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1

Photomask and pattern programming manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A user's manual for a set of computer programs written in FORTRAN for the layout and generation of photomasks is presented. A limited amount of related information on photomasks, their design, and use is included. Input to the programs includes data describing the photomask design. Possible outputs include plots of the layout and a magnetic tape for controlling generation of the photomask by a pattern generator.

Kirschman, R. K.

1978-01-01

2

Immersion Lithography: Photomask and  

E-print Network

Immersion Lithography: Photomask and Wafer-Level Materials Roger H. French and Hoang V. Tran DuPont Co. Central Research, E400-5207 Experimental Station, Wilmington, DE 19880-0400; email: roger.h.french@usa.dupont) coincided with the intro- duction of chemically amplified resists. Currently, the transition to 193 nm (Ar

Rollins, Andrew M.

3

Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Materials for a secondary level, interdisciplinary social studies course on Japan are divided into introductory information, 14 classroom units, and study and evaluation materials. Introductory material includes lists of objectives and skills, an outline of Japanese history, and an explanation of Japan's name and flag. The units cover the…

Jones, Savannah C.

4

Spectroscopic ellipsometry applications in photomask technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development and manufacture of advanced photomasks requires understanding the optical properties of mask materials and the ability to carefully monitor and control the film thickness, refractive index, and absorption of each film layer. Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE), a nondestructive optical analysis technique for determination of film thickness, refractive index, absorption, and film microstructure has been applied to many applications in current and emerging areas of photomask technology. This work surveys a variety of applications including analysis of fused silica mask blanks, imprint lithography templates, free-standing pellicles, deposited films of chromium, chromium oxide, MoSi, and multiple layers of these materials. For fused silica substrates we determine the optical properties (n & k) versus wavelength as well as the surface roughness. The near-surface index and surface roughness are used as indicators of surface polishing quality, which is an issue in the use of photomask substrates as template stamps in imprint lithography. Pellicles are free-standing films stretched over a metal frame. Because these thin pellicles are much thinner than the light coherence length, spectroscopic ellipsometry can determine the thickness, refractive index, and absorbance of the pellicle versus wavelength via interference between light reflecting from the upper and lower surfaces of the film. It is also possible to measure pellicles suspended over an underlying mask. The optical constants (n & k) of MoSi films vary widely with deposition conditions due to both composition and microstructure. Films optimized for 248 nm and 193 nm wavelengths have been analyzed. Spectroscopic ellipsometry shows good sensitivity to surface roughness and index gradients through the MoSi films. Multilayer masks such as NTAR have multiple absorbing layers such as chromium and chrome oxide. It is possible to simultaneously analyze multiple data sets acquired from the front side, from the back side through the substrate, and transmitted data through the stack. This increases the information content in the data, allowing more details from the multilayer to be determined. It is also possible to measure the birefringence in mask substrates and coated masks by using ellipsometry in transmission mode. By establishing a known polarization state incident on the mask it is possible to analyze the polarization after transmission to determine the phase difference, which is used to measure the birefringence of the sample. For patterned structures such as gratings it is possible to measure polarization-dependent diffraction effects versus angle. Measurement can be made in either reflection or transmission mode. It is possible to independently measure both s- and p-polarization components and compare to theory. As photomasks become more complex, with increasing numbers of layers (such as multilayer mirrors for EUV masks) in-situ ellipsometry shows great promise, providing the ultimate characterization of each film by allowing measurement in real-time as each layer is added to the mask structure.

Synowicki, Ron A.; Hilfiker, James N.

2008-10-01

5

Multilayer Microfluidic Devices Created From A Single Photomask  

SciTech Connect

The time and expense associated with high quality photomask production can discourage the creation of multilayer microfluidic devices, as each layer currently requires a separate photomask. Here we describe an approach in which multilayer microfabricated devices can be created from a single photomask. The separate layers and their corresponding alignment marks are arranged in separate halves of the mask for two layer devices or quadrants for four layer devices. Selective exposure of the photomask features and rotation of the device substrate between exposures result in multiple copies of the devices on each wafer. Subsequent layers are aligned to patterned features on the substrate with the same alignment accuracy as when multiple photomasks are used. We demonstrate this approach for fabricating devices employing multilayer soft lithography (MSL) for pneumatic valving. MSL devices containing as many as 5 layers (4 aligned fluidic layers plus a manually aligned control layer) were successfully created using this approach. Device design is also modularized, enabling the presence or absence of features as well as channel heights to be selected independently from one another. The use of a single photomask to create multilayer devices results in a dramatic savings of time and/or money required to advance from device design to completed prototype.

Kelly, Ryan T.; Sheen, Allison M.; Jambovane, Sachin R.

2013-08-28

6

High-performance photomask cleaning process using electrolyzed water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new photomask cleaning process using electrolyzed water was suggested in this work. This process using the cathode water with a small amount of ammonium hydroxide showed good efficiencies of removing particles from photomask surfaces. MoSiON surface was not so damaged in the alkaline cathode water compared with in APM. The rinsing process in the anode water eliminated the sulfuric acid residue on the surfaces of quartz substrates. Using electrolyzed water reduced the consumptions of the chemicals, the water and the energy.

Nagamura, Yoshikazu; Usui, Hozumi; Yoshioka, Nobuyuki; Morimoto, H.

1998-09-01

7

Defining defect specifications to optimize photomask production and requalification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing defect repairs and accelerating defect analysis is becoming more important as the total cost of defect repairs on advanced masks increases. Photomask defect specs based on printability, as measured on AIMS microscopes has been used for years, but the fundamental defect spec is still the defect size, as measured on the photomask, requiring the repair of many unprintable defects. ADAS, the Automated Defect Analysis System from AVI is now available in most advanced mask shops. It makes the use of pure printability specs, or "Optimal Defect Specs" practical. This software uses advanced algorithms to eliminate false defects caused by approximations in the inspection algorithm, classify each defect, simulate each defect and disposition each defect based on its printability and location. This paper defines "optimal defect specs", explains why they are now practical and economic, gives a method of determining them and provides accuracy data.

Fiekowsky, Peter

2006-10-01

8

Photomask CD and LER characterization using Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Critical dimension and line edge roughness on photomask arrays are determined with Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry. Arrays with large sinusoidal perturbations are measured for different azimuth angels and compared with simulations based on rigorous coupled wave analysis. Experiment and simulation show that line edge roughness leads to characteristic changes in the different Mueller matrix elements. The influence of line edge roughness is interpreted as an increase of isotropic character of the sample. The changes in the Mueller matrix elements are very similar when the arrays are statistically perturbed with rms roughness values in the nanometer range suggesting that the results on the sinusoidal test structures are also relevant for "real" mask errors. Critical dimension errors and line edge roughness have similar impact on the SE MM measurement. To distinguish between both deviations, a strategy based on the calculation of sensitivities and correlation coefficients for all Mueller matrix elements is shown. The Mueller matrix elements M13/M31 and M34/M43 are the most suitable elements due to their high sensitivities to critical dimension errors and line edge roughness and, at the same time, to a low correlation coefficient between both influences. From the simulated sensitivities, it is estimated that the measurement accuracy has to be in the order of 0.01 and 0.001 for the detection of 1 nm critical dimension error and 1 nm line edge roughness, respectively.

Heinrich, A.; Dirnstorfer, I.; Bischoff, J.; Meiner, K.; Ketelsen, H.; Richter, U.; Mikolajick, T.

2014-10-01

9

157-nm photomask handling and infrastructure: requirements and feasibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photomask handling is significantly more challenging for 157 nm lithography than for any previous generation of optical lithography. First, pellicle materials are not currently available which meet all the requirements for 157 nm lithography. Polymeric materials used at 193 nm higher wavelengths are not sufficiently transmissive at 157 nm, while modified fused silica materials have adequate transmission properties but introduce optical distortion. Second, the problem of molecular level contamination on the reticle must be solved. This contamination is due to the presence of oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, and other attenuators of 157 nm radiation on the mask surface. It must be removed using something other than the lithography laser due to throughput and cost of ownership considerations. Third, there is the issue of removing attenuators from under the pellicle after a material becomes available. Both the ambient atmosphere and other introduced contaminants must be removed from the space between the reticle and pellicle after cleaning but before exposure. Fourth are the potential issues for storage of reticles both during transportation from the mask shop and after it is in the wafer fab. Finally, the problems associated with operating in an optically inert dry environment must be addressed. The lack of moisture in the environment removes one of the key electrical discharge paths off of the reticle, which greatly increases the risk of electrostatic damage to the pattern (ESD). In order to address these and related issues in a timeframe consistent with the aggressive implementation plan for 157 nm lithography, International Sematech (ISMT) formed the 157 nm Reticle Handling Team in November of 1999. This paper details the most critical results to date of this industry-wide team, and gives a prognosis for successful completion of the team's primary goal: a demonstration of a feasible 157 nm reticle handling strategy by December of 2000.

Cullins, Jerry; Muzio, Edward G.

2001-09-01

10

Best-practice evaluation-methods for wafer-fab photomask-requalification inspection tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Requalifying semiconductor photomasks remains critically important and is increasingly challenging for 20nm and 14nm node logic reticles. Patterns are becoming more complex on the photomask, and defect sensitivity requirements are more stringent than ever before. Reticle inspection tools are equally important for effective process development and the successful ramp and sustained yield for high volume manufacturing. The inspection stages considered were: incoming inspection to match with Mask Shop Outgoing result and to detect defects generated during transport; requalification by routine cycle inspection to detect Haze and any other defects; and inspection by in-house or Mask shop at the post cleaning. There are many critical capability and capacity factors for the decision for best inspection tool and strategy for high volume manufacturing, especially objective Lens NA, wavelength, power, pixel size, throughput, full-automation inspection linked with Overhead Transport, algorithm application, engineering application function, and inspection of PSM and OMOG . These tools are expensive but deliver differentiated value in terms of performance and throughput as well as extendibility. Performing a thorough evaluation and making a technically sound choice which explores these many factors is critical for success of a fab. This paper examines the methodology for evaluating two different photomask inspection tools. The focus is on ensuring production worthiness on real and advanced product photomasks requiring accurate evaluation of sensitivity, throughput, data analysis function and engineering work function on those product photomasks. Photomasks used for data collection are production reticles, PDM(Program defect Mask), SiN spray defect Reticle which is described that evaluates how the tools would perform on a contaminated plate.

Cho, Chan Seob; Mungmode, Ashish; Taylor, Ron; Cho, David; Koh, Hui Peng

2014-10-01

11

Use of EUV scatterometry for the characterization of line profiles and line roughness on photomasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scatterometry is a versatile metrology for characterizing periodic structures, regarding critical dimension (CD) and other profile properties. With respect to small feature sizes on future lithography photomasks, the short wavelength of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is advantageous since it minimizes diffraction phenomena and increases the sensitivity to roughness. The advantage of the short wavelength can also be used for investigations

Frank Scholze; Christian Laubis

2008-01-01

12

Lens wavefront compensation for 3D photomask effects in subwavelength optical lithography.  

PubMed

As semiconductor optical lithography is pushed to smaller dimensions, resolution enhancement techniques have been required to maintain process yields. For some time, the customization of illumination coherence at the source plane has allowed for the control of diffraction order distribution across the projection lens pupil. Phase shifting at the photomask plane has allowed for some phase control as well. Geometries smaller than the imaging wavelength introduce complex wavefront effects that cannot be corrected at source or mask planes. Three-dimensional photomask topography effects can cause a loss of both focal depth and exposure latitude across geometry of varying density. Wavefront manipulation at the lens pupil plane becomes necessary to provide the degrees of freedom needed to correct for such effects. The focus of this research is the compensation of the wavefront phase error introduced by the topographical photomask structures of high resolution phase shift masking combined with off-axis illumination. The compensation is realized through phase manipulation of the lens pupil plane, specifically in the form of spherical aberration. Subwavelength resolution optimization and imaging is presented showing how phase pupil filtering can measurably improve the depth of focus for several photomask structures and types. PMID:23338176

Sears, Monica Kempsell; Bekaert, Joost; Smith, Bruce W

2013-01-20

13

Automated pattern inspection system for PCB photomasks using design pattern comparison method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automated pattern inspection system for printed circuit board (PCB) photomasks has been developed. This system is a model-based system in which detected patterns are compared with design patterns to achieve a highly reliable inspection. Detected images are converted into binary patterns by selecting one of three thresholds. Defects are detected by a two-step image processing inspection. The first step

Toshimitsu Hamada; Kozo Nakahata; Mineo Nomoto; Yasuo Nakagawa; Y. Hashimoto; K. Karasaki

1990-01-01

14

Machine learning for inverse lithography: using stochastic gradient descent for robust photomask synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inverse lithography technology (ILT) synthesizes photomasks by solving an inverse imaging problem through optimization of an appropriate functional. Much effort on ILT is dedicated to deriving superior masks at a nominal process condition. However, the lower k1 factor causes the mask to be more sensitive to process variations. Robustness to major process variations, such as focus and dose variations, is

Ningning Jia; Edmund Y Lam

2010-01-01

15

Novel cleaning techniques to achieve defect-free photomasks for sub-65-nm nodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to eliminate the critical source of haze contamination which can be derived from the cleaning chemistry residues and mass production environment has become a major challenge for 193 nm photolithography in semiconductor industry. Furthermore, as the specification for pattern generation on photomask becomes tighter, it is getting harder and harder to eliminate defects with both minimal structural damage and preservation of photophysical properties. We designed for the smart cleaning strategy to achieve the defect-free photomasks as a concern of above current issue with a combination of well-known cleaning technology, such as using the collective effects of ozonated water (DIO 3) for the alternative to conventional clean (SPM/SC1) and UV/O 3 treatment for the control of sulfate concentration. In addition to photomask clean, these strategies are also used for photoresist stripping. As well as the final cleaning process, it is a rational strategy that judicious modification of inter-process clean. Specially, that kind of view is focused on the after-development clean (ADC) process which mainly eliminated the source of fatal defects on the mask, such as pattern bridge following dry etch process. In this paper we will propose a novel cleaning strategy for the elimination of potential source of haze formation and fatal defects.

Ryu, Jin Ho; Lee, Dong Wook; Ryu, Ji Sun; Kim, Sang Pyo; Han, Oscar

2006-10-01

16

Sub-20-nm node photomask cleaning enhancement by controlling zeta potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As semiconductor manufacturing advances to sub-20-nm nodes, specification (size < 50 nm) for extremely fine particles on photomasks is getting more and more stringent. Photomask cleanliness, which seriously impacts manufacturing cycle time and productivity, is a serious challenge in the development of sub-20-nm node mask cleaning process. Several cleaning approaches, including the use of chemical and physical forces, are widely used in mask cleaning. In this study, we focus on the chemical force through zeta potential (ZP). ZP indicates the degree of repulsion between the particles and the mask surface (mostly quartz). In the nano-scale, stronger repulsion means easier removal of particles from mask surfaces. By controlling ZP of different chemicals from -10 mV to -150 mV in the cleaning process, the particle removal efficiency (PRE) is further improved by about 10%, especially for extremely fine particles. The ZP measurement methodology for different cleaning chemicals on quartz surface is also carried out. ZP is a helpful index in evaluating the performance of new chemicals for mask cleaning. To enhance photomask cleaning for sub-20-nm nodes, the chemical force needs to be increased because the physical force has been constrained to avoid pattern damages, especially when much smaller assistant features are commonly used to gain a greater lithography process window. How to choose a suitable cleaning approach for the next generation mask cleaning is very critical.

Lin, Kuan-Wen; Lu, Chi-Lun; Shen, Chin-Wei; Hsu, Luke; Chin, Angus; Yen, Anthony

2012-11-01

17

A new method to correct deformations in emulsion using a precise photomask  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method to correct the emulsion deformation, mainly produced in the development process, is developed to recover the high accuracy of nuclear emulsion as a tracking device. The method is based on a precise photomask and a careful treatment of the emulsion films. A position measurement accuracy of 0.6 ?m is obtained over an area of 5 cm×7 cm. The method allows to measure positions of track segments with submicron accuracy in an ECC brick with as few as 10 reference tracks for alignment. Such a performance can be important for hybrid emulsion experiments at underground laboratories where only a small number of reference tracks for alignment are available.

Kimura, M.; Ishida, H.; Shibuya, H.; Ogawa, S.; Matsuo, T.; Fukushima, C.; Takahashi, G.; Kuge, K.; Sato, Y.; Tezuka, I.; Mikado, S.

2013-05-01

18

An inkjet printing soft photomask and its application on organic polymer substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a simple, fast and low-cost method to fabricate a flexible UV light photomask. The designed micropatterns\\u000a were directly printed onto transparent hybrid composite film of biaxially oriented polypropylene coated with silica oxide\\u000a (BOPP-SiO\\u000a x\\u000a ) by an inkjet printer. Compared to the conventional chrome-mask, it is of advantages such as suitable for non-planar substrates,\\u000a scalable for large

LuLin Wang; YuHong Ma; MengJun Chen; Hui Yao; XiaoMan Zheng; WanTai Yang

2010-01-01

19

Use of EUV scatterometry for the characterization of line profiles and line roughness on photomasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scatterometry is a versatile metrology for characterizing periodic structures, regarding critical dimension (CD) and other profile properties. With respect to small feature sizes on future lithography photomasks, the short wavelength of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is advantageous since it minimizes diffraction phenomena and increases the sensitivity to roughness. The advantage of the short wavelength can also be used for investigations of DUV photomasks. For EUV masks, only EUV radiation provides direct information on at-wavelength mask performance. The intensity of the measured diffraction orders carries information about the absorber line profile like top CD, sidewall angle, height, and top corner radius. It is shown that it is feasible to derive information on the absorber line profile in periodic areas of lines and spaces by means of rigorous numerical modeling with the finite element method (FEM). We demonstrate the determination of line profile parameters for chrome on glass (CoG) and EUV masks. EUV Reflectometry on CoG masks is successfully used to determine absorber line heights. A good correlation (0.2 nm rms) between CD values determined using EUV scatterometry and CD-SEM is demonstrated for an EUV mask. A clear correlation between diffuse scatter intensity and CD uniformity, respectively line roughness, is also obtained.

Scholze, Frank; Laubis, Christian

2008-04-01

20

Continuous-tone gray-scale photomask for deep-UV lithography applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous tone gray scale deep UV photomask technology offers new cost effective opportunities for the mass scale production of MEMS structures, diffractive optical elements (DOEs), computer generated holograms (CGHs), and kinoform optics. A new technology for the low cost fabrication of continuous tone gray scale photomasks for deep UV photolithography applications has been demonstrated. This technology is based on the use of a photosensitive spin-on-glass (SOG) thin film deposited onto a UV transparent substrate such as fused silica. Light exposure, from either a lithography setup or a laser pattern generator, onto the photosensitive SOG film induces a color change from clear (UV transparent) to dark (UV absorbing). The amount of photo induced color attenuation on the film is directly proportional to the energy exposure of the light, hence allowing the formation of fully continuous tone patterns. Once exposed the image pattern, with a resolution of 0.1 micrometers, is permanently fixed by heat treatment without the need of an etching step.

Mendoza, Edgar A.; Sigoli, Fernando; Paulus, Heidi; Giang, Luan Q.; Seifouri, Mahmood; Lam, E.; Kempen, Lothar

2004-05-01

21

3D Monte Carlo modeling of the SEM: Are there applications to photomask metrology?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to model the effect of fields due to charges trapped in insulators with floating conductors has been added to JMONSEL (Java Monte Carlo simulator for Secondary Electrons) and applied to a simple photomask metal on glass geometry. These capabilities are prerequisites if model-based scanning electron microscope (SEM) metrology is to be extended beyond wafer to photomask applications, where such samples must frequently be measured. Model-based SEM is an alternative to the customary threshold- or gradient-based approach. It is more demanding inasmuch as it requires a model of the physics of image formation, but the reward is greater accuracy, lower sensitivity to secondary sample characteristics (e.g., edge shape) that affect the intensity, and information about 3D geometrical shape (not simply the width) of the measured features. The prerequisites are ability to measure a signal, such as the SEM image, that is sensitive to changes in the parameters one wishes to measure and a model that describes the relationship between the signal and the parameters. The simulation shows the development of the potential energy barrier to electron escape during an initial transient charging-up phase, accompanied by increasing electron recapture and stabilization of the average yield.

Villarrubia, J. S.; Vladár, A. E.; Postek, M. T.

2014-09-01

22

Z-correction, a method for achieving ultraprecise self-calibration on large area coordinate measurement machines for photomasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-quality photomasks are a prerequisite for the production of flat panel TVs, tablets and other kinds of high-resolution displays. During the past years, the resolution demand has become more and more accelerated, and today, the high-definition standard HD, 1920 × 1080 pixels2, is well established, and already the next-generation so-called ultra-high-definition UHD or 4K display is entering the market. Highly advanced mask writers are used to produce the photomasks needed for the production of such displays. The dimensional tolerance in X and Y on absolute pattern placement on these photomasks, with sizes of square meters, has been in the range of 200-300 nm (3?), but is now on the way to be <150 nm (3?). To verify these photomasks, 2D ultra-precision coordinate measurement machines are used with even tighter tolerance requirements. The metrology tool MMS15000 is today the world standard tool used for the verification of large area photomasks. This paper will present a method called Z-correction that has been developed for the purpose of improving the absolute X, Y placement accuracy of features on the photomask in the writing process. However, Z-correction is also a prerequisite for achieving X and Y uncertainty levels <90 nm (3?) in the self-calibration process of the MMS15000 stage area of 1.4 × 1.5 m2. When talking of uncertainty specifications below 200 nm (3?) of such a large area, the calibration object used, here an 8-16 mm thick quartz plate of size approximately a square meter, cannot be treated as a rigid body. The reason for this is that the absolute shape of the plate will be affected by gravity and will therefore not be the same at different places on the measurement machine stage when it is used in the self-calibration process. This mechanical deformation will stretch or compress the top surface (i.e. the image side) of the plate where the pattern resides, and therefore spatially deform the mask pattern in the X- and Y-directions. Errors due to this deformation can easily be several hundred nanometers. When Z-correction is used in the writer, it is also possible to relax the flatness demand of the photomask backside, leading to reduced manufacturing costs of the plates.

Ekberg, Peter; Stiblert, Lars; Mattsson, Lars

2014-05-01

23

Numerical analysis of the sub-wavelength fabrication of MTMO grayscale photomasks by direct laser writing.  

PubMed

Metal-transparent-metallic-oxide (MTMO) grayscale photomasks fabricated by direct laser writing have been proposed in recent years. The fabrication mechanism is attributed to light-induced melt-oxidization. The temporal-spatial distribution of temperature fields of indium film-glass samples under a laser pulse have been calculated by the Finite-Difference Time-Domain method. The laser action area of the indium film is studied based on the oxidation theories and the absorbed laser power density distribution in molten indium films. The calculated average sub-wavelength fabrication diameter of 302 nm is consistent with the experimental fabrication size under a laser power of 6.0 - 8.0 mW. PMID:25090505

Xia, Feng; Zhang, Xinzheng; Wang, Meng; Yi, Sanming; Liu, Qian; Xu, Jingjun

2014-07-14

24

Bimetallic grayscale photomasks written using flat-top beam vs. Gaussian beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grayscale photomasks are bi-layer metallic films consist of two thin layers of Bi-on-Indium or Tin-on-Indium. These films become controllably transparent by accurately varying laser power such that the optical density changes almost linearly from ~3 OD (unexposed) to <0.22OD (fully exposed). Previously, a direct-write raster-scan photomask system with a multi-line CW Argon-ion laser was used with feedback-controlled Gaussian beam to achieve 256-level grayscale masks. With the Gaussian laser spot, the feedback system was effective such that the average gray-level error reduced from +/-4.2 gray-levels in an open-loop approach to +/-0.3 gray-levels in a closed-loop approach. As most of the gray-level errors are due to the Gaussian beam profile making variations on the mask, a beam shaper was used to change the laser spot to a flat-top beam. Raster-scanning the mask using the flat-top beam helps further reduce the gray-level errors. Preliminary results show that the flat-top beam reduces gray-level fluctuations, and lines can be written with less overlapped area helping to have higher resolution masks. Having lines closer with smaller overlap suggests that accurately controlled laser power results in an accurate OD profile on the mask even with an open-loop approach. The accuracy of the laser power is also a reason for variations as it has only 1% accuracy. Some test patterns are written on the mask using open-loop and closed-loop approaches to demonstrate how accurate the gray-levels of the bimetallic thinfilms are using a flat-top laser beam.

Qarehbaghi, Reza; Chapman, Glenn H.; Boonyasiriwat, Waris

2012-03-01

25

Photomask ADI, AEI, and QA measurements using normal incidence optical CD metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical Critical Dimension (OCD) measurements using Normal-Incidence Spectroscopic Polarized Reflectance and Ellipsometry allows for the separation of transverse electric and transverse magnetic modes of light reflected from an anisotropic sample as found in a periodic grating structure. This can provide the means for determining line widths and analyzing complex profiles for a variety of structures found in mask fabrication. The normal-incidence methodology maintains much of the simplicity in mechanical design found in a standard reflectometer and the additional polarizing element has no effect on the footprint making the system amenable for integration, inline monitoring and advanced process control. The Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) method provides an exact method for calculating the diffraction of electromagnetic waves by periodic grating structures. We have continued development of OCD technology to critical measurement steps in the photomask fabrication process: After Development Inspection (ADI), After Etch Inspection (AEI) for binary and phase shift masks. Additionally, we have demonstrated the ability of monitoring the mask CD quality with the presence of a protective pellicle. The determination of important critical dimensions in photomasks via optical techniques is appealing for several reasons: the method is non-destructive to photoresist and the sample is not subject to charging effects; the technique is capable of measuring the critical dimensions of grating structures down to approximately 40 nm; finally, minimal facilities are required for installation (no high vacuum, cooling or shielding of electromagnetic fields). Results will be presented showing the capabilities of OCD metrology for ADI, AEI and masks monitoring applications that emphasizes how the technology can be incorporated at many steps in the mask manufacturing process.

Apak, Ebru; Sarathy, T. P.; McGahan, William A.; Rovira, Pablo I.; Hoobler, Ray J.

2004-08-01

26

Photolithographic patterning at sub-micrometer scale using a three-dimensional soft photo-mask with application on localized surface plasma resonance.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new method for fabricating arrayed metallic nano-structures with sub-micrometer line-widths over large patterning area sizes. It utilizes a soft mold containing arrayed surface micro-pyramids. A carbon-black photo-resist (PR) coating method is developed which can convert the soft mold into a photo-mask. This three-dimensional photo-mask is then applied for photolithographic ultraviolet (UV) patterning. In conjunction with standard metal lift-off process, arrayed metallic nano-structures are formed on glass substrates. A finite element simulation software is used to analyze the underlying mechanism of UV patterning using this new type of 3D photo-mask. The localized surface plasma resonance (LSPR) effects of the fabricated nano-structures are investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Good agreements are observed. PMID:24718211

Chen, Yu-Zen; Wu, Chun-Ying; Lee, Yung-Chun

2014-04-01

27

Determination of line profiles on photomasks using DUV, EUV, and x-ray scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-imaging techniques like X-ray scattering are supposed to play an important role in the further development of CD metrology for the semiconductor industry. GISAXS provides directly assessable information on structure roughness and long-range periodic perturbations. The disadvantage of the method is the large footprint of the X-ray beam on the sample due to the extremely shallow angle of incidence. This can be overcome by using wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range which allow for much steeper angles of incidence but preserve the large range of momentum transfer that can be observed. At the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the available photon energy range extends from 50 eV up to 10 keV at two adjacent beamlines. PTB commissioned a new versatile Ellipso-Scatterometer which is capable of measuring 6" square substrates in a clean, hydrocarbon-free environment with full flexibility regarding the direction of the incident light polarization. The reconstruction of line profiles using a geometrical model with six free parameters, a finite element method (FEM) Maxwell solver and least-squares optimization yielded consistent results for EUV and deep ultraviolet (DUV) scatterometry. For EUV photomasks, the actinic wavelength EUV scatterometry yields particular advantages. A significant polarization dependence of the diffraction intensities for 0th and +1st orders in the geometry with the grating lines perpendicular to the plane of reflection is observed and the 0th order intensity shows sufficient sensitivity to the line width such that a CD-resolution below 0.1 nm is within reach. In this contribution we present scatterometry data for line gratings using GISAXS, and EUV and DUV scatterometry and consistent reconstruction results of the line geometry for EUV and DUV scatterometry.

Scholze, F.; Bodermann, B.; Burger, S.; Endres, J.; Haase, A.; Krumrey, M.; Laubis, C.; Soltwisch, V.; Ullrich, A.; Wernecke, J.

2014-10-01

28

Japan Smoke  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... Smoke Plume from Industrial Fires in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan     View larger image ... a.m. The images are oriented with north at the left and east at the top, and cover an area measuring 85 kilometers by 115 kilometers ...

2013-04-16

29

Japan: Tsunami  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... tsunami triggered by the March 11, 2011, magnitude 8.9 earthquake centered off Japan's northeastern coast about 130 kilometers (82 ... inland from the eastern shoreline is visible in the post-earthquake image. The white sand beaches visible in the pre-earthquake view are ...

2013-04-16

30

Tokyo, Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tokyo, (35.5N, 140.0E) one of the most densely populated regions on Earth, and capital of Japan, is seen through the clouds. The city is at the north end of Edo Bay and Yokohama, partially cloud covered, is along the bay's western margin. The gray patches are close-packed urban urban areas and the brown valleys along the eastern side of the bay are cultivatedd, mostly rice. Although the Imperial Palace is obscured, many other features may be seen.

1992-01-01

31

Hokkaido, Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cities mingle with rugged hills and a dormant volcano in this image of Hokkaido, Japan. This three-dimensional image comes from observations made by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on July 23, 2006. The view is toward the north and slightly east. Green indicates vegetation; beige and gray indicate bare ground, paved surfaces, or buildings; and dark blue indicates water. The water body at the top of the image is the Pacific Ocean. Now dormant, Mount Yotei is a stratovolcano--a symmetrical cone composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and volcanic rocks ejected in previous eruptions. It reaches a height of 1,898 meters (6,227 feet), and its summit sports a 700-meter- (2,297-foot-) wide crater. Snow often caps this volcano, but in this summertime shot, the volcano's summit is snow-free. The volcano is also known as Ezo-Fuji for its resemblance to Mount Fuji. As angular patches of gray and beige indicate, urban areas surround the volcano, most notably the city of Kutchan to the northwest. Even when volcanoes remain active, people often settle close to them, drawn by benefits of good soil and mild climates that appear to outweigh the risks. NASA image by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

2006-01-01

32

Ancient ships of Japan  

E-print Network

Ancient ships of Japan, which are little known outside of Japan, are presented based on the studies of past researchers, as well as a comprehensive analysis of archaeological remains. The process of development from logboats to extended logboats...

Miyashita, Hiroaki

2006-10-30

33

Teaching about Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Points out the interdependence of the United States and Japan and identifies seven ERIC resources that can be used by educators in implementing instruction about Japan in the classroom. Summarizes these materials and provides ordering information. (KO)

Seiter, David M.

1988-01-01

34

Laser applications in the electronics and optoelectronics industry in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explains current status and technological trends in laser materials processing applications in electronics and optoelectronics industry in Japan. Various laser equipment based on solid state lasers or gas lasers such as excimer lasers or CO2 lasers has been developed and applied in manufacturing electronic and optoelectronic devices to meet the strong demands for advanced device manufacturing technologies for high-performance, lightweight, low power-consumption portable digital electronic appliances, cellular mobile phones, personal computers, etc. Representative applications of solid-state lasers are, opaque and clear defects repairing of photomasks for LSIs and LCDs, trimming of thick-film chip resistors and low resistance metal resistors, laser cutting and drilling of thin films for high-pin count semiconductor CSP packages, laser patterning of thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells, and laser welding of electronic components such as hard-disk head suspensions, optical modules, miniature relays and lithium ion batteries. Compact and highly efficient diode- pumped and Q-switched solid-state lasers in second or third harmonic operation mode are now being increasingly incorporated in various laser equipment for fine material processing. Representative applications of excimer lasers are, sub-quarter micron design-rule LSI lithography and low- temperature annealing of poly-silicon TFT LCD.

Washio, Kunihiko

1999-07-01

35

After the banquet: Japan’s power elite revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demise of Japan’s iron triangle, consisting of the LDP’s parliamentary party, the central ministries and the keiretsu conglomerates ruling Japan conjointly, has been diagnosed since some time now (Thayer, 1993; Blechinger, 2001). After more than one decade of an unprecedented crisis in Japan’s political economy which severely tested the competences and the legitimacy of Japan’s ruling classes it is

Albrecht Rothacher

2006-01-01

36

Study of the molecular contaminants deposition on Cr, MoSi and SiO2 surfaces representative of photomasks layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the deposition of the molecular contaminants on Cr, MoSi and quartz photomask surfaces by means of representative Cr, MoSi and SiO2 layers deposited on wafers using TD-GCMS for the organics and LPE-IC for the SO2 analysis. Mask-like layers were exposed to organic contaminants outgassed by three different types of mask pods during storage steps and Cr films were put in SO2 controlled contaminated atmosphere. Organic species contaminating the different mask surfaces were identified depending on time. A rapid contamination kinetic was highlighted. Results have shown that low volatile organic compounds have higher deposition rates and that few specific molecules (such as caprolactam ; acrylic acid, dodecyl ester, butyldiglycol...) contribute in very significant levels (few E+13 atC/cm2). It also appeared that organics present a higher affinity for quartz and MoSi layers than for Cr surfaces but also that some compounds can have a specific affinity depending on the surface. These affinity differences have been quantified through the calculation of the contaminants sticking coefficients. Regarding the SO2 deposition, Cr surfaces have showed a strong ability to be polluted in clean room conditions, up to a saturation level just higher than 1E+14 SO2/cm2. The kinetic is rapid and in good agreement with a Langmuir-type adsorption model allowing the determination of the deposition kinetic constant. Furthermore, it was showed a significant enhancement of SO2 deposition with air humidity. Finally, this work contributes to a better knowledge of the molecular contaminants deposition behavior on mask surfaces providing relevant data to control the photomask contamination in order to prevent crystal growth issues.

