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1

The Effect of Low Dose Irradiation and Grapefruit Extract on C. perfringens Growth from Spores in sous vide Processed Pork-Based Mexican Entrée  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sous vide, a common cooking method for meat and poultry products is widely used for providing ready-to-eat meals. Traditionally, these products have limited shelf life, ranging from 2 to 3 weeks. However, similar products may be stored for longer periods in the U.S. and other countries, requiring ad...

2

Nutritional Quality of Sous Vide Cooked Carrots and Brussels Sprouts.  

PubMed

Phytochemicals (carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid) and antioxidant capacity (measured by TEAC, FRAP, and TRAP assays) were evaluated on carrots and Brussels sprouts sous vide processed and then stored refrigerated for 1, 5, and 10 days and compared with the corresponding raw and oven-steamed products. Data showed that sous vide cooked carrots had higher amounts of carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid than steamed products, and only a slight decrease of phenolic compounds was recorded during sous vide storage. Contrasting results were obtained on sous vide processed Brussels sprouts: higher carotenoid amounts and TEAC and TRAP values and lower phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, and FRAP values were exhibited by sous vide in comparison with steamed samples. Phytochemicals and TAC also decreased during Brussels sprout sous vide storage with the exception of carotenoids. The results of this study demonstrated that sous vide preparation can preserve and/or enhance the nutritional quality of carrots, which remain a good source of carotenoids also after long refrigerated storage, whereas the same treatment could be recommended as an alternative to oven-steaming in the preparation of Brussels sprouts for short-term maintenance to avoid a large ascorbic acid depletion. PMID:22568492

Chiavaro, Emma; Mazzeo, Teresa; Visconti, Attilio; Manzi, Chiara; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

2012-06-01

3

Hypertriglyc?rid?mie majeure sous tamoxif?ne  

PubMed Central

Plusieurs agents pharmacologiques sont incriminés dans les hyperlipidémies. Le tamoxifène fournit un exemple de médicament hypertriglycéridémiant. Nous décrivons ici le cas ?une patiente atteinte de cancer du sein traitée par tamoxifène qui a présenté une hypertriglycéridémie sévère. Nous présentons aussi une brève revue de la littérature et discutons les mécanismes sous jacents aux effets hypertriglycéridémiants du tamoxifène.

Khabbal, Youssef; El Ouahabi, Hanane; Bensbaa, Salma; Agerd, Loubna; Brahmi, Sami; El Mesbahi, Omar; Ajdi, Farida

2012-01-01

4

Clostridium perfringens growth from spore inocula in sous-vide processed pork-based Mexican entrée.  

PubMed

The combined effect of Citricidal wih irradiation on Clostridium perfringens growth from spores in a sous-vide processed marinated pork meat Mexican entrée was investigated. Citricidal was added at 200 or 800 ppm after mixing pork meat with tomatillo sauce and inoculated with 3 log(10) CFU/g of C. perfringens spores. Samples were irradiated at either 0 or 2 kGy, heated to an internal temperature of 71 degrees C, and stored at 4 degrees C for 28 d, 15 degrees C for 45 d, and 25 degrees C for 26 h. To simulate the conditions that may occur during transportation, distribution, storage, or handling in supermarkets or by consumers, the effect of static temperature abuse on C. perfringens growth was assessed by transferring samples stored at 4 to 25 degrees C for 13 and 15 h. Total C. perfringens populations were determined by plating diluted samples on tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar. Growth was not observed up to 45 d of storage at 15 degrees C in samples supplemented with 800 ppm of Citricidal. At 25 degrees C, no significant differences (P > 0.05) on the lag phase duration due to antimicrobial treatments was observed. The temperature abuse of refrigerated products for up to 15 h did not lead to C. perfringens growth to high infective dose levels of 1 million cells required to cause food poisoning. The results suggest that 800 ppm Citricidal can have significant bacteriostatic activity against C. perfringens and may provide a degree of protection against this pathogen in sous-vide processed marinated pork meat Mexican entrée, under mild temperature abuse (

Miguel-Garcia, Denise Y; Juneja, Vijay K; Valenzuela-Melendrez, Martin; Díaz-Cinco, Martha E; Thippareddi, H; Aida Peña-Ramos, E

5

Improvement of microbiological safety of sous-vide meals by gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental batches of smoked-cured pork in stewed beans sauce were inoculated with spores of psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus, more heat and radiation resistant than spores of non-proteolytic C. botulinum. After vacuum packaging, the meals were treated with combinations of pasteurizing heat treatments and gamma irradiation of 5kGy. Prior and after treatments, and periodically during storage at 10°C, total aerobic and total anerobic viable cell counts, and selectively, the viable cell counts of B. cereus and sulphite-reducing clostridia have been determined. The effects of the treatment order as well as addition of nisin to enhance the preservative efficiency of the physical treatments were also studied. Heat-sensitization of bacterial spores surviving irradiation occurred. The quality-friendly sous-vide cooking in combination with this medium dose gamma irradiation and/or nisin addition increased considerably the microbiological safety and the keeping quality of the meals studied. However, approx. 40% loss of thiamin content occurred as an effect of combination treatments, and adverse sensorial effects may also limit the feasible radiation doses or the usable concentrations of nisin.

Farkas, J.; Polyák-Fehér, K.; Andrássy, É.; Mészáros, L.

2002-03-01

6

Le sous-emploi a doublé en quatre ans  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Le sous-emploi touchait, en mars 1986, 400 000 ou 500 000 personnes selon la façon dont on le mesure. C'est un phénomène d'ampleur encore modeste, mais il a doublé depuis quatre ans. Il est principalement répandu parmi les jeunes qui viennent d'être embauchés, en particulier dans la Fonction publique (État ou collectivités territoriales) et le secteur associatif. Plus qu'un

Claude Thélot

1986-01-01

7

Architecture pour la planification et l'exécution d'une Flotte de véhicules marins et sous-marins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nous nous intéressons à l'architecture de robots marins et sous-marins autonomes dans le cadre de missions nécessitant leur coopération. Cette coopération s'avère difficile du fait que la commu- nication (acoustique) est de faible qualité et de faible portée. Afin d'illustrer notre travail, nous nous intéressons à un scénario de localisation d'une source d'eau chaude sous-marine. Pour cela, le véhicule sous

Assia Belbachir; Simon Lacroix

2009-01-01

8

THERMAL TREATMENTS TO CONTROL PATHOGENS IN MUSCLE FOODS WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO SOUS VIDE PRODUCTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of heat to inactivate foodborne pathogens is a critical control point and the most common means of assuring the microbiological safety of processed foods. Therefore, concerns have been expressed about the public-health risks associated with sous-vide processed foods because the mild heat tr...

9

SOUS VIDE AND COOK-CHILL PROCESSING OF FOODS: CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT AND MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sous vide and cook-chill pasteurized, refrigerated ready-to-eat foods were introduced in about 1970 as a more convenient food option than frozen food for the food market, deli, foodservice kitchen, and home food preparer. Concerns have been expressed about the public-health risks associated with su...

10

Photoconductivité et photoémission de diamant(s) sous irradiation XUV femtoseconde  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nous décrivons une étude des propriétés de photoconductivité (PC) induite dans différents types de diamants (monocristaux de type IIa et couches CVD) par des impulsions femtosecondes XUV (jusqu'à l'harmonique 19 du laser titane\\/saphir). En complément de ces études, les spectres de photoémission de ces échantillons ont aussi été étudiés (harmoniques 13 à 27). En fonction de l'ordre de l'harmonique, on

J. Gaudin; G. Geoffroy; S. Guizard; S. Esnouf; V. Olevano; G. Petite; S. M. Klimentov; P. A. Pivovarov; S. V. Garnov; B. Carre; P. Martin; A. Belsky

2005-01-01

11

Photoconductivité et photoémission de diamant(s) sous irradiation XUV femtoseconde  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nous décrivons une étude des propriétés de photoconductivité (PC) induite dans différents types de diamants (monocristaux de type IIa et couches CVD) par des impulsions femtosecondes XUV (jusqu'à l'harmonique 19 du laser titane/saphir). En complément de ces études, les spectres de photoémission de ces échantillons ont aussi été étudiés (harmoniques 13 à 27). En fonction de l'ordre de l'harmonique, on constate que le signal de PC augmente tout d'abord (harmoniques 9 à 13) puis diminue au delà. Si l'augmentation s'interprète aisément comme résultant de phénomènes de multiplication par collisions inélastiques, la diminution ultérieure n'a pas pour le moment d'explication. Les mesures de spectre de photoémission suggèrent un effet important de la relaxation par émission de plasmons. Enfin, nous avons réalisé le premier calcul ab-initio de la durée de vie des porteurs tenant compte des interactions électron-électron, à l'aide d'une approche de théorie quantique à plusieurs corps de type GW. Au voisinage du gap, on observe un comportement proche de celui d'un liquide de Fermi. A plus haute énergie on observe des déviations à ce comportement, provenant d'effets de structure de bande d'une part, et d'excitations de plasmons d'autre part.

Gaudin, J.; Geoffroy, G.; Guizard, S.; Esnouf, S.; Olevano, V.; Petite, G.; Klimentov, S. M.; Pivovarov, P. A.; Garnov, S. V.; Carre, B.; Martin, P.; Belsky, A.

2005-06-01

12

Effect of sous vide cooking, with freezing, on selected quality parameters of seven fish species in a range of sauces  

Microsoft Academic Search

As quotas and the supply of conventional species continue to tighten, there is a need to test the acceptability of many fish species. Seven fish species (albacore tuna, cardinal fish, orange roughy, blue ling, redfish, roundnose grenadier and Greenland halibut) were cooked by the sous vide process (Barriquand Steriflow retort; 20 min\\/90 °C) in 12 savoury sauces. Sensory results showed that sous-vide-cooked

J. D. Fagan; T. R. Gormley

2005-01-01

13

A numerical model for fluid injection induced seismicity at Soultz-sous-Forêts  

Microsoft Academic Search

During fluid injection experiments at the geothermal site of Soultz-sous-Forêts (France), more than 114,000 induced seismic events with magnitudes between ?2.0 and +2.9 were detected by a local downhole monitoring network. Of these, 35,039 events are sufficiently constrained to be located. Hypocenters align along a sub-vertical, planar structure with the apparent width being dominated by data scattering indicating that seismic

Stefan Baisch; Robert Vörös; Elmar Rothert; Henrik Stang; Reinhard Jung; Rüdiger Schellschmidt

2010-01-01

14

Shelflife and Microbiological Profiler of Chicken Wing Products Following Sous vide Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chicken wings were vacuum-packaged and cooked (sous vide) at 75 and 90 C until the internal o temperature reached 73.8 C was reached. The cooked samples were stored at 2 and 7 C, separately. The o o TBA values, aerobic plate count, aerobic and anaerobic plate counts and Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force of the samples were evaluated weekly for 7

2004-01-01

15

Quality changes during storage of sous vide cooked green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acceptability and quality of sous vide cooked green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were investigated during chilled storage. A suitable heating procedure was established whereby 2.0-kg packages were heat\\u000a processed at 90°C for 25 min, corresponding to an average pasteurization value, PV70,10, of 14 min. During storage for up to 25 days at 3°C drip loss, pH, colour (Minolta L\\u000a \\u000a *

Susanne Knøchel; Randi Vangsgaard; Lone Søholm Johansen

1997-01-01

16

Application of nisin and pediocin against resistance and germination of Bacillus spores in sous vide products.  

PubMed

Sous vide and other mild preservation techniques are increasingly demanded by consumers. However, spores often will survive in minimally processed foods, causing both spoilage and safety problems. The main objective of the present work was to solve an industrial spoilage problem associated with two sous vide products: mushrooms and shellfish salad. Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis predominated as the most heat-resistant organisms isolated from mushrooms and shellfish salad, respectively. The combined effects of nisin and pediocin against resistance and germination of both Bacillus species were described by empirical equations. Whereas nisin was more effective for decreasing thermal resistance of B. subtilis spores, pediocin was more effective against B. licheniformis. However, a significant positive interaction between both biopeptides for decreasing the proportion of vegetative cells resulting from thermoresistant spores was demonstrated in later experiments, thus indicating the increased efficacy of applying high concentrations of both bacteriocins. This efficacy was further demonstrated in additional challenge studies carried out at 15 degrees C in the two sous vide products: mushrooms and shellfish salad. Whereas no vegetative cells were detected after 90 days in the presence of bacteriocins, almost 100% of the population in nontreated samples of mushrooms and shellfish salad was in the vegetative state after 17 and 43 days of storage at 15 degrees C, respectively. PMID:19343939

Cabo, M L; Torres, B; Herrera, J J R; Bernárdez, M; Pastoriza, L

2009-03-01

17

H?matome sous capsulaire de foie compliquant une pr?-?clampsie: ? propos de 6 cas  

PubMed Central

L'hématome sous capsulaire du foie (HSCF) est une complication rare mais gravissime de la grossesse. Devant une symptomatologie clinique souvent non spécifique et un tableau biologique retardé, son diagnostic est basé essentiellement sur les moyens de l'imagerie (échographie, TDM, IRM). Son traitement est fonction de l'intégrité ou non de la capsule de Glisson. Nous rapportons les observations de 6 patientes, à travers une étude rétrospective s’étalant sur la période du Janvier 2005 à Octobre 2008, incluant tous les cas de preeclampsie colligés au service de gynécologie obstétrique du CHU Hassan II. Durant la période d’étude, L'incidence de l'hématome sous capsulaire de foie chez les patientes préeclamptiques admises durant la période d’étude est de 1,49 %. Aucune des patientes n'a benificié d'un suivi prénatal au sein de notre formation. La moyenne d’âge des patientes est de 37,6 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 33 à 45 ans. La gestité moyenne était de 4,8 avec une parité moyenne de 4,5.l'hematome sous capsulaire est survenu en post partum chez tous nos cas avec un délai moyen de 4 jours et des extrêmes allant de J0 et J10 du post partum .Toutes les patientes ont présenté un HELLP syndrome concomitant à la survenue de cette complication gravissime.Le diagnostic positif s'est basé sur les données échographiques dans 5 cas (hemoperitoine –HSCF).l’équipe a opté pour une abstention thérapeutique avec surveillance armée chez 2 cas et l'exploration chirurgicale a été indiquée chez quatre patientes en instabilité hemodynamique.Nous avons déploré deux cas de décès maternel.

Mamouni, Nisrine; Derkaoui, Ali; Bougern, Hakima; Bouchikhi, Chehrazad; Chaara, Hikmat; Banani, Abdelaziz; Abdelilah, Melhouf Moulay

2011-01-01

18

Sedimentological and Logging Characteristics of the Dogger in the Geothermal Drilling Operation of Aulnay-Sous-Bois.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present report gives the results of the ''core drilling/logging'' operation carried out on the reservoir of the DOGGER in the geothermal production well of Aulnay-sous-Bois. The aim of this study was to establish a methodology to get a better sediment...

D. Giot J. Rojas

1981-01-01

19

Quality and safety of fish curry processed by sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology process during refrigerated storage.  

PubMed

Fish curry, a traditional Indian dish was prepared from farmed fish Cobia (Rachycentron canadum), packaged by two different cook-chill processes namely, sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology and held at 2?°C. Biochemical composition revealed that fish curry contained 5% protein and 6% fat. Omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) retained 55.44% while docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) retained 29% during cook-chilling process. The major fatty acids in fish curry were C18:2, C12:0, C16:0 and C18:1. Shelf-life of sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processed fish curry were 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Total bacterial counts were detected after 4 weeks and 12 weeks in sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processes, respectively. Total staphylococci were detected in sous vide cook chilled and hot filled technology processed cobia fish curry after 4 and 12 weeks, respectively. Total bacilli, anaerobic sulfite reducing clostridia, Salmonella, and lactic acid bacteria were absent. Hot filled technology process was more efficient and could be applied for chilled fish curry preservation for 12 weeks without any safety problems. PMID:22701059

Shakila, R Jeya; Raj, B Edwin; Felix, N

2012-06-01

20

Representations of the French Language in the Detective Novel Sous les vents de Neptune by Fred Vargas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay studies the role played by the two equally important varieties of the French language (Québécois and Parisian) present in Sous les vents de Neptune (2004) by Fred Vargas, and sets the novel in the context of recent debates about the French language. Many topics in these debates are not so new, such as the inseparable link between language

Kathleen Shields

2010-01-01

21

Approches expérimentale et théorique du comportement thermomécanique sous chargement multiaxial d'alliages à mémoire de forme polycristallins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Depuis une dizaine d'années, des alliages à mémoire de forme (AMF) sont sollicités, en chargement multiaxial, dans le domaine de la pseudoélasticité (transformation martensitique “renversable” induite sous contrainte) et de la pseudoplasticité (réorientation des plaquettes de martensite sous l'effet des contraintes externes). Les résultats expérimentaux obtenus montrent que le choix du chemin de chargement multiaxial influe fortement sur la réponse mécanique de I'AMF. Actuellement, malgré les nombreux modèles proposés dans la littérature, la simulation des chargements nonproportionnels n'est pas tout à fait opératoire. C'est la raison pour laquelle un modèle de comportement des AMF sous chargements proportionnels et nonproportionnels est proposé dans ce papier. A cet effet, deux surfaces de transformation directe et inverse, une déformation et une contrainte équivalentes sont introduites dans le cadre de la thermodynamique des processus irréversibles. Pour un Cu-Al-Be polycristallin, la capacité de prédiction du comportement sous sollicitation complexe est bonne avec un nombre faible de paramètres matériau à identifier.

Bouvet, C.; Calloch, S.; Lexcellent, C.

2002-12-01

22

Further Diagraphies on the Aulnay-Sous-Bois (GAY 4) Drilling for the Exploration of the Albian, Neo-Comian and Lusitanian Aquiferous Strata.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the complementary results of the diagraphic study on the Aulnay-sous-Bois (France) geothermal field: measurements of porosity and permeability of the rocks by neutron, gamma and sonic diagraphy. (ERA citation 10:044118)

G. Aubertin F. Ballin

1984-01-01

23

Decoupling of deformation in the Upper Rhine Graben sediments. Seismic reflection and diffraction on 3-component Vertical Seismic Profiling (Soultz-sous-Forêts area)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A contribution to the definition of the structural pattern of the Soultz-sous-Forêts EGS (Enhanced Geothermal System) is presented here. After reprocessing, the PHN84J seismic reflection profile highlights the tilted blocks of the Merkwiller-Péchelbronn oilfield. In the Soultz-sous-Forêts horst, complex fault patterns are observed: the Hermerswiller normal fault flattens at depth and is rooted in decollements occurring in Triassic salt or

Marc Diraison; Charles Naville; Yves Géraud; Marc Schaming; Chrystel Dezayes

2010-01-01

24

The Enhanced Geothermal System of Soultz-sous-Forêts: A study of the relationships between fracture zones and calcite content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) of Soultz-sous-Forêts (France) is made of three boreholes (GPK2, GPK3 and GPK4). The hydraulic connection between the wells, which is crucial to get an efficient geothermal exchanger, may be unfortunately hindered by the more or less complete sealing of fractures by hydrothermal neoformed minerals. This paper takes over the recent work of the authors that

Ronan L. Hébert; Béatrice Ledésert; Danièle Bartier; Chrystel Dezayes; Albert Genter; Céline Grall

2010-01-01

25

Lipid oxidation stability of omega-3- and conjugated linoleic acid-enriched sous vide chicken meat.  

PubMed

Lipid oxidation is known to occur rather rapidly in cooked chicken meat containing relatively high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. To assess the lipid oxidation stability of sous vide chicken meat enriched with n-3 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) fatty acids, 624 Cobb × Ross broilers were raised during a 6-wk feeding period. The birds were fed diets containing CLA (50% cis-9, trans-11 and 50% trans-10, cis-12 isomers), flaxseed oil (FSO), or menhaden fish oil (MFO), each supplemented with 42 or 200 mg/kg of vitamin E (dl-?-tocopheryl acetate). Breast or thigh meat was vacuum-packed, cooked (74°C), cooled in ice water, and stored at 4.4°C for 0, 5, 10, 15, and 30 d. The lipid oxidation development of the meat was estimated by quantification of malonaldehyde (MDA) values, using the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances analysis. Fatty acid, nonheme iron, moisture, and fat analyses were performed as well. Results showed that dietary CLA induced deposition of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers, increased the proportion of saturated fatty acids, and decreased the proportions of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Flaxseed oil induced higher deposition of C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, and C20:4 fatty acids, whereas MFO induced higher deposition of n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6; P < 0.05). Meat lipid oxidation stability was affected by the interaction of either dietary oil or vitamin E with storage day. Lower (P < 0.05) MDA values were found in the CLA treatment than in the MFO and FSO treatments. Lower (P < 0.05) MDA values were detected in meat samples from the 200 mg/kg of vitamin E than in meat samples from the 42 mg/kg of vitamin E. Nonheme iron values did not affect (P > 0.05) lipid oxidation development. In conclusion, dietary CLA, FSO, and MFO influenced the fatty acid composition of chicken muscle and the lipid oxidation stability of meat over the storage time. Supranutritional supplementation of vitamin E enhanced the lipid oxidation stability of sous vide chicken meat. PMID:21248346

Narciso-Gaytán, C; Shin, D; Sams, A R; Keeton, J T; Miller, R K; Smith, S B; Sánchez-Plata, M X

2011-02-01

26

Gamma Irradiator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fiability of devices set around reactors depends on material resistance under irradiation noticeably joints, insulators, which belongs to composition of technical, safety or physical incasurement devices. The irradiated fuel elements, during their desacti...

G. Simonet

1986-01-01

27

Synthèse dans les sels fondus de cristallites d'YBa2CU3O{7-x} et d'HoBa2CU3O{7-x} sous forme de plaquettes bien individualisées et orientation sous champ magnétique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the molten salt synthesis of YBa2CU3O{7-x} et HoBa2CU3O{7-x} phases. Best results have been obtained in an equimolar mixture of potassium and sodium chlorides. This technique leads to the formation of plate-shaped finely divided micronic crystallites. We investigated then the preparation of grain-oriented HoBa2CU3O{7-x} superconducting ceramics by a field-induced orientation method. The first results of the magnetic field orientation of a suspension by the slip casting technique are presented. Nous avons étudié la synthèse en sel fondu des phases supraconductrices YBa2CU3O{7-x} et HoBa2CU3O{7-x}. Les meilleurs résultats sont obtenus dans le mélange équimolaire des sels de chlorure de potassium et de sodium. Cette technique conduit à la formation de cristallites de dimensions microniques sous forme de plaquettes finement divisées. Nous avons ensuite entrepris l'élaboration de céramiques supraconductrices orientées de la phase HoBa2CU3O{7-x} par une méthode d'orientation induite par un champ magnétique. Nous présentons les premiers résultats de l'orientation sous champ magnétique d'une barbotine par la technique de coulée en moule poreux.

Bermis, P.; Chaudouet, P.; Weiss, F.; Sénateur, J. P.; Joubert, J. C.

1991-11-01

28

Mechanisms of induced conductivity in polyvinylidene fluoride irradiated by X-rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prompt and delayed components of conductivity of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) samples induced by continuous irradiation of X-rays were measured under vacuum. The prompt component was composed of two distinct parts, classified as instantaneous radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) and time-dependent evolution of the RIC. With the help of thermally stimulated current measurements carried out with both virgin and irradiated samples, which indicated the existence of deep-trap levels in the material, we developed a model of kinetics of the carriers to explain the time-evolution of the RIC. Hot electrons generated by irradiation ware considered as responsible for the instantaneous part of the RIC. We also showed that the electrodes had a nonblocking behaviour during the electrical current measurements under irradiation, while the external electric field caused the generated carriers to drift out of the sample. Nous avons mesuré sous vide la conductivité induite due à la radiation des rayons X sur des échantillons de poly(fluorure de vinylidène), pendant et après irradiation (composante retardée). Pendant l'irradiation la conductivité induite est formée de deux différentes parties : l'une est la conductivité instantanée, et l'autre est une fonction croissante avec le temps. Grâce à la méthode du courant stimulé par la température, exécutée sur des échantillons vierges d'une part, et irradiés d'autre part, nous avons conclu à l'existence de niveaux de pièges profonds dans le matériau. Nous avons par la suite développé un modèle de cinétique des porteurs qui explique l'évolution avec le temps de la conductivité induite. Les électrons chauds créés par la radiation ont été considérés comme responsables de la conductivité induite instantanée. Nous montrons aussi que les électrodes sont non-bloquées pendant les mesures de courant électrique sous irradiation, alors que le champ électrique appliqué rejette les porteurs hors de l'échantillon.

Faria, R. M.

1992-10-01

29

Heavy ions sensitivity of Power Mosfets Comportement des Mosfets de puissance sous ions lourds  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on Power Mosfets which are now widely used in Space applications. Their electrical characteristics: high switching capability, easy gate control, low losses, allow large gain in efficiency and mass of on-board power supplies. However, their heavy ions sensitivity may restrict their application. In order to quantify this sensitivity, the authors have characterized two technologies (standard and rad-hard) under different accelerators. The authors have performed two types of experiment: irradiation of the Mosfet in the off-state, static mode; and irradiation of the Mosfet in a switching converter.

Tastet, P.; Garnier, J. (Center National d'Etudes Spatiales, 18 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31055 Toulouse Cedex (FR))

1992-06-01

30

Dimensionnement des actionneurs électriques alimentés à fréquence variable sous faible tension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Part I we present a multidisciplinary analysis model for the prediction of functional connections between the design variables and the electromagnetical, electrical and thermal performances of a brushless permanent magnet motor. In this paper we have elaborated a design methodology for electrical motors supplied from a variable-frequency low-voltage source. The objective is to take into account the influence of the inverter's dynamics from the beginning of the design, for the same reasons as we do for electromechanical and thermal constraints. The procedure is based on a Sequential Quadratic Programming optimization method. Two techniques are used to take into account the influence of the inverter: the first one develops the performance analysis with the multidisciplinary model; the second one considers the inverter's current reference as a supplementary optimization variable for the control of the design. Optimization difficulties linked to the chopping of the converter are discuted in connection with a sensitivity analysis of the torque, with respect to the inverter's current reference; a method is proposed to enhance the performances of the algorithm. The method has been applied to the design of a permanent magnet brushless DC motor used in the propulsion system of an electrical scooter; evolution of the design with the complexity level of analysis model is evidenced. Dans une première partie nous avons développé un modèle d'analyse pluridisciplinaire qui établissait les dépendances fonctionnelles entre les variables de conception et les performances magnéto-électro-thermiques d'un moteur brushless à aimants permanents. Dans cet article nous décrivons une procédure de dimensionnement adaptée à la conception de la machine alimentée à fréquence variable sous faible tension. L'objectif est d'intégrer la dynamique du convertisseur électronique dès la phase initiale du dimensionnement, au même titre que les spécifications électromécaniques et thermiques. La procédure est gérée par une méthode d'optimisation déterministe de type Programmation Quadratique Séquentielle. Elle intègre l'influence du convertisseur au moyen de deux spécificités : la première consiste à évaluer les fonctions du problème d'optimisation sur la base du module d'analyse pluridisciplinaire ; la deuxième permet de contrôler l'évolution du dimensionnement au travers de variables d'optimisation dont la liste inclut les consignes de la commande en courant du convertisseur. Les difficultés d'optimisation liées au mode de fonctionnement discret du convertisseur sont discutées au regard du calcul de la sensibilité du couple électromagnétique envers la consigne de courant du convertisseur ; une méthode est proposée pour assurer la robustesse de la procédure en présence du convertisseur. L'application porte sur le dimensionnement d'un moteur à aimants permanents de type “brushless trapézoïdal" destiné à la traction d'un scooter électrique ; l'évolution de la structure optimale avec le degré de complexité du module d'analyse est mise en évidence.

Biedinger, J.-M.; Vilain, J.-P.

1999-09-01

31

Photographic Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

I SHALL be obliged if you will allow me space to state more specifically why I am not able to concur in the irradiation theory of Mr. Aitken (vol. x. p. 439). I understand from his last letter that he fully agrees with Lord Lindsay and myself as to the cause of the outer irradiation, and our only difference of

A. Cowper Ranyard

1874-01-01

32

Diagnostic X de la zone proche injecteur d'un jet cryogénique d'azote sous haute pression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Une source impulsionnelle de rayons X, compacte produisant des photons d'énergie comprise entre 5 et 50keV, a été spécialement conçue au GREMI afin de pouvoir caractériser l'écoulement proche d'injecteurs cryogéniques (20premiers mm) sur l'installations M51 du DLR à Lampoldhausen à des pressions comprises entre 10 et 60bars et des températures allant de 100 à 130K. Pour la première fois, des radiographies d'un jet cryogénique d'azote pur sous haute pression en sortie d'injecteur ont été réalisées sans ajout de traceur. Les données obtenues (cônes d'expansion, densité) ont pu être comparées à celles mesurées par d'autres systèmes (ombroscopie, thermocouple) et présentent la radiographie comme particulièrement sensible et bien adaptée à ce genre de problématique.

Métay, B.; Robert, E.; Viladrosa, R.; Cachoncinlle, C.; Pouvesle, J. M.; Mayer, W.; Schneider, G.

2003-06-01

33

Dimensionnement des actionneurs électriques alimentés à fréquence variable sous faible tension: I. Analyse du problème couplé magnétique, thermique, électrique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the autors present a model for the multidisciplinary operation analysis of a variable frequency electrical drive, in the case of low voltage supply. This model takes into account the coupling between the electromagnetic, thermal and electrical phenomena. It allows to evaluate the performances under permanent or transient thermal conditions, as we can find in the working cycles of electrical vehicles with on board energy supply. This model is a part of an optimal design procedure, which will be described in an other article. For this reason, this paper is devoted to explain the dependences between the design variables and the performances. The proposed model is applied to a permanent magnet brushless DC motor. The performances are evaluated for the S1 and S2 duty-cycling operations. The influence of the driving parameters of the converter is also examined. L'objectif de cet article est de présenter la synthèse d'un modèle d'analyse pluridisciplinaire adapté à la caractérisation des performances d'un entraînement électrique alimenté à fréquence variable sous faible tension. Le modèle prend en compte le couplage entre les phénomènes électromagnétique, thermique et électrique. Il permet d'étudier le fonctionnement sous les conditions de régime thermique permanent ou transitoire qui interviennent dans la définition des cycles de travail des engins de traction à énergie embarquée. Ce modèle d'analyse constitue un élément d'une procédure de dimensionnement optimal qui sera développée dans un article séparé; aussi l'exposé est-il conduit en explicitant les dépendances fonctionnelles entre les paramètres de dimensionnement et les performances. La procédure d'analyse est appliquée à l'étude d'un moteur à aimants permanents périphériques alimenté suivant le mode “brushless trapézoïdal"; les performances sont évaluées pour deux types de cycle de travail: le cycle S1 en régime permanent, et le cycle S2 en régime thermique transitoire; l'influence des paramètres de commande du convertisseur est examinée.

Biedinger, J.-M.; Vilain, J.-P.

1998-07-01

34

Food Irradiation  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... longevity. • Sterilization – irradiation can be used to sterilize foods, which can then be stored for years without refrigeration. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/resourcesforyou

35

Tonsil Irradiation  

Cancer.gov

A cohort of about 3,000 individuals who were irradiated during childhood for benign head and neck conditions at Michael Reese Hospital was assembled and monitored for the risk of thyroid and other cancers.

36

Decoupling of deformation in the Upper Rhine Graben sediments. Seismic reflection and diffraction on 3-component Vertical Seismic Profiling (Soultz-sous-Forêts area)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A contribution to the definition of the structural pattern of the Soultz-sous-Forêts EGS (Enhanced Geothermal System) is presented here. After reprocessing, the PHN84J seismic reflection profile highlights the tilted blocks of the Merkwiller-Péchelbronn oilfield. In the Soultz-sous-Forêts horst, complex fault patterns are observed: the Hermerswiller normal fault flattens at depth and is rooted in decollements occurring in Triassic salt or clay series, while other steep normal faults affect underlying sedimentary formations and basement. Some methods for the exploitation of a seismic diffraction recorded by multi-component Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) are also illustrated to locate the diffractor without specific data processing. Polarisation and travel time analysis of a diffraction event recorded in the GPK1 borehole are analysed, and its exploitation combined with seismic reflection helps defining a tilted block geometry.

Place, Joachim; Diraison, Marc; Naville, Charles; Géraud, Yves; Schaming, Marc; Dezayes, Chrystel

2010-07-01

37

Effect of different temperature-time combinations on physicochemical, microbiological, textural and structural features of sous-vide cooked lamb loins.  

PubMed

Lamb loins were subjected to sous-vide cooking at different combinations of temperature (60, 70, and 80 °C) and time (6, 12, and 24 h). Different physicochemical, histological and structural parameters were studied. Increasing cooking temperatures led to higher weight losses and lower moisture contents, whereas the effect of cooking time on these variables was limited. Samples cooked at 60 °C showed the highest lightness and redness, while increasing cooking temperature and cooking time produced higher yellowness values. Most textural variables in a texture profile analysis showed a marked interaction between cooking temperature and time. Samples cooked for 24h showed significantly lower values for most of the studied textural parameters for all the temperatures considered. Connective tissue granulation at 60 °C and gelation at 70 °C were observed in the SEM micrographs. The sous-vide cooking of lamb loins dramatically reduced microbial population even with the less intense heat treatment studied (60 °C-6 h). PMID:23273466

Roldán, Mar; Antequera, Teresa; Martín, Alberto; Mayoral, Ana Isabel; Ruiz, Jorge

2012-11-16

38

Characterizing the Mechanics of Fracturing from Earthquake Source Parameter and Multiplet Analyses: Application to the Soultz-sous-Forêts Hot Dry Rock site  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2000 and 2003, two massive hydraulic fracturing experiments were carried out at the European Geothermal Hot Dry Rock site at Soultz-sous-Forêts, France. The objective was to create a dense network of enhanced permeability fractures, which would form the heat exchanger. The injection of water in the fractured rock generated a high level of microseismic activity: around 30,000 and 90,000

Sophie Michelet

39

The Influence Of Hydrothermal Alteration And Weathering On Rock Magnetic Properties Of Granites From The Eps1 Drilling (soultz-sous-forÊts \\/ France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EPS-1 drilling in Soultz-sous-Forêts (Rhinegraben, France) recovered a core pro- file of Tertiary to Permo-Mesozoic sediments deposited on a Variscan granitic base- ment. Magnetic susceptibility (k) measurements on the core material revealed a con- tinous increase from the basement\\/cover boundary (kmean 0.4 x 10-3 SI) into the magnetite-bearing granite (kmean 13 x 10-3 SI) over a depth range of

J. Just; A. Schleicher; A. Kontny; H. de Wall

2002-01-01

40

The evolution of the deep flow regime at Soultz-sous-Fore^ts, Rhine Graben, eastern France: Evidence from a composite quartz vein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling at Soultz-sous-Fore^ts, France, conducted as part of the European Hot Dry Rock Project, intersected a fracture lined with vein quartz and actively producing hot (150°C) water at 2174 m depth in the granite basement to the Rhine Graben. At least seven generations of quartz are present within the vein, but fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures show that temperatures remained within

M. P. Smith; V. Savary; B. W. D. Yardley; J. W. Valley; J. J. Royer; M. Dubois

1998-01-01

41

Factors influencing resuscitation and growth of heat injured Listeria monocytogenes 13-249 in sous vide cooked beef.  

PubMed

The growth of Listeria monocytogenes 13-249 in vacuum-packed, minced beef was investigated as a function of degree of heat injury (including no injury i.e. uncooked beef), growth phase (logarithmic and late stationary phase), pH (5.6 and 6.2), and storage temperature (3, 10 and 20 degrees C) during a storage period of 30 days. Late logarithmic and late stationary phase cultures of L. monocytogenes 13-249 showed similar growth in refrigerated, vacuum-packed, raw minced beef with a high pH (6.2). In normal pH (5.6) beef there was no growth at 3 degrees C while growth at 10 and 20 degrees C was only observed for logarithmic phase cultures. Heat injured late stationary phase cultures with 95-99.9% injured cells in the surviving population (as measured by differential plating on enriched vs. selective media after sous vide cooking) did not grow or repair sublethal injuries in sous vide cooked beef at 3 degrees C while repair and growth took place at 10 as well as at 20 degrees C. In logarithmic phase cultures heat injury occurred very rapidly and > or = 99.9% heat injury was observed in all trials in spite of much lower pasteurization values and fewer log10 reductions compared with late stationary phase cultures. Regardless of growth phase, all cultures where a high degree of heat injury (> or = 99.9%) was observed, did not subsequently grow in the beef product at 3 or 10 degrees C within 30 days. Growth of heat injured cultures preexposed to heat shock (46 degrees C, 30 min) or slowly rising temperatures (0.3 degrees C min(-1)) before heat injury was also investigated. Heat shocked or heat adapted cultures generally responded in the same manner as non-stressed cultures (no growth at 3 degrees C) except that a longer lag phase was observed in beef processed at slowly rising temperatures and in normal pH beef at 10 degrees C. Although processing at slowly rising temperatures may slightly increase the survival of L. monocytogenes 13-249 in cooked beef, there seem to be no indication of an increase in subsequent growth potential of the surviving cells. PMID:11205945

Hansen, T B; Knøchel, S

2001-01-22

42

Irradiance gradients  

SciTech Connect

A new method for improving the accuracy of a diffuse interreflection calculation is introduced in a ray tracing context. The information from a hemispherical sampling of the luminous environment is interpreted in a new way to predict the change in irradiance as a function of position and surface orientation. The additional computation involved is modest and the benefit is substantial. An improved interpolation of irradiance resulting from the gradient calculation produces smoother, more accurate renderings. This result is achieved through better utilization of ray samples rather than additional samples or alternate sampling strategies. Thus, the technique is applicable to a variety of global illumination algorithms that use hemicubes or Monte Carlo sampling techniques.

Ward, G.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland); Heckbert, P.S. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). School of Computer Science]|[Technische Hogeschool Delft (Netherlands). Dept. of Technical Mathematics and Informatics

1992-04-01

43

Gamma irradiators  

SciTech Connect

The commercial use of gamma radiation to sterilize medical equipment and supplies began in the late 1950s. This article describes the basic technology and design aspects of commercial irradiation facilities. It explains the safety features and interlocks which protect workers, the public, and the environment from radiation and radioactive material.

Cuda, J.; McKinnon, R.G. (Nordion International Inc. (US)); Baker, P.G. (Baxter/Convertors (US))

1989-02-01

44

Photographic Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

FOR the purpose of determining whether any sensible amount of the photographic irradiation surrounding the image of a bright object could be traced to an action taking place within the thickness of the collodion film, I some time ago tried an experiment in many respects similar to that detailed by Mr. Aitken in your last number (vol. x. p. 185).

A. Cowper Ranyard

1874-01-01

45

Décompression sous acromiale sous arthroscopie  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1983, Ellman reported the first subacromial decompression by arthroscopy as an alternative to open acromioplasty which described by Neer in 1972. Subacromial decompression combinates a removing of the antero lateral part of the acromion, a release of the coraco acromial ligament and a subacromial bursectomy. The principal indication is a chronic anterior impingement after failure to medical treatment. This

P. Valenti

2006-01-01

46

Detection of fractures within the Soultz-sous-Forêts EGS geothermal reservoir by processing of Vertical Seismic Profile data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 4 component multi-source/multi-offset VSP (Vertical Seismic Profile) conducted at the Soultz-sous-Forêts EGS (Enhanced Geothermal System) site in 2007 provides records of seismic waves recorded in the fractured granite basement within wells GPK3 and GPK4. Waves generated at 26 surface positions, located at distances between 500m and 5km from the well head in different azimuths, are recorded by 3 component geophones at depths between 5000m and 3000m with a 20m depth interval. The seismic source is a vibrator emitting a 16s long sweep with frequencies varying linearly between 8 and 88 Hz. Two shot locations were simultaneously recorded, one with an upsweep [8 to 88Hz], the other with a downsweep [88 to 8Hz]. Successive correlation with the two sweeps allows retrieving distinct seismograms for each shot from the mixed raw uncorrelated records. Most records show clear downgoing P and S waves. Detecting waves reflected or diffracted by fractures intersecting the wells requires extracting low amplitude upgoing waves from the dominant downgoing wavefield. However, the up to 30° inclination of the well relative to the vertical and the 60 to 90° dips of the fracture zones make the separation of the different waves complex. The wavefield separation of the vertical geophone component is done in the frequency-wavenumber Fourier domain which separates waves according to their apparent velocity across the receiver antenna. Picking of the first arrival times and shifting times allows aligning predominant P wave downgoing wavefield at constant times, or infinite apparent velocity in Fourier domain. Filtering the infinite apparent velocity attenuates all the waves having the same apparent velocity as the first arrivals. A second filtering at the downgoing S waves velocities is then applied, providing two downgoing wavefields, one for the P waves and the other for the S waves. The residuals correspond to the upgoing wavefield. To reduce the reverberations in the upgoing wavefield, we apply a Wiener deconvolution. Faint coherent waves that may originate from fractures are observed in restricted depth intervals. In order to model the arrival times of the extracted reflections/diffractions at the different shot positions, we need a velocity model of the 1400m thick sedimentary cover. P velocities from VSP data of one shot recorded in well GPK4 in sediments and structural information from geological logs and interpreted surface seismic profiles are used to build an initial 3D model with 3 layers separated by dipping plane interfaces. 3D ray tracing is used to compute first arrival times and adjust our model to the data, by modifying the dip of the interfaces. It is then possible to adjust the upgoing waves arrival times to reflections or diffractions on fractures in the reservoir.

Lubrano Lavadera, P.; Marthelot, J. M.; Zillmer, M.; Cornet, F.

2012-04-01

47

Safety Evaluation of Sous Vide-Processed Products with Respect to Nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum by Use of Challenge Studies and Predictive Microbiological Models  

PubMed Central

Sixteen different types of sous vide-processed products were evaluated for safety with respect to nonproteolytic group II Clostridium botulinum by using challenge tests with low (2.0-log-CFU/kg) and high (5.3-log-CFU/kg) inocula and two currently available predictive microbiological models, Food MicroModel (FMM) and Pathogen Modeling Program (PMP). After thermal processing, the products were stored at 4 and 8°C and examined for the presence of botulinal spores and neurotoxin on the sell-by date and 7 days after the sell-by date. Most of the thermal processes were found to be inadequate for eliminating spores, even in low-inoculum samples. Only 2 of the 16 products were found to be negative for botulinal spores and neurotoxin at both sampling times. Two products at the high inoculum level showed toxigenesis during storage at 8°C, one of them at the sell-by date. The predictions generated by both the FMM thermal death model and the FMM and PMP growth models were found to be inconsistent with the observed results in a majority of the challenges. The inaccurate predictions were caused by the limited number and range of the controlling factors in the models. Based on this study, it was concluded that the safety of sous vide products needs to be carefully evaluated product by product. Time-temperature combinations used in thermal treatments should be reevaluated to increase the efficiency of processing, and the use of additional antibotulinal hurdles, such as biopreservatives, should be assessed.

Hyytia-Trees, Eija; Skytta, Eija; Mokkila, Mirja; Kinnunen, Arvo; Lindstrom, Miia; Lahteenmaki, Liisa; Ahvenainen, Raija; Korkeala, Hannu

2000-01-01

48

Safety evaluation of sous vide-processed products with respect to nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum by use of challenge studies and predictive microbiological models.  

