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1

Photomask and pattern programming manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A user's manual for a set of computer programs written in FORTRAN for the layout and generation of photomasks is presented. A limited amount of related information on photomasks, their design, and use is included. Input to the programs includes data describing the photomask design. Possible outputs include plots of the layout and a magnetic tape for controlling generation of the photomask by a pattern generator.

Kirschman, R. K.

1978-01-01

2

Thermodynamic study of photomask plasma etching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photomask plasma etch reactions were studied using Gibbs energy minimization method. The equilibrium compositions were analyzed at practical photomask plasma etch conditions of temperatures, pressures, and reactant inputs. The thermodynamic calculations were based on common gaseous systems used in photomask plasma etching such as Cl2-O2-He, SF6-O2-He, and CF4-O2-He, as well as alternative gases. For Cr etch, the thermodynamically calculated results

Banqiu Wu

2004-01-01

3

Photomask pattern viewer and analyzer: HOTSCOPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, photomask pattern feature have become different from LSI layout pattern feature by the OPC process and CMP DUMMY pattern insertion. And then, photomask pattern data volume is very large compared with LSI layout pattern data volume. Therefore, in the usual JOBDECK pattern viewer software, it is difficult to draw those huge pattern data smoothly and quickly. Moreover, various proposals

Shogo Narukawa; Kiyoshi Yamasaki; Yuji Machiya; Naoya Hayashi

2005-01-01

4

SMO photomask inspection in the lithographic plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Source Mask Optimization (SMO) describes the co-optimization of the illumination source and mask pattern in the frequency domain. While some restrictions for manufacturable sources and masks are included in the process, the resulting photomasks do not resemble the initial designs. Some common features of SMO masks are that the line edges are heavily fragmented, the minimum design features are small

Emily Gallagher; Karen Badger; Yutaka Kodera; Jaione Tirapu Azpiroz; Ioana Graur; Scott D. Halle; Kafai Lai; Gregory R. McIntyre; Mark J. Wihl; Shaoyun Chen; Ge Cong; Bo Mu; Zhian Guo; Aditya Dayal

2009-01-01

5

Defect printability of advanced binary film photomask  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on an acceptable wafer critical dimension (CD) variation that takes device performance into consideration, we presented a methodology for deriving an acceptable mask defect size using defect printability [1]-[3]. The defect printability is measurable by Aerial Image Measurement System (AIMSTM) and simulated by lithography simulation without exposure. However, the defect printability of these tools is not always the same as the actual one. Therefore, the accuracy of these tools is confirmed by fabricating the programmed defect mask and exposing this mask on wafer. Advanced Binary Film (ABF) photomask has recently been studied as a substitute for the conventional MoSi phase shift mask. For ABF photomask fabrication, mask performance for process and guarantee for mask defects by repair and inspection are important. With regard to the mask performance, the ABF photomask has high performance in terms of resolution of pattern making, placement accuracy, and cleaning durability [4]. With regard to the guarantee for mask defects, it has already been confirmed that the defect on the ABF photomask is repairable for both clear and opaque defects. However, it has not been evaluated for inspection yet. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the defect printability, to derive the acceptable mask defect size, and to confirm the sensitivity of mask inspection tool. In this paper, the defect printability of the ABF photomask was investigated by the following process. Firstly, for opaque and clear defects, sizes and locations were designed as parameters for memory cell patterns. Secondly, the ABF programmed defect mask was fabricated and exposed. Thirdly, mask defect sizes on the ABF programmed defect mask and line CD variations on the exposed wafer were measured with CD-SEM. Finally, the defect printability was evaluated by comparing the correlation between the mask defect sizes and the wafer line CD variations with that of the AIMSTM and the lithography simulation. From these results, the defect printability of AIMSTM was almost the same as the actual one. On the other hand, the defect printability of the lithography simulation was relaxed from the actual one for the isolated defect types for both clear and opaque defects, though the defect printability for the edge defect types was almost the same. Additionally, the acceptable mask defect size based on the actual defect printability was derived and the sensitivity of the mask inspection tool (NPI-7000) was evaluated. Consequently, the sensitivity of the NPI-7000 was detectable for the derived acceptable mask defect size. Therefore, it was confirmed that the ABF photomask could be guaranteed for mask defects.

Naka, Masato; Yamaguchi, Shinji; Morishita, Keiko; Kanamitsu, Shingo; Yoshikawa, Ryoji; Mashita, Hiromitsu; Hirano, Takashi

2011-04-01

6

Haze generation effect by pellicle and packing box on photomask  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ArF exposure tool have been implementing as a main work force of lithography. And haze generation by high actinic wavelength energy is big issue to be resolved. Many studies have been reported to remove or minimized ion residual on photomask surface and PKL developed haze free process. Even though the surface of photomask is free from ions generating haze defect by haze free process, but the ions from environment like pellicle and packing box make worsen to keep cleanness of photomask. The evaluation of environment effect like outgas from pellicle and packing box have been reported, but it was hard to know pure environmental effect because the surface of photomask was not enough clean to test it. Several pellicles and boxes with different material from supplies were tested in terms of outgas, contamination of ion and threshold energy generating haze. Some material of packing box and pellicle showed very sensitive to keep haze free photomask surface.

Kim, Jong-Min; Patil, Manish; Jeong, Woo-Gun; Hur, Ik-Boum; Shin, Cheol; Jung, Sung-Mo; Choi, Moon-Hwan; Choi, Sang-Soo

2007-10-01

7

Adding grayscale layer to chrome photomasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent work has shown that bimetallic films, such as Bi/In and Sn/In, can create laser direct-write grayscale photomasks. Using a laser-induced oxidation process; bimetallic films turn transparent with variations in optical transparency that are a function of the laser power. The films exhibit transmittances <0.1% when unexposed and >60% when full laser exposed. A novel grayscale photolithography technique is presented that utilizes conventional chrome photomasks as the high resolution pattern-defining layer with a bimetallic thin film layer deposited on top as the grayscale-defining layer. Having the grayscale layer on top of the chrome, grayscale patterns can be aligned to the underlying chrome patterns. Laser power and bimetallic thin film thickness are carefully calibrated such that no chrome ablation or conversion occurs. The calibration ensures that during laser scanning, the bottom chrome layer defines the fine features of the underlying patterns and remains unchanged, while the bimetallic thin film layer is converted to provide grayscale tones. To further investigate the optical density (OD) properties of this type of mask, we measured the transient time response for pure chrome mask and Bi/In coated chrome mask to help fine tune the laser writing parameters. Using bimetallic Bi/In/Cr photomasks, we have successfully created continuous tone 3D structures with superimposed binary structures in SU-8 photoresist. By introducing this novel combined chrome-bimetallic mask, the fine detail features found in binary lithography may be combined with smoothly-varying 3D microstructures best suited to grayscale methods.

Poon, David K.; Dykes, James M.; Choo, Chinheng; Tsui, Jimmy T. K.; Wang, Jun; Chapman, Glenn H.; Tu, Yuqiang; Reynolds, Patrick; Zanzal, Andrew

2006-10-01

8

Thermodynamic study of photomask plasma etching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photomask plasma etch reactions were studied using Gibbs energy minimization method. The equilibrium compositions were analyzed at practical photomask plasma etch conditions of temperatures, pressures, and reactant inputs. The thermodynamic calculations were based on common gaseous systems used in photomask plasma etching such as Cl2-O2-He, SF6-O2-He, and CF4-O2-He, as well as alternative gases. For Cr etch, the thermodynamically calculated results showed that volatile CrO2Cl2 was the moderate equilibrium composition in the predetermined system only when the temperature was higher than 400 C, indicating that temperatures of heavy particles in practical plasma conditions might be higher than this temperature. The effects of assistant chemicals on equilibrium compositions were investigated. For MoSi etch, the thermodynamic calculation showed that the main volatile etch products were MoF6 and SiF4. The comparison of MoSi etch using SF6 and CF4 was made and gaseous input condition for obtaining all volatile products was found, which would be helpful for defectivity and passivation controls. The calculation also showed that the addition of oxygen in SF6 and CF4 systems could increase the equilibrium composition of atomic fluorine, resulting in the etch rate increase. This result agreed with previous hypothesis on the oxygen effects on etch rate. For quartz etch, the calculation showed that the main volatile etch product was SiF4. For Ta or TaN absorber EUV mask etch, the volatile Ta-containing product was found to be TaCl5.

Wu, Banqiu

2004-10-01

9

Implications of wafer design for manufacturing practices on photomask manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Focus on Design for Manufacturing (DFM) in semiconductor device design has increased as semiconductor manufacturing technology has become more complex. Many of the techniques developed to improve wafer yield and manufacturability can also be applied to the photomask manufacturing process. For example, for the last several technology nodes, semiconductor manufacturers have known that pattern density and uniformity can have significant impact on wafer processes such as etching and chemical mechanical polishing. Photomask manufacturing can also be impacted by pattern density and its uniformity. Some of these DFM practices can be beneficial if applied directly to photomask manufacturing while some of them can make photomask manufacturing significantly more difficult. Optical proximity correction (OPC), which involves convoluting the design shape to account for optical, physical and chemical processes, is increasingly required to support advanced lithography; some of the operational parameters of the OPC, such as the fragmentation run length, challenge mask resolution capability, image fidelity, defect inspection, mask repair, and dimensional metrology of photomasks. Sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs), which are utilized to create robust wafer lithography are often the most challenging mask features to create. The size and placement of SRAFs on photomasks are factors that impact photomask manufacturability in terms of image resolution, inspection, and dispositioning criteria. As OPC and other DFM processes become more widely deployed in an effort to make robust wafer manufacturing processes, the photomask maker needs to be involved to evaluate the implications to photomask manufacturing and assist in optimizing these DFM procedures to maximally benefit both the photomask and semiconductor manufacturing processes.

Watts, Andrew; Rankin, Jed; Magg, Christopher

2005-11-01

10

Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the intergroup relations in Japanese society and Japan's educational system. Challenges the view that Japan is a homogeneous society by presenting the various forms of discrimination against Koreans, Ainu, and the burakumin. Suggests that despite ostracism and isolation, groups can affect public policy and achieve social advancement. (SA)

Hawkins, John N.

1986-01-01

11

Clean and repair of EUV photomasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regardless at what technology node it will be implemented, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography appears to be the most likely candidate to succeed 193 nm wavelength lithography. However, EUV photomasks present new and different challenges for both repair and clean processes. Among these are different and more complex materials, greater sensitivity to smaller topography differences, and lack of pelliclization to protect critical pattern areas. Solutions developed and recently refined to meet these challenges are reviewed as an integrated solution to make the manufacture and maintenance of this mask type feasible. This proven, integrated solution includes nanomachining, BitClean® and cryogenic clean processes applied for hard (missing pattern) and soft (nanoparticle) defect removals with no damage to underlying multilayers.

Robinson, Tod; Yi, Daniel; Brinkley, David; Roessler, Ken; White, Roy; Bozak, Ron; Archuletta, Mike; Lee, David

2011-10-01

12

Finishing of EUV photomask substrates by CNC precessed bonnet polisher  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progressive transition from Excimer to EUV lithography is driving a need for flatter and smoother photomasks. It is proving difficult to meet this next generation specification with the conventional chemical mechanical polishing technology commonly used for finishing photomasks. This paper reports on the application of sub-aperture CNC precessed bonnet polishing technology to the corrective finishing of photomask substrates for EUV lithography. Fullfactorial analysis was used to identify process parameters capable of delivering 0.5 nm rms surface roughness whilst achieving removal rates above 0.1 mm3/min. Experimental results show that masks pre-polished to 300~600 nm P-V flatness by CMP can then be improved down to 50~100 nm P-V flatness using the automated technology described in this paper. A series of edge polishing experiments also hints at the possibility of increasing the quality area beyond the 5 mm defined in the official EUV photomask specification.

Beaucamp, Anthony T. H.; Namba, Yoshiharu; Charlton, Phillip; Freeman, Richard R.

2013-09-01

13

JAPAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Japanese populations are genetically different from other populations. Mass screening of newborns in Japan revealed that the\\u000a frequency of hyperphenylalanemia (PKU) was one-tenth and that of galactosemia one-twelfth of the frequency in other countries.1,2 Genetic diseases specific to the Japanese are acatalasia, Fukuyama muscular dystrophy and a few others. The incidence in\\u000a Japan of other common single gene disorders, including

Ichiro Matsuda

14

Pattern decomposition for double patterning from photomask viewpoint  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Double Patterning Technology (DPT) has been evaluated and reported since 32nm half pitch is recognized to be required with conventional immersion ArF lithography. DPT requires pattern decomposition into two pattern sets and the decomposition becomes more complex for especially so-called logic pattern including irregular pattern placement and many-vertices polygons. The innocent decomposition often creates forced segmentation of those polygons and two different aspect of photomasks such as density or substantial line direction. Those decomposed photomasks not only produce large possibilities of different error behavior but also leave annoyance complexity untouched. It is well known that line-ends and dense twisted lines produce large MEF. Then tighter specification for photomask fabrication have been required since the resolution limit was getting below the exposure wavelength. So the decomposition that creates tight patterns into separate two photomasks has possibilities of the fabrication load lighter. In this paper, the decomposition of criteria for DPT which helps photomask fabrication with a small possibilities is evaluated and discussed. Furthermore though it's getting to popular that overlay and CD uniformity of photomasks for DPT impact to completed CD with wafer exposure directly, considering other errors such as CD shift or phase error which are supposed to recover by exposure in addition to those errors are also studied.

Toyama, Nobuhito; Adachi, Takashi; Inazuki, Yuichi; Sutou, Takanori; Morikawa, Yasutaka; Mohri, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Naoya

2007-03-01

15

Binary 193nm photomasks aging phenomenon study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

193nm binary photomasks are still used in the semiconductor industry for the lithography of some critical layers for the nodes 90nm and 65nm, with high volumes and over long period. These 193nm binary masks seem to be well-known but recent studies have shown surprising degrading effects, like Electric Field induced chromium Migration (EFM) [1] or chromium migration [2] [3] . Phase shift Masks (PSM) or Opaque MoSi On Glass (OMOG) might not be concerned by these effects [4] [6] under certain conditions. In this paper, we will focus our study on two layers gate and metal lines. We will detail the effects of mask aging, with SEM top view pictures revealing a degraded chromium edge profile and TEM chemical analyses demonstrating the growth of a chromium oxide on the sidewall. SEMCD measurements after volume production indicated a modified CD with respect to initial CD data after manufacture. A regression analysis of these CD measurements shows a radial effect, a die effect and an isolated-dense effect. Mask cleaning effectiveness has also been investigated, with sulphate or ozone cleans, to recover the mask quality in terms of CD. In complement, wafer intrafield CD measurements have been performed on the most sensitive structure to monitor the evolution of the aging effect on mask CD uniformity. Mask CD drift have been correlated with exposure dose drift and isolated-dense bias CD drift on wafers. In the end, we will try to propose a physical explanation of this aging phenomenon and a solution to prevent from it occurring.

Dufaye, Félix; Sartelli, Luca; Pogliani, Carlo; Gough, Stuart; Sundermann, Frank; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Hidenori, Yoshioka; Charras, Nathalie; Brochard, Christophe; Thivolle, Nicolas

2011-04-01

16

Preliminary results for photomask haze mitigation in a fab environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A persistent industry problem impacting photomask yield and costs has been haze formation. The haze nucleation and growth phenomenon on critical photomask surfaces has periodically gained attention as it has significantly impacted wafer printability for different technology nodes over the years. A number of process solutions have been promoted in the semiconductor industry which has been shown to suppress or minimize the propensity for haze formation, but none of these technologies can stop every instance of haze. Thus some capability will always be needed to remove haze on photomasks with their final pellicles mounted both at the manufacture and long term maintenance stages of a mask's lifetime. A novel technology is reviewed here which uses a dry (no chemical effluents) removal system to sweep the entire printable region of a pelliclized photomask to eliminate all removable haze regardless of the mask substrate materials or the presence of critical patterns. An operational process technique for this system and performance in removal is shown for haze located on the mask pattern surface. Finally, preliminary data from tool acceptance and preliminary use in a production environment will also be reviewed.

Ku, Thomas; Leclaire, Jeff; Tan, Sia Kim; Chua, Gek Soon; Bozak, Ron; White, Roy; Robinson, Tod; Archuletta, Michael; Lee, David

2010-03-01

17

Improving the Optical Characteristics of Bimetallic Grayscale Photomasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bimetallic thin-films offer the ability of producing analog grayscale photomasks with OD ranging from ~3.0OD (unexposed) to <0.22OD (fully exposed). Recent developments have yielded the ability to deposit and pattern bimetallic thin-films on pre-patterned binary Chrome masks. Care is taken to ensure that when writing the grayscale pattern that the underlying Chrome layer is not affected. Through this technique, the

James M. Dykes; David K. Poon; Jun Wang; Jimmy T. K. Tsui; Glenn H. Chapman

18

Improving the optical characteristics of bimetallic grayscale photomasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bimetallic thin-films offer the ability of producing analog grayscale photomasks with OD ranging from ~3.0OD (unexposed) to <0.22OD (fully exposed). Recent developments have yielded the ability to deposit and pattern bimetallic thin-films on pre-patterned binary Chrome masks. Care is taken to ensure that when writing the grayscale pattern that the underlying Chrome layer is not affected. Through this technique, the

James M. Dykes; David K. Poon; Jun Wang; Jimmy T. K. Tsui; Glenn H. Chapman

2007-01-01

19

Aerial plane inspection for advanced photomask defect detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new methodology - Aerial Plane Inspection (API) - has been developed to inspect advanced photomasks used for the 45 nm node and beyond. Utilizing images from a high resolution mask inspection system, a mask image is recovered by combining the transmitted and reflected images. A software transformation is then performed to replicate the aerial image planes produced in a photolithography exposure system. These aerial images are used to compare adjacent die in a Die-Die inspection mode in order to find critical defects on the photomask. The mask recovery process and modeling of the aerial plane image allows flexibility to simulate a wide range of lithographic exposure systems, including immersion lithography. Any source shape, Sigma, and numerical aperture (NA) can be used at all common lithographic wavelengths. Sensitivity of the inspection can be fully adjusted to match photomask specifications for CD control, lineend shortening, OPC features, and for small and large defective areas. An additional adaptive sensitivity option can be utilized to automatically adjust sensitivity as a function of MEEF. Using the Aerial Plane Inspection to compare pattern images has the benefit of filtering out non-printing defects, while detecting very small printing defects. In addition, defects that are not printing at ideal exposure condition, but may be reducing the lithographic process window, can also be detected. Performing defect detection at the aerial image plane is more tolerant to small Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs) that are difficult to inspect at the reticle image plane.

Kim, Won Sun; Park, Jin Hyung; Chung, Dong Hoon; Jeon, Chan Uk; Cho, Han Ku; Hutchinson, Trent; Lee, Oscar; Huang, William; Dayal, Aditya

2009-10-01

20

Continuous-tone gray-scale photomask for deep-UV lithography applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous tone gray scale deep UV photomask technology offers new cost effective opportunities for the mass scale production of MEMS structures, diffractive optical elements (DOEs), computer generated holograms (CGHs), and kinoform optics. A new technology for the low cost fabrication of continuous tone gray scale photomasks for deep UV photolithography applications has been demonstrated. This technology is based on the

Edgar A. Mendoza; Fernando Sigoli; Heidi Paulus; Luan Q. Giang; Mahmood Seifouri; E. Lam; Lothar Kempen

2004-01-01

21

Application of image-processing software to characterize the photomask key parameters for future technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intent of photomask metrology has always been to understand the relationship between the features on the photomask and the design data. This desire has been actuated by the necessity to close the loop between the photomask process steps and the wafer lithography. As the Si technology approaches 0.25 micron and beyond, and the employment of resolution enhancement techniques (OPC and phase shifting mask) to extend the capability of optical lithography, both the photomask critical dimension control and pattern fidelity become important and challenging. Describing the features accurately on the photomask is critical to ensure the quality of photomasks. In this paper, the image processing software is examined for measuring and characterizing key photomask parameters, such as edge roughness, edge defects, isolated defects, corner rounding, and contacts. With this image processing software, the effect of mask processing on those key mask parameters, and the impact of those key parameters on defect printability were characterized. Thus, the application of image processing software will contribute immensely to photomask metrology.

Tran, An; Schmidt, Michael R.; Farnsworth, Jeff N.; Yan, Pei-Yang

1997-08-01

22

Focused-ion-beam repair of phase-shift photomasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase-shift photolithography is emerging as an important new technology for sub-half-micron design rule circuits. Unfortunately part of the price paid for the improvements in spatial resolution and process latitude afforded by phase-shift lithography is increased mask defect printing sensitivity. The minimum printable defect size, 0.3 microns (on the mask) for I-line steppers at 0.35 microns, is roughly half that for conventional photomasks. This paper examines the issues associated with extending high resolution focused ion beam mask repair to phase-shift masks.

Harriott, Lloyd R.; Garofalo, Joseph G.; Kostelak, Robert L.

1992-07-01

23

Characterization of photomask surface cleaning with cryogenic aerosol technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new surface cleaning approach for photomask cleaning. This non-conventional cleaning method uses momentum transfer between aerosolized, frozen, CO2 particles and the contaminants for effective removal from surface. The purity of CO2 used is an important component in the determination of cleaning efficiency. The authors will present two methods developed to analyze hydrocarbon contamination in CO2. These analytical methods were used to compare different grades of CO2 including Ultra High Pure (UHP) grade developed for sub-micron particle removal from photomasks. Using the UHP grade CO2, it was shown that greater than 99% particle removal efficiency is possible from silicon wafer surfaces, with higher removal efficiency of sub-micron particles compared to larger size range. This particular characteristic of particle removal by cryogenic aerosol method is theoretically derived in an earlier paper. In this paper results of CO2 cryogenic aerosol cleaning with respect to electrostatic discharges on two different binary masks are presented. The paper also shows the removal of 99.9% of the progressive defects such as haze of 0.5 to 1.0 ?m size. Cleaning characterization of attenuating phase shift masks with MoSiON films indicate 0.04% change in transmission and 0.37% change in phase angle after 16 cleaning cycles, suggesting that cryogenic cleaning has minimal effect on transmission and phase of att-PSM.

Banerjee, S.; Lin, C. C.; Su, S.; Bowers, C.; Chung, H. F.; Brandt, W.; Tang, K.

2005-11-01

24

Resolution enhancement for advanced mask aligner lithography using phase-shifting photomasks.  

PubMed

The application of the phase-shift method allows a significant resolution enhancement for proximity lithography in mask aligners. Typically a resolution of 3 µm (half-pitch) at a proximity distance of 30 µm is achieved utilizing binary photomasks. By using an alternating aperture phase shift photomask (AAPSM), a resolution of 1.5 µm (half-pitch) for non-periodic lines and spaces pattern was demonstrated at 30 µm proximity gap. In a second attempt a diffractive photomask design for an elbow pattern having a half-pitch of 2 µm was developed with an iterative design algorithm. The photomask was fabricated by electron-beam lithography and consists of binary amplitude and phase levels. PMID:24977882

Weichelt, T; Vogler, U; Stuerzebecher, L; Voelkel, R; Zeitner, U D

2014-06-30

25

Lithography Simulation of Sub0.30 Micron Resist Features for Photomask Fabrication using Iline Optical Pattern Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inorganic antireflection coating (AR3-chromium oxide) commonly used on photomask blanks was designed to minimize flare in h-line (405 nm) lithography steppers. The reflection of light (flare) off this coating (air-photomask) increases with shorter exposure wavelengths. High levels of flare occur in 248 nm and 193 nm IC steppers due to reflections off of the photomask surface. The reflections (standing

Benjamen M. Rathsack; Cyrus E. Tabery; Cece Philbin; C. Grant Willson

26

Fuzzy pattern matching techniques for photomask layout data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pattern matching seems to be promising technique to the mask industry. It can be used for many applications such as hot spot detection of post-OPC data, search of AIMS reference location or CDSEM measurement point extraction. In particular, fuzzy pattern matching is more needed for mask data processing because the mask layout has different derivatives generated by OPC and there are many similar "OPC brothers" that come from the same layout. However, application of fuzzy pattern matching to the mask layout is challenging due to the reasons related to the characteristics of photomask data. In this paper we introduce a novel method of fuzzy pattern matching to cope with the issues that comes from the characteristics of mask data. The rule specification is quite simple - we only need to specify a single tolerance value for each edge displacement. We will show the experimental results using the actual mask layout and prove that the calculation speed and quality of the proposed technique is satisfactory from the view point of realistic MDP processing.

Kato, Kokoro; Taniguchi, Yoshiyuki; Nishizawa, Kuninori

2013-06-01

27

Comprehensive simulation study of the photomask defects printability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical lithography will continue to be a leading patterning technology for 256 Mb and 1 GB DRAM production. As the device size diminishes, all the links of the technological chain must be significantly improved. Photomask technology then becomes one of the critical issues for the semiconductor industry. It is already admitted that only a combination of PSM technology coupled with OPC and state-of-the-art illumination schemes will allow the printing of 0.18 micrometer patterns using optical lithography. It has been shown that new patterning techniques may significantly degenerate mask defect tolerance. This will certainly require a new look at the mask defects detection and classification. A new 'process window' concept proposed by KLA has been applied to the mask defects printability study. Both conventional (chrome) and phase shifted (half-tone) masks have been examined. OPC corrected layouts were studied with a variety of defect types, sizes, and locations. 'Ideal' vs 'real' (corner rounding) reticles were tested. In addition, the impact of substrate reflectivity and photoresist contrast on defect printability has been determined using full scale 3D simulation. We found that implementing the OPC technique may produce new types of defects, and therefore requires a new defect classification.

Karklin, Linard

1995-12-01

28

Advanced photomask fabrication process to increase pattern reliability for sub-20nm node  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As technical advances continue, the pattern size of semiconductor circuit has been shrunk. So the field of the photomask needs the processing more strictly. It is critical to the photomask which contained considerably shrank circuit and ultra high density pattern for sub-20 nm tech device, although a small defect is negligible in the conventional process. Even if some defect can be repaired, it is not satisfied with a strict pattern specification. Stricter fabrication process and pattern specification increase the manufacture cost. Furthermore, EUV photomask manufacture cost is several times expensive than the conventional photomask. Therefore the effort to decrease defects is important for the photomask fabrication process. In addition, when defects are generated, it is obviously important that the repaired patterns have better pattern reliability. In this paper, we studied about advanced processes that control and remove hard defects minutely .on ArF attenuated phase-shift mask. This study was accomplished for 4 areas. First of all, we developed advanced Mosi etch process. Defects are generated under this etch process are not fatal. The thickness of hard defects were controlled thinner under this etch process compared with conventional etch process. Secondly, we studied cleaning process that has good performance on Cr : MoSi surface and a poor hydrophilic contrast to control side effect by etch process. Thirdly, we made inspection technique for detecting thin thickness hard defects. Lastly, we researched a repair technology that is effective in hard defects of thin thickness. The performance of the repaired pattern was verified by AIMS. In this study, it is researched that control shape, properties of defects to prepare a reliable repair and improved repaired photomask pattern reliability by 30% over.

Shin, Dong I.; Jo, Sang J.; Jang, Hee Y.; Hong, Yun K.; Hwang, Dae H.; Choi, Chung S.; Jang, Dong S.; Jung, Ho Y.; Ha, Tae J.; Kim, Sang P.; Yim, Dong G.

2012-11-01

29

Particle free pellicle mounting inside of the large size photomask inspection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While cleanness of Large Size Photomask (LSPM) is as important as that of LSI masks, the unit price of the pellicle for LSPM is much higher and pellicle removing from and remounting to LSPM is accompanied by troublesome tasks. Considering these facts, an automated pellicle inspection and mounting system that allows large size pellicle to be inspected and mounted onto a photomask automatically under a super clean condition is developed. The system size ranges from G6 to over G10. After picking up a pellicle from a carrier case, jigs remove liner sheet of the pellicle to allow stress free mounting of the pellicle on the LSPM using special chucks. Tow types of inspection heads are developed. One head has a sensitivity of 0.25 ?m PSL with 150 seconds inspection time for 6 inch pellicle. Another head has a sensitivity of around 5 ?m PSL with 20 minutes inspection time for size of G10. The jig can be flipped along with the Pellicle to allow inspection / blowing of the particles even on the inner side of the pellicle. Rejected pellicles are returned to the carrier case. The pellicle that passes a certain criteria is carried toward the Photomask Holder in the inspection system and mounted on the Photomask in the Holder.

Yonezawa, Makoto; Matsumoto, Seiki; Zhang, Dongsheng; Hashimoto, Kohei

2011-04-01

30

Lens wavefront compensation for 3D photomask effects in subwavelength optical lithography.  

PubMed

As semiconductor optical lithography is pushed to smaller dimensions, resolution enhancement techniques have been required to maintain process yields. For some time, the customization of illumination coherence at the source plane has allowed for the control of diffraction order distribution across the projection lens pupil. Phase shifting at the photomask plane has allowed for some phase control as well. Geometries smaller than the imaging wavelength introduce complex wavefront effects that cannot be corrected at source or mask planes. Three-dimensional photomask topography effects can cause a loss of both focal depth and exposure latitude across geometry of varying density. Wavefront manipulation at the lens pupil plane becomes necessary to provide the degrees of freedom needed to correct for such effects. The focus of this research is the compensation of the wavefront phase error introduced by the topographical photomask structures of high resolution phase shift masking combined with off-axis illumination. The compensation is realized through phase manipulation of the lens pupil plane, specifically in the form of spherical aberration. Subwavelength resolution optimization and imaging is presented showing how phase pupil filtering can measurably improve the depth of focus for several photomask structures and types. PMID:23338176

Sears, Monica Kempsell; Bekaert, Joost; Smith, Bruce W

2013-01-20

31

Growth mechanism and inhibition technologies of a contamination on the surface of photomask for longtime LCD-TFT lithography process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the progressive contamination of photomasks has become a major concern for long-term LCD-TFT manufacturing, as it is the cause of significant defects. We have deciphered the chemical structure and growth mechanism of progressive contamination, and have devised an accelerated test procedure which simulates 2 years of TFT processes in order to determine how best to inhibit its growth (UG Series). By using the photomask with a new type of pellicle (UG series), we were able to inhibit the growth of progressive contamination to the extent that no contamination was confirmed on the photomask for approximately two years.

Murai, Makoto; Tsuchiya, Masayoshi; Shinchi, Hiroyuki; Hirano, Terumasa; Kitajima, Shintaro; Kaneko, Yasushi; Kimoto, Takahisa; Takayama, Shigeki

2011-04-01

32

Photomask film degradation effects in the wafer fab: how to detect and monitor over time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of repeated cleanings and exposure effects such as chrome migration or MoSi oxidation some photomasks in the semiconductor fabs exhibit changes in critical dimension uniformity (CDU) over time. Detecting these effects in a timely manner allows for better risk management and process control in manufacturing. By monitoring changes in film reflectance intensity due to the various degradation mechanisms it is possible to predict when they may begin to influence across chip line width variations (ACLV). By accurately predicting the magnitude of these changes it is possible for semiconductor manufacturers to replace the photomasks before they have an impact on yields. This paper looks at possible causes of CDU variations on reticles during use and how this information might be used to improve or monitor reticle CDU changes over time.

Whittey, John; Hess, Carl; Garcia, Edgardo; Wagner, Mark; Duffy, Brian

2012-11-01

33

Effects of heated substrates on bimetallic thermal resist for lithography and grayscale photomask applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bimetallic thin-films of Bi\\/In act as negative thermal resists when laser exposure pulse (7mJ\\/sq. cm for 4 nsec) converts the film into a transparent eutectic metallic oxide alloy. Resist transparency varies with exposed laser power, changing from 60% (0.22 OD) exposed. This generates direct-write gray scale photomasks, and adding a feedback system where the transparency is measured and adjusts the

James M. Dykes; Polly Tsui; Jenny Leung; Glenn H. Chapman

2008-01-01

34

Ordered packing of emulsion droplets toward the preparation of adjustable photomasks.  

PubMed

Monodisperse emulsion droplets with a high volume fraction form crystalline phases that can potentially serve as adjustable photomasks in photolithography. Such photomasks were prepared using a microfluidic device in which a flow-focusing junction, side channels, and a reservoir were connected in series. Transparent oil droplets were generated in a dye-containing continuous water phase at the flow-focusing junction. The droplets were then concentrated through the selective removal of the continuous phase using the side channels. This process led to the formation of a regular array of droplets in the reservoir with a configuration that depended on the relative height of the reservoir to the droplet diameter. The configurations could be selected among a single-layered hexagonal array, a bilayered square array, and a bilayered hexagonal array. The droplet arrays were used as a photomask to create hexagonal or square arrays of microdots. The transmittance profile of the ultraviolet (UV) light from each droplet was parabolic, which enabled the dot size to be tuned by controlling the UV irradiation time. This mask effect is otherwise difficult to achieve using conventional photomasks. The dot size and array periodicity could be adjusted by the in-situ control of the droplet size at the flow-focusing droplet maker. The combination of droplet size adjustments and the UV irradiation time provided independent control over the dot size and array periodicity to enable the preparation of a series of hexagonal microarrays with a wide spectrum of array parameters using a single microfluidic device. PMID:24787010

Kim, Ju Hyeon; Choi, Jae-Hoon; Sim, Jae Young; Jeong, Woong Chan; Yang, Seung-Man; Kim, Shin-Hyun

2014-05-20

35

Sub-20-nm node photomask cleaning enhancement by controlling zeta potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As semiconductor manufacturing advances to sub-20-nm nodes, specification (size < 50 nm) for extremely fine particles on photomasks is getting more and more stringent. Photomask cleanliness, which seriously impacts manufacturing cycle time and productivity, is a serious challenge in the development of sub-20-nm node mask cleaning process. Several cleaning approaches, including the use of chemical and physical forces, are widely used in mask cleaning. In this study, we focus on the chemical force through zeta potential (ZP). ZP indicates the degree of repulsion between the particles and the mask surface (mostly quartz). In the nano-scale, stronger repulsion means easier removal of particles from mask surfaces. By controlling ZP of different chemicals from -10 mV to -150 mV in the cleaning process, the particle removal efficiency (PRE) is further improved by about 10%, especially for extremely fine particles. The ZP measurement methodology for different cleaning chemicals on quartz surface is also carried out. ZP is a helpful index in evaluating the performance of new chemicals for mask cleaning. To enhance photomask cleaning for sub-20-nm nodes, the chemical force needs to be increased because the physical force has been constrained to avoid pattern damages, especially when much smaller assistant features are commonly used to gain a greater lithography process window. How to choose a suitable cleaning approach for the next generation mask cleaning is very critical.

Lin, Kuan-Wen; Lu, Chi-Lun; Shen, Chin-Wei; Hsu, Luke; Chin, Angus; Yen, Anthony

2012-11-01

36

Theoretical Analysis on Mechanical Deformation of Membrane-Based Photomask Blanks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Membrane-based photomask is used in proximity X-ray lithography including that in LIGA (Lithographie, Galvanoformung und Abformung) process, and near-field photolithography. In this article, out-of-plane deformation (OPD) and in-plane displacement (IPD) of membrane-based photomask blanks are theoretically analyzed to obtain the mask blanks with flat front surface and low stress absorber film. First, we derived the equations of OPD and IPD for the processing steps of membrane-based photomask such as film deposition, back-etching and bonding, using a theory of symmetrical bending of circular plates with a coaxial circular hole and that of deformation of cylinder under hydrostatic pressure. The validity of the equations was proved by comparing the calculation results with experimental ones. Using these equations, we investigated the relation between the geometry of the mask blanks and the distortions generally, and gave the criterion to attain the flat front surface. Moreover, the absorber stress-bias required to obtain zero-stress on finished mask blanks was also calculated and it has been found that only little stress-bias was required for adequate hole size of support plate.

Marumoto, Kenji; Aya, Sunao; Yabe, Hedeki; Okada, Tatsunori; Sumitani, Hiroaki

2012-04-01

37

Photomask quality evaluation using lithography simulation and multi-detector MVM-SEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection and management of mask defects which are transferred onto wafer becomes more important day by day. As the photomask patterns becomes smaller and more complicated, using Inverse Lithography Technology (ILT) and Source Mask Optimization (SMO) with Optical Proximity Correction (OPC). To evaluate photomask quality, the current method uses aerial imaging by optical inspection tools. This technique at 1Xnm node has a resolution limit because small defects will be difficult to detect. We already reported the MEEF influence of high-end photomask using wide FOV SEM contour data of "E3630 MVM-SEM®" and lithography simulator "TrueMask® DS" of D2S Inc. in the prior paper [1]. In this paper we evaluate the correlation between our evaluation method and optical inspection tools as ongoing assessment. Also in order to reduce the defect classification work, we can compose the 3 Dimensional (3D) information of defects and can judge whether repairs of defects would be required. Moreover, we confirm the possibility of wafer plane CD measurement based on the combination between E3630 MVM-SEM® and 3D lithography simulation.

Ito, Keisuke; Murakawa, Tsutomu; Fukuda, Naoki; Shida, Soichi; Iwai, Toshimichi; Matsumoto, Jun; Nakamura, Takayuki; Matsushita, Shohei; Hagiwara, Kazuyuki; Hara, Daisuke

2013-06-01

38

Enhanced inorganic bimetallic thermal resists transparency and resolution for photomask fabrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bimetallic films have been found to be promising direct write binary and grayscale photomask materials, as they turn transparent after laser exposure. Current structural analysis shows that the laser exposure is an oxidation process. The amount of the oxidized metal created during the laser writing process is related to the laser power, which in turn, determines the gray level (OD) of the exposed film. New exposure conditions have greatly increased the transparency of exposed films (down to 0.18 OD at 365 nm). Furthermore, this extended to deeper UV (300 nm). As the transparency of exposed area changes with the laser exposure power, grayscale photomasks can be created with the bimetallic films, and 3D structures can be produced in the substrate. Interference lithography has been used to investigate the bimetallic films resolution limit, which can generate much finer structures. Lines of 100-180 nm wide were successfully created on silicon and silicon dioxide. Aluminum thin films were found to turn transparent (0.28 OD) after laser exposure with high power, indicating that Al can also be a potential direct-write photomask material.

Chapman, Glenn; Poon, David; Choo, Chinheng; Tu, Yuqiang; Dykes, James; Wang, Jun; Peng, Jun; Lennard, Willy; Kavanagh, Karen

2005-05-01

39

Novel cleaning techniques to achieve defect-free photomasks for sub-65-nm nodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to eliminate the critical source of haze contamination which can be derived from the cleaning chemistry residues and mass production environment has become a major challenge for 193 nm photolithography in semiconductor industry. Furthermore, as the specification for pattern generation on photomask becomes tighter, it is getting harder and harder to eliminate defects with both minimal structural damage and preservation of photophysical properties. We designed for the smart cleaning strategy to achieve the defect-free photomasks as a concern of above current issue with a combination of well-known cleaning technology, such as using the collective effects of ozonated water (DIO3) for the alternative to conventional clean (SPM/SC1) and UV/O3 treatment for the control of sulfate concentration. In addition to photomask clean, these strategies are also used for photoresist stripping. As well as the final cleaning process, it is a rational strategy that judicious modification of inter-process clean. Specially, that kind of view is focused on the after-development clean (ADC) process which mainly eliminated the source of fatal defects on the mask, such as pattern bridge following dry etch process. In this paper we will propose a novel cleaning strategy for the elimination of potential source of haze formation and fatal defects.

Ryu, Jin Ho; Lee, Dong Wook; Ryu, Ji Sun; Kim, Sang Pyo; Han, Oscar

2006-10-01

40

The effect of puddle megasonic cleaning for advanced photomask with subresolution assist features (SRAFs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs) damage-free cleaning by use of megasonic nozzle becomes main challenge in photomask industry. Using non-sulfate cleaning tool, the effect of key performance parameters of 1 MHz puddle megasonic nozzle such as megasonic power, and the gap between puddle nozzle and cleaned surface were investigated for opaque SRAFs sizes of 107 nm, 93 nm, 81nm, 71 nm, 63 nm, and 56 nm. Damage-free and high efficiency on particle removal cleaning for SRAFs size down to 71 nm for 38 nm technology node (MPU/ASIC 1/2 pitch, as outlined in ITRS 2010) has been demonstrated on advanced photomask with MoSi layer in this paper. Furthermore, conducting atomic force microscopy (CAFM) was employed to investigate the nanoscale surface electrical properties of chrome binary blanks cleaned by 1 MHz puddle megasonic nozzle. The results show that highly conducting regions on chromium oxide surfaces can be considered as "cavitation-rich and/or cavitation energy-strong" regions. And their sizes range from 15 to 100 nm, which are comparable to the sizes of SRAFs damage. Finally, in the future, CAFM may be a useful tool to inspect intrinsic defects on advanced photomasks at nanoscale, such as EUV blanks.

Chen, Ming-Chih; Yang, Hsiang-Jen; Tseng, Chen-Rui

2012-02-01

41

Impact of EUV photomask line-edge roughness on wafer prints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The line-edge roughness (LER) of a photomask image has a measurable impact on the corresponding printed wafer LER. This impact increases as wafer exposures move from 193nm DUV to 13.5nm EUV wavelengths since the imaging tool is a low-pass filter with EUV passing more spatial frequencies. Even the high frequency mask LER may impact the wafer image by lowering its image log-slope (ILS). Studying the magnitude and frequency content of mask LER is a first step to reducing the wafer LER. The next step is to determine which components of mask line roughness actually contribute to the wafer line roughness. Order is imposed on this study by fabricating programmed LER patterns on an EUV mask to introduce controlled variations in LER spatial frequency and magnitude. More specifically, line-width roughness (LWR), LER and power spectral density (PSD) are extracted from 64nm and 90nm (1X) pitch lines on a programmed LER EUV photomask. The same mask is then exposed on the ASML EUV Alpha Demo Tool (ADT) at best focus and dose. Three chemically amplified EUV photoresists are evaluated using the programmed LER photomask through PSD and LWR comparisons and the highest performance resist is used for a comprehensive LER transfer analysis. Wafer LWR is extracted from 64nm and 90nm pitch lines and correlated back to the base mask patterns revealing an empirical LWR transfer function (LTF). Finally, the study is extended to 45nm (1X) pitch lines by deploying a pupil filter on the ADT to explore the effect on LWR as the feature sizes shrink.