Fontaine, Hervé; Cetre, Sylviane; Demenet, Ga"l.; Piallat, Fabien

2010-05-01

37

Japan's aging economics.  

PubMed

"Japan's population is aging faster than that of any other country in the world. The unprecedented increase in retirees relative to the size of Japan's work force will force radical change if the nation is to avoid a fiscal crisis, or worse. These seemingly innocent demographic changes will force Japan to shrink its famously high savings rate, reverse its proud trade surplus, send more industry overseas, liberalize its tightly controlled markets, and take on a more active, high-profile foreign policy. Ultimately, these changes will shift the balance of power in East Asia." PMID:12293422

Ezrati, M

1997-01-01

38

Groundwater contamination in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed.

Tase, Norio

1992-07-01

39

Microelectronics in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this JTEC study is to evaluate Japan's electronic manufacturing and packaging capabilities within the context of global economic competition. To carry out this study, the JTEC panel evaluated the framework of the Japanese consumer electronics industry and various technological and organizational factors that are likely to determine who will win and lose in the marketplace. This study begins with a brief overview of the electronics industry, especially as it operates in Japan today. Succeeding chapters examine the electronics infrastructure in Japan and take an in-depth look at the central issues of product development in order to identify those parameters that will determine future directions for electronic packaging technologies.

Boulton, William R.

1995-01-01

40

Literacy in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines three causes for Japan's high literacy rate: (1) emphasis on literacy in Japanese society; (2) pervasive effect of the modern Japanese school system; (3) special structural features of the Japanese language which aid in functional use. (DR)

Kanaya, Toshio

1979-01-01

41

Cultural Astronomy in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While Japan is known more for its contributions to modern astronomy than its archaeoastronomical sites, there is still much about the culture's heritage that is of interest in the study of cultural astronomy. This case study provides an overview of historical considerations necessary to understand the place of astronomy in Japanese society as well as methodological considerations that highlight traditional approaches that have at times been a barrier to interdisciplinary research. Some specific areas of study in the cultural astronomy of Japan are discussed including examples of contemporary research based on interdisciplinary approaches. Japan provides a fascinating background for scholars who are willing to go beyond their curiosity for sites of alignment and approach the culture with a desire to place astronomical iconography in social context.

Renshaw, Steven L.

42

21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene, and naphtha, and insoluble in water and in cold...

2010-04-01

43

21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...immature fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene, and...

2012-04-01

44

21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...immature fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene, and...

2013-04-01

45

21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...immature fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene, and...

2014-04-01

46

21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...immature fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene, and...

2011-04-01

47

Japan's electronic packaging technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

1995-02-01

48

Advanced composites in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The JTEC Panel on Advanced Composites surveyed the status and future directions of Japanese high-performance ceramic and carbon fibers and their composites in metal, intermetallic, ceramic, and carbon matrices. Because of a strong carbon and fiber industry, Japan is the leader in carbon fiber technology. Japan has initiated an oxidation-resistant carbon/carbon composite program. With its outstanding technical base in carbon technology, Japan should be able to match present technology in the U.S. and introduce lower-cost manufacturing methods. However, the panel did not see any innovative approaches to oxidation protection. Ceramic and especially intermetallic matrix composites were not yet receiving much attention at the time of the panel's visit. There was a high level of monolithic ceramic research and development activity. High temperature monolithic intermetallic research was just starting, but notable products in titanium aluminides had already appeared. Matrixless ceramic composites was one novel approach noted. Technologies for high temperature composites fabrication existed, but large numbers of panels or parts had not been produced. The Japanese have selected aerospace as an important future industry. Because materials are an enabling technology for a strong aerospace industry, Japan initiated an ambitious long-term program to develop high temperature composites. Although just starting, its progress should be closely monitored in the U.S.

Diefendorf, R. Judd; Hillig, William G.; Grisaffe, Salvatore J.; Pipes, R. Byron; Perepezko, John H.; Sheehan, James E.

1994-01-01

49

Student Radicals in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radical movement among Japanese students was brought to wide public attention with an airplane hijack ing in 1970, but the escalation of student radicalism had begun a decade ago with the discussion of the U.S.—Japan Security Treaty. Political matters have formed the basis for many of the radical actions by students since then, especially from 1967 on, when the

Michiya Shimbori

1971-01-01

50

Youth marketing in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports on Japan, a country in which the falling birth rate gives marketers some interesting opportunities. Explores how smaller numbers of children leads to more money being spent on each, in particular the “six pockets” or six sources of financial support that children have from their two parents and four grandparents. Illustrates this by the example of Studio Alice, a

Nana Sato; Yuko Kato

2005-01-01

51

Language Testing in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers on second language testing in Japan include: "Differences Between Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests" (James Dean Brown); "Criterion-Referenced Test Construction and Evaluation" (Dale T. Griffe); "Behavioral Learning Objectives as an Evaluation Tool" (Judith A. Johnson); "Developing Norm- Referenced Tests for Program-Level…

Brown, James Dean, Ed.; Yamashita, Sayoko Okada, Ed.

52

Teaching Unit: Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cultural diversity of Japan can provide a rewarding learning experience for children of all grade levels. This teaching unit includes resources and ideas for the study of Japanese society, art, folklore, and poetry. Included among the instructional objectives are: (1) children will compare U.S. lifestyles with Japanese lifestyles by reading…

Evans, Dina

53

Japan's electronic packaging technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

1995-01-01

54

Photovoltaics in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report surveys status of research and development on photovoltaics in Japan. Report based on literature searches, private communications, and visits by author to Japanese facilities. Included in survey are Sunshine Project, national program to develop energy sources; industrial development at private firms; and work at academic institutions.

Shimada, K.

1985-01-01

55

Polymer composites technology in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1992, the National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, Army Research Office, and Air Force Office of Scientific Research convened a panel to assess advanced manufacturing technology for polymer composite structures in Japan. The panel was charged with comparing the levels of the technology and the industry in both the United States and Japan. The Panel on Advanced Polymer Composites

V. M. Karbhari; D. S. Kukich

1993-01-01

56

Barbarian medicine in feudal Japan.  

PubMed

THE FIRST EUROPEANS to discover Japan were Portuguese traders who arrived in 1542. Fifteen years later, the Portuguese Jesuit priest and surgeon Luis De Almeida (1525-1583) founded the first Western hospital in Japan, for the care of lepers, syphilitics, and orphans. Because the hospital had a negative influence on the spread of Christianity, the Jesuits closed it in 1586. During the Tokugawa Shogunate (1600-1868), when Japan was secluded from the rest of the world, the only foreign physicians allowed to enter Japan were those employed by the Dutch factory at Dejima in Nagasaki. Only four of those physicians left behind seeds for the foundation of Western medicine in Japan, namely Caspar Schambergen, who founded a Japanese school of surgery in 1650; Engelbert Kämpfer, who visited Japan in 1691 to 1692; Carl Peter Thunberg, who botanically explored Japan in 1775 to 1776; and Philipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold, who practiced medicine in Nagasaki in 1823 to 1829 and 1859 to 1861. On the whole, Western medicine and surgery never established a real foothold in Japan until the fall of the shogunate and the restoration of the emperor in 1868. PMID:12234412

Fodstad, Harald; Hariz, Marwan I; Hirabayashi, Hidehiro; Ohye, Chihiro

2002-10-01

57

The Wundt Collection in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is not well known that many of the books, journals, and reprints, which belonged to Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920), have been\\u000a kept in Japan. In this short article, I sketch the history of how the Wundt Collection ended up in Japan and describe its\\u000a current status.

Miki Takasuna

58

Continuing Engineering Education in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses: (1) the current status of continuing engineering education (CEE) in Japan; (2) characteristics of CEE in enterprises; and (3) future issues of CEE in Japan. Indicates that ways of improving CEE include increasing the role of universities, promoting creativity and education of elites, and re-education of middle- and advanced-aged…

Oshima, Keichi; Yamada, Keiichi

1985-01-01

59

Final inspection of photomask blanks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to increase the quality in manufacturing of future photon mask generations Schott Lithotec is brought in a brand new, much increased automatic laser inspection system into a new manufacturing line of photo mask blanks. It is in a position to detect additionally to the standard defect types further defect types like dim- and bright-chrome defects. The resolution of the system is less than 100 nm. With a quickly inspecting time per blank of less than three minutes and for the first time in the world used automatic SMIF-pod-handling this is a tool for the 100 percent final inspection in the manufacturing of photo mask blanks.

Schubert, Fredi; Sauerbrei, Hartmut; Aschke, Lutz; Knapp, Konrad

2001-04-01

60

Disability Evaluation in Japan  

PubMed Central

To examine the current state and social ramifications of disability evaluation in Japan, public data from Annual Reports on Health and Welfare 1998-1999 were investigated. All data were analyzed based on the classification of disabilities and the effects of age-appropriate welfare services, which have been developed through a half-century of legislative efforts to support disability evaluation. These data suggest that disability evaluation, while essentially affected by age and impairment factors at a minimum, was impacted more by the assistive environment for disabilities. The assistive environment was found to be closely linked with the welfare support system related to a global assessment in the field of community-based rehabilitation. PMID:19503677

2009-01-01

61

Winds over Japan.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Before World War II, weather forecasters had little knowledge of upper-air wind patterns above 20000 feet. Data were seldom avai able at these heights, and the need was not great because commercial aircraft seldom flew at these altitudes. The war in the Pacific changed all that. Wind forecasts for 30000 feet plus became urgent to support the XXI Bomber Command in its bombing mission over Japan.The U.S. Army Air Force Pacific Ocean Area (AAFPOA) placed a Weather Central in the Marianas Islands in 1944 (Saipan in 1944 and Guam in 1945) to provide forecasting support for this mission. A forecasting procedure was put into operation that combined the elements known as "single-station forecasting" and an advanced procedure that used "altirmeter corrections" to analyze upper-airdata and make prognoses. Upper-air charts were drawn for constant pressure surfaces rather than constant height surfaces. The constant pressure surfaces were tied together by means of the atmospheric temperature field represented by specific temperature anomalies between pressure surfaces. Wind forecasts over the Marianas-Japan route made use of space cross sections that provided the data to forecast winds at each 5000-ft level to 35000 ft along the mission flight path. The new procedures allowed the forecaster to construct internally consistent meteorological charts in three dimensions in regions of sparse data.Army air force pilots and their crews from the Marianas were among the first to experience the extreme wind conditions now known as the "jet stream". Air force forecasters demonstrated that, with experience, such winds could reasonably be forecast under difficult operational conditions.

Plumley, William J.

1994-01-01

62

Superheavy research in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) in Japan, we have performed experiments to study the productions and decays of the heaviest elements produced by one-neutron emission channels of 208Pb and 209Bi based heavy-ion-induced fusion reactions. A gas-filled-type recoil separator has been used for collecting evaporation residues of the reactions separating them from high intensity beam particles. The reactions studied were 208Pb( 58Fe,n) 265Hs, 208Pb( 64Ni,n) 271Ds, 209Bi( 64Ni,n) 272Rg, 208Pb( 70Zn, n) 277112, and 209Bi( 70Zn,n) 278113. In studies of the first four reactions we have provided the independent confirmations of the productions and their decays of the isotopes, 265Hs, 271Ds, 272Rg, and 277112, as well as the decay properties of their decay daughters, previously studied by Hofmann et al., a group of Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany. In the last reaction, we observed two decay chains originated from the isotope 278113, assigned firstly by generic correlation of the alpha decay chains connected into the previously known decay of 266Bh and 262Db via previously unknown alpha decays of 278113, 274Rg and 270Mt.

Morita, Kosuke

2009-04-01

63

Clean Coal Technologies in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal provided 16·1% (116·3 million tons) of the energy for Japan in FY 1992. According to the long-term energy supply and demand outlook in Japan, prepared and revised in June 1994 by the Advisory Committee for Energy, it is estimated that coal will provide 16·4% (130 million tons) of the energy in 2000 and 15·4% (134 million tons) in 2010,

RYOICHI YOSHIDA; Ryoichi

1997-01-01

64

High definition systems in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The successful implementation of a strategy to produce high-definition systems within the Japanese economy will favorably affect the fundamental competitiveness of Japan relative to the rest of the world. The development of an infrastructure necessary to support high-definition products and systems in that country involves major commitments of engineering resources, plants and equipment, educational programs and funding. The results of these efforts appear to affect virtually every aspect of the Japanese industrial complex. The results of assessments of the current progress of Japan toward the development of high-definition products and systems are presented. The assessments are based on the findings of a panel of U.S. experts made up of individuals from U.S. academia and industry, and derived from a study of the Japanese literature combined with visits to the primary relevant industrial laboratories and development agencies in Japan. Specific coverage includes an evaluation of progress in R&D for high-definition television (HDTV) displays that are evolving in Japan; high-definition standards and equipment development; Japanese intentions for the use of HDTV; economic evaluation of Japan's public policy initiatives in support of high-definition systems; management analysis of Japan's strategy of leverage with respect to high-definition products and systems.

Elkus, Richard J., Jr.; Cohen, Robert B.; Dayton, Birney D.; Messerschmitt, David G.; Schreiber, William F.; Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Shelton, Duane

1991-02-01

65

Medical education in Japan.  

PubMed

There are 79 medical schools in Japan--42 national, 8 prefectural (i.e., founded by a local government), and 29 private--representing approximately one school for every 1.6 million people. Undergraduate medical education is six years long, typically consisting of four years of preclinical education and then two years of clinical education. High school graduates are eligible to enter medical school. In 36 schools, college graduates are offered admission, but they account for fewer than 10% of the available positions. There were 46,800 medical students in 2006; 32.8% were women. Since 1990, Japanese medical education has undergone significant changes, with some medical schools implementing integrated curricula, problem-based learning tutorials, and clinical clerkships. A model core curriculum was proposed by the government in 2001 that outlined a core structure for undergraduate medical education, with 1,218 specific behavioral objectives. A nationwide common achievement test was instituted in 2005; students must pass this test to qualify for preclinical medical education. It is similar to the United States Medical Licensing Examination step 1, although the Japanese test is not a licensing examination. The National Examination for Physicians is a 500-item examination that is administered once a year. In 2006, 8,602 applicants took the examination, and 7,742 of them (90.0%) passed. A new law requires postgraduate training for two years after graduation. Residents are paid reasonably, and the work hours are limited to 40 hours a week. In 2004, a matching system was started; the match rate was 95.6% (46.2% for the university hospitals and 49.4% for other teaching hospitals). Sustained and meaningful change in Japanese medical education is continuing. PMID:17122471

Kozu, Tadahiko

2006-12-01

66

Mt. Fuji, Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the movie

The nearly perfectly conical profile of Fuji soars 3,776 meters (12,388 feet) above sea level on southern Honshu, near Tokyo. The highest mountain in Japan, Fuji is the country's most familiar symbol. The summit of this graceful, dormant volcano is broken by a crater 610 meters (2,000 feet) in diameter. The crater is ringed by eight jagged peaks. The five Fuji Lakes lie on the northern slopes of the mountain, all formed in the wake of lava flows. Mirrored in the still waters of Kawaguchi-ko, the most beautiful of the five lakes, is a reflection of Fuji. Part of Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, Fuji last erupted for a two-month period starting in November 1707, covering Tokyo, some 100 kilometers (60 miles) away, with a layer of ash. According to legend, Fuji arose from the plain during a single night in 286 BC. Geologically, the mountain is much older than this.

Considered sacred by many, Fuji is surrounded by temples and shrines. Thousands of pilgrims climb the mountain each year as part of their religious practice, hoping to reach the summit by dawn to watch the sunrise. This animated fly-by was created by draping visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's stereo bands. The spatial resolution of both the image and topography is 15 m. The image is centered at 35.3 degrees north latitude, 138.7 degrees east longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2001-01-01

67

FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, April 10, 1996  

SciTech Connect

;Partial Contents: Biotechnology (Japan: Japan`s RITE Introduces Biotech Projects, Japan: Pharmacia Biotech Develops Detection Method for Point Mutation); Energy (Japan: New Catalyst for Synthesis Gas Reduces Energy Needs, Japan: Major Company Activities for Promotion of Wind Power Generation, Japan: Waste Power Generation System in Saitama Draws Much Attention); Environment (Japan: AIST`s NIMC To Develop Efficient Decomposition Method for Waste Using Super-Critial Water, Japan: Kyoei Co. Develops High Temperature Fusion Furnace for Industrial Waste Treatment, Japan: Air Dry Cleaning for Recycling Chemically Contaminated Plastic Sheets); Microelectronics (Japan: Toshiba Corp. DEC To jointly Develop LSI for ATM); Science and Technology Policy (Japan`s MITI To Begin Electronic Commerce Experiment Project); Technology Transfer (Japan: Nissho Iwai Delivers Cleaner Plant to Russia`s Energiya, Japan: Energy Agency Transfers Coal Fired Power Generation Technology to Indonesia); Telecommunications (Japan`s MPT Releases Study Report on Advanced Information Technologies).

NONE

1996-04-10

68

The educational system in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rapid economic growth of Japan since World War II has resulted in Japan becoming a reference point for developing nations and the West. This remarkable growth results from a combination of factors, one of which has been unyielding attention to education in order to cultivate the human talent necessary to provide the productivity for economic growth. The Japanese education system emphasizes quality of instruction and rewards hard work. Some of the principles of the system are outlined together with a summary of the content of the curriculum, the quantity and quality of instruction, and the influence of culture and environment.

Spearman, M. L.

1986-01-01

69

Japan's Eco-School Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

Mori, Masayuki

2007-01-01

70

Japan Studies Association Journal, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This journal presents new perspectives and materials on Japan that are engaging, relatively jargon-free, and shaped so that their usefulness in a college classroom is readily apparent. The journal represents an example of the potential for genuine scholarship that lies within interdisciplinary studies. Articles grouped under the topic of "Minority…

Reichel, Philip L., Ed.

2001-01-01

71

Japan Studies Association Journal, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This journal presents new perspectives and materials on Japan that are engaging, relatively jargon-free, and shaped so that their usefulness in a college classroom is readily apparent. The journal represents an example of the potential for genuine scholarship that lies within interdisciplinary studies. Articles are divided among three thematic…

Speaker, Richard B., Jr., Ed.; Kawada, Louise Myers, Ed.

1998-01-01

72

Resources for Teaching about Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book lists resources for materials and ideas for teaching about Japan. The resource listings are not intended to be encyclopedic and are not intended to be a comprehensive listing of every useful curriculum item. The attempt has been made to highlight especially those organizations that work with kindergarten through grade 12 teachers,…

Wojtan, Linda S.

73

THE JAPAN PRESSS PRECAST CONCRETE  

E-print Network

as an auxilary document used with a existing R/C design code for moment resisting frame structure Connections concrete without serious alterations in structural design Example : emulating connection systemTHE JAPAN PRESSS PRECAST CONCRETE CONNECTION DESIGN Hitoshi Shiohara Associate Professor

Shiohara, Hitoshi

74

The Japan of Today, 1982.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following an introduction which discusses the history and geography of Japan, this book focuses on topics related to this country's government, economy, social conditions, and cultural life. Topics related to government include: constitution and emperor; legislature; executive power; judiciary system; foreign relations; and defense. Topics related…

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tokyo (Japan).

75

Ehrlichia chaffeensis Infection of Sika Deer, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether Ehrlichia chaffeensis exists in Japan, we used PCR to examine blood from sika deer in Nara, Japan. Of 117 deer, 36 (31%) were infected with E. chaffeensis. The E. chaffeensis 16S rRNA base and GroEL amino acid sequences from Japan were most closely re- lated to those of E. chaffeensis Arkansas.

Makoto Kawahara; Tomoko Tajima; Harumi Torii; Mitsutaka Yabutani; Joji Ishii; Makiko Harasawa; Emiko Isogai; Yasuko Rikihisa

2009-01-01

76

SPARC Japan>> 20(2008)93()  

E-print Network

2008 SPARC JapanSPARC Japan UniBio Press J-STAGE Project Euclid EuclidProject Euclid · 8Project Euclid Tohoku Mathematical Journal Euclid Select Journal of the Mathematical Society of Japan Euclid Select National Institute of Informatics 16 Journal of the Mathematical

Hattori, Tetsuya

77

Some Aspects of Higher Education in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary Japanese higher education is reviewed, taking into account German influences especially. Three main objectives of post-war reforms are discussed along with the entrance examination system in Japan. Available from: Japan Cultural Society, 101018, Shirokane-dai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan. (LBH)

Teichler, Ulrich

1972-01-01

78

"The March 11th , East Japan Earthquake &  

E-print Network

"The March 11th , East Japan Earthquake & Tsunami": Foreign Student Organizes International Seminar in English After the catastrophe caused by East Japan earthquake, many of the international students studying. The title of the discussion was "How foreigners see the great east Japan earthquake and what should be done

Kawato, Suguru

79

The US Occupation and Japan's New Democracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the US Occupation of Japan (1945-1952), a victorious America attempted to reform Japanese education by replacing Japan's tradition system of values with one that promoted American democratic values. The United States had considered the source of Japan's militarism to lie in the selfless loyalty and love of country that many older Japanese…

Kumano, Ruriko

2007-01-01

80

Japan Resource Catalogue: A Guide for New England Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This catalog of instructional resources for teaching about Japan provides annotated entries under three main headings: Japan Resources (resources that are specific to Japan); General Resources (materials that are Japan-related but not Japan-specific); and Organizations. Japan Resources, which includes the major portion of the materials, lists 110…

Barsh, Adele L., Ed.

81

Japan`s nuclear weapons options and U.S. security interests  

SciTech Connect

Japan is a virtual nuclear weapons power. It has the scientific and technical ability to produce hundreds or even thousands of nuclear weapons, but has chosen not to do so for political reasons. This thesis examines the historical development of Japan`s nuclear energy and aerospace programs since the mid-1950s and considers the possibility that at various points in its history, Japan used these programs as a cover to insure that its nuclear weapons options remained open. This thesis analyzes internal and external factors that may have influenced Japan`s nuclear policies. External factors include regional threats, international pressures to join the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and distrust of US commitments to provide for Japan`s defense. Internal factors include Japan`s historical tradition of a strong military state and Japan`s unique nuclear allergy. While both external and internal factors have influenced the path of Japans nuclear energy and aerospace programs, internal factors will drive Japan to maintain its plutonium-based energy program and will allow Japan to remain a virtual nuclear power well into the twenty-first century.

Sharman, C.H.

1998-06-01

82

Fruit harvesting robots in Japan.  

PubMed

We have developed harvesting robots for tomato, petty-tomato, cucumber and grape in Japan. These robots mainly consist of manipulators, end-effectors, visual sensors and traveling devices. These mechanisms of the robot components were developed based on the physical properties of the work objects. The robots must work automatically by themselves in greenhouses or fields, since we are considering for one operator to tend several robots in the production system. The system is modeled after Japanese agriculture which is commonly seen to produce many kinds of crops in greenhouses and in many small fields intensively. Bioproduction in space is somewhat similar to the agricultural system in Japan, because few operators have to work in a small space. Employing robots for bioproduction in space is considered desirable in near future. The following is a description of the harvesting robots. PMID:11538961

Kondo, N; Monta, M; Fujiura, T

1996-01-01

83

Human genome efforts in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Some project-oriented biosciences have been promoted cooperatively by three governmental agencies in Japan: the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, the Ministry of Health and Welfare, and the Science and Technology Agency. All three agencies have increased their budgetary requests for human genome analyses for FY 1991. The genome project was initially promoted by the Science and Technology Agency through a program for the design and construction of automated machines for DNA sequencing. Work is ongoing at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research to integrate, by system engineering, instruments that can separate DNA fragments, perform plaque selection, carry out dideoxy reaction, and read the resulting DNA sequence. The most important way for Japan to contribute to research on human genome analyses, however, may be in the evaluation of supporting mechanisms (technical assistance and research resources) and in the recognition and preparation of the transition of biology to a big science approach.

Ikawa, Yoji (Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan) RIKEN, Ibaraki (Japan))

1991-01-01

84

Endangered vascular plants in Japan  

PubMed Central

The history of the Red List of Japanese vascular plants is briefly reviewed for editing and research. Especially on the results of recent monitoring, the present status of information and conservation activities on the endangered plants in Japan is discussed and the dynamics of the Japanese flora are taken up, in relation to basic research on plant biodiversity on the Japanese Archipelago. The figures of endangered plants are not very variable during the past quarter of a century, but we can surmise that the conservation of threatened species in Japan has been promoted to some extent. Based on the results of such a study, proposals are made to contribute to the sustainable use of plant biodiversity on the Japanese Archipelago under a global conspectus. PMID:18941303

Iwatsuki, Kunio

2008-01-01

85

On Earthquake Prediction in Japan  

PubMed Central

Japan’s National Project for Earthquake Prediction has been conducted since 1965 without success. An earthquake prediction should be a short-term prediction based on observable physical phenomena or precursors. The main reason of no success is the failure to capture precursors. Most of the financial resources and manpower of the National Project have been devoted to strengthening the seismographs networks, which are not generally effective for detecting precursors since many of precursors are non-seismic. The precursor research has never been supported appropriately because the project has always been run by a group of seismologists who, in the present author’s view, are mainly interested in securing funds for seismology — on pretense of prediction. After the 1995 Kobe disaster, the project decided to give up short-term prediction and this decision has been further fortified by the 2011 M9 Tohoku Mega-quake. On top of the National Project, there are other government projects, not formally but vaguely related to earthquake prediction, that consume many orders of magnitude more funds. They are also un-interested in short-term prediction. Financially, they are giants and the National Project is a dwarf. Thus, in Japan now, there is practically no support for short-term prediction research. Recently, however, substantial progress has been made in real short-term prediction by scientists of diverse disciplines. Some promising signs are also arising even from cooperation with private sectors. PMID:24213204

UYEDA, Seiya

2013-01-01

86

Aerial measuring system in Japan.  

PubMed

The U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) deployed personnel and equipment to partner with the U.S. Forces in Japan (USFJ) to conduct multiple aerial radiological surveys. These were the first and most comprehensive sources of actionable information for U.S. interests in Japan and provided early confirmation to the Government of Japan as to the extent of the release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Many challenges were overcome quickly during the first 48 h, including installation and operation of Aerial Measuring System equipment on multiple USFJ aircraft, flying over difficult terrain, and flying with USFJ pilots who were unfamiliar with the Aerial Measuring System flight patterns. These factors combined to make for a programmatically unanticipated situation. In addition to the challenges of multiple and ongoing releases, integration with the Japanese government to provide valid aerial radiological survey products that both military and civilian customers could use to make informed decisions was extremely complicated. The Aerial Measuring System Fukushima response provided insight into addressing these challenges and gave way to an opportunity for the expansion of the Aerial Measuring System's mission beyond the borders of the U.S. PMID:22469929

Lyons, Craig; Colton, David

2012-05-01

87

FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, December 10, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Contents (partial): Japan: Fabrication of Diamond Single Crystal Thin Film by Ion Beam Deposition; Japan: Hitachi Metal Develops New Semi Solid Metal Processing Technology; Japan: NTT Develops Fuel Cell System That Uses Both City Gas, LPG; Japan: Daihatsu Motor Completes Prototype EV; Japan: NIRIM Announces Success With Synthetic Bone Development; Japan: Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Plans Clinical Trials of Gene Therapy to Cerebral Tumor in Japan; Japan: MITI To Provide Aid for Residential Solar Power Generation Systems; Japan: MELCO To Provide Satellite Solar Cell Panel for SSL, USA; Japan: Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Leads Nuclear Research; Japan: Kobe Steel`s Superconducting Magnet Ready to Go Fast; Japan: MPT To Begin Validation Test for Electric Money Implementation; and Japan: Defense Agency to Send ASDF`s Pilots to Russia for Training.

NONE

1996-12-10

88

FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, May 7, 1996  

SciTech Connect

;Partial Contents: Japan: FH1 Aerospace Division Executive on UAV R&D; JapaN: MHI Delivers First F-2 Flight Test Model; Nuclear Technologies; Japan: Nuclear Material Research in Cross-Over Research Project; Japan: MITI To Subsidize Development of Cryptography; Defense Industries; Japan: JADI Announces FY96 Major Events Schedule; Japan: Rollout Ceremony Held for First OH-X Flight Test Model; and Japan: KHI Weapons Designer OH-X Development.

NONE

1996-05-07

89

Children in Japan and multimedia.  

PubMed

Many parents in Japan today are very concerned and have daily problems with their children over the following kind of issues concerning video games, multimedia, and similar devices. 1) Is children's enthusiasm for video games actually harming their growth (physically or mentally)? 2) Is there any way that video games can help children in the future? For example, will playing these games help children learn to use computers or develop their power of thought? 3) Will excessive enthusiasm for TV games undermine our basic lifestyle? Is the time they spend studying at home or playing outside actually decreasing? 4) Will the methods of communication brought about by computers, pagers, and cellular phones weaken human relations among children? 5) Will being immersed in a virtual world created by computers result in a diminished sense of reality? The causes of this uneasiness may be traced to parents' own anxieties and concerns about the exceedingly rapid growth of the "information society" of today, together with the fact that their children are directly caught up in the deluge of this information and multimedia society. The development of media has coincided with the growth of today's adults, but children are immersed in a media-filled environment from the day they are born. In Japan, there are now children who can play video games before even learning to write. No one can predict what kind of adults these children will grow to be in the future, and it is fair to say that the most parents and children in Japan are being tossed about on the waves of this information explosion. At this international symposium, we hope to hear the many views that are held around the world concerning children and multimedia. PMID:10770069

Shimauchi, Y

1999-01-01

90

Recent cryocooler progress in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progress of cryocoolers and related devices in Japan is reviewed. The Japanese National Railways has developed the light weight 4 K on-board refrigerators since 1977 as part of the MAGLEV train program. Superconducting and cryogenic fundamental technology was examined which included high performance cryocooler, magnetic refrigerator and superfluid refrigeration. Space cryogenics such as the cooling systems of IR-detectors was studied. Cryocooler for special applications such as cryopump, NMR-CT and JJ devices was investigated. Compact heat exchangers, high performance regenerators and reliable compressors are investigated as a critical component technology.

Matsubara, Y.

1985-05-01

91

Solid waste management in Japan  

SciTech Connect

On Friday 17 June 1994, as the invited speaker of the International Congress of IWM/ISWA at Torbay, UK the author presented a paper of {open_quotes}A framework for success: the role of legislation{close_quotes}. THis was to introduce the amendment of Waste Disposal Cleansing Law and the Basic Environment Law in 1991, but the combination of the two amended laws has enforced promoting and assisting the fulfillment of the responsibilities of corporations and citizens. In addition to such presentation, the author pointed out a new manner of solid waste management (SWM) in Japan.

Naito, S.

1995-09-01

92

Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The JTEC panel found that, after four decades of development in electronics and manufacturing technologies, Japanese electronics companies are leaders in the development, support, and management of complex, low-cost packaging and assembly technologies used in the production of a broad range of consumer electronics products. The electronics industry's suppliers provide basic materials and equipment required for electronic packaging applications. Panelists concluded that some Japanese firms could be leading U.S. competitors by as much as a decade in these areas. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure is an integral part of its microelectronics industry's success.

Boulton, William R.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Tummala, Rao R.

1995-01-01

93

Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether military intervention for humanitarian purposes is permissible is a vexed question that has been much debated since the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) air strikes against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1999. By extension, one may ask whether the principles of state sovereignty are violated when outside military intervention aims to halt the actions either of a government

Murata Koji

2003-01-01

94

Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan  

SciTech Connect

The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

2012-08-01

95

Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan  

SciTech Connect

The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

2012-05-01

96

Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 11 March 2011, Mw 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake, already among the most destructive earthquakes in modern history, emanated from a fault rupture that extended an estimated 500 km along the Pacific coast of Honshu. This earthquake is the fourth among five of the strongest temblors since AD 1900 and the largest in Japan since modern instrumental recordings began 130 years ago. The earthquake triggered a huge tsunami, which invaded the seaside areas of the Pacific coast of East Japan, causing devastating damages on the coast. Artificial structures were destroyed and planted forests were thoroughly eroded. Inrush of turbulent flows washed backshore areas and dunes. Coastal materials including beach sand were transported onto inland areas by going-up currents. Just after the occurrence of the tsunami, we started field investigation of measuring thickness and distribution of sediment layers by the tsunami and the inundation depth of water in Sendai plain. Ripple marks showing direction of sediment transport were the important object of observation. We used a soil auger for collecting sediments in the field, and sediment samples were submitted for analyzing grain size and interstitial water chemistry. Satellite images and aerial photographs are very useful for estimating the hydrogeological effects of tsunami inundation. We checked the correspondence of micro-topography, vegetation and sediment covering between before and after the tsunami. The most conspicuous phenomenon is the damage of pine forests planted in the purpose of preventing sand shifting. About ninety-five percent of vegetation coverage was lost during the period of rapid currents changed from first wave. The landward slopes of seawalls were mostly damaged and destroyed. Some aerial photographs leave detailed records of wave destruction just behind seawalls, which shows the occurrence of supercritical flows. The large-scale erosion of backshore behind seawalls is interpreted to have been caused by supercritical flows, resulting in the loss of landward seawall slopes. Such erosion was also observed at landward side of footpath between rice fields. The Sendai plain was subjected just after the main shock of the earthquake. Seawater inundation resulting from tsunami run-up lasted two months. The historical document Sandai-jitsuroku, which gives a detailed history of all of Japan, describes the Jogan earthquake and subsequent tsunami which have attacked Sendai plain in AD 869. The document describes the prolonged period of flooding, and it is suggested that co-seismic subsidence of the plain took place. The inundation area of the Jogan tsunami estimated by the distribution of tsunami deposit mostly overlaps with that of the 3.11 tsunami. Considering the very similarity of seismic shocks between the both, we interpreted the Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami is the second coming of the Jogan Earthquake Tsunami.

