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1

The Effect of Low Dose Irradiation and Grapefruit Extract on C. perfringens Growth from Spores in sous vide Processed Pork-Based Mexican Entrée  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sous vide, a common cooking method for meat and poultry products is widely used for providing ready-to-eat meals. Traditionally, these products have limited shelf life, ranging from 2 to 3 weeks. However, similar products may be stored for longer periods in the U.S. and other countries, requiring ad...

2

Quelques exercices extraits du contrat sous Ulysse  

E-print Network

Quelques exercices extraits du contrat sous Ulysse Cette liste d'exercices regroupe 13 exercices mis en ligne sous le contrat sous Ulysse et li´es au volet Fourier du cours. Ils peuvent vous ^etre'examen de session 1 en 2011-2012. 1 #12;2 QUELQUES EXERCICES EXTRAITS DU CONTRAT SOUS ULYSSE (vous v

Yger, Alain

3

Etat des lieux en robotique marine et sous-marine  

E-print Network

Etat des lieux en robotique marine et sous-marine Cas particulier de la commande des mini-véhicules sous-marins Vincent Creuze (MCF), LIRMM, Montpellier Animateur axe robotique marine et sous-marine du Nationales de la Recherche en Robotique 2013, Annecy : France (2013)" #12;Types de robots marins et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

4

Palatability of sous vide processed chicken breast.  

PubMed

The influences of brine composition, internal temperature, heating rate, and storage periods up to 28 d on flavor, texture, and color of sous vide processed chicken breast were evaluated. Pectoralis major muscles containing water and sodium chloride, with or without sodium lactate, were browned and vacuum packaged. Sous vide processing was by fast or slow heating to an internal temperature of 77 or 94 C. Product was evaluated after 0, 14, and 28 d storage at 4 C. Quality was evaluated by gas chromatographic analyses of flavor volatiles, shear, color, and sensory panels. Incorporation of sodium lactate into brine did not influence oxidative stability (as measured by headspace gas chromatography) or sensory warmed-over flavor. Presence of sodium lactate did result in enhanced fresh roasted or meaty and saltiness sensory scores as well as a more yellow color. The more rapid heating rate decreased sulfur-containing compounds and did not influence other volatile concentrations. Products processed to 94 C were less juicy, less tender, and contained higher quantities of alcohols and hydrocarbons than those processed to 77 C. Storage resulted in a decline in fresh roasted or meaty flavor note and an increase in warmed-over flavor note and quantities of alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, hydrocarbons, and total headspace volatiles. PMID:8829240

Turner, B E; Larick, D K

1996-08-01

5

Nutritional quality of sous vide cooked carrots and brussels sprouts.  

PubMed

Phytochemicals (carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid) and antioxidant capacity (measured by TEAC, FRAP, and TRAP assays) were evaluated on carrots and Brussels sprouts sous vide processed and then stored refrigerated for 1, 5, and 10 days and compared with the corresponding raw and oven-steamed products. Data showed that sous vide cooked carrots had higher amounts of carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid than steamed products, and only a slight decrease of phenolic compounds was recorded during sous vide storage. Contrasting results were obtained on sous vide processed Brussels sprouts: higher carotenoid amounts and TEAC and TRAP values and lower phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, and FRAP values were exhibited by sous vide in comparison with steamed samples. Phytochemicals and TAC also decreased during Brussels sprout sous vide storage with the exception of carotenoids. The results of this study demonstrated that sous vide preparation can preserve and/or enhance the nutritional quality of carrots, which remain a good source of carotenoids also after long refrigerated storage, whereas the same treatment could be recommended as an alternative to oven-steaming in the preparation of Brussels sprouts for short-term maintenance to avoid a large ascorbic acid depletion. PMID:22568492

Chiavaro, Emma; Mazzeo, Teresa; Visconti, Attilio; Manzi, Chiara; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

2012-06-13

6

Heike Sous, Thema 11, Onyx Seite 1 FernUniversitt in Hagen  

E-print Network

Heike Sous, Thema 11, Onyx Seite 1 FernUniversität in Hagen - Seminar 01912 im Sommersemester 2005" Thema 11 ONYX (Operator Network using YFilter for XML dissemination) Referent: Heike Sous #12;Heike Sous, Thema 11, Onyx Seite 2 Inhaltsverzeichnis 1. Einleitung 3 1.1 Situation 3 1.2 Herausforderungen 4 1

Güting, Ralf Hartmut

7

Clostridium perfringens growth from spore inocula in sous-vide processed pork-based Mexican entrée.  

PubMed

The combined effect of Citricidal wih irradiation on Clostridium perfringens growth from spores in a sous-vide processed marinated pork meat Mexican entrée was investigated. Citricidal was added at 200 or 800 ppm after mixing pork meat with tomatillo sauce and inoculated with 3 log(10) CFU/g of C. perfringens spores. Samples were irradiated at either 0 or 2 kGy, heated to an internal temperature of 71 degrees C, and stored at 4 degrees C for 28 d, 15 degrees C for 45 d, and 25 degrees C for 26 h. To simulate the conditions that may occur during transportation, distribution, storage, or handling in supermarkets or by consumers, the effect of static temperature abuse on C. perfringens growth was assessed by transferring samples stored at 4 to 25 degrees C for 13 and 15 h. Total C. perfringens populations were determined by plating diluted samples on tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar. Growth was not observed up to 45 d of storage at 15 degrees C in samples supplemented with 800 ppm of Citricidal. At 25 degrees C, no significant differences (P > 0.05) on the lag phase duration due to antimicrobial treatments was observed. The temperature abuse of refrigerated products for up to 15 h did not lead to C. perfringens growth to high infective dose levels of 1 million cells required to cause food poisoning. The results suggest that 800 ppm Citricidal can have significant bacteriostatic activity against C. perfringens and may provide a degree of protection against this pathogen in sous-vide processed marinated pork meat Mexican entrée, under mild temperature abuse (

Miguel-Garcia, Denise Y; Juneja, Vijay K; Valenzuela-Melendrez, Martin; Díaz-Cinco, Martha E; Thippareddi, H; Aida Peña-Ramos, E

2009-01-01

8

Improvement of microbiological safety of sous-vide meals by gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental batches of smoked-cured pork in stewed beans sauce were inoculated with spores of psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus, more heat and radiation resistant than spores of non-proteolytic C. botulinum. After vacuum packaging, the meals were treated with combinations of pasteurizing heat treatments and gamma irradiation of 5 kGy. Prior and after treatments, and periodically during storage at 10°C, total aerobic and total anerobic viable cell counts, and selectively, the viable cell counts of B. cereus and sulphite-reducing clostridia have been determined. The effects of the treatment order as well as addition of nisin to enhance the preservative efficiency of the physical treatments were also studied. Heat-sensitization of bacterial spores surviving irradiation occurred. The quality-friendly sous-vide cooking in combination with this medium dose gamma irradiation and/or nisin addition increased considerably the microbiological safety and the keeping quality of the meals studied. However, approx. 40% loss of thiamin content occurred as an effect of combination treatments, and adverse sensorial effects may also limit the feasible radiation doses or the usable concentrations of nisin.

Farkas, J.; Polyák-Fehér, K.; Andrássy, É.; Mészáros, L.

2002-03-01

9

Sous vide processed foods: are they safe for the elderly?  

PubMed

Demographic trends and market analyses indicate that Americans' interest in convenience foods that are nutritious, safe, and high quality will influence the food industry into the next century. The increase in individuals over 55 plus working women, and the changing family have caused the food industry to develop a new generation of foods. One of the processes, sous vide, is an advanced method where fresh foods are vacuum sealed in impermeable plastic, cooked at low temperature in circulating water, and chilled and held at refrigerator temperature for up to three weeks. Nutritionists and food scientists have concerns about the food safety of sous vide products and the possible increase in food borne illnesses. Continued research is needed for the food industry to deliver safe, nutritious foods, particularly to the elderly. PMID:1460553

Briley, M E

1992-01-01

10

TOURNOI DE GOLF Sous la prsidence d'honneur  

E-print Network

TOURNOI DE GOLF ANNUEL Sous la présidence d'honneur de Monsieur Henri-Paul Martel 13 septembre 2010 sincèrement le président d'honneur du tournoi, monsieur Henri-Paul Martel, de même que tous les joueurs et'implication exceptionnelle de plusieurs personnes, dont monsieur Henri-Paul Martel, président d'honneur de ce tournoi

Québec, Université du

11

SOUS-VIDE PROCESSED FOODS: SAFETY HAZARDS AND CONTROL OF MICROBIAL RISKS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Concerns have been expressed about the public-health risks associated with sous-vide processed foods because the mild heat treatment applied to such foods to retain the organoleptic attributes may not be adequate to ensure proper destruction of pathogenic and spoilage organisms. The safety of sous-v...

12

EXPOSE XXVI SOUS-GROUPES PARABOLIQUES DES GROUPES  

E-print Network

Définition 1.1. -- Soient S un pr´esch´ema, G un S-groupe r´eductif, P un sous-S- pr´esch´ema en groupes de G plus, le faisceau-quotient G/P est repr´esentable par un S-pr´esch´ema lisse et pro- jectif sur S. Proposition 1.3. -- (Exp. XXII, 5.3.9 et 5.3.11). Soient S un pr´esch´ema, G un S-groupe r´eductif, P et P

Stein, William

13

COMPLEMENTS SUR LES SOUS-TORES D'UN PRESCHEMA EN GROUPES. APPLICATION AUX  

E-print Network

sous-sch´ema ferm´e de S d´efini par un id´eal de carr´e nul, G un S-pr´esch´ema en groupes, H0 un sous´ema de S d´efini par un faisceau d'id´eaux localement nilpotent, G un S-pr´esch´ema en groupes, plat etEXPOS´E XV COMPL´EMENTS SUR LES SOUS-TORES D'UN PR´ESCH´EMA EN GROUPES. APPLICATION AUX GROUPES

Stein, William

14

Fracture Mapping in the Soultz-sous-Forets Geothermal Field from Microearthquake Relocation  

E-print Network

In 2003, a massive hydraulic fracturing experiment was carried out at the European Geothermal Hot Dry Rock site at Soultz-sous-Forêts, France. The two week injection of water generated a high level of microseismic activity. ...

Michelet, Sophie

2006-01-01

15

Microbiological quality of sous and tamarind, traditional drinks consumed in Jordan.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the microbiological quality of sous (a drink prepared by extracting dried roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra) and tamarind (a drink prepared by infusing Tamarindus indica dried pulp), traditional drinks consumed in Jordan. Twenty-one samples of sous and 44 samples of tamarind were collected from the local market in Amman, Jordan. Water is the major component of the drinks. Sous drink is characterized by having an alkaline pH (range, 6.6 to 9.9; mean, 8.6), whereas tamarind drink has an acidic pH (range, 1.8 to 3.7; mean, 2.8). The drinks are not processed for safety before serving, and at some vendors drinks are not properly refrigerated. The mean counts for aerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts in sous drink samples were 5.9, 5.0, and 3.8 log CFU/ml, respectively; those in tamarind drink samples were 4.0, <1, and 5.8 log CFU/ml, respectively. The lactic acid bacteria isolated were Enterococcus raffinosus, Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus durans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus buchneri. The yeast isolates in sous drink were from the genera Candida, Filobasidium, Hanseniaspora, Lodderomyces, Pichia, and Williopsis, and those in tamarind drink were from Arthroascus, Brettanomyces, Candida, Debaromyces, Filobasidiella, Hanseniaspora, Klavispora, Lodderomyces, Pichia, Saccharomycodes, Trichosporon, and Zygosaccharomyces. Enterobacteriaceae were detected in two sous samples and were identified as Enterobacter sakazakii and Erwinia sp., and in two tamarind samples and were identified as Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Salmonella was detected in one sous and one tamarind sample. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected in only one sous sample. These findings highlight the importance of application of hygienic practices throughout preparation and vending of drinks, starting with raw ingredients and continuing through preparation, storage, display, and serving. PMID:15830669

Nassereddin, Reem A; Yamani, Mohammed I

2005-04-01

16

Le cas de la sous-culture punk féministe américaine : vers une redéfinition de la relation dialectique "mainstream -underground" ?.  

E-print Network

??Ce travail doctoral consiste en une considération de la nature complexe et ambivalente des relations qui sont tissées entre "culture dominante "("mainstream") et sous-cultures contestataires… (more)

Labry, Manon

2011-01-01

17

Dformation sous contrainte de LiF irradi 20 K J. Dural et Y. Qur  

E-print Network

collaborateurs [1-2] et etudiee dans le cas des metaux cubiques centres [3-5] et de trichites de NaCI [8], de evaluation du nombre de defauts ponctuels d'un amas au moment ou il choisit son V.B. [4-6]. Dans le cas de NaCl

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

18

Mécanismes de rupture d'interfaces sous sollicitation dynamique rapide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Le test d'adhérence par choc laser (LASer Adhesion Test : LASAT) est développé afin de devenir une mesure non destructrice de l'adhérence à l'interface entre deux matériaux. Cette technique utilise un laser impulsionnel de forte puissance pour générer une onde de choc se propageant dans le substrat puis dans la couche. Des contraintes de traction peuvent ainsi être induites entre la couche et le substrat par le jeu des réflexions sur les différentes interfaces du système. La rupture peut être détectée sur l'historique de la vitesse de la face opposée au laser. Celle ci est mesurée par vélocimétrie Doppler de type VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector). Les résultats expérimentaux obtenus sur un système (substrat : aluminium, couche : cuivre) déposé par projection plasma permettent de valider cette nouvelle technique. En particulier, le test permet d'étudier l'influence des paramètres de projection sur l'adhérence entre le cuivre et l'aluminium. Par ailleurs, une première interprétation numérique des mécanismes de rupture sous sollicitation dynamique est donnée grâce à l'utilisation de différents critères de rupture dans un code de propagation des chocs.

Bolis, C.; Berthe, L.; Boustie, M.; Arrigoni, M.; Jeandin, M.; Barradas, S.

2003-03-01

19

Determination of shelf life of sous vide salmon (Salmo salard) based on sensory attributes.  

PubMed

Sous vide technology permits precooked dishes of high sensory and nutritional quality to be obtained with a longer shelf life than is possible using other cooking-cooling methods. Salmon portions (200 g; 0.5, w:w; greased with olive oil) were par-roasted (300 degrees C/3 min), cooked using sous vide technology (80 degrees C/43 min), and maintained in anaerobic conditions at 2 degrees C for 0, 4, 8, 12, 15, 18, 22, and 25 d. At each control day, Enterobacteriaceae counts were made and the attributes of sensory spoilage were determined (3 visual, 2 odor, 2 flavor, and 3 texture attributes) by a panel of trained judges. A loss of smell, taste, color, and juiciness was detected during storage, along with the appearance of off-odors and off-flavors. The shelf life of the sous vide salmon based on sensory analysis was established at 18 d. PMID:19799682

Díaz, Pedro; Nieto, Gema; Bañón, Sancho; Garrido, María Dolores

2009-10-01

20

SOUS VIDE AND COOK-CHILL PROCESSING OF FOODS: CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT AND MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sous vide and cook-chill pasteurized, refrigerated ready-to-eat foods were introduced in about 1970 as a more convenient food option than frozen food for the food market, deli, foodservice kitchen, and home food preparer. Concerns have been expressed about the public-health risks associated with su...

21

Mail Irradiation  

MedlinePLUS

... packages. Top of page How does irradiation kill anthrax? Irradiation kills anthrax by shattering its DNA and other cellular components. ... technology is used) strikes the mail and any anthrax spores it may contain. The radiation dose is ...

22

Peut-on parler sous l'eau avec un embout de dtendeur ? Etude articulatoire et perceptive  

E-print Network

mouthpiece equipped with an acoustical sensor. These specific constraints on elocution led us to carry out COMMUNICATION PARL�E SOUS-MARINE La communication parlée sous-marine est une problématique abordée à la fois par organisés régulièrement (ex : "European Conference on Underwater Acoustics"). De façon simplifiée, il existe

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

23

Warping frequentiel pour l'estimation du temps d'arrivee des modes en acoustique sous-marine  

E-print Network

Warping fr´equentiel pour l'estimation du temps d'arriv´ee des modes en acoustique sous-marine.bonnel@gipsa-lab.inpg.fr R´esum´e ­ S'il est classique en acoustique sous marine de travailler dans un milieu petit fond acoustics. However, it is still a challenging one when coupled with broadband low-frequency source

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

24

Une localisation exceptionnelle de la tuberculose vertébrale Mal de Pott sous-occipital  

PubMed Central

Le mal de Pott est la forme la plus commune de la tuberculose osseuse touchant essentiellement le rachis dorso-lombaire. La localisation sous-occipitale reste exceptionnelle. Le diagnostic de cette entité est le plus souvent tardif ce qui expose à des complications graves. Les radiographies standard ne sont parlantes qu’à un stade tardif de la maladie, d'où l'intérêt de l'imagerie moderne notamment la tomodensitométrie (TDM) et l'imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM) qui permettent un diagnostic précoce. Nous rapportons un nouveau cas de tuberculose sous-occipitale. Le diagnostic était posé sur l'imagerie en coupe et confirmé histologiquement à la biopsie transorale. Sont rappelés les aspects en imagerie de cette localisation particulière du mal de Pott. PMID:23819005

Yahyaoui, Sana; Majdoub, Senda; Zaghouani, Houneida; Fradj, Hosni Ben; Bakir, Dejla; Bouajina, Elyes; Kraiem, Chakib

2013-01-01

25

Safety aspects of "sous vide" products and prevention of microbial risks.  

PubMed

The diversity and quantities of vacuum packed and vacuum cooked prepared meals and menu components are rapidly growing on the European market. Because of the minimal heat processing, high water activity, absence of preservatives, and the use of many different often exotic ingredients, these products have a high risk potential. For this reason, Anglo-Saxon governments and industries are very sceptical about the safety of "sous vide" products. Industrial practice, as well as parallel tests and recent studies on inoculated packs have shown that, in many cases, it is more a potential than a real risk. Quality is the primary concern for "sous vide" products, and safety must be guaranteed by the application of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) concept, along with an adequate combination of different inhibitory factors (temperature of heating and cooling, pH, incorporation of starter cultures, bacteriocins and some particular enzymes). PMID:7546442

Martens, T

1995-03-01

26

[The use of "sous vide" technology in the packaging of chilled and ready to serve food].  

PubMed

As chilled precooked dishes show limited to 3-5 days shelf life several additional factors have to be applied to extend it up to 21 or even 42 days as is sometimes allowed for sous vide technology products. Those factors comprise high hygienic standards for raw materials and premises as well as technological steps and parameters that efficiently destroy microbial contamination, and do not allow for recontamination or bacterial growth. Such steps include precooking which also means pasteurisation in high vacuum or anaerobic atmosphere in sealed pouches, blast chilling, low temperature storage parameters as well as high temperature of reheating process and quick serving procedures. Paper specifies parameters for each technological steps and presents microbiological requirements for final products. Sous vide technology allows for good quality and high nutritional value in soups, meats in sauces and stewed vegetables. It is used for individual consumer in chilled "ready to eat" line dishes in supermarkets and supplies such dishes for catering units. PMID:10523935

Zalewski, S

1999-01-01

27

Les TIC dans les TPE : un investissement sous contraintes socio-conomiques et surtout individuelles.  

E-print Network

Les TIC dans les TPE : un investissement sous contraintes socio- économiques et surtout'une enquête réalisée auprès des entreprises artisanales de Bretagne sur leurs relations aux TIC (enquête par le non-équipement) en objets TIC dans ces TPE. Après avoir pré- senté une typologie des ces

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

28

Caractrisation des sous-dynamiques et applications (cole CIMPA Bobo-Dioulaso)  

E-print Network

-shift de type fini (SFT ) il existe un ensemble fini de motifs F tel que T = T(A,d,F) M. Sablik (LATP]) . Remarque : Par définition, on a: ClFT(FS) = SFT M. Sablik (LATP) Caractérisation des sous { , }Z les blocs de ont une longueur paire} Ainsi SFT ClFact(SFT) M. Sablik (LATP) Caractérisation des

Sablik, Mathieu

29

LES NEUTRONS LENTS MIS PAR LE GLUCINIUM SOUS L'ACTION DES RAYONS 03B1  

E-print Network

, chocs inélastiques) par le glucinium sous l'action des rayons 03B1 du polonium ou du radon et forment un Bothe et Becker (glucinium métal bombardé par les rayons a du polonium) l'atmosphère d'une chambre à de glucinium métal accolé à une préparation de polonium (cette source nous a été prêtée obligeamment

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

30

Informations pratiques : Dimanche 2 fvrier, rcitation de 14h 15h30, au sous-sol  

E-print Network

barre Alexandre le Grand, Jules César, Auguste, ou encore Trajan, sous les commentaires d'un Silène à l Chazaud, enseignant, titulaire d'un Master en histoire antique (Quirinus) M. Guy Le Comte, historien, professeur honoraire d'archéologie classique à l'Université de Genève (L'empereur Auguste) M. Marc Duret

Genève, Université de

31

Extraction de sous-parties cibles d'une ontologie gnraliste pour enrichir une ontologie particulire  

E-print Network

'extraction des sous-parties pertinentes de YAGO, nous adaptons l'outil TaxoPart (Hamdi et al., 2009b), développé Wikipedia et sont structurées à l'aide de WordNet. De par sa taille et ses multi-thématiques, YAGO est'ontologie à enrichir, en utilisant l'outil d'alignement TaxoMap (Hamdi et al., 2009a). Les concepts extraits

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

32

La pche sous objets flottants drivants : un danger pour la survie des thons tropicaux ?  

E-print Network

W La pêche sous objets flottants dérivants : un danger pour la survie des thons tropicaux des zones défavo- rables, où la ressource alimentaire ferait défaut. D'après les chercheurs, il surface de l'eau pour rejoindre l'océan. Mais dans certaines régions, l'importante pollution lumineuse

33

Application of nisin and pediocin against resistance and germination of Bacillus spores in sous vide products.  

PubMed

Sous vide and other mild preservation techniques are increasingly demanded by consumers. However, spores often will survive in minimally processed foods, causing both spoilage and safety problems. The main objective of the present work was to solve an industrial spoilage problem associated with two sous vide products: mushrooms and shellfish salad. Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis predominated as the most heat-resistant organisms isolated from mushrooms and shellfish salad, respectively. The combined effects of nisin and pediocin against resistance and germination of both Bacillus species were described by empirical equations. Whereas nisin was more effective for decreasing thermal resistance of B. subtilis spores, pediocin was more effective against B. licheniformis. However, a significant positive interaction between both biopeptides for decreasing the proportion of vegetative cells resulting from thermoresistant spores was demonstrated in later experiments, thus indicating the increased efficacy of applying high concentrations of both bacteriocins. This efficacy was further demonstrated in additional challenge studies carried out at 15 degrees C in the two sous vide products: mushrooms and shellfish salad. Whereas no vegetative cells were detected after 90 days in the presence of bacteriocins, almost 100% of the population in nontreated samples of mushrooms and shellfish salad was in the vegetative state after 17 and 43 days of storage at 15 degrees C, respectively. PMID:19343939

Cabo, M L; Torres, B; Herrera, J J R; Bernárdez, M; Pastoriza, L

2009-03-01

34

Irradiance Variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the solar interior emerges magnetic flux that alters the Sun's electromagnetic radiation, producing irradiance variability on a wide range of time scales. The organization, outward extension and expansion of magnetic fields structure the solar atmosphere and cause the entire electromagnetic spectrum to vary in different ways, depending on wavelength. Surface magnetic fields produce variations in near UV, visible and near IR spectra which emerge from the photosphere, and comprise the bulk of total irradiance. Yet the correlation of daily total irradiance and total magnetic field strength is poor; rather, the net effect of two different magnetic features - dark sunspots and bright faculae - better account for the variations observed in total irradiance during the solar cycle. The relationship of UV irradiance with magnetic flux is more direct since bright active regions control the global variations in both these quantities. Connecting X-ray and short wavelength EUV irradiance variations to the solar interior requires the extrapolation of emerging surface magnetic fields to the corona and assumptions about the relationship of their strengths and topologies with coronal pressure. Knowledge of the emergence, evolution, transport and decay of magnetic flux is thus a key to understanding and forecasting solar irradiance variability at all wavelengths. Identification of sizeable magnetic regions on the side of the Sun far from Earth may enable EUV and X-ray irradiance forecasts and subsequent space weather effects on time scales of days to weeks. On multi-decadal time scales improved knowledge of the sub surface dynamo and surface transport processes may help constrain secular solar irradiance evolution, needed for climate change attribution. Also needed is quantification of the association between the closed flux that controls irradiance variability and the open flux that extends into the heliosphere. Although utilized frequently to infer irradiance variability, proxies of long-term solar activity in tree-rings and ice-cores actually reflect heliospheric modulation of galactic cosmic rays. Funded by NASA and ONR.

Lean, J. L.

2003-05-01

35

Hématome sous capsulaire de foie compliquant une pré-éclampsie: à propos de 6 cas  

PubMed Central

L'hématome sous capsulaire du foie (HSCF) est une complication rare mais gravissime de la grossesse. Devant une symptomatologie clinique souvent non spécifique et un tableau biologique retardé, son diagnostic est basé essentiellement sur les moyens de l'imagerie (échographie, TDM, IRM). Son traitement est fonction de l'intégrité ou non de la capsule de Glisson. Nous rapportons les observations de 6 patientes, à travers une étude rétrospective s’étalant sur la période du Janvier 2005 à Octobre 2008, incluant tous les cas de preeclampsie colligés au service de gynécologie obstétrique du CHU Hassan II. Durant la période d’étude, L'incidence de l'hématome sous capsulaire de foie chez les patientes préeclamptiques admises durant la période d’étude est de 1,49 %. Aucune des patientes n'a benificié d'un suivi prénatal au sein de notre formation. La moyenne d’âge des patientes est de 37,6 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 33 à 45 ans. La gestité moyenne était de 4,8 avec une parité moyenne de 4,5.l'hematome sous capsulaire est survenu en post partum chez tous nos cas avec un délai moyen de 4 jours et des extrêmes allant de J0 et J10 du post partum .Toutes les patientes ont présenté un HELLP syndrome concomitant à la survenue de cette complication gravissime.Le diagnostic positif s'est basé sur les données échographiques dans 5 cas (hemoperitoine –HSCF).l’équipe a opté pour une abstention thérapeutique avec surveillance armée chez 2 cas et l'exploration chirurgicale a été indiquée chez quatre patientes en instabilité hemodynamique.Nous avons déploré deux cas de décès maternel. PMID:22145072

Mamouni, Nisrine; Derkaoui, Ali; Bougern, Hakima; Bouchikhi, Chehrazad; Chaara, Hikmat; Banani, Abdelaziz; Abdelilah, Melhouf Moulay

2011-01-01

36

Influence of sous vide processing, steaming and boiling on vitamin retention and sensory quality in broccoli florets.  

PubMed

In this study the effect of sous vide processing, steaming and traditional boiling of broccoli florets on retention of ascorbic acid, vitamin B6 and folacin was investigated. Freshly prepared samples were also sensorily evaluated. In all heat treatments ascorbic acid was found to have the highest retention, and was therefore judged not to be suitable as an indicator for vitamin retention in general. When the three types of heat treatment were compared, boiling showed lowest retention of all the vitamins examined (45-64% in 5 min), whereas sous-vide processing gave the highest retentions (97-100% in 5 min). Retentions during steaming were a little lower (83-100% in 5 min). Sensory evaluation showed that sous-vide cooked and steamed broccoli florets generally had higher acceptability than boiled. PMID:8249480

Petersen, M A

1993-10-01

37

Cook-chill, cook-freeze, cook-hold, sous vide: risks for hospital patients?  

PubMed

Changes in eating habits and developments in food technology are occurring at the same time as an upward trend in foodborne infection in Britain. Vulnerable people such as the elderly and hospital patients are increasingly likely to consume food produced by new systems such as 'cook-chill' and 'cuisson sous vide'. The microbiological hazards of these systems are assessed as negligible, provided that production is controlled by appropriate methods such as the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) approach. The occurrence and control of bacterial contamination in a hospital cook-chill system is reviewed in this context. PMID:1679787

Wilkinson, P J; Dart, S P; Hadlington, C J

1991-06-01

38

Estimation par Maximum de Vraisemblance du sous espace clutter dans un bruit htrogne rang faible avec application au STAP  

E-print Network

Estimation par Maximum de Vraisemblance du sous espace clutter dans un bruit hétérogène rang faible,guillaume.ginolhac,philippe.forster@satie.ens-cachan.fr, frederic.pascal@supelec.fr Résumé ­ Dans le contexte d'une cible noyée dans un clutter hétérogène de rang est notamment composé du projecteur sur le sous espace clutter. Celui ci étant en pratique inconnu, il

Boyer, Edmond

39

Mechanisms of induced conductivity in polyvinylidene fluoride irradiated by X-rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prompt and delayed components of conductivity of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) samples induced by continuous irradiation of X-rays were measured under vacuum. The prompt component was composed of two distinct parts, classified as instantaneous radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) and time-dependent evolution of the RIC. With the help of thermally stimulated current measurements carried out with both virgin and irradiated samples, which indicated the existence of deep-trap levels in the material, we developed a model of kinetics of the carriers to explain the time-evolution of the RIC. Hot electrons generated by irradiation ware considered as responsible for the instantaneous part of the RIC. We also showed that the electrodes had a nonblocking behaviour during the electrical current measurements under irradiation, while the external electric field caused the generated carriers to drift out of the sample. Nous avons mesuré sous vide la conductivité induite due à la radiation des rayons X sur des échantillons de poly(fluorure de vinylidène), pendant et après irradiation (composante retardée). Pendant l'irradiation la conductivité induite est formée de deux différentes parties : l'une est la conductivité instantanée, et l'autre est une fonction croissante avec le temps. Grâce à la méthode du courant stimulé par la température, exécutée sur des échantillons vierges d'une part, et irradiés d'autre part, nous avons conclu à l'existence de niveaux de pièges profonds dans le matériau. Nous avons par la suite développé un modèle de cinétique des porteurs qui explique l'évolution avec le temps de la conductivité induite. Les électrons chauds créés par la radiation ont été considérés comme responsables de la conductivité induite instantanée. Nous montrons aussi que les électrodes sont non-bloquées pendant les mesures de courant électrique sous irradiation, alors que le champ électrique appliqué rejette les porteurs hors de l'échantillon.

Faria, R. M.

1992-10-01

40

Irradiance Variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the solar interior emerges magnetic flux that alters the Sun's electromagnetic radiation, producing irradiance variability on a wide range of time scales. The organization, outward extension and expansion of magnetic fields structure the solar atmosphere and cause the entire electromagnetic spectrum to vary in different ways, depending on wavelength. Surface magnetic fields produce variations in near UV, visible and

J. L. Lean

2003-01-01

41

Irradiance gradients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for improving the accuracy of a diffuse interreflection calculation is introduced in a ray tracing context. The information from a hemispherical sampling of the luminous environment is interpreted in a new way to predict the change in irradiance as a function of position and surface orientation. The additional computation involved is modest and the benefit is substantial.

Gregory J. Ward; Paul S. Heckbert

2008-01-01

42

Irradiated foods  

MedlinePLUS

... and reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes and for the control of insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

43

Dynamique du peuplement de Collemboles sous l'effet d'une pollution croissante par des ETM  

E-print Network

sampled at three plots along a gradient of increasing pollution by heavy metals (Zn, Pb and Cd of reproduction. Metal pollution caused environmental changes which affected species assemblages both by changingDynamique du peuplement de Collemboles sous l'effet d'une pollution croissante par des ETM GILLET

Boyer, Edmond

44

Kaluszynski (M), "International congresses of criminal anthropology. Structuring the French and international criminological movement.(1886-1914)", sous la  

E-print Network

and international criminological movement.(1886-1914)", sous la direction de Becker (P), Wetzell (R), The Criminal and his Scientists : Essays on the History of Criminology. Cambridge University Press, 2006 The International Congresses of Criminal Anthropology and the Shaping of the French and International Criminological

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

45

Hydrogels physiques de chitosane sous forme de macro fibres creuses et multi membranaires : Mise en oeuvre et  

E-print Network

Hydrogels physiques de chitosane sous forme de macro fibres creuses et multi membranaires : Mise en.....................................................................................................9 MEC in vivo in vitro Section 2. Structure macromoléculaire du chitosane : de l'extraction aux .................................................................................................................................... 73 1. Procédé d'élaboration des fibres creuses par le filage du chitosane par voie humide dans des

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

46

Quality and safety of fish curry processed by sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology process during refrigerated storage.  

PubMed

Fish curry, a traditional Indian dish was prepared from farmed fish Cobia (Rachycentron canadum), packaged by two different cook-chill processes namely, sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology and held at 2?°C. Biochemical composition revealed that fish curry contained 5% protein and 6% fat. Omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) retained 55.44% while docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) retained 29% during cook-chilling process. The major fatty acids in fish curry were C18:2, C12:0, C16:0 and C18:1. Shelf-life of sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processed fish curry were 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Total bacterial counts were detected after 4 weeks and 12 weeks in sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processes, respectively. Total staphylococci were detected in sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processed cobia fish curry after 4 and 12 weeks, respectively. Total bacilli, anaerobic sulfite reducing clostridia, Salmonella, and lactic acid bacteria were absent. Hot filled technology process was more efficient and could be applied for chilled fish curry preservation for 12 weeks without any safety problems. PMID:22701059

Shakila, R Jeya; Raj, B Edwin; Felix, N

2012-06-01

47

Irradiation Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Food Safety Consortium (FSC) is a federally created consortium consisting of researchers from the University of Arkansas, Iowa State University and Kansas State University. The FSC conducts research in poultry, beef, and pork production. This site contains summary articles from the FDA, the Washington Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Chicago Tribune, and newsletter articles from the FSC. Previously approved for use on poultry and fruits and vegetables in the US, irradiation can kill disease-causing bacteria like Salmonella and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 (discussed in the Scout Report for Science and Engineering's In the News section, September 17, 1997), and molds and funguses that cause rot. With recent US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, irradiation can now be used to process red meat (e.g., beef, pork, lamb, and byproducts). The process involves exposing food to a source of radiation such as gamma rays from radioactive cobalt 60, cesium 137, or x-rays. No radioactive material is added to the product, and the technique is routinely used on grains and spices, as well as for sterilizing disposable medical devices. In spite of a number of tests conducted over the last 30 years substantiating its safety, irradiation has not gained widespread public acceptance in the US. This is largely due to the public's general fear of processes utilizing radiation. Supporters of the technology claim that it will virtually eliminate food-borne illness in the US, while skeptics feel that technology such as steam treatment can accomplish adequate sterilization without the purported risks and public concern associated with irradiation.

1997-01-01

48

Thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes during rapid and slow heating in sous vide cooked beef.  

PubMed

Heating at slowly rising temperatures is suspected to enhance thermotolerance in Listeria monocytogenes and, since anaerobic environments have been shown to facilitate resuscitation of heat-injured cells of this micro-organism, concern may arise about the possibility of L. monocytogenes surviving in minimally preserved products. The effect of rapid ( > 10 degrees C min-1) and slow (0.3 and 0.6 degrees C min-1) heating on survival of L. monocytogenes in sous vide cooked beef was therefore examined at mild processing temperatures of 56 degrees, 60 degrees and 64 degrees C. No statistically significant difference (P = 0.70) was observed between the tested heating regimes. Since the average pH of beef was low (5.6), and little or no effect was observed, a pH-dependency of heat shock-induced thermotolerance in L. monocytogenes is suggested to account for this result. PMID:8695067

Hansen, T B; Knøchel, S

1996-06-01

49

L'agriculture familiale mise sous normes : jusqu'o les producteurs d'ananas du Costa Rica  

E-print Network

L'agriculture familiale mise sous normes : jusqu'où les producteurs d'ananas du Costa Rica pourront-ils relever le défi ? Family Agriculture under Norms System : Can the pineapple Farmers in Costa Rica Face négatifs sur l'environnement. La production d'ananas dans le Nord du Costa Rica est plus particulièrement

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

50

MESURE DE LA TEMPRATURE DES PARTICULES LOURDES DANS UN JET DE PLASMA D'ARGON SOUS PRESSION (*)  

E-print Network

1187 MESURE DE LA TEMP�RATURE DES PARTICULES LOURDES DANS UN JET DE PLASMA D'ARGON SOUS PRESSION mesurer la tem- pérature atomique T0 d'un plasma d'argon faiblement ionisé (degré d'ionisation ~ 10-4, Ne ionized argon plasma (ionisation degree ~ 10-4, Ne ~ 1014 cm-3, Te ~ 6 000 K) for pressures ranging from 1

Boyer, Edmond

51

THORIE DU CLAQUAE DE L'ARGON SOUS L'EFFET DU RAYONNEMENT D'UN LASER  

E-print Network

401. TH�ORIE DU CLAQUA�E DE L'ARGON SOUS L'EFFET DU RAYONNEMENT D'UN LASER Par F. CERNUSCHI, A de l'argon à une pression Pa. Diverses théories essayent d'expliquer le phénomène de rupture, en se théorique des résultats obtenus par Minck [1] pour l'argon, qui donnent les puissances de seuil ou limite du

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

52

Lipid oxidation stability of omega-3- and conjugated linoleic acid-enriched sous vide chicken meat.  

PubMed

Lipid oxidation is known to occur rather rapidly in cooked chicken meat containing relatively high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. To assess the lipid oxidation stability of sous vide chicken meat enriched with n-3 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) fatty acids, 624 Cobb × Ross broilers were raised during a 6-wk feeding period. The birds were fed diets containing CLA (50% cis-9, trans-11 and 50% trans-10, cis-12 isomers), flaxseed oil (FSO), or menhaden fish oil (MFO), each supplemented with 42 or 200 mg/kg of vitamin E (dl-?-tocopheryl acetate). Breast or thigh meat was vacuum-packed, cooked (74°C), cooled in ice water, and stored at 4.4°C for 0, 5, 10, 15, and 30 d. The lipid oxidation development of the meat was estimated by quantification of malonaldehyde (MDA) values, using the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances analysis. Fatty acid, nonheme iron, moisture, and fat analyses were performed as well. Results showed that dietary CLA induced deposition of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers, increased the proportion of saturated fatty acids, and decreased the proportions of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Flaxseed oil induced higher deposition of C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, and C20:4 fatty acids, whereas MFO induced higher deposition of n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6; P < 0.05). Meat lipid oxidation stability was affected by the interaction of either dietary oil or vitamin E with storage day. Lower (P < 0.05) MDA values were found in the CLA treatment than in the MFO and FSO treatments. Lower (P < 0.05) MDA values were detected in meat samples from the 200 mg/kg of vitamin E than in meat samples from the 42 mg/kg of vitamin E. Nonheme iron values did not affect (P > 0.05) lipid oxidation development. In conclusion, dietary CLA, FSO, and MFO influenced the fatty acid composition of chicken muscle and the lipid oxidation stability of meat over the storage time. Supranutritional supplementation of vitamin E enhanced the lipid oxidation stability of sous vide chicken meat. PMID:21248346

Narciso-Gaytán, C; Shin, D; Sams, A R; Keeton, J T; Miller, R K; Smith, S B; Sánchez-Plata, M X

2011-02-01

53

Évolution de leucémies myéloïdes chroniques sous nilotinib après échec a l'imatinib  

PubMed Central

C'est une étude observationnelle prospective ouverte: quatre leucémies myéloïdes chroniques résistant ou intolérant à l'Imatinib ont été traitées par le Nilotinib. Elles ont été incluses dans le programme GIPAP et suivies selon les recommandations de “European LeukemiaNet”. Trois ont un score de Sokal de haut risque et une de bas risque. Deux étaient hypertendues. Mises sous Nilotinib, il y a eu deux rémissions cytogénétiques complètes et deux échecs. Le traitement a été interrompu chez les deux rémissions complètes, l'un pour effet secondaire du Nilotinib et l'autre pour changement de pays. Les deux échecs sont dus à des résistances. Le Nilotinib réduisant la fréquence des mutations des leucémies myéloïdes chroniques à haut risque et risque intermédiaire, il serait judicieux d'utiliser ce produit en première intention dans ces cas - ci pour réduire la charge des examens complémentaires. Les pays à bas revenu confrontés à des problèmes de survie ont besoin de la solidarité mondiale pour prendre en charge les leucémies myéloïdes chroniques. PMID:25419280

Sawadogo, Salifo; Hien, Francis Michel; Ouédraogo, Macaire Sampawendé; Drabo, Youssouf Joseph

2014-01-01

54

Effect of salt addition on sous vide cooked whole beef muscles from Argentina.  

PubMed

Sodium chloride (NaCl, 0-1.4%) and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP, 0-0.5%) were added to Semitendinosus muscles and submitted to sous vide cooking at different temperatures (55-75°C). The effects of these three factors on pH, cooking loss, instrumental colour parameters, protein solubilization and distribution, and micro- and ultra-structure were evaluated. Quadratic surface responses equations were obtained from data (pH, cooking loss and colour parameters) as a function of the salts concentrations and cooking temperature. Both salts - alone or in combination - successfully reduced cooking loss. The best results were obtained for the combinations 0.25%STPP+1.20%NaCl and 0.25%STPP+0.70%NaCl, and temperatures between 60 and 65°C. Under these conditions, cooking loss was reduced close to 0%. pH was only dependent on STPP concentration, with a threshold concentration value of 0.25%. Temperature increment and NaCl addition produced a redness reduction. STPP incorporation recovered partially this parameter in comparison to non-added samples. Microscopy and SDS-PAGE results support the effect of the selected combinations of factors, suggesting that both salts together induced protein solubilization and gelation upon heating. PMID:22062908

Vaudagna, S R; Pazos, A A; Guidi, S M; Sanchez, G; Carp, D J; Gonzalez, C B

2008-07-01

55

Spoilage of sous vide cooked salmon (Salmo salar) stored under refrigeration.  

PubMed

The spoilage of Sous Vide 'SV' cooked salmon stored under refrigeration was studied. Samples were packaged under vacuum in polyamide-polypropylene pouches, cooked at an oven temperature/time of 80 (°)C/45 min, quickly chilled at 3 (°)C and stored at 2 (°)C for 0, 5 or 10 weeks for catering use. Microbial (aerobic and anaerobic psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, molds and yeasts and Enterobacteriaceae), physical-chemical (pH, water activity, TBARS, acidity, L*a*b* color, texture profile analysis and shear force) and sensory (appearance, odor, flavor, texture and overall quality) parameters were determined. SV processing prevented the growth of aerobic and anaerobic psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, molds and yeasts and Enterobacteriaceae. There were no relevant changes in pH, water activity, TBARS, CIELab color associated with cooked salmon spoilage. Instrumental texture data were contradictory. Slight decrease in lactic acid levels was found. In contrast, the SV cooked salmon suffered considerable sensory deterioration during its refrigerated storage, consisting of severe losses of cooked salmon odor and flavor, slight rancidity, discoloration associated with white precipitation, and moderates softness, and loss of chewiness and juiciness. No acidification, putrefaction or relevant rancidity was detected. The sensory spoilage preceded microbiological and physical-chemical spoilage, suggesting that microbiological quality alone may overestimate the shelf life of SV cooked salmon. PMID:21364043

Díaz, P; Garrido, M D; Bañón, S

2011-02-01

56

Le potentiel de l'asteroseismologie pour les etoiles sous-naines de type B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L'objectif principal de cette thèse consiste à évaluer les possibilités que les étoiles sous naines de type B, aussi appelées sdB, puissent développer des variations de luminosité engendrées par des phénomènes de pulsations. Dans la mesure où, au commencement de cette étude, les sdB ne sont pas connues pour montrer ce type de comportement, notre approche s'effectue exclusivement sur des bases théoriques visant à déterminer, par le calcul, si ces étoiles ont le potentiel pour devenir instables. Le cas échéant, il s'agira d'évaluer quels sont les résultats susceptibles d'émerger d'un sondage de la structure interne de ces étoiles avec les méthodes de l'astéroséismologie. Après avoir introduit le contexte et les outils théoriques nécessaires à ce projet (théorie des pulsations stellaires et modèles d'étoiles sous-naines de type B), la démarche passe obligatoirement par une étude exhaustive des propriétés des modes de pulsation dans ces étoiles. Nous l'avons entreprise de manière systématique afin d'évaluer et de comprendre les comportements des oscillations en fonction des différents paramètres physiques qui caractérisent une sdB. Par souci de complétude, nous étudions également les rapports qu'entretiennent évolution et périodes de pulsation au cours de la phase sdB. Par la suite, fort des connaissances nouvellement acquises, nous nous lançons dans l'étude de la stabilité des modes d'oscillation, l'objectif étant d'identifier, le cas échéant, un mécanisme capable de déstabiliser, dans certaines conditions, une fraction de ces étoiles. Par cette approche, nous déterminons qu'un mécanisme ? associé à une région d'ionisation partielle de l'élément fer agit efficacement dans l'enveloppe des sdB si, toutefois, le fer y est présent en quantités extra- solaires. Nous montrons alors que des processus de diffusion, déjà fortement suspectes d'exister dans ces étoiles, sont en mesure d'accumuler des quantités de fer largement suffisantes pour engendrer des pulsations, nous conduisant ainsi à avancer la prédiction que des sdB pulsantes doivent exister. L'annonce, indépendante et pratiquement simultanée, de la découverte de véritables sdB pulsantes ainsi que les premières comparaisons entre théorie et observations nous poussent alors à construire des modèles plus sophistiqués-incluant les effets de la diffusion sur le fer-mieux adaptés pour décrire le mécanisme de déstabilisation propose. Nous constatons alors un très bon accord quantitatif entre les propriétés sismiques déduites des modèles théoriques et celles effectivement observées dans les sdB pulsantes, confirmant dès lors le rôle joué par le mécanisme en question. Nous discutons également des aspects reliés à l'étude astéroséismologique de ces étoiles dont l'objectif, ultimement, est d'en sonder l'intérieur. Bien qu'il soit encore prématuré d'appliquer une telle méthode sur les sdB, nous explorons rapidement les moyens pour y parvenir et nous tentons de préciser quels sont les éléments de la structure des sdB que nous pouvons espérer mesurer avec cette technique. Finalement, suite aux résultats satisfaisants obtenus pour les sdB, nous entreprenons de poursuivre l'étude de stabilité sur les modèles évolutifs en phase post-EHB. Nous constatons alors l'existence de modèles instables, identifiables aux étoiles naines blanches de type DAO, pour lesquels des modes g de faible ordre radial sont excités par un mécanisme ? associé à la région de brûlage en couche résiduel de l'hydrogène situé à la base de l'enveloppe des modèles. Ce résultat nous conduit ainsi à proposer l'existence d'une autre classe d'étoiles pulsantes parmi les DAO. Contrairement aux sdB, cette prédiction reste toutefois à confirmer par l'observation.

Charpinet, Stephane

57

Élimination du bore du silicium par plasma inductif sous champ électrique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed purification mechanisms of silicon by inductive plasma with a fluoride slag. The aim is to study boron elimination from doped electronic grade silicon in function of the nature of the slag to obtain a photovoltaic grade silicon. The steady began with the calculation and the comparison of the stability diagram of boron compounds in presence of CaF2, BaF2 and MgF2. This study led us to conclude that BaF2 is the better slag for silicon purification. This has been confirmed by experience. In a second time, we made purifications under electric bias to enhance slag efficiency. We noticed that BaF2 is more sensitive to electric bias than other slags. Nous avons analysé le mécanisme de purification du silicium sous plasma inductif en présence d'un laitier fluoré. L'objectif principal est d'étudier l'élimination du bore du silicium électronique dopé en fonction de la nature du fluorure pour obtenir un silicium de qualité photovoltaïque. L'étude a commencé par l'établissement et la comparaison de diagrammes des composés du bore en présence de CaF2, de MgF2 et de BaF2. Nous avons déduit de cette première étude que BaF2 est le meilleur laitier pour la purification du silicium. Ceci a été corroboré par l'expérience. Nous avons ensuite opéré en présence d'un champ électrique dans le but d'améliorer encore l'efficacité des laitiers. Nous avons constaté que BaF2 est plus sensible au champ électrique que les deux autres laitiers utilisés.

Combes, R.; Morvan, D.; Picard, G.; Amouroux, J.

1993-05-01

58

Geodetic monitoring strategy at the geothermal sites of Soultz-sous-Forêts and Rittershoffen (Upper Rhine Graben, France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Cenozoic rift system, and in particular the Upper Rhine Graben offers a high potential of deep geothermal energy due to the well known geothermal anomaly and to the number of subsurface temperature data from oil exploration in the Upper Rhine Graben. One example is the Soultz-sous-Forêts Enhance Geothermal System (EGS) located in the French part of the Upper Rhine Graben. The Soultz-sous-Forêts EGS started in 1987 as a deep geothermal research site. The wells are drilled in naturally fractured and altered granites from 3200 to 5260 m depth located in the vicinity of quasi North-South faults. It is the first EGS site connected to the electric network, its electric production capacity is of 1.5MWe. A second EGS site, ECOGI, is in development near the village of Rittershoffen located at 7 km from Soultz-sous-Forêts. The objective of ECOGI is to produce 24MWth energy for an industrial use with a doublet configuration of wells at depths around 2500 and 3000 meters. Both EGS sites benefit of the natural circulation of geothermal water. Some challenges in geothermal power plant are to understand the long-term behavior of the geothermal system and the induced seismicity. In the Soultz-sous-Forêts plant, borehole measures give evidences of aseismic slip (Bailleux et al., 2013). And previous geodetic monitoring studies of other deep geothermal plants show subsidence and horizontal displacements due to geothermal exploitation (e.g. Massonnet et al., 1997; Nishijima et al., 2005; Fialko and Simons, 2000). The ability of geodesy tools to provide information about dynamic behaviour and the change in the local stress field around the geothermal site make them a suitable method to meet these challenges. Therefore, we establish a long-term geodetic monitoring system of the two geothermal sites. This work presents the monitoring strategy and the preliminary results. We install a network of continuous GNSS and INSAR data are in acquisition. Our aim is to monitor local surface displacement in natural, in stimulation and production states of the geothermal plants. GNSS and INSAR are two spatial geodetic methods with millimeter accuracy. The GNSS provides information about the absolute 3D displacement at some point location. And the INSAR method gives high spatial (meters) information of relative displacement.