Qi, Zhengqing John; Gallagher, Emily; Negishi, Yoshiyuki; McIntyre, Gregory; Zweber, Amy; Senna, Tasuku; Akutagawa, Satoshi; Konishi, Toshio

2012-11-01

42

Continuous-tone gray-scale photomask for deep-UV lithography applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous tone gray scale deep UV photomask technology offers new cost effective opportunities for the mass scale production of MEMS structures, diffractive optical elements (DOEs), computer generated holograms (CGHs), and kinoform optics. A new technology for the low cost fabrication of continuous tone gray scale photomasks for deep UV photolithography applications has been demonstrated. This technology is based on the use of a photosensitive spin-on-glass (SOG) thin film deposited onto a UV transparent substrate such as fused silica. Light exposure, from either a lithography setup or a laser pattern generator, onto the photosensitive SOG film induces a color change from clear (UV transparent) to dark (UV absorbing). The amount of photo induced color attenuation on the film is directly proportional to the energy exposure of the light, hence allowing the formation of fully continuous tone patterns. Once exposed the image pattern, with a resolution of 0.1 micrometers, is permanently fixed by heat treatment without the need of an etching step.

Mendoza, Edgar A.; Sigoli, Fernando; Paulus, Heidi; Giang, Luan Q.; Seifouri, Mahmood; Lam, E.; Kempen, Lothar

2004-05-01

43

Comparison of CD measurements of an EUV photomask by EUV scatterometry and CD-AFM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EUV scatterometry is a potential high-throughput measurement method for the characterization of EUV photomask structures. We present a comparison of angle resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) scatterometry and critical dimension atomic force microscope (CD-AFM) as a reference metrology for measurements of geometrical parameters like line width (CD), height and sidewall angle of EUV photomask structures. The structures investigated are dense and semidense bright and dark lines with different nominal CDs between 140 nm and 540 nm. The results show excellent linearity of the critical dimension measured with both methods within a range of only 1.8 nm and an offset of the absolute values below 3 nm. A maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method is used to reconstruct the shape parameters and to estimate their uncertainties from the measured scattering efficiencies. The newly developed CD-AFM at PTB allows versatile measurements of parameters such as height, CD, sidewall angle, line edge/width roughness, corner rounding, and pitch. It applies flared tips to probe steep and even undercut sidewalls and employs a new vector approaching probing (VAP) strategy which enables very low tip wear and high measurement flexibility. Its traceability is ensured by a set of calibrated step-height and reference CD standards.

Scholze, Frank; Soltwisch, Victor; Dai, Gaoliang; Henn, Mark-Alexander; Gross, Hermann

2013-09-01

44

Optimization of laser machining process for the preparation of photomasks, and its application to microsystems fabrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional photolithography normally utilizes a photomask for patterning light onto a chemical resist film. Therefore, the accuracy of microfabrication is highly dependent on the accuracy of the photomasks. Fabrication of hard masks involves the use of expensive laser pattern generators and other sophisticated machines using very high-precision stages and the necessary control instrumentation; therefore, an inexpensive strategy is highly necessary for laboratory-level fabrication. As this technology is primarily based on raster scanning of a laser beam, the mask making as such becomes a low-throughput process. A strategy of high-throughput manufacturing of hard masks with laser micromachining using a one-step exposure process of a chromated glass slide through a micromachined aluminum shadow mask is proposed. The features that are finally embedded in the mask are highly demagnified and well focused. Optimization of the laser machining process is carried out by considering all processing parameters. The features are characterized using an optical microscope, a scanning electron microscope, and a self-developed image analysis code. Geometrical methods are used to estimate the average edge roughness and feature size. We have also validated the usage of these masks by performing microfabrication on films made of photoresist.

Kumar, Avinash; Gupta, Ankur; Kant, Rishi; Akhtar, Syed Nadeem; Tiwari, Nachiketa; Ramkumar, Janakrajan; Bhattacharya, Shantanu

2013-10-01

45

Throughput optimization of electron-beam lithography in photomask fabrication regarding acceptable accuracy of critical dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cost of creating a photomask with tan electron-beam lithography is determined mainly by the writing time. The writing speed is limited by the resist heating distortions. The local temperature in the area of an e-beam may rise up to a few hundred degrees C, leading to critical dimensions (CD) distortion. It is possible to decrease the temperature by decreasing the Beam current density, or flash size, or by applying multipass exposure; however, this increases the writing time. This paper present an approach on how to optimize exposure parameters to keep the temperature rise within an acceptable range, and at the same time increase writing speed as much as possible. Bema current density, number of passes, and pattern coverage were examined. A commercially available TEMPTATION software tool was used for simulations. A writing strategy and parameters of a 50 kV variably shaped beam system were considered. This allowed us to maximize the throughput of photomask fabrication while keeping CD distortion within error budget.

Babin, Sergey V.; Kuzmin, Igor Y.

2002-03-01

46

Practical use of hard mask process to fabricate fine photomasks for 45nm node and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New process with hard-mask (HM) blanks was evaluated as one of candidates for photomasks beyond 45nm-node. Through the fabrication of gate-layer photomasks, aptitude of the HM process for practical use was confirmed from the view of controllability on CDs and defects. Although conventional process for attenuated PSM was shown to have critical CD error which belongs to the "patterns" in bright-field masks, experimental data proved effectiveness of the HM process to control CDs after process optimization. With the HM blanks, remarkable reduction of CD error more than 80% of conventional process was confirmed. In this report, peculiar opaque defects are also shown to be a critical issue on the HM process. From results of design of experiment (DOE), combining the proper means to prepare the HM blanks with the optimized HM etching condition, these defects were proved to be controlled within the tolerance for production. Through the investigations, validity of the HM process on practical use for mask fabrication of 45nm-node and beyond is considered as conclusions.

Kushida, Yasuyuki; Handa, Hitoshi; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Abe, Yuuki; Fujimura, Yukihiro; Yokoyama, Toshifumi

2007-10-01

47

Direct rapid prototyping of PDMS from a photomask film for micropatterning of biomolecules and cells.  

PubMed

The soft lithographic technique is a collection of simple and cost-effective patterning techniques which applies an elastomeric stamp to transfer a nano/micro-scale pattern. Patterning biological materials using soft lithography provides procedurally simple control of the surface chemistry and the cell environments. However, conventional methods for generating microstructures on a substrate require expensive clean room facilities and skillful training. Here we report a simple and inexpensive clean-room free process using a conventional photomask film as a master to fabricate elastomeric stamps or microfluidic channels. This ultra rapid prototyping technique was applied to print FITC labeled poly-L-lysine with a 10 microm feature size on a glass substrate using soft lithographic processes, such as micro-contact printing and micromolding in capillaries, for patterning human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, human skin fibroblasts and hippocampal neurons from E-18 Sprague-Dawley rat. This novel technique using a photomask film as a master would be very useful 'hands-on' tool for the generation of micro-patterned chemical or biological assays using cells and proteins. PMID:19209351

Hwang, Hyundoo; Kang, Gyumin; Yeon, Ju Hun; Nam, Yoonkey; Park, Je-Kyun

2009-01-01

48

The impact of 14nm photomask variability and uncertainty on computational lithography solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computational lithography solutions rely upon accurate process models to faithfully represent the imaging system output for a defined set of process and design inputs. These models rely upon the accurate representation of multiple parameters associated with the scanner and the photomask. Many input variables for simulation are based upon designed or recipe-requested values or independent measurements. It is known, however, that certain measurement methodologies, while precise, can have significant inaccuracies. Additionally, there are known errors associated with the representation of certain system parameters. With shrinking total CD control budgets, appropriate accounting for all sources of error becomes more important, and the cumulative consequence of input errors to the computational lithography model can become significant. In this work, we examine via simulation, the impact of errors in the representation of photomask properties including CD bias, corner rounding, refractive index, thickness, and sidewall angle. The factors that are most critical to be accurately represented in the model are cataloged. CD bias values are based on state of the art mask manufacturing data and other variables changes are speculated, highlighting the need for improved metrology and communication between mask and OPC model experts. The simulations are done by ignoring the wafer photoresist model, and show the sensitivity of predictions to various model inputs associated with the mask. It is shown that the wafer simulations are very dependent upon the 1D/2D representation of the mask and for 3D, that the mask sidewall angle is a very sensitive factor influencing simulated wafer CD results.

Sturtevant, John; Tejnil, Edita; Buck, Peter D.; Schulze, Steffen; Kalk, Franklin; Nakagawa, Kent; Ning, Guoxiang; Ackmann, Paul; Gans, Fritz; Buergel, Christian

2013-09-01

49

Applications of a microlens array and a photomask to the laser microfabrication of a periodic photopolymer rod array  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the simultaneous multipoint fabrication of polymer rods by the femtosecond laser processing of a negative photoresist using a microlens array (MLA). The rods were periodically arranged in the form of an array corresponding to the MLA and free-standing on a glass substrate. The use of a photomask enabled us to define the contour of the rod array. Furthermore,

Shigeki Matsuo; Takashi Miyamoto; Takuro Tomita; Shuichi Hashimoto

2007-01-01

50

Z-correction, a method for achieving ultraprecise self-calibration on large area coordinate measurement machines for photomasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-quality photomasks are a prerequisite for the production of flat panel TVs, tablets and other kinds of high-resolution displays. During the past years, the resolution demand has become more and more accelerated, and today, the high-definition standard HD, 1920 × 1080 pixels2, is well established, and already the next-generation so-called ultra-high-definition UHD or 4K display is entering the market. Highly advanced mask writers are used to produce the photomasks needed for the production of such displays. The dimensional tolerance in X and Y on absolute pattern placement on these photomasks, with sizes of square meters, has been in the range of 200–300 nm (3?), but is now on the way to be <150 nm (3?). To verify these photomasks, 2D ultra-precision coordinate measurement machines are used with even tighter tolerance requirements. The metrology tool MMS15000 is today the world standard tool used for the verification of large area photomasks. This paper will present a method called Z-correction that has been developed for the purpose of improving the absolute X, Y placement accuracy of features on the photomask in the writing process. However, Z-correction is also a prerequisite for achieving X and Y uncertainty levels <90 nm (3?) in the self-calibration process of the MMS15000 stage area of 1.4 × 1.5 m2. When talking of uncertainty specifications below 200 nm (3?) of such a large area, the calibration object used, here an 8–16 mm thick quartz plate of size approximately a square meter, cannot be treated as a rigid body. The reason for this is that the absolute shape of the plate will be affected by gravity and will therefore not be the same at different places on the measurement machine stage when it is used in the self-calibration process. This mechanical deformation will stretch or compress the top surface (i.e. the image side) of the plate where the pattern resides, and therefore spatially deform the mask pattern in the X- and Y-directions. Errors due to this deformation can easily be several hundred nanometers. When Z-correction is used in the writer, it is also possible to relax the flatness demand of the photomask backside, leading to reduced manufacturing costs of the plates.

Ekberg, Peter; Stiblert, Lars; Mattsson, Lars

2014-05-01

51

Reduction of image placement error on photomask-making for multiple patterning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To make photomasks with high overlay accuracy, "Charge Dissipation Layer (CDL)" materials have been developed. Commercialized CDL materials can reduce electro-static charging on the surface of resist during electron beam exposure. However, some side effects are introduced to the mask-making process. The resolution performance of chemically amplified resist (CAR) is degraded owing to acid diffusion from the CDL components to the resist surface. A newly developed CDL solved this problem by controlling the acid diffusion. A positive-tone CAR with the CDL showed no resolution degradation, and performance was maintained for over 30 days after coating CDL and resist. Furthermore, the CDL has been evaluated on a negative-tone CAR which is more sensitive to CDL.

Hiromatsu, Takahiro; Fukui, Toru; Tsukagoshi, Kenta; Ono, Kazunori; Hashimoto, Masahiro

2014-03-01

52

Development of Photolithography Process for Printed Circuit Board Using Liquid Crystal Mask in Place of Photomask  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a photolithography method for printed circuit boards using a liquid crystal mask (LCM) in place of a photomask. The LCM photolithography method has the advantage of ease of forming various patterns. There were opaque interpixel regions of the LCMs; the areas on the dry film resist (DFR) located under the interpixel regions of the LCM were not exposed to illumination. The unexposed DFR area could be exposed to illumination by utilizing the Fresnel diffraction effects that were due to a gap maintained between the LCM and the DFR during the exposure process. DFR patterns with a width of 200 ?m were obtained successfully using the 160 ?m gap between LCM and DFR and three sheets of DFR for the exposure process.

Oh, Min Sup; Lee, Jae Hong; Hong, Chinsoo; Lee, Ho-Nyeon; Kim, Chang Kyo

2012-09-01

53

Calibrating bimetallic grayscale photomasks to photoresist response for precise micro-optics fabrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microfabricating high resolution micro-optics structures requires shape control to <1/8th wavelength (~60nm) in both vertical and horizontal surface precision. Grayscale bimetallic photomasks are bi-layer thermal resists consisting of two thin layers of Bi-on-Indium or Tin-on-Indium. A focused laser spot creates a thermal metal oxide with a controllably transparency set by the beam power of optical density from ~3OD (unexposed) to <0.22OD (fully exposed). A directwrite raster-scan photomask laser system with a CW Argon-ion laser at 514nm for the bimetallic writing and 457nm line for measuring the OD change used a feedback-controlled Gaussian beam to achieve 256-level grayscale masks. Setting the graylevels required to achieve uniform vertical steps in the photoresist requires adjustment in transparency based on the exact response curves of a given resist/development process. An initial model is developed using the classic resist threshold dose exposure D0 and dose to clear Dc creating a power law relation between the required exposure dose for each thickness step and the mask transparency. However real resists behave differently than the simple model near the threshold requiring careful calibrating of mask graylevel transparencies with the photoresist response curve for a given resist/development process. Test structures ranging from steps to ramps and complex patterns were examined via both SEM and profilometry from the resulting bimetallic grayscale masks. Secondary corrections modify the needed bimetallic OD due to the exposure source spectrum differences from the 457nm measurement. This enhances the patterning of micro-optic and 3D MEMS structures.

Chapman, Glenn H.; Qarehbaghi, Reza; Roche, Santiago

2014-03-01

54

Improving the accuracy of the bimetallic grayscale photomasks using a feedback controlled flat-top beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bimetallic grayscale photomasks contain two thin layers of metals (Bismuth/Indium or Tin/Indium), 15-300nm thick on transparent substrates. Laser exposure converts the films by thermal reaction into transparent alloy oxides. The Optical Density changes from ~3.0OD (unexposed) to <0.22OD (fully exposed), creating grayscale photomasks. With using a open loop direct-write raster-scan writing system with a CW Argon-ion laser, grayscale masks with 6-bit accuracy was achieved. To reduce mask nonuniformity, sensors added to the beam path before and after the mask turning the system to create a real-time OD and beam measurement feedback system. This feedback compensates for changes in film parameters: film thickness reducing the mask error to +/-0.3 gray-levels, yielding to a potential 256 gray-level mask. This leaves nonuniformities due to the Gaussian shape still limits the accuracy. To remove these, a refractive field-mapping shaper was used to create a nearly flat-top power laser spot power distribution. The OD system also allows us to profile the grayscale levels in more detail after writing. A full 8-bit picture was written on a test mask with the feedback system showed significant improvement in the number of gray-levels. Some fluctuations were observed at the final pattern due to spaces between lines and nonuniformity of table speed. Some 3D test structures are created on the photoresist with the masks written with the feedback system to demonstrate the accuracy and grayscale abilities of the bimetallic thin-films

Qarehbaghi, Reza; Chapman, Glenn H.; Boonyasiriwat, Waris

2011-10-01

55

Applications of a microlens array and a photomask to the laser microfabrication of a periodic photopolymer rod array.  

PubMed

We report the simultaneous multipoint fabrication of polymer rods by the femtosecond laser processing of a negative photoresist using a microlens array (MLA). The rods were periodically arranged in the form of an array corresponding to the MLA and free-standing on a glass substrate. The use of a photomask enabled us to define the contour of the rod array. Furthermore, sample translation techniques were demonstrated for the effective fabrication of large-area structures. PMID:18059666

Matsuo, Shigeki; Miyamoto, Takashi; Tomita, Takuro; Hashimoto, Shuichi

2007-12-01

56

Applications of a microlens array and a photomask to the laser microfabrication of a periodic photopolymer rod array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the simultaneous multipoint fabrication of polymer rods by the femtosecond laser processing of a negative photoresist using a microlens array (MLA). The rods were periodically arranged in the form of an array corresponding to the MLA and free-standing on a glass substrate. The use of a photomask enabled us to define the contour of the rod array. Furthermore, sample translation techniques were demonstrated for the effective fabrication of large-area structures.

Matsuo, Shigeki; Miyamoto, Takashi; Tomita, Takuro; Hashimoto, Shuichi

2007-12-01

57

2013 Photomask Japan panel discussion summary: Future mask patterning technologies in the next decade: searching for the best mix solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper gives a review and summary of the key messages from the 2013 PMJ panel discussion topic: "Future mask patterning technologies in the next decade: searching for the best mix solution." The results of the special survey conducted for the panel are reviewed along with a brief summary of each panelist's point of view.

Nakayamada, Noriaki; Kagami, Ichiro

2013-09-01

58

Extending analog design scaling to sub-wavelength lithography: co-optimization of RET and photomasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mask requirements for 110nm half-node BiCMOS process were analyzed with the goal to meet customer needs at lower cost and shorter cycle times. The key differentiating features for this technology were high density CMOS libraries along with high-power Bipolar, LDMOS and DECMOS components. The high voltage components were characterized by transistors that formed cylindrical junctions. The presence of curved features in the data is particularly detrimental to the write time on a 50KeV vector mask writer. The mask write times have a direct impact on both mask cost and cycle time. Design rules also permit rectangular or stretched contacts to allow conductance of high currents. To meet customer needs but still manage the computational lithography overhead as well as the patterning process performance, this process was evaluated in terms of computational lithography and photomask co-optimization for the base-line 50KeV vector and laser mask-writers. Due to the differences in imaging and processing of the different mask writing systems, comparative analysis of critical dimension (CD) performance both in terms of linearity and pitch was done. Differences in imaging on silicon due to mask fidelity were also expected and characterized. The required changes in OPC necessary to switch to the new mask process were analyzed.

Parikh, Ashesh; Dorris, Siew; Smelko, Tom; Walbrick, Walter; Mahalingam, Pushpa; Arch, John; Green, Kent; Garg, Vishal; Buck, Peter; West, Craig

2011-03-01

59

Evaluation of molecular contaminants in the micro-environment between photomask and pellicle using analysis tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of haze and related defects become more serious as the dimension of lithography becomes smaller. It has been reported that the causes of haze defects are organic and inorganic molecular contamination deposited on mask surface. These haze problems influence the productivity of lithography process, but the formation mechanism of haze has not been clear. So it is important to understand chemical composition and formation mechanism of haze to prevent it. To analyze the chemical composition, several analytical techniques are useful, that is, ion chromatography (IC) or gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GC/MS) after liquid extraction of mask surface, surface analysis such as time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), X-ray photon spectrometry (XPS) and so on. However, these techniques are all destructive methods and are difficult to evaluate the airborne molecular contaminants (AMCs) with high sensitivity between mask and pellicle. We have successfully developed new and sensitive analysis tool consists of two parts and applied it for the evaluation of micro-environment between photomask and pellicle. One is the equipment to collect AMCs effectively, that provides diagonal two holes with needles on the pellicle to collect the gas while ventilating the high-purity nitrogen gas. The other is sampler which is named BremS™ to collect and measure exhausted AMCs in the space with high sensitivity. We applied this method to masks with different exposure dosage rate and introduce the usefulness of our method.

Douzono, Mina; Shimada, Itsuka; Ueda, Tatsuji; Nonaka, Tatsuo; Kawano, Yukihiro; Murakami, Masashi

2012-06-01

60

Extensions of boundary layer modeling of photomask topography effects to fast-CAD using pattern matching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In lithography for the 45nm node and beyond, phase errors introduced through electromagnetic field (EMF) effects at photomask openings are significant sources of error in calculating on-wafer images. These edge effects create distortion in both real and imaginary field transmission, which leads to a tilt in the process window, and must be addressed in mask design to avoid loss of process latitude. This study presents a new formulation for pattern matching, which allows EMF effects to be included via boundary layer modeling to facilitate extremely fast assessment of EMF impact on imaging. Boundary layers are first used to model these edge effects, by adding additional transmission features to a layout to represent the error transmissions caused by edges. Pattern matching is then used to determine susceptibly to various pre-existing perturbations, in the presence of defocus. This process can be extremely fast and hotspot detection can be run on an entire chip in hours, compared to days for aerial imaging. Correlation between pattern matching and full aerial imaging can be as high as 0.97 for coherent imaging, and ~ 0.75 for off-axis dipole illumination. This pattern matching framework is extremely flexible and can be used for fast assessment of any series of effects which can be described as a path difference in the pupil or as a transmission on the mask.

Miller, Marshal A.; Yamazoe, Kenji; Neureuther, Andrew R.

2009-10-01

61

Photomask-based integration process of low-defect suspended carbon nanotubes into SOI MEMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fully-developed photomask-based integration process is reported. The process can integrate suspended carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into micro-structures on silicon-on-insulator chips. The process features batch-compatible fabrication and post-growth metallization of suspended CNTs, which has never been demonstrated by any other processes. The post-growth metallization avoids deterioration of the metals at the elevated CNT growth temperature and enables mechanically robust double-clamped configuration. Two key steps ensure a significant reduction of the risk for damage or contamination of the CNTs during post-growth processing. SiO2 bridges were fabricated to physically support CNTs during the wet processing, and a protective Al2O3 layer (?40 nm) was deposited to prevent resist contamination during lithography. The combination of these two steps enables the removal of the unprotected suspended segments of unwanted CNTs by oxygen plasma ashing, improving device yield by a factor of six. The electrically interfaced suspended CNT device possessed high CNT quality (D/G+ intensity ratio of 1/224 in Raman spectroscopy) and good electrical properties, such as low device resistances as low as 105 k? and reduced gate hysteresis as low as 65 mV in ambient air. Measurements of eights devices indicate that the release step did not have a systematic influence on the device resistances.

Lee, Shih-Wei; Muoth, Matthias; Hierold, Christofer

2014-05-01

62

Photomask-based integration process of low-defect suspended carbon nanotubes into SOI MEMS.  

PubMed

A fully-developed photomask-based integration process is reported. The process can integrate suspended carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into micro-structures on silicon-on-insulator chips. The process features batch-compatible fabrication and post-growth metallization of suspended CNTs, which has never been demonstrated by any other processes. The post-growth metallization avoids deterioration of the metals at the elevated CNT growth temperature and enables mechanically robust double-clamped configuration. Two key steps ensure a significant reduction of the risk for damage or contamination of the CNTs during post-growth processing. SiO2 bridges were fabricated to physically support CNTs during the wet processing, and a protective Al2O3 layer (?40 nm) was deposited to prevent resist contamination during lithography. The combination of these two steps enables the removal of the unprotected suspended segments of unwanted CNTs by oxygen plasma ashing, improving device yield by a factor of six. The electrically interfaced suspended CNT device possessed high CNT quality (D/G(+) intensity ratio of 1/224 in Raman spectroscopy) and good electrical properties, such as low device resistances as low as 105 k? and reduced gate hysteresis as low as 65 mV in ambient air. Measurements of eights devices indicate that the release step did not have a systematic influence on the device resistances. PMID:24787500

Lee, Shih-Wei; Muoth, Matthias; Hierold, Christofer

2014-05-30

63

Japan's Returnees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the experiences of Japanese "returnees," native Japanese who have returned to Japan after an extended stay abroad, focusing on the linguistic and cultural challenges faced by ethnic Japanese children and adolescents who must reacculturate themselves in Japan. (33 references) (MDM)

Yashiro, Kyoko

1995-01-01

64

Optical characterization of the mask writing process in bimetallic grayscale photomasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bimetallic thin films of Bi/In and Sn/In oxidize becoming transparent under laser exposure. By controlling the laser power, direct-write binary and grayscale photomasks can be produced with the mask's transparency, or optical density (OD), ranging between ~3.0 (unexposed) to <0.22 OD (fully exposed). An OD measurement system has been developed that provides real time OD and laser exposure power measurements while the masks are being written. Measurements are obtained for each combination of films, characterizing their response when patterned with a raster-scanned v-groove mask. The characterization is performed by writing v-groove step patterns and modifying the mask's writing parameters such as velocity, line spacing and step width. Stationary results demonstrate Sn/In takes longer to expose compared to Bi/In. With a moving beam, the oxidation of Sn/In also occurs over a wider power range suggesting film materials with delayed or slower oxidations may offer power ranges that are better suited for grayscale masks. A narrow power range is less desirable for grayscale as more control is required over the writing laser. The stationary exposures also demonstrate both films can produce >64 distinct OD levels provided there is sufficient control over the laser power and exposure duration. The physical characteristics of the films are also examined to determine a more accurate method of verifying each film's composition. Combining weight, area, and thickness measurements allows for better characterization of the films as the thickness for bi-layer films are found to differ significantly from the sum of the individual layers.

Dykes, James M.; Chapman, Glenn H.

2009-02-01

65

Effects of heated substrates on bimetallic thermal resist for lithography and grayscale photomask applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bimetallic thin-films of Bi/In act as negative thermal resists when laser exposure pulse (7mJ/sq. cm for 4 nsec) converts the film into a transparent eutectic metallic oxide alloy. Resist transparency varies with exposed laser power, changing from <0.1% (3.0 OD) unexposed to >60% (0.22 OD) exposed. This generates direct-write gray scale photomasks, and adding a feedback system where the transparency is measured and adjusts the writing process to account for local variations in the film, achieves >64 gray level control. These resists are also wavelength invariant, operating from visible to EUV with a resolution >42nm after development using a diluted RCA-2 solution (HCl:H2O2:H20 @ 1:1:48) with a gamma of 2-18. Longer duration exposures with lower instantaneous intensities result in lower gammas, while shorter exposures with higher energies give higher gammas. One limitation on these resists is that the exposure energy must be delivered in a single pulse. This limitation puts pulse energy requirements into the mJ per pulse range: greater than desired for EUV exposure systems. Bimetallic thermal resists remain almost unaffected during a sub-threshold exposure that does not reach the activation energy. It has been shown that the resist and substrate can be heated below the threshold energy, to temperatures of at least 90°C, without creating any exposure of the resist. In this research, Bi/In resists are heated through a range of substrate temperatures, measured for their optical exposure requirements and gammas under these conditions, and used to determine if substrate heating can improve the film's sensitivity.

Dykes, James M.; Tsui, Polly; Leung, Jenny; Chapman, Glenn H.

2008-10-01

66

Bimetallic grayscale photomasks for micro-optics fabrication using dual wavelength laser writing techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microfabrication of high-resolution micro-optic devices requires <1/8? (~60nm) precision both vertically and horizontally. More critical is the creation of 256-level grayscale masks to create sufficient vertical precision in the photoresist. Grayscale bimetallic photomasks are bi-layer thermal resists of Bismuth-on-Indium or Tin-on-Indium become controllably transparent by varying laser power thermally producing alloy oxide ranging ~3OD (unexposed) to <0.22OD (fully exposed). Previously, a direct-write multi-line CW Argon-ion laser writing system with feedbackcontrolled Gaussian beam achieved 256-level grayscale masks. The feedback system effectively reduced the average gray-level error from ±4.2 gray-levels in an open-loop approach to ±0.3 gray-levels in a closed-loop approach. Remaining gray-level errors were due to the Gaussian beam profile creating variations in gray-levels. Preliminary results show that a beam shaper creating a flattop beam helps reducing gray-level fluctuations. The multi-line Argon laser enables having multiple single beams separated from a single stabilized laser source. The single 514.5nm line used for writing gives better control of beam shape in the modulated laser beam. At the same time a lower power 457.9nm line introduced in the beam path to characterize the grayscale pattern both during and after the writing process. Filtering the writing laser line, sensor below the mask plate measures only the 457.9nm line enabling the high accuracy transparency measurements of the written mask near G-line (435.8nm). One target application is the creation of micro-lens arrays, which are lenses whose optical shape varies from lenslet to lenslet across the entire patterned surface of cm size. Laser direct-written grayscale masks enable relatively low cost, rapid turnaround mask production needed for creating such structures with microfabrication processes.

Qarehbaghi, Reza; Chapman, Glenn H.

2012-11-01

67

Continuous-tone gray-scale photomasks based on photosensitive spin-on-glass technology for deep-UV lithography applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technology for the low cost production of continuous tone gray scale photomasks for deep UV photolithography applications has been demonstrated. This technology is based on the use of a photosensitive spin-on-glass (SOG) thin film deposited onto a UV transparent substrate such as quartz. Different light exposure energies, from either a lithography setup or a laser pattern generator, onto the

Edgar A. Mendoza; F. A. Sigoli; H. Paulus; L. Q. Giang; M. Seifouri; E. Lam; Lothar U. Kempen; Farvardin Johansooz

2003-01-01

68

Okinawa, Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The southern half of the island of Okinawa, Japan (26.5N, 128.0E) can be seen in this nearly cloud free view. Okinawa is part of the Ryuku Islands which extend from Taiwan northeastward to Kyushu, southernmost of the Japanese Home Islands. The large military base at Kadena, with large runways, is visible near the center of the scene. Kadena is one of several emergency landing sites around the world for the space shuttle.

1991-01-01

69

Hokkaido, Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cities mingle with rugged hills and a dormant volcano in this image of Hokkaido, Japan. This three-dimensional image comes from observations made by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on July 23, 2006. The view is toward the north and slightly east. Green indicates vegetation; beige and gray indicate bare ground, paved surfaces, or buildings; and dark blue indicates water. The water body at the top of the image is the Pacific Ocean. Now dormant, Mount Yotei is a stratovolcano--a symmetrical cone composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and volcanic rocks ejected in previous eruptions. It reaches a height of 1,898 meters (6,227 feet), and its summit sports a 700-meter- (2,297-foot-) wide crater. Snow often caps this volcano, but in this summertime shot, the volcano's summit is snow-free. The volcano is also known as Ezo-Fuji for its resemblance to Mount Fuji. As angular patches of gray and beige indicate, urban areas surround the volcano, most notably the city of Kutchan to the northwest. Even when volcanoes remain active, people often settle close to them, drawn by benefits of good soil and mild climates that appear to outweigh the risks. NASA image by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

2006-01-01

70

The effects of simultaneous electrophoresis and thermophoresis on particulate contamination of an inverted EUVL photomask surface in parallel airflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combined influences of electrophoresis and thermophoresis on particle deposition on the inverted critical surface of a flat plate in parallel airflow were investigated by employing the statistical Lagrangian particle tracking approach in an effort to assess the degree of particulate contamination of EUVL photomasks during horizontal transport in cleanroom environments. The numerical method was validated through the comparison with the experimental data, found in the literature, about particle deposition velocity onto a wafer in vertical airflow with and without electrophoresis or thermophoresis. In addition, the validation of the present model was performed via the comparison with the theoretical prediction of particle deposition velocity onto a flat plate under no phoretic forces in parallel airflow. Then, the particle deposition velocity onto the face-down surface of a flat plate in parallel airflow was obtained by varying the temperature of the inverted critical surface in different strengths of uniform electric fields. Injected particles were assumed to be charged with -1 , 0, or +1 elementary unit of charge, in order to consider attractive or repulsive electric force. The degree of particulate contamination of the inverted critical surface was found to be significantly influenced by the combination of electrophoretic and thermophoretic effects.

Lee, Handol; Yook, Se-Jin; Young Han, Seog

2012-10-01

71

Integration and optimization of the DUV ALTA pattern generation system using a CAR process with the Tetra photomask etch system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Etec Systems, the Mask Business Group of Applied Materials, is in a unique position within the mask making industry - Etec has the opportunity to integrate individual parts of the overall mask manufacturing process to provide a more complete solution. Here we present the integration of the DUV ALTA laser pattern generator and the TetraTM photomask etch system with advanced CAR resist processes. Dry etch process effects of flow, overetch, and oxygen content (in a Cl2/O2/He plasma) are discussed for the baseline POR resist in terms of etch rate, selectivity, etch bias, CD uniformity and micro-loading; the optimized etch process space was then implemented for advanced CAR resists. Iso-dense bias, football pattern loading and other pattern transfer results influencing mask manufactureability are also presented. Within the synthesis and optimization of the pattern generation system, process, and dry etch sub 13 nm range process uniformity has been achieved. The integrated ALTA / Tetra / Advanced-CAR solution set is characterized on both Etec test patterns and customer demonstrations.

Buxbaum, Alex H.; Fuller, Scott E.; Montgomery, Warren; Ungureit, Michael E.

2003-12-01

72

Rigorous EMF simulation of the impact of photomask line-edge and line-width roughness on lithographic processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of edge profile roughness of the absorber lines on an optical photomask has been studied by means of rigorous EMF simulation for the mask diffraction spectrum and subsequent imaging. Roughness has been modeled using two different approaches, a sinusoidal description and an algorithm known from literature based on Fourier transformation. The latter one allows one to arbitrarily create rough profiles and surfaces based on the three morphological parameters standard deviation ?, roughness exponent ?, and correlation length ?. A software interface for use of the generated profiles with the waveguide EMF solver of the Dr.LiTHO lithography simulation suite has been implemented. It was shown by means of image analysis and study of the resulting process windows that mask roughness is partially transferred to the aerial image. Isolated and dense features behave differently, leading i.a. to an iso-dense bias different to that of ideal lines. Process windows shift or even shrink in the presence of roughness, due to a certain smearing of the curves reducing the overall window. Tapered sidewalls can add to these effects in the same order of magnitude.

Rudolph, Oliver H.; Evanschitzky, Peter; Erdmann, Andreas; Bär, Eberhard; Lorenz, Jürgen

2011-10-01

73

Competition in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines competition in Japan and its link to postwar economic prosperity. While Japan's industrial structure and competition policy seem to indicate that competition in Japan has been less intense, the empirical evidence does not support this conclusion. The sectors in which competition was restricted prove to be those where Japan was not internationally successful. In the internationally successful

Michael E. Porter; Mariko Sakakibara

2004-01-01

74

Transmission-grating-photomasked transient spin grating and its application to measurement of electron-spin ambipolar diffusion in (110) GaAs quantum wells.  

PubMed

A circular dichromatic transient absorption difference spectroscopy of transmission-grating-photomasked transient spin grating is developed and formularized. It is very simple in experimental setup and operation, and has high detection sensitivity. It is applied to measure spin diffusion dynamics and excited electron density dependence of spin ambipolar diffusion coefficient in (110) GaAs quantum wells. It is found that the spin ambipolar diffusion coefficient of (110) and (001) GaAs quantum wells is close to each other, but has an opposite dependence tendency on excited electron density. This spectroscopy is expected to have extensive applicability in the measurement of spin transport. PMID:22453489

Chen, Ke; Wang, Wenfang; Wu, Jingda; Schuh, D; Wegscheider, W; Korn, T; Lai, Tianshu

2012-03-26

75

Continuous-tone gray-scale photomasks based on photosensitive spin-on-glass technology for deep-UV lithography applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technology for the low cost production of continuous tone gray scale photomasks for deep UV photolithography applications has been demonstrated. This technology is based on the use of a photosensitive spin-on-glass (SOG) thin film deposited onto a UV transparent substrate such as quartz. Different light exposure energies, from either a lithography setup or a laser pattern generator, onto the photosensitive SOG film changes the UV absorption spectrum at both H and I mercury emission lines. The amount of photo induced attenuation on the film is directly proportional to light exposure energy, hence allowing the formation of fully continuous tone patterns. Once the image pattern is photo-generated with a resolution of 0.1 to 1 micrometer, it is permanently fixed by a thermal treatment step without the need of an etching step. This new continuous tone deep UV photomask technology offers new cost effective opportunities for the production of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) structures, diffractive optical elements (DOEs), computer generated holograms (CGHs), and kinoform optics.

Mendoza, Edgar A.; Sigoli, F. A.; Paulus, H.; Giang, L. Q.; Seifouri, M.; Lam, E.; Kempen, Lothar U.; Johansooz, Farvardin

2003-12-01

76

Laser applications in the electronics and optoelectronics industry in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explains current status and technological trends in laser materials processing applications in electronics and optoelectronics industry in Japan. Various laser equipment based on solid state lasers or gas lasers such as excimer lasers or CO2 lasers has been developed and applied in manufacturing electronic and optoelectronic devices to meet the strong demands for advanced device manufacturing technologies for high-performance, lightweight, low power-consumption portable digital electronic appliances, cellular mobile phones, personal computers, etc. Representative applications of solid-state lasers are, opaque and clear defects repairing of photomasks for LSIs and LCDs, trimming of thick-film chip resistors and low resistance metal resistors, laser cutting and drilling of thin films for high-pin count semiconductor CSP packages, laser patterning of thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells, and laser welding of electronic components such as hard-disk head suspensions, optical modules, miniature relays and lithium ion batteries. Compact and highly efficient diode- pumped and Q-switched solid-state lasers in second or third harmonic operation mode are now being increasingly incorporated in various laser equipment for fine material processing. Representative applications of excimer lasers are, sub-quarter micron design-rule LSI lithography and low- temperature annealing of poly-silicon TFT LCD.

Washio, Kunihiko

1999-07-01

77

Characterization of a non-chemically amplified resist for photomask fabrication using a 257-nm optical pattern generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I-line optical pattern generators using non-chemically amplified resists have become the workhorses for high throughput mask fabrication. The demand for smaller and more uniform features on photomasks has driven the development of a 257 nm optical pattern generator. A non-chemically amplified resist is being developed to maximize the performance of this new 257 nm mask tool. Resist characterization and lithography simulation are being used to formulate a non-chemically amplified resist for 257 nm optical pattern generators. Non- chemically amplified resists are advantageous for us in mask fabrication due to their storage and post-exposure stability. Chemically amplified resists may provide higher performance but they also require environmental mini-environments and a post-exposure bake equipment not commonly present in mask houses. Diazonaphthoquinone (DNQ)/novolak resists have not been used for DUV Integrated Circuit (IC) applications mainly due to the low sensitivity and the strong absorbance of the DNQ photoactive compound (PAC) at 248 nm. However, a 2,1,4 DNQ based resist has been characterized that bleaches at 257 nm and inhibits novolak. The photoproduct of the 2,1,4 DNQ PAC is much more transparent at 257 nm than 248 nm. Novolak resin is too strongly absorbing for use in formulating efficient 248 nm resists, but novolak has an absorbance minimum at 257 nm that provides transparency similar to poly (hydroxystyrene). Lithography simulation is being used to develop a non- chemically amplified resist to minimize the expensive iteration of manufacturing trials. An exposure system using a 257 nm frequency double Ar laser system has been constructed to study the resist photokinetics. Dill exposure parameters (A, B and C) have been extracted for a 2,1,4 DNQ/novolak based resist. Dissolution rate measurements have been made with a DRM developed at the University of Texas at Austin. Simulation is used to determine the optimal resist absorption, bleaching, dose and dissolution properties to maximize resolution. It is possible to formulate a high performance resist for 257 nm if care is taken in optimization of the formulation.

Rathsack, Benjamen M.; Tabery, Cyrus E.; Stachowiak, Timothy B.; Dallas, Tim E.; Xu, Cheng-Bai; Pochkowski, Mike; Willson, C. Grant

1999-12-01

78

Electrical Characteristics of Low-Temperature Polycrystalline Silicon Complementary Metal--Oxide--Semiconductor Thin-Film Transistors with Six-Step Photomask Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose two types of six-step photomask, complementary metal--oxide--semiconductor (CMOS), thin-film transistor (TFT) PCT device structures in order to simplify their fabrication process compared with that of conventional, low-temperature, polycrystalline silicon (LTPS) CMOS TFT devices. The initial charge transfer characteristics of both types of six-step PCT are equivalent to those of the conventional nine-step PCT. Both types of six-step PCT are comparable to the conventional nine-step mask lightly doped drain (LDD) device in terms of the dc device lifetime of over 10 years at Vds=5 V for line inversion driving, which is the normally recognized duration time for semiconducting devices.

Lee, Sang-Jin; Park, Jae-Hoon; Oh, Kum-Mi; Lee, Seok-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Eon; Shin, Woo-Sup; Jun, Myung-chul; Yang, Yong-Suk; Hwang, Yong-Kee

2011-06-01

79

Degregulation in Japan  

SciTech Connect

In recent years Japan has emerged as a major economic force in the world economy which, in spite of its strength, has produced another, less positive side. Driven by continual trade disputes and the unexpectedly high value of the yen, Japan`s Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), the architect of Japan`s industrial policy, has undertaken to increase efficiency in the domestic economy. MITI`s process lies beneath the surface of the current effort to deregulate the electricity sector in Japan. Cited for inefficiency resulting in high energy costs, this key industrial sector is central to MITI`s plan to improve domestic industrial efficiency. Major points include allowing independent power production, developing a bidding system for wholesale power, permitting non-utilities to engage in the retail sale of electricity within certain specified areas, and permitting non-utilities to use the grids of the country`s 10 major utilities. A strong currency and stable economy together with an absence of a significant country risk will be comforting factors to both developers and foreign lending institutions seeking to finance projects in Japan. Japan`s future, therefore, holds some promise for future independent power project development.

Zimmer, M.J.; Miller, D.B. [Reid & Priest, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-09-01

80

Technology Education in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the history, current status, and future direction of technology education in Japan, including the process of curriculum transition, secondary and postsecondary structure, and lack of resources. (SK)

Murata, Shoji; Stern, Sam

1993-01-01

81

Rehabilitation in Japan, 1988.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The scope of Japan's rehabilitation services for persons with disabilities is reviewed and discussed from the perspective of social and demographic change in that country. An introductory chapter on the current situation in Japan looks at characteristics of the land, the people, the government, industry and the economy, and the culture. The second…

Japanese Society for Rehabilitation of the Disabled, Tokyo.