Iijima, Y.; Minoura, K.; Hirano, S.; Yamada, T.

2011-12-01

97

Seismic retrofitting of expressway bridges in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrastructures in Japan suffered severe damage in the Hyogoken–Nambu earthquake that occurred on 17 January 1995. The expressway bridges operated by Japan Highway Public Corporation (JH) also had serious damage. According to the lessons from experience of the earthquake, JH has been constructing highway networks having higher seismic reliability as an emergency transporting lifeline, and has been urgently implementing seismic

Tatsuo Ogata; Koji Osada

2000-01-01

98

Japan's Winning Margins. Management, Training, and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book explains the fundamental reasons for Japan's astonishing commercial success in relation to its Western competitors. Chapter 1 is an introduction. Chapter 2 discusses implications of Japanese history for education, training, and management. Chapter 3 looks at the first winning margin--education. It covers the following: Japan's long…

Lorriman, John; Kenjo, Takashi

99

The State of Continuing Education in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains the following articles about the state of continuing education and occupational training in Japan: "Funabashi City University of Sports Health" (Abe Nobuhiro); "Public Halls in Omiya City" (Kawamoto Koji); "Setagaya Senior Citizens College (Setagaya Rojin Daigaku)" (Sawamura Hiroshi); "Lifelong Sport in Japan: A Case Study of…

Masatoshi, Nagashima, Ed.; And Others

100

Japan: Language Policy and Planning in Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This monograph discusses the language situation in Japan, with an emphasis on language planning and policy. Japan has long considered itself to be a monoethnic and therefore monolingual society, despite the existence of substantial old-comer ethnic minorities, and this – with the instrumental exception of English – has been reflected in its language planning and policy until quite recently. Increasing

Nanette Gottlieb

2008-01-01

101

Foreign Fishery Developments Japan's Herring and Herring  

E-print Network

is in the East China Sea off Kyushu. The harvest from the domestic fishery is utilized for This reportForeign Fishery Developments Japan's Herring and Herring Roe Supplies and Trade Table 1.-Japanese of the Japanese. Japan is virtually the world's only market for herring roe-which is considered a great delicacy

102

Industrial waste management in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Systematic management for industrial waste in Japan has been carried out based on the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law which was enacted in 1970. The law and its ordinances designate 19 kinds of waste materials discharged from business activities as industrial waste and prescribe the generator's responsibility, requirements for treatment contractors, standards for consignment, specific personnel, etc. from the view of proper management. And they also prescribe disposal standards, structure, and maintenance standards for treatment facilities, including final disposal sites, from the view of proper treatment and disposal. The Standard for Verification provides criteria to categorize as hazardous or nonhazardous industrial waste which is subjected to treatment and disposal in conformity with each standard. The fundamental policies to cope with industrial waste focus on reduction of generation, promotion of recycling, establishment of a comprehensive information management system and participation of the public which can contribute well to prevent environmental pollution caused by inappropriate management of industrial waste.

Hirota, Y.

1986-12-01

103

Forest medicine research in Japan.  

PubMed

There has been growing attention on the effects of forest on physiological relaxation and immune recovery, particularly in forest medicine research, from a perspective of preventive medicine. Japan is a world leader in the accumulation of scientific data on forest medicine research. In this review, we summarize the research that has been conducted in this area since 1992. We conducted field experiment, involving 420 subjects at 35 different forests throughout Japan. After sitting in natural surroundings, these subjects showed decrease in the following physiological parameters compared with those in an urban control group: 12.4% decrease in the cortisol level, 7.0% decrease in sympathetic nervous activity, 1.4% decrease in systolic blood pressure, and 5.8% decrease in heart rate. This demonstrates that stressful states can be relieved by forest therapy. In addition, it should be noted that parasympathetic nervous activity was enhanced by 55.0%, indicating a relaxed state. The results of walking experiments provided similar results. Li et al. demonstrated that immune function was enhanced by forest therapy in middle-aged employees who volunteered to participate in these experiments. Natural killer cell activity, an indicator of immune function, was enhanced by 56% on the second day and returned to normal levels. A significant increase of 23% was maintained for 1 month even after returning to urban life, clearly illustrating the preventive benefits of forest therapy. In an indoor room experiment, we conducted tests with the following: 1) olfactory stimulation using wood smell, 2) tactile stimulation using wood, and 3) auditory stimulation using forest sounds. These indoor stimulations also decreased the blood pressure and pulse rate, and induced a physiological relaxation effect. We anticipate that forest medicine will play an increasingly important role in preventive medicine in the future. PMID:24858508

Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong

2014-01-01

104

Electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies. Japan has established this marked competitive advantage in electronics as a consequence of developing low-cost, high-volume consumer products. Japan's infrastructure, and the remarkable cohesiveness of vision and purpose in government and industry, are key factors in the success of Japan's electronics industry. Although Japan will continue to dominate consumer electronics in the foreseeable future, opportunities exist for the United States and other industrial countries to capture an increasingly large part of the market. The JTEC panel has identified no insurmountable barriers that would prevent the United States from regaining a significant share of the consumer electronics market; in fact, there is ample evidence that the United States needs to aggressively pursue high-volume, low-cost electronic assembly, because it is a critical path leading to high-performance electronic systems.

Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (Editor); Kukowski, John A.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John W.; Tummala, Rao R.

1995-01-01

105

Activities of Building Commissioning in Japan  

E-print Network

Activities of Activities of Building Commissioning Building Commissioning in Japanin Japan Ryuji Ryuji YanagiharaYanagiharaTokyo Electric Power Tokyo Electric Power Company(TepcoCompany(Tepco))Tokyo JAPANTokyo JAPAN #0;?#0;?#0;?#0;? Introduction... and BackgroundIntroduction and Background #0;?#0;?#0;?#0;? Activities of Building CActivities of Building C??in Japanin Japan ?? IBEC Activity for IEA/Annex40,47IBEC Activity for IEA/Annex40,47 ?? SHASE Activity for Commissioning GuidelineSHASE Activity...

Yanagihara, R.

2006-01-01

106

Age at motherhood in Japan.  

PubMed

This study analyzed the factors influencing maternal age in Japan. Data was obtained from the National Survey on Family Planning (20th round) conducted by the Mainichi Newspapers of Japan in June 1990 and from vital statistics records on first births over a 25-year period. Both time-series and cross-sectional data provided support for the link between educational attainment and wages and the rising age at childbearing. Proportional hazards models and accelerated-failure time models with unobserved heterogeneity of the Heckman and Walker and Greene types were constructed. The median age at first birth was estimated at 26.6 years, based on Kaplan-Meier methods. The log-logistic model with move-stayer heterogeneity (Heckman and Walker) revealed that women with a senior high school education delayed marriage 9 months longer than women with less education. Women with a junior college education had first births 15 months later than high school educated women. Women with a university degree had first births two years later than women with a junior college degree. Urban mothers started childbearing 5 months later than rural mothers. The Weibull model with unobserved heterogeneity indicated that the hazard of a first birth increased with the age of the woman, while the observed hazard in the population increased and then declined. The age pattern of the log-logistic model had a more concentrated hazard rate. The estimated childless rate among women at the age of 40 years was 10.6% in the log-logistic model and 6.9% in the Weibull model. The Cox proportional hazard model supported the findings from the log-logistic and Weibull models and the explanatory importance of childhood residence, recent age, and educational status. All three models showed similar estimates of the impacts of the explanatory variables on age at first marriage. Median first birth interval was found to be shorter among more recent cohorts. Women in arranged marriages were estimated to have a later median age at childbearing by 9 months, and living with husband's parents shortened the median age by about 7 months. Women who married men from large families tended to marry and bear children earlier. The time-series analysis indicated that the decline in first birth rates was related to the decline in traditional values, but when the tradition variable was excluded, wages appeared to be the significant determinant of decline in first birth rates. The findings suggested that other factors were involved in the sharp decline in first birth rates. PMID:12288506

Ermisch, J; Ogawa, N

1994-01-01

107

The Entomological Society of Japan NII-Electronic Library Service  

E-print Network

The Entomological Society of Japan NII-Electronic Library Service #12;The Entomological Society of Japan NII-Electronic Library Service #12;The Entomological Society of Japan NII-Electronic Library Service #12;The Entomological Society of Japan NII-Electronic Library Service #12;The Entomological

Villemant, Claire

108

Atlas of Japan (East) Sea hydrographic properties in summer, 1999  

E-print Network

Atlas of Japan (East) Sea hydrographic properties in summer, 1999 Lynne D. Talley a,*, Pavel properties from CTD and discrete bottle sample profiles covering the Japan (East) Sea in summer, 1999: Japan sea; Ocean chemistry; Ocean atlas; Marginal seas; Water masses 1. Introduction The Japan or East

Talley, Lynne D.

109

THE FISHERIES OF JAPAN CONSIDERED FROM A GEOGRAPHICAL STANDPOINT  

E-print Network

, the Gulf of St. Lawrence, probably, with the Japan Sea. The fishes which inhabit the waters of Japan Cod, etc. On the contrary, Japan has the deep abysses along the east coast which are useless on the deep high seas. Understanding these conditions in regard to the fisheries of Japan, we come to consider

110

Process of designing city housing in Japan  

E-print Network

pose of this thesis is to show one design approach to providing more preferable housing for users in Japan. Chapter 1 gives an overview of trends in Japanese housing construction, describes user requirements, analyzes ...

Kurokawa, Shoji

1983-01-01

111

History of Nuclear Fusion Research in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the late 1950s just after the atomic energy research was opened worldwide, there was a lively discussion among scientists on the strategy of nuclear fusion research in Japan. Finally, decision was made that fusion research should be started from the basic, namely, research on plasma physics and from cultivation of human resources at universities under the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (MOE). However, an endorsement was given that construction of an experimental device for fusion research would be approved sooner or later. Studies on toroidal plasma confinement started at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) under the Science and Technology Agency (STA) in the mid-1960s. Dualistic fusion research framework in Japan was established. This structure has lasted until now. Fusion research activities over the last 50 years are described by the use of a flowchart, which is convenient to glance the historical development of fusion research in Japan.

Iguchi, Harukazu; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Kimura, Kazue; Namba, Chusei; Matsuda, Shinzaburo

112

Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Front, left to right: Efthymios Papadopoulos (Georgia Tech) and Jun Yoneda (AIST)....

113

The terrestrial bioluminescent animals of Japan.  

PubMed

Light production by organisms, or bioluminescence, has fascinated not only scientists but also ordinary people all over the world, and it has been especially so in Japan. Here we review the biological information available to date for all luminous terrestrial animals known from Japan, particularly focusing on their diversity and systematics, their biology and ecology in Japan, and putative function and biochemistry of their luminescence. In total 58 luminous terrestrial animals have been described from Japan, which consist of 50 fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae), one glowworm beetle (Coleoptera: Phengodidae), two fungus gnats (Diptera: Keroplatidae), one springtail (Collembola), one millipede (Diplopoda), one centipede (Chilopoda) and two earthworms (Oligochaeta). For all except some firefly species, the DNA "barcode" sequences of a cytochrome oxidase subunit I region are provided. We also introduce how intricately the seasonal appearance and glimmering of luminous insects, in particular those of fireflies, have been interwoven into the culture, art, literature and mentality of Japanese people. PMID:22035300

Oba, Yuichi; Branham, Marc A; Fukatsu, Takema

2011-11-01

114

[Cutaneous mycoses in Japan originating from animals].  

PubMed

Human cases of dermatophytoses are occasionally transmitted from animals, and suffered from tinea corporis and sometimes Kerion celsi. The most frequent causative agent of these diseases is Microsporum canis. The other dermatophyte, Arthroderma benhamiae is now prevailing in rabbits, rodents and hedgehogs that are popular household pets in Japan. Therefore, some human cases of A. benhamiae infection were reported and the transmission of this infection from rabbits and rodents was confirmed.Cryptococcosis is regarded as dangerous zoonosis, but its transmission from animal to peoples has not been documented in Japan. Animal cases of cryptococcosis are possible to increase in number by developing immunosuppressive animals as well as by spreading of newly introduced C. gattii to Japan.Animal cases of sporotrichosis are rarely reported in Japan. However, feline sporotrichosis should be prevented and promptly treated since it easily transmitted to people from cat lesions and the exudates where copious numbers of organisms are found in tissues. PMID:22467127

Kano, Rui

2012-01-01

115

Transfer of environmentally sound technologies from Japan to China  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the transfer of environmentally sound technology from Japan to developing countries, particularly China. The focus is on the main Japanese organizations involved in environmentally sound technology transfer, including government agencies, non-governmental organizations, and Japanese industry. The article also describes the main activities involved in Japan`s technology transfer efforts, such as grants, loan, information exchange, and demonstration projects, with specific examples of Japan`s technology transfer work in China. Finally, the paper analyzes the successes and challenges of various technology transfer mechanism and provides insight on the direction of Japan`s future environmentally sound technology transfer projects and programs in developing countries.

Asuka-Zhang, S. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Center for Northeast Asian Studies] [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Center for Northeast Asian Studies

1999-09-01

116

American Occupation of Japan: A Retrospective View  

E-print Network

: The American University in Japan and Korea. Prof. Edward Norbeck, Dean of Humanities and Professor of Anthropology at Rice University, has written, among several other works, Takashima, A Japanese Fishing Community and the recent Changing Japan. Prof. John... shock was^ the greater, therefore, and its effect was extended and reinforced by the desperate economic and physical straits of the populace in gen eral during the early postwar years. The most important political consequence of these circumstances...

Goodman, Grant K.

1968-01-01

117

Nationwide Survey of Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a disorder of the mononuclear phagocyte system, can be classified into two distinct\\u000a forms: primary HLH (FHL) and secondary HLH. To clarify the epidemiology and clinical outcome for each HLH subtype, we conducted\\u000a a nationwide survey of HLH in Japan. Since 799 patients were diagnosed in 292 institutions of Japan between 2001 and 2005,\\u000a the annual incidence

Eiichi Ishii; Shouichi Ohga; Shinsaku Imashuku; Masaki Yasukawa; Hiroyuki Tsuda; Ikuo Miura; Ken Yamamoto; Hisanori Horiuchi; Kenzo Takada; Koichi Ohshima; Shigeo Nakamura; Naoko Kinukawa; Kazuo Oshimi; Keisei Kawa

2007-01-01

118

Challenges and solutions ensuring EUVL photomask integrity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industry roadmaps indicate that the introduction of Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) is on track for high volume manufacturing. Although, there has been significant progress in each of the individual subsets of the EUVL infrastructure, the absolute management of the process outside of the scanner and up to the point-of-exposure has been highlighted as critical requirement for the adoption of EUVL. Significant changes in the EUV system environment and mask architecture are driving a zero process tolerance level. Any unforeseen contamination introduced to the scanner environment from the EUV mask could cause considerable downtime and yield loss. Absolute mask integrity at the point-of-exposure must be guaranteed. EUV mask cleaning processes-of-record have been developed and introduced to the industry [1]. The issue is not longer "how to clean the mask" but, "how to keep it clean". With the introduction of EUVL, mask cleanliness extends out beyond the traditional mask cleaning tool. Complete control of contamination and/or particles during transportation, handling and storage will require a holistic approach to mask management. A new environment specifically for EUV mask integrity must be developed and fully tested for the sub 16nm half-pitch node introduction. The SUSS MaskTrack Pro (MTP) InSync was introduced as the solution for EUV mask integrity. SUSS demonstrated the fully automated handling of EUV masks into and out of a Dual Pod System [2]. Intrinsic cleanliness of each individual handling and storage step of the inner pod (EIP) and EUV mask inside the MTP InSync Tool was investigated and reported. A target specification of a PRP <= 0.08 as criterion for the cross contamination between EIP and the EUV reticle during handling within MTP InSync has been achieved and therefore proofing the applicability for the Dual Pod automation. Moreover an appropriate automated handling, other aspects like backside particle contamination and EIP cleanliness plays a significant role to ensure EUV mask integrity. With this concept in mind a system for particle detection has been integrated into MTP InSync. This allows verifying the POR performance for backside cleaning by measuring particles down to 150nm size. A dynamic capture rate of larger 97% at 200nm particle size based on PSLs was achieved; for EIP cleaning, a dry-cleaning technology is under investigation. During feasibility studies high particle removal efficiency (PRE) results larger 99% has been achieved for particles down to 100nm. In this paper, the full scope and roadmap of the MTP InSync will be discussed. Preliminary results of backside particle detection and challenges on EUV Inner Pod (EIP) cleaning will be presented.

Brux, O.; Dreß, P.; Schmalfuß, H.; Jonckheere, R.; Koolen-Hermkens, W.

2012-06-01

119

Physical force optimization for advanced photomask cleaning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated methods to extend the damage-free process window for fragile Sub-Resolution Assist Features (SRAF) in mask cleaning using MegaSonic and binary spray techniques. Particle removal efficiency (PRE) was found to increase by 8% and damage reduced from 7 ppm to 0 ppm with the optimization of the spray droplet characteristics through liquid media control. MegaSonic damage was eliminated completely from 10 ppm to 0 ppm by varying physical and chemical properties of the cleaning media. Since particles in the deep trenches are very difficult to remove using droplet spray alone, a combination of MegaSonic and Binary Spray processes was tested. The acoustic effects generated through the MegaSonic combined with optimized droplet impact showed an improvement of 4% in PRE of hard-to-remove trench particles. Overall, the improved process points to a promising solution for overcoming the roadblock in mask cleaning for the advanced mask cleaning.

Shen, C. W.; Lin, K. W.; Lu, C. L.; Hsu, Luke; Chin, Angus; Yen, Anthony

2013-06-01

120

Ocean Science Communication in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean literacy and education panel (OLEP) of the Oceanographic Society of Japan (JOS) has been established in 2003 for sharing the ocean literacy with the public and promoting the ocean science education in school and college. Its activities include publishing reference books and electronic teaching materials for primary school teachers and students, conducting surveys on the people's consciousness on the ocean, and supporting the events such as 'Ocean Science Cafe' for the public, oceanographer's talks in class room and sea side, and seminars on board of research vessel for high-school teachers and students. Its activities are announced to the public in its website and through Twitter. The records are available to the public in the websites. Some JOS members including me are telling the public the basic knowledge of ocean science, additional explanations to scientific topics in mass media, their thoughts on the ocean, the science, and STEM education, and their daily life such as travels, meetings and cruises through their own private websites, blogs, and accounts in Twitter and Facebook. In this presentation, as a coordinator of the 'Ocean Science Cafe', I will indicate how well it has worked as a good method for promoting mutual communication between non-professional citizens and oceanographers, and changed a scientist to a better citizen. Also, as an ocean science blogger, I will mention a good effect of the mutual communication with the public from my experience. It is concluded that the science communication by new media should not be one-way but really two-way to understand well what people wish to know and have difficulties to understand, and where they stop learning.

Ichikawa, H.

2011-12-01

121

History Teaching--Japan and the Russian Federation (Tokyo, Japan, October 25-27, 2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Tokyo (Japan) October 2000 meeting of experts on History Teaching in Japan and the Russian Federation was organized by the International Society for Educational Information (ISEI) and the Council of Europe. This was the second meeting, following the initial 1999 St. Petersburg (Russia) meeting conducted to increase mutual understanding in the…

Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

122

Japan’s Foreign Aid Sanctions Policy after the End of Cold War  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Cold War, Japan seldom showed an interest in the political conditions in aid recipients. However, after the Cold War, Japan has been actively imposing negative aid sanctions (the suspension or a decrease in foreign aid) on recipient countries where undesirable policy changes occur, while positive aid sanctions (an increase in foreign aid) would be applied to aid recipients

Larisa Nikitina; Fumitaka Furuoka

2008-01-01

123

Population support a priority for Japan.  

PubMed

The Japanese government has approved an increase in both financial and technical assistance for family planning in developing countries for FY1991. Japan's contribution to the United National Population FUnd (UNFPA) will total US$56.8 million, a 1.83% increase from the previous year, and it will be the largest donation by any country. Japanese support of UNFPA has skyrocketed from an initial contribution of US$1.5 million to today's level. Besides its multilateral assistance through UNFPA, the country will also provide bilateral technical assistance through the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). Increasing by 7.8% from 1990, technical assistance will total US$8.54 million, and it will go to the following countries: Colombia, Egypt, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico, Nepal, Peru, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Turkey. Japan will provide the equipment and supplies needed for transferring technical expertise from Japanese experts to personnel from the recipient countries. Japan will also host an international family planning seminar for developing countries. Japan's pledge of assistance reflects the country's desire to improve the social conditions and quality of life for people living in developing countries, and it indicated the growing awareness of the Japanese public concerning population and family planning issues. PMID:12283975

1991-05-01

124

Electronics manufacturing and assembly in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the consumer electronics industry, precision processing technology is the basis for enhancing product functions and for minimizing components and end products. Throughout Japan, manufacturing technology is seen as critical to the production and assembly of advanced products. While its population has increased less than 30 percent over twenty-five years, Japan's gross national product has increase thirtyfold; this growth has resulted in large part from rapid replacement of manual operations with innovative, high-speed, large-scale, continuously running, complex machines that process a growing number of miniaturized components. The JTEC panel found that introduction of next-generation electronics products in Japan goes hand-in-hand with introduction of new and improved production equipment. In the panel's judgment, Japan's advanced process technologies and equipment development and its highly automated factories are crucial elements of its domination of the consumer electronics marketplace - and Japan's expertise in manufacturing consumer electronics products gives it potentially unapproachable process expertise in all electronics markets.

Kukowski, John A.; Boulton, William R.

1995-01-01

125

Q fever in Japan: an update review.  

PubMed

As neglected zoonosis for many years, Q fever is now ubiquitous in Japan. Similarly to elsewhere in the world, domestic animals are considered to be important reservoirs of the causal agent, Coxiella burnetii, a resistant intracellular bacterium. Infected animals shed bacteria in milk, feces, urine, vaginal mucous and birth products. Inhalation of bacteria present in the environment is the main route of animal and human infection. Shedding of C. burnetii in milk by domestic ruminants has a very limited impact as raw milk is seldom ingested by the Japanese population. The clinical expression of Q fever in Japan is similar to its clinical expression elsewhere. However clinical cases in children are more frequently reported in this country. Moreover, C. burnetii is specified as one of the causative organisms of atypical pneumonia in the Japanese Respiratory Society Guideline for the management of community-acquired pneumonia. In Japan, C. burnetii isolates are associated with acute illness and are mainly of moderate to low virulence. Cats are considered a significant source of C. burnetii responsible for human outbreaks in association with the presence of infected parturient cats. Since its recognition as a reportable disease in 1999, 7-46 clinical cases of Q fever have been reported by year. The epidemiology of Q fever in Japan remains to be elucidated and the exact modes of transmission are still unproven. Important further research is necessary to improve knowledge of the disease itself, the endogenous hosts and reservoirs, and the epidemiological cycle of coxiellosis in Japan. PMID:21146331

Porter, Sarah Rebecca; Czaplicki, Guy; Mainil, Jacques; Horii, Yoichiro; Misawa, Naoaki; Saegerman, Claude

2011-05-01

126

Toward freedom from cancer pain in Japan.  

PubMed

Life expectancy in Japan is highest in the world. Cancer is the leading cause of mortality in Japan, accounting for about 30 percent of all deaths. Many Japanese cancer patients experience severe pain although they and their families hope to be pain free at the end of their lives. Toward that end, the consumption of morphine in Japan has increased markedly since 1989. The amount of morphine hydrochloride and morphine sulfate consumed in 2001 was 6.1 times that used in Japan in 1989. However, the amount of morphine consumed in Japan is still less than in other developed nations, and was only one-sixth of the amount used in Australia in 2001. As a result, many Japanese cancer patients experience potentially manageable cancer pain, largely because the amount of the drug used by doctors is insufficient for pain control. An increasing number of Japanese doctors now understand that their patients' quality of life is most important in end-of-life care and how to use the three step analgesic ladder of the World Health Organization (WHO). However, other doctors do not understand these issues sufficiently causing some patients to die without good pain control. Both the general population and some medical professionals misunderstand and have prejudice against the use of morphine. Patients often do not participate in decision making about medical treatment because of remaining paternalism in the relationship between Japanese doctors and patients. Thus, cancer pain management in Japan is not as effective as it can be and not all Japanese cancer patients receive appropriate management for their cancer pain. To improve outcomes for Japanese patients, it is necessary for health professional and social work students and practicing professionals to receive contemporary education including an introduction to palliative care and ethics. PMID:18032354

Otsuka, Kuniko; Yasuhara, Hajime

2007-01-01

127

Widespread use of neuraminidase inhibitors in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost all patients with an influenza-like illness in Japan are now tested with rapid diagnostic tests, and when positive,\\u000a they are treated with a neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI). Japan may have had the lowest case fatality rate for symptomatic illness\\u000a (<0.001%, 198\\/20.7 million) in the H1N1\\/09 pandemic because of the universal implementation of early treatment with NAI. A\\u000a study of 1,000

Norio Sugaya

128

Test of Plums, Apricots and Japan Persimmons.  

E-print Network

are of good size and flavor. Very attractive, and would ship well. Many of the varieties need to be sprayed to pre- vent injury by insects and fungi. 7. The following Japan varieties are promising: Abundance, Bur- bank, Doiiglas, Georgeson, Kelsey... triflora." He states that ''3 plum found in the botanic gardens at Calcutta about seventy years ago by Roxburgh, and by him named Prunus triflorn, seemed the most likely parent." T-le also states that " Prof. Georgeson, who had spent some years in Japan...

Price, R. H. (Robert Henderson)

1894-01-01

129

67 FR 42057 - Gas Turbo-Compressor Systems From Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Investigation No. 731-TA-748 (Review)] Gas Turbo-Compressor Systems From Japan AGENCY: International Trade Commission...whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on gas turbo-compressor systems from Japan would be likely to lead to...

2002-06-20

130

76 FR 8774 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...731-TA-386 (Third Review)] Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan AGENCY: United States International...of the antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan would be likely to...

2011-02-15

131

76 FR 8773 - Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Investigation No. 731-TA-1090 (Review)] Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission...revocation of the antidumping duty order on superalloy degassed chromium from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or...

2011-02-15

132

‘Iatrogenic’ Wernicke’s Encephalopathy in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Iatrogenic’ Wernicke’s encephalopathy has appeared to occur more frequently in Japan, probably induced by the change of our Japanese national health insurance policy in 1992. We report 4 nonalcoholic patients with such Wernicke’s encephalopathy, which occurred during the early postoperative oral food intake period following intravenous nutrition without vitamin supplements. We analyzed the medical records of 4 patients, 3 men

Elisa Shikata; Tomohiko Mizutani; Yuji Kokubun; Toshiaki Takasu

2000-01-01

133

History Of Holographic Display In Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first exhibition of holographic display was held at Seibu Museum of Art in Tokyo in 1975 and played a role of opening of the holographic era in Japan. This exhibition and the next big exhibition of holography held at Isetan department store 3 years later in 1978 were really epoch-making facts on holographic display in Japan. Since these two exhibitions, holographic display in Japan has come to attract attention of a lot of people to the new display media, holography. At that time, mass production technology of holograms had not been fully developed yet, and the hologram was so expensive that they were found only at the big event. Some companies and universities still continued research and development to have holograms get into practical applications of display media. Few years later, people became interested in 3-D displays and sometimes many peoples took an interest in holographic display, mainly mass produced embossed type holograms applied to the field of publications, book and magazine, etc. 3-D display booms occurred in the year of Tsukuba Science Expo'85 in 1985 and embossed type hologram became much popular. History of holographic display of Japan in terms of technical development and practical use on laser reconstruction hologram, rainbow hologram, multiplex hologram and lippmann hologram will be introduced.

Iwata, Fujio

1987-06-01

134

Gender and Social Loafing in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author investigated gender differences in social loafing among 18 men and 18 women in Japan. The participants were divided into groups of 9 members. Ropes were connected to strongly built steel frames set near the ceiling of the laboratory. Each participant had to pull the rope as through arm wrestling. The participants engaged in 12 trials—2 individual trials and

Naoki Kugihara

1999-01-01

135

Parental Educational Investments and Aspirations in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous models of parental educational investments focus on the composition of the sibship (number, gender, ordering, and spacing) and on the social and institutional context in which investment decisions are made. Social-institutional models predict that parents in Japan are likely to underinvest in girls because of their transient status in the…

Lee, Kristen Schultz

2010-01-01

136

Core Discussion Networks in Japan and America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arguments regarding the high prevalence of interpersonal collectivism in Japan typically hinge on the assumption that Japanese communication networks are more enduring, frequently contacted, and dominated by kin and work ties than networks in Western countries. However, this assumption has not been examined using nationally representative data.…

Boase, Jeffrey; Ikeda, Ken'ichi

2012-01-01

137

Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Standing, left to right: Jun Yoneda (AIST), Masato Kida (AIST), Marco Terzariol (Georgia Tech), Sheng Dai (Georgia Tech), Efthymios Papadopoulos ...

138

Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Front to back: Efthymios Papadopoulos (Georgia Tech), William Waite (USGS), and Yoshihiro Konno (AIST) analyze data from sensors inserted into hy...

139

Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: Emile Bergeron (USGS) and Carlos Santamarina (Georgia Tech) are preparing to use a cutter (center) to saw a pressure core into sho...

140

Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. The cores and pressure vessels are very heavy to move around, so they are using an overhead hoist system with chains to move the devices. Left to...

141

Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. In this photo is Marco Terzariol (Georgia Tech) is preparing a Direct Shear Cell for testing a core section from the manipulator (background), st...

142

Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Photograph of the international team studying gas hydrates in Japan. Front row, kneeling: Jun Yoneda (AIST). Front row, standing, left to right: Yoshihiro Konno (AIST), Jiro Nagao (AIST), Marco Terzariol (Georgia Tech), William Winters (USGS), Junbong Jang (Georgia Tech), Kiyofumi Suzuki (JOGMEC), S...

143

Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: Efthymios Papadopoulos (Georgia Tech), Yoshihiro Konno (AIST), and William Winters (USGS)....

144

Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: Emile Bergeron (USGS) and Carlos Santamarina (Georgia Tech) watch the movement of a sediment pressure core on a video screen. An o...

145

Foreign Fishery Developments Japan's "Fugu" or  

E-print Network

of these are caught in the Sea of Japan, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea (Table 1). Two of the most important species to fish for fugu in the Yellow Sea off the west coast of North Korea. Because the North Kor eans do

146

Kiyo Journals and Scholarly Communication in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kiyo are journals published by Japanese academic institutions. As a scholarly communication medium, they have inherent problems such as limited accessibility and lack of quality control. Despite these problems, they have evolved to comprise the majority of academic journals published in the humanities and social sciences in Japan because they fit…

Kamada, Hitoshi

2007-01-01

147

Free Resources for Teaching About Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication describes free print and audiovisual materials for teaching about Japan in elementary and secondary schools. The booklet was written to enable teachers to take advantage of the many free materials that are currently available. The first section cites sources of free materials in the United States. Names and addresses of groups…

Wojtan, Linda S.

148

Promotion of School Children's Invention in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the late 1980s an American newspaper reported that by one measure--the number of patents cited by successive inventors--Japan overtook the United States in the number of inventions produced during the 1970s. The reasons for this are not clear, but educational efforts promoting creative behaviors in school children are probably essential and…

Sakamoto, Takashi

1989-01-01

149

Japan and the United States: Differing Perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

the lack of mutual understanding that still persists. The misunderstan­ dings go far deeper than simply language, as some would believe. Last year, because of his supposed fluency in English, there were great hopes for improved communication and relations between the US and Japan after current Prime Minister Miyazawa gained his postl. It was assumed by many that the January

Roger L. Reinoos

150

Studies of micro actuators in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various kinds of driving principles are proposed for micro actuators. Electrostatic, superconducting, piezoelectric, and shape-memory alloy actuators are studied, with emphasis on work done in Japan. Electrostatic actuators, a superconducting actuator, an actuator which simulates muscles, a microfluid system with piezoelectric actuators, and a cell fusion system based on a fluid integration circuit are described. Microactuators and the micro machines

Hiroyuki Fujita

1989-01-01

151

Nonperforming loans, prospective bailouts, and Japan's slowdown  

Microsoft Academic Search

The delay in the government bailout of the financial sector played a key role in Japan's slowdown during the 1990s and early 2000s. This argument is articulated in a general equilibrium model in which the government provides deposit insurance to the financial sector. The existence of non-performing loans, combined with a delay in the bailout, leads to a persistent decline

Levon Barseghyan

2010-01-01

152

Multicultural and Multiethnic Education in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Japan, the Ainu people have been living mainly in Hokkaido and many Koreans continue to live since the end of the World War Two. Since 1990's, the number of migrant workers has increased rapidly. In this sense, Japanese society has been multicultural and multiethnic. However, those minority groups have been strictly discriminated against in…

Nomoto, Hiroyuki

2009-01-01

153

DEREGULATION OF TRANSGENIC PAPAYA FOR JAPAN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The transgenic SunUp and Rainbow papaya developed for Hawaii was commercialized in 1998 and virtually saved Hawaii’s papaya industry from further damage being caused by papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Since Japan makes up a significant part (about 35% in 1992) in Hawaii’s papaya export market, effort...