PubMed

Sixteen different types of sous vide-processed products were evaluated for safety with respect to nonproteolytic group II Clostridium botulinum by using challenge tests with low (2. 0-log-CFU/kg) and high (5.3-log-CFU/kg) inocula and two currently available predictive microbiological models, Food MicroModel (FMM) and Pathogen Modeling Program (PMP). After thermal processing, the products were stored at 4 and 8 degrees C and examined for the presence of botulinal spores and neurotoxin on the sell-by date and 7 days after the sell-by date. Most of the thermal processes were found to be inadequate for eliminating spores, even in low-inoculum samples. Only 2 of the 16 products were found to be negative for botulinal spores and neurotoxin at both sampling times. Two products at the high inoculum level showed toxigenesis during storage at 8 degrees C, one of them at the sell-by date. The predictions generated by both the FMM thermal death model and the FMM and PMP growth models were found to be inconsistent with the observed results in a majority of the challenges. The inaccurate predictions were caused by the limited number and range of the controlling factors in the models. Based on this study, it was concluded that the safety of sous vide products needs to be carefully evaluated product by product. Time-temperature combinations used in thermal treatments should be reevaluated to increase the efficiency of processing, and the use of additional antibotulinal hurdles, such as biopreservatives, should be assessed. PMID:10618228

Hyytiä-Trees, E; Skyttä, E; Mokkila, M; Kinnunen, A; Lindström, M; Lähteenmäki, L; Ahvenainen, R; Korkeala, H

2000-01-01

49

Investigation of fluid flow paths within granitic batholiths: the Soultz-sous-Forêts 'Enhanced Geothermal System' and the Catalan Coastal Ranges examples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geothermal exploitation of deep and hot rocks at industrial scale requires an accurate assessment of the available resource. In particular, temperature, porosity, connected porosity, fluids path, permeability, rock volume attainable by drainage, have to be constrained to forecast the potential of an area, and to further manage the heat resource during exploitation. We will present our work devoted to structural controls on fluid circulations in deep granitic basements. The first example is the current Soultz-sous-Forêts EGS being developed for over 20 years in the hot granite of the Upper Rhine Graben. Depth levels of naturally flowing deformation zones are known at well positions, but the fluid flow paths between the boreholes are still poorly understood. Our new developments of Vertical Seismic Profiling methods provide mapping of these permeable structures between the boreholes in 3D, below the sedimentary filling of the graben in the 1500-3500 depth range. As typical hercynian strike directions are identified, this study demonstrates the major role of inherited structures in the control of fluid flow paths. 3D representation with gOcad allows to build a reservoir model from various data. Such 3D approach is of major importance to identify the structural relations between the faults populations, especially their intersections and connectivity. The second example is also located within the European Cenozoic Rift System. Outcropping granites of the Catalan Coastal Ranges allow to access their structures in 3D with a comprehensive set of methods. Multi-scalar fractures have been identified from Digital Elevation Model to field analysis. Carbonate fillings are observed in fractures of specific orientations. They illustrate old fluid flow paths occurring in natural conditions. Conditions of their emplacement are provided by geochemical signatures. The geometry of the veins (orientations and connections) and their distribution illustrate how a rock mass volume can be drained by fluids. In addition, intragranitic faults are investigated by seismic, electric, radar and petrophysical methods in order to characterize their control on fluid transfers. These two granitic massifs currently present similar thermal anomalies, seismic and geothermal (hot springs) activities, and evidences of hydrothermal alteration. As the Soultz-sous-Forêts granitic basement is covered by thick sediments (1500 m), the indirect characterization led on the analogue outcropping batholith provides information about scaling of faults and fractures, and network of fluid circulations. In the two examples the reactivation of inherited structures is obvious. Periods of fault initiation and further activations are key elements to investigate the granite history. A conceptual model for the drainage of a granitic mass is proposed from regional to fracture scales.

Place, Joachim; Geraud, Yves; Diraison, Marc; Le Garzic, Edouard; Sausse, Judith

2010-05-01

50

Time-resolved seismic tomography at the EGS geothermal reservoir of Soultz-Sous-Forêts (France) during hydraulic stimulations. A comparison between different injection tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One major goal of monitoring seismicity accompanying hydraulic fracturing of a reservoir is to recover the seismic velocity field in and around the geothermal site. Several studies have shown that the 4D (time dependent) seismic tomographies are very useful to illustrate and study the temporal variation of the seismic velocities conditioned by injected fluids. However, only an appropriate separation of the data in subsets and a reliable tomographic method allow studying representative variations of the seismic velocities during and after the injection periods. We present here new 4D seismic tomographies performed using datasets regarding some stimulation tests performed at the Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) site of Soultz-sous-Forêts (Alsace, France). The data used were recorded during the stimulation tests occurred in 2000, 2003 and 2004 that involved the wells GPK2, GPK3 and GPK4. For each set of events, the subsetting of the data was performed by taking into account the injection parameters of the stimulation tests (namely the injected flow rate and the wellhead pressure). The velocity models have been obtained using the Double-Difference tomographic method (Zhang and Thurber 2003) and further improved with the post-processing WAM technique (Calo' et al., 2009, 2011). This technique resulted very powerful because combines high resolution and reliablity of the seismic velocity fields calculated even with small datasets. In this work we show the complete sequence of the time-lapse tomographies and their variations in time and between different stimulation tests.

Dorbath, C.; Calo, M.; Cornet, F.; Frogneux, M.

2011-12-01

51

Effect of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride concentrations on the odour profile of sous vide cooked whole-muscle beef from Argentina.  

PubMed

Semitendinosus muscles added with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and sodium chloride (NaCl) were submitted to sous vide cooking. Four enhancement treatments and a control were tested: 0.875% WPC (w/w)+0.625% NaCl, 2.625% WPC+0.625% NaCl, 0.875% WPC+1.875% NaCl, 2.625% WPC+1.875% NaCl, and control (non-injected muscles). Odour analyses were carried out with an electronic nose (EN) system. EN data were evaluated applying Principal Component Analysis, Linear Discriminant Analysis and Partial Least Squares algorithm. EN was able to discriminate the odour profiles of cooked enhanced beef as a function of the amount of WPC added. No significant differences in odour profiles were observed regarding NaCl concentration. These results agreed with those obtained when odour profiles were analysed in WPC dispersions. The reported results support the applicability of EN methodology for analysing the impact of processing parameters on beef odour profiles. PMID:22062918

Grigioni, G; Langman, L; Szerman, N; Irurueta, M; Vaudagna, S R

2007-12-23

52

Irradiation Nation [food safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron beams and X-rays might make some foods safer to eat. But is irradiation a silver bullet or an industrial-strength placebo for killer contaminants in the food chain? This paper discusses the technology and issues involved in this aspect of food safety. Even though it is highly effective at killing bugs and bacteria, irradiation is at best only a partial

H. Goldstein

2003-01-01

53

Food irradiation: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scope for preservation of foods by irradiation is reviewed. The ; ability of ionizing radiations, such as gamma rays and fast electrons in the ; preservation of food and the sources of ionizing energy, high and low dose ; process and combination treatments are discussed. An important aspect of food ; irradiation relates to the demonstration of safety of

Sreenivasan

1972-01-01

54

Update on meat irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The irradiation of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. Irradiation will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at

1997-01-01

55

Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

Bauer, Roger E. (Kennewick, WA); Straalsund, Jerry L. (Kennewick, WA); Chin, Bryan A. (Auburn, AL)

1985-01-01

56

Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

Bauer, R. E.; Chin, B. A.; Straalsund, J. L.

1985-03-26

57

Cryostat for Reactor Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cryostat for continuously bathing samples in liquid nitrogen or other heat transfer liquids during nuclear reactor irradiation has been constructed and successfully operated. The samples to be irradiated at low temperature are immersed in the heat transfer fluid which is high-purity liquified nitrogen circulating in a closed system at a pressure greater than that of the atmosphere. The liquid

C. C. Sartain; H. P. Yockey

1958-01-01

58

MASSIVE LEAKAGE IRRADIATOR  

DOEpatents

An irradiator designed to utilize the neutrons that leak out of a reactor around its periphery is described. It avoids wasting neutron energy and reduces interference with the core flux to a minimum. This is done by surrounding all or most of the core with removable segments of the material to be irradiated within a matrix of reflecting material.

Wigner, E.P.; Szilard, L.; Christy, R.F.; Friedman, F.L.

1961-05-30

59

Seismic velocity variations at the EGS geothermal reservoir of Soultz-Sous-Forêts (France): Some observations for understanding stress regime changes during hydraulic stimulations using 4D tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade three deep wells (GPK2, GPK3, and GPK4) were drilled to a depth of about 5000 m at the Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) site of Soultz-sous-Forêts (Alsace, France). All the wells were stimulated through high-pressure hydraulic injections. Several thousands of micro-earthquakes with Duration Magnitude ranging from -0.9 to 2.9 were produced. The induced earthquakes were located by downhole and surface seismic stations. The wells behaved differently during and after the stimulations, as shown by several authors. We present here a comparison between new 4D seismic tomographies performed for the above mentioned stimulation tests. The velocity models have been obtained using the Double-Difference tomographic method (Zhang and Thurber 2003) and have been further improved with the post-processing WAM technique (Calo' et al., 2009, 2011). For each stimulation test, the subsetting of the data was performed by taking into account injection parameters (the injected flow rate and the wellhead pressure). In this work we discuss some important steps observed during and after the injections. A first observation is that low velocity anomalies were centered around the wells when stimulations started and then disappeared just after strong changes in the injected flow rate. We interpret these changes in seismic properties as transient changes in the stress regime during the stimulations. Furthermore, as shown by the seismic velocity models, pre-existing fracture network played a fundamental role on the intensity and distribution of the observed velocity anomalies. Indeed we observe that low velocity anomalies are much less evident and moved away from the well when documented large pre-exiting fractures cross the openhole part of the well. In particular, we observed this pattern for the models calculated with the data of the GPK3 stimulation. Thanks to the improvement and the reliability of these new velocity models, new discussions about the mechanical processes that occurred during the stimulations has been opened.

Calo, M.; Dorbath, C.; Cornet, F.; Cuenot, N.

2011-12-01

60

Estimating the permeability distribution and its uncertainty at the EGS demonstration reservoir Soultz-sous-Forêts using the ensemble Kalman filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an estimation of the permeability fields of the reservoir at the Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) at Soultz-sous-Forêts, France, based on the data assimilation technique Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF). To this end, we assimilate data from a tracer circulation experiment performed in 2005. Using a 3-D numerical simulation of fluid transport and chemical tracer dispersion, we advance the tracer in time and control the concentration. With the EnKF we obtain reliable fits for concentration data recorded in both existing production boreholes, GPK2 and GPK4. As an alternative to discrete fracture networks, our heterogeneous equivalent porous medium approach thus can also characterize the hydraulically fractured zone of the engineered geothermal system. We present best estimates for permeabilities (10-14 m2-10-12 m2for the fracture zone) and the corresponding uncertainty which is about one order of magnitude. After comparing our results to results from a massive Monte Carlo and from a gradient-based Bayesian approach, it becomes clear that only the EnKF of this three approaches is able to fit concentrations at GPK2 and GPK4 simultaneously. Based on the EnKF estimates obtained, a long-term performance prediction including an uncertainty analysis for the reservoir (as it was in 2005) yields no thermal breakthrough in the system within at least 50 years of operation. Our study demonstrates the efficiency of the EnKF when estimating the permeability distribution in an EGS reservoir even with sparse data available.

Vogt, C.; Marquart, G.; Kosack, C.; Wolf, A.; Clauser, C.

2012-08-01

61

Essais de capillarité et d'évaporation sous tomodensitométrie RX imagerie de la répartition de l'eau. Conséquences sur les flux et la localisation des zones de précipitation des sels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La tomodensitométrie Rx est utilisée pour suivre la saturation et le séchage des pierres utilisées dans la construction de certains monuments. Les mesures d'atténuation des rayons X sont interprétées pour déterminer la répartition des phases minérales qui composent le matériau ainsi que la répartition de la porosité. Les essais de saturation ou de séchage effectués sous tomodensitométrie RX permettent de suivre les variations de saturation du réseau poreux au cours des essais. Les interfaces entre zones saturées en fluides et zones sèches localisent de possibles zones de précipitation de sels, processus important dans le dégradation de pierres d'œuvre.

Géraud, Y.; Tournier, B.; Surma, F.; Mazerolle, F.

2002-07-01

62

Food Irradiator and Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method and apparatus is provided for the irradiation pasteurization of food packages of uniform size and shape. Fish is eviscerated, scaled, filleted, trimmed and packaged. The packaged food is passed through a source of gamma rays.

O. A. Kuhl A. B. Oltmann

1965-01-01

63

Automated beta Irradiator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To support the continuing effort of the US Department of Energy to maintain high-quality radiological calibrations, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory fabricated an automated beta irradiation system. The system hardware includes a microprocessor that contro...

R. A. Fox J. A. Leonowich F. M. Cummings

1988-01-01

64

Stability of ?-Irradiated Carmine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carmine is a dye used mainly for coloring food products and galenicals but also in inks. As food irradiation is becoming a regular treatment for food preservation, it is desirable to have a proper knowledge about the radiation sensitivity of additives that can be included in the food formula. The aim of this work was to establish the radiation stability of carmine against Co-60 gamma radiation. Samples of 50% pure carmine powder as well as 50%, 10% and 5% aqueous solutions were irradiated in a Gammacell 220, dose rate of about 5.2 kGy/h, with doses of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 kGy. Spectrophotometric readings at 494 nm show a slight decrease of the absorbance as a function of dose: Samples irradiated with 4 and 32 kGy retained 95% and 90% of absorbance of the unirradiated samples respectively. These results indicate a rather good stability of carmine against ?-irradiation.

Cosentino, Hélio M.; Fontenele, Rinaldo S.; DelMastro, Nélida L.

2005-01-01

65

Total lymphoid irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

1983-05-01

66

Irradiation effects on nanocrystalline materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, nanocrystalline materials with grain size below 100 nm have attracted much interest due to their excellent chemical, physical, and optical properties. This review focuses on the irradiation effects of nanocrystalline materials. It has been generally believed that nanocrystalline materials have a great potential to increase irradiation resistance in the future reactor because of a large fraction of grain boundaries or interfaces that could absorb and annihilate mobile defects which produced during irradiation. Some calculation results and experiment results revealed that nanocrystalline materials can enhance irradiation resistance, while some reports showed that nanocrystalline materials exhibit worse irradiation resistance, or even amorphous at a lower irradiation dose compared with their bulk materials. During the irradiation process, the grain growth dominated by irradiation dose, thermal effect or defects was also disputed. Irradiation is also an important tool to tailor the grain size, phase structure and physical properties of the materials.

Chang, Yong-Qin; Guo, Qiang; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Lin; Long, Yi; Wan, Fa-Rong

2013-06-01

67

ORNL irradiation creep facility  

SciTech Connect

A machine was developed at ORNL to measure the rates of elongation observed under irradiation in stressed materials. The source of radiation is a beam of 60 MeV alpha particles from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). This choice allows experiments to be performed which simulate the effects of fast neutrons. A brief review of irradiation creep and experimental constraints associated with each measurement technique is given. Factors are presented which lead to the experimental choices made for the Irradiation Creep Facility (ICF). The ICF consists of a helium-filled chamber which houses a high-precision mechanical testing device. The specimen to be tested must be thermally stabilized with respect to the temperature fluctuations imposed by the particle beam which passes through the specimen. Electrical resistance of the specimen is the temperature control parameter chosen. Very high precision in length measurement and temperature control are required to detect the small elongation rates relevant to irradiation creep in the test periods available (approx. 1 day). The apparatus components and features required for the above are presented in some detail, along with the experimental procedures. The damage processes associated with light ions are discussed and displacement rates are calculated. Recent irradiation creep results are given, demonstrating the suitability of the apparatus for high resolution experiments. Also discussed is the suitability of the ICF for making high precision thermal creep measurements.

Reiley, T.C.; Auble, R.L.; Beckers, R.M.; Bloom, E.E.; Duncan, M.G.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, R.H.

1980-09-01

68

Economics of food irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of products being radiation processed worldwide is constantly increasing and today includes such diverse items as medical disposables, fruits and vegetables, spices, meats, seafoods and waste products. This range of products to be processed has resulted in a wide range of irradiator designs and capital and operating cost requirements. This paper discusses the economics of low dose food irradiation applications and the effects of various parameters on unit processing costs. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating known capital costs with annual operating costs and annual throughputs. It is intended to provide the reader with a general knowledge of how unit processing costs are derived.

Kunstadt, Peter; Eng, P.; Steeves, Colyn; Beaulieu, Daniel; Eng, P.

1993-07-01

69

FOOD IRRADIATION REACTOR  

DOEpatents

An irradiation apparatus is described. It comprises a pressure vessel, a neutronic reactor active portion having a substantially greater height than diameter in the pressure vessel, an annular tank surrounding and spaced from the pressure vessel containing an aqueous indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution of approximately 600 grams per liter concentration, means for circulating separate coolants through the active portion and the space between the annular tank and the pressure vessel, radiator means adapted to receive the materials to be irradiated, and means for flowing the indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution through the radiator means.

Leyse, C.F.; Putnam, G.E.

1961-05-01

70

FOOD IRRADIATION IS ALREADY HERE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ionizing radiation is used to sterilize medical supplies and pharmaceuticals, sterilize vaccines, decontaminate cosmetics, and for materials processing. There are approximately 60 commercial irradiation facilities operating in the U.S. Irradiation is also used to inactivate pathogenic bacteria and...

71

Irradiation creep of graphite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Displacement damage of graphite by neutron irradiation causes graphite to change dimensions. This dimensional instability requires careful attention when graphite is used as as moderator and reflector material in nuclear devices. Natural gradients in flux and temperature result in time-varying differential growth generating stresses similar to thermal stresses with an ever increasing temperature gradient. Graphite, however, does have the ability

1990-01-01

72

Update on meat irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The irradiation of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. Irradiation will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at doses from 1.5 to 3.0 kGy and for fresh pork at doses from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy. A petition for the clearance of all red meat was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 1994. The petition is for clearances of fresh meat at doses from 1.5 to 4.5 kGy and for frozen meat at {approximately}2.5 to 7.5 kGy. Clearance for red meat is expected before the end of 1997. There are 28 countries that have food irradiation clearances, of which 18 countries have clearances for meat or poultry. However, there are no uniform categories or approved doses for meat and poultry among the countries that could hamper international trade of irradiated meat and poultry.

Olson, D.G. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

1997-12-01

73

Irradiation Effects on Zircaloy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a water cooled reactor, the neutron effect on zirconium base alloys which are used in the core, is a twofold one: - indirect effect, by means of modifications to the alloy environment; - direct effect occurence of irradiation defects in the material. T...

P. Morize

1983-01-01

74

10 CFR 36.33 - Irradiator pools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Irradiator pools. 36.33 Section 36...Requirements for Irradiators § 36.33 Irradiator pools. (a) For licenses initially issued after July 1, 1993, irradiator pools must either: (1)...

2009-01-01

75

10 CFR 36.33 - Irradiator pools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Irradiator pools. 36.33 Section 36...Requirements for Irradiators § 36.33 Irradiator pools. (a) For licenses initially issued after July 1, 1993, irradiator pools must either: (1)...

2010-01-01

76

Combination processes in food irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irradiation is emerging as a potential method of food preservation. It is being used to extend the shelf life of raw and processed foods in many countries worldwide. Like all other methods of food preservation, irradiation has a number of limitations. Irradiation, when used alone, can cause the development of undesirable sensory and chemical changes in some foods, depending on

B. R. Thakur; R. K. Singh

1995-01-01

77

Stochastic Estimates of the Permeability Field of the Soultz-sous-Forêts Geothermal Reservoir - Comparison of Bayesian Inversion, MC Geostatistics, and EnKF Assimilation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The knowledge of the permeability distribution at depth is of primary concern for any geothermal reservoir engineering. However, permeability might change over orders of magnitude even for a single rock type and is additionally controlled by tectonic or engineered fracturing of the rocks. During reservoir exploration pumping tests are regularly performed where tracer marked water is pumped in one borehole and retrieved at one or a few others. At the European Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) test site at Soultz-sous-Forêts three wells had been drilled in the granitic bedrock down to 4 to 5 km and were hydraulically stimulated to enhance the hydraulic connectivity between the wells. In July 2005, a tracer circulation test was carried out in order to estimate the changes of the hydraulic properties. Therefore a tracer was injected into the well GPK3 for 19 hours at a rate of 0.015 m3 s-1 and a concentration of 0.389 mol m-3. Tracer concentration was measured in the production wells over the following 5 months, while the produced water was re-injected into GPK3. This experiment demonstrated a good hydraulic connection between GPK3 and one of the production wells, GPK2, while a very low connectivity was observed in the other one, GPK4. We tested three different approaches simulating the pumping experiment with the numerical simulator shemat_suite in a simplified 3D model of the site in order to study their respective potential to estimate a reliable permeability distribution for the Soultz reservoir: A full-physics gradient-based Bayesian inversion, a massive Monte Carlo approach with geostatistic analysis, and an Ensemble-Kalman-Filter (EnKF) assimilation. A common feature in all models is a high permeability zone which acts as main flow area and transports most of the tracer. It is assumed to be associated with the fault zone cutting through the boreholes GPK2 and GPK3. With the Bayesian Inversion we were able to estimate a parameter set consisting of porosity, permeability, and dispersivity which produces a nearly perfect fit to the measured tracer data. The models used for the inversion are simplified to the main geologic elements of the geothermal reservoir and consist of only 2 to 4 regions of constant properties. Optimal a-posteriori parameter estimates will be complemented by an analysis of parameter dependencies and uncertainties as a by-product of the nonlinear inversion. With both ensemble methods a cell-wise discrete spatial distribution of the permeability can be retrieved. For MC approach we produced a large number of system realizations with permeability distributions randomly picked from a bimodal histogram of the enhanced zone and the surrounding. The main fracture area is modelled by assuming a high permeability and an anisotropic correlation length. After forward simulation of the tracer experiment, the successful realizations are selected and further grouped to study principal features of the permeability distribution. Similar to the MC approach, the EnKF is based on a forward propagation of an ensemble of realizations. At successive instants in time, different kinds of data as tracer concentration, bottom hole pressure, and permeability in various drill holes are collected in one data vector and used to update (assimilate) the system variables to improve the match between observation and simulation leading to a convergence of the ensemble. We studied the performance and spatial resolution of the EnKF procedure for a 3D test model which is based on the borehole locations and tracer experiment of the Soultz geothermal reservoir. We used all available information to condition the pressure field and to estimate the permeability. Already after a few assimilation steps the ensemble average permeability shows coarse features of the expected permeability field. However, any estimates of smaller scale permeability variations turn out to be very sensitive to the (potentially unknown) correlation lengths.

Kosack, Christian; Vogt, Christian; Rath, Volker; Marquart, Gabriele

2010-05-01

78

Étude expérimentale du comportement cyclique d'un acier du type 316 L sous chargement multiaxial complexe en traction-torsion-pressions interne et externe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with the experimental determination of the behaviour of a 316 L austenitic stainless steel at room temperature and under non proportional cyclic strainings in tension-torsion- internal and external pressures. The two or three sinusoïdal strains were applied both in and out-of-phase and the main investigations deal with the additional hardening due to multiaxiality of the loadings. Typical stabilized hysteresis loops are presented. With respect to the maximum additional hardening the different tests can be classified as follows : in phase tests, out-of-phase internal-external pressures tests, out-of-phase tension-torsion tests and finally tension-torsion-pressure with significant phase angles A device is presented which allows cyclic tests to be performed on tubes for loadings in tension-torsion-internal and external pressures. It is composed of a medium pressure chamber enclosing the gage length of the test specimen, directly fixed on the specimen and connected to two pressure regulators. The specimen is also fastened to the jaws of a hydraulic tensile-torsion machine through two extension rods. The entire device is controlled with the help of strain gauges set directly on the gage zone of the test specimen. Different tests have been performed at ambient temperature on an austenitic stainless steel which has the particularity of presenting a strong supplementary hardening connected to the non-radiality of the loadings. The influence of the phase shift parameters, namely the angles ? and \\varphi (?: tension-torsion, \\varphi: tension-pressures) for two or three cyclic sinusoïdal components and for a total equivalent strain amplitude level imposed at 0.4% was studied. The ratios of the maximum strain amplitudes were respectively fixed at r_2 = 1 and r_1 = ± 1 (r_2: tension-torsion and r_1: tension-pressures). These tests allowed both the hypotheses made in stress calculations and the whole of the experimental set up to be validated. They are very rich in informations and lead to classify the different types of loading, with two or three cyclic components, with respect to the observed supplementary hardening. This classification was established as follows: i) The in-phase tests with two or three components (? = \\varphi = 0^circ); no supplementary hardening is observed. ii) The tension-pressure tests such as r_1 = 1, \\varphi = 90^circ and r_1 = - 1, \\varphi = 60^circ, the hardening is slightly inferior to that of tension-torsion tests. iii) The tension-torsion tests such as r_2 = 1 and ? = 90^circ, where a substantial additionnal hardening takes place. iv) The tension-torsion-pressure tests where the three components are strongly shifted, namely: r_1 = r_2 = 1, ? = 90^circ and \\varphi = 60^circ, and r_2 = 1, r_1 = -1, ? = 41.4^circ and \\varphi = 82.8^circ. The hardening is slightly superior to the one recorded in tension-torsion. A more thorough study is in preparation which considers all the possible combinations in tension-torsion-pressures, and will be performed on the same material. The early results tend to validate the observations presented in this article. Cette étude réside dans la détermination expérimentale du comportement à la température ambiante de l'acier inoxydable 316 L sous chargement cyclique non proportionnel en traction-torsion-pressions interne et externe. Les deux ou trois déformations sinusoïdales appliquées sont soit en phase, soit hors-phase et l'on étudie l'amplitude du durcissement supplémentaire en fonction du degré de multiaxialité. On présente quelques boucles stabilisées typiques. Par rapport au durcissement supplémentaire maximal, les différents essais peuvent être classés comme suit: essais en phase (pas de durcissement supplémentaire), essais de traction-pressions hors-phase, essais de traction-torsion hors phase et essais de traction-torsion-pressions avec déphasages conséquents.

Bocher, L.; Delobelle, P.

1997-09-01

79

Irradiation effects on copper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper, one of the most significant metals, is exposed to IR radiation. A Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 1.1 MW, 12 ns) has been used to irradiate fine polished and annealed samples (4 N, 1×1×0.3 cm3) with 100 laser shots under a vacuum of ˜10-6 torr. The laser focal spot size and power density on the target were 12 ?m and 3×1012 Wm-2 respectively. The surface and structural studies were performed by analyzing scanning electron micrographs and X-ray diffractograms (XRDs), respectively. Laser ablation results in boiling, splashing, hydrodynamical sputtering and exfoliation along with other relevant phenomena. The XRD patterns of the exposed sample indicate a change in diffraction intensity and grain sizes. The atomic planes remain undisturbed for the irradiated target. The information collected is useful for investigating the complexities found in radiation-metal interactions.

Latif, Anwar; Khaleeq-Ur-Rahman, M.; Rafique, M. S.; Bhatti, K. A.; Imran, M.

80

BIOLOGICAL IRRADIATION FACILITY  

DOEpatents

A facility for irradiating biological specimens with neutrons is described. It includes a reactor wherein the core is off center in a reflector. A high-exposure room is located outside the reactor on the side nearest the core while a low-exposure room is located on the opposite side. Means for converting thermal neutrons to fast neutrons are movably disposed between the reactor core and the high and low-exposure rooms. (AEC)

McCorkle, W.H.; Cern, H.S.

1962-04-24

81

Irradiation of blood products  

SciTech Connect

The method of treating white blood cells is described comprising irradiating a thin film of blood product containing white blood cells with ultraviolet radiation predominantly of a wavelength of 280 to 320 nanometers at an intensity of 4 to 15 milliwatts per square cm., to provide a total energy exposure of 800 to 2800 millijoules per square cm. of ultraviolet radiation for a sufficient time. The white blood cells substantially lose their capability to set off an immune reaction in an alloimmunized patient.

Miripol, J.E.; Bilstad, A.; Foley, J.; Glash, D.

1988-02-23

82

Surface segregation during irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Gibbsian adsorption is known to alter the surface composition of many alloys. During irradiation, four additional processes that affect the near-surface alloy composition become operative: preferential sputtering, displacement mixing, radiation-enhanced diffusion and radiation-induced segregation. Because of the mutual competition of these five processes, near-surface compositional changes in an irradiation environment can be extremely complex. Although ion-beam induced surface compositional changes were noted as long as fifty years ago, it is only during the past several years that individual mechanisms have been clearly identified. In this paper, a simple physical description of each of the processes is given, and selected examples of recent important progress are discussed. With the notable exception of preferential sputtering, it is shown that a reasonable qualitative understanding of the relative contributions from the individual processes under various irradiation conditions has been attained. However, considerably more effort will be required before a quantitative, predictive capability can be achieved. 29 refs., 8 figs.

Rehn, L.E.; Lam, N.Q.

1985-10-01

83

Replacement of 137Cs irradiators with x-ray irradiators.  

PubMed

Self-shielded 137Cs irradiators have been used for many years to irradiate blood products to prevent graft vs. host disease and to irradiate cells and small animals in research. A report by the National Academy of Sciences recommends that careful consideration be given to replacement of 137Cs irradiators with x-ray irradiators. Several manufacturers and users of x-ray irradiators were contacted to determine costs of replacing and maintaining 137Cs irradiators with x-ray units and to assess users' experience with x-ray irradiators. Purchase costs of x-ray units are similar to 137Cs irradiators, but maintenance costs are significantly higher if annual service contracts are used. Performance of the two irradiator types appears to be equivalent, but in some cases x-ray irradiations may need to be performed in multiple configurations to achieve adequate uniformity in dose. No literature reports were found that evaluated the biological effectiveness of x rays vs. 137Cs gamma rays; therefore, a careful study should be conducted to determine the biological effectiveness of x rays vs. 137Cs gamma rays for biological responses relevant to transfusion medicine and immunological research. Throughput may be problematic for large transfusion medicine programs, and back-up plans may be necessary in case the x-ray unit needs to be taken out of service for extended maintenance. Disposition of a 137Cs irradiator will add to the cost of replacement with an x-ray unit, but disposal may be possible through the U.S. Department of Energy's Off-Site Source Recovery Program. PMID:19125053

Dodd, Brian; Vetter, Richard J

2009-02-01

84

Irradiated Accretion Disc Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the known accretion discs in binary systems are composed of hydrogen rich material. A few years ago, a new type of binary system was discovered, in which the disc is obviously free of hydrogen and helium. Nowadays six systems are known, with an accretion disc mainly composed of C, O, Ne and Mg (Juett, Psaltis & Chakrabarty 2001; Schulz et al. 2001). The most prominent representative of these ultra compact binary systems is the LMXB 4U 1626-67. The system is consisting of a 7.66 s X-ray pulsar as primary component and a 0.02 solar mass white dwarf as secondary (Chakrabarty 1998). Having a binary separation of only 300 0000 km (Schulz et al. 2001) one can not neglect the external irradiation of the accretion disc by the neutron star. The external irradiation dominates the disc spectrum over a wide range. In the UV one sees emission lines of highly ionised elements, like OV or CIV. One of the biggest numerical problems, occurring during the calculation of an irradiated accretion disc model, is the extreme temperature stratification and structure. This causes severe problems with the occupation numbers of some atomic levels. These problems should be solved by implementing the depth dependent model atom, during my thesis work. During his PhD thesis, Nagel (2003) has developed the numeric code package AcDc. Therewith one can calculate the vertical structure and the emergent synthetic spectrum of an accretion disc. During the work presented here the depth dependent model atom (DEPTOM) was developed and implemented in AcDc as a code module. DEPTOM identifies the trouble making ionisation stages and deactivates them. Thus the calculation is numerically more stable and, hence, makes AcDc more powerful.

Hammer, N. J.

2004-08-01

85

Ceramic decomposition under irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Under this program fundamental investigations are being conducted on the physical and chemical processes associated with radiation damage in dielectric and semiconducting materials to both understand the mechanisms involved and to provide improved methodologies for the analysis of these materials by electron microscopy. The research has shown that there are at least two distinct processes which give rise to the deomposition of ceramics under irradiation. The first is a diffusion effect that is induced by the charge imbalance associated with ionization processes while the second is associated with a very short atomic displacement caused by elastic interactions. 5 refs.

Howitt, D.G.

1991-01-01

86

Stress Signaling from Irradiated to Non-Irradiated Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence accumulated over the past two decades has indicated that exposure of cell populations to ionizing radiation results in significant biological effects occurring in both the irradiated and non-irradiated cells in the population. This phenomenon, termed the 'bystander response', has been shown to occur both in vitro and in vivo. Experiments have indicated that genetic alterations, changes in gene expression

E. I. Azzam; S. M. de Toledo; J. B. Little

2004-01-01

87

PLANT GROWTH IN IRRADIATED SOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison is made of the growth of subterranean clover in two soils, ; Urrbrae red-brown earth and Mount Compass pcdzolized sand, sterilized by heat, ; propylene oxide, and irradiation. Plating of the soil at both planting and ; harvesting showed that heat and irradiation treated soils were sterile, whereas ; the soils treated with propylene oxide were not. In

G. D. Bowen; A. D. Rovira

1961-01-01

88

Irradiation induced creep of graphite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of graphite irradiation induced creep strain prediction is reviewed and major creep models are described. The ability of the models to quantitatively predict the irradiation induced creep strain of graphite is reported. Potential mechanisms of in-crystal creep are reviewed as are mechanisms of pore generation under stress. The case for further experimental work is made and the need

T. D. Burchell; K. L. Murty; J. Eapen

2010-01-01

89

Irradiation Induced Creep of Graphite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status of graphite irradiation induced creep strain prediction is reviewed and the major creep models are described. The ability of the models to quantitatively predict the irradiation induced creep strain of graphite is reported. Potential mechanisms of in-crystal creep are reviewed as are mechanisms of pore generation under stress. The case for further experimental work is made and

Timothy D Burchell; K. L. Murty; Jacob Eapen

2010-01-01

90

Segregation in Irradiated Titanium Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radiation-induced segregation of V, Al and Mo in alpha -phase titanium alloys was investigated. Ion irradiation (2.1-MeV Ar exp + ) at 650 exp 0 C was used to simulate elevated-temperature neutron irradiation effects. Solute segregation in the near-surfac...

Z. Wang G. Ayrault H. Wiedersich

1981-01-01

91

Food Irradiation for Produce Safety  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A research priority for the produce industry is the development of an effective, safe and commercially applicable kill step. Irradiation is a nonthermal process that has been shown to inactivate human pathogens from fruits and vegetables. Irradiation treatment at 1.0 kGy can reduce the surface popul...

92

SORCE Solar Irradiance Data Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) at the University of Colorado manages the SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) Science Data System. This data processing system routinely produces Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) and Spectral Solar Irradiance (SSI) data products, which are formulated using measurements from the four primary instruments on board the SORCE spacecraft. The TIM instrument provides

D. M. Lindholm; C. K. Pankratz; B. G. Knapp; R. Meisner; J. Fontenla; J. W. Harder; W. E. McClintock; G. Kopp; M. Snow; T. N. Woods

2008-01-01

93

Cherry Irradiation Studies. 1984 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fresh cherries, cherry fruit fly larvae, and codling moth larvae were irradiated using the PNL cobalt-60 facility to determine the efficacy of irradiation treatment for insect disinfestation and potential shelf life extension. Irradiation is an effective ...

D. E. Eakin F. P. Hungate G. L. Tingey K. L. Olsen J. B. Fountain

1985-01-01

94

Consumer Info About Irradiated Food & Packaging  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Section Contents Menu. Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling. Irradiated ... Consumer Info About Irradiated Food & Packaging. FDA ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/irradiatedfoodpackaging

95

AFIP-4 Irradiation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-4 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) fuels at a scale prototypic of research reactor fuel plates. The AFIP-4 test further examine the fuel/clad interface and its behavior under extreme conditions. After irradiation, fission gas retention measurements will be performed during post irradiation (PIE)1,2. The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-4 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.

Danielle M Perez; Misti A Lillo; Gray S. Chang; Glenn A Roth; Nicolas Woolstenhulme; Daniel M Wachs

2012-01-01

96

AFIP-4 Irradiation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-4 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) fuels at a scale prototypic of research reactor fuel plates. The AFIP-4 test further examine the fuel/clad interface and its behavior under extreme conditions. After irradiation, fission gas retention measurements will be performed during post irradiation (PIE). The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-4 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.

Danielle M Perez; Misti A Lillo; Gray S. Chang; Glenn A Roth; Nicolas Woolstenhulme; Daniel M Wachs

2011-09-01

97

Gamma irradiation of polyester films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiation in air of several thermoplastic aromatic polyesters was carried out in order to investigate changes in characteristic properties. Polymers are irradiated at high doses, until 1 MGy, and no drastic changes seem to emerge. Dielectric and resistance measurements are carried out in order to evaluate changes in electrical insulation property; moreover, nanoholes dimensions, analyzed by positron spectroscopy, are measured in pristine and irradiated polyesters. The study shows good durability of this kind of polyesters, due to the aromatic rings able to stabilize the polymeric chains towards ionizing radiations and able to preserve the original structural, electrical and permeability properties.

Mariani, M.; Ravasio, U.; Varoli, V.; Consolati, G.; Faucitano, A.; Buttafava, A.

2007-08-01

98

Modifications de l'expression des gènes GST-? et p53 dans des lignées tumorales cellulaires humaines O.R.L. après irradiation gamma : induction, études cellulaires et moléculaires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cell sub-populations surviving to high radiation doses were selected. The KBm survival part was obtained by exposure to a mutagenic agent and irradiation, FaDum results of a progressive irradiation of FaDu. A semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed a significant overexpression of GST-? and p53 genes for KBm and FaDum cell lines that remained stable for 18 months. The SF2, ?, ?, and MID parameters, determined by clonogenic assays, show no modifications of radiosensitivity. The variations of expression observed are not correlated to a radiosensitivity variation. The overexpression of GST-? and p53 does not seem to be a radiosensitivity marker. Nous avons isolé des sous-populations de 2 lignées cellulaires humaines (KB et FaDu) de carcinomes des voies aéro-digestives supérieures survivant à de fortes doses d'irradiation. La fraction survivante KBm a été obtenu après exposition à un agent mutagène et à une irradiation, FaDum résulte de l'irradiation progressive de FaDu. Une analyse par RT-PCR semi-quantitative nous a permis de mettre en évidence une surexpression significative des gènes GST-? et p53 pour les souches KBm et FaDum analysées après 18 mois de culture. Les paramètres, ?, ?, SF2, MID, déterminés par essais clonogéniques, n'indiquent pas de modification de la radiosensibilité. Les variations d'expression observées ne sont donc pas corrélées à une variation de radiosensibilité. La surexpression des gènes GST-? et p53 ne semble pas constituer un marqueur de radiosensibilité.

Dubessy, C.; Merlin, J. L.; Marchal, C.

1998-04-01

99

(Irradiation creep of graphite)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended the Conference, International Symposium on Carbon, to present an invited paper, Irradiation Creep of Graphite,'' and chair one of the technical sessions. There were many papers of particular interest to ORNL and HTGR technology presented by the Japanese since they do not have a particular technology embargo and are quite open in describing their work and results. In particular, a paper describing the failure of Minor's law to predict the fatigue life of graphite was presented. Although the conference had an international flavor, it was dominated by the Japanese. This was primarily a result of geography; however, the work presented by the Japanese illustrated an internal program that is very comprehensive. This conference, a result of this program, was better than all other carbon conferences attended by the traveler. This conference emphasizes the need for US participation in international conferences in order to stay abreast of the rapidly expanding HTGR and graphite technology throughout the world. The United States is no longer a leader in some emerging technologies. The traveler was surprised by the Japanese position in their HTGR development. Their reactor is licensed and the major problem in their graphite program is how to eliminate it with the least perturbation now that most of the work has been done.

Kennedy, C.R.

1990-12-21

100

Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies.

Hallman, Guy J.

2012-07-01

101

Irradiation of Prepackaged Food: 2004  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... concentrations in polymers irradiated in contact with food simulants are likely due to the direct contact of the polymer with liquids comprised of ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/irradiatedfoodpackaging

102

Operation of the irradiation facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is necessary to efficiently manage and operate the irradiation facilities which are used for the various basic and practical application studies as well as for the industrialization of the radiation technology. Dose distribution measurements were carri...

J. H. Jin B. M. Yoon K. Y. Kim Y. C. No Y. K. Lee

1993-01-01

103

Electron irradiation damage in titanium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Point defects created by electron irradiation can cluster into prismatic dislocation loops and voids during in situ bombardment in a high voltage electron microscope (HVEM). We have observed the development of such loops in Ti.

A. Wolfenden; M. H. Yoo

1974-01-01

104

Influences on Purchase of Irradiated Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews data from surveys and retail experiments that examine the purchase decision between irradiated and non-irradiated (typical) products. The primary factor influencing purchase decisions is information provided about irradiation. Other factors include effectiveness of alternative technologies, gender, and the presence of children in the household. Female parents of younger children are less likely to choose irradiated foods. Most

John A. Fox

105

Slag recycling of irradiated vanadium  

SciTech Connect

An experimental inductoslag apparatus to recycle irradiated vanadium was fabricated and tested. An experimental electroslag apparatus was also used to test possible slags. The testing was carried out with slag materials that were fabricated along with impurity bearing vanadium samples. Results obtained include computer simulated thermochemical calculations and experimentally determined removal efficiencies of the transmutation impurities. Analyses of the samples before and after testing were carried out to determine if the slag did indeed remove the transmutation impurities from the irradiated vanadium.

Gorman, P.K.

1995-04-05

106

Irradiation induced creep of graphite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of graphite irradiation induced creep strain prediction is reviewed and major creep models are described. The ability\\u000a of the models to quantitatively predict the irradiation induced creep strain of graphite is reported. Potential mechanisms\\u000a of in-crystal creep are reviewed as are mechanisms of pore generation under stress. The case for further experimental work\\u000a is made and the need

T. D. Burchell; K. L. Murty; J. Eapen

2010-01-01

107

Irradiation Induced Creep of Graphite  

SciTech Connect

The current status of graphite irradiation induced creep strain prediction is reviewed and the major creep models are described. The ability of the models to quantitatively predict the irradiation induced creep strain of graphite is reported. Potential mechanisms of in-crystal creep are reviewed as are mechanisms of pore generation under stress. The case for further experimental work is made and the need for improved creep models across multi-scales is highlighted.

Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Murty, Prof K.L. [North Carolina State University; Eapen, Dr. Jacob [North Carolina State University

2010-01-01

108

Irradiation induced creep of graphite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The status of graphite irradiation induced creep strain prediction is reviewed and major creep models are described. The ability of the models to quantitatively predict the irradiation induced creep strain of graphite is reported. Potential mechanisms of in-crystal creep are reviewed as are mechanisms of pore generation under stress. The case for further experimental work is made and the need for improved creep models across multi-scales is highlighted.

Burchell, T. D.; Murty, K. L.; Eapen, J.

2010-09-01

109

Acclimation to a dynamic irradiance regime changes excessive irradiance sensitivity of Emiliania huxleyi and Thalassiosira weissflogii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of fluctuating irradiance regimes on excessive photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation sensitivity were assessed for Emiliania huxleyi (Lohman) and Thalassiosira weissflogii (Grunow) Fryxell and Hasle. Cultures acclimated to low irradiance were subjected to two irradiance regimes of equal daily dose: dynamic irradiance simulating vertical mixing within the water column and constant irradiance. For each regime two

R. J. W. Visser; W. H. van de Poll; Anita G. J. Buma

2007-01-01

110

Quality studies on irradiated vegetables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of gamma-irradiation on texture, colour, appearance and enzyme or microbial activity of cauliflower, celery, potatoes and yams were investigated. Results from the texture profile analysis of the samples, with a computerized Instron, showed a change in most textural parameters with an increasing dose. There were some differences in the Hunter colour values and the appearance noted between the irradiated samples and the controls of the first three vegetables, which were accentuated during refrigerated storage up to two weeks. In the case of yams, neither irradiation or storage affected the colour, appearance and nutritional content of the product appreciably. There were significant decreases in enzyme activities (polyphenol oxidase, pectinesterase) after irradiation of cauliflower, celery and potatoes. For potatoes this may be an advantage to food processors; potatoes irradiated with less than 5 kGy maintained their colour for up to 3 h after slicing. In the case of yams, irradiation at low doses resulted in a marked decrease in microbial flora which may be of commercial significance.

Cumming, R. W.

1996-09-01

111

STRAIN LOCALIZATION IN IRRADIATED MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect

Low temperature irradiation can significantly harden metallic materials and often lead to strain localization and ductility loss in deformation. This paper provides a review on the radiation effects on the deformation of metallic materials, focusing on microscopic and macroscopic strain localization phenomena. The microscopic strain localization often observed in irradiated materials are dislocation channeling and deformation twinning, in which dislocation glides are evenly distributed and well confined in the narrow bands, usually a fraction of a micron wide. Dislocation channeling is a common strain localization mechanism observed virtually in all irradiated metallic materials with ductility, while deformation twinning is an alternative localization mechanism occurring only in low stacking fault energy materials. In some high stacking fault energy materials where cross slip is easy, curved and widening channels can be formed depending on dose and stress state. Irradiation also prompts macroscopic strain localization (or plastic instability). It is shown that the plastic instability stress and true fracture stress are nearly independent of irradiation dose if there is no radiation-induced phase change or embrittlement. A newly proposed plastic instability criterion is that the metals after irradiation show necking at yield when the yield stress exceeds the dose-independent plastic instability stress. There is no evident relationship between the microscopic and macroscopic strain localizations; which is explained by the long-range back-stress hardening. It is proposed that the microscopic strain localization is a generalized phenomenon occurring at high stress.

