar cell was pressed into service. Efficiencies of those early space solar arrays were low, and lifetimes shorter than hoped for, but within a decade significant advances had been made in both areas. Better performance was achieved through improvements in silicon single crystal material, better device designs, and a better understanding of the factors that affect the performance of a solar cell in space. Chief among the latter, particularly for the mid-to-high altitude (HEO) and geosynchronous (GEO) orbits, are the effects of the naturally occurring particulate radiation environment. Although not as broadly important to the photovoltaic community at large as increased efficiency, the topic of radiation damage is critically important to use of solar cells in space, and is a major component of the NASA research program in space photovoltaics. A brief overview of some of the opportunities and challenges for space photovoltaic applications is given, and some of the current research directed at achieving high efficiency and controlling radiation damage in space solar cells is discussed.

Flood, D. J.

1986-01-01

220

Large area monolithic organic solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although efficiencies of > 10% have recently been achieved in laboratory-scale organic solar cells, these competitive performance figures are yet to be translated to large active areas and geometries relevant for viable manufacturing. One of the factors hindering scale-up is a lack of knowledge of device physics at the sub-module level, particularly cell architecture, electrode geometry and current collection pathways. A more in depth understanding of how photocurrent and photovoltage extraction can be optimised over large active areas is urgently needed. Another key factor suppressing conversion efficiencies in large area cells is the relatively high sheet resistance of the transparent conducting anode - typically indium tin oxide. Hence, to replace ITO with alternative transparent conducting anodes is also a high priority on the pathway to viable module-level organic solar cells. In our paper we will focus on large area devices relevant to sub-module scales - 5 cm × 5 cm monolithic geometry. We have applied a range of experimental techniques to create a more comprehensive understanding of the true device physics that could help make large area, monolithic organic solar cells more viable. By employing this knowledge, a novel transparent anode consisting of molybdenum oxide (MoOx) and silver (Ag) is developed to replace ITO and PEDOT-free large area solar cell sub-modules, acting as both a transparent window and hole-collecting electrode. The proposed architecture and anode materials are well suited to high throughput, low cost all-solution processing.

Jin, Hui; Tao, Cheng; Hambsch, Mike; Pivrikas, Almantas; Velusamy, Marappan; Aljada, Muhsen; Zhang, Yuliang; Burn, Paul L.; Meredith, Paul

2012-11-01

221

Stratospheric NO and NO2 profiles at sunset from analysis of high-resolution balloon-borne infrared solar absorption spectra obtained at 33 deg N and calculations with a time-dependent photochemical model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simultaneous stratospheric vertical profiles of NO and NO2 at sunset were derived from an analysis of infrared solar absorption spectra recorded from a float altitude of 33 km with an interferometer system during a balloon flight. A nonlinear least squares procedure was used to analyze the spectral data in regions of absorption by NO and NO2 lines. Normalized factors, determined from calculations of time dependent altitude profiles with a detailed photochemical model, were included in the onion peeling analysis to correct for the rapid diurnal changes in NO and NO2 concentrations with time near sunset. The CO2 profile was also derived from the analysis and is reported.

Rinsland, C. P.; Boughner, R. E.; Larsen, J. C.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Murcray, D. G.

1984-01-01

222

Solar Cell Modules with Parallel Oriented Interconnections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Twenty-four solar modules, half of which were 48 cells in an all-series electrical configuration and half of a six parallel cells by eight series cells were provided. Upon delivery of environmentally tested modules, low power outputs were discovered. These low power modules were determined to have cracked cells which were thought to cause the low output power. The cracks tended to be linear or circular which were caused by different stressing mechanisms. These stressing mechanisms were fully explored. Efforts were undertaken to determine the causes of cell fracture. This resulted in module design and process modifications. The design and process changes were subsequently implemented in production.

1979-01-01

223

Design and fabrication of solar cell modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program conducted for design, fabrication and evaluation of twelve silicon solar cell modules is described. The purpose of the program was to develop a module design consistent with the requirements and objectives of JPL specification and to also incorporate elements of new technologies under development to meet LSSA Project goals. Module development emphasized preparation of a technically and economically competitive design based upon utilization of ion implanted solar cells and a glass encapsulation system. The modules fabricated, tested and delivered were of nominal 2 X 2 foot dimensions and 20 watt minimum rating. Basic design, design rationale, performance and results of environmental testing are described.

Shaughnessy, T. P.

1978-01-01

224

Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation  

DOEpatents

The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline material layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David; Cousins, Peter

2012-12-04

225

High throughput solar cell ablation system  

DOEpatents

A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John; Viatella, John

2012-09-11

226

Oxide heterostructures for ecient solar cells  

SciTech Connect

We propose an unexplored class of absorbing materials for high-efficiency solar cells: heterostructures of transition-metal oxides. In particular, LaVO3 grown on SrTiO3 has a direct band gap ~1.1 eV in the optimal range as well as an internal potential gradient, which can greatly help to separate the photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Furthermore, oxide heterostructures afford the flexibility to combine LaVO3 with other materials such as LaFeO3 in order to achieve even higher efficiencies with band-gap graded solar cells. We use density-functional theory to demonstrate these features.

Assmann, E. [Vienna University of Technology, Austria; Blaha, P. [Institute for Materials Chemistry, TU Vienna; Laskowski, R [Institute for Materials Chemistry, TU Vienna; Held, K. [Vienna University of Technology, Austria; Okamoto, Satoshi [ORNL; Sangiovanni, G. [University of Wuerzburg, Germany

2013-01-01

227

Impedance spectroscopic characterization of solar cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impedance spectroscopy is used to characterize a commercial solar cell, at various dc bias potentials, under illumination and dark conditions. Interesting features are observed in medium and low frequency range, at large bias potentials. All the models reported in literature utilize combinations of resistances and capacitances, but the results indicate that inductances are necessary to model the actual solar cell, since an inductive loop is observed in the medium frequency range, especially at large bias potential, both under illumination and dark conditions. A new circuit which captures all the trends semi quantitatively is proposed to model the data.

Gautham, S.; Ramanathan, S.

2014-10-01

228

Gaalas/Gaas Solar Cell Process Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Available information on liquid phase, vapor phase (including chemical vapor deposition) and molecular beam epitaxy growth procedures that could be used to fabricate single crystal, heteroface, (AlGa) As/GaAs solar cells, for space applications is summarized. A comparison of the basic cost elements of the epitaxy growth processes shows that the current infinite melt LPE process has the lower cost per cell for an annual production rate of 10,000 cells. The metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MO-CVD) process has the potential for low cost production of solar cells but there is currently a significant uncertainty in process yield, i.e., the fraction of active material in the input gas stream that ends up in the cell. Additional work is needed to optimize and document the process parameters for the MO-CVD process.

Almgren, D. W.; Csigi, K. I.

1980-01-01

229

InP concentrator solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, fabrication, and characterization of high-performance, n(+)/p InP shallow-homojunction (SHJ) concentrator solar cells are described. The InP device structures were grown by atmospheric-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. A preliminary assessment of the effects of grid-collection distance and emitter-sheet resistance on cell performance is presented. At concentration ratios of around 100, cells with efficiencies of 21.4 percent AM0 (24.3 percent direct) at 25 C are fabricated. These are the highest efficiencies yet reported for single-junction InP solar cells. The performance of these cells as a function of temperature is discussed, and areas for future improvement are outlined. Application of these results to other InP-based photovoltaic devices is discussed.

Ward, J. S.; Wanlass, M. W.; Coutts, T. J.; Emery, K. A.; Osterwald, C. R.

1991-01-01

230

Detecting Solar-Cell Failures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Circuit identified malfunctioning photovoltaic array. Cell-failure detection circuit compares output of photovoltaic array to control cell. If any module fails, activates light-emitting diode. Circuit could also sound alarm.

Maloney, T. J.

1983-01-01

231

Multi-junction solar cell device  

DOEpatents

A multi-junction solar cell device (10) is provided. The multi-junction solar cell device (10) comprises either two or three active solar cells connected in series in a monolithic structure. The multi-junction device (10) comprises a bottom active cell (20) having a single-crystal silicon substrate base and an emitter layer (23). The multi-junction device (10) further comprises one or two subsequent active cells each having a base layer (32) and an emitter layer (23) with interconnecting tunnel junctions between each active cell. At least one layer that forms each of the top and middle active cells is composed of a single-crystal III-V semiconductor alloy that is substantially lattice-matched to the silicon substrate (22). The polarity of the active p-n junction cells is either p-on-n or n-on-p. The present invention further includes a method for substantially lattice matching single-crystal III-V semiconductor layers with the silicon substrate (22) by including boron and/or nitrogen in the chemical structure of these layers.

Friedman, Daniel J. (Lakewood, CO); Geisz, John F. (Wheat Ridge, CO)

2007-12-18

232

[Light-induced changes in quantum yields of the photochemical cycle of conversion of bacteriorhodopsin and transmembrane proton transfer in cells of Halobacterium halobium].  

PubMed

It was found that the rate of proton efflux from the cells, vH+, and the turnover number of bacteriorhodopsin photoconversion cycle per second, vM, are gradually decreased during continuous illumination of Halobacterium halobium with orange light (550-650 nm, 10(3) W/m2). The steady-state value of vH+ after 3 min of illumination is 3 times lower than vH+ at the 1st second of illumination. At the same time the concentration of the photochemical cycle intermediate, M412, the quantum yield of its formation, phi M, and the quantum efficiency of proton efflux, phi H+, are decreased (phi M and phi H+ up to 3-4-fold), whereas the concentration of the initial form of bacteriorhodopsin, BR570, and lifetime of M412, tau, are increased. These light-induced effects are abolished by uncoupler, carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) and are enhanced by the phosphorylation inhibitor, N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD). This suggests that the observed changes of M412 and BR570 concentrations, tau, VH+, VM, phi M and phi H+ are due to the light-induced changes in the transmembrane electric potential, delta psi, and in pH inside and outside the cell, which control the photochemical cycle reactions. The decrease of phi M and phi H+ is discussed on the basis of an earlier proposed scheme of the branched photochemical cycle. It is assumed that the back reactions of the cycle (shunts) not coupled with the transmembrane proton translocation, e.g. conversion of L550 (P550) into BR570 without M412 formation, etc., become more probably at high values of the proton electrochemical potential gradient. PMID:7115823

Dubrovski?, V T; Balashov, S P; Sineshchekov, O A; Chekulaeva, L N; Litvin, F F

1982-07-01

233

Photovoltaic solar cell application for e-book  

Microsoft Academic Search

An embedded systems like e-Book where it consumes less power and employs greatly in outdoor environment, solar energy can be introduced for extending the reading time. In this paper, to design e-book system with photovoltaic solar cell application, solar harvesting module must be considered. But measurement showed that charging current for battery is significantly affected by solar cell type and

Hee-Won Lee; Jong-Soo Kim; Byoung-Kuk Lee

2010-01-01

234

Plastic solar cells with engineered interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss here bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells with engineered interfaces to achieve desired phase separations (vertical and horizontal), molecule orientations, ohmic contacts, and electronic properties for device performance maximization, and to enhance the device durability by eliminating corrosive interfacial layers. The strategies discussed include development of novel interfacial layers such as self-assembled organic layers and inorganic metal oxide layers, and using inverted cell architectures. Interface engineering leads to optimal active layer morphologies and to polymer ?- orientation, as well as maximum open circuit voltage. Using p-type NiO as the anode hole transporting/electron blocking layer results in dramatically enhanced device performance of P3HT/PCBM polymer solar cells with PCEs up to 5%. Electrical property and surface morphology investigations of NiO elucidate the mechanism for the enhanced performance. Other novel interfacial materials such as self-assembled organic monolayers and graphene oxide (GO) have also been incorporated into polymer solar cells to achieve comparable PCEs with improved device stability. Using ZnO as electron transporting/hole blocking layer and employing an inverted device architecture, polymer solar cells achieve desired molecule ?-orientation and vertical phase separation, therefore extremely high fill factors and promising power conversion efficiencies. In addition to interfacial layer materials, active layer components with state-of-the-art device performance, both polymer and small molecule developed in this laboratory, will also be discussed.

Guo, Xugang; Marks, Tobin J.

2013-03-01

235

Electrical overstress failure in silicon solar cells  

SciTech Connect

A solar-cell electrical-overstress-failure model and the results of experimental measurements of threshold pulsed failure currents on four types of silicon solar cells are presented. The transient EMP field surrounding a lightning stroke has been identified as a potential threat to a photovoltaic array, yet failure analysis of solar cells in a pulsed environment had not previously been reported. Failure in the low-resistivity concentrator cells at pulse widths between 1 ..mu..s and 1 ms occurred initially in the junction. Finger damage in the form of silver melting occurs at currents only slightly greater than that required for junction damage. The result of reverse-bias transient-overstress tests on high-resistivity (10 ..cap omega..cm) cells demonstrated that the predominant failure mode was due to edge currents. These flat-plate cells failed at currents of only 4 to 20 A, which is one or two orders of magnitude below the model predictions. It thus appears that high-resistivity flat-plate cells are quite vulnerable to electrical overstress which could be produced by a variety of mechanisms.

Pease, R.L.; Barnum, J.R.; van Lint, V.A.J.; Vulliet, W.V.; Wrobel, T.F.

1982-11-01

236

High-performance silicon nanohole solar cells.  

PubMed

We demonstrate Si nanohole arrays as a superior sunlight-absorbing nanostructure for photovoltaic solar cell applications. Under 1 sun AM1.5G illumination, a Si nanohole solar cell with p-n junctions via P diffusion exhibited a open-circuit voltage of 566.6 mV, a short-circuit current density of 32.2 mA/cm(2), and a remarkable power conversion efficiency of 9.51%, which is higher than that of its counterparts based on Si nanowires, planar Si, and pyramid-textured Si. The nanohole array geometry presents a novel and viable method fo cost-efficient solar energy conversion. PMID:20426468

Peng, Kui-Qing; Wang, Xin; Li, Li; Wu, Xiao-Ling; Lee, Shuit-Tong

2010-05-26

237

High temperature investigations of crystalline silicon solar cell materials  

E-print Network

Crystalline silicon solar cells are a promising candidate to provide a sustainable, clean energy source for the future. In order to bring about widespread adoption of solar cells, much work is needed to reduce their cost. ...

Hudelson, George David Stephen, III

2009-01-01

238

Photovoltaic nanocrystal scintillators hybridized on Si solar cells  

E-print Network

Photovoltaic nanocrystal scintillators hybridized on Si solar cells for enhanced conversion@bilkent.edu.tr Abstract: We propose and demonstrate semiconductor nanocrystal based photovoltaic scintillators integrated on solar cells to enhance photovoltaic device parameters including spectral responsivity, open circuit

Demir, Hilmi Volkan

239

Center punched solar cell module development effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results are given of an advanced module development program with the objective of providing a low cost solar cell mechanical interconnect design. The design approach, which avoids soldering or welding operations, lends itself to automated assembly techniques thus supporting the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project goals. The first group of six modules contained aluminum contact cells and the second group of six modules contained silver-titanium-palladium contact cells. Extensive component and environmental testing at the module level showed that reliable cell mechanical interconnection can be achieved when utilizing the proper electrical contact materials and pressures. A discussion is given of the module design, manufacturing procedure, test program, significant problem areas and solutions, and conclusions and recommendations as formulated and conducted by XEOS.

Ross, R. E.; Mortensen, W. E.

1978-01-01

240

Studies of silicon pn junction solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modifications of the basic Shockley equations that result from the random and nonrandom spatial variations of the chemical composition of a semiconductor were developed. These modifications underlie the existence of the extensive emitter recombination current that limits the voltage over the open circuit of solar cells. The measurement of parameters, series resistance and the base diffusion length is discussed. Two methods are presented for establishing the energy bandgap narrowing in the heavily-doped emitter region. Corrections that can be important in the application of one of these methods to small test cells are examined. Oxide-charge-induced high-low-junction emitter (OCI-HLE) test cells which exhibit considerably higher voltage over the open circuit than was previously seen in n-on-p solar cells are described.

Lindholm, F. A.; Neugroschel, A.

1977-01-01

241

Behavior of lithium in irradiated solar cells.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current state of the art in radiation resistant lithium-doped silicon solar cells is reviewed. Fabrication techniques are reviewed. Characteristics of lithium-doped cells are discussed. Behavior of lithium-doped cells during 1 MeV electron irradiation are studied for various types of cells. Effects of variations in lithium and oxygen concentration are shown and discussed. Capacitance measurements at various voltages, frequencies and temperatures are used to detect charges in lithium donor concentration and the formation of defects during irradiation. Physical models to explain the observed effects are presented.

Carter, J. R., Jr.; Downing, R. G.

1971-01-01

242

Phthalocyanine Blends Improve Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells  

PubMed Central

A core phthalocyanine platform allows engineering the solubility properties the band gap; shifting the maximum absorption toward the red. A simple method to increase the efficiency of heterojunction solar cells uses a self-organized blend of the phthalocyanine chromophores fabricated by solution processing. PMID:20136126

Varotto, Alessandro; Nam, Chang-Yong; Radivojevic, Ivana; Tome, Joao; Cavaleiro, Jose A.S.; Black, Charles T.; Drain, Charles Michael

2010-01-01

243

Thick film metallization for solar cell applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of an integral printing technique for the fabrication of silicon solar cells is attractive due to its throughput rate, materials utilization, and modular, automatable design. The transfer of this technology from single crystal to semicrystalline silicon requires a significant amount of process optimization. Processing parameters found to be critical include the optimum glass frit content in the silver-based

G. C. Cheek; R. P. Mertens; R. Van Overstraeten; L. Frisson

1984-01-01

244

Aluminum doping improves silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aluminum doped silicon solar cells with resistivities in the 10- to 20-ohm centimeter range have broad spectral response, high efficiency and long lifetimes in nuclear radiation environments. Production advantages include low material rejection and increased production yields, and close tolerance control.

1966-01-01

245

Metal electrode for amorphous silicon solar cells  

DOEpatents

An amorphous silicon solar cell having an N-type region wherein the contact to the N-type region is composed of a material having a work function of about 3.7 electron volts or less. Suitable materials include strontium, barium and magnesium and rare earth metals such as gadolinium and yttrium.

Williams, Richard (Princeton, NJ)

1983-01-01

246

Basic mechanisms governing solar-cell efficiency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The efficiency of a solar cell depends on the material parameters appearing in the set of differential equations that describe the transport, recombination, and generation of electrons and holes. This paper describes the many basic mechanisms occurring in semiconductors that can control these material parameters.

Lindholm, F. A.; Neugroschel, A.; Sah, C. T.

1976-01-01

247

Screen printed interdigitated back contact solar cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interdigitated back contact solar cells are made by screen printing dopant materials onto the back surface of a semiconductor substrate in a pair of interdigitated patterns. These dopant materials are then diffused into the substrate to form junctions having configurations corresponding to these patterns. Contacts having configurations which match the patterns are then applied over the junctions.

Baraona, C. R.; Mazaris, G. A.; Chai, A. T.

1984-10-01

248

Screen printed interdigitated back contact solar cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interdigitated back contact solar cells are made by screen printing dopant materials onto the back surface of a semiconductor substrate in a pair of interdigitated patterns. These dopant materials are then diffused into the substrate to form junctions having configurations corresponding to these patterns. Contacts having configurations which match the patterns are then applied over the junctions.

Baraona, C. R.; Mazaris, G. A.; Chai, A. T. (inventors)

1984-01-01

249

Limiting Emission Angle for Improved Solar Cell  

E-print Network

impact on voltage and efficiency, particularly for cells with high radiative efficiency. In this talk, we cooling, waste heat recovery and solar electricity generation, low values of the thermoelectric figure scattering could lead to new engineering approaches for thermoelectric materials with high zT and new green

250

Low cost silicon solar cell array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technological options available for producing low cost silicon solar cell arrays were examined. A project value of approximately $250/sq m and $2/watt is projected, based on mass production capacity demand. Recommendations are included for the most promising cost reduction options.

Bartels, F. T. C.

1974-01-01

251

Sensitized solar cells based on nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensitized solar cells (SSCs) based on nanostructures including dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) have attracted great research interest due to their potential in converting sunlight into electricity and solving the energy problem. Metal oxide nanowires, as an important type of nanostructures were grown and applied in the SSCs. In this dissertation, two types of nanowires, ZnO and Zn2GeO4 nanowires were successfully grown onto fluorine-doped-tin-oxide (FTO) coated substrates using a chemical vapor deposition method. This method provides an important way to grow ZnO nanowires directly on FTO substrates without using any catalyst. ZnO nanowires with length of more than 30 mum were used as the photoanode for DSSCs. The dependence of solar cell performance on nanowire length and annealing temperature was studied. Zn2GeO4 nanowires were also directly synthesized on FTO substrates and were utilized as the photoanode in DSSCs and QDSSCs. Transient photocurrent and photovoltage decay measurements were conducted in the SSCs, which showed that the dye sensitization pH was important for DSSCs and that both the QDs coverage and band alignment between QDs and nanowires were key parameters for QDSSCs in order to have a good energy conversion efficiency.