154

Hydrogen energy research programs in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews the hydrogen energy research programs carried out under the Sunshine Project in Japan. Work on both electrolytic and thermochemical processes for large-scale hydrogen production is discussed. New methods for hydrogen production, such as direct thermal decomposition of water and photo-electrolysis of water with semiconductor electrodes are outlined. Storage and transportation of hydrogen and hydrogen burners are emphasized.

T. Ohta; M. V. C. Sastri

1979-01-01

155

Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: Junbong Jang (Georgia Tech), David Mason (USGS), Carlos Santamarina (Georgia Tech), and Emile Bergeron (USGS). A ball valve has ju...

156

Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. This photo shows the pressure core storage chambers, which contain hydrate-bearing sediment samples obtained from the Nankai Trough offshore Japa...

157

Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: David Mason (USGS), Carlos Santamarina (Georgia Tech), and Yoshihiro Konno (AIST). Two ball valves are connected allowing a pressu...

158

Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: Emile Bergeron (USGS), Kiyofumi Suzuki (JOGMEC), Marco Terzariol (Georgia Tech), William Waite (USGS), and Carlos Santamarina (Geo...

159

Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: Carlos Santamarina (Georgia Tech) and David Mason (USGS). A ball valve is in the process of being opened, which allows a core to b...

160

Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: Yoshihiro Konno (AIST) and David Mason (USGS). The AIST IPTC (right) is being prepared for movement to the left side of the refrig...

161

Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Front to back: Masato Kida (AIST), Yoshihiro Konno (AIST), William Waite (USGS), Jiro Nagao (AIST), and Yusuke Jin (AIST), analyze test results f...

162

Japan's Poetry Boxers Get Ready to Grumble  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports that in Japan, a scholar of communications, in the hope of getting people to talk with one another, holds "boxing" competitions in which the blows are thrown verbally, in verse. In a crowded Yokohama hall, boxers file into a ring watched by cheering students and a panel of university professors. Nobody is predicting a winner,…

McNeill, David

2008-01-01

163

Abyssal circulation in the Japan Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water below a depth of 1,000 m in the Japan Sea was found to consist of two water masses, the upper layer (the Deep Water) and the lower layer (the Bottom Water). The boundary of these water masses is marked by discontinuity of potential temperature, dissolved oxygen and silicate at about 2,000 m depth. The mean residence time of

Toshitaka Gamo; Yoshio Horibe

1983-01-01

164

Child Development and Childcare in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With increasing numbers of women joining the workforce, there is a need for quality childcare. This project, conducted in Japan and using a large number of participants, sought to standardize an evaluation scale to measure the development of children. The development of children under six years of age (N = 22,819) who are enrolled in childcare…

Anme, Tokie; Segal, Uma A.

2010-01-01

165

Star Week- A Successful Campaign in Japan -  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1995, we started a campaign of the star week as between August 1 and 7 when it is usually expected that most part of Japan should be good weather after the rainy season during the summer holiday. Several hundreds of astronomical facilities for general public in Japan, including planetariums, museums, and public observatories participated in our campaign, together with make good collaborations for education purpose. More than 200 astronomical events such as star parties were coordinated for general public every year. Japan is one of the worst countries for light pollution. Especially most of children have no experience of seeing Milky Way. Let them see the real stars. Let them feel the universe by inviting them to the related astronomical facilities located all over Japan. For realizing this purpose, it is better to set the special week, similar to the "Bird Week" by arranging various astronomical events in these facilities in order to invite all the general public. This is the motivation of the beginning of the star week. Such outreach program should give opportunity for general public to understand the excitement of the astronomy. In this paper, we will introduce present situation of our campaign, along with some statistics.

Watanabe, J.

2006-08-01

166

[Insights into neurological drug development in Japan].  

PubMed

Neurological disorders have varying prevalence rates and cause short- and long-term impairments and disabilities. These disorders involve high costs and impose burdens on patients, caregivers, and society. Therefore, continued research and new therapeutic development in these areas have been expected worldwide. Recently, much attention has been paid to neurological drug development, and pharmaceutical companies are conducting many clinical trials in neurological fields. Industry-sponsored clinical trials have been performed not only in North America and western Europe but also in the so-called emerging regions such as the eastern European, Latin American, and Asian countries in recent years. In Japan, although the number of global clinical trials has increased in recent years, there is still a large gap between Japan and the US or European countries with regard to access to neurological drugs. In this article, we have summarized the status of new drug development for neurological disorders and the delays in neurological drug development in Japan. We have also discussed future tasks, including those for academia, related to promoting clinical trials in neurological fields in Japan. PMID:22402716

Nakamura, Harumasa; Uyama, Yoshiaki

2012-03-01

167

With a Little Help from Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the last year, the author's students have become very interested in popular culture from Korea and Japan. In particular, the class liked the films of Hayao Miyazaki, an Oscar-winning director who is considered one of the foremost anime filmmakers. In this article, the author came to an idea while he and the first-grade class were discussing…

Purcell, John

2009-01-01

168

Dismay at Japan's new whaling targets.  

PubMed

The fleet setting off last month for Japan's largest target for scientific whaling, including up to 50 humpback whales, the lucrative stars of whale-watching tourists worldwide, is set to face a battle with infuriated governments, researchers and conservationists. PMID:18240375

Williams, Nigel

2007-12-18

169

Family Psychology and Family Therapy in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the development of family psychology and family therapy in Japan, tracing the origins of these movements, explaining how these fields were activated by the problem of school refusal, and describing an approach to family therapy that has been developed to work with families confronting this problem, as well as preventive programs of family…

Kameguchi, Kenji; Murphy-Shigematsu, Stephen

2001-01-01

170

67 FR 21731 - Gas Turbo-Compressor Systems From Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...731-TA-748 (Review)] Gas Turbo-Compressor Systems From Japan AGENCY: United States...antidumping duty order on gas turbo-compressor systems from Japan...antidumping duty order on gas turbo-compressor systems from Japan would be likely...

2002-05-01

171

Characteristics of an external employee assistance programme in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Mental health care is now a major occupational health issue in Japan. Although realizing effective use of external employee assistance programmes (EAPs) has been identified as crucial for mental health care, few scientific papers describe or analyse the characteristics of EAPs in Japan. Aims This study sought to clarify the characteristics of an external EAP in Japan. Methods The

Takashi Muto; Yuiko Fujimori; Keiko Suzuki

2004-01-01

172

Japan-US cooperation in dismantling nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan is in a perfect position to work closely with the US in dismantling nuclear weapons in Russia and the CIS countries, says Yasuhide Yamanouchi, director of the Department of Research and Education, Center for Global Communications (GLOCOM) at the International University of Japan. Japan must become more involved, and will have to overcome its self-imposed constraints on dealing with

Yasuhide Yamanouchi

1997-01-01

173

Japan's teacher acculturation: critical analysis through comparative ethnographic narrative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross?cultural teaching and research in Canada and Japan is reported. Ethnographic narrative methods were used to examine Japan's teacher acculturation. Canada's teachers are largely required to work in isolation, to learn their practice through trial and error. There is little provision for mentorship and insufficient time to reflect. In contrast, Japan's teachers have opportunities for reflection, collegiality and collaboration. Moreover,

Edward R. Howe

2005-01-01

174

Predictability of Japan / East Sea (JES) System to Uncertain Initial /  

E-print Network

Predictability of Japan / East Sea (JES) System to Uncertain Initial / Lateral Boundary Conditions and Surface Winds Predictability of Japan / East SeaPredictability of Japan / East Sea (JES) System (connects with the Okhotsk Sea) Tatar StraitTatar Strait (connects with the Okhotsk SeaOkhotsk Sea) Soya

Chu, Peter C.

175

MIT Japan 3/11 Initiative_sk120110: page-1 MIT Japan 3/11 Initiative  

E-print Network

-Resilient Planning, Design & Reconstruction · Inter-University Exchange (iUP) In the aftermath of the triple disasterMIT Japan 3/11 Initiative_sk120110: page-1 MIT Japan 3/11 Initiative A PROPOSAL for Disaster-Resilient Planning, Design & Reconstruction from the MIT Japan Program at the MIT Center for International Studies

Bhatia, Sangeeta

176

The state of telepathology in Japan.  

PubMed

Telepathology began in Japan in the early 1990s in response to advances in computing and telecommunications equipment development and a dearth of pathologists. Telepathology in Japan is most often used for rapid intraoperative pathological diagnosis using frozen section, followed by second opinions and consultation. Intraoperatively, telepathology is used to determine malignancy, metastasis of malignant tumors, and the extent of excision. Infrastructure and equipment has evolved from analog lines to digital lines like integrated services digital network (ISDN) and asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL), and recently to fiber optics. The use of communications satellites is also being considered. Image quality is being improved to Hi-Vision (HDTV), and from still images to real-time video. Digital microscopy has been introduced, and is used in education and consultation. PMID:20922030

Sawai, Takashi; Uzuki, Miwa; Kamataki, Akihisa; Tofukuji, Ikuo

2010-01-01

177

Aspects of river ice hydrology in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rivers in northern Japan are subjected to ice formation each winter. They are typically very steep with rapid changes in channel slope. As a result, ice covers are usually discontinuous with open water sections. Winter discharges in Japanese rivers are usually very small. Water temperature and ice production in these streams are very sensitive to the change in air temperature. The open water sections enable the formation of frazil and anchor ice during the winter. Owing to the relatively stable winter weather and heavy snow cover, premature break-up and ice jams rarely occur, even though the channel geometry of these rivers is favourable for their occurrence. In this paper, hydrometeorological factors related to ice-cover formation, frazil and anchor-ice development, and ice-jam formation, as well as measurements of the undercover discharge in rivers in northern Japan are discussed.

Hirayama, Kenichi; Yamazaki, Makoto; Shen, Hung Tao

2002-03-01

178

Current status of atopic dermatitis in Japan  

PubMed Central

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic or chronically relapsing, severely pruritic, eczematous skin disease. AD is the second most frequently observed skin disease in dermatology clinics in Japan. Prevalence of childhood AD is 12-13% in mainland Japan; however, it is only half that (about 6%) in children from Ishigaki Island, Okinawa. Topical steroids and tacrolimus are the mainstay of treatment. However, the adverse effects and emotional fear of long-term use of topical steroids have induced a "topical steroid phobia" in patients throughout the world. Undertreatment can exacerbate facial/periocular lesions and lead to the development of atopic cataract and retinal detachment due to repeated scratching/rubbing/patting. Overcoming topical steroid phobia is a key issue for the successful treatment of AD through education, understanding and cooperation of patients and their guardians. PMID:22053299

Chiba, Takahito; Takeuchi, Satoshi

2011-01-01

179

Gastric cancer treatment guidelines in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  \\u000a Recent developments in treatment modalities for gastric cancer have allowed the selection of a variety of treatments, and\\u000a this has resulted in some confusion in daily practice. The Japan Gastric Cancer Association issued the first edition of Gastric cancer treatment guidlelines in March, 2001 to provide a common basis of understanding of the extent of disease and selection of

Toshifusa Nakajima

2002-01-01

180

Thallium Contamination in Wild Ducks in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although thallium (Tl) is toxic to both humans and animals, there is little infor- mation on contamination in wildlife. In this study, Tl contents in wild ducks in Japan were determined. Contents of Tl in kidney and liver ranged from 0.42 to 119.61 and 0.10 to 33.94 mg\\/g dry weight, respectively. Significant cor- relations between Tl contents in kidney and

Mariko Mochizuki; Makoto Mori; Mayumi Akinaga; Kyoko Yugami; Chika Oya; Ryo Hondo

181

Unexpected Excessive Settlements: Kansai International Airport, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Kansai International Airport (KIA) in Osaka Bay, Japan (Fig. 2.1a) was singled out by the American Society of Civil Engineers\\u000a as one of the “Monuments of the Millennium” – a designation awarded to the ten civil engineering projects deemed to have had\\u000a the greatest positive impact on life in the 20th century. This is an even more remarkable achievement, considering

A. M. Puzrin; E. E. Alonso; N. M. Pinyol

182

Primary aldosteronism, diagnosis and treatment in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary aldosteronism (PA) has been recognized as a common cause of secondary hypertension and accounts for approximately\\u000a 5–15% of the hypertensive population in Japan. Screening for PA should therefore be carried out in all hypertensive patients\\u000a as we have shown the estimated prevalence of PA is 13.6% in pre-hypertensive subjects and 9.1% in stage 1 hypertensive patients.\\u000a The screening test

Yoshiyu Takeda; Shigehoro Karashima; Takashi Yoneda

2011-01-01

183

Energy R and D in Japan  

SciTech Connect

In 1997, the public and private sectors in Japan invested $90.3 billion in R and D. Japan is the second largest supporter of R and D after the United States. A very large percentage (79.4%) of all R and D in Japan is supported by the private sector. The prolonged economic recession that has plagued the Japanese economy for most of the 1990s has significantly reduced the scale of the Japanese R and D effort compared to what it would have been had the economy been more robust. The Japanese government has recently attempted to bring the economy out of this recession through the use of economic stimulus packages. These stimulus packages have contained significant new funding for R and D, although it is apparent that much of the funding is going to R and D programs and R and D construction projects with very near tern payoff and not to the support of longer term R and D. In 1998, the Japanese government devoted 13.7% of all public R and D funds to the support of energy R and D. The priority accorded to energy R and D in Japan is significantly higher than in any other industrialized nation. The Japanese energy R and D program, which was funded at $2.5 billion in 1997, is overwhelmingly focused on nuclear energy R and D. Nuclear energy R and D (fission and fusion) accounts for 75% of the total national energy R and D budget. The fission energy R and D effort has decreased nearly 24% since 1996 as the government attempts to refocus this program in the face of growing public opposition to the Japanese government's efforts to expand the nuclear power program. Energy efficiency R and D (8% of the total national energy R and D budget) and renewable energy R and D receive relatively modest support from the Japanese government.

J.J. Dooley

1999-08-09

184

Zombie firms and economic stagnation in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often claimed that one contributing factor to Japan's weak economic performance over the past decade is that Japanese\\u000a banks have continued to provide financial support for highly inefficient, debt-ridden companies, commonly referred to as ‘zombie’\\u000a firms. Such poor banking practices in turn prevent more productive companies from gaining market share, strangling a potentially\\u000a important source of productivity gains

Alan G. Ahearne; Naoki Shinada

2005-01-01

185

the East Sea Sea of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment cores collected from the deep basins of the East Sea Sea of Japan provide an ongoing and historical record of artificial radionuclides contamination into one of the most highly publicized radioactive waste dumping areas in the world ocean. The depth distributions of 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu in sediment cores were investigated with 210 . the aid of Pb-derived sediment

Gi-Hoon Hong; Sang-Han Lee; Suk-Hyun Kim; Chang-Soo Chung; M. Baskaran

186

Hard-to-reach populations in Japan.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the trends of sampling locations and methods of studying hard-to-reach populations conducted in Japan. We accessed a Japanese medical database on 30 September 2005 to review 5 study types of hard-to-reach populations conducted in Japan: men who have sex with men, homeless, sex workers, undocumented migrants, and injecting drug users. We then categorized their sampling locations and methods. We found 298 articles on hard-to-reach populations published from 1983 to September 2005. Of the 285 studies sampled, approximately 92% were facility-based studies and the rest were community-based. This tendency was consistent in each subgroup; the majority of the studies were conducted among patients in medical facilities. Our study shows the majority of studies on hard-to-reach populations in Japan adopted a convenience sampling method and were facility-based. We suggest the utilization of comparatively valid techniques, such as time-location or respondent driven sampling to more clearly understand these populations. PMID:17539282

Nomura, Yuka; Poudel, Krishna C; Jimba, Masamine

2007-03-01

187

Survey of ceramic machining in Japan  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of four subcontract reports provided by B. P. Bandyopadhyay who, while a visiting professor at Toyohashi University in Japan, conducted a survey of ceramic machining technology in that country from January 1 through December 31, 1992. Various aspects of machining technology were surveyed: types of parts being produced, types of ceramic materials being used, the nature of current ceramic machining research and development, and types of machine tools. The four separate reports compiled here were originally provided in a narrative, chronological form, and some of the information has been reorganized into topical areas for this compilation. This report is organized into three sections: The first describes ten ceramic machining research and development organizations and provides a reference list of their current technical publications; the second, two major trade shows; and the third, several other products and commercial developments noted during the course of Bandyopadhyay`s stay in Japan. An Appendix lists key individuals who are currently conducting ceramic machining research in Japan.

Bandyopadhyay, B.P. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering] [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Blau, P.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1993-07-01

188

Admixtures and fibers for shotcrete in Japan  

SciTech Connect

In recent years in Japan the following additives are increasingly being used for Shotcreting in tunnels: Accelerator for shotcreting based on calcium aluminate; dust control agent; and fiber. While dry mix shotcrete was predominantly used in Japan, accelerator of shotcrete based on inorganic salts contributed a great deal to the performance of shotcrete. However this type of accelerator is not so effective to wet mix which has been taking the place of dry mix in recent years. For wet mix shotcrete, accelerator for shotcrete based on Amorphous calcium aluminate is found to be quite effective in gaining sufficient early strength without aggravating long term strength. Practical performance in various cases is reported. A dust control agent for shotcreting is often used to improve working conditions in tunnels. This agent is reported to reduce a great deal of the dust generated in shotcreting operations. A variety of dust control agents are now available, of which constituents are cellulose epoxy , acrylic epoxy, polyvinyl alcohol etc. Use of fibers in shotcrete is also becoming popular in Japan to increase strength and toughness of the concrete. Not only steel fibers but also glass fibers are widely used. Recently more variety of materials such as PVA fiber acrylic and aramid fibers have been tested and some of them are being put into practical use, giving similar properties to shotcrete with steel fibers.

Tazawa, Yujiro

1995-12-31

189

The Japan Medical Association's disaster preparedness: lessons from the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.  

PubMed

A complex disaster, the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, consisted of a large-scale earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident, resulting in more than 15 000 fatalities, injuries, and missing persons and damage over a 500-km area. The entire Japanese public was profoundly affected by "3/11." The risk of radiation exposure initially delayed the medical response, prolonging the recovery efforts. Japan's representative medical organization, the Japan Medical Association (JMA), began dispatching Japan Medical Association Teams (JMATs) to affected areas beginning March 15, 2011. About 1400 JMATs comprising nearly 5500 health workers were launched. The JMA coordinated JMAT operations and cooperated in conducting postmortem examination, transporting large quantities of medical supplies, and establishing a multiorganizational council to provide health assistance to disaster survivors. Importantly, these response efforts contributed to the complete recovery of the health care system in affected areas within 3 months, and by July 15, 2011, JMATs were withdrawn. Subsequently, JMATs II have been providing long-term continuing medical support to disaster-affected areas. However, Japan is at great risk for future natural disasters because of its Pacific Rim location. Also, its rapidly aging population, uneven distribution of and shortage of medical resources in regional communities, and an overburdened public health insurance system highlight the need for a highly prepared and effective disaster response system. PMID:24274130

Ishii, Masami; Nagata, Takashi

2013-10-01

190

A QUARTER CENTURY OF NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN JAPAN  

SciTech Connect

This paper is entitled ''A QUARTER CENTURY OF NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN JAPAN''. Since the first statement on the strategy for radioactive waste management in Japan was made by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in 1976, a quarter century has passed, in which much experience has been accumulated both in technical and social domains. This paper looks back in this 25-year history of radioactive waste management in Japan by highlighting activities related to high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal.

Masuda, S.

2002-02-25

191

The first nurse practitioner graduate programme in Japan  

PubMed Central

Aim This paper describes the establishment of the first Japanese nurse practitioner graduate programme and legislative activities to institutionalize nurse practitioners in Japan. Background To address the super-ageing population, Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences initiated the first academic graduate level nurse practitioner programme in Japan, based upon the global standard defined by the International Council of Nurses. Conclusion In 2010, Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences graduated the first nurse practitioner. We believe that nurse practitioners will be highly valued in Japan for thoughtful nursing care to the fragile elders living in rural and urban Japan. PMID:25168623

Fukuda, H; Miyauchi, S; Tonai, M; Ono, M; Magilvy, JK; Murashima, S

2014-01-01

192

Knowledge-based systems in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes a study of the state-of-the-art in knowledge-based systems technology in Japan, organized by the Japanese Technology Evaluation Center (JTEC) under the sponsorship of the National Science Foundation and the Advanced Research Projects Agency. The panel visited 19 Japanese sites in March 1992. Based on these site visits plus other interactions with Japanese organizations, both before and after the site visits, the panel prepared a draft final report. JTEC sent the draft to the host organizations for their review. The final report was published in May 1993.

Feigenbaum, Edward; Engelmore, Robert S.; Friedland, Peter E.; Johnson, Bruce B.; Nii, H. Penny; Schorr, Herbert; Shrobe, Howard

1994-01-01

193

An analysis of remanufacturing practices in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This study presents case studies of selected remanufacturing operations in Japan. It investigates Japanese companies' motives\\u000a and incentives for remanufacturing, clarifies the requirements and obstacles facing remanufacturers, itemizes what measures\\u000a companies take to address them, and discusses the influence of Japanese laws related to remanufacturing.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This study involves case studies of four product areas: photocopiers, single-use cameras, auto parts, and

Mitsutaka Matsumoto; Yasushi Umeda

2011-01-01

194

Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in Japan: results from the World Mental Health Japan Survey.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to report the prevalence of trauma exposure and PTSD, conditional risk of PTSD associated with each trauma exposure in the community population in Japan. An interview survey was conducted of a random sample of adult residents in 11 communities of Japan. Among 4134 respondents (response rate, 55%), data from those who completed the part 2 interview (n = 1682) were analyzed with a weight for this subsample. Lifetime experiences of 27 trauma events and PTSD were assessed using the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. Sixty percent of the part 2 sample reported exposure to at least one lifetime traumatic event. Lifetime and 12-month PTSD prevalences were 1.3% and 0.7%, respectively. Percentage of all months lived with PTSD in the population was predominantly accounted for by physical/sexual assaults and having a child with serious illness, and unexpected death of loved one. Ten percent of respondents reported "private events", for which respondents did not have to describe the content, which accounted for 19% of months with PTSD. The lower prevalence of PTSD in Japan seems attributable to lower conditional risks of PTSD following these events, as well as different distributions of the events. The greater impact of events that occurred to loved ones rather than to oneself and "private events" on PTSD in Japan warrants further research of cross-cultural assessment of trauma exposure and cultural heterogeneity in the trauma-PTSD relationship. PMID:24572682

Kawakami, Norito; Tsuchiya, Masao; Umeda, Maki; Koenen, Karestan C; Kessler, Ronald C

2014-06-01

195

Japan’s Rhetoric of Crisis: Prospects for Change after 3.11  

E-print Network

For some Japanese political entrepreneurs, the March 2011 catastrophe in Tohoku (3.11) was a warning for Japan to “put it in gear” and head in a new direction—away from nuclear power or toward a muscular military. For ...

Samuels, Richard J.

2013-01-01

196

Demography, Immigration Background, Difficulties with Livingin Japan, and Psychological Distress among Japanese Brazilians in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship of demography, immigration background, and concerns and difficulties associated with living in Japan to nonpsychotic psychological disturbance (i.e., “caseness”) measured by the GHQ-12. Data are from a sample of 265 Japanese Brazilians (JB) residing outside the Tokyo Metropolitan area. Employing multiple logistic regression analyses, it was found that JB who experienced lower economic conditions, lived

Takashi Asakura; Alice K. Murata

2006-01-01

197

Nationwide rubella epidemic--Japan, 2013.  

PubMed

Rubella usually is a mild, febrile rash illness in children and adults; however, infection early in pregnancy, particularly during the first 16 weeks, can result in miscarriage, stillbirth, or an infant born with birth defects (i.e., congenital rubella syndrome [CRS]). As of 2013, goals to eliminate rubella have been established in two World Health Organization regions (the Region of the Americas by 2010 and the European Region by 2015), and targets for accelerated rubella control and CRS prevention have been established by the Western Pacific Region (WPR). In 1976, Japan introduced single-antigen rubella vaccine in its national immunization program, targeting girls in junior high school. In 1989, a measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine was introduced, targeting children aged 12-72 months. However, adult males remain susceptible to rubella. From January 1 to May 1, 2013, a total of 5,442 rubella cases were reported through the rubella surveillance system in Japan, with the majority (77%) of cases occurring among adult males. Ten infants with CRS were reported during October 2012-May 1, 2013. Countries and regions establishing a goal of accelerated control or elimination of rubella should review their previous and current immunization policies and strategies to identify and vaccinate susceptible persons and to ensure high population immunity in all cohorts, both male and female. PMID:23760185

2013-06-14

198

Kampo medicine for palliative care in Japan.  

PubMed

Kampo medicines are currently manufactured under strict quality controls. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan has approved 148 Kampo formulas. There is increasing evidence for the efficacy of Kampo medicines, and some are used clinically for palliative care in Japan. The specific aim of this review is to evaluate the clinical use of Kampo medicines in palliative care in the treatment of cancer. The conclusions are as follows: Juzentaihoto inhibits the progression of liver tumors in a dose-dependent manner and contributes to long-term survival. Hochuekkito has clinical effects on cachexia for genitourinary cancer and improves the QOL and immunological status of weak patients, such as postoperative patients. Daikenchuto increases intestinal motility and decreases the postoperative symptoms of patients with total gastrectomy with jejunal pouch interposition, suppresses postoperative inflammation following surgery for colorectal cancer, and controls radiation-induced enteritis. Rikkunshito contributes to the amelioration of anorectic conditions in cancer cachexia-anorexia syndrome. Goshajinkigan and Shakuyakukanzoto reduce the neurotoxicity of patients with colorectal cancer who undergo oxaliplatin and FOLFOX (5-fluorouracil/folinic acid plus oxaliplatin) therapy. Hangeshashinto has the effect of preventing and alleviating diarrhea induced by CPT-11(irinotecan) and combination therapy with S-1/CPT-11. O'rengedokuto significantly improves mucositis caused by anticancer agents. PMID:24447861

Okumi, Hirokuni; Koyama, Atsuko

2014-01-01

199

Kampo medicine for palliative care in Japan  

PubMed Central

Kampo medicines are currently manufactured under strict quality controls. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan has approved 148 Kampo formulas. There is increasing evidence for the efficacy of Kampo medicines, and some are used clinically for palliative care in Japan. The specific aim of this review is to evaluate the clinical use of Kampo medicines in palliative care in the treatment of cancer. The conclusions are as follows: Juzentaihoto inhibits the progression of liver tumors in a dose-dependent manner and contributes to long-term survival. Hochuekkito has clinical effects on cachexia for genitourinary cancer and improves the QOL and immunological status of weak patients, such as postoperative patients. Daikenchuto increases intestinal motility and decreases the postoperative symptoms of patients with total gastrectomy with jejunal pouch interposition, suppresses postoperative inflammation following surgery for colorectal cancer, and controls radiation-induced enteritis. Rikkunshito contributes to the amelioration of anorectic conditions in cancer cachexia-anorexia syndrome. Goshajinkigan and Shakuyakukanzoto reduce the neurotoxicity of patients with colorectal cancer who undergo oxaliplatin and FOLFOX (5-fluorouracil/folinic acid plus oxaliplatin) therapy. Hangeshashinto has the effect of preventing and alleviating diarrhea induced by CPT-11(irinotecan) and combination therapy with S-1/CPT-11. O’rengedokuto significantly improves mucositis caused by anticancer agents. PMID:24447861

2014-01-01

200

Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss in Japan  

PubMed Central

Conclusion An epidemiological survey of hospitals and private clinics in Japan regarding idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) revealed that the incidence of SSNHL was 60.9 per 100 000 population. There were more females than males in the younger generation. Objective The incidence of SSNHL varies largely by country. Because the Japanese criteria for diagnosing SSNHL have changed in accordance with those widely used in other parts of the world, a clinicoepidemiological study was undertaken using the new criteria. Methods Ehime, Aichi, and Iwate Prefectures were selected from the western, central, and northeastern regions of Japan, respectively. The subjects for this study were patients who suffered SSNHL between April 1, 2012 and March 31, 2013. Questionnaires were mailed to all hospitals and private clinics in which ENT doctors were working. Initial and final audiograms were requested for 10% of the patients. Results In all, 78 of 90 hospitals (87%) and 303 of 407 private clinics (74%) responded. It was reported that 1663 patients visited hospitals and 3090 patients visited only private clinics. It was estimated that 6205 SSNHL patients visited hospitals or private clinics in 1 year from a population of 10 145 000. Also, 23% of patients suffered acute low-tone SNHL (female to male ratio; 3:1 in definite cases). PMID:25315915

Sato, Hiroaki; Gyo, Kiyofumi; Hato, Naohito; Yoshida, Tadao; Shimono, Mariko; Teranishi, Masaaki; Sone, Michihiko; Fukunaga, Yukari; Kobashi, Gen; Takahashi, Kunihiko; Matsui, Shigeyuki; Ogawa, Kaoru

2014-01-01

201

Importation of aquaculture seedlings to Japan.  

PubMed

Japan is one of the largest consumers of fishery products in the world. Importation of various fishery commodities - including larvae and eggs for aquaculture - is increasing due to high consumer demand. Elvers of Anguilla anguilla have been imported from Europe since the late 1960s. Eyed eggs of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) are imported from North America. During the last decade, over-production caused the price of Japanese amberjack (or 'yellowtail') (Seriola quinqueradiata) and Japanese seabream (Pagrus major) to drop, forcing farmers to venture into the culture of other species. A variety of marine fish seedlings are now imported from Asian countries. Almost all aquaculture production of coho salmon, greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili), seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus), rockfish (Sebastes spp.) and groupers (Epinephlus septemfaciatus, etc.) depends on imported seedlings. These species accounted for approximately 9% by value of marine finfish production in Japan in 1993. Apart from ubiquitous or endemic pathogens, a considerable number of exotic microorganisms and parasites are suspected to have accompanied fish eggs and larvae imported for aquaculture purposes. On a voluntary basis, 80-90% of imported salmon eggs are being examined for bacterial kidney disease and salmon viruses by semi-governmental organisation. Voluntary inspections are also being conducted on some other fish species imported from foreign countries. No legislation exists, however, for the control of exotic fish pathogens. PMID:8890372

Wakabayashi, H

1996-06-01

202

61 FR 36080 - Engineered Process Gas Turbo-Compressor Systems From Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Preliminary)] Engineered Process Gas Turbo-Compressor Systems From Japan Determination On...Japan of engineered process gas turbo-compressor systems, provided for in subheadings...imports of engineered process gas turbo-compressor systems from Japan. Accordingly,...

1996-07-09

203

22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign...authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. (a) Comprehensive authorizations...NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the Directorate of Defense...

2013-04-01

204

22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign...authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. (a) Comprehensive authorizations...NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the Directorate of Defense...

2014-04-01

205

22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign...authorizations for NATO, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. (a) Comprehensive authorizations...NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the Directorate of Defense...

2012-04-01

206

Japan Denies Report It Dropped Proposal to Host Fusion Reactor  

E-print Network

Print Japan Denies Report It Dropped Proposal to Host Fusion Reactor June 22 (Bloomberg) -- Japan fusion reactor, a decision that would end a standoff with France to site the 4.6 billion-euro ($5 the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor in return for assurances it will manage the project in France

207

Marketing Japan's travel and tourism industry to international tourists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to offer some marketing suggestions for increasing the number of international tourists visiting Japan. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper is a combination of the author's personal experiences and past associations working in the travel industry in Japan for 12 years. Data sources included amongst others: newspapers, business news magazines, academic journals, internet, the

Austin Uzama

2009-01-01

208

Japan rejects EU ITER deal 02 February 2005  

E-print Network

this year. The joint project between Japan, the EU, the US, Russia, China and South Korea will see). Japan, backed by the US and South Korea, wants the reactor in the Japanese village of Rokkasho. The EU. In a related development, South Korea has announced a budget of $27.8 million this year for a new fusion

209

JAPAN GOING TOWARD FOREST CERTIFICATION September 24, 2004  

E-print Network

of certified forests (Fujiwara 2003). However, the Japanese forestry, forest industry and forest products in Japan. I describe the demand and supply for certified forest products briefly. Finally, I concludeJAPAN GOING TOWARD FOREST CERTIFICATION September 24, 2004 Toshiaki Owari #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS

210

Newport- Commodore Matthew Perry opened Japan in 1853-54  

Microsoft Academic Search

“On March 31 1854 representatives of Japan and the United States signed a historic treaty. A United States naval officer, Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry [April 10, 1794 – March 4, 1858], negotiated tirelessly for several months with Japanese officials to achieve the goal of opening the doors of trade with Japan. For two centuries, Japanese ports were closed to all

Chet Smolski; John Quincy Adams Ward

1971-01-01

211

Lifelong learning in England and Japan: three translations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a comparative analysis of the development of lifelong learning in England and Japan, while addressing the multi?dimensional nature of ‘lifelong learning’. The article argues that ‘lifelong learning’ is a concept which has unusual adaptability and legitimacy, and for these reasons has been subject to multiple translations over the last twenty years in both England and Japan. These

Kaori Okumoto

2008-01-01

212

Tectonic erosion along the Japan and Peru convergent margins  

E-print Network

Tectonic erosion along the Japan and Peru convergent margins R. VON HUENE U.S. Geological Survey, M erosion can be estimated quantita- tively if the position of the volcanic arc, the position the Japan and Peru Trenches indicate rates of erosion comparable to well-known rates of accretion. Proposed

Demouchy, Sylvie

213

Ideas for Integrating Japan into the Curriculum. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This ERIC Digest discusses how, by studying Japan, the larger context of the Asia-Pacific region can be explored and students can be introduced to current realities. The top 5 competitive countries for 1994 were the United States, Singapore, Japan, Hong Kong, and Germany. Because of the increasing interdependence between the United States and…

Wojtan, Linda S.