Heimlich, Christine; Masson, Frédéric; Gourmelen, Noël

2014-05-01

59

Synthèse dans les sels fondus de cristallites d'YBa2CU3O{7-x} et d'HoBa2CU3O{7-x} sous forme de plaquettes bien individualisées et orientation sous champ magnétique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the molten salt synthesis of YBa2CU3O{7-x} et HoBa2CU3O{7-x} phases. Best results have been obtained in an equimolar mixture of potassium and sodium chlorides. This technique leads to the formation of plate-shaped finely divided micronic crystallites. We investigated then the preparation of grain-oriented HoBa2CU3O{7-x} superconducting ceramics by a field-induced orientation method. The first results of the magnetic field orientation of a suspension by the slip casting technique are presented. Nous avons étudié la synthèse en sel fondu des phases supraconductrices YBa2CU3O{7-x} et HoBa2CU3O{7-x}. Les meilleurs résultats sont obtenus dans le mélange équimolaire des sels de chlorure de potassium et de sodium. Cette technique conduit à la formation de cristallites de dimensions microniques sous forme de plaquettes finement divisées. Nous avons ensuite entrepris l'élaboration de céramiques supraconductrices orientées de la phase HoBa2CU3O{7-x} par une méthode d'orientation induite par un champ magnétique. Nous présentons les premiers résultats de l'orientation sous champ magnétique d'une barbotine par la technique de coulée en moule poreux.

Bermis, P.; Chaudouet, P.; Weiss, F.; Sénateur, J. P.; Joubert, J. C.

1991-11-01

60

Nasopharyngeal Radium Irradiation (NRI)  

MedlinePLUS

... assess the health risks associated with nasopharyngeal radium irradiation. This treatment was an accepted medical practice in ... on "The Public Health Response to Nasopharyngeal Radium Irradiation." It brought together a diverse group of more ...

61

Influence of Sous Vide and water immersion processing on polyacetylene content and instrumental color of parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) disks.  

PubMed

The effect of blanching (95 +/- 3 degrees C) followed by sous vide (SV) processing (90 degrees C for 10 min) on levels of two polyacetylenes in parsnip disks immediately after processing and during chill storage was studied and compared with the effect of water immersion (WI) processing (70 degrees C for 2 min.). Blanching had the greatest influence on the retention of polyacetylenes in sous vide processed parsnip disks resulting in significant decreases of 24.5 and 24% of falcarinol (1) and falcarindiol (2) respectively (p < 0.05). Subsequent SV processing did not result in additional significant losses in polyacetylenes compared to blanched samples. Subsequent anaerobic storage of SV processed samples resulted in a significant decrease in 1 levels (p < 0.05) although no change in 2 levels was observed (p > 0.05). 1 levels in WI processed samples were significantly higher than in SV samples (p

Rawson, Ashish; Koidis, Anastasios; Rai, Dilip K; Tuohy, Maria; Brunton, Nigel

2010-07-14

62

Very low temperature (irradiation  

E-print Network

irradiation M. V. Ramana Murty and Harry A. Atwater Thomas J. Watson Laboratory of Applied Physics, California 18 February 1993) Concurrent low energy (50-70 eV) ion irradiation during silicon molecular beam molecular beam epitaxy. Ion irradiation of a ( 1X 1) dihydride-terminated Si(OO1) results in a (2 X 1

Atwater, Harry

63

Revue Internationale PME, Vol.17, n 3/4, pp. 121-145 Les dterminants des stratgies ractives des sous-traitants de la dfense.  

E-print Network

out. Keywords: Subcontracting; Strategy; Adaptation; Conversion; Defense; Aerospace JEL Code: L21; L98 strategies set up by the sub-contracting SMEs of defense in three European regions during the 1990's forger le choix stratégique effectué. Mots clés : Sous-traitance ; Stratégie ; Adaptation ; Reconversion

Boyer, Edmond

64

Dimensionnement des actionneurs électriques alimentés à fréquence variable sous faible tension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Part I we present a multidisciplinary analysis model for the prediction of functional connections between the design variables and the electromagnetical, electrical and thermal performances of a brushless permanent magnet motor. In this paper we have elaborated a design methodology for electrical motors supplied from a variable-frequency low-voltage source. The objective is to take into account the influence of the inverter's dynamics from the beginning of the design, for the same reasons as we do for electromechanical and thermal constraints. The procedure is based on a Sequential Quadratic Programming optimization method. Two techniques are used to take into account the influence of the inverter: the first one develops the performance analysis with the multidisciplinary model; the second one considers the inverter's current reference as a supplementary optimization variable for the control of the design. Optimization difficulties linked to the chopping of the converter are discuted in connection with a sensitivity analysis of the torque, with respect to the inverter's current reference; a method is proposed to enhance the performances of the algorithm. The method has been applied to the design of a permanent magnet brushless DC motor used in the propulsion system of an electrical scooter; evolution of the design with the complexity level of analysis model is evidenced. Dans une première partie nous avons développé un modèle d'analyse pluridisciplinaire qui établissait les dépendances fonctionnelles entre les variables de conception et les performances magnéto-électro-thermiques d'un moteur brushless à aimants permanents. Dans cet article nous décrivons une procédure de dimensionnement adaptée à la conception de la machine alimentée à fréquence variable sous faible tension. L'objectif est d'intégrer la dynamique du convertisseur électronique dès la phase initiale du dimensionnement, au même titre que les spécifications électromécaniques et thermiques. La procédure est gérée par une méthode d'optimisation déterministe de type Programmation Quadratique Séquentielle. Elle intègre l'influence du convertisseur au moyen de deux spécificités : la première consiste à évaluer les fonctions du problème d'optimisation sur la base du module d'analyse pluridisciplinaire ; la deuxième permet de contrôler l'évolution du dimensionnement au travers de variables d'optimisation dont la liste inclut les consignes de la commande en courant du convertisseur. Les difficultés d'optimisation liées au mode de fonctionnement discret du convertisseur sont discutées au regard du calcul de la sensibilité du couple électromagnétique envers la consigne de courant du convertisseur ; une méthode est proposée pour assurer la robustesse de la procédure en présence du convertisseur. L'application porte sur le dimensionnement d'un moteur à aimants permanents de type “brushless trapézoïdal" destiné à la traction d'un scooter électrique ; l'évolution de la structure optimale avec le degré de complexité du module d'analyse est mise en évidence.

Biedinger, J.-M.; Vilain, J.-P.

1999-09-01

65

Effect of different temperature-time combinations on lipid and protein oxidation of sous-vide cooked lamb loins.  

PubMed

Forty-five lamb loins were subjected to sous-vide cooking at different combinations of temperature (60, 70 and 80 °C) and time (6, 12 and 24 h) to assess the effect on the oxidative stability of lipids and proteins. Heating induced both lipid and protein oxidation in lamb loins. Higher cooking temperature-time combinations increased conjugated dienes and decreased thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) values and hexanal. Total protein carbonyls increased throughout time at all cooking temperatures considered, while ?-aminoadipic (AAS) and ?-glutamic semialdehydes (GGS) increased when cooking at 60 °C but not at 80 °C. Links between the decrease in secondary compounds from lipid oxidation due to cooking at higher temperatures and for longer times with the increased levels of 3-methylbutanal and greater differences between total protein carbonyls and AAS plus GGS were hypothesised. PMID:24295686

Roldan, Mar; Antequera, Teresa; Armenteros, Monica; Ruiz, Jorge

2014-04-15

66

Survival characteristics and the applicability of predictive mathematical modelling to Listeria monocytogenes growth in sous vide products.  

PubMed

Survival and growth of Listeria monocytogenes isolates during sous vide processing and storage, and the applicability of predictive modelling in determining the potential for growth of L. monocytogenes in broth models and in sous vide products was investigated. L. monocytogenes grew in anaerobic tryptose phosphate broth and in chicken and beef samples by 2 log cycles in 8 days at 3 degrees C and 4-5 log cycles in 6 days at 8 degrees C. However, heating to an internal temperature of 70 degrees C resulted in a 4-5 log reduction and 70 degrees C/2 min resulted in a reduction greater than 7 log cycles. Lowering the product pH to 5.0 was effective in inhibiting L. monocytogenes growth, whereas a sodium chloride concentration of 2% had a negligible effect on growth rates. The square root model (Ratkowsky et al., 1983) predicted L. monocytogenes growth rates at 0-25 degrees C with a coefficient of determination (R2 value) of 98.36-99.63% and a bias factor of 1.08 to 1.21 in beef, chicken and broth substrates of unmodified pH. In addition, the Response Surface Polynomial Model (Version 3.1, Buchanan et al., 1989) predicted generation times at 5-25 degrees C with a 0-17.4% difference between observed and expected generation times in tryptose phosphate broth at pH 7.3. There were however, large differences (25.5 vs. 5.3 h) between observed generation times at pH 5.6 (8 degrees C) and those predicted by the Pathogen Modelling Program in tryptose phosphate broth. A divergence from predicted values was also noted at lower temperatures (0-3.5 degrees C) in the square root model. PMID:10857538

Nyati, H

2000-06-01

67

Irradiator apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An irradiator of the type using a radioactive material as a source of radiation is combined with a gaseous liquid contact chamber. The irradiator has a casing having an input and output therefrom and a plurality of connected chambers formed in the casing and separated by walls having an opening therethrough. A plurality of gamma radiation sources are located in

Woodbridge

1984-01-01

68

The Irradiance Volume  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This paper presentsavolumetric representation for the global illumination within a space based on theradiometric quantity irradiance. We call this representation the irradiance volume. Although irradianceis traditionally computed only for surfaces, we extend its de#nition to all points and directions in space.

Gene Greger; Peter Shirley; Philip M. Hubbard; Donald P. Greenberg

1998-01-01

69

Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

Bauer, Roger E. (Kennewick, WA); Straalsund, Jerry L. (Kennewick, WA); Chin, Bryan A. (Auburn, AL)

1985-01-01

70

TOLERANCE OF IRRADIATED FATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

As is known, irradiation of polyene acids causes them to undergo similar ; changes as occur in auto-oxidation, and auto-oxidized fat can become toxic under ; certain conditions. Thus experiments were devised to study the effects of ; feeding fats irradiated by a substantially higher dose than is necessary for the ; sterilization or pasteurization of foodstuifs; to determine the

Lang

1962-01-01

71

Irradiation Creep in Graphite  

SciTech Connect

An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

2014-03-13

72

Decoupling of deformation in the Upper Rhine Graben sediments. Seismic reflection and diffraction on 3-component Vertical Seismic Profiling (Soultz-sous-Forêts area)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A contribution to the definition of the structural pattern of the Soultz-sous-Forêts EGS (Enhanced Geothermal System) is presented here. After reprocessing, the PHN84J seismic reflection profile highlights the tilted blocks of the Merkwiller-Péchelbronn oilfield. In the Soultz-sous-Forêts horst, complex fault patterns are observed: the Hermerswiller normal fault flattens at depth and is rooted in decollements occurring in Triassic salt or clay series, while other steep normal faults affect underlying sedimentary formations and basement. Some methods for the exploitation of a seismic diffraction recorded by multi-component Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) are also illustrated to locate the diffractor without specific data processing. Polarisation and travel time analysis of a diffraction event recorded in the GPK1 borehole are analysed, and its exploitation combined with seismic reflection helps defining a tilted block geometry.

Place, Joachim; Diraison, Marc; Naville, Charles; Géraud, Yves; Schaming, Marc; Dezayes, Chrystel

2010-07-01

73

Effect of different temperature-time combinations on physicochemical, microbiological, textural and structural features of sous-vide cooked lamb loins.  

PubMed

Lamb loins were subjected to sous-vide cooking at different combinations of temperature (60, 70, and 80 °C) and time (6, 12, and 24 h). Different physicochemical, histological and structural parameters were studied. Increasing cooking temperatures led to higher weight losses and lower moisture contents, whereas the effect of cooking time on these variables was limited. Samples cooked at 60 °C showed the highest lightness and redness, while increasing cooking temperature and cooking time produced higher yellowness values. Most textural variables in a texture profile analysis showed a marked interaction between cooking temperature and time. Samples cooked for 24h showed significantly lower values for most of the studied textural parameters for all the temperatures considered. Connective tissue granulation at 60 °C and gelation at 70 °C were observed in the SEM micrographs. The sous-vide cooking of lamb loins dramatically reduced microbial population even with the less intense heat treatment studied (60 °C-6 h). PMID:23273466

Roldán, Mar; Antequera, Teresa; Martín, Alberto; Mayoral, Ana Isabel; Ruiz, Jorge

2013-03-01

74

Cet article a t publi en 2009 sous le titre : Vanessa Van Renterghem, Le sentiment d'appartenance collective chez les lites  

E-print Network

Cet article a été publié en 2009 sous le titre : Vanessa Van Renterghem, « Le sentiment d (2008), p. 231-258. La présente version constitue une version d'auteur. [231] Le sentiment d sentiments d'appartenance collective développés par les principaux acteurs de l'histoire de cette époque

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

75

Le syndrome de Down, plus communment connu sous l'appellation de trisomie 21 s'accompagne trs souvent de pathologies que l'on  

E-print Network

Le syndrome de Down, plus communément connu sous l'appellation de «trisomie 21» s'accompagne très les personnes atteintes d'un syndrome de Down. L'étude ciblée et spécifique du chromosome 21 a révélé toute la population. La cardiopathie est un trouble fréquent du syndrome de Down. Si la présence d

Rochaix, Jean-David

76

C. R. Acad. Sc. Paris, paratre -p.1 -La Tephra de la Rue Sous-les-Vignes, marqueur en Limagne du volcanisme  

E-print Network

, a marker in Limagne of the Chaîne des Puys trachytic volcanism Gérard VERNET, Jean-Paul RAYNAL, Dominique-clés : Chaîne des Puys, Limagne, trachyte, Cratère Kilian, Boréal. Abstract : The Rue Sous-les-Vignes or CF5 tephra is the first direct distal evidence of trachyte eruptions in the Chaîne des Puys to be recorded

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

77

PROTONS, DEUTONS, TRITONS ET NOYAUX D'HLIUM MIS PAR 197Au SOUS L'ACTION DE PROTONS DE 154 MeV  

E-print Network

615. PROTONS, DEUTONS, TRITONS ET NOYAUX D'H�LIUM �MIS PAR 197Au SOUS L'ACTION DE PROTONS DE 154 Me spectres d'énergie des protons, deutons et tritons au-dessus de 30 MeV environ ont été mesurés à 15°, 30, deuterons and tritons above 30 MeV were measured at 15°, 30° and 60° and are compared with those obtained

Boyer, Edmond

78

Microbial, physical-chemical and sensory spoilage during the refrigerated storage of cooked pork loin processed by the sous vide method.  

PubMed

The aim was to study spoilage during the refrigerated storage of cooked pork loin processed by the sous vide method. Samples were packaged under vacuum into polyamide-polypropylene pouches, cooked at an oven temperature/time of 70°C/12h, chilled at 3°C and stored at 2°C for 0, 5 or 10 weeks. Microbial (psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, moulds and yeasts), physical-chemical (pH, water activity, TBARS, acidity, L(?)a(?)b(?) colour, texture profile analysis and shear force) and sensory (appearance, odour, flavour, texture and acceptance) parameters were determined. The results showed that sensory spoilage preceded microbiological spoilage of sous vide pork loin. Counts bellow 1logcfu/g of psychrotrophs, anaerobic psychrotrophs, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria were detected in any control week, while moderate counts (2-3logcfu/g) of moulds and yeasts were found. Minor changes in water activity, lipid oxidation, CIELab colour, hardness, cohesiveness or gumminess were associated with spoilage of pork loin, only decreases of lactic acid, springiness and shear force were observed. The pork loin was unacceptable after 10 weeks. This loss of acceptance was mainly due to the deterioration of meaty flavour and odour, although the loss of appearance, juiciness and firmness also contributed. Moderate warmed-over and rancidity were detected. The sensory analysis was the most effective method for determining the shelf life of the sous vide pork-based dishes. PMID:22063333

Díaz, Pedro; Nieto, Gema; Garrido, María Dolores; Bañón, Sancho

2008-10-01

79

[Partial breast irradiation].  

PubMed

Owing to breast cancer screening, breast cancer is more and more diagnosed at early stage. For those breast cancer women, breast conserving treatment (breast conserving surgery followed by whole breast irradiation) is commonly used since many years. New radiation modalities have been recently developed in early breast cancers particularly accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Among all techniques of radiotherapy, 3D-conformal APBI and intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) are the main modalities of radiotherapy used. The present review states on indications, treatment modalities and updated results of local control and side effects of partial breast irradiation. PMID:24445657

Bourgier, Céline; Lemanski, Claire; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Riou, Olivier; Dubois, Jean Bernard; Azria, David

2014-01-01

80

Factors influencing resuscitation and growth of heat injured Listeria monocytogenes 13-249 in sous vide cooked beef.  

PubMed

The growth of Listeria monocytogenes 13-249 in vacuum-packed, minced beef was investigated as a function of degree of heat injury (including no injury i.e. uncooked beef), growth phase (logarithmic and late stationary phase), pH (5.6 and 6.2), and storage temperature (3, 10 and 20 degrees C) during a storage period of 30 days. Late logarithmic and late stationary phase cultures of L. monocytogenes 13-249 showed similar growth in refrigerated, vacuum-packed, raw minced beef with a high pH (6.2). In normal pH (5.6) beef there was no growth at 3 degrees C while growth at 10 and 20 degrees C was only observed for logarithmic phase cultures. Heat injured late stationary phase cultures with 95-99.9% injured cells in the surviving population (as measured by differential plating on enriched vs. selective media after sous vide cooking) did not grow or repair sublethal injuries in sous vide cooked beef at 3 degrees C while repair and growth took place at 10 as well as at 20 degrees C. In logarithmic phase cultures heat injury occurred very rapidly and > or = 99.9% heat injury was observed in all trials in spite of much lower pasteurization values and fewer log10 reductions compared with late stationary phase cultures. Regardless of growth phase, all cultures where a high degree of heat injury (> or = 99.9%) was observed, did not subsequently grow in the beef product at 3 or 10 degrees C within 30 days. Growth of heat injured cultures preexposed to heat shock (46 degrees C, 30 min) or slowly rising temperatures (0.3 degrees C min(-1)) before heat injury was also investigated. Heat shocked or heat adapted cultures generally responded in the same manner as non-stressed cultures (no growth at 3 degrees C) except that a longer lag phase was observed in beef processed at slowly rising temperatures and in normal pH beef at 10 degrees C. Although processing at slowly rising temperatures may slightly increase the survival of L. monocytogenes 13-249 in cooked beef, there seem to be no indication of an increase in subsequent growth potential of the surviving cells. PMID:11205945

Hansen, T B; Knøchel, S

2001-01-22

81

Blood irradiation: Rationale and technique  

SciTech Connect

Upon request by the local American Red Cross, the Savannah Regional Center for Cancer Care irradiates whole blood or blood components to prevent post-transfusion graft-versus-host reaction in patients who have severely depressed immune systems. The rationale for blood irradiation, the total absorbed dose, the type of patients who require irradiated blood, and the regulations that apply to irradiated blood are presented. A method of irradiating blood using a linear accelerator is described.

Lewis, M.C. (Savannah Regional Center for Cancer Care, Memorial Medical Center, GA (USA))

1990-01-01

82

2-D Magnetotellurics at the geothermal site at Soultz-sous-Forêts: Resistivity distribution to about 3000 m depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the aim of investigating the possibilities of magnetotelluric methods for the exploration of potential Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) sites in the Upper Rhine valley, a 2-D magnetotelluric (MT) survey has been carried out on a 13 km long profile across the thermal anomaly in the area of the geothermal power plant of Soultz-sous-Forêts in the winter 2007/08. Despite strong artificial noise, processing using remote referencing and Sutarno phase consistent smoothing revealed significant results from 10 out of 16 sites. Indication for 1-D structures was found in the shortest periods, 2-D effects in the periods up to 40 s, and 3-D effects in the long period range. Since 3-D effects were found in the longer periods, 2-D inversion was carried out for periods smaller than 40 s. The results of the inversion are consistent with the geology of the geothermal site and distinguish well the sediments from the granitic basement including the structures given by the faults. A conductive anomaly with a resistivity of about 3 ?m has been found at a depth down to 2000 m in the area of the Soultz and Kutzenhausen faults, which is attributed to geothermal processes.

Geiermann, Johannes; Schill, Eva

2010-07-01

83

ORNL irradiation creep facility  

SciTech Connect

A machine was developed at ORNL to measure the rates of elongation observed under irradiation in stressed materials. The source of radiation is a beam of 60 MeV alpha particles from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). This choice allows experiments to be performed which simulate the effects of fast neutrons. A brief review of irradiation creep and experimental constraints associated with each measurement technique is given. Factors are presented which lead to the experimental choices made for the Irradiation Creep Facility (ICF). The ICF consists of a helium-filled chamber which houses a high-precision mechanical testing device. The specimen to be tested must be thermally stabilized with respect to the temperature fluctuations imposed by the particle beam which passes through the specimen. Electrical resistance of the specimen is the temperature control parameter chosen. Very high precision in length measurement and temperature control are required to detect the small elongation rates relevant to irradiation creep in the test periods available (approx. 1 day). The apparatus components and features required for the above are presented in some detail, along with the experimental procedures. The damage processes associated with light ions are discussed and displacement rates are calculated. Recent irradiation creep results are given, demonstrating the suitability of the apparatus for high resolution experiments. Also discussed is the suitability of the ICF for making high precision thermal creep measurements.

Reiley, T.C.; Auble, R.L.; Beckers, R.M.; Bloom, E.E.; Duncan, M.G.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, R.H.

1980-09-01

84

Why the seismicity induced in Soultz-sous-Forêts and Gross Schoenebeck enhanced geothermal fields are so different? (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In enhanced geothermal systems, hydraulic fracturing and hydraulic stimulation are techniques used to increase the reservoir permeability. Their secondary effect, the induced seismicity, is a unique means to image the fault network created or reactivated by the operations. The interpretation of the results for this latter application is however limited by the capabilities of the seismic network and by our understanding of the involved physical processes. Here, we propose to highlight systematic behaviors of the seismicity induced in enhanced geothermal reservoirs. This is performed through the analysis of two EGS sites which appear to behave very differently in terms of induced seismicity: the Soultz-sous-Forêts (France) and the Gross Schoenebeck (Germany) fields. Several physics-based models have been tested for these fields and these observations should be used to calibrate them and the underlying physical assumptions. The Soultz-sous-Forêts (France) geothermal field is located in the Upper Rhine valley. Over the development of this EGS, four wells have been drilled into the granitic basement, up to 5 km depth, and eight major stimulations were carried out to create the heat exchanger. Several major observations based on the large induced seismicity database have been made and can apply on other EGS. Hence, it was noticed that a) the induced seismicity mainly occurs along planar features, b) during stimulation, the induced seismicity becomes stronger over time and this is still observed after shut-in. Most often, the largest magnitude microearthquake occurs following shut-in, c) over a certain overpressure threshold, seismicity can be induced and also a clear Kaiser effect can be observed for already stimulated volumes, d) the stimulation and the circulation periods induce different seismic responses. At Gross Schoenebeck (Germany), the Dethlingen sandstones and the underlying andesitic volcanic rocks of the Rotliegend formation of the North German Basin constitute the target reservoirs. Six major stimulations of the well doublet carried out around or deeper than 4.2 km created hydrofractures. The three seismically monitored operations highlighted very weak seismic responses in terms of energy and quantity. Only 78 microearthquakes were identified during the major operation which involved ~13,000 m3 of injected water and which is a volume comparable to that injected at Soultz. Such seismogenic behavior is consistent with the creation of hydrofractures and with a mechanism of dilatant shear. Interestingly, the strongest microearthquakes (Mw ? -1) occurred on a pre-existing fault and similar observations were already made in hydrofractured oil and gas reservoir. Seemingly, the sudden increase of the seismic moment of the microearthquakes and the decrease of the b-value are indicators of the reactivation of pre-existing fractures from the newly created one. As underlined by these case studies where fluid stimulation was always involved, the observation of induced seismicity may drastically change; and we will try to identify the reasons of these differences and propose directions to get better understanding.

Gaucher, E.; Kohl, T.

2013-12-01

85

Effets Seebeck et Nernst dans les cuprates: Etude de la reconstruction de la surface de Fermi sous champ magnetique intense  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ce memoire presente des mesures de transport thermoelectrique, les effets Seebeck et Nernst, dans une serie d'echantillons de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique. Des resultats obtenus recemment au Laboratoire National des Champs Magnetiques Intenses a Grenoble sur La1.7Eu0.2Sr0.1 CuO4, La1.675Eu0.2Sr0.125CuO 4, La1.64Eu0.2Sr0.16CuO4, La1.74Eu0.1Sr0.16CuO4 et La 1.4Nd0.4Sr0.2CuO4 sont analyses. Une attention particuliere est accordee aux equations de la theorie semi-classique du transport et leur validite est verifiee. La procedure experimentale et les materiaux utilises pour concevoir les montages de mesures sont expliques en detail. Enfin, un chapitre est dedie a l'explication et l'interpretation des resultats de transport thermoelectrique sur YBa2Cu3O6+delta publies au cours de l'hiver 2010 dans les revues Nature et Physical Review Letters. Les donnees d'effet Seebeck dans les echantillons de La 1.8-x,Eu0.2SrxCuO 4, ou un changement de signe est observe, permettent de conclure a la presence d'une poche d'electrons dans la surface de Fermi qui domine le transport a basse temperature dans la region sous-dopee du diagramme de phase. Cette conclusion est similaire a celle obtenue par des mesures d'effet Hall dans YBa 2Cu3O6+delta et elle cadre bien dans un scenario de reconstruction de la surface de Fermi. Les donnees d'effet Nernst recueillies indiquent que la contribution des fluctuations supraconductrices est limitee a un modeste intervalle de temperature au-dessus de la temperature critique.

Laliberte, Francis

2010-06-01

86

Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zeala...

87

Update on meat irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The irradiation of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. Irradiation will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at doses from 1.5 to 3.0 kGy and for fresh pork at doses from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy. A petition for the clearance of all red meat was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 1994. The petition is for clearances of fresh meat at doses from 1.5 to 4.5 kGy and for frozen meat at {approximately}2.5 to 7.5 kGy. Clearance for red meat is expected before the end of 1997. There are 28 countries that have food irradiation clearances, of which 18 countries have clearances for meat or poultry. However, there are no uniform categories or approved doses for meat and poultry among the countries that could hamper international trade of irradiated meat and poultry.

Olson, D.G. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

1997-12-01

88

Safer Food with Irradiation  

E-print Network

radioactiv e . The amount of energy used to irradiate food is enough to kill harm-ful bacteria but it does not mak e the food radioactiv e , just as luggage does not become radioactiv e after passing through an airport luggage scanner . Man y common items...

Thompson, Britta; Vestal, Andy; Van Laanen, Peggy

2003-01-21

89

MFR PAPER 1135 Irradiation of  

E-print Network

MFR PAPER 1135 Irradiation of shrimp extends their storage life. Low Level Ionizing Radiation treated with turmeric and salt and ionizing radiation. Sensory assessment of irradiated shrimp and shrimp, respectively, than nonirradiated shrimp. The spice treatment masks off-odors and flavors caused by irradiation

90

Food irradiation: Activities and potentialities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the acceptance of food irradiation up to an overall average dose of 10 kGy recommended by the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food in October 1980, the G.D.R. started a programme for the development of techniques for food irradiation. A special onion irradiator was designed and built as a pilot plant for studying technological and economic parameters of the irradiation of onions. The new principle of bulk-cargo irradiation allows the integration of this technology into the usual harvest technology for onions on the way from field to storage. Scientific and applied research work has been carried out in the past 3 yr on the irradiation of spices, potatoes, eviscerated chicken, animal feeds, fodder yeast, drugs and vaccines. In connection with the irradiation of eviscerated chicken, fodder yeast and animal feeds the basis of an antisalmonella programme has been discussed. Germ-count-reduced spices were employed for the production of test charges of preserves and tinned products. The results have led to the decision to design and build a new multipurpose irradiator for food irradiation. In order to cover the legal aspects of food irradiation the Ministry of Health issued regulations concerning the recommendation of irradiated food in the G.D.R.

Doellstaedt, R.; Huebner, G.

91

Physicochemical and microbiological changes during the refrigerated storage of lamb loins sous-vide cooked at different combinations of time and temperature.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the influence of cooking temperature (either 60?? or 80??) and time (6?h or 24?h) on the physicochemical (weight loss, moisture content, instrumental color, instrumental texture, lipid and protein oxidation) and microbiological changes underwent by sous-vide cooked lamb loins during refrigerated storage for 30 days. There was a slight trend to decreasing weight losses in some of the cooking treatments, but only in samples cooked at 60?? for 6?h it was paralleled with an increase in moisture content. The only noteworthy oxidative change was a marked decrease in conjugated dienes after two weeks of storage in samples cooked at 80?? for 24?h. Neither instrumental texture nor color showed noticeable variations during the storage. Microbial population remained quite low during the whole refrigerated storage. Overall, most of the studied parameters showed only scarce changes throughout 30 days of refrigerated storage that most likely would not influence the quality of sous-vide cooked loin lambs. PMID:25249562

Roldán, Mar; Antequera, Teresa; Hernández, Alejandro; Ruiz, Jorge

2014-09-23

92

[Publi in Libert et ncessit chez Hobbes et ses contemporains Descartes, Cudworth, Spinoza, Leibniz, sous la direction de Yves-Charles ZARKA, Paris : Vrin ( Hobbes supplementa ), 2012, p. 25-  

E-print Network

, Leibniz, sous la direction de Yves-Charles ZARKA, Paris : Vrin (« Hobbes supplementa »), 2012, p. 25- 45-Charles Zarka (Ed.) (2012) 25-45" #12;2 Autant, donc, comme j'ai essayé de le montrer, Descartes est sans cesse

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

93

Observations of solar irradiance variability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-precision measurements of total solar irradiance, made by the active cavity radiometer irradiance monitor on the Solar Maximum Mission satellite, show the irradiance to have been variable throughout the first 153 days of observations. The corrected data resolve orbit-to-orbit variations with uncertainties as small as 0.01%. Irradiance fluctuations are typical of a band-limited noise spectrum with high-frequency cutoff near 0.15/day; their amplitudes about the mean value of 1368.31 watts per square meter approach plus or minus 0.05%. Two large decreases in irradiance of up to 0.2% lasting about one week are highly correlated with the development of sunspot groups. The magnitude and time scale of the irradiance variability suggest that considerable energy storage occurs within the convection zone in solar active regions.

Willson, R. C.; Gulkis, S.; Janssen, M.; Hudson, H. S.; Chapman, G. A.

1981-01-01

94

Irradiation of northwest agricultural products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect ocntrol procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, this program was conducted to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

Eakin, D. E.; Tingey, G. I.

1985-02-01

95

Detection of fractures within the Soultz-sous-Forêts EGS geothermal reservoir by processing of Vertical Seismic Profile data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 4 component multi-source/multi-offset VSP (Vertical Seismic Profile) conducted at the Soultz-sous-Forêts EGS (Enhanced Geothermal System) site in 2007 provides records of seismic waves recorded in the fractured granite basement within wells GPK3 and GPK4. Waves generated at 26 surface positions, located at distances between 500m and 5km from the well head in different azimuths, are recorded by 3 component geophones at depths between 5000m and 3000m with a 20m depth interval. The seismic source is a vibrator emitting a 16s long sweep with frequencies varying linearly between 8 and 88 Hz. Two shot locations were simultaneously recorded, one with an upsweep [8 to 88Hz], the other with a downsweep [88 to 8Hz]. Successive correlation with the two sweeps allows retrieving distinct seismograms for each shot from the mixed raw uncorrelated records. Most records show clear downgoing P and S waves. Detecting waves reflected or diffracted by fractures intersecting the wells requires extracting low amplitude upgoing waves from the dominant downgoing wavefield. However, the up to 30° inclination of the well relative to the vertical and the 60 to 90° dips of the fracture zones make the separation of the different waves complex. The wavefield separation of the vertical geophone component is done in the frequency-wavenumber Fourier domain which separates waves according to their apparent velocity across the receiver antenna. Picking of the first arrival times and shifting times allows aligning predominant P wave downgoing wavefield at constant times, or infinite apparent velocity in Fourier domain. Filtering the infinite apparent velocity attenuates all the waves having the same apparent velocity as the first arrivals. A second filtering at the downgoing S waves velocities is then applied, providing two downgoing wavefields, one for the P waves and the other for the S waves. The residuals correspond to the upgoing wavefield. To reduce the reverberations in the upgoing wavefield, we apply a Wiener deconvolution. Faint coherent waves that may originate from fractures are observed in restricted depth intervals. In order to model the arrival times of the extracted reflections/diffractions at the different shot positions, we need a velocity model of the 1400m thick sedimentary cover. P velocities from VSP data of one shot recorded in well GPK4 in sediments and structural information from geological logs and interpreted surface seismic profiles are used to build an initial 3D model with 3 layers separated by dipping plane interfaces. 3D ray tracing is used to compute first arrival times and adjust our model to the data, by modifying the dip of the interfaces. It is then possible to adjust the upgoing waves arrival times to reflections or diffractions on fractures in the reservoir.

Lubrano Lavadera, P.; Marthelot, J. M.; Zillmer, M.; Cornet, F.

2012-04-01

96

Etude du comportement et de la modélisation viscoplastique du zircaloy 4recristallisé sous chargements monotones et cycliques uni et multiaxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of experiment performed on a recrystallized zircaloy 4 alloy in the intermediate temperature domain 20 leqslant T leqslant 400 ^{circ}C are presented. To characterize the anisotropy, especially at 350 ^{circ}C, the tests were made under both monotonic and cyclic uni- and bidirectional loadings, i.e. tension-compression, tension-torsion and tension-internal pressure tests. The different anisotropy coefficients and especially R^p = \\varepsilon^p_{??} /\\varepsilon^ p _ {{^-_-}{^-_-} } seem to be temperature independent. An important feature of the behavior of this alloy in the neighbourhood of 300 ^{circ}C is attributed to the dislocations-point defects interactions (dynamic strain aging), phenomena often observed in the solid solutions. For the 2D cyclic non proportional loadings it is shown that a weak supplementary hardening appears, which is a function of the degree of the phase lag. We propose to particularize and to apply a unified viscoplastic model with internal variables to the considered alloy, as the model as already been developed and identified elsewhere for other isotropic materials. From a general point of view the introduction of the anisotropy in the model is made by four tensors of rank 4 ; [ M] is assigned to the flow directions, [ N] to the linear parts of the kinematical hardening variables and [ Q] , [ R] respectively to the dynamic and static recoveries of these tensorial variables. This phenomenological formulation leads to a correct representation of the set of the experimental results presented at 350 ^{circ}C, which provides an a posteriori confirmation of the formalism used. On étudie, entre 20 et 400 ^{circ}C, à l'aide d'essais sous chargements multiaxiaux monotones et cycliques (traction, torsion et pression interne) les propriétés viscoplastiques anisotropes de tube de zircaloy 4 recristallisé. A la température de 350 ^{circ}C, l'anisotropie a été quantifiée de façon détaillée. Les quelques résultats obtenus à la température ambiante ainsi que l'indépendance du rapport R^p = \\varepsilon^p_{??}/\\varepsilon^ p_{{^-_-}{^-_-} } avec la température laissent supposer que l'ensemble des coefficients d'anisotropie ne dépendent pas de la température. Par contre, la fluidité de cet alliage présente un minimum très marqué au voisinage de 300 ^{circ}C. Ce comportement est imputable au vieillissement dynamique fréquemment observé dans les solutions solides d'insertion. Lors d'un chargement cyclique hors phase (traction-torsion déphasée à 90^{circ}) ce matériau présente un léger durcissement supplémentaire. On propose l'extension au cas du zircaloy 4 de la formulation d'un modèle viscoplastique unifié développé et identifié par ailleurs sur d'autres matériaux initialement isotropes. D'une manière générale, l'introduction de l'anisotropie dans ce modèle s'effectue par l'intermédiaire de quatre tenseurs d'ordre 4 affectant les directions d'écoulement [ M] , les parties linéaires des écrouissages cinématiques [ N] , ainsi que les restaurations dynamiques [ Q] et statiques [ R] de ces mêmes variables d'écrouissage. L'identification de ce modèle est discutée et réalisée à 350 ^{circ}C. On montre l'adéquation du formalisme à appréhender l'ensemble des caractéristiques mécaniques de cet alliage.

Delobelle, P.; Robinet, P.

1994-08-01

97

Food irradiation and sterilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

Josephson, Edward S.

98

Consumer attitude toward food irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Consumer attitudes toward food irradiation were evaluated. The influence of educational efforts on consumer concern for the safety of irradiated products and willingness to buy irradiated foods were measured. Demographic and psychological factors were studied in relation to attitudes. An educational leaflet describing current scientific information regarding the safety, advantages, and disadvantages of food irradiation was developed and used in two studies evaluating attitude change. In the first study, attitude change among two groups of consumers with different philosophic orientations was measured. In a second study, the effectiveness of an educational leaflet received through the mail and a poster display were examined. In a third study response to food irradiation was related to value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters. Initially, subjects showed a higher concern for other areas of food safety, particularly the use of chemicals and sprays on food, than toward food irradiation. After educational efforts, conventional consumers expressed minor concern toward irradiation whereas ecologically sensitive alternative consumers obtained from a food cooperative expressed major concern. A knowledgeable discussion leader lowered irradiation concern among conventional consumers. In contrast, concern among alternative consumers did not diminish when given the opportunity to discuss safety issues with a knowledgeable person.

Bruhn, C.M.M.

1986-01-01

99

PLANT GROWTH IN IRRADIATED SOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison is made of the growth of subterranean clover in two soils, ; Urrbrae red-brown earth and Mount Compass pcdzolized sand, sterilized by heat, ; propylene oxide, and irradiation. Plating of the soil at both planting and ; harvesting showed that heat and irradiation treated soils were sterile, whereas ; the soils treated with propylene oxide were not. In

G. D. Bowen; A. D. Rovira

1961-01-01

100

Electric fields in irradiated dielectrics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An existing model for quantitatively predicting electric field build-up in dielectrics is used to demonstrate the importance of material parameters. Results indicate that electron irradiation will produce 10 to the 6th power V/cm in important materials. Parameters which can alter this build-up are discussed. Comparison to known irradiation induced dielectric charging experiments is discussed.

Frederickson, A. R.

1979-01-01

101

Safety evaluation of sous vide-processed products with respect to nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum by use of challenge studies and predictive microbiological models.  

PubMed

Sixteen different types of sous vide-processed products were evaluated for safety with respect to nonproteolytic group II Clostridium botulinum by using challenge tests with low (2. 0-log-CFU/kg) and high (5.3-log-CFU/kg) inocula and two currently available predictive microbiological models, Food MicroModel (FMM) and Pathogen Modeling Program (PMP). After thermal processing, the products were stored at 4 and 8 degrees C and examined for the presence of botulinal spores and neurotoxin on the sell-by date and 7 days after the sell-by date. Most of the thermal processes were found to be inadequate for eliminating spores, even in low-inoculum samples. Only 2 of the 16 products were found to be negative for botulinal spores and neurotoxin at both sampling times. Two products at the high inoculum level showed toxigenesis during storage at 8 degrees C, one of them at the sell-by date. The predictions generated by both the FMM thermal death model and the FMM and PMP growth models were found to be inconsistent with the observed results in a majority of the challenges. The inaccurate predictions were caused by the limited number and range of the controlling factors in the models. Based on this study, it was concluded that the safety of sous vide products needs to be carefully evaluated product by product. Time-temperature combinations used in thermal treatments should be reevaluated to increase the efficiency of processing, and the use of additional antibotulinal hurdles, such as biopreservatives, should be assessed. PMID:10618228

Hyytiä-Trees, E; Skyttä, E; Mokkila, M; Kinnunen, A; Lindström, M; Lähteenmäki, L; Ahvenainen, R; Korkeala, H

2000-01-01

102

Safety Evaluation of Sous Vide-Processed Products with Respect to Nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum by Use of Challenge Studies and Predictive Microbiological Models  

PubMed Central

Sixteen different types of sous vide-processed products were evaluated for safety with respect to nonproteolytic group II Clostridium botulinum by using challenge tests with low (2.0-log-CFU/kg) and high (5.3-log-CFU/kg) inocula and two currently available predictive microbiological models, Food MicroModel (FMM) and Pathogen Modeling Program (PMP). After thermal processing, the products were stored at 4 and 8°C and examined for the presence of botulinal spores and neurotoxin on the sell-by date and 7 days after the sell-by date. Most of the thermal processes were found to be inadequate for eliminating spores, even in low-inoculum samples. Only 2 of the 16 products were found to be negative for botulinal spores and neurotoxin at both sampling times. Two products at the high inoculum level showed toxigenesis during storage at 8°C, one of them at the sell-by date. The predictions generated by both the FMM thermal death model and the FMM and PMP growth models were found to be inconsistent with the observed results in a majority of the challenges. The inaccurate predictions were caused by the limited number and range of the controlling factors in the models. Based on this study, it was concluded that the safety of sous vide products needs to be carefully evaluated product by product. Time-temperature combinations used in thermal treatments should be reevaluated to increase the efficiency of processing, and the use of additional antibotulinal hurdles, such as biopreservatives, should be assessed. PMID:10618228

Hyytiä-Trees, Eija; Skyttä, Eija; Mokkila, Mirja; Kinnunen, Arvo; Lindström, Miia; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Ahvenainen, Raija; Korkeala, Hannu

2000-01-01

103

Hydrothermal convection beneath an inclined basement-sediment interface : application to the Rhine graben and its Soultz-sous-Forêts temperature anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geothermal anomalies in sedimentary basins are strongly controlled by fluid circulation within permeable zones. Exploration of new targets requires the understanding of how and why hydrothermal circulation patterns establish in a particular zone. This study presents a new compilation of newly corrected bottom-hole temperature data in the French part of the Upper Rhine Graben, where the Soultz-sous-Forêts temperature anomaly is locked beneath a local horst structure. After a geostatistically constrained interpolation procedure, maps and cross-sections are extracted from the 3D thermal block, together with the associated standard deviations. Thermal anomalies are preferentially associated with the thickest zones of the permeable fractured Buntsandstein (sandstones) formation, in apparent contradiction with previous models where two major fault zones were suggested to control fluid flow. The underlying fractured granitic basement hosts fluid circulation patterns which are apparently controlled at large-scale by the inclined basement-sediments interface. Based on these observations, numerical models of hydrothermal convection including an inclined basement-sediments interface, a local horst structure, and realistic petrophysical properties have been carried out. The depth-decrease of permeability, the inclination of the interface and the fixed heat flow condition at the base of the model, explain why only a few upwellings can be triggered. Thermal anomalies and a measured temperature profile can be reproduced when fault permeability equals 10^-14 m^2. Interestingly, structure of convective patterns also exhibits a second hotter upwelling, 8 km east of the Soultz-sous-Forêts upwelling zone, where another geothermal exploration project is now underway. The understanding of hydrothermal convection with realistic fluid and rock properties clearly appears as a predictive tool for geothermal exploration strategies.

Guillou-Frottier, L.; Carré, C.; Bourgine, B.; Bouchot, V.; Genter, A.

2012-12-01

104

Cinétique de la troponine Ic et valeurs seuils pour le diagnostic d'infarctus du myocarde après chirurgie cardiaque sous circulation extracorporelle  

PubMed Central

Introduction L'objectif de ce travail était d’étudier la cinétique de la Troponine Ic (TnIc) après chirurgie cardiaque sous circulation extracorporelle (CEC) et établir des valeurs seuils de TnIc pour le diagnostic d'infarctus du myocarde (IDM) post opératoire. Il s'agissait d'une étude prospective type cohorte observationnelle. Méthodes Nous avons inclus 37 patients âgés de plus de 18 ans proposés pour chirurgie valvulaire ou pontage aorto coronarien sous CEC. Nous avons suivi la cinétique de TnIc par des dosages immunoenzymatique sur mini-vidas® avant et après la CEC, à H4 et H12 postopératoire puis tous les jours les 4 premiers jours. Le cutoff pour le diagnostic d'IDM post opératoire a été défini comme la valeur moyenne de troponine + deux déviations standards des patients indemnes de complications cardiaques. Résultats Les valeurs de TnIc en préopératoire étaient toutes inférieures au seuil de détection de la méthode de dosage (<0,01µg/l). Les valeurs de TnIc augmentent en postopératoire immédiat pour atteindre un maximum à H4 puis diminuent progressivement pour se normaliser après 4 à 5 jours. Les valeurs seuils ont été déterminées pour H0, H4,H12, H24, H48, H72, H96 et ont été respectivement 1.36, 2.58, 3.1, 3.23, 2.13, 1.53, 1.17 pour la chirurgie coronaire et 3.75, 5.39, 4.22, 3.41, 1.65, 1.3 1.19 pour la chirurgie valvulaire. Conclusion La connaissance de la cinétique de TnIc lors de chirurgie cardiaque non compliquée et la fixation de valeur seuil ou Cutoff permet aux cliniciens de distinguer entre dommage myocardique secondaire à la chirurgie et IDM. PMID:23396754

Kallel, Samy; Jarraya, Anwar; Ellouze, Maged; Frikha, Imed; Karoui, Abbdelhamid

2012-01-01

105

Gamma irradiation of intravenous immunoglobulin.  

PubMed

This paper describes gamma irradiation of a biotherapeutic product under conditions (the Clearant Process") that protect proteins and foster inactivation of viruses and other pathogens. The treated product was immunoglobulin paste from cold ethanol fractionation of human plasma, a process intermediate in the production of intravenous immunoglobulin (IGIV). The frozen paste was irradiated on dry ice to 45 kGy, conditions that inactivate > or = 4 log10 of non-enveloped viruses and > or = 6 log10 of enveloped viruses. When IGIV purified from the irradiated paste was characterized, no protein aggregation, fragmentation, oxidation or denaturation was detected and Fab functionality remained intact. PMID:15645683

Drohan, W N; Miekka, S I; Griko, Y V; Forng, R Y; Stafford, R E; Hill, C R; Mann, D M; Burgess, W H

2004-01-01

106

AFIP-4 Irradiation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-4 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) fuels at a scale prototypic of research reactor fuel plates. The AFIP-4 test further examine the fuel/clad interface and its behavior under extreme conditions. After irradiation, fission gas retention measurements will be performed during post irradiation (PIE). The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-4 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.

Danielle M Perez; Misti A Lillo; Gray S. Chang; Glenn A Roth; Nicolas Woolstenhulme; Daniel M Wachs

2011-09-01

107

Influences on Purchase of Irradiated Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews data from surveys and retail experiments that examine the purchase decision between irradiated and non-irradiated (typical) products. The primary factor influencing purchase decisions is information provided about irradiation. Other factors include effectiveness of alternative technologies, gender, and the presence of children in the household. Female parents of younger children are less likely to choose irradiated foods. Most

John A. Fox

108

Calculating Irradiance For Photosynthesis In The Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mathematical model predicts available and usable irradiances. Yields estimates of irradiance available for photosynthesis (Epar) and irradiance usable for photosynthesis (Epur) as functions of depth in ocean. Describes Epur and Epar in terms of spectral parameters measured remotely (from satellites or airplanes). These irradiances useful in studies of photosynthetic productivity of phytoplankton in euphotic layer.

Collins, Donald J.; Davis, Curtiss O.; Booth, C. Rockwell; Kiefer, Dale A.; Stallings, Casson

1990-01-01

109

Irradiation pretreatment for coal desulfurization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Process using highly-penetrating nuclear radiation (Beta and Gamma radiation) from nuclear power plant radioactive waste to irradiate coal prior to conventional desulfurization procedures increases total extraction of sulfur.

Hsu, G. C.

1979-01-01

110

Irradiation of Northwest agricultural products  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect control procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting this program to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

Eakin, D.E.; Tingey, G.L.

1985-02-01

111

Accelerated partial breast irradiation.  

PubMed

Local therapies to treat newly diagnosed breast cancer include a lumpectomy with radiation therapy or a mastectomy. The 20-year data from studies about the safety and efficacy of lumpectomy with full-breast radiation therapy support the safety of this regimen and its role to decrease the risk of ipsilateral recurrence and increase long-term survivorship of women with breast cancer. Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) provides radiation therapy to the tumor bed but spares the remaining breast tissue. APBI accelerates the time required to complete the therapy regimen, with a range of one intraoperative session to five consecutive days compared to five to seven weeks. Several techniques exist to administer APBI, including the insertion of a balloon into the lumpectomy space. Of interest is the widespread use of APBI in community and academic settings that has preceded outcomes of large, randomized clinical trials. Because of selection bias in a number of small, single-institution, nonrandomized studies, published data are of limited value to ensure APBI as a standard of care. PMID:25253109

Bauer, Elfrida; Lester, Joanne L

2014-10-01

112

(Irradiation creep of graphite)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended the Conference, International Symposium on Carbon, to present an invited paper, Irradiation Creep of Graphite,'' and chair one of the technical sessions. There were many papers of particular interest to ORNL and HTGR technology presented by the Japanese since they do not have a particular technology embargo and are quite open in describing their work and results. In particular, a paper describing the failure of Minor's law to predict the fatigue life of graphite was presented. Although the conference had an international flavor, it was dominated by the Japanese. This was primarily a result of geography; however, the work presented by the Japanese illustrated an internal program that is very comprehensive. This conference, a result of this program, was better than all other carbon conferences attended by the traveler. This conference emphasizes the need for US participation in international conferences in order to stay abreast of the rapidly expanding HTGR and graphite technology throughout the world. The United States is no longer a leader in some emerging technologies. The traveler was surprised by the Japanese position in their HTGR development. Their reactor is licensed and the major problem in their graphite program is how to eliminate it with the least perturbation now that most of the work has been done.