Lu, Liyou

252

A Photoelectrochemical Solar Cell: An Undergraduate Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preparation and testing of a cadmium selenide photoelectrical solar cell was introduced into an environmental chemistry course to illustrate solid state semiconductor and electrochemical principles. Background information, procedures, and results are provided for the experiment which can be accomplished in a three- to four-hour laboratory session…

Boudreau, Sharon M.; And Others

1983-01-01

253

Amorphous silicon nanocone array solar cell  

PubMed Central

In the hydrogenated amorphous silicon [a-Si:H]-thin film solar cell, large amounts of traps reduce the carrier's lifetime that limit the photovoltaic performance, especially the power conversion efficiency. The nanowire structure is proposed to solve the low efficiency problem. In this work, we propose an amorphous silicon [a-Si]-solar cell with a nanocone array structure were implemented by reactive-ion etching through a polystyrene nanosphere template. The amorphous-Si nanocone exhibits absorption coefficient around 5 × 105/cm which is similar to the planar a-Si:H layer in our study. The nanostructure could provide the efficient carrier collection. Owing to the better carrier collection efficiency, efficiency of a-Si solar cell was increased from 1.43% to 1.77% by adding the nanocone structure which has 24% enhancement. Further passivation of the a-Si:H surface by hydrogen plasma treatment and an additional 10-nm intrinsic-a-Si:H layer, the efficiency could further increase to 2.2%, which is 54% enhanced as compared to the planar solar cell. The input-photon-to-current conversion efficiency spectrum indicates the efficient carrier collection from 300 to 800 nm of incident light. PMID:22395021

2012-01-01

254

Contacts for semitransparent organic solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optical absorption in organic solar cells, and hence their efficiency to convert sunlight into electricity, is limited by both a confined spectral absorption range and the very thin active layers which are required since polymers have short charge carrier diffusion lengths. We propose to make the most of this apparent `drawback' by using transparent contacts on both sides of

J. Hanisch; E. Ahlswede; M. Powalla

2007-01-01

255

Amorphous Siliconbased Solar Cells Xunming Deng1  

E-print Network

SILICON­BASED SOLAR CELLS In Dundee, Scotland, Walter Spear and Peter LeComber discovered around 1973 can induce a significant electrical current through the gas, and the molecules of the gas often emit of America (RCA) Research Laboratory in Princeton, David Carlson discovered that he could make fairly

Schiff, Eric A.

256

Large area Czochralski silicon for solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed model of a typical Czochralski silicon crystal puller is utilized to predict maximum crystal growth rate as a function of various furnace parameters. Results of this analysis, when combined with multiblade slurry sawing, indicate that the Czochralski process is highly attractive for achieving near-term cost reduction of solar cell silicon.

Rea, S. N.; Wakefield, G. F.

1976-01-01

257

Status of silicon solar cell technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Major progress in solar cell technology leading to increased efficiency has occurred since 1970. Technical approaches leading to this increased output include surface texturing, improved antireflection coatings, reduced grid pattern area coverage, shallow junctions and back surface fields. The status of these developments and their incorporation into cell production is discussed. Future research and technology trends leading to further efficiency increases and substantial cost reductions are described.

Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

1976-01-01

258

Plastic Schottky barrier solar cells  

DOEpatents

A photovoltaic cell structure is fabricated from an active medium including an undoped, intrinsically p-type organic semiconductor comprising polyacetylene. When a film of such material is in rectifying contact with a magnesium electrode, a Schottky-barrier junction is obtained within the body of the cell structure. Also, a gold overlayer passivates the magnesium layer on the undoped polyacetylene film.

Waldrop, James R. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Cohen, Marshall J. (Thousand Oaks, CA)

1984-01-24

259

Concepts of inorganic solid-state nanostructured solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of inorganic solid-state nanostructured solar cells over the last years has been reviewed with respect to concepts and materials. Major attention has been paid to solar cells with extremely thin absorber, solar cells with ultra-thin nano-composite absorber and solar cells with quantum dot absorber layers. The focus has been set to structured transparent electron conductors and absorber materials

Thomas Dittrich; Abdelhak Belaidi; Ahmed Ennaoui

2011-01-01

260

Multijunction Solar Cells on Epitaxial Templates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future ultrahigh efficiency multijunction solar cells will employ designs that feature three or four or more subcells utilizing lattice-mismatched structures to achieve an optimal band gap sequence for solar energy conversion. While lattice-mismatched multijunction cells have been fabricated recently using metamorphic growth approaches, use of direct wafer bonding techniques to enable lattice mismatch accommodation at the subcell interfaces allows considerably more design freedom and inherently higher-quality, defect-free active regions. This thesis presents new results on wafer bonding and layer transfer for integration of materials with large lattice mismatch, as well as modeling work to better understand the key material parameters in the design of new multijunction solar cells. GaInP/GaAs dual junction solar cells on Ge/Si templates were fabricated using wafer bonding and ion implantation induced layer transfer techniques. Following layer transfer, the surface of the ˜1.4 mum thick transferred Ge(100) has an as-transferred RMS roughness of ˜20 nm and a near surface layer containing a high density of ion implantation-induced defects. The RMS roughness has been reduced to <1 nm. In addition, the effects of changing the strain state of the template substrate on the performance of the devices has been explored by comparing devices grown on Ge/Si and Ge/sapphire. The CTE mismatch between Si and GaAs/GaInP materials induces a tensile strain, whereas the sapphire substrate induces a compressive strain. An analytical p-n junction device physics model for GaInP/GaAs/InGaAsP/InGaAs four junction solar cells was developed. Real behavior of solar cells is accounted for by including: free carrier absorption, temperature and doping effects on carrier mobility, as well as two recombination pathways: Shockley-Read-Hall recombination from a single mid gap trap level and surface recombination. Upper bounds set by detailed balance calculations can be approached by letting the parameters approach ideal conditions. Detailed balance calculations always benefit from added subcells, current matching requirements in series connected p-n multijunctions indicate a minimum performance required from added subcells for net contribution to the overall device. This model allows novel solar cell structures to be evaluated by providing realistic predictions of the performance limitations of these multijunction devices.

Archer, Melissa Jane

261

New Materials for Chalcogenide Based Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin film solar cells based on copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) have achieved efficiencies exceeding 20 %. The p-n junction in these solar cells is formed between a p-type CIGS absorber layer and a composite n-type film that consists of a 50-100 nm thin n-type CdS followed by a 50-200 nm thin n-type ZnO. This dissertation focuses on developing materials for replacing CdS and ZnO films to improve the damp-heat stability of the solar cells and for minimizing the use of Cd. Specifically, I demonstrate a new CIGS solar cell with better damp heat stability wherein the ZnO layer is replaced with SnO2. The efficiency of solar cells made with SnO2 decreased less than 5 % after 120 hours at 85 °C and 85 % relative humidity while the efficiency of solar cells made with ZnO declined by more than 70 %. Moreover, I showed that a SnO2 film deposited on top of completed CIGS solar cells significantly increased the device lifetime by forming a barrier against water diffusion. Semicrystalline SnO2 films deposited at room temperature had nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous matrix, which resulted in films without grain boundaries. These films exhibited better damp-heat stability than ZnO and crystalline SnO2 films deposited at higher temperature and this difference is attributed to the lack of grain boundary water diffusion. In addition, I studied CBD of Zn1-xCdxS from aqueous solutions of thiourea, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and zinc and cadmium sulfate. I demonstrated that films with varying composition (x) can be deposited through CBD and studied the structure and composition variation along the films' thickness. However, this traditional chemical bath deposition (CBD) approach heats the entire solution and wastes most of the chemicals by homogenous particle formation. To overcome this problem, I designed and developed a continuous-flow CBD approach to utilize the chemicals efficiently and to eliminate homogenous particle formation. Only the substrate is heated to the deposition temperature while the CBD solution is rapidly circulated between the bath and a chilled reservoir. We have demonstrated Zn1-x CdxS films for a variety of (x) values, with and without varying (x) across film thickness.

Tosun, Banu Selin

262

Optimum operating conditions of a solar cell panel and prediction of solar radiation in Sanaa, Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a study of the performance of solar cells under nominal operating conditions in Yemen are reported. The solar cell panel comprised 14 Si cells of .003 sq m surface area each, and was mounted on a rooftop with the solar radiation being measured by a pyranometer. Further monitoring was performed of the panel surface temperature, the ambient air

A. Khogali; M. R. I. Ramadan

1982-01-01

263

Experiment Based Teaching of Solar Cell Operation and Characterization Using the SolarLab Platform  

E-print Network

interfaces for exploring different solar cell principles and topics. The exercises presented in the current (MSc and PhD level) taught at the Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University. SOLAR CELL), presented in detail in [1], where: I is the output current of the solar cell; V - terminal voltage; Iph

Sera, Dezso

264

High efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of the entire research program since its inception ten years ago is given. The initial effort focused on the effects of impurities on the efficiency of silicon solar cells to provide figures of maximum allowable impurity density for efficiencies up to about 16 to 17%. Highly accurate experimental techniques were extended to characterize the recombination properties of the residual imputities in the silicon solar cell. A numerical simulator of the solar cell was also developed, using the Circuit Technique for Semiconductor Analysis. Recent effort focused on the delineation of the material and device parameters which limited the silicon efficiency to below 20% and on an investigation of cell designs to break the 20% barrier. Designs of the cell device structure and geometry can further reduce recombination losses as well as the sensitivity and criticalness of the fabrication technology required to exceed 20%. Further research is needed on the fundamental characterization of the carrier recombination properties at the chemical impurity and physical defect centers. It is shown that only single crystalline silicon cell technology can be successful in attaining efficiencies greater than 20%.

Sah, C. Tang

1986-01-01

265

Determination of the solar cell panel installation angle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The output power of the solar cell panel is highly affected by the sunlight incident angle. The efficiency can be improved if the solar cell panel is properly installed with the optimum angle. The relationship between the sunlight incident angle and the sunlight radiation intensity on the solar cell panel surface is presented in this paper. Genetic algorithms with climatic

Yaow-Ming Chen; Hsu-Chin Wu

2001-01-01

266

Flexible Solar Cell Arrays for Increased Space Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of solar cells for space power supplies continues with increased emphasis. The need for advances in the design of solar cell arrays becomes more pressing as the requirement for increased power levels is apparent. This paper discusses a flexible solar cell concept, includes a brief history of the development, describes a conceptual design for a 20-kW array, giving

Kenneth A. Ray

1967-01-01

267

The cooling technology of solar cells under concentrated system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature control is very important to keep the efficiency of solar cells, because the open-circuit voltage of the system is obviously dropped, when the temperature is raised, so as to a decline in output power of solar cells. Especially in the concentrated system, solar cells worked several times even hundreds of times in the irradiation conditions, so the temperature will

Ye Zhangbo; Li Qifen; Zhu Qunzhi; Pan Weiguo

2009-01-01

268

Solar cell radiation handbook. Addendum 1: 1982-1988  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Cell Radiation Handbook (JPL Publication 82-69) is updated. In order to maintain currency of solar cell radiation data, recent solar cell designs have been acquired, irradiated with 1 MeV electrons, and measured. The results of these radiation experiments are reported.

Anspaugh, B.E.

1989-02-01

269

Latest results on semitransparent POWER silicon solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the latest results of the polycrystalline wafer engineering result (POWER) silicon solar cell research (G. Willeke, P. Fath, The POWER silicon solar cell, Proceedings of the 12th EPVSEC, Amsterdam, 1994, pp. 766–768). Mono – as well as bifacially active semitransparent silicon solar cells have been created by forming perpendicularly overlapping grooves on the front and the rear

Arnd Boueke; Ralph Kühn; Peter Fath; Gerhard Willeke; Ernst Bucher

2001-01-01

270

Space solar cell technology development - A perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The developmental history of photovoltaics is examined as a basis for predicting further advances to the year 2000. Transistor technology was the precursor of solar cell development. Terrestrial cells were modified for space through changes in geometry and size, as well as the use of Ag-Ti contacts and manufacture of a p-type base. The violet cell was produced for Comsat, and involved shallow junctions, new contacts, and an enhanced antireflection coating for better radiation tolerance. The driving force was the desire by private companies to reduce cost and weight for commercial satellite power supplies. Liquid phase epitaxial (LPE) GaAs cells are the latest advancement, having a 4 sq cm area and increased efficiency. GaAs cells are expected to be flight ready in the 1980s. Testing is still necessary to verify production techniques and the resistance to electron and photon damage. Research will continue in CVD cell technology, new panel technology, and ultrathin Si cells.

Scott-Monck, J.

1982-01-01

271

Piezoresistance and solar cell efficiency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diffusion-induced stresses in silicon are shown to result in large localized changes in the minority-carrier mobility which in turn can have a significant effect on cell output. Evidence is given that both compressive and tensile stresses can be generated in either the emitter or the base region. Tensile stresses in the base appear to be much more effective in altering cell performance than do compressive stresses. While most stress-related effects appear to degrade cell efficiency, this is not always the case. Evidence is presented showing that arsenic-induced stresses can result in emitter characteristics comparable to those found in the MINP cell without requiring a high degree of surface passivation.

Weizer, Victor G.

1987-01-01

272

Luminescent solar concentrators and all-inorganic nanoparticle solar cells for solar energy harvesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing energy demand and the parallel increase of greenhouse gas emissions are challenging researchers to find new and cleaner energy sources. Solar energy harvesting is arguably the most promising candidate for replacing fossil-fuel power generation. Photovoltaics are the most direct way of collecting solar energy; cost continues to hinder large-scale implementation of photovoltaics, however. Therefore, alternative technologies that will allow the extraction of solar power, while maintaining the overall costs of fabrication, installation, collection, and distribution low, must be explored. This thesis focuses on the fabrication and testing of two types of devices that step up to this challenge: the luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) and all-inorganic nanoparticle solar cells. In these devices I make use of novel materials, semiconducting polymers and inorganic nanoparticles, both of which have lower costs than the crystalline materials used in the fabrication of traditional photovoltaics. Furthermore, the cost of manufacturing LSCs and the nanoparticle solar cells is lower than the manufacturing cost of traditional optics-based concentrators and crystalline solar cells. An LSC is essentially a slab of luminescent material that acts as a planar light pipe. The LSC absorbs incoming photons and channels fluoresced photons toward appropriately located solar cells, which perform the photovoltaic conversion. By covering large areas with relatively inexpensive fluorescing organic dyes or semiconducting polymers, the area of solar cell needed is greatly reduced. Because semiconducting polymers and quantum dots may have small absorption/emission band overlaps, tunable absorption, and longer lifetimes, they are good candidates for LSC fabrication, promising improvement with respect to laser dyes traditionally used to fabricate LSCs. Here the efficiency of LSCs consisting of liquid solutions of semiconducting polymers encased in glass was measured and compared to the efficiency of LSCs based on small molecule laser dyes and on quantum dots. Factors affecting the optical efficiency of the system such as the luminescing properties of the fluorophors were examined. The experimental results were compared to Monte-Carlo simulations. Our results suggest that commercially available quantum dots cannot serve as viable LSC dyes because of large absorption/emission band overlap and relatively low quantum yield. Materials such as Red F demonstrate that semi-conducting polymers with high quantum yield and small absorption/emission band overlap are good candidates for LSCs. Recently, a solar cell system based purely on CdSe and Cite nanoparticles as the absorbing materials was proposed ans it was suggested that its operational mechanism was that of polymer donor/acceptor systems. Here we present solar cells consisting of a sintered active bilayer of CdSe and PbSe nanoparticles in the structure ITO/CdSe/interlayer/PbSe/Al, where an interlayer of LiF or Al2O3 was found necessary to prevent low shunt resistance from suppressing the photovoltaic behavior. We fabricated unoptimized solar cells with a short-circuit current of 6 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.18 V, and a fill factor of 41%. External quantum efficiency spectra revealed that photons from the infrared portion of the spectrum were not collected, suggesting that the low bandgap PbSe film did not contribute to the photocurrent of the structure despite exhibiting photoconductivity. Other measurements, however, showed that the PbSe film was indeed necessary to produce a photovoltage and transport electrons. Through sintering, the nanoparticle films acquired bandgaps similar to those of the corresponding bulk materials and became more conductive. Because the PbSe films were found to be considerably more conductive than the CdSe ones, we suggest that the PbSe layer is effectively behaving like a low conductivity electrical contact. Therefore, in contrast to the photovoltaics presented in the seminal research on CdSe/Cite solar cells, the CdSe/PbSe solar cell system presented here d

Sholin, Veronica

273

Hypervelocity Impact Studies on Solar Cell Modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space environmental effects have caused severe problems as satellites move toward increased power and operating voltage levels. The greatest unknown, however, is the effect of high velocity micrometeoroid impacts on high voltage arrays (>200V). Understanding such impact phenomena is necessary for the design of future reliable, high voltage solar arrays, especially for Space Solar Power applications. Therefore, the objective of this work was to study the effect of hypervelocity impacts on high voltage solar arrays. Initially, state of the art, 18% efficient GaAs solar cell strings were targeted. The maximum bias voltage on a two-cell string was -200 V while the adjacent string was held at -140 V relative to the plasma potential. A hollow cathode device provided the plasma. Soda lime glass particles 40-120 micrometers in diameter were accelerated in the Hypervelocity Impact Facility to velocities as high as 11.6 km/sec. Coordinates and velocity were obtained for each of the approximately 40 particle impact sites on each shot. Arcing did occur, and both discharging and recharging of arcs between the two strings was observed. The recharging phenomena appeared to stop at approximately 66V string differential. No arcing was observed at 400 V on concentrator cell modules for the Stretched Lens Array.

Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; Best, Stevie R.

2001-01-01

274

Enhancing Solar Cell Efficiencies through 1-D Nanostructures  

PubMed Central

The current global energy problem can be attributed to insufficient fossil fuel supplies and excessive greenhouse gas emissions resulting from increasing fossil fuel consumption. The huge demand for clean energy potentially can be met by solar-to-electricity conversions. The large-scale use of solar energy is not occurring due to the high cost and inadequate efficiencies of existing solar cells. Nanostructured materials have offered new opportunities to design more efficient solar cells, particularly one-dimensional (1-D) nanomaterials for enhancing solar cell efficiencies. These 1-D nanostructures, including nanotubes, nanowires, and nanorods, offer significant opportunities to improve efficiencies of solar cells by facilitating photon absorption, electron transport, and electron collection; however, tremendous challenges must be conquered before the large-scale commercialization of such cells. This review specifically focuses on the use of 1-D nanostructures for enhancing solar cell efficiencies. Other nanostructured solar cells or solar cells based on bulk materials are not covered in this review. Major topics addressed include dye-sensitized solar cells, quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells, and p-n junction solar cells.

2009-01-01

275

The emergence of perovskite solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past two years have seen the unprecedentedly rapid emergence of a new class of solar cell based on mixed organic-inorganic halide perovskites. Although the first efficient solid-state perovskite cells were reported only in mid-2012, extremely rapid progress was made during 2013 with energy conversion efficiencies reaching a confirmed 16.2% at the end of the year. This increased to a confirmed efficiency of 17.9% in early 2014, with unconfirmed values as high as 19.3% claimed. Moreover, a broad range of different fabrication approaches and device concepts is represented among the highest performing devices -- this diversity suggests that performance is still far from fully optimized. This Review briefly outlines notable achievements to date, describes the unique attributes of these perovskites leading to their rapid emergence and discusses challenges facing the successful development and commercialization of perovskite solar cells.

Green, Martin A.; Ho-Baillie, Anita; Snaith, Henry J.

2014-07-01

276

Solar Airplanes and Regenerative Fuel Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar electric aircraft with the potential to "fly forever" has captured NASA's interest, and the concept for such an aircraft was pursued under Aeronautics Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Feasibility of this aircraft happens to depend on the successful development of solar power technologies critical to NASA's Exploration Initiatives; hence, there was widespread interest throughout NASA to bring these technologies to a flight demonstration. The most critical is an energy storage system to sustain mission power during night periods. For the solar airplane, whose flight capability is already limited by the diffuse nature of solar flux and subject to latitude and time of year constraints, the feasibility of long endurance flight depends on a storage density figure of merit better than 400-600 watt-hr per kilogram. This figure of merit is beyond the capability of present day storage technologies (other than nuclear) but may be achievable in the hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell (RFC). This potential has led NASA to undertake the practical development of a hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell, initially as solar energy storage for a high altitude UAV science platform but eventually to serve as the primary power source for NASAs lunar base and other planet surface installations. Potentially the highest storage capacity and lowest weight of any non-nuclear device, a flight-weight RFC aboard a solar-electric aircraft that is flown continuously through several successive day-night cycles will provide the most convincing demonstration that this technology's widespread potential has been realized. In 1998 NASA began development of a closed cycle hydrogen oxygen PEM RFC under the Aeronautics Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project and continued its development, originally for a solar electric airplane flight, through FY2005 under the Low Emissions Alternative Power (LEAP) project. Construction of the closed loop system began in 2002 at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. System checkout was completed, and testing began, in July of 2003. The initial test sequences were done with only a fuel cell or electrolyzer in the test rig. Those tests were used to verify the test apparatus, procedures, and software. The first complete cycles of the fully closed loop, regenerative fuel cell system were successfully completed in the following September. Following some hardware upgrades to increase reactant recirculation flow, the test rig was operated at full power in December 2003 and again in January 2004. In March 2004 a newer generation of fuel cell and electrolyzer stacks was substituted for the original hardware and these stacks were successfully tested at full power under cyclic operation in June of 2004.

Bents, David J.

2007-01-01

277

Deng & Schiff, Amorphous Silicon Based Solar Cells rev. 7/30/2002, Page 1 Amorphous Silicon Based Solar Cells  

E-print Network

Deng & Schiff, Amorphous Silicon Based Solar Cells rev. 7/30/2002, Page 1 Amorphous Silicon Based Solar Cells Xunming Deng and Eric A. Schiff Table of Contents 1 Overview 3 1.1 Amorphous Silicon: The First Bipolar Amorphous Semiconductor 3 1.2 Designs for Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells: A Guided Tour 6

Deng, Xunming

278

Monolithically interconnected GaAs solar cells: A new interconnection technology for high voltage solar cell output  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photovoltaic linear concentrator arrays can benefit from high performance solar cell technologies being developed at AstroPower. Specifically, these are the integration of thin GaAs solar cell and epitaxial lateral overgrowth technologies with the application of monolithically interconnected solar cell (MISC) techniques. This MISC array has several advantages which make it ideal for space concentrator systems. These are high system voltage,

L. C. Dinetta; M. H. Hannon

1995-01-01

279

Thermal runaway in multijunction solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small fraction of GaInP2/GaAs/Ge triple junction solar cells exposed to the 6× concentrated air mass zero spectrum at 523 K for 5 min was found to be severely shunted afterwards. A combination of electroluminescence imaging and focused ion beam cross sectioning revealed that pre-existing top-middle cell shunts were responsible for the observed degradation. Joule heating in the shunt resistance limiting Ge substrate is modeled and exhibits a thermal runaway effect above a critical voltage, in agreement with the experimental observation. The implications for current and future multijunction cells are discussed.