214

Activities of the Remote Sensing Technology Center of Japan (RESTEC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Remote Sensing Technology Center of Japan (RESTEC) is a nonprofit-making, private foundation working in conjunction with the Science and Technology Agency and the National Space Development Agency of Japan. It strives to promote environmental protection, social economy and national welfare through the development and dissemination of remote sensing technology for the monitoring of global resources and environmental phenomena. This

Keiji Maruo

1989-01-01

215

Tora no Maki III. Lessons for Teaching about Contemporary Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The elements of Japan, including history, geography, economics, civics, and cultural studies, are in this collection of original lesson plans. The lessons are meant to provide original content about Japan to augment and supplement an existing unit of study and evoke a spirit of inquiry and introspection. The 24 lessons are as follows: (1) "Family…

National Council for the Social Studies, Washington, DC.

216

Characterizing Inter-domain Rerouting after Japan Earthquake  

E-print Network

Characterizing Inter-domain Rerouting after Japan Earthquake Yujing Liu1 , Xiapu Luo2 , Rocky K- domain rerouting as a result of the massive earthquake in Japan on March 2011. Moreover by unstable routing state caused by a cable fault after the earthquake. Our work provides a new method

Chang, Rocky Kow-Chuen

217

IAEA THEORY SUMMARY 1998 IAEA Meeting, Yokohama, Japan  

E-print Network

IAEA THEORY SUMMARY 1998 IAEA Meeting, Yokohama, Japan Oct. 17--24, 1998 Princeton University energy theory research presented at 17th International Atomic Energy Agency Fusion Energy Conference from 19--24 1998 Yokohama, Japan. Theory simulation results from conference provided encouraging evidence

218

Status of ITS radiocommunications standards and their perspectives in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This keynote presents an overview of the current status of the standardization process for ITS and illustrates its perspectives in Japan. It firstly covers current dedicated short range communications (DSRC) standards development activities including vehicle to vehicle (V2V) and vehicle to roadside (V2R) communications for vehicle safety applications in Japan, US and Europe. It secondly describes Japanese projects for vehicle

Satoshi Oyama

2008-01-01

219

The Rabbit in the Moon: Folktales from China and Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching unit consists of eight folktales from China and Japan, skill-development exercises, and follow-up activities. It is designed for the upper elementary grades (3-6), and is easily adaptable to a broad range of age levels and abilities. It can be used in several curriculum areas, including: (1) social studies on China, Japan or Asia;…

Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

220

Keys for growth in Japan's mature mobile market  

E-print Network

The objective of this thesis is to identify key factors that will produce further growth for NTT DoCoMo in Japan's mature mobile market. Since the early 1990s, the mobile phone market in Japan has grown rapidly, and ...

Oto, Hiroyuki

2005-01-01

221

Attitudes toward the Homeless: A U.S.-Japan Comparison.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares attitudes toward the homeless in Japan and the United States through a survey of 268 Japanese and 254 U.S. adults and adolescents interviewed in public places. In Japan, homelessness is seldom discussed, and poverty, which may be as widespread as in the United States, is often not recognized. (SLD)

Guzewicz, Tony D.; Takooshian, Harold

1993-01-01

222

Recent progress in national policy against influenza in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamental policies against influenza in Japan have been severely cut back since the obligatory annual immunization program to all school children was withdrawn in 1994. After that, the number of vaccines was extremely reduced in Japan and the manufacturing facilities were also cut down accordingly.In 1997, the Ministry of Health recognized the impact of influenza pandemics as a matter of

Masato Tashiro

2001-01-01

223

Japan's Teacher Acculturation: Critical Analysis through Comparative Ethnographic Narrative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cross-cultural teaching and research in Canada and Japan is reported. Ethnographic narrative methods were used to examine Japan's teacher acculturation. Canada's teachers are largely required to work in isolation, to learn their practice through trial and error. There is little provision for mentorship and insufficient time to reflect. In…

Howe, Edward R.

2005-01-01

224

Othello in Tokyo: Performing Race and Empire in 1903 Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1903, the theatrical troupe of Kawakami Otojirō performed an adaptation of Shakespeare's Othello on the Japanese stage. Kawakami asked the popular writer Emi Suiin to adapt the play to the circumstances of Meiji Japan. In Emi's version, which entitled Osero, the dramatic action is transposed from Renaissance Venice and Cyprus to twentieth-century Japan and Taiwan. Washiro (Othello), a Japanese

Robert Tierney

2011-01-01

225

Othello in Tokyo: Performing Race and Empire in 1903 Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

:In 1903, the theatrical troupe of Kawakami Otojirō performed an adaptation of Shakespeare's Othello on the Japanese stage. Kawakami asked the popular writer Emi Suiin to adapt the play to the circumstances of Meiji Japan. In Emi's version, which entitled Osero, the dramatic action is transposed from Renaissance Venice and Cyprus to twentieth-century Japan and Taiwan. Washiro (Othello), a Japanese

Robert Tierney

2011-01-01

226

Export strategies in the computer industry: Japan and the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan's computer manufacturers realize that they need more than a new generation of software (or hardware) for success in world markets. The missing ingredients are primarily multinational busines experience factors, which have worked to the past advantage of US companies. Japan's past export successes — textiles, steel, consumer electronics—have come with products that, unlike computers, could be sold through existing

John A Alic; Robert R Miller

1989-01-01

227

Caught in the Middle East: Japan's diplomacy in transition  

SciTech Connect

Japan's increasing dependence on Persian Gulf oil has caused its U.S.-centered foreign policy to shift. Drawing on personal interviews with senior Japanese officials, the author discusses Japan's changing diplomacy in regard to such problems as the Iran-Iraq war, Soviet aggression, and the Palestinian struggle for autonomy.

Yoshitsu, M.M.

1984-01-01

228

The burden of insomnia in Japan  

PubMed Central

Objectives Several studies have suggested that patients who experience insomnia report a number of significant impairments. However, despite this literature, fewer studies have focused on the burden of insomnia among patients in Japan. The objective of the current study is to extend this work in Japan to further understand the effect of insomnia on health-related quality of life (hrQOL). Further, another objective is to understand general predictors of hrQOL among patients with insomnia. Methods Data from the 2012 Japan National Health and Wellness Survey, an annual, cross-sectional study of adults aged 18 years or older, were used (N=30,000). All National Health and Wellness Survey respondents were categorized based on the incidence of self-reported insomnia diagnosis and prescription medication usage (clinical insomniacs under treatment versus [vs] good sleepers without insomnia or insomnia symptoms). Comparisons among different groups were made using multiple regression models controlling for demographics and health history. Results Clinical insomniacs (n=1,018; 3.4%) reported significantly worse hrQOL compared with good sleepers (n=20,542) (mental component summary: 34.2 vs 48.0; physical component summary: 48.0 vs 52.8; health utilities: 0.61 vs 0.76; all P<0.05). Health behaviors (smoking, exercise, alcohol use) and comorbidities were the strongest predictors of health utilities for clinical insomniacs. For all three clinical insomniac subgroups of interest, those with a physical comorbidity but not a psychiatric one, those with a psychiatric comorbidity but not a physical one, and those without either a physical or psychiatric comorbidity, large decrements in health utilities were observed for respondents who did not engage in any positive health behaviors (0.61, 0.57, 0.64, respectively) relative to good sleepers (0.78). However, the gap in health utility scores between these subgroups and good sleepers diminishes with an increasing number of positive health behaviors (eg, clinical insomniacs with a physical comorbidity but not a psychiatric comorbidity performing all three positive health behaviors =0.67 vs good sleepers =0.78). Discussion A significant burden remains for those with insomnia who are treated. Given the particularly low levels of hrQOL among treated insomnia patients who have poor health behavior profiles and have psychiatric comorbidities, physicians should place particular emphasis on these patients who are most in need of intervention. Improved treatments may help to address the unmet needs of these patient populations. PMID:25610008

Mishima, Kazuo; DiBonaventura, Marco daCosta; Gross, Hillary

2015-01-01

229

Surveys of postpartum depression in Miyagi, Japan, after the Great East Japan Earthquake.  

PubMed

This study explores the correlation between the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the incidence of postpartum depression in Miyagi prefecture, Japan. The design used was a cross-sectional study with self-administered questionnaires, 6-9 months after the disaster. The results showed the prevalence of postnatal women with Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score of ?9 to be 21.3 %. Multivariate analysis showed that exposure to tsunami (odds ratio, 1.80; 95 % confidence interval, 1.16-2.78) was significantly and independently associated with an EPDS score of ?9. Postnatal women and their children should be treated as a vulnerable population, and a protective framework must be established to prepare for future devastating disasters. PMID:25204487

Nishigori, Hidekazu; Sugawara, Junichi; Obara, Taku; Nishigori, Toshie; Sato, Kineko; Sugiyama, Takashi; Okamura, Kunihiro; Yaegashi, Nobuo

2014-12-01

230

Thallium contamination in wild ducks in Japan.  

PubMed

Although thallium (Tl) is toxic to both humans and animals, there is little information on contamination in wildlife. In this study, Tl contents in wild ducks in Japan were determined. Contents of Tl in kidney and liver ranged from 0.42 to 119.61 and 0.10 to 33.94 microg/g dry weight, respectively. Significant correlations between Tl contents in kidney and liver were observed for all dabbling ducks except mallard (Anas platyrhynchos); similar correlations were not observed in diving ducks. Variation in Tl content was observed between sampling locations with the highest mean Tl content in the Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope) collected in Ibaraki Prefecture. PMID:16244083

Mochizuki, Mariko; Mori, Makoto; Akinaga, Mayumi; Yugami, Kyoko; Oya, Chika; Hondo, Ryo; Ueda, Fukiko

2005-07-01

231

Ski slope vegetation in central Honshu, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To determine the status of the vegetation of ski slopes in northeastern-central Honshu, Japan, 94 plots (2×2 m) were set up on five ski areas (101-520 m elevation) which were established between 1945 and 1985 by forest clear-cutting, land modification, and seeding. Six vegetation types were recognized: five grasslands dominated by Digitaria adscendens, Miscanthus sinensis, Zoysia japonica, Festuca rubra, and Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum, respectively, and bare areas of very low to no vegetation cover. Of the dominant species, F. rubra is the only introduced species; it does not, however, appear to persist. After the introduced grassland declines M. sinensis or annual grasslands develop. Native plants, especially woody species, can establish in M. sinensis grassland but do not establish in the other grasslands. It is concluded that the introduction of exotic species is inappropriate to maintain ski slope vegetation, and the development of M. sinensis grassland is desirable to promote natural revegetation.

Tsuyuzaki, Shiro

1995-09-01

232

Lesbian mothers in Japan: an insider's report.  

PubMed

This report introduces Remaza-Kansai, a lesbian mother group in Japan based in the Kansai area, their activities, and the lives of some of the participants in the activities based on interviews by the author. Remaza-Kansai organizes activities and special events for lesbian mothers and their children. It also manages a website and operates a bulletin board for lesbian mothers. In the interviews, it is found that besides the lack of legal recognition of lesbian mothers not biologically connected to the children, they also experience difficulties relating to schools. Another issue requiring further inquiry is how lesbian mothers "come out" to their children. doi:10.1300/J155v10n03_07. PMID:17210561

Arita, Keiko

2006-01-01

233

Japan-Indo collaboration on balloon observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan-Indo collaboration on balloon observations of cosmic X-ray sources was started in 1969 by the late S. Hayakawa of Nagoya Univ. and B. V. Sreekantan of TIFR. Cosmic background X-ray and soft gamma-ray spectra, simultaneous X-ray and optical flux variation, and size of X-ray emitting region of Crab Nebula were observed successfully by balloon flights at Hyderabad in 1969-1975. H. Shibai of Nagoya Univ. and T. N. Rengarajan of TIFR have organized collaboration on far infrared sky survey at wavlength of 150 micron emitted from CII. By employing improved detectors, CII distribution of Orion Nebula has been obtained in good accuracy by more than ten balloon flights in 1999-2008.

Makino, Fumiyoshi

234

Effectiveness of the BSE interventions in Japan.  

PubMed

Using a stochastic simulation model, we estimated the effectiveness of the three BSE interventions (SRM removal, post-mortem testing and cohort culling) in Japan, in terms of the amount of bovine ID50 that would be prevented from entering the human food supply and the number of life years that would be saved from resulting vCJD cases. The average reduction of the BSE load on the human food supply under SRM removal was 97% over the period from 2002 to 2009. The average reduction of the BSE load under most-mortem testing was 83% over the period from 2002 to 2007. The risk reducing effect of the three interventions combined was 99%. The maximum number of life years saved by the three interventions combined was 40.84 in 2006. PMID:25085601

Sugiura, Katsuaki; Benedictus, A; Hogeveen, H

2014-11-01

235

Activities for the Promotion of Gender Equality in Japan—Japan Society of Applied Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1946, the Japan Society of Applied Physics (JSAP) has strived to promote research and development in applied physics for benefits beyond national boundaries. Activities of JSAP involve multidisciplinary fields, from physics and engineering to life sciences. Of its 23,000 members, 48% are from industry, 29% from academia, and about 7% from semi-autonomous national research laboratories. Its large industrial membership is one of the distinctive features of JSAP. In preparation for the First IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics (Paris, 2002), JSAP members took the first step under the strong leadership of then-JSAP President Toshio Goto, setting up the Committee for the Promotion Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Technology. Equality rather than women's advancement is highlighted to further development in science and technology. Attention is also paid to balancing the number of researchers from different age groups and affiliations. The committee has 22 members: 12 female and 10 male; 7 from corporations, 12 from universities, and 3 from semi-autonomous national research institutes. Its main activities are to organize symposia and meetings, conduct surveys among JSAP members, and provide child-care facilities at meetings and conferences. In 2002 the Japan Physics Society and the Chemical Society of Japan jointly created the Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association for the Promotion of Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering. Membership has grown to 44 societies (of which 19 are observers) ranging from mathematics, information, and life sciences to civil engineering. Joint activities across sectors and empower the whole. The Gender Equality Bureau in the Cabinet Office recently launched a large-scale project called "Challenge Campaign" to encourage girls to major in natural science and engineering, which JSAP is co-sponsoring.

Kodate, Kashiko; Tanaka, Kazuo

2005-10-01

236

Paleoseismology off northern Japan: Sediments in the Japan Trench record earthquake activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Japan Trench subduction zone has repeatedly been affected by large earthquakes as most recently in 2011 by the giant magnitude 9 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Several studies indicate that the 2011 earthquake has induced large seafloor displacements and triggered submarine landslides and gravity flows. The depression of the Japan Trench floor acts as sediment trap, where earthquake triggered mass flows originating from the landward slope are deposited. Thus, the deep Trench floor (>7500 m water depth) is a suitable area to trace the paleoseismicity in the region. During the R/V SONNE cruise (SO219A) in 2012, sediment cores have been collected east of the 2011 earthquake epicenter in a 60 km north-south transect along the Japan Trench floor axis, as well as from a small basin on the upper mid slope. The sediment cores contain several turbidite sequences (few cm to m thick), mainly revealing a coarse sand layer on an erosive base and a gradually fining upward to hemipelagic diatomaceous mud. Tephrochronological analyses on intercalated ash layers within the records provide an age control and show that the cores cover the past ~15 ka. Detailed analyses of these records, by using their sedimentological and lithological characteristics, their physical properties (Multi Sensor Core Logging, MSCL) as well as their elemental composition (X-ray Fluorescence, XRF) allow to characterize and to identify specific turbidite units. We observe particular turbidite units with the same characteristics in different cores along the trench axis and on the mid slope. Besides the top-unit turbidite, being related to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, we detect a widespread unique calcareous nanno fossil bearing turbidite mud as well as some sand turbidite units of similar elemental composition within the records. Their large spatial extent suggests earthquake related trigger mechanisms. Thus, these event deposits sampled from the deep Japan Trench provide important information on the paleoseismic activity of the off Tohoku.

Fink, H. G.; Ikehara, K.; Kanamatsu, T.; Nagahashi, Y.; Koelling, M.; Strasser, M.; Wefer, G.

2013-12-01

237

Species richness of exotic and endangered fishes in Japan’s reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the patterns of total, endangered and exotic fish species richness in 80 reservoirs throughout Japan using Generalized\\u000a Linear Models (GLMs) with variables of dam characteristics (e.g. reservoir size, isolated period, altitude, DO, pH, rainfall,\\u000a and air temperature) and watershed characteristics (e.g. watershed area, human population, and land-use patterns). Exotic\\u000a species richness was positively correlated with total species richness

Mideok Han; Michio Fukushima; Takehiko Fukushima

2008-01-01

238

Multipurpose soft contact lens care in Japan  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the use of multipurpose lens care products via an online survey conducted among soft contact lens (SCL) wearers in Japan. Methods The subjects were 1000 men and women aged 15–44 years who reported that they cleaned their SCL by using multipurpose solution at least twice a week. Via the internet, they were asked questions about SCL care, the use of a rubbing step when cleaning SCL, cleaning and replacing lens cases, and recommended SCL care methods. Results Of the 1000 SCL wearers enrolled, 94.3% performed lens care every day lenses were worn, 64.2% reported rubbing the lenses every time, 57.9% rubbed the lenses for at least 10 seconds per side, and 64.7% reported they rubbed the lenses on both sides. Further, 61.2% reported that they had been given an explanation of SCL cleaning at an eye clinic or contact lens store. Only 49.8% of subjects reported that they cleaned the lens case every time and 61.7% replaced the case within 3 months. Only 19.5% had been given an explanation about lens case care. Half of the subjects reported they had been given no recommendation to use specific SCL care products or could not remember whether or not they had. The most common reason for the recommendation was good compatibility with their type of lens. Conclusion More education is needed in Japan regarding methods of SCL care to ensure correct lens cleaning with inclusion of a rubbing step, as well as sufficient cleaning and replacement of the lens case. Of particular interest is the finding that many subjects were not given an explanation about proper SCL care and lens case cleaning and replacement at the time of lens purchase or prescription. PMID:22291454

Toshida, Hiroshi; Kadota, Yoshiaki; Suto, Chikako; Ohta, Toshihiko; Murakami, Akira

2012-01-01

239

[2006 Epidemiological survey of dermatomycoses in Japan].  

PubMed

An epidemiological survey of dermatomycoses and the causative fungus flora of dermatomycoses in Japan for 2006 was made on a total number of 63,029 outpatients who visited 16 dermatological clinics throughout Japan. The results were as follows. 1) Dermatophytosis was the most prevalent cutaneus fungal infection (7,582 cases) seen in these clinics, followed by candidiasis (842 cases) and then Malassezia infections (283 cases). 2) Among dermatophytoses, tinea pedis was the most frequent (4,779 cases : male 2,358, female 2,241), then in decreasing order, tinea unguium (2,582 cases : male 1,376, female 1,206), tinea corporis (564 cases : male 341, female 223), tinea cruris (309 cases : male 254, female 57), tinea manuum (145 cases : male 92, female 53), and tinea capitis including kerion (17 cases : male 12, female 5). 3) Tinea pedis and tinea unguium are seen to increase in the summer season, among the aged population. When compared to the last survey 2002 by clinical form, t. unguium patients increased 459 cases. 4) As the causative dermatophyte species, Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated among all dermatophyte infections except tinea capitis. Microsporum canis was slightly increased. M.gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum are small number. T.tonsurans was increased up to 37 cases. 5) Cutaneous candidiasis was seen in 842 cases (305 male, 537 female). Intertrigo (298 cases) was the most frequent clinical form, followed by erosion interdigitalis (136 cases), oral candidiasis (135 cases), onychia et paronychia (108 cases), genital and diaper candidiasis in total (88 cases). 6) Tinea versicolor was seen in 175 cases. Malassezia folliculitis were collected 108 cases, 63 cases are reported from one clinic. PMID:23149353

Sei, Yoshihiro

2012-01-01

240

Current Status and Perspectives of Cysticercosis and Taeniasis in Japan  

PubMed Central

This mini-review describes recent epidemiological trends in cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan. Some of the topics discussed herein were presented at the first symposium on "Current perspectives of Taenia asiatica researches", that was held in Osong in Chungbuk Province, South Korea, in October 2011 and organized by Prof. K. S. Eom, Chungbuk National University School of Medicine. To better understand the trends in the occurrence of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan, clinical cases reported in 2005 have been updated. In addition, the current status of Taenia asiatica infections successively occurring in Japan since 2010 is also discussed. PMID:23467264

2013-01-01

241

Current status and perspectives of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan.  

PubMed

This mini-review describes recent epidemiological trends in cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan. Some of the topics discussed herein were presented at the first symposium on "Current perspectives of Taenia asiatica researches", that was held in Osong in Chungbuk Province, South Korea, in October 2011 and organized by Prof. K. S. Eom, Chungbuk National University School of Medicine. To better understand the trends in the occurrence of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan, clinical cases reported in 2005 have been updated. In addition, the current status of Taenia asiatica infections successively occurring in Japan since 2010 is also discussed. PMID:23467264

Yamasaki, Hiroshi

2013-02-01

242

Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Japan  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Japan, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Japan.

Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Takagi, T.

2009-04-15

243

[Tuberculosis control of urban areas in Japan].  

PubMed

The rates of tuberculosis remain high in urban areas. The declining speed of tuberculosis incidence rate in urban areas has been slower than other areas. Efforts and resources to tuberculosis control must be concentrated on urban locations to eradicate tuberculosis in Japan. 1. Tuberculosis control in a public health center of urban area: Teru OGURA and Chiyo INOGUCHI (Toshima City, Ikebukuro Public Health Center, Tokyo Metropolitan) A wide range of TB control measures is implemented by public health centers, such as a patient registration, home-visit guidance, contact examination in urban areas. Directors of every health center have the direct responsibility for tuberculosis control measures in their jurisdiction. Ikebukuro is urban areas where there are many offices, shopping and amusement facilities. Urban people is often on the move looking for job, so public health centers are often not easy to carry out contact examinations as planned. In recent years, homelessness has been recognized as a growing urban social problem. Their incidence of tuberculosis is high. Special TB control program must be carried out in urban areas. 2. Tuberculosis Control in Tokyo Metropolitan: Kazumasa MATSUKI (Department of Infectious Diseases and Tuberculosis, Bureau of Public Health, Tokyo Metropolitan) There has been a steady decline in the TB wards. The beds for TB patients are running short and even smear positive TB cases cannot be put in a hospital without waiting several days. Staffs of an urban emergency department must protect tuberculosis infection by environmental controls of emergency room. Tokyo Metropolitan government supports the engineering improvements of emergency room to hospitals. Directly observed therapy for tuberculosis patients at a district has been implemented to complete their therapy. On DOT, a trained health worker observes the patient take anti-TB medication. 3. Usefulness of Molecular Epidemiologic approach on Tuberculosis Control: Atsushi HASE (Osaka City Institute Laboratory of Health and Environment) DNA fingerprinting establishes the genetic relatedness of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates and has become a powerful tool in tuberculosis epidemiology. To use DNA fingerprinting to assess the efficacy of current tuberculosis infection-control practices. Combining conventional epidemiologic techniques with DNA fingerprinting of M. tuberculosis can improve the understanding of how tuberculosis is transmitted. Patients were assigned to clusters based on mycobacterial isolates with identical DNA fingerprints. Clusters were assumed to have arisen from recent transmission. We analyzed M. tuberculosis isolates from patients reported to the tuberculosis registry by RFLP techniques. These results were interpreted along with demographic data. Patients infected with the same strains were identified according to their RFLP patterns, and patients with identical patterns were grouped in clusters. RFLP patterns of high incidence districts have more variations than other areas. This suggests that the source of tuberculosis infection are quite diverse and complicated. Tuberculosis patients may accumulate to high incidence districts from other places after infection. 4. Structure of High Incidence of Tuberculosis and Control Plan in Osaka City: Yoichi TATSUMI (Bureau of Infection Control, Osaka City Office) The case notification rate in Osaka City is the highest in Japan. That of all TB cases and smear positive TB cases was 1573 and 216 per 100,000 population in 1997 at Airin District in Osaka City. The main reason for this highest incidence rate is that there are many homeless people and it is a mobile population. Most of residents are daily laborers. They come from all over Japan and stay there, mainly in rented rooms, to look for jobs. Thousands of homeless people also live in tents on streets or in parks. We are making to new strategic plan to intensify tuberculosis control measures throughout the city. Osaka city government h PMID:11109777

2000-10-01

244

Pyro-processing Technology Development in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Metal fuel cycle with pyro-processing technology has another potential different from oxide fuel cycle with aqueous process. In addition to the advantage of metal fuel fast reactor, such as achieving a high breeding ratio over 1.3, the pyro-processing with metal electrorefining expects that no additional process is required to separate minor actinides and no organic solvent that degrades by radiation and acid is utilized. 'Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor (FR) Cycle Systems' in Japan selected the metal fuel fast reactor fuel cycle with metal-electrorefining as the sub-system for future development. CRIEPI has been involving on R and D of pyro-processing technology with metal-electrorefining since 1980's and followed JAERI, that orients to apply on the treatment of spent target with nitride fuel for ADS, and JNC, currently merged to JAEA, and, then, wider collaboration started among CRIEPI/JAERI/JNC. The series verification of process starting with MOX pellets have produced U-Pu alloy after distillation through reduction and electrorefining at the facility installed in Tokai, JAEA. The metal fuel fabrication has started from the stage of U-Pu alloy fabrication from UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} mixture by electrochemical reduction, and currently succeeds to produce a fuel slag of U-Pu-Zr of 30 cm by injection casting in Oarai, JAEA. The alloys are scheduled to irradiate in JOYO fast reactor core. The development of engineering model of electro-refiner and electrochemical reduction device has successfully conducted by use of UO{sub 2} with kg scale. In addition to domestic R and Ds, pyro-processing verification with genuine material is proceeding in the joint study of CRIEPI/ITU. TRU is extracted into cadmium from chloride prepared from HLLW through denitration by reductive extraction in a caisson installed in a hot cell, and, then, electrorefining by use of PHENIX-irradiated metal fuel with minor actinides is scheduled. Thus, the R and D on pyro-processing technology with metal electrorefining is steadily progressed in Japan from the points of flow-sheet verification and engineering scale application. (authors)

Inoue, Tadashi; Koyama, Tadafumi [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, CRIEPI, 2-11-1, Iwato-Kita, Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Myochin, Munetaka [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-33 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan); Arai, Yasuo [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

2007-07-01

245

[Counterfeit medicines--Japan and the world].  

PubMed

Circulating counterfeit medicines in the market is a public health threat. Counterfeit medicines become common problem, not only in developing countries, but also in industrialised countries, as internet has made them more accessible. In Japan, the recent survey on the medicines purchased through on-line pharmacy (targeting Japanese consumers) showed that the majority of erectile dysfunction (ED) medicines imported by individuals in Japan were counterfeit version. The survey of Japanese consumers, who privately imported medicines through on-line pharmacy, indicated that 16% of these consumers experienced adverse events associated with these products. Not only that it is just fake brand, but fake medicines may even cause health hazard. The counterfeit version of Avastin recently detected in the United States became a serious threat for those who desperately need these medicines for life-threatening disease. The Japanese regulatory authorities have provided risk information of counterfeit medicines to general public, as well as monitored on-line pharmacies and conducted enforcement action where necessary. However, more resources of compliance activity should be allocated to respond to the situation of growing threats of counterfeit medicines. Purchasing medicines from abroad through unauthorised channel is the major source of counterfeit medicines. It is essential to prevent circulation of counterfeit medicines through international collaboration of various regulatory authorities. To address these problems, the World Health Organization (WHO) has launched a new Member States Mechanism (MSM) to build network of the authorities. Also, INTERPOL (ICPO) initiated globally concerted enforcement actions (Operation Pangea) against pharmaceutical crime as well as built partnership with pharmaceutical industry to create Pharmaceutical Crime Programme. It is also necessary to prevent consumers encountering counterfeit medicines and to prevent health hazard. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) has been actively involved in prevention and educational activities such as public awareness campaign. MHLW started anti-counterfeit medicines and new psychoactive substance project from February 2013, which centrally collects information about counterfeit medicines, in particular, and provides the risk information more effectively to the public. Japanese Government will work together with international community and contribute to combating counterfeiting through public and private partnership. PMID:24492225

Sato, Daisaku

2014-01-01

246

Interdecadal variation of TC frequency in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzed the climate regime shift using statistical change-point analysis on the time-series tropical cyclone (TC) frequency that affected Japan in July to September. The result showed that there was a significant change in 1995, and since then, it showed a trend of rapidly decreasing frequency. To determine the reason for this, differences between 1995 to 2012 (9512) period and 1978 to 1994 (7894) period were analyzed. First, regarding TC genesis, TCs during the 9512 period showed a characteristic of genesis from the southeast quadrant of the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific and TCs during the 7894 period showed their genesis from the northwest quadrant. Regarding a TC track, TCs in the 7894 period had a strong trend of moving from the far east sea of the Philippines via the East China Sea to the mid-latitude region in East Asia while TCs in the 9512 period showed a trend of moving from the Philippines toward the southern part of China westward. Thus, TC intensity in the 7894 period, which can absorb sufficient energy from the sea as they moved a long distance over the sea, was stronger than that of 9512. Large-scale environments were analyzed to determine the cause of such difference in TC activity occurred between two periods. During the 9512 period, anomalous cold and dry anticyclones were developed strongly in the East Asia continent. As a result, Korea and Japan were affected by the anomalous northerlies thereby preventing TCs in this period from moving toward the mid-latitude region in East Asia. Instead, anomalous easterlies (anomalous trade wind) were developed in the tropical western Pacific so that a high passage frequency from the Philippines to the south China region along the anomalous steering flows was revealed. The characteristics of the anomalous cold and dry anticyclone developed in the East Asia continent were also confirmed by the analysis of air temperature, relative humidity, and sensible heat net flux showing that most regions in East Asia had negative values.

Choi, Ki-Seon; Cha, Yu-Mi; Kang, Sung-Dae; Kim, Hae-Dong

2014-07-01

247

Earthquake Early Warning System in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan is located in one of the most tectonically active region in the world. We have suffered from many disasters brought by earthquakes and tsunamis. Significant efforts to mitigate disasters have been made as one of the most important national programs. Considering the difficulty of the earthquake prediction in time, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) considers it is important to issue the early warning immediately when the large earthquake occurs. JMA has been developing the "Earthquake Early Warning(EEW)" as a countermeasure to strong motion. JMA's EEW estimates hypocenter and magnitude using initial seismic waveform observed at the stations close to the epicenter, and issues estimated seismic intensity before the strong motion arrival. It also enables prompter issuance of the tsunami warning. We adopt a step-by-step method to improve the accuracy and reliance of the estimated focal parameters as the available data increases as the time lapse, ensuring the promptness of the first estimation at the same time. We estimate the hypocenter using Single Station Method and Network Method. Single Station Method is fitting simple function (Bt*exp(-At)) to the absolute value of acceleration waveform envelope of the first two seconds from the P onset by the cooperative study with Railway Technical Research Institute(RTRI). Network Method is using "territory" and "grid search" in combination. In addition to this procedure, we use the result of "Not Yet Arrived Data Method", a kind of grid search method, from June 2005. This method is developed by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention(NIED). After the hypocenter is determined, we estimate the magnitude by using hypocentral distance and maximum displacement amplitudes (Dmax) updated every second and the formula is as follows: M = log (Dmax) + logR + a1*R + a2 (R: Hypocentral distance (km)) We can calculate each site of Seismic Intensity estimation by using up-to-date hypocenter and magnitude in addition. JMA has started test distribution of EEW in Feb. 2004 to specific users to fieldtest the effectiveness of the warning, for the events that occur in the region where JMA has integrated data processing functions at the seismic stations. EEW issued 245 times from Feb. 25th 2004 to Aug 31st 2005 (including 22 times of false alarm almost due to initial artificial mistakes). We will discuss the detail of EEW distribution at the session.

Kiyomoto, M.; Tsukada, S.; Ohtake, K.; Shiozu, Y.; Morimoto, M.; Saito, M.; Sekita, Y.; Doi, K.; Yoshida, Y.; Odaka, T.; Ashiya, K.; Horiuchi, S.

2005-12-01

248

Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 60, pp. 1023 to 1033, 2004 Japan Sea,  

E-print Network

not recommend the usage of the term "East Sea" in place of "Japan Sea". Copyright © The Oceanographic Society of Japan. Decadal Current Variations in the Southwestern Japan/ East Sea WILLIAM J. TEAGUE 1 *, GREGG A of the southwestern Japan/East Sea (JES) from a combined analysis of nearly a decade of T/P data and two years

Rhode Island, University of

249

Oceanography Vol.19, No. 3, Sept. 200632 JAPAN/EAST SEA  

E-print Network

Oceanography Vol.19, No. 3, Sept. 200632 JAPAN/EAST SEA WATER MASSES AND THEIR RELATION TO THE SEA'S CIRCULATION The Japan/East Sea is a major anomaly in the ventilation and overturn picture of the Pacific Ocean, and Japan/East Seas. In contrast, the nearly isolated Japan/East Sea is very well ventilated at all depths

Talley, Lynne D.

250

Science AFP Japan ready to pay 895 million  

E-print Network

, China, Russia, South Korea (news - web sites) and the United States. According to an agreement among Russia and China, while the United States, Japan and South Korea appear to prefer the Japanese site

251

Higher Education Policy and Freshman Migration in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of Japan's decentralization of public and junior colleges and private education subsidy policy on enrollment rates and trends in urban and provincial areas are examined, and disparities likely to occur between regions are discussed. (MSE)

Muta, Hiromitsu

1988-01-01

252

Japan's delayed antinuclear power mobilization after 3.11  

E-print Network

The meltdown of Fukushima Daiichi's nuclear plant was one of three disasters that rocked Japan on 11 March 2011, a day often referred to as "3.11." This nuclear accident led to increased attention to and disapproval of ...