Kennedy, C.R.

1990-12-21

113

Lithium Irradiation Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The subject of tritium production in the Antiproton Source Collection lens was raised in the mid-1980s during the design phase of the pbar source. Interest in it has recurred during development of the proton lens and in recent investigations to determine the feasibility of liquid lithium collection lenses for the pbar source and a muon collider project. Calculations for tritium and beryllium 7 production on lithium suffer from a lack of information on medium and high energy cross section data. In addition, knowledge of the energy spectrum within the target vault is based upon calculations. Knowledge of the low energy spectrum, important for tritium production on lithium, is limited, if not non-existent. For Collider Run II, effort is to be applied to improve the performance of the solid lithium lens. Historically, examination of failed lithium lenses has not been pursued because they have been fairly radioactive and because they are thought to contain significant quantities of the radionuclides tritium and beryllium 7. The development of methods to examine failed lithium lenses may be desirable so that the specific causes of failure can be discovered. From such studies, design improvements can be incorporated with the goal of achieving lens performances goals related to Collider Run II. The purpose of the lithium irradiation experiment is to determine the production rates of radioisotopes tritium and beryllium 7 within the lithium lens in its operating in its operating environment.

Leveling, A.F.; /Fermilab

2000-08-22

114

Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies.

Hallman, Guy J.

2012-07-01

115

Interdiffusion de puits quantiques controlee par irradiation laser excimere pour l'integration de composants photoniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L'integration de composants discrets sur un systeme unique, tel une puce electronique, augmente les performances totales du systeme, fait apparaitre de nouvelles fonctionnalites et diminue les couts associes a la fabrication des dispositifs. Ces ameliorations, appliquees au secteur de la microelectronique, sont grandement responsables des avancements importants qu'ont connus les technologies de l'information et des communications au cours des dernieres annees. Puisque la fabrication de circuits photoniques integres necessite l'integration de structures ayant des bandes interdites differentes a partir d'une meme puce semiconductrice, leur niveau d'integration est bien inferieur que celui atteint pour un microprocesseur standard. Parmi les techniques ayant le potentiel de fabriquer des circuits photoniques integres monolithiquement, l'interdiffusion de puits quantique post-expitaxial controlee spatialement augmente la bande interdite d'une heterostructure semiconductrice a l'interieur de regions definies. Le processus d'interdiffusion, active thermiquement, est accelere par la diffusion d'impuretes et de defauts ponctuels tels que les lacunes et les interstitiels. L'hypothese de depart de mes travaux de doctorat suppose que la radiation laser ultra-violette module la diffusion et la generation de defauts ponctuels dans les heterostructures reposant sur les technologies a base de GaAs et d'InP et, consequemment, controle spatialement l'interdiffusion de puits quantiques. Nous avons demontre que lorsque appliquee sur des heterostructures a base de GaAs, l'irradiation laser excimere l'interdiffusion en favorisant la croissance d'un stresseur de surface qui empeche la diffusion des defauts ponctuels vers les puits quantiques. Nous avons souligne l'influence de la vapeur d'eau physisorbee sur la croissance du stresseur et avons determine la resolution spatiale de la technique. Dans les heterostructures basees sur les technologies InP, meme sous le seuil d'ablation, l'absorption des impulsions laser UV favorise la desorption des atomes de surface ce qui genere des defauts ponctuels en concentration excedentaire. Lors d'un recuit thermique, ces defauts ponctuels augmentent la vitesse de l'interdiffusion sous les regions irradiees. Mots cles : Interdiffusion de puits quantique, integration potonique, laser excimere, semiconducteur, InP, GaAs.

Genest, Jonathan

116

Slag recycling of irradiated vanadium  

SciTech Connect

An experimental inductoslag apparatus to recycle irradiated vanadium was fabricated and tested. An experimental electroslag apparatus was also used to test possible slags. The testing was carried out with slag materials that were fabricated along with impurity bearing vanadium samples. Results obtained include computer simulated thermochemical calculations and experimentally determined removal efficiencies of the transmutation impurities. Analyses of the samples before and after testing were carried out to determine if the slag did indeed remove the transmutation impurities from the irradiated vanadium.

Gorman, P.K.

1995-04-05

117

Un sentiment politique : la haine des Bourbons sous la Restauration1 Messieurs... Un forfait qui pntre la France d'une douleur, qu'on ne peut comparer qu'  

E-print Network

1 Un sentiment politique : la haine des Bourbons sous la Restauration1 « Messieurs... Un forfait individus qui l'incarnent, et ressortit donc à l'ordre des idées autant qu'à celui des sentiments. Plus largement, le sentiment de haine est évidemment difficile à saisir par l'historien du premier XIXe siècle, à

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

118

George Sand et le thtre de Nohant : l'intimit de la cration dramatique Tout au long de sa vie, George Sand s'intresse au thtre sous toutes ses formes  

E-print Network

1 George Sand et le théâtre de Nohant : l'intimité de la création dramatique Tout au long de sa vie, George Sand s'intéresse au théâtre sous toutes ses formes et en particulier à ses formes marginales questions esthétiques, philosophiques et psychologiques que s'est posées George Sand pendant toute sa vie 2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

119

Proton irradiation effect on SCDs  

E-print Network

The Low Energy X-ray Telescope is a main payload on the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope satellite. The swept charge device is selected for the Low Energy X-ray Telescope. As swept charge devices are sensitive to proton irradiation, irradiation test was carried out on the HI-13 accelerator at the China Institute of Atomic Energy. The beam energy was measured to be 10 MeV at the SCD. The proton fluence delivered to the SCD was $3\\times10^{8}\\mathrm{protons}/\\mathrm{cm}^{2}$ over two hours. It is concluded that the proton irradiation affects both the dark current and the charge transfer inefficiency of the SCD through comparing the performance both before and after the irradiation. The energy resolution of the proton-irradiated SCD is 212 eV@5.9 keV at $-60\\,^{\\circ}\\mathrm{C}$, while it before irradiated is 134 eV. Moreover, better performance can be reached by lowering the operating temperature of the SCD on orbit.

Yan-Ji Yang; Jing-Bin Lu; Yu-Sa Wang; Yong Chen; Yu-Peng Xu; Wei-Wei Cui; Wei Li; Zheng-Wei Li; Mao-Shun Li; Xiao-Yan Liu; Juan Wang; Da-Wei Han; Tian-Xiang Chen; Cheng-Kui Li; Jia Huo; Wei Hu; Yi Zhang; Bo Lu; Yue Zhu; Ke-Yan Ma; Di Wu; Yan Liu; Zi-Liang Zhang; Guo-He Yin; Yu Wang

2014-04-19

120

Soybean, palm kernel, and animal-vegetable oils and vitamin E supplementation effect on lipid oxidation stability of sous vide chicken meat.  

PubMed

There is an increasing demand in precooked chicken meat products for restaurants and catering services. Because cooked chicken meat develops lipid oxidation relatively fast, sous vide chicken meat was studied to assess its shelf-life. Six hundred Cobb x Ross broilers were fed for 6 wk with a basal corn-soybean meal diet including soybean, palm kernel, or animal-vegetable oil, each supplemented with 33 or 200 mg/kg of dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate. Broilers were randomly assigned into 6 treatments and 4 repetitions with 25 birds each. Boneless breast or thigh muscle pieces were dissected into 5 x 5 x 5 cm cubes, vacuum-packed, cooked in water bath (until 74 degrees C internal temperature), chilled, and stored at 4 degrees C for 1, 5, 10, 25, and 40 d. For each storage day, each pouch contained 3 pieces of meat, either breast or thigh. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances analysis, to quantify malonaldehyde (MDA) values, was conducted to estimate the lipid oxidation development. Nonheme iron values of cooked meat were analyzed. Fatty acid methyl esters analysis was performed in chicken muscle to determine its fatty acid composition. There was no interaction between dietary fat and vitamin E level in all of the variables studied except in nonheme iron. Dietary fat significantly influenced the fatty acid composition of the muscle (P < 0.01), but it did not affect the MDA values, regardless of differences in the muscle fatty acid composition between treatments. Supplementation of the high level of vitamin E significantly reduced the MDA values in both breast and thigh meat (P < 0.01). The maximum MDA values were observed at d 40 of storage in thigh and breast meat in animal-vegetable and soybean oil treatments with the low levels of vitamin E, 0.91 and 0.70 mg/kg, respectively. Nonheme iron values in thigh meat differed between treatments at 1 or 25 d of storage but not in breast meat. In conclusion, refrigerated sous vide chicken meat has a prolonged shelf-life, which is enhanced by dietary supranutritional supplementation of vitamin E. PMID:20308404

Narciso-Gaytán, C; Shin, D; Sams, A R; Bailey, C A; Miller, R K; Smith, S B; Leyva-Ovalle, O R; Sánchez-Plata, M X

2010-04-01

121

Inhibition of growth of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum type B in sous vide cooked meat products is achieved by using thermal processing but not nisin.  

PubMed

The safety of refrigerated processed foods of extended durability (REPFEDs) with respect to nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum is under continuous evaluation. In the present study, mild (P7.0(85.0) values 0 to 2 min [P, pasteurization value; z-value 7.0 degrees C; reference temperature 85.0 degrees C]) and increased (P7.0(85.0) values 67 to 515 min) heat treatments were evaluated in relation to survival of nonproteolytic C. botulinum type B spores in sous vide processed ground beef and pork cubes. The use of two concentrations of nisin in inhibition of growth and toxin production by nonproteolytic C. botulinum in the same products was also evaluated. A total of 96 samples were heat processed and analyzed for C. botulinum by BoNT/B gene-specific polmerase chain reaction and for botulinum toxin by a mouse bioassay after storage of 14 to 28 days at 4 and 8 degrees C. Predictably, after mild processing all samples of both products showed botulinal growth, and one ground beef sample became toxic at 8 degrees C. The increased heat processing, equivalent to 67 min at 85 degrees C. resulted in growth but not toxin production of C. botulinum in one ground beef sample in 21 days at 8 degrees C: in the pork cube samples no growth was detected. The increased heating of both products resulted in higher sensory quality than the milder heat treatment. Nisin did not inhibit the growth of nonproteolytic C. botulinum in either product; growth was detected in both products at 4 and 8 degrees C, and ground beef became toxic with all nisin levels within 21 to 28 days at 8 degrees C. Aerobic and lactic acid bacterial counts were reduced by the addition of nisin at 4 degrees C. The study demonstrates that the mild processing temperatures commonly employed in sous vide technology do not eliminate nonproteolytic C. botulinum type B spores. The intensity of each heat treatment needs to be carefully evaluated individually for each product to ensure product safety in relation to nonproteolytic C. botulinum. PMID:11403135

Lindström, M; Mokkila, M; Skyttä, E; Hyytiä-Trees, E; Lähteenmäki, L; Hielm, S; Ahvenainen, R; Korkeala, H

2001-06-01

122

Cancer following medical irradiation.  

PubMed

Several generalizations about radiation carcinogenesis can be made: 1) a single exposure is sufficient to elevate cancer incidence many years later: 2) radiation-induced cancer cannot be distinguished from naturally occurring cancer, i.e., there is not unique radiogenic cancer; 3) all cancers appear to be increased after irradiation with the exception of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and possibly Hodgkin's disease, cervical cancer, and a few others; 4) the breast, thyroid, and bone marrow appear especially radiosensitive; 5) leukemia is the most prominent radiogenic tumor and shows a wave-like pattern of excess incidence over time, and the excess begins within two to four years, peaks about six to eight years, and decreases to normal levels about 25 years later; 6) solid tumors have a minimum latent period of about ten years, and for several cancers, the temporal pattern of incidence appears to follow the natural incidence, i.e., the cancers do not occur before the ages normally associated with increased incidence, implying that age-dependent factors influence the expression of disease; 7) age at exposure is perhaps the most important host factor influencing subsequent cancer risk; 8) the percentage increase in cancer incidence per rad is not the same for all cancers, i.e., some cancer of high natural incidence, e.g., colon, have low "relative risks" and some cancers of low natural incidence, e.g., thyroid, have high "relative risks;" 9) dose-effect curves are often linear, but curvilinearity is also observed and is possibly associated with the need for "two ionizing events" for transformation to occur at low doses, the influence of cell sterilization at moderate doses, the likelihood of "wasted" dose at high doses, and/or the influence of factors that effect the expression of disease. PMID:7237365

Boice, J D

1981-03-01

123

Scalar irradiance estimation from downward and upward plane irradiance measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inverse problem of ocean optics is solved for estimating the scalar irradiance and a source, such as fluorescence, bioluminescence, or Raman scattering, or an optical property such as the absorption coefficient. The solution requires in situ measurements of the downward and upward irradiances and a priori estimation of the angular shape of the volume scattering function. The iterative inversion procedure is developed from asymptotic two-stream radiative transfer equations and the conjugate gradient method. Preliminary numerical tests show that the algorithm is quite accurate in the region away from the surface but gives appreciable errors close to the surface where the asymptotic two-stream equations are a poor approximation.

Tao, Zheng S.; McCormick, Norman J.

1994-10-01

124

Physico-chemical, textural and structural characteristics of sous-vide cooked pork cheeks as affected by vacuum, cooking temperature, and cooking time.  

PubMed

This paper describes the influence of different factors on sous-vide cooked pork. Pork cheeks were cooked at different combinations of temperature (60°C or 80°C), time (5 or 12h) and vacuum (vacuum or air packaged). Weight losses were lower and moisture content higher in samples cooked for a shorter time (P=0.054) and at a lower temperature (P<0.001). Samples cooked at 60°C showed more lightness (L*) and redness (a*) (P<0.001). Lipid oxidation showed an interaction between cooking time and temperature (P=0.007), with higher TBARs values for samples cooked for 12h at 60°C and lower for those cooked for 12h at 80°C. Samples cooked at 80°C for 12h showed lower (P<0.05) values for most textural parameters than all the other types of samples. Vacuum packaging showed no influence on any of the studied variables. For the treatments evaluated, cooking temperature×time combination seems to be more important than vacuum packaging in the textural and colour parameters of pork cheeks. PMID:22154568

Sánchez Del Pulgar, José; Gázquez, Antonio; Ruiz-Carrascal, Jorge

2012-03-01

125

Effect of the addition of conventional additives and whey proteins concentrates on technological parameters, physicochemical properties, microstructure and sensory attributes of sous vide cooked beef muscles.  

PubMed

Beef muscles submitted to four enhancement treatments (1.88% whey protein concentrate (WPC)+1.25% sodium chloride (NaCl); 1.88% modified whey protein concentrate (MWPC)+1.25%NaCl; 0.25% sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP)+1.25%NaCl; 1.25%NaCl) and a control treatment (non-injected muscles) were sous vide cooked. Muscles with STPP+NaCl presented a significantly higher total yield (106.5%) in comparison to those with WPC/MWPC+NaCl (94.7% and 92.9%, respectively), NaCl alone (84.8%) or controls (72.1%). Muscles with STPP+NaCl presented significantly lower shear force values than control ones; also, WPC/MWPC+NaCl added muscles presented similar values than those from the other treatments. After cooking, muscles with STPP+NaCl or WPC/MWPC+NaCl depicted compacted and uniform microstructures. Muscles with STPP+NaCl showed a pink colour, meanwhile other treatment muscles presented colours between pinkish-grey and grey-brown. STPP+NaCl added samples presented the highest values of global tenderness and juiciness. The addition of STPP+NaCl had a better performance than WPC/MWPC+NaCl. However, the addition of WPC/MWPC+NaCl improved total yield in comparison to NaCl added or control ones. PMID:22112522

Szerman, N; Gonzalez, C B; Sancho, A M; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Vaudagna, S R

2012-03-01

126

Effect of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride concentrations on the odour profile of sous vide cooked whole-muscle beef from Argentina.  

PubMed

Semitendinosus muscles added with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and sodium chloride (NaCl) were submitted to sous vide cooking. Four enhancement treatments and a control were tested: 0.875% WPC (w/w)+0.625% NaCl, 2.625% WPC+0.625% NaCl, 0.875% WPC+1.875% NaCl, 2.625% WPC+1.875% NaCl, and control (non-injected muscles). Odour analyses were carried out with an electronic nose (EN) system. EN data were evaluated applying Principal Component Analysis, Linear Discriminant Analysis and Partial Least Squares algorithm. EN was able to discriminate the odour profiles of cooked enhanced beef as a function of the amount of WPC added. No significant differences in odour profiles were observed regarding NaCl concentration. These results agreed with those obtained when odour profiles were analysed in WPC dispersions. The reported results support the applicability of EN methodology for analysing the impact of processing parameters on beef odour profiles. PMID:22062918

Grigioni, G; Langman, L; Szerman, N; Irurueta, M; Vaudagna, S R

2008-07-01

127

Effect of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride addition plus tumbling procedures on technological parameters, physical properties and visual appearance of sous vide cooked beef.  

PubMed

Beef muscles cooked by the sous vide system were evaluated for the effects of pre-injection tumbling, brine addition and post-injection tumbling on technological parameters, physical properties, visual appearance and tissue microstructure. The muscles were injected at 120% (over original weight) with a brine formulated to give a concentration of 3.5% whey protein concentrate and 0.7% sodium chloride on an injected raw product basis. Pre-injection tumbling did not affect most of the evaluated parameters. Brine addition reduced significantly the cooking and total weight losses. Total weight loss was 7.2% for injected muscles, and significantly higher (28.2%) for non-injected ones. Brine incorporation increased pH and reduced shear force values of cooked muscles. Extended post-injection tumbling (5rpm-10h) improved brine distribution and visual appearance, and also diminished the shear force values of cooked muscles. However, this treatment increased the weight losses of post-injection tumbling and cooking-pasteurization stages. PMID:22060988

Szerman, N; Gonzalez, C B; Sancho, A M; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Vaudagna, S R

2007-07-01

128

Effects of irradiation on PVC compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PVC compounds containing CaCO 3 filler and plasticizers were prepared with or without a trifunctional acrylic crosslinking agent and irradiated by 60Co ?-rays under air or nitrogen atmosphere. The samples without crosslinking agent did not respond to irradiation. The mechanical properties of the other samples such as tensile strength, yield strength and % elongation showed a great sensitivity to irradiation. Lower values of Young's modulus were observed for samples irradiated in air compared with samples irradiated in nitrogen indicating the effect of atmosphere in the range of irradiation studied.

Bataille, P.; Ulkem, I.; Schreiber, H. P.

1995-11-01

129

Fracture surfaces of irradiated composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electron microscopy was used to analyze the fracture surfaces of T300/934 graphite/epoxy unidirectional off-axis tensile coupons which were subjected to 1.0-MeV electron radiation at a rate of 50 Mrad/h for a total dose of 10 Grad. Fracture surfaces from irradiated and nonirradiated specimens tested at 116 K, room temperature, and 394 K were analyzed to assess the influence of radiation and temperature on the mode of failure and variations in constituent material as a function of environmental exposure. Micrographs of fracture surfaces indicate that irradiated specimens are more brittle than nonirradiated specimens at low temperatures. However, at elevated temperatures the irradiated specimens exhibit significantly more plasticity than nonirradiated specimens.

Milkovich, Scott M.; Sykes, George F., Jr.; Herakovich, Carl T.

1987-01-01

130

Investigation of irradiated soil byproducts.  

PubMed

The high dose irradiation of windblown soil deposited onto the surface of spent nuclear fuel is of concern to long-term fuel storage stability. Such soils could be exposed to radiation fields as great as 1.08 x 10(-3) C/kg-s (15,000 R/hr) during the 40-year anticipated period of interim dry storage prior to placement at the proposed national repository. The total absorbed dose in these cases could be as high as 5 x 10(7) Gy (5 x 10(9) rads). This investigation evaluated the potential generation of explosive or combustible irradiation byproducts during this irradiation. It focuses on the production of radiolytic byproducts generated within the pore water of surrogate clays that are consistent with those found on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Synthesized surrogates of localized soils containing combinations of clay, water, and aluminum samples, enclosed within a stainless steel vessel were irradiated and the quantities of the byproducts generated measured. Two types of clays, varying primarily in the presence of iron oxide, were investigated. Two treatment levels of irradiation and a control were investigated. An 18-Mev linear accelerator was used to irradiate samples. The first irradiation level provided an absorbed dose of 3.9 x 10(5)+/-1.4 x 10(5)Gy (3.9 x 10(7)+/-1.4 x 10(7) rads) in a 3-h period. At the second irradiation level, 4.8 x 10(5)+/-2.0 x 10(5)Gy (4.8 x 10(7)+/-2.0 x 10(7) rads) were delivered in a 6-h period. When averaged over all treatment parameters, irradiated clay samples with and without iron (III) oxide (moisture content = 40%) had a production rate of hydrogen gas that was a strong function of radiation-dose. A g-value of 5.61 x 10(-9)+/-1.56 x 10(-9) mol/J (0.054+/-0.015 molecules/100-eV) per mass of pore water was observed in the clay samples without iron (III) oxide for hydrogen gas production. A g-value of 1.07 x 10(-8)+/-2.91 x 10(-9) mol/J (0.103+0.028 molecules/100-eV) per mass of pore water was observed in the iron (III) oxide containing clay samples for hydrogen gas production. This value was noticeably larger when the samples were spiked with both KCl and KNO3 salts. The ratio of oxygen to nitrogen gas was observed to increase as a function of absorbed dose particularly in the presence of both KCl and KNO3 salts. The creation of radiolytic byproducts produced an observable but small increase in headspace pressure. Temperature increases during irradiation were not observed. Additionally, KCl and KNO3 salts added to the clays enhanced nitrite production as a function of radiation-dose and the type of clay considered. The addition of aluminum to these samples had no statistically discernable impact at the alpha = 0.05 level. Generation of the irradiation products, hydrogen peroxide and hydrogen gas also depended upon the type of clay irradiated and the presence of both KCl and KNO3 salts and the total dose received. PMID:11478625

Brey, R R; Rodriguez, R; Harmon, J F; Winston, P

2001-01-01

131

The LTNIF (Low-Temperature Neutron Irradiation Facility) irradiation cryostat  

SciTech Connect

The Low-Temperature Neutron Irradiation Facility (LTNIF) has been constructed at the Bulk Shielding Reactor (BSR) in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The LTNIF provides high radiation intensities and special environmental and testing conditions for qualified experiments. The cryostat assembly diagram is attached.

Coltman, R.R. Jr.; Kerchner, H.R.; Klabunde, C.E.

1984-01-01

132

Studying Solar Irradiance Variability with Wavelet Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The detection of variations in solar irradiance by satellite-based experiments during the last 17 years stimulated modelling efforts to help to identify their causes and to provide estimates for irradiance data when no satellite observations exist.

Vigouroux, Anne; Pap, Judit

1995-01-01

133

Food Irradiation: What You Need to Know  

MedlinePLUS

... extend the shelf life of foods. Control of Insects – irradiation can be used to destroy insects in or on tropical fruits imported into the United States. Irradiation also decreases the need for other pest-control ...

134

Statistical criteria for characterizing irradiance time series.  

SciTech Connect

We propose and examine several statistical criteria for characterizing time series of solar irradiance. Time series of irradiance are used in analyses that seek to quantify the performance of photovoltaic (PV) power systems over time. Time series of irradiance are either measured or are simulated using models. Simulations of irradiance are often calibrated to or generated from statistics for observed irradiance and simulations are validated by comparing the simulation output to the observed irradiance. Criteria used in this comparison should derive from the context of the analyses in which the simulated irradiance is to be used. We examine three statistics that characterize time series and their use as criteria for comparing time series. We demonstrate these statistics using observed irradiance data recorded in August 2007 in Las Vegas, Nevada, and in June 2009 in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Stein, Joshua S.; Ellis, Abraham; Hansen, Clifford W.

2010-10-01

135

10 CFR 36.33 - Irradiator pools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...33 Section 36.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...IRRADIATORS Design and Performance Requirements for Irradiators...pool. (d) A visible indicator must be provided in a...

2012-01-01

136

10 CFR 36.33 - Irradiator pools.  

10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...33 Section 36.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...IRRADIATORS Design and Performance Requirements for Irradiators...pool. (d) A visible indicator must be provided in a...

2014-01-01

137

10 CFR 36.33 - Irradiator pools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...33 Section 36.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...IRRADIATORS Design and Performance Requirements for Irradiators...pool. (d) A visible indicator must be provided in a...

2011-01-01

138

10 CFR 36.33 - Irradiator pools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...33 Section 36.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...IRRADIATORS Design and Performance Requirements for Irradiators...pool. (d) A visible indicator must be provided in a...

2013-01-01

139

IRRADIATION OF SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNET COMPONENTS FOR FAIR  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spring 2008 an irradiation test of superconducting magnet components was done at GSI Darmstadt in the frame of the FAIR project. Cave HHD with the beam dump of SIS synchrotron was used for irradiation. The irradiation set-up modeled a scenario of beam loss in a FAIR accelerator: U beam with energy of 1 GeV\\/u was used to irradiate a

E. Mustafin; E. Floch; A. Plotnikov; E. Schubert; T. Seidl; Planckstrasse Schwerionenforschung; L. Latysheva; INR RAS; I. Strasik

140

Irradiation enhancement of biomass conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vast supply of cellulosic agricultural residues and industrial by-products that is produced each year is a prospective resource of biomass suitable for conversion to useful products such as feedstock for the chemicals industry and feedstuffs for the livestock industry. Conversions of such biomass is poor at present, and utilization is inefficient, because of physio-chemical barriers to biological degradation and (or) anti-quality components such as toxicants that restrict biological usages. Improvements in biodegradability of ligno-cellulosic materials have been accomplished by gamma-ray and electron-beam irradiation at intermediate dosage (˜ 50 Mrad; .5 MGy); but applications of the technology have been hampered by questionable interpretations of results. Recent research with organic wastes such as sewage sludge and straw suggests opportunity for important applications of irradiation technology in enhancement of biomass conversion. Data from experiments using irradiated straw as feed for ruminants are presented and discussed in relation to research on prospective usage of sewage products as feed for ruminants. Findings are discussed in regard to prospective applications in industrial fermentation processes. Possible usage of irradiation technology for destruction of toxicants in exotic plants is considered in regard to prospective new feedstuffs.

Smith, G. S.; Kiesling, H. E.; Galyean, M. L.; Bader, J. R.

141

Food irradiation research and technology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food Irradiation is a safe and effective U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved process that can be used to disinfest or delay the maturation of fruits and vegetables, improve the microbiological safety of shellfish, eggs, raw meat and poultry, spices, and seeds used for sprouting. FDA ap...

142

Intraluminal irradiation in bronchogenic carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endobronchial tumors present a difficult therapeutic problem. Most often these patients have primary lung cancer and present with endobronchial disease following a definitive course of surgery and\\/or irradiation. The most common methods of treatment include transbronchial excision of tumor or laser coagulation. The improvement obtained from these procedures is usually limited to 2 or 3 months, and repeated treatments become

D. Nori; B. S. Hilaris; N. Martini

1987-01-01

143

Laser power and solar irradiance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experience with two accurate and stable detectors of optical radiation: a Scientech disk calorimeter used as a standard for laser power measurement and a Kendall radiometer system (Technical Measurements, Inc.) used as a standard for solar irradiance measurements. The construction, calibration, and maintenance of each detector are first presented both for general interest and to contrast one

P. D. Thacher

1977-01-01

144

Endocrine consequences of brain irradiation.  

PubMed

Cranial radiation is routinely used to manage pituitary tumours, craniopharyngiomas, primary brain tumours, tumours of the head and neck and, in the past, for the prophylaxis of intracranial disease in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. If the hypothalamic-pituitary axis falls within the radiation fields, the patient is at risk of developing hypopituitarism. The effect of radiation is determined by the dose and the time that has elapsed since treatment. Classically, growth hormone (GH) is the most sensitive of the anterior pituitary hormones to irradiation, followed by gonadotrophins, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Low-dose irradiation in prepubertal children can initially cause early or precocious puberty and subsequently gonadotrophin deficiency. Higher doses may cause gonadotrophin deficiency and pubertal delay. The ACTH and TSH axes are relatively resistant to the effects of irradiation, but minor abnormalities may occur. Patients who receive cranial irradiation that affects the hypothalamic-pituitary axis remain at risk of developing multiple hormone deficiencies for many years and require long-term follow-up by an endocrinologist. PMID:15135792

Toogood, A A

2004-06-01

145

Food Irradiation Research and Technology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food Irradiation is a safe and effective U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved process that can be used to disinfest or delay the maturation of fruits and vegetables, improve the microbiological safety of shellfish, eggs, raw meat and poultry, spices, and seeds used for sprouting. FDA ap...

146

Food Irradiation: Solution or Threat?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Consumers International Briefing Paper presents a less positive view of the process. CI is "a worldwide non-profit federation of consumer organisations." Previously approved for use on poultry and fruits and vegetables in the US, irradiation can kill disease-causing bacteria like Salmonella and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 (discussed in the Scout Report for Science and Engineering's In the News section, September 17, 1997), and molds and funguses that cause rot. With recent US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, irradiation can now be used to process red meat (e.g., beef, pork, lamb, and byproducts). The process involves exposing food to a source of radiation such as gamma rays from radioactive cobalt 60, cesium 137, or x-rays. No radioactive material is added to the product, and the technique is routinely used on grains and spices, as well as for sterilizing disposable medical devices. In spite of a number of tests conducted over the last 30 years substantiating its safety, irradiation has not gained widespread public acceptance in the US. This is largely due to the public's general fear of processes utilizing radiation. Supporters of the technology claim that it will virtually eliminate food-borne illness in the US, while skeptics feel that technology such as steam treatment can accomplish adequate sterilization without the purported risks and public concern associated with irradiation.

1997-01-01

147

Evaluation of irradiation hardening of proton irradiated stainless steels by nanoindentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion irradiation experiments are useful for investigating irradiation damage. However, estimating the irradiation hardening of ion-irradiated materials is challenging because of the shallow damage induced region. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to prove usefulness of nanoindentation technique for estimation of irradiation hardening for ion-irradiated materials. SUS316L austenitic stainless steel was used and it was irradiated by 1 MeV H+ ions to a nominal displacement damage of 0.1, 0.3, 1, and 8 dpa at 573 K. The irradiation hardness of the irradiated specimens were measured and analyzed by Nix-Gao model. The indentation size effect was observed in both unirradiated and irradiated specimens. The hardness of the irradiated specimens changed significantly at certain indentation depths. The depth at which the hardness varied indicated that the region deformed by the indenter had reached the boundary between the irradiated and unirradiated regions. The hardness of the irradiated region was proportional to the inverse of the indentation depth in the Nix-Gao plot. The bulk hardness of the irradiated region, H0, estimated by the Nix-Gao plot and Vickers hardness were found to be related to each other, and the relationship could be described by the equation, HV = 0.76H0. Thus, the nanoindentation technique demonstrated in this study is valuable for measuring irradiation hardening in ion-irradiated materials.

Yabuuchi, Kiyohiro; Kuribayashi, Yutaka; Nogami, Shuhei; Kasada, Ryuta; Hasegawa, Akira

2014-03-01

148

Status of food irradiation in Eastern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper attempts to overview developments in implementation of the food irradiation process in Eastern Europe. Emphasis is given on progress in national regulation, setting up radiation facilities, marketing tests with irradiated commodities, and impediments to commercialization. The region's involvement in international co-operation in the field of food irradiation is briefly described.

Farkas, J.

149

Reconstruction of solar UV irradiance since 1974  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations of the solar UV irradiance are an important driver of chemical and physical processes in the Earth's upper atmosphere and may also influence global climate. Here we reconstruct solar UV irradiance in the range 115–400 nm over the period 1974–2007 by making use of the recently developed empirical extension of the Spectral And Total Irradiance Reconstruction (SATIRE) models employing

N. A. Krivova; S. K. Solanki; T. Wenzler; B. Podlipnik

2009-01-01

150

Biological effects of ultraviolet irradiation on bees  

SciTech Connect

The influence of natural solar and artificial ultraviolet irradiation on developing bees was studied. Lethal exposures to irradiation at different stages of development were determined. The influence of irradiation on the variability of the morphometric features of bees was revealed. 5 refs., 1 fig.

Es`kov, E.K. [Ryazan` State Pedagogical Univ. (Russian Federation)

1995-09-01

151

J. PROKS . .-:... RECHERCHES SUR L'IRRADIATION 331 RECHERCHES SUR L'IRRADIATION DES MILIEUX  

E-print Network

t J. PROKS . .-:... RECHERCHES SUR L'IRRADIATION 331 RECHERCHES SUR L'IRRADIATION DES MILIEUX des bactéries dans le lait. M. SEIFFERT(2) a construib, le premier, un appareil pour I'irradiation du.procédés de pasteurisation parI'Irradiation du lait. Quoi qu'il en soit, il semble bien démontré que l'irradiation

Boyer, Edmond

152

[Development of a grain irradiator--relation between dimension of the irradiator and grain flow in irradiation region (author's transl)].  

PubMed

A grain irradiator was devised for the radiation disinfestation of rice. In this irradiator, dose of rice was varried through regulation of rice velocity in irradiation region. The velocity was regulated by variation of opening area and time of an annular gate valve setted at the bottom of the region. For the irradiator design, experiments of rice flow in the region were conducted by a pilot plant of the irradiator. The main results are as follows: (1) Flow rate of rice from slits of the valve independed on curvature of arrangement of the slits, (2) The flow rate was controlled within 2.7%, (3) Standard diviation of the velocity of a rice grain in an irradiation region was 1.8%, (4) Distribution of the velocity was uniform within 10% with no inclination of shutter of the valve to the slit, (5) Rice were not damaged by mechanical action of the irradiator. PMID:7335917

Hoshi, T; Tanaka, S

1981-08-01

153

Aseismic motions associated with fluid injections. The case study of the stimulation of GPK2 well at Soultz-sous-Forêts, France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relationship between seismic and aseismic slips is a fundamental challenge for understanding and controling induced seismicity. In 2000, a large water injection has been conducted in granite through a 5-km-deep borehole at the Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) site of Soultz-sous-Forêts, in the Upper Rhine Graben (France). The microseismicity induced during the hydraulic stimulation was used by Calo' et al. (2011) to carry out a time-dependent P-waves seismic tomography of the stimulated region. Vp anomalies observed during stationary injection conditions are interpreted by the authors as being caused by effective stress variations linked to fluid diffusion, while the fast changes observed concomitantly to changes in flow rate are considered to be caused by non-seismic motions. We present a mechanical model of the stress field variations compatible with the seismic velocities observed during the hydraulic stimulation. The modeling is performed considering a fresh fracture region defined by the seismological information (the seismic cluster). The shear zone is loaded by pore pressure variations following the wellhead pressure trend recorded during the injection test. Results show that the variation of the maximum differential stress (?1 - ?3), in such conditions, reproduces patterns that match well the observed seismic velocity anomalies. Results from laboratory measurements are used for converting the calculated stress field variations into corresponding seismic velocities in order to compare the observed seismic velocities variations with those computed with the model. The proposed model suggests that time-dependent seismic tomography may provide a useful tool for observing the occurrence of large-scale aseismic slips during massive fluid injections.

Calo, M.; Cornet, H.; Dorbath, C.

2012-12-01

154

Thermal destruction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in sous-vide cooked ground beef as affected by tea leaf and apple skin powders.  

PubMed

We investigated the heat resistance of a four-strain mixture of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in raw ground beef in both the absence and presence of white and green tea powders and an apple skin extract. Inoculated meat was cooked using the sous-vide technique, i.e., the meat was packaged in sterile bags and completely immersed in a circulating water bath at low temperature for a period of time. The bags were cooked for 1 h to an internal temperature of 55, 58, 60, or 62.5 degrees C, and then held from 240 min at 55 degrees C to 10 min at 62.5 degrees C. The surviving bacteria were enumerated by spiral plating onto tryptic soy agar overlaid with sorbitol-MacConkey agar. Inactivation kinetics of the pathogens deviated from first-order kinetics. D-values (time, in minutes, required for the bacteria to decrease by 90%) in the control beef ranged from 67.79 min at 55 degrees C to 2.01 min at 62.5 degrees C. D-values determined by a logistic model ranged from 36.22 (D1, the D-value of a major population of surviving cells) and 112.79 (D2, the D-value of a minor subpopulation) at 55 degrees C to 1.39 (D1) and 3.00 (D2) at 62.5 degrees C. A significant increase (P < 0.05) in the sensitivity of the bacteria to heat was observed with the addition of 3% added antimicrobials. D-value reductions of 62 to 74% were observed with apple powder and 18 to 58% with tea powders. Thermal death times from this study will assist the retail food industry to design cooking regimes that ensure the safety of beef contaminated with E. coli O157:H7. PMID:19435239

Juneja, Vijay K; Bari, M L; Inatsu, Y; Kawamoto, S; Friedman, Mendel

2009-04-01

155

Effect of microwave irradiation on TATB explosive.  

PubMed

Finished TATB (1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene) explosive safety under 800W microwave irradiation was experimented. No burning, deflagration and detonation were observed during 30-min continuous irradiation and no remarkable change were observed after irradiation according to HPLC, particles size analysis, and differential thermal analysis. Wet TATB sampled from synthesis line was irradiated with microwave vacuum method and irradiated TATB was measured to accord with military standard specifications including appearance, moisture and volatile, chloride content, HPLC, mean particle size, DTA exothermic peak, ash, acetone soluble content, PH value, etc. Microwave vacuum desiccation was deemed laborsaving, energy-efficient, and practicable compared to conventional processing method. PMID:19324496

Yu, Weifei; Zhang, Tonglai; Huang, Yigang; Yang, Li; Li, Gang; Li, Haibo; Li, Jinshan; Huang, Hui

2009-09-15

156

Calculation of direct normal irradiation from global horizontal irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) systems only work with the Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI), so a knowledge of DNI data is required for the design and evaluation of these kinds of systems. DNI is not always measured at ground meteorological stations due to equipment costs. In recent years, several spatial databases that estimate DNI from satellite data have been developed. These databases are a very useful tool for CPV applications. However, the databases present uncertainty and provide different values of DNI. This lack of DNI data and the uncertainty of available data contrast with the availability of reliable global horizontal irradiation data, which is easy to find or measure. In this paper, a simple procedure for estimating DNI from global horizontal irradiation is presented. It does not try to improve the existing methods, but meets the basic requirements for the analysis of CPV systems. The method can be easily implemented in a spreadsheet or in computer programs in renewable energy and its accuracy is similar than that of the existing databases.

Rodrigo, Pedro; Pérez-Higueras, Pedro J.; Almonacid, Florencia; Hontoria, Leocadio; Fernández, Eduardo F.; Rus, Catalina; Fernández, Juan I.; Gómez, Pedro; Almonacid, Gabino

2012-10-01

157

Future Satellite Observations of Solar Irradiance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Required solar irradiance measurements for climate studies include those now being made by the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) and the Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM) onboard the SORCE satellite, part of the Earth Observing System fleet of NASA satellites. Equivalent or better measures of Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) and Spectral Solar Irradiance (SSI, 200 to 2000 nm) are planned for the post-2010 satellites of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System ("OESS). The design life of SORCE is 5 years, so a "Solar Irradiance Gap Filler" EOS mission is being planned for launch in the 2007 time frame, to include the same TSI and SSI measurements. Besides avoiding any gap, overlap of the data sources is also necessary for determination of possible multi-decadal trends in solar irradiance. We discuss these requirements and the impacts of data gaps, and data overlaps, that may occur in the monitoring of the critical solar radiative forcing.

Cahalan, R. F.; Rottman, G.; Woods, T.; Lawrence, G.; Harder, J.; McClintock, W.; Kopp, G.

2003-01-01

158

[Vitamin A in irradiated foodstuffs (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Vitamin A losses induced by 10 MeV electrons in cream cheese, calf liver sausage, pig liver, whole egg powder and margarine continued to increase during storage for 4--8 weeks in presence of air. Thus vitamin A loss in sausage irradiated with 5 Mrad was 22% on the day after irradiation, 61% after 4 weeks. Irradiation and storage at 0 degrees C instead of at ambient temperature reduced these losses considerably. Exclusion of air (vacuum, nitrogen) or irradiation on dry ice (approx. -80 degrees C) were even more effective in preventing destruction of vitamin A. After 4 weeks of storage, cream cheese irradiated at 5 Mrad had lost 60% when irradiated and stored in air at ambient temperature, 20% in nitrogen atmosphere, 5% in vacuum package, and 5% when irradiated on dry ice and stored at ambient temperature. PMID:425704

Diehl, J F

1979-01-29

159

GTL-1 Irradiation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the Gas Test Loop (GTL-1) miniplate experiment is to confirm acceptable performance of high-density (i.e., 4.8 g-U/cm3) U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel plates clad in Al-6061 and irradiated under the relatively aggressive Booster Fast Flux Loop (BFFL) booster fuel conditions, namely a peak plate surface heat flux of 450 W/cm2. As secondary objectives, several design and fabrication variations were included in the test matrix that may have the potential to improve the high-heat flux, high-temperature performance of the base fuel plate design.1, 2 The following report summarizes the life of the GTL-1 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis, thermal analysis and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez; G. S. Chang; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

2012-01-01

160

Optical system image irradiance simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this paper is to construct an irradiance simulation at an image. We will demonstrate a software method written by Al Greynolds for passing bitmap images through a lens system and directly viewing the changes to the image caused by the lens itself, sources outside the field of view, or defects in manufacture. The routine calls the emitting data command and is a new feature in ASAP 6.0 from Breault Research Organization. It is another way to evaluate a lens system and see the effects of irradiance modeling and more. The dynamic range covered by this simulation is not limited to 1 bit, 8 bit or 24 bit images. The distribution file is based on the full floating point precision of the computer and accurate to 7 significant digits. The method will accommodate any dynamic range the user wishes.

Cote, Marie; Tesar, John C.

1998-09-01

161

SORCE Solar Irradiance Data Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) at the University of Colorado manages the SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) Science Data System. This data processing system routinely produces Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) and Spectral Solar Irradiance (SSI) data products, which are formulated using measurements from the four primary instruments on board the SORCE spacecraft. The TIM instrument provides measurements of the TSI, whereas the SIM, SOLSTICE, and XPS instruments collectively provide measurements of the solar irradiance spectrum from 1 nm to 2400 nm (excluding 31-115 nm, which is measured by the SEE instrument on NASA's TIMED mission). Derived products, such as the Magnesium II Core-to-Wing Index which can be used for space weather applications, are also produced. The SORCE Science Data System utilizes raw spacecraft and instrument telemetry, calibration data, and other ancillary information to produce a variety of solar irradiance data products that have been corrected for all known instrumental and operational factors. Since launch of the SORCE spacecraft in January 2003, science processing algorithms have continued to mature, instrument calibrations (e.g. degradation corrections) have improved, and regularly updated versions of data products have been released. "Level 3" data products (time-averaged over daily and six-hourly periods and/or spectrally re-sampled onto uniform wavelength scales) are routinely produced and delivered to the public via the SORCE web site (http://lasp.colorado.edu/sorce/data/), and are archived at the Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC). Native resolution "Level 2" products are also available for scientific studies. This poster provides an overview of the SORCE data processing system, summarizes the present state of the processing algorithms, describes the quality of the current SORCE data products, provides details on how to access SORCE science data, and presents future plans.

Lindholm, D. M.; Pankratz, C. K.; Knapp, B. G.; Meisner, R.; Fontenla, J.; Harder, J. W.; McClintock, W. E.; Kopp, G.; Snow, M.; Woods, T. N.

2008-12-01

162

Surface ultraviolet irradiance from OMI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura spacecraft is a nadir-viewing spectrometer that measures solar reflected and backscattered light in a selected range of the ultraviolet and visible spectrum. The instrument has a 2600-km-wide viewing swath, and it is capable of daily, global contiguous mapping. We developed and implemented a surface ultraviolet (UV) irradiance

Aapo Tanskanen; Nickolay A. Krotkov; Jay R. Herman; Antti Arola

2006-01-01

163

RERTR-6 Irradiation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-6 was designed to evaluate several modified fuel designs that were proposed to address the possibility of breakaway swelling due to porosity within the (U. Mo) Al interaction product observed in the full-size plate tests performed in Russia and France1. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-6 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analyses, thermal analyses and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

2011-12-01

164

Behavioral Sensitivity to Microwave Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rats assayed by the technique of conditional suppression were able to detect the presence of 12.25-centimeter microwaves at doses of power approximating 0.5 to 6.4 milliwatts per gram. The assay, which controlled for sensitization, for pseudo and temporal conditioning, and for several possible sources of artifactual cueing, revealed that irradiation by microwaves, although lacking the saliency of an auditory stimulus,

Nancy Williams King; Don R. Justesen; Rex L. Clarke

1971-01-01

165

RERTR-13 Irradiation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-13 was designed to assess performance of different types of neutron absorbers that can be potentially used as burnable poisons in the low enriched uranium-molybdenum based dispersion and monolithic fuels.1 The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-13 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; D. M. Wachs; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme

2012-09-01

166

Irradiation performance of nitride fuels  

SciTech Connect

The properties and advantages of nitride fuels are well documented in the literature. Basically the high thermal conductivity and uranium density of nitride fuels permit high power density, good breeding ratios, low reactivity swings, and large diameter pins compared to oxides. Nitrides are compatible with cladding alloys and liquid metal coolants, thereby reducing fuel/cladding chemical interactions and permitting the use of sodium-bonded pins and the operation of breached pins. Recent analyses done under similar operating conditions show that - compared to metal - fuels mixed nitrides operate at lower temperatures, produce less cladding strain, have greater margins to failure, result in lower transient temperatures, and have lower sodium void reactivity. Uranium nitride fuel pellet fabrication processes were demonstrated during the SP-100 program, and irradiated nitride fuels can be reprocessed by the PUREX process. Irradiation performance data suggest that nitrides have low fission gas release and swelling rates thereby permitting favorable pin designs and long lifetime. The objective of this report is to summarize the available nitride irradiation performance data base and to recommend optimum nitride characteristics for use in advanced liquid metal reactors.

Matthews, R.B.

1993-01-01

167

Bacterial responses to ultraviolet irradiation.  

PubMed

The UV dose-response behavior of laboratory cultures of waterborne bacteria were examined for UV doses ranging from ca. 0-100 mW.s/cm2 using a collimated-beam reactor. Specific physiological responses measured in these tests included viability (ability to reproduce) and respiration (oxygen uptake rate). The results of these exposures indicated that resistance to UV-imposed loss of viability in E. coli cultures can be partially attributed to agglomeration during the irradiation process. From these results, it is conjectured that a bacterial population may be comprised of two sub-populations: one with low resistance (discrete or paired cells) and a second with high resistance (bacterial aggregates). A small fraction of the high-resistance portion of the population appears to be essentially unaffected by UV irradiation, thereby causing a discontinuity in the measured dose-response behavior. Moreover, the dose-response behavior of the highly resistant fraction is variable and difficult to describe quantitatively. The basis of these statements and most information in the literature is microbial viability as quantified by the membrane filtration assay. In contrast to these findings, the results of analyses for bacterial activity (respiration) suggest that comparatively little change in the population can be found to result from UV irradiation. This suggests that UV radiation accomplishes inactivation of the bacteria, but does not "kill" the bacterial cells per se, thereby highlighting the importance of considering bacterial repair processes in the design of UV disinfection systems. PMID:11436779

Blatchley, E R; Dumoutier, N; Halaby, T N; Levi, Y; Laîné, J M

2001-01-01

168

Licensing a new industrial irradiator.  

PubMed

After nearly three decades of medical product sterilization, 3M launched a major new project to build and license an irradiator facility. 3M Corporate Health Physics was responsible for the licensing aspect of this project. The licensing process consisted of six amendments, over 30 submissions to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC) and four U.S. NRC site visits. It took approximately 22 months to complete. The six license amendments are reviewed and several of the submissions are discussed. These include 3M's response to the U.S. NRC's interest in the shielding calculations used for the bioshield, the development of a protocol of radiation safety system test methods, and an analysis to show that a dropped cask during loading operations would not fall on sealed sources. A number of lessons were learned during the course of licensing the new irradiator. Among these were the importance of understanding the U.S. NRC license reviewer's perspective, the need to thoroughly review the irradiator manufacturer's licensing package during project negotiations, the benefits of leaving the Health Physics Office and meeting with the non-health physicists involved in the project, and the necessity of maintaining the solid relationships that already existed with the site Radiation Safety Officer and Sterilization Engineer. PMID:20065665

Bates, Nicolas K; Entwistle, Frederick B

2010-02-01

169

Calcimetry as a useful tool for a better knowledge of flow pathways in the Soultz-sous-Forêts Enhanced Geothermal System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Soultz-sous-Forêts granite located in the Rhine graben (France) has been chosen for the European Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS). Three wells have been drilled to a minimum depth of 5000 m in order to reach a temperature of 200 °C. At Soultz, the main fracture network in the basement is orientated approximately N-S with moderate to steep dip. Its geometrical relationship with the in situ stress field suits fluid circulation, hence the EGS project. However, fractures are firmly sealed due to natural fluids (fossil and/or possibly present). The main sealing minerals, as identified during previous studies, are clay minerals, calcite and quartz. However, some fractured zones remain permeable due to the high porosity developed in the wall rocks through hydrothermal alteration. A circulation test was carried out from July to December 2005 to test the performance of the Soultz geothermal reservoir. This test showed a significant difference in the production rate between the two outflow wells (GPK2 and GPK4). In order to improve the fluid circulation within the underground heat exchanger, chemical stimulations have been scheduled. In this framework, quantifying the calcite content of the granite provides a basis for identifying the calcite-rich zones as well as choosing the most suitable chemical stimulation. Measurement of calcite ponderal concentration was carried out in the cutting samples of the 3 deep wells (GPK2, GPK3, GPK4) between 4000 and 5000 m depth using manocalcimetry. Based on detailed measurements in the 3 wells, this study shows that calcite is not only a very common and ubiquitous hydrothermal mineral but that its content seems to be also spatially correlated with most of the fracture zones bearing natural flow. The conductivity of these natural flow pathways seems anti-correlated with the calcite content. Calcimetry has proved to be an easy, efficient and low-cost method for a better knowledge of hydrothermal sealing of the Soultz reservoir. This method can be applied with great benefit to all types of basement reservoirs (oil, gas, water, heat) overlain by sedimentary rocks for a better understanding of the fracture network permeability.