82

Japan's Beef Market.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Japan imports large amounts of beef, primarily from Oceania and North America, and its consumers are willing to pay a premium for heavily marbled, grain-fed beef. As a result, Japan's import of certain beef cuts and offal raise the value of U.S. cattle. T...

J. Dyck K. Obara M. McConnell

2010-01-01

83

Japan's High Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author, an anthropologist, spent 14 months (1974-75) in the industrial port city of Kobe (Japan) observing a cross section of urban high schools, including Japan's most elite private school and a night vocational school plagued by absenteeism and delinquency. He reports on the character of the institutions and of the experience via…

Rohlen, Thomas P.

84

A Cultural Experience: Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activities unit for teaching about Japan is designed for use with elementary students. The activities reflect the growing importance of Japan in today's world, and the belief that the social studies curriculum should reflect principles of global education. The unit is intended to explore seven major goals included in the social studies…

Wood, Robert W.; And Others

85

Microelectronics in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this JTEC study is to evaluate Japan's electronic manufacturing and packaging capabilities within the context of global economic competition. To carry out this study, the JTEC panel evaluated the framework of the Japanese consumer electronics industry and various technological and organizational factors that are likely to determine who will win and lose in the marketplace. This study begins with a brief overview of the electronics industry, especially as it operates in Japan today. Succeeding chapters examine the electronics infrastructure in Japan and take an in-depth look at the central issues of product development in order to identify those parameters that will determine future directions for electronic packaging technologies.

Boulton, William R.

1995-01-01

86

Groundwater contamination in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed.

Tase, Norio

1992-07-01

87

The Japan Prize  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Deputy Director-General of NHK (Japan Broadcasting Company) describes the procedures involved in awarding the prize (for outstanding radio and television programs) and offers some comments on educational broadcasting. (LS)

Yoshida, Tadashi

1970-01-01

88

Biotechnology in Japan (1988).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biotechnology in Japan includes all aspects of the life sciences: gene products, bioprocesses, and biological systems. The report, therefore, covers basic research in the biological sciences, as well as research and development conducted by the government...

R. Fujimura

1988-01-01

89

Space robotics in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; Mccain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

1994-01-01

90

Improving the CD linearity and proximity performance of photomasks written on the Sigma7500-II DUV laser writer through embedded OPC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical proximity correction (OPC) is widely used in wafer lithography to produce a printed image that best matches the design intent while optimizing CD control. OPC software applies corrections to the mask pattern data, but in general it does not compensate for the mask writer and mask process characteristics. The Sigma7500-II deep-UV laser mask writer projects the image of a programmable spatial light modulator (SLM) using partially coherent optics similar to wafer steppers, and the optical proximity effects of the mask writer are in principle correctable with established OPC methods. To enhance mask patterning, an embedded OPC function, LinearityEqualizeTM, has been developed for the Sigma7500- II that is transparent to the user and which does not degrade mask throughput. It employs a CalibreTM rule-based OPC engine from Mentor Graphics, selected for the computational speed necessary for mask run-time execution. A multinode cluster computer applies optimized table-based CD corrections to polygonized pattern data that is then fractured into an internal writer format for subsequent data processing. This embedded proximity correction flattens the linearity behavior for all linewidths and pitches, which targets to improve the CD uniformity on production photomasks. Printing results show that the CD linearity is reduced to below 5 nm for linewidths down to 200 nm, both for clear and dark and for isolated and dense features, and that sub-resolution assist features (SRAF) are reliably printed down to 120 nm. This reduction of proximity effects for main mask features and the extension of the practical resolution for SRAFs expands the application space of DUV laser mask writing.

Österberg, Anders; Ivansen, Lars; Beyerl, Angela; Newman, Tom; Bowhill, Amanda; Sahouria, Emile; Schulze, Steffen

2007-10-01

91

Springs of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are numerous springs in Japan. The largest and most famous ones are volcanic and karstic springs. Springs in the areas of Mount Fuji, Mount Aso, and Akiyoshidai are discussed here as sources of water used for drinking, irrigation, fish cultivation, industrial water, and sightseeing.

S. Yamamoto

1996-01-01

92

Springs of Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are numerous springs in Japan. The largest and most famous ones are volcanic and karstic springs. Springs in the areas of Mount Fuji, Mount Aso, and Akiyoshidai are discussed here as sources of water used for drinking, irrigation, fish cultivation, industrial water, and sightseeing.

Yamamoto, S.

1996-03-01

93

Nuclear Power in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Energy consumption in Japan has grown at a faster rate than in any other major industrial country. To maintain continued prosperity, the government has embarked on a crash program for nuclear power. Current progress and issues/reactions to the plan are discussed. (JN)

Powell, John W.

1983-01-01

94

The Japan Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains three papers on college student exchange between Japan and the United States. The first paper, entitled "The University of Massachusetts and Hokkaido University: A Case Study in Educational Cooperation," by Barbara B. Burn, describes the long-standing relationship between these two institutions in order to identify some…

Bailey, Jackson H.; And Others

95

Language Testing in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers on second language testing in Japan include: "Differences Between Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests" (James Dean Brown); "Criterion-Referenced Test Construction and Evaluation" (Dale T. Griffe); "Behavioral Learning Objectives as an Evaluation Tool" (Judith A. Johnson); "Developing Norm- Referenced Tests for Program-Level…

Brown, James Dean, Ed.; Yamashita, Sayoko Okada, Ed.

96

Japan's electronic packaging technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

1995-02-01

97

Family Medicine in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Editor's Note: The fact that Japan has the longest life expectancy in the world does not suggest that they need to revamp their whole sys¬ tem and develop a new system of educating family physicians. How¬ ever, maybe the family physicians can make the statistics even better. I find the volume ofvisits fascinating. When I visited Korea in 1993, there

Blake W. H. Smith; Ray Demers; Linda Garcia-Shelton

2010-01-01

98

Advanced composites in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The JTEC Panel on Advanced Composites surveyed the status and future directions of Japanese high-performance ceramic and carbon fibers and their composites in metal, intermetallic, ceramic, and carbon matrices. Because of a strong carbon and fiber industry, Japan is the leader in carbon fiber technology. Japan has initiated an oxidation-resistant carbon/carbon composite program. With its outstanding technical base in carbon technology, Japan should be able to match present technology in the U.S. and introduce lower-cost manufacturing methods. However, the panel did not see any innovative approaches to oxidation protection. Ceramic and especially intermetallic matrix composites were not yet receiving much attention at the time of the panel's visit. There was a high level of monolithic ceramic research and development activity. High temperature monolithic intermetallic research was just starting, but notable products in titanium aluminides had already appeared. Matrixless ceramic composites was one novel approach noted. Technologies for high temperature composites fabrication existed, but large numbers of panels or parts had not been produced. The Japanese have selected aerospace as an important future industry. Because materials are an enabling technology for a strong aerospace industry, Japan initiated an ambitious long-term program to develop high temperature composites. Although just starting, its progress should be closely monitored in the U.S.

Diefendorf, R. Judd; Hillig, William G.; Grisaffe, Salvatore J.; Pipes, R. Byron; Perepezko, John H.; Sheehan, James E.

1994-01-01

99

Educational Technology in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This overview of the current state of educational technology in Japan includes discussions of professional associations; academic and popular journals; diffusion of media and the budget in elementary and secondary schools; recent trends in government policies; educational technology research; a literature review; and suggestions of future trends.…

Sakamoto, Takashi

1987-01-01

100

Japan's builders study platforms  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the developing role of Japan as a major supplier of offshore drilling and production equipment. Different firms are discussed along with their capacity. The marketing areas, work experience, and plans for designs are also included. There is special attention payed on the potential for developing Arctic platforms.

Burke, R.G.

1984-07-05

101

Teaching Unit: Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cultural diversity of Japan can provide a rewarding learning experience for children of all grade levels. This teaching unit includes resources and ideas for the study of Japanese society, art, folklore, and poetry. Included among the instructional objectives are: (1) children will compare U.S. lifestyles with Japanese lifestyles by reading…

Evans, Dina

102

Japan's Emergent Security Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Japan, long regarded as America's bedrock ally in the Asia-Pacific region, is in the midst of the most extensive review of defense policy in more than twenty years. The results of this assessment will likely unfold incrementally rather than in one fell sw...

P. M. Cronin

1995-01-01

103

Family Policy in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pervasive sense of crisis in Japan over the falling birth rate and aging society issues is generating an active public debate about gender, the fam- ily, the organization of the workplace and the policy approaches best able to cope with these problems. This article considers explanations for demographic change, then turns to current Japanese family policy, focus- ing on

PATRICIA BOLING

1998-01-01

104

Country Profiles. Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This occasional paper on Japan is one of a series setting forth the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in specified countries. Here, an overview is given of population characteristics and growth patterns, the relationship of population growth to socioeconomic development, and the history of population concerns and…

Muramatsu, Minoru

105

Youth marketing in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports on Japan, a country in which the falling birth rate gives marketers some interesting opportunities. Explores how smaller numbers of children leads to more money being spent on each, in particular the “six pockets” or six sources of financial support that children have from their two parents and four grandparents. Illustrates this by the example of Studio Alice, a

Nana Sato; Yuko Kato

2005-01-01

106

Japan's electronic packaging technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

1995-01-01

107

Airway stenting in Japan.  

PubMed

Various types of outstanding airway stents have been made commercially available. In Japan, a total of 1004 airway stents (Dumon stents (Novatech, Aubagne, France), Gianturco Z stents (Cook Ins, Bloomington, USA), Ultraflex stents (Boston Scientific Corp, Natick, MA, USA), and Dynamic Y stents (Ruesch AG, Kernen, Germany)) were implanted from July 1991 until February 1998. Of all the various stents, the Dumon stent has become the standard worldwide. Also, the Dumon stent has been replacing the Gianturco Z stent as the preferred stent throughout Japan. The Dumon stent was the first stent covered by Japanese National Health Insurance. Therefore, we present our 5-year experience with the Dumon stent at our institution. In our experience, stenting is effective for the immediate and lasting relief of symptoms in patients with severe malignant obstruction of major airways. PMID:10201048

Miyazawa, T; Arita, K

1998-12-01

108

Northeast Coast, Hokkaido, Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The northeast coast of Hokkaido and Kunashir Island, Japan (44.0N, 143.0E) are seen bordered by drifting sea ice. The sea ice has formed a complex pattern of eddies in response to surface water currents and winds. Photos of this kind aid researchers in describing local ocean current patterns and the effects of wind speed and direction on the drift of surface material, such as ice floes or oil. Kunashir is the southernmost of the Kuril Islands.

1992-01-01

109

Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The city of Sapporo on the northernmost of the Japanese Home Island of Hokkaido (43.5N, 141.5E), host to the 1986 Winter Olympic Games is situated along the margin of a large valley which extends across the island from the Sea of Japan to the Pacific Ocean. The Valley is largely cultivated (the lighter green of the cultivated land distinguishes it from the gray urban development of Sapporo), but much of the island remains heavily forested.

1992-01-01

110

Southern Kyushu, Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This dramatic infrared view of Southern Kyushu, Japan (31.5N, 130.5E) shows the vegetation on the island as a red or pink, depending upon its lushness. The small islands of Yaku Jima and Tanega Shima are almost totally cloud covered. The port city of Kagoshima with its active volcano, Sakura Jimai in the middle of the harbor, is at the extreme southern tip of Kyushu. This volcano has erupted almost continuously for over 1,200 years.

1989-01-01

111

Terror management in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do terror management effects generalize to non-Western cultures? This question is significant because terror management theory offers an explanation of the origin of self-esteem, whereas other research finds divergent self-esteem motivations across cultures. The effects of mortality salience (MS) on the dual- component anxiety buffer were investigated in Japan. A control group and a MS group were given an opportunity:

Steven J. Heine; Motoko Harihara; Yu Niiya

2002-01-01

112

Evaluation of attenuated PSM photomask blanks with TF11 chrome and FEP-171 resist on a 248 nm DUV laser pattern generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tighter requirements on mask resolution, CD and image positioning accuracy at and beyond the 45 nm technology node push the development of improved photomask blanks. One such blank for attenuated phase-shift masks (att-PSM) provides a thinner chrome film, named TF11, with higher chrome etch rate compared to the previous generation Att- PSM blank (NTAR5 chrome film) from the same supplier. Reduced stress in the chrome film also results in less image placement error induced by the material. FEP-171 is the positive chemically amplified resist (PCAR) that is most commonly used in advanced mask manufacturing with both 50 keV variable shaped e-beam (VSB) and DUV laser pattern generators. TF11 allows an FEP-171 resist film down to about 2000 Å thickness with sufficient etch resistance, while the standard resist thickness for NTAR5 is around 3000 Å. This work has experimentally evaluated the use of TF11 chrome and FEP-171 resist together with a 248 nm DUV laser pattern generator, the Sigma7500. First, patterning performance in resist with thicknesses from 2000 Å to 2600 Å, in steps of 100 Å, was tested with respect to swing curve and basic lithographic parameters including resolution, CD linearity, CD iso-dense bias and dose sensitivity. Patterning results on mask showed a swing minimum at around 2200 Å and a swing maximum at around 2500 Å, which correspond to reflectivity measurements for 248 nm wavelength performed by the blank supplier. It was concluded that the overall patterning performance was best close to the swing maximum. Thereafter the patterning performance using TF11 at two resist thicknesses, 2000 Å and 2550 Å, was studied in more detail and compared to performance using NTAR5 with 3200 Å resist. The evaluation showed that the Sigma7500-II offers good compatibility with TF11, especially using the optimized FEP-171 resist thickness of 2550 Å. It also showed that the patterning capability of the Sigma7500-II using TF11 and 2550 Å resist is improved compared to using NTAR5 and 3200 Å resist.

Xing, Kezhao; Björnborg, Charles; Karlsson, Henrik; Paulsson, Adisa; Rosendahl, Anna; Beiming, Peter; Vedenpää, Jukka; Walford, Jonathan; Newman, Tom

2007-10-01

113

Ijime in Japan.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the problem of ijime in Japan from a variety of perspectives, primarily through studies conducted in this country. The term ijime is not uniform in concept, open to different interpretations given the disparity in definitions among different circles, making precise assessment of the actual conditions difficult. Such being the case, what is needed is further study on the mechanisms and actual state of ijime accounting for the flow of the times, and compilation of research to enable the creation of ever more effective modes of prevention and intervention. PMID:22909914

Ogura, Masayoshi; Okada, Kaori; Hamada, Shoko; Asaga, Reiko; Honjo, Shuji

2012-01-01

114

Monetary Policy and Japan’s Liquidity Trap  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the long economic slump in Japan, monetary policy in Japan has essentially consisted of a very low interest rate (since 1995), a zero interest rate (since 1999), and quantitative easing (since 2001). The intention seems to have been to lower expectations of future interest rates. But the problem in a liquidity trap (when the zero lower bound on the

Lars E. O. Svensson

2006-01-01

115

Strong Quake Strikes Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As Eos was about to go to press, a powerful earthquake with a preliminary estimated magnitude of 8.9 shook the northeast coast of Japan on 11 March at 05:46:23 UTC. It is the largest known earthquake along the Japan Trench subduction zone since 869 A.D. or earlier, Brian Atwater, geologist with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), told Eos. The quake's magnitude would place it fifth in terms of any earthquake magnitude worldwide since at least 1900, according to information from the USGS Earthquake Hazards Program. The amount of energy released in the quake—which occurred 130 kilometers east of Sendai, Honshu, at a depth of 24.4 kilometers—was equivalent to the energy from 30 earthquakes the size of the 1906 quake in San Francisco, Calif., according to David Applegate, USGS senior science advisor for earthquake and geologic hazards. He said the economic losses from the shaking are estimated to be in the tens of billions of dollars.

Showstack, Randy

2011-03-01

116

[Buddhist mummies in Japan].  

PubMed

The mummy of priest Kochi (preserved at Saishoji Temple, Teradomari, Niigata Pref.) has become famous, since it appeared in the book "Snow Country Tales" written by Bokushi Suzuki in 1841 (Fig. 1). In a country of high humidity, such as Japan, the belief that mummification could not, and did not, exist would not be altogether unfounded, but rather more a matter of common sense. There are two dozen Buddhist mummies in this country. It was not known until 1961 that a reliable source of artificial mummification has existed in Japan. The Japanese Buddhist mummies, apart from those of the Fujiwara family, a powerful clan of northeast Japan in the 12th century, dated mostly from the 17th to the 19th century as given in Table 1. Three principal types of mummification described by Vreeland, Jr. and Cockburn (1980) could be identified in the Japanese Buddhist mummies: type I, natural mummification; type II, intentional natural; and type III, artificial. Matsumoto (1990) classified the mummies into four groups, based on their ideological backgrounds: group A, mummies of the priests having faith in the Amitabha (the Supreme Buddha presiding over the Pure Land in the West); group B, sokushin-butsu mummies of the priests belonging to the Shingon sect of Japanese Buddhism founded by Kukai (Kobo-daishi); group C, nyujo mummies of the priests having faith in the Maitreya (the Buddha presiding over the Pure Land in the North, or the Buddha of the future); and group D, other mummies. These mummies of groups A, B, C and D are respectively listed in Table 2. Previous papers have shown that the mummies of the groups A, C and D belonged to the mummification of type I (natural mummification) or type II (intentional natural), whereas those of only the group B were of type III (artificial). The mummies of groups A to D were given as follows. a) Mummies of group A. The four mummies of the Fujiwara family in the Amitabha faith (preserved at Chusonji Temple, Hiraizumi, Iwate Pref.), which were laid in daisies for Buddhist images at golden Konjikido, a model of the Western Pure Land of Amitabha, did not bear any evidence of Ainu character in their physical traits. Of these, the mummy of Yasuhira Fujiwara, of which the head and neck were severely injured by swords, showed that it had been decapitated. This decapitated head had suffered mutilations: i.e. a long iron nail had been driven into the forehead, and the both auricles and the nose had been cut off.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8237299

Morimoto, I

1993-08-01

117

Forearc diamond from Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Convergent margins are not generally considered to be suitableplaces for the formation of diamond and its transport to Earth'ssurface. Microdiamonds found in xenoliths within a lamprophyredike in southwest Japan show that this assumption is incorrectand, furthermore, that diamond occurs in a wider range of geologicalsettings than previously realized. Petrological constraintsshow that these diamond-bearing minerals rose from depths ofaround 160 km (~5.5. GPa) and cooled from temperatures of ~1500°C. The location of the diamond-bearing rocks in the forearcand close to the subducting plate requires the existence ofmantle up-flow, which brought the diamond to shallow mantlelevels before traveling 100-km-scale horizontal distances. Ifthe dimensions of this flow are large, it can help explain bothforearc magmatism and perhaps the development of subductionzones hot enough to melt sediments.

Mizukami, T.; Wallis, S.; Enami, M.; Kagi, H.

2008-03-01

118

Typhoon Chataan off Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Slowly winding its way down, Typhoon Chataan had dropped to tropical storm status by Thursday, July 11, 2002, when this image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was captured. In the image, the storm is located off the east coast of central Japan in the Pacific Ocean. The storm is much less organized than it was in the previous day's image. Through a gap in the clouds to the southwest of the storm's eye, Tokyo can be seen as a grayish cluster of pixels surrounding a small bay or inlet that protrudes into the island of Honshu. Credit: Image courtesy Jesse Allen, NASA Earth Observatory; data provided by the MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

2002-01-01

119

Disability evaluation in Japan.  

PubMed

To examine the current state and social ramifications of disability evaluation in Japan, public data from Annual Reports on Health and Welfare 1998-1999 were investigated. All data were analyzed based on the classification of disabilities and the effects of age-appropriate welfare services, which have been developed through a half-century of legislative efforts to support disability evaluation. These data suggest that disability evaluation, while essentially affected by age and impairment factors at a minimum, was impacted more by the assistive environment for disabilities. The assistive environment was found to be closely linked with the welfare support system related to a global assessment in the field of community-based rehabilitation. PMID:19503677

Suzuki, Tsunehiko

2009-05-01

120

JPRS Report. Science Technology: Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts on science and technology in Japan. Titles include: Ceramics/Metal Bonding Technology Update; Functionally Gradient Materials Workshop No. 1; Construction Company Enters Biotec...

1988-01-01

121

Helicobacter pylori infection in Japan  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is gradually decreasing in Japan. On the main island of Japan, nearly all H. pylori isolates possess cagA and vacA with strong virulence. However, less virulent H. pylori strains are frequently found in Okinawa where cases of gastric cancer are the lowest in Japan. Eradication therapy for peptic ulcer, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and early gastric cancer after endoscopic resection has been approved by the Japanese national health insurance system. However, the Japanese Society for Helicobacter Research recently stated that all ‘H. pylori infection’ was considered as the indication for eradication irrespective of the background diseases. To eliminate H. pylori in Japan, the Japanese health insurance system should approve the eradication of all H. pylori infections.

Shiota, Seiji; Murakawi, Kazunari; Suzuki, Rumiko; Fujioka, Toshio; Yamaoka, Yoshio

2013-01-01

122

Helicobacter pylori infection in Japan.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is gradually decreasing in Japan. On the main island of Japan, nearly all H. pylori isolates possess cagA and vacA with strong virulence. However, less virulent H. pylori strains are frequently found in Okinawa where cases of gastric cancer are the lowest in Japan. Eradication therapy for peptic ulcer, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and early gastric cancer after endoscopic resection has been approved by the Japanese national health insurance system. However, the Japanese Society for Helicobacter Research recently stated that all 'H. pylori infection' was considered as the indication for eradication irrespective of the background diseases. To eliminate H. pylori in Japan, the Japanese health insurance system should approve the eradication of all H. pylori infections. PMID:23265147

Shiota, Seiji; Murakawi, Kazunari; Suzuki, Rumiko; Fujioka, Toshio; Yamaoka, Yoshio

2013-01-01

123

Clean Coal Technologies in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal provided 16·1% (116·3 million tons) of the energy for Japan in FY 1992. According to the long-term energy supply and demand outlook in Japan, prepared and revised in June 1994 by the Advisory Committee for Energy, it is estimated that coal will provide 16·4% (130 million tons) of the energy in 2000 and 15·4% (134 million tons) in 2010,

RYOICHI YOSHIDA; Ryoichi

1997-01-01

124

Japan's launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of Japan's Mu series scientific research launch vehicles, and N and H series practical applications vehicles, is described. The three-stage M-3C features a second-stage radio inertial guidance system. The evolution to the M-3S includes a first-stage TVC and Solid Motor Roll Control device, and eight 310-m strap-on boosters (SOB's). The M-3SII developed to launch an interplanetary satellite for the 1986 Halley's Comet apparition, employs two 735-mm SOB's and a microprocessor digitalized flight control system, and can put a 770 kg satellite into low earth orbit. The N-1 is a three-stage radio-guided vehicle using first and second stage liquid engines, a solid motor third stage, three SOB's, and having the capability to launch a 145 kg geostationary satellite. N-II improvements include a 350 kg geostationary payload capacity, nine SOB's, and an inertial guidance system. The H-1 planned for 1987 has a 550 kg geostationary payload capacity and a domestically developed cryogenic engine. The H-II planned for 1992 will be capable of launching a two-ton geostationary satellite, or LOX/LH2 plural satellites simultaneously. It will be powered by a single 95-ton thrust LE-7 main engine.

Kuroda, Y.; Hara, N.

125

[Canine histoplasmosis in Japan].  

PubMed

Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum and is distributed a worldwide. Although the disease has been treated as an imported mycosis, some autochthonous human, 1 equine and 4 canine cases suggested that the disease is endemic. Histoplasmosis is classified depending on the variety of causative agent. Histoplasmosis farciminosi known as pseudofarcy, is manifested only in Perissodactyla where it invades lymph nodes and lymph ducts, and is recognized by isolation from horses. Historically, Japan was one of the endemic areas of pseudofarcy before World War II, and more than 20,000 cases were recorded in horses used by the military. Interestingly, Japanese canine histoplasmosis uniformly showed skin ulcers and granulomatous lesions on the skin without pulmonary or gastrointestinal involvement, both of which were very similar to pseudofarcy. It was diagnosed as histoplasmosis by the detection of internal transcribed spacer legions of rRNA gene of H. capsulatum from paraffin embedded tissue samples. Furthermore, the fungal isolate from the human case with no history of going abroad or immigrating was identified as H. capsulatum var. farciminosum by a gene sequence. These facts indicated that pseudofarcy is not only an infectious disease in horses, but also a zoonotic fungal infection. Japanese autochthonous canine histoplasmosis might be a heteroecism of pseudofarcy because of its likeness to the human case, the similarity of clinical manifestations and the historical background at this stage. PMID:14615786

Sano, Ayako; Miyaji, Makoto

2003-01-01

126

High definition systems in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful implementation of a strategy to produce high-definition systems within the Japanese economy will favorably affect the fundamental competitiveness of Japan relative to the rest of the world. The development of an infrastructure necessary to support high-definition products and systems in that country involves major commitments of engineering resources, plants and equipment, educational programs and funding. The results of these efforts appear to affect virtually every aspect of the Japanese industrial complex. The results of assessments of the current progress of Japan toward the development of high-definition products and systems are presented. The assessments are based on the findings of a panel of U.S. experts made up of individuals from U.S. academia and industry, and derived from a study of the Japanese literature combined with visits to the primary relevant industrial laboratories and development agencies in Japan. Specific coverage includes an evaluation of progress in R&D for high-definition television (HDTV) displays that are evolving in Japan; high-definition standards and equipment development; Japanese intentions for the use of HDTV; economic evaluation of Japan's public policy initiatives in support of high-definition systems; management analysis of Japan's strategy of leverage with respect to high-definition products and systems.

Elkus, Richard J., Jr.; Cohen, Robert B.; Dayton, Birney D.; Messerschmitt, David G.; Schreiber, William F.; Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Shelton, Duane

1991-01-01

127

Mt. Fuji, Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the movie

The nearly perfectly conical profile of Fuji soars 3,776 meters (12,388 feet) above sea level on southern Honshu, near Tokyo. The highest mountain in Japan, Fuji is the country's most familiar symbol. The summit of this graceful, dormant volcano is broken by a crater 610 meters (2,000 feet) in diameter. The crater is ringed by eight jagged peaks. The five Fuji Lakes lie on the northern slopes of the mountain, all formed in the wake of lava flows. Mirrored in the still waters of Kawaguchi-ko, the most beautiful of the five lakes, is a reflection of Fuji. Part of Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, Fuji last erupted for a two-month period starting in November 1707, covering Tokyo, some 100 kilometers (60 miles) away, with a layer of ash. According to legend, Fuji arose from the plain during a single night in 286 BC. Geologically, the mountain is much older than this.

Considered sacred by many, Fuji is surrounded by temples and shrines. Thousands of pilgrims climb the mountain each year as part of their religious practice, hoping to reach the summit by dawn to watch the sunrise. This animated fly-by was created by draping visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's stereo bands. The spatial resolution of both the image and topography is 15 m. The image is centered at 35.3 degrees north latitude, 138.7 degrees east longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2001-01-01

128

Radar Image, Hokkaido, Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The southeast part of the island of Hokkaido, Japan, is an area dominated by volcanoes and volcanic caldera. The active Usu Volcano is at the lower right edge of the circular Lake Toya-Ko and near the center of the image. The prominent cone above and to the left of the lake is Yotei Volcano with its summit crater. The city of Sapporo lies at the base of the mountains at the top of the image and the town of Yoichi -- the hometown of SRTM astronaut Mamoru Mohri -- is at the upper left edge. The bay of Uchiura-Wan takes up the lower center of the image. In this image, color represents elevation, from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest. The radar image has been overlaid to provide more details of the terrain. Due to a processing problem, an island in the center of this crater lake is missing and will be properly placed when further SRTM swaths are processed. The horizontal banding in this image is a processing artifact that will be removed when the navigation information collected by SRTM is fully calibrated. This image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 100 by 150 kilometers (62 by 93 miles) Location: 42.5 deg. North lat., 140.3 deg. East lon. Orientation: North towards upper left Image Data: SRTM Original Data Resolution: SRTM 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 17, 2000

2000-01-01

129

Japan's national waste recovery plan  

SciTech Connect

The national program in Japan for waste recovery is reviewed. Japan's particular needs (relatively small area, large population, virtually no native energy or raw material sources) are discussed and the urgency of the program is stressed. Specific programs are described as well as government, citizen, and industrial contributions. Initiated in the early 1960's, primarily from environmental factors, the program has expanded to produce energy, fertilizers, pulp, rubber, cements, and other products. Research activities are summarized with emphasis on the Stardust Project (a national demonstration project to show that municipal wastes can be separated into garbage, paper, and plastics and each group can be processed to produce materials or energy). Clean Japan Center, an incorporated foundation, has functions of public education, surveys, demonstration plants and waste collection activities. An integrated system to process both urban and rural wastes in Toyohashi City is described. (MJJ)

Baller, J.

1982-08-01

130

Japan as a Scientific and Technological Superpower.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four essays examine the current position of Japan relative to the United States in its capacity to perform research and development and make projections about future Japanese prowess in various technical fields. The essays focus on: Japan's educational sy...

J. L. Bloom

1990-01-01

131

Epidemiology of Diabetes Mellitus in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The clinical and epidemiological features of diabetes mellitus in Japan have been compiled and compared with data from other countries. Diabetes is basically the same in Japan as elsewhere: however, consideration of important differences has led to the fo...

W. G. Blackard Y. Omori L. R. Freedman

1964-01-01

132

Allied Army Training Study of Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The philosophy of individual service to the nation and the nation's responsibilities to each citizen has its roots in Japan's experiences of World War II. As a result of this war, Japan adopted a substantially reoriented philosophy of military structure, ...

1987-01-01

133

FBIS Report. Science and Technology: Japan, February 28, 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Advanced Materials (JAPAN: Diamond Thin Film, Challenge Toward Year 2010); Aerospace (Japan: Supersonic Transport, Challenge Toward Year 2010); Energy (Japan: Supersonic Transport, Challenge Toward Year 2010); Energy (Japan: Whistling in...

1996-01-01

134

FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, March 4, 1997  

SciTech Connect

Partials Contents: JAPAN: Chiba University Develops Polyamide With High Bonding Strength at High Temperatures; JAPAN: NASDA, Tokyo Institute of Technology Develop Prototype Lunar Probe Robot; JAPAN: Solar Power Generation for Residential Use; JAPAN: Kobe Steel, Leader in Iron Ore Smelting Technology; JAPAN: Superconducting Permanent Magnet; JAPAN: Sumitomo Electric to Pioneer Industrial Superconductor Applications; JAPAN: Military Technology Revolution, Air Power Viewed; JAPAN: Defense Intelligence Units Reorganized with DIH Creation.

NONE

1997-03-04

135

Japan Studies Association Journal, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This journal presents new perspectives and materials on Japan that are engaging, relatively jargon-free, and shaped so that their usefulness in a college classroom is readily apparent. The journal represents an example of the potential for genuine scholarship that lies within interdisciplinary studies. Articles grouped under the topic of "Minority…

Reichel, Philip L., Ed.

2001-01-01

136

Print club photography in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine the popularity of a new form of photographic representation in Japan, namely Print Club, or Purikura. Print Club machines initially delivered a page of 16 postage?stamp?sized photographs of their patrons, but many other formats have become common. This paper describes the 1995 emergence and development of the technology, image content, decorative frames, picture uses and functions and

Richard Chalfen; Mai Murui

2001-01-01

137

Modernization of Education in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document traces the development of education in Japan from the 17th century to the present. It is presented in four chapters. Chapter one discusses the Tokugawa Period (1603-1867). Principal forms of schooling were hanko for the Samurai class and terakoya for the commoners. The hanko were established for the benefit of the fiefs; objectives of…

National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

138

Nuclear Fusion Technology In Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a technological assessment of the status of nuclear fusion researah and development technology in Japan. The Japanese nuclear policy, vision, goals, and supporting organizational structure are reviewed. The supporting facilities of the Japanese Atomic Energy Re- search Institute (JAERI) are illustrated and described. Specific emphasis is placed on the JAERI Naka Fusion Research Establishment near Mito. New photographic

Floyd A Wyczalek

1990-01-01

139

CASE technologies created in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Looks at CASE technologies originating an Japan and presents some selected ones to an international audience. Japanese computer manufacturers' CASE products have been evolving. These are examined first, summarizing their characteristics. Then, true “upper CASE” products, together with one new development methodology, which have been developed by independent software vendors, are reviewed, highlighting their features. The first one, called “VEST-SAVER”,

T. Takeshita; Nobuo Mii

1995-01-01

140

Recent cryocooler progress in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress of cryocoolers and related devices in Japan is reviewed. The Japanese National Railways has developed the light weight 4 K on-board refrigerators since 1977 as part of the MAGLEV train program. Superconducting and cryogenic fundamental technology was examined which included high performance cryocooler, magnetic refrigerator and superfluid refrigeration. Space cryogenics such as the cooling systems of IR-detectors was

Y. Matsubara

1985-01-01

141

The Japan of Today, 1982.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following an introduction which discusses the history and geography of Japan, this book focuses on topics related to this country's government, economy, social conditions, and cultural life. Topics related to government include: constitution and emperor; legislature; executive power; judiciary system; foreign relations; and defense. Topics related…

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tokyo (Japan).

142

Japan Studies Association Journal, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This journal presents new perspectives and materials on Japan that are engaging, relatively jargon-free, and shaped so that their usefulness in a college classroom is readily apparent. The journal represents an example of the potential for genuine scholarship that lies within interdisciplinary studies. Articles are divided among three thematic…

Speaker, Richard B., Jr., Ed.; Kawada, Louise Myers, Ed.

1998-01-01

143

Teaching and Learning in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essays gathered in this volume are united by the common goal of understanding teaching and learning in Japan as it actually occurs. The essays seek to answer questions about the actual conduct of learning in different settings and at different points in the life cycle. This volume explores the expectations and associations found in specific…

Rohlen, Thomas P., Ed.; LeTendre, Gerald K., Ed.

144

Japan's Frozen Shrimp Imports: 1973.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

India was Japan's principal supplier of frozen shrimp in 1973 with 21,903 tons, regaining the lead from Indonesia which came in second with 18,764 tons. Thailand's exports of 9,884 tons ranked that country third. Mexico was fourth in 1973 with 8,839 tons,...

W. B. Folsom

1974-01-01

145

Japan's Eco-School Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

Mori, Masayuki

2007-01-01

146

The new ocean regime and Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan is an island nation which is heavily dependent upon the surrounding seas for food, importation of raw materials, exportation of finished products, and for national security. Japan is also the world's largest fishing and shipping nation, which poses certain problems and imposes special responsibilities on her. Japan has traditionally followed the principle of freedom of the high seas, but

Tadao Kuribayashi

1982-01-01

147

Recent meteor observing activities in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The meteor train observation (METRO) campaign is described as an example of recent meteor observing activity in Japan. Other topics of meteor observing activities in Japan, including Ham-band radio meteor observation, the ``Japan Fireball Network'', the automatic video-capture software ``UFOCapture'', and the Astro-classroom programme are also briefly introduced.

Yamamoto, M.

2005-02-01

148

The state of Japan's military art  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan has the world's third largest defense budget in the world, after the United States and Soviet Union. The author discusses how Japan acquires some of its weapons from the U.S. and how Japan is developing indigenous military technology. The article focuses on the Japanese codevelopment and coproduction of an advanced version of the F-16 fighter jet.

K. T. Chen

1989-01-01

149

Measures Against Human Trafficking in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early 1980s, Japan began to witness the human trafficking of females into the country from neighboring Asian countries; however, Japan's government did not take sufficient measures against human trafficking. Since 2000, the United States has actively moved to combat human trafficking, and Japan did not fare well in the annual Trafficking in Persons Report. According to the 2004

Minoru Yokoyama

2010-01-01

150

AGU Expresses Condolences to People of Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AGU president Mike McPhaden and executive director/chief executive officer Chris McEntee sent the following letter to Gaku Kimura, president of the Japan Geoscience Union, conveying sympathy and condolences to the people of Japan following the devastating earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan on 11 March.

McPhaden, Michael J.; McEntee, Christine W.

2011-03-01

151

Free Resources for Teaching about Japan. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of sources of information about Japan and resource materials available for teaching about Japan are included in this document. Part one, "Who and Where" lists names and addresses from a variety of sources including the Embassy and Consulates General of Japan, the Japan Foundation, Japan Trade Centers (Japan External Trade Organization…

Wojtan, Linda S.

152

Japan`s nuclear weapons options and U.S. security interests  

SciTech Connect

Japan is a virtual nuclear weapons power. It has the scientific and technical ability to produce hundreds or even thousands of nuclear weapons, but has chosen not to do so for political reasons. This thesis examines the historical development of Japan`s nuclear energy and aerospace programs since the mid-1950s and considers the possibility that at various points in its history, Japan used these programs as a cover to insure that its nuclear weapons options remained open. This thesis analyzes internal and external factors that may have influenced Japan`s nuclear policies. External factors include regional threats, international pressures to join the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and distrust of US commitments to provide for Japan`s defense. Internal factors include Japan`s historical tradition of a strong military state and Japan`s unique nuclear allergy. While both external and internal factors have influenced the path of Japans nuclear energy and aerospace programs, internal factors will drive Japan to maintain its plutonium-based energy program and will allow Japan to remain a virtual nuclear power well into the twenty-first century.

Sharman, C.H.

1998-06-01

153

Endangered vascular plants in Japan  

PubMed Central

The history of the Red List of Japanese vascular plants is briefly reviewed for editing and research. Especially on the results of recent monitoring, the present status of information and conservation activities on the endangered plants in Japan is discussed and the dynamics of the Japanese flora are taken up, in relation to basic research on plant biodiversity on the Japanese Archipelago. The figures of endangered plants are not very variable during the past quarter of a century, but we can surmise that the conservation of threatened species in Japan has been promoted to some extent. Based on the results of such a study, proposals are made to contribute to the sustainable use of plant biodiversity on the Japanese Archipelago under a global conspectus.

Iwatsuki, Kunio

2008-01-01

154

Accreted oceanic materials in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isozaki, Y., Maruyama, S. and Furuoka, IF., 1990. Accreted oceanic materials in Japan. In: M. Kono and B.C. Burchfiel (Editors), Tectonics of Eastern Asia and Western Pacific Continental Margin. Tectonophysics, 181: 179-205. The Phanerozoic &cum-Pacific erogenic belts contain numerous ocean-derived materials accreted through plate converg- ing processes. Japanese Islands, in particular, display various kinds of oceanic materials of different origins

Y. Isozaki; S. Maruyama; F. Furuoka

1990-01-01

155

New catalytic technologies in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent trends in R&D of catalytic technology in Japan (cleaner and more efficient production, environmental catalysts, and recycling processes) are overviewed and examples of recent achievements are listed. Examples are then described as zeolite-catalyzed organic reactions recently commercialized and expected to be commercialized: hydration of cyclohexene, synthesis of pyridine derivatives and gas-phase Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime. Finally, as an

Makoto Misono; Tomoyuki Inui

1999-01-01

156

FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, May 7, 1996  

SciTech Connect

;Partial Contents: Japan: FH1 Aerospace Division Executive on UAV R&D; JapaN: MHI Delivers First F-2 Flight Test Model; Nuclear Technologies; Japan: Nuclear Material Research in Cross-Over Research Project; Japan: MITI To Subsidize Development of Cryptography; Defense Industries; Japan: JADI Announces FY96 Major Events Schedule; Japan: Rollout Ceremony Held for First OH-X Flight Test Model; and Japan: KHI Weapons Designer OH-X Development.

NONE

1996-05-07

157

Oceanic crust in the Japan Basin of the Japan Sea by the 1990 Japan-USSR expedition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In September of 1990, a seismic refraction and reflection survey was conducted in the Japan Basin, in the northeastern part of the Japan Sea, as a part of the Japan-USSR joint expedition. Twenty-six ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) were deployed on two 200-km long lines. Explosives and an airgun were fired as controlled seismic sources on the two mutually perpendicular lines.

Naoshi Hirata; Takashi Yamaguchi; Toshihiko Kanazawa; Kiyoshi Suyehiro; Junzo Kasahara; Hajime Shiobara; Masanao Shinohara; Hajimu Kinoshita

1992-01-01

158

Oceanic crust in the Japan Basin of the Japan Sea by the 1990 Japan-USSR Expedition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In September of 1990, a seismic refraction and reflection survey was conducted in the Japan Basin, in the northeastern part of the Japan Sea, as a part of the Japan-USSR joint expedition. Twenty-six ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) were deployed on two 200-km long lines. Explosives and an airgun were fired as controlled seismic sources on the two mutually perpendicular lines.

Naoshi Hirata; Boris Ya. Karp; Takashi Yamaguchi; Toshihiko Kanazawa; Kiyoshi Suyehiro; Junzo Kasahara; Hajime Shiobara; Masanao Shinohara; Hajimu Kinoshita

1992-01-01

159

Us-Japan cooperation on safeguards  

SciTech Connect

There is a long history of collaborative safeguards development between the United States and Japan. Japan has built, and continues to expand, the largest civil nuclear fuel cycle under full-scope IAEA safeguards in world. This development has posed unique challenges to the international safeguards system. Safeguards developments made through the US-Japan cooperation to address these unique challenges have significantly impacted the technologies deployed for international safeguards applications around the world.

Beddingfield, David H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hori, Masato [JAEA; Kawakubo, Yoko [JAEA; Mcclelland - Kerr, J [NNSA

2009-01-01

160

Japan Technology Program Assessment: Precision Engineering/Precision Optics in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report, based on two visits to Japan, discusses the structure of precision engineering research and development in Japan, and current directives in precision machining, precision optics and advanced lithography.