Teo, Lin Ern Charis

2013-01-01

253

Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Japan  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode that causes taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. The parasite is traditionally found in developing countries where undercooked pork is consumed under poor sanitary conditions and/or as part of traditional food cultures. However, the recent increase in international tourism and immigration is spreading the disease into non-endemic developed countries such as the United States. Although there has been concern that the number of cysticercosis cases is increasing in Japan, the current situation is not clear. This is largely because taeniasis and cysticercosis are not notifiable conditions in Japan and because there have been no comprehensive reviews of T. solium infections in Japan conducted in the last 15 years. Herein, we provide an overview of the status of T. solium infection in Japan over the past 35 years and point out the potential risks to Japanese society. PMID:22248435

2012-01-01

254

Secondary residential demand trends in contemporary Japan and North Asia  

E-print Network

This research paper attempts to address the opportunity and challenges for Vacation Residential Development in North Asia, with specific geographic focus on Japan first through an analysis of national and regional consumption, ...

Lam, Michael M

2009-01-01

255

Application of lean enterprise concept to construction firms in Japan  

E-print Network

Construction firms in Japan are struggling with the change in construction industry environment and need a new business model to meet the change. On the other hand, Japanese manufacturing companies, especially automobile ...

Taguchi, Hiroshi, 1973-

2004-01-01

256

GPM Arrives in Japan - Duration: 0:19.  

NASA Video Gallery

An international satellite that will set a new standard for global precipitation measurements from space has completed a 7,300-mile journey from the United States to Japan, where it now will underg...

257

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT: VISITS IN JAPAN, NOVEMBER 1977 - APPENDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a particulate control technology assessment visit to Japan by a team of U.S. investigators. The visit included discussions with personnel from universities, industries, and other major installations involved with particulate control. Significant resear...

258

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT: VISITS IN JAPAN, NOVEMBER 1977  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a particulate control technology assessment visit to Japan by a team of U.S. investigators. The visit included discussions with personnel from universities, industries, and other major installations involved with particulate control. Significant resear...

259

OCEANS 2004, Kobe, Japan (authors' manuscript do not distribute)  

E-print Network

OCEANS 2004, Kobe, Japan (authors' manuscript ­ do not distribute) Contour Shaped Formation Control. Zimmer Australian National University Research School for Information Science and Engineering tasks confronted by re- searchers around the world. Realization of truly Au- tonomous Ocean Sampling

Zimmer, Uwe

260

The Cost of Kyoto Protocol Targets: The Case of Japan  

E-print Network

This paper applies the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model to analysis of the cost of the Kyoto Protocol targets, with a special focus on Japan. The analysis demonstrates the implications of the use ...

Paltsev, Sergey.

261

Japan, EU reach basic agreement over ITER The Yomiuri Shimbun  

E-print Network

bidder's country. The ITER project participants--Japan, China, the EU, Russia, South Korea and the United the unsuccessful bidder will finance 10 percent of the cost. China, Russia, South Korea and the United States

262

Amphibian chytridiomycosis in Japan: distribution, haplotypes and possible route of entry into Japan.  

PubMed

A serious disease of amphibians caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis was first found in Japan in December 2006 in imported pet frogs. This was the first report of chytridiomycosis in Asia. To assess the risk of pandemic chytridiomycosis to Japanese frogs, we surveyed the distribution of the fungus among captive and wild frog populations. We established a nested PCR assay that uses two pairs of PCR primers to amplify the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of a ribosomal RNA cassette to detect mild fungal infections from as little as 0.001 pg (1 fg) of B. dendrobatidis DNA. We collected swab samples from 265 amphibians sold at pet shops, 294 bred at institutes and 2103 collected at field sites from northern to southwestern Japan. We detected infections in native and exotic species, both in captivity and in the field. Sequencing of PCR products revealed 26 haplotypes of the B. dendrobatidis ITS region. Phylogenetic analysis showed that three of these haplotypes were specific to the Japanese giant salamander (Andrias japonicus) and appeared to have established a commensal relationship with this native amphibian. Many other haplotypes were carried by alien amphibians. The highest genetic diversity of B. dendrobatidis was found in the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). Some strains of B. dendrobatidis appeared to be endemic to Japanese native amphibians, but many alien strains are being introduced into Japan via imported amphibians. To improve chytridiomycosis risk management, we must consider the risk of B. dendrobatidis changing hosts as a result of anthropogenic disturbance of the host-specific distribution of the fungus. PMID:19840263

Goka, Koichi; Yokoyama, Jun; Une, Yumi; Kuroki, Toshiro; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Nakahara, Miri; Kobayashi, Arei; Inaba, Shigeki; Mizutani, Tomoo; Hyatt, Alex D

2009-12-01

263

78 FR 73884 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Sematech, INC. D...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...circumstances. Specifically, Entegris, Inc., Bellerica, MA; Integrated Device Technology, Inc., San Jose, CA; Bruker Nano GmbH, Santa Barbara, CA; Rion, Kukubunji, JAPAN, Adeka Corporation, Hamburg, GERMANY; SUSS Microtec Photomask...

2013-12-09

264

Japan's big trading companies find themselves underemployed  

SciTech Connect

Japan's sogoshosha - its large trading companies - are fighting their way through an identity crisis. Originally established to help connect Japanese products and companies with offshore customers and a global market, the sogoshosha suddenly find that they are no longer in demand. The trading companies were originally intermediaries, says Yasunori Masuda, v.p. of Mitsui's chemical dividion (New York). But now we are less intermediaries and more organizers of joint ventures. Mitsubishi has a position in Saudi Arabia in methanol, ethylene glycol, and polyethylene (PE), currently being expanded. More recently the company teamed up with Pequiven, Venezuela's state-owned petrochemicals firm, on a 2,000-m.t./day methanol plant to be completed by the end of 1993 at Jose. Sone says Mitsubishi plans to market the methanol in the US Mitsubishi is also working on a feasibility study for a chlor-alkali/ethylene dichloride venture with Pequiven. Mitsubishi has jointed with five Japanese trading companies - Itochu, Marubeni, Mitsui, Sumitomo, and Nissho Iwai - to build a 450,000-m.t./year ethylene plant in China.

Coeyman, M.

1992-12-02

265

Profiling psychiatric inpatient suicide attempts in Japan.  

PubMed

Suicide is an adverse event that can occur even when patient are hospitalized in psychiatric facilities. This study delineates the demographic characteristics of suicide attempts in mental hospitals and psychiatric wards of general hospitals in Japan, a country where the suicide rate is remarkably high. Analyses of incident reports on serious suicide attempts in psychiatric inpatients were performed using prefectural incident records between April 1, 2001, and December 31, 2012. Suicide reports were included for 35 incidents that occurred over 11 years, and demonstrated that 83% of patients (n = 29) committed suicide and 17% (n = 6) survived their attempt with serious aftereffects, such as cognitive impairment or persistent vegetative state. The male/female ratio of inpatient suicide was 1.5:1. The mean age of the attempters was 50.5 years (SD = 18.2). The most common psychiatric diagnoses for those with suicide incident reports were schizophrenia spectrum disorders (51.4%) and affective disorders (40%). Hanging (60%) was the most common method of suicide attempt, followed by jumping in front of moving objects (14.3%) and jumping from height (11.4%). Fifty-four percent of suicides (n = 19) occurred within hospital sites and the remainder (46%; n = 16) occurred outside hospital sites (e.g., on medical leave or elopement) while they were still inpatients. PMID:25345233

Ikeshita, Katsumi; Shimoda, Shigero; Norimoto, Kazunobu; Arita, Keisuke; Shimamoto, Takuya; Murata, Kiyoshi; Makinodan, Manabu; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

2014-01-01

266

Introduction of clean coal technology in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Coal is an abundant resource, found throughout the world, and inexpensive and constant in price. For this reason, coal is expected to play a role as one of the energy supply sources in the world. The most critical issues to promote utilization of coal are to decrease the environmental load. In this report, the history, outline and recent developments of the clean coal technology in Japan, mainly the thermal power generation technology are discussed. As recent topics, here outlined first is the technology against global warming such as the improvement of steam condition for steam turbines, improvement of power generation efficiency by introducing combined generation, carbon neutral combined combustion of biomass, and carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology. Also introduced are outlines of Japanese superiority in application technology against NOx and SO{sub 2} which create acid rain, development status of the technical improvement in the handling method for coal which is a rather difficult solid-state resource, and utilization of coal ash.

Takashi Kiga [Japan Coal Energy Center (JCOAL), Tokyo (Japan). R and D Department

2008-01-15

267

Investigation of environmental change pattern in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. In the Plains of Tokachi, where the scale of agricultural field was comparatively large in Japan, LANDSAT data with its accuracy have proved to be useful enough to observe the actual condition of agricultural land use and changes more accurately than present methods. Species and ages of grasses in pasture were identified and soils were classified into several types. The actual land cover and ecological environment were remarkably changeable at the rapidly industrialized area by the urbanization in the flat plane and also by the forest works and road construction in the mountainous area. The practical use of the recognition results was proved as the base map of the field survey or the retouching work of the vegetation and land use. There was a 10% cut in cost, labor, and time. Vegetation cover in Tokyo districts was estimated by both the multiregression model and the parametric model. Multicorrelation coefficient between observed value and estimated value was 0.87 and standard deviation was + or - 15%. Vegetation cover in Tokyo was mapped into five levels with equal intervals of 20%.

Maruyasu, T. (principal investigator)

1977-01-01

268

Yesterday's Japan: A system of flood risk estimation over Japan with remote-sensing precipitation data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new river discharge prediction and hindcast system all over Japan in order to issue alerts of flood risks has been developed. It utilizes Japan Meteorological Agency"fs Meso-scale model outputs and remote-sensing precipitation data. A statistical approach that compromises the bias and uncertainty of models is proposed for interpreting the simulated river discharge as a flood risk. A 29-year simulation was implemented to estimate parameters of the Gumbel distribution for the probability of extreme discharge, and the estimated discharge probability index (DPI) showed good agreement with that estimated based on observations. Even more strikingly, high DPI in the simulation corresponded to actual flood damage records. This indicates that the real-time simulation of the DPI could potentially provide reasonable flood warnings. A method to overcome the lack of sufficiently long simulation data through the use of a pre-existing long-term simulation and to estimate statistical parameters is also proposed. A preliminary flood risk prediction that used operational weather forecast data for 2003 and 2004 gave results similar to those of the 29-year simulation for the Typhoon T0423 event on October 2004, demonstrating the transferability of the technique to real-time prediction. In addition, the usefulness of satellite precipitation data for the flood estimation is evaluated via hindcast. We conducted it using several precipitation satellite datasets. The GSMaP product can detect heavy precipitation events, but floods being not well simulated in many cases because of GSMAP"fs underestimation. The GSMaP product adjusted by using monthly and 1 degree rain gauge information can be used to detect flood events as well as hourly rain gauge observations. Another quantitative issue is also disscussed. When a remote-sensing based precipitation data is used as an input for hindcast, we are suffering from underestimation of precipitation amount. The effort for improvement will be shown. In addtion, here, we want to raise quantitavie bias (underestimateion) in in-situ observation precipitation; that is wind-induced undercatch. In our water budget study for many basins over Japan, the correction for wind-induced undercatch has a great role rather than orographic effect. Global estimation of undercatch is also large. Thus, calibration and validation of remote-sensing precipitation data against observed precipitation should be based on observed precipitation data after undercatch, although some more uncertainty would be added. The Radar-AMeDAS data that is an operational radar-based precipitation dataset over Japan is examined from this aspect.

Kanae, S.; Seto, S.; Yoshimura, K.; Oki, T.

2008-12-01

269

Evaluating Landslide Damage During the 2004 Chuetsu Earthquake, Niigata, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of earthquakes, the strongest with a magnitude of 6.6 on the Richter scale (6.8 on the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) scale), jolted Niigata Prefecture, Japan, late in the afternoon of 23 October 2004, killing about 40 people and injuring about 3000, largely as the result of building collapse. More than 100,000 residents were forced to evacuate their homes,

Roy C. Sidle; Toshitaka Kamai; Aurelian C. Trandafir

2005-01-01

270

Evaluating landslide damage during the 2004 Chuetsu earthquake, Niigata Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of earthquakes, the strongest with a magnitude of 6.6 on the Richter scale (6.8 on the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) scale), jolted Niigata Prefecture, Japan, late in the afternoon of 23 October 2004, killing about 40 people and injuring about 3000, largely as the result of building collapse. More than 100,000 residents were forced to evacuate their homes,

Roy C. Sidle; Toshitaka Kamai; Aurelian C. Trandafir

2005-01-01

271

The Regionalization of Science and Innovation Governance in Japan?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kitagawa F. (2007) The regionalization of science and innovation governance in Japan?, Regional Studies41, 1099–1114. Traditionally a country that has favoured the centralized national direction of industry–science relationships, Japan is gradually transforming its innovation system with the ‘regionalization’ of science and technology (S&T) policies, characterized by the promotion of ‘clusters’ and academic entrepreneurship. However, there remain fundamental questions as to

Fumi Kitagawa

2007-01-01

272

FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, April 2, 1997  

SciTech Connect

;Contents(Partial): Japan To Enter Commercial Launch Market; Significance of Lunar Mission Discussed; Hitachi Maxell, Sanyo Develop 14 GB Magneto-Optical Disc Technology; Coal Liquefaction Pilot Plant Ready for Testing; MITI develops Next-Generation Freon Substitute; Stable Power Supply Through Nuclear Power; JR Tokai Targets 550km for Maglev Test Run on Yamanaashi Line; and Japan to Establish Nationwide High-Speed Telecommunications Network Using CATV Networks.

NONE

1997-04-02

273

An epidemiological study of food poisoning in Korea and Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to make a comparative epidemiological observation on outbreaks of food poisoning between Korea and Japan, during the period from 1971 to 1990. The mean morbidity rate by fiscal year from 1971 to 1990 was 3.0 per 100000 population in Korea, and 29.2 in Japan. The mean mortality rate, in Korea was 2.48%, and in

Won-Chang Lee; Takeo Sakai; Myeong-Jin Lee; Masaaki Hamakawa; Song-Mog Lee; In-Mo Lee

1996-01-01

274

Investigation of Environmental Change Pattern in Japan: Multidisciplinary Application of LANDSAT-2 Data to Marine Environment in Central Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The multidisciplinary application of multispectral scanner data acquired over central Japan revealed several coastal features including pollution, river effluent, shorelines, red tide, etc. Supporting data were obtained by airborne remote sensing.

Maruyasu, T. (principal investigator); Ochiai, H.

1976-01-01

275

Japan is the tenth most populous country in the world despite its relatively small land mass. In 2013, Japan was es-  

E-print Network

, and textiles. Japan relies heavily on imports for food, raw materials and fuel. As one of the largest world. Students looking to enter a technical field in Japan, such as software development or product engineering

Saldin, Dilano

276

The 1991 Japan Solar Energy Society. Japan Wind Energy Association Joint Conference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thie paper summarizes the lectures presented at the research presentation conference held by the Japan Solar Energy Society and the Japan Wind Energy Association. The contents include a lecture relating to photovoltaic cells intended for efficiency improvement; a lecture relating to a light power generation system including the field test reports, improvements on peripheral devices and output characteristics; a lecture relating to optical chemistry; a lecture relating to heat pumps utilizing solar heat and well water; a lecture relating air conditioning utilizing photovoltaic cells; a lecture relating to heat systems utilizing solar heat directly; a lecture relating to heat collection; a lecture relating to cold heat for cooling using earth tubes; a lecture relating to direct utilization of ground water heat and solar heat; a lecture relating to underground heat storage; a lecture relating to accumulation of cold heat and hot heat; a lecture relating to insolation on the amount of insolation and spectroscopy; a lecture relating to light collection intended of energy saving; a lecture relating to improving materials including light collecting plates and thin films; a lecture relating to development and characteristics of solar cars; and a lecture relating to wind energy.

1991-09-01

277

Preliminary Benchmark Evaluation of Japan’s High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

A benchmark model of the initial fully-loaded start-up core critical of Japan’s High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) was developed to provide data in support of ongoing validation efforts of the Very High Temperature Reactor Program using publicly available resources. The HTTR is a 30 MWt test reactor utilizing graphite moderation, helium coolant, and prismatic TRISO fuel. The benchmark was modeled using MCNP5 with various neutron cross-section libraries. An uncertainty evaluation was performed by perturbing the benchmark model and comparing the resultant eigenvalues. The calculated eigenvalues are approximately 2-3% greater than expected with an uncertainty of ±0.70%. The primary sources of uncertainty are the impurities in the core and reflector graphite. The release of additional HTTR data could effectively reduce the benchmark model uncertainties and bias. Sensitivity of the results to the graphite impurity content might imply that further evaluation of the graphite content could significantly improve calculated results. Proper characterization of graphite for future Next Generation Nuclear Power reactor designs will improve computational modeling capabilities. Current benchmarking activities include evaluation of the annular HTTR cores and assessment of the remaining start-up core physics experiments, including reactivity effects, reactivity coefficient, and reaction-rate distribution measurements. Long term benchmarking goals might include analyses of the hot zero-power critical, rise-to-power tests, and other irradiation, safety, and technical evaluations performed with the HTTR.

John Darrell Bess

2009-05-01

278

Habitual self-mutilation in Japan.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to clarify the relationship between bulimic behavior, dissociative phenomenon and sexual/physical abuse histories in Japanese subjects with habitual self-mutilation. Subjects consisted of 34 female outpatients who had cut their wrists or arms on more than 10 occasions. Two age-matched groups, which consisted of 31 general psychiatric outpatients and 26 non-clinical volunteers, served as controls. They were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory-II, Bulimia Investigatory Test of Edinburgh, Adolescent Dissociative Experience Scale, and an original self-reporting questionnaire concerning various problematic behaviors and sexual/physical abuse histories. The habitual self-mutilation and the two control groups were compared. The habitual self-mutilation group had significantly higher scores on the Beck Depression Inventory-II, Bulimia Investigatory Test of Edinburgh, and Adolescent Dissociative Experience Scale than either of the two control groups (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the habitual self-mutilation group more frequently had a history of illicit psychoactive drug use (P = 0.001), shoplifting (P < 0.001), suicide attempts (P < 0.001), overdosing with medicine (P < 0.001), sexual abuse (P = 0.011), and childhood physical abuse (P = 0.001) than the general psychiatric controls. These results are consistent with those in Western studies. Habitual self-mutilation is likely to coexist with depression, bulimia, and dissociation. Such patients frequently have clinical features similar to those of 'multi-impulsive bulimia'. Evidence supports the association between habitual self-mutilation and sexual/childhood physical abuse in Japan. PMID:15009826

Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Azekawa, Takaharu; Yamaguchi, Akiko; Asami, Takeshi; Iseki, Eizo

2004-04-01

279

Impact Materials of Takamatsu Crater in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shocked quartz materials have been found in Japanese K.T boundary (Hokkaido) and mountains of middle main-islands of Japan, though there are few direct evidence of "natural circular structure" on the surface in Japan. However circular structure has been recently found as a buried crater(up to 150m deep) [1] which is ca. 4km in diameter with -10 mgal of Bouguer gravity anomaly from surrounding Rhyoke granitic region of the southern part of Takamatsu City, Kagawa Prefecture, northeast Shikoku, Japan [1,2,3]. Two boring cores of 300m deep near small mountains inside the crater could not reach the bottom of the crater so far. From model calculation of the negative gravity anomaly, the Takamatsu crater shows deep basin structure up to 1.4km. If the Takamatsu crater is considered to be only impact crater, it is difficult to discuss only surface materials on the crater. But anomalous minerals are found only around small volcanic intrusions inside the crater, which the mixed minerals are clearly different with those of other volcanic intrusions of the Yashima and Goshikidai outside the crater [1,2,3]. The small volcanic intrusions are not origin of large Takamatsu crater, because the small volcanic intrusions are found on whole areas of Kagawa Prefecture. Major different activity of the small intrusions inside the crater is to bring the brecciated materials of the interior (esp. crater sediments). The xenolith materials around only volcanic intrusion of andesite are divided into the following four major mineral materials:(a) round pebble fragments from the Rhyoke granitic basement (Sampling No.15), (b) rock fragments from intruded biotite andesites (Nos. 2,15), (c) impact-induced fragments of shocked Quartz grains (Nos. 2,3,6,15), diaplectic feldspars (Nos. 2,3,6,15), silica glasses (Nos. 2,15) and small Fe-Ni metallic grains (No.15), and (d) small sedimentary fragments of halite and mordenite, as listed in Table 1. Table I, showing the characterization of surface samples around small intrusions of the Takamatsu crater, appears here in the hard copy. The following anomalous mixed materials are considered to be impact-induced origin: 1) Fe-Ni grains: Black glassy rocks at Jissojiyama (No. 15) contain irregularly Fe-Ni grains of 10 to 100 micrometers in diameter. Chemical composition of the small Fe+Ni grains varies from ca. 18~90 atom. % mixed with the major granitic components. Atomic ratios of Fe/Ni are the same of kamacite as 3.4 to 68.7, but differ from those of awaruite (Fe/Ni<0.5) from the deep seated rock of the interior of the Earth [4]. The similar tiny Fe grains are found on the Wolf Creek and Ries impact craters. 2) Shocked quartz with high-density and shock lamellae: Anomalous quartz grains with undulatory anomalous extinction and shock lamellae are found at the Hiyama (Nos. 2,3,6 in whitish fine rocks) and Jissoiiyama (No. 15 in black glass) as brecciated xenolith from the interior of crater sediments. Typical shocked quartz grain shows with two sets of shock lamellae along pi (102) crystallographic planes [5]. The main X-ray diffraction peaks of each Miller plane show high Bragg angle and X-ray density (Delta rho=+0.9+/-0.3%) and lower values (ca.- 0.4%) of each plane-distance of all shock-generated Plane deformation features (PDFs). The structural data of high density are the same of shocked quartz grains in terrestrial impact craters [6,7]. 3) Diaplectic feldspars: Shock-generated diaplectic feldspars with compositions of albite plagioclases with undulatory extinction are observed with dark or partly dark (i.e. diaplectic) glassy materials under cross-polarized microscope (Nos. 2,3,6,15). Crushed plagioclases with circular or ellipsoidal shape are also found at Hiyama (No. 6) and Hiraike (No. ll). Diffuse and irregular textures of feldspar fragments are different with other localities outside the crater [2,3]. 4) G1asses of potassium feldspar compositions: Many glassy fragments with flow texture are observed from fine-grained sediments around Hiyama (Nos. 2,3,6), which have potassium feldspars compos

Miura, Y.; Okamoto, M.; Fukuchi, T.

1995-09-01

280

Trade, Foreign Investment, and Competitiveness. The Japan Business Study Program. Based on a Seminar Series entitled "Japan Business Study Program 1989" (Austin, Texas, October 12-27, 1989).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven articles are presented addressing topics related to United States-Japan trade, foreign investment, and U.S. competitiveness in the global market. The first article, "Super 301 and the Changing Japan-American Relationship" by Glenn Davis describes recent U.S.-Japan trade frictions, epitomized by Super 301, and explains the influence of the…

Matsuo, Hirofumi, Ed.

281

JTEC panel report on machine translation in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this report is to provide an overview of the state of the art of machine translation (MT) in Japan and to provide a comparison between Japanese and Western technology in this area. The term 'machine translation' as used here, includes both the science and technology required for automating the translation of text from one human language to another. Machine translation is viewed in Japan as an important strategic technology that is expected to play a key role in Japan's increasing participation in the world economy. MT is seen in Japan as important both for assimilating information into Japanese as well as for disseminating Japanese information throughout the world. Most of the MT systems now available in Japan are transfer-based systems. The majority of them exploit a case-frame representation of the source text as the basis of the transfer process. There is a gradual movement toward the use of deeper semantic representations, and some groups are beginning to look at interlingua-based systems.

Carbonell, Jaime; Rich, Elaine; Johnson, David; Tomita, Masaru; Vasconcellos, Muriel; Wilks, Yorick

1992-01-01

282

Guidelines for developmental toxicity testing of chemicals in Japan  

SciTech Connect

With the definition of teratogenicity expanded in terms of the developmental stages when an agent acts and the types of developmental anomalies induced, the concept of developmental toxicity has been established. The examination of functional developmental disorders including behavior has become one of the most important items for the evaluation of developmental toxicity of chemicals, especially pharmaceutical drugs. The guidelines for developmental toxicity testing of drugs in Japan stress the need for examination of growth and development including behavior and fertility on the postweaning offspring. The outline of the Japanese guidelines is presented and it is emphasized that studies should be done as research and include self evaluation of the scientific truth of the experiment and extrapolation to humans. In addition, the activities of the Behavioral Teratology Meeting, a satellite meeting to the Japanese Teratology Society, are introduced and enquete surveys of the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association and collaborative studies for the standardization of learning tests in Japan are briefly presented.

Tanimura, T.

1985-11-01

283

JTEC Panel report on electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies.

Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (editor); Kukowski, John; Meieran, Gene; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John; Tummala, Rao; Dehaemer, Michael J.; Holdridge, Geoff (editor); Gamota, George

1995-01-01

284

Black brant from Alaska staging and wintering in Japan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) nest in colonies in arctic Canada, Alaska, and Russia (Derksen and Ward 1993, Sedinger et al. 1993). Virtually the entire population stages in fall at Izembek Lagoon near the tip of the Alaska Peninsula (Bellrose 1976) before southward migration (Dau 1992) to winter habitats in British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California, and Baja California (Subcommittee on Black Brant 1992). A small number of black brant winter in Japan, Korea, and China (Owen 1980). In Japan 3,000–5,000 brant of unknown origin stop over in fall, and a declining population (<1,000) of birds winter here, primarily in the northern islands (Brazil 1991, Miyabayashi et al. 1994). Here, we report sightings of brant in Japan that were marked in Alaska and propose a migration route based on historical and recent observations and weather patterns.

Derksen, Dirk V.; Bollinger, K.S.; Ward, David H.; Sedinger, J.S.; Miyabayashi, Y.

1996-01-01

285

Descriptive Epidemiology of Prion Disease in Japan: 1999–2012  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiologic features of prion diseases in Japan, in particular morbidity and mortality, have not been clarified. Methods Since 1999, the Research Committee has been conducting surveillance of prion diseases, and the surveillance data were used to assess incident cases of prion diseases. For the observation of fatal cases, vital statistics were used. Results Both incidence and mortality rates of prion diseases increased during the 2000s in Japan. However, this increase was observed only in relatively old age groups. Conclusions The increased number of patients among old age groups might be due to increased recognition of the diseases. If so, the number of cases should plateau in the near future.

Nakamaura, Yosikazu; Ae, Ryusuke; Takumi, Ichiro; Sanjo, Nobuo; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Yamada, Masahito; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

2015-01-01

286

Encephalitozoon infections in Rodentia and Soricomorpha in Japan.  

PubMed

Encephalitozoon is an obligate intracellular microsporidian parasite that infects a wide range of mammalian hosts. In this study, we used nested PCR to investigate the presence of Encephalitozoon infection in Rodentia and Soricomorpha in Japan. We attempted to amplify and sequence Encephalitozoon-specific DNA from brain and viscera samples of 180 animals collected between 2008 and 2010. Forty-three samples (23.9%) from the orders Rodentia and Soricomorpha were positive for Encephalitozoon. This study is the first report of Encephalitozoon infection in Rodentia and Soricomorpha in Japan, and our findings suggest that these hosts may play a role in the spread of microsporidian spores in the environment. PMID:24060383

Tsukada, Ryusuke; Tsuchiyama, Atsuko; Sasaki, Mizuki; Park, Chun-Ho; Fujii, Yoshito; Takesue, Masataka; Hatai, Hitoshi; Kudo, Noboru; Ikadai, Hiromi

2013-11-15

287

Concerns about unapproved meningococcal vaccination for eculizumab therapy in Japan  

PubMed Central

An orphan medicinal product, eculizumab is approved in Japan and globally for treating paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Eculizumab therapy can cause late complement pathway deficiencies that predispose patients to meningococcal infections. Although meningococcal vaccinations are typically considered mandatory for eculizumab therapy, no approved vaccine is available in Japan as of March, 2014. Advertising unapproved, privately imported pharmaceuticals is prohibited under Japanese pharmaceutical law; detailed information concerning the unapproved meningococcal vaccines is therefore not widely available. The situation jeopardizes the safety of patients receiving eculizumab therapy, and Japanese clinicians are advised caution when prescribing this therapy. PMID:24716834

2014-01-01

288

JUSTIPEN: Japan US Theory Institute for Physics with Exotic Nuclei  

SciTech Connect

The grant “JUSTIPEN: Japan US Theory Institute for Physics with Exotic Nuclei ” (DOE DE?FG02?06ER41407) ran from 02/01/2006 thru 12/31/2013. JUSTIPEN is a venue for international collaboration between U.S.?based and Japanese scientists who share an interest in theory of rare isotopes. Since its inception JUSTIPEN has supported many visitors, fostered collaborations between physicists in the U.S. and Japan, and enabled them to deepen our understanding of exotic nuclei and their role in cosmos.

Papenbrock, Thomas

2014-05-16

289

78 FR 70574 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia; Determinations On the basis...Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia of grain-oriented electrical...Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia. Accordingly,...

2013-11-26

290

61 FR 46823 - Certain Laminated Hardwood Flooring From Canada; Sodium Azide From Japan; Melamine Institutional...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fresh Tomatoes From Mexico; Engineered Process Gas Turbo-Compressor Systems From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade...less-than-fair-value imports of engineered process gas turbo-compressor systems from Japan, provided for in subheadings...

1996-09-05

291

61 FR 24952 - Engineered Process Gas Turbo-Compressor Systems From Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...731-TA-748 (Preliminary)] Engineered Process Gas Turbo-Compressor Systems From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade...reason of imports from Japan of engineered process gas turbo-compressor systems, provided for in subheadings 8414.80.20,...

1996-05-17

292

62 FR 33115 - Engineered Process Gas Turbo-Compressor Systems From Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Final)] Engineered Process Gas Turbo-Compressor Systems From Japan Determination On...Japan of engineered process gas turbo-compressor systems, whether assembled or unassembled...imports of engineered process gas turbo-compressor systems, whether assembled or...

1997-06-18

293

77 FR 45653 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain; Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain; Determination Determination On the basis...steel bar from Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain would be likely to lead to continuation...the negative with respect to Brazil and...

2012-08-01

294

NSF/Tokyo Report: US-Japan Workshop: Nanoparticle Synthesis and Applications  

NSF Publications Database

... 97-19 NSF/Tokyo Report: US-Japan Workshop: Nanoparticle Synthesis and Applications Date: 5/21/97 The ... #97-13 (May 12, 1997) US-Japan Workshop: Nanoparticle Synthesis and Applications The following ...

295

76 FR 76760 - Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...No. 731-TA-461 (Third Review)] Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan Determination On the basis of the...revocation of the antidumping duty order on gray Portland cement and cement clinker from Japan would be likely to...

2011-12-08

296

Volatility-constrained correlation identifies the directionality of the influence between Japan’s Nikkei 225 and other financial markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent financial crises have shown the importance of determining the directionality of the influence between financial assets in order to identify the origin of market instabilities. Here, we analyze the correlation between Japan’s Nikkei stock average index (Nikkei 225) and other financial markets by introducing a volatility-constrained correlation metric. The asymmetric feature of the metric reveals which asset is more influential than the other. As a result, this method allows us to unveil the directionality of the correlation effect, which could not be observed from the standard correlation analysis. Furthermore, we present a theoretical model that reproduces the results observed in empirical analysis.

Ochiai, Tomoshiro; Nacher, Jose C.

2014-01-01

297

Japan Renal Biopsy Registry and Japan Kidney Disease Registry: Committee Report for 2009 and 2010.  

PubMed

The Japan Renal Biopsy Registry (J-RBR) was started in 2007 and the Japan Kidney Disease Registry (J-KDR) was then started in 2009 by the Committee for Standardization of Renal Pathological Diagnosis and the Committee for the Kidney Disease Registry of the Japanese Society of Nephrology. The purpose of this report is to describe and summarize the registered data from 2009 and 2010. For the J-KDR, data were collected from 4,016 cases, including 3,336 (83.1 %) by the J-RBR and 680 (16.9 %) other cases from 59 centers in 2009, and from 4,681 cases including 4,106 J-RBR cases (87.7 %) and 575 other cases (12.3 %) from 94 centers in 2010, including the affiliate hospitals. In the J-RBR, 3,165 native kidneys (94.9 %) and 171 renal grafts (5.1 %) and 3,869 native kidneys (94.2 %) and 237 renal grafts (5.8 %) were registered in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Patients younger than 20 years of age comprised 12.1 % of the registered cases, and those 65 years and over comprised 24.5 % of the cases with native kidneys in 2009 and 2010. The most common clinical diagnosis was chronic nephritic syndrome (55.4 % and 50.0 % in 2009 and 2010, respectively), followed by nephrotic syndrome (22.4 % and 27.0 %); the most frequent pathological diagnosis as classified by the pathogenesis was IgA nephropathy (31.6 % and 30.4 %), followed by primary glomerular diseases (except IgA nephropathy) (27.2 % and 28.1 %). Among the primary glomerular diseases (except IgA nephropathy) in the patients with nephrotic syndrome, membranous nephropathy was the most common histopathology in 2009 (40.3 %) and minor glomerular abnormalities (50.0 %) were the most common in 2010 in native kidneys in the J-RBR. Five new secondary and longitudinal research studies by the J-KDR were started in 2009 and one was started in 2010. PMID:23385776

Sugiyama, Hitoshi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Sato, Hiroshi; Saito, Takao; Kohda, Yukimasa; Nishi, Shinichi; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Kiyomoto, Hideyasu; Iida, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Tamaki; Higuchi, Makoto; Hattori, Motoshi; Oka, Kazumasa; Kagami, Shoji; Kawamura, Tetsuya; Takeda, Tetsuro; Hataya, Hiroshi; Fukasawa, Yuichiro; Fukatsu, Atsushi; Morozumi, Kunio; Yoshikawa, Norishige; Shimizu, Akira; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Yuzawa, Yukio; Matsuo, Seiichi; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Joh, Kensuke; Nagata, Michio; Taguchi, Takashi; Makino, Hirofumi

2013-04-01

298

193-nm immersion photomask image placement in exposure tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In case drastic changes need to be made to tool configurations or blank specifications, it is important to know as early as possible under which conditions the tight image placement requirements of future lithography nodes can be achieved. Modeling, such as finite element simulations, can help predict the magnitude of structural and thermal effects before actual manufacturing issues occur, and basic experiments using current tools can readily be conducted to verify the predicted results or perform feasibility tests for future nodes. Using numerical simulations, experimental mask registration, and printing data, the effects on image placement of stressed layer patterning, pellicle attachment, blank dimensional and material tolerances, as well as charging during e-beam writing were investigated for current mask blank specifications. This provides an understanding of the areas that require more work for image placement error budgets to be met and to insure the viability of optical lithography for future nodes.