Ledésert, Béatrice; Hébert, Ronan L.; Grall, Céline; Genter, Albert; Dezayes, Chrystel; Bartier, Danièle; Gérard, André

2009-03-01

170

Irradiation preservation of seafood: Literature review  

SciTech Connect

The application of gamma-irradiation for extending the shelf life of seafood has been of interest for many years. This report reviews a number of studies on seafood irradiation conducted over the past several years. Topics covered include seafood irradiation techniques and dosages, species applicability and differences, the effects of packaging on seafood preservation, and changes in organoleptic acceptability as a result of irradiation. Particular attention is given to radiation effects (likely and unlikely) of concern to the public. These include the potential for generation of toxic chemical products, botulinum toxin production, and other health concerns. No scientifically defensible evidence of any kind was found for any harmful effect of irradiation of seafoods at the doses being considered (less than 300 krad), and all indications are that irradiation is an acceptable and needed additional tool for seafood preservation. 49 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

Molton, P.M.

1987-10-01

171

EPR Investigation of Irradiated Curry Powder  

SciTech Connect

Gamma-ray irradiated curry powder, a well priced oriental spice was investigated in order to establish the ability of EPR to detect the presence and time stability of free irradiation free-radicals. Accordingly, curry powder aliquots were irradiated with gradually increasing absorbed doses up to 11.3 kGy. The EPR spectra of all irradiated samples show the presence of al last two different species of free radicals, whose concentration increased monotonously with the absorbed doses. A 100 deg. C isothermal annealing of irradiated samples has shown a differential reduction of amplitude of various components of the initial spectra, but even after 3.6 h of thermal treatment, the remaining amplitude represents no less then 30% of the initial ones. The same peculiarities have been noticed after more than one year storage at room temperature, all of them being very useful in establishing the existence of any previous irradiation treatment.

Duliu, O. G.; Ali, S. I. [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Georgescu, R. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering-Horia Hulubei, P.O. Box MG-6, 077125 Bucharest (Romania)

2007-04-23

172

HRB-22 irradiation phase test data report  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation capsule HRB-22 was a test capsule containing advanced Japanese fuel for the High Temperature Test Reactor (HTTR). Its function was to obtain fuel performance data at HTTR operating temperatures in an accelerated irradiation environment. The irradiation was performed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The capsule was irradiated for 88.8 effective full power days in position RB-3B of the removable beryllium (RB) facility. The maximum fuel compact temperature was maintained at or below the allowable limit of 1300{degrees}C for a majority of the irradiation. This report presents the data collected during the irradiation test. Included are test thermocouple and gas flow data, the calculated maximum and volume average temperatures based on the measured graphite temperatures, measured gaseous fission product activity in the purge gas, and associated release rate-to-birth rate (R/B) results. Also included are quality assurance data obtained during the test.

Montgomery, F.C.; Acharya, R.T.; Baldwin, C.A.; Rittenhouse, P.L.; Thoms, K.R.; Wallace, R.L.

1995-03-01

173

Safety Assurance for ATR Irradiations  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the world’s premiere test reactor for performing high fluence, large volume, irradiation test programs. The ATR has many capabilities and a wide variety of tests are performed in this truly one of a kind reactor, including isotope production, simple self-contained static capsule experiments, instrumented/controlled experiments, and loop testing under pressurized water conditions. Along with the five pressurized water loops, ATR may also have gas (temperature controlled) lead experiments, fuel boosted fast flux experiments, and static sealed capsules all in the core at the same time. In addition, any or all of these tests may contain fuel or moderating materials that can affect reactivity levels in the ATR core. Therefore the safety analyses required to ensure safe operation of each experiment as well as the reactor itself are complex. Each test has to be evaluated against stringent reactor control safety criteria, as well as the effects it could have on adjacent tests and the reactor as well as the consequences of those effects. The safety analyses of each experiment are summarized in a document entitled the Experiment Safety Assurance Package (ESAP). The ESAP references and employs the results of the reactor physics, thermal, hydraulic, stress, seismic, vibration, and all other analyses necessary to ensure the experiment can be irradiated safely in the ATR. The requirements for reactivity worth, chemistry compatibilities, pressure limitations, material issues, etc. are all specified in the Technical Safety Requirements and the Upgraded Final Safety Analysis Report (UFSAR) for the ATR. This paper discusses the ESAP process, types of analyses, types of safety requirements and the approvals necessary to ensure an experiment can be safely irradiated in the ATR.

S. Blaine Grover

2006-10-01

174

Analytical screening studies on irradiated food packaging.  

PubMed

Foods may be irradiated in their final packaging and this process may affect the composition of the packaging and in turn affect the migration of substances into food. Headspace and liquid injection GC-MS and HPLC with time-of-flight MS have been used to identify and estimate levels of radiolytic products in irradiated finished plastic packaging materials. Fifteen retail packaging materials were studied. Investigations were carried out into the effect of different irradiation types (gamma and electron beam), irradiation doses (1, 3, 7 and 10 kGy) and dose rates (5 kGy s(-1) for electron beam and 0.4 and 1.85 kGy h(-1) for gamma) on the radiolytic products. Any differences seen in comparing the two ionising radiation types were attributed largely to the very different dose rates; for electron beam a 10 kGy dose was delivered in just 2 s whereas using gamma it took 5.4 h. Differences were also seen when comparing the same samples irradiated at different doses. Some substances were not affected by irradiation, others decreased in concentration and others were formed upon increasing doses of irradiation. These results confirm that irradiation-induced changes do occur in substances with the potential to migrate and that the safety of the finished packaging material following irradiation should be assessed. PMID:24215551

Driffield, M; Bradley, E L; Leon, I; Lister, L; Speck, D R; Castle, L; Potter, E L J

2014-01-01

175

Free radical kinetics on irradiated fennel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herein, an electron spin resonance study on the behavior of organic radicals in fennel before and after irradiation is reported. The spectrum of irradiated fennel composed of the spectrum component derived from the un-irradiated sample (near g=2.005) and the spectra components derived from carbohydrates. The time decay of intensity spectral components was well explained by first-order kinetics with a variety of rate constants. Especially, the signal at near g=2.02 ascribed to stable cellulose-derivative components is expected to be a good indicator in the identification of irradiated plant samples.

Yamaoki, Rumi; Kimura, Shojiro; Ohta, Masatoshi

2008-09-01

176

Thymus irradiation for myasthenia gravis  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-eight patients with progressive myasthenia gravis without thymoma received treatment of 3000 rads (30 Gy) to the anterior mediastinum, and a followup was conducted for five to 18 years. Twenty-four patients had generalized myasthenia, and four had ocular myasthenia gravis. Twenty patients with generalized myasthenia survived the several month post-treatment period and improved, but four died during that period. The improvement lasted a median of 1.5 years, and older patients had longer remissions than younger patients. The four patients who had ocular myasthenia did not change after treatment. Mediastinal irradiation produces a temporary remission in generalized myasthenia.

Currier, R.D.; Routh, A.; Hickman, B.T.; Douglas, M.A.

1983-01-01

177

Irradiation damage in magnetic insulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using high energy heavy ion irradiation, the damage induced in magnetic insulators (Y3Fe5O12, BaFe12O19, SrFe12O19, NiFeO4, MgFe2O4, ZnFe2O4, Fe3O4) in the electronic stopping power (dE\\/dx) regime is studied. The amorphization cross section Ap is extracted from the paramagnetic fraction observed on Mössbauer spectra. Electronic stopping power threshold for damage creation appears. The damage efficiency ? = A\\/(dE\\/dx) is calculated and

F. Studer; M. Toulemonde

1992-01-01

178

Behavioral sensitivity to microwave irradiation.  

PubMed

Rats assayed by the technique of conditional suppression were able to detect the presence of 12.25-centimeter microwaves at doses of power approximating 0.5 to 6.4 milliwatts per gram. The assay, which controlled for sensitization, for pseudo and temporal conditioning, and for several possible sources of artifactual cueing, revealed that irradiation by microwaves, although lacking the saliency of an auditory stimulus, can function as a highly reliable cue. Efficiency of detection was strongly and positively related to the amount of microwave energy to which the rats were exposed. PMID:5550491

King, N W; Justesen, D R; Clarke, R L

1971-04-23

179

AFIP-6 Irradiation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-6 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) fuels at a length prototypic to that of the ATR fuel plates (45 inches in length). The AFIP-6 test was the first test with plates in a swaged condition with longer fuel zones of approximately 22.5 inches in length1,2. The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-6 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.

Danielle M Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

2011-09-01

180

Output irradiance of tapered lightpipes.  

PubMed

A light cone efficiently transports, distributes, and concentrates the incoming radiation. I derive a formula for the spatial irradiance (or illuminance) distribution at the exit aperture of a tapered light pipe. The theory is demonstrated by Monte Carlo ray-tracing for lightpipes with light-emitting diodes at the input face. The analysis is based on the addition of the radiation patterns of the multiple virtual sources that, as in a three-dimensional kaleidoscope, are seen through a tapered light tube. Given its explicit dependence on the structural and optical parameters, this analysis may be a useful tool in the development and application of light cones. PMID:20808406

Moreno, Ivan

2010-09-01

181

Food irradiation and airline catering  

SciTech Connect

Food poisoning from contaminated airline food can produce serious consequences for airline crew and passengers and can hazard flight. While irradiation of certain foodstuffs has been practised in a number of countries for some years, application of the process has not been made to complete meals. This paper considers the advantages, technical considerations, costs and possible application to airline meals. In addition, the need to educate the public in the advantages of the process in the wake of incidents such as Chernobyl is discussed.

Preston, F.S.

1988-04-01

182

Irradiation of Food, Current Legislation Framework, and Detection of Irradiated Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review covers description of food irradiation process, the current status of global legislation background in the field\\u000a of irradiated foodstuffs, and the state of detection methods up-to-date available based on physical, chemical, biological,\\u000a and microbiological changes in irradiated foods. Special emphasis was put on European Standards for the detection of irradiated\\u000a foods adopted by the European Committee for Standardization,

Rayna Stefanova; Nikola V. Vasilev; Stefan L. Spassov

2010-01-01

183

Irradiation test of electrical insulation materials performed at  

E-print Network

Irradiation test of electrical insulation materials performed at NCBJ, Poland RESMM12- 10 #12;Outlet · EuCARD insulators certification irradiation requirements · Selection of the irradiation source for the sample irradiation purpose · Irradiation cryostat and set-up at NCBJ, Swierk, POLAND

McDonald, Kirk

184

Irradiation distribution diagrams and their use for estimating collectable energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for summarising annual or seasonal solar irradiation data in irradiation distribution diagrams including both direct and diffuse irradiation is outlined. The practical use of irradiation distribution diagrams is discussed in the paper. Examples are given for the calculation of collectable irradiation on flat plate collectors or trough-like concentrators like the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC), and for the calculation

M Rönnelid; B Karlsson

1997-01-01

185

LiSoR irradiation experiments and preliminary post-irradiation examinations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LiSoR (Liquid metal-Solid metal Reaction) facility was developed and installed to investigate especially the effects of liquid metal corrosion and embrittlement under irradiation. LiSoR setup is basically a LBE loop with a test section irradiated with 72 MeV protons whereby so far four test sections including T91 specimens have been irradiated in the presence of flowing LBE. Post-irradiation examinations (PIE) have been started up to now only on the test section irradiated for 34 h. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and micro-hardness tests have been completed on both the tube and tensile specimen in the test section. On the surfaces of the tensile specimen, LBE wetting was observed in the irradiated area and the area immediate above the irradiated zone. Below the irradiated area some depositions are observed on the surfaces. A thin oxide layer of about 3 ?m was formed in the irradiated area only and no oxide layer is revealed above or below that region. Additionally, in the area above the irradiated area, slight dissolution is observed on the surface due to the absence of a protecting oxide layer. In this paper a summary of the LiSoR irradiation experiments carried out up to now are presented and as well the first results on PIE revealed on the test section irradiated for 34 h.

Glasbrenner, H.; Dai, Y.; Gröschel, F.

2005-08-01

186

Effect of re-irradiation by neutrons on mechanical properties of un-irradiated/irradiated SS316LN weldments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stainless steel of type SS316LN-IG (ITER Grade) is used for the branch pipeline connecting of the module coolant system and for other structures of ITER. One of the most important requirements for the branch pipeline connection is to recover various defects by welding. In the present study, characteristics of irradiated weldments were evaluated. SS316LN-IG specimens irradiated to helium contents of 3 and 10 appm He were prepared by the first neutron irradiation. Thereafter, the SS316LN-IG specimens with three different combinations of un-irradiation and irradiation were welded by a tungsten inert-gas (TIG) welding method. These weldments were re-irradiated at 150 °C up to a fast neutron fluence of about 7.5 × 10 24 n/m 2 ( E > 1 MeV). Tensile tests of the weldments and the base material were carried out at 20 and 150 °C after the re-irradiation. The results of the comparison before and after the re-irradiation showed that tensile properties of all weldment specimens with the different combinations were almost the same as those of the base materials.

Tsuchiya, K.; Shimizu, M.; Kawamura, H.; Kalinin, G.

2008-02-01

187

21 CFR 179.25 - General provisions for food irradiation.  

... false General provisions for food irradiation. 179.25 Section 179.25 Food...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) IRRADIATION IN THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING AND HANDLING...179.25 General provisions for food irradiation. For the purposes of §...

2014-04-01

188

21 CFR 179.25 - General provisions for food irradiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false General provisions for food irradiation. 179.25 Section 179.25 Food...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) IRRADIATION IN THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING AND HANDLING...179.25 General provisions for food irradiation. For the purposes of §...

2012-04-01

189

21 CFR 179.25 - General provisions for food irradiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false General provisions for food irradiation. 179.25 Section 179.25 Food...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) IRRADIATION IN THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING AND HANDLING...179.25 General provisions for food irradiation. For the purposes of §...

2013-04-01

190

Emerging issues in food irradiation research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ionizing radiation is used on a global basis to improve the phytosanitary and microbial safety and shelf-life of foods. In recent years progress has been made in the commercial application of irradiation to sterilize destructive invasive insects and to irradiate produce to improve its microbiologica...

191

Identification of irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The irradiation treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables for phytosanitary purposes is a satisfactory alternative method to others like fumigation and cold and hot treatments. Its use is increasing in several countries, and at present its approval is under revision by the National Regulatory Authorities.To verify the control process, apart from irradiation and dosimetry certificates, National Authorities require complementary evidence

Celina I. Horak; Marina Di Giorgio; Eulogia Kairiyama

2009-01-01

192

Cherry Irradiation Studies. 1984 annual report  

SciTech Connect

Fresh cherries, cherry fruit fly larvae, and codling moth larvae were irradiated using the PNL cobalt-60 facility to determine the efficacy of irradiation treatment for insect disinfestation and potential shelf life extension. Irradiation is an effective disinfestation treatment with no significant degradation of fruit at doses well above those required for quarantine treatment. Sufficient codling moth control was achieved at projected doses of less than 25 krad; cherry fruit fly control, at projected doses of less than 15 krad. Dose levels up to 60 krad did not adversely affect cherry quality factors tested. Irradiation above 60 krad reduced the firmness of cherries but had no significant impact on other quality factors tested. Irradiation of cherries below 80 krad did not result in any significant differences in sensory evaluations (appearance, flavor, and firmness) in tests conducted at OSU. Irradiation up to 200 krad at a temperature of about 25/sup 0/C (77/sup 0/F) did not measurably extend shelf life. Irradiation at 500 krad at 25/sup 0/C (77/sup 0/F) increased mold and rotting of cherries tested. There is no apparent advantage of irradiation over low-temperature fumigation.

Eakin, D.E.; Hungate, F.P.; Tingey, G.L.; Olsen, K.L.; Fountain, J.B.; Burditt, A.K. Jr.; Moffit, H.R.; Johnson, D.A.; Lunden, J.D.

1985-04-01

193

Restoration of an irradiated fuel storage facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The irradiated fuel storage basin in the KW nuclear production reactor at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, was decontaminated and painted in preparation for converting the facility to storage of irradiated fuel from N reactor. Corrosion product, activation product, and some fission product built up in the basin over the years and was present in a layer of sludge

Wahlen

1980-01-01

194

Total solar irradiance during the Holocene  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time a record of total solar irradiance covering 9300 years is presented, which covers almost the entire Holocene. This reconstruction is based on a recently observationally derived relationship between total solar irradiance and the open solar magnetic field. Here we show that the open solar magnetic field can be obtained from the cosmogenic radionuclide 10Be measured in

F. Steinhilber; J. Beer; C. Fröhlich

2009-01-01

195

Solar Irradiance Variations Measured from Spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the solar energy flux is deposited in various parts of the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land, it controls the heating, ionization, radiative, chemical, and dynamical processes characterizing the terrestrial atmosphere and climate system. Therefore, the accurate knowledge of the solar energy received by Earth and understanding its variability are critical issues for an understanding of the climate response to the increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Solar irradiance (both bolometric and at UV wavelengths) has been measured continuously from various space platforms since late 1978. These irradiance measurements established conclusively that solar irradiance varies on time scales from minutes to decades. The most important discovery of the space-based irradiance measurements is that total irradiance varies with about 0.1% over the solar cycle, being higher during maximum activity conditions. Since even small variations in total irradiance over long time scales may lead to climate changes, it is extremely important (1) to maintain a long-term high precision irradiance data base for climate studies and (2) to understand the underlying physical mechanisms. In this paper we summarize the results gained from the multi-decade long space-based irradiance measurements. This research was supported by a grant NAG5-10876 from the SOHO Office of NASA's Office of Space Science and by NASA grants NAG5-9207 and NAG5-11326 from NASA's Office of Earth Science. SOHO is a mission of international cooperation between ESA and NASA.

Pap, J. M.

2001-12-01

196

PERSISTENT CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS IN IRRADIATED HUMAN SUBJECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosomes of a number of men exposed to whole-body mixed gamma and ; fission neutron irradiation, as well as those of five unirradiated control ; individuals, were examined. Cytological preparations were made from short-term ; cultures of peripheral blood leukocytes approximately 29 months after the ; irradiation occurred, The doses were estimated to rarge from 22.8 to 365 rads. ;

M. A. Bender; P. C. Gooch

1962-01-01

197

SIPS: Solar Irradiance Prediction System Stefan Achleitner  

E-print Network

SIPS: Solar Irradiance Prediction System Stefan Achleitner Computer Science and Engineering the variability and dynamics are the largest. We propose SIPS, Solar Irradiance Prediction System, a novel sensing-scaling capacities of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar. However, variability and uncertainty in power

Cerpa, Alberto E.

198

High energy heavy ion irradiation in semiconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pd/n-Si and Pd/n-GaAs devices have been irradiated from high energy (˜100 MeV) heavy ions of Au 7+ (gold) and Si 7+ (silicon) to study the irradiation effects in these junction devices on semiconductor substrates. The devices have been characterized from I-V and C-V studies for electronic flow characterization. It has been found that the devices become high resistive on the irradiation and the substrates change the conductivity type from n- to p- on the irradiation of fluence of ˜10 12-10 13 ions/cm 2. The change in conductivity type has been understood as a result of creation of deep acceptors on the irradiation.

Srivastava, P. C.; Pandey, S. P.; Sinha, O. P.; Avasthi, D. K.; Asokan, K.

199

Isothermal decomposition of ?-irradiated samarium acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isothermal decomposition of un-irradiated and pre-?-irradiated samarium acetate has been investigated at different temperatures between 613 and 633 K. Irradiation was observed to enhance the rate of decomposition without modifying the mechanism of thermal decomposition. Thermal decomposition of samarium acetate has been shown to proceed by two-dimensional phase-boundary reaction both for un-irradiated and pre-?-irradiated samples. The enhancement of the decomposition was found to increase with an increase in the ?-ray dose applied to the sample and may be attributed to an increase in point defects and formation of additional nucleation centers generated in the host lattice. Thermodynamic values of the main decomposition process were calculated and evaluated.

Mahfouz, R. M.; Monshi, M. A. S.; Alshehri, S. M.; Abd El-Salam, N. M.

2000-10-01

200

Dissolution of Olivine Promoted by Ion Irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent laboratory simulations of ion irradiation effects on planetary minerals show changes in the surface composition of surfaces that are different depending on whether the analysis is done in-situ (without removing the sample from vacuum) or ex-situ using an electron microscope. We found that olivine samples that have been irradiated by keV ions show preferential loss of magnesium when exposed to water. Irradiations were done with 4 keV argon ions to fluences between 1015 and 1018 ions/cm2. Soak times in high purity water ranged from minutes to days, and exhibit the same degree of Mg depletion, independent of soak time. The concentration of magnesium on the surface of irradiated natural olivine decreases by 40% upon contact with water, as measured with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This finding is important for laboratory simulations of regolith processes and for establishing procedures for the handling of irradiated samples, including those from sample return missions.

Cantando, E. D.; Dukes, C. A.; Baragiola, R. A.

2006-12-01

201

Decontamination of pancreatin powder by gamma irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dehydrated pancreatin, packed in polyethylene bags, was gamma irradiated with doses of 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. Control and irradiated samples were stored at 19 ± 4 C and 70 ± 10% RH during 14 months. Microbiological and chemical tests were performed. Samples irradiated with 5 kGy showed two log cycles reduction of sporulated and aerobic mesophilic bacteria, and one log cycle reduction of moulds and yeasts, which fulfilled the microbiological requirements. This situation was maintained throughout the storage period. The irradiation did not significantly affect water content, fat, and total volatile basic nitrogen. Protease and amylase activities decreased with storage time and radiation dose. However, irradiation with 5 and 10 kGy caused no significant alteration on either of these activities as compared with control samples.

Kairiyama, Eulogia; Narvaiz, Patricia

1997-03-01

202

Cost effective alternative to low irradiance measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Martin Marietta's Space Simulation Laboratory (SSL) has a Thermal Environment Simulator (TES) with 56 individually controlled heater zones. The TES has a temperature range of approximately minus 129 C to plus 149 C. Because of the ability of TES to provide complex irradiance distributions, it is necessary to be able to measure a wide range of irradiance levels. SSL currently uses ambient temperature controlled radiometers with the capacity to measure sink irradiance levels of approximately 42.6 mw/sq cm, sink temperature equals 21 C and up. These radiometers could not be used to accurately measure the lower irradiance levels of the TES. Therefore, it was necessary to obtain a radiometer or develop techniques which could be used to measure lower irradiance levels.

Oleary, Scott T.

1988-01-01

203

Modeling of Irradiation Hardening of Polycrystalline Materials  

SciTech Connect

High energy particle irradiation of structural polycrystalline materials usually produces irradiation hardening and embrittlement. The development of predict capability for the influence of irradiation on mechanical behavior is very important in materials design for next generation reactors. In this work a multiscale approach was implemented to predict irradiation hardening of body centered cubic (bcc) alpha-iron. The effect of defect density, texture and grain boundary was investigated. In the microscale, dislocation dynamics models were used to predict the critical resolved shear stress from the evolution of local dislocation and defects. In the macroscale, a viscoplastic self-consistent model was applied to predict the irradiation hardening in samples with changes in texture and grain boundary. This multiscale modeling can guide performance evaluation of structural materials used in next generation nuclear reactors.

Li, Dongsheng; Zbib, Hussein M.; Garmestani, Hamid; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2011-09-14

204

AGC-1 Irradiation Experiment Test Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Graphite Capsule (AGC) irradiation test program supports the acquisition of irradiated graphite performance data to assist in the selection of the technology to be used for the VHTR. Six irradiations are planned to investigate compressive creep in graphite subjected to a neutron field and obtain irradiated mechanical properties of vibrationally molded, extruded, and iso-molded graphites for comparison. The experiments will be conducted at three temperatures: 600, 900, and 1200°C. At each temperature, two different capsules will be irradiated to different fluence levels, the first from 0.5 to 4 dpa and the second from 4 to 7 dpa. AGC-1 is the first of the six capsules designed for ATR and will focus on the prismatic fluence range.

R. L. Bratton

2006-05-01

205

Metabolic profiling by (1)H NMR of ground beef irradiated at different irradiation doses.  

PubMed

This work describes a metabolic profiling study of non-irradiated and irradiated beef (at 2.5, 4.5 and 8kGy) using (1)H NMR and chemometrics. The assignment of all major NMR signals of the aqueous/methanolic extracts was performed. A comprehensive multivariate data analysis proved the ability to distinguish between the irradiated and non-irradiated beef. Classification trees revealed that three metabolites (glycerol, lactic acid esters and tyramine or a p-substituted phenolic compound) are important biomarkers for classification of the irradiated and non-irradiated beef samples. Overall, the achieved metabolomic results show that the changes in the metabolic profile of meat provide a valuable insight to be used in detecting irradiated beef. The use of the NMR-based approach simplifies sample preparation and decrease the time required for analysis, compared to available official analytical procedures. PMID:25637742

Zanardi, Emanuela; Caligiani, Augusta; Palla, Luigi; Mariani, Mario; Ghidini, Sergio; Di Ciccio, Pierluigi Aldo; Palla, Gerardo; Ianieri, Adriana

2015-05-01

206

Modifying electronic transport properties of graphene by electron beam irradiation.  

E-print Network

??In this thesis, electron beam irradiation effects on the electronic transport properties ofgraphene have been systematically studied. In situ electron beam irradiation and simultaneous transport… (more)

He, Yuheng

2011-01-01

207

RERTR-7 Irradiation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-7A, was designed to test several modified fuel designs to target fission densities representative of a peak low enriched uranium (LEU) burnup in excess of 90% U-235 at peak experiment power sufficient to generate a peak surface heat flux of approximately 300 W/cm2. The RERTR-7B experiment was designed as a high power test of 'second generation' dispersion fuels at peak experiment power sufficient to generate a surface heat flux on the order of 230 W/cm2.1 The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-7A and RERTR-7B experiments through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analyses, thermal analyses and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

2011-12-01

208

Irradiation applications for homeland security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In October 2001, first-class mail laced with anthrax was sent to political and media targets resulting in several deaths, illnesses, significant mail-service disruption, and economic loss. The White House Office of Science and Technology Policy established a technical task force on mail decontamination that included three key agencies: National Institute of Standards and Technology with responsibility for radiation dosimetry and coordinating and performing experiments at industrial accelerator facilities; the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute with responsibility for radiobiology; and the US Postal Service with responsibility for radiation-processing quality assurance and quality control. An overview of the anthrax attack decontamination events will be presented as well as expectations for growth in this area and the prospects of other homeland security areas where irradiation technology can be applied.

Desrosiers, Marc F.

2004-09-01

209

AFIP-3 Irradiation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-3 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic fuels at a prototypic scale of 2.25 inches x 21.5 inches x 0.050 inches (5.75 cm x 54.6 cm x 0.13cm). The AFIP-3 experiment was fabricated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and consists of two plates, one with a zirconium (Zr) diffusion barrier and one with a silicon (Si) enhanced fuel/clad interface1,2. The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-3 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.

Danielle M Perez

2011-04-01

210

RERTR-10 Irradiation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-10 was designed to further test the effectiveness of modified fuel/clad interfaces in monolithic fuel plates. The experiment was conducted in two campaigns: RERTR-10A and RERTR-10B. The fuel plates tested in RERTR-10A were all fabricated by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) and were designed to evaluate the effect of various Si levels in the interlayer and the thickness of the Zr interlayer (0.001”) using 0.010” and 0.020” nominal foil thicknesses. The fuel plates in RERTR-10B were fabricated by Friction Bonding (FB) with two different thickness Si layers and Nb and Zr diffusion barriers.1 The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-10A/B experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez

2011-05-01

211

AFIP-3 Irradiation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-3 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic fuels at a prototypic scale of 2.25 inches x 21.5 inches x 0.050 inches (5.75 cm x 54.6 cm x 0.13cm). The AFIP-3 experiment was fabricated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and consists of two plates, one with a zirconium (Zr) diffusion barrier and one with a silicon (Si) enhanced fuel/clad interface1,2. The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-3 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.

Danielle M Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

2011-05-01

212

AFIP-2 Irradiation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-2 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic fuels at a prototypic scale of 2.25 inches x 21.5 inches x 0.050 inches (5.75 cm x 54.6 cm x 0.13cm). The AFIP-2 experiment was fabricated by friction bond (FB) and consists of two plates, one with a zirconium (Zr) diffusion barrier and one with a silicon (Si) enhanced fuel/clad interface1,2. The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-2 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results. The safety analyses performed for AFIP-2 are summarized in Table 5 of the following report.

Danielle M Perez

2011-04-01

213

Irradiation growth in zirconium and its alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The UKAEA Northern Research Laboratories (Risley) have recently completed an underlying research study on irradiation growth in zirconium and its alloys. During this study, irradiation growth measurements have been made on a range of well-characterized single-crystal and polycrystalline iodide zirconium, commercial alloys Zircaloy-2 and Zr-2.5 wt% Nb, and high-purity zirconium-tin alloys in different metallurgical conditions following irradiation in the DIDO reactor at AERE Harwell. Irradiations were performed in three rigs operating at irradiation temperatures between 353 and 673 K. An important feature of the experimental programme was the capability to perform repeat length measurements on individual growth specimens at intervals during their irradiation programme. This facility has allowed accurate monitoring of the growth phenomenon and changes in growth behaviour induced by the combined effects of irradiation temperature and accumulated fast neutron dose over large dose ranges. This paper reviews the main experimental results from this programme and discusses them in terms of current understanding of the growth process. Thus, it has been observed that, in annealed Zircaloy-2 at temperatures between 553 and 673 K, a transition from saturating growth to accelerating growth rates occurs with increasing dose. The dose above which this "growth breakaway" takes place is seen to be inversely dependent on irradiation temperature in mis temperature range. The well-documented difference in growth behaviour between annealed and cold-worked Zircaloy-2 observed at relatively low irradiation temperatures, in which cold-worked material grows at a high linear rate over large dose ranges, is not observed at 673 K. Comparison is made with reported results on similar material irradiated in other irradiation facilities. The growth data are interpreted in terms of recent theories regarding the development during fast neutron irradiation of a cold-worked microstructure consisting of < a>- and < c>-type dislocations. Irradiation growth behaviour of annealed polycrystalline iodide zirconium between 353 and 673 K contrasts strongly with that in annealed Zircaloy-2 with low irradiation growth rates being observed over a large dose and temperature range. The influence of key irradiation parameters on the growth process have been examined in a series of studies initiated as part of a collaborative programme with AECL Chalk River Nuclear Labs. Final results from the studies on annealed and deformed single-crystal zirconium are reported here. They show that growth saturates rapidly at low dose in annealed single-crystal material irradiated at 353 and 553 K but that a gradual increase in growth strain is observed on irradiation to high dose at 553 K. Single-crystal specimens heavily swaged prior to irradiation at 353 K and given different pre-irradiation heat-treatments exhibit high near-linear or accelerating growth rates. These growth data are interpreted in terms of the importance of grain boundaries and twin boundaries as sinks for point defects which allow point defect separation and hence growth to continue to high dose. Finally, the results of growth experiments performed on Zr-0.1% Sn and Zr-1.5% Sn alloys at 353 and 553 K are reviewed. These experiments confirm the important role played by alloying additions and impurities on the growth process in zirconium and Zircaloy-2.

Rogerson, A.

1988-10-01

214

Effects of cryogenic irradiation on temperature sensors  

SciTech Connect

Several types of commercially available cryogenic temperature sensors were calibrated, irradiated at 4.2 K by a gamma or neutron source, and recalibrated in-situ to determine their suitability for thermometry in radiation environments. Comparisons were made between pre- and post-irradiation calibrations with the equivalent temperature shift calculated for each sensor at various temperature in the 4.2 K to 330 K range. Four post-irradiation calibrations were performed with annealing steps performed at 20 K, 80 K, and 330 K. Temperature sensors which were gamma irradiated were given a total dose of 10,000 Gy. Temperature sensors which were neutron irradiated were irradiated to a total fluence of 2 {times} 10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2}. In general, for gamma radiation environments, diodes are unsuitable for use. Both carbon glass and germanium resistance sensors performed well at lower temperature, while platinum resistance sensors performed best above 30 K. Thin-film rhodium and Cernox{trademark} resistance sensors both performed well over the 4.2 K to 330 K range. Only thin-film rhodium and Cernox{trademark} resistance temperature sensors were neutron irradiated and they both performed well over the 4.2 K to 330 K range.

Courts, S.S.; Holmes, D.S. [Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc., Westerville, OH (United States)

1996-12-31

215

AGR-1 Irradiation Experiment Test Plan  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the current state of planning for the AGR-1 irradiation experiment, the first of eight planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The objectives of the AGR-1 experiment are: 1. To gain experience with multi-capsule test train design, fabrication, and operation with the intent to reduce the probability of capsule or test train failure in subsequent irradiation tests. 2. To irradiate fuel produced in conjunction with the AGR fuel process development effort. 3. To provide data that will support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. In order to achieve the test objectives, the AGR-1 experiment will be irradiated in the B-10 position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The test will contain six independently controlled and monitored capsules. Each capsule will contain a single type, or variant, of the AGR coated fuel. The irradiation is planned for about 700 effective full power days (approximately 2.4 calendar years) with a time-averaged, volume-average temperature of approximately 1050 °C. Average fuel burnup, for the entire test, will be greater than 17.7 % FIMA, and the fuel will experience fast neutron fluences between 2.4 and 4.5 x 1025 n/m2 (E>0.18 MeV).

John T. Maki

2009-10-01

216

Influence of irradiation on stored platelets  

SciTech Connect

Platelet concentrates intended for transfusion to immunosuppressed patients are irradiated to minimize transfusion-induced graft-versus-host disease. Because few reports describe how irradiation influences stored platelets, the authors studied whether 5000 rad of gamma irradiation, the maximum dose currently used clinically, altered platelets in vitro. Platelet concentrates were stored for either 1 day or 5 days in plastic (PL 732) containers before gamma irradiation. One unit of a pair of identical platelet concentrates was irradiated; the second unit served as a control. Irradiation did not alter platelet morphology, mean platelet volume, expression of platelet-factor-3 activity, response to hypotonic stress, extent of discharge of lactate dehydrogenase, release of beta-thromboglobulin, formation of thromboxane B2, nor the ability to undergo synergistic aggregation. The lack of any substantial change was observed whether the platelet concentrates were stored initially for either 1 day or 5 days. These results suggest that stored platelets are not altered deleteriously by irradiation with 5000 rad.

Moroff, G.; George, V.M.; Siegl, A.M.; Luban, N.L.

1986-09-01

217

Irradiation exposure modulates central opioid functions  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to low doses of gamma irradiation results in the modification of both the antinociceptive properties of morphine and the severity of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in morphine-dependent rats. To better define the interactions between gamma irradiation and these opiate-mediated phenomena, dose-response studies were undertaken of the effect of irradiation on morphine-induced antinociception, and on the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome of morphine-dependent rats. In addition, electrophysiologic studies were conducted in rats after irradiation exposure and morphine treatment correlating with the behavioral studies. The observations obtained demonstrated that the antinociceptive effects of morphine as well as naloxone-precipitated withdrawal were modified in a dose-dependent manner by irradiation exposure. In addition, irradiation-induced changes in the evoked responses obtained from four different brain regions demonstrated transient alterations in both baseline and morphine-treated responses that may reflect the alterations observed in the behavioral paradigms. These results suggest that the effects of irradiation on opiate activities resulted from physiologic alterations of central endogenous opioid systems due to alterations manifested within peripheral targets.

Dougherty, P.M.; Dafny, N.

1987-11-01

218

Food irradiation: Technology transfer to developing countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses Nordion's experiences to-date with the Food Irradiation Project in Thailand (1987-1990). This project will enable the Government of Thailand and the Thai food industry to benefit from established Canadian technology in food irradiation. It includes the design and the construction in Thailand of a multipurpose irradiation facility, similar to the Canadian Irradiation Centre. In addition Canada provides the services, for extended periods of time, of construction and installation management and experts in facility operation, maintenance and training. The Technology Transfer component is a major part of the overall Thai Food Irradiation Project. Its purpose is to familiarize Thai government and industry personnel with Canadian requirements in food regulations and distribution and to conduct market and consumer tests of selected Thai irradiated food products in Canada, once the products have Canadian regulatory approval. On completion of this project, Thailand will have the necessary facility, equipment and training to continue to provide leadership in food irradiation research, as well as scientific and technical support to food industries not only in Thailand by also in the ASEAN region.

Kunstadt, Peter

219

[Near infrared light irradiator using halogen lamp].  

PubMed

The practical electric light bulb was invented by Thomas Alva Edison in 1879. Halogen lamp is the toughest and brightest electric light bulb. With light filter, it is used as a source of near infrared light. Super Lizer and Alphabeam are made as near infrared light irradiator using halogen lamp. The light emmited by Super Lizer is linear polarized near infrared light. The wave length is from 600 to 1,600 nm and strongest at about 1,000 nm. Concerning Super Lizer, there is evidence of analgesic effects and normalization of the sympathetic nervous system. Super Lizer has four types of probes. SG type is used for stellate ganglion irradiation. B type is used for narrow area irradiation. C and D types are for broad area irradiation. The output of Alphabeam is not polarized. The wave length is from 700 to 1,600 nm and the strongest length is about 1,000nm. Standard attachment is used for spot irradiation. Small attachment is used for stellate ganglion irradiation. Wide attachment is used for broad area irradiation. The effects of Alphabeam are thought to be similar to that of Super Lizer. PMID:22860296

Ide, Yasuo

2012-07-01

220

Channeling irradiation of LiNbO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of x- and z-cut LiNbO were irradiated using Si-ions with energies of 550 and 750 keV. The irradiation was carried out along the corresponding axial channel as well as at different tilt angles. The damage accumulation was investigated by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Due to the channeling of the ions, the damage distribution is shifted to larger depths if the irradiation is performed along low index crystallographic directions compared to that of an off-axis irradiation. Additionally, less damage is created by on-axis than by off-axis irradiation. Compared to the random irradiation with 550 keV Si-ions, the etched depth increases by a factor of 1.4 and 1.2 if the irradiation is carried out along the x- and the z-axis, respectively. From the dependence of the shift of the damage peak on the tilt angle a critical angle to avoid channeling of about 1.3° was determined for 750 keV Si-ions.

Schrempel, F.; Steinbach, T.; Gischkat, Th.; Wesch, W.

2008-06-01

221

Measuring Degradation Rates Without Irradiance Data  

SciTech Connect

A method to report PV system degradation rates without using irradiance data is demonstrated. First, a set of relative degradation rates are determined by comparing daily AC final yields from a group of PV systems relative to the average final yield of all the PV systems. Then, the difference between relative and absolute degradation rates is found from a statistical analysis. This approach is verified by comparing to methods that utilize irradiance data. This approach is significant because PV systems are often deployed without irradiance sensors, so the analysis method described here may enable measurements of degradation using data that were previously thought to be unsuitable for degradation studies.

Pulver, S.; Cormode, D.; Cronin, A.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Smith, R.

2011-02-01

222

Segregation to surfaces in irradiated stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

An irradiated 316 SS alloy consistently showed phosphorus segregation to surfaces at temperatures in which thermal segregation is negligible. Phosphorus segregation did not occur in other irradiated 300 series alloys examined. The segregation model of Lam et al. was used to show that interstitial-solute binding and migration is a likely mechanism for the measured irradiation-induced phosphorus segregation. Surface segregation of sulfur was observed, but the segregation mechanism was not established. Segregation of other impurities such as silicon, and nitrogen or alloying elements such as chromium were not observed. 21 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Simonen, E.P.; Bradley, E.R.; Jones, R.H.

1988-11-01

223

Total body calcium analysis. [neutron irradiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique to quantitate total body calcium in humans is developed. Total body neutron irradiation is utilized to produce argon 37. The radio argon, which diffuses into the blood stream and is excreted through the lungs, is recovered from the exhaled breath and counted inside a proportional detector. Emphasis is placed on: (1) measurement of the rate of excretion of radio argon following total body neutron irradiation; (2) the development of the radio argon collection, purification, and counting systems; and (3) development of a patient irradiation facility using a 14 MeV neutron generator. Results and applications are discussed in detail.

Lewellen, T. K.; Nelp, W. B.

1974-01-01

224

RERTR-12 Insertion 2 Irradiation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-12 was designed to provide comprehensive information on the performance of uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) based monolithic fuels for research reactor applications.1 RERTR-12 insertion 2 includes the capsules irradiated during the last three irradiation cycles. These capsules include Z, Y1, Y2 and Y3 type capsules. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-12 insertion 2 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez; G. S. Chang; D. M. Wachs; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme

2012-09-01

225

Apparatus for irradiation with charged particle beams  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus according to the present invention for irradiating a specimen with charged particle beams comprises a single charged particle generating source from which the charged particle beams formed of electrons and negative ions, respectively, can be simultaneously derived; a specimen holder on which the specimen is placed; and charged particle irradiation means which is interposed between the charged particle generating source and the specimen holder in order to focus the charged particle beams and to irradiate the surface of the specimen with the focused beams, and which includes at least one magnetic lens and at least one electrostatic lens that are individually disposed.

Tamura, H.; Ishitani, T.; Shimase, A.

1984-10-23

226

The studies of irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking on reactor internals stainless steel under Xe irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specimens of Chinese domestic reactor internals stainless steel were irradiated with 6 MeV Xe ions for three peak displacement damage of 2, 7 and 15 dpa at room temperature. The slow strain rate tests (SSRT), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and nano-indentation tests were carried out to study the IASCC properties, phase transition and nano-hardness variations. The SSRT results indicate that the IASCC susceptibility increases with irradiation damage. Ion irradiation accelerates the stress corrosion cracking (SCC). A new ferrite phase diffraction peak of ?(1 1 0) after irradiated to 7 dpa and another two ? phase of ?(2 0 0) and ?(2 1 1) after irradiated to 15 dpa were observed by GIXRD, which may be due to localized deformation. A similar trend of irradiation hardening and IASCC susceptibility was observed, which suggests an essential connection between them.

Wang, Rong-shan; Xu, Chao-liang; Liu, Xiang-bing; Huang, Ping; Chen, Yu

2015-02-01

227

Surface Irradiances Consistent With CERES-Derived Top-of-Atmosphere Shortwave and Longwave Irradiances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The estimate of surface irradiance on a global scale is possible through radiative transfer calculations using satellite-retrieved surface, cloud, and aerosol properties as input. Computed top-of-atmosphere (TOA) irradiances, however, do not necessarily agree with observation-based values, for example, from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES). This paper presents amethod to determine surface irradiances using observational constraints of TOA irradiance from CERES. A Lagrange multiplier procedure is used to objectively adjust inputs based on their uncertainties such that the computed TOA irradiance is consistent with CERES-derived irradiance to within the uncertainty. These input adjustments are then used to determine surface irradiance adjustments. Observations by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), CloudSat, andModerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) that are a part of the NASA A-Train constellation provide the uncertainty estimates. A comparison with surface observations from a number of sites shows that the bias [root-mean-square (RMS) difference] between computed and observed monthlymean irradiances calculated with 10 years of data is 4.7 (13.3) W/sq m for downward shortwave and 22.5 (7.1) W/sq m for downward longwave irradiances over ocean and 21.7 (7.8) W m22 for downward shortwave and 21.0 (7.6) W/sq m for downward longwave irradiances over land. The bias andRMS error for the downward longwave and shortwave irradiances over ocean are decreased from those without constraint. Similarly, the bias and RMS error for downward longwave over land improves, although the constraint does not improve downward shortwave over land. This study demonstrates how synergetic use of multiple instruments (CERES,MODIS, CALIPSO, CloudSat, AIRS, and geostationary satellites) improves the accuracy of surface irradiance computations.

Kato, Seiji; Loeb, Norman G.; Rose, Fred G.; Doelling, David R.; Rutan, David A.; Caldwell, Thomas E.; Yu, Lisan; Weller, Robert A.

2013-01-01

228

Use of $gamma$ irradiation to prevent aflatoxin production in bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irradiation doses of 100 and 200 Krad reduced the growth of Aspergillus ; parasiticus in bread stored for 10 days at 254DEC. With bread stored longer than ; 2 wk, mold growth in irradiated samples tended to approach the amount which ; occurred in the non-irradiated controls. Mold strain NRRL 3000 seemed slightly ; more sensitive to irradiation-than strain NRRL

L. B. Bullerman; H. M. Barnhart; T. E. Hartung

1973-01-01

229

College—Age Consumers' Knowledge and Perceptions of Food Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores consumers of 18—24 years of age and their perceptions of irradiated ground beef products and role of irradiation on their purchase decisions. Data was collected with a survey of college—age consumers. Results showed that the majority of participants would be willing to purchase irradiated food products. Participants were somewhat concerned about impact of irradiation on safety and

Aslihan D. Spaulding; Bryon R. Wiegand; Patrick D. ORourke

2007-01-01

230

Laser irradiation of carbon-tungsten materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon-tungsten layers deposited on graphite by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) were directly irradiated with a femtosecond terawatt laser. The morphological and structural changes produced in the irradiated area by different numbers of pulses were systematically explored, both along the spots and in their depths. Although micro-Raman and Synchrotron-x-ray diffraction investigations have shown no carbide formation, they have shown the unexpected presence of embedded nano-diamonds in the areas irradiated with high fluencies. Scanning electron microscopy images show a cumulative effect of the laser pulses on the morphology through the ablation process. The micro-Raman spatial mapping signalled an increased percentage of sp3 carbon bonding in the areas irradiated with laser fluencies around the ablation threshold. In-depth x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations suggested a weak cumulative effect on the percentage increase of the sp2-sp3 transitions with the number of laser pulses just for nanometric layer thicknesses.

Marcu, A.; Avotina, L.; Marin, A.; Lungu, C. P.; Grigorescu, C. E. A.; Demitri, N.; Ursescu, D.; Porosnicu, C.; Osiceanu, P.; Kizane, G.; Grigoriu, C.

2014-09-01

231

Total lymphoid irradiation in alloimmunity and autoimmunity  

SciTech Connect

Total lymphoid irradiation has been used as an immunosuppressive regimen in autoimmune disease and organ transplantation. The rationale for its use originated from studies of patients with Hodgkin disease, in whom this radiotherapy regimen was noted to induce profound and long-lasting immune suppression and yet was well tolerated, with few long-term side effects. Total lymphoid irradiation is a unique immunosuppressive regimen that produces a selective (and long-lasting) reduction in the number and function of helper T cells and certain subsets of B cells. Conventional immunosuppressive drugs show little selectivity, and their effects are short-lived. The most important aspect of total lymphoid irradiation is the potential for achieving transplantation tolerance and permanent remissions in autoimmune disease in laboratory animals. Attempts are being made to achieve similar goals in humans given total lymphoid irradiation, so that immunosuppressive drugs can be ultimately withdrawn from transplant recipients and patients with lupus nephritis. 28 references.

Strober, S.

1987-12-01

232

Degradation pathways of PCB upon gamma irradiation.  

PubMed Central

In order to understand the modifications of the chromatographic profile of Aroclor 1260 upon gamma irradiation, a total of 14 pure polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were separately irradiated in solution. Dechlorination was observed, and the generated products were investigated by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Degradation proceeds more rapidly in methanol/water mixture than in petroleum ether, but the relative amount of ortho-dechlorinated congeners formed upon irradiation was smaller in the former solvent. Ortho chlorines are preferentially lost in petroleum ether except when they are involved in a 2.5 (or 3.6) substitution pattern, in which case para dechlorination becomes predominant. The precursors of some toxicologically important congeners such as congeners 77, 118, 167, and 189 have been identified. These data are useful to rationalize the modifications of the chromatographic profile of PCB complex mixture upon gamma irradiation. PMID:2088745

Lépine, F; Massé, R

1990-01-01

233

Irradiation effects on comets and cometary debris  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental results obtained over the past 10 years on the chemical and physical changes induced by ion and electron irradiation of materials relevant to comets are reviewed, and their physical interpretation and their relevance for cometary astrophysics are addressed. Four phases of the irradiation history are considered: the precometary phase, the accretion phase, the cometary phase, and the postcometary phase. The relevant applications of laboratory results are reviewed. The ability of ion irradiation of simple carbon-containing ices to produce complex refractory organic materials is discussed. In the Oort cloud, this process can occur several meters into the surface, so that the buildup of a stable organic crust may occur. Ion irradiation at various stages is compared with other models for the production of organics.

Strazzulla, G.; Johnson, R. E.

1991-01-01

234

An advanced irradiation facilities and its usage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A carrier type gamma irradiator is an advanced device currently installed in Qingdao Irradiation Center (QIC) and has been put into operation for nine years in Qingdao, China. It utilizes Co-60 as the radiation source; the initial Co-60 loading is 1.48×1016 Bq (0.4 million Curies). Rubber, natural and synthetic polymers, heat-shrinkable films and tubes, disposable medical supplies, some foods and drugs have been irradiated for test in the past. Especially a great success achieved on the radiation of compound food for young shrimp. The practice demonstrates that the bacteria in the compound food can be destroyed by the irradiation at optimum dosage between 5 000-6 000 Gy.

Kang, Xinglun; Chen, Hongtao; Jiang, Xueyan; Ning, Jingsong; Yu, Zhigang; Zhu, Xiaobin; Zhang, Weiguo

2006-06-01

235

UV Microspot Irradiator at Columbia University  

PubMed Central

The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) at Columbia University has recently added a UV microspot irradiator to a microbeam irradiation platform. This UV microspot irradiator applies multiphoton excitation at the focal point of an incident laser as the source for cell damage, and with this approach, a single cell within a 3D sample can be targeted and exposed to damaging UV. The UV microspot’s ability to impart cellular damage within 3D is an advantage over all other microbeam techniques, which instead impart damage to numerous cells along microbeam tracks. This short communication is an overview and a description of the UV microspot including the following applications and demonstrations of selective damage to live single cell targets: DNA damage foci formation, patterned irradiation, photoactivation, targeting of mitochondria, and targeting of individual cardiomyocytes in the live zebrafish embryo. PMID:23708525

Bigelow, Alan W.; Ponnaiya, Brian; Targoff, Kimara L.; Brenner, David J.