C. J. Evans

1994-01-01

161

FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, November 22, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Contents (Selected articles): Japan: Diamond Thin Film Successfully Produced in Space, CVD Experiment Using Flowing Gas; Japan: ADEOS-Background, Purpose Behind Its Development; Japan: 20 Japanese Companies Establich Software CALS Consortium; Japan: Advanced Technology on Thermal Recycling Systems for Combustible Refuse; Japan: Sanyo Electric Co. To Develop Low Temperature Processed Poly-Silicon TFT-LCD; Japan: Mitsubishi Heavy Delivers Nuclear Simulator to Russians; Japan: Magnets Attract Plenty of R&D Attention; Japan: Latest Survey Shows Dramatic Increase in Number of Internet Users; and Japan: NTT Fabricates Multivalued Logic Circuit Applicable to IC.

NONE

1996-11-22

162

Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The JTEC panel found that, after four decades of development in electronics and manufacturing technologies, Japanese electronics companies are leaders in the development, support, and management of complex, low-cost packaging and assembly technologies used in the production of a broad range of consumer electronics products. The electronics industry's suppliers provide basic materials and equipment required for electronic packaging applications. Panelists concluded that some Japanese firms could be leading U.S. competitors by as much as a decade in these areas. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure is an integral part of its microelectronics industry's success.

Boulton, William R.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Tummala, Rao R.

1995-01-01

163

Recent cryocooler progress in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progress of cryocoolers and related devices in Japan is reviewed. The Japanese National Railways has developed the light weight 4 K on-board refrigerators since 1977 as part of the MAGLEV train program. Superconducting and cryogenic fundamental technology was examined which included high performance cryocooler, magnetic refrigerator and superfluid refrigeration. Space cryogenics such as the cooling systems of IR-detectors was studied. Cryocooler for special applications such as cryopump, NMR-CT and JJ devices was investigated. Compact heat exchangers, high performance regenerators and reliable compressors are investigated as a critical component technology.

Matsubara, Y.

1985-05-01

164

Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Japanese government has a licensing law, which regulates practitioners in the real estate business. A licence is required\\u000a in order to conduct real estate brokerage. Each real estate sales office must have at least one licensed broker per five employees.\\u000a The licensed brokers are responsible for 1) the explanation of the material considerations of the real estate for sale,

Yuichiro Kawaguchi

165

Laser precision microfabrication in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electronic devices such as handy phones and micro computers have been rapidly expanding their market recent years due to their enhanced performance, down sizing and cost down. This has been realized by the innovation in the precision micro- fabrication technology of semiconductors and printed wiring circuit boards (PWB) where laser technologies such as lithography, drilling, trimming, welding and soldering play an important role. In phot lithography, for instance, KrF excimer lasers having a resolution of 0.18 micrometers has been used in production instead of mercury lamp. Laser drilling of PWB has been increased up to over 1000 holes per second, and approximately 800 laser drilling systems of PWB are expected to be delivered in the world market this year, and most of these laser processing systems are manufactured in Japan. Trend of laser micro-fabrication in Japanese industry is described along with recent topics of R&D, government supported project and future tasks of industrial laser precision micro-fabrication on the basis of the survey conducted by Japan laser Processing Society.

Miyamoto, Isamu; Ooie, Toshihiko; Takeno, Shozui

2000-11-01

166

Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 11 March 2011, Mw 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake, already among the most destructive earthquakes in modern history, emanated from a fault rupture that extended an estimated 500 km along the Pacific coast of Honshu. This earthquake is the fourth among five of the strongest temblors since AD 1900 and the largest in Japan since modern instrumental recordings began 130 years ago. The earthquake triggered a huge tsunami, which invaded the seaside areas of the Pacific coast of East Japan, causing devastating damages on the coast. Artificial structures were destroyed and planted forests were thoroughly eroded. Inrush of turbulent flows washed backshore areas and dunes. Coastal materials including beach sand were transported onto inland areas by going-up currents. Just after the occurrence of the tsunami, we started field investigation of measuring thickness and distribution of sediment layers by the tsunami and the inundation depth of water in Sendai plain. Ripple marks showing direction of sediment transport were the important object of observation. We used a soil auger for collecting sediments in the field, and sediment samples were submitted for analyzing grain size and interstitial water chemistry. Satellite images and aerial photographs are very useful for estimating the hydrogeological effects of tsunami inundation. We checked the correspondence of micro-topography, vegetation and sediment covering between before and after the tsunami. The most conspicuous phenomenon is the damage of pine forests planted in the purpose of preventing sand shifting. About ninety-five percent of vegetation coverage was lost during the period of rapid currents changed from first wave. The landward slopes of seawalls were mostly damaged and destroyed. Some aerial photographs leave detailed records of wave destruction just behind seawalls, which shows the occurrence of supercritical flows. The large-scale erosion of backshore behind seawalls is interpreted to have been caused by supercritical flows, resulting in the loss of landward seawall slopes. Such erosion was also observed at landward side of footpath between rice fields. The Sendai plain was subjected just after the main shock of the earthquake. Seawater inundation resulting from tsunami run-up lasted two months. The historical document Sandai-jitsuroku, which gives a detailed history of all of Japan, describes the Jogan earthquake and subsequent tsunami which have attacked Sendai plain in AD 869. The document describes the prolonged period of flooding, and it is suggested that co-seismic subsidence of the plain took place. The inundation area of the Jogan tsunami estimated by the distribution of tsunami deposit mostly overlaps with that of the 3.11 tsunami. Considering the very similarity of seismic shocks between the both, we interpreted the Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami is the second coming of the Jogan Earthquake Tsunami.

Iijima, Y.; Minoura, K.; Hirano, S.; Yamada, T.

2011-12-01

167

FBIS Report. Science and Technology: Japan, October 15, 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents (Partial): Japan: Hybrid Cars Improve Gas Fuel Consumption; Power Generation in Space; Electric Power Development Company; Japanese LSI Manufacturers To Build DRAM, Logic on Single Chip; and Japan: Japan Key Technology Center To Finance Super Sil...

1996-01-01

168

Sediments and Structure of the Japan Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is likely that the Japan Sea existed essentially in its present form prior to the beginning of the movements (in late Oligocene or early Miocene) that resulted in the present arcuate structure of Japan. Evidence of seismic velocity and layer thickness,...

W. J. Ludwig S. Murauchi R. E. Houtz

1974-01-01

169

Report from Japan: Art, Education, and Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a field report of a three-week experience in Japan, centered on art education in their cultural and social contexts. Beginning with this overarching focus, the themes and patterns that structure this report were emergent, rising from the experience. Those supporting themes are: being in Japan and in Mino city (setting a context); the culture of handmade Washi paper;

Tom Anderson

170

Linguistic Minorities and Education in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ideology of a monolingual and monoracial Japan is being challenged by increasing language diversity in communities where Ainu, Ryukyuan, Chinese, English, Japanese Sign Language, Korean, and other languages are spoken. Government policies and school textbooks still resist the notion of a multilingual Japan. (SK)

Maher, John

1997-01-01

171

The State of Continuing Education in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains the following articles about the state of continuing education and occupational training in Japan: "Funabashi City University of Sports Health" (Abe Nobuhiro); "Public Halls in Omiya City" (Kawamoto Koji); "Setagaya Senior Citizens College (Setagaya Rojin Daigaku)" (Sawamura Hiroshi); "Lifelong Sport in Japan: A Case Study of…

Masatoshi, Nagashima, Ed.; And Others

172

Sharing a Common Future. Report from Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains seven previously published papers examining trends in adult education in Japan. "Deepening Democracy" (1992) examines democracy and adult education for special needs groups (women, dropouts, disabled persons, ethnic minorities, and refugees). "Literacy Movement" (1990) traces literacy education in Japan from its beginnings…

Yamaguchi, Makoto

173

Earthquake Early Warning System in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan is located in one of the most tectonically active region in the world. We have suffered from many disasters brought by earthquakes and tsunamis. Significant efforts to mitigate disasters have been made as one of the most important national programs. Considering the difficulty of the earthquake prediction in time, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) considers it is important to issue

M. Kiyomoto; S. Tsukada; K. Ohtake; Y. Shiozu; M. Morimoto; M. Saito; Y. Sekita; K. Doi; Y. Yoshida; T. Odaka; K. Ashiya; S. Horiuchi

2005-01-01

174

ALTERNATIVE UNDERSTANDINGS OF POWER IN MEIJI JAPAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike building railroads, writing treaties and conducting diplomacy was by no means a new practice in Meiji Japan (1868-1912). Performing these transac- tions in the terms of international law, however, required new techniques to control the discourse. The scholars and state aggrandizers who translated international law into Japanese at the time did not cause Japan to become the imperialist nation

Alexis Dudden

175

Teaching about Japan in Secondary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that a good starting point for social studies curriculum units on Japan at the secondary school level is an analysis of the interrelationships between Japan and the United States. Information is presented on population figures, industrialization, standard of living indicators, consumer price indexes, and crude birth and death rates for…

Richardson, Helen W.

1981-01-01

176

The Decline of marital fertility in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies concerning the demographic history of Tokuwara and Meiji Japan suggest that fertility rose substantially before declining during the twentieth century. Were the motivations and circumstances which held down natality during the feudal period similar to those which account for the modern fertility decline and the low birth rate obtaining in the Japan of to-day? The thesis of this paper

Carl Mosk

1979-01-01

177

Educational Reform in Japan for Lifelong Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the current state of affairs and reform in Japan in 2007 of the theory, policy, and practice of lifelong education. As in most countries, Japan has been talking of decentralisation in government, of giving more local autonomy to communities and of promoting individuality in education. In line with these aims, the government…

Kawachi, Paul

2008-01-01

178

Educational reform in Japan for lifelong learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the current state of affairs and reform in Japan in 2007 of the theory, policy, and practice of lifelong education. As in most countries, Japan has been talking of decentralisation in government, of giving more local autonomy to communities and of promoting individuality in education. In line with these aims, the government has said it promotes lifelong

Paul Kawachi

2008-01-01

179

Mass customization:Japan's new frontier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass customization -- making products tailor-made for each individual buyer, in which even the base components are varied -- sounds impossible. Yet it is a reality in Japan and represents a new Japanese competitive advantage. Roy Westbrook and Peter Williamson, reflecting on many visits to Japan, identify a new generic strategy -- mass customization -- in the story of continuous

Roy Westbrook; Peter Williamson

1993-01-01

180

Linguistic Minorities and Education in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing visibility and assertiveness of language minorities in Japan now pose a serious issue for government policy which has hitherto been committed to the historical ideology of a monoracial and monolingual state. Language education policy in Japan is currently predicated upon the need for ‘internationalisation but nowhere does internationalisation include support, or at least encouragement, for community and indigenous

John Maher

1997-01-01

181

Japan: Language Policy and Planning in Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This monograph discusses the language situation in Japan, with an emphasis on language planning and policy. Japan has long considered itself to be a monoethnic and therefore monolingual society, despite the existence of substantial old-comer ethnic minorities, and this – with the instrumental exception of English – has been reflected in its language planning and policy until quite recently. Increasing

Nanette Gottlieb

2008-01-01

182

Critical situation of Mutual organization in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

0. We have advocated the necessity and existence of social economy sector in Japan. We understand the family of social economy is mainly composed by cooperative, mutual organization, association \\/non profit organization, foundation. However, in Japan, we can say that we have vague definition to social economy, due to lack of proper legislation of each factor. At this moment, we

Hideo ISHIZUKA

183

Japan: A look at its future  

SciTech Connect

With one of the largest nuclear power programs in the world, Japan is looking ahead to doubling the number of its power reactors by the year 2010, although industry and government officials admit that the pace of construction necessary to reach this goal may be difficult to achieve. Japan also plans to burn reprocessed plutonium in light water reactors (LWRs) and--in the next century--commercial fast breeder reactors (FBRs). The planned recycling of plutonium, intended to avoid creation of a large stockpile and to use energy resources more efficiently, has sparked some international opposition. And the siting of new nuclear plants in Japan has become more difficult because of local opposition in some areas. In separate interviews, Nuclear News talked to two Japanese nuclear industry executives--at the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) and Tokyo Electric Power Co., (Tepco)--for an update on the nuclear future in Japan.

Taylor, G.M.

1992-07-01

184

Japan's geostationary meteorological satellite system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equipment characteristics and missions of the Japanese geostationary meteorological satellites (GMS) are examined. GMS-1 was launched in July 1977 on a NASA Delta vehicle. GMS-2 launched from Japan, was placed into GEO in August 1981. Both spacecraft were designed for a weather watch using a visible/IR spin scan radiometer (VISSR) instrument, collection and distribution of weather data, and monitoring of solar particles. The GMS-1 unit operated on the UHF bands while the second was switched over to S-band. Solar arrays provided battery trickle-charge power with a lifetime of 5 yr. A final instrumentation component common to both spacecraft is a space environment monitor for investigating the effect of solar activity on earth communications systems.

Steggall, N.

1982-06-01

185

The Beveridge Report and Japan.  

PubMed

After World War II, Japanese health insurance systems rejected the idea of a flat-rate premium contribution, a central concept in the Beveridge Report. Allegedly, outside of Great Britain, no other country was more influenced by this Report than Japan. However, the postwar Japanese health insurance systems adopted flat-rate benefits and earnings-related contributions, a clear rejection of the flat-rate premium contributions for flat-rate benefits advocated in the Report. This is not just a simple difference from the premium contributions method, it throws up fundamental questions concerning the essence of social insurance, and ultimately, the power of the State and the relationship between the State and the individual. This article aims to analyze the reasons for this rejection. PMID:24405200

Sugita, Yoneyuki

2014-01-01

186

[Pediatric neurotransmitter disease in Japan].  

PubMed

Pediatric neurotransmitter disease (PND) encompasses a range of rare genetic disorders that affect the metabolism of neurotransmitters in children. While these neurological disorders are often studied independently of each other, they all manifest central nervous system symptoms and require proper diagnosis and intervention at early stages. Since clinical symptoms of PND can be nonspecific, the conditions are often under-diagnosed, leaving patients without a chance to receive effective treatment. Envisioning PND as a whole, a comprehensive research effort is underway for a better understanding of pathophysiology and epidemiology in Japan, and toward the establishment of diagnostic criteria. The early diagnosis and development of new effective therapies are of urgent importance for these rare disorders that are not covered by newborn mass screening. For rarer forms of PND, at the same time, it is important to encourage recognition and understanding of the disease concept among healthcare professionals. PMID:23012864

Shintaku, Haruo

2012-09-01

187

Large Earthquake Strikes Hokkaido, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 26 September 2003, a magnitude 8.0 earthquake, Earth's most powerful in 2.5 years, struck offshore Tokachi, Hokkaido, Japan, at 0450 local time. The hypocenter was at 40 km depth along the boundary of the Pacific and North American plates (www.jma.go.jp). The focal mechanism shows a reverse fault with a northwest-southeast compressional axis (P-axis) (see http://www.bosai.go.jp). Following the main shock, named ``Heisei 15 Tokachioki-jishin,'' seismic activity has continued in the region. As of 30 September, the largest aftershock was M7.1 on 26 September at 0608. Tsunamis were observed on the Pacific coast of Hokkaido and the Tohoku region, including waves of 1.2 m at Kushiro, 1.3 m at Urakawa, and 1.0 m at Hachinohe.

Coffin, M.; Hirata, N.

188

Forest medicine research in Japan.  

PubMed

There has been growing attention on the effects of forest on physiological relaxation and immune recovery, particularly in forest medicine research, from a perspective of preventive medicine. Japan is a world leader in the accumulation of scientific data on forest medicine research. In this review, we summarize the research that has been conducted in this area since 1992. We conducted field experiment, involving 420 subjects at 35 different forests throughout Japan. After sitting in natural surroundings, these subjects showed decrease in the following physiological parameters compared with those in an urban control group: 12.4% decrease in the cortisol level, 7.0% decrease in sympathetic nervous activity, 1.4% decrease in systolic blood pressure, and 5.8% decrease in heart rate. This demonstrates that stressful states can be relieved by forest therapy. In addition, it should be noted that parasympathetic nervous activity was enhanced by 55.0%, indicating a relaxed state. The results of walking experiments provided similar results. Li et al. demonstrated that immune function was enhanced by forest therapy in middle-aged employees who volunteered to participate in these experiments. Natural killer cell activity, an indicator of immune function, was enhanced by 56% on the second day and returned to normal levels. A significant increase of 23% was maintained for 1 month even after returning to urban life, clearly illustrating the preventive benefits of forest therapy. In an indoor room experiment, we conducted tests with the following: 1) olfactory stimulation using wood smell, 2) tactile stimulation using wood, and 3) auditory stimulation using forest sounds. These indoor stimulations also decreased the blood pressure and pulse rate, and induced a physiological relaxation effect. We anticipate that forest medicine will play an increasingly important role in preventive medicine in the future. PMID:24858508

Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong

2014-01-01

189

Electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies. Japan has established this marked competitive advantage in electronics as a consequence of developing low-cost, high-volume consumer products. Japan's infrastructure, and the remarkable cohesiveness of vision and purpose in government and industry, are key factors in the success of Japan's electronics industry. Although Japan will continue to dominate consumer electronics in the foreseeable future, opportunities exist for the United States and other industrial countries to capture an increasingly large part of the market. The JTEC panel has identified no insurmountable barriers that would prevent the United States from regaining a significant share of the consumer electronics market; in fact, there is ample evidence that the United States needs to aggressively pursue high-volume, low-cost electronic assembly, because it is a critical path leading to high-performance electronic systems.

Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (Editor); Kukowski, John A.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John W.; Tummala, Rao R.

1995-01-01

190

Explaining unusual winter lightning in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Third International Symposium on Winter Lightning; Sapporo, Japan, 15-16 June 2011 Japan's meteorological setting in winter is unusual: It is an island in a relatively warm sea frequently overswept by colder air from Siberia. This sets up appreciable atmospheric instability in the fringe of the land adjacent to the Sea of Japan. Heavy snowstorms overlap the edge of the island and produce extraordinarily energetic lightning flashes that initiate from points on the ground (known as ground-to-cloud (GC) strokes) and wreak havoc on power lines and, more recently, wind turbines. These troublesome and costly conditions set the stage for the third in a series of conferences on winter lightning.

Shindo, Takatoshi; Ishii, Masaru; Williams, Earle

2011-11-01

191

Lifeline at sea: Japan's policy toward the Indian Ocean Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indian Ocean emerged as a distant source of threat for Japan but became the lifeline of the Japanese economy after World War II. Japan attempted to reduce threats from the Indian Ocean by alliances, international law, and colonisation. History shows Japan can reduce threats in the Indian Ocean by allying with the dominant power there. As long as Japan

Tetsuo Kotani

2011-01-01

192

Japan & Nuclear Disarmament Looking through the US Umbrella  

Microsoft Academic Search

thereby abandoning the pursuit of military power. The Cold War and the China's acquisition of nuclear weapons were consequential in Japan's decision to seek extended deterrence from the US. As an economic partner for a small maritime country like Japan, America is considered important for Japan's development. For the United States, Japan is a key country in its strategy. It

Tomoko Kiyota; Former Intern

2009-01-01

193

Industry views of biosimilar development in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo understand the issues around biosimilar development by pharmaceutical companies in Japan, which has emerged as an urgent issue in guaranteeing the availability of affordable biopharmaceuticals and a reduction in drug costs.

Hiroshi Horikawa; Mina Tsubouchi; Koji Kawakami

2009-01-01

194

River and Wetland Restoration: Lessons from Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a peer reviewed article from BioScience focuses on river and wetland restoration projects in Japan. River and wetland restoration has emerged as a worldwide phenomenon and is becoming a highly profitable business. Although researchers worldwide know a lot about restoration practices in Europe and the United States, we have only scant information about the activities in Japan, where more than 23,000 river restoration projects have been conducted during the past 15 years. In Japan, restoration is a daunting business because of the high human population density, urbanization, and harsh environmental conditions. Here we provide an overview of the various restoration activities in Japan and discuss the lessons that we can draw from them.

KEIGO NAKAMURA, KLEMENT TOCKNER, and KUNIHIKO AMANO (;)

2006-05-01

195

[Cutaneous mycoses in Japan originating from animals].  

PubMed

Human cases of dermatophytoses are occasionally transmitted from animals, and suffered from tinea corporis and sometimes Kerion celsi. The most frequent causative agent of these diseases is Microsporum canis. The other dermatophyte, Arthroderma benhamiae is now prevailing in rabbits, rodents and hedgehogs that are popular household pets in Japan. Therefore, some human cases of A. benhamiae infection were reported and the transmission of this infection from rabbits and rodents was confirmed.Cryptococcosis is regarded as dangerous zoonosis, but its transmission from animal to peoples has not been documented in Japan. Animal cases of cryptococcosis are possible to increase in number by developing immunosuppressive animals as well as by spreading of newly introduced C. gattii to Japan.Animal cases of sporotrichosis are rarely reported in Japan. However, feline sporotrichosis should be prevented and promptly treated since it easily transmitted to people from cat lesions and the exudates where copious numbers of organisms are found in tissues. PMID:22467127

Kano, Rui

2012-01-01

196

JTEC Panel on Display Technologies in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is one in a series of reports that describes research and development efforts in Japan in the area of display technologies. The following are included in this report: flat panel displays (technical findings, liquid crystal display development ...

A. H. Firester J. W. Doane L. E. Tannas T. Credelle W. E. Glenn

1992-01-01

197

JTEC Panel on Nuclear Power in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines the status and direction of nuclear power-related research and development in Japan in six areas: the nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear materials, instrumentation and control technology, CAD/CAM, nuclear safety research, and nuclear plant co...

K. F. Hansen W. B. Behnke S. B. Cousin E. A. Evans D. R. Olander

1990-01-01

198

Utilization of Educational Technology in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gives an overview of the development of educational technology in Japan evident in the increase of publications, the diffusion of technological innovations, and the organization of research pertaining to the field. (Author/MER)

Sakamoto, Takashi

1980-01-01

199

US-Japan Collaborative Robotics Research Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL) have recently initiated a cooperative R&D effort in telerobotics. This new effort, sponsored by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Japan's Ministr...

P. S. Schenker S. Hirai

1994-01-01

200

Integrated solid waste management in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Japanese, through a combination of public policy, private market conditions, a geographic necessity, practice integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management. The approach of MSW management in Japan is as follows: The basic concept of refuse treatme...

1993-01-01

201

Nationwide Survey of Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a disorder of the mononuclear phagocyte system, can be classified into two distinct\\u000a forms: primary HLH (FHL) and secondary HLH. To clarify the epidemiology and clinical outcome for each HLH subtype, we conducted\\u000a a nationwide survey of HLH in Japan. Since 799 patients were diagnosed in 292 institutions of Japan between 2001 and 2005,\\u000a the annual incidence

Eiichi Ishii; Shouichi Ohga; Shinsaku Imashuku; Masaki Yasukawa; Hiroyuki Tsuda; Ikuo Miura; Ken Yamamoto; Hisanori Horiuchi; Kenzo Takada; Koichi Ohshima; Shigeo Nakamura; Naoko Kinukawa; Kazuo Oshimi; Keisei Kawa

2007-01-01

202

Resistance to antituberculosis drugs in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Setting: Five years after the last survey of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Japan, a serious new phenomenon has gradually begun to appear. A nationwide survey was conducted by the Tuberculosis Research Committee.Objective: To determine resistance patterns to five anti-tuberculosis drugs and risk factors.Design: Cultures were obtained from patients hospitalized at 38 hospitals in various districts of Japan throughout 6 months, from

K. Hirano; Y. Kazumi; C. Abe; T. Mori; M. Aoki; T. Aoyagi

1996-01-01

203

Diagnostics in Japan's microgravity experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The achievement of the combustion research under microgravity depends substantially on the availability of diagnostic systems. The non-intrusive diagnostic systems are potentially applicable for providing the accurate, realistic and detailed information on momentum, mass and energy transport, complex gas phase chemistry, and phase change in the combustion field under microgravity. The non-intrusive nature of optical instruments is essential to the measurement of combustion process under microgravity which is very nervous to any perturbation. However, the implementation of the non-intrusive combustion diagnostic systems under microgravity is accompanied by several constraints. Usually, a very limited space is only available for constructing a highly sophisticated system which is so sensitive that it is easily affected by the magnitude of the gravitational force, vibration and heterogeneous field of temperature and density of the environments. The system should be properly adjusted prior to the experiment. Generally, it is quite difficult to tune the instruments during measurements. The programmed sequence of operation should also be provided. Extensive effort has been toward the development of non-intrusive diagnostic systems available for the combustion experiments under microgravity. This paper aims to describe the current art and the future strategy on the non-intrusive diagnostic systems potentially applicable to the combustion experiments under microgravity in Japan.

Kadota, Toshikazu

1995-01-01

204

Trauma care systems in Japan.  

PubMed

The trauma care system in Japan was set up in the 1960s in response to social problems caused by traffic accidents and has since been altered extensively. First-aid and patient transfer are performed by emergency personnel belonging to a fire station. Instead of 'western-style trauma centres', three types of facilities exist: (1) primary emergency care facilities for treating mild cases not requiring hospitalisation; (2) secondary emergency hospitals directed to treating moderately severe disease or injury; (3) tertiary emergency hospitals corresponding to the emergency departments of university hospitals, or lifesaving emergency centres, able to manage the most severe cases such as myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident and polytrauma. Although the quantity of emergency facilities and hospitals appears sufficient, the quality of emergency care needs to be improved. This could be accomplished by the unification of small hospitals to create larger hospitals, and/or by the establishment of trauma centres, as well as by improvements in relevant education and training. PMID:12951296

Tanaka, Tadashi; Kitamura, Nobuya; Shindo, Masateru

2003-09-01

205

Current state of cardiac rehabilitation in Japan.  

PubMed

In Japan, metabolic risk factors have been increasing due to the westernization and urbanization of lifestyle. This justifiably raises a concern that the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in Japan will increase over time, and indeed, recent epidemiological studies in Japan suggest the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is increasing. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in Japan has been traditionally performed in the inpatient setting. To obtain reimbursement, a CR facility must fulfill certain criteria including being a medical institution with a cardiology/cardiac surgery section which has at least a cardiologist/cardiac surgeon and an experienced CR physician as full-time employees. These criteria create challenges to the availability of outpatient CR after hospital discharge. A recent analysis found outpatient CR participation rate was estimated to be between 3.8 and 7.6% in Japan. This review describes recent trends in the incidence of AMI and the current status of the use of CR in Japan. PMID:24607022

Goto, Yoichi

2014-01-01

206

The Making of the Japan Sea and the Japanese Mountains: Understanding Japan's Volcanism in Structural Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many people, including scholars, routinely think that Japan has always been a set of volcanic islands. However, its geohistory speaks differently: not only are the basic building blocks of the archipelago primarily sedimentary in nature, they formed part of the Eurasian continental edge until relatively recently. In a previous article (Japan Review 15, 2003), I traced the development of the

Gina L. Barnes

2008-01-01

207

Opening mode of the Japan Sea inferred from the palaeomagnetism of the Japan Arc  

Microsoft Academic Search

The western edge of the Pacific plate is marked by a chain of back arc basins stretching from the Aleutians, through Japan and the Philippines to New Zealand. Most of the basins lie behind volcanic island arcs far from continents and are the result of extension of the oceanic lithosphere1. But the Japan Sea is bounded on one side by

Yo-Ichiro Otofuji; Takaaki Matsuda; Susumu Nohda

1985-01-01

208

A prospective earthquake forecast experiment for Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One major focus of the current Japanese earthquake prediction research program (2009-2013) is to move toward creating testable earthquake forecast models. For this purpose we started an experiment of forecasting earthquake activity in Japan under the framework of the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) through an international collaboration. We established the CSEP Testing Centre, an infrastructure to encourage researchers to develop testable models for Japan, and to conduct verifiable prospective tests of their model performance. On 1 November in 2009, we started the 1st earthquake forecast testing experiment for the Japan area. We use the unified JMA catalogue compiled by the Japan Meteorological Agency as authorized catalogue. The experiment consists of 12 categories, with 4 testing classes with different time spans (1 day, 3 months, 1 year, and 3 years) and 3 testing regions called All Japan, Mainland, and Kanto. A total of 91 models were submitted to CSEP-Japan, and are evaluated with the CSEP official suite of tests about forecast performance. In this presentation, we show the results of the experiment of the 3-month testing class for 5 rounds. HIST-ETAS7pa, MARFS and RI10K models corresponding to the All Japan, Mainland and Kanto regions showed the best score based on the total log-likelihood. It is also clarified that time dependency of model parameters is no effective factor to pass the CSEP consistency tests for the 3-month testing class in all regions. Especially, spatial distribution in the All Japan region was too difficult to pass consistency test due to multiple events at a bin. Number of target events for a round in the Mainland region tended to be smaller than model's expectation during all rounds, which resulted in rejections of consistency test because of overestimation. In the Kanto region, pass ratios of consistency tests in each model showed more than 80%, which was associated with good balanced forecasting of event number and spatial distribution. Due to the multiple rounds of the experiment, we are now understanding the stability of models, robustness of model selection and earthquake predictability in each region beyond stochastic fluctuations of seismicity. We plan to use the results for design of 3 dimensional earthquake forecasting model in Kanto region, which is supported by the special project for reducing vulnerability for urban mega earthquake disasters from Ministy of Education, Culture, Sports and Technology of Japan.

Yokoi, Sayoko; Nanjo, Kazuyoshi; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Hirata, Naoshi

2013-04-01

209

Cenozoic rift tectonics of the Japan Sea  

SciTech Connect

The Japan Sea is one of the back-arc basins in trench-arc systems bordering the western Pacific. Recent paleomagnetic works suggest the Japan Sea opened during early to middle Miocene. Radiometric and microfossil ages of the Cenozoic onland sequences in the Japanese Islands elucidate the rift tectonics of the Japan Sea. The rifting history is summarized as follows: nonmarine volcanic formations of prerift stage before 50 Ma, rift-onset unconformity at 40 Ma, nonmarine volcanic formations of synrift stage 20-33 Ma, breakup unconformity 19 Ma showing the opening of the Japan Sea, marine volcanic and sedimentary formations of synrift stage 14.5-18 Ma, beginning of regional subsidence 14.5 Ma corresponding to the end of the Japan Sea opening, marine sedimentary formations of postdrift stage after 14.5 Ma. Rifting is not limited to the synrift stage but is continued to the syndrift stage. Rifting led to a horst-and-graben structure. Thus, the Cenozoic onland sequences in the Japanese Islands are suited for a study of rift tectonics because the sequences were subaerially exposed by the late Miocene-Holocene island-arc tectonics. Rift tectonics cannot be studied as easily in most Atlantic-type passive margins.

Kimura, K.

1988-08-01

210

Electronics manufacturing and assembly in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the consumer electronics industry, precision processing technology is the basis for enhancing product functions and for minimizing components and end products. Throughout Japan, manufacturing technology is seen as critical to the production and assembly of advanced products. While its population has increased less than 30 percent over twenty-five years, Japan's gross national product has increase thirtyfold; this growth has resulted in large part from rapid replacement of manual operations with innovative, high-speed, large-scale, continuously running, complex machines that process a growing number of miniaturized components. The JTEC panel found that introduction of next-generation electronics products in Japan goes hand-in-hand with introduction of new and improved production equipment. In the panel's judgment, Japan's advanced process technologies and equipment development and its highly automated factories are crucial elements of its domination of the consumer electronics marketplace - and Japan's expertise in manufacturing consumer electronics products gives it potentially unapproachable process expertise in all electronics markets.

Kukowski, John A.; Boulton, William R.

1995-01-01

211

Male acceptance of condoms in Japan.  

PubMed

Current surveys indicate that more than 70% of married couples in Japan use condoms as their primary contraceptive method. The popularity of condoms is due to the oral contraceptive (OC) pills not being recognized as safe forms of contraception and IUDs not being legalized by the government until 1974. The history of condom use in Japan goes back to 1872 when condoms of thin leather were imported into Japan from England and France. Manufacturing of condoms in Japan began in 1909, mainly as a method for venereal disease prevention. The condom and induced abortion are now the major methods of contraception. 60% of the distribution of condoms is through pharmacies and cosmetic stores; 50% of the buyers are women. Since 1955, teams of family planning workers have distributed condoms by selling on a door-to-door basis, especially to lower middle class couples. Between 1969-75, 75% of contraceptive users were using condoms. Currently there are 81% users. The rhythm method ranks second in popularity at 30% between 1969-75. OCs have gradually increased recently to 3% users, but side effects have deterred people from selecting them. The proportion of IUD users has remained at a consistently low level for the past several years. Japan accounts for 1/3 of the total world production of condoms. PMID:12338297

Uchida, Y

1981-01-01

212

Insights into software development in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interdependence of the U.S.-Japanese economies makes it imperative that we in the United States understand how business and technology developments take place in Japan. We can gain insight into these developments in software engineering by studying the context in which Japanese software is developed, the practices that are used, the problems encountered, the setting surrounding these problems, and the resolution of these problems. Context includes the technological and sociological characteristics of the software development environment, the software processes applied, personnel involved in the development process, and the corporate and social culture surrounding the development. Presented in this paper is a summary of results of a study that addresses these issues. Data for this study was collected during a three month visit to Japan where the author interviewed 20 software managers representing nine companies involved in developing software in Japan. These data are compared to similar data from the United States in which 12 managers from five companies were interviewed.

Duvall, Lorraine M.

1992-01-01

213

Status of thermal spray technology in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper summarizes the profile of the fundamental research, the developments in industrial applications, and the business in thermal spray technology in Japan and discusses prospects for future progress in this technology. Particular attention is given to the status of new process technologies (including reactive low-pressure spraying, RF plasma spraying, laser spray, and multielectrode spray) and the development of functional materials. It is noted that, although up to now the progress of thermal spraying in Japan depended on the technologies of the United States and Europe, the thermal spraying technologies in the steel making and automotive industry superseded the technologies of other countries. In the first half of 1992, the thermal spray market in Japan was estimated at more than 100 billion yen (770 million U.S. dollars) per year.

Tani, K.; Nakahira, H.

1992-12-01

214

JTEC Panel Report on Machine Translation in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Machine Translation in Japan and the U.S.; Technical Infrastructure; Languages and Application Domains; Knowledge Sources for Machine Translation; Life Cycle of Machine Translation Systems; The Uses of Machine Translation in Japan; Acceptance of...

J. Carbonell E. Rich D. Johnson M. Tomita M. Vasconcellos

1992-01-01

215

NSF/Tokyo Report: The Science System in Japan  

NSF Publications Database

Dr. Blanpied visited Japan from October 14 - December 6, 1997 as a Visiting Research Fellow (short-term) under the sponsorship of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). I also met with officials in several different units of the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture (MONBUSHO), the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST), and the Ministry of International Trade ...

216

Interaction of Air and High-Speed Rail in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a unique convergence of factors that have contributed to Japan’s outstanding public transportation system. The paper focuses on two modes of transportation: air and high-speed rail (HSR). These two modes do not complement each other as in Europe, but compete head-on in Japan. Moreover, Japan does not have to contend with market-distorting public subsidies, because both companies

Reinhard Clever; Mark M. Hansen

2008-01-01

217

JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) Irradiation Handbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A wide variety of nuclear irradiation and post-irradiation experiments are available using the JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor, 50 MW) and the multi-cell hot laboratory associated with the JMTR. In this Handbook, an application manual for conducting...

1983-01-01

218

Progress of phased array systems in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the research and development on the phased array antennas (PAAs) for several applications in Japan. First, the author shows the historical overview of the PAA for radar, satellite and mobile communication uses. Then, the author introduces a millimeter-wave PAA, an optical beam forming, and an ultra wideband antenna element as modern applications of PAA systems.

Isamu Chiba; Yoshihiko Konishi; T. Nishino

2010-01-01

219

Development of phased array systems in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the research and development on the phased array antennas (PAAs) for several applications in Japan. First, the author shows the historical overview of the PAA for radar, satellite and mobile communication uses. Then, the author introduces a millimeter-wave PAA as a modern application to communication systems.

Isamu Chiba; Yoshihiko Konishi; T. Nishino

2010-01-01

220

Development of HF ocean radar in japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HF ocean radar was developed in Japan from 1987 by Okinawa Radio Observatory, Communications Research Laboratory. We measured ocean surface currents and developed the method to estimate wave spectra. The observations of ocean surface currents were conducted in various areas. The observation in the east of Okinawa, where mesoscale eddies are dominant, is presented. We can observe the convergent

Yukiharu Hisaki

2003-01-01

221

Characteristics of endogenous uveitis in Hokkaido, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Etiological characteristics of endogenous uveitis vary among areas and races around the world. There are few epidemiological reports on the etiology of uveitis from areas within Asia. We report statistical data on uveitis in Japan. Methods: We reviewed all of the records of patients with endogenous uveitis who visited the Uveitis Survey Clinic of Hokkaido University Hospital in 1981

Satoshi Kotake; Naoki Furudate; Yoichi Sasamoto; Koji Yoshikawa; Chiho Goda; Hidehiko Matsuda

1997-01-01

222

Multicultural and Multiethnic Education in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Japan, the Ainu people have been living mainly in Hokkaido and many Koreans continue to live since the end of the World War Two. Since 1990's, the number of migrant workers has increased rapidly. In this sense, Japanese society has been multicultural and multiethnic. However, those minority groups have been strictly discriminated against in…

Nomoto, Hiroyuki

2009-01-01

223

Privacy and Data Protection in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of individual rights and privacy in Japan focuses on the Privacy Protection Act, which acknowledges the threat posed by government databases to the individual's right of privacy. Characteristics of the Japanese legal system are described, origins of privacy in Japanese law are examined, and privacy and government databases are…

Srinivasan, Srinija

1992-01-01

224

‘Iatrogenic’ Wernicke’s Encephalopathy in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Iatrogenic’ Wernicke’s encephalopathy has appeared to occur more frequently in Japan, probably induced by the change of our Japanese national health insurance policy in 1992. We report 4 nonalcoholic patients with such Wernicke’s encephalopathy, which occurred during the early postoperative oral food intake period following intravenous nutrition without vitamin supplements. We analyzed the medical records of 4 patients, 3 men

Elisa Shikata; Tomohiko Mizutani; Yuji Kokubun; Toshiaki Takasu

2000-01-01

225

Promotion of School Children's Invention in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the late 1980s an American newspaper reported that by one measure--the number of patents cited by successive inventors--Japan overtook the United States in the number of inventions produced during the 1970s. The reasons for this are not clear, but educational efforts promoting creative behaviors in school children are probably essential and…

Sakamoto, Takashi

1989-01-01

226

Globalization and Educational Reform in Contemporary Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the notions of globalization as embodied in Japanese educational reforms. Modern institutional discourses of educational reform in Japan have shifted over time and all of these reform movements have been constructed by particular social and historical trajectories. Generally speaking, it has been taken for granted that the…

Qi, Jie; Zhang, Sheng Ping

2008-01-01

227

Alternative Education in Japan: A Brief Orientation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Japan, not attending public school is stigmatized, and alternative education is in its infancy. Reviews free spaces, which are not schools, but places for traumatized students to recover; home schooling networks; government-approved independent alternative schools; alternative after-school programs; and innovative programs within the system.…

Needle, Nat

2000-01-01

228

ICANS-XV meets in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

ICANS stands for International Collaboration on Advanced Neutron Sources and the meeting is a forum for those interested in accelerator, target station and instrument development. The fifteenth meeting was held from November 6 to 9, 2000 at the newly built International Congress Center in Tsukuba city and was organized by JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) and KEK (High Energy

M. Furusaka

2001-01-01

229

Cultural Pluralism in Japan: A Sociolinguistic Outline.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addressing the common misconception that Japan is a mono-ethnic, mono-cultural, and monolingual society, this article focuses on several areas of sociolinguistic concern. It discusses: (1) the bimodalism of the Japanese deaf population between Japanese Sign Language as native language and Japanese Spoken Language as acquired second language; (2)…

Honna, Nobuyuki

1980-01-01

230

Deepening Democracy in Japan: Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult education can play a role in alleviating sex, social, and racial discrimination in Japanese society by preparing citizens for participation and paying attention to the needs of special groups: women, Baraku people, dropouts, people with disabilities, the Ainu (indigenous Caucasians), Koreans living in Japan, and refugees. (SK)

Yamaguchi, Makoto

1993-01-01

231

Ergonomic and product safety research in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increased trading between continents with different cultures, laws and expectations, it is essential to attempt to harmonise various aspects of consumer safety provision. Free trade is essential but not at the cost of consumer safety. Europe has had product liability laws for some considerable time, but in Japan the enacting legislation was only passed in July 1995. As wel

Magdalen Page

1997-01-01

232

Living in Japan. Intercultural Exchange Series. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide provides a brief introduction to the culture and language of Japan, and is designed for visitors, students, and business travelers. It offers practical information on various aspects of daily living, including: money; banks; food; restaurants; hotels; tipping; postal and telecommunications services; transportation; shopping; health and…

Hawkinson, Annie

233

Fasting Therapy for Psychosomatic Disorders in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been well known in Japan that fasting therapy has an excellent effect on various kinds of psychosomatic diseases. From 1967 to 1977 the therapy was carried out on about 382 cases of psychosomatic diseases in our clinic with an efficacy rate of 87%. The following diseases were considered as suitable indications for the therapy; irritable colon, behavioral disturbance

J. Suzuki; Y. Yamauchi; H. Yamamoto; U. Komuro

1979-01-01

234

Potential F-22 Raptor Export to Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Japan has expressed interest in purchasing the F-22A Raptor aircraft from the United States. Although the export of the plane is now prohibited by U.S. law, Congress has recently and may again consider repealing this ban. Arguments for the sale include po...