Cotte, Eric; Alles, Benjamin; Wandel, Timo; Antesberger, Gunter; Teuber, Silvio; Vorwerk, Manuel; Frangen, Andreas; Katzwinkel, Frank

2006-03-01

299

SWEDEN-JAPAN FOUNDATION 2014-01-21 GREV TUREGATAN 14, 114 46 STOCKHOLM  

E-print Network

SWEDEN-JAPAN FOUNDATION 2014-01-21 GREV TUREGATAN 14, 114 46 STOCKHOLM TEL +46-8-6116873, FAX +46-8-6117344 Org nr 802008-0639 www.swejap.a.se, info@swejap.a.se SWEDEN-JAPAN FOUNDATION STIPENDIER Sweden@swejap.a.se eller per brev till Sweden-Japan Foundation, Grev Turegatan 14, 114 46 Stockholm Sweden-Japan Foundation

Johannesson, Henrik

300

Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in feral raccoons, Japan.  

PubMed

Although raccoons (Procyon lotor) are susceptible to influenza viruses, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection in these animals has not been reported. We performed a serosurvey of apparently healthy feral raccoons in Japan and found specific antibodies to subtype H5N1 viruses. Feral raccoons may pose a risk to farms and public health. PMID:21470469

Horimoto, Taisuke; Maeda, Ken; Murakami, Shin; Kiso, Maki; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; Sashika, Mariko; Ito, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Kazuo; Yokoyama, Mayumi; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2011-04-01

301

Planet-C: Venus Climate Orbiter mission of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Venus Climate Orbiter mission (PLANET-C), one of the future planetary missions of Japan, aims at understanding the atmospheric circulation of Venus. Meteorological information will be obtained by globally mapping clouds and minor constituents successively with four cameras at ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, detecting lightning with a high-speed imager, and observing the vertical structure of the atmosphere with radio science

Masato Nakamura; Takeshi Imamura; Munetaka Ueno; Naomoto Iwagami; Takehiko Satoh; Shigeto Watanabe; Makoto Taguchi; Yukihiro Takahashi; Makoto Suzuki; Takumi Abe; George L. Hashimoto; Takeshi Sakanoi; Shoichi Okano; Yasumasa Kasaba; Jun Yoshida; Manabu Yamada; Nobuaki Ishii; Takahiro Yamada; Kazunori Uemizu; Tetsuya Fukuhara; Koh-Ichiro Oyama

2007-01-01

302

Statistical Learning Theory Machine Learning Summer School, Kyoto, Japan  

E-print Network

Statistical Learning Theory Machine Learning Summer School, Kyoto, Japan Alexander (Sasha) Rakhlin University of Pennsylvania, The Wharton School Penn Research in Machine Learning (PRiML) August 27-28, 2012 1 the topic of a new article. 6 / 130 #12;Why Machine Learning? Impossible to hard-code all the knowledge

Rakhlin, Alexander "Sasha"

303

SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION AND NOX CONTROL IN JAPAN  

EPA Science Inventory

The report documents the travels of a four-member study team in Japan during March 1980 to assess NOx flue gas treatment (FGT) technology and related areas. Overall goals of the study were to obtain new information on current issues concerning application of FGT technology and to...

304

Adult Education for a Multiethnic Community: Japan's Challenge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Modern education in Japan from 1868 to 1945 stressed "national education" in order to promote a sense of belonging to the Japanese state. The Japanese culture was thought to be superior to that of its "less advanced" East Asian neighbors, and Japanese people were encouraged to adopt a "Yamato" identity (the seat of an ancient Japanese kingdom).…

Sasagawa, Koichi

305

English Language Teaching in Japan: Policy Plans and Their Implementations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes Japan's most recent attempts to improve English teaching and learning at all levels of the education system both for students and teachers as well as for the public in general. Based on policy recommendations by several advisory committees, the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology has…

Honna, Nobuyuki; Takeshita, Yuko

2005-01-01

306

Transmission of Bordetella holmesii during pertussis outbreak, Japan.  

PubMed

We describe the epidemiology of a pertussis outbreak in Japan in 2010-2011 and Bordetella holmesii transmission. Six patients were infected; 4 patients were students and a teacher at the same junior high school. Epidemiologic links were found between 5 patients. B. holmesii may have been transmitted from person to person. PMID:22709586

Kamiya, Hajime; Otsuka, Nao; Ando, Yuka; Odaira, Fumito; Yoshino, Shuji; Kawano, Kimiko; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Nishida, Toshihide; Hidaka, Yoshio; Toyoizumi-Ajisaka, Hiromi; Shibayama, Keigo; Kamachi, Kazunari; Sunagawa, Tomimasa; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Okabe, Nobuhiko

2012-07-01

307

Cryptococcus gattii Genotype VGIIa Infection in Man, Japan, 2007  

PubMed Central

We report a patient in Japan infected with Cryptococcus gattii genotype VGIIa who had no recent history of travel to disease-endemic areas. This strain was identical to the Vancouver Island outbreak strain R265. Our results suggest that this virulent strain has spread to regions outside North America. PMID:20587194

Okamoto, Koh; Itoyama, Satoru; Nukui, Yoko; Yoshino, Yusuke; Kitazawa, Takatoshi; Yotsuyanagi, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Reiko; Sugita, Takashi; Koike, Kazuhiko

2010-01-01

308

Education for Sustainable Development at Universities in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Education for sustainable development (ESD) aims at changing the approach to education that integrates principles, values and practices of sustainable development, and needs to be incorporated into all forms of learning and education. The purpose of this paper is to review the way in which ESD has been developed at universities in Japan

Kitamura, Yuto; Hoshii, Naoko

2010-01-01

309

Higher Education for Sustainable Development in Japan: Policy and Progress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review key developments and the role of governmental support in the field of education for sustainable development (ESD) in higher education in Japan. Design/methodology/approach: This is an analytical review paper on policy and practice, using an evaluative perspective to consider developments, challenges…

Nomura, Ko; Abe, Osamu

2010-01-01

310

Bridal Pregnancy and Spouse Pairing Patterns in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we examine two aspects of recent increases in marriage preceded by pregnancy (bridal pregnancy) in Japan. Using information on 28,973 respondents to the Japanese National Fertility Surveys, we first demonstrate that increases in bridal pregnancy between 1970 and 2002 were concentrated among women without postsecondary education. We…

Raymo, James M.; Iwasawa, Miho

2008-01-01

311

Neritic squid resources and cuttlefish resources in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge concerning biology of two loliginids and three sepiids which are found in the Japanese waters was reviewed including unpublished information of the authors.The swordtip squid, Photololigo edulis, is one of the most important resources for the coastal fisheries of Kyushu and the prefectures facing the southwest Japan Sea. This species is the only species of genus Photololigo found along

Yutaka Natsukari; Masatoki Tashiro

1991-01-01

312

Nuclear power plant liquid waste solidification system. [Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamental points to be considered in a waste treatment system for a country like Japan, where the final disposal method has not been decided and the wastes have to be stored in the power plants, are volume reduction of the wastes, safe storage of the wastes in the plant, and flexibility regarding the final disposal. A system has been

N. Kikuchi; K. Chino; K. Kudo; S. Horiuchi; T. Saito; M. Hayashi

1981-01-01

313

Metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease in Okinawa, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a hospital-based screening program in Okinawa, Japan. The significance of metabolic syndrome as a determinant of CKD was examined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 6980 participants, aged 30–79 years, participated in a screening program in Tomishiro Chuo Hospital. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria of

H Tanaka; Y Shiohira; Y Uezu; A Higa; K Iseki

2006-01-01

314

What Should Japan Be Doing about S. invicta?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter was written by a research entomologist from the USDA-ARS, Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology in Gainesville, FL and a Japanese myrmecologist from Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan. The purpose of this chapter is to outline what the Japanese should do to ...

315

Sexuality Education in Junior High Schools in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to determine via responses to three questionnaire surveys how sexuality education programs are conducted at junior high schools in Japan. Study 1 examined the practice of sexuality education in schools, Study 2 investigated junior high school students' (age 12-13 and 14-15 years) knowledge of sexuality, and Study 3 examined…

Hashimoto, N.; Shinohara, H.; Tashiro, M.; Suzuki, S.; Hirose, H.; Ikeya, H.; Ushitora, K.; Komiya, A.; Watanabe, M.; Motegi, T.; Morioka, M.

2012-01-01

316

Enrollment Expansion in Postwar Japan. International Publication Series No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After World War II, enrollment in the Japanese educational system underwent an unprecedented expansion, largely on account of postwar economic growth. Although such expansion was common throughout the world, Japan's experience was unique because of the magnitude of changes in the enrollment rates and the degree to which these changes directly…

Kaneko, Motohisa

317

Japan. J. Math. Vol. 31, No. 1, 2005  

E-print Network

Japan. J. Math. Vol. 31, No. 1, 2005 Zeta functions associated to Pascal's triangle mod p By D of zeta functions determined by Pascal's triangle modulo a prime number p, defined as follow: Pas Classification. 11B65, 11A07 and 11M41. Key words and Phrases. Binomial coefficients, Pascal's triangle mod p

Essouabri, Driss

318

Geoelectric potential changes: Possible precursors to earthquakes in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether electromagnetic precursors to earthquakes (EQs) exist is an important question not only for EQ prediction but also for understanding the physical processes of EQ generation. Slow transient geoelectric potential changes have been observed before several recent EQs in Japan. In most cases, they appeared 1-19 days before the EQs, and their duration and intensity were several minutes to 1

S. Uyeda; T. Nagao; Y. Orihara; T. Yamaguchi; I. Takahashi

2000-01-01

319

Waste management systems of dairy cattle farms in Japan.  

PubMed

Recently, the size of livestock farms in Japan has been expanding and the pollution from farm wastes has become a serious problem in rural areas. Therefore it is necessary to design treatment strategies and improve the recycling of livestock manure for sustainability of agriculture in Japan. The dairy cattle waste management systems were studied at dairy farms in Aomori prefecture and in Hokkaido, Japan. The four farms, typical for the respective regions in Japan, were investigated on the basis of the land and livestock size, housing, overall farm and waste management, type of machinery and a farm labour force. A statistical comparison was made for housing, milking and waste handling systems of dairy farms. One of the waste handling strategies was aerobic slurry treatment and land irrigation of the treated liquid fraction. Such methods began to solve some of waste management problems created since 1967 in grassland farming areas of Hokkaido. The irrigation system supplies water fertiliser and organic material to land as well as shortening the spreading times. It recycles livestock resources, increases the soil fertility and rationalizes the farm management. PMID:12201128

Shima, E; Svoboda, I F; Tsutsumi, S; Ohkubo, H

2002-01-01

320

[The evolution and characteristics of social hygiene in modern Japan].  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is the clarification of the theory of social hygiene and its conception in modern society. The theory of social hygiene in modern society was mainly formed by the influence of social democracy and the social reform movement. Social hygiene in modern Japan was presented by Germany in the middle Meiji era and prevailed in the Taisho era. Yoshie Fukuhara, Gito Terouka and Teido Kunisaki developed the mainstream of the theory about social hygiene in modern Japan. The principle of social hygiene in Japan was that the target group of social hygienic activities (such as laborers, poor people, consumers of medical service and so on) should establish the idea of self-government and autonomy of their lives. Social supports to the target group were recognized as combining with the idea of self-government and autonomy of lives. Some of those activities influenced by the principle were performed. Particularly, the work of Tetsuo Hoshino was unique in showing the relation between health and human culture. The work has shown that human health is reflected in human cultural activities. Social hygiene was important to the foundation of introduction and evolution of the thoughts of public health, health culture and medical insurance in modern Japan. PMID:11639780

Takizawa, T

1994-06-01

321

Commentaries on Being Gay in Japan and China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents commentaries on being gay in Japan and China by distinguished educators with various backgrounds and from different countries. Given space limitations, these are more evocative than particulate, but collectively they provide multiple platforms for reflection. As noted by some commentators in this article and others (e.g.,…

Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education, 2003

2003-01-01

322

The ‘Japan Prize’ Contest: encouraging excellence in educational television  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japan Prize is probably the world's most prestigious international award for educational television programming. This article discusses how the contest is conducted, and reviews some of the criteria by which jurors determine prize winners, placing a particular emphasis upon the challenges involved in comparing productions from different cultures. The contest includes a number of professional activities for participants, including

Drew Tiene

1993-01-01

323

Lifelong Learning in England and Japan: Three Translations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a comparative analysis of the development of lifelong learning in England and Japan, while addressing the multi-dimensional nature of "lifelong learning". The article argues that "lifelong learning" is a concept which has unusual adaptability and legitimacy, and for these reasons has been subject to multiple translations over…

Okumoto, Kaori

2008-01-01

324

Japan-Brazil Space Sector Workshop August 26 27, 2010  

E-print Network

Japan-Brazil Space Sector Workshop August 26 ­ 27, 2010 Sergio Sobral de Oliveira Auditorium (IAI building) INPE's headquarters - São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil Satellite Applications on Agricultural;NDVI Desertification process ­ NE Brazil Surface Albedo Surface Temperature #12;Perfil temporal do NDVI

325

Attachment and Culture: Security in the United States and Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights evidence of cultural variations in child attachment, noting how western values and meanings permeate attachment theory. Comparisons of the United States and Japan emphasize the cultural relativity of three core hypotheses of attachment theory related to: caregiver sensitivity, child social competence, and a secure base for exploring the…

Rothman, Fred; Weisz, John; Pott, Martha; Morelli, Gilda; Miyake, Kazuo

2000-01-01

326

Expert System for Applicability of Tunnel Boring Machines in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary ¶This paper outlines the development of a new expert system for assessing the applicability of tunnel boring machine (TBM) tunneling in Japan. Although a great deal of research on TBMs has been published, and the applicability of TBMs has been discussed, considerable differences in opinion still exist between authors. In this paper, we review previous studies and outline the

S. Okubo; K. Fukui; W. Chen

2003-01-01

327

Intensive Language and Culture Orientation Program for Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Language and Culture Institute of the University of Pittsburgh has developed a 13-week program of pre-assignment training for engineers given corporate assignments in Japan. The Institute offers the corporations three components in this intensive seminar: program administration, language training, and culture training. The program…

Setliff, Rebecca J.; Taft, Lori A.

328

Implications of climate change for crop production in Japan  

SciTech Connect

This study uses climate change scenarios derived from three global climate models (GCMs) to assess the possible impacts of climate change on rice (Oryza sativa L. japonica), maize (Zea mays L.), and wheat (Triticum spp.) production in Japan. Crop models were used to simulate the possible changes in crop yields under different climate change scenarios. Increased temperatures resulted in decreases in simulated crop yield in many regions under the present management systems. While the direct beneficial effects of CO{sub 2} may compensate for the yield decreases in central and northern Japan, the effects did not compensate for the larger yield decreases in southwestern japan, especially in Kyushu. Early planting and irrigation are possible adaptation strategies of the management systems to climate change. In most cases, simulated yields increased under climate change conditions if an earlier planting date was adopted; however, in Kyushu because of high temperature stress, an earlier planting did not improve simulated yields, and the introduction of new cultivars better adapted to the climate change conditions would be required. In Hokkaido, the major upland production area of Japan, climate change increased simulated crop yields under some conditions, depending on the scenario precipitation and irrigation systems.

Seino, Hiroshi [National Inst. of Agro-Environmental Sciences, Ibaraki (Japan)

1995-12-31

329

Estimation of CO 2 Aquifer Storage Potential in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical feasibility of CO2 storage in aquifers has been proven and demonstrated by the successful experiences in numerous EOR projects all over the world and the commercial practice in Sleipner. Previously, Tanaka et al (1995) had estimated the aquifer storage capacities as 91.5 Gt- CO2 in Japan. Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE) in cooperation with

Toshihiro Takahashi; Takashi Ohsumi; Kazuo Nakayama; Kazuo Koide; Hideaki Miida

2009-01-01

330

The Japanese Automobile Worker: A Microcosm of Japan's Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A teaching unit on the Japanese automobile worker was developed from a compilation of on-site interviews with Japanese company managers and production line employees, and official publications of the Japanese car industry. The unit is designed to present a balanced picture of Japan's economic success and labor relations and to develop global…

Kaderabeck, Elizabeth A.

331

Sexual Minority Issues and Human Rights Education in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Dowa" (Human Rights) education program has become an effective method of changing concept and situations of "Burakumin," a group of people that has been discriminated against in Japan. One educational strategy was to speak out their personal stories, which has become a trigger to some sexual minority teachers to come out, as well as others to…

Ofuji, Keiko

2007-01-01

332

Thin-Film Module Field Test Results in Japan  

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

NSTDA&3;Solartec moved&3;in&3;2008 PTEC JSPS&3;175th&3;Committee The&3;4th&3;ThailandJapan&3;Joint&3;Workshop&3;on&3;Photovoltaics&3; Bangkok,&3;Thailand December&3;8,&3;2012 11 Research Center for...

333

English: A Crucial Element in Japan's Drive Toward Internationalization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of English language training in Japan's move toward corporate internationalization is addressed, particularly in terms of the importance of English, the nature and quality of training, and the ramifications of that training regarding global competition. It is noted that the Japanese language is not suited for the sort of confrontation,…

Hilton, Chadwick B.

334

International models of investigator-initiated trials: implications for Japan  

PubMed Central

Background Academic/institutional investigator-initiated clinical trials benefit individuals and society by supplementing gaps in industry-sponsored clinical trials. Materials In May 2010, experts from Japan, the Republic of Korea, the UK, and the United States, met at a symposium in Tokyo, Japan, to discuss how policies related to the conduct of clinical trials, which have been shown to be effective, may be applied to other regions of the world. Results In order to increase the availability of anticancer drugs world-wide, nations including Japan should examine the benefits of increasing the number of investigator-initiated clinical trials. These trials represent one of the most effective ways to translate basic scientific knowledge into clinical practice. These trials should be conducted under GCP guidelines and include Investigational New Drug application submissions with the ultimate goal of future drug approval. Conclusions To maximize the effectiveness of these trials, a policy to educate health care professionals, cancer patients and their families, and the public in general on the benefits of clinical trials should be strengthened. Finally, policies that expedite the clinical development of novel cancer drugs which have already been shown to be effective in other countries are needed in many nations including Japan to accelerate drug approval. PMID:22843420

Trimble, E. L.; Ledermann, J.; Law, K.; Miyata, T.; Imamura, C. K.; Nam, B.-H.; Kim, Y.H.; Bang, Y.-J.; Michaels, M.; Ardron, D.; Amano, S.; Ando, Y.; Tominaga, T.; Kurokawa, K.; Takebe, N.

2012-01-01

335

Deep scientific dives in the Japan and Kuril Trenches  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the summer of 1985, during the French-Japanese Kaiko program, ten dives to depths of 6000 m in the Japan and Kuril Trenches were made in the newly launched submersible ``Nautile''. The sites of the dives were selected on the basis of surface geophysical surveys made during the preceding summer involving Seabeam mapping, geomagnetic and gravimetric measurements, and single-channel seismic

Jean Paul Cadet; Kazuo Kobayashi; Serge Lallemand; Laurent Jolivet; Jean Aubouin; Jacques Boulègue; Jacques Dubois; Hiroshi Hotta; Teruaki Ishii; Kenji Konishi; Nobuaki Niitsuma; Hideki Shimamura

1987-01-01

336

Same-Sex Partnerships in Japan: Bypasses and Other Alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contemporary Japan, the family remains a strong social and legal entity. The right to make decisions on behalf of another in emergency situations lies with the immediate family. Similarly, immediate family members are legally entitled to claim from deceased family member's estates. One way to ensure that property and inheritance rights are passed on to same-sex partners is for

Claire Maree

2004-01-01

337

Global Talent Program Explore High technology in Japan  

E-print Network

2011 Global Talent Program : Explore High technology in Japan SNU Career Development Center #12;#12;2011 Global Talent Program : 2011 GTP #12;4 2011 Global Talent Program ? Global Talent', , , ` ( , )' , , , `Fujitsu's Global Mission' . #12;6 2011 Global Talent Program . , KOTRA

Sung, Wokyung

338

Leptospirosis in squirrels imported from United States to Japan.  

PubMed

We diagnosed leptospirosis in 2 patients exposed to southern flying squirrels imported from the United States to Japan. Patients worked with exotic animals in their company. Leptospira isolates from 1 patient and 5 of 10 squirrels at the company were genetically and serologically identical and were identified as Leptospira kirschneri. PMID:16836840

Masuzawa, Toshiyuki; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Une, Yumi; Takeuchi, Takahiro; Tsukagoshi, Keiko; Koizumi, Nobuo; Kawabata, Hiroki; Ohta, Shuji; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro

2006-07-01

339

Epidemiological Survey of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration in Tottori Prefecture, Japan  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) in Japan is unknown. An epidemiological survey study of FTLD was undertaken in Tottori Prefecture, a district in the western region of Japan. Methods Hospitals in Tottori Prefecture were surveyed by a two-step questionnaire in 2010, and the prevalence of FTLD per 100,000 inhabitants was calculated using the actual number of patients and inhabitants in Tottori Prefecture on the prevalence day of October 1, 2010. Results In this survey, 66 patients were diagnosed with FTLD. The subtypes of FTLD were as follows: 62 cases of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), 3 cases of progressive nonfluent aphasia, and 1 case of semantic dementia. Among the FTD cases, 5 cases were FTD with motor neuron disease and 1 case was FTD with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17. The prevalence of FTD in the total population of Tottori Prefecture was 11.2 per 100,000 inhabitants. Based on these results, the prevalence of FTLD in Japan in 2008 was estimated to be 9.5 per 100,000 individuals. Conclusions Our epidemiological survey results suggest that there are at least 12,000 FTLD patients in Japan, indicating that FTLD is not a rare disease. PMID:23300493

Wada-Isoe, Kenji; Ito, Satoru; Adachi, Tadashi; Yamawaki, Mika; Nakashita, Satoko; Kusumi, Masayoshi; Hiroe, Yu; Takada, Teruo; Watanabe, Ken; Hikasa, Chikanori; Nakashima, Kenji

2012-01-01

340

Same War Different Views: Germany, Japan, and Counterterrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

German and Japanese counterterrorism policies differ from those adopted by the United States as well as from one another. Defeated in war, occupied, and partially remade during the Cold War, Germany and Japan became clients of the United States first, then close allies. Both countries offer easy tests to explore the extent to which the United States can hope to

Peter J. Katzenstein

2003-01-01

341

Linear and Quadratic Change: A Problem from Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the fall of 2003, the author conducted research on the student teaching process in Japan. The basis for most of the lessons observed was rich mathematics problems. Upon returning to the US, the author used one such problem while teaching an algebra 2 class. This article introduces that problem, which gives rise to both linear and quadratic…

Peterson, Blake E.

2006-01-01

342

Gender Salary Differences in Economics Departments in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By using unique survey data, we conduct a detailed study of the gender salary gap within economics departments in Japan. Despite the presence of rigid pay scales emphasizing age and experience, there is a 7% gender salary gap after controlling for rank and detailed personal, job, institutional and human capital characteristics. This gender salary…

Takahashi, Ana Maria; Takahashi, Shingo

2011-01-01

343

Mycorrhizal fungi associated with Monotropastrum humile (Ericaceae) in central Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored the diversity of mycorrhizal fungi associated with Monotropastrum humile in the central part of Japan's main island. We collected 103 M. humile individuals from 12 sites with various forest types. We analyzed the DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region\\u000a from fungal and plant nuclear ribosomal DNAs to assess the genetic diversity of the fungi associated with

Yosuke Matsuda; Shun Okochi; Tomoyuki Katayama; Akiyoshi Yamada; Shin-ichiro Ito

2011-01-01

344

MFR PAPER 1165 Japan's tuna fishery faces a  

E-print Network

MFR PAPER 1165 Japan's tuna fishery faces a major depression as catch rates decline, oil prices of the more obvious reasons for the present state are these: I. Tripling of oil prices in the last year. 2 market are not also having their prob- lems at this time. The increased oil prices, having gone from $40

345

Tips on Studying Abroad at Tokyo Tech in Japan  

E-print Network

Tips on Studying Abroad at Tokyo Tech in Japan Want to know what it's like to study abroad? Want to know what your peers think? Your fellow Georgia Tech students who have previously gone on this exchange to twenty hours studying at Tokyo Tech. Some classes especially the language classes require more time

Li, Mo

346

Soaring Voices: Recent Ceramics by Women from Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Japanese ceramics enjoy a long and distinguished history, and the Japanese aesthetic of elegant simplicity, along with their approach to materials, has influenced ceramic artists around the world for centuries. Women in Japan have been involved in the production of ceramics for thousands of years, but with few exceptions, their names have remained…

Johnson, Mark M.

2011-01-01

347

Leptospirosis in Squirrels Imported from United States to Japan  

PubMed Central

We diagnosed leptospirosis in 2 patients exposed to southern flying squirrels imported from the United States to Japan. Patients worked with exotic animals in their company. Leptospira isolates from 1 patient and 5 of 10 squirrels at the company were genetically and serologically identical and were identified as Leptospira kirschneri. PMID:16836840

Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Une, Yumi; Takeuchi, Takahiro; Tsukagoshi, Keiko; Koizumi, Nobuo; Kawabata, Hiroki; Ohta, Shuji; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro

2006-01-01

348

Beyond Momotaro: Using Fiction about Japan in the Elementary Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Believes that by incorporating fiction and folklore into a social studies unit on Japan, students will benefit from their new perspectives on the world. Notes different literary works that can be implemented. Provides a list of questions to assist social studies teachers with selecting children's literature for use in the classroom. (CMK)

Bernson, Mary Hammond

1998-01-01

349

Morphological and chemical analysis of magic mushrooms in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological and toxicological analyses were performed on hallucinogenic mushrooms that are currently circulated in Japan. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicated a three-dimensional microstructures in the mushrooms. The complementary use of SEM with an optical microscope was effective for observing characteristic tissues, such as basidiomycetes, spores, cystidia and basidia. Hallucinogenic alkaloids were extracted with methanol and determined by high performance liquid

Kenji Tsujikawa; Tatsuyuki Kanamori; Yuko Iwata; Yoshihito Ohmae; Ritsuko Sugita; Hiroyuki Inoue; Tohru Kishi

2003-01-01

350

Outbreaks of forest defoliating insects in Japan, 1950-2000.  

PubMed

In Japan, several forest-defoliating insects reach outbreak levels and cause serious defoliation. Stand mortality sometimes occurs after severe defoliation. However, in general, tree mortality caused by insect defoliation is low because of the prevailing moist climate in Japan. Evergreen conifers are more susceptible to tree mortality as a result of insect defoliation whereas deciduous broad-leaved trees are seldom killed. Insect defoliation occurs more frequently in man-made environments such as among shade trees, orchards, and plantations than in natural habitats. Outbreaks of some defoliators tend to occur in stands of a particular age: e.g. outbreaks of the pine caterpillar, Dendrolimus spectabilis Butler (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) occur more frequently in young pine plantations. In contrast, defoliation caused by outbreaks of lepidopterous and hymenopterous pests in larch plantations is more frequent with stand maturation. There is a relationship between outbreaks of some defoliators and altitude above sea level. Most outbreaks of forest defoliators were terminated by insect pathogens that operated in a density-dependent fashion. Since the 1970s, Japan has been prosperous and can afford to buy timber from abroad. More recently, there has been an increasing demand for timber in Japan, that coincides with a huge demand internationally, so that the country will need to produce more timber locally in the future. The increasing pressure on the forestry industry to meet this demand will require more sophisticated methods of pest control coupled with more sustainable methods of silviculture. PMID:12020368

Kamata, N; Kamata, N

2002-04-01

351

A Study of Japan for the Intermediate Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arranged in outline form, this unit on Japan contains over 40 activities for intermediate grade students. Subjects covered are human and physical geography, social history, life style, communication and travel, occupations, recreation, art, education, government, and relations with the United States. Four to 10 activities are described under each…

Sauer, Susan

352

URBAN LOGISTICS BY RAIL AND WATERWAYS IN FRANCE AND JAPAN  

E-print Network

1 URBAN LOGISTICS BY RAIL AND WATERWAYS IN FRANCE AND JAPAN Main author: Diana Diziain, Greater-Est, France KEYWORDS: rail, waterways, intermodal logistics, urban freight, city logistics ABSTRACT for the "mile before last" have been implemented in recent years. In the global supply chain, rail, shipping

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

353

Obstacles and Opportunities for Critical Thinking in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paradoxically, Japan presents both a difficult and promising setting for the advancement of critical thinking skills. One deep-rooted obstacle stems from anti-rational ideological traditions and prejudices. Another comes from the rigidly hierarchical, conformist nature of Japanese society, which does not encourage divergent opinions or their…

Davidson, Bruce W.

354

Vegetation development patterns on skislopes in lowland Hokkaido, northern Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japanese montane zones are usually covered with well-developed forests, and most ski resorts are constructed there. Therefore, the construction of skislopes requires the destruction of forest ecosystems. To detect vegetation development patterns on skislopes, I assessed vegetation on seven skislopes in the lowland of Hokkaido Island, Japan, using 155 2 m×2 m plots. The surrounding vegetation was mostly consisted

Shiro Tsuyuzaki

2002-01-01

355

Castle Towns: An Introduction to Tokugawa Japan. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit introduces students to the historical tradition of a non-Western nation seen within the comparative concept of feudalism. This is done partly through a look at Tokugawa Japan and partly through a comparative examination of the concept of feudalism. Although the unit deals mainly with a specific time span in Japanese history, it also…

Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

356

Teachers' Self-Training Activities on Computer Networks in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of inservice teacher training programs in Japan, which have few links to formal distance education programs. Teachers' growing use of computer communications networks is reviewed as a self-teaching method, and future directions are suggested. (Contains nine references.) (EAM)

Saga, Hiroo

1993-01-01

357

The development and regulation of occupational exposure limits in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, on an administrative basis, establishes and supervises the Administrative Concentration Level, which can be viewed as an Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL) legally binding employers to maintain a good working environment. The Japan Society for Occupational Health, on a scientific basis, establishes the Recommended OELs, which can be viewed as a reference value for

Ken Takahashi; Toshiaki Higashi

2006-01-01

358

Suggestions, Resources and Activities for Teaching about Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher resource packet contains a total of 28 modules for teaching about Japan at the elementary and secondary level. Activities on the Japanese family appropriate for grade 1 focus on similarities and differences, family size, family needs, and family roles. Grade 2 lessons look at the school, neighborhood, roles of children in the…

Thomas, Paul F.

359

Education for sustainable development at Universities in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Education for sustainable development (ESD) aims at changing the approach to education that integrates principles, values and practices of sustainable development, and needs to be incorporated into all forms of learning and education. The purpose of this paper is to review the way in which ESD has been developed at universities in Japan. The paper also seeks to

Yuto Kitamura; Naoko Hoshii

2010-01-01

360

Television for Children in Japan: Trends and Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Japan, the production and broadcasting of television (TV) programs for children began in 1953. After the first few years of trial and error, children's programs gradually rose in popularity with the introduction of TV animation, dramas, special-effects photography, music/variety and quiz shows, comedies, and action dramas. Since the inception…

Kodaira, Sachiko Imaizumi

361

Recent titanium R&D for biomedical applications in japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titanium alloys composed of nontoxic elements are being studied in Japan for use in biomedical applications. The alloys being\\u000a studied are primarily ? + - and -type titanium alloys. Areas of research include surface treatments to improve biocompatibility\\u000a and methods of preventing fretting fatigue, a primary cause of failure in biomaterials.

Mitsuo Niinomi

1999-01-01

362

Lightning detection and lightning protection of power systems in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lightning occurrence data have been collected with the lightning location systems operated by electric power companies in Japan. Seasonal variations and annual variations of lightning occurrence have been clarified from the seasonal and annual lightning stroke frequency maps made by the above data. These data were compared with the faults on transmission lines. The number of faults is almost proportional

Shigeru Yokoyama

2002-01-01

363

The Present State of Economic Education in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors describe the present state of economic education in Japan. There is a larger number of undergraduate students who major in economics, but their purpose of studying economics and their economic literacy differ. Precollege economic education is regulated by the course of study and limited by the poor ability of teachers to teach the…

Yamaoka, Michio; Asano, Tadayoshi; Abe, Shintaro

2010-01-01

364

SO2 ABATEMENT FOR STATIONARY SOURCES IN JAPAN  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of Japanese government efforts to regulate SOx emissions: the efforts were prompted by serious air pollution problems in Japan during the 1960s. Several technologies are being developed including production of low sulfur gas from coal, fuel des...