2013-01-01

236

Thermoluminescence properties of irradiated chickpea and corn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was carried out to establish a detection method for irradiated chickpea and corn by thermoluminescence (TL) method. The leguminous were packed in polyethylene bags and then the packets were irradiated at room temperature at different doses by 60Co gamma source at 1, 4, 8 and 10 kGy. Minerals extracted from the leguminous were deposited onto a clean aluminum disc and TL intensities of the minerals were measured by TL. It was observed that the extracted samples from both leguminous exhibit good TL Intensity and the TL intensity of glow curves of them increased proportionally to irradiation doses. The TL glow curve of both irradiated leguminous presents a single broad peak below 400 °C. The TL trapping parameters glow peaks were estimated by the additive dose (AD), Tm( Ea)- Tstop and computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) methods. The fading characteristics of glow curves were also recorded up to 6 months.

Necmeddin Yazici, A.; Bedir, Metin; Bozkurt, Halil; Bozkurt, Hüseyin

2008-02-01

237

Downscaling of global solar irradiation in R  

E-print Network

A methodology for downscaling solar irradiation from satellite-derived databases is described using R software. Different packages such as raster, parallel, solaR, gstat, sp and rasterVis are considered in this study for improving solar resource estimation in areas with complex topography, in which downscaling is a very useful tool for reducing inherent deviations in satellite-derived irradiation databases, which lack of high global spatial resolution. A topographical analysis of horizon blocking and sky-view is developed with a digital elevation model to determine what fraction of hourly solar irradiation reaches the Earth's surface. Eventually, kriging with external drift is applied for a better estimation of solar irradiation throughout the region analyzed. This methodology has been implemented as an example within the region of La Rioja in northern Spain, and the mean absolute error found is a striking 25.5% lower than with the original database.

Antonanzas-Torres, F; Antonanzas, J; Perpiñán, O

2013-01-01

238

Food Irradiation: Is It Safe and Wholesome?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses some of the major issues of food irradiation with respect to safety and wholesomeness, including formation of radiolytic products, effects on nutrients, prevention of food-borne illness, development of radiation-resistant bacteria, and formation of afaltoxins. (Author)

Rebus, Shirley

1990-01-01

239

EFFECT OF DIETHYLHYDROXYLAMINE ON SMOG CHAMBER IRRADIATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The addition of diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA) to the urban atmosphere had been suggested as a means of preventing photochemical smog. Smog chamber studies were carried out to investigate the photochemical smog formation characteristics of irradiated hydrocarbon-nitrogen oxides - DE...

240

Selective irradiation of the vascular endothelium  

E-print Network

We developed a unique methodology to selectively irradiate the vascular endothelium in vivo to better understand the role of vascular damage in causing normal tissue radiation side-effects.The relationship between vascular ...

Schuller, Bradley W

2007-01-01

241

The Solar EUV Irradiance: New Insights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A key to understanding variability in the Earth's atmosphere is understanding the variability in the solar irradiance that is a primary source of energy into the Earth system. Variations in this input drive variability in different atmospheric regions depending on where solar photons of particular wavelengths are absorbed. Of particular interest to the TIGER community is the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance that creates the ionosphere and heats the thermosphere. The ten-year record of solar spectral irradiance in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) from Solar EUV Experiment (SEE) on NASA's Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) mission, now continued at higher spectral and temporal resolution by the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) provide us with an excellent set of well-calibrated data with which to study the variability of the important solar EUV spectral irradiance on timescales of the solar cycle, solar rotation, and now flares, and how it impacts the Earth's atmospheric variability.

Eparvier, Francis

2012-07-01

242

Colon and anorectal cancer after pelvic irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Seventy-six cases of colon or anorectal cancer after pelvic irradiation for other malignant or benign lesions were reviewed. The patients were 13 men and 63 women with a mean age of 65 years; 67 percent had received irradiation for gynecologic malignancy. The cancer developed at a mean of 15.2 years after irradiation (peak frequency between five and ten years); 85 percent of the patients had a mild to prominent radiation reaction around the cancer. Of the 72 adenocarcinomas, 26 percent were mucinous. Only 17 percent of patients presented with symptoms of radiation proctitis, and the mean radiation dosages were not high. High radiation dosage and severe radiation damage may not be essential for radiation-associated colorectal cancer. The overall five-year survival rate was 48 percent. Close surveillance of the colon and anorectal regions of these high-risk patients at five years after irradiation is indicated.

Jao, S.W.; Beart, R.W. Jr.; Reiman, H.M.; Gunderson, L.L.; Ilstrup, D.M.

1987-12-01

243

Nitride fuels irradiation performance data base  

Microsoft Academic Search

An irradiation performance data base for nitride fuels has been developed from an extensive literature search and review that emphasized uranium nitride, but also included performance data for mixed nitrides ((U,Pu)N) and carbonitrides ((U,Pu)C,N) to increase the quantity and depth of pin data available. This work represents a very extensive effort to systematically collect and organize irradiation data for nitride-based

D. E. Brozak; J. K. Thomas; K. L. Peddicord

1987-01-01

244

NUCLEAR IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON FERROMAGNETIC CORE MATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of nuclear irradiation on the magnetic properties of 14 ; representative core materials were investigated. Measurements before, during, ; and after irradiation were made at a flux level of about 10¹² neutrons\\/ cm\\/; sup 2\\/ sec and for a total integrated neutron flux of ~ 10¹⁸ nvt. The fast ; flux (E) 1 ev) was about 10¹¹ n\\/cm² sec

R. S. Sery; D. I. Gordon

1958-01-01

245

Reconstruction of solar UV irradiance since 1974  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations of the solar UV irradiance are an important driver of chemical and\\u000aphysical processes in the Earth's upper atmosphere and may also influence\\u000aglobal climate. Here we reconstruct solar UV irradiance in the range 115-400 nm\\u000aover the period 1974-2007 by making use of the recently developed empirical\\u000aextension of the SATIRE models employing SUSIM data. The evolution of

N. A. Krivova; S. K. Solanki; T. Wenzler; B. Podlipnik

2009-01-01

246

Low energy electron irradiation of an apple  

E-print Network

LOW ENERGY ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF AN APPLE A Thesis by GIOVANNI BATISTA BRESCIA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2002... Major Subject: Biological and Agricultural Engineering LOW ENERGY ELECTRON IRRADIATION OFANAPPLE A Thesis by GIOVANNI BATISTA BRESCIA Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

Brescia, Giovanni Batista

2002-01-01

247

Brain fibronectin expression in prenatally irradiated mice  

SciTech Connect

Activation of gene transcription by radiation has been recently demonstrated in vivo. However, little is known on the specificity of these alterations on gene transcription. Prenatal irradiation is a known teratogen that affects the developing mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Altered neuronal migration has been suggested as a mechanism for abnormal development of prenatally irradiated brains. Fibronectin (FN), an extracellular glycoprotein, is essential for neural crest cell migration and neural cell growth. In addition, elevated levels of FN have been found in the extracellular matrix of irradiated lung. To test whether brain FN is affected by radiation, either FN level in insoluble matrix fraction or expression of FN mRNA was examined pre- and postnatally after irradiation. Mice (CD1), at 13 d of gestation (DG), served either as controls or were irradiated with 14 DG, 17 DG, or 5,6, or 14 d postnatal. Brain and liver were collected from offspring and analyzed for either total FN protein levels or relative mRNAs for FN and tubulin. Results of prenatal irradiation on reduction of postnatal brain weight relative to whole are comparable to that reported by others. Insoluble matrix fraction (IMF) per gram of brain, liver, lung, and heart weight was not significantly different either between control and irradiated groups or between postnatal stages, suggesting that radiation did not affect the IMF. However, total amounts of FN in brain IMF at 17 DG were significantly different (p < .02) between normal (1.66 [+-] 0.80 [mu]g) and irradiated brains (0.58 [+-] 0.22 [mu]g). FN mRNA was detectable at 13, 14, and 17 DG, but was not detectable at 6 and 14 d postnatal, indicating that FN mRNA is developmentally regulated. 41 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Meznarich, H.K.; McCoy, L.S.; Bale, T.L.; Stiegler, G.L.; Sikov, M.R. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1993-01-01

248

Magnetic Modulation of Solar 304 Å Irradiance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar 304 Å irradiance is an important source of heating and ionization in the Earth's upper atmosphere. Because only intermittent observations exist prior to solar cycle 23, the absolute levels and solar cycle variability of 304 Å irradiance are uncertain by a factor of two, based on the range of estimates from four current EUV irradiance variability models. Large active regions are a significant source of 304 Å radiation but their characteristics are not well specified, with contrasts reported in the range of two to ten. Statistical quantification of the role of small scale active regions and network is also lacking. During solar cycle 23, three different instruments are observing the Sun's 304 Å radiation concurrently. The EIT on SOHO records the brightness distribution on the solar disk in a 20 Å band, SEM on SOHO monitors the disk-integrated emission in an 80 Å band, and the SEE grating spectrometer on the TIMED spacecraft recently began observing EUV irradiance spectra with 4 Å resolution. We calculate daily histograms of the brightness distributions of EIT images after adjustments for various instrumental effects. Deconstructions of the histograms permit statistical characterizations of magnetic sources of 304 Å irradiance variability during solar cycle 23, in terms of fractional disk areas and contrasts. We also study center-to-limb variations. The calculations provide independent irradiance variability estimates for comparison with the SEM and SEE direct irradiance observations, and the models. We utilize the source characterizations to revise the NRLEUV model, the present version of which estimates 304 Å emission by assuming that a bright active region has a contrast of ten, and that source region evolution is temporally similar to the Mg chromospheric irradiance index. Funded by NASA SEC GI Program.

Lean, J. L.; Mariska, J. T.; Warren, H. P.; Woods, T. N.; Eparvier, F. G.; McMullin, D. R.; Judge, D. L.; Newmark, J. S.; Viereck, R. A.

2003-05-01

249

Determinants of skin sensitivity to solar irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Acute effects of UV irradiation include UV-induced erythema. Sunlight plays an important role in the development of skin cancer. Several predictive factors of UV-induced erythema could also be predictive for skin cancer.Objective: Our objective was to quantitatively assess phenotypical and nutritional determinants of sensitivity to UV irradiation, as assessed by the minimal erythema dose (MED).Design: We conducted a cross-sectional

W M R Broekmans; A. A. Vink; E. Boelsma; W. A. A. Klöpping-Ketelaars; L. B. M. Tijburg; P van't Veer; G van Poppel; A. F. M. Kardinaal; AFM Kardinaal

2003-01-01

250

Microstructure of ion irradiated ceramic insulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cross-section transmission electron microscopy was utilized to examine the radiation-induced microstructural changes in Al 2O 3, MgO, Si 3N 4 and MgAl 2O 4 after irradiation with a wide variety of energetic ion beams. The relative influence of ionizing and displacive radiation was studied by systematically varying the mass and energy of the bombarding ions between 1 MeV H + and 4 MeV Zr 3+ ions. The measured ion ranges were between 1 and 15% greater than the ranges calculated by the TRIM code, with the largest discrepancies occurring for intermediate mass ions. The implanted ions exerted a strong influence on the overall microstructural evolution of the irradiated ceramics. Numerous microstructural features (e.g., amorphization, colloids) were produced in the implanted ion regions which could not be produced in irradiated regions that were well separated from the implanted ions. The microstructural evolution in regions well separated from the implanted ions was found to depend strongly on the mass and energy of the bombarding ion. Light ion irradiation produced a significant enhancement in point defect diffusion (evidenced by defect-free zones at the surface and adjacent to internal defect sinks) compared to heavy ion irradiation at the same damage rate. Similarly, irradiation with a given ion at a higher flux generally produced an increased amount of observable diffusion. In some cases such as 1 MeV proton irradiation, observable defect clusters did not form. This suppression in defect cluster formation may be due to the high amount of point defect recombination associated with ionization enhanced diffusion that occurs during energetic light ion irradiation.

Zinkle, S. J.

1994-06-01

251

Gamma irradiation effects in W films  

SciTech Connect

Using the van Der Pauw methodology, the surface resistivity of irradiated tungsten films deposited on Silicon substrate was measured. The films were exposed to {gamma} radiation using a isotopic {sup 60}Co source in three irradiation stages attaining 40.35 kGy in total dose. The obtained results for superficial resistivity display a time annealing features and their values are proportional to the total dose.

Claro, Luiz H. [Instituto de Estudos Avancados - IEAv, Rod. dos Tamoios, km 5,5, CEP: 12228-840, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil) and Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco - FATESF, Av. Siqueira Campos, 1174, CEP: 12207-000, Jacarei (Brazil); Santos, Ingrid A. [Instituto de Estudos Avancados - IEAv, Rod. dos Tamoios, km 5,5, CEP: 12228-840, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Silva, Cassia F. [Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco - FATESF, Av. Siqueira Campos, 1174, CEP: 12207-000, Jacarei, SP (Brazil)

2013-05-06

252

Fast Neutron Irradiation Effects in Superconducting Niobium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The superconducting magnetization behavior and transition temperatures of single crystals of Nb were investigated prior to and after a series of fast neutron irradiations (E>1 MeV) in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor at a temperature of 40°C.1 In addition to increases in the upper critical field Hc2 and small changes in the transition temperature after irradiation, it has been found

S. T. Sekula; R. H. Kernohan

1968-01-01

253

An introduction to gamma irradiation center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation processing status in the Islamic Republic of Iran is reviewed. Gamma Irradiation Center is the only center offering irradiation services to the manufacturers of disposable medical and hygienic supplies in the country. As a promoter of this technology GIC has also assumed a role and developed capacities for quality control, research and development in this expanding field of endeavor. The personnel, physical facilities, operations record, quality control, and research activities of the GIC is presented.

Sohrabpour, M.

254

Unilateral lung hyperlucency after mediastinal irradiation  

SciTech Connect

A 39-yr-old woman developed progressive exertional dyspnea 13 yr after receiving mediastinal irradiation for Hodgkin's disease. Chest roentgenogram showed a hyperlucent right lung. Pulmonary blood flow was markedly reduced on the right by ventilation-perfusion scanning. Pulmonary angiography showed attenuation and diffuse atrophy of the right pulmonary artery and its branches. This case represents a late and uncommon complication of mediastinal irradiation manifesting as a unilateral hyperlucent lung.

Wencel, M.L.; Sitrin, R.G.

1988-04-01

255

Blue irradiance intercomparison in the medical field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the results of a blue irradiance intercomparison among industrial laboratories of medical devices companies. This intercomparison aims to support the metrological issues of medical equipment manufactures regarding the blue irradiance infant phototherapy equipment requirements on the international standard IEC 60601-2-50:2000. The results showed a low agreement of participants' measurements according to normalized error criterion. The major explanation for this result is associated to an incorrect equipment choice and long recalibration period.

Ferreira, Antonio F. G.

2012-10-01

256

MATERIALS TESTING REACTOR IRRADIATION OF THORIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various methods of irradiating Th in the MTR for production of U²³³; have been considered. The effects on reactor operation and experimental ; facilities have also been investigated. Production would come chiefly from Th ; placed in the reactor core shim-rod (shim-safety rod) positions and\\/or the Be ; reflector. The graphite reflector is not attractive for Th irradiation. The ;

Leyse

1951-01-01

257

The effects of irradiation on blood components  

SciTech Connect

The functional properties of formed elements of whole blood were studied following irradiation doses of 500 to 20,000 rads. Irradiated lymphocytes retained only 1.5 per cent of their 3H thymidine uptake after a 5,000-rad exposure and none after 7,500 rads. Red blood cells stored for 21 days and then irradiated with 5,000 rads had the same survival as nonirradiated controls. In contrast, 5,000 rads reduced platelet yields. However, transfused irradiated platelets produced the expected increases in platelet counts and controlled hemostasis in thrombocytopenic patients. After 5,000 rads, granulocytes had normal bacterial killing capacity, chemotactic mobility, and normal superoxide production after high-dose stimulation. Nitroblue tetrazolium reduction and ingestion stimulated by complement opsonized oil droplets were not diminished by 5,000- and 10,000-rad irradiation. The functional qualities of cellular blood components other than lymphocytes are not compromised by 5,000 rads. This irradiation dose may be an effective means of controlling incidence of graft-vs-host disease in immunosuppressed patients.

Button, L.N.; DeWolf, W.C.; Newburger, P.E.; Jacobson, M.S.; Kevy, S.V.

1981-01-01

258

Evaluation of irradiation effects on concrete structure  

SciTech Connect

In assessing the soundness of irradiated concrete of nuclear power plants operated for more than 30 years, reference levels are employed: 1x10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} for fast neutrons and 2x10{sup 10} rad (2x10{sup 5} kGy) for gamma rays. Concrete structures are regarded as sound when the estimated irradiance levels after 60 years of operation are less than the reference levels. The reference levels were obtained from a paper by Hilsdorf. It was found, however, that the test conditions in which data were obtained by the researchers referred in that paper are very different from the irradiation and heat conditions usually found in a Light Water Reactor (LWR), and therefore aren't appropriate for assessing the soundness of irradiated concrete of an LWR. This paper investigates the interactions between radiation and concrete and presents the results of gamma ray irradiation tests on cement paste samples in order to provide a better understanding of the irradiation effects on concrete. (authors)

Kontani, O.; Ishizawa, A. [Kajima Corporation, Nuclear Power Dept., 6-5-11 Akasaka, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 107-8348 (Japan); Maruyama, I. [Nagoya Univ., Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Furocho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya , 464-8603 (Japan); Takizawa, M.; Sato, O. [Mitsubishi Research Inst. Inc., Science and Safety Policy Research Div., Nuclear Energy Systems Group, 2-10-3 Nagatacho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8141 (Japan)

2012-07-01

259

Thermoluminscence of irradiated herbs and spices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several types of herbs and spices from the local market were irradiated with different doses of ? radiations. Doses varied from a few kilograys to 10 kilograys. Thermoluminescence of the irradiated samples and their controls was investigated. For the same type of herb or spice glow curves of different magnitudes, corresponding somewhat to the doses given, were obtained from the irradiated samples. Most control samples gave little or insignificant glow. Glow curves from different herbs and spices irradiated with the same doses were not similar in the strength of the glow signal given. Samples of the black pepper obtained from different packages sometimes give glow curves of very different intensities. Samples from irradiated black pepper were found to show little fading of their glow curves even at 9 months postirradiation. All irradiations were done under the same experimental conditions and at a dose rate of approximately 1 kGy h-1. The glow curves were obtained using a heating rate of about 9°C s-1 and a constant nitrogen flow rate.

Mamoon, A.; Abdul-Fattah, A. A.; Abulfaraj, W. H.

1994-07-01

260

Measurement and evaluation of the irradiation test parameters for a specimen in a HANARO material irradiation capsule  

Microsoft Academic Search

A material capsule system has been developed for irradiation tests of nuclear materials in the core region of the High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor (HANARO) and has been actively utilized for the various material irradiation tests requested by numerous users. For an irradiation test in the reactor, nuclear characteristics and irradiation temperature of the capsule parts are basically necessary for

K. N. Choo; B. G. Kim; M. S. Cho; Y. K. Kim; J. J. Ha

2009-01-01

261

Comparison of Deuterium Retention for Ion-irradiated and Neutron-irradiated Tungsten  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of D retention for Fe{sup 2+}-irradiated tungsten with a damage of 0.025-3 dpa was compared with that for neutron-irradiated tungsten with 0.025 dpa. The D{sub 2} thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) spectra for Fe{sup 2+}-irradiated tungsten consisted of two desorption stages at 450 and 550 K, while that for neutron-irradiated tungsten was composed of three stages and an addition desorption stage was found at 750 K. The desorption rate of the major desorption stage at 550K increased as the displacement damage increased due to Fe{sup 2+} irradiation increasing. In addition, the first desorption stage at 450K was found only for damaged samples. Therefore, the second stage would be based on intrinsic defects or vacancy produced by Fe{sup 2+} irradiation, and the first stage should be the accumulation of D in mono-vacancy and the activation energy would be relatively reduced, where the dislocation loop and vacancy is produced. The third one was found only for neutron irradiation, showing the D trapping by a void or vacancy cluster, and the diffusion effect is also contributed to by the high full-width at half-maximum of the TDS spectrum. Therefore, it can be said that the D{sub 2} TDS spectra for Fe{sup 2+}-irradiated tungsten cannot represent that for the neutron-irradiated one, indicating that the deuterium trapping and desorption mechanism for neutron-irradiated tungsten is different from that for the ion-irradiated one.

Yasuhisa Oya; Masashi Shimada; Makoto Kobayashi; Takuji Oda; Masanori Hara; Hideo Watanabe; Yuji Hatano; Pattrick Calderoni; Kenji Okuno

2011-12-01

262

Contribution of ultraviolet irradiance variations to changes in the sun's total irradiance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sun's total irradiance decreased from 1980 to mid-1985, remained approximately constant until mid-1987, and has recently begun to increase. This time interval covered the decrease in solar activity from the maximum of solar cycle 21 to solar minimum and the onset of cycle 22. The sun's ultraviolet irradiance also decreased during the descending phase of cycle 21 and, like

J. Lean

1989-01-01

263

Irradiation and Kidney Tumors. Histopathogenesis of Kidney Tumors in Irradiated Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the histopathologic analysis of some 1000 irradiated mice it was ; concluded that spontaneouslyoccurring kidney tumors in mice are rare. ; Irradiation seems to be responsible for producing kidney tumors in mice ; (proportion 10% of the cases). Radiation-induced kidney tumors are mostly ; papillary cystadenomas, miliary type.'' The glomerular capsule appears to be ; most sensitive to the

Charles C. Berdjis

1959-01-01

264

Unwillingness to Consume Irradiated Beef and Unwillingness to Pay for Beef Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benefi ts of food irradiation, such as effectively killing harmful microorganisms, prolonging shelf life of food, and reducing spoilage, have long been recognized by food-safety authorities. Application of food irradiation has been promoted at an inter- national level by the Food and Agricultural Orga- nization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) of the United Nations. In the United

Senhui He; Stanley M. Fletcher; Arbindra Rimal

2005-01-01

265

Tolerance of bile duct to intraoperative irradiation  

SciTech Connect

In order to determine the effects of intraoperative radiation therapy of the bile duct and surrounding tissues, seven adult dogs were subjected to laparotomy and intraoperative irradiation with 11 MeV electrons. Two animals were treated at each dose level of 2000, 3000, and 4500 rads. A single dog which received a laparotomy and sham irradiation served as a control. The irradiation field consisted of a 5 cm diameter circle encompassing the extrahepatic bile duct, portal vein, hepatic artery, and lateral duodenal wall. The animals were followed clinically for mor than 18 months after treatment, and autopsies were performed on dogs that died to assess radiation-induced complications or tissue damage. All dogs developed fibrosis and mural thickening of the common duct, which appeared by 6 weeks following irradiation and which was dose-related, being mild at low doses and more severe at high doses. Hepatic changes were seen as early as 6 weeks after irradiation, consisting of periportal inflammation and fibrosis. The hepatic changes appeared earliest at the highest doses. Frank biliary cirrhosis eventually developed at all dose levels. Duodenal fibrosis appeared in the irradiation portal, being most severe at the highest doses and in some animals resulting in duodenal obstruction. No changes were observed in irradiated portions of portal vein and hepatic artery at any dose level. It was concluded that intraoperative radiation therapy delivered to the region of the common duct leads to ductal fibrosis, partial biliary obstruction with secondary hepatic changes, and duodenal fibrosis if bowel wall is included in the field. Clinical use of intraoperative radiation therapy to the bile duct in humans may require routine use of biliary and duodenal bypass to prevent obstructive complications.

Sindelar, W.F.; Tepper, J.; Travis, E.L.

1982-09-01

266

Removal of carbon-14 from irradiated graphite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximately 250,000 tonnes of irradiated graphite waste exists worldwide and that quantity is expected to increase with decommissioning of Generation II reactors and deployment of Generation IV gas-cooled, graphite moderated reactors. This situation indicates the need for a graphite waste management strategy. On of the isotopes of great concern for long-term disposal of irradiated graphite is carbon-14 (14C), with a half-life of 5730 years. Study of irradiated graphite from some nuclear reactors indicates 14C is concentrated on the outer 5 mm of the graphite structure. The aim of the research presented here is to develop a practical method by which 14C can be removed. In parallel with these efforts, the same irradiated graphite material is being characterized to identify the chemical form of 14C in irradiated graphite. A nuclear-grade graphite, NBG-18, and a high-surface-area graphite foam, POCOFoam®, were exposed to liquid nitrogen (to increase the quantity of 14C precursor) and neutron-irradiated (1013 neutrons/cm2/s). During post-irradiation thermal treatment, graphite samples were heated in the presence of an inert carrier gas (with or without the addition of an oxidant gas), which carries off gaseous products released during treatment. Graphite gasification occurs via interaction with adsorbed oxygen complexes. Experiments in argon only were performed at 900 °C and 1400 °C to evaluate the selective removal of 14C. Thermal treatment also was performed with the addition of 3 and 5 vol% oxygen at temperatures 700 °C and 1400 °C. Thermal treatment experiments were evaluated for the effective selective removal of 14C. Lower temperatures and oxygen levels correlated to more efficient 14C removal.

Dunzik-Gougar, Mary Lou; Smith, Tara E.

2014-08-01

267

Mutation induced with ion beam irradiation in rose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of mutation induction by ion beam irradiation on axillary buds in rose were investigated. Axillary buds were irradiated with carbon and helium ion beams, and the solid mutants emerged after irradiation by repeated cutting back. In helium ion irradiation, mutations were observed in plants derived from 9 buds among 56 irradiated buds in 'Orange Rosamini' and in plants derived from 10 buds among 61 irradiated buds in 'Red Minimo'. In carbon ion, mutations were observed in plants derived from 12 buds among 88 irradiated buds in 'Orange Rosamini'. Mutations were induced not only in higher doses but also in lower doses, with which physiological effect by irradiation was hardly observed. Irradiation with both ion beams induced mutants in the number of petals, in flower size, in flower shape and in flower color in each cultivar.

Yamaguchi, H.; Nagatomi, S.; Morishita, T.; Degi, K.; Tanaka, A.; Shikazono, N.; Hase, Y.

2003-05-01

268

Carotid artery disease following external cervical irradiation.  

PubMed Central

A retrospective study of 910 patients surviving at least five years after cervical irradiation for Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, or primary head an neck neoplasms showed the incidence of stroke following cervical irradiation was 63 of 910 patients (6.3%) during a mean period of observation of nine years. This represents a trend toward an increased risk for this population observed over the same period of time (p = 0.39). A prospective study of 118 similar patients currently living five years after cervical radiotherapy was performed to determine the incidence of carotid artery disease occurring as a consequence of neck irradiation. Abnormal carotid phonangiograms (CPA) were found in 25% of the patients and abnormal oculoplethysmographs (OPG) were found in 17%. These studies represent significant carotid lesions that are not expected in such a population. It is concluded that the carotid stenoses demonstrated are most likely a consequence of prior irradiation. Patients that are five-year survivors of cervical irradiation should have noninvasive vascular laboratory studies performed as part of their routine follow-up examinations in order to detect these carotid lesions while they are occult. PMID:7294930

Elerding, S C; Fernandez, R N; Grotta, J C; Lindberg, R D; Causay, L C; McMurtrey, M J

1981-01-01

269

Dosimetry of blood irradiation with radiochromic film.  

PubMed

It has been shown that radiochromic film is an ideal dosimeter for assessment and verification of delivered dose to irradiated blood products. Using a parallel opposing two-field technique on a medical linear accelerator, blood is irradiated to diminish the risk of transfusion-associated graft vs. host disease (TA-GVHD). The blood products are irradiated in a Perspex blood box to an applied dose of 29.5-31.7 Gy. Verification of applied dose has been performed with thimble ionization chambers and radiochromic film. Radiochromic film results have matched absorbed dose measurements from ionization chambers at all sites within the 'active' treatment volume within +/-6% for a 95% confidence limit. Using a sample of 100 in-vitro measurements, radiochromic film has measured the average applied dose to blood products to be 30.95+/-2.6 Gy for two standard deviations. Like currently available 'irradiated' film labels, the radiochromic film also serves as a visible reminder that the blood products have been irradiated. PMID:10555814

Butson, M J; Yu, P K; Cheung, T; Carolan, M G; Quach, K Y; Arnold, A; Metcalfe, P E

1999-09-01

270

Effects of irradiation on platelet function  

SciTech Connect

Current medical practice involves the irradiation of blood components, including platelet concentrates, before their administration to patients with severe immunosuppression. The authors studied the effect of irradiation on in vitro platelet function and the leaching of plasticizers from the bag, both immediately and after 5 days of storage. The platelet count, white cell count, pH, glucose, lactate, platelet aggregation and release reaction, and serotonin uptake were not altered by the irradiation of random-donor or apheresis units with 2000 rads carried out at 0 and 24 hours and 5 days after collection. The leaching of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate from the plastic bags followed by the conversion to mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate was not increased by irradiation. Therefore, it is possible to irradiate platelet concentrates on the day of collection and subsequently store them for at least 5 days while maintaining in vitro function. This procedure could have considerable benefit for blood banks involved in the provision of many platelet products.

Rock, G.; Adams, G.A.; Labow, R.S.

1988-09-01

271

Transplantation of irradiated heterotopic segmental human pancreas.  

PubMed

The results of three irradiated segmental pancreatic autotransplantations in patients with cancer of the pancreatic head are presented. The grafts with ligated ducts were irradiated with 5000 or 2000 rad. Following irradiation, the pancreatic tails that were tumor-free at the section line were autotransplanted by anastomosing the splenic vessels to the common femoral vessels. The first graft (5000 rad) that was necrotic, was removed on the 15th postoperative day and the patient was placed on insulin therapy. The second and third patient (2000 rad) are both alive with functioning grafts without exocrine secretion and with normal carbohydrate metabolism, 7 months and 1 month after transplantation, respectively. Technically, irradiated pancreas transplantation is a feasible procedure, which could be applicable to patients with cancer of the pancreatic head to avoid secondary complications of diabetes after total pancreatectomy, and to patients with juvenile or chronic pancreatitis. It is possible that high-dose irradiation can completely destroy eventual multicenter tumor foci in the pancreatic tail. PMID:6312859

Tersigni, R; Toledo-Pereyra, L H; Fallucca, F; Cavallini, M; Capece, G; Giagrande, L; Capua, G; Stipa, S

1983-09-01

272

COBALT-60 Gamma Irradiation of Shrimp.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meta- and ortho-tyrosine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in conjunction with electrochemical detection in shrimp irradiated using cobalt-60 gamma radiation in the absorbed dose range 0.8 to 6.0 kGy, in nonirradiated shrimp, and in bovine serum albumin (BSA) irradiated in dilute aqueous solution at 25.0 kGy. Ortho-tyrosine was measured in nonirradiated BSA. Para-, meta-, and ortho-tyrosine were measured using HPLC in conjunction with uv-absorption detection in dilute aqueous solutions of phenylalanine irradiated in the absorbed dose range 16.0 to 195.0 kGy. The measured yields of tyrosine isomers were approximately linear as a function of absorbed dose in shrimp, and in irradiated solutions of phenylalanine up to 37.0 kGy. The occurrence of meta- and ortho-tyrosine, which had formerly been considered unique radiolytic products, has not previously been reported in nonirradiated shrimp or BSA. The conventional hydrolyzation and analytical techniques used in the present study to measure meta- and ortho-tyrosine may provide the basis for a method to detect and determine the dose used in food irradiation.

Sullivan, Nancy L. B.

273

Cobalt-60 gamma irradiation of shrimp  

SciTech Connect

Meta- and ortho-tyrosine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in conjunction with electrochemical detection in shrimp irradiated using cobalt-60 gamma radiation in the absorbed dose range 0.8 to 6.0 kGy, in nonirradiated shrimp, and in bovine serum albumin (BSA) irradiated in dilute aqueous solution at 25.0 kGy. Ortho-tyrosine was measured in nonirradiated BSA. Para-, meta-, and ortho-tyrosine was measured using HPLC in conjunction with uv-absorption detection in dilute aqueous solutions of phenylalanine irradiated in the absorbed dose range 16.0 to 195.0 kGy. The measured yields of tyrosine isomers were approximately linear as a function of absorbed dose in shrimp, and in irradiated solutions of phenylalanine up to 37.0 kGy. The occurrence of meta- and ortho-tyrosine, which had formerly been considered unique radiolytic products, has not previously been reported in nonirradiated shrimp or BSA. The conventional hydrolyzation and analytical techniques used in the present study to measure meta- and ortho-tyrosine may provide the basis for a method to detect and determine the dose used in food irradiation.

Sullivan, N.L.B.

1993-01-01

274

Effects of Ion Irradiation on Ice Porosity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vapor-deposited water ice is believed to be present in astronomical environments such as interstellar grains, planetary rings, comets, and icy satellites. Some salient properties are its amorphous molecular structure and its microporosity, which determines its capacity to absorb gas. Since in most astronomical environments these ices are subject to radiation it is important to determine the effect of radiation on porosity. We have studied in the laboratory the effects of ion irradiation on the porosity of amorphous ice using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Our findings indicate that ion irradiation compacts porous ice. The density of the ice film rises asymptotically to a saturation value with increasing ion fluence. Irradiation also decreases the intensity of the ~ 2.7 ?m absorption features assigned to the O-H stretch of dangling molecules present in porous ice film. However, we find that the dangling bond features decrease at a faster rate than the ice porosity. To investigate this contrasting behavior, we performed gas adsorption/desorption experiments on ice films irradiated to different fluences of 100 keV Ar+ ions. We will discuss how these measurements can be used to obtain pore size distributions and changes induced via ion irradiation. Finally, our results open the possibility that ices can remain porous, even if the dangling bond features are not present, which is of particular interest in colder regions such as interstellar ices.

Raut, U.; Teolis, B. D.; Loeffler, M. J.; Fama, M.; Vidal, R. A.; Baragiola, R. A.

2006-05-01

275

Gamma irradiation effects on the biodegradation of lignin  

E-print Network

. Relative Absorption at 5. 7 microns 9. Relative Absorption at 5. 9 microns 10. Relative Absorption at 6. 3 microns ll. Relative Absorption at 6. 7 microns 35 35 36 36 37 12. Removal of Irradiated CLS Zero Radiation Level 57 13. Remova I... of Irradiated CLS 103 rads Radiation Level 57 14, Removal of Irradiated CLS 104 rads Radiation Level 58 15. Removal of Irradiated CLS 5xl04 rads Radiation Level 58 16. Removal of Irradiated CLS 105 rads Radiation Level 59 17. Removal of Irradiated CLS 5...

Krysinski, Thomas Leon

2012-06-07

276

Health risk assessment of irradiated topaz  

SciTech Connect

Irradiated topaz gemstones are currently processed for color improvement by subjecting clear stones to neutron or high-energy electron irradiations, which leads to activation of trace elements in the stones. Assessment of the risk to consumers required the identification and quantification of the resultant radionuclides and the attendant exposure. Representative stones from Brazil, India, Nigeria, Sri Lanka were irradiated and analyzed for gamma ray and beta particle emissions, using sodium iodide and germanium spectrometers; and Geiger-Muller, plastic and liquid scintillation, autoradiography, and thermoluminescent-dosimetry measurement techniques. Based on these studies and other information derived from published literature, dose and related risk estimates were made for typical user conditions. New criteria and methods for routine assays for acceptable release, based on gross beta and gross photon emissions from the stones, were also developed.

Nelson, J.W.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1993-01-01

277

Microbeam analysis of irradiated nuclear fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbeam analysis is widely used in the nuclear power industry. It is used to characterise the as-fabricated fuel, for routine post-irradiated examination and for research into the mechanisms of phenomena that limit the energy production of the fuel. The techniques most commonly used are wavelength-dispersive electron probe microanalysis, scanning electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Other microbeam analysis techniques that have been successfully applied to irradiated nuclear fuel are transmission and replica electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence and micro X.-ray diffraction. Specific examples illustrating the past and present use of microbeam analysis in nuclear research establishments are presented with emphasis on the unique results they provide. As an aid to understanding, some basic facts about nuclear fuel rods and their irradiation are first given. This is followed by a description of features that set apart the microbeam analysis of high radioactive materials from standard practice.

Walker, C. T.; Brémier, S.; Pöml, P.; Papaioannou, D.; Bottomley, P. W. D.

2012-03-01

278

Photoluminescence study on irradiated yttria stabilized zirconia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural variations within monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic zirconia pellets with different amounts of yttria doping and its subsequent exposure to various proton, silver ion and gamma irradiation fluxes were investigated using photoluminescence spectroscopy. Upon ion irradiation color centers were produced at doses >1015 ions/cm2 resulting in purple coloration. The decrease in photoluminescence intensity was observed for proton irradiated pellets except for tetragonal zirconia (6YSZ: 6 mol% Y2O3 doped ZrO2). The anomalous behaviour in case of tetragonal zirconia may result from short range ordering of oxygen vacancies around Zr ions occurring in order to relieve the stress/lattice distortions associated with proton impingement.

Halder, R.; Sengupta, Pranesh; Sudarsan, V.; Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, A.; Bhukta, A.; Sharma, G.; Samajdar, I.; Dey, G. K.

2015-01-01

279

Irradiation Is it Consumer-Friendly?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

“Leo Altamari,” CEO of Kutztown Meat Packing Corporation, has just come back from his Monday morning staff meeting, where the major agenda item was a discussion about the irradiation of meat products.  Leo must decide whether his company should pursue meat irradiation, weighing the expense of the technology and the wariness of many consumers, even though research has shown it to be an effective means of eliminating E. coli contamination in meat products.  Developed for an introductory food science course, the case introduces students to consumer perceptions and beliefs about food irradiation and teaches them how the food industry evaluates new processing technologies from a business perspective.

Anantheswaran, Swamy

2000-01-01

280

Growth-irradiance relationships in phytoplankton  

SciTech Connect

The steady state growth rates of three species of marine phytoplankton, Thalassiosira weisflogii, Isochrysis galbana, and Prorocentrum micans, were followed in turbidostat culture. At each growth irradiance, photosynthesis and respiration were measured by following changes in oxygen. Together with measurements of optical absorption cross sections, cellular chlorophyll, carbon and nitrogen, and excretion rates as well as knowledge of the quantum flux, the quantum requirement for growth and photosynthesis were calculated. Our results suggest that variations in growth rate caused by changes in irradiance may be related to changes in respiration rates relative to growth as well as changes in optical absorption cross sections for a given species. Interspecific differences in growth rate at a given irradiance are not related to changes in respiration however, but are primarily attributable to differences in optical absorption cross sections normalized to chlorophyll and differences in chlorophyll:carbon ratios.

Falkowski, P.G.; Dubinsky, Z.; Wyman, K.

1985-03-01

281

Neutrophil myeloperoxidase destruction by ultraviolet irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The peroxidase activity of enriched leukocyte preparations on coverslips was determined cytochemically with a newly developed method. The techniques utilizes diaminobenzidine medium and cupric nitrate intensification and is suitable for analysis with light microscopy, SEM, and TEM. Blood specimens from control individuals were studied with and without in vitro UV irradiation and compared with those from psoriasis patients exposed therapeutically to various types of UV in phototherapy. All UV irradiated samples showed diminished neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MP) activity although that of the principal eosinophil peroxidase was unaffected. The SEMs supported the contention that decreased neutrophil MP activity might be related to UV induced degranulation. It is believed to be possible, eventually, to equate the observed MP degranulation effect after UV irradiation with diminished ability to fight bacterial infections.

Hanker, J.; Giammara, B.; Strauss, G.

1988-01-01

282

Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system  

DOEpatents

A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); McInnes, Ian D. (San Jose, CA); Massey, John V. (San Jose, CA)

1988-01-01

283

Spectroscopic study of gamma irradiated bovine hemoglobin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, the effects of ionizing radiation of Cs-137 and Co-60 from 4.95 to 743.14 Gy and from 40 Gy to 300 kGy, respectively, on some bovine hemoglobin characteristics were studied. Such an effect was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and infra-red (IR) spectroscopy. Bovine hemoglobin EPR spectra were recorded and analyzed before and after irradiation and changes were explained in detail. IR spectra of unirradiated and irradiated Bovine hemoglobin were recorded and analyzed also. It was found that ionizing radiation may lead to the increase of free radicals production, the decrease in ?-helices contents, which reflects the degradation of hemoglobin molecular structure, or at least its incomplete performance. Results also show that the combined application of EPR and FTIR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for determining structural modification of bovine hemoglobin samples exposed to gamma irradiation.

Maghraby, Ahmed Mohamed; Ali, Maha Anwar

2007-10-01

284

Dyeing of ?-irradiated cotton with natural flavonoid dye extracted from irradiated onion shells (Allium cepa) powder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Powder of Onion shells as a source of natural flavonoid dye (Quercetin) and cotton fabrics were exposed to absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. Irradiated and un-irradiated dye powder was used for extraction of quercetin as well as antibacterial, hemolytic and antioxidant activities were also determined to observe the effect of radiation. Furthermore, color strength and colourfastness of irradiated fabrics were improved by using pre and post-mordants such as alum and iron. It is found that 4 kGy is the optimal absorbed dose for extraction of natural quercetin extracted from onion shells while maximum color strength and acceptable fastness properties are obtained on dyeing of irradiated fabric at 60 °C keeping M:L of 1:30 using 10% alum as pre-mordant and 6% alum as post-mordant. Gamma irradiation has not only improved the color strength of the dye using irradiated cotton but also that of colourfastness properties.

Rehman, Fazal-ur; Adeel, Shahid; Shahid, Muhammad; Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Nasir, Faiza; Akhtar, Nasim; Ahmad, Zulfiqar

2013-11-01

285

Irradiation of meat products, chicken and use of irradiated spices for sausages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shelf-life of packed minced meat has been increased at least threefold at 4°C by applying a 2 kGy dose. Results have been confirmed by detailed quatitative microbiological examinations. Sensory evaluations show no significant difference between the unirradiated samples. The optimal average dose was 4 kGy for packed-frosen chicken. The number of mesophilic aerobic microbes was reduced by 2, that of psychrotolerant by 2-3 and that of Enterbacteriaceae by 3-4 orders of magnitude by 4 kGy. S. aureus and Salmonella could not be detected in the irradiated samples. In sensory evaluations there was no significant difference between untreated and irradiated samples. In 1984-1985 5100 kg irradiated chickens were marketed labelled as radiation treated. Irradiated spices (5 kGy) were used in the production of sausages (heat-treated and non-heat-treated) under industrial conditions. The microbiological contamination of irradiated spices was lower than that of ethylene oxide treated ones. The cell count in products made with irradiated spices was lower than in those made with unirradiated spices. The sausages proved to be of very good quality. In accordance with the permission, products were marketed and because of the low ratio of spices there was no need to declare them as using irradiated spices.

Kiss, I. F.; Beczner, J.; Zachariev, Gy.; Kovács, S.

286

Separation of sodium-22 from irradiated targets  

DOEpatents

A process for selective separation of sodium-22 from an irradiated target including dissolving an irradiated target to form a first solution, contacting the first solution with hydrated antimony pentoxide to selectively separate sodium-22 from the first solution, separating the hydrated antimony pentoxide including the separated sodium-22 from the first solution, dissolving the hydrated antimony pentoxide including the separated sodium-22 in a mineral acid to form a second solution, and, separating the antimony from the sodium-22 in the second solution.

Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, David (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01

287

Backside doping profiles of irradiated silicon detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon detectors are used in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments as tracking and vertexing devices. The damage caused by radiation is of special interest for sensors to be used at the HL-LHC. The doping profiles of highly irradiated sensors can neither be measured with common capacitance voltage methods nor with methods of chemical analysis. Nevertheless, they need to be known for damage modelling or for simulations of the sensor performance. In this paper it is shown that highly neutron irradiated doping profiles can be measured by using a spreading resistance probe technique. It turned out that the implantation depth of the profiles of active dopants decreases with increasing fluences.

Treberspurg, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Krammer, M.; Valentan, M.

2013-04-01

288

The effects of sunspots on solar irradiance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that the darkness of a sunspot on the visible hemisphere of the sun will reduce the solar irradiance on the earth. Approaches are discussed for obtaining a crude estimate of the irradiance deficit produced by sunspots and of the total luminosity reduction for the whole global population of sunspots. Attention is given to a photometric sunspot index, a global measure of spot flux deficit, and models for the compensating flux excess. A model is shown for extrapolating visible-hemisphere spot areas to the invisible hemisphere. As an illustration, this extrapolation is used to calculate a very simple model for the reradiation necessary to balance the flux deficit.

Hudson, H. S.; Silva, S.; Woodard, M.; Willson, R. C.

1982-01-01

289

Bioluminescence estimation from ocean in situ irradiances.  

PubMed

An algorithm is developed for estimating the spatial location and magnitude of a bioluminescent radiation source from measurements of the in situ irradiance and scalar irradiance at two depths. The algorithm is based on the principle of photon conservation. The most direct application of the algorithm requires that the absorption coefficient be known, but the algorithm is useful even if that coefficient is unknown. Numerical tests and an error analysis have been done to test the algorithm numerically. In addition we show that if the estimated source magnitude is nearly constant, that value can be used to estimate the vertical attenuation coefficient of the radiation field. PMID:20720689

Yi, H C; Sanchez, R; McCormick, N J

1992-02-20

290

Processing of diamond by laser beam irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

YAG and ArF excimer laser beams, of which wavelengths are 1.06 micrometers and 193 nm respectively, have been applied to processing of a variety of diamonds. Cutting and smoothing of natural, CVD and sintered diamonds have been performed. CVD diamond films were prepared by arc discharge plasma jet CVD and microwave plasma CVD, and sintered diamonds contain metallic or ceramic binder have been used. Fundamental removal processes of diamond with YAG and ArF excimer laser have been investigated using natural single crystal and CVD diamonds in various atmospheres changing laser irradiation conditions such as average power, energy density and pulse repetition rates. Cutting of natural and CVD diamonds with YAG laser proceeds at higher peal power that occurs at lower pulse repetition rates. Smooth surfaces are obtained by excimer laser irradiation at the incident angle of 80 percent. In the cases of the processing with YAG laser, the effect of local heating by laser beam irradiation mainly assists the diamond processing, and diamond appears to be removed after graphitization and oxidization following vaporization in the atmosphere contains oxygen. The temperature measurement was carried out at backside of irradiation surface, and increase of temperature when YAG laser beam was irradiated was larger than that when excimer laser was irradiated. On the contrary, the detection of C, C2, C+, O2 and CO from the emission at the irradiation area with ArF excimer laser beam suggest that processing partly proceeds by the separation of carbon atoms from the surface of diamond after braking bonds between carbon atoms caused by laser beam. Cutting of sintered diamond with metallic binder was difficult because metallic binder remains in the groove while ceramic binder was easily removed. Processing technique using laser beams has been applied to surface planing, chip preparation and edge formation of CVD diamond and curved surface formation on sintered diamond. Surface planing was carried out by directing the YAG laser beam parallel to the surface of diamond films and diamond chips were prepared by the combination of cutting and surface planing techniques. A sharp edge was formed between the surfaces which cut by laser beam and mechanically polished. Round nose was formed by gradually rotating the sintered diamond following YAG laser beam irradiation.

Yoshikawa, Masanori; Hirata, Atsushi

1998-10-01

291

Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program  

SciTech Connect

Maintaining the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in a light-water-cooled nuclear power plant is crucial in preventing and controlling severe accidents that have the potential for major contamination release. Because the RPV is the only key safety-related component of the plant for which a redundant backup system does not exist, it is imperative to fully understand the degree of irradiation-induced degradation of the RPV's fracture resistance that occurs during service. For this reason, the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) Program has been established.

Rosseel, T.M.

2000-04-01

292

Cerenkov methodology for monitoring irradiated reactor fuel  

SciTech Connect

Attribute measurement methods for confirming declared irradiated fuel inventories at nuclear installations under safeguards surveillance are of significant interest to inspectors. High-gain measurements of the intensity of the Cerenkov glow from exposed assemblies in water-filled storage ponds are promising for this purpose because the measured intensities depend on cooling times and burnup. We have developed a Cerenkov Measuring Device, a hand-held instrument that examines irradiated fuel assemblies in water-filled storage ponds and measures the intensity of the associated Cerenkov glow. In addition, we have developed a method for making such high-gain measurements in the presence of intense ambient light.

Nicholson, N.; Dowdy, E.J.

1984-01-01

293

Radiostability of pharmaceuticals under different irradiation conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the products studied are cefazolin, glucagon and dobutamine HCl. The radioresistance of pharmaceuticals may depend on the conditions of irradiation. The best is to irradiate the drugs in solid state and the chemical transformations can be reduced also by lowering the temperature of the liquid. In solid state, the dose rate has no influence on the decomposition for the selected molecules and it should be noted that drug excipients selected for bioavailability reasons are not always radioprotectors. These results are important from a technical point of view in pharmaceutical industry.

Crucq, Anne-Sophie; Deridder, Véronique; Tilquin, Bernard

2005-02-01

294

Involved field irradiation for the treatment of esophageal cancer: Is it better than elective nodal irradiation?  