Byun, Thak Sang [ORNL; Hashimoto, Naoyuki [ORNL

2006-01-01

112

Intracystic irradiation for craniopharyngiomas.  

PubMed

Data collected over a 36-year period were used to assess the value of stereotactically applied intracystic colloidal yttrium-90 (YTx) for the treatment of recurrent cystic craniopharyngiomas (CRF's). The article compares data from 95 YTx procedures carried out on 78 patients during the years 1975 and 2011, using a cumulative beta dose of 270 Gy aimed at the inner surface of the cyst wall. After YTx, the initial cyst volumes decreased an average of 74.7 %. In 54 patients, the volume reduction exceeded 80 %. In 32 patients, the cyst disappeared completely within one year. The mean survival rate following YTx was 7.5 years (range 0.7-31 years). The survival rates at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 years were 56, 29, 15, 8, 3, and 1 %, respectively. Late complications of YTx were related to the anatomical location of the cyst, either presellar or retrosellar. A presellar, that is, prechiasmatic/suprasellar localization resulted in neuro-ophthalmological complications in 5.1 % of the cases, while internal carotid artery injury accounted for 1.4 % of the complications. The treatment of retrosellar (retrochiasmatic, suprasellar) tumors may cause hypothalamic, fornix, or pontomesencephalothalamic damage, from untoward radiation to the so-called perforating arteries. This complication occurred in 5.2 % of the cases. In the multimodality management of craniopharyngioma cysts, intracavity YTx irradiation is a valuable treatment alternative despite sporadic complications arising in some surgical cases. The formula for the calculation of the dynamics of reduction of CRF's following yttrium-90 colloid brachytherapy was supported by correlating the collected data. The focus was on our minimally invasive YTx following multiple surgeries of cystic CRFs. PMID:23196808

Julow, Jen? Viktor

2013-03-01

113

Cancer following medical irradiation.  

PubMed

Several generalizations about radiation carcinogenesis can be made: 1) a single exposure is sufficient to elevate cancer incidence many years later: 2) radiation-induced cancer cannot be distinguished from naturally occurring cancer, i.e., there is not unique radiogenic cancer; 3) all cancers appear to be increased after irradiation with the exception of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and possibly Hodgkin's disease, cervical cancer, and a few others; 4) the breast, thyroid, and bone marrow appear especially radiosensitive; 5) leukemia is the most prominent radiogenic tumor and shows a wave-like pattern of excess incidence over time, and the excess begins within two to four years, peaks about six to eight years, and decreases to normal levels about 25 years later; 6) solid tumors have a minimum latent period of about ten years, and for several cancers, the temporal pattern of incidence appears to follow the natural incidence, i.e., the cancers do not occur before the ages normally associated with increased incidence, implying that age-dependent factors influence the expression of disease; 7) age at exposure is perhaps the most important host factor influencing subsequent cancer risk; 8) the percentage increase in cancer incidence per rad is not the same for all cancers, i.e., some cancer of high natural incidence, e.g., colon, have low "relative risks" and some cancers of low natural incidence, e.g., thyroid, have high "relative risks;" 9) dose-effect curves are often linear, but curvilinearity is also observed and is possibly associated with the need for "two ionizing events" for transformation to occur at low doses, the influence of cell sterilization at moderate doses, the likelihood of "wasted" dose at high doses, and/or the influence of factors that effect the expression of disease. PMID:7237365

Boice, J D

1981-03-01

114

The decomposition of soluble collagen by ?-irradiation  

PubMed Central

1. The effect of ?-irradiation in the range 1 krad–10 Mrads on freeze-dried acid-soluble collagen was studied. 2. The specific-rotation and reduced-viscosity recoveries after heating and cooling of the irradiated collagen in solution showed a high degree of dependence on irradiation dose, with reduced viscosity showing significantly less recovery than specific rotation on increasing the irradiation dose. 3. The dependence of reduced viscosity on concentration was greatly decreased with increased doses of ?-irradiation. 4. The melting temperature measured by optical rotation also decreased as the irradiation dose was increased, and at low doses was distinctly biphasic. 5. Physical properties showed that the action of ?-irradiation up to 10 Mrads occurred in two distinct phases, with the early changes being extremely sensitive to irradiation dose. 6. The action of the ?-irradiation is discussed in terms of the structure of tropocollagen.

Cooper, D. R.; Russell, A. E.

1969-01-01

115

The multifunction neutron irradiator (MNI)  

SciTech Connect

The Multifunction Neutron Irradiator (MNI) under design is a small-type neutron source reactor, for studying the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for human brain glioblastoma and other uses in neutron technology such as Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), short-lived radioistope production, and some fundamental researches. The reactor core is designed to have passive safety and the process control of the reactor operations is fully computerized. There are two operational modes: The routine operation mode with reactor power 20{approximately}30 kW and flux 1 X 10{sup 12} n {center_dot} cm{sup -2} {center_dot} {sup -1} and the enhanced power operation mode for medical irradiation. The irradiator can be located in a medical center, research institute or university.

Yongmao Zhou; Shenzhi Li

1994-12-31

116

Helioseismic Limits on Irradiance Variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in the frequencies of solar oscillations are the most precise probe of irradiance variations over the solar cycle. Using MDI data, Dziembowski and Goode (2005) showed that f-mode changes arise from the direct effect of the evolving magnetic activity, while p-mode changes are due to small, activity induced changes in convective flows very near to the solar surface (turbulent pressure). The f-modes also sharply limit the allowed field growth with activity, and the limit is consistent with the observations of Lin and Rimmele (1999). Combining MDI data with BBSO Ca II K, we find the Sun is smooth at activity minimum and becomes increasingly corrugated with rising activity. The overall physical picture is one in which the Sun is hottest and smoothest at activity minimum, and becomes cooler, more corrugated and irradiant with rising activity. These results place a lower limit on irradiance variations and are roughly consistent with a picture of Spruit (2000).

Goode, P. R.

2005-05-01

117

Laser irradiation effects on gold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations on the laser irradiation effects on gold are explored in\\u000a terms of plasma-plume dynamics and morphological and crystallographic\\u000a changes. Annealed 4N gold samples were irradiated with a Q-switched\\u000a Nd:YAG laser (53 mJ, 21 MW, 532 nm, and pulse width 6-8 ns) for plume\\u000a dynamics using 10-ns gated fast photography. A Q-switched pulsed Nd:YAG\\u000a laser (10 mJ, 1.1 MW, 1064

M. Khaleeq-ur-Rahman; K. A. Bhatti; M. S. Rafique; A. Latif; P. Lee; S. Mahmood

2007-01-01

118

Irradiation of metastatic carcinoma parotid  

SciTech Connect

Acinic cell carcinomas of the parotid should be considered distinct malignancies despite descriptions of low-grade malignant potential and innocuous histologic patterns. Benign-appearing tumors frequently have a clinically malignant course. Blood-borne metastases may oocur early despite gross and microscopic innocence. Indolent growth may be a characteristic of local disease, which may then be approached with less than radical parotidectomy and sacrifice of the facial nerve. These tumors prove to be radiosensitive. More agressive postoperative irradiation and palliative irradiation is recommended. Two cases of successful palliation of spinal metastases are presented as examples of radiosensitivity of this tumor.

Jack, G.A.

1981-10-01

119

Healing in the irradiated wound  

SciTech Connect

Poor or nonhealing of irradiated wounds has been attributed to progressive obliterative endarteritis. Permanently damaged fibroblasts may also play an important part in poor healing. Regardless of the cause, the key to management of irradiated skin is careful attention to prevent its breakdown and conservative, but adequate, treatment when wounds are minor. When wounds become larger and are painful, complete excision of the wound or ulcer is called for and coverage should be provided by a well-vascularized nonparasitic distant flap.16 references.

Miller, S.H.; Rudolph, R. (Univ. of California, San Diego (USA))

1990-07-01

120

Irradiated icecreams for immunosuppressed patients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vanilla, raspberry, peach and milk jam icecreams were gamma irradiated with 3, 6 and 9kGy doses in order to achieve microbial decontamination. Microbiological, sensory and some chemical analysis (acidity, peroxides, ultraviolet and visible absorption, thin-layer chromatography and sugar determination) were performed. Water-based icecreams (raspberry and peach) were more resistant to gamma radiation than cream-based ones (vanilla and milk jam). Gamma irradiation with 3kGy reduced remarkably the microbial load of these icecreams without impairing the quality of the icecreams.

Adeil Pietranera, M. S.; Narvaiz, P.; Horak, C.; Kairiyama, E.

2003-04-01

121

Electron Beam Irradiation of Polymer Blends.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results concerning the modification of immiscible polymer blends by Electron Beam (EB) irradiation are presented. An enhanced stability of a highly nonequilibrium morphology could be achieved by irradiation in the model system of relatively inert polystyr...

J. G. M. Vangisbergen

1991-01-01

122

IONIZING IRRADIATION TREATMENTS OF FOOD  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food irradiation is the treatment of a food with radiant energy to obtain a beneficial effect. These effects may include (1) disinfestation of grains, fruits, and vegetables; (2) improvement of the shelf life of fruits and vegetables by inhibiting sprouting or by altering their rate of maturation a...

123

DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH POWER IRRADIATORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two systems are considered--one a nuclear reactor through which an ; aqueous solution of an indium salt is circulated through the irradiator; the ; othor, a device made up of plates ef Co⁶°. Experimental data are presentad ; on corrosion behavior of indium solutions against various materials of ; construction stability of indium solutions, and dose distribution of radiations ;

B. Manowitz; O. Kuhl; D. Richman; L. Galanter

1958-01-01

124

TOXICOLOGICAL SAFETY OF IRRADIATED FOODS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Irradiation of food and agricultural products is allowed in over 60 countries around the world, and has only been allowed only after extensive testing for toxicological safety. Studies conducted over a 50 year period found no detectable increases in the risk of cancer or birth defects associated wi...

125

Study of Rice gamma -Irradiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether the exp 60 Co gamma-irradiated milled rice packed in economic and practical sealed bags could be preserved in common granaries in Taiwan for more than one year rather than slightly over one month w...

J. J. Lien R. S. Chau S. C. Chen S. L. Chu Y. K. Fu

1981-01-01

126

Pathological Effects of Thyroid Irradiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Therapeutic doses of X-rays to the thyroid region of children have been followed after some years by the development of thyroid neoplasms. Whereas the percent of cases of malignant neoplasms is small, the proportion of persons irradiated who develop nodul...

1966-01-01

127

Solar Spectral Irradiance and Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectrally resolved solar irradiance is recognized as being increasingly important to improving our understanding of the manner in which the Sun influences climate. There is strong empirical evidence linking total solar irradiance to surface temperature trends - even though the Sun has likely made only a small contribution to the last half-century's global temperature anomaly - but the amplitudes cannot be explained by direct solar heating alone. The wavelength and height dependence of solar radiation deposition, for example, ozone absorption in the stratosphere, absorption in the ocean mixed layer, and water vapor absorption in the lower troposphere, contribute to the "top-down" and "bottom-up" mechanisms that have been proposed as possible amplifiers of the solar signal. New observations and models of solar spectral irradiance are needed to study these processes and to quantify their impacts on climate. Some of the most recent observations of solar spectral variability from the mid-ultraviolet to the near-infrared have revealed some unexpected behavior that was not anticipated prior to their measurement, based on an understanding from model reconstructions. The atmospheric response to the observed spectral variability, as quantified in climate model simulations, have revealed similarly surprising and in some cases, conflicting results. This talk will provide an overview on the state of our understanding of the spectrally resolved solar irradiance, its variability over many time scales, potential climate impacts, and finally, a discussion on what is required for improving our understanding of Sun-climate connections, including a look forward to future observations.

Pilewskie, P.; Woods, T.; Cahalan, R.

2012-04-01

128

Food Irradiation: Solution or Threat?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Consumers International Briefing Paper presents a less positive view of the process. CI is "a worldwide non-profit federation of consumer organisations." Previously approved for use on poultry and fruits and vegetables in the US, irradiation can kill disease-causing bacteria like Salmonella and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 (discussed in the Scout Report for Science and Engineering's In the News section, September 17, 1997), and molds and funguses that cause rot. With recent US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, irradiation can now be used to process red meat (e.g., beef, pork, lamb, and byproducts). The process involves exposing food to a source of radiation such as gamma rays from radioactive cobalt 60, cesium 137, or x-rays. No radioactive material is added to the product, and the technique is routinely used on grains and spices, as well as for sterilizing disposable medical devices. In spite of a number of tests conducted over the last 30 years substantiating its safety, irradiation has not gained widespread public acceptance in the US. This is largely due to the public's general fear of processes utilizing radiation. Supporters of the technology claim that it will virtually eliminate food-borne illness in the US, while skeptics feel that technology such as steam treatment can accomplish adequate sterilization without the purported risks and public concern associated with irradiation.

1997-01-01

129

Nectar Fluorescence under Ultraviolet Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nectar, which fluoresces in the visible and absorbs in the ultraviolet spectrum when irradiated by ultraviolet light, occurs in many bee-pollinated plants. It is suggested that these characteristics function as direct visual cues by which bees can evaluate the quantities of nectar available. Thus, they assume an important role in pollination of the flowers and foraging efficiency of bees.

Robbin W. Thorp; Dennis L. Briggs; James R. Estes; Eric H. Erickson

1975-01-01

130

Food irradiation: Public opinion surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian government are discussing the legislation, regulations and practical protocol necessary for the commercialization of food irradiation. Food industry marketing, public relations and media expertise will be needed to successfully introduce this new processing choice to retailers and consumers. Consumer research to date including consumer opinion studies and market trials conducted in the Netherlands, United States, South Africa and

Kerr

1987-01-01

131

NEW APPLICATIONS IN FOOD IRRADIATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food irradiation is a safe, effective means of reducing pathogenic and spoilage organisms from a variety of foods. However, despite decades of research and endorsement by every leading health and scientific organization, this technology remains only poorly understood and accepted by the public. This...

132

Irradiation test program for FFTF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four unique deisgn features are described which make the Fast Flux Test Facility eminently suitable for irradiation test programs. These features are a fast flux level of 7 x 10¹ neutrons\\/cm²\\/sec, a 36-inch reference (breeder reactor) core height, test volumes suitable for testing of statistical quantities of materials, and the capability for direct (contact) or indirect (proximity) instrumentation of active

D. C. Corrigan; G. A. Last

2010-01-01

133

FFTF utilization for irradiation testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

FFTF utilization for irradiation testing is beginning. Two Fuels Open Test Assemblies and one Vibration Open Test Assembly, both containing in-core contact instrumentation, are installed in the reactor. These assemblies will be used to confirm plant design performance predictions. Some 100 additional experiments are currently planned to follow these three. This will result in an average core loading of about

D. C. Corrigan; L. J. Julyk; C. W. Hoth; J. C. McGuire; W. R. Sloan

1980-01-01

134

Alterations of Ultraviolet Irradiated DNA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thymine dimers production has been studied in several DNA- exp 3 H irradiated at various wave lenght of U.V. Light. The influence of dimers on the hydrodynamic and optic properties, thermal structural stability and transformant capacity of DNA have been s...

C. Davila F. Garces

1980-01-01

135

Irradiation creep of advanced silicon carbide fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bend stress relaxation (BSR) method was applied to study irradiation enhanced creep (IEC) of small diameter silicon carbide (SiC) fibers after 10 MeV proton irradiation. A first series of tests was conducted on Sylramic™ fibers irradiated at 600°C with average bending stresses of 400 and 667 MPa and for irradiation doses smaller than 0.04 dpa. The BSR results are

R. Scholz; G. E. Youngblood

2000-01-01

136

Biological effects of ultraviolet irradiation on bees  

SciTech Connect

The influence of natural solar and artificial ultraviolet irradiation on developing bees was studied. Lethal exposures to irradiation at different stages of development were determined. The influence of irradiation on the variability of the morphometric features of bees was revealed. 5 refs., 1 fig.

Es`kov, E.K. [Ryazan` State Pedagogical Univ. (Russian Federation)

1995-09-01

137

Preservation of crab meat by gamma irradiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fresh crab meat from swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus, Linn.) was irradiated at doses of 0.075, 0.15 and 0.25 Mrad and held at 3(sup 0)C. The storage life of non-irradiated crab meat was approximately 7 days compared with 14 days for crab meat irradiated...

P. Loaharanu C. Prompubesara K. Kraisorn K. Noochpramool

1972-01-01

138

Experiences of food irradiation in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we shall attempt to present the history and current status of food irradiation research and commercialization in Japan. In 1967 the Japan Atomic Energy Commission decided to promote the research and development of food irradiation, based on research activities since 1954. The national project on food irradiation investigated the following: 1) the inhibition of sprout growth of

Masaa Ki Takehisa; Hitoshi Ito

1986-01-01

139

Charge transport in non-irradiated and irradiated silicon detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model describing the transport of the charge carriers generated in n-type silicon detectors by ionizing particles is presented. In order to reproduce the experimental current pulse responses induced by /? and /? particles in non-irradiated and irradiated detectors up to fluences /(?) much beyond the n to p-type inversion, an n-type region 15 /?m deep is introduced on the p+ side of the diode. This model also gives mobilities which decrease linearly up to fluences of around 5×1013 particles/cm2 and beyond, converging to saturation values of about 1000 and 450 cm2/Vs for electrons and holes, respectively. The charge carrier lifetime degradation with increased fluence, due to trapping, is responsible for a predicted charge collection deficit for /? particles and for /? particles which is found to agree with direct CCE measurements.

Leroy, C.; Roy, P.; Casse, G. L.; Glaser, M.; Grigoriev, E.; Lemeilleur, F.

1999-09-01

140

Effect of microwave irradiation on TATB explosive.  

PubMed

Finished TATB (1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene) explosive safety under 800W microwave irradiation was experimented. No burning, deflagration and detonation were observed during 30-min continuous irradiation and no remarkable change were observed after irradiation according to HPLC, particles size analysis, and differential thermal analysis. Wet TATB sampled from synthesis line was irradiated with microwave vacuum method and irradiated TATB was measured to accord with military standard specifications including appearance, moisture and volatile, chloride content, HPLC, mean particle size, DTA exothermic peak, ash, acetone soluble content, PH value, etc. Microwave vacuum desiccation was deemed laborsaving, energy-efficient, and practicable compared to conventional processing method. PMID:19324496

Yu, Weifei; Zhang, Tonglai; Huang, Yigang; Yang, Li; Li, Gang; Li, Haibo; Li, Jinshan; Huang, Hui

2009-03-06

141

Development of Irradiation Capsules in Liquid Metal Environment in Joyo and Their Application to Irradiation Creep Measurement of Vanadium Alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to perform irradiation experiments in a liquid metal environment in a nuclear reactor, an irradiation technique with sodium bonding irradiation capsules was developed and a series of neutron irradiation experiments with sodium bonding irradiation capsules were performed in Joyo. The design and fabrication of sodium bonding capsules, sodium filling into capsules, capsule loading to Joyo, irradiation experiments, dismantling

Ken-ichi FUKUMOTO; Minoru NARUI; Hideki MATSUI; Kazuhiro ITO; Yasuhide YANO

2008-01-01

142

Hepatobiliary kinetics after whole-body irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this investigation was to study hepatobiliary kinetics after whole-body gamma irradiation. Two groups of nine male beagle dogs were irradiated with a single whole body dose of 4- and 8-Gy cobalt-60 photons. Each animal was injected with 2 mCi Tc-99m DISIDA and scintigraphic studies were obtained with a gamma camera with a parallel hole multipurpose collimator. The parameters studied included: peak activity of the liver and gall bladder and gall bladder and intestinal visualization from the time of Tc-99m DISIDA administration. Total and indirect bilirubin, LDH, SGOT, and SGPT determined as baseline studies before irradiation and at different time intervals after irradiation were not changed in irradiated animals. Whole body Co-60 irradiation with 4 and 8 Gy produced no significant changes in the Tc-99m DISIDA visualization of the gall bladder or in the peak activity in the gall bladder or the liver 1 and 7 days after irradiation. Intestinal visualization occurred significantly earlier in 8 Gy Co-60 irradiated animals on both day 1 and day 7 post irradiation, compared to baseline values where it was never observed before 195.0 minutes. Gall bladder emptying is significantly accelerated after 8 Gy but not after 4-Gy Co-60 gamma irradiation. These observations suggest that gamma irradiation stimulates gall bladder contractility without modifying intrahepatic biliary kinetics.

Durakovic, A.

1986-09-01

143

Irradiation effects on hydrases for biomedical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To apply an irradiation technique to sterilize ``Hybrid'' biomedical materials including enzymes, we selected papain, a well-characterized plant endopeptidase as a model to examine durability of enzyme activity under the practical irradiation condition in which limited data were available for irradiation inactivation of enzymes. Dry powder and frozen aqueous solution of papain showed significant durability against 60Co-gamma irradiation suggesting that, the commercial irradiation sterilizing method is applicable without modification. Although irradiation of unfrozen aqueous papain solution showed an unusual change of the enzymatic activity with the increasing doses, and was totally inactivated at 15 kGy, we managed to keep the residual activity more than 50% of initial activity after 30-kGy irradiation, taking such optimum conditions as increasing enzyme concentration from 10 to 100 mg/ml and purging with N2 gas to suppress the formation of free radicals.

Furuta, M.; Ohashi, I.; Oka, M.; Hayashi, T.

2000-03-01

144

Overlay welding irradiated stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overlay technique developed for welding irradiated stainless steel may be important for repair or modification of fusion reactor materials. Helium, present due to (n,alpha) reactions, is known to cause cracking using conventional welding methods. Stainless steel impregnated with 3 to 220 appm helium by decay of tritium was used to develop a welding process that could be used for repair. The result was a gas metal arc weld overlay technique with low-heat input and low-penetration into the helium-containing material. Extensive metallurgical and mechanical testing of this technique demonstrated substantial reduction of helium embrittlement damage. The overlay technique was applied to irradiated 304 stainless steel containing 10 appm helium. Surface cracking, present in conventional welds made on the same steel at lower helium concentrations, was eliminated. Underbead cracking, although greater than for tritium charged and aged material, was minimal compared to conventional welding methods.

Kanne, W. R.; Chandler, G. T.; Nelson, D. Z.; Franco-Ferreira, E. A.

145

Microwave Irradiation and Multicomponent Reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common theme throughout drug discovery and process development is speed. With the emergence of combinatorial chemistry and high-speed parallel synthesis, multicomponent reactions (MCRs) have seen a resurgence of interest. MCRs are therefore becoming increasingly popular since they provide the possibility to introduce a large degree of chemical diversity in only one step! Microwave irradiation under controlled conditions has been shown to be an invaluable technology since it often allows to dramatically reduce reaction times from days or hours to minutes or even seconds. Compound libraries can be rapidly synthesized in either a parallel or sequential way using this new, enabling technology. The current chapter highlights the application of microwave irradiation for MCRs during the last 4 years. More than 110 recent literature reports have been covered.

Bariwal, Jitender B.; Trivedi, Jalpa C.; van der Eycken, Erik V.

146

GTL-1 Irradiation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the Gas Test Loop (GTL-1) miniplate experiment is to confirm acceptable performance of high-density (i.e., 4.8 g-U/cm3) U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel plates clad in Al-6061 and irradiated under the relatively aggressive Booster Fast Flux Loop (BFFL) booster fuel conditions, namely a peak plate surface heat flux of 450 W/cm2. As secondary objectives, several design and fabrication variations were included in the test matrix that may have the potential to improve the high-heat flux, high-temperature performance of the base fuel plate design.1, 2 The following report summarizes the life of the GTL-1 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis, thermal analysis and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez; G. S. Chang; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

2012-01-01

147

Overlay welding irradiated stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

An overlay technique developed for welding irradiated stainless steel may be important for repair or modification of fusion reactor materials. Helium, present due to n,{alpha} reactions, is known to cause cracking using conventional welding methods. Stainless steel impregnated with 3 to 220 appm helium by decay of tritium was used to develop a welding process that could be used for repair. The result was a gas metal arc weld overlay technique with low-heat input and low-penetration into the helium-containing material. Extensive metallurgical and mechanical testing of this technique demonstrated substantial reduction of helium embrittlement damage. The overlay technique was applied to irradiated 304 stainless steel containing 10 appm helium. Surface cracking, present in conventional welds made on the same steel at lower helium concentrations, was eliminated. Underbead cracking, although greater than for tritium charged and aged material, was minimal compared to conventional welding methods.

Kanne, W.R.; Chandler, G.T.; Nelson, D.Z.; Franco-Ferreira, E.A.

1993-08-01

148

Microstructure evolution in irradiated materials  

SciTech Connect

Study the interaction of defects produced during irradiation or deformation of a metal with the microstructure of that particular material, such as dislocations and grain boundaries. In particular we will study the interaction of dislocation with interstitial loops and stacking fault tetrahedral, and the production of displacement cascades close to dislocations and grain boundaries. The data obtained from these simulations will be used as input to diffusion models and dislocation dynamics models.

Caturla, M

1999-11-30

149

RERTR-13 Irradiation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-13 was designed to assess performance of different types of neutron absorbers that can be potentially used as burnable poisons in the low enriched uranium-molybdenum based dispersion and monolithic fuels.1 The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-13 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; D. M. Wachs; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme

2012-09-01

150

RERTR-8 Irradiation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-8, was designed to test monolithic mini-fuel plates fabricated via hot isostatic pressing (HIP), the effect of molybdenum (Mo) content on the monolithic fuel behavior, and the efficiency of ternary additions to dispersion fuel particles on the interaction layer behavior at higher burnup. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-8 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis, thermal analysis and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

2011-12-01

151

RERTR-6 Irradiation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-6 was designed to evaluate several modified fuel designs that were proposed to address the possibility of breakaway swelling due to porosity within the (U. Mo) Al interaction product observed in the full-size plate tests performed in Russia and France1. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-6 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analyses, thermal analyses and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

2011-12-01

152

Licensing a new industrial irradiator.  

PubMed

After nearly three decades of medical product sterilization, 3M launched a major new project to build and license an irradiator facility. 3M Corporate Health Physics was responsible for the licensing aspect of this project. The licensing process consisted of six amendments, over 30 submissions to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC) and four U.S. NRC site visits. It took approximately 22 months to complete. The six license amendments are reviewed and several of the submissions are discussed. These include 3M's response to the U.S. NRC's interest in the shielding calculations used for the bioshield, the development of a protocol of radiation safety system test methods, and an analysis to show that a dropped cask during loading operations would not fall on sealed sources. A number of lessons were learned during the course of licensing the new irradiator. Among these were the importance of understanding the U.S. NRC license reviewer's perspective, the need to thoroughly review the irradiator manufacturer's licensing package during project negotiations, the benefits of leaving the Health Physics Office and meeting with the non-health physicists involved in the project, and the necessity of maintaining the solid relationships that already existed with the site Radiation Safety Officer and Sterilization Engineer. PMID:20065665

Bates, Nicolas K; Entwistle, Frederick B

2010-02-01

153

Proton Irradiation Study of GFR Candidate Ceramics  

SciTech Connect

This work investigated the microstructural response of ZrC, ZrN, TiN, and SiC irradiated with 2.6 MeV protons at 800ºC to a single dose in the range of 1.5 to 3.0 displacement per atom (dpa), depending on the material. The change of lattice constant evaluated using HOLZ patterns is not observed and is small when measured using XRD for the irradiated samples up to 1.5 dpa for 6H-SiC, and up to 3.0 dpa for ZrC and ZrN. In comparison to Kr ion irradiation at 800ºC to 10 dpa from the previous studies, the proton-irradiated ceramics at 3.0 dpa show less irradiation damage to the lattice structure. The irradiated ZrC exhibits faulted loops which are not observed in the Kr ion irradiated sample. The irradiated ZrN shows the least microstructural change from proton irradiation. The microstructure of 6H-SiC irradiated to 3.0 dpa consists of a black dot defect type at high density.

Jian Gan; Yong Yang; Clayton Dickson; Todd Allen

2009-05-01

154

Renal graft irradiation in acute rejection  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the effect of graft irradiation in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants, a randomized study was conducted from 1978 to 1981. Patients with acute rejection were given standard medical management in the form of intravenous methylprednisolone, and were chosen randomly to receive either graft irradiation (175 rads every other day, to a total of 525 rads) or simulated (sham) irradiation. Eighty-three rejections occurring in 64 grafts were randomized to the protocol. Rejection reversal was recorded in 84.5% of control grafts and 75% of the irradiated grafts. Recurrent rejections were more frequent and graft survival was significantly lower in the irradiated group (22%) than in the control group (54%). Graft irradiation does not appear to be beneficial in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants when used in conjunction with high-dose steroids.

Pilepich, M.V.; Sicard, G.A.; Breaux, S.R.; Etheredge, E.E.; Blum, J.; Anderson, C.B.

1983-03-01

155

Early esophageal carcinoma treated with intracavitary irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Five patients with early esophageal carcinoma were treated by 6-12 Gy of intracavitary irradiation following 50-60 Gy of external irradiation as a boost therapy. Surgery was not performed in these cases. None of the patients had local recurrence after radiation therapy, as demonstrated by esophagography and endoscopy. Three patients have been alive for 1-3 years 10 months. Esophageal ulceration induced by intracavitary irradiation has occurred in three of the five patients; however, intracavitary irradiation is still a beneficial treatment because of its efficacy in controlling local lesions and because radiation ulceration can eventually be cured. Intracavitary irradiation is recommended to follow external irradiation as a boost therapy for the treatment of early esophageal carcinoma.

Hishikawa, Y.; Tanaka, S.; Miura, T.

1985-08-01

156

EPR Investigation of Irradiated Curry Powder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma-ray irradiated curry powder, a well priced oriental spice was investigated in order to establish the ability of EPR to detect the presence and time stability of free irradiation free-radicals. Accordingly, curry powder aliquots were irradiated with gradually increasing absorbed doses up to 11.3 kGy. The EPR spectra of all irradiated samples show the presence of al last two different species of free radicals, whose concentration increased monotonously with the absorbed doses. A 100° C isothermal annealing of irradiated samples has shown a differential reduction of amplitude of various components of the initial spectra, but even after 3.6 h of thermal treatment, the remaining amplitude represents no less then 30% of the initial ones. The same peculiarities have been noticed after more than one year storage at room temperature, all of them being very useful in establishing the existence of any previous irradiation treatment.

Duliu, O. G.; Ali, S. I.; Georgescu, R.

2007-04-01

157

Irradiation preservation of seafood: Literature review  

SciTech Connect

The application of gamma-irradiation for extending the shelf life of seafood has been of interest for many years. This report reviews a number of studies on seafood irradiation conducted over the past several years. Topics covered include seafood irradiation techniques and dosages, species applicability and differences, the effects of packaging on seafood preservation, and changes in organoleptic acceptability as a result of irradiation. Particular attention is given to radiation effects (likely and unlikely) of concern to the public. These include the potential for generation of toxic chemical products, botulinum toxin production, and other health concerns. No scientifically defensible evidence of any kind was found for any harmful effect of irradiation of seafoods at the doses being considered (less than 300 krad), and all indications are that irradiation is an acceptable and needed additional tool for seafood preservation. 49 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

Molton, P.M.

1987-10-01

158

HRB-22 irradiation phase test data report  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation capsule HRB-22 was a test capsule containing advanced Japanese fuel for the High Temperature Test Reactor (HTTR). Its function was to obtain fuel performance data at HTTR operating temperatures in an accelerated irradiation environment. The irradiation was performed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The capsule was irradiated for 88.8 effective full power days in position RB-3B of the removable beryllium (RB) facility. The maximum fuel compact temperature was maintained at or below the allowable limit of 1300{degrees}C for a majority of the irradiation. This report presents the data collected during the irradiation test. Included are test thermocouple and gas flow data, the calculated maximum and volume average temperatures based on the measured graphite temperatures, measured gaseous fission product activity in the purge gas, and associated release rate-to-birth rate (R/B) results. Also included are quality assurance data obtained during the test.

Montgomery, F.C.; Acharya, R.T.; Baldwin, C.A.; Rittenhouse, P.L.; Thoms, K.R.; Wallace, R.L.

1995-03-01

159

Radioluminescence Investigation Of Ion-irradiated Phosphors  

SciTech Connect

Phosphors are materials that emit light under the excitation of incoming radiation. This property is used, among other applications, in radiation detection. Efficient energy transfer from the ionization track to the luminescent centers must occur to yield significant light output. Besides, the investigation of the effects of ion irradiation on the luminescence of phosphors is comparatively unexplored. In this work, we review radioluminescence (RL) investigation of ion-irradiated oxides and oxide phosphors, and present preliminary data on the effects of ion irradiation on the luminescence of intrinsic phosphor Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}0{sub 12} (BGO). Commercial crystals were irradiated, and the irradiation effects characterized by means of RL measurements as a function of temperature, from 10K to room temperature (RT), and optical absorption measurements. Overall, surface modification induced by ion irradiation leads to higher luminescence output.

Jacobsohn, Luiz [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muenchausen, Ross [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bennett, Bryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

160

Free radical kinetics on irradiated fennel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herein, an electron spin resonance study on the behavior of organic radicals in fennel before and after irradiation is reported. The spectrum of irradiated fennel composed of the spectrum component derived from the un-irradiated sample (near g=2.005) and the spectra components derived from carbohydrates. The time decay of intensity spectral components was well explained by first-order kinetics with a variety

Rumi Yamaoki; Shojiro Kimura; Masatoshi Ohta

2008-01-01

161

Sucrose synthesis in gamma irradiated sweet potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of ..cap alpha..-irradiation carbohydrate metabolism was examined to elucidate mechanism of sucrose accumulation in sweet potato (SP). Enzymes examined were: ..beta..-amylase, phosphorylase, phosphoglucomutase, phosphoglucose isomerase, sucrose phosphate synthetase and sucrose synthetase. Irradiated SP (Red Jewell) sucrose was synthesized to yield 10.7% after 4 d PI. Activities of sugar synthesizing enzymes in irradiated SP were enhanced to different degrees using

S. Ailouni; M. K. Hamdy; R. T. Toledo

1987-01-01

162

Safety Assurance for ATR Irradiations  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the world’s premiere test reactor for performing high fluence, large volume, irradiation test programs. The ATR has many capabilities and a wide variety of tests are performed in this truly one of a kind reactor, including isotope production, simple self-contained static capsule experiments, instrumented/controlled experiments, and loop testing under pressurized water conditions. Along with the five pressurized water loops, ATR may also have gas (temperature controlled) lead experiments, fuel boosted fast flux experiments, and static sealed capsules all in the core at the same time. In addition, any or all of these tests may contain fuel or moderating materials that can affect reactivity levels in the ATR core. Therefore the safety analyses required to ensure safe operation of each experiment as well as the reactor itself are complex. Each test has to be evaluated against stringent reactor control safety criteria, as well as the effects it could have on adjacent tests and the reactor as well as the consequences of those effects. The safety analyses of each experiment are summarized in a document entitled the Experiment Safety Assurance Package (ESAP). The ESAP references and employs the results of the reactor physics, thermal, hydraulic, stress, seismic, vibration, and all other analyses necessary to ensure the experiment can be irradiated safely in the ATR. The requirements for reactivity worth, chemistry compatibilities, pressure limitations, material issues, etc. are all specified in the Technical Safety Requirements and the Upgraded Final Safety Analysis Report (UFSAR) for the ATR. This paper discusses the ESAP process, types of analyses, types of safety requirements and the approvals necessary to ensure an experiment can be safely irradiated in the ATR.

S. Blaine Grover

2006-10-01

163

Grafting of styrene into pre-irradiated fluoropolymer films: Influence of base material and irradiation temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the influence of irradiation temperature on mechanical properties of three fluoropolymers and on grafting of styrene into the polymers by the pre-irradiation method was investigated. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the irradiated polymers regarding trapped radical species and changes in the chemical structure, respectively. For poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-perfluoropropyl vinyl ether) (PFA) the irradiation temperature was found to be an important factor for tensile strength and elongation at break of the pre-irradiated film. No strong effect of irradiation temperature on the mechanical properties was noticed for poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-ethylene) (ETFE); however the yield of grafting drops at high irradiation temperatures. Finally, mechanical properties of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) were found to be dramatically altered, even if the film was irradiated at elevated temperature.

Lappan, Uwe; Geißler, Uwe; Gohs, Uwe; Uhlmann, Steffi

2010-10-01

164

Extraterrestrial Spectral Solar Irradiance Data for Modeling Spectral Solar Irradiance at the Earth's Surface.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the extraterrestrial (air mass zero, AMO) spectral solar irradiance data used by the Solar Energy Research Institute's Resource Assessment Branch in models to calculate spectral solar irradiance at the earth's surface. The report con...

C. Riordan

1987-01-01

165

Thymus irradiation for myasthenia gravis  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-eight patients with progressive myasthenia gravis without thymoma received treatment of 3000 rads (30 Gy) to the anterior mediastinum, and a followup was conducted for five to 18 years. Twenty-four patients had generalized myasthenia, and four had ocular myasthenia gravis. Twenty patients with generalized myasthenia survived the several month post-treatment period and improved, but four died during that period. The improvement lasted a median of 1.5 years, and older patients had longer remissions than younger patients. The four patients who had ocular myasthenia did not change after treatment. Mediastinal irradiation produces a temporary remission in generalized myasthenia.

Currier, R.D.; Routh, A.; Hickman, B.T.; Douglas, M.A.

1983-01-01

166

AFIP-6 Irradiation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-6 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) fuels at a length prototypic to that of the ATR fuel plates (45 inches in length). The AFIP-6 test was the first test with plates in a swaged condition with longer fuel zones of approximately 22.5 inches in length1,2. The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-6 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.

Danielle M Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

2011-09-01

167

Food irradiation and airline catering.  

PubMed

Food poisoning from contaminated airline food can produce serious consequences for airline crew and passengers and can hazard flight. While irradiation of certain foodstuffs has been practised in a number of countries for some years, application of the process has not been made to complete meals. This paper considers the advantages, technical considerations, costs and possible application to airline meals. In addition, the need to educate the public in the advantages of the process in the wake of incidents such as Chernobyl is discussed. PMID:3370047

Preston, F S

1988-04-01

168

Free radical kinetics on irradiated fennel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herein, an electron spin resonance study on the behavior of organic radicals in fennel before and after irradiation is reported. The spectrum of irradiated fennel composed of the spectrum component derived from the un-irradiated sample (near g=2.005) and the spectra components derived from carbohydrates. The time decay of intensity spectral components was well explained by first-order kinetics with a variety of rate constants. Especially, the signal at near g=2.02 ascribed to stable cellulose-derivative components is expected to be a good indicator in the identification of irradiated plant samples.

Yamaoki, Rumi; Kimura, Shojiro; Ohta, Masatoshi

2008-09-01

169

Solid target irradiation and transfer system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact, fully automated solid target irradiation, handling and transfer system was developed for the 100Mo/99m Tc production; however, it can be used for any solid target material. All the target handling is fully automated. The target is pneumatically transferred to the irradiation station where it is removed from the carrier, placed in the irradiation chamber and the cooling water connected. At the end of irradiation the target is returned to the carrier and transferred to the processing hot cell where it is automatically placed in a distillation unit. 100 Mo targets are prepared by plasma spraying or laser cladding of the copper target.

Gelbart, W.; Johnson, R. R.; Abeysekera, B.

2012-12-01

170

Mechanical properties of irradiated spinel ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of grain size on the nanomechanical properties of Ar-irradiated magnesium-aluminate spinels was studied. Spinel single crystals and ceramics of different grain size varying from ˜1 ?m up to few tens of micrometers were used in the experiments. The measurements were performed in both grain centers and grain boundaries and point to rapidly disappearing differences between bulk and boundaries in irradiated ceramics. The stress-induced hardening has been observed as well. This last effect depends on the grain size of the irradiated material and may serve as an indicator of the stress evolution in the irradiated samples.

Jagielski, J.; Piatkowska, A.; Aubert, P.; Maciejak, O.; Labdi, S.; Thomé, L.; Jozwik, I.; Wajler, A.

2010-10-01

171

Irradiation of Food and Packaging: An Overview  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... degradation of various polymer adjuvants, including ... Irradiation of Polymers: Fundamentals and ... presented at Engineering Foundation Conference ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/irradiatedfoodpackaging

172

The irradiation effects on zirconium alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressure tube samples were irradiated under helium atmosphere in the TRIGA Steady State Research and Material Test Reactor of the Romanian Institute for Nuclear Research (INR). These samples are made of the Zr 2.5%Nb alloy used as structural material for the CANDU Romanian power reactors. After irradiation, mechanical tests were performed in the Post Irradiation Examination Laboratory (PIEL) to study the influence of irradiation on zirconium alloys mechanical behaviour. The tensile test results were used for structural integrity assessment. Results of the tests are presented. The paper presents, also, pressure tube structural integrity assessment.

Negut, Gh.; Ancuta, M.; Radu, V.; Ionescu, S.; Stefan, V.; Uta, O.; Prisecaru, I.; Danila, N.

2007-05-01

173

Electron beam irradiation of epoxidized natural rubber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of irradiation on ENR50 was studied with particular attention to irradiation-induced crosslinking. ENR50 was irradiated by using a 3.0 MeV electron beam machine with doses ranging from 20 to 200 kGy. The influence of several additives such as TMPTA, Irganox1010 and tribasic lead sulfate on irrradiation-induced crosslinking of ENR50 was investigated. The gel fraction, Ts, M100, Eb, hardness and Tg were used to follow the irradiation-induced crosslinking of the rubber. Results revealed that the increase in gel fraction upon irradiation of pure ENR50 could be associated with both irradiation-induced crosslinking as well as ring opening side chain reaction of oxirane group. The observation on the trend shown in the properties studied confirmed that TMPTA is efficient in enhancing the irradiation-induced crosslinking of ENR50. The addition of Irganox1010 and tribasic lead sulfate found to inhibit irradiation-induced crosslinking of ENR50 to considerable extent. This influence of stabilizing additives in particular, antioxidant, was observed to be more prominent at lower doses. The importance of TMPTA in preventing ring opening side chain reactions as well as the role of the stabilizing additives in introducing free chain ends are also discussed. However studies did not reveal the exact nature of irradiation-induced reactions involved in ENR.

Ratnam, C. T.; Nasir, M.; Baharin, A.; Zaman, K.

2000-12-01

174

MEASUREMENT OF HIGH TEMPERATURE IRRADIATION CREEP IN GRAPHITE. Project DRAGON  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the joint Dragon\\/THTR graphite irradiation programme, experimental techniques have been evolved for measuring the irradiation creep of graphite at high temperatures. The principle of the method is to retrain the irradiation induced dimensional changes to produce a stressed assembly which gives rise to irradiation creep phenomena in the different components. Its main advantage is that little irradiation

Blackstone

1968-01-01

175

Spectroscopic analysis of irradiated erythrocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present work is to study the effect of gamma radiation on the lipid part of the erythrocyte membrane, and to test the efficiency of lipoic acid as a radioprotector. This effect was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results showed an increase in the number of spin density by 14%, 22% and 65% after exposure to 25, 50 and 100 Gy respectively; whereas there was a decline in the obtained density after incubation with lipoic acid by a factor of approximately 32%. The FT-IR spectra of the irradiated erythrocytes samples showed a marked decrease in the intensity of all characteristic peaks, which increased as the irradiation dose increased. The second-derivative of these spectra, allow the conformationally sensitive membrane acyl chain methylene stretching modes to be separated from the protein (mostly hemoglobin) vibrations that dominate the spectra of intact cells. The 2850 cm-1 band showed changes in the band shape and position after exposure to 50 and 100 Gy. Therefore it can be concluded that the band at 2850 cm-1 only is useful in monitoring the radiation effect of the lipids cell membrane intact cells.

Selim, Nabila S.; Desouky, Omar S.; Ismail, Nagla M.; Dakrory, Amira Z.