C. Bolkcom E. Chanlett-Avery

2007-01-01

235

Mathematics as Reasoning--Episodes from Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three episodes in Sendai, Japan: (1) reasoning with number patterns (grade one); (2) engaging in logical analysis (grade five); and (3) a reason to reason (grade five). Observation of these episodes reinforces importance of the teacher's patience in guiding the lesson and encouraging several alternative solutions from students. Lessons…

Sawada, Daiyo

1997-01-01

236

Optical subscriber cable technologies in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is given of recent development of subscriber optical cable technologies in Japan. Technologies for constructing a star network using high count fiber cable have been developed. The effect of this development on the cable distribution system, fiber selection, cable structure, splices and connectors, and closure and measurement technology is described. Field trials and features of these technologies are

Fumihiro Nihei; Yoshikazu Yamamoto; Nobuya Kojima

1987-01-01

237

Current Educational Technology Research Trends in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine trends in educational practice research, this article conducted a survey and analysis of factors affecting the review of research papers in the field of the educational technology in Japan. Two factors, namely, practical orientation and theoretical orientation, were extracted from 63 survey responses, and scores from members of a…

Nakayama, Minoru; Ueno, Maomi

2009-01-01

238

ICT Implementation and Online Learning in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses issues related to the implementation of information and communications technology (ICT) in education and online learning with particular reference to Japan. Presents an integrated model for the introduction of ICT at all levels of education that suggests ways of bridging the gap between research and development and actual educational…

Fujitani, Satoru; Bhattacharya, Madhumita; Akahori, Kanji

2003-01-01

239

With a Little Help from Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the last year, the author's students have become very interested in popular culture from Korea and Japan. In particular, the class liked the films of Hayao Miyazaki, an Oscar-winning director who is considered one of the foremost anime filmmakers. In this article, the author came to an idea while he and the first-grade class were discussing…

Purcell, John

2009-01-01

240

Parental Educational Investments and Aspirations in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous models of parental educational investments focus on the composition of the sibship (number, gender, ordering, and spacing) and on the social and institutional context in which investment decisions are made. Social-institutional models predict that parents in Japan are likely to underinvest in girls because of their transient status in the…

Lee, Kristen Schultz

2010-01-01

241

Early Detection of Hearing Impairment in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses early detection of hearing impairment in Japan with particular reference to the system used in Tokushima Prefecture. Suggests that a required screening of all children at 18 months of age resulted in 2 developments: (1) all the hard-of-hearing children were identified; and (2) public health nurses became more alert to hearing impairment…

Tachiiri, Hajime

1996-01-01

242

Fish Farming and the Constraints in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The essence and significance of fish farming in Japan are described and information is given on two types of fish farming. Present and/or proposed farming fisheries could be classified into two types: Stock recruitment and artificial control. After consid...

M. Fujiya

1974-01-01

243

EARTHQUAKE ALARM SYSTEMS IN JAPAN RAILWAYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a history of research and development concerning earthquake disaster prevention systems in Japan railways. Railway Technical Research Institute (RTRI) has established a new algorithm in evaluating quickly seismic source parameters (magnitude and epicenter location) from the initial part of P waves and developed a new earthquake quick alarm system (EQAS) which utilizes prompt earthquake information that will

Kimitoshi ASHIYA

244

Should Japan Become a Normal Country.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis evaluates Japanese geopolitical change in the post-Cold War era. It does so by analyzing Japan's history, its foreign policy since 1945, its reasons for becoming a normal country, and the impact of its normalization. This thesis makes thr...

A. Yildiz

2005-01-01

245

Transition from School to Work in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using retrospective data of young people's work experience in Japan, a study found that initial labor market conditions (i.e., when workers first enter the labor market after permanently leaving school) have a significant lasting impact on the employment experiences of workers in their teens and twenties. An increase in the unemployment rate at…

Genda, Yuji; Kurosawa, Masako

246

Ishimoto Shizue: The Margaret Sanger of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-1945 Japan is known for its remarkably low birth rate and a heavy reliance on abortion for birth control purposes. What may be less well known is the extensive use of contraceptive methods as well to limit or regulate births and the role played by the prewar birth control movement in making the concept of birth control socially acceptable. The

Elise K. Tipton

1997-01-01

247

Analysis of multiple birth rates in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Over-all triplet birth rate in Japan was decreased during 1955 to 1967 and 1974. Monozygotic rate was slightly decreased with the year, but dizygotic rate as estimated from monozygotic and dizygotic twinning rates was decreased with the year. Trizygotic rate was increased with the year and particularly high in 1974.

Yoko Imaizumi; Eiji Inouye

1980-01-01

248

Analysis of multiple birth rates in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Over-all stillbirth rate of triplets in Japan was slightly increased from 1951 to 1961 and markedly decreased thereafter up to 1968 and 1974. The stillbirth rate of triplets remained two to three times as high as that of twins and five to seven times as high as that of the general population during the period from 1951 to 1968

Yoko Imaizumi; Eiji Inouye

1980-01-01

249

A New HTS Cable Project in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new HTS cable project supported by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) has just started in Japan. Target of this project is to operate a 66 kV, 200 MVA HTS cable in a real grid in order to demonstrate its reliability and stable operation. Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO)

Takato Masuda; Hiroyasu Yumura; M. Ohya; T. Kikuta; M. Hirose; S. Honjo; T. Mimura; Y. Kito; K. Yamamoto; M. Ikeuchi; R. Ohno

2009-01-01

250

Time and Frequency Activities at NICT, Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At NICT, Japan, research and developments for the time and frequency standards are performed by the Space-Time Standards Group. The objectives of this group are to establish standards and reference of space and time as the fundamental basis for various fi...

J. Amagai, K. Imamura, S. Hama, T. Iwama, Y. Koyama

2009-01-01

251

Suggestions for China's Logistics Parks Based on Japan's Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan, as one of the most developed country in logistics field in the world, has developed its logistics parks earlier. This paper takes Japan's logistics park as the subject in research. By analyzing Japan's experiences of developing logistics parks, this paper tempts to find out problems in China's logistics parks and put forward suggestions for further development and construction .The

Fuhua Wang

2009-01-01

252

The Detailed Hazard Map of Road Slopes in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

70% of Japan is mountains, and the land is surrounded in 30,000 km coastline. The geology belongs to the mobile belt, and there are many earthquakes and volcanoes. The climate be- longs to the monsoon, and the heavy rain frequently arises. Therefore, Japan has suffered many slope disasters every year. The number of slope disasters in Japan shows about 900

Y. SASAKI; N. DOBREV; Y. WAKIZAKA

253

Status of reduced enrichment program for research reactors in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of reduced enrichment program for research reactors in Japan will be reviewed. The reduced enrichment programs for the JRR-3M, JRR-4 and JMTR of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA, former name is Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI)) has been completed by 1999, and the reactors are being satisfactory operated using LEU fuels. The KUR of Kyoto University Research

Hironobu Unesaki; Kazunori Ohta; Takeshi Inoue

2008-01-01

254

Iron distributions in the water column of the Japan Basin and Yamato Basin (Japan Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Japan and Yamato basins (Japan Sea), dissolved Fe ([D-Fe], <0.22 ?m fraction) was characterized by surface depletion, mid-depth maxima, then a slight decrease with depth in deep water and uniform concentration in bottom waters because of biological uptake in the surface water and release by microbial decomposition of sinking organic matter in mid-depth waters. Total Fe concentrations ([T-Fe])

Satoshi Fujita; Kenshi Kuma; Satoko Ishikawa; Shotaroh Nishimura; Yuta Nakayama; Satomi Ushizaka; Yutaka Isoda; Shigeyoshi Otosaka; Takafumi Aramaki

2010-01-01

255

[Medical pots of Yakushi Buddha in Japan].  

PubMed

The origin of Yakushi buddha (Bhaisajyaguru in Sanscrit, buddha of healing) is not clearly known. It has been proposed the original statue of Yakushi buddha may have been conceived from Varna, a god in Brahminism, believed to be a god of justice who possessed medicines and prolonged life. It is believed that Yakushi buddha appeared in Japan when the buddhism was imported from Korea and China in VI century, Yakushi buddha was believed more profoundly in Japan, compared with Korea and China.The reasons are probably as follows: Yakushi buddha is buddha of healing, Emperor Temmu (672-685) built Yakushi-ji temple in Nara, Emperor Shomu (724-749) built Kokubun-ji temples at principal towns. The principal statues of buddha in these temples are Yakushi buddha. In Japan, there are 252 Yakushi Buddha statues in Buddhistical Temples, which are listed in Important Cultural Property including 14 National Treasures. Belief in Yakushi Buddha was especially prevalent from the 7th to the 13th centuries in Japan. The oldest wooden Yakushi Buddha statue is in the Horin-ji temple in Nara. Among the 252 Yakushi Buddha statues, 224 are in wood, 15 are in copper, 6 are in picture and etc. 212 (84,1%) have medicinal pots (or rarely, a bowl) on the palm of left hand. However, these medicinal containers are wooden blocks. Very recently, it was found that Yakushi Buddha statue in the Suho-Kokubun-ji temple (Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan) has a medicinal pot on the palm of the left hand in which an offering (220 g materials) was found. The date on the reverse side of lid places the offering at October 12, 1699. The offering is composed of five cereals (rice, barley, wheat, soybean, adzuki bean), five medicinal plants (Acori Graminei, Acori Calami, Radix Ginseng, Flos Caryophylli, Lignum Santali Albi), and five minerals (rock crystals, purple and blue glasse, CaCO3, particles, silver and golden foils). DNA analysis proved those three randomly selected seeds of rice all belongs to the template japonica, which is predominant in the present variety of Japan. PMID:16021752

Okuda, Jun; Noro, Yukio; Ito, Shiro

2005-01-01

256

CSEP Earthquake Forecast Testing Center for Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One major focus of the next Japanese earthquake prediction research plan 2009-2013 are testable earthquake forecast models. For this purpose, the Earthquake Research Institute joined the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) and installed in an international collaboration a prototype testing center for rigorous evaluation of earthquake forecast models. We report on the implementation of this testing center, the quality characterization of the earthquake catalog data stream from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), the definition of a Japanese testing region, and first test results. A first set of three one-year smoothed-seismicity models are fully implemented in the testing center and are under test since 1 September 2008. In the near future, additional models will be introduced and new specialized testing areas will be defined to promote rigorous earthquake prediction research on different topics and regions in Japan.

Tsuruoka, H.; Hirata, N.; Schorlemmer, D.; Euchner, F.; Jordan, T. H.

2008-12-01

257

Validation activities in Japan: a report.  

PubMed

Japanese activities in the validation of alternative test methods are reviewed. The validation of the Limulus endotoxin test as an alternative method to the rabbit pyrogen test was initiated by the Japanese Pharmacopoeia Society, and was successfully conducted under the direction of the National Institute of Health Sciences (NIHS), with the participation of many pharmaceutical company laboratories. The validation of in vitro alternatives to the Draize eye test for cosmetics were carried out by the NIHS and cosmetic company laboratories. Research on alternatives in Japan has been promoted by the Japanese Society of Alternatives to Animal Experiments (JSAAE) since 1989. Validation studies on alternatives were also attempted by the JSAAE. Interlaboratory reproducibility studies were carried out by the JSAAE on five different cytotoxicity tests. The JSAAE is planning the validation of in vitro alternatives to a local irritation test for intramuscular injection. Cell transformation assays have been carried out in Japan as adjuncts to the in vivo carcinogenicity test. PMID:23581151

Ono, Hiroshi

2004-06-01

258

The venereal disease problem in Japan.  

PubMed

According to statistical reports, venereal disease case-rates and death-rates have both shown a real decline in Japan in the last decade. However, from a one-day survey of patients in all Japanese medical establishments carried out in 1955, it is estimated that not less than 720 000 new cases of venereal disease occur annually. Moreover, with the coming into force of the new anti-prostitution law, prostitutes (responsible for some 70% of male venereal infections) will become scattered among the general population and consequently more difficult to control and treat; as a result there may even be an increase in the spread of venereal infection.The authors describe the control methods currently in use in Japan, which may be grouped in two categories-case-finding, and treatment and case-holding-and suggest how these might be strengthened or improved. PMID:13596879

TANAMI, Y; YAMAMOTO, J

1958-01-01

259

The venereal disease problem in Japan  

PubMed Central

According to statistical reports, venereal disease case-rates and death-rates have both shown a real decline in Japan in the last decade. However, from a one-day survey of patients in all Japanese medical establishments carried out in 1955, it is estimated that not less than 720 000 new cases of venereal disease occur annually. Moreover, with the coming into force of the new anti-prostitution law, prostitutes (responsible for some 70% of male venereal infections) will become scattered among the general population and consequently more difficult to control and treat; as a result there may even be an increase in the spread of venereal infection. The authors describe the control methods currently in use in Japan, which may be grouped in two categories—case-finding, and treatment and case-holding—and suggest how these might be strengthened or improved.

Tanami, Yukio; Yamamoto, Jiro

1958-01-01

260

[Nitrosamine formation from vegetables produced in Japan].  

PubMed

Many vegetables produced in Japan contain large amounts of nitrate that may be converted into nitrite in the oral cavity and afford carcinogenic nitrosamines in the stomach. On the other hand, vegetables contain ascorbate and other components that may affect the formation of nitrosamines. In this study, nitrosamine formation from vegetables with high nitrate content produced in Japan was examined under simulated oral cavity and stomach conditions. Extracts of chingensai, komatsuna and itomitsuba were digested with nitrate reductase and subsequently treated with an excess of morpholine at pH 3.0. The amount of N-nitrosomorpholine produced from each of the vegetable extracts was not affected by the vegetable components in the extracts. Addition of a large amount of ascorbate was required to decrease nitrosamine formation from the extract. The results indicated that nitrosamine formation from these vegetables could not be prevented by other components in the vegetables. PMID:16018593

Ohtsuki, Rimiko; Kikugawa, Kiyomi

2005-04-01

261

Recent trends in bagassosis in Japan.  

PubMed Central

The only workers presently exposed to bagasse dust in Japan are the employees of sugar refineries and lacquerware factories. A follow up study of six former cases of bagassosis from among the retired employees of a paper board factory, closed since 1973, showed that none of the subjects still had bagassosis. Examinations of 70 employees of a sugar refinery for allergic reactions also showed no case of bagassosis. Seven cases with suspicious shadows of bagassosis on chest radiographs and four cases with positive serum precipitin to stored bagasse were, however, found among those 70 subjects. The results show the disappearance of a past episode of bagassosis and the possibility of a new occurrence of bagassosis among the employees of sugar refineries and lacquerware factories in the near future in Japan. Images

Ueda, A; Aoyama, K; Ueda, T; Obama, K; Ueno, T; Hokama, S; Nomura, S

1992-01-01

262

Current status of atopic dermatitis in Japan  

PubMed Central

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic or chronically relapsing, severely pruritic, eczematous skin disease. AD is the second most frequently observed skin disease in dermatology clinics in Japan. Prevalence of childhood AD is 12-13% in mainland Japan; however, it is only half that (about 6%) in children from Ishigaki Island, Okinawa. Topical steroids and tacrolimus are the mainstay of treatment. However, the adverse effects and emotional fear of long-term use of topical steroids have induced a "topical steroid phobia" in patients throughout the world. Undertreatment can exacerbate facial/periocular lesions and lead to the development of atopic cataract and retinal detachment due to repeated scratching/rubbing/patting. Overcoming topical steroid phobia is a key issue for the successful treatment of AD through education, understanding and cooperation of patients and their guardians.

Chiba, Takahito; Takeuchi, Satoshi

2011-01-01

263

JTEC panel on display technologies in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is one in a series of reports that describes research and development efforts in Japan in the area of display technologies. The following are included in this report: flat panel displays (technical findings, liquid crystal display development and production, large flat panel displays (FPD's), electroluminescent displays and plasma panels, infrastructure in Japan's FPD industry, market and projected sales, and new a-Si active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) factory); materials for flat panel displays (liquid crystal materials, and light-emissive display materials); manufacturing and infrastructure of active matrix liquid crystal displays (manufacturing logistics and equipment); passive matrix liquid crystal displays (LCD basics, twisted nematics LCD's, supertwisted nematic LCD's, ferroelectric LCD's, and a comparison of passive matrix LCD technology); active matrix technology (basic active matrix technology, investment environment, amorphous silicon, polysilicon, and commercial products and prototypes); and projection displays (comparison of Japanese and U.S. display research, and technical evaluation of work).

Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Glenn, William E.; Credelle, Thomas; Doane, J. William; Firester, Arthur H.; Thompson, Malcolm

1992-01-01

264

Russia, Japan accuse each other of dumping  

SciTech Connect

The outage of Japanese officials over Russian navy dumping of low-level radioactive water in the Sea of Japan has rebounded on them after Russian Atomic Energy Minister Viktor Mikhailov - on a visit to Japan October 27 - told a press conference that Japanese nuclear power plants were discharging 10 times as much radioactivity into the sea. Reporters duly extracted a statement from Tokyo Electric Power Co. (Tepco) that it had released some 3.9 [times] 10[sup 11] becquerels of tritium from its power stations, and the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) said that routine releases from all the country's nuclear power plants totaled some 6200 curies per year (2.29 [times] 10[sup 14] Bq). Both Tepco and MITI stressed that these discharges were well within accepted international norms for low-level discharges from nuclear power plants, and also cited the low radiological risk of tritium.

Not Available

1993-12-01

265

Traditional healthful fermented products of Japan.  

PubMed

A variety of fermentation products, such as foods containing probiotic bacteria, black rice vinegar (kurosu), soy sauce (shoyu), soybean-barley paste (miso), natto and tempeh, are sold in food stores in Japan. These fermented food products are produced by traditional methods that exploit mixed cultures of various non-toxic microorganisms. These microorganisms include lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, sake yeast, koji molds and natto bacteria. Many traditional fermented foods have been studied and their effects on metabolism and/or immune system have been demonstrated in animal and/or human cells. This review summarizes the scientific basis for the effects of these traditional food products, which are currently produced commercially in Japan. PMID:18461373

Murooka, Yoshikatsu; Yamshita, Mitsuo

2008-08-01

266

Waveform modeling of the slab beneath Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tomographic P wave model for the Japan subduction zone derived by Zhao et al. (1994) has two very striking features: a slab about 90 km thick with P wave velocities 3-6% higher than the surrounding mantle and a mantle wedge with -6% low-velocity anomalies. We study three-component seismograms from more than 600 Hi-net stations produced by two earthquakes which

Min Chen; Jeroen Tromp; Don Helmberger; Hiroo Kanamori

2007-01-01

267

Waveform modeling of the slab beneath Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tomographic P wave model for the Japan subduction zone derived by Zhao et al. (1994) has two very striking features: a slab about 90 km thick with P wave velocities 3–6% higher than the surrounding mantle and a mantle wedge with ?6% low-velocity anomalies. We study three-component seismograms from more than 600 Hi-net stations produced by two earthquakes which

Min Chen; Jeroen Tromp; Don Helmberger; Hiroo Kanamori

2007-01-01

268

Zombie firms and economic stagnation in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often claimed that one contributing factor to Japan's weak economic performance over the past decade is that Japanese\\u000a banks have continued to provide financial support for highly inefficient, debt-ridden companies, commonly referred to as ‘zombie’\\u000a firms. Such poor banking practices in turn prevent more productive companies from gaining market share, strangling a potentially\\u000a important source of productivity gains

Alan G. Ahearne; Naoki Shinada

2005-01-01

269

Sexually dimorphic mate preference in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lonely hearts advertisements (LHA) published in Japan were examined in a comparative study on sexually dimorphic mate preference.\\u000a I analyzed 944 LHA written by Japanese (730 by males and 214 by females) seeking short-term relationships and 780 LHA (577\\u000a by males and 203 by females) seeking long-term relationships. Some universal patterns of mate preference were confirmed and\\u000a others were not.

Ryo Oda

2001-01-01

270

Drug-resistant respiratory pathogens in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In order to investigate the trends of antimicrobial susceptibility in respiratory pathogens in Japan, the Japanese Society\\u000a of Chemotherapy (JSC) established a nationwide surveillance network in 2006. During the period from January to August, 2007,\\u000a 1,178 strains were collected from clinical specimens obtained from adult patients with well-diagnosed respiratory tract infections.\\u000a Susceptibility testing was evaluated for 1,108 strains (226 Staphylococcus

Tetsuya Matsumoto

271

STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS OF HPFRCC IN JAPAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites (HPFRCC) show multiple cracking and strain-hardening behaviors in tension.\\u000a Current applications in Japan include bridge decks, building dampers, retaining wall, irrigation channels and so forth. In\\u000a addition to tensile load bearing capacity of HPFRCC, protection against penetration of substance through fine cracks is one\\u000a of the advantages in these applications. This paper introduces recent

K. Rokugo; M. Kunieda; S. Miyazato

272

How is suicide different in Japan?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates suicide rates among OECD countries, with particular effort made to gain insight into how suicide in Japan is different from suicides in other OECD countries. Several findings emerged from fixed-effect panel regressions with country-specific time-trends. First, the impacts of socioeconomic variables vary across different gender–age groups. Second, in general, better economic conditions such as high levels of

Joe Chen; Yun Jeong Choi; Yasuyuki Sawada

2009-01-01

273

Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBlood screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies at Japanese Red Cross blood centers has indicated an age-dependent prevalence of HCV infection in the general population of Japan: the older the age, the higher the prevalence. The same pattern was corroborated by the sentinel study conducted in an HCV-endemic area. The high prevalence of HCV in the elderly is most

Takashi Moriya; Tomiko Koyama; Junko Tanaka; Shunji Mishiro; Hiroshi Yoshizawa

1999-01-01

274

Shear wall experiments and design in Japan  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the results of recent survey studies on the available experimental data bases and design codes/standards for reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall structures in Japan. Information related to the seismic design of RC reactor buildings and containment structures was emphasized in the survey. The seismic requirements for concrete structures, particularly those related to shear strength design, are outlined. Detailed descriptions are presented on the development of Japanese shear wall equations, design requirements for containment structures, and ductility requirements.

Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.

1994-12-01

275

Japan sets up program for biological research  

SciTech Connect

Japanese officials have put final touches on plans for a global biological research program, called the Human Frontier Science Program, that they hope will launch their country into a new era of international science. Japan will establish a nongovernmental secretariat for the program and will manage it through an international governing council. Almost all the funding in the countries involved- Japan, the U.S., Canada, and the European Community countries- will be provided by Japan, at least at first. In its present design, the program consists of two thrusts- one in the neurosciences with emphasis on brain function, the other on the chemistry and molecular biology of gene expression. The program in the first year would consist of 30 to 50 direct research grants to researchers working in teams, 100 to 200 postdoctoral fellowships, and 10 to 20 workshops. Young researchers would be favored for funding. The average annual grant size would total $500,000, and postdoctoral awards would average $50,000.

Lepkowski, W.

1988-05-16

276

Development of biological soil disinfestations in Japan.  

PubMed

Biological soil disinfestations (BSDs) were developed separately in Japan and in The Netherlands as an alternative to chemical fumigations. In Japan, it was developed based on the knowledge of irrigated paddy rice and upland crop rotation system that was rather tolerant of soil-borne disease development. The methods consist of application of easily decomposable organic matter, irrigation, and covering the soil surface with plastic film, thereby inducing anaerobic (reductive) soil conditions and suppressing many soil-borne pests including fungi, bacteria, nematodes, and weeds. The methods are widely used by organic farmers in the area where residences and agricultural fields are intermingled. To note one advantage of these methods, maintenance of soil suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt of tomato was suggested, while soil treated with chloropicrin became conducive to the disease. Suppression of soil-borne fungal pathogens by BSDs might be attributed to anaerobicity and high temperature, organic acids generated, and metal ions released into soil water. Contributions of respective factors to suppression of respective pathogens might be diverse. Presumably, these factors might vary on the fungal community structure in BSD-treated soil. These factors also work in paddy fields. Therefore, the BSDs developed in Japan are probably a method to raise the efficacy of paddy-upland rotation through intensive organic matter application and through maintenance of a strongly anaerobic (reductive) soil condition. PMID:23549745

Momma, Noriaki; Kobara, Yuso; Uematsu, Seiji; Kita, Nobuhiro; Shinmura, Akinori

2013-05-01

277

Organic solvent use in enterprises in Japan.  

PubMed

This study was initiated to elucidate possible changes in types of organic solvents (to be called solvents in short) used in enterprises in Japan through comparison of current solvent types with historical data since 1983. To investigate current situation in solvent use in enterprises, surveys were conducted during one year of 2009 to 2010. In total, workroom air samples in 1,497 unit workplaces with solvent use were analyzed in accordance with regulatory requirements. Typical use pattern of solvents was as mixtures, accounting for >70% of cases. Adhesives spreading (followed by adhesion) was relatively common in small-scale enterprises, whereas printing and painting work was more common in middle-scale ones, and solvent use for testing and research purpose was basically in large-scaled enterprises. Through-out printing, painting, surface coating and adhesive application, toluene was most common (being detected in 49 to 82% of workplaces depending on work types), whereas isopropyl alcohol was most common (49%) in degreasing, cleaning and wiping workplaces. Other commonly used solvents were methyl alcohol, ethyl acetate and acetone (33 to 37%). Comparison with historical data in Japan and literature-retrieved data outside of Japan all agreed with the observation that toluene is the most commonly used solvent. Application of trichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane, once common in 1980s, has ceased to exist in recent years. PMID:21697614

Nagasawa, Yasuhiro; Ukai, Hirohiko; Okamoto, Satoru; Samoto, Hajime; Itoh, Kenji; Moriguchi, Jiro; Sakuragi, Sonoko; Ohashi, Fumiko; Takada, Shiro; Kawakami, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Masayuki

2011-01-01

278

Surrogacy: donor conception regulation in Japan.  

PubMed

As of 2008, surrogacy is legal and openly practised in various places; Japan, however, has no regulations or laws regarding surrogacy. This paper reports the situation of surrogacy in Japan and in five other regions (the USA, the UK, Taiwan, Korea and France) to clarify the pros and cons of prohibiting surrogacy, along with the problems and issues relating to surrogacy compensation. Not only in a country such as France that completely prohibits surrogacy within the country, but also in a country such as the UK that allows non-commercial surrogacy, infertile couples travel overseas for the purpose of surrogacy. In addition, some couples might seek underground surrogacy if the government prohibits surrogacy. If an intended parent couple and a surrogate make an agreement among themselves and then a problem occurs, they cannot ask for support from professionals or bring a case to court, as can be observed in South Korea and Taiwan. We also conclude that there is little difference between commercial surrogacy and non-commercial surrogacy in the absence of a clear definition of 'reasonable expenses.' In the UK, the law does not allow surrogates to receive compensation. However, in reality, there may be little difference between the amounts paid to surrogates for profit in the US and those paid to surrogates for reasonable expenses in the UK. We conclude that the issue of surrogacy demands further discussion in Japan. PMID:20002072

Semba, Yukari; Chang, Chiungfang; Hong, Hyunsoo; Kamisato, Ayako; Kokado, Minori; Muto, Kaori

2010-09-01

279

Municipal solid waste management in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Basic measures taken in recent years to control waste management in Japan include: (1) Pollution prevention, (2) reuse and recycling, and (3) waste incineration with air pollution control. It is generally agreed that it is appropriate to follow the assigned priority of these options. Municipal solid waste (MSW) is the responsibility of the citizen, the local government and the business sector. The principal strategy to manage MSW is to prevent the discharge of waste and, where waste must be discharged, to recycle as much as possible to reduce the quantity. However, even if effort is made to minimize the amount of waste, a large proportion still requires treatment in view of the activities of modern society. Once waste is generated, it must be incinerated and/or buried in landfills if it cannot be recycled. Incineration plays an important role in Japan where landfill sites are difficult to secure. With these circumstances in mind, the author outlines the origin of MSW in Japan and the recycling process and the present status of thermal recycling with pollution control. Ash regulation and its treatment methods are also discussed.

Sakai, Shinichi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Environment Preservation Center] [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Environment Preservation Center

1996-12-31

280

FBIS report. Science and technology. Japan: Japan begins promotion of CALS development, February 21, 1996  

SciTech Connect

;JAPAN: Japan Begins Promotion of CALS Development (TRIGGER, Sep 95); Introduction Table of Contents; First Special Symposium on CALS; CALS` Impact on the Japanese Economy; CALS and the Automobile Industry; CALS Developments and Small and Medium Businesses From Now On; Panel Discussion: Upheaval Because of CALS. Company Management; This is CALS; International CALS Organization Established; CALS and STEP; and CALS and EDI; CALS and SGML; Nissan Motor Co.--Compliance with International STEP and EDI Standards; Tokyo Electric Power--CALS Demonstration Project Model; Fuji Heavy Industries--International Joint Development Based on CALS-type Methods; Nippon Steel--Collaborative Engineering Office Pursuing the New Engineering Office; Toyko Engineering--Utilizing `Hardware System Integration` in a Virtual Enterprise; Fujitsu--Accumulating Knowhow for Electronic Commerce; Deciding a CALS Business Strategy Centered on SGML; IBM Japan--Promoting Worldwide Business Process Reengineering; and CALS Survey-Confidence in an Industrial Revolution, Enthusiasm About Introduction of CALS.

NONE

1996-02-21

281

Disaster monitoring for Japan Earthquake with satellites by JAXA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) performed disaster monitoring of the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS), "Daichi," acquired 450 scenes of disaster monitoring of the earthquake. JAXA also received more than 5,000 scenes via the International Disaster Charter and Sentinel Asia. JAXA analyzed these images and provided the results to the Government of Japan as well as to the local governments.

Takahashi, Masuo; Shimada, Masanobu; Miyagi, Yousuke; Ohki, Masato; Kawano, Noriyuki; Shiraishi, Tomohiro; Motohka, Takeshi

2011-10-01

282

Direct Measurements of Deep Currents in the Northern Japan Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term current measurements by means of subsurface moorings were made for the first time at seven sites in the Japan Basin,\\u000a the northern part of the Japan Sea. The objective was to directly explore the velocity field in the highly homogeneous deep\\u000a water mass (the Japan Sea Proper Water) that occupies depths below 500 m. On each mooring three current

Masaki Takematsu; Zentaro Nagano; Alexander G. Ostrovski; Kuu Kim; Yuri Volkov

1999-01-01

283

Knowledge-based systems in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes a study of the state-of-the-art in knowledge-based systems technology in Japan, organized by the Japanese Technology Evaluation Center (JTEC) under the sponsorship of the National Science Foundation and the Advanced Research Projects Agency. The panel visited 19 Japanese sites in March 1992. Based on these site visits plus other interactions with Japanese organizations, both before and after the site visits, the panel prepared a draft final report. JTEC sent the draft to the host organizations for their review. The final report was published in May 1993.

Feigenbaum, Edward; Engelmore, Robert S.; Friedland, Peter E.; Johnson, Bruce B.; Nii, H. Penny; Schorr, Herbert; Shrobe, Howard

1994-01-01

284

Kyowa Yuka expands oxo alcohols in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Kyowa Yuka, the alcohols subsidiary of Kyowa Kakko Kogyo, will expand oxo alcohols and derivatives production in Japan. The company will debottleneck capacity for butyraldehyde at Yokkaichi by 50,000 m.t./year, to slightly more than 300,000 m.t./year. The project follows completion of a 50,000-m.t./year expansion. Kyowa is also considering expanding capacities for oxo derivative, including dioctyl phthalate and butyl acetate. It is also looking to expand oxo alcohols and fatty alcohols capacity at Chiba.

NONE

1996-10-23

285

Heart transplants: Japan tries limited experiment.  

PubMed

Japan's Ministry of Health will fund a major new heart transplantation project in an effort to resume heart transplants halted by a public outcry against the first such transplant 17 years ago. Opposition to organ donation, which has been attributed variously to Buddhist and Confucian views of the body and to Japanese cultural values, has resulted in the heaviest use of renal dialysis per capita in the world and to an interest in artificial heart research. Goals of the heart transplant project are first to win public support and then to promote research on animal transplants, organ preservation, a distribution system, immunological control mechanisms, and artificial hearts as backup devices. PMID:3881680

Anderson, A

286

An analysis of remanufacturing practices in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This study presents case studies of selected remanufacturing operations in Japan. It investigates Japanese companies' motives\\u000a and incentives for remanufacturing, clarifies the requirements and obstacles facing remanufacturers, itemizes what measures\\u000a companies take to address them, and discusses the influence of Japanese laws related to remanufacturing.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This study involves case studies of four product areas: photocopiers, single-use cameras, auto parts, and

Mitsutaka Matsumoto; Yasushi Umeda

2011-01-01

287

Distribution of scientific researchers in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to evaluate the research activities of Japanese scientists internationally, the author researches organizations, institutions, and their locations, which Japanese scientists belong to, by analysing "Current Contents Address Directory - Science & Technology 1984". By the analysis of scientists in major cities and universities in Japan, it became obvious that the majority of Japanese scientists are concentrated in national universities and government-supported institutions. Such a concentration is traced back to the foundation of national universities (ex-Teidai) by the Meiji Government about 100 years ago.

Sawai, Kiyoshi

288

Non-Commercial Audiovisual Instructional Materials in Japan. AVE in Japan No. 24.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report outlines the history of non-commercial and local production of audiovisual instructional materials in Japan since World War II, discusses current trends in instructional materials usage, and presents four case studies of materials production at the prefectural level. Topics addressed include: (1) materials production prior to the…

Takakuwa, Yasuo

289

Disaster relief activities of the Japan self-defense force following the great East Japan earthquake.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Cooperation between civilian and military forces, including the Japan Self-Defense Force (JSDF), enabled wide-ranging disaster relief after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Nevertheless, many preventable fatalities occurred, particularly related to an inability to treat chronic disease, indicating the need to plan for the provision of long-term medical aid after natural disasters in stricken areas and evacuation shelters. To assist in this effort, this report (1) provides an overview of the consequences of the medical response to the Great East Japan Earthquake, the largest natural disaster ever to hit Japan, focusing on the role and actions of the JSDF; (2) discusses the lessons learned regarding the provision of medical aid and management by the JSDF after this disaster, looking at the special challenges of meeting the needs of a rapidly aging population in a disaster situation; and (3) provides recommendations for the development of strategies for the long-term medical aid and support after natural disasters, especially with regard to the demographics of the Japanese population. PMID:24901381

Nishiyama, Yasumasa

2014-06-01

290

Japan Technology Program Assessment. Simulation: State-of the-Art in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes the current state-of-the-art of simulation in Japan, and provides some insight into the future directions the Japanese are likely to pursue. It is divided into three parts. In part one, the authors provide a translation of a paper th...

A. Jones

1995-01-01

291

Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in Japan: results from the World Mental Health Japan Survey.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to report the prevalence of trauma exposure and PTSD, conditional risk of PTSD associated with each trauma exposure in the community population in Japan. An interview survey was conducted of a random sample of adult residents in 11 communities of Japan. Among 4134 respondents (response rate, 55%), data from those who completed the part 2 interview (n = 1682) were analyzed with a weight for this subsample. Lifetime experiences of 27 trauma events and PTSD were assessed using the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. Sixty percent of the part 2 sample reported exposure to at least one lifetime traumatic event. Lifetime and 12-month PTSD prevalences were 1.3% and 0.7%, respectively. Percentage of all months lived with PTSD in the population was predominantly accounted for by physical/sexual assaults and having a child with serious illness, and unexpected death of loved one. Ten percent of respondents reported "private events", for which respondents did not have to describe the content, which accounted for 19% of months with PTSD. The lower prevalence of PTSD in Japan seems attributable to lower conditional risks of PTSD following these events, as well as different distributions of the events. The greater impact of events that occurred to loved ones rather than to oneself and "private events" on PTSD in Japan warrants further research of cross-cultural assessment of trauma exposure and cultural heterogeneity in the trauma-PTSD relationship. PMID:24572682

Kawakami, Norito; Tsuchiya, Masao; Umeda, Maki; Koenen, Karestan C; Kessler, Ronald C

2014-06-01

292

A Short History of Audiovisual Education in Japan. AVE in Japan No. 25.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief history of audiovisual education in Japan covers (1) the utilization of slides, films, and radio prior to 1945; (2) film education activities after World War II; (3) the establishment and objectives of the Audiovisual Education Division of the Ministry of Education; (4) educational film production from 1945-1954; (5) the use of films in…

Japan Audio-Visual Education Association, Tokyo.

293

Paleomagnetism of the early Miocene Kani group in southwest Japan and its implication for the opening of the Japan Sea  

SciTech Connect

Paleomagnetic directions of a volcanic and sedimentary sequence of the Kani Basin, ranging from 22 to 15 Ma, show a clockwise declination shift of about 50{degree}. This result implies that detectable rotation of Southwest Japan did not occur in this period, but after 15 Ma. The initial opening of the Japan Sea before 15 Ma might have caused a southeastward translation of Southwest Japan, which was then followed by clockwise rotation between 16 and 14 Ma.

Hayashida, Akira; Fukui, Takako (Doshisha Univ., Kyoto (Japan)); Torii, Masayuki (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

1991-06-01

294

Human intestinal spirochaetosis in northern Japan.  

PubMed

A histological diagnosis of human intestinal spirochaetosis (HIS) was made in 114 patients during the period 1994-2007. All patients lived in three prefectures in the northern part of Honshu, Japan. Most patients were elderly and male. Twenty-nine patients complained of abdominal pain, bloody stools, diarrhoea or bowel symptoms, but most patients showed no direct symptoms of bowel disease, and occult faecal blood detected at medical check-up was the main reason for colonoscopic examination. There were no homosexual patients and no immunosuppressed patients. HIS was evenly distributed throughout the whole colorectum. PCR analysis of Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira pilosicoli revealed that more patients were infected with B. aalborgi. Follow-up PCR studies confirmed that infestation with B. aalborgi could be repeatedly detected over a 6 year period. This study, involving over 100 patients, identified the characteristic features of HIS in northern Japan. The results suggest that these spirochaetes may be harmless commensals that cause no obvious pathological alterations in infected individuals. PMID:20378723

Sato, Hajime; Nakamura, Shin-ichi; Habano, Wataru; Wakabayashi, Go; Adachi, Yoshikazu

2010-07-01

295

Kampo medicine for palliative care in Japan  

PubMed Central

Kampo medicines are currently manufactured under strict quality controls. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan has approved 148 Kampo formulas. There is increasing evidence for the efficacy of Kampo medicines, and some are used clinically for palliative care in Japan. The specific aim of this review is to evaluate the clinical use of Kampo medicines in palliative care in the treatment of cancer. The conclusions are as follows: Juzentaihoto inhibits the progression of liver tumors in a dose-dependent manner and contributes to long-term survival. Hochuekkito has clinical effects on cachexia for genitourinary cancer and improves the QOL and immunological status of weak patients, such as postoperative patients. Daikenchuto increases intestinal motility and decreases the postoperative symptoms of patients with total gastrectomy with jejunal pouch interposition, suppresses postoperative inflammation following surgery for colorectal cancer, and controls radiation-induced enteritis. Rikkunshito contributes to the amelioration of anorectic conditions in cancer cachexia-anorexia syndrome. Goshajinkigan and Shakuyakukanzoto reduce the neurotoxicity of patients with colorectal cancer who undergo oxaliplatin and FOLFOX (5-fluorouracil/folinic acid plus oxaliplatin) therapy. Hangeshashinto has the effect of preventing and alleviating diarrhea induced by CPT-11(irinotecan) and combination therapy with S-1/CPT-11. O’rengedokuto significantly improves mucositis caused by anticancer agents.

2014-01-01

296

Cost of Depression Among Adults in Japan  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the annual national cost of major depressive disorder among adults 20 years and older in Japan in 2008. Method: The analysis used was a top-down costing approach based on national health statistics. From the societal perspective, the costs examined were direct medical costs, depression-related suicide costs, and workplace costs for all members of society. Direct medical costs included both inpatient and outpatient medical costs, while workplace costs included both absenteeism and presenteeism costs. The authors performed 1-way sensitivity analyses to examine the extent to which results were affected by the choice of parameters used in the cost calculation. All costs were expressed in 2008 US dollar terms. Results: The economic burden of depression in Japan was approximately $11 billion, with $1,570 million relating to direct medical costs, $2,542 million to depression-related suicide costs, and $6,912 million to workplace costs. Compared to previously published studies, this study adopted conservative key assumptions; this may have resulted in a conservative estimate of the annual national cost of depression. Conclusions: Depression imposes a substantial economic burden on Japanese society, which highlights the urgent need for policymakers to allocate resources toward implementing strategies that prevent and manage depression in the Japanese population.

Higuchi, Teruhiko

2011-01-01

297

Japan's aging population. Implications for healthcare.  

PubMed

In the early years of the next century, the Japanese population may well become the oldest in the world. The Japanese government's concentration on post-World War II economic expansion meant that the government only fully woke up to the financial implications of having a large elderly population when oil prices were raised in the 1970s, highlighting Japan's economic dependence on global markets. This article explains the process by which policy regarding Japan's elderly developed both before and after these oil price increases. The measures of healthcare cost containment that the government introduced in response to the increased financial pressure are described, with a particular focus on pharmaceuticals. This article shows that the government has achieved a degree of success in terms of containing pharmaceutical costs, but that future effects on the quality of healthcare are uncertain. Ultimately, a wider application of a per diem fee in place of the prevalent fee-for-service system, and the realisation of plans to improve the social service infrastructure, would be the best path for policy to follow. PMID:10172965

Oliver, A J; Ikegami, N; Ikeda, S

1997-04-01

298

Two new chondrite-falls in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Circumstances of two recent chondrite falls in the northern part of Honshu, Japan, are reported, the first (Aomori) at 1:50 p.m. on June 30, 1984 and the second (Tomiya) at 1:35 p.m. on August 22, 1984. Results of chemical analyses of major elements and composition ratios indicate that the meteorites are typical L- and H-group ordinary chondrites, respectively. In the Aomori, chondrules are present as relicts in the well-crystallized matrix. Olivine and pyroxene are homogeneous in composition, and coarse clear feldspar, up to 100 micrometers in size, is wll developed in the chondrules and matrix. Though the Aomori is a petrologic type 6 based on its texture and mineralogy, it includes a few grains of multiple twinned clinbronzite which is rarely observed in high equilibrated ordinary chondrites. In the Tomiya, chondrules possess a fine-grained mesostasis, and both orthopyroxene and clinobronzite are noticeable in thin sections; this meteorite was classified to be petrologic type between 4 and 5. The deformation texture of olivine, pyroxene and plagioclase indicates that both meteorites were shocked by 0.2-0.25 Mb. In conjunction with the discussion of the frequency of meteorite falls, all observed falls of meteorites in Japan are tabulated.