Zimmermann, Claus G.

2013-06-01

280

Advanced high efficiency wraparound contact solar cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A significant advancement in the development of thin high efficiency wraparound contact silicon solar cells has been made by coupling space and terrestrial processing procedures. Although this new method for fabricating cells has not been completely reduced to practice, some of the initial cells have delivered over 20 mW/sq cm when tested at 25 C under AMO intensity. This approach not only yields high efficiency devices, but shows promise of allowing complete freedom of choice in both the location and size of the wraparound contact pad area.

Scott-Monck, J. A.; Uno, F. M.; Thornhill, J. W.

1977-01-01

281

Multijunction high voltage concentrator solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The standard integrated circuit technology has been developed to design and fabricate new innovative planar multi-junction solar cell chips for concentrated sunlight applications. This 1 cm x 1 cm cell consisted of several voltage generating regions called unit cells which were internally connected in series within a single chip resulting in high open circuit voltages. Typical open-circuit voltages of 3.6 V and short-circuit currents of 90 ma were obtained at 80 AM1 suns. A dramatic increase in both short circuit current and open circuit voltage with increased light levels was observed.

Valco, G. J.; Kapoor, V. J.; Evans, J. C.; Chai, A.-T.

1981-01-01

282

Development of integral covers on solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electron-beam technique for evaporating a dielectric material onto solar cells is investigated. A process has been developed which will provide a highly transparent, low stress, 2 mil thick cover capable of withstanding conventional space type qualification tests including humidity, thermal shock, and thermal cycling. The covers have demonstrated the ability to withstand 10 to the 15th power 1 MeV electrons and UV irradiation with minor darkening. Investigation of the cell AR coating has produced a space qualifiable titanium oxide coating which will give an additional 6% current output over similar silicon oxide coated cells when covered by glass.

Stella, P.; Somberg, H.

1971-01-01

283

One-sun silicon solar cell research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes research for the period September 1988 to February 1990 directed at improving the performance of crystalline and polycrystalline silicon solar cells. Key results include the demonstration of 24.2 percent energy conversion efficiency for 4-sq cm crystalline cells fabricated using the development of the Passivated Emitter Cell processing sequence, the demonstration of energy conversion efficiency up to 22.4 percent for large-area, low-cost silicon concentrator cells fabricated using the laser grooved cell processing sequence, the demonstration of efficiencies up to 17.8 percent on 4-sq cm polycrystalline silicon substrates, and the demonstration of efficiencies of up to 16.7 percent on 10 sq cm polycrystalline substrates using a combined laser textured and grooved cell processing sequence.

Green, M. A.; Zhao, J.; Wang, A.; Blakers, A. W.; Milne, A. M.; Dai, X.; Chong, C. M.; Wenham, S. R.; Zhang, F.; Yun, F.

1991-03-01

284

Laser synthesized super-hydrophobic conducting carbon with broccoli-type morphology as a counter-electrode for dye sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laser photochemical process is introduced to realize superhydrophobic conducting carbon coatings with broccoli-type hierarchical morphology for use as a metal-free counter electrode in a dye sensitized solar cell. The process involves pulsed excimer laser irradiation of a thin layer of liquid haloaromatic organic solvent o-dichlorobenzene (DCB). The coating reflects a carbon nanoparticle-self assembled and process-controlled morphology that yields solar to electric power conversion efficiency of 5.1% as opposed to 6.2% obtained with the conventional Pt-based electrode.A laser photochemical process is introduced to realize superhydrophobic conducting carbon coatings with broccoli-type hierarchical morphology for use as a metal-free counter electrode in a dye sensitized solar cell. The process involves pulsed excimer laser irradiation of a thin layer of liquid haloaromatic organic solvent o-dichlorobenzene (DCB). The coating reflects a carbon nanoparticle-self assembled and process-controlled morphology that yields solar to electric power conversion efficiency of 5.1% as opposed to 6.2% obtained with the conventional Pt-based electrode. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials and equipment details, solar cell fabrication protocol, electrolyte spreading time measurement details, XPS spectra, electronic study, film adhesion test detailed analysis and field emission results. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32082g

Gokhale, Rohan; Agarkar, Shruti; Debgupta, Joyashish; Shinde, Deodatta; Lefez, Benoit; Banerjee, Abhik; Jog, Jyoti; More, Mahendra; Hannoyer, Beatrice; Ogale, Satishchandra

2012-10-01

285

Device Physics of Nanoscale Interdigitated Solar Cells (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

Nanoscale interdigitated solar cell device architectures are being investigated for organic and inorganic solar cell devices. Due to the inherent complexity of these device designs quantitative modeling is needed to understand the device physics. Theoretical concepts have been proposed that nanodomains of different phases may form in polycrystalline CIGS solar cells. These theories propose that the nanodomains may form complex 3D intertwined p-n networks that enhance device performance.Recent experimental evidence offers some support for the existence of nanodomains in CIGS thin films. This study utilizes CIGS solar cells to examine general and CIGS-specific concepts in nanoscale interdigitated solar cells.

Metzger, W.; Levi, D.

2008-05-01

286

An outlook for automated CIS solar cell factory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent experimental work on single-crystal silicon conductor-insulator-semiconductor (CIS) solar cells indicates that the performance of these devices is close to that of the best p-n junction solar cells. The CIS structure is a candidate in the manufacture of large-scale solar energy conversion arrays. It is noted that the stage is now set for the commercial production of these solar cells.

K. Rajkanan; R. Singh

1980-01-01

287

Characterization of Low Temperature Deposited Flexible Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

N-i-p structure amorphous silicon solar cells deposited on flexible and glass substrates are successfully fabricated at low substrate temperature of 100°C through plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. The external parameters of solar cells are characterized by solar simulator. The results indicate the best dot of the solar cells with glass substrate can reach to 5.54% of conversion efficiency

Yingge Li; Dongxing Du

2009-01-01

288

Semi-transparent inverted organic solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will present efficient semi-transparent bulk-heterojunction [regioregular of poly(3-hexylthiophene): (6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester] solar cells with an inverted device architecture. Highly transparent ZnO and TiO2 films prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition are used as cathode interlayers on top of ITO. The topanode consists of a RF-sputtered ITO layer. To avoid damage due to the plasma deposition of this layer, a sputtering buffer layer of MoO3 is used as protection. This concept allows for devices with a transmissivity higher than 60 % for wavelengths 650 nm. The thickness of the MoO3 buffer has been varied in order to study its effect on the electrical properties of the solar cell and its ability to prevent possible damage to the organic active layers upon ITO deposition. Without this buffer or for thin buffers it has been found that device performance is very poor concerning the leakage current, the fill factor, the short circuit current and the power conversion efficiencies. As a reference inverted solar cells with a metal electrode (Al) instead of the ITO-top contact are used. The variation between the PCE of top versus conventional illumination of the semi-transparent cells was also examined and will be interpreted in view of the results of the optical simulation of the dielectric device stack with and without reflection top electrode. Power conversion efficiencies of 2-3 % for the opaque inverted solar cells and 1.5-2.5 % for the semi-transparent devices were obtained under an AM1.5G illumination.

Schmidt, H.; Winkler, T.; Tilgner, M.; Flügge, H.; Schmale, S.; Bülow, T.; Meyer, J.; Johannes, H.-H.; Riedl, T.; Kowalsky, W.

2009-08-01

289

Silicon solar cell process development, fabrication, and analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar cells from HEM, Dendritic Webs, and EFG ribbons were fabricated and characterized. The HEM solar cells showed only slight enhancement in cell performance after gettering steps (diffusion glass) were added. Dendritic webs from various growth runs indicated that performance of solar cells made from the webs was not as good as that of the conventional CZ cells. The EFG ribbons grown in CO ambient showed significant improvement in silicon quality.

Yoo, H. I.; Iles, P. A.; Leung, D. C.

1980-01-01

290

Recent advances in sensitized mesoscopic solar cells.  

PubMed

Perhaps the largest challenge for our global society is to find ways to replace the slowly but inevitably vanishing fossil fuel supplies by renewable resources and, at the same time, avoid negative effects from the current energy system on climate, environment, and health. The quality of human life to a large degree depends upon the availability of clean energy sources. The worldwide power consumption is expected to double in the next 3 decades because of the increase in world population and the rising demand of energy in the developing countries. This implies enhanced depletion of fossil fuel reserves, leading to further aggravation of the environmental pollution. As a consequence of dwindling resources, a huge power supply gap of 14 terawatts is expected to open up by year 2050 equaling today's entire consumption, thus threatening to create a planetary emergency of gigantic dimensions. Solar energy is expected to play a crucial role as a future energy source. The sun provides about 120,000 terawatts to the earth's surface, which amounts to 6000 times the present rate of the world's energy consumption. However, capturing solar energy and converting it to electricity or chemical fuels, such as hydrogen, at low cost and using abundantly available raw materials remains a huge challenge. Chemistry is expected to make pivotal contributions to identify environmentally friendly solutions to this energy problem. One area of great promise is that of solar converters generally referred to as "organic photovoltaic cells" (OPV) that employ organic constituents for light harvesting or charge carrier transport. While this field is still in its infancy, it is receiving enormous research attention, with the number of publications growing exponentially over the past decade. The advantage of this new generation of solar cells is that they can be produced at low cost, i.e., potentially less than 1 U.S. $/peak watt. Some but not all OPV embodiments can avoid the expensive and energy-intensive high vacuum and materials purification steps that are currently employed in the fabrication of all other thin-film solar cells. Organic materials are abundantly available, so that the technology can be scaled up to the terawatt scale without running into feedstock supply problems. This gives organic-based solar cells an advantage over the two major competing thin-film photovoltaic devices, i.e., CdTe and CuIn(As)Se, which use highly toxic materials of low natural abundance. However, a drawback of the current embodiment of OPV cells is that their efficiency is significantly lower than that for single and multicrystalline silicon as well as CdTe and CuIn(As)Se cells. Also, polymer-based OPV cells are very sensitive to water and oxygen and, hence, need to be carefully sealed to avoid rapid degradation. The research discussed within the framework of this Account aims at identifying and providing solutions to the efficiency problems that the OPV field is still facing. The discussion focuses on mesoscopic solar cells, in particular, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), which have been developed in our laboratory and remain the focus of our investigations. The efficiency problem is being tackled using molecular science and nanotechnology. The sensitizer constitutes the heart of the DSC, using sunlight to pump electrons from a lower to a higher energy level, generating in this fashion an electric potential difference, which can exploited to produce electric work. Currently, there is a quest for sensitizers that achieve effective harnessing of the red and near-IR part of sunlight, converting these photons to electricity better than the currently used generation of dyes. Progress in this area has been significant over the past few years, resulting in a boost in the conversion efficiency of the DSC that will be reviewed. PMID:19715294

Grätzel, Michael

2009-11-17

291

Organic p-i-n solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a p-i-n-type heterojunction architecture for organic solar cells where the active region is sandwiched between two doped wide-gap layers. The term p-i-n means here a layer sequence in the form p-doped layer, intrinsic layer and n-doped layer. The doping is realized by controlled co-evaporation using organic dopants and leads to conductivities of 10-4 to 10-5 S/cm in the p- and n-doped wide-gap layers, respectively. The photoactive layer is formed by a mixture of phthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc) and the fullerene C60 and shows mainly amorphous morphology. As a first step towards p-i-n structures, we show the advantage of using wide-gap layers in M-i-p-type diodes (metal layer-intrinsic layer-p-doped layer). The solar cells exhibit a maximum external quantum efficiency of 40% between 630-nm and 700-nm wavelength. With the help of an optical multilayer model, we optimize the optical properties of the solar cells by placing the active region at the maximum of the optical field distribution. The results of the model are largely confirmed by the experimental findings. For an optically optimized device, we find an internal quantum efficiency of around 82% under short-circuit conditions. Adding a layer of 10-nm thickness of the red material N,N'-dimethylperylene-3,4:9,10-dicarboximide (Me-PTCDI) to the active region, a power-conversion efficiency of 1.9% for a single cell is obtained. Such optically thin cells with high internal quantum efficiency are an important step towards high-efficiency tandem cells. First tandem cells which are not yet optimized already show 2.4% power-conversion efficiency under simulated AM 1.5 illumination of 125 mW/cm2 .

Maennig, B.; Drechsel, J.; Gebeyehu, D.; Simon, P.; Kozlowski, F.; Werner, A.; Li, F.; Grundmann, S.; Sonntag, S.; Koch, M.; Leo, K.; Pfeiffer, M.; Hoppe, H.; Meissner, D.; Sariciftci, N. S.; Riedel, I.; Dyakonov, V.; Parisi, J.

292

Gallium arsenide solar cell radiation damage study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thorough analysis has been made of electron- and proton- damaged GaAs solar cells suitable for use in space. It is found that, although some electrical parametric data and spectral response data are quite similar, the type of damage due to the two types of radiation is different. An I-V analysis model shows that electrons damage the bulk of the cell and its currents relatively more, while protons damage the junction of the cell and its voltages more. It is suggested that multiple defects due to protons in a strong field region such as a p/n junction cause the greater degradation in cell voltage, whereas the individual point defects in the quasi-neutral minority-carrier-diffusion regions due to electrons cause the greater degradation in cell current and spectral response.

Maurer, R. H.; Herbert, G. A.; Kinnison, J. D.; Meulenberg, A.

1989-01-01

293

Accelerated stress testing of terrestrial solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of an accelerated test schedule for terrestrial solar cells is described. This schedule, based on anticipated failure modes deduced from a consideration of IC failure mechanisms, involves bias-temperature testing, humidity testing (including both 85-85 and pressure cooker stress), and thermal-cycle thermal-shock testing. Results are described for 12 different unencapsulated cell types. Both gradual electrical degradation and sudden catastrophic mechanical change were observed. These effects can be used to discriminate between cell types and technologies relative to their reliability attributes. Consideration is given to identifying laboratory failure modes which might lead to severe degradation in the field through second quadrant operation. Test results indicate that the ability of most cell types to withstand accelerated stress testing depends more on the manufacturer's design, processing, and worksmanship than on the particular metallization system. Preliminary tests comparing accelerated test results on encapsulated and unencapsulated cells are described.

Lathrop, J. W.; Hawkins, D. C.; Prince, J. L.; Walker, H. A.

1982-01-01

294

Thin-film polycrystalline silicon solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty-four new solar cells were fabricated on Wacker Sislo substrates and the AM-1 parameters were measured. A detailed comparison was made between the measurement of minority carrier diffusion length by the OE method and the penetrating light laser scan grain boundary photoresponse linewidth method. The laser scan method has more experimental uncertainty and agrees within 10 to 50% with the QE method. It allows determination of L over a large area. Atomic hydrogen passivation studies continued on Wacker material by three techniques. A method of determining surface recombination velocity, s, from laser scan data was developed. No change in s in completed solar cells after H-plasma treatment was observed within experimental error. H-passivation of bare silicon cars as measured by the new laser scan photoconductivity technique showed very large effects.

Funghnan, B. W.; Blanc, J.; Phillips, W.; Redfield, D.

1980-08-01

295

Imprinting localized plasmons for enhanced solar cells.  

PubMed

Imprinted silver nanovoid arrays are investigated via angle-resolved reflectometry to demonstrate their suitability for plasmonic light trapping. Both wavelength- and subwavelength-scale nanovoids are imprinted into standard solar cell architectures to achieve nanostructured metallic electrodes which provide enhanced absorption for improving solar cell performance. The technique is versatile, low-cost and scalable and can be applied to a wide range of organic semiconductors. Absorption features which are independent of incident polarization and weakly dependent on incident angle reveal localized plasmonic modes at the structured interface. Metallic nanostructure-PCPDTBT:PCBM samples demonstrate absorption enhancements of up to 40%. The structured interface provides light trapping, which boosts absorption at wavelengths where the semiconductors absorb poorly. PMID:22948008

Dunbar, Ricky B; Pfadler, Thomas; Lal, Niraj N; Baumberg, Jeremy J; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas

2012-09-28

296

Development of GaAs solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar cells and mesa diodes were fabricated by the implantation of zinc or beryllium ions into n-type gallium arsenide. Annealing temperatures above 750 C (zinc) or 650 C (beryllium) were found to produce 50% to 100% activation of the implanted ions. Junction depths of about 0.4 micron were produced by 600 keV zinc implants or 70 keV beryllium implants. P-layer sheet resistance was about 150 ohms for 2 x 10 to the 15th power cm/2 zinc or 1 x 10 to the 15th power cm/2 beryllium implants. This is sufficiently low for efficient solar cell fabrication. Contacting procedures were improved to yield reproducibly adherent, low resistance front and back contacts.

1972-01-01

297

Spin dependent photocurrents in ribbon solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Spin Dependent Transport (SDT) is a method of identifying recombination centers which employs a microwave resonance condition to affect the recombination rate of minority carriers in a device. When this technique is used to analyze the diffusion-limited currents produced by long-wavelength optical excitation, it has the potential to chemically identify the major recombination sites in solar cells. We have used this resonance technique to analyze short circuit photocurrents in Edge-defined film-Fed Growth (EFG) ribbon silicon solar cells. At room temperature, our observed photocurrent resonances have zero-crossing g values and linewidths which are similar to SDT observations made on the trans-barrier currents in silicon bicrystals, and electron spin resonance signals seen in damaged silicon, and polycrystalline silicon. These dangling-bond-like SDT signals depend on cell illumination levels in a way that suggests that the values of recombination velocity at electrically active linear boundaries decrease with illumination intensity. Hydrogen processed cells show markedly smaller SDT response, consistent with the passivation of Si dangling bond defects. While most of our SDT observations have been made on n{sup +}/p EFG cells, we suggest that measurements made at low temperatures on other cell structures might uncover resonances due to other recombination centers in this material.

Seager, C.H.; Venturini, E.L.; Schubert, W.K.

1992-11-01

298

New high-efficiency silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A design for silicon solar cells was investigated as an approach to increasing the cell open-circuit voltage and efficiency for flat-plate terrestrial photovoltaic applications. This deviates from past designs, where either the entire front surface of the cell is covered by a planar junction or the surface is textured before junction formation, which results in an even greater (up to 70%) junction area. The heavily doped front region and the junction space charge region are potential areas of high recombination for generated and injected minority carriers. The design presented reduces junction area by spreading equidiameter dot junctions across the surface of the cell, spaced about a diffusion length or less from each other. Various dot diameters and spacings allowed variations in total junction area. A simplified analysis was done to obtain a first-order design optimization. Efficiencies of up to 19% can be obtained. Cell fabrication involved extra masking steps for selective junction diffusion, and made surface passivation a key element in obtaining good collection. It also involved photolithography, with line widths down to microns. A method is demonstrated for achieving potentially high open-circuit voltages and solar-cell efficiencies.

Daud, T.; Crotty, G. T.

1985-01-01

299

Laser scanning of experimental solar cells  

SciTech Connect

An instrument is described which measures and displays the response of the solar cell to a precisely positioned spot of HeNe laser light. By scanning the spot across the cell surface, one can create a map of the spatial variation in response of the cell. This map allows one to isolate flaws in cell contact integrity, locate open top surface grid lines, and evaluate fundamental junction performance. The system is useful for identifying and locating changes in the cell as it progresses through various experiments (e.g. stability studies). The laser scanner system is designed to be flexible and can accommodate different types of solar cell materials and a wide range of spot and scan sizes. Several modes of operation of the equipment are described, and results from two photovoltaic materials (CdS/Cu/sub 2/S and Zn/sub 3/P/sub 2/) are presented which demonstrate the capabilities of the system. Finally some of the proposed future uses of the system are discussed. 6 refs.

Plunkett, B.C.; Lasswell, P.G.

1980-01-01

300

Variation of solar cell sensitivity and solar radiation on tilted surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The validity is studied that one of various insolation models used to compute solar radiation incident on tilted surfaces from global data measured on horizontal surfaces. The variation of solar cell sensitivity to solar radiation is determined over a wide range of atmospheric condition. A new model was formulated that reduced the deviations between measured and predicted insolation to less than 3 percent. Evaluation of solar cell sensitivity data indicates small change (2-3 percent) in sensitivity from winter to summer for tilted cells. The feasibility of using such global data as a means for calibrating terrestrial solar cells is discussed.

Klucher, T. M.

1978-01-01

301

Next generation CIGS for solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is presented of the PV-ACIST project. The goal of this project is to demonstrate proof-of-concept of next generation CuIn1-xGax(SySe1-y)2 (CIGS)-based solar cells. The first phase of the project began with a theoretical analysis of the potential of tandem-junction devices. This analysis showed that efficiencies could exceed 25% based constituent junctions comparable to the best achieved in single CIGS

A. Rockett; R. Birkmire; D. Morel; S. Fonash; J.-Y. Hou; M. Marudachalam; J. D'Amico; P. Panse; S. Zafar; D. J. Schroeder

1997-01-01

302

Dip-Coating Fabrication of Solar Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inexpensive silicon solar cells made by simple dip technique. Cooling shoes direct flow of helium on graphite-coated ceramic substrate to solidify film of liquid silicon on graphite surface as substrate is withdrawn from molten silicon. After heaters control cooling of film and substrate to prevent cracking. Gas jets exit at points about 10 mm from substrate surfaces and 6 to 10 mm above melt surface.

Koepke, B.; Suave, D.