2011-12-01

176

Source mechanisms of micro-earthquakes induced in a fluid injection experiment at the HDR site Soultz-sous-Forêts (Alsace) in 2003 and their temporal and spatial variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have inverted the peak amplitudes of direct P waves of 45 micro-earthquakes with magnitudes between M = 1.4 and 2.9, which occurred during and after the 2003 massive fluid injection in the GPK3 borehole of the Soultz-sous-Forêts Hot Dry Rock facility. These events were recorded by a surface seismic network of 15 stations operated by the Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre, University of Strasbourg. The unconstrained moment tensor (MT) expression of the mechanism was applied, allowing the description of a general system of dipoles, that is, both double-couple (DC) and non-DC sources, as tensile fractures. The mechanisms of all but one event are dominantly DCs with a few per cent additional components at the most. We have checked carefully the reliability of the MT retrieval in bootstrap trials eliminating some data, by simulating the mislocation of the hypocentre and by applying simplified velocity models of the area in constructing Green's functions. In some of the trials non-DC components amounting to several tens of per cent appear, but the F-test classifies them as insignificant. Even the only micro-earthquake with an exceptionally high non-DC mechanism cannot be classified unambiguously-the F-test assigns similar significance to the pure DC solution. The massive dominance of the DC indicates the shear-slip as the mechanism of the micro-earthquakes investigated. The mechanisms display large variability and are of normal dip-slip, oblique normal to strike-slip types. The T-axes are fairly stable, being concentrated subhorizontally roughly in the E-W direction. On the contrary, the P-axes are ill constrained varying in the N-S direction from nearly vertical to nearly horizontal, which points to heterogeneous stress in the Soultz injected volume. This is in agreement with the stress pattern from in situ measurements: the minimum stress axis is well constrained to E-W, whereas the maximum and intermediate stress values are close to one another, enabling the ambiguity of the P-axis direction. We found no significant dependence of source mechanisms either on magnitudes or depths. The time-space distribution of the events analysed suggests that the injection activated two segments of the natural faults existing in the area (I and II in our notation) showing different source mechanism patterns. The dip-slip regime is characteristic of fault segment I where the seismicity occurred during and also after injection, whereas the strike-slip regime prevails in segment II where the seismicity was triggered only after the injection shut in. This indicates that the tensile fractures, which are assumed to be created during injection, may have occurred on a smaller scale than the pure shear micro-earthquakes investigated.

Horálek, Josef; Jechumtálová, Zuzana; Dorbath, Louis; Šílený, Jan

2010-06-01

177

Updates to ISO 21348 (determining solar irradiances)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ISO 21348 (Determining Solar Irradiances) International Standard is going through a document update. A consensus solar spectrum, solar indices/proxies descriptions, solar model descriptions, and solar measurement descriptions are among the Annexes that are proposed to the standard. These topics will be reviewed and described. The International Standards Organization (ISO) published IS 21348 in 2007 after 7 years of development by the international scientific community. In ISO, documents are reviewed on a regular basis and reaffirmed, updated, or deleted according to the votes of national delegations represented in ISO. IS 21348 provides guidelines for specifying the process of determining solar irradiances. Solar irradiances are reported through products such as measurement sets, reference spectra, empirical models, theoretical models and solar irradiance proxies or indices. These products are used in scientific and engineering applications to characterize within the natural space environment solar irradiances that are relevant to space systems and materials. Examples of applications using input solar irradiance energy include the determination of atmospheric densities for spacecraft orbit determination, attitude control and re-entry calculations, as well as for debris mitigation and collision avoidance activity. Direct and indirect pressure from solar irradiance upon spacecraft surfaces also affects attitude control separately from atmospheric density effects. Solar irradiances are used to provide inputs for a) calculations of ionospheric parameters, b) photon-induced radiation effects, and c) radiative transfer modeling of planetary atmospheres. Input solar irradiance energy is used to characterize material properties related to spacecraft thermal control, including surface temperatures, reflectivity, absorption and degradation. Solar energy applications requiring a standard process for determining solar irradiance energy include i) solar cell power simulation, ii) material degradation, and iii) the development of lamps and filters for terrestrial solar simulators. A solar irradiance product certifies compliance with this process-based standard by following compliance criteria that are described in this International Standard.

Tobiska, W. Kent

2012-07-01

178

Irradiation effects on meat flavor: A review.  

PubMed

Irradiating fresh meat, even at low doses, can result in off-odors and flavors which have been described as rotten egg, bloody, fishy, barbecued corn, burnt, sulfur, metallic, alcohol or acetic acid. The odors vary with the type of meat, temperature during irradiation, oxygen exposure during and/or after the irradiation process, packaging and presence of antioxidative substances. Irradiation can induce formation of isooctane-soluble carbonyl compounds in the lipid fraction and low molecular weight, acid-soluble carbonyls in the protein fraction of meat. Increasing irradiation dose increases these compounds however, cooking reduces them. Among the volatile components, 1-heptene and 1-nonene are influenced most by irradiation dose, and aldehydes (propanal, pentanal, hexanal) are influenced most by packaging type (aerobic vs vacuum). Sulfur-containing volatiles formed from sulfur-containing compounds (primarily amino acids) also contribute to irradiation odor. Dimethyltrisulfide is one of the most potent off-odor compounds, contributing fishy, putrid odors, followed by bismethylthiomethane (sulfurous). Reducing the temperature during the irradiation process reduces the effects on odor/flavor because free radical generation and dispersion are reduced. Ultimately, radiolysis of water into free radical species (OH,H, H(3)0(+), e(aq)(-)) may be the initiators of both lipid oxidation breakdown products and sulfur-containing volatiles responsible for irradiation odor. Methods to decrease the detrimental effects of irradiation include oxygen exclusion (vacuum packaging), replacement with inert gases (nitrogen), addition of protective agents (antioxidants), and post-irradiation storage to allow flavor to return to near-normal levels (re-packaging or double packaging in oxygen permeable film). PMID:22063956

Brewer, M S

2008-07-19

179

Irradiated homologous costal cartilage for augmentation rhinoplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the ideal reconstructive material for augmentation rhinoplasty continues to challenge plastic surgeons, there exists no report in the literature that confines the use of irradiated homologous costal cartilage, first reported by Dingman and Grabb in 1961, to dorsal nasal augmentation. The purpose of this paper is to present a retrospective analysis of the author's experience using irradiated homologous costal

George Lefkovits

1990-01-01

180

Fundamental irradiation studies on vanadium alloys  

SciTech Connect

A joint experiment on the irradiation response of simple vanadium alloys has been initiated under the auspices of the DAFS and BES progams. Specimen fabrication is nearly complete and the alloys are expected to be irradiated in lithium in FFTF-MOTA Cycles 7 and 8.

Loomis, B.A.; Garner, F.A.; Ermi, A.M.

1985-05-01

181

Spectral Irradiance of Daylight at Durban.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An apparatus and method used to measure the spectral irradiance of daylight on a horizontal plane in the 295-775 nm wavelength region are described. Both global and diffuse sky irradiances were measured over a period of approximately 12 months. The result...

C. J. Kok A. N. Chalmers

1978-01-01

182

IRRADIATION TESTING OF FUEL MATERIALS FOR EGCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irradiation tests were conducted in the ORR, ETR, and LITR for ; evaluating fuel materials for the EGCR. Time limitations imposed by the reactor ; construction schedule restricted material choices and test conditions to those ; imMediately appropriate for the EGCR and necessitated some replication. Fifty-; nine assemblies were irradiated at stainless steel cladding surface temperatures ; of 1300 to

Trauger

1962-01-01

183

LET effects of neutron irradiated plastic scintillators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induced optical absorptions of polymers polystyrene (PS), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and polyvinyltoluene (PVT), irradiated by neutrons and in ? fields, were measured for equal doses. The polymers are the most important bases for the use as plastic scintillators. The permanent damage in PS and PVT after recovery in air is larger for neutron than for ? irradiation. Electron spin resonance

B. Bodmann; S. Göb; U. Holm

2003-01-01

184

Emerging issues in food irradiation research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ionizing radiation is used on a global basis to improve the phytosanitary and microbial safety and shelf-life of foods. In recent years progress has been made in the commercial application of irradiation to sterilize destructive invasive insects and to irradiate produce to improve its microbiologica...

185

A Retailer's Experience with Irradiated Foods  

SciTech Connect

A food irradiation success story comes from Northbrook, Illinois, where Carrot Top, Inc., has been routinely carrying irradiated food for more than 7 yr. This paper presents the experiences of Carrot Top during those years, details the marketing approaches used, and summarizes the resulting sales figures.

James P. Corrigan

2000-11-12

186

Swelling in Neutron-Irradiated Titanium Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Immersion density measurements have been performed on a series of titanium alloys irradiated in EBR-II to a fluence of 5 x 10 exp 22 n/cm exp 2 (E > 0.1 MeV) at 450 and 550 exp 0 C. The materials irradiated were the near-alpha alloys Ti-6242S and Ti-5621S...

D. T. Peterson

1982-01-01

187

Solar Irradiance Short Wave Radiation Users Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar irradiance for short wave radiation (400-700 nm) at the sea surface can be calculated using inputs obtained from satellite systems and model estimates. The short wave solar irradiance is important for estimating the surface heating that occurs in th...

P. Martinolich R. A. Arnone

1995-01-01

188

Irradiation effects on meat color – a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color changes in irradiated fresh meat occur because of the susceptibility of the myoglobin molecule, especially the iron, to alterations in the chemical environment and to energy input. The potential for iron electrons to exist in various states makes the environment adjacent to the iron atom particularly vulnerable to the presence of electron-donating compounds and high energy inputs (irradiation). Initial

Susan Brewer

2004-01-01

189

Magna-field irradiation: physical considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magna-field radiotherapy in the form of total body, half body and total nodal irradiation is becoming increasingly prominent and involves dosimetric problems that are much more pronounced than they are for conventional field sizes. In this review of the physical considerations of magna-field irradiation, a number of possible alternate methods of producing large radiation fields are outlined, the basic beam

Van Dyk

1983-01-01

190

Electron beam irradiated textile cellulose fibres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powdered samples of cotton, flax and viscose from textile fibres were subjected to electron beam irradiation (20–400KGy). ESR signals were observed after irradiation. The intensity of the signals depended on the administered dose and exhibited an exponential decay with time. The ESR spectra, whose pattern depended drastically on the crystallinity of the samples, indicated the simultaneous presence of at least

A. Alberti; S. Bertini; G. Gastaldi; N. Iannaccone; D. Macciantelli; G. Torri; E. Vismara

2005-01-01

191

IRRADIATION FOR POSTHARVEST CONTROL OF QUARANTINE INSECTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Interest in the use of irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for agricultural commodities is growing worldwide, particularly since international IPPC and CODEX standards now endorse and facilitate trade based on this disinfestation method. Irradiation is broadly effective against insects and mite...

192

WORLD'S FIRST IN GAMMA IRRADIATION STERILIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gamma-irradiation sterilizing plant for treating plastic disposable ; syringes is described. The initial annual throughput is in the region of 10 ; million syringes, but this could be increased to 50 million. An automatic ; conveyor system moves cartons of syringes into the irradiation cell and past the ; cobalt source of gamma rays. The total exposure time is

Grindrod

1963-01-01

193

THE IRRADIATED FUEL TREATMENT STUDY SERVICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The irradiated fuel treatment study service has two sections. The ; chemical Engineering and radioactive pilot tests section carries out research at ; the Fontenay-aux-Roses laboratories. The irradiated fuel treatment pilot plant ; section studies, at Marcoule, at high activities and on a semi-industrial scale, ; the apparatus and techniques selected in the laboratory. The laboratory research ; is directed

Sauteron

1962-01-01

194

Cherry Irradiation Studies. 1984 annual report  

SciTech Connect

Fresh cherries, cherry fruit fly larvae, and codling moth larvae were irradiated using the PNL cobalt-60 facility to determine the efficacy of irradiation treatment for insect disinfestation and potential shelf life extension. Irradiation is an effective disinfestation treatment with no significant degradation of fruit at doses well above those required for quarantine treatment. Sufficient codling moth control was achieved at projected doses of less than 25 krad; cherry fruit fly control, at projected doses of less than 15 krad. Dose levels up to 60 krad did not adversely affect cherry quality factors tested. Irradiation above 60 krad reduced the firmness of cherries but had no significant impact on other quality factors tested. Irradiation of cherries below 80 krad did not result in any significant differences in sensory evaluations (appearance, flavor, and firmness) in tests conducted at OSU. Irradiation up to 200 krad at a temperature of about 25/sup 0/C (77/sup 0/F) did not measurably extend shelf life. Irradiation at 500 krad at 25/sup 0/C (77/sup 0/F) increased mold and rotting of cherries tested. There is no apparent advantage of irradiation over low-temperature fumigation.

Eakin, D.E.; Hungate, F.P.; Tingey, G.L.; Olsen, K.L.; Fountain, J.B.; Burditt, A.K. Jr.; Moffit, H.R.; Johnson, D.A.; Lunden, J.D.

1985-04-01

195

Low cycle fatigue of irradiated LMFBR materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of low cycle fatigue data on irradiated LMFBR materials was conducted and extensive graphical representations of available data are presented. Representative postirradiation tensile properties of annealed 304 and 316 SS are selected and employed in several predictive methods to estimate irradiated material fatigue curves. Experimental fatigue data confirm the use of predictive methods for establishing conservative design curves

1976-01-01

196

Identification of irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The irradiation treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables for phytosanitary purposes is a satisfactory alternative method to others like fumigation and cold and hot treatments. Its use is increasing in several countries, and at present its approval is under revision by the National Regulatory Authorities. To verify the control process, apart from irradiation and dosimetry certificates, National Authorities require complementary evidence to show the efficacy of this treatment, especially when the documentation is not clear. The irradiation of fresh fruits produces single and double fragmentation in the DNA molecule, which can be measured using the microgel electrophoresis of individual cell (comet assay). The purpose of this work was to evaluate if it is possible to identify the irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes from the others that were not treated. The possibility to estimate the absorbed dose was also evaluated. The methodology was carried out on the cell suspension obtained from irradiated seed cells with incremental doses (100, 200 and 300 Gy). The irradiation treatment for phytosanitary purposes to avoid emergency of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is 200 Gy. The fragmentation produced in the irradiated samples was proportional with the incremental doses applied. These results show that with this methodology it can be determined if the apple was irradiated or not. This comet assay is a simple, economical and interesting method that can be used, in case of necessity, by the National Authorities.

Horak, Celina I.; di Giorgio, Marina; Kairiyama, Eulogia

2009-07-01

197

Recovery process of neutron-irradiated vanadium alloys in post-irradiation annealing treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments to determine the influence of post-irradiation annealing on the mechanical properties and microstructures of neutron-irradiated V-4Cr-4Ti alloys were conducted. Two groups of specimens (as-irradiated specimens and specimens which underwent the post-irradiation annealing treatment) were subjected to tensile tests at room temperature and 773 K. Post-irradiation annealing experiments carried out over periods of up to 50 h were used to restore strength and ductility. As annealing time was extended, ductility was recovered up to 5% at 50 h anneal; however irradiation hardening was not recovered completely. Microstructural changes due to post-irradiation annealing corresponded to the amount that yield stress increased in tensile behavior in the irradiated specimen. The recovery in ductility was likely caused by the dissolution of interstitial impurities from defect clusters and dislocation cores produced by neutron irradiation during post-irradiation anneal treatment. A 3% elongation recovery in V-4Cr-4Ti alloys was achieved by annealing at 773 K for 20 h in a vacuum for neutron-irradiated samples at low temperature.

Fukumoto, K.; Iwasaki, M.; Xu, Q.

2013-11-01

198

Modeling of Irradiation Hardening of Polycrystalline Materials  

SciTech Connect

High energy particle irradiation of structural polycrystalline materials usually produces irradiation hardening and embrittlement. The development of predict capability for the influence of irradiation on mechanical behavior is very important in materials design for next generation reactors. In this work a multiscale approach was implemented to predict irradiation hardening of body centered cubic (bcc) alpha-iron. The effect of defect density, texture and grain boundary was investigated. In the microscale, dislocation dynamics models were used to predict the critical resolved shear stress from the evolution of local dislocation and defects. In the macroscale, a viscoplastic self-consistent model was applied to predict the irradiation hardening in samples with changes in texture and grain boundary. This multiscale modeling can guide performance evaluation of structural materials used in next generation nuclear reactors.

Li, Dongsheng; Zbib, Hussein M.; Garmestani, Hamid; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2011-09-14

199

Effects of irradiation on mandibular scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (Sn) scintigraphy with computer analysis was used to investigate alterations in the pathophysiology of the normal mandible and the pathologic mandible during and after irradiation. Slight but significant elevations of uptake levels were recorded as an early effect of irradiation. The elevations correlated with the duration of treatment and normalized over a follow-up period of 6 to 12 mo. Increased mandibular metabolism was found during irradiation and in osteomyelitis and osteoradionecrosis of the mandible. Scintigraphy with computer analysis proved a simple and valid method in the evaluation of early irradiation damage and pathophysiologic conditions of the mandible. The method can also be used to predict whether the irradiation damage will become irreversible.

Aitasalo, K.; Ruotsalainen, P.

1985-11-01

200

Comparison of Modeled to Observed Global Irradiance.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accuracy of a spectral, clear-sky model to predict hourly global irradiance was investigated using radiation and meteorological observations collected at the Seattle-Tacoma airport between 1 January 1988 and 31 October 1991. The model was first run using the 1976 U.S. standard atmosphere values as inputs, then using the local atmospheric conditions. Clear-sky irradiance values generated by both atmospheres, standard and local, were attenuated using local cloud cover observations for comparison with measured irradiance. Values and trends of the statistical descriptors for the two atmospheres were almost identical. Overall, the model overestimated observed irradiance by less than 6%. Cloud cover was the major source of deviation between the modeled and observed values. The close correspondence between the two model runs suggests that the U.S. standard atmosphere, in conjunction with global cloud datasets, can be used in spectral models to generate irradiance at remote locations.

Davis, Richard F.

1996-02-01

201

Positron lifetime in neutron-irradiated germanium  

SciTech Connect

A model is proposed for calculating the average positron lifetime (before annihilation) in the case when positrons are captured by traps of two types. The average positron lifetime calculated from the experimentally determined angular correlation of the annihilation ..gamma.. rays increases during stage I of isochronous annealing of neutron-irradiated germanium and decreases during stage II to the value before irradiation. The experimental and calculated dependences of the average positron lifetime on the annealing temperature are in qualitative agreement. The observed narrowing of the angular correlation curves and increase in the positron lifetime in neutron-irradiated germanium are inversely proportional to one another. A combined analysis of the annihilation, electrical, and x-ray experiments shows that during annealing of neutron-irradiated germanium the process of positron annihilation is influenced by two types of positron-sensitive defects, which are formed by irradiation (mainly disordered regions) and during stage I of the annealing process (probably divacancies).

Arifov, P.U.; Arutyunov, N.Y.

1980-02-01

202

AGC-1 Irradiation Experiment Test Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Graphite Capsule (AGC) irradiation test program supports the acquisition of irradiated graphite performance data to assist in the selection of the technology to be used for the VHTR. Six irradiations are planned to investigate compressive creep in graphite subjected to a neutron field and obtain irradiated mechanical properties of vibrationally molded, extruded, and iso-molded graphites for comparison. The experiments will be conducted at three temperatures: 600, 900, and 1200°C. At each temperature, two different capsules will be irradiated to different fluence levels, the first from 0.5 to 4 dpa and the second from 4 to 7 dpa. AGC-1 is the first of the six capsules designed for ATR and will focus on the prismatic fluence range.

R. L. Bratton

2006-05-01

203

Historical Variations in Solar UV Irradiance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite measurements of solar UV variability have been made by at least fifteen different instruments since 1978. While it is difficult to keep a single UV irradiance instrument operating throughout a complete solar cycle, many of these instruments (Nimbus-7 SBUV, SME, NOAA-9 SBUV/2, NOAA-11 SBUV/2, UARS SUSIM, UARS SOLSTICE) were able to observe both maximum and minimum irradiance levels during either rising or declining phases of solar activity. Comparisons of these published results for solar cycles 21, 22, and 23 show consistent solar cycle irradiance changes at key wavelengths for terrestrial effects (e.g. 205 nm, 240 nm) within instrumental uncertainties. All historical data sets also show the same relative spectral dependence in the ultraviolet for both short-term (rotational) and long-term (solar cycle) variations. Empirical solar irradiance models that employ multiple proxy data sets to represent spectral irradiance produce long-term solar UV variations that are in good agreement with merged observational data through 2005. Recent UV irradiance data from the SORCE mission covering the declining phase of Cycle 23 present a different picture of long-term solar variations, with significantly larger temporal changes and different spectral dependence. We present comparisons of the SORCE irradiance data with previous solar UV observations and current model predictions. Scaling factors for use with solar UV proxy indexes have been derived from SORCE SIM and SORCE SOLSTICE data during 2004-2005. These scale factors, based on short-term irradiance variations, agree very well with results derived from concurrent NOAA-17 SBUV/2 and UARS SUSIM measurements. The 2004-2005 scale factors are consistent with previously derived scale factors that produce calculated long-term irradiance changes in good agreement with observations. The SORCE long-term solar UV irradiance results, corresponding to the early part of the mission, are consistent with undercorrection of instrument response changes during the first few years of SORCE measurements.

DeLand, M. T.

2011-12-01

204

AFIP-2 Irradiation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-2 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic fuels at a prototypic scale of 2.25 inches x 21.5 inches x 0.050 inches (5.75 cm x 54.6 cm x 0.13cm). The AFIP-2 experiment was fabricated by friction bond (FB) and consists of two plates, one with a zirconium (Zr) diffusion barrier and one with a silicon (Si) enhanced fuel/clad interface1,2. The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-2 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results. The safety analyses performed for AFIP-2 are summarized in Table 5 of the following report.

Danielle M Perez

2011-04-01

205

AFIP-3 Irradiation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-3 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic fuels at a prototypic scale of 2.25 inches x 21.5 inches x 0.050 inches (5.75 cm x 54.6 cm x 0.13cm). The AFIP-3 experiment was fabricated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and consists of two plates, one with a zirconium (Zr) diffusion barrier and one with a silicon (Si) enhanced fuel/clad interface1,2. The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-3 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.

Danielle M Perez

2011-04-01

206

Intraluminal irradiation in bronchogenic carcinoma.  

PubMed

Endobronchial tumors present a difficult therapeutic problem. Most often these patients have primary lung cancer and present with endobronchial disease following a definitive course of surgery and/or irradiation. The most common methods of treatment include transbronchial excision of tumor or laser coagulation. The improvement obtained from these procedures is usually limited to 2 or 3 months, and repeated treatments become more difficult and less effective. A number of brachytherapy radiation techniques have been developed to deliver localized radiation in higher doses without exceeding surrounding normal tissue tolerance. Intraluminal radiation with brachytherapy techniques consists of implantation of radioactive pellets into the tumor through a rigid or flexible bronchoscope or the use of afterloading removable implants with remote afterloading techniques. These procedures can be combined with laser therapy to obtain effective palliation and long-term tumor control. Initial results appear promising. PMID:2442822

Nori, D; Hilaris, B S; Martini, N

1987-10-01

207

Solar Irradiance Variability and Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The brightness of the Sun varies on all timescales on which it has been observed, and there is increasing evidence that this has an influence on climate. The amplitudes of such variations depend on the wavelength and possibly the timescale. Although many aspects of this variability are well established, the exact magnitude of secular variations (going beyond a solar cycle) and the spectral dependence of variations are under discussion. The main drivers of solar variability are thought to be magnetic features at the solar surface. The climate response can be, on a global scale, largely accounted for by simple energetic considerations, but understanding the regional climate effects is more difficult. Promising mechanisms for such a driving have been identified, including through the influence of UV irradiance on the stratosphere and dynamical coupling to the surface. Here, we provide an overview of the current state of our knowledge, as well as of the main open questions.

Solanki, Sami K.; Krivova, Natalie A.; Haigh, Joanna D.

2013-08-01

208

RERTR-7 Irradiation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-7A, was designed to test several modified fuel designs to target fission densities representative of a peak low enriched uranium (LEU) burnup in excess of 90% U-235 at peak experiment power sufficient to generate a peak surface heat flux of approximately 300 W/cm2. The RERTR-7B experiment was designed as a high power test of 'second generation' dispersion fuels at peak experiment power sufficient to generate a surface heat flux on the order of 230 W/cm2.1 The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-7A and RERTR-7B experiments through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analyses, thermal analyses and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

2011-12-01

209

AFIP-3 Irradiation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-3 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic fuels at a prototypic scale of 2.25 inches x 21.5 inches x 0.050 inches (5.75 cm x 54.6 cm x 0.13cm). The AFIP-3 experiment was fabricated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and consists of two plates, one with a zirconium (Zr) diffusion barrier and one with a silicon (Si) enhanced fuel/clad interface1,2. The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-3 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.

Danielle M Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

2012-03-01

210

AFIP-3 Irradiation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-3 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic fuels at a prototypic scale of 2.25 inches x 21.5 inches x 0.050 inches (5.75 cm x 54.6 cm x 0.13cm). The AFIP-3 experiment was fabricated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and consists of two plates, one with a zirconium (Zr) diffusion barrier and one with a silicon (Si) enhanced fuel/clad interface1,2. The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-3 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.

Danielle M Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

2011-05-01

211

Parameterization of Solar Global Uv Irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily doses of solar global UV-B, UV-A, and erythemal irradiation have been param- eterized to be calculated from pyranometer data of global and diffuse irradiation as well as from atmospheric column ozone measured at Potsdam (52 N, 107 m asl). The method has been validated against independent data of measured UV irradiation. A gain of information is provided by use of the parameterization for the three UV compo- nents (UV-B, UV-A and erythemal) referring to average values of UV irradiation. Ap- plying the method to UV irradiation measured at the mountain site Hohenpeissenberg (48 N, 977 m asl) shows that the parameterization even holds under completely differ- ent climatic conditions. On a long-term average (1953 - 2000), parameterized annual UV irradiation values are by 15 % (UV-A) and 21 % (UV-B), respectively, higher at Hohenpeissenberg, than they are at Potsdam. Using measured input data from 27 Ger- man weather stations, the method has been also applied to estimate the spatial distribu- tion of UV irradiation across Germany. Daily global and diffuse irradiation measured at Potsdam (1937 -2000) as well as atmospheric column ozone measured at Potsdam between1964 - 2000 have been used to derive long-term estimates of daily and annual totals of UV irradiation that include the effects of changes in cloudiness, in aerosols and, at least for the period 1964 to 2000, also in atmospheric ozone. It is shown that the extremely low ozone values observed mainly after the volcanic eruptions of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 have substantially enhanced UV-B irradiation in the first half of the 90ies of the last century. The non-linear long-term changes between 1968 and 2000 amount to +4% ...+5% for annual global and UV-A irradiation mainly due to changing cloudiness, and +14% ... +15% for UV-B and erythemal irradiation due to both chang- ing cloudiness and decreasing column ozone. Estimates of long-term changes in UV irradiation derived from data measured at other German sites are addressed as well.

Feister, U.; Jaekel, E.; Gericke, K.

212

Irradiation exposure modulates central opioid functions  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to low doses of gamma irradiation results in the modification of both the antinociceptive properties of morphine and the severity of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in morphine-dependent rats. To better define the interactions between gamma irradiation and these opiate-mediated phenomena, dose-response studies were undertaken of the effect of irradiation on morphine-induced antinociception, and on the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome of morphine-dependent rats. In addition, electrophysiologic studies were conducted in rats after irradiation exposure and morphine treatment correlating with the behavioral studies. The observations obtained demonstrated that the antinociceptive effects of morphine as well as naloxone-precipitated withdrawal were modified in a dose-dependent manner by irradiation exposure. In addition, irradiation-induced changes in the evoked responses obtained from four different brain regions demonstrated transient alterations in both baseline and morphine-treated responses that may reflect the alterations observed in the behavioral paradigms. These results suggest that the effects of irradiation on opiate activities resulted from physiologic alterations of central endogenous opioid systems due to alterations manifested within peripheral targets.

Dougherty, P.M.; Dafny, N.

1987-11-01

213

Spectroscopic investigation of UV irradiated enzymes  

SciTech Connect

Trptophan (Trp) undergoes photolysis when exposed to light in the near UV region. The enzyme systems horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (HLAD) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), which contain two and three Trps respectively, were chosen for analysis of Trp photolysis. Aqueous solutions of HLAD and G3PDH were irradiated at either 295 or 335nm with a xenon lamp. Tryptophan fluorescence was monitored at half hour intervals for two hours in the case of HLAD and one hour in the case of G3PDH. The decrease in fluorescence from 295 irradiation was compared to the fluorescence decrease from 335 irradiation and was found to be similar for both the HLAD and G3PDH samples irradiated at 295nm and for both samples irradiated at 335nm. It was found that, for HLAD, the 295 irradiation caused a decrease in fluorescence of 90% as compared to a decrease of only 12% of 335nm. Enzymatic assays were then performed to determine the enzymatic activity before and after irradiation.

Ware, D.L.; Hibbard, L.B. (Spelman College, Atlanta, GA (United States))

1993-01-01

214

[Near infrared light irradiator using halogen lamp].  

PubMed

The practical electric light bulb was invented by Thomas Alva Edison in 1879. Halogen lamp is the toughest and brightest electric light bulb. With light filter, it is used as a source of near infrared light. Super Lizer and Alphabeam are made as near infrared light irradiator using halogen lamp. The light emmited by Super Lizer is linear polarized near infrared light. The wave length is from 600 to 1,600 nm and strongest at about 1,000 nm. Concerning Super Lizer, there is evidence of analgesic effects and normalization of the sympathetic nervous system. Super Lizer has four types of probes. SG type is used for stellate ganglion irradiation. B type is used for narrow area irradiation. C and D types are for broad area irradiation. The output of Alphabeam is not polarized. The wave length is from 700 to 1,600 nm and the strongest length is about 1,000nm. Standard attachment is used for spot irradiation. Small attachment is used for stellate ganglion irradiation. Wide attachment is used for broad area irradiation. The effects of Alphabeam are thought to be similar to that of Super Lizer. PMID:22860296

Ide, Yasuo

2012-07-01

215

AGC-1 Post Irradiation Examination Status  

SciTech Connect

The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Graphite R&D program is currently measuring irradiated material property changes in several grades of nuclear graphite for predicting their behavior and operating performance within the core of new Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. The Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment consisting of six irradiation capsules will generate this irradiated graphite performance data for NGNP reactor operating conditions. All six AGC capsules in the experiment will be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), disassembled in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF), and examined at the INL Research Center (IRC) or Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This is the first in a series of status reports on the progress of the AGC experiment. As the first capsule, AGC1 was irradiated from September 2009 to January 2011 to a maximum dose level of 6-7 dpa. The capsule was removed from ATR and transferred to the HFEF in April 2011 where the capsule was disassembled and test specimens extracted from the capsules. The first irradiated samples from AGC1 were shipped to the IRC in July 2011and initial post irradiation examination (PIE) activities were begun on the first 37 samples received. PIE activities continue for the remainder of the AGC1 specimen as they are received at the IRC.

David Swank

2011-09-01

216

Influence of microwave irradiation on enzyme kinetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The in vitro effect of 2.45 GHz microwave irradiation on porcine pepsin activity under controlled temperature and absorbed microwave power via kinetic parameters was evaluated. Kinetic study with respect of time of irradiation demonstrated the existence of an inactivation effect of microwaves at pH 2 on pepsin molecule. Bovine serum albumin (BSA)-bromphenol blue (BPB) complex was used as substrate for the assay of pepsin by kinetic method. Depending on absorbed microwave dose, the degree of caused inactivation varies from 39.11 to 45.91% for 5 and 20 min of pepsin MW irradiation, respectively. The V maxapp and K mapp were calculated for low (5 min of MW irradiation) and higher specific absorbed dose (20 min of MW irradiation), as well as for untreated enzyme, from double reciprocal Lineweaver-Burk plot. The effect of microwaves on substrate (BSA-BPB complex) was also investigated. For reaction performed with MW irradiated substrate for 5 min the reaction rate was decreased for 15.15%, while for 20 min of substrate irradiation reaction rate was decreased for 25.52% compared to the control reaction.

Pavelki?, V. M.; Stanisavljev, D. R.; Gop?evi?, K. R.; Beljanski, M. V.

2009-09-01

217

Gamma-ray irradiated polymer optical waveguides  

SciTech Connect

Optical waveguides fabricated by gamma-ray irradiation on polymer through a gold mask are presented. The gamma-ray induced index change is found almost linearly dependent on the dose of the irradiation. And the measured propagation losses are low enough for practical application. Due to the high penetrability of gamma ray, uniform refractive index change in depth can be easily achieved. Moreover, due to large-area printing, the uniformity of waveguide made by gamma-ray irradiation is much better than that by e-beam direct writing.

Lai, C.-C.; Wei, T.-Y.; Chang, C.-Y.; Wang, W.-S.; Wei, Y.-Y. [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Roosevelt Road Sec. 4, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing-Hua University, No. 101, Sec. 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsin-Chu 30043, Taiwan (China)

2008-01-14

218

Green coffee decontamination by electron beam irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbiological load of green coffee is a real problem considering that it is extremely sensitive to contamination. Irradiation is a decontamination method for a lot of foodstuffs, being a feasible, very effective and environment friendly one. Beans and ground green coffee were irradiated with electron beams up to 40 kGy. Microbial load, rheological behavior, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and visible spectroscopy were carried out. The results show that electron beam irradiation of green coffee could decontaminate it without severe changes in its properties.

Nemtanu, Monica R.; Brasoveanu, Mirela; Grecu, Maria Nicoleta; Minea, R.

2005-10-01

219

Factors contributing to tumour growth after irradiation.  

PubMed Central

Rhabdomyosarcomas of the rat were irradiated with 15 Gy of X-rays and the changes in several parameters were measured as a function of time. In the course of 10 days after irradiation, the percentage of tumour cells changes by a factor of 10, the fraction of clonogenic cells by a factor of 20, and the volume of tumour cell nuclei by a factor of nearly 3. During the same time interval, tumour volume increases only by 50%, indicating that volume curves yield little information about the drastic changes occurring in tumours during the first 2 weeks after irradiation.

Jung, H.; Beck, H. P.; Brammer, I.; Zywietz, F.

1980-01-01

220

Infrared spectroscopy study of irradiated PVDF  

SciTech Connect

The effects induced by 1 MeV/amu ion irradiations were compared to those induced by 4-12 MeV/amu irradiations. Structural analysis with infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was carried out on PVDF irradiated using C and He beams with different fluences. From these spectra it was observed, as a function of fluence, an overall destruction of the polymer, amorphization of the crystalline regions and the creation of in-chain unsaturations. The track dimensions were determined using a previously developed Monte Carlo simulation code and these results were compared to a semiempirical model.

Chappa, Veronica [U.A. Fisica, CNEA, and CONICET, Bs. As. (Argentina); Grosso, Mariela del [U.A. Fisica, CNEA, and GCMM-UTN-FRG Pacheco (Argentina); Garcia Bermudez, Gerardo [U.A. Fisica, CNEA, CONICET, and Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM (Argentina); Behar, Moni [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

2007-10-26

221

Hyperparathyroidism following head and neck irradiation  

SciTech Connect

A history of head and neck irradiation in childhood or adolescence was found in 22 of 130 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism compared with only 12 of 400 control patients. Among 200 patients with a known history of childhood irradiation, biochemical or surgical evidence of hyperparathyroidism was found in ten, a prevalence of 5%. This is at least 30 times the prevalence of hyperparathyroidism in the general population. The data indicate that head and neck irradiation should be regarded as an important risk factor in the subsequent development of hyperparathyroidism.

Rao, S.D.; Frame, B.; Miller, M.J.; Kleerskoper, M.; Block, M.A.; Parfitt, A.M.

1980-02-01

222

Synthesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles by ?-irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized by ?-irradiation of silver ions in aqueous solutions containing polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). Increasing of ?-irradiation doses from 1 to 5 kGy enhanced the concentration of Ag NPs, indicated by UV-vis analysis. The XRD and the TEM measurements showed the production of face-centered cubic (fcc) Ag NPs with a mean size of about 16 nm. The produced nanoparticles were effectively stabilized by PVP through interactions, confirmed by the FT-IR. The relatively higher antibacterial activities of Ag NPs, synthesized through ?-irradiation method, against E. coli indicate their potential for practical applications as biocidal materials.

Sheikh, N.; Akhavan, A.; Kassaee, M. Z.

2009-12-01

223

RERTR-12 Insertion 2 Irradiation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-12 was designed to provide comprehensive information on the performance of uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) based monolithic fuels for research reactor applications.1 RERTR-12 insertion 2 includes the capsules irradiated during the last three irradiation cycles. These capsules include Z, Y1, Y2 and Y3 type capsules. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-12 insertion 2 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez; G. S. Chang; D. M. Wachs; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme

2012-09-01

224

Swelling in reactor-conditioned nickel-ion irradiated nimonic PE16. [Neutron irradiation and nickel-ion irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Nimonic PE16 solution treated and aged and neutron irradiated at three temperatures to a fluence up to 5.9 X 10/sup 22/ n/cm/sup 2/ was bombarded to an additional nominal nickel ion dose of 150 displacements per atom (dpa) at various temperatures. The swelling determined by transmission electron microscopy is described and comparisons are made with results obtained from ion bombardments of virgin material and high-fluence neutron irradiated material.

Bajaj, R.; Diamond, S.; Chickering, R.W.; Bleiberg, M.L.

1981-01-01

225

Low temperature gamma-ray irradiation effects on polymer materials-2. Irradiation at liquid helium temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low temperature gamma-ray irradiation induced degradation of poly(tetrafluoroethylene), butyl rubber and poly(ethylene) was studied by following changes in mechanical properties. The decrease of tensile strength and elongation at break against dose were nearly the same for 4 and 77K irradiations. The changes of molecular weight or networks in polymers were also the same for both irradiation temperatures.

Kudoh, H.; Kasai, N.; Sasuga, T.; Seguchi, T.

1996-07-01

226

Microfabrication by femtosecond laser irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Femtosecond (fs) laser microfabrication has been gathering more research interests due to its ability to create micro- and sub-micrometer 3D structures. An extremely high light intensity enables multiphoton absorption in transparent materials, upon which the spatial resolution of fabricated elements is confined to the sizes even smaller than optical diffraction limit. Our report will formulate the principles of the laser microfabrication of such applications. A direct application of single-shot pulse-induced optical damage is a 3D optical memory with a storage density of ca. 100 Gbits/cm2 in silica. Photonic and optoelectronic applications such as optical gratings, 3D inlayed-'atom'- like and 2D cylinder-consisted photonic crystals have been fabricated in silica. Also, photopolymerization of photoresist by a scanning of focal point of laser irradiation solidifies submicrometer rods, which forms photonic lattices when packed into well-defined 3D pattern. Photonic bandgap effects of above-mentioned structures were corroborated by IR Fourier spectroscopy and numerical simulations, by which the success of laser microfabrication was evidenced. Self-focusing of fs-pulses is another possibility of the microstructuring of transparent materials, which is demonstrated in the case of silica. This could find its application in sub-diffraction-limited recording.

Misawa, Hiroaki; Sun, Hong-Bo; Juodkazis, Saulius; Watanabe, Mitsuru; Matsuo, Shigeki

2000-06-01

227

Processing Irradiated Beryllium For Disposal  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research was to develop a process for decontaminating irradiated beryllium that will allow it to be disposed of through normal radwaste channels. Thus, the primary objectives of this ongoing study are to remove the transuranic (TRU) isotopes to less than 100 nCi/g and remove {sup 60}Co, and {sup 137}Cs, to levels that will allow the beryllium to be contact handled. One possible approach that appears to have the most promise is aqueous dissolution and separation of the isotopes by selected solvent extraction followed by precipitation, resulting in a granular form for the beryllium that may be fixed to prevent it from becoming respirable and therefore hazardous. Beryllium metal was dissolved in nitric and fluorboric acids. Isotopes of {sup 241}Am, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 85}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs were then added to make a surrogate beryllium waste solution. A series of batch contacts was performed with the spiked simulant using chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) and polyethylene glycol diluted with sulfone to extract the isotopes of Cs and Sr. Another series of batch contacts was performed using a combination of octyl (phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) in tributyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with dodecane for extracting the isotopes of Pu and Am. The results indicate that greater than 99.9% removal can be achieved for each isotope with only three contact stages.

T. J. Tranter; R. D. Tillotson; N. R. Mann; G. R. Longhurst

2005-11-01

228

Argon laser irradiation of the otolithic organ  

SciTech Connect

An argon laser was used to irradiate the otolithic organs of guinea pigs and cynomolgus monkeys. After stapedectomy, the argon laser (1.5 W x 0.5 sec/shot) irradiated the utricle or saccule without touching the sensory organs. The stapes was replaced over the oval window after irradiation. The animals used for acute observation were killed immediately for morphologic studies; those used for long-term observation were kept alive for 2, 4, or 10 weeks. Acute observation revealed that sensory and supporting cells were elevated from the basement membrane only in the irradiated area. No rupture of the membranous labyrinth was observed. Long-term observation revealed that the otolith of the macula utriculi had disappeared in 2-week specimens. The entire macula utricili had disappeared in 10-week specimens. No morphologic changes were observed in cochlea, semicircular canals, or membranous labyrinth. The saccule showed similar changes.

Okuno, T.; Nomura, Y.; Young, Y.H.; Hara, M. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

1990-12-01

229

Colon and anorectal cancer after pelvic irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Seventy-six cases of colon or anorectal cancer after pelvic irradiation for other malignant or benign lesions were reviewed. The patients were 13 men and 63 women with a mean age of 65 years; 67 percent had received irradiation for gynecologic malignancy. The cancer developed at a mean of 15.2 years after irradiation (peak frequency between five and ten years); 85 percent of the patients had a mild to prominent radiation reaction around the cancer. Of the 72 adenocarcinomas, 26 percent were mucinous. Only 17 percent of patients presented with symptoms of radiation proctitis, and the mean radiation dosages were not high. High radiation dosage and severe radiation damage may not be essential for radiation-associated colorectal cancer. The overall five-year survival rate was 48 percent. Close surveillance of the colon and anorectal regions of these high-risk patients at five years after irradiation is indicated.

Jao, S.W.; Beart, R.W. Jr.; Reiman, H.M.; Gunderson, L.L.; Ilstrup, D.M.

1987-12-01

230

Degradation pathways of PCB upon gamma irradiation.  

PubMed Central

In order to understand the modifications of the chromatographic profile of Aroclor 1260 upon gamma irradiation, a total of 14 pure polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were separately irradiated in solution. Dechlorination was observed, and the generated products were investigated by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Degradation proceeds more rapidly in methanol/water mixture than in petroleum ether, but the relative amount of ortho-dechlorinated congeners formed upon irradiation was smaller in the former solvent. Ortho chlorines are preferentially lost in petroleum ether except when they are involved in a 2.5 (or 3.6) substitution pattern, in which case para dechlorination becomes predominant. The precursors of some toxicologically important congeners such as congeners 77, 118, 167, and 189 have been identified. These data are useful to rationalize the modifications of the chromatographic profile of PCB complex mixture upon gamma irradiation.

Lepine, F; Masse, R

1990-01-01

231

Precipitation During Irradiation: An Experimental Example.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Neutron damage can significantly alter the process of precipitation from supersaturated solid solution. This is demonstrated by a series of experiments using a precipitation strengthened superalloy, Nimonic PE16 irradiated with fast neutrons over the temp...

D. S. Gelles

1981-01-01

232

The Solar EUV Irradiance: New Insights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A key to understanding variability in the Earth's atmosphere is understanding the variability in the solar irradiance that is a primary source of energy into the Earth system. Variations in this input drive variability in different atmospheric regions depending on where solar photons of particular wavelengths are absorbed. Of particular interest to the TIGER community is the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance that creates the ionosphere and heats the thermosphere. The ten-year record of solar spectral irradiance in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) from Solar EUV Experiment (SEE) on NASA's Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) mission, now continued at higher spectral and temporal resolution by the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) provide us with an excellent set of well-calibrated data with which to study the variability of the important solar EUV spectral irradiance on timescales of the solar cycle, solar rotation, and now flares, and how it impacts the Earth's atmospheric variability.

Eparvier, Francis

2012-07-01

233

Active region properties and irradiance variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) has been measured for more than three decades. These observations demonstrate that total irradiance changes on time scales ranging from minutes to years and decades. Considerable efforts have been made to understand the physical origin of irradiance variations and to model the observed changes using measures of sunspots and faculae. In this paper, we study the short-term variations in TSI during the declining portion and minimum of solar cycle 22 and the rising portion of cycle 23 (1993-1998). This time interval of low solar activity allows us to study the effect of individual sunspot groups on TSI in detail. In this paper, we indicate that the effect of sunspot groups on total irradiance may depend on their type in the Zürich classification system and/or their evolution, and on their magnetic configuration. Some uncertainties in the data and other effects are also discussed.

Baranyi, Tünde; Pap, Judit M.

2012-09-01

234

Total lymphoid irradiation in alloimmunity and autoimmunity  

SciTech Connect

Total lymphoid irradiation has been used as an immunosuppressive regimen in autoimmune disease and organ transplantation. The rationale for its use originated from studies of patients with Hodgkin disease, in whom this radiotherapy regimen was noted to induce profound and long-lasting immune suppression and yet was well tolerated, with few long-term side effects. Total lymphoid irradiation is a unique immunosuppressive regimen that produces a selective (and long-lasting) reduction in the number and function of helper T cells and certain subsets of B cells. Conventional immunosuppressive drugs show little selectivity, and their effects are short-lived. The most important aspect of total lymphoid irradiation is the potential for achieving transplantation tolerance and permanent remissions in autoimmune disease in laboratory animals. Attempts are being made to achieve similar goals in humans given total lymphoid irradiation, so that immunosuppressive drugs can be ultimately withdrawn from transplant recipients and patients with lupus nephritis. 28 references.