Shima, M.; Murayama, S.; Wakabayashi, F.; Okada, A.; Yabuki, H.

1986-03-01

299

Rail safety and rail privatisation in Japan.  

PubMed

Over the period from 1980 to the present, the economic status of the main line railway systems in many developed countries has changed, by privatisation or economic deregulation or both. The principal aims of such changes have been to improve the economic performance of the railways, and not to change the safety performance. Nevertheless, it is recognised that changing the organisational structure of railways might affect safety. The empirical evidence of the effect of restructuring on safety is limited, both in railways and in other industries. This paper adds to the empirical evidence by analysing train accidents in Japan before and after the privatisation of the Japanese National Railways (JNR) in 1987. The paper finds that the JNR achieved downward trends in the mean number of train accidents per train-kilometre in the 16 years 1971-1986, and the paper takes the extrapolation of these favourable trends as the yardstick by which to judge the safety performance of the privatised railways. The paper finds that the privatised railway had fewer train accidents in total than this yardstick in 1987-2006. This finding applies whether or not the high-speed Shinkansen train operations are included. Thus there is no evidence that rail privatisation in Japan had an adverse effect on train accidents. The methods adopted and the results are similar to those previously found by the author for rail privatisation in Great Britain. PMID:20441845

Evans, Andrew W

2010-07-01

300

U.S., Japan Approach New Era in Science and Technology Relations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the status of U.S.-Japan relations regarding science and technology. Describes Japan's science and technology structure. Outlines trends in cooperation and competition for the technology market between the U.S. and Japan. (CW)

Lepkowski, Wil

1988-01-01

301

78 FR 60897 - Certain Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe From Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Second Review)] Certain Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe From Japan Determination On...antidumping duty order on certain welded large diameter line pipe from Japan would likely to...2013), entitled Certain Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe from Japan:...

2013-10-02

302

Development of the Rubella Vaccine and Vaccination Strategy in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the rubella vaccine and vaccination strategy in Japan was unique. Five rubella vaccines used in Japan were licensed, and the rubella vaccination program to schoolgirls was started in 1977. The measles-mumps-rubella vaccination to children, which was started in 1989, was terminated in 1993 due to the adverse effect of aseptic meningitis. In 1994, rubella vaccination to children,

Kohji Ueda

2009-01-01

303

End-of-Life Ethical Issues in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the end-of-life ethical issues of disclosure of information to the terminally ill patient, informed consent, and overtreatment for the elderly people of Japan. These issues are placed within the cultural context of Japan, which is discussing and developing ways to deal with them. The ethical problems that nurses confront when they work clinically with elderly patients also

Anne J. Davis; Emiko Konishi

2000-01-01

304

Paleomagnetic evidence for the clockwise rotation of Southwest Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 500 oriented samples of felsic rocks of Cretaceous to Middle Miocene age were collected along the Go River in the central part of Southwest Japan, in an attempt to detect the process of tectonic rotation of Southwest Japan from the paleomagnetic view point. Thermal demagnetization was successful in isolating characteristic directions from the remanent magnetization of samples. Reliability of

Yo-Ichiro Otofuji; Takaaki Matsuda

1983-01-01

305

The Politics of Religion: Modernity, Nationhood and Education in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While religion in Japan is traditionally linked to nationhood and nation-building, the post-war period has seen Shinto consciously invoked to restore a sense of national identity through a focus on Japan's victimhood. In this context, there is a focus on the Yasukuni Shrine, dedicated to the war dead and an icon of contemporary Japanese cultural…

Shibata, Masako

2008-01-01

306

Research and development on ocean thermal energy conversion in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, review of OTEC R&D activity in Japan and proposal of OTEC R&D program is made. In Japan, a feasibility study on OTEC power plant has been conducted under the leadership of a team of 'Sunshine Project', a national new energy development project promoted by the Ministry of International Trade and Industries (MITI) since 1974. OTEC Committee carries

H. Uehara

1979-01-01

307

Arms production in Japan: The military applications of civilian technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author examines both the domestic and international environments encouraging Japan's leaders not only to strengthen the country's defense, but to do so more independently. Until recently, the arms industry has been nurtured by U.S. weapons technology, but growing dependence on electronics dramatically increases Japan's contribution to modern weapons systems. The electronics revolution is creating more and more dual-purpose products,

Drifte

1986-01-01

308

Application of gas insulated transformers to underground substations in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentration of population and business activities result in high electricity demand in urban areas in Japan. Underground or indoor substations are required to comply with the increasing demand for electricity. Electric utility companies in Japan studied this situation and came to conclude that underground or indoor substations applying gas insulated transformers (GIT) together with gas insulated switchgears (GIS) would be

S. Tsukao; Y. Oue; Y. Hasegawa

2002-01-01

309

Filipino Migrations to Japan: From Surrogate Americans to Feminized Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

the light of the movement of female entertainers and their subsequent residence as wives and mothers of Japanese nationals. Such discussions refl ect certain of the realities of Filipinos' experiences in Japan. However, when we adopt longer historical and gender perspectives, the infl ux of Filipinos into Japan begins to illuminate other important dimensions of Filipino-Japanese relations. This paper discusses

Nobue Suzuki

310

Aquacultural Survey in Japan. (JA-639.3-S355).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this survey was to assess the value of Japan's aquacultural methods in terms of direct or indirect application in other countries, and to evaluate present and future status of aquacultures in Japan. The aquacultures discussed are: Ayu, Japa...

H. R. Schmittou

1972-01-01

311

Quantitative Easing: A Rationale and Some Evidence from Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the rationale for quantitative easing when central bank policy rates reach near zero levels in light of recent announcements regarding direct asset purchases by the Bank of England, the Bank of Japan, the U.S. Federal Reserve and the European Central Bank. Empirical evidence from the previous period of quantitative easing in Japan between 2001 and 2006 is

Volker Wieland

2009-01-01

312

Quantitative Easing: A Rationale and Some Evidence from Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the rationale for quantitative easing when central bank policy rates reach near zero levels in light of recent announcements regarding direct asset purchases by the Bank of England, the Bank of Japan, the U.S. Federal Reserve and the European Central Bank. Empirical evidence from the previous period of quantitative easing in Japan between 2001 and 2006 is

Volker Wieland

2010-01-01

313

Growth Characteristics of Tea Plants and Tea Fields in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 12th century, the Buddhist priest Eisai brought tea (Camellia sinensis L.) seeds to Japan from China and now tea plants are cultivated all over Japan except in the Hokkaido and Tohoku districts. The quality (reflected in the price) of Japanese green tea is affected by the nitrogen content. Consequently in tea fields, for last three decades large amounts of

Hiromi Yokota; Akio Morita; Faezeh Ghanati

2005-01-01

314

JPRS Report, Science Technology, Japan, Polymers for Microelectronics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains selected abstracts from PME '89 POLYMERS FOR MICROELECTRONICS held 29 Oct - 2 Nov 89 in Tokyo, sponsored by the Japan Society of Radiation Chemistry and cosponsored by the Japan Society of Polymer Science and the Chemical Society of Ja...

1990-01-01

315

Japan and the United States 2004-2005: Going Global.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

2004 proved to be an exceptional year for U.S.-Japan security cooperation. The alliance was strengthened by a number of legislative changes in Japan allowing the Self Defense Force (SDF) to work more closely with the U.S. military in providing logistical ...

D. Fouse

2005-01-01

316

Digital Technology at the National Science Museum of Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Science Museum (NSM) in Japan has recently completed a project using different types of visitor-oriented digital technologies. With sponsorship from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), the NSM team carried out a four-year study to examine how digital technologies can be used to enhance as well as educationally…

Lydens, Lois; Saito, Yasuji; Inoue, Tohru

2007-01-01

317

Tax Compliances in Korea and Japan: Why are they different?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the determinants of tax compliance, and illustrate why they have different levels of tax compliance between Korea and Japan. Japan has much higher level of policies in both tax audit and penalty structures than those of Korea. The disclosure policy of tax information is also different, such that an amount of tax evasion and the information about tax

Jin Kwon Hyun

318

Transfer of environmentally sound technologies from japan to china  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the transfer of environmentally sound technology from Japan to developing countries, particularly China. The focus is on the main Japanese organizations involved in environmentally sound technology transfer, including government agencies, non-governmental organizations, and Japanese industry. The article also describes the main activities involved in Japan's technology transfer efforts, such as grants, loan, information exchange, and demonstration projects,

Shouchuan Asuka-Zhang

1999-01-01

319

Tokugawa Japan and Industrial Revolution Britain: Two Misunderstood Societies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author presents a truer picture than economic historians have previously had of the economies of Tokugawa Japan, and Britain during the Industrial Revolution. Though substantially different, both societies were prosperous compared to most of the rest of the world. Japan's economic success began in the Tokugawa period…

Ellington, Lucien

2013-01-01

320

Caught in the Middle East: Japan's diplomacy in transition  

SciTech Connect

Japan's increasing dependence on Persian Gulf oil has caused its U.S.-centered foreign policy to shift. Drawing on personal interviews with senior Japanese officials, the author discusses Japan's changing diplomacy in regard to such problems as the Iran-Iraq war, Soviet aggression, and the Palestinian struggle for autonomy.

Yoshitsu, M.M.

1984-01-01

321

Overview of Pre-College Science Education in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The status of pre-college science education in Japan is reviewed and analyzed in this paper from four different perspectives having to do with the impact of the national syllabus and with social problems, teacher problems, and the changes occurring with students. Japan's national syllabus is explained and elements related to its implementation,…

Oki, Michinori

322

The English Language in Japan: History, Attitudes, and Functions. Introduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces this special issue on the English language in Japan, which focuses on the historical phases of the introduction of English, the role of English in the educational system and the media, the contact and convergence of Japanese and English, the functions of English in Japan, and Japanese attitudes toward English. (three references) (MDM)

Kachru, Braj B.; Smith, Larry E.

1995-01-01

323

Japan in the Classroom: Elementary and Secondary Activities, Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity book is designed to present information and insights on Japanese culture and society. Because few teachers can devote entire units to the study of Japan, the activities focus on teaching about Japan within the context of larger social science units. Some of the lessons can be taught within the context of the humanities and fine arts,…

Parisi, Lynn; And Others

324

Strategic Railway Systems Using ADS Technologies in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author reviews how JR East (East Japan Railway Company) as a leading passenger railway company in Japan has constructed, starting since 1987, the Strategic Railway Systems (SRS), which are necessarily required for the management of a privatized company and which can be a powerful tool for the enhancement of management efficiency. The paper discusses the underlying basic concept and

Yoshio Ishida

2003-01-01

325

The Independent Living Movement in Asia: Solidarity from Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Independent living movements of disabled people are emerging in Asian countries, supported by independent living centres (ILCs) in Japan. A study was conducted in Japan to explore the impact of the training program offered by Japanese ILCs to disabled people from other Asian countries. A sample of 35 people was selected by a snowballing method.…

Hayashi, Reiko; Okuhira, Masako

2008-01-01

326

A review of liquid rocket propulsion programs in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment of Japan's current capabilities in the areas of space and transatmospheric propulsion is presented. The primary focus is upon Japan's programs in liquid rocket propulsion and in space plane and related transatmospheric areas. Brief reference is also made to their solid rocket programs, as well as to their supersonic air breathing propulsion efforts that are just getting underway.

Merkle, Charles L.

1991-01-01

327

Why did Countries Adopt the Gold Standard? Lessons from Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why did policymakers adopt the gold standard? Although previous research has identified ex post effects of gold standard adoption on trade and bond yields, few studies have sought to understand whether these were the actual outcomes of interest to policymakers at the time of adoption. We examine the political economy of Japan’s adoption of the gold standard in 1897 by

Kris James Mitchener; Masato Shizume; Marc D. Weidenmier

2009-01-01

328

An Animated ImbalanceJapan's Television Heroines in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along with Japanese children, other Asian children are watching such cartoon shows as Doraemon, Dragonball Z and Sailor Moon. Animated cartoons, accounting for 58.3 percent of Japan's television exports, reach Asia's large youth population, just as the birth rate in Japan is declining. In Asia, animation constitutes the largest category of children's television programming (28.4 percent) - almost all of

Anne Cooper-Chen

1999-01-01

329

Managing borders and managing bodies in contemporary Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matters of border control in twenty-first-century Japan interact with current social issues involving demography, the labour market and economic relationships with other countries in the region. Japan faces a rapidly ageing population, the highest life expectancy in the world, a birth rate well below replacement level and a shrinking population. Smaller families find it difficult to provide primary care for

Vera Mackie

2010-01-01

330

The Probability and Potential of a Pluralistic Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, amidst an unprecedented flow of people from country to country, Japan has remained almost a passive observer - satisfied to keep stringent entrance barriers intact for the sake of preserving the cultural status quo. However, with a sharply falling birth rate, rapidly aging population, labour shortage, and economic stagnation, Japan's lawmakers and bureaucrats have recently begun to initiate debate

Julian Chapple

331

Newborn Screening in Japan: Restructuring for the New Era  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nationwide neonatal mass screening for inherited metabolic diseases has started in Japan since 1977. At least 8000 children have probably been spared from handicaps resulting from such diseases over the past 30 years. Recently remarkable changes have been made to the evolving neonatal screening system. Declining birth rate and economic problems in Japan have demanded a more effective neonatal screening

Seiji Yamaguchi

2008-01-01

332

Bunko: Private Mini-Libraries for Children in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Bunko" are local mini-libraries for children in Japan, operated voluntarily by individuals or groups of parents, intended to nurture children's reading interest by offering them an inviting reading environment. In 1993, there were an estimated 4,000 bunko in Japan, with approximately 32,000 adult bunko members (90% female). Bunko members…

Takeuchi, Satoru

333

Recent aspects of gestational trophoblastic disease in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regional registration in 11 prefectures and one area covering 34% of total Japanese population started in 1974, increasing gradually to 21 prefectures and one area in 1993 covering 48.5% of total Japanese populations, by the Japan Trophoblastic Disease Committee under the auspices of Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology. The results showed marked decreasing trend in incidence of molar

Tamotsu Hando; Masaguki Ohno; Takaaki Kurose

1998-01-01

334

Prescription for the 21st Century Population Problem in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of birth in advanced countries is decreasing while the aged population grows. In Japan, such tendency is distinctive. The birth number of 2.1 or more per each woman is said to be crucial to sustain the population in one country. This value in Japan is only 1.38, and this indicates a necessity of immediate response. We present a

Akira Uchino; Takahiro Kojima

335

Does Japan offer any lessons for the United States?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the late 1990s, some observers began to make comparisons between the rapid rise in stock prices then taking place in the United States and the escalation in asset values in Japan in the late 1980s. Did Japan's experience, which was followed by more than a decade of stagnation, contain any cautionary lessons for the United States? With the recent

Lynn Elaine Browne

2001-01-01

336

Japan: Super-Aging Society Preparing for the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Japan has the highest proportion of older adults in the world. Aging is not only an immediate personal issue but also a salient factor in crucial public policies, such as pensions, health, and long-term care. The Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear power plant disaster of March 2011 has highlighted current and emerging issues of a…

Muramatsu, Naoko; Akiyama, Hiroko

2011-01-01

337

Genetic characterization of coronaviruses from domestic ferrets, Japan.  

PubMed

We detected ferret coronaviruses in 44 (55.7%) of 79 pet ferrets tested in Japan and classified the viruses into 2 genotypes on the basis of genotype-specific PCR. Our results show that 2 ferret coronaviruses that cause feline infectious peritonitis-like disease and epizootic catarrhal enteritis are enzootic among ferrets in Japan. PMID:24447852

Terada, Yutaka; Minami, Shohei; Noguchi, Keita; Mahmoud, Hassan Y A H; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Masami; Une, Yumi; Maeda, Ken

2014-02-01

338

Better Off Jobless? Scarring Effects of Contingent Employment in Japan  

PubMed Central

Previous research fails to address whether contingent employment benefits individuals’ careers more than the alternative they often face: being without a job. Using work history data from Japan, this study shows that accepting a contingent job delays individuals’ transition to standard employment more than remaining jobless. Moreover, having a contingent job, rather than having no job, leads Japanese men to have lower occupational status after they transition back to standard employment. I argue that in a highly segmented labor market like Japan’s, the strict separation of labor pools for standard and contingent jobs makes being labeled as a contingent worker particularly detrimental. Meanwhile, the legacy of Japan’s welfare corporatism alleviates the stigma of unemployment, making individuals better off jobless than having a contingent job. This research thus demonstrates the importance of labor-market contexts in shaping the scarring effects of contingent work arrangements.

Yu, Wei-hsin

2011-01-01

339

Pediatric allergy and immunology in Japan.  

PubMed

The Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (JSPACI) was started in 1966 and currently has 3613 members as of August 1, 2012. The number of pediatricians specializing in allergies who have been certified by the Japanese Society of Allergology is 817. Among these, there are 125 training directors and training facilities for allergy and clinical immunology. The JSPACI first published an asthma guideline specific for children in 2000, and this has been revised every 3 yrs, contributing to better control of pediatric asthma. Food allergy management guidelines were first developed in 2005, which have helped to improve the care of food allergy patients. Among 514 pediatric training programs by the Japanese Society of Pediatrics, there are 312 facilities routinely performing oral food challenges. Among these, there were already 53 facilities performing oral immunotherapy at the end of 2011, treating 1400 cases of food allergy. The prevalence of pediatric allergic diseases has increased in Japan over the past 50 yrs. A number of International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood surveys have been conducted in the past at specific times. The prevalence of wheezing among children aged 13-14 yrs in 2002 was 13.0%. Multi-year surveys found a 1.5- to 2-fold increase every 10 yrs until 2002. However, according to the latest data in 2012, asthma prevalence seems to have slightly decreased in Japan. Food allergy mainly associated with infantile atopic eczema among infants younger than 1 yr of age is the most common form as with other developed countries. The estimated food allergy prevalence based on data from several surveys is 5-10% among infants (0-6 yrs) and 1-2% among schoolchildren (6-15 yrs). A variety of patients suffering from primary deficiency syndrome have been actively analyzed. Previously, antibody defects and well-defined syndromes with immunodeficiency were analyzed, but recent research is focusing on not only acquired immune disorders but also on innate immune disorders. In contrast to the widespread use of oral immunotherapy, one immediate issue is to develop and reassess subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapies for mite and Japanese cedar pollen antigens that have been disused in Japan since the 1990s. PMID:24112430

Ebisawa, Motohiro; Nishima, Sankei; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Kondo, Naomi

2013-11-01

340

Overview of DRAGON-Japan in 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) is an on-going project since early 1990s. The 400 sun/sky radiometers are sparsely deployed and provide us with the information of aerosol properties over the world. In summer of 2011, the first DRAGON field campaign was made in Washington, D.C./Baltimore metropolitan area, where about 40 AERONET Cimel instruments were set according to small square grid boxes. Thus it has been shown that the detail scale observations are useful to investigate the local influence of aerosols and validation of high resolution satellite product such as newly developed 3 km x 3 km aerosol product from MODIS. The second DRAGON project is done in East Asia because this region emits huge amount of anthropogenic gases and aerosols. The emission influences not only local atmosphere near the origin but also out of Asian continent by long range transportation. The aim of DRAGON-Japan is as follows: 1: retrieval of optical properties of trans-boundary aerosols, 2: detection of aerosols over megacity, 3: investigation of the influence to local aerosols by inbound aerosols from continent. During the DRAGON-Asia (March-May, 2012), AERONET instruments were set sparsely from Fukue Island (in the East China Sea) to Osaka (in the middle of Japan) as well as 2ch-LIDAR system. As for megacity region, dense sun/sky radiometer network was made by using nine instruments at Mt. Rokko (840 m/asl.), Mt. Ikoma (640 m/asl.), Kobe, North-Osaka, South-Osaka, Central-Osaka, East-Osaka (simply named by Osaka in AERONET web), Nara, and Kyoto. The following results on AOT (Aerosol optical thickness at a wavelength of 500 nm: AERONET Level 1.5) have been driven from the measurements : 1: Fukue Island provides the highest value as 0.56, 2: in respect of urban cities; 0.42 at Fukuoka, 0.42~0.47 over Osaka area, and 0.39 at Kyoto or Nara, 3: in the remote place; 0.33~0.35 at Nishiharima, Noto or Shirahama, 4: the difference between AOT values at mountain (ex. Mt. Rokko, Mt. Ikoma) and those at sea level takes the value of about 0.1. It is drawn from the above facts that the influence of inbound aerosols to total one is really high in western part of Japan.

Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.; Mukai, S.; Sugimoto, N.; Hatakeyama, S.; Schafer, J. S.; Eck, T. F.; Nishizawa, T.; Takemura, T.; Takamura, T.; Teruyuki, N.; Nakajima, T. Y.; Takami, A.; Kaneyasu, N.; Goto, M.; Hiraki, T.; Iguchi, N.; Kenny, P.; Kouzai, K.; Kuji, M.; Muramatsu, K.; Nakata, M.; Okada, Y.; Sadanaga, Y.; Sorokin, M.; Tohno, S.; Toyazaki, Y.; Kim, J.; Li, Z.

2012-12-01

341

NASDA and the Space Industry in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With over 30 years of history in space activities, Japan is now recognized as one of space powers in the world. Compared to other countries though, the features of Japanese space development are unique in several aspects. At first, its efforts are directed solely toward peaceful purposes and strictly separated from military uses. Secondly, there are many space related governmental agencies and institutes which are under supervision of different ministries. Thirdly, although the government budget is moderate and sales revenue of space industries is not so large, many large companies in aerospace or electronics industries see the importance of this business and compete each other mainly in the domestic market. NASDA, founded in 1969, is the largest governmental space organization and has played an important role in realizing practical applications of space activities. It has rapidly caught up the technology gap behind leading countries and has achieved remarkable successes with its own launch vehicles and satellites. Space industries, under the guidance of NASDA, have learned much from the U.S. companies and improved their technology levels and enjoyed steady growth during the early stage of Japanese space development. But before they became competitive enough in the world space business, the trade conflict between Japan and the U.S. made the procurement of Japanese non-R&D satellites open to the foreign satellite companies. Furthermore, interruptions of space activities due to recent successive failures of launch vehicles as well as Japanese economic slump have made space industries face hard situations. Under these circumstances, M&A of launch vehicle companies as well as satellite makers took place for the first time in Japanese aero-space history. Also at the government level, reorganization of space agencies is now under process. It is expected as a natural consequence of the merge of the Ministry of Education and the Science an Technology Agency, three space agencies under these Ministries, NASDA, ISAS and NAL, are going to consolidate within a couple of years. We expect the new organization could restore the confidence in Japanese space development by combining the enthusiasms for space activities and utilize effectively resources in Japan.

Takamatsu, Hideo

2002-01-01

342

Paleomagnetic evidence for the Miocene counter-clockwise rotation of Northeast Japan-rifting process of the Japan arc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleomagnetic results have been obtained from more than 700 oriented samples in igneous rocks of Cretaceous to Miocene age from Northeast Japan. The remanent magnetizations of welded tuffs with age between 32 Ma and 21 Ma old from 17 widely distributed sampling sites in Northeast Japan are fairly well grouped with a mean of D = -41.2°, I = 56.5°,

Yo-Ichiro Otofuji; Takaaki Matsuda; Susumu Nohda

1985-01-01

343

Sodium-sulfur battery program in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An 11-year program was started in Japan in 1980 to develop new electric-energy storage systems. The advanced batteries chosen for this project are sodium-sulfur, zinc-chlorine, zinc-bromine, and Redox batteries. Here, the development of a Na/S battery is discussed. The battery consists of a series of cells containing beta-alumina tubes as electrolyte and molten sodium and sulfur as active materials. A 1kW/8kWh battery is to be built by the end of 1983. The system, if successful, will be scaled up to 10kW/80kWh by the end of 1986 and to 1MW/8MWh in 1987. The basic design features of the 1kW/8kWh battery and its expected performance characteristics are presented.

Fuchida, K.; Okada, K.; Iwabuchi, S.; Yokoyama, T.; Nakahara, K.

344

Online database of archaeomagnetism in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are now reconstructing the archaeomagnetic database and the geomagnetic secular variation model for the past 2000 years in Japan. Here we introduce a new online database of archaeomagnetism. There are several thousands of archaeomagnetic data mainly obtained from buried kilns and baked earths. Our goal is collecting and compiling these data and publishing to the geoscientists, the archaeologist, the people involved in education, students and citizens interested in geomagnetism and archaeology. Now we support a search engine of the archaeomagnetic data of direction and intensity, links to the references and sites outside, the site locations on a map and the educational documents (only in Japanese). We have a future plan to provide database improved and secular variation model reduced to given location in the Far East region.

Hatakeyama, T.

2013-12-01

345

A perspective on space robotics in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the research and development status and perspective on space robotics in Japan. The R & D status emphasizes the current on-going projects at NASDA including the JEM Remote Manipulator System (JEMRMS) to be used on Space Station Freedom and the robotics experiments on Engineering Satellite 7 (ETS-7). As a future perspective, not only NASDA, but also ISAS and other government institutes have been promoting their own research in space robotics in order to support wide spread space activities in the future. Included in this future research is an autonomous satellite retrieval experiment, a dexterous robot experiment, an on-orbit servicing platform, an IVA robot, and several moon/planetary rovers proposed by NASDA or ISAS and other organizations.

Ohkami, Yoshiaki; Nakatani, Ichiro; Wakabayashi, Yasufumi; Iwata, Tsutomu

1994-01-01

346

Survey of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in Japan.  

PubMed

Investigators conducted a retrospective epidemiological study of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a fatal disease caused by measles infection, over the past few years in Japan. Data on 118 cases obtained from a questionnaire sent to attending physicians were analyzed. The annual incidence of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was approximately 0.03 cases per million from 2001 to 2005. Children infected with measles at a young age (<12 months) showed a high incidence of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, and those infected before 6 months of age showed earlier onset. Because a positive correlation was found between the prevalence of measles and the onset of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, particularly among children infected at an early age, it is vital to eradicate measles infection by vaccination. PMID:22408143

Abe, Yusaku; Hashimoto, Koichi; Iinuma, Kazuie; Ohtsuka, Yoko; Ichiyama, Takashi; Kusuhara, Koichi; Nomura, Keiko; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Aiba, Hideo; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

2012-12-01

347

Short report: Venomous snake bites in Japan.  

PubMed

Few reliable data are available on the incidence of snake bites in developing and developed nations. Insufficient epidemiologic data have hindered the recognition of snake bite as an important public health issue. We verified statistics of snake bites (mamushi and habu bites) in Japan by using a currently available, nationally representative, hospital-based database. We identified 1,670 inpatients with snake bites from 404 hospitals during July 1-December 31 in 2007 and 2008. More than 60% were males, the average age was 60.1 years, and the in-hospital mortality rate was 0.2%. The incidence of mamushi bite, distributed between latitudes 30°N and 46°N, was estimated to be 1.67 bites/100,000/6 months. It is important to continue collecting all available data to monitor the trends of this life-threatening disease. PMID:21212215

Yasunaga, Hideo; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Kuwabara, Kazuaki; Hashimoto, Hideki; Matsuda, Shinya

2011-01-01

348

Ski slope vegetation in central Honshu, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To determine the status of the vegetation of ski slopes in northeastern-central Honshu, Japan, 94 plots (2×2 m) were set up on five ski areas (101-520 m elevation) which were established between 1945 and 1985 by forest clear-cutting, land modification, and seeding. Six vegetation types were recognized: five grasslands dominated by Digitaria adscendens, Miscanthus sinensis, Zoysia japonica, Festuca rubra, and Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum, respectively, and bare areas of very low to no vegetation cover. Of the dominant species, F. rubra is the only introduced species; it does not, however, appear to persist. After the introduced grassland declines M. sinensis or annual grasslands develop. Native plants, especially woody species, can establish in M. sinensis grassland but do not establish in the other grasslands. It is concluded that the introduction of exotic species is inappropriate to maintain ski slope vegetation, and the development of M. sinensis grassland is desirable to promote natural revegetation.

Tsuyuzaki, Shiro

1995-09-01

349

A perspective on space robotics in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report summarizes the research and development status and perspective on space robotics in Japan. The R & D status emphasizes the current on-going projects at NASDA including the JEM Remote Manipulator System (JEMRMS) to be used on Space Station Freedom and the robotics experiments on Engineering Satellite 7 (ETS-7). As a future perspective, not only NASDA, but also ISAS and other government institutes have been promoting their own research in space robotics in order to support wide spread space activities in the future. Included in this future research is an autonomous satellite retrieval experiment, a dexterous robot experiment, an on-orbit servicing platform, an IVA robot, and several moon/planetary rovers proposed by NASDA or ISAS and other organizations.

Ohkami, Yoshiaki; Nakatani, Ichiro; Wakabayashi, Yasufumi; Iwata, Tsutomu

1994-10-01

350

Japan’s search for an independent foreign policy: An American perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the analysis that follows, I will attempt to present an assessment of the costs and benefits of the U.S.-Japan bilateral alliance by examining three actual multilateral issues involving both sides: U.S. opposition to Western cooperation in the Soviet gas pipeline project, the humanitarian aspects of U.S. policy toward the holding of American hostages in Iran, and the U.S. request

Ronald A. Morse

1984-01-01

351

Paleoseismology off northern Japan: Sediments in the Japan Trench record earthquake activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Japan Trench subduction zone has repeatedly been affected by large earthquakes as most recently in 2011 by the giant magnitude 9 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Several studies indicate that the 2011 earthquake has induced large seafloor displacements and triggered submarine landslides and gravity flows. The depression of the Japan Trench floor acts as sediment trap, where earthquake triggered mass flows originating from the landward slope are deposited. Thus, the deep Trench floor (>7500 m water depth) is a suitable area to trace the paleoseismicity in the region. During the R/V SONNE cruise (SO219A) in 2012, sediment cores have been collected east of the 2011 earthquake epicenter in a 60 km north-south transect along the Japan Trench floor axis, as well as from a small basin on the upper mid slope. The sediment cores contain several turbidite sequences (few cm to m thick), mainly revealing a coarse sand layer on an erosive base and a gradually fining upward to hemipelagic diatomaceous mud. Tephrochronological analyses on intercalated ash layers within the records provide an age control and show that the cores cover the past ~15 ka. Detailed analyses of these records, by using their sedimentological and lithological characteristics, their physical properties (Multi Sensor Core Logging, MSCL) as well as their elemental composition (X-ray Fluorescence, XRF) allow to characterize and to identify specific turbidite units. We observe particular turbidite units with the same characteristics in different cores along the trench axis and on the mid slope. Besides the top-unit turbidite, being related to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, we detect a widespread unique calcareous nanno fossil bearing turbidite mud as well as some sand turbidite units of similar elemental composition within the records. Their large spatial extent suggests earthquake related trigger mechanisms. Thus, these event deposits sampled from the deep Japan Trench provide important information on the paleoseismic activity of the off Tohoku.

Fink, H. G.; Ikehara, K.; Kanamatsu, T.; Nagahashi, Y.; Koelling, M.; Strasser, M.; Wefer, G.

2013-12-01

352

Japan's Deflation and the Bank of Japan's Experience with Nontraditional Monetary Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers a brief summary of non-traditional monetary policy measures adopted by the Bank of Japan (BOJ) during the last two decades, especially the period between 1998-2006, when the so-called Zero Interest Rate Policy (ZIRP) and Quantitative Easing (QE) were put in place. The paper begins with a typology of policies usable at low interest and inflation rates. They

Kazuo Ueda

2010-01-01

353

Japan’s waste management policies for dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls  

Microsoft Academic Search

We summarize the measures taken by the Japanese government to prevent the emission of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls\\u000a (PCBs) into the environment. Because incineration is the main method of waste management in Japan, reducing the amount of\\u000a dioxins emitted from waste incinerators is an essential aspect of proper waste treatment. Intensive measures to prevent the\\u000a formation of dioxins at the

Hideto Yoshida; Kazuaki Takahashi; Nobuo Takeda; Shin-ichi Sakai

2009-01-01

354

Activities for the Promotion of Gender Equality in Japan-Japan Society of Applied Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1946, the Japan Society of Applied Physics (JSAP) has strived to promote research and development in applied physics for benefits beyond national boundaries. Activities of JSAP involve multidisciplinary fields, from physics and engineering to life sciences. Of its 23,000 members, 48% are from industry, 29% from academia, and about 7% from semi-autonomous national research laboratories. Its large industrial membership is one of the distinctive features of JSAP. In preparation for the First IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics (Paris, 2002), JSAP members took the first step under the strong leadership of then-JSAP President Toshio Goto, setting up the Committee for the Promotion Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Technology. Equality rather than women's advancement is highlighted to further development in science and technology. Attention is also paid to balancing the number of researchers from different age groups and affiliations. The committee has 22 members: 12 female and 10 male; 7 from corporations, 12 from universities, and 3 from semi-autonomous national research institutes. Its main activities are to organize symposia and meetings, conduct surveys among JSAP members, and provide child-care facilities at meetings and conferences. In 2002 the Japan Physics Society and the Chemical Society of Japan jointly created the Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association for the Promotion of Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering. Membership has grown to 44 societies (of which 19 are observers) ranging from mathematics, information, and life sciences to civil engineering. Joint activities across sectors and empower the whole. The Gender Equality Bureau in the Cabinet Office recently launched a large-scale project called ``Challenge Campaign'' to encourage girls to major in natural science and engineering, which JSAP is co-sponsoring.

Kodate, Kashiko; Tanaka, Kazuo

2005-10-01

355

[2006 Epidemiological survey of dermatomycoses in Japan].  

PubMed

An epidemiological survey of dermatomycoses and the causative fungus flora of dermatomycoses in Japan for 2006 was made on a total number of 63,029 outpatients who visited 16 dermatological clinics throughout Japan. The results were as follows. 1) Dermatophytosis was the most prevalent cutaneus fungal infection (7,582 cases) seen in these clinics, followed by candidiasis (842 cases) and then Malassezia infections (283 cases). 2) Among dermatophytoses, tinea pedis was the most frequent (4,779 cases : male 2,358, female 2,241), then in decreasing order, tinea unguium (2,582 cases : male 1,376, female 1,206), tinea corporis (564 cases : male 341, female 223), tinea cruris (309 cases : male 254, female 57), tinea manuum (145 cases : male 92, female 53), and tinea capitis including kerion (17 cases : male 12, female 5). 3) Tinea pedis and tinea unguium are seen to increase in the summer season, among the aged population. When compared to the last survey 2002 by clinical form, t. unguium patients increased 459 cases. 4) As the causative dermatophyte species, Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated among all dermatophyte infections except tinea capitis. Microsporum canis was slightly increased. M.gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum are small number. T.tonsurans was increased up to 37 cases. 5) Cutaneous candidiasis was seen in 842 cases (305 male, 537 female). Intertrigo (298 cases) was the most frequent clinical form, followed by erosion interdigitalis (136 cases), oral candidiasis (135 cases), onychia et paronychia (108 cases), genital and diaper candidiasis in total (88 cases). 6) Tinea versicolor was seen in 175 cases. Malassezia folliculitis were collected 108 cases, 63 cases are reported from one clinic. PMID:23149353

Sei, Yoshihiro

2012-01-01

356

Abyssal water mass exchange between the Japan and Yamato Basins in the Japan Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bottom water exchange between the Japan and Yamato Basins in the abyssal Japan Sea is investigated based on data from two research cruises in June 2010 and June 2011. Distributions of water properties and velocity profiles from CTD/LADCP observations revealed a two-layer water mass exchange in a rotating system. The cold Japan Basin Bottom Water (JBBW) with high dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations flowed into the Yamato Basin along the northern boundary of the channel connecting the basins, while the warmer, lower-DO Yamato Basin Bottom Water (YBBW) extended over the JBBW along the southern periphery of the channel. A benthic front between the JBBW and YBBW was observed in both cruises, though the front shifted to the northeast in 2011 compared with its 2010 location. Further, the bottom flows in the channel were not unidirectional in 2011, though consistent southwestward flows were observed in 2010. The JBBW transport into the Yamato Basin was also larger in 2010 than in 2011. Analysis of historical hydrographic data showed that the benthic front exists mostly in the narrowest region of the channel, though it fluctuates temporarily to the northeast or southwest. The fluctuation of the benthic front appears to be associated with the JBBW transport because the observations in June 2010 and June 2011 were carried out during periods of southwestward extension of cold water and northeast protrusion of warm water, respectively. A relationship between benthic front displacements and mesoscale warm eddy migrations is suggested.

Senjyu, Tomoharu; Aramaki, Takafumi; Tanaka, Shinichi S.; Zhang, Jin; Isoda, Yutaka; Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Hibino, Sho; Nakano, Toshiya

2013-10-01

357

Toward a more effective Japan policy. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

The United States and Japan have shared a close relationship since the end of World War 2. What began as a victor- and-vanquished relationship was transformed into one of the Cold War`s pillars of Containment. Now the Cold War is over yet the United States remains responsible for the external defense of the state that possesses the world`s second most powerful economy. Simultaneously, Japan is attempting to end its tradition of political isolationism. As Japan exercises ever increasing autonomy and less deference to U.S. policy and desires, the administration, congress, and American public are searching for the elusive peace dividend. Should Japan continue to progress toward the ultimate goal of normal nation status, those animosities now present primarily in the trade realm may spill-over into the political and security arenas. Additionally, the 1 August 1994 edition of the Mainichi Shimbun reported that the Japanese Foreign Ministry secretly decided, in 1969, to develop the potential to make nuclear weapons without actually producing them. The same report indicated that the potential had been met. Now another complication to the relationship has emerged. While it is understandable for Japan to desire an indigenous nuclear deterrent capability, Japan`s status as a virtual proliferator runs contrary to U.S. nonproliferation policy. This thesis explores the future of the United States-Japan relationship considering the current international environment -- a seemingly absent raison d`ene. Recommendations for a revised Japan policy including an innovative approach to allied nuclear proliferation are presented.

Jeffrey, J.D.

1995-06-01

358

Current Status and Perspectives of Cysticercosis and Taeniasis in Japan  

PubMed Central

This mini-review describes recent epidemiological trends in cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan. Some of the topics discussed herein were presented at the first symposium on "Current perspectives of Taenia asiatica researches", that was held in Osong in Chungbuk Province, South Korea, in October 2011 and organized by Prof. K. S. Eom, Chungbuk National University School of Medicine. To better understand the trends in the occurrence of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan, clinical cases reported in 2005 have been updated. In addition, the current status of Taenia asiatica infections successively occurring in Japan since 2010 is also discussed.

2013-01-01

359

Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Japan  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Japan, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Japan.

Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Takagi, T.

2009-04-15

360

The bumpy road to socialise nature: sex education in Japan.  

PubMed

This study was prompted by an empirical puzzle: why is sex education in schools so underdeveloped in Japan compared to many other industrialised societies? On the one hand, formal pedagogy under state policy is conservative, emphasising reproductive and prophylactic purposes rather than a comprehensive understanding of sexuality. On the other hand, however, Japan has a highly visible sexual environment where a variety of commercial sex activities are tolerated and even encouraged. The aim of the paper is to provide an integrated picture of these apparently contradictory trends by examining the nexus of political, economic and sociocultural factors that affect sex education in contemporary Japan. PMID:21787254

Fu, Huiyan

2011-09-01

361

Is Histoplasma capsulatum a native inhabitant of Japan?  

PubMed

Histoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by inhaling spores of the fungal pathogen H. capsulatum and in Japan is considered an imported mycosis. However, some patients in Japan with histoplasmosis have no history of traveling overseas nor of risk of occupational exposure to Histoplasma. To investigate the possibility of native distribution of Histoplasma in Japan, 187 bat guano samples from 67 bat-inhabited caves in 17 prefectures were collected. These were examined for H. capsulatum by culture and Histoplasma-specific PCR in three independent laboratories. No H. capsulatum was detected by either method, therefore H. capsulatum is unlikely to be present in bat guano in Japanese caves. PMID:19039954

Kikuchi, Ken; Sugita, Takashi; Makimura, Koichi; Urata, Kensaku; Someya, Takashi; Sasaki, Takashi; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Niimi, Masakazu; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Uehara, Yoshimasa

2008-09-01

362

FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, January 21, 1997  

SciTech Connect

;Selected titles include: Fine Ceramics Center Observes Formation Process for Carbon Nanotubes; Hitachi Ltd. Develops Atomic Manipulation Technology; Structural Thermal Model Tests on Exposed Facility of Japanese Experiment Module for International Space Station; Status of Japan`s Intelligent Transport System; Status of AIST Fuel Cell Projects; Kawasaki Heavy to Conduct Demonstration Test for Internal Circulating Fluidized Bed Refuse Incinerator; Osaka Gas Develops New Battery Electrode Material for Lithium-Ion Battery; Toshiba Corp. Develops World`s Smallest DRAM Memory Cell; Ten Card Companies To Work on Secure Electronic Commerce; and Japan: Column Views DA Internal Bureau Recasting.

NONE

1997-01-21

363

JTEC panel report on advanced composites in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The JTEC Panel on Advanced Composites visited Japan and surveyed the status and future directions of Japanese high performance ceramic and carbon fibers and their composites in metal, intermetallic, ceramic and carbon matrices. The panel's interests included not only what composite systems were chosen, but also how these systems were developed. A strong carbon and fiber industry makes Japan the leader in carbon fiber technology. Japan has initiated an oxidation resistant carbon/carbon composite program. The goals for this program are ambitious, and it is just starting, but its progress should be closely monitored in the United States.

Diefendorf, R. J.; Grisaffe, S. J.; Hillig, W. B.; Perepezko, J. H.; Pipes, R. B.; Sheehan, J. E.

1991-01-01

364

78 FR 73884 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Sematech, INC. D...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...circumstances. Specifically, Entegris, Inc., Bellerica, MA; Integrated Device Technology, Inc., San Jose, CA; Bruker Nano GmbH, Santa Barbara, CA; Rion, Kukubunji, JAPAN, Adeka Corporation, Hamburg, GERMANY; SUSS Microtec Photomask...

2013-12-09

365

[Counterfeit medicines--Japan and the world].  