1982-01-01

303

Solar-hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen is an especially attractive transportation fuel. It is the least populating fuel available, and can be produced anywhere there is water and a clean source of electricity. A fuel cycle in which hydrogen is produced by solar-electrolysis of water, or by gasification of renewably grown biomass, and then used in a fuel-cell powered electric-motor vehicle (FCEV), would produce little

Mark A. DeLuchi; Joan M. Ogden

1993-01-01

304

The photophysics of perovskite solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solution-processed hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells, a newcomer to the photovoltaic arena, have taken the field by storm with their extraordinary power conversion efficiencies exceeding 17%. In this paper, the photophysics and the latest findings on the carrier dynamics and charge transfer mechanisms in this new class of photovoltaic material will be examined and distilled. Some open photophysics questions will also be discussed.

Sum, Tze Chien

2014-09-01

305

High efficiency silicon solar cell review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is presented of the current research and development efforts to improve the performance of the silicon solar cell. The 24 papers presented reviewed experimental and analytic modeling work which emphasizes the improvment of conversion efficiency and the reduction of manufacturing costs. A summary is given of the round-table discussion, in which the near- and far-term directions of future efficiency improvements were discussed.

Godlewski, M. P. (editor)

1975-01-01

306

Silicon Ink high efficiency solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innovalight has developed the Cougar¿ Process, a method for making a high efficiency solar cell on a Cz-Si wafer with a proprietary Silicon Ink. With the use of an industrial inkjet printer, an n-type ink is deposited on a p-type silicon wafer in order to form a high efficiency selective emitter. The Cougar Process requires only an incremental modification to

Homer Antoniadis

2009-01-01

307

Photochemical Energy Conversion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes procedures for two demonstrations: (1) photochemical energy conversion using ferric oxalate actinometry and (2) liquification of gases using Freon 114. Safety precautions are given for both demonstrations, as are procedures and material specifications. (JM)

Batschelet, William H.; George, Arnold

1986-01-01

308

Thermodynamic Efficiency Limits for Optically Boosted Planar Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent attempts have been made to convert the broadband solar spectrum into filtered light, for the purpose of boosting the efficiency of a planar solar cell. By developing a thermodynamic model, the rigorous efficiency limits of the optically boosted solar cells are presented, which are achievable in principle with a piecewise function of the front emissivity or the energy-redistribution lifetime.

Feng, Y.; Shrestha, S.; Huang, S.; Conibeer, G.

2014-10-01

309

Dielectric nanostructures for broadband light trapping in organic solar cells  

E-print Network

generation. © 2011 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (350.6050) Solar energy; (350.4238) Nanophotonics solar cells," Nano Lett. 9, 2742­2746 (2009). 12. E. Yablonovitch, "Statistical ray optics," J. Opt. SocDielectric nanostructures for broadband light trapping in organic solar cells Aaswath Raman, Zongfu

Fan, Shanhui

310

Characterization testing of Intelsat VI solar cell assemblies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete characterization program has been performed on the two solar cell types which will be used on the Intelsat VI solar arrays. Each cell type was subjected to a series of tests which (1) provided the data needed to accurately predict the solar array performance at end of life, and (2) demonstrated the mechanical integrity of the devices. Characterization

J. S. Fodor; S. W. Gelb; L. J. Goldhammer; G. S. Goodelle

1984-01-01

311

WORKING QUANTUM EFFICIENCY OF CDTE SOLAR CELL Zimeng Cheng  

E-print Network

, the quantum efficiency of CdTe solar cell with various optical biases, which is titled as "Working Quantum Chen 1 , Tao Zhou 2 , Qi Wang 3 , George E. Georgiou 1 , Ken K. Chin 1 1 Apollo CdTe Solar Energy Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO 80401 USA ABSTRACT For p-CdTe/n-CdS solar cell

312

Transcending QCD in Nanostructured Solar Cells G. Galli S. Kauzlarich  

E-print Network

(2012), 31% (2013) (Alta Devices) - Thin films: 19% in CdTe (2013) (First Solar) - Organic solar cells Optimization of gap: max efficiency: 31% (Shockley Queisser 1961) In real PV cells 80-85% of incident solar efficiency: 44% 1 Sun (Klimov 2005) 70% 1000 Sun (Nozik 2013) doubled current E g h v oltage e h Keep

313

Squaraine donor based organic solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are three main ongoing avenues to improve the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaics (OPV): the development of new organic materials, improved process control and novel device architecture design. In this thesis, through molecular design with chemical modification of functional organic molecules, a family of new highly absorptive solution processable squaraine (SQ) materials have been systematically synthesized and explored to improve the sunlight harvesting and charge transport. The spin-cast SQ donors are then coated with fullerene acceptors to form a unique nanocrystalline heterojunction (NcHJ) OPV device. This combination of a novel and efficient family of SQ donors, a unique NcHJ device architecture and optimized fabrication processes leads to high efficiency solar cells. For example, solar cells with efficiencies of ˜5.7 % and a fill factor ˜0.74 are achieved. We find a correlation between solar cell fill factor with the SQ thin film density, providing support for the molecular design concept that planar end groups result in close intermolecular stacking, and hence improved charge transport and exciton diffusion. Finally, thermal annealing of the films results in the formation of nanocrystalline morphologies that lead to further improvements in device performance. The microcrystal growth of SQ donors have been characterized by XRD, AFM and TEM.

Wei, Guodan

314

Oxide nanowires for solar cell applications.  

PubMed

Oxide nanowire arrays were studied for their applications to solar cells. It was demonstrated that the nanowires could provide direct pathways for electron transport in dye-sensitized solar cells and therefore, while forming photoelectrode films, they offered better suppression of charge recombination than nanoparticles. However, the photoelectron films consisting of nanowires suffered a disadvantage in giving large surface area for dye adsorption. Such a shortcoming of nanowires had been exemplified in this paper illustrating that it could be well compensated by incorporating with nanoparticles to form a nanoparticle-nanowire array hybrid photoelectrode film. The oxide nanowires were also demonstrated to be able to enhance the performance of inverted structure polymer solar cells as a cathode buffer layer by establishing a large interface with the polymers so as to facilitate the transport of photogenerated electrons from the polymer to the electron collecting electrode. Such an enhancement effect could be further boosted while the nanowires were replaced with nanotubes; the latter may build up larger interface with the polymers than the former and therefore facilitates the electron transport more efficiently. PMID:22200055

Zhang, Qifeng; Yodyingyong, Supan; Xi, Junting; Myers, Daniel; Cao, Guozhong

2012-03-01

315

(abstract) Scaling Nominal Solar Cell Impedances for Array Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses a task the objective of which is to characterize solar cell array AC impedance and develop scaling rules for impedance characterization of large arrays by testing single solar cells and small arrays. This effort is aimed at formulating a methodology for estimating the AC impedance of the Mars Pathfinder (MPF) cruise and lander solar arrays based upon testing single cells and small solar cell arrays and to create a basis for design of a single shunt limiter for MPF power control of flight solar arrays having very different inpedances.

Mueller, Robert L; Wallace, Matthew T.; Iles, Peter

1994-01-01

316

AlGaAs top solar cell for mechanical attachment in a multi-junction tandem concentrator solar cell stack  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The AstroPower self-supporting, transparent AlGaAs top solar cell can be stacked upon any well-developed bottom solar cell for improved system performance. This is an approach to improve the performance and scale of space photovoltaic power systems. Mechanically stacked tandem solar cell concentrator systems based on the AlGaAs top concentrator solar cell can provide near term efficiencies of 36 percent (AMO, 100x). Possible tandem stack efficiencies greater than 38 percent (100x, AMO) are feasible with a careful selection of materials. In a three solar cell stack, system efficiencies exceed 41 percent (100x, AMO). These device results demonstrate a practical solution for a state-of-the-art top solar cell for attachment to an existing, well-developed solar cell.

Dinetta, L. C.; Hannon, M. H.; Mcneely, J. B.; Barnett, A. M.

1991-01-01

317

CLEFT Process for GaAs Solar Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CLEFT (cleavage of lateral epitaxial films for transfer) process involves growing ultrathin gallium arsenide (GaAs solar cell on much thicker layer of same material). Growth method is completed solar cell easily separated by cleaving from much thicker substrate. Thick substrate is reusable in making additional cells, which reduces cell material cost.

Fan, J. C. C.; Bozler, C. O.; Mcclelland, R. W.

1983-01-01

318

Modeling the Effects of Solar Cell Distribution on Optical Cross Section for Solar Panel Simulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Time-domain Analysis Simulation for Advanced Tracking (TASAT) was used to explore the variation of Optical Cross Section (OCS) with glint angle for a solar panel with different solar cell distribution statistics. S...

K. Feirstine, L. Vaughn, M. Duggin, M. Klein

2012-01-01

319

Epitaxial solar-cell fabrication, phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dichlorosilane (SiH2Cl2) was used as the silicon source material in all of the epitaxial growths. Both n/p/p(+) and p/n/n(+) structures were studied. Correlations were made between the measured profiles and the solar cell parameters, especially cell open-circuit voltage. It was found that in order to obtain consistently high open-circuit voltage, the epitaxial techniques used to grow the surface layer must be altered to obtain very abrupt doping profiles in the vicinity of the junction. With these techniques, it was possible to grow reproducibly both p/n/n(+) and n/p/p(+) solar cell structures having open-circuit voltages in the 610- to 630-mV range, with fill-factors in excess of 0.80 and AM-1 efficiencies of about 13%. Combinations and comparisons of epitaxial and diffused surface layers were also made. Using such surface layers, we found that the blue response of epitaxial cells could be improved, resulting in AM-1 short-circuit current densities of about 30 mA/cm sq. The best cells fabricated in this manner had AM-1 efficiency of 14.1%.

Daiello, R. V.; Robinson, P. H.; Kressel, H.

1977-01-01

320

15 cm×15 cm high efficiency multicrystalline silicon solar cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large-area multicrystalline silicon solar cell with 15 cm×15 cm cell area using a substrate made by a casting method has been developed to obtain high efficiency at low cost. The bifacial silicon nitride solar cell (BSNSC) fabrication process has been applied to this large-area solar cell. By optimizing the surface structure to reduce the reflective losses, the p-n junction

K. Fukui; H. Yamashita; M. Takayama; K. Okada; K. Masuri; K. Shirasawa; H. Watanabe

1991-01-01

321

Evaluation of concentration solar cells for terrestrial applications  

E-print Network

Solar energy has become a hot prospect for the future replacement of fossil fuels, which have limited reserves and cause environmental problems. Solar cell is such a device to directly generate electricity from this clean ...

An, Tao, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01

322

Defect behavior of polycrystalline solar cell silicon  

SciTech Connect

The major objective of this study, conducted from October 1988 to September 1991, was to gain an understanding of the behavior of impurities in polycrystalline silicon and the influence of these impurities on solar cell efficiency. The authors studied edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) and cast poly-Si materials and solar cells. With EFG Si they concentrated on chromium-doped materials and cells to determine the role of Cr on solar cell performance. Cast poly-Si samples were not deliberately contaminated. Samples were characterized by cell efficiency, current-voltage, deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), surface photovoltage (SPV), open-circuit voltage decay, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. They find that Cr forms Cr-B pairs with boron at room temperature and these pairs dissociate into Cr{sub i}{sup +} and B{sup {minus}} during anneals at 210{degrees}C for 10 min. Following the anneal, Cr-B pairs reform at room temperature with a time constant of 230 h. Chromium forms CrSi{sub 2} precipitates in heavily contaminated regions and they find evidence of CrSi{sub 2} gettering, but a lack of chromium segregation or precipitation to grain boundaries and dislocations. Cr-B pairs have well defined DLTS peaks. However, DLTS spectra of other defects are not well defined, giving broad peaks indicative of defects with a range of energy levels in the band gap. In some high-stress, low-efficiency cast poly-Si they detect SiC precipitates, but not in low-stress, high-efficiency samples. SPV measurements result in nonlinear SPV curves in some materials that are likely due to varying optical absorption coefficients due to locally varying stress in the material.

Schroder, D.K.; Park, S.H.; Hwang, I.G.; Mohr, J.B.; Hanly, M.P. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (US). Center for Solid State Electronics Research

1993-05-01

323

Radiation tolerance of low resistivity, high voltage silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiation tolerance of the following three low resistivity, high voltage silicon solar cells was investigated: (1) the COMSAT MSD (multi-step diffused) cell, (2) the MinMIS cell, and (3) the MIND cell. A description of these solar cells is given along with drawings of their configurations. The diffusion length damage coefficients for the cells were calculated and presented. Solar cell spectral response was also discussed. Cells of the MinMIS type were judged to be unsuitable for use in the space radiation environment.

Weizer, V. G.; Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.

1984-01-01

324

Materials That Enhance Efficiency and Radiation Resistance of Solar Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thin layer (approximately 10 microns) of a novel "transparent" fluorescent material is applied to existing solar cells or modules to effectively block and convert UV light, or other lower solar response waveband of solar radiation, to visible or IR light that can be more efficiently used by solar cells for additional photocurrent. Meanwhile, the layer of fluorescent coating material remains fully "transparent" to the visible and IR waveband of solar radiation, resulting in a net gain of solar cell efficiency. This innovation alters the effective solar spectral power distribution to which an existing cell gets exposed, and matches the maximum photovoltaic (PV) response of existing cells. By shifting a low PV response waveband (e.g., UV) of solar radiation to a high PV response waveband (e.g. Vis-Near IR) with novel fluorescent materials that are transparent to other solar-cell sensitive wavebands, electrical output from solar cells will be enhanced. This approach enhances the efficiency of solar cells by converting UV and high-energy particles in space that would otherwise be wasted to visible/IR light. This innovation is a generic technique that can be readily implemented to significantly increase efficiencies of both space and terrestrial solar cells, without incurring much cost, thus bringing a broad base of economical, social, and environmental benefits. The key to this approach is that the "fluorescent" material must be very efficient, and cannot block or attenuate the "desirable" and unconverted" waveband of solar radiation (e.g. Vis-NIR) from reaching the cells. Some nano-phosphors and novel organometallic complex materials have been identified that enhance the energy efficiency on some state-of-the-art commercial silicon and thin-film-based solar cells by over 6%.

Sun, Xiadong; Wang, Haorong

2012-01-01

325

Quantum Dots Investigated for Solar Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center has been investigating the synthesis of quantum dots of CdSe and CuInS2 for use in intermediate-bandgap solar cells. Using quantum dots in a solar cell to create an intermediate band will allow the harvesting of a much larger portion of the available solar spectrum. Theoretical studies predict a potential efficiency of 63.2 percent, which is approximately a factor of 2 better than any state-of-the-art devices available today. This technology is also applicable to thin-film devices--where it offers a potential four-fold increase in power-to-weight ratio over the state of the art. Intermediate-bandgap solar cells require that quantum dots be sandwiched in an intrinsic region between the photovoltaic solar cell's ordinary p- and n-type regions (see the preceding figure). The quantum dots form the intermediate band of discrete states that allow sub-bandgap energies to be absorbed. However, when the current is extracted, it is limited by the bandgap, not the individual photon energies. The energy states of the quantum dot can be controlled by controlling the size of the dot. Ironically, the ground-state energy levels are inversely proportional to the size of the quantum dots. We have prepared a variety of quantum dots using the typical organometallic synthesis routes pioneered by Ba Wendi et al., in the early 1990's. The most studied quantum dots prepared by this method have been of CdSe. To produce these dots, researchers inject a syringe of the desired organometallic precursors into heated triocytlphosphine oxide (TOPO) that has been vigorously stirred under an inert atmosphere (see the following figure). The solution immediately begins to change from colorless to yellow, then orange and red/brown, as the quantum dots increase in size. When the desired size is reached, the heat is removed from the flask. Quantum dots of different sizes can be identified by placing them under a "black light" and observing the various color differences in their fluorescence (see the photograph).

Bailey, Sheila G.; Castro, Stephanie L.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

2001-01-01

326

TRANSPARENT COATINGS FOR SOLAR CELLS RESEARCH  

SciTech Connect

Todays solar cells are fabricated using metal oxide based transparent conductive coatings (TCC) or metal wires with optoelectronic performance exceeding that currently possible with Carbon Nanotube (CNT) based TCCs. The motivation for replacing current TCC is their inherent brittleness, high deposition cost, and high deposition temperatures; leading to reduced performance on thin substrates. With improved processing, application and characterization techniques Nanofiber and/or CNT based TCCs can overcome these shortcomings while offering the ability to be applied in atmospheric conditions using low cost coating processes At todays level of development, CNT based TCC are nearing commercial use in touch screens, some types of information displays (i.e. electronic paper), and certain military applications. However, the resistivity and transparency requirements for use in current commercial solar cells are more stringent than in many of these applications. Therefore, significant research on fundamental nanotube composition, dispersion and deposition are required to reach the required performance commanded by photovoltaic devices. The objective of this project was to research and develop transparent conductive coatings based on novel nanomaterial composite coatings, which comprise nanotubes, nanofibers, and other nanostructured materials along with binder materials. One objective was to show that these new nanomaterials perform at an electrical resistivity and optical transparency suitable for use in solar cells and other energy-related applications. A second objective was to generate new structures and chemistries with improved resistivity and transparency performance. The materials also included the binders and surface treatments that facilitate the utility of the electrically conductive portion of these composites in solar photovoltaic devices. Performance enhancement venues included: CNT purification and metallic tube separation techniques, chemical doping, CNT patterning and alignment, advances in commercial and research materials and field effect schemes. In addition, Eikos continued to develop improved efficiency coating materials and transfer methods suitable for batch and continuous roll-to-roll fabrication requirements. Finally, Eikos collaborated with NREL and the PV-community at large in fabricating and characterizing Invisicon���® enabled solar cells.

Glatkowski, P.J.; Landis, D.A.

2013-04-16

327

Si Wire-Array Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micron-scale Si wire arrays are three-dimensional photovoltaic absorbers that enable orthogonalization of light absorption and carrier collection and hence allow for the utilization of relatively impure Si in efficient solar cell designs. The wire arrays are grown by a vapor-liquid-solid-catalyzed process on a crystalline (111) Si wafer lithographically patterned with an array of metal catalyst particles. Following growth, such arrays can be embedded in polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS) and then peeled from the template growth substrate. The result is an unusual photovoltaic material: a flexible, bendable, wafer-thickness crystalline Si absorber. In this paper I will describe: 1. the growth of high-quality Si wires with controllable doping and the evaluation of their photovoltaic energy-conversion performance using a test electrolyte that forms a rectifying conformal semiconductor-liquid contact 2. the observation of enhanced absorption in wire arrays exceeding the conventional light trapping limits for planar Si cells of equivalent material thickness and 3. single-wire and large-area solid-state Si wire-array solar cell results obtained to date with directions for future cell designs based on optical and device physics. In collaboration with Michael Kelzenberg, Morgan Putnam, Joshua Spurgeon, Daniel Turner-Evans, Emily Warren, Nathan Lewis, and Harry Atwater, California Institute of Technology.

Boettcher, Shannon

2010-03-01

328

A theoretical analysis of the current-voltage characteristics of solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following topics are discussed: (1) dark current-voltage characteristics of solar cells; (2) high efficiency silicon solar cells; (3) short circuit current density as a function of temperature and the radiation intensity; (4) Keldysh-Franz effects and silicon solar cells; (5) thin silicon solar cells; (6) optimum solar cell designs for concentrated sunlight; (7) nonuniform illumination effects of a solar cell; and (8) high-low junction emitter solar cells.

Fang, R. C. Y.; Hauser, J. R.

1979-01-01

329

Investigating the efficiency of Silicon Solar cells at  

E-print Network

to study the characteristics of silicon photovoltaic cells (solar cells). We vary the wavelength of light when leads are attached to the opposite sides of this p-n junction. In photovoltaic cells, the energy

Attari, Shahzeen Z.

330

High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells  

SciTech Connect

The direct gap of the In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N alloy system extends continuously from InN (0.7 eV, in the near IR) to GaN (3.4 eV, in the mid-ultraviolet). This opens the intriguing possibility of using this single ternary alloy system in single or multi-junction (MJ) solar cells of the type used for space-based surveillance satellites. To evaluate the suitability of In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N as a material for space applications, high quality thin films were grown with molecular beam epitaxy and extensive damage testing with electron, proton, and alpha particle radiation was performed. Using the room temperature photoluminescence intensity as a indirect measure of minority carrier lifetime, it is shown that In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N retains its optoelectronic properties at radiation damage doses at least 2 orders of magnitude higher than the damage thresholds of the materials (GaAs and GaInP) currently used in high efficiency MJ cells. This indicates that the In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N is well-suited for the future development of ultra radiation-hard optoelectronics. Critical issues affecting development of solar cells using this material system were addressed. The presence of an electron-rich surface layer in InN and In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N (0 < x < 0.63) was investigated; it was shown that this is a less significant effect at large x. Evidence of p-type activity below the surface in Mg-doped InN was obtained; this is a significant step toward achieving photovoltaic action and, ultimately, a solar cell using this material.

Ager III, J.W.; Walukiewicz, W.

2004-10-22

331

Investigation of planar antennas with photovoltaic solar cells for mobile communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the application of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells in planar antenna structures. The radiating patch element of a planar antenna is replaced by a solar cell. Furthermore radiating slots are built due to the cell spacing in a solar cell array. The original feature of a solar cell (DC current generation) remains, but additionally the solar cell is

Norbert Henze; Martin Weitz; Pascal Hofmann; Christian Bendel; Jörg Kirchhof; Henning Friichtingl

2004-01-01

332

Hairlike Percutaneous Photochemical Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrumentation systems based on hairlike fiber-optic photochemical sensors have been proposed as minimally invasive means of detecting biochemicals associated with cancer and other diseases. The fiber-optic sensors could be mass-produced as inexpensive, disposable components. The sensory tip of a fiber-optic sensor would be injected through the patient's skin into subcutaneous tissue. A biosensing material on the sensory tip would bind or otherwise react with the biochemical(s) of interest [the analyte(s)] to produce a change in optical properties that would be measured by use of an external photonic analyzer. After use, a fiber-optic sensor could be simply removed by plucking it out with tweezers. A fiber-optic sensor according to the proposal would be of the approximate size and shape of a human hair, and its sensory tip would resemble a follicle. Once inserted into a patient's subcutaneous tissue, the sensor would even more closely resemble a hair growing from a follicle (see Figure 1). The biosensing material on the sensory tip could consist of a chemical and/or cells cultured and modified for the purpose. The biosensing material would be contained within a membrane that would cover the tip. If the membrane were not permeable by an analyte, then it would be necessary to create pores in the membrane that would be large enough to allow analyte molecules to diffuse to the biosensing material, but not so large as to allow cells (if present as part of the biosensing material) to diffuse out. The end of the fiber-optic sensor opposite the sensory tip would be inserted in a fiberoptic socket in the photonic analyzer.