Strober, S.

1987-12-01

235

Microstructure of Ni fatigued under neutron irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructure of fatigued and unfatigued Ni in the presence or absence of neutron irradiation was investigated using positron annihilation lifetime measurements and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In irradiated unfatigued Ni, vacancy clusters were directly formed from cascades at doses of less than 10-4 dpa, and started to grow at higher doses. In irradiated fatigued samples, vacancy clusters were directly formed from cascades at 1.5 × 10-4 dpa. In unirradiated fatigued samples, single vacancies were produced. In all of the fatigued samples, dislocations introduced by the deformation acted as sinks and suppressed the growth of vacancy clusters. Following annealing at 373 K, vacancy clusters were observed in irradiated fatigued Ni, but vacancies were trapped at dislocations in unirradiated fatigued Ni. No change in dislocation structure was brought about by annealing and no vacancy clusters could be observed by TEM.

Sato, K.; Cao, X. Z.; Yoshiie, T.; Xu, Q.; Kutsukake, C.; Konno, C.

2013-11-01

236

IRRADIATION METHOD OF CONVERTING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

DOEpatents

A method is given for changing the distribution of organic compounds from that produced by the irradiation of bulk alkane hydrocarbons. This method consists of depositing an alkane hydrocarbon on the surface of a substrate material and irradiating with gamma radiation at a dose rate of more than 100,000 rads. The substrate material may be a metal, metal salts, metal oxides, or carbons having a surface area in excess of 1 m/sup 2//g. The hydrocarbons are deposited in layers of from 0.1 to 10 monolayers on the surfaces of these substrates and irradiated. The product yields are found to vary from those which result from the irradiation of bulk hydrocarbons in that there is an increase in the quantity of branched hydrocarbons.

Allen, A.O.; Caffrey, J.M. Jr.

1960-10-11

237

10 CFR 36.33 - Irradiator pools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...pool water level is below the normal low water level or above the normal high water level. (e) Irradiator pools must be equipped with a purification system designed to be capable of maintaining the water during normal operation at a...

2013-01-01

238

Effects of Gamma Irradiation on EPDM Elastomers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two formulations of EPDM elastomer, one substituting a UV stabilizer for the normal antioxidant in this polymer, and the other the normal formulation, were synthesized and samples of each were exposed to gamma irradiation in initially pure deuterium gas t...

E. A. Clark

2011-01-01

239

Determination of Potential Direct Beam Solar Irradiance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Procedures are presented for calculating potential direct beam solar irradiance, corrected for latitude, azimuth and inclination of slope, date, and time of day. Equations are structured to permit the user to calculate instantaneous or total daily irradia...

M. R. Kaufmann J. D. Weatherred

1982-01-01

240

EFFECT OF DIETHYLHYDROXYLAMINE ON SMOG CHAMBER IRRADIATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The addition of diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA) to the urban atmosphere had been suggested as a means of preventing photochemical smog. Smog chamber studies were carried out to investigate the photochemical smog formation characteristics of irradiated hydrocarbon-nitrogen oxides - DE...

241

Spermatogonial Stem Cell Renewal Following Irradiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The spermatogonial cell renewal system can maintain function and a steady level of cell population for relatively long periods of continuous low-level irradiation indicating that there does not appear to be a serious accumulation, over many generations, o...

J. I. Fabrikant

1979-01-01

242

Irradiation processing of potatoes, onions and garlic.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report, studies have been conducted on irradiation preservation of potatoes, onions and garlic involving different varieties, harvesting season and storage life. As a result of these investigations, optimum conditions were established for each cro...

M. Jan A. Starr M. Wahid A. Ahmad I. Khan

1992-01-01

243

[Sarcomas in irradiated fields: Recent data].  

PubMed

We reviewed the literature data on sarcomas in irradiated fields: incidence, risk factors, prognosis and therapeutic strategy. We discuss more specifically the key-role of p53 mutations and the potential consequences of new radiotherapy techniques. PMID:19963424

Vautravers, C; Dewas, S; Truc, G; Penel, N

2009-12-05

244

DOE'S Electron-Beam-Irradiation Development Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Energy's (DOE's) electron-beam irradiation development program activities are conducted as part of the Advanced Environmental Control Technology (AECT) Program which is managed within the organization of the Assistant Secretary for Fossi...

E. C. Trexler

1982-01-01

245

He-Ne laser extravascular irradiation therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the study of tissue optics related with the laser irradiation blood therapy, a new treatment method, extravascular low-level laser irradiation therapy (ELLLI) is developed. The veins of 30 patients with cerebrovascular disease combined with diabetes, asthma were treated by He-Ne laser (632.8nm, 25mW) which was delivered by an optics fiber. The fiber was outside the patient's skin and the laser irradiated on the blood vessel perpendicularly. The therapy time was 60 minutes each time and about 7-10 times a course of the treatment. The values of blood sugar, blood- fat and hemorrheology were measured as the effective indexes. After the treatment the effective indexes and the symptoms of the patients were all improved. With the advantages of simplicity and safety (no medical infection), laser extravascular irradiation therapy is likely to be a new medical method for heart brain and other diseases.

Chen, Rong; Chen, Huifang; Xie, Shusen; Chen, Yanjiao; Zhang, Yanrong

2000-10-01

246

Biological Effects of Low-Dose Irradiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For a long time, radiation, biological research concentrated on the diagnosis and the effect chains to be taken into consideration in the case of acute and chronic radiation effects due to intensive irradiation. Approximately at the beginning of the Thirt...

F. E. Stieve

1979-01-01

247

Mammary tumorigenesis through irradiation of mice  

SciTech Connect

RAP mice, possibly harboring mammary tumor virus (MTV), of representative ages were exposed to limited or lifetime wholebody continuous gamma and to fractionated x-irradiation. Doses varied from 30 to 2100 R and dose rates from 0.082 to 121 R/day in the two series GA and PN in which mammary cancer incidence was elevated. Induction of mammary cancer was found to be related to the dose range for ovarian tumorigenesis, 30 to 500 R, but unrelated to age when exposed. There was no statistically significant correlation between mammary cancer and ovarian tumors. Active MTV infection was suggested by cancer-prone litters in one irradiated (PN U + SR) and one unirradiated series (OCB). Unirradiated descendents of perinatally irradiated mice with an inherited hormonal disorder had a lower incidence of mammary cancer than stock virgin mice. The balance of evidence pointed to induction of mammary cancer through systemic change set in motion by irradiation. (auth)

Warren, S.; Gates, O.

1974-03-01

248

Consumer Knowledge and Perceptions of Food Irradiation: Ground Beef Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores consumers' perception of irradiated ground beef products and the role of irradiation in consumer purchase decisions. Data was collected with a survey of ground beef consumers. The research objective was the identification of important attributes leading to consumer preference and selection of irradiated beef products. Results showed that a majority of consumers had heard of food irradiation

Aslihan D. Spaulding; Bryon R. Wiegand; Patrick D. ORourke

2006-01-01

249

Electron beam irradiation for structuring of molecular assemblies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nontraditional applications of electron beam irradiation for patterning of molecular assemblies are considered. The electron beam can have the following effects on molecular layers: destruction of molecular structure under e-beam irradiation with a successive formation of new molecular system when the irradiation is stopped; variation of the properties of the layer after e-beam irradiation; crosslinking of molecules in the layer

Victor Erokhin; Tatiana Berzina; M. P. Fontana

2004-01-01

250

ACCEPTANCE OF IRRADIATED BEEF AND ITS EFFECT ON BEEF CONSUMPTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing body of scientific evidence at - testing to the effectiveness of irradiation in killing harmful substances such as parasites and bacteria in food. Hence, food irradiation can enhance the safety level of food. Furthermore, if conducted properly, irradiation does not adversely affect the nutritional quality of food. The benefits of food irradiation are well recognized and

Senhui He; Stanley M. Fletcher; Arbindra Rimal

2004-01-01

251

A review of the safety of cold pasteurization through irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perhaps no food process has been researched and reviewed more than food irradiation. The scientific basis and mechanisms of food irradiation are as thoroughly understood by the scientific community and regulatory agencies as traditional food processes. While irradiation provides many benefits, it cannot replace proper food handling as the single most critical food safety measure. Irradiation does not prevent contamination

Lester M. Crawford; Eric H. Ruff

1996-01-01

252

Irradiation tests report of the 30th cycle in 'JOYO'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the operating and irradiation data of the experimental reactor 'JOYO' 30th cycle, and estimates the 31st cycle irradiation condition. Irradiation tests in the 30th cycle are as follows: (1) B-type irradiation rig (B9). (a) High burn...

1998-01-01

253

Calibration and Data Elaboration Procedure for Sky Irradiance Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems encountered in the elaboration of measurements of direct and sky diffuse solar irradiance are the following: (1) to carry out the calibration for the direct irradiance, which consists in determining the direct irradiance at the upper limit of the atmosphere; (2) to carry out the calibration for the diffuse irradiance, which consists in determining the solid viewing angle

Paolo Boi; Glauco Tonna; Giuseppe Dalu; Teruyuki Nakajima; Bruno Olivieri; Alberto Pompei; Monica Campanelli; R. Rao

1999-01-01

254

Irradiation Creep Behavior of Vanadium Alloys during Neutron Irradiation in a Liquid Metal Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The manufacturing process of creep specimens and an irradiation technique in a liquid metal environment for in-pile and creep measurements of irradiated samples are established for highly purified V-4Cr-4Ti, NIFS-HEAT alloys. Irradiation experiments with sodium-enclosed irradiation capsules in JOYO and lithiumenclosed irradiation capsules in HFIR-17J were conducted using pressurized creep tubes. From thermal creep experiments, the activation energy of creep deformation using pressurized creep tubes was determined to be 210 kJ/mol·K, the creep stress factor was 4.9 for an 800°C creep test, and its mechanism was determined to be a climb-assisted glide of dislocation motion. It was found that the creep strain rate exhibited a linear relationship with effective stress up to 150 MPa from 425 to 600°C under JOYO and HFIR irradiation. The activation energy of irradiation creep was estimated to be 46 kJ/mol·K. No significant difference in irradiation creep behavior between the liquid sodium and liquid lithium environments was observed. A set of essential physical data of irradiation creep properties was obtained for V-4Cr-4Ti alloys.

Fukumoto, Kenichi; Narui, Minoru; Matsui, Hideki; Nagasaka, Takuya; Muroga, Takeo

255

Studies of lipid peroxide formation in irradiated synthetic diets and the effects of storage after irradiation.  

PubMed

The effect of irradiation doses of gamma-rays or electrons within the range 100--2000 krad has been studied on lipid peroxide formation in artificial food mixtures containing lard, corn oil or herring oil mixed with starch, casein or other proteins. Lipid peroxide formation after irradiation was very low in lard: starch or corn oil: starch mixtures but very large concentrations of peroxide were formed in irradiated herring oil: starch mixtures. This was mainly a result of the occurrence of the highly unsaturated C20:4, C20:5 and C22:6 fatty acids in the herring oil which readily form lipid peroxide. Lipid peroxide formation immediately after irradiation was much lower after doses of electrons given at a high dose-rate than after similar doses of gamma-rays given at low dose-rates but it increased rapidly in the samples irradiated with electrons during the period immediately following irradiation. Lipid peroxide formation changed rapidly during post-irradiation storage and was dependent on the type of radiation, the dose, the dose-rate, the time after irradiation and the temperatures of the post-irradiation storage. The concentration of peroxide in mixtures irradiated with gamma-rays formed after 2--3 days post-irradiation storage was dose-rate dependent and much greater after irradiation with gamma-rays given at a very low dose-rate than with gamma-rays given at a high dose-rate. Lipid peroxide increased after irradiation much more rapidly at 37 degrees C than at 4 degrees C or 21 degrees C but all irradiated samples a maximum concentration of peroxide was eventually formed, the time delay being temperature dependent. After reaching a maximum, the concentrations of both hydroperoxides and aledhyde breakdown products in all irradiated samples steadily fell to relatively low values. Peroxide yields were greater if the fat was dispersed in an inert medium such as starch than when irradiated in the pure form and were also dependent on the presence of water in the dispersant medium. Proteins such as casein or ovalbumin inhibited lipid peroxide formation in unsaturated fats. PMID:6968723

Wills, E D

1980-04-01

256

Titanium alloy tensile properties after neutron irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irradiated specimens from three duplex annealed titanium alloys were tested in uniaxial tension in air from room temperature to 550°C. The EBR-II irradiation temperature was 550°C; the maximum fluence was 5 x 10²² n\\/cm² (E > 0.1 MeV), or 37 dpa, the highest neutron exposure received by any titanium alloy. Alloy 6242S increased in strength due to reactor exposure by

D. R. Duncan; R. J. Puigh; E. K. Opperman

1981-01-01

257

Irradiation effects on tungsten stabilized martensitic steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tungsten stabilized martensitic stainless steels are being developed for fusion reactor first wall application in order to lower retained radioactivity so as to permit shallow land burial after reactor decommissioning. Two such alloys have been designed, fabricated, fast neutron irradiation in FFTF and examined by transmission electron microscopy. The two compositions were Fe-7.5Cr-2.OW-.17C and Fe-10.2Cr-1.7W-.3V-.-2C. Conditions examined included irradiation temperatures

D. S. Gelles; C. Y. Hsu; T. A. Lechtenberg

1987-01-01

258

Preserved irradiated homologous cartilage for orbital reconstruction  

SciTech Connect

Human costal cartilage is an excellent implant material for orbital and periorbital reconstruction because of its light weight, strength, homogeneous consistency and the ease with which it can be carved. Its use has been limited by the necessity of a separate surgical procedure to obtain the material. Preserved irradiated homologous cartilage has been shown to have almost all the autogenous cartilage and is convenient to use. Preserved irradiated homologous cartilage transplants do not elicit rejection reactions, resist infection and rarely undergo absorption.

Linberg, J.V.; Anderson, R.L.; Edwards, J.J.; Panje, W.R.; Bardach, J.

1980-07-01

259

Synthesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles by ?-irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized by ?-irradiation of silver ions in aqueous solutions containing polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). Increasing of ?-irradiation doses from 1 to 5kGy enhanced the concentration of Ag NPs, indicated by UV–vis analysis. The XRD and the TEM measurements showed the production of face-centered cubic (fcc) Ag NPs with a mean size of about 16nm. The produced

N. Sheikh; A. Akhavan; M. Z. Kassaee

2009-01-01

260

Absolute Ultraviolet Stellar Irradiances from SORCE SOLSTICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SOLar-STellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) on the SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) spacecraft is a grating spectrometer that has been measuring both solar and stellar fluxes in the 115-300 nm range since 2003. Preflight instrument calibration using the SURF III synchrotron source yields an uncertainty in the absolute stellar irradiances of just a few percent.The SOLSTICE program stars

Martin Snow; W. E. McClintock; T. N. Woods; G. Rottman

2006-01-01

261

Blue irradiance intercomparison in the medical field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the results of a blue irradiance intercomparison among industrial laboratories of medical devices companies. This intercomparison aims to support the metrological issues of medical equipment manufactures regarding the blue irradiance infant phototherapy equipment requirements on the international standard IEC 60601-2-50:2000. The results showed a low agreement of participants' measurements according to normalized error criterion. The major explanation for this result is associated to an incorrect equipment choice and long recalibration period.

Ferreira, Antonio F. G.

2012-10-01

262

Toxicity of irradiated media for Xenorhabdus spp  

SciTech Connect

Bacterial isolates of the genus Xenorhabdus were shown to be extremely sensitive to photoproducts produced in a number of common media irradiated by fluorescent light. Two forms of toxic oxygen, hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radical, were produced in the media upon exposure to fluorescent light. The addition of pyruvate or catalase to the irradiated media eliminated the toxicity. The poor plating efficiencies previously reported for Xenorhabdus spp. are likely due to the uncontrolled exposure of media to ambient lighting.

Xu, J.; Hurlbert, R.E. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (USA))

1990-03-01

263

Flash memory under cosmic and alpha irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron and proton irradiation to simulate cosmic ray jeopardy were used to establish that NOR Flash memory (conventional floating polySi gate or ONO floating gate MirrorBit) soft error failure rate (cross section) is 3-5 orders of magnitude better than SRAM. Flash memory soft error rate for a given dose of alpha particle irradiation is much less than for the same

Adam David Fogle; Don Darling; Richard C. Blish; Eugene Daszko

2004-01-01

264

The NIST rapid irradiation and counting system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus is being developed for short irradiation and rapid counting at the NIST Reactor, optimized for accurate neutron activation analysis via activation products ranging in half-life from about 500 ms to 500 s. This facility is designed to irradiate a sample either in a well-thermalized neutron flux at 3·1013 n·cm–2·s–1, or in a higher flux with a larger fast and

R. M. Lindstrom; D. A. Becker; J. K. Langland; R. R. Greenberg

1997-01-01

265

Determinants of skin sensitivity to solar irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Acute effects of UV irradiation include UV-induced erythema. Sunlight plays an important role in the development of skin cancer. Several predictive factors of UV-induced erythema could also be predictive for skin cancer.Objective: Our objective was to quantitatively assess phenotypical and nutritional determinants of sensitivity to UV irradiation, as assessed by the minimal erythema dose (MED).Design: We conducted a cross-sectional

W M R Broekmans; A. A. Vink; E. Boelsma; W. A. A. Klöpping-Ketelaars; L. B. M. Tijburg; P van't Veer; G van Poppel; A. F. M. Kardinaal; AFM Kardinaal

2003-01-01

266

Total Body Irradiation before Bone Marrow Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the total body irradiation methods in the National Institute of Oncology between January 1984 and February 1998. Patients and Method: One hundred and twenty-four patients underwent total body irradiation prior to bone marrow transplantation in the last 15 years. A special cobalt unit has been used, the dose rate was 6 to 8 cGy\\/min in the midline

Judit Székely; László Fábry; Gyula Forgács; Gábor Kontra; Julia Petrányi; Olga Ésik; György Németh

1999-01-01

267

[Food irradiation with ionizing radiation; an overview].  

PubMed

Irradiation of food in the Netherlands may only be performed by a company that works according to the (Dutch) law on nuclear energy. Irradiation is used to reduce the number of pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms in food. Thus the use of preservatives can be diminished. The use of this technique for the decontamination of food is sustained by the FAO/WHO. Codex Alimentarius Committee and other organisations like the Dutch Public Health Council. It should be accepted world wide and used in every country. Irradiation of food is at the moment allowed in 38 countries and practically performed in 28 countries. Gamma radiation from the cobalt-60 isotope is the commonly used source of radiation. The treatment causes in most foodstuffs no organoleptic changes. On the other hand, organoleptic deteriorations provoked by micro-organisms rest unchanged by the treatment. An inferior lot can not be 'irradiated' into an impeccable food. In the Netherlands it is only allowed to irradiate foodstuffs mentioned in the (Dutch) Irradiated Food Products Act which-is part of the (Dutch) Food and Commodities Act. PMID:9173597

Nooitgedagt, A J

1997-03-15

268

Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system for storing irradiated nuclear fuel, comprising: a reusable, elongate transfer cask means for shielding and transferring the irradiated nuclear fuel, the transfer cask means having a cylindrical body which provides a radiation barrier, the cask cylindrical body defining a passage; an elongate canister means for containing the irradiated nuclear fuel, which canister means is positionable in the passage of the transfer cask means; the canister means having a lightweight cylindrical body with radiation shielded end plugs; the canister cylindrical body being structurally capable of supporting the irradiated nuclear fuel, but which is unable to provide a radiation barrier; means for tranferring the transfer cask with the canister means inserted therein to a location for dry storage; module means for storing the canister means at the location with irradiated nuclear fuel contained therein in a horizontal position, wherein the module means includes a plurality of modules, each module including first and second side surfaces and a front surface having an entry port, the first and second side surfaces including interlocking means for locking the modules to each other in a side surface by the surface relationship.

Fischer, L.E.; McInnes, I.D.; Massey, J.V.

1988-10-25

269

PROTON IRRADIATION SIMULATION OF MICROSTRUCTURAL EVOLUTION OF SOLUTION ANNEALED 304 AND COLD-WORKED 316 DURING IRRADIATION IN PWRS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solution annealed (SA) 304 and cold-worked (CW) 316 austenitic stainless steels were irradiated with protons in order to study the potential effects of helium, irradiation dose, and irradiation temperature on microstructural evolution, especially void swelling, with relevance to the behavior of austenitic core internals in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). These steels were irradiated at 300 C with 1 MeV protons

Bulent H. Sencer; Gillian M. Bond; Yoshihiro Isobe; Mitsuyuki Sagisaka; Francis A. Garner

2004-01-01

270

CONSUMER ACCEPTANCE OF IRRADIATED FOOD PRODUCTS: AN APPLE MARKETING STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was exploratory in nature, with emphasis on initial purchases and not repeat purchases or long-term loyalties to either irradiated or non-irradiated produce. The investigation involved the actual sale of irradiated and non-irradiated apples to consumers. Limited information about the process was provided, and apples were sold at roadside stands. Prices for the irradiated apples were varied while the

Danny E. Terry; Richard L. Tabor

1990-01-01

271

Extraterrestrial spectral solar irradiance data for modeling spectral solar irradiance at the earth's surface  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the extraterrestrial (air mass zero, AMO) spectral solar irradiance data used by the Solar Energy Research Institute's Resource Assessment Branch in models to calculate spectral solar irradiance at the earth's surface. The report contains tables and graphs of the AMO spectrum updated by the World Radiation Center in Daveos, Switzerland, in 1985.

Riordan, C.

1987-05-01

272

Quality of gamma ray-irradiated iceberg lettuce and treatments to minimize irradiation-induced disorders  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Irradiation of Iceberg lettuce was recently approved by the FDA to enhance microbial safety and to extend shelf-life at doses up to 4 kGy. However, the radiation tolerance of whole head lettuce is unclear. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of irradiation on the quality of he...

273

Contributions of the solar ultraviolet irradiance to the total solar irradiance during large flares  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar X-ray radiation varies more than other wavelengths during flares; thus solar X-ray irradiance measurements are relied upon for detecting flare events as well as used to study flare parameters. There is new information about the spectral and temporal variations of flares using solar irradiance measurements from NASA's Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) and the Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere,

Thomas N. Woods; Greg Kopp; Phillip C. Chamberlin

2006-01-01

274

Irradiation creep of various ferritic alloys irradiated at ?400°C in the PFR and FFTF reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irradiation creep of three ferritic alloys at ?400?C has been studied. Specimens were in the form of pressurized tubes. In a joint US\\/UK creep study, two identical sets of creep specimens constructed from one heat of HT9 were irradiated in fast reactors, one in the Prototypic Fast Reactor (PFR) and the other in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The

M. B. Toloczko; F. A. Garner; C. R. Eiholzer

1998-01-01

275

Monte Carlo validation of the irradiator parameters of the Portuguese gamma irradiation facility after its replenishment.  

PubMed

In December 2003 the irradiator of the Portuguese (60)Co irradiation facility, UTR, was replenished. Monte Carlo simulation studies were used to characterize the facility. Comparison of simulation results with experimental measurements were useful in estimating where the source elements were positioned and what the total activity was. For this purpose the MCNPX code was used. From the experimental point of view ionization chambers and PMMA dosemeters were used. The results indicate that the geometry of the irradiator used for simulation studies shows a shift on the vertical dimension relative to the actual geometry of approximately 8cm, but with reduced influence on the irradiation process. Considering the uncertainties of the experimental and simulated approaches the activity of the irradiator stated by supplier has been confirmed. PMID:19879768

Portugal, Luis; Cardoso, João; Oliveira, Carlos

2009-09-19

276

Comparison of irradiation hardening and microstructure evolution in ion-irradiated delta and epsilon hydrides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A ?-Zr-hydride was irradiated with 6.4 MeV Fe3+ ions to clarify the relationship between hardening and microstructural changes of bulk Zr-hydrides under neutron irradiation. Irradiation hardening was measured by nanoindentation tests. Transmission electron microscope cross-sectional observations showed that the deformation mechanism of the ?-Zr-hydride was both slip and twinning. Dislocation loops were observed in the irradiated hydride matrix. These irradiation-induced defects make slip deformation difficult and consequently promote the twin deformation of ?-Zr-hydride. This work is a continuation of the previous our work (J. Nucl. Mater. 419 (2011) 366-370) focused upon ?-Zr-hydride and we discuss a comparison between the two Zr-hydrides.

Oono, Naoko; Kasada, Ryuta; Higuchi, Toru; Sakamoto, Kan; Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Hasegawa, Akiko; Kondo, Sosuke; Iwata, Noriyuki Y.; Matsui, Hideki; Kimura, Akihiko

2013-11-01

277

A New Look at Solar Irradiance Variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare total solar irradiance (TSI) and ultraviolet ( F uv) irradiance variation reconstructed using Ca K facular areas since 1915, with previous values based on less direct proxies. Our annual means for 1925 - 1945 reach values 30 - 50 % higher than those presently used in IPCC climate studies. A high facula/sunspot area ratio in spot cycles 16 and 17 seems to be responsible. New evidence from solar photometry increases the likelihood of greater seventeenth century solar dimming than expected from the disappearance of magnetic active regions alone. But the large additional brightening in the early twentieth century claimed from some recent models requires complete disappearance of the magnetic network. The network is clearly visible in Ca K spectroheliograms obtained since the 1890s, so these models cannot be correct. Changes in photospheric effective temperature invoked in other models would be powerfully damped by the thermal inertia of the convection zone. Thus, there is presently no support for twentieth century irradiance variation besides that arising from active regions. The mid-twentieth century irradiance peak arising from these active regions extends 20 years beyond the early 1940s peak in global temperature. This failure of correlation, together with the low amplitude of TSI variation and the relatively weak effect of Fuv driving on tropospheric temperature, limits the role of solar irradiance variation in twentieth century global warming.

Foukal, Peter

2012-08-01

278

The LASP Interactive Solar IRradiance Datacenter (LISIRD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LASP has created an online resource for combined solar irradiance datasets from the SORCE, TIMED, UARS, and SME missions. The LASP Interactive Solar IRradiance Datacenter (LISIRD) not only provides unified access to the individual datasets, but also combines them for ease of use by scientists, educators, and the general public. In particular, LISIRD makes available composite spectra and time series. The TIMED SEE, SORCE SOLSTICE, and SORCE SIM instruments produce spectra that together cover the solar spectrum from 1 to 2700 nm. Through the LISIRD interface, the user can get data that bridges the various missions in both wavelength and time. LISIRD also hosts data products of interest to the space weather community. They have slightly different needs than the atmospheric modelers that are the typical users of irradiance data. For space weather applications, high time cadence and near real-time data delivery are key. For these users, we make our observations available shortly after spacecraft contact, and append the observations to a single data file which they can retrieve using anonymous ftp every few hours. The third component of LISIRD is the Solar Physical Radiation Model (SPRM) results of Fontenla et al. It provides a model of current solar activity, the synthetic spectral irradiance, and tools that permit one to model the solar activity source of the spectral irradiance variations.

Snow, M.; Woods, T. N.; Eparvier, F. G.; Fontenla, J.; Harder, J.; McClintock, W. E.; Pankratz, C.; Richard, E.; Windnagel, A.; Woodraska, D.

2005-12-01

279

Carotid artery disease following external cervical irradiation  

SciTech Connect

A retrospective study of 910 patients surviving at least five years after cervical irradiation for Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, or primary head an neck neoplasms showed the incidence of stroke following cervical irradiation was 63 of 910 patients (6.3%) during a mean period of observation of nine years. This represents a trend toward an increased risk for this population observed over the same period of time (p . 0.39). A prospective study of 118 similar patients currently living five years after cervical radiotherapy was performed to determine the incidence of carotid artery disease occurring as a consequence of neck irradiation. Abnormal carotid phonangiograms (CPA) were found in 25% of the patients and abnormal oculoplethysmographs (OPG) were found in 17%. These studies represent significant carotid lesions that are not expected in such a population. It is concluded that the carotid stenoses demonstrated are most likely a consequence of prior irradiation. Patients that are five-year survivors of cervical irradiation should have noninvasive vascular laboratory studies performed as part of their routine follow-up examinations in order to detect these carotid lesions while they are occult.

Elerding, S.C.; Fernandez, R.N.; Grotta, J.C.; Lindberg, R.D.; Causay, L.C.; McMurtrey, M.J.

1981-01-01

280

Sludge irradiation process made safe with lead  

SciTech Connect

A process for disinfecting sewage sludge by irradiation is being promoted by the Department of Energy (DOE) as an efficient means of complying with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations requiring treatment of the waste material before it is recycled as a soil conditioner. The technique employs a heavy lead shutter and a generous helping of sheet lead to provide the necessary radiation shielding. For the past three years, DOE and EPA have been sponsoring a Municipal Sludge Irradiation Technology Transfer Program at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, N.M. Sandia has been operating an eight-ton-per-day pilot plant which routinely irradiates air-dried sludge for agricultural and biological studies at New Mexico State University. The objective of the program is to explore the economic and scientific aspects of irradiating sludge so it can be used as a soil additive, crop fertilizer or animal feed supplement. About 5 million tons of sludge are generated yearly in the United States. Because of the pathogenic organisms and fungi present in untreated sludge, there are health hazards associated with the recycling of sewage solids. Sandia has been investigating the types of bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi found in sludge and the effect irradiation has on them.

Not Available

1983-03-01

281

COBALT-60 Gamma Irradiation of Shrimp.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meta- and ortho-tyrosine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in conjunction with electrochemical detection in shrimp irradiated using cobalt-60 gamma radiation in the absorbed dose range 0.8 to 6.0 kGy, in nonirradiated shrimp, and in bovine serum albumin (BSA) irradiated in dilute aqueous solution at 25.0 kGy. Ortho-tyrosine was measured in nonirradiated BSA. Para-, meta-, and ortho-tyrosine were measured using HPLC in conjunction with uv-absorption detection in dilute aqueous solutions of phenylalanine irradiated in the absorbed dose range 16.0 to 195.0 kGy. The measured yields of tyrosine isomers were approximately linear as a function of absorbed dose in shrimp, and in irradiated solutions of phenylalanine up to 37.0 kGy. The occurrence of meta- and ortho-tyrosine, which had formerly been considered unique radiolytic products, has not previously been reported in nonirradiated shrimp or BSA. The conventional hydrolyzation and analytical techniques used in the present study to measure meta- and ortho-tyrosine may provide the basis for a method to detect and determine the dose used in food irradiation.

Sullivan, Nancy L. B.

282

Carotid artery disease following external cervical irradiation  

SciTech Connect

A retrospective study of 910 patients surviving at least five years after cervical irradiation for Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, or primary head and neck neoplasms showed the incidence of stroke following cervical irradiation was 63 of 910 patients (6.3%) during a mean period of observation of nine years. This represents a trend toward an increased risk for this population over the expected incidence of 38 strokes for a matched population observed over the same period of time (p = 0.39). A prospective study of 118 similar patients currently living five years after cervical radiotherapy was performed to determine the incidence of carotid artery disease occurring as a consequence of neck irradiation. Abnormal carotid phonoangiograms (CPA) were found in 25% of the patients and abnormal oculoplethysmographs (OPG) were found in 17%. These studies represent significant carotid lesions that are not expected in such a population. It is concluded that the carotid stenoses demonstrated are most likely a consequence of prior irradiation. Patients that are five-year survivors of cervical irradiation should have noninvasive vascular laboratory studies performed as part of their routine follow-up examinations in order to detect these carotid lesions while they are occult.

Elerding, S.C.; Fernandez, R.N.; Grotta, J.C.; Lindberg, R.D.; Causay, L.C.; McMurtrey, M.J.

1981-11-01

283

Review of recent irradiation-creep results  

SciTech Connect

Materials deform faster under stress in the presence of irradiation by a process known as irradiation creep. This phenomenon is important to reactor design and has been the subject of a large number of experimental and theoretical investigations. The purpose of this work is to review the recent experimental results to obtain a summary of these results and to determine those research areas that require additional information. The investigations have been classified into four subgroups based on the different experimental methods used. These four are: (1) irradiation creep using stress relaxation methods, (2) creep measurements using pressurized tubes, (3) irradiation creep from constant applied load, and (4) irradiation creep experiments using accelerated particles. The similarity and the differences of the results from these methods are discussed and a summary of important results and suggested areas for research is presented. In brief, the important results relate to the dependence of creep on swelling, temperature, stress state and alloying additions. In each of these areas new results have been presented and new questions have arisen which require further research to answer. 65 references.

Coghlan, W.A.

1982-05-01

284

Neoplasms in young dogs after perinatal irradiation  

SciTech Connect

For a study of the life-time effects of irradiation during development, 1,680 beagles were given single, whole-body exposures to /sup 60/Co gamma-radiation at one of three prenatal (preimplantation, embryonic, and fetal) or at one of three postnatal (neonatal, juvenile, and young adult) ages. Mean doses were 0, 0.16, or 0.83 Gy. For comparison with data on childhood cancer after prenatal irradiation, examination was made of tumors occurring in young dogs in this life-span experiment. Up to 4 years of age, 18 dogs had neoplasms diagnosed, 2 of these being in controls. Four dogs that were irradiated in the perinatal (late fetal or neonatal) period died of cancers prior to 2 years of age. This risk was of significant increase compared to the risks for other experimental groups and for the canine population in general. Overall, 71% (5 of 7) of all cancers and 56% (10 of 18) of all benign and malignant neoplasms seen in the first 4 years of life occurred in 29% (480 of 1680) of the dogs irradiated in the perinatal period. These data suggest an increased risk for neoplasia after perinatal irradiation in dogs.

Benjamin, S.A.; Lee, A.C.; Angleton, G.M.; Saunders, W.J.; Miller, G.K.; Williams, J.S.; Brewster, R.D.; Long, R.I.

1986-08-01

285

Effect of neutron irradiation on vanadium alloys  

SciTech Connect

Neutron-irradiated vanadium alloys were evaluated for their susceptibility to irradiation hardening, helium embrittlement, swelling, and residual radioactivity, and the results were compared with those for the austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. The VANSTAR-7 and V-15Cr-5Ti alloys showed the greatest hardening between 400 and 600/sup 0/C while V-3Ti-1Si and V-20Ti had lower values that were comparable to those of ferritic steels. The V-15Cr-5Ti and VANSTAR-7 alloys were susceptible to helium embrittlement caused by the combination of weakened grain boundaries and irradiation-hardened grain matrices. Specimen fractures were entirely intergranular in the most severe instances of embrittlement. The V-3Ti-1Si and V-20Ti alloys were more resistant to helium embrittlement. Except for VANSTAR-7 irradiated to 40 dpa at 520/sup 0/C, all of the vanadium alloys exhibited low swelling that was similar to the ferritic steels. Swelling was greater in specimens that were preimplanted with helium using the tritium trick. The vanadium alloys clearly exhibit lower residual radioactivity after irradiation than the ferrous alloys.

Braski, D.N.

1986-01-01

286

Effects of Ion Irradiation on Ice Porosity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vapor-deposited water ice is believed to be present in astronomical environments such as interstellar grains, planetary rings, comets, and icy satellites. Some salient properties are its amorphous molecular structure and its microporosity, which determines its capacity to absorb gas. Since in most astronomical environments these ices are subject to radiation it is important to determine the effect of radiation on porosity. We have studied in the laboratory the effects of ion irradiation on the porosity of amorphous ice using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Our findings indicate that ion irradiation compacts porous ice. The density of the ice film rises asymptotically to a saturation value with increasing ion fluence. Irradiation also decreases the intensity of the ~ 2.7 ?m absorption features assigned to the O-H stretch of dangling molecules present in porous ice film. However, we find that the dangling bond features decrease at a faster rate than the ice porosity. To investigate this contrasting behavior, we performed gas adsorption/desorption experiments on ice films irradiated to different fluences of 100 keV Ar+ ions. We will discuss how these measurements can be used to obtain pore size distributions and changes induced via ion irradiation. Finally, our results open the possibility that ices can remain porous, even if the dangling bond features are not present, which is of particular interest in colder regions such as interstellar ices.

Raut, U.; Teolis, B. D.; Loeffler, M. J.; Fama, M.; Vidal, R. A.; Baragiola, R. A.

2006-05-01

287

Ion irradiation induced hollow and sandwiched nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

We report on the fabrication of hollow and sandwiched nanoparticles by ion irradiation. Ag nanoparticles embedded in silica were irradiated by N{sup +}, Si{sup +}, Ar{sup +}, and Cu{sup +} ions at 300 keV to a fluence of 5x10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}, by Cu{sup +} ions at varying energies from 110 to 500 keV to a fluence of 5x10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}, and by Cu{sup +} ions at 400 keV to fluences varied from 1x10{sup 16} to 1x10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}. The size of the irradiation-induced nanovoids increases with increasing ion mass and energy. The formation of nanovoids depends on the electronic and nuclear energy loss of the irradiation ions. The formation of irradiation-induced sandwiched nanoparticles is because of the capture of knocked-out Ag atoms from nanoshells by nanovoids. The size of the inner nanoparticles within the sandwiched structure increases with increasing fluence.

Ren Feng; Cai Guangxu; Xiao Xiangheng; Fan Lixia; Liu Chang; Fu Dejun; Wang Jianbo; Jiang Changzhong [Key Laboratory of Acoustic and Photonic Materials and Devices of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China) and Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

2008-04-15

288

Enhancement of Irradiation Capability of the Experimental Fast Reactor Joyo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental fast reactor Joyo is the first sodium-cooled fast reactor in Japan. One of its primary missions is to perform irradiation tests of fuel and structural materials to support the development of fast reactors. The MK-III high performance core upgrade to enhance the irradiation testing capabilities was completed in 2003. In order to expand Joyo's capabilities for innovative irradiation testing applications, neutron spectrum tailoring, lower irradiation temperature, movable sample devices and fast neutron beam holes are being considered. This program responds to existing irradiation needs and aims to further expand capabilities for a variety of irradiation tests.

Maeda, Shigetaka; Serine, Takashi; Aoyama, Takafumi; Suzuki, Soju

2009-08-01

289

[Pelvic irradiation in prostate cancer: What place for what volumes?].  

PubMed

External beam radiotherapy alone is a standard treatment for prostate cancer. According to clinical, histological and biological characteristics of the tumour, lymph node irradiation can be done in combination with irradiation of the prostate. The completion of pelvic irradiation remains controversial and may cause complications by increasing volumes of irradiated healthy tissues. The accuracy of the delineation of lymph node becomes an important issue. This article proposes to take on the characteristics of the pelvic lymph node drainage of the prostate, to review the literature on pelvic irradiation and the definition of volumes to be irradiated. PMID:23993883

Chapet, O; Enachescu, C; Lorchel, F

2013-08-29

290

[Does tobacco smoking induce significant artificial irradiation?].  

PubMed

Artificial irradiation due to tobacco smoking is a widely accepted phenomenon, but the possible health implications are controversial. The IAEA has estimated that smoking twenty cigarettes a day induces a total "radiation exposure" of 53 mSv, but several other authors have estimated that the effective dose is only about 0.4 mSv/year. The irradiation associated with smoking results from the use of fertilizers containing a emitters and from tobacco leaf fixation of radon 222 gas of telluric origin. Critical analysis of the literature suggests that irradiation due to smoking is much closer to 0.4 mSv/year than to 53 mSv/year. In order to avoid further confusion and controversy, human exposure to such radiation should be expressed as the annual effective dose. PMID:19718986

Simon, Jacques; Rouzaud, Pierre; Payoux, Pierre; Julian, Anne; Gantet, Pierre

2009-01-01

291

Granularity controlled irradiation response of cuprate superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Confining to an energy range where ions can neither create defects through elastic energy loss nor they can create defects through latent track formation, we study the effect of 140MeV Si-ion irradiation in YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO). We show that the evolution of superconducting and normal state properties in such situation is largely governed by the initial defects structure, particularly the grain boundary characteristics of the YBCO system. Both intra- and inter-granular defect structure in films of two batches were made widely different by having Ag as composite and substituent in one and by aging the other prior to irradiation. Evolution of the resistivity vs temperature characteristics in these films with ion fluence reveals the importance of Ag in bringing about both inter- and intra-granular modifications and making the films insensitive to ion irradiation.

Mishra, N. C.; Behera, D.; Mohanty, T.; Mohanta, D.; Kanjilal, D.; Mehta, G. K.; Pinto, R.

292

Irradiated fuel examination using the Cerenkov technique  

SciTech Connect

A technique for monitoring irradiated nuclear fuel inventories located in water filled storage ponds has been developed and demonstrated. This technique provides sufficient qualitative information to be useful as a confirmatory technique to International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors. Measurements have been made on the Cerenkov glow light intensity from irradiated fuel that show the intensity of this light to be proportional to the cooling time. Fieldable instruments used in several tests confirm that such measurements can be made easily and rapidly, without fuel assembly movement or the introduction of apparatus into the storage ponds. The Cerenkov technique and instrumentation have been shown to be of potential use to operators of reactor spent fuel facilities and away from reactor storage facilities, and to the International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors who provide surveillance of the irradiated fuel stored in these facilities.

Nicholson, N.; Dowdy, E.J.

1981-03-01

293

Irradiation creep of vanadium-base alloys.  

SciTech Connect

A study of irradiation creep in vanadium-base alloys is underway with experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in the US. Test specimens are thin-wall sealed tubes with internal pressure loading. The results from the initial ATR irradiation at low temperature (200-300 C) to a neutron damage level of 4.7 dpa show creep rates ranging from {approx}0 to 1.2 x 10{sup {minus}5}/dpa/MPa for a 500-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy. These rates were generally lower than reported from a previous experiment in BR-10. Because both the attained neutron damage levels and the creep strains were low in the present study, however, these creep rates should be regarded as only preliminary. Substantially more testing is required before a data base on irradiation creep of vanadium alloys can be developed and used with confidence.

Tsai, H.; Matsui, H.; Billone, M. C.; Strain, R. V.; Smith, D. L.

1998-05-18

294

Numerical simulation of irradiation hardening in Zirconium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A phase field model is developed to simulate interactions between gliding dislocations and irradiation induced damage loops (i.e., vacancy and self-interstitial loops) in Zirconium. Pinning contact interactions and long-range elastic interactions are simulated, with populations of defects generated based on experimental observations of typical damage microstructures in irradiated Zr. The model is employed to simulate irradiation hardening as a function of damage loop density. We find that the stress fields of damage loops contribute significantly to their effective obstacle strength, and that the elastic interactions cause the dependence of critical resolved shear stress on damage loop number density to deviate from analytical predictions of dispersed barrier hardening. The simulation predictions of the yield strength agree well with experimental measurements for different damage loop densities.

Boyne, A.; Shen, C.; Najafabadi, R.; Wang, Y.

2013-07-01

295

Growth-irradiance relationships in phytoplankton  

SciTech Connect

The steady state growth rates of three species of marine phytoplankton, Thalassiosira weisflogii, Isochrysis galbana, and Prorocentrum micans, were followed in turbidostat culture. At each growth irradiance, photosynthesis and respiration were measured by following changes in oxygen. Together with measurements of optical absorption cross sections, cellular chlorophyll, carbon and nitrogen, and excretion rates as well as knowledge of the quantum flux, the quantum requirement for growth and photosynthesis were calculated. Our results suggest that variations in growth rate caused by changes in irradiance may be related to changes in respiration rates relative to growth as well as changes in optical absorption cross sections for a given species. Interspecific differences in growth rate at a given irradiance are not related to changes in respiration however, but are primarily attributable to differences in optical absorption cross sections normalized to chlorophyll and differences in chlorophyll:carbon ratios.

Falkowski, P.G.; Dubinsky, Z.; Wyman, K.

1985-03-01

296

Irradiated homologous costal cartilage for augmentation rhinoplasty  

SciTech Connect

Although the ideal reconstructive material for augmentation rhinoplasty continues to challenge plastic surgeons, there exists no report in the literature that confines the use of irradiated homologous costal cartilage, first reported by Dingman and Grabb in 1961, to dorsal nasal augmentation. The purpose of this paper is to present a retrospective analysis of the author's experience using irradiated homologous costal cartilage in augmentation rhinoplasty. Twenty-seven dorsal nasal augmentations were performed in 24 patients between 16 and 49 years of age with a follow-up ranging from 1 to 27 months. Good-to-excellent results were achieved in 83.3% (20 of 24). Poor results requiring revision were found in 16.7% (4 of 24). Complication rates included 7.4% infection (2 of 27) and 14.8% warping (4 of 27). The resorption rate was zero. These results compare favorably with other forms of nasal augmentation. Advantages and disadvantages of irradiated homologous costal cartilage are discussed.