PubMed

Circulating counterfeit medicines in the market is a public health threat. Counterfeit medicines become common problem, not only in developing countries, but also in industrialised countries, as internet has made them more accessible. In Japan, the recent survey on the medicines purchased through on-line pharmacy (targeting Japanese consumers) showed that the majority of erectile dysfunction (ED) medicines imported by individuals in Japan were counterfeit version. The survey of Japanese consumers, who privately imported medicines through on-line pharmacy, indicated that 16% of these consumers experienced adverse events associated with these products. Not only that it is just fake brand, but fake medicines may even cause health hazard. The counterfeit version of Avastin recently detected in the United States became a serious threat for those who desperately need these medicines for life-threatening disease. The Japanese regulatory authorities have provided risk information of counterfeit medicines to general public, as well as monitored on-line pharmacies and conducted enforcement action where necessary. However, more resources of compliance activity should be allocated to respond to the situation of growing threats of counterfeit medicines. Purchasing medicines from abroad through unauthorised channel is the major source of counterfeit medicines. It is essential to prevent circulation of counterfeit medicines through international collaboration of various regulatory authorities. To address these problems, the World Health Organization (WHO) has launched a new Member States Mechanism (MSM) to build network of the authorities. Also, INTERPOL (ICPO) initiated globally concerted enforcement actions (Operation Pangea) against pharmaceutical crime as well as built partnership with pharmaceutical industry to create Pharmaceutical Crime Programme. It is also necessary to prevent consumers encountering counterfeit medicines and to prevent health hazard. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) has been actively involved in prevention and educational activities such as public awareness campaign. MHLW started anti-counterfeit medicines and new psychoactive substance project from February 2013, which centrally collects information about counterfeit medicines, in particular, and provides the risk information more effectively to the public. Japanese Government will work together with international community and contribute to combating counterfeiting through public and private partnership. PMID:24492225

Sato, Daisaku

2014-01-01

366

Earthquake Early Warning System in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan is located in one of the most tectonically active region in the world. We have suffered from many disasters brought by earthquakes and tsunamis. Significant efforts to mitigate disasters have been made as one of the most important national programs. Considering the difficulty of the earthquake prediction in time, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) considers it is important to issue the early warning immediately when the large earthquake occurs. JMA has been developing the "Earthquake Early Warning(EEW)" as a countermeasure to strong motion. JMA's EEW estimates hypocenter and magnitude using initial seismic waveform observed at the stations close to the epicenter, and issues estimated seismic intensity before the strong motion arrival. It also enables prompter issuance of the tsunami warning. We adopt a step-by-step method to improve the accuracy and reliance of the estimated focal parameters as the available data increases as the time lapse, ensuring the promptness of the first estimation at the same time. We estimate the hypocenter using Single Station Method and Network Method. Single Station Method is fitting simple function (Bt*exp(-At)) to the absolute value of acceleration waveform envelope of the first two seconds from the P onset by the cooperative study with Railway Technical Research Institute(RTRI). Network Method is using "territory" and "grid search" in combination. In addition to this procedure, we use the result of "Not Yet Arrived Data Method", a kind of grid search method, from June 2005. This method is developed by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention(NIED). After the hypocenter is determined, we estimate the magnitude by using hypocentral distance and maximum displacement amplitudes (Dmax) updated every second and the formula is as follows: M = log (Dmax) + logR + a1*R + a2 (R: Hypocentral distance (km)) We can calculate each site of Seismic Intensity estimation by using up-to-date hypocenter and magnitude in addition. JMA has started test distribution of EEW in Feb. 2004 to specific users to fieldtest the effectiveness of the warning, for the events that occur in the region where JMA has integrated data processing functions at the seismic stations. EEW issued 245 times from Feb. 25th 2004 to Aug 31st 2005 (including 22 times of false alarm almost due to initial artificial mistakes). We will discuss the detail of EEW distribution at the session.

Kiyomoto, M.; Tsukada, S.; Ohtake, K.; Shiozu, Y.; Morimoto, M.; Saito, M.; Sekita, Y.; Doi, K.; Yoshida, Y.; Odaka, T.; Ashiya, K.; Horiuchi, S.

2005-12-01

367

Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper provides radioactivity survey data in dietary materials, which were collected from January through September 1992. The samples were sent to the Japan Chemical Analysis Center from 46 contracted prefectures. The samples were prepared for radioch...

1994-01-01

368

Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Japan  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode that causes taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. The parasite is traditionally found in developing countries where undercooked pork is consumed under poor sanitary conditions and/or as part of traditional food cultures. However, the recent increase in international tourism and immigration is spreading the disease into non-endemic developed countries such as the United States. Although there has been concern that the number of cysticercosis cases is increasing in Japan, the current situation is not clear. This is largely because taeniasis and cysticercosis are not notifiable conditions in Japan and because there have been no comprehensive reviews of T. solium infections in Japan conducted in the last 15 years. Herein, we provide an overview of the status of T. solium infection in Japan over the past 35 years and point out the potential risks to Japanese society.

2012-01-01

369

Public acceptance (PA) activities of nuclear power in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the first part of presentation present status of nuclear power development in Japan is described. Then results of poll on nuclear energy acceptance by population are analyzed. Further, current activities and future efforts directed to broad understandi...

M. Yamada, T. Iguchi

1993-01-01

370

Japan Quake Shows How Stress Alters the Brain  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. Japan Quake Shows How Stress Alters the Brain Victims had shrinkage in certain regions, but some ... although traumatic events can shrink parts of the brain, some of those regions can rebound once a ...

371

NSF/Tokyo Report: 1998 Summer Institute Program in Japan  

NSF Publications Database

... research environment, intensive Japanese language training, and an introduction to the science and ... who are both familiar with the culture and language of Japan, and the research being conducted in ...

372

Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a compilation of radioactivity survey data in dietary materials, which were collected from May 1992 through March 1993. The samples were sent to the Japan Chemical Analysis Center from 46 contracted prefectures. The samples were prepared for radio...

1994-01-01

373

Radioactivity survey data in Japan, part 2. Dietary materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication is aimed at providing radioactivity survey data in environmental and dietary materials in Japan. Part 2 gives dietary materials, consisting of total diet, milk, vegetables, sea fish, freshwater fish, shellfish, and seaweeds. Samples were c...

1991-01-01

374

Radioactivity survey data in Japan, part 2. Dietary materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication is aimed at providing radioactivity survey data in Japan. Part 2 covers dietary materials, including total diet, rice, milk, powdered milk, vegetables, tea, sea fish, freshwater fish, shellfish, and seaweeds. Samples were collected from 42...

1993-01-01

375

Radioactivity survey data in Japan, part 2. dietary materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication is aimed at providing radioactivity survey data in Japan. Part 2 covers dietary materials, including total diet, rice, milk, powdered milk; vegetables, tea, sea fish, freshwater fish, shellfish, and seaweeds. Samples were collected from 42...

1991-01-01

376

Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, 2005: Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Japan is a parliamentary democracy with a population of approximately 1278 million. Sovereignty is vested in the citizenry, and the emperor is defined as the symbol of state. Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi headed a coalition composed of the Liberal Demo...

2006-01-01

377

JPRS Report, Science Technology, Japan, Atomic Energy Society Fall Meeting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains selected papers with a focus on issues related to cold fusion. These papers were presented at the 1989 Fall Meeting of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan held 17-19 Oct 89 in Tokyo.

1990-01-01

378

Cyclic Strength of Undisturbed Sands from Niigata, Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Standard Penetration Tests, undisturbed field sampling, laboratory index property tests and laboratory cyclic triaxial strength tests were performed on cohesionless soils from Niigata, Japan, to determine why some soil deposits failed by liquefaction whil...

M. L. Silver

1978-01-01

379

Development and Structure of Consumer Credit in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary goals of this study are to describe and analyze the development, structure, and regulation of consumer credit in Japan, and to identify significant laws, regulations, or ministerial guidance that may restrict consumer credit markets and constr...

A. J. Alexander K. D. Oh

1989-01-01

380

Foreigners in Japan. Westerners Portrayed in the Yokohama Woodcuts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Impressions of the first Westerners in Japan in the 1860s are presented through photographs of popular woodcuts of the period. A short narrative reports the importance of this unusual news form. (1 reference) (Author)

Novotny, Ann

1973-01-01

381

The revolution of train control system in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following report introduces train control systems applied in railway lines in Japan. The report also shows that train control systems have been developed and these are classified four levels from \\

M. Matsumo

2005-01-01

382

Energy Demand and Resources of Japan. Volume II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The five major energy resources of Japan (hydroelectric, coal, oil, gas, and nuclear power) are discussed in detail. Areas of demand, consumption, future prospects, and potential political problems are covered.

K. Dance B. Ryan J. F. Schneider

1973-01-01

383

Constraints on interseismic deformation at Japan trench from VLBI data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space geodetic data from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) was used to estimate velocity relative to the plate interiors of two sites on the deforming leading edge at the Japan trench. Elastic models of interseismic deformation and results obtained were used to put constraints on the slip rate along the main thrust of the Japan subduction zone. Observed velocities reflect the sum of permanent west-northwest shortening in Honshu, elastic deformation due to locking of the main thrust fault at the Japan trench, and deformation associated with the subducting Phillipine plate. These velocities limit the locked segment of the main thrust at the Japan trench to 27 km vertically and 100 km along the dip. This indicates that the main Pacific plate thrust fault is not strongly coupled and probably does not generate strong earthquakes.

Argus, Donald F.; Lyzenga, Gregory A.

1993-01-01

384

Permafrost at the Summit of Mount Fuji, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE existence of permafrost at the summit of Mount Fuji, Japan (35° 21' N, 138° 44' E, 3,776.3 m above sea level), was suspected by some of the staff members of the Japan Meteorological Agency who work at the Fuji-san Weather Station located at the summit, and also by some of the workers who constructed the station building (personal communication

Keiji Higuchi; Yoshiyuki Fujii

1971-01-01

385

Comparisons in good and bad: criminality in Japan and Germany.  

PubMed

In the field of criminological comparison, Japan and Germany are very suitable subjects. A nearly identical penal law and a social structure of highly developed industrial societies after a complete destruction at the end of World War War II give a good match. At first sight, Japan's crime rate is less than 1/4 of that in Germany. The impact of organised crime on the reduction of general crime is discussed. PMID:7860005

Kühne, H H

1994-12-16

386

3-D GPR IMAGING OF THE NEODANI FAULT, CENTRAL JAPAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

GPR data collected across a segment of the Neodani Fault in the Tokai region of central Japan represents the first 3-D GPR data successfully collected across a major seismogenic fault in Japan. Despite the inherent difficulty of GPR to significantly penetrate wet, clay-rich soils, a 3 meter bedrock offset across the fault was imaged through 3-6 meters of saturated unconsolidated

Ernest C. Hauser; Daiei Inoue

387

Water, Salt, Phosphorus and Nitrogen Budgets of the Japan Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water, salt, phosphorus and nitrogen budgets of the Japan Sea have been calculated by box model analysis using historical\\u000a data. Average residence time of the Tsushima Warm Current Water in the upper 200 m is 2.1 years and that of the Japan Sea\\u000a Proper Water is 90 years. The salt flux from the Tsushima Strait balances those through the Tsugaru

Tetsuo Yanagi

2002-01-01

388

Recent R&D on Drying Technology in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the outlook of the energy situation in Japan and reviews the recent R&D on innovative drying technologies performed in Japan. The overview of drying includes fundamentals as well as industrial technologies. The topics considered are drying characteristics of several materials, drying of hard-to-handle powders, drying of coatings, drying-induced strain-stress problems, drying modeling, and drying of agricultural wastes

Yoshinori Itaya; Shigekatsu Mori

2006-01-01

389

FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, April 2, 1997  

SciTech Connect

;Contents(Partial): Japan To Enter Commercial Launch Market; Significance of Lunar Mission Discussed; Hitachi Maxell, Sanyo Develop 14 GB Magneto-Optical Disc Technology; Coal Liquefaction Pilot Plant Ready for Testing; MITI develops Next-Generation Freon Substitute; Stable Power Supply Through Nuclear Power; JR Tokai Targets 550km for Maglev Test Run on Yamanaashi Line; and Japan to Establish Nationwide High-Speed Telecommunications Network Using CATV Networks.

NONE

1997-04-02

390

Effects of Japan National Railways' Privatization on labor productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan National Railways went private in 1987, the first of many national railways to do so, and the Japanese experience could\\u000a provide lessons to other nations. This paper evaluates the effects of Japan National Railways' Privatization on labor productivity\\u000a and employment in the passenger sectors. The main data was obtained from the Annual Rail Statistics of both the Ministry of

Fumitoshi Mizutani; Kiyoshi Nakamura

1996-01-01

391

Hi-net: High sensitivity seismograph network, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high sensitivity seismograph network in Japan (Hi-net), composed of around 600 seismic stations, is a part of the project\\u000a made by ‘The Headquarter for Earthquake Research Promotion’ after 1995 Hyogoken-nanbu Earthquake and has been constructed\\u000a and operated by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). Seismic stations are distributed\\u000a homogeneously covering whole Japan Islands with an

Kazushige Obara

2003-01-01

392

Overcoming Pollution in Japan and the Lessons Learned  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1950s and 1960s, Japan experienced unprecedented environmental pollution and accompanying health damages, or so-called pollution diseases. The four major ones in Japan are Minamata Disease, Niigata-Minamata Disease, Itai-Itai Disease and Yokkaichi Asthma. Other Asian countries are now experiencing, or are going to experience, environmental degradation including pollution as their economies develop, but the distress caused by pollution in

Hirokazu Iwasaki

393

Current status of the threatened amphibians and reptiles of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares amphibian and reptile components of the original and revised versions of the Red List of Japan, and\\u000a analyzes geographic patterns of, and major threats to, species and subspecies now assigned to the threatened categories. The\\u000a numbers of both amphibians and reptiles categorized as threatened in the Red List of Japan have increased greatly through\\u000a its revision as

H. Ota

2000-01-01

394

Environmental Impacts of Coal Mining and Preventive Measures in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the characteristics of mine-induced damage in Japan: cave-in, springing out of ground water and subsidence in the area of thick alluvium except usual subsidence. As for the damage of cave-in, preventive measures are also presented. The phenomenon of springing out is discussed with the results of numerical analysis, considering the permeability of mined area. Japan has ten

Kazuo AOKI; Tetsuro ESAKI; Tsuyoshi KIMURA; Nobuhiro KAMEDA; Tadashi NISHIDA

395

Age-related characteristics of uterine cancer mortality in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several studies have proved that uterine cancer mortality has decreased in Japan over the past 50 years, but the age demographics in this regard are not clear. This study investigated the change pattern of age characteristics for this cancer. Methods: Cause-specific mortality was identified in the population of Japan and Ireland in the years 1950–2000. Time trends of age-specific mortality

Kazuo Aoki; Juan Sun; Akihiro Kono; Junichi Misumi

2005-01-01

396

Determinants of the Japan premium: actions speak louder than words  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since August 1995, Japanese banks have had to pay a premium on Eurodollar and Euroyen interbank loans relative to their U.S. and U.K. competitors. This so-called “Japan premium” provides a market indicator of investor anxiety about the ability of Japanese banks to repay loans. We examine the determinants of the Japan premium and find that government announcements not associated with

Joe Peek; Eric S. Rosengren

2001-01-01

397

Japan's Space Development Programs for Communications: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan now operates the communications satellite CS-2. A test communications satellite, CS-1, was launched in 1977, and CS-3 will be launched in 1988 as a successor to CS-2. On the other hand, in the area of mobile satellite communications development, Japan is proceeding with an experimental program; ETS-V\\/EMSS (Engineering Test Satellite-V\\/Experimental Mobile Satellite System), for which a satellite will be

Tadahisa Mori; Takashi Iida

1987-01-01

398

Changes in donor apheresis in Japan.  

PubMed

Donor apheresis has played an important role in the Japanese blood program. Donor plasmapheresis was introduced to increase source plasma in 1986 and accounted for 20.8% of all donations in 1995. The total volume of source plasma increased from 104 x 10(3) L in 1989 to 636 x 10(3) L in 1994, and the rate of self-sufficience of factor VIII reached 100% in 1994 (excluding recombinant products). This rate had been below 10% in 1991. The supply of platelet products has increased rapidly in Japan and reached 7.19 million units in 1995. The number of platelet products obtained with the apheresis procedure accounted for 99.99% in all supplied products in the Hokkaido Red Cross Blood Center. Thus, it can be seen that platelet apheresis has played an important role in securing a sufficiency of the products. Another advantage of platelet apheresis is the reduction of residual leukocytes in the products, which helps to avoid donor antigen exposure and prevent febrile nonhemolytic reaction. The technique of apheresis has been applied in cancer therapy. Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation has been performed not only in autologous but also allogeneic settings instead of bone marrow transplantation. In the authors' experience, sufficient numbers of progenitor cells could be collected in 85.7% of patients within 2 leukaphereses; thus, apheresis will become more important in this field. PMID:10225723

Sekiguchi, S; Sato, N; Yamamoto, S

1997-11-01

399

Epidemiology of childhood leukemia in Hokkaido, Japan.  

PubMed

The population-based epidemiological indices (crude incidence, survival rate, mortality, etc.) of childhood leukemia (0-14 years of age) from 1969 to 1993 in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan, were calculated, using data obtained from the Registry of Childhood Malignancies in Hokkaido Prefecture. A total of 1,084 cases of leukemia were diagnosed in the 1969-93 period. The annual incidence of all types of leukemia from 1984 to 1993 was about 4 per 100,000 children aged 0-14 years, with the incidence of ANLL decreasing slightly and that of ALL increasing. The ratio of ALL/ANLL could similarly be seen to be increasing in all age groups. Out of a cohort of 100,000 live births, about 65 children developed leukemia by 14 years of age, and in this longitudinal observation the ratio of ALL/ANLL was increasing. The incidence of ALL and ANLL and the ratio of ALL/ANLL in Japanese children are approaching those of Caucasians. Approximately 80% of the ALL cases were of the LI type (FAB classification), and about 65% of these could be immunologically classified as "common" ALL. The 5-year survival rate of T- and B-cell ALL cases was 50% or less, while that of "common" ALL cases was about 80%. PMID:8707403

Nishi, M; Miyake, H; Takeda, T; Shimada, M

1996-07-29

400

Bushido and medical professionalism in Japan.  

PubMed

Medical professionalism has become a core topic in medical education. As it has been considered mostly from a Western perspective, there is a need to examine how the same or similar concepts are reflected in a wider range of cultural contexts. To gain insights into medical professionalism concepts in Japanese culture, the authors compare the tenets of a frequently referenced Western guide to professionalism (the physician charter proposed by the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation, American College of Physicians Foundation, and the European Federation of Internal Medicine) with the concepts of Bushido, a Japanese code of personal conduct originating from the ancient samurai warriors. The authors also present survey evidence about how a group of present-day Japanese doctors view the values of Bushido.Cultural scholars have demonstrated Bushido's continuing influence on Japanese people today. The authors explain the seven main virtues of Bushido (e.g., rectitude), describe the similarities and differences between Bushido and the physician charter, and speculate on factors that may account for the differences, including the influence of religion, how much the group versus the individual is emphasized in a culture, and what emphasis is given to virtue-based versus duty-based ethics.The authors suggest that for those who are teaching and practicing in Japan today, Bushido's virtues are applicable when considering medical professionalism and merit further study. They urge that there be a richer discussion, from the viewpoints of different cultures, on the meaning of professionalism in today's health care practice. PMID:24556758

Nishigori, Hiroshi; Harrison, Rebecca; Busari, Jamiu; Dornan, Tim

2014-04-01

401

Industrial emission of cadmium in Japan.  

PubMed Central

Direct emission of cadmium into air and water in Japan has been controlled on the basis of the Emission and Effluent Standards. Environmental quality in these media has been improved, but delayed effects of these emissions in the past are now manifest by contamination of agricultural acreage in various parts of this country. Special land improvement projects are therefore required, and cost allocation should be made on the basis of scientific assessment of natural background. An impact assessment on accidental release of potential sources of cadmium dispersed in the water system should be made on the basis of inventory surveillance. Assessment of natural background can practically be made by two means. One is to examine the vertical distribution of cadmium in a soil profile and to search for a subsurface layer in which there can be no contamination. Another is the use of the Zn/Cd ratio as an index of pollution, a value of 400 being suggested as a screening level. The transport of cadmium was found to occur principally in particulate form, and sampling and analysis of water together with suspended solid after a heavy rainfall is suggested as a useful means for assessing the character of a catchment area and for planning the improvement of land surface in mining districts.

Yamagata, N

1979-01-01

402

Gender Differences in Spousal Caregiving in Japan  

PubMed Central

Background Gender differences in spousal caregivers and their relationship to care experiences, social demographics, and caregivers’ depression were examined. Methods A stratified random sample of 2,020 users of public long-term care insurance in a city of Osaka prefecture, Japan, participated in this study. Responses from 308 spouses (56.2% wives, 43.8% husbands) were analyzed. Variables relating to care experiences, social demographics, and caregivers’ depression were compared by conducting simultaneous analyses of multiple populations. Results Wives caring for husbands had higher depression scores than husbands caring for wives. Wives tended to adopt “emotional support seeking” and “willing commitment” as coping strategies for their caregiving experience. Husband caregivers used more home-care services; however, increased service use had no effect on husbands’ depression. The availability of secondary caregivers reduced depression for caregivers, regardless of gender. Conclusions The effects on depression differed related to the caregiver's gender. Husbands relied more on family or home-care services when caring for their wives, whereas wives provided higher levels of care, positively accepted their role, and did not seek to share caregiving, but sought emotional support.

Ito, Mikiko; Kutsumi, Masami; Mikami, Hiroshi

2009-01-01

403

Phosphoric acid fuel cells in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japanese gas companies have taken a keen interest in the energy-saving characteristics and superior environmental friendliness of fuel cells; since 1972 they have vigorously pursued the development of phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) for on-site generation purpose. The Japan Gas Association has been contributing to these activities. At present, field tests are carried out on 55 units on PAFC systems with a total capacity of approximately 8000 kW, including a US-made 200 kW unit, and Japanese-made 50, 100, 200 and 500 kW units. 24 units of PAFC systems out of 55 units have received a subsidy from the national government as a NEDO Field Test Project. In addition, a 1000 kW unit constructed with the assistance of a national government subsidy is to begin operation in 1995. As the results of field operations of many PAFC systems, valuable data on performance and durability were obtained, and useful maintenance techniques were accumulated towards commercialization. Both hardware and software of PAFC systems have been greatly improved, reflecting the experience gained from field operation. The durability of the cell stack differs with manufacturers and system models. For certain models of 200 kW systems, the performance almost satisfies the target of 20 000 h operation. One of the future tasks is to verify the durability of PAFC systems for 40 000 h operation. Another one is manufacturing cost reduction.

Hojo, Naoji; Okuda, Makoto; Nakamura, Masanori

404

Monitoring of railway bridges in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Japan, some monitoring systems have been introduced to evaluate conditions of the railway structures. In this work, we introduce the monitoring systems of railway bridges. Here, for example, we show the abstraction of fatigue damage monitoring system. The crack propagation properties of a side notched SUS304 thin sheet, which is affixed to a fatigue test specimen, is studied to develop a fatigue damage monitoring sensor. When cyclic loads are applied to the fatigue specimen, the side notched thin sheet behaves as a displacement controlled condition. The stress intensity factor (Delta) K is expressed by the following equation; (Delta) K equals (Delta) (sigma) (root)GL/2 where GL is the gauge length of the thin sheet. The thin sheet is fatigue pre-cracked, stress- relieved and affixed to a specimen. The results of fatigue crack propagation tests show that the crack propagation rate is dependent on stress range and gauge length, but not on crack length. Under sufficient mean stress conditions, the fatigue crack propagation rate is well expressed by a power low of (Delta) K even at such a low stress range as 20 MPa. Fatigue damage accumulated during a monitoring period can be estimated from crack propagation during the period. The sensitivity of the sensor is controlled through the gauge length of the sensor.

Abe, Makoto; Komon, Kazuki; Narumoto, Asao; Sugidate, Masao; Mori, Takeshi; Miki, Chitoshi

2000-06-01

405

Mortality in the 2011 Tsunami in Japan  

PubMed Central

Introduction On 11 March 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake caused a huge tsunami that struck Northeast Japan, resulting in nearly 20 000 deaths. We investigated mortality patterns by age, sex, and region in the 3 most severely affected prefectures. Methods Using police data on earthquake victims in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures, mortality rates by sex, age group, and region were calculated, and regional variability in mortality rates across age groups was compared using rate ratios (RRs), with the rates in Iwate as the reference. Results In all regions, age-specific mortality showed a tendency to increase with age; there were no sex differences. Among residents of Iwate, mortality was markedly lower among school-aged children as compared with other age groups. In northern Miyagi and the southern part of the study area, RRs were higher among school-aged children than among other age groups. Conclusions The present study could not address the reasons for the observed mortality patterns and regional differences. To improve preparedness policies, future research should investigate the reasons for regional differences.

Nakahara, Shinji; Ichikawa, Masao

2013-01-01

406

Immigrants' experiences of maternity care in Japan.  

PubMed

Language and cultural differences can negatively impact immigrant women's birth experience. However, little is known about their experiences in Japan's highly homogenous culture. This cross-sectional study used survey data from a purposive sampling of immigrant women from 16 hospitals in several Japanese prefectures. Meeting the criteria and recruited to this study were 804 participants consisting of 236 immigrant women: Chinese (n = 83), Brazilian (n = 62), Filipino (n = 43), South Korean (n = 29) and from variety of English speaking nations (n = 19) and 568 Japanese women. The questionnaire was prepared in six languages: Japanese (kana syllables), Chinese, English, Korean, Portuguese, and Tagalog (Filipino). Associations among quality of maternity care, Japanese literacy level, loneliness and care satisfaction were explored using analysis of variance and multiple linear regression. The valid and reliable instruments used were Quality of Care for Pregnancy, Delivery and Postpartum Questionnaire, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine Japanese version, the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale-Japanese version and Care satisfaction. Care was evaluated across prenatal, labor and delivery and post-partum periods. Immigrant women scored higher than Japanese women for both positive and negative aspects. When loneliness was strongly felt, care satisfaction was lower. Some competence of Japanese literacy was more likely to obstruct positive communication with healthcare providers, and was associated with loneliness. Immigrant women rated overall care as satisfactory. Japanese literacy decreased communication with healthcare providers, and was associated with loneliness presumably because some literacy unreasonably increased health care providers' expectations of a higher level of communication. PMID:23609237

Igarashi, Yukari; Horiuchi, Shigeko; Porter, Sarah E

2013-08-01

407

[Influence of "danxi theory" in Korea and Japan].  

PubMed

"Danxi Theory" had deep influence on the traditional medicine in Korea and Japan. In Korea, the compilation of Yi Fang Lei Ju and Dong Yi Bao Jian referred to the medical works of ZHU Danxi and that of his students, the Korean doctors advocated the theory of ZHU Danxi's theory of "four injuries by qi, blood, phlegm and stagnation", and quoted large number of formulas and herbs from Dangxi's works into the above books. In Japan, Tashiro Sanki had came to China and studied medicine from Japanese monk Yue Hu, who was the disciple of YU Tianmin (a private disciple of ZHU Danxi). After returned to Japan he energetically initiated Danxi's theory and classified diseases to blood disease, qi disease and phlegm disease (water toxin) according to Danxi's theory of "four injuries by qi, blood, phlegm and stagnation". His student Manase D?san set up a "Danxi Society" and spread Danxi Theory in Japan and therefore the unique medical system "Gose Ha shcool" was formed. His student Manase Gensaku, and Manase Gensaku's students Okamoto Genya, Nagasawa Doju and Hurubayashi Kengi spread and developed Danxi Theory, hich was popular in Japan for more than 200 years. It was proved that Danxi Theory had deep and far influence on the formation and development of overseas traditional medicine in Korea and Japan. PMID:21781548

Yan, Yuming; Zhu, Jianping

2011-05-01

408

Proceedings: United States/Japan Conference on Sewage Treatment Technology (11th), Held in Tokyo, Japan on October 12-14, 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication contains Japanese and American papers presented at the Eleventh United States-Japan Conference on Sewage Treatment Technology held in Tokyo, Japan, October 12-14, 1987. The proceedings of the conference comprise a useful body of knowledge ...

1988-01-01

409

Leading without Followers: How Politics and Market Dynamics Trapped Innovations in Japan’s Domestic “Galapagos” Telecommunications Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

While globally successful Japanese industries were able to use their domestic market as a springboard into international markets,\\u000a Japan’s telecommunications sector became decoupled from global markets, trapping Japanese ICT firms in the domestic market.\\u000a This persistent pattern of leading without followers was not simply the result of misguided technological choices, ill-informed corporate strategies, or insular government standard-setting\\u000a processes. Rather, the

Kenji E. Kushida

2011-01-01

410

Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2008: a study of 25 population-based cancer registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project.  

PubMed

The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2008 based on data collected from 25 of 34 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan project. The incidence in Japan for 2008 was estimated to be 749 767 (C00-C96). Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively. PMID:24503029

Matsuda, Ayako; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

2014-04-01

411

The 1991 Japan Solar Energy Society. Japan Wind Energy Association Joint Conference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thie paper summarizes the lectures presented at the research presentation conference held by the Japan Solar Energy Society and the Japan Wind Energy Association. The contents include a lecture relating to photovoltaic cells intended for efficiency improvement; a lecture relating to a light power generation system including the field test reports, improvements on peripheral devices and output characteristics; a lecture relating to optical chemistry; a lecture relating to heat pumps utilizing solar heat and well water; a lecture relating air conditioning utilizing photovoltaic cells; a lecture relating to heat systems utilizing solar heat directly; a lecture relating to heat collection; a lecture relating to cold heat for cooling using earth tubes; a lecture relating to direct utilization of ground water heat and solar heat; a lecture relating to underground heat storage; a lecture relating to accumulation of cold heat and hot heat; a lecture relating to insolation on the amount of insolation and spectroscopy; a lecture relating to light collection intended of energy saving; a lecture relating to improving materials including light collecting plates and thin films; a lecture relating to development and characteristics of solar cars; and a lecture relating to wind energy.

1991-09-01

412

Seasonal and spatial variation of atmospheric 210Pb and 7Be deposition: features of the Japan Sea side of Japan.  

PubMed

Monthly depositional fluxes of (210)Pb and (7)Be at Tatsunokuchi, Japan which faces the Japan Sea were studied over a 12-year period from 1991 to 2002. The data were compared with the spatial variability of these fluxes at Taejon in Korea and at 11 other sites in Japan from Ishigaki of the southern islands of Okinawa to Wakkanai of the northern end of Hokkaido over a 2-year period from 2000 to 2001. The monthly depositions of both (210)Pb and (7)Be at Tatsunokuchi revealed very similar seasonal variations with a single peak; both depositions were high in winter and low in summer. This phenomenon was found to be not transient but stationary. The deposition of these nuclides was much greater on the Japan Sea side of Japan than on the Pacific Ocean side. The cause for high deposition of (210)Pb and (7)Be in winter might be explained by a combination of a series of the following processes: blowing out of air masses with a high (210)Pb concentration near the surface layer over the continent by strong winter monsoons, additional flow of cold air masses with high (7)Be concentration at high latitude, well-mixing with generation of ascending current and convection clouds over the Japan Sea, and heavy snowfalls accompanying them. PMID:16181712

Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Sakaguchi, Aya; Sasaki, Keiichi; Hirose, Katsumi; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Kim, Chang Kyu

2006-01-01

413

Realignment of the Japan-United States Alliance and the Emerging Roles and Missions of the Japan Self-Defense Force.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Japan-U.S. Security Alliance and the Japan Self Defense Force (SDF) have been the centerpieces for security of Japan since the end of WWII. During the Cold War period the Soviet Union was the common and only threat to both nations. The ultimate goal o...

K. Kishikawa

2004-01-01

414

Trade, Foreign Investment, and Competitiveness. The Japan Business Study Program. Based on a Seminar Series entitled "Japan Business Study Program 1989" (Austin, Texas, October 12-27, 1989).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven articles are presented addressing topics related to United States-Japan trade, foreign investment, and U.S. competitiveness in the global market. The first article, "Super 301 and the Changing Japan-American Relationship" by Glenn Davis describes recent U.S.-Japan trade frictions, epitomized by Super 301, and explains the influence of the…

Matsuo, Hirofumi, Ed.

415

[1997 Epidemiological survey of dermatophytoses in Japan].  

PubMed

An epidemiological investigation on dermatophytoses in Japan for the year 1997 was carried out with the following results. The number of dermatomycoses patients visiting the fourteen cooperating institutes that year was 8,284. New outpatients with this condition accounted for 13.3% of all new outpatients in these institutes. Dermatophytoses patients numbered 7,314 and were composed of: tinea pedis 4,901 (63.8%), tinea unguium 1,592 (20.7%), tinea corporis 557 (7.2%), tinea cruris 395 (5.1%), tinea manuum 215 (2.8%), tinea capitis 12, kerion celsi 3, tinea barbae 1 and granuloma trichophyticum 1. Of these, 117 were children under 15 years of age. Species and incidences of the 2,273 strains isolated from the patients with dermatophytoses were as follows: Trichophyton (T.) rubrum 1,628 (71.6%), T. mentagrophytes 617 (27.2%), Epidermophyton floccosum 9 (0.4%), Microsporum (M.) canis 2, M. gypseum 2, T. glabrum 1, and 15 undetermined strains. Candidiasis was found in 714 individuals: intertrigo 302, erosio interdigitalis 108, erythema infantum 85, oral candidiasis 51, paronychia et onychia 51, genital candidiasis 50, onychomycosis 15 and other atypical forms of candidiasis 39. Patients with tinea versicolor numbered 242 and those with malassezia folliculitis 15. There were nine cases of deep dermal mycoses. The results of superficial dermatophytoses for the year 1997 differed from those of 1991-92 in the following points: tinea corporis and tinea cruris were lower in number, while tinea unguium had increased in ratio and number continuously. M. canis infection tended to decrease. In the age distribution of tinea, in every clinical form the peak of distribution curve gradually shifted to a more elderly age group. PMID:11173330

Kasai, T

2001-01-01

416

Japan's research on particle clouds and sprays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most of energy used by us is generated by combustion of liquid and solid fuels. These fuels are burned in combustors mainly as liquid sprays and pulverized solids, respectively. A knowledge of the combustion processes in combustors is needed to achieve proper designs that have stable operation, high efficiency, and low emission levels. However, current understanding of liquid and solid particle cloud combustion is far from complete. If combustion experiments for these fuels are performed under a normal gravity field, some experimental difficulties are encountered. These difficulties encountered include, that since the particles fall by the force of gravity it is impossible to stop the particles in the air, the falling speeds of particles are different from each other, and are depend on the particle size, the flame is lifted up and deformed by the buoyancy force, and natural convection makes the flow field more complex. Since these experimental difficulties are attributable to the gravity force, a microgravity field can eliminate the above problems. This means that the flame propagation experiments in static homogeneous liquid and solid particle clouds can be carried out under a microgravity field. This will provide much information for the basic questions related to combustion processes of particle clouds and sprays. In Japan, flame propagation processes in the combustible liquid and solid particle clouds have been studied experimentally by using a microgravity field generated by a 4.5 s dropshaft, a 10 s dropshaft, and by parabolic flight. Described in this presentation are the recent results of flame propagations studies in a homogeneous liquid particle cloud, in a mixture of liquid particles/gas fuel/air, in a PMMA particle cloud, and in a pulverized coal particle cloud.

Sato, Jun'ichi

1995-01-01

417

Nature of the Moho in Japan and Kamchatka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kamchatka peninsula and the islands of Japan are located along the eastern margin of the Asian continent. The natures of the Moho in these areas have been studied for decades, with a variety of geophysical methods, including active and passive seismic methods, gravity and other techniques. The Moho and the upper mantle structures in the NE Japan and SE Japan Arcs have been investigated well both from active and passive seismic source studies. The Moho depth in the NE Japan is ranging from 30 to 40 km. Almost parallel to the present volcanic front, there exists a belt of deep Moho (34-36 km) with a lower Pn velocity (7.5-7.7 km/s). Amplitude analysis of the PmP phase indicates that the Moho beneath the NE Japan Arc is not a simple velocity contrast, but rather a gradual transition. Toward the backarc side, remarkable crustal thinning is recognized. Actually, the Moho depth decreases from 35 km beneath the central part of NE Japan to 18 km beneath the Sea of Japan. This thinning is evident in the upper crust, while the lower crust remains constant in thickness. This may be explained by the continuous magmatic underplating beneath the rifted crust or deformation under a simple shear mode, allowing the lower crustal thickness to remain unchanged. The Moho in the SW Japan Arc is also at a depth of 30-40 km. The Pn velocity is 7.7-7.8 km/s, slightly higher than that in the NE Japan, although this value was mostly sampled in the eastern half of the SW Japan Arc where the recent volcanic activity has been less effective. Fluids expelled from the subducted oceanic lithosphere (the PHS plate) play an important role in controlling the structure of the mantle wedge. As these fluids leak into the mantle wedge they induce serpentinization there, transforming original mantle materials to those of lower velocity and higher Vp/Vs. The crustal thinning of the SW Japan Arc is characterized by notable decrease in upper crustal thickness, which is similar to the case of the NE Japan Arc. The Moho and uppermost mantle structures beneath the southern part of the Kamchatka have a lot of similarities to those beneath the NE Japan Arc. Earlier DSS investigations and converted wave analyses show that Moho is situated at a depth of 38-40 km along the east coast of Kamchatka, that is beneath the volcanic front, but decreases to about 32 km near the west coast. Moho depth values based on modern receiver function methodology are also ranging from 31 to over 38 km. Moho is a fairly simple boundary under the western coast of Kamchatka, while in the Central Kamchatka Depression and especially along the eastern coast it is likely gradational. Uppermost mantle material beneath the Moho is complex, with additional impedance contrasts that are likely anisotropic in their properties being present under the entire Kamchatka peninsula. The dominant anisotorpy-inducing fabric varies from site to site along the west coast, but is almost universally trench-normal along the east coast. The seismic velocities beneath Kamchatka are very low (7.4-7.8 km/s for P-wave and 4.1-4.2 km/s for S wave). Also, gradual structural change is recognized around the Moho beneath the active volcanoes. These features are quite similar to those in NE Japan Arc.

Iwasaki, Takaya; Levin, Vadim; Nikulin, Alex; Iidaka, Takashi

2013-04-01

418

Japan Studies through the Lenses of Different Disciplines: First Yearbook of the Japan Studies Association. [Papers from the Japan Studies Association Annual Conference (San Diego, California, 1995)].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This yearbook presents new perspectives and materials on Japan that are engaging, relatively jargon-free, and shaped so that their usefulness in a college classroom is readily apparent. The yearbook represents an example of the potential for genuine scholarship that lies within interdisciplinary studies. Articles are divided among five thematic…

Speaker, Richard B., Jr., Ed.; Kawada, Louise Myers, Ed.

1997-01-01

419

Breast cancer screening and the changing population pyramid of Japan.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer has been the most prevalent cancer in Japan since the 1990s. The mortality from breast cancer is increasing in Japan, whereas in other industrialized countries it has been decreasing since 1990. On the other hand, Japan faces unparalleled growth in its aging population. The aim of this study was to report the mammography screening among Japanese women and the related upcoming changes in the population pyramid of Japan. DATA SOURCES AND METHODS: The reference data for our study were obtained from the Center for Cancer Control and Information Services, Japan Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, the Japanese Cancer Society, and the National Institute of Population and Social Security. The survey data were obtained from breast cancer and mammography screenings in the Tokyo Prefecture in 2008. The following parameters were analyzed: annual breast cancer incidence, current screening rates, average life-span, and predicted demographic statistics. RESULTS: Our results showed that breast cancer incidence and mortality have been increasing annually in Japan. The average age of breast cancer patients increased to 58.40 years in 2010. The incidence of breast cancer in women aged 65 years and older increased from 25.3 to 32.9 % in the last 10 years and is expected to continue to increase in the future. The check-up rate was 16.0-20.0 % for women aged 65-74 years and 43.0-46.0 % for women aged 40-54 years. According to our questionnaire survey, concerns about breast cancer and mammography screening were high in the young and low in the elderly women. The Japanese population aged 65 years and older was 30,740 (24.1 %) in 2012 and is estimated to increase by 40 % over the next 20 years despite Japan's declining population size. CONCLUSION: Breast cancer incidence has increased in Japan, even among patients aged 65 years and older. Breast cancer has become increasingly prevalent in older Japanese women. As the population pyramid of Japan changes, women aged 65 years and older, who think that there is no longer need to receive mammography screening and are not educated regarding self-examinations, should be encouraged to receive regular check-ups for breast cancer. PMID:23625276

Uchida, Ken; Ohashi, Hitoshi; Kinoshita, Satoki; Nogi, Hiroko; Kato, Kumiko; Toriumi, Yasuo; Yamashita, Akinori; Kamio, Makiko; Mimoto, Rei; Takeyama, Hiroshi

2013-04-30

420

JTEC panel report on machine translation in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this report is to provide an overview of the state of the art of machine translation (MT) in Japan and to provide a comparison between Japanese and Western technology in this area. The term 'machine translation' as used here, includes both the science and technology required for automating the translation of text from one human language to another. Machine translation is viewed in Japan as an important strategic technology that is expected to play a key role in Japan's increasing participation in the world economy. MT is seen in Japan as important both for assimilating information into Japanese as well as for disseminating Japanese information throughout the world. Most of the MT systems now available in Japan are transfer-based systems. The majority of them exploit a case-frame representation of the source text as the basis of the transfer process. There is a gradual movement toward the use of deeper semantic representations, and some groups are beginning to look at interlingua-based systems.