George, Thomas; Loeb, Gerald

2004-01-01

333

Practical high efficiency bifacial solar cells  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the authors present a practical process to obtain bifacial solar cells. These cells are made using p{sup +}nn{sup +} structure on high-medium base resistivity, continuous emitters and with a process that maintains high bulk minority carrier lifetime. Efficiencies of 19.1% and 18.1% are achieved under standard conditions when the cell is illuminated by n{sup +}n high-low junction and when it is illuminated by P{sup +}n junction, respectively. The authors remark that the n{sup +}n high-low junction provides a higher current density and a good ratio between generated current of each face is found to be of about 103%.

Moehlecke, A.; Zanesco, I.; Luque, A. [ETSI Telecomunicacion, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Energia Solar

1994-12-31

334

Solare Cell Roof Tile And Method Of Forming Same  

DOEpatents

A solar cell roof tile includes a front support layer, a transparent encapsulant layer, a plurality of interconnected solar cells and a backskin layer. The front support layer is formed of light transmitting material and has first and second surfaces. The transparent encapsulant layer is disposed adjacent the second surface of the front support layer. The interconnected solar cells has a first surface disposed adjacent the transparent encapsulant layer. The backskin layer has a first surface disposed adjacent a second surface of the interconnected solar cells, wherein a portion of the backskin layer wraps around and contacts the first surface of the front support layer to form the border region. A portion of the border region has an extended width. The solar cell roof tile may have stand-offs disposed on the extended width border region for providing vertical spacing with respect to an adjacent solar cell roof tile.

Hanoka, Jack I. (Brookline, MA); Real, Markus (Oberberg, CH)

1999-11-16

335

A PHOTOCHEMICAL BOX MODEL FOR URBAN AIR QUALITY SIMULATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A simple 'box-approach' to air quality simulation modeling has been developed in conjunction with a newly formulated photochemical kinetic mechanism to produce an easily applied Photochemical Box Model (PBM). This approach represents an urban area as a single cell 20 km in both l...

336

Characterization of production GaAs solar cells for space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electrical performance of GaAs solar cells was characterized as a function of irradiation with protons and electrons with the underlying goal of producing solar cells suitable for use in space. Proton energies used varied between 50 keV and 10 MeV, and damage coefficients were derived for liquid phase epitaxy GaAs solar cells. Electron energies varied between 0.7 and 2.4 MeV. Cells from recent production runs were characterized as a function of electron and proton irradiation. These same cells were also characterized as a function of solar intensity and operating temperature, both before and after the electron irradiations. The long term stability of GaAs cells during photon exposure was examined. Some cells were found to degrade with photon exposure and some did not. Calibration standards were made for GaAs/Ge solar cells by flight on a high altitude balloon.

Anspaugh, B. E.

1988-01-01

337

Use of photovoltage for electrodeposition in solar cell processing technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the development of a new technology for the electrolytic deposition of a metal on a solar cell, without employing an external electric bias field, but by using the internal photo-induced voltage of the solar cell itself. The experimental details of depositing silver over the existing metallized contact structure of the cell and a transparent conducting oxide coating

V. K. Jain; A. R. Kulshreshtha

1981-01-01

338

Applications of ion implantation for high efficiency silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ion implantation is utilized for the dopant introduction processes necessary to fabricate a silicon solar cell. Implantation provides a versatile powerful tool for development of high efficiency cells. Advantages and problems of implantation and the present status of developmental use of the technique for solar cells are discussed.

Minnucci, J. A.; Kirkpatrick, A. R.

1977-01-01

339

EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 10 Solar Cell Operation  

E-print Network

-generated carriers to generate a current · The generation of a voltage across the solar cell · The dissipation generated current · Red Light (0.8 m) = 103/cm ­ Absorbed deeper in cell · Infrared Light (1.1 m) = 101/cm of the number of carriers collected by the solar cell to the number of photons of a given energy incident

Kaiser, Todd J.

340

High efficiency solar cell arrays system trade-offs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced high efficiency GaAs\\/Ge solar cells are now being manufactured in large quantities and are being utilized on many spacecraft. Since the bare solar cell cost and efficiency is much higher than silicon cells, it is often difficult to determine the system cost advantages that are hard to quantify in terms of cost benefits. In order to provide some guidance

E. L. Ralph

1994-01-01

341

Laser processes for future solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photovoltaic (PV) industry requires higher efficiencies at lower manufacturing costs to become competitive with other power generation techniques. There are several approaches to increase the efficiency of solar cells. For example enhancements of the way photons are absorbed and how they generate charge carriers with low losses. Today, the so called first generation of photovoltaic devices based on crystalline silicon wafers are produced on a multi-GW-level. However, in most production lines there is only one laser process used to electrically isolate front and rear side of the cell. Lasers are predestined to generate local structures which will be required to manufacture high efficient solar cells. As an example we will show results on the interaction of ultra short laser pulses with dielectric films on silicon. Second generation photovoltaic modules are based on thin films. These modules are monolithically interconnected by laser scribing of the films. Tools for amorphous silicon are well established, while there are a lot of challenges to scribe CIGS layers. Within this paper we will show new results on the temporal evolution of a laser induced "lift-off" process to scribe the molybdenum back electrode.

Letsch, Andreas; Bartl, Dominik; Diez, Michael; Gauch, Roland; Michalowski, Andreas; Hafner, Margit

2012-03-01

342

Effective Interfaces in Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the current commercial status of CuInSe2 alloys (collectively, CIS) and CdTe-based photovoltaic (PV) modules, comparing the performance of commercial products with the results achieved for solar cell and prototype module champions. We provide an update for these PV cell and module technologies, and also compare CIS and CdTe performance levels to the results achieved by the crystalline Si PV industry. This comparison shows that CIS and CdTe module technology presently offers the best (and perhaps only) approach for significantly exceeding the cost/performance levels established by crystalline Si PV technologies. A semi-empirical methodology is used for comparing ''champion'' solar cell and prototype module data with performance achieved on manufacturing lines. Using a conservative assumption that thin-film technologies will eliminate the 40% of PV module costs arising from the Si wafer or ribbon, we estimate the future performance of all established PV module candidates, and conclude that, based on 2004 knowledge about each PV technology, CIS and CdTe should provide cost-competitive advantages over crystalline Si.

Wang, T. H.; Iwaniczko, E.; Page, M. R.; Levi, D. H.; Yan, Y.; Yelundur, V.; Branz, H. M.; Rohatgi, A.; Wang, Q.

2005-02-01

343

Material and processing needs for silicon solar cells in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technical concerns of NASA in the area of space grade solar cells are summarized. Solar power needs are projected through 1987. The degradation of solar cell performance due to the effects of radiation on impurities and crystal defects and the improved performance of float zone silicon are illustrated. The reduction of oxygen and carbon in float zone silicon allows for much faster low temperature annealing of the defects. The effects of improved crystal purity on cell performance are summarized.

Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

1981-01-01

344

Spraylon fluorocarbon encapsulation for silicon solar cell arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A development program was performed for evaluating, modifying, and optimizing the Lockheed formulated liquid transparent filmforming Spraylon fluorocarbon protective coating for silicon solar cells and modules. The program objectives were designed to meet the requirements of the low-cost automated solar cell array fabrication process. As part of the study, a computer program was used to establish the limits of the safe working stress in the coated silicon solar cell array system under severe thermal shock.

1977-01-01

345

Shunt effect in polycrystalline GaAs solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin-film polycrystalline GaAs solar cells have the potential for reduced cost while retaining high efficiency. However, solar cells made from polycrystalline GaAs have historically had poor open-circuit voltages. Models that account for these low voltages suggest that in order to make solar cells with high voltages it is necessary to use material with very large grains. As an alternative cause

Christiana Honsberg; Allen M. Bernett

1990-01-01

346

Elongated nanostructures for radial junction solar cells.  

PubMed

In solar cell technology, the current trend is to thin down the active absorber layer. The main advantage of a thinner absorber is primarily the reduced consumption of material and energy during production. For thin film silicon (Si) technology, thinning down the absorber layer is of particular interest since both the device throughput of vacuum deposition systems and the stability of the devices are significantly enhanced. These features lead to lower cost per installed watt peak for solar cells, provided that the (stabilized) efficiency is the same as for thicker devices. However, merely thinning down inevitably leads to a reduced light absorption. Therefore, advanced light trapping schemes are crucial to increase the light path length. The use of elongated nanostructures is a promising method for advanced light trapping. The enhanced optical performance originates from orthogonalization of the light's travel path with respect to the direction of carrier collection due to the radial junction, an improved anti-reflection effect thanks to the three-dimensional geometric configuration and the multiple scattering between individual nanostructures. These advantages potentially allow for high efficiency at a significantly reduced quantity and even at a reduced material quality, of the semiconductor material. In this article, several types of elongated nanostructures with the high potential to improve the device performance are reviewed. First, we briefly introduce the conventional solar cells with emphasis on thin film technology, following the most commonly used fabrication techniques for creating nanostructures with a high aspect ratio. Subsequently, several representative applications of elongated nanostructures, such as Si nanowires in realistic photovoltaic (PV) devices, are reviewed. Finally, the scientific challenges and an outlook for nanostructured PV devices are presented. PMID:24088584

Kuang, Yinghuan; Vece, Marcel Di; Rath, Jatindra K; Dijk, Lourens van; Schropp, Ruud E I

2013-10-01

347

Photon management structures for solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since micro- and nanostructures for photon management are of increasing importance in novel high-efficiency solar cell concepts, structuring techniques with up-scaling potential play a key role in their realization. Interference lithography and nanoimprint processes are presented as technologies for origination and replication of fine-tailored photonic structures on large areas. At first, these structure origination and replication technologies are presented in detail: With the interference pattern of two or more coherent waves, a wide variety of structures with feature sizes ranging from 100 nm to 100 ?m can be generated in photoresist by interference lithography. Examples are linear gratings, crossed gratings, hexagonal structures, three dimensional photonic crystals or surface-relief diffusers. The strength of this technology is that homogeneous structures can be originated on areas of up to 1.2 x 1.2 m2. The structures in photoresist, the so-called master structures, can serve as an etching mask for a pattern transfer, as a template for infiltration with different materials or they can be replicated via electroplating and subsequent replication processes. Especially in combination with replication steps, the industrially feasible production of elaborate structures is possible. As a particularly interesting process, nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is described in detail. As a way towards industrial production, a roller NIL tool is presented. After the description of the basic technologies, three application examples for solar cells are presented with details about the design of the structures, the structuring processes, sample characterization and evaluation: (1) honeycomb structures for the front side texturization of multicrystalline silicon wafer solar cells, (2) diffractive rear side gratings for absorption enhancement in the spectral region near the band gap of silicon, and (3) plasmonic metal nanoparticle arrays manufactured by combined imprint and lift off processes.

Bläsi, Benedikt; Hauser, Hubert; Walk, Christian; Michl, Bernhard; Guttowski, Aron; Mellor, Alexander; Benick, Jan; Peters, Marius; Jüchter, Sabrina; Wellens, Christine; Kübler, Volker; Hermle, Martin; Wolf, Andreas J.

2012-06-01

348

Hybrid Inorganic-Organic Heterojunction Solar Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, solar cells were fabricated by spin-coating polyaniline (PANI) base (EB) over an n-type Si substrate. The final heterojunction's device structure was Al/ n-type Si/EB/Au. The electrical properties of the resultant device were investigated by measuring the current density-voltage ( J- V), capacitance-voltage ( C- V), and impedance characteristics in the dark and under illumination. N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), dimethylformamide (DMF), and tetrahydrofuran (THF) were used as solvents for EB. The effects of these solvents on the photovoltaic cell parameters were investigated, and the open-circuit voltage ( V oc), short-circuit current density ( J sc), fill factor (FF), and energy conversion efficiency ( ?) were determined. It was found that heterojunctions fabricated using EB dissolved in NMP, DMF, and THF produced J sc of 10 mA/cm2, 5.123 mA/cm2, and 2.78 mA/cm2, respectively. Rollover and crossover phenomena in the J- V curves under illumination were explained based on the back-contact barrier and surface recombination of electrons at the back contact. The linearity of Mott-Schottky plots indicated the formation of a heterojunction between EB and n-type Si, and the slope of 1/ C 2 versus voltage changed under illumination. The high values of shunt resistance were decreased under illumination, indicating that the efficiency of this type of heterojunction solar cell was limited by shunt resistance and the narrow absorption range of the solar spectrum by EB.

Ebrahim, Shaker; Soliman, Moataz; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M.

2011-09-01

349

Effects of photochemically immobilized polymer coatings on protein adsorption, cell adhesion, and the foreign body reaction to silicone rubber.  

PubMed

Photochemical immobilization technology was utilized to covalently couple polymers to silicone rubber either at multiple points along a polymer backbone or at the endpoint of an amphiphilic chain. The coating variants then were tested in vitro and in vivo for improvement of desired responses compared to uncoated silicone rubber. All coating variants suppressed the adsorption of fibrinogen and immunoglobulin G, and most also inhibited fibroblast growth by 90-99%. None of the coating variants inhibited monocyte or neutrophil adhesion in vitro. However, the surfaces that supported the highest levels of monocyte adhesion also elicited the lowest secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. None of the materials elicited a strong inflammatory response or significantly (p< 0.05) reduced the thickness of the fibrous capsule when implanted subcutaneously in rats. Overall, the most passivating coating variant was an endpoint immobilized polypeptide that reduced protein adsorption, inhibited fibroblast growth by 90%, elicited low cytokine secretion from monocytes, and reduced fibrous encapsulation by 33%. In general, although some coating variants modified the adsorption of proteins and the behavior of leukocytes or fibroblasts in vitro, none abolished the development of a fibrous capsule in vivo. PMID:10397932

DeFife, K M; Shive, M S; Hagen, K M; Clapper, D L; Anderson, J M

1999-03-01

350

Transmutation doping of silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Normal isotopic silicon contains 3.05% of Si-30 which transmutes to P-31 after thermal neutron absorption, with a half-life of 2.6 hours. This reaction is used to introduce extremely uniform concentrations of phosphorus into silicon, thus eliminating the areal and spatial inhomogeneities characteristic of chemical doping. Annealing of the lattice damage in the irradiated silicon does not alter the uniformity of dopant distribution. Transmutation doping also makes it possible to introduce phosphorus into polycrystalline silicon without segregation of the dopant at the grain boundaries. The use of neutron transmutation doped (NTD) silicon in solar cell research and development is discussed.

Wood, R. F.; Westbrook, R. D.; Young, R. T.; Cleland, J. W.

1977-01-01

351

Dip-coated sheet silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cost-effective method is being developed for producing solar cell quality sheet silicon by dip coating inexpensive ceramic substrates with a thin layer of large grain silicon. Mullite (Aluminum Silicate) ceramic substrates coated with a thin layer of graphite have been dipped into molten silicon to produce 20-150 micron thick layers having grain sizes as large as .4 cm x 4 cm. With these silicon layers photovoltaic diodes have been fabricated with measured and inherent conversion efficiencies of 4% and 7%, respectively.

Heaps, J. D.; Maciolek, R. B.; Zook, J. D.; Scott, M. W.

1976-01-01

352

Plastic solar cell interface and morphological characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plastic solar cell research has become an intense field of study considering these devices may be lightweight, flexible and reduce the cost of photovoltaic devices. The active layer of plastic solar cells are a combination of two organic components which blend to form an internal morphology. Due to the poor electrical transport properties of the organic components it is important to understand how the morphology forms in order to engineer these materials for increased efficiency. The focus of this thesis is a detailed study of the interfaces between the plastic solar cell layers and the morphology of the active layer. The system studied in detail is a blend of P3HT and PCBM that acts as the primary absorber, which is the electron donor, and the electron acceptor, respectively. The key morphological findings are, while thermal annealing increases the crystallinity parallel to the substrate, the morphology is largely unchanged following annealing. The deposition and mixing conditions of the bulk heterojunction from solution control the starting morphology. The spin coating speed, concentration, solvent type, and solution mixing time are all critical variables in the formation of the bulk heterojunction. In addition, including the terminals or inorganic layers in the analysis is critical because the inorganic surface properties influence the morphology. Charge transfer in the device occurs at the material interfaces, and a highly resistive transparent conducting oxide layer limits device performance. It was discovered that the electron blocking layer between the transparent conducting oxide and the bulk heterojunction is compromised following annealing. The electron acceptor material can diffuse into this layer, a location which does not benefit device performance. Additionally, the back contact deposition is important since the organic material can be damaged by the thermal evaporation of Aluminum, typically used for plastic solar cells. Depositing a thin thermal and momentum blocking layer of lithium fluoride prevents damage which ultimately leads to higher efficiencies. Finally, new materials have been synthesized with better electronic properties and stability. Characterization of the polymer properties and how they assemble is important for high device performance. One new promising polymer, Polybenzo[1,2-b:4,5- b']dithiophene-4,7-dithien-2-yl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (PBnDT-DTBT), was characterized with PCBM and it was found that this polymer assembles similarly to previously studied polymers. The efficiency gained with this new polymer is obtained from an improvement in the materials electronic properties since the morphology closely resembles the P3HT:PCBM system.

Guralnick, Brett W.

353

High efficiency thin-film GaAs solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several oxidation techniques are discussed which have been found to increase the open circuit (V sub oc) of metal-GaAs Schottky barrier solar cells, the oxide chemistry, attempts to measure surface state parameters, the evolving characteristics of the solar cell as background contamination (has been decreased, but not eliminated), results of focused Nd/YAG laser beam recrystallization of Ge films evaporated onto tungsten, and studies of AMOS solar cells fabricated on sliced polycrystalline GaAs wafers. Also discussed are projected materials availability and costs for GaAs thin-film solar cells.

Stirn, R. J.

1977-01-01

354

Investigation of back surface fields effect on bifacial solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A bifacial solar cell, in contrast with a conventional monofacial solar cell, produces photo-generated current from both front and back sides. Bifacial solar cell is an attractive candidate for enhancing photovoltaic (PV) market competitiveness as well as supporting the current efforts to increase efficiency and lower material costs. This paper reports on the fabrication of bifacial solar cells using phosphorus-oxytrichloride (POCl3) emitter formation on p-type, nanotextured silicon (Si) wafer. Backside surface field was formed through Al-diffusion using conventional screen-printing process. Bifacial solar cells with a structure of n+pp+ with and without back surface field (BSF) were fabricated in which silicon nitride (SiN) anti reflection and passivation films were coated on both sides, followed by screen printing of Argentum (Ag) and Argentum/Aluminum (Ag/Al) on front and back contacts, respectively. Bifacial solar cells without BSF exhibited open circuit voltage (VOC) of 535 mV for front and 480 mV for back surface. With Al-alloyed BSF bifacial solar cells, the VOC improved to 580 mV for the front surface and 560 mV for the back surface. Simulation of bifacial solar cells using PC1D and AFORS software demonstrated good agreement with experimental results. Simulations showed that best bifacial solar cells are achieved through a combination of high lifetime wafer, low recombination back surface field, reduced contact resistance, and superior surface passivation.

Sepeai, Suhaila; Sulaiman, M. Y.; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Zaidi, Saleem H.

2012-11-01

355

Erroneous efficiency reports harm organic solar cell research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mischaracterization of solar cell power conversion efficiencies and widespread publication of inconsistent data in scientific journals threatens to undermine progress in organic and hybrid photovoltaics research.

Zimmermann, Eugen; Ehrenreich, Philipp; Pfadler, Thomas; Dorman, James A.; Weickert, Jonas; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas

2014-09-01

356

Testing of gallium arsenide solar cells on the CRRES vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flight experiment was designed to determine the optimum design for gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cell panels in a radiation environment. Elements of the experiment design include, different coverglass material and thicknesses, welded and soldered interconnects, different solar cell efficiencies, different solar cell types, and measurement of annealing properties. This experiment is scheduled to fly on the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES). This satellite will simultaneously measure the radiation environment and provide engineering data on solar cell degradation that can be directly related to radiation damage.

Trumble, T. M.

1985-01-01

357

Current status of silicon solar cell technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent advances in solar cell technology have led to the development of laboratory cells with efficiencies above 15% and production cells with efficiencies in the area of 13%. The increased output is largely the result of increases in the short-circuit current. The most significant gain in the amount of light entering the cell has been obtained through surface texturing by chemical etching techniques. Sheet resistances resulting from phosphorus diffusion in the 800 C temperature range yield junction depths on the order of 0.1 micrometer, leading to significant increases in the blue region of the cell spectral response. The inclusion of a back surface field in 10 ohm-cm cells has produced an increase in open-circuit voltage of about 50 mV and an increase in the minority carrier lifetime. It appears that a low emitter efficiency of the diffused region is the cause of poor voltages. Future research will be primarily directed toward correcting this deficiency and toward the development of low cost production methods.

Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

1975-01-01

358

Photochemical fate of atorvastatin (lipitor) in simulated natural waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cholesterol-lowering statin drugs are among the most frequently prescribed for reducing human blood cholesterol and they have been detected as contaminants in natural waters. In this study the photochemical behavior of atorvastatin (lipitor) was investigated at two different concentrations of 35.8 ?M (20 mg L?1) and 35.8 nM (20 ?g L?1) using a solar simulator and a UV reactor. Photochemical fate in natural waters can be

Behnaz Razavi; Sihem Ben Abdelmelek; Weihua Song; Kevin E. O’Shea; William J. Cooper

2011-01-01

359

Chemical “light meters” for photochemical and photobiological studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Nitrate and nitrite solar actinometers or chemical ‘light meters’ were used to quantify light doses in photochemical and photobiological\\u000a experiments involving dimethylsulfide (DMS) and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) cycling. Light doses were calculated based\\u000a on the photochemical production of salicylic acid (SA) from benzoic acid in these actinometers, with SA quantified by either\\u000a spectrofluorometry or high performance liquid chromatography. Nitrate and nitrite

David J. Kieber; Dierdre A. Toole; Joseph J. Jankowski; Ronald P. Kiene; George R. Westby; Daniela A. del Valle; Doris Slezak

2007-01-01

360

June 2009 UWMREPORT 15 solar cells turn Bolton roof  

E-print Network

's late- afternoon demand can be met by the energy from the solar panels. Lab members also will experimentJune 2009 · UWMREPORT · 15 solar cells turn Bolton roof into an energy lab By Laura L. Hunt hanks are behind the acquisition of 74 solar panels that were recently installed on the second-floor roof of Bolton

Saldin, Dilano

361

Characterization testing of large area solar cell assemblies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete characterization program has been performed on two large area (7 cm x 6 cm) solar cell types which will be used on the Hughes HS 393 satellite solar arrays. Each type was subjected to a series of tests which provided the data needed to accurately predict the solar array performance at end of life and demonstrated the mechanical

Jay S. Fodor; Steven W. Gelb; Leland J. Goldhammer; George S. Goodelle; Audrey L. Judson

1987-01-01

362

Questions I will answer What is a solar cell?  

E-print Network

material. CdS/CdTe glass #12;20 CdTe: Industrial Status First Solar is the leader. It takes them 2.5 hours % $1.15/W Suntech, Sunpower CdTe 17.3 % 11 % $0.75/W First Solar Cd are solar cells made? · How do they work? · How efficient can they be? · How

McGehee, Michael

363

Recyclable organic solar cells on cellulose nanocrystal substrates  

PubMed Central

Solar energy is potentially the largest source of renewable energy at our disposal, but significant advances are required to make photovoltaic technologies economically viable and, from a life-cycle perspective, environmentally friendly, and consequently scalable. Cellulose nanomaterials are emerging high-value nanoparticles extracted from plants that are abundant, renewable, and sustainable. Here, we report on the first demonstration of efficient polymer solar cells fabricated on optically transparent cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) substrates. The solar cells fabricated on the CNC substrates display good rectification in the dark and reach a power conversion efficiency of 2.7%. In addition, we demonstrate that these solar cells can be easily separated and recycled into their major components using low-energy processes at room temperature, opening the door for a truly recyclable solar cell technology. Efficient and easily recyclable organic solar cells on CNC substrates are expected to be an attractive technology for sustainable, scalable, and environmentally-friendly energy production. PMID:23524333

Zhou, Yinhua; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Khan, Talha M.; Liu, Jen-Chieh; Hsu, James; Shim, Jae Won; Dindar, Amir; Youngblood, Jeffrey P.; Moon, Robert J.; Kippelen, Bernard

2013-01-01

364

A three solar cell system based on a self-supporting, transparent AlGaAs top solar cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of a three solar cell stack can lead to practical efficiencies greater than 30 percent (1x,AM0). A theoretical efficiency limitation of 43.7 percent at AM0 and one sun is predicted by this model. Including expected losses, a practical system efficiency of 36.8 percent is anticipated. These calculations are based on a 1.93eV/1.43eV/0.89eV energy band gap combination. AlGaAs/GaAs/GaInAsP materials can be used with a six-terminal wiring configuration. The key issues for multijunction solar cells are the top and middle solar cell performance and the sub-bandgap transparency. AstroPower has developed a technique to fabricate AlGaAs solar cells on rugged, self-supporting, transparent AlGaAs substrates. Top solar cell efficiencies greater than 11 percent AM0 have been achieved. State-of-the-art GaAs or InP devices will be used for the middle solar cell. GaInAsP will be used to fabricate the bottom solar cell. This material is lattice-matched to InP and offers a wide range of bandgaps for optimization of the three solar cell stack. Liquid phase epitaxy is being used to grow the quaternary material. Initial solar cells have shown open-circuit voltages of 462 mV for a bandgap of 0.92eV. Design rules for the multijunction three solar cell stack are discussed. The progress in the development of the self-supporting AlGaAs top solar cell and the GaInAsP bottom solar cell is presented.

Negley, Gerald H.; Rhoads, Sandra L.; Terranova, Nancy E.; Mcneely, James B.; Barnett, Allen M.

1989-01-01

365

Colloidal graphene quantum dots incorporated with a Cobalt electrolyte in a dye sensitized solar cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of sun light as a renewable energy source has been pursued for a long time, but the ultimate goal of developing inexpensive and highly efficient photovoltaic devices remains elusive. To address this problem, colloidal graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were synthesized and used as a new sensitizer in dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Not only do the GQDs have a well-defined structure, but their large absorptivity, tunable bandgap, and size- and functional group-dependent redox potentials make them promising candidates for photovoltaic applications. Because volatile organic solvents in electrolyte solutions hinder long-term use and mass production of DSC devices, imidazolium based ionic liquids (ILs) were investigated. Cobalt-bipyridine complexes were successfully synthesized and characterized for use as new redox shuttles in DSCs. In the tested DSCs, J-V (current density-voltage) curves illustrate that the short circuit current and fill factor decrease significantly as the active area in the TiO2 photo anode increases. Dark current measurement indicated that the diode factor is bigger than one, which is different from the conventional p-n junction type solar cells, due to the high efficiency of photoelectron injection. The variation of the diode factor in dark and in light would show various types of recombination behaviors in DSCs. The performance of the DSC stained by GQDs incorporated with the cobalt redox couple was tested, but further study to improve the efficiency and to understand photochemical reaction in the DSCs is needed.

Lim, Hyuna

366

Next generation CIGS for solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview is presented of the PV-ACIST project. The goal of this project is to demonstrate proof-of-concept of next generation CuIn1-xGax(SySe1-y)2 (CIGS)-based solar cells. The first phase of the project began with a theoretical analysis of the potential of tandem-junction devices. This analysis showed that efficiencies could exceed 25% based constituent junctions comparable to the best achieved in single CIGS junctions. Subsequent efforts have focused on development and characterization of the materials and processes necessary to achieve the wide-gap device portion of the tandem structure and on modeling of device results based on both wide and narrow gap materials. Results to date have included demonstration of wide gap devices, characterization of the diffusivity of Ga in CIGS under various process conditions, characterization and modeling of the conduction properties of ideal CIGS, and model results explaining the "red kink" effect in certain high-performance CIGS solar cells.

Rockett, A.; Birkmire, R.; Morel, D.; Fonash, S.; Hou, J.-Y.; Marudachalam, M.; D'Amico, J.; Panse, P.; Zafar, S.; Schroeder, D. J.

1997-04-01

367

Effects of excitons on solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the effects of excitons on the two key parameters of a Si solar cell: the dark-saturation current and short-circuit current. We have found that the effect of excitons on the dark-saturation current is very sensitive to the boundary condition for excess excitons at the edge of the depletion region. With the assumption of near equilibrium between the electrons and excitons, we find that the exciton effect is rather small, which is contrary to the conclusion of significant reduction in the dark-saturation current made in previous work with the assumption of no excess excitons at the edge [J. Appl. Phys. 79, 195 (1996)]. The results for the short-circuit current are very similar to the previous work. However, the analytical results for the carrier concentrations and the corresponding currents are now presented in a simple way in which the physical meaning of each individual term is elucidated or revealed. Furthermore, we have found, for practical purposes, very accurate approximate solutions for the carrier concentrations and corresponding currents. Our conclusion is that the major effect of excitons on the Si solar cell performance relies on whether the effective diffusion length (L1) of the coupled electron-exciton system is significantly greater than that of the electron itself (Le).

Zhang, Yong; Mascarenhas, Angelo; Deb, Satyen

1998-10-01

368

Solar light induced opacity of MIND cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-interface novel devices (MIND) exhibit a dramatically low UV- and blue-spectrum photovoltaic (PV) performance. A paradox could even be observed, the better the electronic passivation the poorer the PV performance. The paradox appears under relatively low excitations in comparison with intense laser fluxes usually at its origin. The effect can be explained by solar light induced opacity, which reduces considerably or even totally the photon penetration into deeper layers, from which exclusively the photocarrier collection is possible. This opacity results from a feedback occasioned by the free-carrier absorption: better surface passivation, higher free-carrier density, stronger surface dead zone absorptance. The total energy of the incident short wavelength beam can be absorbed before a carrier collection limit buried in the emitter. This limit acts simultaneously on the electronic performance, blocking free-carriers, and on the optical performance, being at the origin of an enhancement of the surface absorptance. As a consequence, a thin surface zone dominates the optical functions of MIND cells through the free-carrier gas confined inside it. In this work we report specific effects concerning the solar-light induced opacity in MIND cells. The investigation allows modification of the free-carrier confinement using different device architectures. The main characterization methods were reflectivity and spectral response with a varying incident beam. The results prove the domination of the free-carrier optical functions on the MIND PV conversion.

Kuznicki, Zbigniew T.; Meyrueis, Patrick

2006-04-01

369

Efficiency improvement of silicon nanostructure-based solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar cells based on a high-efficiency silicon nanostructure (SNS) were developed using a two-step metal-assisted electroless etching (MAEE) technique, phosphorus silicate glass (PSG) doping and screen printing. This process was used to produce solar cells with a silver nitrate (AgNO3) etching solution in different concentrations. Compared to cells produced using the single MAEE technique, SNS-based solar cells produced with the two-step MAEE technique showed an increase in silicon surface coverage of ?181.1% and a decrease in reflectivity of ?144.3%. The performance of the SNS-based solar cells was found to be optimized (?11.86%) in an SNS with a length of ?300 nm, an aspect ratio of ?5, surface coverage of ?84.9% and a reflectivity of ?6.1%. The ?16.8% increase in power conversion efficiency (PCE) for the SNS-based solar cell indicates good potential for mass production.

Huang, Bohr-Ran; Yang, Ying-Kan; Yang, Wen-Luh

2014-01-01

370

Laser beam apparatus and method for analyzing solar cells  

DOEpatents

A laser beam apparatus and method for analyzing, inter alia, the current versus voltage curve at the point of illumination on a solar cell and the open circuit voltage of a solar cell. The apparatus incorporates a lock-in amplifier, and a laser beam light chopper which permits the measurement of the AC current of the solar cell at an applied DC voltage at the position on the solar cell where the cell is illuminated and a feedback scheme which permits the direct scanning measurements of the open circuit voltage. The accuracy of the measurement is a function of the intensity and wavelength of the laser light with respect to the intensity and wavelength distribution of sunlight and the percentage the dark current is at the open circuit voltage to the short circuit current of the solar cell.

Staebler, David L. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1980-01-01

371

Development of a shingle-type solar cell module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a solar cell module, which is suitable for use in place of shingles on the sloping roofs of residental or commercial buildings, is reported. The design consists of nineteen series-connected 53 mm diameter solar cells arranged in a closely packed hexagon configuration. The shingle solar cell module consists of two basic functional parts: an exposed rigid portion which contains the solar cell assembly, and a semi-flexible portion which is overlapped by the higher courses of the roof installation. Consideration is given to the semi-flexible substrate configuration and solar cell and module-to-module interconnectors. The results of an electrical performance analysis are given and it is noted that high specific power output can be attributed to the efficient packing of the circular cells within the hexagon shape. The shingle should function for at least 15 years, with a specific power output of 98 W/sq w.

Shepard, N. F., Jr.; Sanchez, L. E.

1978-01-01

372

Solar energy from spinach and toothpaste: fabrication of a solar cell in schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will show how pupils can make a solar cell with spinach, toothpaste and a few other items found in any school laboratory. This device is called a Graetzel cell, and could trigger off a revolution in photovoltaic technology.

Siemsen, F.; Bunk, A.; Fischer, K.; Korneck, F.; Engel, H.; Roux, D.

1998-01-01

373

Photochemical DNA Cleavage by the Antitumor Agent  

E-print Network

provided evidence that 2 undergoes frag- mentation to yield the potent DNA-damaging agent hydroxyl radicalPhotochemical DNA Cleavage by the Antitumor Agent 3-Amino-1,2,4-benzotriazine 1,4-Dioxide to derive its therapeutic activity by selectively damaging DNA in oxygen-poor (hypoxic) tumor cells.1,2 DNA

Gates, Kent. S.

374

Photochemical tissue bonding  

DOEpatents

Photochemical tissue bonding methods include the application of a photosensitizer to a tissue and/or tissue graft, followed by irradiation with electromagnetic energy to produce a tissue seal. The methods are useful for tissue adhesion, such as in wound closure, tissue grafting, skin grafting, musculoskeletal tissue repair, ligament or tendon repair and corneal repair.

Redmond, Robert W. (Brookline, MA); Kochevar, Irene E. (Charlestown, MA)

2012-01-10

375

PHOTOCHEMICAL AEROSOL DYNAMICS  

EPA Science Inventory

New data are reported on (1) the rate of formation of condensable chemical species by photochemical reactions, (2) the effect of the reaction products on the particle size distribution and (3) the distribution of reaction products as a function of particle size. Gas-to-particle c...

376

PHOTOCHEMICAL REACTIVITY OF PERCHLOROETHYLENE  

EPA Science Inventory

Perchloroethylene (PCE), a solvent used in dry cleaning, has been suspected of contributing significantly to photochemical ozone/oxidant (O3/Ox) problems in urban atmospheres. Past evidence, however, was neither complete nor consistent. To interpret more conclusively the past evi...

377

Flexible solar cells based on cadmium sulfide and telluride  

SciTech Connect

Output parameters and diode characteristics under illumination of flexible thin-film solar cells ITO/CdS/CdTe/Cu/Au formed on polyimide films by vacuum methods are studied. Using mathematical modeling of the effect of diode characteristics under illumination on the efficiency, the physicothechnical parameters of such structures are optimized. This made it possible to obtain laboratory samples of flexible solar cells based on cadmium sulfide and telluride with an efficiency of 11.4%. Solar modules with an efficiency of 4.5% based on the developed flexible solar cells are formed for the first time.

Khrypunov, G. S., E-mail: khrip@ukr.net; Chernykh, E. P.; Kovtun, N. A. [National Technical University 'Kharkov Polytehcnical Institute' (Ukraine); Belonogov, E. K. [Voronezh State Technical University (Russian Federation)], E-mail: belonogov@phys.vorstu

2009-08-15

378

Production ready 30% efficient triple junction space solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectrolab presents its next production GaInP\\/GaAs\\/Ge space triple junction solar cell, the XTJ space solar cell, averaging 29.8% efficiency at maximum power (AM0, 28°C, 135.3 mW\\/cm2) at beginning-of-life (BOL) testing of large populations (845 cells) of large-area solar cells without coverglass. Bare cells from this population with area of 26.62 cm2 have been tested to a maximum efficiency of 31.1%

Chris Fetzer; Bongim Jun; Kenneth Edmondson; Scott Khemthong; Kaveh Rouhani; Robert Cravens; Rina Bardfield; Mark Gillanders

2008-01-01

379

Surface Magnetism: Relativistic Effects at Semiconductor Interfaces and Solar Cells  

E-print Network

and a wedding-out and consolidation process seems to be unavoidable. One way out is the production of highly efficient solar cells by minimal costs. So far, however, such an optimization of the cells is mainly based

Schmidt, Wolf Gero

380

Simulated space environment tests on cadmium sulfide solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cadmium sulfide (Cu2s - CdS) solar cells were tested under simulated space environmental conditions. Some cells were thermally cycled with illumination from a Xenon-arc solar simulator. A cycle was one hour of illumination followed immediately with one-half hour of darkness. In the light, the cells reached an equilibrium temperature of 60 C (333 K) and in the dark the cell temperature dropped to -120 C (153 K). Other cells were constantly illuminated with a Xenon-arc solar simulator. The equilibrium temperature of these cells was 55 C (328 K). The black vacuum chamber walls were cooled with liquid nitrogen to simulate a space heat sink. Chamber pressure was maintained at 0.000001 torr or less. Almost all of the solar cells tested degraded in power when exposed to a simulated space environment of either thermal cycling or constant illumination. The cells tested the longest were exposed to 10.050 thermal cycles.

Clarke, D. R.; Oman, H.

1971-01-01

381

Recent developments in evaporated CdTe solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in the technology of high vacuum evaporated CdTe solar cells are reviewed. High-efficiency solar cells of efficiencies up to 12.5% have been developed on soda-lime glass substrates with a low-temperature (<450°C) process. This simple process is suitable for in-line production of large-area solar modules on glass as well as on flexible polymer films with a roll-to-roll deposition process.

G. Khrypunov; A. Romeo; F. Kurdesau; D. L. Bätzner; H. Zogg; A. N. Tiwari

2006-01-01

382

Annealing characteristics of irradiated hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was shown that 1 MeV proton irradiation with fluences of 1.25E14 and 1.25E15/sq cm reduces the normalized I(sub SC) of a-Si:H solar cell. Solar cells recently fabricated showed superior radiation tolerance compared with cells fabricated four years ago; the improvement is probably due to the fact that the new cells are thinner and fabricated from improved materials. Room temperature annealing was observed for the first time in both new and old cells. New cells anneal at a faster rate than old cells for the same fluence. From the annealing work it is apparent that there are at least two types of defects and/or annealing mechanisms. One cell had improved I-V characteristics following irradiation as compared to the virgin cell. The work shows that the photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS) and annealing measurements may be used to predict the qualitative behavior of a-Si:H solar cells. It was anticipated that the modeling work will quantitatively link thin film measurements with solar cell properties. Quantitative predictions of the operation of a-Si:H solar cells in a space environment will require a knowledge of the defect creation mechanisms, defect structures, role of defects on degradation, and defect passivation and annealing mechanisms. The engineering data and knowledge base for justifying space flight testing of a-Si:H alloy based solar cells is being developed.

Payson, J. S.; Abdulaziz, S.; Li, Y.; Woodyard, J. R.

1991-01-01

383

Results from the IMP-J violet solar cell experiment and violet cell balloon flights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The IMP-J violet solar cell experiment was flown in an orbit with mild thermal cycling and low hard particle radiation. The results of the experiment show that violet cells degrade at about the same rate as conventional cells in such an orbit. Balloon flight measurements show that violet solar cells produce approximately 20% more power than conventional cells.

Gaddy, E. M.

1976-01-01

384

CRADA Final Report: Process development for hybrid solar cells  

SciTech Connect

TCF funding of a CRADA between LBNL and RSLE leveraged RSLE's original $1M investment in LBNL research and led to development of a solar cell fabrication process that will bring the high efficiency, high voltage hybrid tandem solar cell closer to commercialization. RSLE has already built a pilot line at its Phoenix, Arizona site.

Ager, Joel W

2011-02-14

385

III-nitride compound semiconductors for solar cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar cells are one of the best alternatives compared to our conventional or fossil energy and, thus, can play an important role in energy economy in an environment friendly fashion in the coming years. The main barrier of this technology is its low efficiency. Though the maximum theoretical efficiency of a solar cell teaches up to 86% but the practical

M. O. Islam; M. R. Islam; D. A. Jahan; A. A. M. Monzur-Ul-Akhir; Z. H. Mahmood

2008-01-01

386

Analytical determination of critical crack size in solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although solar cells usually have chips and cracks, no material specifications concerning the allowable crack size on solar cells are available for quality assurance and engineering design usage. Any material specifications that the cell manufacturers use were developed for cosmetic reasons that have no technical basis. Therefore, the Applied Solar Energy Corporation (ASEC) has sponsored a continuing program for the fracture mechanics evaluation of GaAs. Fracture mechanics concepts were utilized to develop an analytical model that can predict the critical crack size of solar cells. This model indicates that the edge cracks of a solar cell are more critical than its surface cracks. In addition, the model suggests that the material specifications on the allowable crack size used for Si solar cells should not be applied to GaAs solar cells. The analytical model was applied to Si and GaAs solar cells, but it would also be applicable to the semiconductor wafers of other materials, such as a GaAs thin film on a Ge substrate, using appropriate input data.

Chen, C. P.

1988-01-01

387

Solar cell nanotechnology for improved efficiency and radiation hardness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space electronic equipment, and NASA future exploration missions in particular, require improvements in solar cell efficiency and radiation hardness. Novel nano-engineered materials and quantum-dot array based photovoltaic devices promise to deliver more efficient, lightweight solar cells and arrays which will be of high value to long term space missions. In this paper, we describe issues related to the development of

Alexander I. Fedoseyev; Marek Turowski; Qinghui Shao; Alexander A. Balandin

2006-01-01

388

Silicon-fiber blanket solar-cell array concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed economical manufacture of solar-cell arrays involves parallel, planar weaving of filaments made of doped silicon fibers with diffused radial junction. Each filament is a solar cell connected either in series or parallel with others to form a blanket of deposited grids or attached electrode wire mesh screens.

Eliason, J. T.

1973-01-01

389

Study of internal stresses of thin solar cell modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three solar cell computer programs were converted from MARC into NASTRAN. The meshes were generated by the AEO interactive SIMP package. The results of these conversions were compared with test results. The computer programs used to compute the interconnector and wiring stresses were implemented into SIMP. By applying fatigue properties of solar cell interconnectors, the life cycle can be determined

K. J. Zimmermann; U. Haeverli

1982-01-01

390

Fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell with surface textured substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) possesses huge potential in solar energy utilisation and immense researches have been carried out in order to improve its performance. This paper looks into the possibilities of using maskless Reactive Ion Etched (RIE) substrates as a base for DSSC fabrication. Aluminium doped ZnO was sputtered as the TOC layer. The current cell performance has not

Linda Chen; Maan M. Alkaisi; Mei-Yi Liao

2010-01-01

391

Silicon solar cell process development, fabrication, and analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two large cast ingots were evaluated. Solar cell performance versus substrate position within the ingots was obtained and the results are presented. Dendritic web samples were analyzed in terms of structural defects, and efforts were made to correlate the data with the performance of solar cells made from the webs.