PubMed

Esophageal cancer (EC) is an extremely aggressive and lethal malignancy with an increasing incidence worldwide. Currently, the combination of radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy is performed for nonsurgical EC. However, there is no clear consensus on the accurate definition of the clinical target volume. Still, elective nodal irradiation (ENI) is the conventional remedy adopted for EC patients, while severe radiotherapy-related toxicities would occur in at least half of patients. Involved field irradiation (IFI) is a selective way to decrease the irradiation volume and thereby to decline toxicities. This review centers on the modality of IFI and compares the treatment efficacy between IFI and ENI. PMID:25464112

Jiang, Liyang; Zhao, Xin; Meng, Xue; Yu, Jinming

2015-02-01

295

Understanding the Irradiation Behavior of Zirconium Carbide  

SciTech Connect

Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is being considered for utilization in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuels in deep-burn TRISO fuel. Zirconium carbide possesses a cubic B1-type crystal structure with a high melting point, exceptional hardness, and good thermal and electrical conductivities. The use of ZrC as part of the TRISO fuel requires a thorough understanding of its irradiation response. However, the radiation effects on ZrC are still poorly understood. The majority of the existing research is focused on the radiation damage phenomena at higher temperatures (>450{degree}C) where many fundamental aspects of defect production and kinetics cannot be easily distinguished. Little is known about basic defect formation, clustering, and evolution of ZrC under irradiation, although some atomistic simulation and phenomenological studies have been performed. Such detailed information is needed to construct a model describing the microstructural evolution in fast-neutron irradiated materials that will be of great technological importance for the development of ZrC- based fuel. The goal of the proposed project is to gain fundamental understanding of the radiation-induced defect formation in zirconium carbide and irradiation response (ZrC) by using a combination of state-of-the-art experimental methods and atomistic modeling. This project will combine (1) in situ ion irradiation at a specialized facility at a national laboratory, (2) controlled temperature proton irradiation on bulk samples, and (3) atomistic modeling to gain a fundamental understanding of defect formation in ZrC. The proposed project will cover the irradiation temperatures from cryogenic temperature to as high as 800{degree}C, and dose ranges from 0.1 to 100 dpa. The examination of this wide range of temperatures and doses allows us to obtain an experimental data set that can be effectively used to exercise and benchmark the computer calculations of defect properties. Combining the examination of radiation-induced microstructures mapped spatially and temporally, microstructural evolution during post-irradiation annealing, and atomistic modeling of defect formation and transport energetics will provide new, critical understanding about property changes in ZrC. The behavior of materials under irradiation is determined by the balance between damage production, defect clustering, and lattice response. In order to predict those effects at high temperatures so targeted testing can be expanded and extrapolated beyond the known database, it is necessary to determine the defect energetics and mobilities as these control damage accumulation and annealing. In particular, low-temperature irradiations are invaluable for determining the regions of defect mobility. Computer simulation techniques are particularly useful for identifying basic defect properties, especially if closely coupled with a well-constructed and complete experimental database. The close coupling of calculation and experiment in this project will provide mutual benchmarking and allow us to glean a deeper understanding of the irradiation response of ZrC, which can then be applied to the prediction of its behavior in reactor conditions.

Motta, Arthur; Sridharan, Kumar; Morgan, Dane; Szlufarska, Izabela

2013-10-11

296

Neutron irradiation of Am-241 effectively produces curium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer study was made on the production of multicurie amounts of highly alpha-active curium 242 from americium 241 irradiation. The information available includes curium 242 yields, curium composition, irradiation data, and production techniques and safeguards.

Anderson, R. W.; Milstead, J.; Stewart, D. C.

1967-01-01

297

10 CFR 36.69 - Irradiation of explosive or flammable materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Irradiation of explosive or flammable materials...Operation of Irradiators § 36.69 Irradiation of explosive or flammable materials. (a) Irradiation of explosive material is...

2012-01-01

298

10 CFR 36.69 - Irradiation of explosive or flammable materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Irradiation of explosive or flammable materials...Operation of Irradiators § 36.69 Irradiation of explosive or flammable materials. (a) Irradiation of explosive material is...

2013-01-01

299

10 CFR 36.69 - Irradiation of explosive or flammable materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Irradiation of explosive or flammable materials...Operation of Irradiators § 36.69 Irradiation of explosive or flammable materials. (a) Irradiation of explosive material is...

2011-01-01

300

10 CFR 36.69 - Irradiation of explosive or flammable materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Irradiation of explosive or flammable materials...Operation of Irradiators § 36.69 Irradiation of explosive or flammable materials. (a) Irradiation of explosive material is...

2010-01-01

301

10 CFR 36.69 - Irradiation of explosive or flammable materials.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Irradiation of explosive or flammable materials...Operation of Irradiators § 36.69 Irradiation of explosive or flammable materials. (a) Irradiation of explosive material is...

2014-01-01

302

In vitro digestibility of gamma-irradiated corn starches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The digestibility of gamma-irradiated corn starches was investigated. Gamma-irradiation (5–20kGy) decreased the average molecular size of waxy and normal corn starches, but increased the proportions of both rapidly digestible (RDS) starch and enzyme-resistant starch (RS). The residual moisture in starch affected the susceptibility of the starches to the irradiation. Waxy corn starch was more susceptible to the irradiation than normal

H.-S. Yoon; J.-Y. Yoo; J.-H. Kim; J.-W. Lee; M.-W. Byun; B.-K. Baik; S.-T. Lim

2010-01-01

303

IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

SciTech Connect

The radiation effects on the physical characteristic of the sewage sludge were studied in order to obtain information which will be used for study on the enhancement of the sludge's dewaterability. Water contents, capillary suction time, zeta potential, irradiation dose, sludge acidity, total solid concentration, sludge particle size and microbiology before and after irradiation were investigated. Irradiation gave an effect on physical characteristics sludge. Water content in sludge cake could be reduced by irradiation at the dose of 10kGy.

Lee, M-J.; Lee, J-K.; Yoo, D-H.; Ho, K.

2004-10-05

304

Analysis of the depolarizing properties of irradiated pig skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Further to the irradiation of pig with cobalt, the polarimetric properties of skin samples were experimentally investigated, and the Mueller matrices were measured at different wavelengths. Whatever the studied sample, both increase of irradiation rate and reduction of wavelengths decreased the depolarization. Finally, we demonstrate that, 70 days after irradiation, polarization measurements allow one to distinguish a healthy pig skin sample from a 15 Gy- or 20 Gy-irradiated one.

Boulvert, F.; Boulbry, B.; LeBrun, G.; LeJeune, B.; Rivet, S.; Cariou, J.

2005-01-01

305

Monitoring pathogens from irradiated agriculture products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The final food and environmental safety assessment of agriculture product irradiation can only be determined by product history. Product history will be used for future research and development, regulations, commercial practices and implementation of agriculture and food irradiation on a regional basis. The commercial irradiator treats large varieties and amounts of products that are used in various environments. It, in time, will generate a large data base of product history. Field product monitoring begins when food irradiation progresses from the pilot/demonstration phase to the commercial phase. At that time, it is important that there be in place a monitoring system to collect and analyze field data. The systems managers, public health authorities and exotic disease specialists will use this information to assess the reduction of food pathogens on the populace and the environment. The common sources of monitoring data are as follows: 1) Host Monitoring a) Medical Diagnosis b) Autopsy c) Serology Surveys 2) Environmental Monitoring a) Sentinel b) Pest Surveys/Microbial Counts c) Sanitary Inspections 3) Food Industries Quality Assurance Monitoring a) End Product Inspection b) Complaints c) Continual Use of the Product

Butterweck, Joseph S.

306

CONSTRUCTION OF IRRADIATION CAPSULES FOR GRAPHITE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Important aspects for the design of non-instrumented capsules for ; graphite samples, which are to be irradiated close to the temperature of the ; reactor coolant, are discussed. In the capsules used for this purpose, the ; temperature distribution is given in dependence on the gamma -heating rate and ; the dose of fast neutrons. Improvements of the capsule design

1962-01-01

307

Electron beam irradiation modification of collagen membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical observation of reconstituted collagen membrane radiated by electron beam (EB) indicated that these collagenous fibers become cross-linked network when the irradiation is carried out in greater than melt temperature and nitrogen atmosphere. Studies on the membrane properties showed that glass transformation temperature (Tg) and melt point (Tm) of reconstituted collagen have no changes, but thermal gravity curves and

Bo Jiang; Zhihong Wu; Huichuan Zhao; Fangyuan Tang; Jian Lu; Qingrong Wei; Xingdong Zhang

2006-01-01

308

An efficient representation for irradiance environment maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the rendering of diffuse objects under distant illumination, as specified by an environment map. Using an analytic expression for the irradiance in terms of spherical harmonic coefficients of the lighting, we show that one needs to compute and use only 9 coefficients, corresponding to the lowest-frequency modes of the illumination, in order to achieve average errors of only

Ravi Ramamoorthi; Pat Hanrahan

2001-01-01

309

Development of a high irradiance source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Irradiance levels up to 17.27 sq in/sec. with a nonuniformity ratio of 1.07 have been developed to simulate high heat flux loads on the surface of difference materials. This has been achieved by an arc image furnace utilizing a 50 kw xenon short arc lamp mounted within an elliptical collector.

Lunde, A. R.

1972-01-01

310

RTNS-II irradiation program. [LMFBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work is to determine the effects of high energy neutrons on damage production and evolution, and the relationships of these effects to effects produced by fission reactor neutrons. Specific objectives of current work are the planning and performance of an irradiation program at the Rotating Target Neutron Source (RTNS)-II at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) and

D. G. Doran; N. F. Panayotou

2010-01-01

311

Continuous wave laser irradiation of explosives  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative measurements of the levels of continuous wave (CW) laser light that can be safely applied to bare explosives during contact operations were obtained at 532 nm, 785 nm, and 1550 nm wavelengths. A thermal camera was used to record the temperature of explosive pressed pellets and single crystals while they were irradiated using a measured laser power and laser spot size. A visible light image of the sample surface was obtained before and after the laser irradiation. Laser irradiation thresholds were obtained for the onset of any visible change to the explosive sample and for the onset of any visible chemical reaction. Deflagration to detonation transitions were not observed using any of these CW laser wavelengths on single crystals or pressed pellets in the unconfined geometry tested. Except for the photochemistry of DAAF, TATB and PBX 9502, all reactions appeared to be thermal using a 532 nm wavelength laser. For a 1550 nm wavelength laser, no photochemistry was evident, but the laser power thresholds for thermal damage in some of the materials were significantly lower than for the 532 nm laser wavelength. No reactions were observed in any of the studied explosives using the available 300 mW laser at 785 nm wavelength. Tables of laser irradiance damage and reaction thresholds are presented for pressed pellets of PBX9501, PBX9502, Composition B, HMX, TATB, RDX, DAAF, PETN, and TNT and single crystals of RDX, HMX, and PETN for each of the laser wavelengths.

McGrane, Shawn D.; Moore, David S.

2010-12-01

312

The Sun and Climate Solar Irradiance  

E-print Network

The Sun and Climate #12;Solar Irradiance The Solar Constant f = 1.4 x 106 erg/cm2/s. Over is higher when the Sun is more magnetically active. ·The Sun was magnetically active, and the climate the Sun Drive Climate? #12;The Temperature's Rising #12;Sunspots and CO2 What is Cause and What is Effect

Walter, Frederick M.

313

Sucrose synthesis in gamma irradiated sweet potato  

SciTech Connect

Effect of ..cap alpha..-irradiation carbohydrate metabolism was examined to elucidate mechanism of sucrose accumulation in sweet potato (SP). Enzymes examined were: ..beta..-amylase, phosphorylase, phosphoglucomutase, phosphoglucose isomerase, sucrose phosphate synthetase and sucrose synthetase. Irradiated SP (Red Jewell) sucrose was synthesized to yield 10.7% after 4 d PI. Activities of sugar synthesizing enzymes in irradiated SP were enhanced to different degrees using 100-200 Krad and 3 d PI at 24/sup 0/C. Phosphorylase and phosphoglucomutases specific activities reached 2.4 and 1.8 folds, respectively compared to control SP. ..beta..-amylase, phosphoglucose isomerase, sucrose synthetase and sucrose phosphate synthetase were also affected to yield 1.2, 1.3, 1.3 and 1.2 folds, respectively compared to controls. It is believed that amylase hydrolyzed starch to glucose which is converted to fructose by phosphoglucose isomerase. Sucrose is then formed by sucrose phosphate synthetase and/or sucrose synthetase leading to its accumulation. The irradiated SP was used for alcohol fermentation leading to 500 gal. of 200 proof ethanol/acre (from 500-600 bushels tuber/acre).

Ailouni, S.; Hamdy, M.K.; Toledo, R.T.

1987-01-01

314

Total Solar Irradiance Satellite Composites and their  

E-print Network

Chapter 12 Total Solar Irradiance Satellite Composites and their Phenomenological Effect on Climate. Phenomenological solar signature on climate 310 9. Conclusion 312 1. INTRODUCTION A contiguoustotal solar from each other, in particular about whether the TSI minimum during solar Cycles 22e23 (1995

Scafetta, Nicola

315

Introduction 5 Mechanism of Irradiation Hardening 5  

E-print Network

Figures 25 #12;- 5 - 1. INTRODUCTION It is well known that bombardment of metals by energetic neutrons induces considerable changes in their physical and mechanical properties. The increase in critical shear-produced defects with dislocations. Several irradiation hardening studies have been performed on fee metals

316

Association between primary hyperparathyroidism and previous irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The association between primary hyperparathyroidism and previous irradiation was investigated in two study groups. Among 36 patients with hyperparathyroidism, 4 (11%) knew of having received radiation therapy. In the second group of 323 patients with a history of radiation exposure and nodular thyroid disease, 4 (1%), thus far, were found to have hyperparathyroidism.

Tamura, K.; Shimaoka, K.; Spaulding, S.; Shedd, D.

1982-04-01

317

Performance of irradiated CMS forward pixel detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of a module of the CMS forward pixel detector irradiated up to a maximum dose of 45 Mrad was investigated at a beam test at Fermilab. The conclusion is that the CMS forward pixel detector can easily tolerate this radiation dose without any impact on the CMS physics performance.

Taroni, S.

2010-04-01

318

The Carcinogenic Effect of UVA Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carcinogenic effect of UVA radiation (from Philips black light tubes filtered through a 2 mm-thick glass plate to eliminate the radiation below 320 nm) was studied in 7 groups of 25 lightly pigmented hairless mice. Irradiation with a moderate daily dose of combined UVB and UVA for 3 months induced a tumor incidence of 0.22 after 58 weeks. When

Bent Staberg; Hans Christian Wulf; Per Klemp; Thomas Poulsen; Holger Brodthagen

1983-01-01

319

Hyperparathyroidism After Irradiation for Childhood Malignancy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To examine the occurrence of hyperparathyroidism in a cohort of patients undergoing combined parathyroid and thyroid surgery after previous head-and-neck irradiation for childhood malignancy. Methods and Materials: This is a retrospective cohort study for the years 1996 to 2007. The study group comprised patients undergoing surgery in University of Sydney Endocrine Surgical Unit who had received previous head-and-neck irradiation in childhood and who were identified as having pathologic thyroid and parathyroid characteristics. Results: A total of 53 patients were identified in whom head-and-neck irradiation for the treatment of childhood malignancy had been documented. In each of the cases, thyroid disease was the primary reason for referral for surgery. Five of these patients (10%) were found to exhibit coexisting hyperparathyroidism. The latency period for hyperparathyroidism was less than 20 years in 4 of the 5 cases. There were four conventional parathyroid adenomas and one parathyroid lipoadenoma. All patients exhibited a significant decrease in postoperative calcium levels after surgery. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to document the significant risk of hyperparathyroidism after radiation exposure for childhood malignancy. The timeframe for development of disease is much shorter than that published for individuals who have undergone irradiation for benign diseases. High doses of therapeutic radiation at a young age make childhood survivors of malignancy at especially high risk for developing hyperparathyroidism.

McMullen, Todd; Bodie, Greg [University of Sydney Endocrine Surgical Unit, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Gill, Anthony [Department of Anatomical Pathology, Royal North Shore Hospital and University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Ihre-Lundgren, Catharina [University of Sydney Endocrine Surgical Unit, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Shun, Albert [Department of Surgery, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney (Australia); Bergin, Mary [Late Effects Oncology Clinic, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney (Australia); Stevens, Graham [Oncology Service, Auckland Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Delbridge, Leigh [University of Sydney Endocrine Surgical Unit, Sydney, NSW (Australia)], E-mail: leighd@med.usyd.edu.au

2009-03-15

320

Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, June 1962  

SciTech Connect

This document details activities of the Irradiation Processing Department during the month of June, 1962. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; and NPR Project.

Not Available

1992-07-13

321

X-ray irradiation of yeast cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saccharomyces Cerevisiae yeast cells were irradiated using the soft X-ray laser-plasma source at Rutherford Laboratory. The aim was to produce a selective damage of enzyme metabolic activity at the wall and membrane level (responsible for fermentation) without interfering with respiration (taking place in mitochondria) and with nuclear and DNA activity. The source was calibrated by PIN diodes and X-ray spectrometers. Teflon stripes were chosen as targets for the UV laser, emitting X-rays at about 0.9 keV, characterized by a very large decay exponent in biological matter. X-ray doses to the different cell compartments were calculated following a Lambert-Bouguet-Beer law. After irradiation, the selective damage to metabolic activity at the membrane level was measured by monitoring CO2 production with pressure silicon detectors. Preliminary results gave evidence of pressure reduction for irradiated samples and non-linear response to doses. Also metabolic oscillations were evidenced in cell suspensions and it was shown that X-ray irradiation changed the oscillation frequency.

Masini, Alessandra; Batani, Dimitri; Previdi, Fabio; Conti, Aldo; Pisani, Francesca; Botto, Cesare; Bortolotto, Fulvia; Torsiello, Flavia; Turcu, I. C. Edmond; Allott, Ric M.; Lisi, Nicola; Milani, Marziale; Costato, Michele; Pozzi, Achille; Koenig, Michel

1997-10-01

322

Solar Forecasting System and Irradiance Variability Characterization  

E-print Network

variability. The report was submitted by HNEI to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery Variability in Hawai`i Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy of the Hawaiian Islands, with locations of the data sets used in the analysis 2 2. Statistics from irradiance

323

Irradiation effects on fuels for space reactors  

SciTech Connect

A review of irradiation-induced swelling and gas release experience is presented here for the three principal fuels UO/sub 2/, UC, and UN. The primary advantage of UC and UN over UO/sub 2/ is higher thermal conductivity and attendant lower fuel temperature at equivalent pellet diameter and power density, while UO/sub 2/ offers the distinct benefit of well-known irradiation performance. Irradiation test results indicate that at equivalent burnup, temperature, and porosity conditions, UC experiences higher swelling than UO/sub 2/ or UN. Fission gas swelling becomes important at fuel temperatures above 1320 K for UC, and at somewhat higher temperatures for UO/sub 2/ and UN. Evidence exists that at equivalent fuel temperatures and burnups, high density UO/sub 2/ and UN experience comparable swelling behavior; however, differences in thermal conductivity influence overall irradiation performance. The low conductivity of UO/sub 2/ results in higher thermal gradients which contribute to fuel microcracking and gas release. As a result UO/sub 2/ exhibits higher fractional gas release than UN, at least or burnups up to about 3%.

Ranken, W.A.; Cronenberg, A.W.

1984-01-01

324

Bubble structures in He irradiated metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission electron microscopy is used to investigate the spatial arrangement of gas bubbles produced in the metals, Cu, Ni, Au, stainless steel and Ti irradiated with He at temperatures ? 300 K. For metals having a high degree of crystalline perfection within grains, a gas bubble superlattice is formed at high He doses in every case investigated. A study is

P. B. Johnson; D. J. Mazey; J. H. Evans

1983-01-01

325

Slow ion irradiation of sugar: astrobiological implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of irradiation by slow hydrogen and argon ions of saccharose, humic films having a fractal nature were produced. The use of hydrogen ions simulated roughly the interaction of low-energy solar wind protons with interplanetary dust grains which, in addition to organic and mineral dust, may include clumps of viable bacteria. The type of film generated by this

M. Tuleta; L. Gabla; N. C. Wickramasinghe

2009-01-01

326

Electrokinetic and surface chemical characterizations of an irradiated microfiltration polysulfone membrane: comparison of two irradiation doses.  

PubMed

The effect of ionizing radiation on the surface and electrokinetic characteristic parameters for a porous membrane of pore size 0.2 mum is determined and correlated with the irradiation dose (10 and 80 J/kg). Changes in NaCl permeability and membrane system electrical resistance determined from diffusion and impedance spectroscopy measurements are consistent with the increase of membrane pore radii/porosity, in agreement with SEM micrographs and reported results. Low irradiation dose seems to clean the membrane surface of impurities, according to XPS results, but the increase of irradiation doses could affect surface roughness. Due to the relatively high pore radius, ion transport numbers are practically independent of radiation and dose, but irradiation slightly modifies the membrane solution interface by increasing its weakly electronegative character, which could be of interest in the ultrafiltration of proteins or macromolecules. PMID:17349653

de Lara, R; Benavente, J

2007-06-15

327

In vitro irradiation system for radiobiological experiments  

PubMed Central

Background Although two-dimensional (2-D) monolayer cell cultures provide important information on basic tumor biology and radiobiology, they are not representative of the complexity of three-dimensional (3-D) solid tumors. In particular, new models reproducing clinical conditions as closely as possible are needed for radiobiological studies to provide information that can be translated from bench to bedside. Methods We developed a novel system for the irradiation, under sterile conditions, of 3-D tumor spheroids, the in vitro model considered as a bridge between the complex architectural organization of in vivo tumors and the very simple one of in vitro monolayer cell cultures. The system exploits the same equipment as that used for patient treatments, without the need for dedicated and highly expensive instruments. To mimic the passage of radiation beams through human tissues before they reach the target tumor mass, 96-multiwell plates containing the multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) are inserted into a custom-built phantom made of plexiglass, the material most similar to water, the main component of human tissue. Results The system was used to irradiate CAEP- and A549-derived MCTS, pre-treated or not with 20 ?M cisplatin, with a dose of 20 Gy delivered in one session. We also tested the same treatment schemes on monolayer CAEP and A549 cells. Our preliminary results indicated a significant increment in radiotoxicity 20 days after the end of irradiation in the CAEP spheroids pre-treated with cisplatin compared to those treated with cisplatin or irradiation alone. Conversely, the effect of the radio- chemotherapy combination in A549-derived MCTS was similar to that induced by cisplatin or irradiation alone. Finally, the 20 Gy dose did not affect cell survival in monolayer CAEP and A549 cells, whereas cisplatin or cisplatin plus radiation caused 100% cell death, regardless of the type of cell line used. Conclusions We set up a system for the irradiation, under sterile conditions, of tumor cells grown in 3-D which allows for the use of the same dose intensities and schedules utilized in clinical practice. This irradiation system, coupled with 3-D cell cultures, has the potential to generate information that could be used to individually tailor radiotherapy. PMID:24180359

2013-01-01

328

Progress of food irradiation in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiated foods have not yet made a significant impact in the United States marketplace. What progress has occurred to facilitate their commercialization? Irradiated produce has been sold in small quantities since 1992 and irradiated poultry was introduced in the marketplace in 1993. Federal inspection of irradiated commodities has settled into a regular routine. What must occur to further expand irradiated foods in the marketplace? Petitions to permit irradiation of red meats and seafood are being considered by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and a petition to permit the irradiation of shell eggs is being prepared for submission to FDA. In addition, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has accelerated efforts to develop the policies and regulatory structure needed to facilitate the approval of new irradiation treatments for imported plant products regulated by quarantine. When will greater commercialization occur? More positive coverage to food irradiation in recent months by both the trade and popular press indicates a change in attitude towards irradiated foods by both consumers and the food industry. Finally, actual consumer response to available irradiated foods casts a favorable light on the potential for increased marketing of value-added irradiated foods.

Derr, D. D.; Engeljohn, D. L.; Griffin, R. L.

1995-02-01

329

Implications for global warming of intercycle solar irradiance variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The implications of solar irradiance variations on global warming are explored. Strong circumstantial evidence is provided that there have been intercycle variations in solar irradiance which have contributed to the observed temperature changes since 1856. However, it is found that since the nineteenth century greenhouse gases, not solar irradiance variations, have been the dominant contributor to the observed temperature changes.

Schlesinger, Michael E.; Ramankutty, Navin

1992-11-01

330

Ion irradiation effects in natural garnets: Comparison with zircon  

E-print Network

Ion irradiation effects in natural garnets: Comparison with zircon S. Utsunomiya, L.M. Wang, R ; Z ¼ 8) under ion-beam irradiation was investigated in order to compare its radiation susceptibility during the ion irradiation at high temperature. This behavior may be related to the phase relations

Utsunomiya, Satoshi

331

Large Animal Irradiation J. Daniel Bourland, PhD  

E-print Network

Large Animal Irradiation J. Daniel Bourland, PhD Professor Department of Radiation Oncology · Summary #12;Irradiation Issues same as for humans · Animal size (nominal L x W x H) · Photon energy (to match size) · Field size (coverage of the total body) · Ease of use (set-up, irradiation efficiency

332

MATERIAL IRRADIATION DAMAGE STUDIES FOR HIGH POWER ACCELERATORS*  

E-print Network

MATERIAL IRRADIATION DAMAGE STUDIES FOR HIGH POWER ACCELERATORS* N. Simos# , H. Kirk, L. Trung, H under severe shock and high irradiation exposure. The limitations of solid materials to function as high performance targets and in particular the effects of irradiation on key material properties are assessed

McDonald, Kirk

333

UV Irradiation and Humic Acid Mediate Aggregation of Aqueous  

E-print Network

UV Irradiation and Humic Acid Mediate Aggregation of Aqueous Fullerene (nC60) Nanoparticles X I A O by UV irradiation remarkablyincreasednC60 stabilityduetotheincreasednegative surface charge and reduced hindrance effect, it had little influence on the stability of UV-irradiated nC60 in NaCl due to reduced

Alvarez, Pedro J.

334

ORIGIN OF THE HYDROGEN INVOLVED IN IRON CORROSION UNDER IRRADIATION  

E-print Network

1 ORIGIN OF THE HYDROGEN INVOLVED IN IRON CORROSION UNDER IRRADIATION S. Lapuertaa,b , N. Millard proton irradiation was lead in aqueous media with two different dissolved oxygen concentrations place as far as iron is in contact with water. But the kinetic study of iron corrosion under irradiation

Boyer, Edmond

335

THE INFLUENCE OF ROENTGEN IRRADIATION UPON SERUM PROTEIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum protein fractions of x irradiated rabbits were studied by paper ; electrophoresis. Total protein, the albumin fraction, and the A\\/G ratio were ; decreased in all irradiated animals, while the alpha -, BETA -, and gamma -; globulin fractions were increased. These changes did not vary with the x-ray ; dose when single irradiations were applied but they did

Shibata

1961-01-01

336

Calculation of Solar Irradiances. I. Synthesis of the Solar Spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in the total radiative output of the Sun as well as the detailed spectral irradiance are of interest to terrestrial and solar-stellar atmosphere studies. Recent observations provide measurements of spectral irradiance variations at wavelengths in the range 1100-8650 Å with improved accuracy, and correlative studies give procedures for estimating the spectral irradiance changes from solar activity records using indicators

Juan Fontenla; Oran R. White; Peter A. Fox; Eugene H. Avrett; Robert L. Kurucz

1999-01-01

337

FACTORS AFFECTING CONSUMER NEGATIVE PERCEPTIONS ABOUT BEEF IRRADIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has identified several important factors affecting consumer negative perceptions about beef irradiation. The effects of these factors boil down to two main points: lack of trust in the adequacy and enforcement effectiveness of food safety regulations and consumer ignorance about the irradiation process. This implies dissemination of information about food irradiation and enhancement of consumer trust in the

Senhui He; Stanley M. Fletcher; Arbindra Rimal

2004-01-01

338

microRT: A Conformal Small Animal Irradiator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent development of small-animal imaging hardware has provided functional imaging researchers with extraordinary tools for preclinical studies. However, radiation oncology studies, either tumor response or normal organ response, have been hampered by the lack of a tool for the precise irradiation of small animals. A conformal small animal irradiator based on teletherapy is proposed. The irradiator is based on

Daniel Low; Sasa Mutic; Perry Grigsby; Milos Vicic; Joseph Deasy; Andrew Hope

2004-01-01

339

Effects of Fast Neutron Irradiation on Zirconium Carbide  

SciTech Connect

High-purity zone refined zirconium carbide has been fast neutron irradiated in the dose and temperature range of 1-10 x 10{sup 25} N/m{sup 2} (E > 0.1 MeV) and 635-1480 C, respectively. Non-irradiated and as-irradiated properties were measured including the lattice parameter, hardness and elastic modulus as determined through nano-indentation, thermal conductivity, and indentation fracture toughness. The effects of neutron irradiation on the microstructure were also determined though using transmission electron microscopy. The general finding of this paper, limited to this particular zone refined ZrC of nominal C/Zr ratio of 0.93, is that this ceramic is quite stable under neutron irradiation in the temperature and dose range studied. Measurement of lattice parameter before and after irradiation indicated a lack of significant crystalline strain due to irradiation. Only modest changes were observed in the mechanical properties of hardness, elastic modulus, and indentation fracture toughness. The thermal conductivity underwent a slight reduction near 1000 C irradiation, though was essentially unchanged for 1300-1480 C irradiation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed black-spot-type defects (likely Frank or other small loops) for irradiation at 670 C, maturing to faulted Frank loops at 1280 C. As the irradiation temperature increased from 1280 C to the highest irradiation temperature, of 1496 C, a transition to prismatic loops occurs.

Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; Kondo, Sosuke [ORNL

2010-01-01

340

Porous structure formation in ion irradiated germanium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ion beam induced modification of amorphous germanium is characterised by the formation of voids close to the sample surface and the transformation into a sponge-like porous surface layer at high ion fluences. This extreme structural modification of the sample surface is independent of the (heavy) ion species used and accompanied by a strong volume expansion. Nevertheless, recently it was demonstrated that buried voids (and buried sponge-like layers) can be formed in the depth of the projected ion range, however, only for the irradiation with I-ions at high ion fluences. Thus, the ion species and their chemical properties seem to play an important role in the structural modification around the projected ion range. In this paper we investigate the influence of the ion species on the ion beam induced void formation in Ge for room temperature irradiation with 380 keV I- and Au-ions as a function of the ion fluence. Independent of the ion species, a strong volume expansion is observed caused by void formation and the transformation into a sponge-like porous surface layer. For both ion species used, the final porous layers are structurally identical as established by cross section and plan view electron microscopy investigations. Further ion irradiation of the sponge-like porous structure, however, leads to significant differences in the ion beam induced structural evolution. For the Au-ion irradiation the porous layer remains nearly unchanged, whereas for the irradiation with I-ions a transformation from sponge-like to netlike porous layers occurs which is accompanied again by an extreme volume expansion. The underlying mechanism will be discussed based on chemical properties of the implanted ions.

Steinbach, T.; Wesch, W.

2014-01-01

341

Advances in the Hopkinson bar testing of irradiated/non-irradiated nuclear materials and large specimens.  

PubMed

A brief review of the technological advances of the Hopkinson bar technique in tension for the study of irradiated/non-irradiated nuclear materials and the development of this technology for large specimens is presented. Comparisons are made of the dynamic behaviour of non-irradiated and irradiated materials previously subjected to creep, low cycle fatigue and irradiation (2, 10 and 30 displacements per atom). In particular, complete results of the effect of irradiation on the dynamic mechanical properties of AISI304L steel, tested at 20, 400 and 550°C are presented. These high strain rate tests have been performed with a modified Hopkinson bar (MHB), installed inside a hot cell. Examples of testing large nuclear steel specimens with a very large Hopkinson bar are also shown. The results overall demonstrate the capability of the MHB to efficiently reproduce the material stress conditions in case of accidental internal and external dynamic loadings in nuclear reactors, thus contributing to the important process of their structural assessment. PMID:24711490

Albertini, Carlo; Cadoni, Ezio; Solomos, George

2014-05-13

342

Sensitivity of ultrasonic nonlinearity to irradiated, annealed, and re-irradiated microstructure changes in RPV steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The planned life extension of nuclear reactors throughout the US and abroad will cause reactor vessel and internals materials to be exposed to more neutron irradiation than was originally intended. A nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method to monitor radiation damage would enable safe and cost-effective continued operation of nuclear reactors. Radiation damage in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels causes microstructural changes that leave the material in an embrittled state. Nonlinear ultrasound is an NDE technique quantified by the measurable acoustic nonlinearity parameter, which is sensitive to microstructural changes in metallic materials such as dislocations, precipitates and their combinations. Recent research has demonstrated the sensitivity of the acoustic nonlinearity parameter to increasing neutron fluence in representative RPV steels. The current work considers nonlinear ultrasonic experiments conducted on similar RPV steel samples that had a combination of irradiation, annealing, re-irradiation, and/or re-annealing to a total neutron fluence of 0.5-5 × 1019 n/cm2 (E > 1 MeV) at an irradiation temperature of 290 °C. The acoustic nonlinearity parameter generally increased with increasing neutron fluence, and consistently decreased from the irradiated to the annealed state over different levels of neutron fluence. Results of the measured acoustic nonlinearity parameter are compared with those from previous measurements on other RPV steel samples. This comprehensive set of results illustrates the dependence of the measured acoustic nonlinearity parameter on neutron fluence, material composition, irradiation temperature and annealing.

Matlack, K. H.; Kim, J.-Y.; Wall, J. J.; Qu, J.; Jacobs, L. J.; Sokolov, M. A.

2014-05-01

343

Detection of low amount of irradiated ingredients in non-irradiated precooked meals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of the European Standards for the detection of irradiated food by thermoluminescence of silicates, electron-spin resonance spectroscopy of bones or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of 2-alkylcyclobutanones does not allow the detection of irradiated ingredients included in small quantity in the matrix of a food which has not been irradiated, but which could be subjected to various processing technologies such as cooking, freezing or storage. The use of an enzymatic food hydrolysis carried out at moderated temperature, for the extraction of the food-contaminating silicate minerals and bone fragments, followed by a purification of the extracts by a high-density aqueous solution of sodium polytungstate, allows a simultaneous detection of weak inclusions (0.1% m:m) of irradiated spices and mechanically deboned turkey meat (MRM) included in various precooked foods. Moreover, the use of a supercritical fluid extraction procedure for the 2-alkylcyclobutanones or an additional purification step of the lipid extracts made it possible to lower the detection limit of the 2-alkylcyclobutanones radiation-induced from triglycerides. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, down to 0.5% (m:m) of irradiated MRM included in non-irradiated chicken quenelles could be detected.

Marchioni, Eric; Horvatovich, Peter; Ndiaye, Bara; Miesch, Michel; Hasselmann, Claude

2002-03-01

344

?-Irradiation of PEGd,lPLA and PEG-PLGA Multiblock Copolymers: I. Effect of Irradiation Doses  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the effects of different gamma irradiation doses on PEGd,lPLA and PEG-PLGA multiblock copolymers. The behaviour\\u000a of the multiblock copolymers to irradiation was compared to that of PLA, PLGA polymers. PEGd,lPLA, PEG-PLGA, PLA and PLGA\\u000a polymers were irradiated by using a 60Co irradiation source at 5, 15, 25 and 50 kGy total dose. Characterization was performed on all samples before

R. Dorati; C. Colonna; M. Serra; I. Genta; T. Modena; F. Pavanetto; P. Perugini; B. Conti

2008-01-01

345

Consumer Preferences for Food Irradiation: How Favorable and Unfavorable Descriptions Affect Preferences for Irradiated Pork in Experimental Auctions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental auctions were used to examine the effects of alternative descriptions of food irradiation on willingness-to-pay for a pork sandwich irradiated to control Trichinella. As expected, a favorable description of irradiation increased willingness-to-pay, and an unfavorable description decreased willingness-to-pay. Notably, when subjects were given both the pro- and anti-irradiation descriptions, the negative description dominated and willingness-to-pay decreased. This was true

John A. Fox; Dermot J. Hayes; Jason F. Shogren

2002-01-01

346

Advanced irradiation protocols for the microbeam The microbeam was originally developed for irradiating cellular nuclei. Since then its uses have  

E-print Network

is collinear with the cell. Again we image the nucleus. Around each nucleus we draw an exclusion zone equal distance away ONLY IF it falls outside of the exclusion zones of adjacent nuclei. Typically irradiation or within a specified region can be irradiated. Exclusion zone Principle axis Not irradiated #12;

347

Structural changes of polytetrafluoroethylene during irradiation in oxygen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the effect of irradiation on PTFE structure and prepare modified PTFE micropowder, PTFE was irradiated with dose up to 4 MGy in oxygen at room temperature. The structures of both irradiated and unirradiated PTFE samples were comparatively characterized by IR, XPS, Raman spectra and XRD measurement. The results showed that new groups of acyl fluoride (COF), carboxylic acid (COOH) and trifluoromethyl (CF3) were formed under heavy radiation exposure in oxygen. In addition, the expansion of crystallite size or crystal lattice was first reported for the irradiated PTFE. The formation of new chemical groups and the expansion of crystallite size were elucidated by structural changes occurring in irradiation.

Liu, Shuling; Fu, Congli; Gu, Aiqun; Yu, Zili

2015-04-01

348

Influence of gamma ray irradiation on metakaolin based sodium geopolymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of gamma irradiation on metakaolin based Na-geopolymer have been investigated by external irradiation. The experiments were carried out in a gamma irradiator with 60Co sources up to 1000 kGy. Various Na-geopolymer with three H2O/Na2O ratios have been studied in terms of hydrogen radiolytic yield. The results show that hydrogen production increases linearly with water content. Gamma irradiation effects on Na-geopolymer microstructure have been investigated with porosity measurements and X-ray pair distribution function analysis. A change of pore size distribution and a structural relaxation have been found after gamma ray irradiation.

Lambertin, D.; Boher, C.; Dannoux-Papin, A.; Galliez, K.; Rooses, A.; Frizon, F.

2013-11-01

349

Application of gamma irradiation for inhibition of food allergy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was carried out to evaluate the application of food irradiation technology as a method for reducing food allergy. Milk ?-lactoglobulin, chicken egg albumin, and shrimp tropomyosin were used as model food allergens for experiments on allergenic and molecular properties by gamma irradiation. The amount of intact allergens in an irradiated solution was reduced by gamma irradiation depending upon the dose. These results showed that epitopes on the allergens were structurally altered by radiation treatment and that the irradiation technology can be applied to reduce allergenicity of allergic foods.

Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon; Yook, Hong-Sun; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, Hee-Yun

2002-03-01

350

Physical and chemical properties of ?-irradiated EVOH film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of ?-irradiation on ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) were investigated. Oxygen permeability decreased as irradiation dose increased in non-oriented (EF-CR), biaxially oriented (EF-XL) EVOH, and nylon/EVOH/PP. Irradiation increased tensile strength (TS) and elongation at break (% E) of EF-CR; whereas, TS of EF-XL was not significantly changed and % E of EF-XL decreased. Irradiation had no effect on TS and % E of nylon/EVOH/PP. Four volatile compounds, ?-caprolactam, 2-propyldecanol, 2-butyloctanol, and 2,3-diethyl-2,3-dimethyl-1,4-butanediol, were detected after irradiation. Optical properties were not changed.

Jae Byun, Young; Hong, S. I.; Kim, K. B.; Jeon, D. H.; Kim, J. M.; Whiteside, W. S.; Jin Park, Hyun

2007-06-01

351

Planarian Immobilization, Partial Irradiation, and Tissue Transplantation  

PubMed Central

The planarian, a freshwater flatworm, has proven to be a powerful system for dissecting metazoan regeneration and stem cell biology1,2. Planarian regeneration of any missing or damaged tissues is made possible by adult stem cells termed neoblasts3. Although these stem cells have been definitively shown to be pluripotent and singularly capable of reconstituting an entire animal4, the heterogeneity within the stem cell population and the dynamics of their cellular behaviors remain largely unresolved. Due to the large number and wide distribution of stem cells throughout the planarian body plan, advanced methods for manipulating subpopulations of stem cells for molecular and functional study in vivo are needed. Tissue transplantation and partial irradiation are two methods by which a subpopulation of planarian stem cells can be isolated for further study. Each technique has distinct advantages. Tissue transplantation allows for the introduction of stem cells, into a naïve host, that are either inherently genetically distinct or have been previously treated pharmacologically. Alternatively, partial irradiation allows for the isolation of stem cells within a host, juxtaposed to tissue devoid of stem cells, without the introduction of a wound or any breech in tissue integrity. Using these two methods, one can investigate the cell autonomous and non-autonomous factors that control stem cell functions, such as proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Both tissue transplantation5,6 and partial irradiation7 have been used historically in defining many of the questions about planarian regeneration that remain under study today. However, these techniques have remained underused due to the laborious and inconsistent nature of previous methods. The protocols presented here represent a large step forward in decreasing the time and effort necessary to reproducibly generate large numbers of grafted or partially irradiated animals with efficacies approaching 100 percent. We cover the culture of large animals, immobilization, preparation for partial irradiation, tissue transplantation, and the optimization of animal recovery. Furthermore, the work described here demonstrates the first application of the partial irradiation method for use with the most widely studied planarian, Schmidtea mediterranea. Additionally, efficient tissue grafting in planaria opens the door for the functional testing of subpopulations of naïve or treated stem cells in repopulation assays, which has long been the gold-standard method of assaying adult stem cell potential in mammals8. Broad adoption of these techniques will no doubt lead to a better understanding of the cellular behaviors of adult stem cells during tissue homeostasis and regeneration. PMID:23007410

Guedelhoefer IV, Otto C.; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro

2012-01-01

352

Planarian immobilization, partial irradiation, and tissue transplantation.  

PubMed

The planarian, a freshwater flatworm, has proven to be a powerful system for dissecting metazoan regeneration and stem cell biology. Planarian regeneration of any missing or damaged tissues is made possible by adult stem cells termed neoblasts. Although these stem cells have been definitively shown to be pluripotent and singularly capable of reconstituting an entire animal, the heterogeneity within the stem cell population and the dynamics of their cellular behaviors remain largely unresolved. Due to the large number and wide distribution of stem cells throughout the planarian body plan, advanced methods for manipulating subpopulations of stem cells for molecular and functional study in vivo are needed. Tissue transplantation and partial irradiation are two methods by which a subpopulation of planarian stem cells can be isolated for further study. Each technique has distinct advantages. Tissue transplantation allows for the introduction of stem cells, into a naïve host, that are either inherently genetically distinct or have been previously treated pharmacologically. Alternatively, partial irradiation allows for the isolation of stem cells within a host, juxtaposed to tissue devoid of stem cells, without the introduction of a wound or any breech in tissue integrity. Using these two methods, one can investigate the cell autonomous and non-autonomous factors that control stem cell functions, such as proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Both tissue transplantation and partial irradiation have been used historically in defining many of the questions about planarian regeneration that remain under study today. However, these techniques have remained underused due to the laborious and inconsistent nature of previous methods. The protocols presented here represent a large step forward in decreasing the time and effort necessary to reproducibly generate large numbers of grafted or partially irradiated animals with efficacies approaching 100 percent. We cover the culture of large animals, immobilization, preparation for partial irradiation, tissue transplantation, and the optimization of animal recovery. Furthermore, the work described here demonstrates the first application of the partial irradiation method for use with the most widely studied planarian, Schmidtea mediterranea. Additionally, efficient tissue grafting in planaria opens the door for the functional testing of subpopulations of naïve or treated stem cells in repopulation assays, which has long been the gold-standard method of assaying adult stem cell potential in mammals. Broad adoption of these techniques will no doubt lead to a better understanding of the cellular behaviors of adult stem cells during tissue homeostasis and regeneration. PMID:23007410

Guedelhoefer, Otto C; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro

2012-01-01

353

Post-irradiation stability of polyvinyl chloride at sterilizing doses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-irradiation stability of plasticized PVC irradiated by 60Co gamma ray at sterilizing doses has been studied. Effects of irradiation upon chemical structure, mechanical properties and rheological behaviour of samples contained different amounts of Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate as plasticizer have been investigated. Formation of conjugated double bonds, carbonyl and hydroxyl groups have been followed by UV and FTIR spectrometers up to 6 months after irradiation. FTIR spectra of irradiated samples showed no significant changes in carbonyl and hydroxyl groups even 6 months after irradiation. However, changes in UV-visible spectra was observed for the irradiated samples up to 6 months post-irradiation. This has been attributed to the formation of polyenes which leads to the discoloration of this polymer. Despite a certain degree of discoloration, it appears that the mechanical properties of PVC are not affected by irradiation at sterilizing doses. No change in the melt viscosity of the irradiated PVC samples with post-irradiation was observed, which is in consistent with the IR results.

Naimian, F.; Katbab, A. A.; Nazokdast, H.

1994-12-01

354

Applicability of the Sunna dosimeter for food irradiation control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quick development concerning the commercial application of food irradiation in the USA recently resulted in growing marketing of irradiated red meat as well as irradiated fresh and dried fruits. These gamma and electron irradiation technologies require specific dosimetry systems for process control. The new version of the Sunna dosimeter has been characterized in gamma, electron and bremsstrahlung radiation fields by measuring the optically stimulated luminescence (osl) at 530 nm both below and above 1 kGy, i.e. for disinfestation and for meat irradiation purposes. No humidity and no significant dose rate effect on the green osl signal was observed. The temperature coefficient was determined from 0°C up to about 40°C and to stabilize the osl signal after irradiation a heat treatment method was introduced. Based on these investigations the Sunna 'gamma' film is a suitable candidate for dose control below and above 1 kGy for food irradiation technologies.

Kovács, A.; Baranyai, M.; Wojnárovits, L.; Miller, S.; Murphy, M.; McLaughlin, W. L.; Slezsák, I.; Kovács, A. I.

2002-03-01

355

Natural beta-carotene and whole body irradiation in rats.  

PubMed

beta-carotene and other carotenoids are reported to be potent free radical quenchers, singlet oxygen scavengers, and lipid antioxidants. Whole-body irradiation is known to cause an immunosuppression effect in mammals through the possible initiation and production of reactive oxygen species. We decided to test the possible antioxidative effect against whole-body irradiation of a natural beta-carotene, composed of equal amounts of the all-trans and 9-cis isomers, obtained from the unicellular alga Dunaliella bardawil. Rats were fed on ground commercial food enriched with natural beta-carotene (50 mg/kg diet). On completion of 1 week with beta-carotene, the rats were exposed to a single dose of 4 Gy whole-body irradiation, after which their livers and blood were removed for beta-carotene and retinol analysis in comparison with control livers of animals irradiated or not, or supplemented with beta-carotene after irradiation. A normal increase in body weight with no ill effects was noted in the groups of rats whose diet was supplemented by beta-carotene before and after irradiation, compared with the reduction in the specific growth rate in the group of rats irradiated without beta-carotene. Liver beta-carotene and retinol decreased significantly after irradiation compared with the rats which were not irradiated. This decrease was not shown in rats fed beta-carotene prior to irradiation, and the effect of irradiation was partially cured by supplementation with beta-carotene after irradiation. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the irradiated animals showed a selective decline in 9-cis beta-carotene and in retinol over all-trans beta-carotene and retinyl-esters. These results suggest that 9-cis beta-carotene and retinol protect in vivo against the cellular damage by free radicals induced after whole-body irradiation. PMID:9008005

Ben-Amotz, A; Rachmilevich, B; Greenberg, S; Sela, M; Weshler, Z

1996-11-01

356

Stochastic biophysical modeling of irradiated cells  

E-print Network

The paper presents a computational stochastic model of virtual cells irradiation, based on Quasi-Markov Chain Monte Carlo method and using biophysical input. The model is based on a stochastic tree of probabilities for each cell of the entire colony. Biophysics of the cells is described by probabilities and probability distributions provided as the input. The adaptation of nucleation and catastrophe theories, well known in physics, yields sigmoidal relationships for carcinogenic risk as a function of the irradiation. Adaptive response and bystander effect, incorporated into the model, improves its application. The results show that behavior of virtual cells can be successfully modeled, e.g. cancer transformation, creation of mutations, radioadaptation or radiotherapy. The used methodology makes the model universal and practical for simulations of general processes. Potential biophysical curves and relationships are also widely discussed in the paper. However, the presented theoretical model does not describe ...

Fornalski, Krzysztof Wojciech

2014-01-01

357

Effect of irradiation on phosphorus segregation  

SciTech Connect

Phosphorus strongly segregated to the surface during irradiation of austenitic-type alloys in the temperature range 775 to 925 K. Much weaker but measurable radiation induced segregation of phosphorus occurred in a Ni + 0.03% P alloy. Irradiation under similar conditions produced no measurable phosphorus segregation in ferritic HT-9 or Fe + 0.03% P alloy. The lack of segregation in the ferritic alloys was suggested to result from a weak point defect - impurity interaction in the bcc iron structure while a strong interaction was suggested for the fcc iron structure. The slow accumulation of radiation damage in bcc iron alloys is also consistent with a lack of observable segregation. The evidence strongly suggests a radiation induced mechanism but a radiation enhanced, thermally activated equilibrium segreation cannot be ruled out. 7 figures.

Brimhall, J.L.; Baer, D.R.; Jones, R.H.

1982-09-01

358

Electron beam irradiation modification of collagen membrane.  

PubMed

A critical observation of reconstituted collagen membrane radiated by electron beam (EB) indicated that these collagenous fibers become cross-linked network when the irradiation is carried out in greater than melt temperature and nitrogen atmosphere. Studies on the membrane properties showed that glass transformation temperature (Tg) and melt point (Tm) of reconstituted collagen have no changes, but thermal gravity curves and infrared (IR) spectra become obviously different before and after irradiation. Cross-linking density calculated by the equation based on the theory of Flory-Rehner proved further that the densities increase with radiation doses increasing. Resistance to enzymatic digestions in vitro and implantation in vivo were determined to evaluate the physicochemical properties of cross-linked matrices. Based on the above results, it was concluded that EB radiation inducing cross-linking in greater than melt temperature and nitrogen atmosphere condition is an attractive, effective method, which introduce into intermolecular covalent cross-linkings. PMID:16023715

Jiang, Bo; Wu, Zhihong; Zhao, Huichuan; Tang, Fangyuan; Lu, Jian; Wei, Qingrong; Zhang, Xingdong

2006-01-01

359

Prediction of Irradiation Spectrum Effects in Pyrochlores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation energy of cation antisites in pyrochlores (A2B2O7) has been correlated with the susceptibility to amorphize under irradiation, and thus, density functional theory calculations of antisite energetics can provide insights into the radiation tolerance of pyrochlores. Here, we show that the formation energy of antisite pairs in titanate pyrochlores, as opposed to other families of pyrochlores (B = Zr, Hf, or Sn), exhibits a strong dependence on the separation distance between the antisites. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of collision cascades in Er2Ti2O7 show that the average separation of antisite pairs is a function of the primary knock-on atom energy that creates the collision cascades. Together, these results suggest that the radiation tolerance of titanate pyrochlores may be sensitive to the irradiation conditions and might be controllable via the appropriate selection of ion beam parameters.