Lefkovits, G. (Lenox Hill Hospital, New York, NY (USA))

1990-10-01

297

Neutrophil myeloperoxidase destruction by ultraviolet irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The peroxidase activity of enriched leukocyte preparations on coverslips was determined cytochemically with a newly developed method. The techniques utilizes diaminobenzidine medium and cupric nitrate intensification and is suitable for analysis with light microscopy, SEM, and TEM. Blood specimens from control individuals were studied with and without in vitro UV irradiation and compared with those from psoriasis patients exposed therapeutically to various types of UV in phototherapy. All UV irradiated samples showed diminished neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MP) activity although that of the principal eosinophil peroxidase was unaffected. The SEMs supported the contention that decreased neutrophil MP activity might be related to UV induced degranulation. It is believed to be possible, eventually, to equate the observed MP degranulation effect after UV irradiation with diminished ability to fight bacterial infections.

Hanker, J.; Giammara, B.; Strauss, G.

1988-01-01

298

Effect of Electron Irradiation on Polypropylene Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of both electron beam irradiation on the properties of polypropylene (PP) films and the irradiation on the different layers of a multilayer PP film are studied. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscope was used to investigate the chemical structure of the films. The results showed that the chemical properties of the first layer were improved, that is, more functional groups responsible for dye ability and hydrophilicity of the film were produced on its surface, while noticeable improvement was not detected on the surface of other layers. This was also confirmed by testing the dye ability of the layers. However, the results obtained by atomic force microscopy showed that the electron irradiation caused some topographical changes, not only on the surface of the first layer but also on the others.

Sheila, Shahidi; Jakub, Wiener; Mahmood, Ghoranneviss; Abbas, Anvari

2011-04-01

299

Enucleation versus plaque irradiation for choroidal melanoma.  

PubMed

The Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) is an international, multicenter-controlled study. The organization includes an Executive Committee, Steering Committee, 6 Central Units, 32 Clinical Centers, and a Data and Safety Monitoring Committee. Scientifically, the COMS consists of (1) a randomized trial of patients with medium choroidal melanoma treated with enucleation versus iodine-125 plaque irradiation, (2) a randomized trial of patients with large choroidal melanoma treated with enucleation versus preenucleation external beam irradiation and enucleation, and (3) a prospective observational study of patients with small choroidal melanoma to determine whether a randomized trial of treatment is appropriate. In design and conduct of the COMS, special consideration is given to biostatistics and sample size considerations, iodine-125 plaque irradiation of choroidal melanoma, and coordinated ocular melanoma research. Recruitment is in progress. However, the pool of eligible patients is limited and the COMS needs the continued support and cooperation of ophthalmologists throughout the United States and Canada. PMID:3174030

Straatsma, B R; Fine, S L; Earle, J D; Hawkins, B S; Diener-West, M; McLaughlin, J A

1988-07-01

300

Enucleation versus plaque irradiation for choroidal melanoma  

SciTech Connect

The Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) is an international, multicenter-controlled study. The organization includes an Executive Committee, Steering Committee, 6 Central Units, 32 Clinical Centers, and a Data and Safety Monitoring Committee. Scientifically, the COMS consists of (1) a randomized trial of patients with medium choroidal melanoma treated with enucleation versus iodine-125 plaque irradiation, (2) a randomized trial of patients with large choroidal melanoma treated with enucleation versus preenucleation external beam irradiation and enucleation, and (3) a prospective observational study of patients with small choroidal melanoma to determine whether a randomized trial of treatment is appropriate. In design and conduct of the COMS, special consideration is given to biostatistics and sample size considerations, iodine-125 plaque irradiation of choroidal melanoma, and coordinated ocular melanoma research. Recruitment is in progress. However, the pool of eligible patients is limited and the COMS needs the continued support and cooperation of ophthalmologists throughout the United States and Canada.

Straatsma, B.R.; Fine, S.L.; Earle, J.D.; Hawkins, B.S.; Diener-West, M.; McLaughlin, J.A.

1988-07-01

301

Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system  

DOEpatents

A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); McInnes, Ian D. (San Jose, CA); Massey, John V. (San Jose, CA)

1988-01-01

302

Irradiation properties of T0 chopper components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the irradiation properties of the components of a T0 chopper. The organic materials in the rotor bearing grease, the magnetic fluids in seals, and the rubber in the timing belt, as well as the semiconductor materials in the rotation sensor and motor encoder, were all irradiated with high-energy ?-rays up to 100 kGy. No significant damage that shortens the lifetime of a T0 chopper was observed for the mechanical components. However, the semiconductor components were damaged by the irradiation. For the rotation sensor system detecting the rotor phase, the signal from a marker on the rotor shaft was transmitted outside the shielding by an optical fiber with radiation-proofing and the electrical circuits were removed from the beamline shielding. The lifetime of the motor encoder possibly meets the requirement for the maintenance period of the T0 chopper.

Itoh, Shinichi; Ueno, Kenji; Ohkubo, Ryuji; Sagehashi, Hidenori; Funahashi, Yoshisato; Yokoo, Tetsuya

2011-10-01

303

Characteristics of thyroid cancer following irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Studies in humans and animals have suggested that the distribution of histologic types of radio-induced thyroid cancers is different from that of naturally occurring tumors. In an attempt to verify that finding, histologic results of 31 patients with thyroid cancer, who had received irradiation to the head, neck or upper chest for other causes, were compared with those of 389 non irradiated patients. The two groups were homogeneous for age and sex. There was a significantly higher prevalence of the papillary type in the irradiated group, with an higher incidence of metastatic lymph nodes. Other histopathologic findings, coexisting with the papillary carcinoma (i.e., ground glass subtype, size less than 1.5 cm, multicentricity) did not differ significantly in the two groups. Some theoretical considerations concerning radio-induced thyroid carcinoma are proposed.

Turrin, A.; Pilotti, S.; Ricci, S.B.

1985-12-01

304

Spectroscopic study of gamma irradiated bovine hemoglobin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, the effects of ionizing radiation of Cs-137 and Co-60 from 4.95 to 743.14 Gy and from 40 Gy to 300 kGy, respectively, on some bovine hemoglobin characteristics were studied. Such an effect was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and infra-red (IR) spectroscopy. Bovine hemoglobin EPR spectra were recorded and analyzed before and after irradiation and changes were explained in detail. IR spectra of unirradiated and irradiated Bovine hemoglobin were recorded and analyzed also. It was found that ionizing radiation may lead to the increase of free radicals production, the decrease in ?-helices contents, which reflects the degradation of hemoglobin molecular structure, or at least its incomplete performance. Results also show that the combined application of EPR and FTIR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for determining structural modification of bovine hemoglobin samples exposed to gamma irradiation.

Maghraby, Ahmed Mohamed; Ali, Maha Anwar

2007-10-01

305

Dyeing of ?-irradiated cotton with natural flavonoid dye extracted from irradiated onion shells (Allium cepa) powder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Powder of Onion shells as a source of natural flavonoid dye (Quercetin) and cotton fabrics were exposed to absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. Irradiated and un-irradiated dye powder was used for extraction of quercetin as well as antibacterial, hemolytic and antioxidant activities were also determined to observe the effect of radiation. Furthermore, color strength and colourfastness of irradiated fabrics were improved by using pre and post-mordants such as alum and iron. It is found that 4 kGy is the optimal absorbed dose for extraction of natural quercetin extracted from onion shells while maximum color strength and acceptable fastness properties are obtained on dyeing of irradiated fabric at 60 °C keeping M:L of 1:30 using 10% alum as pre-mordant and 6% alum as post-mordant. Gamma irradiation has not only improved the color strength of the dye using irradiated cotton but also that of colourfastness properties.

Rehman, Fazal-ur; Adeel, Shahid; Shahid, Muhammad; Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Nasir, Faiza; Akhtar, Nasim; Ahmad, Zulfiqar

2013-11-01

306

Dielectric study of post-irradiation effects in gamma-irradiated polyethylenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The post-irradiation dielectric behaviour of different polyethylenes (PEs) has been studied by means of dielectric loss (tan ?) analysis over the wide temperature (25-325 K) and frequency (1 kHz-1 MHz) ranges. For this reason, low density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) samples were previously gamma irradiated in air to absorbed dose of 300 kGy. The irradiated samples were divided into two groups, and for the first one annealing treatment which can substantially reduce the concentration of free radicals were employed. For the second group, e.g. samples stored in air at room temperature after irradiation, post-irradiation evolution in free radical concentration, dielectric relaxation spectra and carbonyl content was investigated as a function of storage time, up to 90 days. Dielectric relaxation behaviour is related to differences in the initial structures of PEs (such as branching, crystallinity, etc.) and to the radiation-induced effects; carbonyl groups that were introduced by irradiation and/or delayed (post-irradiation) oxidation were regarded as tracer groups. Electron spin resonance (ESR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared (IR) spectroscopy and gel measurements were used to determine the changes in free radical concentration, crystal fraction, oxidation and degree of network formation, respectively.

Suljovrujic, E.

2010-07-01

307

[Development and single laboratory validation for thermoluminescence detection of irradiated foods using X-ray irradiation].  

PubMed

The thermoluminescence (TL) method using X-rays was investigated for the purpose of detection of irradiated food, and the method was validated at a single laboratory level. A small X-ray irradiator was developed as an alternative radiation source for normalization, and X-ray irradiation conditions equivalent to gamma-ray irradiation from (60)Co were established. Gamma-ray irradiated spices were used for the method validation. The detection limits (MDL) and lower limit of integrated TL intensities (MDL×10) for the spices were checked and the separation of silicate minerals from the spices was confirmed to be sufficient for TL analysis. There was no significant difference in TL glow ratio obtained using two sets of X-ray irradiation equipment including the newly developed equipment. Repeatability and intermediate precision showed no influence of analysts, X-ray irradiation equipments, or measurement days on the TL ratios. From these results, this detection method was validated in a single laboratory. PMID:21383529

Sakabe, Hiroshi; Mori, Yoshitane; Saitou, Kimie; Todoriki, Setsuko

2011-01-01

308

Cesium-137 source material for an irradiator  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of using /sup 137/Cs for the gamma source in sludge irradiators is discussed. It was concluded that /sup 137/Cs, because of its availability in large quantities as a by-product of fission in nuclear reactors, is an excellent candidate source for use in sewage sludge irradiators. The capsules used to store /sup 137/CsCl in the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility embody the technology gained by extensive development and experience during the past 25 years. The WESF capsule provides a rugged, well-proved containment of /sup 137/CsCl that has been shown to be resistant to a series of unusual stresses.

Lamb, E.

1980-01-01

309

[Islet function of the pancreas following irradiation].  

PubMed

Function of islets of Langerhans of Wistar male rats was studied after irradiation of animals with different doses. The pancreas function was determined with regard to the incorporation of 65Zn into the gland tissues. Total-body irradiation (60Co) with the dose of 4.0 Gy somewhat increased the function of islets; at the dose of 8.0 Gy their function was transiently blocked, and at the dose of 15 Gy the function of islets of Langerhans was blocked completely. PMID:6359249

Sheianov, G G; Filatov, P P; Letova, A N

310

Cerenkov methodology for monitoring irradiated reactor fuel  

SciTech Connect

Attribute measurement methods for confirming declared irradiated fuel inventories at nuclear installations under safeguards surveillance are of significant interest to inspectors. High-gain measurements of the intensity of the Cerenkov glow from exposed assemblies in water-filled storage ponds are promising for this purpose because the measured intensities depend on cooling times and burnup. We have developed a Cerenkov Measuring Device, a hand-held instrument that examines irradiated fuel assemblies in water-filled storage ponds and measures the intensity of the associated Cerenkov glow. In addition, we have developed a method for making such high-gain measurements in the presence of intense ambient light.

Nicholson, N.; Dowdy, E.J.

1984-01-01

311

Strengthening the security of gamma irradiators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the United States has seen an increasing emphasis on security as related to potential terrorist threats. One aspect that has received attention is the radiological dispersal device (``dirty bomb''), in particular the possibility of obtaining radioactive material for producing such devices. As a result, the security of US gamma irradiators has been the focus of industry efforts to reinforce protection of high-activity sources. This paper presents approaches that may be used to improve security at gamma irradiation facilities, including increased vigilance, education and awareness, and physical changes to the facility. As each method has been or is being implemented, employee involvement is a critical factor to success.

Young, J.; Smith, M.

2004-09-01

312

Optical characterization of proton irradiated diamond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manufacturing of miniaturized photonic devices based on diamond technology is possible by implanting the pristine material with highly energetic particles. Here we report on the spectral characterization of the optical constants of proton-irradiated diamond. Absorption of the irradiated zones was estimated in the UV-vis-NIR from direct transmittance measurement using a dedicated setup with enhanced spatial resolution. The OPD data providing an estimation of the thickness of the damaged area and its depth profile, have allowed then evaluation of the extinction coefficient from the transmission measurements. Simultaneous variation of dispersive optical constants makes the modeling significantly more complicated compared to the above cited monochromatic study.

Sytchkova, A.; Lagomarsino, S.; Vannoni, M.; Calusi, S.; Olivero, P.

2011-09-01

313

Interstitial irradiation of brain tumors: a review  

SciTech Connect

As an adjuvant to surgery, radiation therapy has consistently proven to be the most successful form of treatment for primary and secondary malignant brain tumors and possibly for inoperable benign tumors. Because the risk of radiation necrosis of normal brain limits the amount of radiation that can be given by external beam therapy at conventional dose rates, interstitial radiation of brain tumors is a logical alternative treatment approach. We discuss the radiobiological advantages of low dose rate irradiation and intratumoral placement of sources that make interstitial irradiation an attractive treatment for brain tumors and review the history of clinical brachytherapy for intracranial neoplasia.

Bernstein, M.; Gutin, P.H.

1981-12-01

314

Agglomeration defects on irradiated carbon nanotubes  

SciTech Connect

Aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT) were irradiated in the longitudinal and perpendicular directions, with low energy carbon and helium ions in order to observe the formation of defects in the atomic structure. Analysis through Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated bundle rupture and ion track formation on nanotube bundles. Aligned CNT presented a kind of defect comprising ravine formation and tube agglomeration on top of the substrate. The latter structure is possibly caused by static charge accumulation induced by the incoming ions. Fluence plays a role on the short range order. Higher fluence irradiation transforms CNT into amorphous carbon nanowires.

Steini Moura, Cassio [Faculty of Physics, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, 90619-900, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Balzaretti, Naira Maria; Amaral, Livio [Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, C.P.: 15051, 91501-070, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Gribel Lacerda, Rodrigo; Pimenta, Marcos A. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, C.P.: 702, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

2012-03-15

315

Presowing Irradiation of Plant Seeds. Second Revised and Enlarged Edition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book reviews published data and presents results of studies conducted by the authors on the presowing gamma-ray irradiation of seeds of agricultural crops. The authors describe the theoretical basis of the stimulatory effect of small irradiation doses...

D. A. Kaushanskii N. M. Berezina

1989-01-01

316

Studies on Preservation of Agricultural Products by Irradiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was attempted to develop and establish the preservation techniques of agricultural products by irradiation through ascertainment of the optimum irradiation doses for sprout inhibition of white potato and chestnut, and for disinfestation of rice...

K. H. Chung S. H. Kwon Y. I. Lee J. C. Chae I. C. Shin

1981-01-01

317

Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Irradiation Facilities and Their Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although there is a growing need for neutron and gamma irradiation by governmental and industrial organizations in the United States and in other countries, the number of facilities providing such irradiations are limited. At the Idaho National Engineerin...

V. P. Gupta J. S. Herring R. E. Korenke Y. D. Harker

1986-01-01

318

High accuracy diffuse horizontal irradiance measurements without a shadowband  

SciTech Connect

The standard method for measuring diffuse horizontal irradiance uses a fixed shadowband to block direct solar radiation. This method requires a correction for the excess skylight blocked by the band, and this correction varies with sky conditions. Alternately, diffuse horizontal irradiance may be calculated from total horizontal and direct normal irradiance. This method is in error because of angular (cosine) response of the total horizontal pyranometer to direct beam irradiance. This paper describes an improved calculation of diffuse horizontal irradiance from total horizontal and direct normal irradiance using a predetermination of the angular response of the total horizontal pyranometer. We compare these diffuse horizontal irradiance calculations with measurements made with a shading-disk pyranometer that shields direct irradiance using a tracking disk. Results indicate significant improvement in most cases. Remaining disagreement most likely arises from undetected tracking errors and instrument leveling.

Schlemmer, J.A; Michalsky, J.J.

1995-12-31

319

Long-Term Solar Irradiance Variability: 1984-1989 Observations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Long-term variability in the total solar irradiance has been observed in the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) solar monitor measurements. The monitors have been used to measure the irradiance from the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and th...

R. B. Lee

1990-01-01

320

Climatology of Solar Irradiance on Inclined Surfaces; Part 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following solar input variables were measured from March 1979 to October 1979 in Cabauw in the Netherlands: (1) the global solar irradiance, with an Eppley pyranometer, for five different orientations; (2) the direct solar irradiance on a surface perp...

W. H. Slob D. E. Brethouwer C. Den Ouden

1981-01-01

321

Final Report on Graphite Irradiation Test Og-2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are presented of dimensional, thermal expansivity, thermal conductivity, Young's modulus, and tensile strength measurements on specimens of nuclear graphites irradiated in capsule OG-2. About half the irradiation space was allocated to H-451 near-...

R. J. Price L. A. Beavan

1975-01-01

322

Consumer Acceptance of Irradiated Meat and Poultry Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Government began allowing food manufacturers to irradiate raw meat and meat products to control pathogenic microorganisms in February 2000. Consumer acceptance of irradiated foods could affect public health because many foodborne illnesses occ...

A. Majchrowicz B. Imhoff J. C. Buzby P. D. Frenzen

2000-01-01

323

Electrochemical corrosion behavior of spectrally tailored neutron irradiated stainless steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of neutron irradiation on corrosion behavior of a type 316 stainless steel irradiated at the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) under the spectrally tailored condition was studied by applying electrochemical techniques. Electrochemical potentioki...

T. Tsukada K. Shiba H. Nakajima

1992-01-01

324

Development of high temperature electron beam irradiation vessel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An electron beam irradiation vessel was developed for the irradiation of polymer materials at elevated temperature in inert gas atmosphere such as the radiation crosslinking of polytetrafluoroethylene(PTFE). The polymer materials were heated by the forced...

Y. Haruyama H. Sunaga H. Takizawa T. Seguchi A. Oshima

1995-01-01

325

Irradiation of White Potatoes, for Sprout Inhibition, with Cobalt-60.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Irradiation at the described level will increase the utilization of stored tubers. The treatment will, in effect, reduce losses that occur during storage through inhibition of sprouting. Treatment with minimum sprout inhibition levels of gamma irradiation...

1964-01-01

326

?-Irradiation of PEGd,lPLA and PEG-PLGA Multiblock Copolymers: I. Effect of Irradiation Doses  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the effects of different gamma irradiation doses on PEGd,lPLA and PEG-PLGA multiblock copolymers. The behaviour of the multiblock copolymers to irradiation was compared to that of PLA, PLGA polymers. PEGd,lPLA, PEG-PLGA, PLA and PLGA polymers were irradiated by using a 60Co irradiation source at 5, 15, 25 and 50 kGy total dose. Characterization was performed on all samples before and after irradiation, by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared absorption spectrophotometry (FTIR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The effect of gamma irradiation on polymer stability was also evaluated. Results of NMR and FTIR suggest an increase in -OH and -COOH groups, attributed to scission reactions induced by irradiation treatment. Data of GPC analysis showed that the weight average molecular weight (Mw) of polymer samples decreased with increasing irradiation dose. The extent of Mw degradation expressed as percentage of Mw reduction was more prominent for polymers with high molecular weight as PEGd,lPLA and PLA. The dominant effect of gamma-irradiation on both polymer samples was chain scission. The multiblock copolymer PEGd,lPLA presented higher sensitivity to irradiation treatment with respect to PLA, likely due to the presence of PEG in the matrix. The effect of gamma irradiation continues over a much longer period of time after gamma irradiation has been performed. It is suggested that the material reacts with oxygen to form peroxyl free radicals, which may further undergo degradation reactions during storage after irradiation.

Dorati, R.; Colonna, C.; Serra, M.; Genta, I.; Modena, T.; Pavanetto, F.; Perugini, P.

2008-01-01

327

Raman spectroscopy of C-irradiated graphite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Highly oriented pyrolytic graphite samples were irradiated with C(sup +) ions at 35 keV in a direction normal to the basal plane and subsequently annealed up to 1373 K. Substantial surface topography changes were observed at fluences of 5 (times) 10(sup 1...

D. M. Hembree D. F. Pedraza G. R. Romanoski S. P. Withrow B. K. Annis

1994-01-01

328

Acute Skin Reaction after Fractionated Irradiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental data on acute mouse and pig skin reaction after fractionated gamma or X irradiation have been analysed in terms of a new cell tissue kinetic model. The exponential-quadratic and generalized Huggett formulae have been used for cell lethality d...

S. Kozubek

1983-01-01

329

Radioluminescence of ?-irradiated polypropylene at low temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiothermoluminescence glow curves of polypropylene samples, ?-irradiated at 77 K, were recorded in the temperature range 77–270 K at a low heating rate. For oxygen-free polypropylene, thermoluminescence maxima were found at 90, 116, 211 and 234 K. Dose dependences of the isothermal luminescence at 77 K and the radiothermoluminescence peaks were observed. The influence of soaking in hydrocarbon solvent,

J. Mayer; R. Kubiak; M. Szadkowska-Nicze

1995-01-01

330

Interference between Active and Ultraviolet-irradiated  

Microsoft Academic Search

which left a fair amount of active virus, the only manifestation of interference was a prolongation of the incubation period. With virus which had received optimal irradiation, concentrated inocula elicited no symptoms but the same material in higher dilution produces the typical fatal illness. With doses of ultraviolet radiation between the minimum and the optimum, virus suspensions were obtained which

W. DU T. NAUDR; A. POLSON

1957-01-01

331

EFFECTS OF GAMMA IRRADIATION ON EPDM ELASTOMERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two formulations of EPDM elastomer, one substituting a UV stabilizer for the normal antioxidant in this polymer, and the other the normal formulation, were synthesized and samples of each were exposed to gamma irradiation in initially pure deuterium gas to compare their radiation stability. Stainless steel containers having rupture disks were designed for this task. After 130 MRad dose of

2011-01-01

332

Swift Heavy Ion Irradiation of Cobalt Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that the electronic energy loss released by swift heavy ions can cause considerable atomic movement in various solids. Here, we present a study of the effects of swift heavy ion irradiation on Co nanoparticles embedded within a silica host matrix. The evolution of the Co nanoparticle crystal phase, structural properties, shape and size has been characterized

D. J. Sprouster; R. Giulian; C. S. Schnohr; P. Kluth; L. L. Araujo; A. P. Byrne; G. J. Foran; M. C. Ridgway

2009-01-01

333

EFFECT OF IRRADIATION ON FUEL MATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on satisfactory solid fuel materiais for power reactors has ; included extensive irradxiation investigations of fuels based on metals, cermets, ; and ceramics. The ability of each type of fuel to resist irradiation damage ; during extended reactor exposure is dependent upon many interrelated factors. ; These factors for each of the three types of fuel in the light

J. H. Kittel; S. H. Paine

1958-01-01

334

Total lymphoid irradiation in renal transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), used in the treatment of some patients with Hodgkin's disease, produces profound immunological changes. In small rodents, mice and rats, a modified version of TLI results in transplantation tolerance for skin and heart allografts. The concept has been expanded to large outbred animals. In baboons transplantation tolerance has been produced for kidney and liver transplantation. The

J. Albertus Myburgh; Jacobus A. Smit; Anthony M. Meyers; J. René Botha; Selma Browde; Peter D. Thomson

1986-01-01

335

Active diaphragm rupture with laser beam irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed shock tube operations with a layer of diaphragm being ruptured by laser beam irradiation. Mylar or Cellophane was examined as the diaphragm material. It has been demonstrated that shock tube can be operated with this new technique. The absorbed energy depends on the material and thickness of the diaphragm and is an important control parameter.

Takahashi, T.; Torikai, H.; Yang, Q. S.; Watanabe, K.; Sasoh, A.

336

Calibrating Ultraviolet Irradiation of Fish Sperm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milt collected from common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, was irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) light to evaluate the effects on sperm viability as a function of sperm concentration and UV dose. The optical density of milt samples was determined using UV spectrophotometry. Sperm viability was estimated, based on motility and fertilization of eggs following UV radiation. Sperm samples

Michael D. Porter

1998-01-01

337

Aspheric surface testing by irradiance transport equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a method for aspheric surface testing is presented. The method is based on solving the Irradiance Transport Equation (ITE).The accuracy of ITE normally depends on the amount of the pick to valley of the phase distribution. This subject is investigated by a simulation procedure.

Shomali, Ramin; Darudi, Ahmad; Nasiri, Sadollah; Asgharsharghi Bonab, Armir

2010-05-01

338

Cesium-137 Source Material for an Irradiator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of using exp 137 Cs for the gamma source in sludge irradiators is discussed. It was concluded that exp 137 Cs, because of its availability in large quantities as a by-product of fission in nuclear reactors, is an excellent candidate source...

E. Lamb

1980-01-01

339

Pseudospin filter for graphene via laser irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study graphene monolayer charge carriers irradiated by an electromagnetic vortex. From this, two scenarios are envisaged: canonical oscillator coherent states, which form for large particle numbers and from which a sublattice filter can be constructed, and pair-coherent states, which emerge when the carrier velocity is much less than the Fermi velocity and which can exhibit nonclassical properties. The first

J. C. Martinez; M. B. A. Jalil; S. G. Tan

2009-01-01

340

Hyperparathyroidism After Irradiation for Childhood Malignancy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To examine the occurrence of hyperparathyroidism in a cohort of patients undergoing combined parathyroid and thyroid surgery after previous head-and-neck irradiation for childhood malignancy. Methods and Materials: This is a retrospective cohort study for the years 1996 to 2007. The study group comprised patients undergoing surgery in University of Sydney Endocrine Surgical Unit who had received previous head-and-neck irradiation in childhood and who were identified as having pathologic thyroid and parathyroid characteristics. Results: A total of 53 patients were identified in whom head-and-neck irradiation for the treatment of childhood malignancy had been documented. In each of the cases, thyroid disease was the primary reason for referral for surgery. Five of these patients (10%) were found to exhibit coexisting hyperparathyroidism. The latency period for hyperparathyroidism was less than 20 years in 4 of the 5 cases. There were four conventional parathyroid adenomas and one parathyroid lipoadenoma. All patients exhibited a significant decrease in postoperative calcium levels after surgery. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to document the significant risk of hyperparathyroidism after radiation exposure for childhood malignancy. The timeframe for development of disease is much shorter than that published for individuals who have undergone irradiation for benign diseases. High doses of therapeutic radiation at a young age make childhood survivors of malignancy at especially high risk for developing hyperparathyroidism.

McMullen, Todd; Bodie, Greg [University of Sydney Endocrine Surgical Unit, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Gill, Anthony [Department of Anatomical Pathology, Royal North Shore Hospital and University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Ihre-Lundgren, Catharina [University of Sydney Endocrine Surgical Unit, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Shun, Albert [Department of Surgery, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney (Australia); Bergin, Mary [Late Effects Oncology Clinic, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney (Australia); Stevens, Graham [Oncology Service, Auckland Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Delbridge, Leigh [University of Sydney Endocrine Surgical Unit, Sydney, NSW (Australia)], E-mail: leighd@med.usyd.edu.au

2009-03-15

341

EFFECTS OF X IRRADIATION ON CORN SEED  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corn seed was irradiated with eight dosages of x rays ranging from 0 to ; 1000 kr. Generally, all the seeds germinated and grew at uniform reduced rates ; for any given dose. Both hard and soft x rays greatly suppressed seedling ; growth, however. The range of x-ray treatments did not give a linear effect on ; growth. Hard

JOE H. CHERRY; R. H. Hageman; FLOYD I. COLLINS; DONNA FLESHER

1961-01-01

342

The irradiation laboratory at ?KD semiconductors Praha  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electron linac radiation source used to produce bulk defects in semiconductor power devices (SPDs) is described. Such defects serve to regulate the turn-off time and forward voltage drop of SPD devices. The irradiation facility, techniques, parameters of the electron beam and dosimetry are described.

Klisky, Vladimir

1990-04-01

343

UHV transport system for laser irradiation studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of a UHV sample transfer system is described. The transfer system allows irradiation of samples under vacuum in a laboratory physically removed from the location of the surface analysis system. Design considerations and advantages of this design are discussed.

A. L. Helms; W. A. Schiedt; Steven L. Bernasek; Bruce M. Biwer

1988-01-01

344

Irradiation of copper alloys in FFTF  

SciTech Connect

Nine copper-base alloys in thirteen material conditions have been inserted into the MOTA-18 experiment for irradiation in FFTF at approx.450/sup 0/C. The alloy Ni-1.9Be is also included in this experiment, which includes both TEM disks and miniature tensile specimens.

Brager, H.R.; Garner, F.A.

1984-05-23

345

Continuous wave laser irradiation of explosives  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative measurements of the levels of continuous wave (CW) laser light that can be safely applied to bare explosives during contact operations were obtained at 532 nm, 785 nm, and 1550 nm wavelengths. A thermal camera was used to record the temperature of explosive pressed pellets and single crystals while they were irradiated using a measured laser power and laser spot size. A visible light image of the sample surface was obtained before and after the laser irradiation. Laser irradiation thresholds were obtained for the onset of any visible change to the explosive sample and for the onset of any visible chemical reaction. Deflagration to detonation transitions were not observed using any of these CW laser wavelengths on single crystals or pressed pellets in the unconfined geometry tested. Except for the photochemistry of DAAF, TATB and PBX 9502, all reactions appeared to be thermal using a 532 nm wavelength laser. For a 1550 nm wavelength laser, no photochemistry was evident, but the laser power thresholds for thermal damage in some of the materials were significantly lower than for the 532 nm laser wavelength. No reactions were observed in any of the studied explosives using the available 300 mW laser at 785 nm wavelength. Tables of laser irradiance damage and reaction thresholds are presented for pressed pellets of PBX9501, PBX9502, Composition B, HMX, TATB, RDX, DAAF, PETN, and TNT and single crystals of RDX, HMX, and PETN for each of the laser wavelengths.

McGrane, Shawn D.; Moore, David S.

2010-12-01

346

A second brain tumour and irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three patients are described in whom irradiation of 2750 rad or more was used in the management of primary brain tumours, and 21 years or more later a second brain tumour of a different type occurred. One of the new tumours was a meningioma and the other two were cerebral astrocytomas. There is evidence to show that moderate doses of

R G Robinson

1978-01-01

347

Irradiation Effects on Reactor Structural Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report includes: (1) effect of hold-time on fatigue crack propagation in thermally aged, annealed and 25% cold-worked 304 stainless steel; (2) notch ductility retention of A543 submerged arc and electroslag weld deposits after irradiation; (3) tempera...

L. E. Steele

1974-01-01

348

Activation Foil Irradiation with Californium Fission Sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document describes the NBS calibration service 44080C (formerly 8.10), which operates in the following way: (i) dosimetry sensors (metal foils, nuclear track detectors, wires, crystals, etc., supplied by the customer or by NBS) are irradiated to a cer...

G. P. Lamaze J. A. Grundl

1988-01-01

349

THE PROBLEM OF OVER-IRRADIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The destructive effects of high dosage radiotherapy in carcinoma ; patients are discussed in relation to the apparently increasing need for plastic ; surgery in such irradiated patients. To avoid unnecessary damage, it is ; suggested that benign conditions, such as dermatitis and warts, not be treated by ; radiotherapy. In the experience of the author, radiotherapy in a large

B. W. F

1961-01-01

350

Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, June 1962  

SciTech Connect

This document details activities of the Irradiation Processing Department during the month of June, 1962. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; and NPR Project.

Not Available

1992-07-13

351

Minimizing material damage using low temperature irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific advancements in healthcare driven both by technological breakthroughs and an aging and increasingly obese population have lead to a changing medical device market. Complex products and devices are being developed to meet the demands of leading edge medical procedures.Specialized materials in these medical devices, including pharmaceuticals and biologics as well as exotic polymers present a challenge for radiation sterilization as many of these components cannot withstand conventional irradiation methods. The irradiation of materials at dry ice temperatures has emerged as a technique that can be used to decrease the radiation sensitivity of materials.The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of low temperature irradiation on a variety of polymer materials, and over a range of temperatures from 0 °C down to -80 °C. The effectiveness of microbial kill is also investigated under each of these conditions.The results of the study show that the effect of low temperature irradiation is material dependent and can alter the balance between crosslinking and chain scission of the polymer. Low temperatures also increase the dose required to achieve an equivalent microbiological kill, therefore dose setting exercises must be performed under the environmental conditions of use.

Craven, E.; Hasanain, F.; Winters, M.

2012-08-01

352

Solar UV irradiation and dermal photoaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin is increasingly exposed to ambient UV-irradiation thus increasing risks for photooxidative damage with long-term detrimental effects like photoaging, characterized by wrinkles, loss of skin tone and resilience. Photoaged skin displays alterations in the cellular component and extracellular matrix with accumulation of disorganized elastin and its microfibrillar component fibrillin in the deep dermis and a severe loss of interstitial

Meinhard Wlaschek; Iliana Tantcheva-Poór; Lale Naderi; Wenjian Ma; Lars Alexander Schneider; Ziba Razi-Wolf; Jutta Schüller; Karin Scharffetter-Kochanek

2001-01-01

353

THE ACB'S (ALKYLCYCLOBUTANONES) OF FOOD IRRADIATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Irradiation of foods for the purpose of improving microbiological safety, insect disinfestation, delay of ripening and sprouting has been an active area of research for over 45 years and has been approved by over 40 countries as a processing technology. Those approvals were made after extensive tox...

354

MONITORING SURFACE TEMPERATURE OF IRRADIATED FUEL ELEMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radiation thermometer using infrared techniques was developed to ; monitor surface temperatures of irradiated fuel elements while undergoing ; physical examination. Thermistors were chosen as sensors for the infrared ; thermometer as they are the most responsive transducer in the temperature range ; of interest here, namely from 600 to 100 deg F, and possess the required ; tolerance

1963-01-01

355

Electron Beam Irradiation of High Explosives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Samples of PBX-9404 and HBX-1 explosives were irradiated with an electron beam of nominal energy 2.1 MeV and fluence 110 J/cm exp 2 to investigate possible increased sensitivity due to the electrical discharge currents. The peak energy density and peak pr...

G. H. Bloom L. M. Erickson

1975-01-01

356

The irradiation facility at the AGOR cyclotron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The KVI is conducting radiobiology research using protons up to 190 MeV from the superconducting AGOR cyclotron in collaboration with the University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG) since 1998. Using the same set-up, we have started irradiations for radiation hardness studies of detectors and components for the European Space Agency (ESA) and industrial parties. For these irradiations, we use either mono-energetic protons or a simulated solar flare energy spectrum with fluxes up to 5 × 108 protons cm-2 s-1. Furthermore, tests of radiation effects such as single event upsets, are being performed with intensities down to a few particles/s. Different energies are achieved by degrading the primary beam energy. We are currently developing the capability for heavy ion irradiations in air with beams up to Xe at beam energies between 15 and 45 MeV per nucleon. Performing the irradiations in air simplifies handling and monitoring of the device under test. The high energy allows penetration to the active layer of electronic devices, without modifications to the chip housing. The different ions provide a wide range in LET.

Brandenburg, Sytze; Ostendorf, Reint; Hofstee, Mariet; Kiewiet, Harry; Beijers, Hans

2007-08-01

357

Nonintrusive irradiated fuel inventory confirmation technique  

SciTech Connect

Successful tests showing correlation between the intensity of the Cerenkov glow surrounding irradiated fuel assemblies in water-filled spent fuel storage ponds and the exposure and cooling times of assemblies have been concluded. Fieldable instruments used in subsequent tests confirmed that such measurements can be made easily and rapidly, without fuel assembly movement or the introduction of apparatus into the storage ponds.

Dowdy, E.J.; Nicholson, N.; Caldwell, J.T.

1980-01-01

358

Total scalp irradiation using helical tomotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homogeneous irradiation of the scalp poses technical and dosimetric challenges due to the extensive, superficial, curved treatment volume. Conventional treatments on a linear accelerator use multiple matched electron fields or a combination of electron and photon fields. Problems with these techniques include dose heterogeneity in the target due to varying source-to-skin distance (SSD) and angle of beam incidence, significant dose

Nigel. Orton; Hazim Jaradat; James Welsh; Wolfgang Tomé

2005-01-01

359

Irradiance-based Calibration Of Imaging Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method giving an absolute radiometric calibration of inflight satellite or aircraft imaging optical sensors is presented. The method uses measurements of the global and diffuse irradiance at ground level, the ground reflectance and spectral optical depths to derive a radiance at the sensor's entrance pupil. This radiance is compared with the sensor digital counts when it images the

S. F. Biggar; R. P. Santer; P. N. Slater

1990-01-01

360

SHIPPING CASE FOR IRRADIATED FUEL ELEMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the shipping of irradiated fuel elements special attention must be ; gven to protection against radiation and to the elimination of the heat produced. ; The shipping case designed for the Junta de Energia Nuclear is described. It ; consists of an inner aluminum container in which are placed the fuel elements. ; The outer case is made of

A. A. Santos; A. S. Benito

1959-01-01

361

Sprout Inhibition of Potatoes by gamma Irradiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Harvested fresh potatoes of Spunta variety were irradiated at 0, 60, 90, 120 and 150 gray and then stored at three different temperatures; room temperature (30 +- 5 sup 0 C) with R.H. 55-65%, 15 sup 0 C and 10 sup 0 C with R.H. 85-95%. The percentage of s...

V. Pringsulaka

1982-01-01

362

Change in properties in highly irradiated pyrographite on thermal annealing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors use a model material, pyrographite made at 2300 K, which was irradiated and examined for property change on thermal annealing. The irradiation condition for the specimens and changes in size and unitcell parameter on irradiation are shown. There is a considerable increase in thickness in pyrographite on irradiation with a fluence exceeding 2 x 10²¹ n\\/cm² at 770-1120

Y. S. Virgilev; T. K. Chugunova; E. I. Kurolenkin; V. G. Makarchenko

1986-01-01

363

IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

SciTech Connect

The radiation effects on the physical characteristic of the sewage sludge were studied in order to obtain information which will be used for study on the enhancement of the sludge's dewaterability. Water contents, capillary suction time, zeta potential, irradiation dose, sludge acidity, total solid concentration, sludge particle size and microbiology before and after irradiation were investigated. Irradiation gave an effect on physical characteristics sludge. Water content in sludge cake could be reduced by irradiation at the dose of 10kGy.

Lee, M-J.; Lee, J-K.; Yoo, D-H.; Ho, K.

2004-10-05

364

Ion irradiation induced grain growth in Pd polycrystalline thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion irradiation induced grain growth in Pd polycrystalline thin films was studied by transmission electron microscopy for 100-keV Ne+, 185-keV Ar+, and 560-keV Xe++ irradiations over a wide range of doses. Grain growth from 9 to 60 nm was observed after ion irradiations. Initially, the amount of growth is approximately linear with the irradiation dose; the growth saturates in the

Joyce C. Liu; M. Nastasi; J. W. Mayer

1987-01-01

365

Degradation of a COTS linear CCD induced by proton irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) linear CCD irradiated by protons is examined experimentally in this study. A dummy output voltage, the charge transfer efficiency (CTE) and a dark signal were degraded by 2-, 5-, and 10-MeV proton irradiation for comparison. The CCDs irradiated by 2-MeV protons were damaged most seriously, and the CCDs irradiated by 5-MeV protons were damaged more than

Wang Zujun; Liu Yinong; Chen Wei; Tang Benqi; Xiao Zhigang; Huang Shaoyan; Liu Minbo; Zhang Yong

2010-01-01

366

Apatite formation on CO 2 laser irradiated titanium oxide films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomimetic apatite-forming ability on CO2-laser-irradiated titanium oxide films was examined. Sol–gel-derived amorphous titanium oxide films were crystallized after irradiation of a continuous wave CO2 laser at the power of 5 W. The irradiation induced crystallization of anatase. The apatite-forming ability on the irradiated titanium oxide film was investigated by soaking in a solution with ion concentration 1.5 times those of

El-Sayed Ghaith; Tomokatsu Hayakawa; Toshihiro Kasuga; Masayuki Nogami

2006-01-01

367

Inaccuracy in manual multisegmental irradiation in coronary arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Retrospective evaluation of the accuracy of manual multisegmental irradiation with a source train for irradiation of long (re)stenotic lesions in coronary arteries, following percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA).Material and methods: Thirty-six patients were treated with intracoronary irradiation following PTCA with manual multisegmental irradiation. These patients were included in the multicenter, multinational ‘European Surveillance Registry with the Novoste Beta-Cath system’

Veronique L. M. A Coen; Johannes P. A Marijnissen; Jurgen M. R Ligthart; Connie de Pan; Jaap Drenth; Ad den Boer; Willem J van der Giessen; Patrick W Serruys; Peter C Levendag

2002-01-01

368

Electron beam irradiation effects in Trombay nuclear waste glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron beam irradiated nuclear waste glasses were studied by EPR, positron annihilation spectroscopy and IR techniques. Formation of boron-oxygen and silicon based hole centers along with E ? centers were observed in the glass after irradiation. Increase in the free volume size and fraction was observed in the irradiated glasses. EPR spin counting technique was employed to evaluate the defect concentration in the glasses after irradiation.

Mohapatra, M.; Kadam, R. M.; Mishra, R. K.; Dutta, D.; Pujari, P. K.; Kaushik, C. P.; Kshirsagar, R. J.; Tomar, B. S.; Godbole, S. V.

2011-10-01

369

Irradiation Embritlement in Alloy HT-­9  

SciTech Connect

HT-9 steel is a candidate structural and cladding material for high temperature lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors. In typical advanced fast reactor designs fuel elements will be irradiated for an extended period of time, reaching up to 5-7 years. Significant displacement damage accumulation in the steel is expected (> 200 dpa) when exposed to dpa-rates of 20-30 dpa{sub Fe}/y and high fast flux (E > 0.1 MeV) {approx}4 x 10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2}s. Core temperatures could reach 400-560 C, with coolant temperatures at the inlet as low as 250 C, depending on the reactor design. Mechanical behavior in the presence of an intense fast flux and high dose is a concern. In particular, low temperature operation could be limited by irradiation embrittlement. Creep and corrosion effects in liquid metal coolants could set a limit to the upper operating temperature. In this report, we focus on the low temperature operating window limit and describe HT-9 embrittlement experimental findings reported in the literature that could provide supporting information to facilitate the consideration of a Code Case on irradiation effects for this class of steels in fast reactor environments. HT-9 has an extensive database available on irradiation performance, which makes it the best choice as a possible near-term candidate for clad, and ducts in future fast reactors. Still, as it is shown in this report, embrittlement data for very low irradiation temperatures (< 200 C) and very high radiation exposure (> 150 dpa) is scarce. Experimental findings indicate a saturation of DBTT shifts as a function of dose, which could allow for long lifetime cladding operation. However, a strong increase in DBTT shift with decreasing irradiation temperature could compromise operation at low service temperatures. Development of a deep understanding of the physics involved in the radiation damage mechanisms, together with multiscale computer simulation models of irradiation embrittlement will provide the basis to derive trendlines and quantitative engineering predictions.

Serrano De Caro, Magdalena [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-27

370

Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the fatty acid profile of irradiated beef meat.  

PubMed

The effect of ?-ray irradiation on the fatty acid profile of beef meat was examined at doses of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 15.0kGy by means of (1)H NMR spectroscopy. NMR results revealed a clear trend toward an increase in the amount of saturated fatty acids and a decrease in the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the triacylglycerol composition of the irradiated samples compared to the unirradiated sample with increasing the irradiation dose. The observed changes in the fatty acid profile were confirmed by gas chromatography analysis of the samples irradiated at doses of 7.5, 10.0 and 15.0kGy. PMID:23140687

Stefanova, Rayna; Toshkov, Stoyan; Vasilev, Nikola V; Vassilev, Nikolay G; Marekov, Ilko N

2011-01-09

371

Response of neutron-irradiated RPV steels to thermal annealing  

SciTech Connect

One of the options to mitigate the effects of irradiation on reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) is to thermally anneal them to restore the fracture toughness properties that have been degraded by neutron irradiation. This paper summarizes experimental results of work performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to study the annealing response of several irradiated RPV steels.