Carbonell, Jaime; Rich, Elaine; Johnson, David; Tomita, Masaru; Vasconcellos, Muriel; Wilks, Yorick

1992-01-01

421

First domestic comparison of ball plate calibration in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ball plates have been increasingly used for checking the performance of coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) in Japan. In future, the ball plate will become a popular gauge for checking or calibrating the CMM in Japan. Currently, only the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) can calibrate the ball plate in Japan. There are no other institutes or calibration laboratories able to calibrate the ball plate. Therefore, we organized a ball plate round-robin measurement to create the opportunity to relay our calibration technique to other institutes. This is the first domestic comparison of a ball plate calibration in Japan. Sixteen institutes including NMIJ participated in the comparison. In this round-robin measurement, we formed two groups and supplied two ball plates (KOBA 420×420 mm, RETTER 420×420 mm) and two material standards of length made by NMIJ for this round-robin measurement. The round-robin measurement took place from October 2003 to September 2004. We describe the results of the comparison in this paper.

Osawa, Sonko; Takatsuji, Toshiyuki; Kurosawa, Tomizo

2005-08-01

422

Review of mental-health-related stigma in Japan.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to understand the nature and characteristics of mental-health-related stigma among Japanese people. We searched relevant studies in English or Japanese published since 2001 using MEDLINE and PsycINFO, and found 19 studies that examined mental-health-related stigma in Japan. Regarding knowledge about mental illness, reviewed studies showed that in the Japanese general population, few people think that people can recover from mental disorders. Psychosocial factors, including weakness of personality, are often considered the cause of mental illness, rather than biological factors. In addition, the majority of the general public in Japan keep a greater social distance from individuals with mental illness, especially in close personal relationships. Schizophrenia is more stigmatized than depression, and its severity increases the stigmatizing attitude toward mental illness. The literature also showed an association between more direct social contact between health professionals and individuals with mental illness and less stigmatization by these professionals. Less stigmatization by mental health professionals may be associated with accumulation of clinical experience and daily contact with people who have mental illness. Stigmatizing attitudes in Japan are stronger than in Taiwan or Australia, possibly due to institutionalism, lack of national campaigns to tackle stigma, and/or society's valuing of conformity in Japan. Although educational programs appear to be effective in reducing mental-health-related stigma, future programs in Japan need to address problems regarding institutionalism and offer direct social contact with people with mental illness. PMID:24118217

Ando, Shuntaro; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Aoki, Yuta; Thornicroft, Graham

2013-11-01

423

Effects of market liberalisation on smoking in Japan  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To document the effect of the liberalisation of the Japanese tobacco market on Japanese smoking rates and on Japanese tobacco industry practices.?DATA SOURCE—Asahi Shimbun (major daily newspaper) from 1980 to 1996.?STUDY SELECTION—Review of media coverage on the effects of market liberalisation following the imposition of the USA's section 301 trade sanction.?DATA SYNTHESIS—The opening of Japan's tobacco market to foreign cigarette companies stalled a decline in smoking prevalence. Smoking rates among young women increased significantly, and also appear to be on the rise among adolescents. Aggressive marketing and promotional activities by US and Japanese tobacco companies in response to trade liberalisation appear responsible for these adverse trends. Steep increases in sales through vending machines were also possible contributors to the rising smoking prevalence among adolescents. On the positive side, market liberalisation indirectly promoted smoking control efforts in Japan, by causing an anti-smoking movement to coalesce.?CONCLUSION—Market liberalisation in Japan played a significant role in increasing smoking prevalence among young women and adolescents while helping to transform the issue of smoking in Japan from a matter of individual choice to a public health problem.???Keywords: Japan; market liberalisation

Honjo, K.; Kawachi, I.

2000-01-01

424

The pill in Japan: will approval ever come?  

PubMed

The Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare voted in March 1998 to indefinitely delay the licensing of oral contraceptives in Japan. Over years of attempts to gain approval of the pill for contraception, health officials have cited a range of reasons for their position against the pill, including concern over side effects, fears about the potential spread of sexually transmitted diseases if pill use replaces condom use, and worries about the environmental effects of hormonal contraceptive use. Japan is unique in banning all hormonal methods of contraception. The author describes the history of hormonal agents in Japan, from their initial approval in the country for noncontraceptive therapeutic uses in the late 1950s through the defeat in March 1998. Given the higher failure rates associated with condom use and fertility awareness, it is no wonder that abortion is rather common in Japan. Making hormonal methods of contraception available would help to prevent unwanted pregnancies. The uphill battle to legalize the low-dose pill in Japan continues. PMID:10029933

Kitamura, K

1999-01-01

425

NK-cell neoplasms in Japan.  

PubMed

Neoplasms putatively originating from precursor and mature natural killer (NK) cells are rare, and their clinical features are unclear. A nationwide survey was performed in Japan to clarify the clinical features of these neoplasms diagnosed between 1994 and 1998, and data for 237 patients who met the criteria for putative NK cell-lineage neoplasms were analyzed. Among them, 11 had myeloid/NK-cell precursor acute leukemia, 15 blastic NK-cell lymphoma, 21 precursor NK-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 22 aggressive NK-cell leukemia/lymphoma, 149 nasal-type NK-cell lymphoma (123 nasal and 26 extranasal) and 19 chronic NK lymphocytosis. The median overall survival time of patients with aggressive NK-cell leukemia/lymphoma was 2 months, which for chronic NK lymphocytosis was more than 8 years, and that for the other types of NK-cell neoplasms was between 6 and 22 months. Nasal NK-cell lymphoma and extranasal NK-cell lymphoma share the same histology. The age of affliction was the same, but the sex was different with males predominantly having nasal NK-cell lymphoma and females extranasal NK-cell lymphoma. Patients with extranasal NK-cell lymphoma had the tendency to exhibit a more advanced state of disease, with significantly higher International Prognostic Index and LDH levels, and significantly lower hemoglobin and platelet levels. The overall survival, however, did not differ significantly. Precursor NK-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and blastic NK-cell lymphoma were arbitrarily defined by the presence or absence of 30% or more of blastic cells in the bone marrow or peripheral blood, but there were no significant differences for affected age, gender, involved sites or prognosis. Aggressive NK-cell leukemia/lymphoma and extranasal NK-cell lymphoma were arbitrarily defined by the presence or absence of 30% or more of large granular lymphocytes in the bone marrow or peripheral blood and it is possible that aggressive NK-cell leukemia/lymphoma is a leukemic phase of extranasal NK-cell lymphoma. The incidence of skin involvement, however, was significantly higher for extranasal NK-cell lymphoma, suggesting that the two diseases are different. In nasal NK-cell lymphoma, Epstein-Barr virus in tumor cells was detected in all patients tested, suggesting its causative role. PMID:16019472

Oshimi, Kazuo; Kawa, Keisei; Nakamura, Shigeo; Suzuki, Ritsuro; Suzumiya, Junji; Yamaguchi, Motoko; Kameoka, Junichi; Tagawa, Shinichi; Imamura, Nobutaka; Ohshima, Koichi; Kojya, Shizuo; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Tokura, Yoshiki; Sato, Eriko; Sugimori, Hiroki

2005-06-01

426

PNC/DOE Remote Monitoring Project at Japan`s Joyo Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan and the US Department of Energy (DOE) are cooperating on the development of a remote monitoring system for nuclear nonproliferation efforts. This cooperation is part of a broader safeguards agreement between PNC and DOE. A remote monitoring system is being installed in a spent fuel storage area at PNC`s experimental reactor facility Joyo in Oarai. The system has been designed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and is closely related to those used in other SNL remote monitoring projects. The Joyo project will particularly study the unique aspects of remote monitoring in contribution to nuclear nonproliferation. The project will also test and evaluate the fundamental design and implementation of the remote monitoring system in its application to regional and international safeguards efficiency. This paper will present a short history of the cooperation, the details of the monitoring system and a general schedule of activities.

Ross, M.; Hashimoto, Yu [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Senzaki, Masao; Shigeto, Toshinori [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Sonnier, C. [Jupiter Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dupree, S.; Ystesund, K.; Hale, W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-07-25

427

Activities for the Promotion of Gender Equality in Japan-Physical Society of Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gender Equality Promotion Committee of the Physical Society of Japan (JPS) was established as a result of the First International IUPAP Conference on Women in Physics (Paris, 2002). It is a gender-balanced team of 12 full members and a group of net-commentators. The former chairperson of the committee, Masako Bando, was selected to be the president of JPS between September 2006 and August 2007. Based on the survey on the present status of the gender equality and the research environment of the JPS members in 2001, JPS advanced two recommendations to the governmental authorities, academic institutes, and organizations: for flexible childcare supports and for improved research granting systems for post-doctoral fellows and part-time researchers in August 2003. Now these activities have become nationwide with the establishment in October 2002 of the Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association Committee for Promoting Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering (EPMEWSE). It has 44 member societies, including 19 observers, from various academic fields. An extended survey was carried out by EPMEWSE in November 2003; 20,000 respondents revealed diverse visions of scientists and engineers. These activities effectively help foster public understanding and awareness of the state of women in physics, especially among policy-making authorities. In 2005 the Cabinet is drawing up two Basic Plans for 2006-2010: the Science and Technology Basic Plan for the third term and the Basic Plan for the Gender-Equal Society for the second term. To attract girls into science and engineering, JPS is organizing the Girls Science Summer School to be held in August 2005 in collaboration with the National Women Education Center and EPMEWSE.

Agui, Akane; Tanida, Kiyoshi; Torikai, Eiko

2005-10-01

428

JTEC Panel report on electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies.

Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (editor); Kukowski, John; Meieran, Gene; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John; Tummala, Rao; Dehaemer, Michael J.; Holdridge, Geoff (editor); Gamota, George

1995-01-01

429

Thermophotovoltaic systems for civilian and industrial applications in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential market for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications has been studied for civilian and industrial sectors in Japan. Comparing the performance of gas engines or turbines, as well as the underdeveloped power generation technologies such as fuel cells or chemical batteries, we have discussed the feasible application field of TPV systems to compete with those power generations. From the point of view of applicability for TPV systems in Japan, portable generators, co-generation systems and solar power plants are selected for our system analysis. The cost and performance targets of TPV systems for co-generation are also discussed by assuming a typical daily profile of electricity and hot water demands in Japanese homes. A progress report on the recent TPV research activities is given as well as a feasibility study concerning such TPV systems in Japan.

Yugami, Hiroo; Sasa, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

2003-05-01

430

Acupuncture Anesthesia and Analgesia for Clinical Acute Pain in Japan  

PubMed Central

Acupuncture anesthesia has been practiced in China since about 1960. In Japan, Hyodo reported 30 cases of acupuncture anesthesia in 1972. However, from around 1980, the direction of acupuncture investigations turned from anesthesia to analgesia. Acupuncture analgesia is presently considered a way to activate the body's endogenous analgesic system. Recently, with the rise of acupuncture as one of the most well known CAM therapies, acupuncture or moxibustion treatment has been reported for both acute and chronic pain. Even so, few clinical reports and original articles have been reported in Japan. This review illustrates how acupuncture is being used in Japan for acute pain such as surgical operations, post- operative pain (POP), neuropathic pain, pain associated with teeth extractions and after the extraction of impacted wisdom teeth.

2008-01-01

431

Genetic divergence in nuclear genomes between populations of Fagus crenata along the Japan Sea and Pacific sides of Japan.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity and structure in Fagus crenata were studied by analyzing 14 nuclear microsatellite loci in 23 populations distributed throughout the species' range. Although population differentiation was very low (F (ST) = 0.027; R (ST) = 0.041), both neighbor-joining tree and Bayesian clustering analyses provided clear evidence of genetic divergence between populations along the Japan Sea (Japan Sea lineage) and Pacific (Pacific lineage) sides of Japan, indicating that physical barriers to migration and gene flow, notably the mountain ranges separating the populations along the Japan Sea and Pacific sides, have promoted genetic divergence between these populations. The two lineages of the nuclear genome are generally consistent with those of the chloroplast genome detected in a previous study, with several discrepancies between the two genomes. Within-population genetic diversity was generally very high (average H (E) = 0.839), but decreased in a clinal fashion from southwest to northeast, largely among populations of the Japan Sea lineage. This geographical gradient may have resulted from the late-glacial and postglacial recolonization to the northeast, which led to a loss of within-population genetic diversity due to cumulative founder effects. PMID:19238323

Hiraoka, Koichi; Tomaru, Nobuhiro

2009-05-01

432

ETS-5, ETS-6, and COMETS projects in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three satellite communication projects now in progress in Japan are described. The first is a project to establish a telecommunication network for tele-education, TV conference, and tele-medicine in the Asia-Pacific region by using the Japan's Engineering Test Satellite-5 (ETS-5). The second is a project of the ETS-6 satellite, to be launched in 1993, for inter-satellite communication, mobile and fixed communication, and millimeter wave personal communication experiments. The third is a project of the Communications and Broadcasting Engineering Test Satellite (COMETS), to be launched in 1997, for advanced mobile satellite communication, inter-satellite link, and advanced broadcasting experiments at higher frequencies.

Iida, Takashi; Wakana, Hiromitsu; Obara, Noriaki

1992-01-01

433

Introduction to the INIST's activities and its Japan Unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to provide any user with the best information from all over the world in the field of science and technology, CNRS(Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique), the main french research organization, settled up a highly specialized body named "Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique"(lNIST) which activities are breafly and roughly introduced hereafter. In this purpose, and according to the increasing demand and needs in France for japanese scientific and technical information, a very specialized service called "Japan Unit" was created inside INIST to make anybody easier to reach this particul ar type of information without any knowledge on Japan and japanese language.

Guidi, Written By André,; Ono, Translated By Shuichi

434

Encephalitozoon infections in Rodentia and Soricomorpha in Japan.  

PubMed

Encephalitozoon is an obligate intracellular microsporidian parasite that infects a wide range of mammalian hosts. In this study, we used nested PCR to investigate the presence of Encephalitozoon infection in Rodentia and Soricomorpha in Japan. We attempted to amplify and sequence Encephalitozoon-specific DNA from brain and viscera samples of 180 animals collected between 2008 and 2010. Forty-three samples (23.9%) from the orders Rodentia and Soricomorpha were positive for Encephalitozoon. This study is the first report of Encephalitozoon infection in Rodentia and Soricomorpha in Japan, and our findings suggest that these hosts may play a role in the spread of microsporidian spores in the environment. PMID:24060383

Tsukada, Ryusuke; Tsuchiyama, Atsuko; Sasaki, Mizuki; Park, Chun-Ho; Fujii, Yoshito; Takesue, Masataka; Hatai, Hitoshi; Kudo, Noboru; Ikadai, Hiromi

2013-11-15

435

Concerns about unapproved meningococcal vaccination for eculizumab therapy in Japan.  

PubMed

An orphan medicinal product, eculizumab is approved in Japan and globally for treating paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Eculizumab therapy can cause late complement pathway deficiencies that predispose patients to meningococcal infections. Although meningococcal vaccinations are typically considered mandatory for eculizumab therapy, no approved vaccine is available in Japan as of March, 2014. Advertising unapproved, privately imported pharmaceuticals is prohibited under Japanese pharmaceutical law; detailed information concerning the unapproved meningococcal vaccines is therefore not widely available. The situation jeopardizes the safety of patients receiving eculizumab therapy, and Japanese clinicians are advised caution when prescribing this therapy. PMID:24716834

Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Kusumi, Eiji; Hosoda, Kazutaka; Kouno, Kaduki; Hamaki, Tamae; Kami, Masahiro

2014-01-01

436

Globalisation and the Role of Financial Accounting Information in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

7.0. Summary \\u000a7.1. The role of internationalisation in Japan’s financial accounting system \\u000adevelopment \\u000a7.2. Convergence between JP-GAAP and US-GAAP \\u000a7.3. Economic rationales for voluntary financial accounting disclosure \\u000a7.4. Institutions and information asymmetry \\u000a7.0. Summary \\u000aThe METI Study Group on the Internationalisation of Business Accounting \\u000aissued a report in 2004 claiming that the accounting standards under JP-GAAP \\u000ashould be accepted as

Mourik van C. M

2007-01-01

437

Three new Pochonia taxa (Clavicipitaceae) from soils in Japan.  

PubMed

Fifty Pochonia strains were isolated from soil samples collected throughout Japan. Using a combination of micromorphological characters and multigene (SSU, LSU, TEF, RPB1, RPB2) phylogenics, seven taxa were identified, three of which previously were undescribed. In this paper we describe the new species, P. boninensis, and two new varieties, P. chlamydosporia var. ellipsospora and var. spinulospora. They were recovered from Chichi-jima, Aogashima and Okinawa's main island. The three new taxa are distinguished from known species and varieties by conidial morphology. We also report the first finding of P. rubescens from Japan. PMID:23921245

Nonaka, Kenichi; Omura, Satoshi; Masuma, Rokuro; Kaifuchi, Satoru; Masuma, Rokuro

2013-01-01

438

[Mycobacterium immunogenum isolated from a metal worker in Japan].  

PubMed

In the United States and European countries, Mycobacterium immunogenum has been identified in metalworking fluids and is reported to be a causative agent of metalworking fluid-associated hypersensitivity pneumonitis. However, in Japan, there has been no reports of M. immunogenum isolated from metalworking fluids. This is the first report of isolation of the microorganism from the sputum of a metal-grinding machine worker in Japan. We should consider the possibility of M. immunogenum infection in case of non-tuberculosis mycobacteriosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis in metalworkers. PMID:22702082

Omura, Harutaka; Kajiki, Akira; Ikegame, Satoshi; Aono, Akio; Mitarai, Satoshi; Kitahara, Yoshinari

2012-04-01

439

Southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk, north of Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An oblique view of the southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk, north of Japan, (45.0N,144.0E) as photographed from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit by one of the Skylab 4 crewmen. Most of the land area is Hokkaido Island, Japan. The southern tip of Sakhalin Island (Soviet Union) is in the northwest corner. This photograph was taken to aid in the study of the formation of sea ice. Observations in the Sea of Okhotsk are of interest because the ice has a morphology similar to that of the Bering Sea.

1974-01-01

440

Travel to Japan for ITER meeting and expatriate fact finding activities. Foreign trip report, August 30--September 16, 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a trip report on a meeting held in Japan in August--September 1992. US representatives travelled to Japan for discussions with representatives from Japan's Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Talks centered around various topics related to t...

R. J. Thome

1992-01-01

441

Cancer incidence and novel therapies developed in Japan.  

PubMed

According to the ministry of Health, Labour and welfare of Japan, Cancer has been the leading cause of death in Japan since 1981. ([1]) As per the data in 2010, in Japan, one in every three deaths was due to cancer. ([2]) The Japanese Government has introduced so far, three terms of 10 years strategies for Cancer control since 1984 till date. The budget allocated for cancer control in 2009 was 52.5 billion yen in Japan. ([3]) Lung is the leading site for cancer in both males and females in Japan. In males, following the lung, stomach, liver, colon and pancreas are other leading sites while in the females, stomach, colon, pancreas and breast are the other leading sites. ([1]) In 2006, the cancer incidence was 694,000 and the male cancer incidence was 1.4 times as large as that of females. The peak age for cancer deaths in males is their fifties while in the females it is the sixties among Japanese. In addition to the conventional treatments such as surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, some of other therapies in practice in Japan are the Hyperthermia ([4]) that uses high temperatures to kill or damage the cancer cells, the Ion Beam therapy using proton beams ([5]) to damage the DNA of the cells as cancer cells have high rate of cell divisions and lesser ability to repair DNA damage, the molecular targeted therapies that interfere with a specific molecular target involved in tumour growth and progression([6]) and most importantly the autologous cell based Immunotherapies. Modern Cancer Immunotherapy started in the 1970s in Japan. The immunopotentiators using compounds from Bacteria, Beta Glucans from fungi were the first forms of modern Immunotherapy. Then was the era of direct injection of cytokines such as Interleukins, Interferons etc. The adverse effects associated with the injection of cytokines led to development of cell based Immunotherapies in the 1980s. ([7]) Immuno-cell therapies involve isolation of immune cells which are then processed and re-injected into the body to exert their action against the cancer. There are different kinds of Immuno-cell therapies being practised in more than 25 private and public institutions in Japan using Natural Killer (NK) cells, Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), Tumour Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TIL), Lymphokine activated Killer (LAK) cells, Dendritic cells and Gamma Delta T (?? T) cells.([7]) Importantly most of the innovations in cell based therapies in the world have been made in Japan because immunotherapy is a part of the Japanese Health care system and routine therapies for cancer in Japan. There have been randomized clinical trials on Immuno-cell therapy for liver cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer, ovarian cancer with the results suggesting statistically significant increase in survival rate and increase in disease free survival rate. ([8, 9, 10, 11]) There are more than 25 institutions in Japan performing such cell based immunotherapies. A comprehensive review by Egawa et al on 1401 patients showed that when Immuno-cell therapy was combined with the conventional therapies, the efficacy increased upto 20-30%. ([7]) Immuno-cell is the least toxic of all therapies and can be administered even to terminally ill cancer patients. ([12]) Contrast to drugs, as autologous cell based Immuno-therapies are from the patient's own blood and as they are custom tailored to each patient, though expensive, the adverse effects are minimal. To conclude, cancer-Immunocell therapies are the future of cancer therapies and further research is needed to enhance its efficacy and validate the results. PMID:24693199

M, Iwasaki

2012-01-01

442

JPRS Report, Science Technology, Japan, Survey Report on Research Activities in Private Enterprises.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years, Japan's rise as an economic power has been astounding, and its international influence that is attendant upon that grows stronger. On the other hand, though, the international environment surrounding Japan has become increasingly more fie...

1992-01-01

443

75 FR 32503 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan Determinations On the basis...steel wire rod from Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to...Okun dissenting with respect to Korea and...

2010-06-08

444

77 FR 45653 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain; Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain; Determination Determination On the basis...steel bar from Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain would be likely to lead to continuation...the negative with respect to Brazil and...

2012-08-01

445

JTEC Monograph on Biodegradable Polymers and Plastics in Japan: Research, Development, and Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A fact-finding team of American scientists and engineers visited Japan to assess the status of research and development and applications in biodegradable polymers. The visit was sponsored by the National Science Foundation and industry. In Japan, the team...

R. W. Lenz

1995-01-01

446

Genetic divergence in nuclear genomes between populations of Fagus crenata along the Japan Sea and Pacific sides of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity and structure in Fagus crenata were studied by analyzing 14 nuclear microsatellite loci in 23 populations distributed throughout the species’ range. Although\\u000a population differentiation was very low (F\\u000a ST = 0.027; R\\u000a ST = 0.041), both neighbor-joining tree and Bayesian clustering analyses provided clear evidence of genetic divergence between\\u000a populations along the Japan Sea (Japan Sea lineage) and Pacific (Pacific lineage) sides

Koichi Hiraoka; Nobuhiro Tomaru

2009-01-01

447

Japan Renal Biopsy Registry and Japan Kidney Disease Registry: Committee Report for 2009 and 2010.  

PubMed

The Japan Renal Biopsy Registry (J-RBR) was started in 2007 and the Japan Kidney Disease Registry (J-KDR) was then started in 2009 by the Committee for Standardization of Renal Pathological Diagnosis and the Committee for the Kidney Disease Registry of the Japanese Society of Nephrology. The purpose of this report is to describe and summarize the registered data from 2009 and 2010. For the J-KDR, data were collected from 4,016 cases, including 3,336 (83.1 %) by the J-RBR and 680 (16.9 %) other cases from 59 centers in 2009, and from 4,681 cases including 4,106 J-RBR cases (87.7 %) and 575 other cases (12.3 %) from 94 centers in 2010, including the affiliate hospitals. In the J-RBR, 3,165 native kidneys (94.9 %) and 171 renal grafts (5.1 %) and 3,869 native kidneys (94.2 %) and 237 renal grafts (5.8 %) were registered in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Patients younger than 20 years of age comprised 12.1 % of the registered cases, and those 65 years and over comprised 24.5 % of the cases with native kidneys in 2009 and 2010. The most common clinical diagnosis was chronic nephritic syndrome (55.4 % and 50.0 % in 2009 and 2010, respectively), followed by nephrotic syndrome (22.4 % and 27.0 %); the most frequent pathological diagnosis as classified by the pathogenesis was IgA nephropathy (31.6 % and 30.4 %), followed by primary glomerular diseases (except IgA nephropathy) (27.2 % and 28.1 %). Among the primary glomerular diseases (except IgA nephropathy) in the patients with nephrotic syndrome, membranous nephropathy was the most common histopathology in 2009 (40.3 %) and minor glomerular abnormalities (50.0 %) were the most common in 2010 in native kidneys in the J-RBR. Five new secondary and longitudinal research studies by the J-KDR were started in 2009 and one was started in 2010. PMID:23385776

Sugiyama, Hitoshi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Sato, Hiroshi; Saito, Takao; Kohda, Yukimasa; Nishi, Shinichi; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Kiyomoto, Hideyasu; Iida, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Tamaki; Higuchi, Makoto; Hattori, Motoshi; Oka, Kazumasa; Kagami, Shoji; Kawamura, Tetsuya; Takeda, Tetsuro; Hataya, Hiroshi; Fukasawa, Yuichiro; Fukatsu, Atsushi; Morozumi, Kunio; Yoshikawa, Norishige; Shimizu, Akira; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Yuzawa, Yukio; Matsuo, Seiichi; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Joh, Kensuke; Nagata, Michio; Taguchi, Takashi; Makino, Hirofumi

2013-04-01

448

Earthquake swarms preceding the 2000 eruption of Miyakejima volcano, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first sign of magma accumulating beneath Miyakejima, an island volcano in the northern Izu islands, Japan, came at around 18:00 on 26 June 2000, when a swarm of earthquakes was detected by a volcano seismic network on the island. Earthquakes occurred initially beneath the southwest flank near the summit and gradually migrated west of the island, where a submarine

K. Uhira; T. Baba; H. Mori; H. Katayama; N. Hamada

2005-01-01

449

Investigation of Deformation Sources for the Miyakejima, Japan Intrusive Event  

Microsoft Academic Search

On June 26, 2000, a large seismic swarm began beneath the west coast of Miyakejima, Japan, an active volcanic island in the Izu arc. After a week-long propagation of seismicity to the northwest, seismic activity continued for approximately two months in the region. The swarm was accompanied by eruptions and caldera collapse on Miyakejima, as well as continuing crustal deformation

G. R. Hughes; P. Segall

2008-01-01

450

Traditional healthful fermented products of Japan Yoshikatsu Murooka ? Mitsuo Yamshita  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of fermentation products, such as foods containing probiotic bacteria, black rice vinegar (kurosu), soy sauce (shoyu), soybean-barley paste (miso), natto and tempeh, are sold in food stores in Japan. These fermented food products are produced by traditional methods that exploit mixed cultures of various non-toxic microorganisms. These microorganisms include lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, sake yeast, koji

Mitsuo Yamashita

451

Internationalizing the U.S. Classroom: Japan as a Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of essays presents a rationale for incorporating teaching about Japan in the K-12 curriculum. The volume provides practical examples and guidelines about how to achieve this goal. The essays are organized into three main categories--professional development, curriculum design and enhancement, and exchange. The essays include:…

Wojtan, Linda S., Ed.; Spence, Donald, Ed.

452

Phased array antenna systems for commercial applications in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will review research-level phased array activities and developed phased array systems in Japan. Two basic technologies for the beamforming networks are discussed, one is microwave processing technology using MMICs and the other is optical processing. Optically controlled phased array antennas utilizing optical components are described. As the commercial available systems, the airborne phased array antenna for INMARSAT-M, and

Shuichi Samejima

1996-01-01

453

Thermophotovoltaic systems for civilian and industrial applications in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential market for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications has been studied for civilian and industrial sectors in Japan. Comparing the performance of gas engines or turbines, as well as the underdeveloped power generation technologies such as fuel cells or chemical batteries, we have discussed the feasible application field of TPV systems to compete with those power generations. From the point of

Hiroo Yugami; Hiromi Sasa; Masafumi Yamaguchi

2003-01-01

454

Isotopic Composition of Lead in the Sediments Near Japan Trench.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The isotopic composition of lead in the sediments near the Japan Trench was determined. The values are: (206) PB/204PB=18.45; (207)PB/(204) PB=15.63; and (208)PB/(204)PB=38.68. The mu and kappa values of the source material are also calculated to be 8.8 a...

T. J. Chow M. Tatsumoto

1964-01-01

455

Shallow temperature inversions in the Pacific Ocean near Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The statistical properties of shallow temperature inversions in the Pacific Ocean near Japan were investigated using data obtained from. BT observations. In the sea east of Honshu, the Kuroshio front forms the southern boundary of the area where temperature inversions are abundant. Though the occurrence frequency of the temperature inversion layers is very low in the sea south of Honshu,

Yutaka Nagata

1979-01-01

456

1000-km range 2 dimensional ocean acoustic tomography near Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

1000-km range (621-km) two-dimensional ocean acoustic tomography (OAT) was conducted in the northwestern Pacific near Japan. A low frequency acoustic source (200 Hz) was moored just below the sound channel. Arrival signals from the upper direction and the lower one were separated by a beam forming technique. The stochastic inverse method was applied to the estimation of the sound speed

Takao ITOH; Takashi KAMOSHIDA; Tomio SHINKE; Naohiro KIMATA; Akio KAYA; Hidetoshi FUJIMORI; T. Nakamura; I. Nakano

1995-01-01

457

Paleogeographic reconstruction of accreted oceanic rocks, Akiyoshi, southwest Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The depositional setting of an accreted oceanic rock succession of limestone, chert, and greenstone is reconstructed by using the stratigraphy, age, and lithologic features in the Akiyoshi terrane, southwest Japan. Stratigraphic and radiolarian paleontological results identify four coeval oceanic rock units, ranging in age from late early Carboniferous to late middle Permian. Sediments on the top, the upper flank, the

Hiroyoshi Sano; Kametoshi Kanmera

1988-01-01

458

Research and development on ocean thermal energy conversion in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) in Japan has been conducted under the leadership of a team of the ''Sunshine Project'', a national new energy development project promoted by the Ministry of International Trade and Industries (MITI) since 1974. At present, two experimental OTEC power plants -Nauru's OTEC plant and Imari's OTEC plant are operating. In this paper,

H. Uehara

1982-01-01

459

Recent advancement of electromagnetic nondestructive inspection technology in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the electromagnetic nondestructive testing (NDT) of present interest for research and industrial applications in Japan is described. Besides ac and pulsed eddy-current testing, magnetic flux leakage testing, passive magnetic flux leakage for characterization of material degradation, and various inversion techniques are presented. Both simulation and experimental results are used to demonstrate validity of the electromagnetic NDT methods

Kenzo Miya

2002-01-01

460

Approaching Multilingualism in Japan and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers how multilingualism is approached in both Japan and the United States by considering the position and roles of the government, schools, and public. There exists the perception in countries where monolingualism is considered the norm that bilingualism, and certainly multilingualism, are problematic. Multilingualism in a…

Clankie, Shawn M.

2000-01-01

461

Education, Employment and Household Dynamics: Brazilian Migrants in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By treating the household as a primary unit of analysis and social production, this article considers the mutually influential ways in which migrant families shape the educational pathways and experiences of Brazilian children living in Japan. Through an ethnographic exploration of relations between parents, children and their working siblings I…

Green, Paul

2013-01-01

462

Koreans in Japan: A Minority's Changing Relationship with Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Koreans form the largest ethnic minority group in Japan. The present study explores the situation of Korean pupils in Japanese schools by analyzing recent changes in four areas:(1) governmental and school-level policies, (2) school level programs targeted at Korean children, (3) Korean pupils' academic achievements and (4) their micro-level…

Okano, Kaori H.

2004-01-01

463

Historical Note on Cumulative Recorders Manufactured in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history of cumulative recorders manufactured in Japan between the early 1970s and the present is described. The first such instrument was the Tosoku-Kogyo Company's Model T-45A, followed thereafter by its Model T-45B, built on the same chassis as the T-45A, but with different electrical and mechanical components. When Tosoku-Kogyo closed its…

Asano, Toshio; Lattal, Kennon A.

2008-01-01

464

Trends in antimicrobial-drug resistance in Japan.  

PubMed Central

Multidrug resistance in gram-positive bacteria has become common worldwide. In Japan until recently, gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens were controlled by carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides. However, several of these microorganisms have recently developed resistance against many antimicrobial drugs.

Arakawa, Y.; Ike, Y.; Nagasawa, M.; Shibata, N.; Doi, Y.; Shibayama, K.; Yagi, T.; Kurata, T.

2000-01-01

465

Neonatal screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia in Japan.  

PubMed

A nationwide screening test for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) was first initiated in Japan in 1989, over 20 years ago, and it is now 30 years since a pilot study was initiated in Sapporo in 1982. The incidence of 21-hydroxylase deficiency in Japan is about 1/18,000 persons, which is similar to that in other countries. The effectiveness of early detection and treatment of CAH in Japan has been demonstrated by cost-benefit analyses. However, the false-positive rate of CAH screening in preterm infants remains high compared to screening tests for term infants. To improve the positive predictive value, we have employed 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21A2) analysis on dried blood spots and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to measure 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and currently use tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) as a screening technique. We suggest that LC-MS/MS should be used in the future to improve the accuracy of CAH screening in Japan. PMID:23330248

Tajima, Toshihiro; Fujikura, Kaori; Fukushi, Masaru; Hotsubo, Tomoyuki; Mitsuhashi, Yu

2012-10-01

466

Copyright and Multimedia Classroom Material: A Study from Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines the knowledge and attitudes that 57 language teachers in Japan have regarding copyright laws in relation to using external materials in the classroom. A 13-item online survey was distributed, and semi-structured interviews were conducted, to ascertain what teachers know about Japanese copyright laws, and the teachers' resultant…

Heffernan, Neil; Wang, Shudong

2008-01-01

467

Japan's research on droplet and droplet array combustion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In Japan, the ignition and combustion of the droplet and droplet array have been investigated by using microgravity condition. This is the short introduction of those studies; interactive combustion of two droplets, ignition experiment on droplet array, and microexplosion behavior of an emulsified fuel droplet.

Kono, Michikata

1995-01-01

468

On the Possibility of Porphyry Copper Mineralization in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why no porphyry copper deposit has been discovered thus far in the islands of Japan remains a perplexing question. A new attempt is made to address this question in this paper, with eight prerequisites for the formation of porphyry copper deposits being presented. The authors then review certain unfavorable conditions for formation of porphyry coppers, discussing especially the spacetime relationship

Kezhang Qin; Shunso Ishihara

1998-01-01

469

Present State of Technological Innovation in Higher Education of Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The scope, history, and effects of technological innovation in higher education in Japan, with particular attention to Tokyo Institute of Technology, are explored, and the developments leading to the present state of the technology are reviewed. An overview of the current status includes a listing of institutions with audiovisual equipment, a…

Sakamoto, Takashi

470

Japan-Soviet Fishery Agreements, 1985-91.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Japanese fishermen have operated extensively off the Soviet Union's coast since Japan energetically began expanding its fishing industry following the Second World War. The U.S.S.R., however, in 1977 implemented a 200-mile fishery zone and officials of bo...

T. Schneider P. Niemeir M. Wildman

1991-01-01

471

Relationship between Gravity Anomaly and Subjacent Source Fault in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Japan, a dense seismograph network and developments of data analysis and inversion theory of strong ground motion reproduce strong motion records with high precision. Government and municipalities require estimation of strong ground motion for disaster prevention planning. The estimation of strong ground motion requires to be assumed subjacent source fault with high precision. Active fault information play important role

N. Inoue; N. Kitada; K. Takemura

2006-01-01

472

Use of Text Messaging by Deaf Adolescents in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses a survey study that drew on seventy-five high school students at a residential deaf school in Japan. The aim of the survey was to examine the various ways in which deaf adolescents use text messaging and to determine whether they use the technology differently from the hearing high school students surveyed in our previously…

Okuyama, Yoshiko; Iwai, Mariko

2011-01-01

473

Suggestions, Resources and Activities for Teaching about Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher resource packet contains a total of 28 modules for teaching about Japan at the elementary and secondary level. Activities on the Japanese family appropriate for grade 1 focus on similarities and differences, family size, family needs, and family roles. Grade 2 lessons look at the school, neighborhood, roles of children in the…

Thomas, Paul F.

474

Commentaries on Being Gay in Japan and China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents commentaries on being gay in Japan and China by distinguished educators with various backgrounds and from different countries. Given space limitations, these are more evocative than particulate, but collectively they provide multiple platforms for reflection. As noted by some commentators in this article and others (e.g.,…

Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education, 2003

2003-01-01

475

Norovirus Infections in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Food Handlers in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noroviruses are the leading cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the world. At present, norovirus genogroup II, genotype 4 (GII\\/4), strains are the most prevalent in many countries. In this study we investi- gated 55 outbreaks and 35 sporadic cases of norovirus-associated gastroenteritis in food handlers in food- catering settings between 10 November 2005 and 9 December 2006 in Japan.

Kazuhiro Ozawa; Naokazu Takeda; Grant S. Hansman

2007-01-01

476

Walking through World Heritage Forest in Japan: the Kumano pilgrimage  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage Routes in the Kii Mountain Range (Japan)’ were inscribed as a World Heritage Cultural Landscape by UNESCO in 2004. The forest covering the mountains has been the main economic resource for the region for hundreds of years. The designation stressed that the region possesses a ‘living culture’ that spoke of religious beliefs associated with forestry. Through

Sylvie Guichard-Anguis

2011-01-01

477

Safety Aspects and Operating Experience of LWR Plants in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From the outset of nuclear power development in Japan, major emphasis has been placed on the safety of the nuclear power plants. There are now twelve nuclear power plants in operation with a total output of 6600 MWe. Their operating records were generally...

S. Aoki T. Yoshioka M. Toyota M. Hinoki

1977-01-01

478

The Japanese Automobile Worker: A Microcosm of Japan's Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A teaching unit on the Japanese automobile worker was developed from a compilation of on-site interviews with Japanese company managers and production line employees, and official publications of the Japanese car industry. The unit is designed to present a balanced picture of Japan's economic success and labor relations and to develop global…

Kaderabeck, Elizabeth A.

479

Recent developments in lead-acid battery technology in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan ranks second to the US in the free world in battery manufacturing. This is a result of the rapid growth in production volume resulting from quick acceleration of equipment investment and manpower reduction to meet the market demand. It has also gotten closer to the development activities to open new markets for battery applications, since the lead-acid battery industry

Shimizu

1987-01-01

480

Ethical Considerations on Indications for Gender Selection in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender selection is a matter of great concern to a cohort of parents. To what extent the methods available are ethically acceptable at present differs depending upon the society and times the couples live in. In the present communication, the current situation in Japan in use for gender selection by empirical methods without sperm separation, conventional methods with sperm separation

Takahide Mori; Hirohiko Watanabe

2002-01-01

481

Did quantitative easing by the Bank of Japan \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success, or lack thereof, of the Bank of Japan's quantitative easing program is of interest not only as an important experience in Japanese economic history, but more generally as an unprecedented experiment in monetary policy under very low nominal interest rates. In this Economic Letter, I review the evidence that has emerged to date concerning the impact of the

Mark M. Spiegel

2006-01-01

482

Effectiveness and Transmission Mechanisms of Japan's Quantitative Monetary Easing Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the overall economic impact and transmission mechanisms of Japan's quantitative monetary easing policy (QMEP) based on Honda, Kuroki, and Tachibana (2007). A vector auto regression (VAR) model analysis has led to the following four observations. First, an increase of base money raises aggregate output. Second, the impact of the QMEP is primarily transmitted through the channels of

Yutaka Harada; Minoru Masujima

2009-01-01

483

Relationship between hot springs and geothermal fields in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot springs usually are situated in the volcanic belt of a convergent zone and are utilized as indicators of geothermal potential in an area. Characteristics of hot springs in Japan have been examined in order to understand the relationship between hot springs and geothermal fields. The characteristics examined include locations of hot springs, their temperature, density of distribution, flow rate,

Hemendra R. Acharya

1989-01-01

484

Environmental Education from a Kindergarten to a University student, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Importance of the environmental and disaster prevention education on the basis of science is increasing since the disaster by the Tohoku-Earthquake and Tsunami at the 11th March 2011, in Japan. Effective enforcement of the environmental education from a kindergarten to a University student is very important educational tool for protecting future earth's environment. This research reports the present situation and the practice example of environmental education of Japan. Particularly, I report practice of the environmental education in a class of Shimane University. In addition, I explain the actual situation of the environmental education for student from kindergarten to junior high school in Shimane Prefecture. I point out that 'Consciousness (In)', 'knowledge (About)', and 'action (For)' are important three factors based on my practice of the environmental education (e.g. UNESCO-Finland, 1974). That is 'consciousness (In)' means education in (or through) the environment. 'knowledge (About)' means education about environment. 'Action (FOR)' means education for environment. According to the present condition of the environmental education of a Japan, I arranged and redefined such three factors. That is three factors consist of two axis that are 'me' and 'others'. And National exists between them. condition of the environmental education of a Japan, I arranged and redefined such three factors. That is three factors consist of two axis that are 'me' and 'others'. And National exists between them.

Matsumoto, I.

2013-12-01

485

The Creative Destruction of Ainu Community in Hokkaido, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigenous tourism has become a global phenomenon. The diverse indigenous communities offer natural tourism attractions, unique cultural performances and various diverse heritage commodities. The implications of such developments on an Ainu community in Hokkaido, Japan, are explored through the application of the model of creative destruction. By adopting a qualitative approach, collecting data on tourist arrivals, investment by entrepreneurs and

Janet Chang; Wen-Yu Su; Chih-Chia Chang

2011-01-01

486

Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, 2004: Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Japan is a parliamentary democracy based on its 1947 Constitution. Sovereignty is vested in the citizenry, and the Emperor is defined as the symbol of state. Executive power is exercised by a cabinet, composed of a prime minister and ministers of state, w...

2005-01-01

487

Multicultural Education in the United States and Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper compares multicultural education in U.S. and Japanese schools, analyzing multicultural education from the ethnic perspective. The paper notes that while the United States is a country with a long history of immigration and is composed of people with many different racial backgrounds, Japan is a country of a single race with only a few…

Nagai, Hideo

488

Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, 2001: Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Japan is a parliamentary democracy based on the 1947 Constitution. Sovereignty is vested in the citizenry, and the Emperor is defined as the symbol of s