Uberuaga, B. P.; Jiang, C.; Stanek, C. R.; Sickafus, K. E.; Scott, C.; Smith, R.

2014-12-01

360

Irradiation of lithium aluminate and tritium extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-irradiation tritium extraction from ?-LiAlO 2, samples irradiated to 2 × 10 17 n/cm 2 in quartz ampoules produced mostly tritiated water. During in-pile experiments the sample container material influences the ratio of tritium gas to tritiated water. Stainless steel capsules yield more T 2 gas than quartz capsules probably because of a reduction process. Difficulties in interpretation arise from adsorption of tritiated water on the measuring lines. Both experiments showed that much faster extraction rates are obtained from small grain size than large grain size samples at the same open porosity. If diffusion in the grains controls the extraction rates, apparent D values vary from 10 16 to 1.5 × 10 -15 cm 2/s in the temperature range explored. Around 500°C small grain samples reached an equilibrium tritium concentration of a few mCi in 4 h. Such values are suitable for a blanket concept.

Roth, E.; Abassin, J. J.; Botter, F.; Briec, M.; Chenebault, P.; Masson, M.; Rasneur, B.; Roux, N.

1985-08-01

361

EPR study of ?-irradiated cholesteryl methyl carbonate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of ?-irradiated single crystals of cholesteryl methyl carbonate (C29H48O3) has been studied for different orientations of the crystals in a magnetic field. EPR spectra of cholesteryl methyl carbonate (C29H48O3irradiated by 60Co-? were recorded between 125 K and 300 K for different orientations of the crystal in the magnetic field. The spectra were found to be temperature independent. In C29H48O3 single crystal, the radiation damage centers caused by a 60Co-? source were determined as CH?3CH2CH radical. For CH?3CH2CH radical, a value of spectroscopic splitting factor g was calculated and experimentally results were supported by simulation program (WinEPR).

Aras, Erdal; I?lek, Yasemin; Karata?, Ozgul; Abbass, Hind Kh; Birey, Mehmet; Kiliç, Ahmet

2014-11-01

362

Precipitation during irradiation: an experimental example  

SciTech Connect

Neutron damage can significantly alter the process of precipitation from supersaturated solid solution. This is demonstrated by a series of experiments using a precipitation strengthened superalloy, Nimonic PE16 irradiated with fast neutrons over the temperature 400 to 650/sup 0/C. In disagreement with earlier predictions, precipitate development is found to be controlled by the competing processes of Ostwald coarsening and solute segregation due to drag by point defects to point defect sinks. Analysis of the kinetics of Ostwald coarsening reveals significant enhancement of diffusion rates due to irradiation in agreement with predictions and involving an activation energy on the order of one quarter that of thermal diffusion. Unusual precipitate morphologies were observed such as void shells, linear precipitate arrays and Archimedes' screw configurations. However, predicted temperature dependencies for solute segregation are not obeyed. An explanation is presented involving the coupling of the Ostwald coarsening mechanism with the solute segregation process.

Gelles, D.S.

1981-01-01

363

Precipitation during irradiation: an experimental example  

SciTech Connect

Neutron damage can significantly alter the process of precipitation from supersaturated solid solution. This is demonstrated by a series of experiments using a precipitation strengthened superalloy, Nimonic PE16 irradiated with fast neutrons over the temperature 400 to 650/sup 0/C. In disagreement with earlier predictions, precipitate development is found to be controlled by the competing processes of Ostwald coarsening and solute segregation due to drag by point defects to point defect sinks. Analysis of the kinetics of Ostwald coarsening reveals significant enhancement of diffusion rates due to irradiation in agreement with predictions and involving an activation energy on the order of one quarter that of thermal diffusion. Unusual precipitate morphologies were observed such as void shells, linear precipitate arrays and Archimedes' screw configurations. However, predicted temperature dependencies for solute segregation are not obeyed.

Gelles, D.S.

1981-01-01

364

Nanohardness and brittleness of irradiated spinel ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of the size of crystalline regions on mechanical properties of irradiated oxides has been studied using magnesium aluminate spinel MgAl2O4. The samples characterized by different dimensions of crystalline domains, from sintered ceramics with grains of few micrometers in size up to single crystals, were used in the experiments. The samples were irradiated at room temperature with 320 keV Ar2+ ions up to fluences reaching 5 × 1016 cm-2. Nanomechanical properties were measured by using a nanoindentation technique and the resistance to crack formation by measurement of the total crack lengths made by Vickers indenter. The results revealed: correlation of nanohardness with accumulated damage, radiation-induced hardness increase in grain-boundary region and significant improvement of material resistance to crack formation.

Jagielski, J.; Aubert, P.; Maciejak, O.; Piatkowska, A.; Labdi, S.; Jozwik-Biala, I.; Jozwik, P.; Wajler, A.

2012-09-01

365

Identification of irradiated food: The current status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are a number of methods now available for the identification of a range of irradiated foods. Following successful evaluation in interlaboratory blind trials, five standard methods, based on thermoluminescence, electron spin resonance spectroscopy and the formation of hydrocarbons and cyclobutanones, have been submitted to the European Committee of Standardization (CEN) for its consideration. Research is continuing in the development of other techniques and in the future additional methods may become available.

Stevenson, M. H.; Stewart, E. M.

1995-02-01

366

Total lymphoid irradiation for multiple sclerosis  

SciTech Connect

Although chemical immunosuppression has been shown to benefit patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), it appears that chemotherapy has an appreciable oncogenic potential in patients with multiple sclerosis. Accordingly, we developed a modified total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) regimen designed to reduce toxicity and applied it to a randomized double blind trial of TLI or sham irradiation in MS. Standard TLI regimens were modified to reduce dose to 1,980 rad, lowering the superior mantle margin to midway between the thyroid cartilage and angle of the mandible (to avert xerostomia) and the lower margin of the mantle field to the inferior margin of L1 (to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity by dividing abdominal radiation between mantle and inverted Y), limiting spinal cord dose to 1,000 rad by custom-made spine blocks in the mantle and upper 2 cm of inverted Y fields, and also protecting the left kidney even if part of the spleen were shielded. Clinical efficacy was documented by the less frequent functional scale deterioration of 20 TLI treated patients with chronic progressive MS compared to to 20 sham-irradiated progressive MS patients after 12 months (16% versus 55%, p less than 0.03), 18 months (28% versus 63%, p less than 0.03), and 24 months (44% versus 74%, N.S.). Therapeutic benefit during 3 years follow-up was related to the reduction in lymphocyte count 3 months post-irradiation (p less than 0.02). Toxicity was generally mild and transient, with no instance of xerostomia, pericarditis, herpes zoster, or need to terminate treatment in TLI patients. However, menopause was induced in 2 patients and staphylococcal pneumonia in one.

Devereux, C.K.; Vidaver, R.; Hafstein, M.P.; Zito, G.; Troiano, R.; Dowling, P.C.; Cook, S.D.

1988-01-01

367

Paramagnetic Resonance in Electron Irradiated Silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron spin resonance has been observed in n-type silicon irradiated with 0.5-Mev electrons. The particular resonance lines discussed here appear only in pulled crystals which contain about 1018 oxygen atoms per cm3. The lines do not appear in floating zone crystals (<1017 oxygen per cm3). The pattern is anisotropic with respect to the field orientation and can be fitted with

G. Bemski

1959-01-01

368

Nuclear Double Irradiation in Sodium Bromate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different frequency magnetic resonance transitions involving a common energy level are observed simultaneously using the Br79 nuclear quadrupole energy levels split by a magnetic field of 7000 G. Irradiation of different transitions with frequencies near 180 Mc\\/sec may enhance the absorption of a transition near 14 Mc\\/sec, or produce population inversion enabling observation of a stimulated emission at the

J. W. Doane; R. A. Hultsch

1964-01-01

369

Modeled soft X-ray solar irradiances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar soft X-rays have historically been inaccurately modeled in both relative variations and absolute magnitudes by empirical solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance models. This is a result of the use of a limited number of rocket data sets which were primarily associated with the calibration of the AE-E satellite EUV data set. In this work, the EUV91 solar EUV irradiance model has been upgraded to improve the accuracy of the 3.0 to 5.0 nm relative irradiance variations. The absolute magnitude estimate of the flux in this wavelength range has also been revised upwards. The upgrade was accomplished by first digitizing the SOLRAD 11 satellite 4.4 to 6.0 nm measured energy flux data set, then extracting and extrapolating a derived 3.0 to 5.0 nm photon flux from these data, and finally by performing a correlation between these derived data and the daily and 81-day mean 10.7 cm radio flux emission using a multiple linear regression technique. A correlation coefficient of greater than 0.9 was obtained between the dependent and independent data sets. The derived and modeled 3.0 to 5.0 nm flux varies by more than an order of magnitude over a solar cycle, ranging from a flux below 1 x 10(exp 8) to a flux greater than 1 x 10(exp 9) photons per sq cm per sec. Solar rotational (27-day) variations in the flux magnitude are a factor of 2. The derived and modeled irradiance absolute values are an order of magnitude greater than previous values from rocket data sets related to the calibration of the AE-E satellite.

Tobiska, W. Kent

1994-01-01

370

Commercial food irradiation in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the first half of the Decade-of-the-90s commercial food irradiation in the U.S., led by disinfection of dry food ingredients, especially spices and seasonings, has been steadily increasing. This is partly because the media, and through it the general public, is now receiving much more accurate information, and, the controversy that raged from the mid-1980s through the early 1990s has

George Giddings

1996-01-01

371

[Stereotactic irradiation in head and neck cancers].  

PubMed

Stereotactic radiotherapy is increasingly used in head and neck tumours, either as a boost for dose escalation/early salvage, or in the reirradiation setting. We aimed to assess the level of evidence for each clinical setting and to discuss the different dose and frationation regimens. A search of the French and English literature was performed on PubMed until December 2013. Stereotactic reirradiation of locally recurrent squamous cell carcinomas can be performed with overall survival rates of about 12 months with good quality of life, and acceptable toxicity, based on several phase 2 trials and retrospective studies. Nasopharyngeal carcinomas may be irradiated with even better control rates. Late severe toxicities yield up to 20-30%. Patient and tumour selection criteria (limited volume) and dose constraints to the carotids (cumulative dose 110 Gy or less, to avoid the risk of potentially lethal carotid blowout) must be carefully chosen. Fractionated regimens (at least five fractions) should be preferred (30 Gy in five fractions to 36 Gy in six fractions). Methods derived from stereotactic, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) may be used with conventional fractionation for larger tumours. Stereotactic irradiation may be associated with cetuximab; data with chemotherapy or other targeted therapies are still lacking. Stereotactic irradiation is also used as a boost after 46 Gy IMRT in several institutions or for early salvage (8 to 10 weeks following full dose irradiation with evidence of residual tumour) in squamous or nasopharyngeal carcinomas. Such indications should be evaluated prospectively in clinical trials. Data in salivary gland and sinonasal neoplasms are still scarce. In conclusion, stereotactic body radiation therapy has the potential as a boost or in the reirradiation setting to improve local control in head and neck tumours. Careful hypofractionation with planning caring for the dose to the main vessels is highly recommended. Prospective studies with prolonged follow-up (at least 2 years) should be encouraged. PMID:25059767

Benhaïm, C; Lapeyre, M; Thariat, J

2014-01-01

372

Image-Guided Stereotactic Small Animal Irradiator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a promising modality in the treatment of cancer. Despite success in early clinical\\u000a applications and in subsequent clinical trials, there remains much to learn to understand and optimize the effects in tumors\\u000a and normal tissues. In this study, we develop and characterize an image-guided small animal stereotactic body irradiator capable\\u000a of delivering a highly

R. Pidikiti; S. Stojadinovic; K. Song; M. Speiser; S. Seliounine; D. Saha; T. D. Solberg

373

Spectral Irradiance Measurements Based on Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the preliminary results of the realization of absolute spectral irradiance scale at INMETRO in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared regions using filter radiometers as secondary standards. In the construction of these instruments are used, at least, apertures, interference filters and a trap detector. In the assembly of the trap detectors it was necessary to characterize several photocells in spatial uniformity and shunt resistance. All components were calibrated and these results were analyzed to mount the filter radiometer.

Lima, M. S.; Menegotto, T.; Duarte, I.; Ferreira da Silva, T.; Alves, L. C.; Alvarenga, A. D.; Almeida, G. B.; Teixeira, R. N.; Couceiro, I. B.

2015-01-01

374

Post irradiation examination of thermal reactor fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The post irradiation examination (PIE) facility at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) has been in operation for more than three decades. Over these years this facility has been utilized for examination of experimental fuel pins and fuels from commercial power reactors operating in India. In a program to assess the performance of (U,Pu)O 2 MOX fuel prior to its introduction in commercial reactors, three experimental MOX fuel clusters irradiated in the pressurized water loop (PWL) of CIRUS up to burnup of 16 000 MWd/tU were examined. Fission gas release from these pins was measured by puncture test. Some of these fuel pins in the cluster contained controlled porosity pellets, low temperature sintered (LTS) pellets, large grain size pellets and annular pellets. PIE has also been carried out on natural UO 2 fuel bundles from Indian PHWRs, which included two high burnup (˜15 000 MWd/tU) bundles. Salient investigations carried out consisted of visual examination, leak testing, axial gamma scanning, fission gas analysis, microstructural examination of fuel and cladding, ?, ? autoradiography of the fuel cross-section and fuel central temperature estimation from restructuring. A ThO 2 fuel bundle irradiated in Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS) up to a nominal fuel burnup of ˜11 000 MWd/tTh was also examined to evaluate its in-pile performance. The performance of the BWR fuel pins of Tarapur Atomic Power Stations (TAPS) was earlier assessed by carrying out PIE on 18 fuel elements selected from eight fuel assemblies irradiated in the two reactors. The burnup of these fuel elements varied from 5000 to 29 000 MWd/tU. This paper provides a brief review of some of the fuels examined and the results obtained on the performance of natural UO 2, enriched UO 2, MOX, and ThO 2 fuels.

Sah, D. N.; Viswanathan, U. K.; Ramadasan, E.; Unnikrishnan, K.; Anantharaman, S.

2008-12-01

375

Radiobiological speculations on therapeutic total body irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unexpected total body irradiation (TBI) of human beings, involved in nuclear warfare or in accidents in nuclear reactors can be lethal. In the 1950s, bone marrow transplantation was discovered as a potentially life saving procedure after TBI in the dose range of 5.0 to 12.0 Gy. Since that time, deliberate or therapeutic TBI has been used to condition patients with

H. M. Vriesendorp

1990-01-01

376

SLIGHTLY IRRADIATED FUEL (SIF) INTERIM DISPOSITION PROJECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL PRC) is proud to submit the Slightly Irradiated Fuel (SIF) Interim Disposition Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2010. The SIF Project was a set of six interrelated sub-projects that delivered unique stand-alone outcomes, which, when integrated, provided a comprehensive and compliant system for storing

NORTON SH

2010-01-01

377

Methods for routine control of irradiated food: Determination of the irradiation status of shellfish by thermoluminescence analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In some countries, clearance has been given for treating certain types of shellfish by ionizing radiation in order to increase the shelf-life and to reduce health hazards which might be caused by contaminating microorganisms. In the present study, thermoluminescence (TL) analysis was used to examine the irradiation status of shellfish products purchased from local suppliers. For analysis minerals were isolated from the guts of the animals. Although on none of the examined products an irradiation treatment prior to analysis could be shown, the results obtained on non-irradiated and irradiated products have revealed that irradiation within the commercially used dose range can clearly be detected. Already first glow TL intensities of minerald indicated irradiation treatments. Normalized TL signals of non-irradiated and irradiated samples were clearly separated. By calculation of differences of TL intensities and TL signals between non-irradiated and irradiated samples in dependency of integration temperature an optimized integration area for glow curves was determined. The result of this study agree well with results obtained by two large-scale intercomparisons between food control laboratories to detect irradiation treatment of spices and herbal products as well as of fruit and vegetables by TL analysis of contaminating minerals.

Schreiber, G. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Helle, N.; Bögl, K. W.

1994-06-01

378

Survival after total body irradiation: Effects of irradiation of exteriorized small intestine. (Reannouncement with new availability information)  

SciTech Connect

Rats receiving lethal irradiation to their exteriorized small intestine with pulsed 18 MVp bremsstrahlung radiation live about 4 days longer than rats receiving a dose of total-body irradiation (TBI) causing intestinal death. The LD50 for intestinal irradiation is approximately 6 Gy higher than the LD50 for intestinal death after TBI. Survival time after exteriorized intestinal irradiation can be decreased, by adding abdominal irradiation. Adding thoracic or pelvic irradiation does not alter survival time. Shielding of large intestine improves survival after irradiation of the rest of the abdomen while the small intestine is also shielded. The kinetics of histological changes in small intestinal tissues implicate the release of humoral factors after irradiation of the abdomen. Radiation injury develops faster in the first (proximal) 40 cm of the small intestine and is expressed predominantly as shortening in villus height. In the last (distal) 40 cm of the small intestine, the most pronounced radiation effect is a decrease in the number of crypts per millimeter. Irradiation (20 Gy) of the proximal small intestine causes 92 % mortality (median survival 10 days). Irradiation (20 Gy) of the distal small intestine causes 27% mortality (median survival > 30 days). In addition to depletion of crypt stem cells in the small intestine, other issues (humoral factors, irradiated subsection of the small intestine and shielding of the large intestine) appear to influence radiation-induced intestinal mortality.

Vriesendorp, H.M.; Vigneulle, R.M.; Kitto, G.; Pelky, T.; Taylor, P.

1993-12-31

379

Food irradiation—US regulatory considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of ionizing radiation in food processing has received increased interest as a means of reducing the level of foodborne pathogens. This overview discusses the regulatory issues connected with the use of this technology in the United States. Several recent changes in the FDA's review process are discussed. These include the current policy that utilizes an expedited review process for petitions seeking approval of additives and technologies intended to reduce pathogen levels in food, and the recent USDA rule that eliminates the need for a separate rulemaking process by USDA for irradiation of meat and poultry. Recently promulgated rules and pending petitions before the FDA associated with the use of ionizing radiation for the treatment of foods are also discussed along with the current FDA labeling requirements for irradiated foods and the 1999 advanced notice of proposed rule on labeling. Another issue that is presented is the current status of the approval of packaging materials intended for food contact during irradiation treatment of foods.

Morehouse, Kim M.

2002-03-01

380

Irradiation response and stability of nanoporous materials  

SciTech Connect

Nanoporous materials consist of a regular organic or inorganic framework supporting a regular, porous structure. Pores are by definition roughly in the nanometre range, that is between 0.2 nm and 100 nm. Nanoporous materials can be subdivided into 3 categories (IUPAC): (1) Microporous materials - 0.2-2 nm; (2) Mesoporous materials - 2-50 nm; and (3) Macroporous materials - 50-1000 nm. np-Au foams were successfully synthesized by de-alloying process. np-Au foams remain porous structure after Ne ion irradiation to 1 dpa. Stacking Fault Tetrahedra (SFTs) were observed in RT irradiated np-Au foams under the highest and intermediate fluxes, but not under the lowest flux. SFTs were not observed in LNT irradiated np-Au foams under all fluxes. The vacancy diffusivity in Au at RT is high enough so that the vacancies have enough time to agglomerate and then collapse to form SFTs. The high ion flux creates more damage per unit time; vacancies don't have enough time to diffuse or recombine. As a result, SFTs were formed at high ion fluxes.

Fu, Engang [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Yongqiang [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Serrano De Caro, Magdalena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Caro, Jose A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zepeda-Ruiz, L [Lawrence Livermore national Laboratory; Bringa, E. [CONICET, Universidad de Cuyo, Argentina; Nastasi, Mike [University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE; Baldwin, Jon K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-28

381

Irradiation Environment of the Materials Test Station  

SciTech Connect

Conceptual design of the proposed Materials Test Station (MTS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is now complete. The principal mission is the irradiation testing of advanced fuels and materials for fast-spectrum nuclear reactor applications. The neutron spectrum in the fuel irradiation region of MTS is sufficiently close to that of fast reactor that MTS can match the fast reactor fuel centerline temperature and temperature profile across a fuel pellet. This is an important characteristic since temperature and temperature gradients drive many phenomena related to fuel performance, such as phase stability, stoichiometry, and fission product transport. The MTS irradiation environment is also suitable in many respects for fusion materials testing. In particular, the rate of helium production relative to atomic displacements at the peak flux position in MTS matches well that of fusion reactor first wall. Nuclear transmutation of the elemental composition of the fusion alloy EUROFER97 in MTS is similar to that expected in the first wall of a fusion reactor.

Pitcher, Eric John [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-21

382

Irradiation effects on polymer-model compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiation effects on n-paraffins and squalane, used as models of polymers, were investigated by product analysis. Four n-paraffins, C 20H 42, C 21H 44, C 23H 48 and C 24H 50, and squalane (C 30H 62) were ?-irradiated under vacuum in liquid, crystalline and glassy states. The evolved gases were analyzed by gas chromatography and changes in molecular weight were analyzed by liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy. G-values for crosslinking of n-paraffins were 1.2 for crystalline states (at 25°C) and 1.7 for liquid states (at 55°C), and showed no difference between odd and even carbon numbers. The G-value of liquid squalane was 1.7; it was 1.3 for the glassy state at low temperature (-77°C). Double bonds were common in the crosslinked products, especially after liquid-phase irradiation. The probability of chain scission was estimated as being negligible, though a small number of chain-scission products (which were products of scission at chain-ends or side chains) were observed by gas analysis.

Seguchi, Tadao; Katsumura, Yosuke; Hayashi, Nariyuki; Hayakawa, Naohiro; Tamura, Naoyuki; Tabata, Yoneho

383

Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

1998-06-01

384

Dosimetry of biological irradiations using radiochromic films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Delivering accurate radiation dose to blood specimens during biological irradiations is essential in quantifying damage of ionizing radiation. To estimate dose to blood samples as accurately as possible, pieces of EBT2 model GAFCHROMIC™ film were placed within an approximately 10 mm finely ground rice layer that was used to simulate test specimens inside 40 mL plastic flasks. Irradiations of flasks were carried out using an X-RAD 320 irradiator with a beam quality of 320 kVp and a measured half value layer of 1.12 mm Cu, in air and in a full scattering setup which consisted of either rice or Solid Water™ (SW) surrounding flasks, filled to the same level at top of the flasks, together with a 5 cm thick SW slab beneath them. Outputs, per cent depth doses and beam profiles at different depths were measured and compared between setups. For the same setting, the dose delivered to the middle flask under the full scattering setup is 22% larger than with the in-air setup at the depth of the specimen and 9.2% more homogeneous across the specimen thickness of 10 mm (2.3% variation in comparison to the surface). Rice showed a fairly similar performance to SW within 1% at the same depth of 10 mm. Experimental setup based on full scattering conditions was shown to provide faster, more homogenous and fairly uniform dose delivery to biological specimens in comparison to conventionally used in-air setups.

Aldelaijan, S.; Nobah, A.; Alsbeih, G.; Moftah, B.; Aldahlawi, I.; Alzahrany, A.; Tomic, N.; Devic, S.

2013-05-01

385

Recycling of irradiated high-density polyethylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation crosslinking of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) is a well-recognized modification of improving basic material characteristics. This research paper deals with the utilization of electron beam irradiated HDPE (HDPEx) after the end of its lifetime. Powder of recycled HDPEx (irradiation dose 165 kGy) was used as a filler into powder of virgin low-density polyethylene (LDPE) in concentrations ranging from 10% to 60%. The effect of the filler on processability and mechanical behavior of the resulting mixtures was investigated. The results indicate that the processability, as well as mechanical behavior, highly depends on the amount of the filler. Melt flow index dropped from 13.7 to 0.8 g/10 min comparing the lowest and the highest concentration; however, the higher shear rate the lower difference between each concentration. Toughness and hardness, on the other hand, grew with increasing addition of the recycled HDPEx. Elastic modulus increased from 254 to 450 MPa and material hardness increased from 53 to 59 ShD. These results indicate resolving the problem of further recycling of irradiated polymer materials while taking advantage of the improved mechanical properties.

Navratil, J.; Manas, M.; Mizera, A.; Bednarik, M.; Stanek, M.; Danek, M.

2015-01-01

386

Local brain heavy ion irradiation induced Immunosuppression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose: To investigate the long term effect of acute local brain heavy ion irradiation on the peripheral immune system in rat model. Methodology: Only the brain of adult male Wistar rats were radiated by heavy ions at the dose of 15 Gy. One, two and three months after irradiation, thymus and spleen were analyzed by four ways. Tunel assay was performed to evaluate the percentage of apoptotic cells in thymus and spleen, level of Inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, SSAO, and TNF-?) was detected by ELISA assay, the differentiation of thymus T lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometry and the relative expression levels of genes related to thymus immune cell development were measured by using quantitative real-time PCR. Results: Thymus and spleen showed significant atrophy from one month to three months after irradiation. A high level of apoptosis in thymus and spleen were obtained and the latter was more vulnerable, also, high level of inflammatory cytokines were found. Genes (c-kit, Rag1, Rag2 and Sca1) related to thymus lymphocytes’ development were down-regulated. Conclusion: Local area radiation in the rat brain would cause the immunosuppression, especially, the losing of cell-mediated immune functions. In this model, radiation caused inflammation and then induced apoptosis of cells in the immune organs, which contributed to immunosuppression.

Lei, Runhong; Deng, Yulin; Huiyang Zhu, Bitlife.; Zhao, Tuo; Wang, Hailong; Yu, Yingqi; Ma, Hong; Wang, Xiao; Zhuang, Fengyuan; Qing, Hong

387

Estimating probability distributions of solar irradiance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the presence of clouds the ability to calculate instantaneous spectral irradiance values is limited by the ability to acquire appropriate input parameters for radiative transfer solvers. However, the knowledge of the statistical characteristics of spectral irradiance as a function of season and time of the day is relevant for solar energy and health applications. For this purpose a method to derive the wavelength dependent probability density functions (PDFs) and its seasonal site variability is presented. In contrast to the UVB range, the derived PDFS at three stations in Europe (Bilthoven, Garmisch-Partenkirchen and Thessaloniki) show only minor wavelength dependence above 315 nm. But there are major differences of the PDFs that are attributed to the site specific cloud climatology at these stations. Furthermore the results suggest that the previously described relationship between air mass and bimodality is the consequence of seasonal cloud variations. For Thessaloniki it is shown that the pyranometer sample spread around the cloudless value is proportional to the secant of the solar zenith angle and therefore scales according to air mass. Cloud amount observations are utilized to associate the local maxima of the multimodal PDFs with rough cloudiness states confirming the already established interpretation of broadband data for spectral data as well. As one application example the likelihood of irradiance enhancements over the clear sky case due to clouds is assessed.

Voskrebenzev, A.; Riechelmann, S.; Bais, A.; Slaper, H.; Seckmeyer, G.

2014-07-01

388

Charged particle irradiation of sacral chordomas  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is determine the impact of charged particle irradiation at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) in treating patients with sacral chordomas. Overall survival, local control, complications, and predictive parameters are analyzed. Fourteen patients with sacral chordomas were treated with the charged particles helium and neon between 1977 and 1989. The median dose was 7565 cGyE and the median follow up is 5 years. All patients were treated post-operatively; ten had gross residual disease. Kaplan-Meier survival at 5 years in 85%. Overall 5-year local control is 55%. A trend to improved local control at 5 years was seen in patients treated with neon when compared to patients treated with helium (62% vs 34%), in patients following complete resection versus patients with gross residual tumor (75% vs 40%), and in patients who had treatment courses under 73 days (61% vs 21%). Distant metastases were seen in two patients (14%). No patient developed neurologic sequelae or pain syndromes. One previously irradiated patient required colostromy, one patient had delayed wound healing following a negative post-radiation biopsy, and one patient developed a second malignancy. There were no genitourinary complications. Experience indicates that post-operative charged particle irradiation of sacral chordomas appears to result in reasonable local control and survival with acceptable risk, and that additional evaluation on the use of heavy charged particles is warranted. 25 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Schoenthaler, R.; Castro, J.R.; Petti, P.L.; Baken-Brown, K.; Phillips, T.L. (Univ. of California San Francisco Medical Center, CA (United States))

1993-03-20

389

Evolution of the nanostructure of VVER-1000 RPV materials under neutron irradiation and post irradiation annealing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high nickel VVER-1000 (15Kh2NMFAA) base metal (1.34 wt% Ni, 0.47% Mn, 0.29% Si and 0.05% Cu), and a high nickel (12Kh2N2MAA) weld metal (1.77 wt% Ni, 0.74% Mn, 0.26% Si and 0.07% Cu) have been characterized by atom probe tomography to determine the changes in the microstructure during neutron irradiation to high fluences. The base metal was studied in the unirradiated condition and after neutron irradiation to fluences between 2.4 and 14.9 × 10 23 m -2 ( E > 0.5 MeV), and the weld metal was studied in the unirradiated condition and after neutron irradiation to fluences between 2.4 and 11.5 × 10 23 m -2 ( E > 0.5 MeV). High number densities of ˜2-nm-diameter Ni-, Si- and Mn-enriched nanoclusters were found in the neutron irradiated base and weld metals. No significant copper enrichment was associated with these nanoclusters and no copper-enriched precipitates were observed. The number densities of these nanoclusters correlate with the shifts in the ?T 41 J ductile-to-brittle transition temperature. These nanoclusters were present after a post irradiation anneal of 2 h at 450 °C, but had dissolved into the matrix after 24 h at 450 °C. Phosphorus, nickel, silicon and to a lesser extent manganese were found to be segregated to the dislocations.

Miller, M. K.; Chernobaeva, A. A.; Shtrombakh, Y. I.; Russell, K. F.; Nanstad, R. K.; Erak, D. Y.; Zabusov, O. O.

2009-04-01

390

The spectral irradiance traceability chain at PTB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral irradiance is a fundamental radiometric unit. Its application to measurement results requires qualified traceability to basic units of the international system of units (Système international d'unités, SI). The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is amongst other national metrological institutes (NMIs) responsible for the realization, maintenance and dissemination of various radiometric and photometric units based on and traceable to national standards. The unit of spectral irradiance is realized and represented by a blackbody-radiator as the national primary standard of the PTB. Based on Planck's radiation law, the irradiance is calculated and realized for any wavelength taking into account the exact knowledge of the radiation temperature and the geometrical parameters. Using a double-monochromator-based spectroradiometer system, secondary standard lamps can be calibrated by direct comparison to the blackbody-radiator (substitution method). These secondary standard lamps are then used at the PTB to calibrate standard lamps of customers. The customers themselves use these so-called transfer standards to calibrate their working standard lamps. These working standards are then used to calibrate own spectroradiometers or sources. This rather complex calibration chain is a common procedural method that for the customers generally leads to satisfying measurement results on site. Nevertheless, the standard lamps in use have to fulfill highest requirements concerning stability and reproducibility. Only this allows achieving comparably low transfer measurement uncertainties, which occur at each calibration step. Thus, the PTB is constantly investigating the improvement and further development of transfer standards and measurement methods for various spectral regions. The realization and dissemination of the spectral irradiance using the blackbody-radiator at the PTB is accomplished with worldwide approved minimized measurement uncertainties confirmed by international intercomparisons among NMIs. Ultimately, the spectral irradiance can be realized with expanded measurement uncertainties of far less than 1 % over a wide spectral range. Thus, for customers with high demands on low measurement uncertainties, it is possible to calibrate their working standards directly against the blackbody-radiator, taking into account the higher necessary effort. In special cases it is possible to calibrate the customer's spectroradiometric facilities directly in front of the blackbody-radiator. In the context of the European Metrology Research Project Traceability for surface spectral solar ultraviolet radiation, the traceability chain will be improved and adapted.

Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.; Nevas, S.

2013-05-01

391

EFFECTS OF GAMMA IRRADIATION ON EPDM ELASTOMERS  

SciTech Connect

Two formulations of EPDM elastomer, one substituting a UV stabilizer for the normal antioxidant in this polymer, and the other the normal formulation, were synthesized and samples of each were exposed to gamma irradiation in initially pure deuterium gas to compare their radiation stability. Stainless steel containers having rupture disks were designed for this task. After 130 MRad dose of cobalt-60 radiation in the SRNL Gamma Irradiation Facility, a significant amount of gas was created by radiolysis; however the composition indicated by mass spectroscopy indicated an unexpected increase in the total amount deuterium in both formulations. The irradiated samples retained their ductility in a bend test. No change of sample weight, dimensions, or density was observed. No change of the glass transition temperature as measured by dynamic mechanical analysis was observed, and most of the other dynamic mechanical properties remained unchanged. There appeared to be an increase in the storage modulus of the irradiated samples containing the UV stabilizer above the glass transition, which may indicate hardening of the material by radiation damage. Polymeric materials become damaged by exposure over time to ionizing radiation. Despite the limited lifetime, polymers have unique engineering material properties and polymers continue to be used in tritium handling systems. In tritium handling systems, polymers are employed mainly in joining applications such as valve sealing surfaces (eg. Stem tips, valve packing, and O-rings). Because of the continued need to employ polymers in tritium systems, over the past several years, programs at the Savannah River National Laboratory have been studying the effect of tritium on various polymers of interest. In these studies, samples of materials of interest to the SRS Tritium Facilities (ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon{reg_sign}), Vespel{reg_sign} polyimide, and the elastomer ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM)) have been exposed in closed containers to tritium gas initially at 1 atmosphere pressure. These studies have demonstrated the degradation of properties when exposed to tritium gas. Also, the radiolytic production of significant amounts of hydrogen has been observed for UHMW-PE and EPDM. The study documented in this report exposes two similar formulations of EPDM elastomer to gamma irradiation in a closed container backfilled with deuterium. Deuterium is chemically identical to protium and tritium, but allows the identification of protium that is radiolytically produced from the samples. The goal of this program is to compare and contrast the response of EPDM exposure to two different types of ionizing radiation in a similar chemical environment.

Clark, E.

2011-09-22

392

Evaluation of Neutron Irradiated Silicon Carbide and Silicon Carbide Composites  

SciTech Connect

The effects of fast neutron irradiation on SiC and SiC composites have been studied. The materials used were chemical vapor deposition (CVD) SiC and SiC/SiC composites reinforced with either Hi-Nicalon{trademark} Type-S, Hi-Nicalon{trademark} or Sylramic{trademark} fibers fabricated by chemical vapor infiltration. Statistically significant numbers of flexural samples were irradiated up to 4.6 x 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2} (E>0.1 MeV) at 300, 500 and 800 C in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Dimensions and weights of the flexural bars were measured before and after the neutron irradiation. Mechanical properties were evaluated by four point flexural testing. Volume increase was seen for all bend bars following neutron irradiation. Magnitude of swelling depended on irradiation temperature and material, while it was nearly independent of irradiation fluence over the fluence range studied. Flexural strength of CVD SiC increased following irradiation depending on irradiation temperature. Over the temperature range studied, no significant degradation in mechanical properties was seen for composites fabricated with Hi-Nicalon{trademark} Type-S, while composites reinforced with Hi-Nicalon{trademark} or Sylramic fibers showed significant degradation. The effects of irradiation on the Weibull failure statistics are also presented suggesting a reduction in the Weibull modulus upon irradiation. The cause of this potential reduction is not known.

Newsome G, Snead L, Hinoki T, Katoh Y, Peters D

2007-03-26

393

Irradiation-induced oral candidiasis in an experimental murine model.  

PubMed

The aim of this experiment was to establish a mouse model of irradiation-induced oral candidiasis and to explore the cellular populations and mechanisms by which the infection is cleared from the oral mucosa. BALB/c mice received irradiation to the head and neck equivalent to 800 Rad using a Cobalt 60 gamma source. Both irradiated and non-irradiated mice were infected orally with 1 x 10(8) Candida albicans yeasts. Compared with untreated controls, irradiated animals developed a more severe infection of longer duration, with hyphae penetrating the oral mucosa. Monoclonal antibody depletion of CD4+ but not CD8+ T cells from the systemic circulation prolonged the infection in irradiated mice, but not in controls. Supernatants of submandibular and superficial cervical lymph node cultures from irradiated animals demonstrated significantly higher titers of interleukin-12, but similar levels of interferon-gamma compared with controls. Screening for cytokine production by an RNase protection assay detected only macrophage migration inhibition factor in irradiated and non-irradiated oral tissues from day 8 onwards. The results of this study demonstrate a requirement for CD4+ T cells in the recovery from oral candidiasis induced by head and neck irradiation in mice, and are consistent with a role for Th1-type cytokines in host resistance. PMID:11737659

Farah, C S; Hong, S; Wanasaengsakul, S; Elahi, S; Pang, G; Gotjamanos, T; Seymour, G J; Clancy, R L; Ashman, R B

2001-12-01

394

Gamma irradiation treatment of cereal grains for chick diets.  

PubMed

Wheat (W), triticale (T), hulled barley (HB), hull-less barley (HLB), hulled oats (HO), and hull-less oats (HLO) were gamma irradiated (60Co) at 0, 3, 6 and 9 Mrad to study the effect of irradiation on the nutritional value of cereal grains for chicks. A significant curvilinear relationship between radiation dose and 3-wk body weight of chicks fed irradiated cereals was noted for T, HB, HLB, HO and HLO. Chicks fed W or T showed no effect or lower body weight, respectively, while body weights of chicks fed barley or oat samples were higher with irradiation. The improvement tended to be maximal at the 6 Mrad level. Irradiation significantly improved the gain-to-feed ratio for chicks fed either HO or HLO. Apparent fat retention and tibia ash were higher in chicks fed irradiated HLO than in those fed untreated HLO. In a second experiment chick body weight, apparent amino acid and fat retention, tibia ash, and gain-to-feed ratios were lower in chicks fed autoclaved (121 degrees C for 20 min) barley than in those fed untreated barley. Irradiation (6 Mrad) subsequent to autoclaving barley samples eliminated these effects. Irradiation appears to benefit cereals containing soluble or mucilagenous fiber types as typified by beta-glucan of barley and oats. These fibers appear prone to irradiation-induced depolymerization, as suggested by increased beta-glucan solubility and reduced extract viscosity for irradiated barley and oat samples. PMID:3958804

Campbell, G L; Classen, H L; Ballance, G M

1986-04-01

395

Gamma irradiation treatment of cereal grains for chick diets  

SciTech Connect

Wheat (W), triticale (T), hulled barley (HB), hull-less barley (HLB), hulled oats (HO), and hull-less oats (HLO) were gamma irradiated (/sup 60/Co) at 0, 3, 6 and 9 Mrad to study the effect of irradiation on the nutritional value of cereal grains for chicks. A significant curvilinear relationship between radiation dose and 3-wk body weight of chicks fed irradiated cereals was noted for T, HB, HLB, HO and HLO. Chicks fed W or T showed no effect or lower body weight, respectively, while body weights of chicks fed barley or oat samples were higher with irradiation. The improvement tended to be maximal at the 6 Mrad level. Irradiation significantly improved the gain-to-feed ratio for chicks fed either HO or HLO. Apparent fat retention and tibia ash were higher in chicks fed irradiated HLO than in those fed untreated HLO. In a second experiment chick body weight, apparent amino acid and fat retention, tibia ash, and gain-to-feed ratios were lower in chicks fed autoclaved (121 degrees C for 20 min) barley than in those fed untreated barley. Irradiation (6 Mrad) subsequent to autoclaving barley samples eliminated these effects. Irradiation appears to benefit cereals containing soluble or mucilagenous fiber types as typified by beta-glucan of barley and oats. These fibers appear prone to irradiation-induced depolymerization, as suggested by increased beta-glucan solubility and reduced extract viscosity for irradiated barley and oat samples.

Campbell, G.L.; Classen, H.L.; Ballance, G.M.

1986-04-01

396

Solar spectral irradiance and total solar irradiance at a solar minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented for a wavelet analysis of solar spectral irradiance (SSI) in the ultraviolet to infrared range and total solar irradiance (TSI). The study is based on data collected by the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment ( SORCE) satellite from March 10, 2007 to January 23, 2010. Cross-wavelet analysis finds relationships of varying degrees of tightness between SSI, TSI, and magnetic flux in a sunspot zone on the surface rotation timescales of solar activity complexes. Wavelet coherence shows how magnetic flux variations within a latitudinal sunspot zone are related with spectral irradiance variations. For example, variations in ultraviolet radiation at UV 200.5 nm are in phase with those of the magnetic flux associated with solar activity complexes. However, there is an unusual interval UV 310 to 380 nm, in which coherent structures disappear and UV radiation variations do not follow the changes in the magnetic flux.

Benevolenskaya, E. E.; Shapovalov, S. N.; Kostuchenko, I. G.

2014-12-01

397

Bystander responses in low dose irradiated cells treated with plasma from gamma irradiated blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are two specific low-dose radiation-induced responses that have been the focus of radiobiologists' interest in recent years. These are the bystander effect in non-irradiated cells and the adaptive response to a challenge dose after prior low dose irradiation. In the present study we have investigated if plasma from irradiated blood can act as a 'challenge dose' on low dose irradiated reporter epithelial cells (HaCaT cell line). The main aim was to evaluate the overall effect of low dose irradiation (0.05 Gy) of reporter cells and the influence of bystander factors in plasma from 0.5 Gy gamma irradiated blood on these cells. The effects were estimated by clonogenic survival of the reporter cells. We also investigated the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as potential factors involved in the bystander signaling. Calcium fluxes and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) depolarization were also examined as a marker for initiation of apoptosis in the reporter cells. The results show that there are large individual differences in the production of bystander effects and adaptive responses between different donors. These may be due to the specific composition of the donor plasma. The observed effects generally could be divided into two groups: adaptive responses and additive effects. ROS appeared to be involved in the responses of the low dose pretreated reporter cells. In all cases there was a significant decrease in MMP which may be an early event in the apoptotic process. Calcium signaling also appeared to be involved in triggering apoptosis in the low dose pretreated reporter cells. The heterogeneity of the bystander responses makes them difficult to be modulated for medical uses. Specific plasma characteristics that cause these large differences in the responses would need to be identified to make them useful for radiotherapy.

Acheva, A.; Georgieva, R.; Rupova, I.; Boteva, R.; Lyng, F.

2008-02-01

398

Development of microstructure and irradiation hardening of Zircaloy during low dose neutron irradiation at nominally 358 C  

SciTech Connect

Wrought Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-4 were neutron irradiated at nominally 358 C in the high flux isotope reactor (HFIR) at relatively low neutron fluences between 5.8 1022 and 2.9 1025 n/m2 (E > 1 MeV). The irradiation hardening and change in microstructure were characterized following irradiation using tensile testing and examinations of microstructure using Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM). Small increments of dose (0.0058, 0.11, 0.55, 1.08, and 2.93 1025 n/m2) were used in the range where the saturation of irradiation hardening is typically observed so that the role of microstructure evolution and hai loop formation on irradiation hardening could be correlated. An incubation dose between 5.8 1023 and 1.1 1024 n/m2 was needed for loop nucleation to occur that resulted in irradiation hardening. Increases in yield strength were consistent with previous results in this temperature regime, and as expected less irradiation hardening and lower hai loop number density values than those generally reported in literature for irradiations at 260 326 C were observed. Unlike previous lower temperature data, there is evidence in this study that the irradiation hardening can decrease with dose over certain ranges of fluence. Irradiation induced voids were observed in very low numbers in the Zircaloy-2 materials at the highest fluence.

Cockeram, Brian V [Bechtel-Bettis, Inc.; Smith, Richard W [Bechtel-Bettis, Inc.; Leonard, Keith J [ORNL; Byun, Thak Sang [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL

2011-01-01

399

Up-to-date status of food irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last decade has witnessed significant advancement of the acceptance of food irradiation processing. At present 37 countries have approved one or more food items for human consumption and 25 countries have commercialized this process. More developing countries are showing keen interest to introduce irradiation processing in order to reduce post-harvest food losses, to increase export potentials and to ensure safety of food to their people. Although progress towards acceptance of food irradiation by the industry is slow, actual market trials have shown that once consumers have understood this technology, they are willing to buy irradiated foods. This paper deals with the latest developments in the field of food irradiation with particular reference to legislation, consumer acceptance, commercialization and potential application in developing countries. This paper also deals with the role played by the International Organizations, aimed at facilitating the acceptance of food irradiation.

Ahmed, Mainuddin

1993-07-01

400

Laser annealing of neutron irradiated boron-10 isotope doped diamond  

SciTech Connect

10B isotope doped p-type diamond epilayer grown by chemical vapor deposition on (110) oriented type IIa diamond single crystal substrate was subjected to neutron transmutation at a fluence of 2.4 9 1020 thermal and 2.4 9 1020 fast neutrons. After neutron irradiation, the epilayer and the diamond substrate were laser annealed using Nd YAG laser irradiation with wave length, 266 nm and energy, 150 mJ per pulse. The neutron irradiated diamond epilayer and the substrate were characterized before and after laser annealing using different techniques. The characterization techniques include optical microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, Raman, photoluminescence and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, and electrical sheet conductance measurement. The results indicate that the structure of the irradiation induced amorphous epilayer changes to disordered graphite upon laser annealing. The irradiated substrate retains the (110) crystalline structure with neutron irradiation induced defects.

Jagannadham, K. [North Carolina State University; Butler, J. E. [North Carolina State University

2011-01-01

401

Electron beam irradiated polyamide-6 at different temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron beam irradiation of Polyamide-6 (PA-6) films was carried out over a range of irradiation doses (15-1200 kGy) in air at different temperatures (from room temperature to 80 °C), and at a dose rate of 4.48 kGy/min. The effect of temperature on the radiochemical crosslinking, scission yield, and the dose of incipient gel formation of PA-6 were investigated on the basis of solution viscosity, molecular weight and gel content. The crosslinking efficiency increases with increasing irradiation dose and temperature. The crosslinking rates of PA-6 irradiated above the glass transition temperature (Tg), about 50 °C, are higher than those samples irradiated at temperatures below Tg. FTIR and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy are used to determine modifications in the samples induced by irradiation. EPR was also used to study the decay of the free radicals.

Burillo, G.; Adem, E.; Muñoz, E.; Vásquez, M.

2013-03-01

402

Thermal analysis of the FSP-1RR irradiation test  

SciTech Connect

The thermal analysis of four unirradiated fuel pins to be tested in the FSP-1RR fuels irradiation experiment was completed. This test is a follow-on experiment in the series of fuel pin irradiation tests conducted by the SP-100 Program in the Fast Flux Test Facility. One of the pins contains several meltwire temperature monitors within the fuel and the Li annulus. A post-irradiation examination will verify the accuracy of the pre-irradiation thermal analysis. The purpose of the pre-irradiation analysis was to determine the appropriate insulating gap gas compositions required to provide the design goal cladding operating temperatures and to ensure that the meltwire temperature ranges in the temperature monitored pin bracket peak irradiation temperatures. This paper discusses the methodology and summarizes the results of the analysis.

Webb, R.H.; Lyon, W.F. III

1992-10-14

403

Ion irradiated graphite exposed to fusion-relevant deuterium plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphite samples were irradiated with 5 MeV carbon ions to simulate the damage caused by collision cascades from neutron irradiation in a fusion environment. The ion irradiated graphite samples were then exposed to a deuterium plasma in the linear plasma device, MAGPIE, for a total ion fluence of ?1 × 1024 ions m-2. Raman and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy were used to characterize modifications to the graphitic structure. Ion irradiation was observed to decrease the graphitic content and induce disorder in the graphite. Subsequent plasma exposure decreased the graphitic content further. Structural and surface chemistry changes were observed to be greatest for the sample irradiated with the greatest fluence of MeV ions. D retention was measured using elastic recoil detection analysis and showed that ion irradiation increased the amount of retained deuterium in graphite by a factor of four.

Deslandes, Alec; Guenette, Mathew C.; Corr, Cormac S.; Karatchevtseva, Inna; Thomsen, Lars; Ionescu, Mihail; Lumpkin, Gregory R.; Riley, Daniel P.

2014-12-01

404

Radiation damage in ion-irradiated MgO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructures found in specimens of single crystal MgO after irradiation with 2 MeV oxygen or 4 MeV iron ions were examined by transmission electron microscopy of cross-sectional specimens. The observed damage consisted primarily of dislocations. The end of the damage occurred at a depth of 2.4 mum for the oxygen irradiation and 2.8 mum for the iron irradiation. For

L. L. Horton; J. Bentley; M. B. Lewis

1986-01-01

405

IRRADIATION DES MTAUX Par R. M. WALKER 1  

E-print Network

474. IRRADIATION DES M�TAUX Par R. M. WALKER 1 Laboratoire de Chimie Physique de la Faculté des Sciences de Paris. Résumé. 2014 On montre que la théorie simple du seuil pour les défauts par irradiation donne une description excellente des principales caractéristiques des modifications induites par l'irradiation

Boyer, Edmond

406

ESR detection procedure of irradiated papaya containing high water content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESR signals were recorded from irradiated papaya at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), and freeze-dried irradiated papaya at room temperature (295 K). Two side peaks from the flesh at the liquid nitrogen temperature indicated a linear dose response for 3-14 days after the ?-irradiation. The line shapes recorded from the freeze-dried specimens were sharper than those at liquid nitrogen temperature.

Kikuchi, Masahiro; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

2011-05-01

407

Thermally activated deformation of irradiated reactor pressure vessel steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature and strain rate change tensile tests were performed on two VVER 1000-type reactor pressure vessel welds with different contents of nickel in unirradiated and irradiated conditions in order to determine the activation parameters of the contribution of the thermally activated deformation. There are no differences of the activation parameters in the unirradiated and the irradiated conditions as well as for the two different materials. This shows that irradiation hardening preferentially results from a friction hardening mechanism by long-range obstacles.

Böhmert, J.; Müller, G.