Iskander, S.K.; Sokolov, M.A.; Nanstad, R.K.

1997-03-01

372

AGC1 Pre-Irradiation Data Report Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Graphite R&D program is currently measuring irradiated material property changes in several grades of nuclear graphite for predicting their behavior and operating performance within the core of new Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. The Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment consisting of six irradiation capsules will generate this irradiated graphite performance data for NGNP

William Windes

2011-01-01

373

Enhancement of Irradiation Capability of the Experimental Fast Reactor Joyo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental fast reactor Joyo is the first sodium-cooled fast reactor in Japan. One of its primary missions is to perform irradiation tests of fuel and structural materials to support the development of fast reactors. The MK-III high performance core upgrade to enhance the irradiation testing capabilities was completed in 2003. In order to expand Joyo's capabilities for innovative irradiation

Shigetaka Maeda; Takashi Serine; Takafumi Aoyama; Soju Suzuki

2009-01-01

374

Modeling Equilibrium Moisture Content of ?-Ray Irradiated Rough Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental studies show that gamma irradiation dose affects the values of equilibrium moisture content of grain at the same relative humidity and temperature of ambient. Values of the equilibrium moisture content decreased with increasing dose of ?-ray irradiation during both adsorption and desorption. Factor of irradiation dose was included in three widely used models for equilibrium moisture content; the parameters

Y. Yu; J. Wang

2006-01-01

375

Investigation of the identification of irradiated shrimps and codfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

From international colloquium: the identification of irradiated ; foodstuffs; Karlsruhe, Germany (24 Oct 1973). Type Crangon vulgaris shrimps were ; irradiated with 100, 250 and 500 krad of gamma rays several hours after the catch. ; It was found that, although spectropolarimetry given lower optical rotation ; values after irradiation, it can only be used for comparative studies. A ;

A. R. Deschreider; J. M. Vigneron

1973-01-01

376

EVALUATION OF ERYTHROPOIETIC DAMAGE AND RECUPERATION FOLLOWING X- IRRADIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was shown that the total uptake of Fe⁵⁹ following x irradiation ; is dependent not only upon the irradiation dose received, but also upon the time ; of isotope injection. When animals were injected 24 hours after x irradiation, ; they show, for all x-ray dose levels studied, decreased uptake of the Fe⁵⁹ ; both at 1 day following

T. G. Hennessy; S. E. Herrick; J. P. OKunewick

1963-01-01

377

Phase Transformation of Tini Shape Memory Alloy Under Electron Irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The irradiation effect of TiNi shape memory alloy was studied by transmission electron microscope. It is found that intermediate rhombohedral phase (R phase) in the alloy would disappear under electron irradiation at accelerate voltage of above 320 kV. The relation between electron irradiation and the stability of R phase was discussed.

Wan, Farong; Zu, Xiaotao; Wang, Lumin

2003-06-01

378

The measurement of solar irradiance on a tilted surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of solar irradiance on a tilted plane has been compared using two methods. The irradiance was calculated from the measured total and diffuse irradiance in the horizontal plane assuming an isotropic sky and compared with that measured in the tilted plane. Differences were observed which depended on how the tilted solarimeter was mounted. It is concluded that provided

B. Justin; D. B. Pye; J. L. J. Rosenfeld

1979-01-01

379

FACTORS AFFECTING CONSUMER NEGATIVE PERCEPTIONS ABOUT BEEF IRRADIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has identified several important factors affecting consumer negative perceptions about beef irradiation. The effects of these factors boil down to two main points: lack of trust in the adequacy and enforcement effectiveness of food safety regulations and consumer ignorance about the irradiation process. This implies dissemination of information about food irradiation and enhancement of consumer trust in the

Senhui He; Stanley M. Fletcher; Arbindra Rimal

2004-01-01

380

Neuropathologic effects of proton-beam irradiation in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

In ten patients with intracranial tumor, treatment with proton-beam irradiation was followed by neuropathologic evaluation of autopsy material. Computer-determined isodose curves of radiation dosage aided the correlation of tissue damage with tissue dose of irradiation. Although we found variations in the vulnerability of different anatomic regions (and even within the same region), threshold levels for the effect of proton irradiation

S. L. Nielsen; R. N. Kjellberg; A. K. Asbury; A. M. Koehler

1972-01-01

381

Consumer Acceptance of Irradiated Meat and Poultry Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Government began allowing food manufacturers to irradiate raw meat and meat products to control pathogenic microorganisms in February 2000. Consumer acceptance of irradiated foods could affect public health because many foodborne illnesses occur when consumers handle or eat meat or poultry contaminated by microbial pathogens. However, food manufacturers have been slow to adopt irradiation, partly because of the

Paul D. Frenzen; T. Alexander Majchrowicz; Jean C. Buzby; Beth Imhoff

2000-01-01

382

Neutron Irradiation Damage in Graphite and Its Effects on Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron irradiation is known to markedly influence the structure and properties of nuclear graphite. Here we review the mechanism of neutron damage and discuss its effect on the structure and properties of graphite. The results of recent irradiation experiments (HTN series capsules) on H-451 graphite are reviewed and contrasted with existing data. The graphite was irradiated in the High Flux

Tim Burchell

383

Innovations - potential applications for an irradiator for pumpable liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The successful operation of the irradiator built by PURIDEC/NUKEM for the Malaysian Institute of Technology for the radiation vulcanisation of natural rubber latex indicates that similar designs of irradiation plant might find application in other processes involving pumpable liquids. The authors review these applications and describe the benefits offered by the new irradiator design.

Langley, R.; Reuter, G.

1998-06-01

384

A decomposition study of the EPR spectrum of irradiated sucrose  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, the EPR spectra of irradiated sugars are very complex because of their multicomponent character. In this study we applied a multivariate statistical method called MLCFA, maximum likelihood common factor analysis, and it predicted at least six components contributing to the total EPR spectrum of irradiated sucrose. Three dominant components have already been isolated in an irradiated sucrose single

G. Vanhaelewyn; J. Sadlo; F. Callens; W. Mondelaers; D. De Frenne; P. Matthys

2000-01-01

385

Sulfonation of fluoropolymers induced by electron beam irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron beam irradiation experiments on PTFE films immersed in water were carried out at atmospheric conditions. The samples irradiated in water were thereafter sulfonated in fuming sulfuric acid (SO3). All irradiated materials were characterized by recording IR spectra (ATR and Transmission). As expected, COF and COOH (free and associated) groups could be created on the polymer surface due to the

Juan Carlos Caro; Uwe Lappan; Klaus Lunkwitz

1999-01-01

386

Reinforcing multiwall carbon nanotubes by electron beam irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the effect of electron beam irradiation on the bending modulus of multiwall carbon nanotubes grown by chemical vapor deposition. Atomic force microscopy observations of the nanotube deflection in the suspended-beam geometry suggest an internal, reversible stick-slip motion prior to irradiation, indicating presence of extended defects. Upon electron beam irradiation, nanotubes with an initial bending modulus exceeding 10 GPa

Martial Duchamp; Richard Meunier; Rita Smajda; Marijana Mionic; Arnaud Magrez; Jin Won Seo; László Forró; Bo Song; David Tománek

2010-01-01

387

Electron-beam irradiation of porous silicon: Application to micromachining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results on electron irradiation of porous silicon are presented and discussed. An electron-beam lithography system is used to irradiate small surface portions of porous silicon, without the use of any sensitive resists. In this way, it has been possible to write pattern with lateral resolution down to 120 nm. It is suggested that direct exposure to electron irradiation provokes the

Stefano Borini; Giampiero Amato; Massimiliano Rocchia; Luca Boarino; Andrea Mario Rossi

2003-01-01

388

MEASUREMENTS OF THE REACTIVITY CHANGE WITH IRRADIATION FOR NATURAL URANIUM SAMPLES IRRADIATED IN NRX  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental measurements and the interpretation of the changes in the reactivity and the constituents of natural uranium occurring in irradiations up to 0.63 n\\/ kilobarn are described. The effect of poisons with a short half-life, such as Xe-135, is not included. A description of the irradiations, the integrated flux measurements, and the measurement of the changes in reactivity is given

A. G. Ward; D. S. Craig

1959-01-01

389

Irradiation Performance of Fast Reactor MOX Fuel Assemblies Irradiated to High Burnups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed oxide fuel assemblies (MFA-1 and MFA-2 assemblies) were irradiated in the fast flux test facility to evaluate the irradiation performance of fast reactor core fuels at high burnups and high fast neutron fluences. The MFA-1 and MFA-2 assemblies achieved respective peak pellet burnups of 147 and 162GWd\\/t, and resisted to respective peak fast neutron fluences (E > 0:1 MeV)

Tomoyuki UWABA; Masahiro ITO; Tomoyasu MIZUNO

2008-01-01

390

Biodegradation of selected UV-irradiated and non-irradiated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradation of UV-irradiated anthracene, pyrene,benz[a]anthracene,and dibenz[a,h]anthracene was comparedto that of the non-irradiated samples, individuallyand in synthetic mixtures with enrichment cultures.Combined treatment was repeated for individual anthraceneand for the PAH mixture with Sphingomonas sp.strain EPA 505 and Sphingomonas yanoikuyae.Enrichment culture studies were performed on the PAHmixtures in the presence of the main photoproduct ofanthracene, pure 9,10-anthracenedione. Photochemicallypretreated creosote solutions were also

Kirsi-Maarit Lehto; Jaakko A. Puhakka; Helge Lemmetyinen

2003-01-01

391

Ionospheric Change and Solar EUV Irradiance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ionosphere has been quantitatively monitored for the past six solar cycles. The past few years of observations are showing trends that differ from the prior cycles! Our good statistical relationships between the solar radio flux index at 10.7 cm, the solar EUV Irradiance, and the ionospheric F-layer peak density are showing indications of divergence! Present day discussion of the Sun-Earth entering a Dalton Minimum would suggest change is occurring in the Sun, as the driver, followed by the Earth, as the receptor. The dayside ionosphere is driven by the solar EUV Irradiance. But different components of this spectrum affect the ionospheric layers differently. For a first time the continuous high cadence EUV spectra from the SDO EVE instrument enable ionospheric scientists the opportunity to evaluate solar EUV variability as a driver of ionospheric variability. A definitive understanding of which spectral components are responsible for the E- and F-layers of the ionosphere will enable assessments of how over 50 years of ionospheric observations, the solar EUV Irradiance has changed. If indeed the evidence suggesting the Sun-Earth system is entering a Dalton Minimum periods is correct, then the comprehensive EVE solar EUV Irradiance data base combined with the ongoing ionospheric data bases will provide a most fortuitous fiduciary reference baseline for Sun-Earth dependencies. Using the EVE EUV Irradiances, a physics based ionospheric model (TDIM), and 50 plus years of ionospheric observation from Wallops Island (Virginia) the above Sun-Earth ionospheric relationship will be reported on.

Sojka, J. J.; David, M.; Jensen, J. B.; Schunk, R. W.

2011-12-01

392

Studies on safety and efficacy of gamma-irradiated ginseng -Development of irradiation techniques for quality improvement of ginseng products-.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gamma irradiation was applied to red ginseng powder for improving microbiological and physicochemical quality. Irradiation at 5-10 kGy was effective for sterilizing all contaminated microorganisms of red ginseng powder. At the dose levels, major physicoch...

H. O. Cho M. W. Byun S. K. Cho I. J. Kand H. S. Yook

1995-01-01

393

Utilization of Irradiation on Food Preservation. Preservation of Kimchi and Mixed Condiments for Convenience Food Processing by Irradiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present project was intended to ascertain the efficacy of irradiation both in the decontamination and storeability of mixed condiments for convenience food and in the long-term preservation of a Kimchi. Based upon the preliminary studies, irradiated s...

H. O. Cho M. W. Byun J. H. Kwon S. W. Kim J. S. Yang

1987-01-01

394

Bond strengths of two conventional glass-ionomer cements to irradiated and non-irradiated dentin.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the influence of irradiation on the dentin shear bond strength of two conventional glass ionomer cements (GICs). Thirty extracted molars were bisected in the mesio-distal direction. One-half of 20 teeth were irradiated with 60 Gy (5 days/week) for 6 weeks, and then GIC was placed on the irradiated dentin surface (Groups A1, B1). For the other halves of these tooth specimens, the GICs were first placed on their dentin surfaces and then the specimens irradiated (Groups A2, B2). The remaining 10 teeth were bisected and used as non-irradiated controls (Groups C1, C2). The GIC-dentin shear bond strengths were examined. Groups A2 and B2 had significantly lower bond strengths than groups A1, B1, C1, and C2 (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found among groups A1, B1, C1, and C2 (p > 0.05). In conclusion, irradiation may have an adverse effect on the bond strength of GICs depending on the application sequence. PMID:18972786

Yesilyurt, Cemal; Bulucu, Bilinç; Sezen, Orhan; Bulut, Güne?; Celik, Davut

2008-09-01

395

Comparison of maxillary implant-supported prosthesis in irradiated and non-irradiated patients.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the influence of radiation therapy after the treatment of maxillary implant-supported prostheses, 27 patients received a total of 131 implants in maxilla after oral cancer treatment and/or reconstructive surgery. Among them, 25 received maxillary implant-supported prostheses. The cumulative survival rates of implants and prostheses were evaluated by the product-limit-estimates method according to Kaplan-Meier. The cumulative survival rate of implants and prostheses in irradiated patients was compared with that in non-irradiated patients by statistical Log-rank test. The results showed that 112 implants were observed after implant loading. The implants cumulative survival rate was approximately 65% for overall patients. The cumulative prosthesis successful rate was approximately 88% for all 25 patients. Log-rank test analysis revealed that there was a significant difference in cumulative implants survival rates between non-irradiated and irradiated maxillary bone (P < 0.01). It was concluded that the implants and prostheses in irradiated patients have significantly lower survival rates than in non-irradiated patients. PMID:12973954

Cao, Yingguang; Weischer, Thomas

2003-01-01

396

Hydrolytic degradation of electron beam irradiated high molecular weight and non-irradiated moderate molecular weight PLLA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine the hydrolytic degradation of electron beam irradiated ring-opening polymerized (ROP) poly(l-lactide) (PLLA-ir) and non-irradiated melt polycondensation polymerized poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA-pc). It was observed that irradiation increases the hydrolytic degradation rate constant for ROP PLLA. This was due to a more hydrophilic PLLA-ir, as a result of irradiation. The degradation rate constants (k)

Say Chye Joachim Loo; Hui Tong Tan; Chui Ping Ooi; Yin Chiang Freddy Boey

2006-01-01

397

Development of rig for systematic irradiation tests of fusion reactor materials in a fission reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquisition of systematic irradiation data are essential for understanding fundamental processes of irradiation effects and for establishment of a reliable database for irradiation effects in fusion reactor materials. It will take several years with expensive several different irradiation rigs in a fission reactor irradiation. There, it will take a long time to carry out the needed iterations between irradiation tests

Minoru Narui; Tsutomu Sagawa; Tatsuo Shikama

1998-01-01

398

Development of radiation indicators to distinguish between irradiated and non-irradiated herbal medicines using HPLC and GC-MS.  

PubMed

The effects of high dose ?-irradiation on six herbal medicines were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Herbal medicines were irradiated at 0-50 kGy with (60)Co irradiator. HPLC was used to quantify changes of major components including glycyrrhizin, cinnamic acid, poncirin, hesperidin, berberine, and amygdalin in licorice, cinnamon bark, poncirin immature fruit, citrus unshiu peel, coptis rhizome, and apricot kernel. No significant differences were found between gamma-irradiated and non-irradiated samples with regard to the amounts of glycyrrhizin, berberine, and amygdalin. However, the contents of cinnamic acid, poncirin, and hesperidin were increased after irradiation. Volatile compounds were analyzed by GC/MS. The relative proportion of ketone in licorice was diminished after irradiation. The relative amount of hydrocarbons in irradiated cinnamon bark and apricot kernel was higher than that in non-irradiated samples. Therefore, ketone in licorice and hydrocarbons in cinnamon bark and apricot kernel can be considered radiolytic markers. Three unsaturated hydrocarbons, i.e., 1,7,10-hexadecatriene, 6,9-heptadecadiene, and 8-heptadecene, were detected only in apricot kernels irradiated at 25 and 50 kGy. These three hydrocarbons could be used as radiolytic markers to distinguish between irradiated (>25 kGy) and non-irradiated apricot kernels. PMID:20623272

Kim, Min Jung; Ki, Hyeon A; Kim, Won Young; Pal, Sukdeb; Kim, Byeong Keun; Kang, Woo Suk; Song, Joon Myong

2010-07-11

399

Commercial food irradiation in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the first half of the Decade-of-the-90s commercial food irradiation in the U.S., led by disinfection of dry food ingredients, especially spices and seasonings, has been steadily increasing. This is partly because the media, and through it the general public, is now receiving much more accurate information, and, the controversy that raged from the mid-1980s through the early 1990s has subsided. Among evidence of the latter is that two of the states that had banned irradiated foods at the height of the political controversy, Maine and New York, ended their bans in 1995, leaving no other bans in-place or under consideration. Among the many factors that contributed to the ``public relations'' turn-about was the strong endorsement of food irradiation by such credible and influential organizations as the World Health Organization and the American Medical Association at a time at which serious food-related illness outbreaks in the U.S. were the focus of much media and public attention, with irradiation frequently cited as a proven safe and effective countermeasure. Ethylene/propylene oxide fumigation of spices and seasonings for microbial reduction and insect pest elimination, already banned in the European Union, appears headed for a ban or further curtailment in North America and elsewhere for residue, worker safety and air quality reasons. This plus the fact that irradiation is the superior treatment is stimulating the change-over from chemical gas fumigation to irradiation. For 1995 it is estimated that an order-of-magnitude 25,000 tons of domestically produced and imported spices and seasonings will have been radiation-disinfected in the U.S., mostly by four-or-five commercial gamma irradiation firms. One of these, a dedicated food irradiator in central Florida also radiation pasteurizes relatively small quantities of fresh chicken to eliminate microbial pathogens and extend fresh market life for retailing by several independent grocers, plus use by nearby Florida hospitals to help protect vulnerable patients from campylobacteriosis/salmonellosis, etc. following the approval of the USFDA and USDA in the early 1990s. This activity is expected to continue to gradually grow and expand, and to soon be followed by commercial radiation pasteurization of fresh and frozen red meats upon approval of a petition prepared by this author in 1994. This same food irradiator also treats various Florida fruit and produce items for retail sale by the same several independent grocers whereas, to date, supermarket chains have not been willing to offer the irradiated products for sale in their stores. Two of the reasons for this are that (1) supermarket chains, many of which are publicly owned through stock issuances, are more sensitive to controversial food-related issues and are more risk-averse than small, privately owned independents, and (2) the chains need an assured steady, adequate supply of a product before introducing it, and this is not possible yet with the current relatively small volumes of irradiated products. This may soon change with respect to fresh fruit following very successful retailing of irradiated Hawaiian papaya and other fruits in the U.S. Midwest during the first half of 1995. This has stimulated the Hawaiian fresh fruit grower-shippers to reconsider irradiation as THE insect disinfestation-phytosanitary quarantine treatment alternative to ethylene dibromide chemical fumigation that was banned in 1984, as well as to less-than-satisfactory heat treatment alternatives currently in use. Mid-1995 indications are that the one-or-more fruit disinfestation irradiators will become a reality well before the end of this decade, to be followed by other elsewhere. For example some mainland states, especially California, large parts of the agriculture of which (e.g. edible nuts and dried fruits) rely heavily on post-harvest fumigation with methyl bromide, which is to be phased out by the end of the year 2000 according to the U.S. Clean Air Act of 1990 due to its ozone layer-depleting property, need a safe, effective alter

Giddings, George

1996-09-01

400

Irradiation of Hemoglobin Using High-Energy Neutrons  

PubMed Central

Aqueous solutions of oxyhemoglobin were irradiated with 80 Mev neutrons with doses of 0.9 Mrads and 1,400 rads. Spectrophotometric measurements were made on the irradiated solutions. Absorption measurements for the 0.9-Mrad irradiation indicated that oxyhemoglobin was converted into methemoglobin and that porphyrin molecules were destroyed. The 1,400-rad irradiation gave no measureable conversion of oxyhemoglobin into methemoglobin. There was, however, destruction of some of the oxyhemoglobin. Results indicated that high-energy neutron irradiation causes structural alteration of the hemoglobin molecule and that this alteration is similar to that found for gamma and x-rays.

Oliver, Frederick W.; Silversmith, Ernest F.

1981-01-01

401

VUV irradiation studies of plasmid DNA in aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions of VUV light and DNA samples in aqueous solutions are reported. The damage induced by such radiation is quantified by monitoring both loss of supercoiled DNA and formation of single and double strand breaks using agarose gel electrophoresis. Irradiations were performed using synchrotron VUV photons of 130, 150, 170 and 190 nm. VUV irradiation experiments revealed enhanced damage upon irradiation with 170 nm photons as compared with irradiations with photons of 150 nm and 130 nm. Irradiations carried at 190 nm caused the least damage.

?mialek, M. A.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Folkard, M.; Prise, K. M.; Shuker, D. E. G.; Braithwaite, N. S.; Mason, N. J.

2008-02-01

402

Antiapoptotic effect of l -carnitine on testicular irradiation in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effects of l-carnitine on apoptosis of germ cells in the rat testis following irradiation. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups.\\u000a Control group received sham irradiation plus physiological saline. Radiotherapy group received scrotal gamma-irradiation of\\u000a 10 Gy as a single dose plus physiological saline. Radiotherapy + l-carnitine group received scrotal irradiation plus 200 mg\\/kg intraperitoneally l-carnitine. Twenty-four hours post-irradiation,

Mehmet Kanter; Yeter Topcu-Tarladacalisir; Sule Parlar

2010-01-01

403

Application of gamma irradiation for inhibition of food allergy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was carried out to evaluate the application of food irradiation technology as a method for reducing food allergy. Milk /?-lactoglobulin, chicken egg albumin, and shrimp tropomyosin were used as model food allergens for experiments on allergenic and molecular properties by gamma irradiation. The amount of intact allergens in an irradiated solution was reduced by gamma irradiation depending upon the dose. These results showed that epitopes on the allergens were structurally altered by radiation treatment and that the irradiation technology can be applied to reduce allergenicity of allergic foods.

Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon; Yook, Hong-Sun; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, Hee-Yun

2002-03-01

404

Planarian immobilization, partial irradiation, and tissue transplantation.  

PubMed

The planarian, a freshwater flatworm, has proven to be a powerful system for dissecting metazoan regeneration and stem cell biology. Planarian regeneration of any missing or damaged tissues is made possible by adult stem cells termed neoblasts. Although these stem cells have been definitively shown to be pluripotent and singularly capable of reconstituting an entire animal, the heterogeneity within the stem cell population and the dynamics of their cellular behaviors remain largely unresolved. Due to the large number and wide distribution of stem cells throughout the planarian body plan, advanced methods for manipulating subpopulations of stem cells for molecular and functional study in vivo are needed. Tissue transplantation and partial irradiation are two methods by which a subpopulation of planarian stem cells can be isolated for further study. Each technique has distinct advantages. Tissue transplantation allows for the introduction of stem cells, into a naïve host, that are either inherently genetically distinct or have been previously treated pharmacologically. Alternatively, partial irradiation allows for the isolation of stem cells within a host, juxtaposed to tissue devoid of stem cells, without the introduction of a wound or any breech in tissue integrity. Using these two methods, one can investigate the cell autonomous and non-autonomous factors that control stem cell functions, such as proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Both tissue transplantation and partial irradiation have been used historically in defining many of the questions about planarian regeneration that remain under study today. However, these techniques have remained underused due to the laborious and inconsistent nature of previous methods. The protocols presented here represent a large step forward in decreasing the time and effort necessary to reproducibly generate large numbers of grafted or partially irradiated animals with efficacies approaching 100 percent. We cover the culture of large animals, immobilization, preparation for partial irradiation, tissue transplantation, and the optimization of animal recovery. Furthermore, the work described here demonstrates the first application of the partial irradiation method for use with the most widely studied planarian, Schmidtea mediterranea. Additionally, efficient tissue grafting in planaria opens the door for the functional testing of subpopulations of naïve or treated stem cells in repopulation assays, which has long been the gold-standard method of assaying adult stem cell potential in mammals. Broad adoption of these techniques will no doubt lead to a better understanding of the cellular behaviors of adult stem cells during tissue homeostasis and regeneration. PMID:23007410

Guedelhoefer, Otto C; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro

2012-08-06

405

Gamma irradiation influence on physical properties of milk proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma irradiation was found to be an effective method for the improvement of both barrier and mechanical properties of the edible films and coatings based on calcium and sodium caseinates alone or combined with some globular proteins. Our current studies concern gamma irradiation influence on the physical properties of calcium caseinate-whey protein isolate-glycerol (1:1:1) solutions and gels, used for films preparation. Irradiation of solutions was carried out with Co-60 gamma rays applying 0 and 32kGy dose. The increase in viscosity of solutions was found after irradiation connected to induced crosslinking. Lower viscosity values were detected, however, after heating of the solutions irradiated with a 32kGy dose than after heating of the non-irradiated ones regarding differences in the structure of gels and resulting in different temperature-viscosity curves that were recorded for the irradiated and the non-irradiated samples during heating and cooling. Creation of less stiff but better ordered gels after irradiation arises probably from reorganisation of aperiodic helical phase and ?-sheets, in particular from increase of ?-strands, detected by FTIR. Films obtained from these gels are characterised by improved barrier properties and mechanical resistance and are more rigid than those prepared from the non-irradiated gels. The route of gel creation was investigated for the control and the irradiated samples during heating and the subsequent cooling.

Cie?la, K.; Salmieri, S.; Lacroix, M.; Tien, C. Le

2004-09-01

406

Stability of precipitates in ZIRLO under high energy particle irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the stability of precipitates in ZIRLO under irradiation, specimens were irradiated by Ni+ ions and electrons at 573 K. Precipitates were analyzed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Non-irradiated ZIRLO included two types of precipitates: BCC Zr-Nb and HCP Zr-Nb-Fe. After ion irradiation, the Zr-Nb-type precipitate remained BCC, while the Zr-Nb-Fe-type became amorphous without Fe depletion. This was likely due to the higher dose rate of ion irradiation compared to that of neutron irradiation, resulting in a reduced defect for the amorphous transition to occur. No precipitate change was observed after electron irradiation to 5 dpa. Results suggest that the stability of the precipitate depends on the type of damage, i.e. electrons vs. ions with presence or absence of cascades.

Hayashi, H.; Hashimoto, N.; Ohnuki, S.

2013-11-01

407

Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

Marín-Huachaca, Nélida S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.

2004-09-01

408

Low-Temperature Thermally-Activated Deformation and Irradiation Softening in Neutron-irradiated Molybdenum  

SciTech Connect

The effect of neutron irradiation on low-temperature deformation of Mo in two heat treatments, i.e. annealed and stress-relieved, was investigated. Specimens were irradiated at reactor coolant temperature ({approx}80 C) to doses ranging from 7.2 x 10{sup -5} to 0.28 dpa in the High Flux Isotope Reactor. Tensile tests were carried out between -50 and 100 C at strain rates of 1 x 10{sup -5}-1 x 10{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Thermal activation analysis based on tensile data was performed to understand the low-temperature deformation mechanism. Irradiation softening and reduced dependence on test temperature and strain rate of the yield stress was observed in the annealed Mo after low-dose neutron irradiation (<{approx}0.003 dpa). Higher dose neutron irradiation caused a thermal hardening only. The stress-relieved Mo showed a weaker dependence on test temperature and strain rate of the yield stress than the annealed Mo, and the dependence of the yield stress of the stress-relieved Mo was nearly unchanged after irradiation. Comparison of the experimental values of activation parameters with the theoretical predictions of dislocation models indicates that the Fleischer model of interactions of dislocations with tetragonal strains gave a better description of the activation process than the double-kink model, which implies a scavenging effect. The reduced test temperature and strain rate dependence following irradiation may be explained by the decreased effective stress due to trapping of interstitial solute species by neutron-produced defects.

Li, Meimei [ORNL; Byun, Thak Sang [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Zinkle, Steven J [ORNL

2008-01-01

409

TEM study of neutron-irradiated iron  

SciTech Connect

Results of a transmission electron microscopy study of the defect structure in iron neutron-irradiated to low fluences (less than or equal to 1 dpa) at temperatures of 455 to 1013/sup 0/K are presented. The dislocation microstructures coarsen with increasing irradiation temperature from decorated dislocations, through clusters of dislocation loops, to near-edge, interstitial dislocation loops with b = a<100>, and network segments. Significant cavity formation occurred only at 548 to 723/sup 0/K, with homogeneous distributions found only at 623 and 673/sup 0/K. The maximum swelling of 0.07% occurred at 673/sup 0/K. Large cavities had a truncated octahedral shape with (111) facets and (100) truncations. Damage halos were observed around boron-containing precipitates. The effects of interstitial impurities on microstructural development and the differences in the observed microstructures compared to those in refractory bcc metals are discussed. 8 figures, 6 tables.

Horton, L.L.; Bentley, J.; Farrell, K.

1981-01-01

410

Response of electrospun CNT composites to irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we investigate the suitability of Electrospinning as a manufacturing technique to produce CNT-polymer composites with a response to light. This objective is explored by way of developing a precursor solution comprised of a polymeric blend, suitable of CNT dispersion and further electrospinning. The MWCNTs were dispersed using Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and added to a polymeric solution consisting of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) in Tetrahydrofuran (THF) and Dimethylformamide (DMF). The dispersion of the CNTs during synthesis was studied using UV-VIs and XRD techniques. Fibers electrospun out of this precursor and their response to irradiation will also be discussed. Fiber morphology was characterized by SEM and the response to irradiation was examined by photoelectric conductivity.

Rosa, S. M.; Crespo, J. P.; Santiago-Avilés, J. J.; Ramos, I.; Campo, E. M.

2012-05-01

411

New irradiation geometry for microbeam radiation therapy.  

PubMed

Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) has the potential to treat infantile brain tumours when other kinds of radiotherapy would be excessively toxic to the developing normal brain. MRT uses extraordinarily high doses of x-rays but provides unusual resistance to radioneurotoxicity, presumably from the migration of endothelial cells from 'valleys' into 'peaks', i.e., into directly irradiated microslices of tissues. We present a novel irradiation geometry which results in a tolerable valley dose for the normal tissue and a decreased peak-to-valley dose ratio (PVDR) in the tumour area by applying an innovative cross-firing technique. We propose an MRT technique to orthogonally crossfire two arrays of parallel, nonintersecting, mutually interspersed microbeams that produces tumouricidal doses with small PVDRs where the arrays meet and tolerable radiation doses to normal tissues between the microbeams proximal and distal to the tumour in the paths of the arrays. PMID:15972983

Bräuer-Krisch, E; Requardt, H; Régnard, P; Corde, S; Siegbahn, E; LeDuc, G; Brochard, T; Blattmann, H; Laissue, J; Bravin, A

2005-06-22

412

New irradiation geometry for microbeam radiation therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) has the potential to treat infantile brain tumours when other kinds of radiotherapy would be excessively toxic to the developing normal brain. MRT uses extraordinarily high doses of x-rays but provides unusual resistance to radioneurotoxicity, presumably from the migration of endothelial cells from 'valleys' into 'peaks', i.e., into directly irradiated microslices of tissues. We present a novel irradiation geometry which results in a tolerable valley dose for the normal tissue and a decreased peak-to-valley dose ratio (PVDR) in the tumour area by applying an innovative cross-firing technique. We propose an MRT technique to orthogonally crossfire two arrays of parallel, nonintersecting, mutually interspersed microbeams that produces tumouricidal doses with small PVDRs where the arrays meet and tolerable radiation doses to normal tissues between the microbeams proximal and distal to the tumour in the paths of the arrays.

Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Requardt, H.; Régnard, P.; Corde, S.; Siegbahn, E.; LeDuc, G.; Brochard, T.; Blattmann, H.; Laissue, J.; Bravin, A.

2005-07-01

413

Exploiting geometrical irradiation possibilities in MRT application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) has the potential to treat infantile brain tumors when other kinds of radiotherapy would be excessively toxic to the developing normal brain. MRT uses extraordinarily high doses of X-rays but provides unusual resistance to radioneurotoxicity, presumably from the rapid migration of regenerative endothelial cells from dose “valleys” into dose “peaks”, i.e., into directly irradiated micro-slices of tissues. We will present a novel irradiation geometry which results in a tolerable valley dose for the normal tissue and a decreased peak-to-valley dose ratio (PVDR) in the tumor area by applying an innovative cross-firing technique. We propose an MRT technique to orthogonally crossfire two arrays of parallel, nonintersecting, mutually interspersed microbeams that produces tumoricidal doses with small PVDRs where the arrays meet and tolerable radiation doses to normal tissues between the microbeams proximal and distal to the tumor in the paths of the arrays.

Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Requardt, H.; Régnard, P.; Corde, S.; Siegbahn, E. A.; Leduc, G.; Blattmann, H.; Laissue, J.; Bravin, A.

2005-08-01

414

Stress relaxation of vitreous silica on irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The radiation-induced stress relaxation which is observed on ion bombardment of vitreous silica is described as a viscoelastic behavior in which the apparent viscosity is reduced to approx.10/sup 14/ Poise during irradiation and then increases rapidly by 4 or 5 orders of magnitude on cessation or interruption of irradiation. The bombarded layer appears to possess a viscosity approx.10/sup 19/ Poise, lower than would be expected for normal vitreous silica. On electron bombardment the viscosity is also reduced, but not as greatly as an ion bombardment, yet sufficiently to result in the whole radiation-induced volume contraction being realized perpendicularly to the surface, as has been found for ion bombardment. The maximum elastic stored energy which can be realized is but a fraction of a calorie per gram, hence the reported values of 200 cal/g would seem to be associated with the fragmentation of the network responsible for the reduced viscosity.

Primak, W.

1982-11-01

415

Nanohardness and brittleness of irradiated spinel ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of the size of crystalline regions on mechanical properties of irradiated oxides has been studied using magnesium aluminate spinel MgAl2O4. The samples characterized by different dimensions of crystalline domains, from sintered ceramics with grains of few micrometers in size up to single crystals, were used in the experiments. The samples were irradiated at room temperature with 320 keV Ar2+ ions up to fluences reaching 5 × 1016 cm-2. Nanomechanical properties were measured by using a nanoindentation technique and the resistance to crack formation by measurement of the total crack lengths made by Vickers indenter. The results revealed: correlation of nanohardness with accumulated damage, radiation-induced hardness increase in grain-boundary region and significant improvement of material resistance to crack formation.

Jagielski, J.; Aubert, P.; Maciejak, O.; Piatkowska, A.; Labdi, S.; Jozwik-Biala, I.; Jozwik, P.; Wajler, A.

2012-09-01

416

Sublethal irradiation promotes invasiveness of neuroblastoma cells  

SciTech Connect

Neuroblastoma is the most frequent extracranial solid tumour of childhood. Despite multiple clinical efforts, clinical outcome has remained poor. Neuroblastoma is considered to be radiosensitive, but some clinical studies including the German trial NB90 failed to show a clinical benefit of radiation therapy. The mechanisms underlying this apparent discrepancy are still unclear. We have therefore investigated the effects of radiation on neuroblastoma cell behaviour in vitro. We show that sublethal doses of irradiation up-regulated the expression of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor c-Met in some neuroblastoma cell lines. The increase in HGF/c-Met expression was correlated with enhanced invasiveness and activation of proteases degrading the extracellular matrix. Thus, irradiation at sublethal doses may promote the metastatic dissemination of neuroblastoma cells through activating the HGF/c-Met pathway and triggering matrix degradation.

Schweigerer, Lothar [Department of Pediatrics, University of Goettingen (Germany); Rave-Fraenk, Margret [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University of Goettingen (Germany); Schmidberger, Heinz [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University of Goettingen (Germany); Hecht, Monica [Department of Pediatrics, University of Goettingen (Germany)]. E-mail: monica.hecht@med.uni-goettingen.de

2005-05-13

417

?-Irradiation of malic acid in aqueous solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ?-irradiation of malic acid in aqueous solutions was studied under initially oxygenated and oxygen-free conditions in an attempt to determine the possible interconversion of malic acid into other carboxylic acids, specifically those associated with Krebs cycle. The effect of dose on product formation of the system was investigated. Gas-liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry was used as the principal means of identification of the non-volatile products. Thin layer chromotography and direct probe mass spectroscopy were also employed. The findings show that a variety of carboxylic acids are formed, with malonic and succinic acids in greatest abundance. These products have all been identified as being formed in the ?-irradiation of acetic acid, suggesting a common intermediary. Since these molecules fit into a metabolic cycle, it is strongly suggestive that prebiotic pathways provided the basis for biological systems.

Negron-Mendoza, Alicia; Graff, Rebecca L.; Ponnamperuma, Cyril

1980-12-01

418

Magna-field irradiation: physical considerations  

SciTech Connect

Magna-field radiotherapy in the form of total body, half body and total nodal irradiation is becoming increasingly prominent and involves dosimetric problems that are much more pronounced than they are for conventional field sizes. In this review of the physical considerations of magna-field irradiation, a number of possible alternate methods of producing large radiation fields are outlined, the basic beam dosimetry is reviewed and the factors producing dose variation in the patient are considered. Since the lung contains large regions of low density tissues and has a lower tolerance to radiaiton than most other tissues, special consideration is given to methods of dose determination and dose reduction to this organ. The question of accuracy in dose delivery is briefly discussed and the concept of delivering a radiation dose 'as precisely as readily achievable (APARA), technological and biological factors being taken into account' is introduced.

Van Dyk, J.

1983-12-01

419

Vacancy and interstitial loops in irradiated copper  

SciTech Connect

Significant advances have been made in diffuse scattering studies of irradiation induced dislocation loops in metals. Numerical calculational procedures have been developed that provide accurate diffuse scattering cross sections for vacancy and interstitial loops, and these cross sections have been used in conjunction with x-ray diffuse scattering studies of neutron and ion irradiated copper. Size distributions and concentrations have been obtained for both vacancy and interstitial loops and these results are compared with electron microscopy measurements. The size distributions obtained from diffuse scattering measurements show the vacancy loops to be smaller and more numerous than the interstitial loops, and indicate that equal numbers of vacancies and interstitials are in loops. The diffuse scattering and microscopy size distributions agree at the larger sizes, but the diffuse scattering method identifies more loops of the smaller sizes.

Larson, B.C.; Young, F.W. Jr.

1981-11-01

420

Precipitation during irradiation: an experimental example  

SciTech Connect

Neutron damage can significantly alter the process of precipitation from supersaturated solid solution. This is demonstrated by a series of experiments using a precipitation strengthened superalloy, Nimonic PE16 irradiated with fast neutrons over the temperature 400 to 650/sup 0/C. In disagreement with earlier predictions, precipitate development is found to be controlled by the competing processes of Ostwald coarsening and solute segregation due to drag by point defects to point defect sinks. Analysis of the kinetics of Ostwald coarsening reveals significant enhancement of diffusion rates due to irradiation in agreement with predictions and involving an activation energy on the order of one quarter that of thermal diffusion. Unusual precipitate morphologies were observed such as void shells, linear precipitate arrays and Archimedes' screw configurations. However, predicted temperature dependencies for solute segregation are not obeyed. An explanation is presented involving the coupling of the Ostwald coarsening mechanism with the solute segregation process.

Gelles, D.S.

1981-01-01

421

Precipitation during irradiation: an experimental example  

SciTech Connect

Neutron damage can significantly alter the process of precipitation from supersaturated solid solution. This is demonstrated by a series of experiments using a precipitation strengthened superalloy, Nimonic PE16 irradiated with fast neutrons over the temperature 400 to 650/sup 0/C. In disagreement with earlier predictions, precipitate development is found to be controlled by the competing processes of Ostwald coarsening and solute segregation due to drag by point defects to point defect sinks. Analysis of the kinetics of Ostwald coarsening reveals significant enhancement of diffusion rates due to irradiation in agreement with predictions and involving an activation energy on the order of one quarter that of thermal diffusion. Unusual precipitate morphologies were observed such as void shells, linear precipitate arrays and Archimedes' screw configurations. However, predicted temperature dependencies for solute segregation are not obeyed.

Gelles, D.S.

1981-01-01

422

Radiotherapeutic alternatives for previously irradiated recurrent gliomas  

PubMed Central

Re-irradiation for recurrent gliomas has been discussed controversially in the past. This was mainly due to only marginal palliation while being associated with a high risk for side effects using conventional radiotherapy. With modern high-precision radiotherapy re-irradiation has become a more wide-spread, effective and well-tolerated treatment option. Besides external beam radiotherapy, a number of invasive and/or intraoperative radiation techniques have been evaluated in patients with recurrent gliomas. The present article is a review on the available methods in radiation oncology and summarizes results with respect to outcome and side effects in comparison to clinical results after neurosurgical resection or different chemotherapeutic approaches.

Combs, Stephanie E; Debus, Jurgen; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

2007-01-01

423

Laryngeal acinic cell carcinoma following thyroid irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Only three examples of acinic cell carcinoma of the larynx or trachea are found in the recent literature. A case of acinic cell carcinoma of the subglottic larynx and trachea was diagnosed and treated at the University of Virginia Medical Center. To our knowledge this is the first such case with a prior history of radiation to the neck. The patient is a 56-year-old woman who was irradiated for hyperthyroidism 46 years ago. When seen she also had parathyroid hyperplasia and multiple thyroid adenomas, conditions that frequently follow irradiation of the thyroid in children. These findings in this case support the concept that radiation may be responsible for inducing this tumor, which otherwise rarely occurs in this location. The use of electron microscopy was extremely useful in the diagnosis of this tumor. She was treated with total laryngectomy and right neck dissection and is now free of disease one year after surgery.

Reibel, J.F.; McLean, W.C.; Cantrell, R.W.

1981-01-01

424

Titanium implants in irradiated dog mandibles  

SciTech Connect

The use of osseointegrated titanium implants has been a great benefit to selected cancer patients who otherwise would not be able to wear conventional and/or maxillofacial prostheses. Cognizant of the risk of osteoradionecrosis, we used an animal model to seek experimental evidence for successful osseointegration in bone irradiated to tumoricidal levels. Five healthy male beagle dogs received 60 gray to a previously edentulated and healed area of the right hemimandible. The left hemimandible was kept as a nonirradiated control. After 9 months, titanium implants were placed and allowed an additional 5 1/2 months to osseointegrate. At that time, block specimens were obtained, radiographed, photographed, and analyzed histologically. Although statistical significance cannot be attached to the results, osseointegration was achieved in half of the irradiated specimens.

Schweiger, J.W. (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (USA))

1989-08-01

425

Uracil metabolism in golden hamster after irradiation.  

PubMed

The catabolism of uracil and the total balance of excreted radioactivity were studied in golden hamsters after a peroral application of 14C-uracil. Twenty-four hours after administration most of the radioactivity taken up appeared in expired carbon dioxide. The percent proportion of radioactivity in carbon dioxide was independent of the amount of uracil administered. On the other hand, the percentage of radioactivity excreted in urine depended on the amount of uracil taken up, high doses of the compound causing up to eight-fold increase in urine-excreted radioactivity. Most of the exogenously-administered uracil was catabolized within the first 5 hours. Irradiation had no substantial effect on the dynamics of uracil catabolism. Analysis of urine revealed that most urine-excreted radioactivity is in the form of uracil. On peroral application of high doses of uracil to irradiated hamsters, their urine was found to contain barbituric acid which originated from uracil. PMID:300720

Buric, L; Grinberg, A; Muizniek, I; Novák, F; Vitol, M; Dienstbier, Z

1977-02-01

426

Online Irradiation Control by Means of PET  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Positron emission tomography (PET) is a dedicated tool for quality assurance in IBT. By measuring the spatial distribution of positron emitters generated via nuclear interactions between projectiles and atomic nuclei of the tissue during the therapeutic irradiation, conclusions on the accuracy of the dose localization can be drawn. In the following, the physical background as well as the technical realization of PET is depicted. Furthermore, current PET installations for quality assurance of proton and IBT are presented.

Fiedler, Fine; Kunath, Daniela; Priegnitz, Marlen; Enghardt, Wolfgang

427

Behaviour of Dielectric Materials Under Electron Irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamental aspects of charge trapping in electron irradiated insulators have been investigated by means of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The technique commonly used to perform charge injection, their transport and trapping ability is based on the absorbed current method and the SEM mirror effect. In this work, we have studied the influence of temperature on the charge trapping/diffusion during injection time at industrial porcelain samples given by S.T.E.G (Tunisian Society of Electricity and Gas).