Yoo, H. I.; Iles, P. A.; Leung, D. C.

1981-01-01

392

Solar cell array parameters using Lambert W-function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exact closed-form solution based on Lambert W-function are presented to express the transcendental current–voltage characteristic containing parasitic power consuming parameters like series and shunt resistances for solar cell array. Maple software was used to solve the transcendental equation of solar cell array.

Amit Jain; Sandeep Sharma; Avinashi Kapoor

2006-01-01

393

Evaluation of Impact Craters on Solar Cell Samples  

E-print Network

Evaluation of Impact Craters on Solar Cell Samples ESA / ESTEC PO142355-1 Frank J. Stadermann)...................................................................................................B1 ­ B89 List of Tables Table 1: Electrical properties of solar cells after the impacts 64295 Darmstadt, Germany Phone: (+49) 6151-813221 Fax: (+49) 6151-813222 November 1994 #12;2 Table

394

Block 2 solar cell module environmental test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Environmental tests were performed of on 76 solar cell modules produced by four different manufacturers. The following tests were performed: (1) 28 day temperature and humidity; (2) rain and icing; (3) salt fog; (4) sand and dust; (5) vacuum/steam/pressure; (6) fungus; (7) temperature/altitude; and (8) thermal shock. Environmental testing of the solar cell modules produced cracked cells, cracked encapsulant and encapsulant delaminations on various modules. In addition, there was some minor cell and frame corrosion.

Holloway, K. L.

1978-01-01

395

NUMERICAL MODELING OF 3D ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS Presented to the  

E-print Network

.2 Physical Process in Polymer: Fullerene Build Heterojunction Solar CellsNUMERICAL MODELING OF 3D ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS _______________ A Thesis Presented to the Faculty Solar Cells by Anurag Kaushik Master of Science in Electrical Engineering San Diego State University

Kassegne, Samuel Kinde

396

Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy for in situ Electrical Characterization of Organic Solar Cells  

E-print Network

Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy for in situ Electrical Characterization of Organic Solar Cells., University of Pittsburgh The most efficient organic solar cell today is made from blending conjugated donors and acceptors in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells. Most microscopic characterization

Fisher, Frank

397

Accounting for Localized Defects in the Optoelectronic Design of Thin-Film Solar Cells  

E-print Network

efficiency of Si wire array solar cells," in Proceeding ofa-Si:H Solar Cells on Glass Nanocone Arrays Patterned bySolar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant dielectric nanosphere arrays,"

Deceglie, Michael G.

2014-01-01

398

AlGaAs top solar cell for mechanical attachment in a multi-junction tandem concentrator solar cell stack  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Free-standing, transparent, tunable bandgap AlxGa1-xAs top solar cells have been fabricated for mechanical attachment in a four terminal tandem stack solar cell. Evaluation of the device results has demonstrated 1.80 eV top solar cells with efficiencies of 18 percent (100 X, and AM0) which would yield stack efficiencies of 31 percent (100 X, AM0) with a silicon bottom cell. When fully developed, the AlxGa1-xAs/Si mechanically-stacked two-junction solar cell concentrator system can provide efficiencies of 36 percent (AM0, 100 X). AlxGa1-xAs top solar cells with bandgaps from 1.66 eV to 2.08 eV have been fabricated. Liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) growth techniques have been used and LPE has been found to yield superior AlxGa1-xAs material when compared to molecular beam epitaxy and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. It is projected that stack assembly technology will be readily applicable to any mechanically stacked multijunction (MSMJ) system. Development of a wide bandgap top solar cell is the only feasible method for obtaining stack efficiencies greater than 40 percent at AM0. System efficiencies of greater than 40 percent can be realized when the AlGaAs top solar cell is used in a three solar cell mechanical stack.

Dinetta, L. C.; Hannon, M. H.; Cummings, J. R.; Mcneeley, J. B.; Barnett, Allen M.

1990-01-01

399

Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tandem solar cells provide an effective way to harvest a broader spectrum of solar radiation by combining two or more solar cells with different absorption bands. However, for polymer solar cells, the performance of tandem devices lags behind single-layer solar cells mainly due to the lack of a suitable low-bandgap polymer. Here, we demonstrate highly efficient single and tandem polymer

Letian Dou; Jingbi You; Jun Yang; Chun-Chao Chen; Youjun He; Seiichiro Murase; Tom Moriarty; Keith Emery; Gang Li; Yang Yang

2012-01-01

400

Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance of Nanostructured Hybrid Solar Cell Using Highly Oriented TiO2 Nanotubes  

E-print Network

-called third generation of solar cells including dye-sensitized solar cells, DSCs2,3 and organic pho bandgap for better match absorption of the solar spectrum,17 and a hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells (hybrid solar cells), which are composed of an organic donor material and an n-type inorganic

Cao, Guozhong

401

Flexible, FEP-Teflon covered solar cell module development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques and equipment were developed for the large scale, low-cost fabrication of lightweight, roll-up and fold-up, FEP-Teflon encapsulated solar cell modules. Modules were fabricated by interconnecting solderless single-crystal silicon solar cells and heat laminating them at approximately 300 C between layers of optically clear FEP and to a loadbearing Kapton substrate sheet. Modules were fabricated from both conventional and wraparound contact solar cells. A heat seal technique was developed for mechanically interconnecting modules into an array. The electrical interconnections for both roll-up and fold-up arrays were also developed. The use of parallel-gap resistance welding, ultrasonic bonding, and thermocompression bonding processes for attaching interconnects to solar cells were investigated. Parallel-gap welding was found to be best suited for interconnecting the solderless solar cells into modules. Details of the fabrication equipment, fabrication processes, module and interconnect designs, environmental test equipment, and test results are presented.

Rauschenbach, H. S.; Cannady, M. D.

1976-01-01

402

High-Efficiency Solar Cell Concepts: Physics, Materials, and Devices  

SciTech Connect

Over the past three decades, significant progress has been made in the area of high-efficiency multijunction solar cells, with the effort primarily directed at current-matched solar cells in tandem. The key materials issues here have been obtaining semiconductors with the required bandgaps for sequential absorption of light in the solar spectrum and that are lattice matched to readily available substrates. The GaInP/GaAs/Ge cell is a striking example of success achieved in this area. Recently, several new approaches for high-efficiency solar cell design have emerged, that involve novel methods for tailoring alloy bandgaps, as well as alternate technologies for hetero-epitaxy of III-V's on Si. The advantages and difficulties expected to be encountered with each approach will be discussed, addressing both the materials issues and device physics whilst contrasting them with other fourth-generation solar cell concepts.

Mascarenhas, A.; Francoeur, S.; Seong, M. J.; Fluegel, B.; Zhang, Y.; Wanlass, M. W.

2005-01-01

403

Innovative laser based solar cell scribing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar photovoltaic market is continuously growing utilizing boths crystalline silicon (c-Si) as well as thin film technologies. This growth is directly dependant on the manufacturing costs for solar cells. Factors for cost reduction are innovative ideas for an optimization of precision and throughput. Lasers are excellent tools to provide highly efficient processes with impressive accuracy. They need to be used in combination with fast and precise motion systems for a maximum gain in the manufacturing process, yielding best cost of ownership. In this article such an innovative solution is presented for laser scribing in thin film Si modules. A combination of a new glass substrate holding system combined with a fast and precise motion system is the foundation for a cost effective scribing machine. In addition, the advantages of fiber lasers in beam delivery and beam quality guarantee not only shorter setup and down times but also high resolution and reproducibility for the scribing processes P1, P2 and P3. The precision of the whole system allows to reduce the dead zone to a minimum and therefore to improve the efficiency of the modules.

Frei, Bruno; Schneeberger, Stefan; Witte, Reiner

2011-03-01

404

Increased sensitivity of glioma cells to 5-fluorocytosine following photo-chemical internalization enhanced nonviral transfection of the cytosine deaminase suicide gene.  

PubMed

Despite advances in surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the outcomes of patients with GBM have not significantly improved. Tumor recurrence in the resection margins occurs in more than 80% of cases indicating aggressive treatment modalities, such as gene therapy are warranted. We have examined photochemical internalization (PCI) as a method for the non-viral transfection of the cytosine deaminase (CD) suicide gene into glioma cells. The CD gene encodes an enzyme that can convert the nontoxic antifungal agent, 5-fluorocytosine, into the chemotherapeutic drug, 5-fluorouracil. Multicell tumor spheroids derived from established rat and human glioma cell lines were used as in vitro tumor models. Plasmids containing either the CD gene alone or together with the uracil phosphoribosyl transferase (UPRT) gene combined with the gene carrier protamine sulfate were employed in all experiments.PCI was performed with the photosensitizer AlPcS2a and 670 nm laser irradiance. Protamine sulfate/CD DNA polyplexes proved nontoxic but inefficient transfection agents due to endosomal entrapment. In contrast, PCI mediated CD gene transfection resulted in a significant inhibition of spheroid growth in the presence of, but not in the absence of, 5-FC. Repetitive PCI induced transfection was more efficient at low CD plasmid concentration than single treatment. The results clearly indicate that AlPcS2a-mediated PCI can be used to enhance transfection of a tumor suicide gene such as CD, in malignant glioma cells and cells transfected with both the CD and UPRT genes had a pronounced bystander effect. PMID:24610460

Wang, Frederick; Zamora, Genesis; Sun, Chung-Ho; Trinidad, Anthony; Chun, Changho; Kwon, Young Jik; Berg, Kristian; Madsen, Steen J; Hirschberg, Henry

2014-05-01

405

Diffusion Paste Development for Printable IBC and Bifacial Silicon Solar Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing cell efficiency and lowering the cost of solar cell manufacturing is a continuous challenge in solar cell industries. Higher efficiency concepts like interdigitated back contact (IBC), and bifacial cells, with using thinner silicon solar cells are ways to reduce the total solar cell manufacturing cost. Typically the high efficiency concepts require costly extra processing steps. Developing the proper paste

Jalal Salami; Ben Cruz; Aziz Shaikh

2006-01-01

406

Silicon Solar Cell Process Development, Fabrication and Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ribbon to Ribbon (RTR) solar cells processed from polycrystalline feedstock showed maximum AMO efficiency of 5.6%. Solar cells from single crystalline feedstock showed slightly higher efficiency than those from polycrystalline feedstock, indicating maximum efficiency of about 6.6% with SiO AR coating. Single crystalline control cells gave 11-12% AMO efficiencies demonstrating that the poor performance of the RTR solar was due to the low quality of material itself. Dendritic web solar cells from the standard process showed maximum AMO efficiency of 9.8% while efficiency of control solar cells were around 11-12%. Web solar cells from back surface field (BSF) process indicated maximum AMO efficiency of 10.9%. Some improvement in open circuit voltage was noticed from the BSF process. Small light spot scanning experiments were carried out on the solar cells from Wacker Silso, EFG, RTR, and dendritic web ribbons. Photoresponse results provided information on localized cell performance and grain size in polycrystalline material, and agreed quite well with the cell performance data, such as efficiency, minority carrier diffusion length, and spectral response.

Yoo, H. I.; Iles, P. A.; Tanner, D. P.

1978-01-01

407

Silicon solar cells: Past, present and the future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been a great demand for renewable energy for the last few years. However, the solar cell industry is currently experiencing a temporary plateau due to a sluggish economy and an oversupply of low-quality cells. The current situation can be overcome by reducing the production cost and by improving the cell is conversion efficiency. New materials such as compound semiconductor thin films have been explored to reduce the fabrication cost, and structural changes have been explored to improve the cell's efficiency. Although a record efficiency of 24.7% is held by a PERL — structured silicon solar cell and 13.44% has been realized using a thin silicon film, the mass production of these cells is still too expensive. Crystalline and amorphous silicon — based solar cells have led the solar industry and have occupied more than half of the market so far. They will remain so in the future photovoltaic (PV) market by playing a pivotal role in the solar industry. In this paper, we discuss two primary approaches that may boost the silicon — based solar cell market; one is a high efficiency approach and the other is a low cost approach. We also discuss the future prospects of various solar cells.

Lee, Youn-Jung; Kim, Byung-Sung; Ifitiquar, S. M.; Park, Cheolmin; Yi, Junsin

2014-08-01

408

Ultrathin, microscale epitaxial compound semiconductor solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compound semiconductors offer significant advantages over silicon in photovoltaics due to their direct bandgaps, ability to form multijunction solar cells, as well as superior radiation hardness. However, costs for growth and integration of these materials have been prohibitively high, thereby limiting their large-scale implementation in terrestrial photovoltaics. Here we review materials growth and fabrication strategies that were recently developed to address many of these challenges by employing device-quality, multilayer epitaxial assemblies of compound semiconductors in the manner that enables sequential release of respective functional layers as well as reuse of the growth substrate. This new approach combined with techniques of micro-transfer printing provides a practical and cost-effective route to implement high quality compound semiconductors in terrestrial photovoltaics but also opens up new application possibilities and modes of use that have not been possible with conventional technologies.

Yoon, Jongseung

2011-06-01

409

Core-shell silicon nanowire solar cells.  

PubMed

Silicon nanowires can enhance broadband optical absorption and reduce radial carrier collection distances in solar cell devices. Arrays of disordered nanowires grown by vapor-liquid-solid method are attractive because they can be grown on low-cost substrates such as glass, and are large area compatible. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that an array of disordered silicon nanowires surrounded by a thin transparent conductive oxide has both low diffuse and specular reflection with total values as low as < 4% over a broad wavelength range of 400?nm < ? < 650?nm. These anti-reflective properties together with enhanced infrared absorption in the core-shell nanowire facilitates enhancement in external quantum efficiency using two different active shell materials: amorphous silicon and nanocrystalline silicon. As a result, the core-shell nanowire device exhibits a short-circuit current enhancement of 15% with an amorphous Si shell and 26% with a nanocrystalline Si shell compared to their corresponding planar devices. PMID:23529071

Adachi, M M; Anantram, M P; Karim, K S

2013-01-01

410

Solar cells incorporating light harvesting arrays  

DOEpatents

A solar cell incorporates a light harvesting array that comprises: (a) a first substrate comprising a first electrode; and (b) a layer of light harvesting rods electrically coupled to the first electrode, each of the light harvesting rods comprising a polymer of Formula I: X.sup.1.paren open-st.X.sup.m+1).sub.m (I) wherein m is at least 1, and may be from two, three or four to 20 or more; X.sup.1 is a charge separation group (and preferably a porphyrinic macrocycle, which may be one ligand of a double-decker sandwich compound) having an excited-state of energy equal to or lower than that of X.sup.2 ; and X.sup.2 through X.sup.m+1 are chromophores (and again are preferably porphyrinic macrocycles).

Lindsey, Jonathan S. (Raleigh, NC); Meyer, Gerald J. (Baltimore, MD)

2002-01-01

411

Core-shell silicon nanowire solar cells  

PubMed Central

Silicon nanowires can enhance broadband optical absorption and reduce radial carrier collection distances in solar cell devices. Arrays of disordered nanowires grown by vapor-liquid-solid method are attractive because they can be grown on low-cost substrates such as glass, and are large area compatible. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that an array of disordered silicon nanowires surrounded by a thin transparent conductive oxide has both low diffuse and specular reflection with total values as low as < 4% over a broad wavelength range of 400?nm < ? < 650?nm. These anti-reflective properties together with enhanced infrared absorption in the core-shell nanowire facilitates enhancement in external quantum efficiency using two different active shell materials: amorphous silicon and nanocrystalline silicon. As a result, the core-shell nanowire device exhibits a short-circuit current enhancement of 15% with an amorphous Si shell and 26% with a nanocrystalline Si shell compared to their corresponding planar devices. PMID:23529071

Adachi, M. M.; Anantram, M. P.; Karim, K. S.

2013-01-01

412

Contact formation in gallium arsenide solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gold and gold-based alloys, commonly used as solar cell contact materials, are known to react readily with gallium arsenide. Experiments were performed to identify the mechanisms involved in these GaAs-metal interactions. It is shown that the reaction of GaAs with gold takes place via a dissociative diffusion process. It is shown further that the GaAs-metal reaction rate is controlled to a very great extent by the condition of the free surface of the contact metal, an interesting example of which is the previously unexplained increase in the reaction rate that has been observed for samples annealed in a vacuum environment as compared to those annealed in a gaseous ambient. A number of other hard-to-explain observations, such as the low-temperature formation of voids in the gold lattice and crystallite growth on the gold surface, are explained by invoking this mechanism.

Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

1988-01-01

413

Efficiency of silicon solar cells containing chromium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efficiency of silicon solar cells containing about one quadrillon atoms cu cm of chromium is improved about 26% by thermal annealing of the silicon wafer at a temperature of 200 C to form chromium precipitates having a diameter of less than 1 Angstrom. Further improvement in efficiency is achieved by scribing laser lines onto the back surface of the wafer at a spacing of at least 0.5 mm and at a depth of less than 13 micrometers to preferentially precipitate chromium near the back surface and away from the junction region of the device. This provides an economical way to improve the deleterious effects of chromium, one of the impurities present in metallurgical grade silicon mateial.

Salama, A. M. (inventor)

1982-01-01

414

Solar cells: donor-acceptor alternating copolymer nanowires for highly efficient organic solar cells (adv. Mater. 39/2014).  

PubMed

On page 6706, K. Cho and co-workers develop a facile approach to realize a polymer nanowire-embedded photoactive layer in bulk-heterojunction solar cells. The incorporation of self-assembled nanowires of a donor-acceptor alternating copolymer efficiently facilitates photon harvesting, allowing a significantly enhanced power conversion efficiency of the solar-cell device. PMID:25319153

Lee, Jaewon; Jo, Sae Byeok; Kim, Min; Kim, Heung Gyu; Shin, Jisoo; Kim, Haena; Cho, Kilwon

2014-10-01

415

Semitransparent ultrathin CdTe solar cells Semitransparent ultrathin CdTe solar cells and durabilityand durability  

E-print Network

sizes but poor efficiency, striped appearance) · Thinfilm CdTe, laser or chemically etched to removeSemitransparent ultrathin CdTe solar cells Semitransparent ultrathin CdTe solar cells PV coatings based on CdTe. ...for transparent window PV:...for transparent window PV: , p g · The X26

Rollins, Andrew M.

416

Photochemical inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Adaptability to a broad range of environments together with relatively high resistance to antibiotics and to disinfectants makes Pseudomonas aeruginosa a concern in hospitals and in public health. We investigated whether UVA-mediated photochemical inactivation of P. aeruginosa could be accomplished with high efficiency while at the same time preserving the sensitivity of subsequent diagnostic tests. We characterized dose responses and bactericidal kinetic rates of 5-iodonaphthyl 1-azide (INA) and of amotosalen (AMO) as these substances exposed to UVA are known to inactivate germs with minimal impact to blood products or to viral antigens. Neither UVA without photochemicals nor INA or AMO in the dark inactivated bacteria. We found that AMO was ca 1000-fold more effective in inactivating P. aeruginosa cells than INA under similar conditions. Photoinactivation with either INA or AMO at conditions that abolished bacterial infectivity did not impair polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing. For comparison, similar titers of Bacillus atrophaeus spores (a surrogate for B. anthracis) remained unaffected at conditions that reduced the survival of P. aeruginosa below detection levels. The results presented in this study should assist in improved methods to inactivate P. aeruginosa in environmental, clinical and forensic samples without impairing subsequent nucleic acid- or immune-based analysis. PMID:22053910

Sagripanti, Jose-Luis; Grote, Gudrun; Niederwöhrmeier, Bärbel; Hülseweh, Birgit; Marschall, Hans-Jürgen

2012-01-01

417

Controlling radiative loss in quantum well solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inclusion of quantum well layers in a solar cell provides a means for extending the absorption and therefore increasing the photocurrent of the cell. In 2009, a single-junction GaAsP/InGaAs quantum well solar cell attained a peak efficiency of 28.3% under solar concentration. Since then InGaP/MQW/Ge quantum well devices have attained efficiencies in excess of 40% under concentration and over 30% under AM0. The principle motivation for incorporating a quantum well stack into a multi-junction solar cell is to increase the photocurrent delivered by the middle junction over the conventional In0.01GaAs bulk junction. This enables additional current to flow through the top and middle cells, resulting in a sharp rise in efficiency. However, quantum wells also provide some freedom to manipulate the radiative recombination in the quantum well solar cell. We show that under radiatively dominated, anisotropic emission, strong radiative coupling between sub-cells takes place, resulting in a multi-junction solar cell that is tolerant to daily and seasonal changes to the solar spectrum.

Ekins-Daukes, N. J.; Lee, K.-H.; Hirst, L.; Chan, A.; Führer, M.; Adams, J.; Browne, B.; Barnham, K. W. J.; Stavrinou, P.; Connolly, J.; Roberts, J. S.; Stevens, B.; Airey, R.; Kennedy, K.

2013-07-01

418

Photovoltaic Test and Demonstration Project. [for solar cell power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Photovoltaic Test and Demonstration Project was initiated by NASA in June, 1975, to develop economically feasible photovoltaic power systems suitable for a variety of terrestrial applications. Objectives include the determination of operating characteristic and lifetimes of a variety of solar cell systems and components and development of methodology and techniques for accurate measurements of solar cell and array performance and diagnostic measurements for solar power systems. Initial work will be concerned with residential applications, with testing of the first prototype system scheduled for June, 1976. An outdoor 10 kW array for testing solar power systems is under construction.

Forestieri, A. F.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.; Deyo, J. N.