2002-03-01

408

Fatigue Crack Initiation in Proton-Irradiated Austenitic Stainless Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of irradiation on slip band formation and growth and microcrack initiation behavior under low cycle fatigue in SUS316L austenitic stainless steel was investigated using accelerator-based proton irradiation and a low cycle fatigue test at room temperature in air. The mean space of the slip line in proton-irradiated specimens was 25–40% wider than that in unirradiated specimens under the

Shuhei NOGAMI; Yuki SATO; Akira HASEGAWA

2011-01-01

409

Effect of gamma irradiation on trichromatic values of spices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ?-irradiation on trichromatic color values L*, a*, and b* was determined in black pepper, oregano, and allspice samples irradiated at average doses from 5 kGy to 30 kGy. Trichromatic\\u000a values a* measured in methanol extracts of treated spices immediately after the irradiation process were significantly changed, but\\u000a the subsequent storage of allspice and oregano caused much more

J. Horváthová; M. Suhaj; M. Polovka

2007-01-01

410

Dosimetry for the approval of food irradiation processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of accurate and precise radiation dosimetry to control the food irradiation process for regulatory purposes is discussed. The various procedures required to establish a thorough dosimetric control, such as commissioning the irradiation facility, process validation and routine control are described. It is concluded that, coupled with an administrative inventory control, dosimetry can provide the guarantee that the process has been correctly applied and regulatory release of irradiated food can be based on accurate and reproducible absorbed dose measurements.

Miller, A.; Chadwick, K. H.

411

NANOSTRUCTURE PATTERNING UNDER ENERGETIC PARTICLE BEAM IRRADIATION  

SciTech Connect

Energetic ion bombardment can lead to the development of complex and diverse nanostructures on or beneath the material surface through induced self-organization processes. These self-organized structures have received particular interest recently as promising candidates as simple, inexpensive, and large area patterns, whose optical, electronic and magnetic properties are different from those in the bulk materials [1-5]. Compared to the low mass efficiency production rate of lithographic methods, these self-organized approaches display new routes for the fabrication of nanostructures over large areas in a short processing time at the nanoscale, beyond the limits of lithography [1,4]. Although it is believed that surface nanostructure formation is based on the morphological instability of the sputtered surface, driven by a kinetic balance between roughening and smoothing actions [6,7], the fundamental mechanisms and experimental conditions for the formation of these nanostructures has still not been well established, the formation of the 3-D naopatterns beneath the irradiated surface especially needs more exploration. During the last funding period, we have focused our efforts on irradiation-induced nanostructures in a broad range of materials. These structures have been studied primarily through in situ electron microscopy during electron or ion irradiation. In particular, we have performed studies on 3-D void/bubble lattices (in metals and CaF2), embedded sponge-like porous structure with uniform nanofibers in irradiated semiconductors (Ge, GaSb, and InSb), 2-D highly ordered pattern of nanodroplets (on the surface of GaAs), hexagonally ordered nanoholes (on the surface of Ge), and 1-D highly ordered ripple and periodic arrays (of Cu nanoparticles) [3,8-11]. The amazing common feature in those nanopatterns is the uniformity of the size of nanoelements (nanoripples, nanodots, nanovoids or nanofibers) and the distance separating them. Our research focuses on the understanding of fundamental scientific basis for the irradiation-induced self-organization processes. The fundamental physical mechanisms underlying ordered pattern formation, which include defect production and migration, ion sputtering, redeposition, viscous flow and diffusion, are investigated through a combination of modeling and in situ and ex-situ observations [3,9,11]. In addition, these nanostructured materials exhibit considerable improvement of optical properties [9,12,13]. For example, patterned Ge with a hexagonally ordered, honeycomb-like structure of nanoscale holes possesses a high surface area and a considerably blue-shifted energy gap [9], and oxidation of ordered Ga droplets shows noticeable enhancement of optical transmission [12]. This research has addressed nanopattern formation in a variety of materials under ion bombardment and provided a fundamental understanding of the dynamic mechanisms involved. In addition, have also stared to systematically investigate pattern formation under ion irradiation for more systems with varied experimental conditions and computation, including the collaboration with Dr. Veena Tikare of Sandia National Laboratory with a hybrid computation method at the ending this grant. A more detailed relationship between nanostructure formation and experimental conditions will be revealed with our continued efforts.

Wang, Lumin [Regents of the University of Michigan; Lu, Wei [Regents of the University of Michigan

2013-01-31

412

Solar Irradiance and Thermospheric Airglow Rocket Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes work done in support of the Solar Irradiance and Thermospheric Air-glow Rocket Experiments at the University of Colorado for NASA grant NAG5-5021 under the direction of Dr. Stanley C. Solomon. (The overall rocket program is directed by Dr. Thomas N. Woods, formerly at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and now also at the University of Colorado, for NASA grant NAG5-5141.) Grant NAG5-5021 provided assistance to the overall program through analysis of airglow and solar data, support of two graduate students, laboratory technical services, and field support. The general goals of the rocket program were to measure the solar extreme ultraviolet spectral irradiance, measure the terrestrial far-ultraviolet airglow, and analyze their relationship at various levels of solar activity, including near solar minimum. These have been met, as shown below. In addition, we have used the attenuation of solar radiation as the rocket descends through the thermosphere to measure density changes. This work demonstrates the maturity of the observational and modeling methods connecting energetic solar photon fluxes and airglow emissions through the processes of photoionization and photoelectron production and loss. Without a simultaneous photoelectron measurement, some aspects of this relationship remain obscure, and there are still questions pertaining to cascade contributions to molecular and atomic airglow emissions. However, by removing the solar irradiance as an "adjustable parameter" in the analysis, significant progress has been made toward understanding the relationship of far-ultraviolet airglow emissions to the solar and atmospheric conditions that control them.

Solomon, Stanley C.

1998-01-01

413

Responses of hyperthermophilic crenarchaea to UV irradiation  

PubMed Central

Background DNA damage leads to cellular responses that include the increased expression of DNA repair genes, repression of DNA replication and alterations in cellular metabolism. Archaeal information processing pathways resemble those in eukaryotes, but archaeal damage response pathways remain poorly understood. Results We analyzed the transcriptional response to UV irradiation in two related crenarchaea, Sulfolobus solfataricus and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. Sulfolobus species encounter high levels of DNA damage in nature, as they inhabit high temperature, aerobic environments and are exposed to sunlight. No increase in expression of DNA repair genes following UV irradiation was observed. There was, however, a clear transcriptional response, including repression of DNA replication and chromatin proteins. Differential effects on the expression of the three transcription factor B (tfb) genes hint at a mechanism for the modulation of transcriptional patterns in response to DNA damage. TFB3, which is strongly induced following UV irradiation, competes with TFB1 for binding to RNA polymerase in vitro, and may act as a repressor of transcription or an alternative transcription factor for certain promoters. Conclusion A clear response to DNA damage was observed, with down-regulation of the DNA replication machinery, changes in transcriptional regulatory proteins, and up-regulation of the biosynthetic enzymes for beta-carotene, which has UV protective properties, and proteins that detoxify reactive oxygen species. However, unlike eukaryotes and bacteria, there was no induction of DNA repair proteins in response to DNA damage, probably because these are expressed constitutively to deal with increased damage arising due to high growth temperatures. PMID:17931420

Götz, Dorothee; Paytubi, Sonia; Munro, Stacey; Lundgren, Magnus; Bernander, Rolf; White, Malcolm F

2007-01-01

414

Control of fouling formation in membrane ultrafiltration by ultrasound irradiation.  

PubMed

The increasing application of membrane filtration in water and wastewater treatment necessitates techniques to improve performance, especially in fouling control. Ultrasound is one promising technology for this purpose as cavitational effects facilitate continuous cleaning of the membrane. This research studied the ultrafiltration of lake water in systems with constant permeate flux under medium frequency (45?kHz) ultrasound irradiation. Fouling was investigated by monitoring transmembrane pressure (TMP) using continuous or intermittent ultrasound irradiation and dead-end or crossflow operation. Best performance was observed with continuous ultrasound irradiation in crossflow mode. Intermittent irradiation reduced the rate of TMP build-up but nevertheless allowed irreversible fouling to develop. PMID:25384626

Naddeo, Vincenzo; Belgiorno, Vincenzo; Borea, Laura; Secondes, Mona Freda N; Ballesteros, Florencio

2014-12-01

415

Emulation of reactor irradiation damage using ion beams  

SciTech Connect

The continued operation of existing light water nuclear reactors and the development of advanced nuclear reactor depend heavily on understanding how damage by radiation to levels degrades materials that serve as the structural components in reactor cores. The first high dose ion irradiation experiments on a ferritic-martensitic steel showing that ion irradiation closely emulates the full radiation damage microstructure created in-reactor are described. Ferritic-martensitic alloy HT9 (heat 84425) in the form of a hexagonal fuel bundle duct (ACO-3) accumulated 155 dpa at an average temperature of 443°C in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Using invariance theory as a guide, irradiation of the same heat was conducted using self-ions (Fe++) at 5 MeV at a temperature of 460°C and to a dose of 188 displacements per atom. The void swelling was nearly identical between the two irradiations and the size and density of precipitates and loops following ion irradiation are within a factor of two of those for neutron irradiation. The level of agreement across all of the principal microstructure changes between ion and reactor irradiations establishes the capability of tailoring ion irradiations to emulate the reactor-irradiated microstructure.

G. S. Was; Z. Jiao; E. Beckett; A. M. Monterrosa; O. Anderoglu; B. H. Sencer; M. Hackett

2014-10-01

416

Ferroelectric domain structure of X-ray-irradiated TGS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Domain patterns on the b-plane of X-ray-irradiated TGS crystals were examined by the rub etch method. Crystals irradiated in the paraelectric phase show extremely fine domain patterns. The rate of evolution of the domain structure after heat treatment is reduced by the irradiation. These effects are explained by assuming that the microscopic defects formed by irradiation have polarity. The polarity of a defect is determined by the domain orientation at the defect site, and determines the direction of the bias field resulting from the defect.

Nakatani, N.

1986-01-01

417

Pretransfusion blood irradiation: Clinical rationale and dosimetric considerations  

SciTech Connect

The irradiation of blood before transfusion into immunosuppressed patients is an increasingly common technique used to prevent graft-versus-host disease. A technical procedure is described for the calibration of blood irradiators, including the determination of absolute dose rate and relative dose distribution over the blood volume. Results of dose rate measurements on commercially available irradiators indicate differences of +5% to {minus}13% with manufacturer-supplied calibrations and variations in the relative dose rate over the irradiation volume from 70% to 180%. The clinical implications of these findings and the need for accurate dosimetry are discussed.

Masterson, M.E.; Febo, R. (Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York 10021 (United States))

1992-05-01

418

Practical dosimetric aspects of blood and blood product irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The method of choice to reduce susceptibility to transfusion-transmitted graft-versus-host disease is irradiation of allogenic blood and blood products for transfusion to immunosuppressed recipients. Optimal irradiation requires delivery of a known and homogeneous absorbed dose. The use of absorbed dose in air measured at the center of the irradiation volume without proper compensation for sample absorption can lead to approximately 20 percent underexposure. A lucite cylinder was used to provide the delivery of a homogeneous irradiation dose to blood products of different volumes by allowing rotation of the product.

Fearon, T.C.; Luban, N.L.

1986-09-01

419

Marine bioluminescence estimation algorithms for in-situ irradiance measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two simple algorithms are examined for estimating the volumetric generation rate of a bioluminescent light field in the upper ocean from measurements of the irradiance and scalar irradiance at two depths beneath the surface of seawater. Both algorithms require that in situ irradiance and scalar irradiance measurements be made and that the absorption coefficient be known. Radiative transfer calculations have been done to numerically test the sensitivity of the algorithms, and the one based on the principle of photon conservation is shown to work well when searching for the presence of a source and for estimating the source magnitude.

McCormick, Norman J.; Sanchez, R.; Yi, Hwa C.

1990-09-01

420

Effect of. gamma. -ray irradiation on alcohol production from corn  

SciTech Connect

Cracked corn was irradiated with ..gamma.. rays at 0-100 Mrad and the effects of the irradiation on sugar yield, susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis of starch, yeast growth, and alcohol production were studied. Gamma irradiation at 50 Mrad or greater produced a considerable amount of reducing sugar but little glucose. At lower dosages, ..gamma.. irradiation significantly increased the susceptibility of corn starch to enzymatic hydrolysis, but dosages of 50 Mrad or greater decomposed the starch molecules as indicated by the reduction in iodine uptake. About 12.5% reducing sugar was produced by amylase treatment of uncooked, irradiated corn. This amount exceeded the level of sugar produced from cooked (gelatinized) corn by the same enzyme treatment. The yeast numbers in submerged cultivation were lower on a corn substrate that was irradiated at 50 Mrad or greater compared to that on an unirradiated control. About the same level of alcohol was produced on uncooked, irradiated (10/sup 5/ - 10/sup 6/ rad) corn as from cooked (121 degrees C for 30 min) corn. Therefore, the conventional cooking process for gelatinization of starch prior to its saccharification can be eliminated by irradiation. Irradiation also eliminated the necessity of sterilization of the medium and reduced the viscosity of high levels of substrate in the fermentation broth. (Refs. 10).

Han, Y.W.; Cho, Y.K.; Ciegler, A.

1983-11-01

421

EPR study on gamma-irradiated fruits dehydrated via osmosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shape and time stability of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of non- and ?-irradiated papaya, melon, cherry and fig samples dehydrated via osmosis are reported. It is shown that non-irradiated samples are generally EPR silent whereas ?-irradiated exhibit "sugar-like" EPR spectra. The recorded EPR spectra are monitored for a period of 7 months after irradiation (stored at low humidity and in the dark). The results suggest longer period of unambiguous identification of the radiation processing of osmose dehydrated fruits. Therefore, the Protocol EN 13708,2001 issued by CEN is fully applicable for the studied fruit samples.

Yordanov, N. D.; Aleksieva, K.

2007-06-01

422

Carbon Irradiated SI-GaAs for Photoconductive THz Detection  

E-print Network

We report here a photoconductive material for THz generation and detection with sub-picosecond carrier lifetime made by C12 (Carbon) irradiation on commercially available semi-insulating (SI) GaAs. We are able to reduce the carrier lifetime of SI-GaAs down to sub-picosecond by irradiating it with various irradiation dosages of Carbon (C12) ions. With an increase of the irradiation dose from ~1012 /cm2 to ~1015 /cm2 the carrier lifetime of SI-GaAs monotonously decreases to 0.55 picosecond, resulting in strongly improved THz pulse detection compared with normal SI-GaAs.

Singh, Abhishek; Surdi, Harshad; Prabhu, S S; S., Mathimalar; Nanal, Vandana; Pillay, R G; Dohler, G H

2014-01-01

423

Physicochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from ?-irradiated soybeans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physicochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from ?-irradiated soybeans (0-10 kGy) were investigated. No significant changes were observed in the total lipid content, fatty acid composition, acid value, peroxide value and trans fatty acid content at different irradiation doses. A tendency toward increased induction period was observed as irradiation dose increased. At higher dose levels than 10 kGy, n-hexanal increased remarkably as dose levels increased, showing the possibility of a chemical index for over-dose irradiation in soybeans.

Byun, Myung-Woo; Kang, Il-Jun; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Hayashi, Yukako; Mori, Tomohiko

1996-02-01

424

Physicochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from ?-irradiated soybeans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physicochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from ?-irradiated soybeans (0-10kGy) were investigated. No significant changes were observed in the total lipid content, fatty acid composition, acid value, peroxide value and trans fatty acid content at different irradiation doses. A tendency toward increase induction period was observed as irradiation dose increased. At higher dose levels than 10 kGy, n-hexanal content remarkably increased as dose levels increased, showing the possibility of a chemical index for over-dose irradiation in soybeans.

Byun, M. W.; Kang, I. J.; Kwon, J. H.; Hayashi, Y.; Mori, T.

1995-02-01

425

Food irradiation: Technology transfer in Asia, practical experiences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nordion International Inc., in cooperation with the Thai Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) recently completed a unique food irradiation technology transfer project in Thailand. This complete food irradiation technology transfer project included the design and construction of an automatic multipurpose irradiation facility as well as the services of construction and installation management and experts in facility operation, maintenance and training. This paper provides an insight into the many events that led to the succesful conclusion of the world's first complete food irradiation technology transfer project.

Kunstadt, Peter; Eng, P.

1993-10-01

426

Heat generation by irradiated complex composite nanostructures.  

PubMed

Heating of irradiated metallic e-beam generated nanostructures was quantified through direct measurements paralleled by novel model-based numerical calculations. By comparing discs, triangles, and stars we showed how particle shape and composition determines the heating. Importantly, our results revealed that substantial heat is generated in the titanium adhesive layer between gold and glass. Even when the Ti layer is as thin as 2 nm it absorbs as much as a 30 nm Au layer and hence should not be ignored. PMID:24392799

Ma, Haiyan; Tian, Pengfei; Pello, Josselin; Bendix, Poul Martin; Oddershede, Lene B

2014-02-12

427

[The gastrointestinal post-irradiation syndrome].  

PubMed

In the recent years, more attention is paid by radiobiologists to both prevention and therapy of a relatively less studied gastrointestinal postirradiation syndrome (GPS). Moreover, the increase in interest in GPS is motivated with the requirement as to obtain the decrease in action of ionizing radiation on the intestinal mucosa at making radiotherapy of abdominal or pelvic region. The GPS occurs consequently to the affected abdominal region or all the organism with ionizing radiation. Its approximal doses from 10 to 100 Gy (gamma) are critical for the survival of intestinal mucosa, especially that of jejunum and ileum. Under the threshold of a single and total dose from 6 to 10 Gy, the intestinal mucosa may usually regenerate, and the survival depends mainly on the preservation or restoration of hemopoietic activity of blood forming tissues. The main pathogenetic GPS factor resides in the afflication of stem cells of mucosal crypts. The intestinal epithelium stops to be fluently replaced after the irradiation. The motion arrests of epithelial cells from crypts to the apex of villi. The elderly cells undergoes degradation, and after several days the denudation of mucosa occurs with possible distortion of deeper layers of intestinal wall. The intestinal microflora is involved in the pathogenesis both directly and indirectly. Amongst the former events is ranged the invasion of distorted mucosa in compromised both local and systemic immunity. Indirectly, the intestinal microflora is GPS associated by stimulating mitotic activity in crypts, therefore more cells are in the radiosensitive phase. In germ-free animals there is a significant decrease in mitotic activity of crypts, and the migration time of epithelial cells from crypts to the apex villi is twice more prolongated, what induces possible restoration of active center after the irradiation. The GPS also results in disorder of metabolic processes which are conditioned with intestinal mucosa. Its typical manifestation resides in the wash-out of mucus, decreased resorption of nutrients and loss of water and minerals into the intestinal lumen. The GPS-related are another disorders of the organism, those of liver and kidney apparently induced due to the intoxication with catabolic products. The microflora has been stated to be involved in GPS by the experiments on germ-free animals. In the absence of microflora, the survival is greater in duration. After a total pigs irradiation with 10-30 Gy, more than two times survival prolongation occurs. The abdominal irradiation with 12 Gy results to the death of only conventional pigs, whereas those germ-free show a survival.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1815346

Mandel, L; Svoboda, V

1991-01-01

428

EPR study of some irradiated food enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EPR spectra of three types of amylases (microbial and fungal ?-amylase E.C. 3.2.1.1; gluco-amylase E.C. 3.2.1.3) and one\\u000a type of pectinase irradiated with gamma-rays and 7 MeV electrons are presented and discussed. For all enzymes, a positive\\u000a correlation (r = 0.991 to 0.994) between the EPR signal amplitude and absorbed dose has been observed, while, between EPR spectra amplitudes

O. G. Duliu; M. Ferdes; O. S. Ferdes

2004-01-01

429

Early and Late Responses to Ion Irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early and late responses to ion beam therapy (IBT) are the result of complex interactions between host, dose volume, and radiobiological factors. Our understanding of these early and late tissue responses has improved greatly with the accumulation of laboratory and clinical experience with proton and heavy ion irradiation. With photon therapy becoming increasingly conformal, many concepts developed for 3D conformal radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy with photons are also applicable to IBT. This chapter reviews basic concepts and experimental data of early and late tissue responses to protons and ions.

Schulte, Reinhard; Ling, Ted

430

Total skin electron irradiation techniques: a review  

PubMed Central

Total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) has been employed as one of the methods of mycosis fungoides treatment since the mid-twentieth century. In order to improve the effects and limit the complications following radiotherapy, a number of varieties of the TSEI method, frequently differing in the implementation mode have been developed. The paper provides a systematic review of the different varieties of TSEI. The discussed differences concerned especially: (i) technological requirements and geometric conditions, (ii) the alignment of the patient, (iii) the number of treatment fields, and (iv) dose fractionation scheme. PMID:24278046

Milecki, Piotr; Skórska, Ma?gorzata; Fundowicz, Dorota

2013-01-01

431

Effect of irradiation spectrum on the microstructure of ion-irradiated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect

Polycrystalline samples of alpha-alumina have been irradiated with various ions ranging from 3.6 MeV Fe{sup +} to 1 MeV H{sup +} ions at 650 C. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the depth-dependent microstructure of the irradiated specimens. The microstructure following irradiation was observed to be dependent on the irradiation spectrum. In particular, defect cluster nucleation was effectively suppressed in specimens irradiated with light ions such as 1 MeV H{sup +} ions. On the other hand, light ion irradiation tended to accelerate the growth rate of dislocation loops. The microstructural observations are discussed in terms of ionization enhanced diffusion processes.

Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

1994-12-31

432

Irradiation-induced effects of proton irradiation on zirconium carbides with different stoichiometries  

SciTech Connect

Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is being considered for utilization in deep burn TRISO fuel particles for hightemperature, gas-cooled reactors. Zirconium carbide has a cubic B1 type crystal structure along with a very high melting point (3420 ?C), exceptional hardness and good thermal and electrical conductivities. Understanding the ZrC irradiation response is crucial for establishing ZrC as an alternative component in TRISO fuel. Until now, very few studies on irradiation effects on ZrC have been released and fundamental aspects of defect evolution and kinetics are not well understood although some atomistic simulations and phenomenological studies have been performed. This work was carried out to understand the damage evolution in float-zone refined ZrC with different stoichiometries. Proton irradiations at 800 ?C up to doses of 3 dpa were performed on ZrCx (where x ranges from 0.9 to 1.2) to investigate the damage evolution. The irradiation-induced defects, such as density of dislocation loops, at different stoichiometries and doses which were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is presented and discussed.

Y. Huang; B.R. Maier; T.R. Allen

2014-10-01

433

Modeling daylight availability and irradiance components from direct and global irradiance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the latest versions of several models developed by the authors to predict short time-step solar energy and daylight availability quantities needed by energy system modelers or building designers. The modeled quantities are global, direct and diffuse daylight illuminance, diffuse irradiance and illuminance impinging on tilted surfaces of arbitrary orientation, sky zenith luminance and sky luminance angular distribution.

R. Perez; P. Ineichen; R. Seals; J. Michalsky; R. Stewart

1990-01-01

434

Irradiated test fuel shipment plan for the LWR MOX fuel irradiation test project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document outlines the responsibilities of DOE, DOE contractors, the commercial carrier, and other organizations participating in a shipping campaign of irradiated test specimen capsules containing mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The shipments described here will be conducted according to applicable regulations of the US Department

L. B. Shappert; L. S. Dickerson; S. B. Ludwig

1998-01-01

435

Solar Irradiance Data Products at the LASP Interactive Solar IRradiance Datacenter (LISIRD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) has developed the LASP Interactive Solar IRradiance Datacenter (LISIRD, http://lasp.colorado.edu/lisird/) web site to provide access to a comprehensive set of solar irradiance measurements and related datasets. Current data holdings include products from NASA missions SORCE, UARS, SME, and TIMED-SEE. The data provided covers a wavelength range from soft X-ray (XUV) at 0.1 nm up to the near infrared (NIR) at 2400 nm, as well as Total Solar Irradiance (TSI). Other datasets include solar indices, spectral and flare models, solar images, and more. The LISIRD web site features updated plotting, browsing, and download capabilities enabled by dygraphs, JavaScript, and Ajax calls to the LASP Time Series Server (LaTiS). In addition to the web browser interface, most of the LISIRD datasets can be accessed via the LaTiS web service interface that supports the OPeNDAP standard. OPeNDAP clients and other programming APIs are available for making requests that subset, aggregate, or filter data on the server before it is transported to the user. This poster provides an overview of the LISIRD system, summarizes the datasets currently available, and provides details on how to access solar irradiance data products through LISIRD's interfaces.

Lindholm, D. M.; Ware DeWolfe, A.; Wilson, A.; Pankratz, C. K.; Snow, M. A.; Woods, T. N.

2011-12-01

436

In-situ high temperature irradiation setup for temperature dependent structural studies of materials under swift heavy ion irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An in-situ high temperature (1000 K) setup is designed and installed in the materials science beam line of superconducting linear accelerator at the Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC) for temperature dependent ion irradiation studies on the materials exposed with swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. The Gd2Ti2O7 pyrochlore is irradiated using 120 MeV Au ion at 1000 K using the high temperature irradiation facility and characterized by ex-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). Another set of Gd2Ti2O7 samples are irradiated with the same ion beam parameter at 300 K and simultaneously characterized using in-situ XRD available in same beam line. The XRD studies along with the Raman spectroscopic investigations reveal that the structural modification induced by the ion irradiation is strongly dependent on the temperature of the sample. The Gd2Ti2O7 is readily amorphized at an ion fluence 6 × 1012 ions/cm2 on irradiation at 300 K, whereas it is transformed to a radiation-resistant anion-deficient fluorite structure on high temperature irradiation, that amorphized at ion fluence higher than 1 × 1013 ions/cm2. The temperature dependent ion irradiation studies showed that the ion fluence required to cause amorphization at 1000 K irradiation is significantly higher than that required at room temperature irradiation. In addition to testing the efficiency of the in-situ high temperature irradiation facility, the present study establishes that the radiation stability of the pyrochlore is enhanced at higher temperatures.

Kulriya, P. K.; Kumari, Renu; Kumar, Rajesh; Grover, V.; Shukla, R.; Tyagi, A. K.; Avasthi, D. K.

2015-01-01

437

Irradiation hardening of ODS ferritic steels under helium implantation and heavy-ion irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiation hardening of ODS ferritic steels after multi-energy He-ion implantation, or after irradiation with energetic heavy ions including Xe and Bi-ions was investigated with nano-indentation technique. Three kinds of high-Cr ODS ferritic steels including the commercial MA956 (19Cr-3.5Al), the 16Cr-0.1Ti and the 16Cr-3.5Al-0.1Zr were used. Data of nano-hardness were analyzed with an approach based on Nix-Gao model. The depth profiles of nano-hardness can be understood by the indentation size effect (ISE) in specimens of MA956 implanted with multi-energy He-ions or irradiated with 328 MeV Xe ions, which produced a plateau damage profile in the near-surface region. However, the damage gradient overlaps the ISE in the specimens irradiated with 9.45 Bi ions. The dose dependence of the nano-hardness shows a rapid increase at low doses and a slowdown at higher doses. An 1/2-power law dependence on dpa level is obtained. The discrepancy in nano-hardness between the helium implantation and Xe-ion irradiation can be understood by using the average damage level instead of the peak dpa level. Helium-implantation to a high dose (7400 appm/0.5 dpa) causes an additional hardening, which is possibly attributed to the impediment of motion dislocations by helium bubbles formed in high concentration in specimens.

Zhang, Hengqing; Zhang, Chonghong; Yang, Yitao; Meng, Yancheng; Jang, Jinsung; Kimura, Akihiko

2014-12-01

438

The influence of fast neutron irradiation and irradiation temperature on the tensile properties of wrought LCAC and TZM molybdenum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of irradiation temperature on embrittlement are evaluated by the irradiation of wrought low carbon arc cast (LCAC) and TZM molybdenum in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at 294-1100 °C to neutron doses between 0.6 and 13.1 dpa Mo. Irradiation at 300 °C is shown to result in elevation of the ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) from a pre-irradiated value of -100 to -50 °C to a post-irradiated value of 800 °C for both alloys with an increase in fracture stress. Irradiation at 560 °C also resulted in an increase in fracture stress, but the post-irradiated DBTT for LCAC (300 °C) was much lower than TZM (700 °C). Irradiation of both LCAC and TZM between 935 °C and 1100 °C resulted in little radiation hardening and a -50 °C DBTT for both alloys. The finer grain size and absence of coarse carbide particles may explain the slightly improved embrittlement resistance of LCAC compared to TZM for 600 °C irradiations.

Cockeram, B. V.; Smith, R. W.; Snead, L. L.

2005-11-01

439

Current modalities of accelerated partial breast irradiation.  

PubMed

The benefits of adjuvant whole-breast irradiation (WBI) after breast-conserving surgery are well established and WBI is a standard of care. In selected patients with early stage breast cancer, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) has emerged as an alternative treatment option to WBI. Early trials of APBI have demonstrated an excellent local control rate and an associated good-to-excellent cosmetic outcome. APBI can reduce both the treatment volume and overall treatment time of adjuvant radiation therapy, which potentially overcomes logistical barriers associated with WBI that have previously prevented eligible women from pursuing breast-conserving therapy. Likewise, the addition of new modalities for APBI delivery has increased the number of patients who might be eligible for this adjuvant treatment-in the setting of breast-conserving surgery-despite the limited availability of long-term data on APBI outcomes compared to historical WBI outcomes. Ongoing phase III trials aim to compare APBI with WBI and also point the practitioner to the appropriate APBI patient selection criteria. Here, we review available modalities, patient selection criteria and consensus guideline recommendations, and current controversies in APBI. PMID:23629470

Cox, John A; Swanson, Todd A

2013-06-01

440

Heat profiles of laser-irradiated nails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Onychomycosis is a worldwide problem with no tendency for self-healing, and existing systemic treatments achieve disease-free nails in only 35 to 76% of cases. Recently, treatment of nail fungus with a near-infrared laser has been introduced. It is assumed that fungal eradication is mediated by local heat. To investigate if laser treatment has the potential to eradicate fungal hyphae and arthrospores, laser heat application and propagation needs to be studied in detail. This study aimed to measure nail temperatures using real-time videothermography during laser irradiation. Treatment was performed using 808- and 980-nm linear scanning diode lasers developed for hair removal, enabling contact-free homogeneous irradiation of a human nail plate in one pass. Average and peak temperatures increased pass by pass, while the laser beam moved along the nail plates. The achieved mean peak temperatures (808 nm: 74.1 to 112.4°C, 980 nm: 45.8 to 53.5°C), as well as the elevation of average temperatures (808 nm: 29.5 to 38.2°C, 980 nm: 27.1 to 32.6°C) were associated with pain that was equivalent to that of hair removal procedures and was not significantly different for various wavelengths. The linear scanning laser devices provide the benefits of contact-free homogeneous heating of the human nail while ensuring adequate temperature rises.

Paasch, Uwe; Nenoff, Pietro; Seitz, Anna-Theresa; Wagner, Justinus A.; Kendler, Michael; Simon, Jan C.; Grunewald, Sonja

2014-01-01

441

Solar variability in irradiance and oscillations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The signature of the solar cycle appears in helioseismic frequencies and splittings. It is known that the changing outer superadiabatic region of the sun is responsible for this. The deeper solar-cycle mechanism from the surface changes, and, in particular, how magnetic fields perturb the global modes, the solar irradiance and the luminosity, is discussed. The irradiance and helioseismic changes are described. The interpretation of seismic and photometric data is discussed, considering current one-dimensional models and phenomenology. It is discussed how the long term solar-cycle luminosity effect could be caused by changes occurring near the base of the convection zone (CZ). It is shown that a thin toroidal flux sheath at the top of the radiative zone changed the thermal stratification immediately below the CZ over a solar-cycle timescale in two ways: the temperature of the magnetized fluid becomes hotter than the surrounding fluid, and the temperature gradient steepens above the magnetized region. The testing of CZ dynamics and extension of numerical experiments to global scales are considered.

Kuhn, Jeff R.

1995-01-01

442

Vaporization of perfluorocarbon droplets using optical irradiation  

PubMed Central

Micron-sized liquid perfluorocarbon (PFC) droplets are currently being investigated as activatable agents for medical imaging and cancer therapy. After injection into the bloodstream, superheated PFC droplets can be vaporized to a gas phase for ultrasound imaging, or for cancer therapy via targeted drug delivery and vessel occlusion. Droplet vaporization has been previously demonstrated using acoustic methods. We propose using laser irradiation as a means to induce PFC droplet vaporization using a method we term optical droplet vaporization (ODV). In order to facilitate ODV of PFC droplets which have negligible absorption in the infrared spectrum, optical absorbing nanoparticles were incorporated into the droplet. In this study, micron-sized PFC droplets loaded with silica-coated lead sulfide (PbS) nanoparticles were evaluated using a 1064 nm laser and ultra-high frequency photoacoustic ultrasound (at 200 and 375 MHz). The photoacoustic response was proportional to nanoparticle loading and successful optical droplet vaporization of individual PFC droplets was confirmed using photoacoustic, acoustic, and optical measurements. A minimum laser fluence of 1.4 J/cm2 was required to vaporize the droplets. The vaporization of PFC droplets via laser irradiation can lead to the activation of PFC agents in tissues previously not accessible using standard ultrasound-based techniques. PMID:21698007

Strohm, Eric; Rui, Min; Gorelikov, Ivan; Matsuura, Naomi; Kolios, Michael

2011-01-01

443

LISIRD: LASP Interactive Solar Irradiance Data Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) at the University of Colorado Boulder has been involved in numerous space-borne missions to directly measure and understand the variability of the Sun's energy output and its impact on global climate change. The LASP Interactive Solar Irradiance Data Center (LISIRD) provides a web site with interactive graphics to explore, subset, and download these and other solar related datasets. The LISIRD collections include observations of total and spectral irradiance with coverage from the X-ray to the infrared from projects such as SME, UARS SOLSTICE, SNOE, TIMED SEE, SORCE, and SDO EVE plus a growing number of related data products, proxies, and models. The LISIRD data services are backed by the LaTiS data server which presents a unified RESTful web service interface to slice, dice, and perform select server-side operations as the data are dynamically streamed to files of your desired format or directly into your code or analysis tools. Come see the data products and services that LISIRD has available and help us to improve them to better meet your needs.

Lindholm, D. M.; Wilson, A.

2013-12-01

444

Hafnium radioisotope recovery from irradiated tantalum  

DOEpatents

Hafnium is recovered from irradiated tantalum by: (a) contacting the irradiated tantalum with at least one acid to obtain a solution of dissolved tantalum; (b) combining an aqueous solution of a calcium compound with the solution of dissolved tantalum to obtain a third combined solution; (c) precipitating hafnium, lanthanide, and insoluble calcium complexes from the third combined solution to obtain a first precipitate; (d) contacting the first precipitate of hafnium, lanthanide and calcium complexes with at least one fluoride ion complexing agent to form a fourth solution; (e) selectively adsorbing lanthanides and calcium from the fourth solution by cationic exchange; (f) separating fluoride ion complexing agent product from hafnium in the fourth solution by adding an aqueous solution of ferric chloride to obtain a second precipitate containing the hafnium and iron; (g) dissolving the second precipitate containing the hafnium and iron in acid to obtain an acid solution of hafnium and iron; (h) selectively adsorbing the iron from the acid solution of hafnium and iron by anionic exchange; (i) drying the ion exchanged hafnium solution to obtain hafnium isotopes. Additionally, if needed to remove residue remaining after the product is dried, dissolution in acid followed by cation exchange, then anion exchange, is performed.

Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, David J. (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01

445

Helical tomotherapy for total lymphoid irradiation.  

PubMed

Total lymphoid irradiation is employed in the preparative regimens for allogeneic bone marrow and solid organ transplantation, solid organ transplant rejection, and chronic graft-versus-host disease. Linear accelerator-based radiotherapy, typically involving opposed anteroposterior and posteroanterior beams, has been commonly used; however, extended source-to-skin patient setup and/or field matching are required, and all organs within the beam coverage receive the entire prescribed dose. Megavoltage helical tomotherapy represents a technological advance in terms of both treatment delivery and patient positioning. The continuously rotating multileaf collimated fan beam allows highly conformal coverage of complex target geometries, in turn allowing avoidance of radiosensitive adjacent organs. In addition, the megavoltage computed tomographic scans allow potentially more accurate, targetbased setup verification. The present case report describes tomotherapy-based total lymphoid irradiation in an adult patient with late-onset cardiac transplant rejection. Treatment planning allowed dose minimization to the spinal cord, kidneys, intestinal compartment, and lungs. The patient tolerated treatment well without acute adverse effects, and he is now in early follow-up. PMID:19132495

McCutchen, Kathryn W; Watkins, John M; Eberts, Paul; Terwilliger, Lacy E; Ashenafi, Michael S; Jenrette, Joseph M

2008-12-01

446

Phytosanitary irradiation of Liriomyza trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae).  

PubMed

Agromyzid leafminers are economic and quarantine pests of a variety of vegetables, flowers, and ornamental foliage. Methyl bromide fumigation is often used as a phytosanitary treatment when quarantined agromyzids are found in shipped commodities; alternative treatments are sought. Ionizing radiation is a viable alternative that is increasing in use worldwide. A dose of 400 Gy is accepted by USDA-APHIS for all insects (except Lepidoptera pupae and adults) on all commodities. Efforts to lower this dose and make it acceptable to other countries involve determining radiotolerance of families of major quarantine pests. Agromyzidae is one such family for which no useful information on radiotolerance exists. This research sought to determine the dose required to control a major agromyzid pest, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) and was performed on L. trifolii collected in Weslaco, TX, reared on Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Capsicum annuum L. and irradiated in the late puparial stage. The measure of efficacy was prevention of F1 mine formation. Puparia collected from Gossypium hirsutum L. and reared on P. vulgaris were more radiotolerant than those collected and reared on C. annuum. A dose of 214 Gy may prevent F1 mine formation of L. trifolii. This research used a variation of probit analysis where the direct response of the treated individual is not measured, but the response of the F1 generation is. This type of analysis is useful in phytosanitary irradiation research where the measure of efficacy often involves a response of the F1 generation. PMID:22299344

Hallman, Guy J; Guo, Kun; Liu, Tong-Xian

2011-12-01

447

Irradiated microstructure of alloy 800H  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Austenitic alloy 800H has the same basic composition as INCOLOY alloy 800 (Fe-20Cr-32Ni) but with significantly higher creep-rupture strength due to a required 60 ?m minimum grain size. It is one of the high temperature candidate alloys being considered for Generation IV nuclear reactor systems. The radiation resistance of 800H has not been previously studied. This work provides information on the microstructural changes in 800H after irradiation using 5.0 MeV Ni ions at 500 °C to 5 and 50 dpa. Following irradiation, changes in microstructure and phase stability were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). At a dose of 50 dpa, no voids were found and the density and size of the faulted loops were measured to be 2.3 × 10 16 cm -3 and 8.4 nm, respectively. There are fine precipitates distributed in 800H with an average size approximately 6 nm and a density greater than 9.1 × 10 15 cm -3. The high Ni content and the presence of precipitates are believed to be responsible for the resistance to void formation at dose up to 50 dpa.

Gan, J.; Cole, J. I.; Allen, T. R.; Shutthanandan, S.; Thevuthasan, S.

2006-06-01

448

LWRS ATR Irradiation Testing Readiness Status  

SciTech Connect

The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors. The LWRS Program is divided into four R&D Pathways: (1) Materials Aging and Degradation; (2) Advanced Light Water Reactor Nuclear Fuels; (3) Advanced Instrumentation, Information and Control Systems; and (4) Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization. This report describes an irradiation testing readiness analysis in preparation of LWRS experiments for irradiation testing at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) under Pathway (2). The focus of the Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuels Pathway is to improve the scientific knowledge basis for understanding and predicting fundamental performance of advanced nuclear fuel and cladding in nuclear power plants during both nominal and off-nominal conditions. This information will be applied in the design and development of high-performance, high burn-up fuels with improved safety, cladding integrity, and improved nuclear fuel cycle economics

Kristine Barrett

2012-09-01

449

Restoration of an irradiated fuel storage facility  

SciTech Connect

The irradiated fuel storage basin in the KW nuclear production reactor at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, was decontaminated and painted in preparation for converting the facility to storage of irradiated fuel from N reactor. Corrosion product, activation product, and some fission product built up in the basin over the years and was present in a layer of sludge about 3 inches deep on the basin floor. The solid waste was packaged in approved containers and buried in the 200 Area burial site on the Hanford Project. The concrete walls and pillars in the basin were decontaminated with a high-pressure aqua-blaster. Using a water jet, the sludge was flushed to a sump where it was picked up with a sludge pump and deposited in a crib which was formed in the basin area using a bulkhead to isolate the crib from the basin. After decanting the excess water from the sludge, it was pumped to a large tank designed to meet the burial and transport regulations. The tank containing the sludge was then transferred to the 200 Area burial site and placed in the burial trench. The cement walls, floor, and columns were painted with an epoxy paint. This paper reviews the procedures and techniques used in cleaning the storage basin.

Wahlen, R.K.

1980-01-01

450

Gamma-Irradiated Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Vaccines  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of Formalin-inactivated Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) vaccine has been reported to be low for man. Although a live VEE vaccine has been shown to be highly effective for the protection of laboratory workers, local and systemic reactions have occurred in approximately 20% of inoculated individuals. Therefore, studies were initiated in an attempt to produce an inactivated vaccine of high potency with low toxicity. Inactivated VEE vaccines were prepared by exposing virus suspensions to 8 × 106 or 10 × 106 r of gamma radiation. Irradiated VEE vaccines prepared from virus suspensions produced in Maitland-type chick embryo (MTCE) cell cultures and in monolayer cultures of human diploid strain WI-38 cells were highly immunogenic for mice and guinea pigs. Guinea pigs vaccinated with a series of three inoculations of vaccine (MTCE) survived challenge with at least 108·4 mouse intracerebral 50% lethal doses of VEE virus. Irradiated vaccines induced high levels of serum-neutralizing and hemagglutinin-inhibiting antibodies in guinea pigs and rabbits. These findings suggest that ionizing radiation may be effective in the preparation of an inactivated VEE vaccine. PMID:5463575

Reitman, Morton; Tribble, H. R.; Green, Leonard

1970-01-01

451

Nanoparticle ejection from gold during ion irradiation.  

SciTech Connect

We have used in situ transmission electron microscopy to study the sputtering of gold by inert-gas ions and, in particular, nanoparticles ejected by individual ion impacts. Irradiations were performed at room temperature in transmission geometry with Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe ions at energies between 100 and 600 keV. Nanoparticles result from situations in which ion impacts also give rise to nanometer size craters on the surface. The number of nanoparticles increased linearly with increasing ion dose. The rate of nanoparticle ejection scales with the probability, calculated with standard Monte Carlo techniques, for high-energy deposition events by individual ions in the near-surface region regardless of the irradiation. The percentage of near-surface, high-energy recoils that eject a nanoparticle is high. The rate of nanoparticle ejection depends on energy transfer to the Au lattice and not on the ion that makes the impact or its energy. Ejected nanoparticles account for the nonlinear component of sputtering. Monte Carlo calculations offer a general technique for predicting situations in which nanoparticles can be ejected and thus when the nonlinear contribution to the sputtering yield is likely to be significant.

Birtcher, R. C.; Donnelly, S. E.; Schlutig, S.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of Salford; Univ. of Caen

2004-01-01

452

Isolation of Microstructure in Proton-Irradiated Steels. Topical Report  

SciTech Connect

OAK B188 Isolation of Microstructure in Proton-Irradiated Steels. Topical Report. Component degradation by irradiation is a primary concern in both current reactor systems as well as advanced designs and concepts where the demand for higher efficiency and performance will be considerably greater. In advanced reactor systems, core components will be expected to operate under increasingly hostile (temperature, pressure, radiation flux, dose, etc.) conditions, The current strategy for assessing radiation effects for the development of new materials is impractical in that the costs and time required to conduct reactor irradiations are becoming increasingly prohibitive, and the facilities for conducting these irradiations are becoming increasingly scarce. The next generation reactor designs will require more extreme conditions (temperature, flux, fluence), yet the capability for conducting irradiations for materials development and assessment in the next 20 years is significantly weaker than over the past 20 years. Short of building new test reactors, what is needed now are advanced tools and capabilities for studying radiation damage in materials that can keep pace with design development requirements. The most successful of these irradiation tools has been high energy (several MeV) proton irradiation. Proton irradiation to several tens of dpa can be conducted in short amounts of time (weeks), with relatively inexpensive accelerators, and result in negligible residual radioactivity. All of these factors combine to provide a radiation damage assessment tool that reduces the time and cost to develop and assess reactor materials by factors of 10-100. What remains to be accomplished, is the application of this tool to specific materials problems and the extension of the technique to a wider range of problems in preparation for advanced reactor materials development and assessment. In this project, we plan to approach the mechanism of irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) by isolating the irradiated microstructure. This report focuses on the microstructure of proton irradiated stainless steel and model alloys for reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels.

Was, G.S.; Atzmon, M.; Wang, L.

2000-09-01

453

MeV Proton Irradiation Effects on Fullerenes and Graphite  

SciTech Connect

Ion irradiation of graphite and other carbon allotropes is a versatile tool for manipulating their physical, chemical and even magnetic properties. Fullerene films, when irradiated with 2 MeV protons, display soft-ferromagnetic ordering at 5 K. At 300 K both pristine and irradiated films show diamagnetic behaviour.Magnetisation data in the temperature range of 2-300 K, in 1 T applied field, for the irradiated film show much stronger temperature dependence compared to a pristine film. The ion irradiation study has been further extended to the graphite system. Poly-crystalline graphite samples were irradiated with 2.25MeV protons at a fluence of 2x10{sup 17} ions/cm2.Magnetic ordering in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite samples have been reported earlier under similar irradiation conditions [Esquinazi et. al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 (2003) 227201]. In that study, the authors attribute the observed irradiation induced magnetic ordering to the formation of a mixed sp{sup 2}-sp{sup 3} hybridized carbon atoms. Here we present Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies on pristine and irradiated graphite samples. Irradiated samples are found to show an increased number of sp3 hybridized carbon atoms. However, the Raman spectrum, specially the second order data, do indicate that the nature of the graphene lattice structure has been preserved in the irradiated samples. The formation of a mixed sp{sup 2}-sp{sup 3} hybridization in graphite structure, which might be responsible for magnetism,will be discussed.

Mathew, S. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar-751005 (India); Dev, B. N. [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A and 2B Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkota 700 032 (India)

2008-10-23

454

STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF ⁶°Co GAMMA IRRADIATION ON THE GOAT. I. CHANGES IN BLOOD CONSTITUENTS FOLLOWING 1,000 r TOTAL BODY GAMMA IRRADIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goats were irradiated with a dose of 1,000 r of Co⁶° gamma rays. ; Changes in blood constituents before and after exposure were compared between ; these goats, and non-irradiated controls, both of which were forced to fast ; during the same period. All irradiated goats died in about 10 days after ; irradiation. Loss in body weight was of

M. Hayashi; N. Miyao

1961-01-01

455

77 FR 29352 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Irradiation in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of FDA's requirements for food irradiation processors. DATES: Submit...C. 321(s) and 348), food irradiation is subject to regulation under...percent of their business to food irradiation (3 x 300 hours = 900...

2012-05-17

456

77 FR 65854 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Irradiation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; Irradiation Phytosanitary Treatment of Imported Fruits and Vegetables AGENCY...use of irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment of imported fruits and vegetables. DATES...use of irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment of imported fruits and vegetables,...

2012-10-31

457

Food Irradiation Using Electron Beams and X-Rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this presentation we will discuss the technology of food irradiation using electron accelerators. Food irradiation has generally come to describe the use of ionizing radiation to decrease the population of, or prevent the growth of, undesirable biological organisms in food. The many beneficial applications include insect disinfestation, sprouting inhibition, delayed ripening, and the enhanced safety and sterilization of fresh

Bruce Miller

2003-01-01

458

Retention of Hydrogen Isotopes in Neutron Irradiated Tungsten  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the effects of neutron irradiation on hydrogen isotope retention in tungsten, disk-type specimens of pure tungsten were irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor in Oak Ridge National Laboratory followed by exposure to high flux deuterium (D) plasma in Idaho National Laboratory. The results obtained for low dose n-irradiated specimens (0.025 dpa for tungsten) are reviewed in this paper. Irradiation at coolant temperature of the reactor (around 50 degrees C) resulted in the formation of strong trapping sites for D atoms. The concentrations of D in n-irradiated specimens were ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 mol% after exposure to D plasma at 200 and 500 degrees C and significantly higher than those in non-irradiated specimens because of D-trapping by radiation defects. Deep penetration of D up to a depth of 50-100 µm was observed at 500 degrees C. Release of D in subsequent thermal desorption measurements continued up to 900 degrees C. These results were compared with the behaviour of D in ion-irradiated tungsten, and distinctive features of n-irradiation were discussed.

Yuji Hatano; Masashi Shimada; Yasuhisa Oya; Guoping Cao; Makoto Kobayashi; Masanori Hara; Brad J. Merrill; Kenji Okuno; Mikhail A. Sokolov; Yutai Katoh

2013-03-01

459

Industrial gamma irradiation facilities with a dry storage source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large industrial service irradiators with a Gamma source activity greater than 2 MCi are typically designed with a wet storage source. Sources with lower activities can be handled either as wet storage source or dry storage source. This paper gives an overview of a redesign of an industrial irradiator with a dry stored Gamma source, especially design features, safety considerations and future outlook.

Schrader, H. G.

460

Pathologic Malgaigne fracture following pelvic irradiation. A case report  

SciTech Connect

A 48-year-old woman developed symptomatic superior and inferior pubic rami fractures with a concomitant subluxation of the ipsilateral sacroiliac joint three years after pelvic irradiation for a gynecologic malignancy. Pathologic pelvic fractures (PPF) caused by irradiation may be difficult to distinguish from those caused by metastatic disease. PPF produce prolonged disability.

Jones, A.R.; Lachiewicz, P.F.

1987-08-01