Hachicha, O.; Ghorbel, N.; Kallel, A.; Fakhfakh, Z.

2007-09-01

428

Factors Affecting the Wear of Irradiated UHMWPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of sliding directionality on wear of irradiated UHMWPE (ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene) was studied under serum-lubricated conditions. When exposed to unidirectional sliding, by reciprocation along a line, steady-state wear rates were negligibly small against polished countersurfaces, only reaching measurable levels against roughened countersurfaces. In unidirectional cases, more rapid wear existed during the first million sliding cycles. If instead subjected

Brian R. Burroughs; Thierry A. Blanchet

2001-01-01

429

Vertebral Body Growth After Craniospinal Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To estimate the effects of radiotherapy and clinical factors on vertebral growth in patients with medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors treated with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The height of eight individual or grouped vertebral bodies (C3, C3-C4, T4, T4-T5, C6-T3, T4-T7, L3, L1-L5) was measured before and after CSI (23.4 or 36-39.6 Gy) in

Katherine A. Hartley; Chenghong Li; Fred H. Laningham; Matthew J. Krasin; Xiaoping Xiong; Thomas E. Merchant

2008-01-01

430

SLIGHTLY IRRADIATED FUEL (SIF) INTERIM DISPOSITION PROJECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL PRC) is proud to submit the Slightly Irradiated Fuel (SIF) Interim Disposition Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2010. The SIF Project was a set of six interrelated sub-projects that delivered unique stand-alone outcomes, which, when integrated, provided a comprehensive and compliant system for storing

NORTON SH

2010-01-01

431

Nasopharyngeal irradiation treatment of hyperplastic adenoids  

SciTech Connect

Radiotherapy treatment in childhood is an important cause of thyroid cancer. In the 1930 to 1950 era, radium irradiation of the nasopharynx was used to control hyperplastic adenoids. Because of the technical characteristics of this applicator, sufficient radiation was not applied to the thyroid by this technique to stimulate the development of thyroid malignancies. No malignancies have been reported thus far as a result of this treatment.

Pratt, L.W.

1981-01-01

432

Histologic changes in previously irradiated thyroid glands  

SciTech Connect

Thyroid tissue from 90 patients with a history of therapeutic irradiation to the head and neck in childhood and adolescence was examined microscopically. In addition to the well-known observation that these individuals have an increased incidence of primary thyroid carcinoma, it was also demonstrated that they have an increased incidence of benign histologic changes. These changes represent a spectrum from nonspecific hyperplastic lesions to benign neoplasis and thyroidltis.

Valdiserri, R.O.; Borochovitz, D.

1980-03-01

433

Modeled soft X-ray solar irradiances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar soft X-rays have historically been inaccurately modeled in both relative variations and absolute magnitudes by empirical solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance models. This is a result of the use of a limited number of rocket data sets which were primarily associated with the calibration of the AE-E satellite EUV data set. In this work, the EUV91 solar EUV irradiance model has been upgraded to improve the accuracy of the 3.0 to 5.0 nm relative irradiance variations. The absolute magnitude estimate of the flux in this wavelength range has also been revised upwards. The upgrade was accomplished by first digitizing the SOLRAD 11 satellite 4.4 to 6.0 nm measured energy flux data set, then extracting and extrapolating a derived 3.0 to 5.0 nm photon flux from these data, and finally by performing a correlation between these derived data and the daily and 81-day mean 10.7 cm radio flux emission using a multiple linear regression technique. A correlation coefficient of greater than 0.9 was obtained between the dependent and independent data sets. The derived and modeled 3.0 to 5.0 nm flux varies by more than an order of magnitude over a solar cycle, ranging from a flux below 1 x 108 to a flux greater than 1 x 109 photons per sq cm per sec. Solar rotational (27-day) variations in the flux magnitude are a factor of 2. The derived and modeled irradiance absolute values are an order of magnitude greater than previous values from rocket data sets related to the calibration of the AE-E satellite.

Tobiska, W. Kent

1994-06-01

434

Proton beam irradiation of choroidal hemangiomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To present a large series of choroidal hemangiomas treated with proton beam irradiation and to describe the treatment outcomes.METHODS: We treated 54 eyes of 53 patients with choroidal hemangioma. The lesions consisted of 48 circumscribed hemangiomas and six diffuse hemangiomas in patients with Sturge-Weber syndrome. The total applied dose was 27.3 Gy in four eyes, 22.7 Gy in three

Leonidas Zografos; Emmanuel Egger; Ludmila Bercher; Line Chamot; Gudrun Munkel

1998-01-01

435

A CANDU-Based Fast Irradiation Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new steady-state fast neutron reactor is needed to satisfy the testing needs of Generation IV reactors, the Space Propulsion Program, and the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. This paper presents a new concept for a CANDU-based fast irradiation reactor that is horizontal in orientation, with individual pressure tubes running the entire length of the scattering-medium tank (Calandria) filled with Lead-Bismuth-Eutectic

Shatilla

2006-01-01

436

Rotational Variability in Ultraviolet Solar Spectral Irradiance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are currently many observations and models of the Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) in the ultraviolet (UV). The models and the observations are often in agreement, but sometimes have significant differences. Using the decline of solar cycle 23 and the rise of solar cycle 24 as a test case, we will investigate the systematic differences between the short term SSI variation observed by satellite instruments and the predictions of proxy models.

Snow, M. A.; Richard, E. C.; Harder, J. W.; Thuillier, G. O.

2011-12-01

437

Decomposition of chloroethenes in electron beam irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decomposition of tetrachloroethylene and other chloroethenes in electron beam irradiation were examined in order to get information on treatment of industrial off-gas. The G-values of decomposition were larger in the order of tetrachloro->trichloro->trans-dichloro->cis-dichloro->monochloro-ethylene. For tetrachloroethylene, the effect of initial concentration on G-value of decomposition was also examined. The G-values of decomposition increased with the initial concentration. Decomposition mechanism and the

Teruyuki Hakoda; Guo Zhang; Shoji Hashimoto

1999-01-01

438

Commercial food irradiation in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the first half of the Decade-of-the-90s commercial food irradiation in the U.S., led by disinfection of dry food ingredients, especially spices and seasonings, has been steadily increasing. This is partly because the media, and through it the general public, is now receiving much more accurate information, and, the controversy that raged from the mid-1980s through the early 1990s has

George Giddings

1996-01-01

439

Irradiation-induced embrittlement of magnox cans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creep ductility of Magnox AL80 (Mg\\/0.8 wt per cent A1\\/0.005 wt per cent Be) fuel element cans is known to decrease with increasing irradiation. A possible cause of this embrittlement is void nucleation at inert gas bubbles formed on grain boundaries. The necessary size and spacing of these bubbles are calculated together with the total number of gas atoms

G. B. Gibbs; J. E. Harris

1972-01-01

440

Creep of Aluminum under Cyclotron Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of cyclotron irradiation by 38-Mev alpha particles on the steady-state creep rate (ca 10?6 per second) of aluminum has been measured at beam densities up to 1.2×1013 particles per cm2 per second. The data, which were taken on a 0.016-inch thick aluminum specimen for a stress range of 600 to 2500 psi and over a temperature range of

M. R. Jeppson; R. L. Mather; A. Andrew; H. P. Yockey

1955-01-01

441

Identification of irradiated food: the current status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are a number of methods now available for the identification of a range of irradiated foods. Following successful evaluation in interlaboratory blind trials, five standard methods, based on thermoluminescence, electron spin resonance spectroscopy and the formation of hydrocarbons and cyclobutanones, have been submitted to the European Committee of Standardization (CEN) for its consideration. Research is continuing in the development of other techniques and in the future additional methods may become available.

Stevenson, M. H.; Stewart, E. M.

1995-02-01

442

Vacancy cluster evolution in metals under irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stochastic treatment of vacancy cluster formation in irradiated metals is formulated in terms of a Fokker-Planck equation. The Fokker-Planck coefficients are found to depend on the cluster si2e distribution itself. This non-linear equation is solved by a previously developed numerical path-integral solution. The non-linear dependence provides an important feedback for the evolution of the bias. This evolution both initiates

M. F. Wehner; W. G. Wolfer

1985-01-01

443

Methods for routine control of irradiated food: Determination of the irradiation status of shellfish by thermoluminescence analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In some countries, clearance has been given for treating certain types of shellfish by ionizing radiation in order to increase the shelf-life and to reduce health hazards which might be caused by contaminating microorganisms. In the present study, thermoluminescence (TL) analysis was used to examine the irradiation status of shellfish products purchased from local suppliers. For analysis minerals were isolated from the guts of the animals. Although on none of the examined products an irradiation treatment prior to analysis could be shown, the results obtained on non-irradiated and irradiated products have revealed that irradiation within the commercially used dose range can clearly be detected. Already first glow TL intensities of minerald indicated irradiation treatments. Normalized TL signals of non-irradiated and irradiated samples were clearly separated. By calculation of differences of TL intensities and TL signals between non-irradiated and irradiated samples in dependency of integration temperature an optimized integration area for glow curves was determined. The result of this study agree well with results obtained by two large-scale intercomparisons between food control laboratories to detect irradiation treatment of spices and herbal products as well as of fruit and vegetables by TL analysis of contaminating minerals.

Schreiber, G. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Helle, N.; Bögl, K. W.

1994-06-01

444

Survival after total body irradiation: Effects of irradiation of exteriorized small intestine. (Reannouncement with new availability information)  

SciTech Connect

Rats receiving lethal irradiation to their exteriorized small intestine with pulsed 18 MVp bremsstrahlung radiation live about 4 days longer than rats receiving a dose of total-body irradiation (TBI) causing intestinal death. The LD50 for intestinal irradiation is approximately 6 Gy higher than the LD50 for intestinal death after TBI. Survival time after exteriorized intestinal irradiation can be decreased, by adding abdominal irradiation. Adding thoracic or pelvic irradiation does not alter survival time. Shielding of large intestine improves survival after irradiation of the rest of the abdomen while the small intestine is also shielded. The kinetics of histological changes in small intestinal tissues implicate the release of humoral factors after irradiation of the abdomen. Radiation injury develops faster in the first (proximal) 40 cm of the small intestine and is expressed predominantly as shortening in villus height. In the last (distal) 40 cm of the small intestine, the most pronounced radiation effect is a decrease in the number of crypts per millimeter. Irradiation (20 Gy) of the proximal small intestine causes 92 % mortality (median survival 10 days). Irradiation (20 Gy) of the distal small intestine causes 27% mortality (median survival > 30 days). In addition to depletion of crypt stem cells in the small intestine, other issues (humoral factors, irradiated subsection of the small intestine and shielding of the large intestine) appear to influence radiation-induced intestinal mortality.

Vriesendorp, H.M.; Vigneulle, R.M.; Kitto, G.; Pelky, T.; Taylor, P.

1993-12-31

445

Microchemical evolution of irradiated stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

The precipitates that develop during irradiation play the dominant role in the response of 300 series alloys, which alters not only the diffusional properties of point defects but also the rate of acceptance of point defects at dislocations and voids. The major elemental participants are carbon, nickel and silicon. Carbon appears to function as a major governing factor of the route and rate by which the radiation-induced evolution proceeds. It is the sensitivity of carbon's response to a wide range of variables that accounts for much of the variability observed in the swelling of 316 stainless steel. Silicon's role is two-fold: while in solution it depresses void nucleation and determines the duration of the void incubation period, and it also coprecipitates with nickel. The eventual level of nickel in the alloy matrix appears to control the steady-state swelling rate and is determined by the silicon and carbon content. The other participating elements appear to affect primarily the distribution and activity of carbon. Dislocations introduced either by irradiation or cold work likewise appear to influence the role of carbon. Several new physical mechanisms appear to be operating: Inverse Kirkendall effect, interstitial-altered phase stability, solute-interstitial binding, infiltration-exchange process, and creation of radiation-stable precipitates. The sensitivity of the latter phenomenon to temperature and flux has been shown to account for much of the unusual behavior of AISI 316 during irradiation.

Garner, F.A.

1980-01-01

446

Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (~ 10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfestation process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

1998-06-01

447

Dosimetry of biological irradiations using radiochromic films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Delivering accurate radiation dose to blood specimens during biological irradiations is essential in quantifying damage of ionizing radiation. To estimate dose to blood samples as accurately as possible, pieces of EBT2 model GAFCHROMIC™ film were placed within an approximately 10 mm finely ground rice layer that was used to simulate test specimens inside 40 mL plastic flasks. Irradiations of flasks were carried out using an X-RAD 320 irradiator with a beam quality of 320 kVp and a measured half value layer of 1.12 mm Cu, in air and in a full scattering setup which consisted of either rice or Solid Water™ (SW) surrounding flasks, filled to the same level at top of the flasks, together with a 5 cm thick SW slab beneath them. Outputs, per cent depth doses and beam profiles at different depths were measured and compared between setups. For the same setting, the dose delivered to the middle flask under the full scattering setup is 22% larger than with the in-air setup at the depth of the specimen and 9.2% more homogeneous across the specimen thickness of 10 mm (2.3% variation in comparison to the surface). Rice showed a fairly similar performance to SW within 1% at the same depth of 10 mm. Experimental setup based on full scattering conditions was shown to provide faster, more homogenous and fairly uniform dose delivery to biological specimens in comparison to conventionally used in-air setups.

Aldelaijan, S.; Nobah, A.; Alsbeih, G.; Moftah, B.; Aldahlawi, I.; Alzahrany, A.; Tomic, N.; Devic, S.

2013-05-01

448

Repair of nonreplicating UV-irradiated DNA  

SciTech Connect

Repair of irradiated phage lambda DNA in E. coli has been studied by a repressed-infection system: superinfection of homoimmune lysogenic bacteria; assay for restoration of transcribility to phage-encoded lac genes; extraction of DNA and assay for infectivity in transfection of uvrB/sup -/ recA/sup -/ recB/sup -/ spheroplasts, and for removal of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CBP-dimers) by UV-endonuclease treatment and alkaline sedimentation. In uvr/sup +/ repressed infections with 254-nm irradiated phages (60 J/m/sup 2/) lac transcription was rapidly returned to undamaged levels, concomitant with restoration of infectivity and removal of CBP-dimers. In uvrD/sup -/ cells, the frequency of phage gene inactivation corresponded to the estimated frequency of CBP-dimers per gene. In uvrA/sup -/ bacteria, however, lac expression was only 1/10 to 1/3 of that predicted by the expected frequency of gene inactivation, as if damage elsewhere affected transcription; recovery of infectivity and removal of CBP-dimers was almost completely inhibited. lac/sup +/ and lacUV5 phages, expected to respond oppositely to changes in superhelical density, were constructed as probes for topological changes during DNA repair. The assays for transfection infectivity and CBP-dimer-removal have been extended to studies of repair of UV-irradiated phage DNA injected into oocytes of the frog Xenopus laevis.

Martin, S.J.; Hays, J.B.

1986-05-01

449

Dosimetry of biological irradiations using radiochromic films.  

PubMed

Delivering accurate radiation dose to blood specimens during biological irradiations is essential in quantifying damage of ionizing radiation. To estimate dose to blood samples as accurately as possible, pieces of EBT2 model GAFCHROMIC™ film were placed within an approximately 10 mm finely ground rice layer that was used to simulate test specimens inside 40 mL plastic flasks. Irradiations of flasks were carried out using an X-RAD 320 irradiator with a beam quality of 320 kVp and a measured half value layer of 1.12 mm Cu, in air and in a full scattering setup which consisted of either rice or Solid Water™ (SW) surrounding flasks, filled to the same level at top of the flasks, together with a 5 cm thick SW slab beneath them. Outputs, per cent depth doses and beam profiles at different depths were measured and compared between setups. For the same setting, the dose delivered to the middle flask under the full scattering setup is 22% larger than with the in-air setup at the depth of the specimen and 9.2% more homogeneous across the specimen thickness of 10 mm (2.3% variation in comparison to the surface). Rice showed a fairly similar performance to SW within 1% at the same depth of 10 mm. Experimental setup based on full scattering conditions was shown to provide faster, more homogenous and fairly uniform dose delivery to biological specimens in comparison to conventionally used in-air setups. PMID:23603810

Aldelaijan, S; Nobah, A; Alsbeih, G; Moftah, B; Aldahlawi, I; Alzahrany, A; Tomic, N; Devic, S

2013-04-19

450

[A new biological irradiator for the laboratory].  

PubMed

The use of high doses (15-20 Gy) of X- or gamma-rays to irradiate blood-derived materials is a common practice by now. It is usual especially when materials must be transfused into non-immunocompetent patients. This is done to avoid the so-called GVH disease. Nowadays, for this purpose, units containing radioactive gamma-emitting sources with high activity and long half-life (usually 137Cs) are on the market. The characteristics of these "irradiators" allow their implementation in any laboratory with no need of structural shieldings. In spite of it, serious accidents (e.g., fire, fallings, etc.) which could imply hazards for the operating staff and even the general population, cannot be excluded. At the same time, the problem of long-term disposal of exhausted sources cannot be neglected. For these reasons, a new type of self-shielded irradiator was designed. It is equipped with an X-ray tube, operating at nearly 200-kV voltage, with 12-mA anodic current. The system is water- and oil-cooled and can work for a long time without thermal overloads. In this paper, the environmental and dosimetric measurements for beam characterization are reported. The system can produce beams with satisfactory characteristics for this specific problem. Moreover, its use may greatly reduce administrative radioprotection problems. PMID:8346343

Tosi, G; Brambilla, M G; Invernizzi, S; Leone, R; Pertosa, M

451

Irradiation response and stability of nanoporous materials  

SciTech Connect

Nanoporous materials consist of a regular organic or inorganic framework supporting a regular, porous structure. Pores are by definition roughly in the nanometre range, that is between 0.2 nm and 100 nm. Nanoporous materials can be subdivided into 3 categories (IUPAC): (1) Microporous materials - 0.2-2 nm; (2) Mesoporous materials - 2-50 nm; and (3) Macroporous materials - 50-1000 nm. np-Au foams were successfully synthesized by de-alloying process. np-Au foams remain porous structure after Ne ion irradiation to 1 dpa. Stacking Fault Tetrahedra (SFTs) were observed in RT irradiated np-Au foams under the highest and intermediate fluxes, but not under the lowest flux. SFTs were not observed in LNT irradiated np-Au foams under all fluxes. The vacancy diffusivity in Au at RT is high enough so that the vacancies have enough time to agglomerate and then collapse to form SFTs. The high ion flux creates more damage per unit time; vacancies don't have enough time to diffuse or recombine. As a result, SFTs were formed at high ion fluxes.

Fu, Engang [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Yongqiang [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Serrano De Caro, Magdalena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Caro, Jose A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zepeda-Ruiz, L [Lawrence Livermore national Laboratory; Bringa, E. [CONICET, Universidad de Cuyo, Argentina; Nastasi, Mike [University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE; Baldwin, Jon K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-28

452

ESR identification of gamma-irradiated albendazole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of ionizing radiation for sterilization of pharmaceuticals is a well-established technology. In the present work, the spectroscopic and kinetic features of the radicals induced in gamma-irradiated solid albendazole samples is investigated at different temperatures in the dose range of 3-34 kGy by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Irradiation with gamma radiation produced two different radical species in albendazole. They were fairly stable at room temperature but relatively unstable above room temperature, giving rise to an unresolved ESR spectrum consisting of three resonance peaks centered at g=2.0057. Decay activation energies of the contributing radical species were calculated to be 47.8 (±13.5) and 50.5 (±9.7) kJ/mol using the signal intensity decay data derived from annealing studies performed at high temperatures. A linear function of the applied dose was found to best describe the experimental dose-response data. Albendazole does not present the characteristics of good dosimetric materials. However, the discrimination of irradiated albendazole from its unirradiated form was possible even 6 months after storage in normal conditions. Based on these findings, it is concluded that albendazole and albendazole-containing drugs can be safely sterilized by gamma radiation and that ESR spectroscopy could be successfully used as a potential technique for monitoring their radiosterilization.

Çolak, Seyda

453

Mental function following scalp irradiation during childhood.  

PubMed

Between 1950 and 1960 about 20,000 israeli children were treated for tinea capitis by x-ray therapy as part of a large public health campaign to eradicate the disease. Dosimetric studies determined that these children were subjected to a mean brain dose of 130 rads. Almost 20 years later, possible radiation effects on the central nervous system were evaluated by comparing several measures of mental and brain function in approximately 11,000 of the irradiated children and in two nonirradiated, tinea-free comparison groups: (a) ethnic, sex- and age-matched individuals from the general population, and (b) siblings. While not all comparisons were statistically significant, there was a consistent trend for the irradiated subjects to exhibit signs of central nervous system inpairment more often than either comparison group. The irradiated children had lower examination scores on scholastic aptitude, intelligence quotient (IQ) and psychologic tests, completed fewer school grades, and had an increased risk for mental hospital admissions for certain disease categories. A slightly higher frequency of mental retardation was also suggested. These-long-lasting scholastic and mental health effects lead the authors to conclude that radiation to the immature brain may cause damage to the central nervous system. PMID:7102650

Ron, E; Modan, B; Floro, S; Harkedar, I; Gurewitz, R

1982-07-01

454

Hydrogen retention in ion irradiated steels  

SciTech Connect

In the future 1--5 MW Spallation Neutron Source, target radiation damage will be accompanied by high levels of hydrogen and helium transmutation products. The authors have recently carried out investigations using simultaneous Fe/He,H multiple-ion implantations into 316 LN stainless steel between 50 and 350 C to simulate the type of radiation damage expected in spallation neutron sources. Hydrogen and helium were injected at appropriate energy and rate, while displacement damage was introduced by nuclear stopping of 3.5 MeV Fe{sup +}, 1 {micro}m below the surface. Nanoindentation measurements showed a cumulative increase in hardness as a result of hydrogen and helium injection over and above the hardness increase due to the displacement damage alone. TEM investigation indicated the presence of small bubbles of the injected gases in the irradiated area. In the current experiment, the retention of hydrogen in irradiated steel was studied in order to better understand its contribution to the observed hardening. To achieve this, the deuterium isotope ({sup 2}H) was injected in place of natural hydrogen ({sup 1}H) during the implantation. Trapped deuterium was then profiled, at room temperature, using the high cross-section nuclear resonance reaction with {sup 3}He. Results showed a surprisingly high concentration of deuterium to be retained in the irradiated steel at low temperature, especially in the presence of helium. There is indication that hydrogen retention at spallation neutron source relevant target temperatures may reach as high as 10%.

Hunn, J.D.; Lewis, M.B.; Lee, E.H.

1998-11-01

455

Uses of irradiation for inactivation of microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

The lethal effects of radiation on microorganisms was noted soon after the discovery of X rays in 1895. In 1904, it was shown that vegetative bacteria are more sensitive than spores; however, no industrial applications could be made as the radiation sources were too expensive. In the mid-1950s, it became economical and practical to sterilize medical products, and ever since sterilization has been a growing industry. Radiation sterilization technology has made possible users of new materials, such as plastics. Food irradiation is about to take off. Just as there was a resistance to pasteurization of milk when it was first introduced, there will be resistance to radpasteurization. Irradiated foods have been proven safe beyond reasonable doubt. Safety has been established through two independent methods: (1) through the most extensive multigeneration animal feeding studies ever carried out, and (2) by analyzing the radiolytic products formed and the chemical changes that take place when food is irradiated. The possible toxicity of these products has been evaluated by an independent group of toxicologists, who based their evaluation on the results of exposure of these products in large quantities either to humans or to animals.

Brynjolfsson, A.

1988-01-01

456

Electron Irradiation of Interstellar Ice Analogues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular synthesis in the Universe primarily occurs in the icy mantles on dust grains in dense interstellar dust clouds. The interaction of photons, electrons and cosmic rays with these ice mantles triggers complex chemical synthesis leading to the formation of complex molecules. Such molecular reactions can only be understood by systematic laboratory studies. In our experiments astrophysical environments are recreated in the laboratory using an ultra high vacuum chamber (UHV) capable of reaching pressures of the order of 10 -10 mBar containing a liquid helium cryostat capable of attaining a temperature of 20 K. Ice films are deposited on a ZnSe substrate (cooled by cryostat) by background deposition and irradiated with electrons of 1KeV energy. Chemical changes induced by electron irradiation were monitored by an infrared spectrometer. By varying the temperature, we also investigate the temperature dependence on the kinetics of the reactions. In this poster we will present the first results of electron irradiation of simple organic molecules like formamide (HCONH2) and allyl alcohol (CH2CHCH2OH).

Nair, B. G.; Mason, N. J.

2011-05-01

457

Heavy ion irradiation of astrophysical ice analogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Icy grain mantles consist of small molecules containing hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen atoms (e.g. H2O, CO, CO2, NH3). Such ices, present in different astrophysical environments (giant planets satellites, comets, dense clouds, and protoplanetary disks), are subjected to irradiation of different energetic particles: UV radiation, ion bombardment (solar and stellar wind as well as galactic cosmic rays), and secondary electrons due to cosmic ray ionization of H2. The interaction of these particles with astrophysical ice analogs has been the object of research over the last decades. However, there is a lack of information on the effects induced by the heavy ion component of cosmic rays in the electronic energy loss regime. The aim of the present work is to simulate of the astrophysical environment where ice mantles are exposed to the heavy ion cosmic ray irradiation. Sample ice films at 13K were irradiated by nickel ions with energies in the 1-10 MeV/u range and analyzed by means of FTIR spectrometry. Nickel ions were used because their energy deposition is similar to that deposited by iron ions, which are particularly abundant cosmic rays amongst the heaviest ones. In this work the effects caused by nickel ions on condensed gases are studied (destruction and production of molecules as well as associated cross sections, sputtering yields) and compared with respective values for light ions and UV photons.

Duarte, Eduardo Seperuelo; Domaracka, Alicja; Boduch, Philippe; Rothard, Hermann; Balanzat, Emmanuel; Dartois, Emmanuel; Pilling, Sergio; Farenzena, Lucio; da Silveira, Enio Frota

458

Lower Limit on Solar Irradiance Variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helioseismic data reveal that the historical Sun cannot be any dimmer than it is now at activity minimum. Changes in the frequencies of solar oscillations are the most precise probe of irradiance variations over the solar cycle. Using MDI data, Dziembowski and Goode (2005) showed that f-mode changes arise from the direct effect of the evolving magnetic activity, while p-mode changes are due to small, activity induced changes in convective flows very near to the solar surface (turbulent pressure). The f-modes also sharply limit the allowed field growth with activity, and the limit is consistent with the observations of Lin and Rimmele (1999). Combining MDI data with BBSO Ca II K, we find the Sun is smooth at activity minimum and becomes increasingly corrugated with rising activity. The overall physical picture is one in which the Sun is hottest and smoothest at activity minimum, and becomes cooler, more corrugated and irradiant with rising activity. Thus, these results place a lower limit on irradiance variations, consistent with current activity minima, and are roughly consistent with a picture of Spruit (2000) and the behavior of faculae as reported by Berger et al. (2005).

Goode, P. R.

2005-12-01

459

Irradiation Environment of the Materials Test Station  

SciTech Connect

Conceptual design of the proposed Materials Test Station (MTS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is now complete. The principal mission is the irradiation testing of advanced fuels and materials for fast-spectrum nuclear reactor applications. The neutron spectrum in the fuel irradiation region of MTS is sufficiently close to that of fast reactor that MTS can match the fast reactor fuel centerline temperature and temperature profile across a fuel pellet. This is an important characteristic since temperature and temperature gradients drive many phenomena related to fuel performance, such as phase stability, stoichiometry, and fission product transport. The MTS irradiation environment is also suitable in many respects for fusion materials testing. In particular, the rate of helium production relative to atomic displacements at the peak flux position in MTS matches well that of fusion reactor first wall. Nuclear transmutation of the elemental composition of the fusion alloy EUROFER97 in MTS is similar to that expected in the first wall of a fusion reactor.

Pitcher, Eric John [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-21

460

Analyzing UV-B narrowband solar irradiance: comparison with erythemal and vitamin D production irradiances.  

PubMed

The heliotherapy and the phototherapy are mainly focused on taking benefit of the therapeutic effects of the ultraviolet (UV) irradiance on different skin diseases. The use of UV-B narrowband lamps, with emissions centered at 311 nm, has spread out among the dermatologist community because of its high therapeutic effect in comparison with its low erythema dose. For cloudless sun exposure, the balance of solar erythemal and solar narrowband (NB)-equivalent irradiances depends on several factors such as the solar zenith angle (SZA), the total ozone column (TOC) and the altitude. For SZA below 55°, the ratio of solar UV-B narrowband and erythemal irradiances increases with the SZA whereas the ratio of vitamin D production and erythemal irradiances decreases with the SZA with the maximum around midday. Furthermore, the solar NB ratio also increases with the TOC because the shorter wavelengths of the erythemal action spectrum are more affected by the ozone absorption processes. Considering the daily variations of the ratio between narrowband and erythemal irradiance, sun exposures avoiding midday hours are recommended in order to prevent negative side-effects. However to accumulate great NB doses and sufficient vitamin D in winter months is difficult because the time exposures may be longer than the day duration. PMID:23092623

Sola, Yolanda; Lorente, Jerónimo; Ossó, Albert

2012-09-21

461

Irradiation hardening in F82H irradiated at 573 K in the HFIR  

SciTech Connect

Post-irradiation tensile tests were conducted on alloy F82H and variants of this steels irradiated at 573 K up to 19 dpa in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Post-irradiation tensile and hardness tests revealed that the strength of F82H steeply increased below 5 dpa, and the total elongation decreased. The ductility of the variants, which showed more ductility in the unirradiated condition was the same as irradiated F82H, even though the magnitude of irradiation hardening is smaller than F82H. This suggests that the softened parts of the blanket, such as heat affected zones, could show more ductility loss at this temperature. The hardening behavior of F82H with 0.09% additional tantalum (mod3), which demonstrated microstructural stability under high temperature processing, was very similar to that of F82H. Therefore mod3 can be an attractive alternate structural material for a blanket when processed above 1373 K.

Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Sokolov, Mikhail A [ORNL; Hirose, Takanori [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA); Okubo, N. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA); Tanigawa, Hiroyasu [ORNL; Odette, G.R. [University of California, Santa Barbara; Ando, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)

2011-01-01

462

Radiation Sterilization and Food Irradiation Using Gamma Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the introduction of MDS Nordion's first irradiator in the early 1960's, a variety of gamma-processing systems has been developed. Each design is suited to a particular set of requirements - from high-throughput operations of diverse product lots to full automation or batch processing, all using gamma radiation. Gamma irradiator designs include the Centurion irradiator for temperature-sensitive food products like hamburgers and poultry; the Brevion, a compact batch irradiator providing flexibility, timeliness and simplicity on a whole new scale; a JS-10000 irradiator that operates in either automatic or batch mode to enable multipurpose product scheduling and optimum throughput; and, an irradiator that processes full pallets and is ideal for processing high-density products requiring excellent dose uniformity. These innovative irradiator designs help facilities to be more efficient, maximize operating time, improve product turnaround and minimize inventory levels. MDS Nordion's development of improved Point Kernel and Monte Carlo techniques is discussed, including their application in radiation source optimization, production irradiator design and process control. Absorbed-dose calculations also provide insight into the critical areas for dose mapping and routine monitoring, allowing for the optimum placement of dosimeters. Calculations may also be used to determine the absorbed-dose distribution within product, especially in areas of complex geometry such as material interfaces. The use of easily accessible, accurate and validated dose-calculation programs can be used to optimize the irradiation process. Key Words: dosimetry, irradiator design, dose calculation, modelling, modeling, process control, radiation source optimization.

O'Hara, Kevin

2003-03-01

463

Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation on Tensile Strength of Polypropylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the effects of the intensity of electron beam and the variation with time after irradiation of electron beam on the tensile strength of the polypropylene (PP), which is widely used as medicine containers, were investigated. PP with and without colorants were used first and samples irradiated under various intensity of EB. A tensile test on the irradiated samples with elapsed time after the irradiation of the electron beam was carried out. The effects of those factors on the tensile strength were discussed. The following results were obtained (1) The tensile strength of PP decreased due to the influence of the electron beam irradiation, however the rate of the decrease in strength was small compared with the original one. Furthermore, the rate of the decrease in strength was very small owing to the variation with time after the EB irradiation. (2) The tensile rupture strength of PP increased and the rupture strain owing to the influence of the electron beam irradiation compared with the original one. In addition, these rupture strength increased and the rupture strain decreased along with time after the irradiation of the electron beam. (3) The tensile rupture strain energy of PP decreased owing to the influence of the electron beam irradiation compared with the original one. In addition, the strain energy decreases with time after the irradiation of the electron beam. Moreover, the strength characteristics of PP with colorants received greater influence of electron beam compared with the one without colorants.

Yamada, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Masayuki; Shimbo, Minoru; Miyano, Yasushi

464

The methodology study of time accelerated irradiation of elastomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article studied the methods how to shorten the irradiation time by increasing dose rate without changing the relationship between dose versus properties of degraded samples. The samples used were nine kinds of EPDM which have different compounding formula. The different dose of Co-? ray was exposed to the samples. The maximum dose was 2 MGy. The reference condition to be compared with two short time test conditions is irradiation of 0.33 kGy/h at room temperature. Two methods shown below were studied as the time-accelerate irradiation conditions.Irradiation of 4.2 kGy/h in 0.5 MPa oxygen at room temperature.Irradiation of 5.0 kGy/h in air at 70 °C. After irradiation the mechanical properties of samples were measured at room temperature. The changes in 100% modulus suggest that irradiation in 0.5 MPa oxygen increases slightly scission reaction and irradiation at 70 °C increases slightly crosslinking, compared with the results obtained under low dose rate irradiation (the reference condition). The deviation was mostly in ±0.25 for 100% modulus and was ±0.5 for ultimate elongation throughout the all doses, where the value obtained at the reference condition referred to as 1.0. Thus, it was found out that two methods mentioned above are available as time accelerated irradiation conditions.

Ito, Masayuki

2005-07-01

465

Antimicrobial properties of natural substances in irradiated fresh poultry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was undertaken to determine if a combined treatment (marinating in natural plant extracts or vacuum) with irradiation could have a synergetic effect, in order to reduce the dose required for complete elimination of Salmonella on fresh poultry. The effect of these combined treatments on the shelf-life extension was also evaluated. The fresh chicken legs were irradiated at 0, 3 and 5 kGy. The poultry underwent microbial analysis (mesophilic and Salmonella detection). For each treatment, the total microbial count decreased with increase of irradiation dose. The marinating treatment have a synergistic effect with irradiation treatment to reduce the total microbial count and controlling the proliferation during storage at 4°C. Irradiation of fresh chicken pieces with a dose of 3 kGy appears to be able to extend the microbial shelf-life by a factor of 2. When the chicken is marinating and irradiated at 3 kGy or when irradiated at 5 kGy without marinating, the microbial shelf-life is extended by a factor of 7 to 8. No Salmonella was observed until day 12, in marinated chicken irradiated at 3 kGy. At 5 kGy, no Salmonella was found during all the experiment in the chicken in air and marinated. However, a presence of Salmonella was found in samples irradiated at 5 kGy under vacuum, in unirradiated samples and samples irradiated at 3kGy in air and under vacuum.

Mahrour, A.; Lacroix, M.; Nketsa-Tabiri, J.; Calderon, N.; Gagnon, M.

1998-06-01

466

Evaluation of Neutron Irradiated Silicon Carbide and Silicon Carbide Composites  

SciTech Connect

The effects of fast neutron irradiation on SiC and SiC composites have been studied. The materials used were chemical vapor deposition (CVD) SiC and SiC/SiC composites reinforced with either Hi-Nicalon{trademark} Type-S, Hi-Nicalon{trademark} or Sylramic{trademark} fibers fabricated by chemical vapor infiltration. Statistically significant numbers of flexural samples were irradiated up to 4.6 x 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2} (E>0.1 MeV) at 300, 500 and 800 C in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Dimensions and weights of the flexural bars were measured before and after the neutron irradiation. Mechanical properties were evaluated by four point flexural testing. Volume increase was seen for all bend bars following neutron irradiation. Magnitude of swelling depended on irradiation temperature and material, while it was nearly independent of irradiation fluence over the fluence range studied. Flexural strength of CVD SiC increased following irradiation depending on irradiation temperature. Over the temperature range studied, no significant degradation in mechanical properties was seen for composites fabricated with Hi-Nicalon{trademark} Type-S, while composites reinforced with Hi-Nicalon{trademark} or Sylramic fibers showed significant degradation. The effects of irradiation on the Weibull failure statistics are also presented suggesting a reduction in the Weibull modulus upon irradiation. The cause of this potential reduction is not known.

Newsome G, Snead L, Hinoki T, Katoh Y, Peters D

2007-03-26

467

Irradiation eradication and pathogen reduction. Ceasing cesium irradiation of blood products.  

PubMed

The irradiation of cellular blood components to prevent transfusion-associated (TA)-GVHD is an established practice in the developed world. Susceptible patients include those who are immunosuppressed, fetuses, very premature neonates and patients who have an increased likelihood of possessing one HLA haplotype for which the blood component donor is homozygous. Problems and challenges associated with blood component irradiation include transfusion delay, cost, failure to irradiate when indicated, increased potassium accumulation in and decreased shelf life of RBC units, reduced RBC recovery and, in the United States, substantial and onerous security requirements for cesium-137 source irradiators and their operators. Microbial contamination of blood components can pose life-threatening risks for transfusion recipients. Donor history screening and infectious disease testing are a reactive response and expensive, as well as an imperfect and incomplete means for preventing these infectious risks. In response to these threats, pathogen reduction technologies have been developed. Two such innovations (INTERCEPT, Cerus Corporation, Concord, CA, USA; and Mirasol, CaridianBCT Biotechnologies, Lakewood, CO, USA) are approved for clinical use in many countries, though not in the United States. These processes have been shown to effectively prevent proliferation of nucleic acid-containing microbes, thereby providing broad protection against transfusion-transmitted infection. These technologies have also been shown to prevent the replication of WBC. In this report, we review the substantial in vitro, clinical trial and clinical practice observational evidence that non-irradiated INTERCEPT- and Mirasol-treated cellular blood components do not cause TA-GVHD. Implementation of these processes precludes the necessity for irradiating cellular blood components to prevent TA-GVHD. PMID:19617907

Mintz, P D; Wehrli, G

2009-07-20

468

Signals in non-irradiated and irradiated single-sided silicon detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simulation of signals in silicon microstrip detectors (p+-n-n+) has been written. Electron-hole pairs are created by electrons from 90Sr beta source with Landau fluctuations considered. Simulated induced currents calculated according to Ramo's theorem are integrated and shaped. For irradiated sensors, trapping is included in the drift simulation. Using many Monte Carlo generated events, the charge collection efficiency (CCE) is calculated as a function of shaping time, applied voltage, and temperature. Results are compared with CCE measurements of unirradiated and irradiated strip detectors using readout chip (SCT 32A) with 25 ns peaking time.

Kramberger, G.; Cindro, V.; Mikuž, M.

2001-01-01

469

Post-irradiation deformation characteristics of heavy-ion irradiated 304L SS  

SciTech Connect

Post-irradiation deformation behavior in Ni-ion-irradiated 304L stainless steel (SS) is examined as a function of radiation dose and deformation temperature. For similar strain levels, specimens exhibit a transition from dislocation slip to deformation-induced twinning at 25C with increasing radiation dose. At 288C twinning is no longer observed and highly localized slip occurs by the formation of narrow ``channels`` containing a reduced defect density. The observations are discussed in terms of radiation-induced defect character and expected deformation mechanisms.

Cole, J.I. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Bruemmer, S.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-06-01

470

Technique for sparing previously irradiated critical normal structures in salvage proton craniospinal irradiation  

PubMed Central

Background Cranial reirradiation is clinically appropriate in some cases but cumulative radiation dose to critical normal structures remains a practical concern. The authors developed a simple technique in 3D conformal proton craniospinal irradiation (CSI) to block organs at risk (OAR) while minimizing underdosing of adjacent target brain tissue. Methods Two clinical cases illustrate the use of proton therapy to provide salvage CSI when a previously irradiated OAR required sparing from additional radiation dose. The prior radiation plan was coregistered to the treatment planning CT to create a planning organ at risk volume (PRV) around the OAR. Right and left lateral cranial whole brain proton apertures were created with a small block over the PRV. Then right and left lateral “inverse apertures” were generated, creating an aperture opening in the shape of the area previously blocked and blocking the area previously open. The inverse aperture opening was made one millimeter smaller than the original block to minimize the risk of dose overlap. The inverse apertures were used to irradiate the target volume lateral to the PRV, selecting a proton beam range to abut the 50% isodose line against either lateral edge of the PRV. Together, the 4 cranial proton fields created a region of complete dose avoidance around the OAR. Comparative photon treatment plans were generated with opposed lateral X-ray fields with custom blocks and coplanar intensity modulated radiation therapy optimized to avoid the PRV. Cumulative dose volume histograms were evaluated. Results Treatment plans were developed and successfully implemented to provide sparing of previously irradiated critical normal structures while treating target brain lateral to these structures. The absence of dose overlapping during irradiation through the inverse apertures was confirmed by film. Compared to the lateral X-ray and IMRT treatment plans, the proton CSI technique improved coverage of target brain tissue while providing the least additional radiation dose to the previously irradiated OAR. Conclusions Proton craniospinal irradiation can be adapted to provide complete sparing of previously irradiated OARs. This technique may extend the option of reirradiation to patients otherwise deemed ineligible for further radiotherapy due to prior dose to critical normal structures.

2013-01-01

471

Change in properties in highly irradiated pyrographite on thermal annealing  

SciTech Connect

The authors use a model material, pyrographite made at 2300 K, which was irradiated and examined for property change on thermal annealing. The irradiation condition for the specimens and changes in size and unitcell parameter on irradiation are shown. There is a considerable increase in thickness in pyrographite on irradiation with a fluence exceeding 2 x 10/sup 21/ n/cm/sup 2/ at 770-1120 K, which is due to supercrystallite defects. Thermal annealing does not restore the dimensions completely. On subsequent low-temperature irradiation (340-360 K), the increase in unit-cell parameter is less than that for control specimens not previously irradiated while the thickness increase is greater.

Virgil'ev, Y.S.; Chugunova, T.K.; Kurolenkin, E.I.; Makarchenko, V.G.

1986-07-01

472

Study of ?-ray irradiation effect on permanent magnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiation damage of FeCrCo, AlNiCo, SmCo, and NdFeB permanent magnets was investigated by using ?-ray irradiation. Results of magnetic property measurement show that FeCrCo and NdFeB have more demagnetization than AlNiCo and SmCo. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that ?-ray irradiation leads to the increase of FeCrCo crystal mismatch and decrease of AlNiCo ordering degree. The investigations by positron annihilation spectroscopy technique show that the defects in AlNiCo and SmCo increase after ?-ray irradiation. The defects induced by ?-ray irradiation in NdFeB magnets are not the main source that leads to partial demagnetization. The irradiation resistances of these magnets are discussed in detail considering the thermal stability, coercivity mechanisms, and defect damage.

Gao, R. S.; Zhen, L.; Shao, W. Z.; Hao, X. P.; Sun, X. Y.; Yang, L.; Wang, B. Y.

2008-04-01

473

Irradiation creep induced anisotropy in a/2110 dislocation populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of anisotropy in Burgers vector distribution to irradiation creep behavior has been largely ignored in irradiation creep models. However, findings on Frank loops suggest that it may be very important. Procedures are defined to identify the orientations of a 2110 Burgers vectors for dislocations in face-centered cubic crystals. By means of these procedures the anistropy in Burgers vector populations was determined for three Nimonic PE16 pressurized tube specimens irradiated under stress. Considerable anisotropy in Burgers vector population develops during irradiation creep. It is inferred that dislocation motion during irradiaton creep is restricted primarily to a climb of a/2110 dislocations on 100 planes. Effect of these results on irradiation creep modeling and deformation induced irradiation growth is considered.

Gelles, D. S.

1984-05-01

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Commercialization of food irradiation in the U.S.A.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercializing food irradiation in the United States has been a major marketing and business challenge. This paper begins by examining the situation before America's first food irradiator was established, in 1992. With the Vindicator irradiator in place, beneficial changes and market offerings took place, amidst perceived activist threats and disinterest from the food industry. Initial efforts to market irradiated foods were made by independents in the food business, as part of their attempts to differentiate themselves from large food companies and grocery chains. Special tactics were needed to launch products into sensitive and fearful market-places. The brisk sales of irradiated foods in small, initial markets, has been an unexpected success. This paper discusses the methods used to promote positive awareness of irradiated foods nationally, building on small local successes.

Cottee, Jim; Kunstadt, Peter; Fraser, Frank

1995-02-01