1976-01-01

419

SLAM examination of solar cells and solar cell welds. [Scanning Laser Acoustic Microscope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scanning laser acoustic microscope (SLAM) has been evaluated for non-destructive examination of solar cells and interconnector bonds. Using this technique, it is possible to view through materials in order to reveal regions of discontinuity such as microcracks and voids. Of particular interest is the ability to evaluate, in a unique manner, the bonds produced by parallel gap welding. It is possible to not only determine the area and geometry of the bond between the tab and cell, but also to reveal any microcracks incurred during the welding. By correlating the SLAM results with conventional techniques of weld evaluation a more confident weld parameter optimization can be obtained.

Stella, P. M.; Vorres, C. L.; Yuhas, D. E.

1981-01-01

420

Interaction between cast silicon properties and solar cell performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three types of cast silicon, Silso, HEM (Heat-Exchanger Method) and UCP (Ubiquitous Crystallization Process) were studied for their use as solar cells. Optical microscopy after etching revealed a high density of uniform dislocations (approaching 1,000,000/sq cm), lines of dislocations indicating stress during crystal growth, and precipitates, some of which generate dislocations. Solar cells were fabricated by three processes. Results of solar cell processing revealed that these materials produce cells of lower efficiency than Czochralski control cells, and that the efficiencies of the three materials were quite close. Diffusion length and spectral response data are shown. Certain structural features are correlated with solar cell efficiency, diffusion length, and spectral response. Electron-beam induced current (EBIC) and light spot scanning are used to back up other measurements.

Hyland, S.; Iles, P.; Leung, D.; Schwuttke, G.; Engelbrecht, J. A. A.

1982-01-01

421

Developments toward an 18% efficient silicon solar cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Limitations to increased open-circuit voltage were identified and experimentally verified for 0.1 ohm-cm solar cells with heavily doped emitters. After major reduction in the dark current contribution from the metal-silicon interface of the grid contacts, the surface recombination velocity of the oxide-silicon interface of shallow junction solar cells is the limiting factor. In deep junction solar cells, where the junction field does not aid surface collection, the emitter bulk is the limiting factor. Singly-diffused, shallow junction cells have been fabricated with open circuit voltages in excess of 645 mV. Double-diffusion shallow and deep junctions cells have displayed voltages above 650 mV. MIS solar cells formed on 0.1 ohm-cm substrates have exibited the lowest dark currents produced in the course of the contract work.

Meulenberg, A., Jr.

1983-01-01

422

Progress in batteries and solar cells. Volume 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 89 articles in this book are on research in batteries, solar cells and fuel cells. Topics include uses of batteries in electric powered vehicles, load management in power plants, batteries for miniature electronic devices, electrochemical processes, and various electrode and electrolyte materials, including organic compounds. Types of batteries discussed are lithium, lead-acid, manganese dioxide, Silver cells, Air cells, Nickel

Shimotake

1984-01-01

423

Molybdenum-tin as a solar cell metallization system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operations of solar cell manufacture are briefly examined. The formation of reliable, ohmic, low-loss, and low-cost metal contacts on solar cells is a critical process step in cell manufacturing. In a commonly used process, low-cost metallization is achieved by screen printing a metal powder-glass frit ink on the surface of the Si surface and the conductive metal powder. A

D. W. Boyd; C. Radics

1981-01-01

424

Development of chip-size silicon solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

SunPower is developing a novel 250-Sun concentrator module that, because of a compact nonimaging optics design, is very low profile and looks much like a conventional flat plate module. This “micro-concentrator” requires very small, “chip-size” solar cells, with approximate dimensions of 2.3×2.3 mm. The authors have adapted their all-back point-contact silicon solar cell technology to this application. This cell technology

William P. Mulligan; Akira Terao; David D. Smith; Pierre J. Verlinden; Richard M. Swanson

2000-01-01

425

The analysis and optimization of a spherical silicon solar cell  

E-print Network

. Results show that although the spherical geometry has a higher collec- tion efficiency than the planar cell, the increased junction area reduces the output voltage yielding only slightly better efficiencies for the sphere. Therefore, any signi. ficant.... Material parameters for n and p-type base and diffused layers 29 EIST OF FIGURES figure 1. Model for vertical multi-junction solar cell page 2. Comparison of the spherical, cubic and cylindrical solar cell geometries 3. Refraction of light...

McKee, William Randall

2012-06-07

426

Minimization of solar cell hot-spots on GPS solar arrays using SABER{trademark} modeling  

SciTech Connect

The GPS Block IIR solar array originally was designed with circuits consisting of 160-4 x 6 cm silicon solar cells connected as 2 cells in parallel with 80 cells in series. Because each cell in the 2 x 80 cell circuits was connected in parallel there was a concern that severe hot spot heating of individual cells could occur under array shadowing conditions. An analog model was developed to simulate solar array operation in order to better analyze the implications of this condition. A number of different circuit topologies were simulated in order to reduce the hot spot heating. Eliminating the parallel connections between each individual cell was found to be the best way to minimize cell heating without resorting to bypass diodes.

Garcia, A. III; Simburger, E.; Lam, T.; Malachesky, P. [Aerospace Corp., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1994-12-31

427

Alternative designs for nanocrystalline silicon solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanocrystalline silicon is an attractive material for solar cells. It has very small grains, about 20 nm, and yet its electronic properties are very similar to those of crystalline silicon. The material exhibits smaller mobilities than crystalline Silicon, but the minority carrier lifetimes are reasonable. It is known that the properties of the material depend critically upon deposition parameters, in particular, the degree of grain boundary passivation achieved during growth and grain size. Previous work has shown that as the material grows, the grains tend to agglomerate into a cluster, and the development of this cluster leads to poorer electronic properties. The traditional method for overcoming such clustering has been to change the hydrogen to silane dilution ratio as the material grows, keeping the material near its crystalline to amorphous transition zone. However, this method is dependent upon the precise growth chemistry and is not suitable for mass production. In this project, we develop a new device design, a superlattice comprising alternating layers of amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon, which allows one to precisely control the agglomeration of grains without having to resort to hydrogen profiling techniques. We study structural properties such as grain size and the degree of crystallnity, and electronic properties such as carrier diffusion lengths and defect densities. We show that an appropriate design of the superlattice allows one to minimize defect densities and maximize carrier diffusion lengths. We also study how to reduce series resistance in solar cells, and show that an appropriate combination of superlattice and contacts can lead to devices with high fill factors and good solar cell efficiencies. We also report on a new discovery, namely that the optical absorption itself depends critically upon grain size. Larger grain sizes, up to 50 nm, lead to increased optical absorption, a totally unexpected and very useful discovery for devices, since higher absorption translates into larger current densities. We show that such grain sizes can be achieved using deposition at higher temperatures. We develop a new technique, post-deposition annealing, to help passivate the grain boundaries in devices prepared at higher temperatures. Without such annealing, the device properties for devices grown at higher temperatures with larger grains are very poor. We show that when the devices are grown with larger grains, and then passivated using this new annealing technique, the current and efficiencies increase by 40% compared to similar devices prepared at lower temperatures. We also propose the concept of a Multiphase cell by alloying germanium with silicon in the back layer of the device. Since germanium has a stronger absorption co-efficient than silicon, we show that we can enhance the infrared spectral response and also achieve good IV curves by optimally grading the germane flow. Finally, we implement these concepts on textured backreflectors to further enhance the efficiencies by light trapping.

Madhavan, Atul

428

Non PN junction solar cells using carrier selective contacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel device concept utilizing the approach of selectively extracting carriers at the respective contacts is outlined in the work. The dominant silicon solar cell technology is based on a diffused, top-contacted p-n junction on a relatively thick silicon wafer for both commercial and laboratory solar cells. The VOC and hence the efficiency of a diffused p-n junction solar cell is limited by the emitter recombination current and a value of 720 mV is considered to be the upper limit. The value is more than 100 mV smaller than the thermodynamic limit of VOC as applicable for silicon based solar cells. Also, in diffused junction the use of thin wafers (< 50 um) are problematic because of the requirement of high temperature processing steps. But a number of roadmaps have identified solar cells manufactured on thinner silicon wafers to achieve lower cost and higher efficiency. The carrier selective contact device provides a novel alternative to diffused p-n junction solar cells by eliminating the need for complementary doping to form the emitter and hence it allows the solar cells to achieve a VOC of greater than 720 mV. Also, the complete device structure can be fabricated with low temperature thin film deposition or organic coating on silicon substrates and thus epitaxially grown silicon or kerfless silicon, in addition to standard silicon wafers can be utilized.

Bowden, Stuart; Ghosh, Kunal; Honsberg, Christiana

2013-03-01

429

Silicon solar cell construction having two layer anti-reflection coating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon solar cell construction is described having a two layer anti-reflection coating overlying the silicon cell and being disposed between the silicon solar cell and the cement which is utilized for securing the silicon solar cell cover to the silicon solar cell.

Crosher

1977-01-01

430

Studies of Sputtered Cadmium Telluride and Cadmium Selenide Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CdTe has recently become the most commercially successful polycrystalline thinfilm solar module material. Its low cost, large-area solar module is reshaping the silicondominated solar panel market; however, CdTe has much room to improve and thus more fundamental understanding is needed. Current thin film solar cell research is focused on two areas: One is identifying loss mechanisms and understanding the polycrystalline nature of single junction device to improve device performance. Another is searching for new materials and fabricating tandem solar cells. In this study, along with other people's work to improve the efficiency of CdTe solar module, I studied loss mechanism and growth mode of CdTe solar cells to have fundamental understanding of polycrystalline films. In addition to that, in an effort to make tandem solar cells, I fabricated and characterized CdSe solar cells, which is considered as an ideal candidate for the top cell with its band gap of 1.7 eV. This dissertation is designed to show similarities and differences between CdTe and CdSe solar cells, side by side. After the introduction (Chapter1), I will review the physical properties of CdTe and CdSe solar cells (Chapter 2). Two primary tools to study defects and surface morphology were photoluminescence (PL) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). PL showed information on the crystallinity and defects of CdTe and CdSe films before and after annealing.(Chapter 3). AFM measurements and their analysis using scaling theory revealed information on the growth modes of CdTe and CdSe films.(Chapter 4). With the goal of exploring suitability for tandem structures with ˜1.7 eV top cell and ˜1.1 eV bottom cell, I fabricated and characterized single-junction CdSe devices. (Chapter 5) In addition, for the bottom cell I fabricated HgCdTe cells with Eg˜1.1 eV. Single junction HgCdTe and two-terminal CdTe/HgCdTe tandem solar cells were fabricated and characterized. (Chapter 5)

Kwon, Dohyoung

431

Photochemically Generated Elemental Selenium Forms Conjugates with Serum Proteins that Are Preferentially Cytotoxic to Leukemia and Selected Solid Tumor Cells  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine if and how photoproducts contribute to the anti-tumor effect of merocyanine-mediated PDT. A panel of barbituric, thiobarbituric and selenobarbituric acid analogues of Merocyanine 540 was photobleached, and the resulting photoproducts were characterized by absorption, fluorescence emission, mass, energy dispersive X-ray, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and tested for cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines and freshly explanted bone marrow cells. While all dyes were readily photobleached, only photoproducts of selone dyes showed cytotoxic activity. One-hour incubations with micromolar concentrations of selone-derived photoproducts were sufficient to reduce leukemia/lymphoma cells ?10,000 fold while preserving virtually all normal CD34-positive bone marrow cells. Of 6 multi-drug resistant tumor cell lines tested, 5 were as sensitive or more sensitive to photoproducts than the corresponding wild-type lines. Physicochemical characterizations of the cytotoxic activity indicated that it consisted of conjugates of subnano particles of elemental selenium and (lipo)proteins. The discovery of cytotoxic Se-protein conjugates provides a rare example of photoproducts contributing substantially to the anti-tumor effect of PDT and challenges the long-held view that Se in oxidation state zero is biologically inert. Agents modeled after our Se-protein conjugates may prove useful for the treatment of leukemia. PMID:22211823

Daziano, Jean-Pierre; Gunther, Wolfgang H.H.; Krieg, Marianne; Tsujino, Ichiro; Miyagi, Kiyoko; Anderson, Gregory S.; Sampson, Reynee W.; Ostrowski, Martin D.; Muir, Sarah A.; Bula, Raymond J.; Sieber, Fritz

2012-01-01

432

Solar Cell Energy Availability From Around the Country  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Solar cells have varying amounts of effectiveness depending on factors such as latitude and cloud coverage. For example, locations with more cloud coverage will produce less solar energy. By comparing the monthly averages of surface downward radiation in various locations around the United States, students can analyze areas that would be more or less beneficial to having solar panels per month. This lesson will introduce students to difference plots and how they can analyze such information.

433

Developments in vertical-junction silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Non-reflective vertical junction silicon cells provide high conversion efficiency radiation-resistant solar cells. New techniques of oxidation growth and the use of photolithography enable the use of an orientation dependent etch producing grooves 5 to 10 microns wide over 100 microns deep. These silicon wafers are then processed into solar cells with all of the processes performed at temperatures compatible with producing high efficiency solar cells. Most of the photogenerated carriers are created in the walls where they are within a few microns of the collecting junction. Consequently, degradation of carrier diffusion length due to radiation has a considerably reduced effect on collection efficiency. These 2 cm x 2 cm vertical junction silicon solar cells have exceeded 13% AMO efficiency and have shown superior radiation resistance.

Lindmayer, J.; Wrigley, C. Y.; Wohlgemuth, J.

1977-01-01

434

Neural Network Modeling of Degradation of Solar Cells  

SciTech Connect

Neural network modeling has been used to predict the degradation in conversion efficiency of solar cells in this work. The model takes intensity of light, temperature and exposure time as inputs and predicts the conversion efficiency of the solar cell. Backpropagation algorithm has been used to train the network. It is found that the neural network model satisfactorily predicts the degradation in efficiency of the solar cell with exposure time. The error in the computed results, after comparison with experimental results, lies in the range of 0.005-0.01, which is quite low.

Gupta, Himanshu; Ghosh, Bahniman [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, 208016 (India); Banerjee, Sanjay K. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, 78758 (United States)

2011-05-25

435

Organic solar cells: an overview focusing on active layer morphology.  

PubMed

Solar cells constructed of organic materials are becoming increasingly efficient due to the discovery of the bulk heterojunction concept. This review provides an overview of organic solar cells. Topics covered include: a brief history of organic solar cell development; device construction, definitions, and characteristics; and heterojunction morphology and its relation to device efficiency in conjugated polymer/fullerene systems. The aim of this article is to show that researchers are developing a better understanding of how material structure relates to function and that they are applying this knowledge to build more efficient light-harvesting devices. PMID:16408145

Benanti, Travis L; Venkataraman, D

2006-01-01

436

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 88 (2005) 6573 Investigation of pulsed non-melt laser annealing  

E-print Network

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 88 (2005) 65­73 Investigation of pulsed non-melt laser Available online 15 December 2004 Abstract Pulsed non-melt laser annealing (NLA) has been used for the first at selected laser energy density in the range 20­60 mJ/cm2 and pulse number in the range 5­20 pulses. XRD peak

Anderson, Timothy J.

437

The first solar array with 5 ?m GaAs solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

5 ?m thick GaAs solar cells and the corresponding module and solar array technology have been developed under support of DARA and EsteC. The main advantages of this technology are: high electrical conversion efficiency; potential improvements by multijunction systems; bifacial application in LEO applications; and submodule protection against reverse operation by integrated shunt diodes. The first application of the 5

H. Bebermeier; H. Broker; K.-H. Wehner

1996-01-01

438

Solar Cells, 18 (1986) 213-222 SOLAR IRRADIANCE CONVERSION MODELS*  

E-print Network

r, ~ Solar Cells, 18 (1986) 213-222 #12;213 SOLAR IRRADIANCE CONVERSION MODELS* RICHARD PEREZ estimating, on an hourly basis, the irradiance received by a sloping surface in a given location, depending or transposition models that use available direct and horizontal global or diffuse hourly irradiance records

Perez, Richard R.

439

Space Qualification Test of a-Silicon Solar Cell Modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic requirements of solar cell modules for space applications are generally described in MIL-S-83576 for the specific needs of the USAF. However, the specifications of solar cells intended for use on space terrestrial applications are not well defined. Therefore, this qualifications test effort was concentrated on critical areas specific to the microseismometer probe which is intended to be included in the Mars microprobe programs. Parameters that were evaluated included performance dependence on: illuminating angles, terrestrial temperatures, lifetime, as well as impact landing conditions. Our qualification efforts were limited to these most critical areas of concern. Most of the tested solar cell modules have met the requirements of the program except the impact tests. Surprisingly, one of the two single PIN 2 x 1 amorphous solar cell modules continued to function even after the 80000G impact tests. The output power parameters, Pout, FF, Isc and Voc, of the single PIN amorphous solar cell module were found to be 3.14 mW, 0.40, 9.98 mA and 0.78 V, respectively. These parameters are good enough to consider the solar module as a possible power source for the microprobe seismometer. Some recommendations were made to improve the usefulness of the amorphous silicon solar cell modules in space terrestrial applications, based on the results obtained from the intensive short term lab test effort.

Kim, Q.; Lawton, R. A.; Manion, S. J.; Okuno, J. O.; Ruiz, R. P.; Vu, D. T.; Vu, D. T.; Kayali, S. A.; Jeffrey, F. R.

2004-01-01

440

Heat transparent high intensity high efficiency solar cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved solar cell design is described. A surface of each solar cell has a plurality of grooves. Each groove has a vertical face and a slanted face that is covered by a reflecting metal. Light rays are reflected from the slanted face through the vertical face where they traverse a photovoltaic junction. As the light rays travel to the slanted face of an adjacent groove, they again traverse the junction. The underside of the reflecting coating directs the light rays toward the opposite surface of solar cell as they traverse the junction again. When the light rays travel through the solar cell and reach the saw toothed grooves on the under side, the process of reflection and repeatedly traversing the junction again takes place. The light rays ultimately emerge from the solar cell. These solar cells are particularly useful at very high levels of insolation because the infrared or heat radiation passes through the cells without being appreciably absorbed to heat the cell.

Evans, J. C., Jr. (inventor)

1982-01-01

441

Progress in the Multijunction Solar Cell Mantech Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In September, 1995, the joint Wright Laboratory/Phillips Laboratory/NASA Lewis Multijunction Solar Cell Manufacturing Technology (ManTech) Program began to improve multijunction cell performance and scale them up to production size and quantity to support Air Force and commercial satellite programs. The first milestone of the program has been reached and the purpose of this paper is to present the results of the program so far. The objectives of the Multijunction Solar Cell ManTech Program are to increase the GaInP2/GaAs/Ge lot average cell efficiency to 24-26%, increase the cell size to > or equal to 16 sq cm while maintaining high efficiency, and limit the per cell costs to < or equal to 1.15X state of the art GaAs/Ge cells. Advanced manufacturing technology and process control techniques such as in-situ process monitoring and real time process feedback are being used to optimize multijunction solar cell growth processes to achieve these goals. This paper will discuss progress made in Phase I of the program and give an overview of Phase II but will focus on side-by-side testing results collected by Phillips Laboratory and NASA Lewis on Phase I deliverable cells from both vendors. Cell performance, pre- and post radiation, and temperature coefficient results on initial production multijunction solar cells will be presented and discussed. The data shows that this technology meets the objectives of the program, and that, in the interim before a new solar simulation standard becomes widely available, the measurement techniques being used by the major space solar cell manufacturers are providing adequate testing results for solar array design.

Keener, David N.; Marvin, Dean; Brinker, David J.; Curtis, Henry B.

2004-01-01

442

Panel fabrication utilizing GaAs solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of the GaAs solar cells for space applications is described. The activities in the fabrication of GaAs solar panels are outlined. Panels were fabricated while introducing improved quality control, soldering laydown and testing procedures. These panels include LIPS II, San Marco Satellite, and a low concentration panel for Rockwells' evaluation. The panels and their present status are discussed.

Mardesich, N.

1984-01-01

443

Arcing of negatively biased solar cells in a plasma environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental and theoretical efforts have been conducted to investigate the arcing of negatively biased solar arrays in a low-Earth orbit plasma environment. Experiments were conducted in an ultrahigh vacuum plasma test chamber, where the environment could be controlled carefully. Outgassing of the adhesive used to bind the protective coverglass to the solar cells was determined to be a key factor

B. L. Upschulte; W. J. Marinelli; K. L. Carleton; G. Weyl; E. Aifer; D. E. Hastings

1994-01-01

444

Silicon Solar Cell Process Development, Fabrication and Analysis, Phase 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar cells from RTR ribbons, EFG (RF and RH) ribbons, dendritic webs, Silso wafers, cast silicon by HEM, silicon on ceramic, and continuous Czochralski ingots were fabricated using a standard process typical of those used currently in the silicon solar c...

D. P. Tanner, H. I. Yoo, P. A. Iles

1979-01-01

445

Solar Hydrogen Fuel Cell Projects at Brooklyn Tech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the projects on solar hydrogen powered vehicles using water as fuel conducted by teams at Brooklyn Technical High School. Their investigations into the pure and applied chemical thermodynamics of hydrogen fuel cells and bio-inspired devices have been consolidated in a new and emerging sub-discipline that they define as solar

Fedotov, Alex; Farah, Shadia; Farley, Daithi; Ghani, Naureen; Kuo, Emmy; Aponte, Cecielo; Abrescia, Leo; Kwan, Laiyee; Khan, Ussamah; Khizner, Felix; Yam, Anthony; Sakeeb, Khan; Grey, Daniel; Anika, Zarin; Issa, Fouad; Boussayoud, Chayama; Abdeldayem, Mahmoud; Zhang, Alvin; Chen, Kelin; Chan, Kameron Chuen; Roytman, Viktor; Yee, Michael

2010-01-01

446

HIGH THROUGHPUT SURFACE STRUCTURING IN SOLAR CELL MANUFACTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sun light, the »renewable energy« source, and photovoltaics are attracting more and more interest, which in turn produces cost pressure for more efficient solar panel production due to the competitive situation. Solar cells structured with V- shaped grooves show a significant improvement in efficiency thanks to better light collection. But the costs of the additional operation for structuring have to

Manfred Weck; Burkhard Leifhelm