365

Entrepreneurship in Japan and Silicon Valley: a comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entrepreneurial activities of a region reflect its business climate and habitat for innovation. This is particularly evident in a comparison of firms in Japan and Silicon Valley as entrepreneurial activity in these areas especially faces a different culture and business environment. The objective of this study is to identify the differences along four dimensions affecting the entrepreneurial process and management

Kan-ichiro Suzuki; Sang-Hoon Kim; Zong-Tae Bae

2002-01-01

366

Teacher Internship and the Culture of Teaching in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan's teacher internship was a hotly debated political issue for three decades until the legislature finally approved its implementation in 1988. The aim of this paper is to explore how the culture of teaching mediated the implementation of the government?sponsored teacher internship. The data presented in this paper come from ethnographic research conducted in 1989 with a focus on three

Nobuo K. Shimahara; Akira Sakai

1992-01-01

367

Second Language Acquisition Research in Japan. JALT Applied Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers includes the following: "Second Language Acquisition Research in Japan: Theoretical Issues" (Peter Robinson, Mark Sawyer, and Steven Ross); (2) "Focus on Form: Implicit and Explicit Form Focused Instruction Incorporated into a Communicative Task" (Hitoshi Muranoi); (3) "A Task that Works for Negotiation of Meaning"…

Robinson, Peter, Ed.; Sawyer, Mark, Ed.; Ross, Steven, Ed.

368

Coping Styles That Predict Achievement in Germany, Japan, and America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Coping skills and work motivation were investigated as predictors of academic achievement in Japan, West Germany, and Austin, Texas. Data were gathered from a sample of 3,600 ten and fourteen-year olds. Aptitude was measured by the Raven Progressive Matrices; achievement was measured by standardized tests in reading and mathematics, and by grade…

Peck, Robert F.; And Others

369

Have great earthquakes induced large volcanic eruptions in Japan?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the 2011 Tohoku-oki megathrust earthquake of Mw9.0, a great concern is whether there would be large volcanic eruptions and disastrous aftershocks in Japan or not. There exist 110 active volcanoes in Japan and they have been investigated and their volcanic activity has been compiled every detail by Japan Meteorological Agency. Especially, most of large volcanic eruptions have been classified according to Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI; Newhall and Self, 1982) from 0(Non-explosive) to 8(Mega-colossal). According to "Volcanoes of the World" by Siebert et al. (2010), we could find 50 eruptions classified VEI4 (Large) and Larger (5~) in Japan since 600 A.D. Speaking about great earthquakes, of which earthquake (moment) magnitude (M) is equal to or larger than 8.0, there occurred 34 times since 684 A.D. in Japan. I have compared the date of large eruptions of each volcano and of large earthquakes at first (M>7.5), taking examples of Mt. Fuji, Tokachidake, Hokkaido Komagatake and Sakurajima volcanoes. I also studied inland earthquakes (M>7.2) near volcanoes. Since I could not find any systematic correlation between them, I decided to compare all the Large (and Very Large) volcanic eruptions and the great earthquakes (M>8.0) in Japan. This is to remove the limitation of historical/future period of time for eruption records of each volcano, by considering the volcanic activity in the wide area of Japan. In order to develop the quantitative discussion, we need to introduce cross correlogram analysis (Perkel et al., 1967; Grun, 2009) for these two discrete point-processes. All that I could find was very poor correlation between great earthquakes and large eruptions of the volcanoes in Japan. It is true that many SCIENTIFIC papers tell us the correlation between earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. But it is not true for the correlation between large volcanic eruptions and great earthquakes. The reason is that some small volcanic activity out of many volcanoes in the vicinity has been induced by great earthquakes almost all the time. Even after the Tohoku-oki megathrust earthquake M9.0 of March 11, 2011, it has been reported that the volcanic activity of about 20 of the volcanoes in Japan has been enhanced, including volcanic fumes/tremors and volcanic earthquakes. The evidences should be added of the eruptions of Mt. Fuji in 1707 (VEI5) which was 49 days after the 1707 Hoei earthquake of M8.6 which is the largest earthquake ever recorded in Japan and Bezymianny in 1955 (VEI5) 3 years after the 1952 Kamchatka earthquake of M8.8 which is the largest eruption of the volcano in the history. Both of them have spent about 900~1000 years of rather quite (not large) volcanic activity. This would strongly suggest that great earthquakes might induce large volcanic eruptions nearby, however it is totally dependent on its own potential and preparedness to erupt of each volcano and the earthquakes are just a trigger, the last one push to activate the eruption.

Koyama, Junji

2014-05-01

370

61 FR 68053 - Engineered Process Gas Turbo-Compressor Systems From Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Final)] Engineered Process Gas Turbo-Compressor Systems From Japan AGENCY: United States...Japan of engineered process gas turbo-compressor systems (EPGTS), whether assembled...imports of engineered process gas turbo-compressor systems from Japan are being sold...

1996-12-26

371

| |SAVE THIS EMAIL THIS Close Japan ups bid for fusion reactor site  

E-print Network

Powered by | |SAVE THIS EMAIL THIS Close Japan ups bid for fusion reactor site TOKYO, Japan (AP electricity. The fusion reactor project, first proposed more than a decade ago, is designed to study, rewritten, or redistributed. Associated Press 5/26/04 10:09 AMCNN.com - Japan ups bid for fusion reactor

372

Alerting Humanitarians to Emergencies TOKYO, March 9 (Reuters) -Japan warned the European Union on Wednesday  

E-print Network

Alerting Humanitarians to Emergencies TOKYO, March 9 (Reuters) - Japan warned the European Union to construct the first thermonuclear reactor -- the European Union, Japan, China, the United States, Russia only Japan make a concession?" In Brussels on Monday, European Research Commissioner Janez Potocnik

373

Developing Native Social Intuition in Preparation for an Internship in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The program of the Japan-American Institute of Management Sciences (JAIMS) in Hawaii, a nonprofit graduate-level institution intended to support training for cross-cultural business leadership, is described and discussed. Two curricula, the Japan-focused Master of Business Administration program and the Japan-focused Management Program are offered…

Yamashita, Margaret Y.

374

Japan, France Vying for Korea's Nuclear Project By Cho Jin-seo  

E-print Network

recently have sent high-ranking officials to South Korea, since it will play the key role in the selection, Japan, China, Russia, U.S., and South Korea, is the largest international collaborative scientificJapan, France Vying for Korea's Nuclear Project By Cho Jin-seo Staff Reporter France and Japan

375

The role of mercantilism, humanitarianism, and gaiatsu in Japan's ODA programme in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Three competing explanations for the distribution of Japan's ODA in Asia are empirically examined in this paper. The first explanation hypothesizes that Japan reacts to US pressure and interests as it formulates its foreign aid policy. The competing explanations argue that Japanese ODA is used to promote Japan's national economic interests or humanitarian goals. Methods. We examine the determinants

John P. Tuman; Jonathan R. Strand

2005-01-01

376

Additional Allowance Claim Form Instructions for Residents of South Korea and Japan (Article 4)  

E-print Network

Additional Allowance Claim Form Instructions for Residents of South Korea and Japan (Article 4) Nonresident aliens who are residents of South Korea and Japan may, in specific circum- stances, be able between the U.S. and South Korea and between the U.S. and Japan. Article 4 can be used if the NRA

Adali, Tulay

377

Japan ready to pay 895 million dollars more to host ITER project: report  

E-print Network

Hosoda and Science and Technology Minister Takeo Kawamura, are due to meet soon at Prime Minister international technology projects in which Japan has participated. The project is aimed to be a testJapan ready to pay 895 million dollars more to host ITER project: report 26 May 2004 Japan

378

Japan's Global Role: Proceedings from the Symposium (2nd, Honolulu, Hawaii, October 25-26, 1991).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of eight presentations with responses given at the second in a series of symposia sponsored by the Japan-America Society of in a series of symposia sponsored by the Japan-America Society of Hawaii. Having emerged as an economic superpower, Japan's role on the global stage is still finding its full range and is a topic of…

Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. East-West Center.

379

Dissemination of Regenerative Medicine in Japan: Promoting commercialization under the regulatory system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though Japan has surpassed South Korea in terms of research and development (R&D) in the area of regenerative medicine, South Korea has been more successful at commercialization. This paper focuses on the setup and operation of actual systems that consider the promotion of regenerative medicine in Japan. Analysis of the regulatory systems in Japan and South Korea shows a clear

KURATA Kenji; CHOI Youn-Hee

2012-01-01

380

Science Fair Competition Generates Excitement and Promotes Creative Thinking in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators in the U.S. and Japan have developed an international program to promote creative thinking in science. Their program includes a science fair component. This paper (which has been presented in both the U.S. and Japan) discusses creativity and describes a science fair activity, that the authors recently carried out in Japan. The special…

Barry, Dana M.; Kanematsu, Hideyuki

2006-01-01

381

Seismically and Geodetically Constrained Source Mechanisms of Volcanic Induced Seismicity - Miyakejima, Japan, 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a period of volcanic unrest on Miyakejima, Japan in 2000, the largest recorded earthquake swarm in Japan occurred (Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), 2000). More than 100,000 earthquakes were recorded in the next two months (Ito and Yoshioka, 2002). But the most notable feature of this seismicity is that it migrated northwest with an offshore dike intrusion. In this study,

S. E. Minson; D. S. Dreger; R. Burgmann

2003-01-01

382

Scientific brief on the March 2011 M9 Tohoku-oki Earthquake (Japan)  

E-print Network

of Japan. The earthquake is the 4th largest mea- sured since records began in the early 20th century.1 2004 4. Japan M9.0 2011 5. Kamchatka M9.0 1952 Table 1: Largest 5 Earthquakes on record. Source USGS Subduction regions such as the east coast of Japan gen- erate the world's largest earthquakes. The 5 largest

383

The 2000 Tottori (Japan) earthquake: trigger-ing of the largest aftershock and constraints on  

E-print Network

The 2000 Tottori (Japan) earthquake: trigger- ing of the largest aftershock and constraints on Dc (Japan) earthquake and on the triggering of its largest aftershock. To this end we compute the dynamic and static stress changes caused by the 2000 Western Tottori (Japan) earthquake for which a good knowledge

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

384

77 FR 32998 - Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...731-TA-860 (Second Review)] Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan Determination...the antidumping duty order on tin- and chromium-coated steel sheet from Japan would...4325 (May 2012), entitled Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet from Japan:...

2012-06-04

385

Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 62, pp. 115 to 132, 2006 Japan Sea,  

E-print Network

Variability in the Japan/East Sea and Relationship with Environmental Variables SUNGHYEA PARK* and PETER C of the Japan/East Sea (JES) sea surface temperature (SST) is investigated from the reconstructed NOAA-en- closed ocean basin. The Japan/East Sea§ , hereafter re- ferred to as JES, covers an area of 106 km2

Chu, Peter C.

386

Nonseasonal sea level variations in the Japan//East Sea from satellite altimeter data  

E-print Network

Nonseasonal sea level variations in the Japan//East Sea from satellite altimeter data Byoung surface height (SSH) in the Japan/East Sea (JES) from October 1992 through February 2002. The altimeter Oceanography: Physical: Upper ocean processes; KEYWORDS: sea level, nonseasonal variations, Japan/East Sea

387

VARIABILITY IN THE JAPAN/EAST SEA: PROCESSES GOVERNING SCALES FROM HOURS TO YEARS  

E-print Network

VARIABILITY IN THE JAPAN/EAST SEA: PROCESSES GOVERNING SCALES FROM HOURS TO YEARS D. Randolph Watts, through which the inflow to the Japan / East Sea passes. To level the pressure measurements, we deployed large-scale processes over a wide band of frequencies in the Japan/East Sea. #12;Key individuals working

Rhode Island, University of

388

Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 54, pp. 273 to 284. 1998 Copyright The Oceanographic Society of Japan.  

E-print Network

basin overlaid by a pronounced mon- soon surface wind. The Japan/East Sea (hereafter JES) covers an area of Japan. Keywords: Sea surface temperature, temporal and spatial variability, composite analysis Variabilities of Japan Sea Surface Temperature and Atmospheric Forcings PETER C. CHU 1 , YUCHUN CHEN 2

Chu, Peter C.

389

VARIABILITY IN THE JAPAN/EAST SEA: PROCESSES GOVERNING SCALES FROM HOURS TO YEARS  

E-print Network

VARIABILITY IN THE JAPAN/EAST SEA: PROCESSES GOVERNING SCALES FROM HOURS TO YEARS D. Randolph Watts-gravity modes of rapid SSH variability. APPROACH We have in hand from the Japan/East Sea project data collected which the inflow to the Japan/East Sea passes. The pressure measurements were leveled relative to deep

Rhode Island, University of

390

Shallow and Deep Current Variability in the Southwestern Japan/East Sea D. Randolph Watts  

E-print Network

Shallow and Deep Current Variability in the Southwestern Japan/East Sea D. Randolph Watts Graduate circulation in the Japan/East Sea, with our efforts focusing on the southwestern region where the variability Basin of the Japan/East Sea. The instruments are as labeled in the key with squares designating PIES

Rhode Island, University of

391

Orographic effects during winter cold air outbreaks over the Sea of Japan (East Sea): Results  

E-print Network

Orographic effects during winter cold air outbreaks over the Sea of Japan (East Sea): Results from over the Sea of Japan (East Sea) [JES] has been the object of a number of investigations (Dorman et al 27599 Abstract We study the effects of the coastal topography on the western shore of the Sea of Japan

Scotti, Alberto

392

Shallow and Deep Current Variability in the Southwestern Japan/East Sea D. Randolph Watts  

E-print Network

Shallow and Deep Current Variability in the Southwestern Japan/East Sea D. Randolph Watts Graduate the physics of the mesoscale circulation in the Japan/East Sea, with our efforts focusing on the southwestern) for the special issue on the Japan/East Sea. Work proceeds on additional follow-up papers. RESULTS We have

Rhode Island, University of

393

Near-inertial oscillations interacting with mesoscale circulation in the southwestern Japan/East Sea  

E-print Network

in the southwestern Japan/East Sea using vertical round-trip travel time of sound (t) data from 23 pressure with mesoscale circulation in the southwestern Japan/East Sea, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L10611, doi:10 in the upper and deep southwestern Japan/East Sea. The upper inertial oscillations were observed using

Rhode Island, University of

394

Deep convection and brine rejection in the Japan Sea Lynne D. Talley  

E-print Network

late winter observations in 2000 and 2001 show that the Japan (East) Sea is a part of both exclusiveDeep convection and brine rejection in the Japan Sea Lynne D. Talley Scripps Institution groups. Japan Sea deep convection apparently occurs every winter, but massive renewal of bottom waters

Talley, Lynne D.

395

SHALLOW AND DEEP CURRENT VARIABILITY IN THE SOUTHWESTERN JAPAN/EAST SEA D. Randolph Watts  

E-print Network

SHALLOW AND DEEP CURRENT VARIABILITY IN THE SOUTHWESTERN JAPAN/EAST SEA D. Randolph Watts Graduate the physics of the mesoscale circulation in the Japan/East Sea, focusing our efforts on the southwestern, through which the inflow to the Japan / East Sea passes. To level the pressure measurements, we

Rhode Island, University of

396

Shallow and Deep Current Variability in the Southwestern Japan/East Sea D. Randolph Watts  

E-print Network

Shallow and Deep Current Variability in the Southwestern Japan/East Sea D. Randolph Watts Graduate of the mesoscale circulation in the Japan/East Sea, with our efforts focusing on the southwestern region where Basin of the Japan / East Sea. Yellow diamonds designate PIES sites (P­) and magenta dots designate CM

Rhode Island, University of

397

Shallow and Deep Current Variability in the Southwestern Japan/East Sea D. Randolph Watts  

E-print Network

Shallow and Deep Current Variability in the Southwestern Japan/East Sea D. Randolph Watts Graduate://po.gso.uri.edu/dynamics/jes/index.html LONG-TERM GOALS We seek to understand the physics of the mesoscale circulation in the Japan/East Sea of the Japan / East Sea. Yellow diamonds designate PIES sites (labeled Pj_k) and magenta dots designate CM

Rhode Island, University of

398

A Multi-Index GEM Technique and Its Application to the Southwestern Japan/East Sea  

E-print Network

A Multi-Index GEM Technique and Its Application to the Southwestern Japan/East Sea JAE-HUN PARK, D Japan/East Sea (JES) by Mitchell et al. Comparisons with the in situ CTD casts demonstrate that the MI Japan/East Sea (JES), called the Ulleung Basin (UB), is not suitable to this improved standard GEM

Rhode Island, University of

399

Circulation and currents in the southwestern East/Japan Sea: Overview and review  

E-print Network

Circulation and currents in the southwestern East/Japan Sea: Overview and review K.-I. Chang a,*, W Abstract A review is made of circulation and currents in the southwestern East/Japan Sea (the Ulleung Basin in the middle of the strait. Four-year mean transport into the East/Japan Sea through the Korea/Tsushima Strait

Rhode Island, University of

400

78 FR 60897 - Certain Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe From Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Certain Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe From Japan Determination On...certain welded large diameter line pipe from Japan would likely to lead...public hearing to be held in connection therewith was given by posting...Certain Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe from Japan: Investigation...

2013-10-02

401

Genetic evidence supporting the existence of two distinct species in the genus Gasterosteus around Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic and morphological features ofGasterosteus aculeatus were investigated for 29 populations around Japan. Allozyme analyses recognized two groups (Pacific Ocean group and Japan Sea group) that had distinct characteristic features, and showed high genetic differentiation between them (D = 0.482). The Pacific Ocean group had a wide range, from North America to Japan, along the Pacific coast. The distribution

Masahito Higuchi; Akira Goto

1996-01-01

402

Artemisinin-based combination therapies and their introduction in Japan.  

PubMed

Artemisinin was discovered in 1971 from a herb, Artemisia annua, which had been used for more than 2,000 years in China against intermittent fever. Now, the artemisinin and its derivatives have become essential components of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). The ACTs are the recommended first-line treatments of malaria because they are effective against all four human malarias, produce rapid parasite/fever clearance, and show fewer adverse effects. Some ACTs are particularly important in cases of severe and complicated falciparum malaria, including cerebral malaria. However, neither the artemisinin and its derivatives nor any ACTs are registered in Japan. Indeed, the only licensed drugs for the treatment of malaria in Japan are quinine, mefloquine, and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine. Although indigenous malaria has been eradicated in Japan since 1959, 60-100 imported malaria cases have been reported annually for the past decade. Some of the patients were, in fact, dying of the severe complications. Thus, the introduction of the ACTs and their application to imported malaria patients in Japan are urgently needed. A few clinical studies using the ACTs have been reported in Japan. The first application of an ACT, intramuscular artemether plus mefloquine, was reported in 1988 to be very effective against cerebral malaria with coma. Five cases with intravenous artesunate plus mefloquine were reported through 2001-2007, for severe or drug-resistant falciparum cases, resulting in successful treatment with some side effects such as hemolytic anemia or postmalaria neurological syndrome. Currently, a fixed-dose ACT, artemether-lumefantrine, is prescribed successfully for uncomplicated falciparum cases, with a limited number of recrudescences. PMID:24979951

Kano, Shigeyuki

2014-05-01

403

Porphyrias in Japan: compilation of all cases reported through 2002.  

PubMed

The first case of porphyria on record in Japan was a patient with congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) reported by Sato and Takahashi in 1920. Since then until the end of December 2002, 827 cases of porphyrias have been diagnosed from characteristic clinical and/or laboratory findings (463 males, 358 females, and 6 of unknown sex). Essentially all inherited porphyrias have been found in Japan, with the incidences and clinical symptoms generally being similar to those reported for other countries. The male-female ratio was approximately 1:1 for CEP, whereas it was higher for erythropoietic protoporphyria. In contrast, preponderances of female patients exist with acute hepatic porphyrias, such as acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), variegate porphyria (VP), and hereditary coproporphyria (HCP), and with undefined acute porphyria. Although porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is believed to be increasing recently in women in other countries because of smoking and the use of contraceptives, it is still by far more prominent in males in Japan than in females. The recent increasing contribution of hepatitis C virus infection to PCT in Japan has also been recognized. but there have been no PCT cases in Japan with HFE gene mutations. Familial occurrence and consanguinity were high for CEP, as expected; however, significant consanguinity was also noted in families where CEP, AIP, HCP, VP, or PCT occurred as a single isolated case without a family history of disease. This survey also revealed that as many as 71% of acute hepatic porphyria cases were initially diagnosed as nonporphyria and later revised or corrected to porphyria, indicating the difficulty of diagnosing porphyria in the absence of specific laboratory testing for porphyrins and their precursors in urine, stool, plasma, and erythrocyte samples. PMID:15239394

Kondo, Masao; Yano, Yuzo; Shirataka, Masuo; Urata, Gumpei; Sassa, Shigeru

2004-06-01

404

Current status of substance abuse and HIV infection in Japan.  

PubMed

Japan has experienced an epidemic of methamphetamine (MAP) abuse three times: The first epidemic was from 1951 to 1957, the second epidemic was from 1970 to 1994, and the third epidemic started in 1995 and continues today. Fortunately, HIV infection is not as serious a problem in Japan as it is in other countries. The major route of HIV infection in Japan has been through male homosexual transmission. In cumulative number, homosexual transmission accounted for 63% of the 11,146 HIV-positive patients and 40% of 5,158 AIDS patients as of December 30, 2011. Intravenous drug use accounted for 0.3% and 0.4% of these cases, respectively. Drug abuse has changed during the past 20 years in Japan. The changes are summarized as follows: There has been (1) a remarkable decrease in solvent abuse, (2) a stabilization of MAP abuse, (3) a penetration of cannabis abuse, (4) an emergence of evasive drug abuse, and (5) a silent increase in medical drug dependence. This implies that (1) there has been a change from a "solvent dominant type" of use to a "cannabis dominant type," that is, from a "Japanese type" to a "Western type," (2) a shift to drugs which do not have a high potential to cause drug-induced psychosis, and (3) a shift from conduct that leads to arrest to conduct that does not lead to arrest. Regardless of whether the drug use is illicit or not, drug dependence is a mental disorder. Japan is urged to deal with drug abuse and dependence using not only the criminal model but also the medical model. PMID:25278734

Wada, Kiyoshi; Funada, Masahiko; Shimane, Takuya

2013-12-01

405

The Top-Awarded Reports: The First Contest of Internet Application to Educational Activities in Japan. AVE in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet presents two activities that received awards in the First Contest of Internet Application to Educational Activities in Japan. The first paper describes CHaTNet (Children Homes and Teachers Network) at the Tamagawa Gakuen school, winner of the Prime Minister's Award. CHaTNet is a network of 4,500 participants, including parents,…

Japan Audiovisual Information Center for International Service, Tokyo.

406

How sustainable is Japan's foreign aid policy? An analysis of Japan's official development assistance and funding for energy sector projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan has adopted a sustainable development strategy since the late 1980s in the effort to address social and environmental damages caused by past Japan-funded projects in partner nations. Even after about a decade and a half of the policy implementation, however, there are few reports which critically examine effects of the adoption of the idea of sustainable development. This dissertation evaluates Japan's foreign aid policy to determine the extent to which new revisions of aid policy have improved the environmental sustainability of the policy. This dissertation reviews the mainstream idea of sustainable development (also known as the sustainable development paradigm in this dissertation) to reveal the nature of the idea of sustainable development that Japan's foreign aid policy depends on. A literature review of two development discourses---modernization theory and ecological modernization theory---and three types of critiques against the sustainable development paradigm---focused on adverse impacts of modern science, globalization, and environmental overuse---reveals core logics of and problems with the sustainable development paradigm. Japan's foreign aid policy impacts on energy sector development in recipient countries is examined by means of a quantitative analysis and a qualitative analysis. Specifically, it examines the effect of Japan's ODA program over fifteen years that proposed to facilitate sustainable development in developing countries. Special emphasis is given to investigation of ODA disbursements in the energy sector and detailed case studies of several individual energy projects are performed. The dissertation discovers that the sustainable development paradigm guiding Japan's ODA has little capacity to accomplish its goals to bring about social and ecological improvement in developing countries. This dissertation finds three fundamental weaknesses in Japanese ODA policy on energy sector development as well as the sustainable development paradigm; first, the heavy reliance on modern science leads to a failure to use local knowledge and practices which can be more sustainable to sustainability; second, the acceptance of the international capitalist system as the basis for project implementation results in little or no long-term sustainability commitment; and third, the compatibility of economic growth with environmental sustainability, which appears unlikely in the context of global economic inequality. As an alternative, this dissertation suggests several policies for promoting energy systems for rural sustainable development in the Global South.

Yamaguchi, Hideka

407

Safety Culture And Best Practices At Japan's Fusion Research Facilities  

SciTech Connect

The Safety Monitor Joint Working Group (JWG) is one of the magnetic fusion research collaborations between the US Department of Energy and the government of Japan. Visits by occupational safety personnel are made to participating institutions on a biennial basis. In the 2013 JWG visit of US representatives to Japan, the JWG members noted a number of good safety practices in the safety walkthroughs. These good practices and safety culture topics are discussed in this paper. The JWG hopes that these practices for worker safety can be adopted at other facilities. It is a well-known, but unquantified, safety principle that well run, safe facilities are more productive and efficient than other facilities (Rule, 2009). Worker safety, worker productivity, and high quality in facility operation all complement each other (Mottel, 1995).

Rule, K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., Princeton, NJ (United States); King, M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Takase, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Oshima, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan); Sukegawa, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka (Japan)

2014-04-01

408

A US-Japan collaborative robotics research program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL) have recently initiated a cooperative R&D effort in telerobotics. This new effort, sponsored by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), has two major themes. First, our work broadens the outreach of space telerobotics R&D to international technical collaboration and facilities usage in the United States and Japan. Second, our work fosters development and demonstration of new operator interface technologies to improve the flexibility and reliability of ground-to-orbit telerobotic operations. This new technology is important, given the continuing imperatives to off-load platform maintenance from the extravehicular activity/intravehicular activity (EVA/IVA) crew to on-board robot assists under direct ground mission control.

Schenker, Paul S.; Hirai, Shigeoki

1994-01-01

409

A weekend effect in the seismicity of Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of weekly cyclicity of any one process is one method to search for anthropogenic, in particular, technogenic effects. The present work is devoted to a detailed study of weekly and diurnal inhomogeneities of distribution for earthquakes in Japan. Statistically significant differences between the parameters of the studied distributions were revealed for Sundays (compared to other days of week) in the series of weak, nonrepresentative earthquakes. Samplings of stronger earthquakes did not show that effect. This suggests that a weekend effect in the series of weak earthquakes is an apparent one caused by the noise discrimination of seismic waves. However, noise discrimination cannot explain the nighttime decrease in earthquake number after its day growth on Sunday. With respect to this, different hypotheses explaining the appearance of a weekend effect in the studied earthquake catalog of Japan are considered.

Sidorin, A. Ya.

2014-12-01

410

Nutrition in the Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster.  

PubMed

The Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster (GEJED) struck the northeast region of Honshu, the main island of Japan, on March 11, 2011. This mega-disaster claimed more than 15,000 lives, with approximately 3000 later deaths being disaster related. The GEJED consisted of a mega-earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident. Survivors living in temporary shelters might have received insufficient levels of vitamins, with the exception of vitamin B1, which appeared to be overestimated, and excess levels of sodium. However, scientific data collection and surveys following the GEJED were extremely limited. This experience highlights the need to prepare an “emergency nutrition assessment” system for optimal nutrition in future disasters. PMID:25606634

Amagai, Teruyoshi; Ichimaru, Satomi; Tai, Mayumi; Ejiri, Yutaka; Muto, Atsushi

2014-10-01

411

Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Mycoplasma isolated from bovine mastitis in Japan.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma spp. are highly contagious pathogens and intramammary Mycoplasma infection is a serious issue for the dairy industry. As there is no effective vaccine for Mycoplasma infection, control depends on good husbandry and chemo-antibiotic therapy. In this study, antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma strains recently isolated from cases of bovine mastitis in Japan was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). All Mycoplasma bovis strains were sensitive to pirlimycin, danofloxacin and enrofloxacin, but not kanamycin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin or tylosin. M. californicum and M. bovigenitalium strains were sensitive to pirlimycin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin and tylosin, but not to kanamycin. This is the first report to describe the MIC of major antimicrobial agents for Mycoplasma species isolated from bovine mastitis in Japan. PMID:24261609

Kawai, Kazuhiro; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Iwano, Hidetomo; Iwakuma, Akihiro; Onda, Ken; Sato, Reiichiro; Hayashi, Tomohito; Nagahata, Hajime; Oshida, Toshio

2014-01-01

412

The examples of earthquake preparation in Kamchatka and Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recently proposed predictive parameter RTL was tested using seismological catalogues of Kamchatka and Japan. We analysed three earthquakes in Kamchatka with M>7 and disastrous Hyogo-ken Nanbu (Kobe) earthquake in Japan with M=7.2. It was found that a seismic quiescence had taken place during a period of three years before these earthquakes and been followed by foreshock activation. The dimensions of the quiescence areas reached the first hundreds of kilometers, whereas the epicenters of strong events were located on the edge of quiescence anomalies. The areas of foreshock activation were about 50-100 km, and strong events occurred in the region of maximum anomalies. The number of clusters increased comparatively to the background events during the stages of foreshock activation in epicenter areas of strong earthquakes. The results strengthen the physical basis of earthquake prediction.

Sobolev, Gennady

2001-08-01

413

[The Fukushima nuclear accident: consequences for Japan and for us].  

PubMed

The Fukushima accident was the consequence of a preceding 2-fold natural catastrophe: the earth quake of 11 March 2011 and the subsequent tsunami. Due to favourable winds and to evacuation measures the radiation exposure to the general population in Japan as a whole and with some exceptions in the region outside the evacuation zone, too, was low. In this article the attempt is made to give an estimate of health consequences to the public. This is based upon WHO's dose estimates, knowledge of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, of the atmospheric nuclear bomb testing in Kazakhstan and on the risk of childhood leukaemia after low dose radiation exposure. For Germany, there was no radiation threat due to the accident. Nonetheless, the events in Japan made clear that the rules and standards that were developed for the case of a reactor accident need to be revised. PMID:23576143

Grosche, B

2013-04-01

414

Safety Culture and Best Practices at Japan's Fusion Research Facilities  

SciTech Connect

The Safety Monitor Joint Working Group (JWG) is one of the magnetic fusion research collaborations between the US Department of Energy and the government of Japan. Visits by occupational safety personnel are made to participating institutions on a biennial basis. In the 2013 JWG visit of US representatives to Japan, the JWG members noted a number of good safety practices in the safety walkthroughs. These good practices and safety culture topics are discussed in this paper. The JWG hopes that these practices for worker safety can be adopted at other facilities. It is a well-known, but unquantified, safety principle that well run, safe facilities are more productive and efficient than other facilities (Rule, 2009). Worker safety, worker productivity, and high quality in facility operation all complement each other (Mottel, 1995).

Rule, Keith [PPPL

2014-05-01

415

Current status and prospects on microbial control in Japan.  

PubMed

Historically in Japan, studies on the diseases of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, as a factor affecting the well-being of the silk industry, have dominated insect pathology. However, work by Hidaka in 1933 demonstrated the possibility of controlling the pine moth, Dendrolimus spectabilis, with the fungus Beauveria bassiana and since then, various attempts have been made to develop a method to control insect pests using insect pathogens. The cypovirus product, Matsukemin, was the first microbial control product to be registered in 1974, and inactive and live Bacillus thuringiensis products were also registered and put on the market as pesticides in 1981 and 1982, respectively. Currently, there are 25 microbial insecticides on the market that constitute slightly less than 2% of all insecticides used in Japan. Adoption of biopesticides is likely to increase in the near future due to scientific advances and several new government policies that encourage the use of alternative pest control products. PMID:17462666

Kunimi, Yasuhisa

2007-07-01

416

Disaster Nutrition in the Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster.  

PubMed

The Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster (GEJED) struck the northeast region of Honshu, the main island of Japan, on March 11, 2011. This mega-disaster claimed more than 15,000 lives, with approximately 3000 later deaths being disaster related. The GEJED consisted of a mega-earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident. Survivors living in temporary shelters might have received insufficient levels of vitamins, with the exception of vitamin B1, which appeared to be overestimated, and excess levels of sodium. However, scientific data collection and surveys following the GEJED were extremely limited. This experience highlights the need to prepare an "emergency nutrition assessment" system for optimal nutrition in future disasters. PMID:25057050

Amagai, Teruyoshi; Ichimaru, Satomi; Tai, Mayumi; Ejiri, Yutaka; Muto, Atsushi

2014-07-23

417

Growth hormone treatment in Japan: past, present, and future.  

PubMed

Growth hormone (GH) treatment was approved for growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in Japan in 1975. Since then, GH treatment has been approved for treating five other diseases with short stature. However, available data on adult height after long-term GH treatment is limited to patients with GHD and Turner syndrome. Although adult height of patients with GHD has improved with early diagnosis and early initiation of treatment, the adult height after long-term GH treatment is still not so satisfactory because the therapeutic dose used in Japan is smaller than that used in US and Europe. With early diagnosis, early high-dose treatment, and low-dose estrogen replacement therapy, both adult height and quality of life (QOL) of the patients with Turner syndrome have been improved. PMID:23330250

Tanaka, Toshiaki

2012-10-01

418

Single Motherhood, Living Arrangements, and Time With Children in Japan.  

PubMed

The authors examined relationships between single parenthood and mothers' time with children in Japan. Using data from the 2011 National Survey of Households with Children (N = 1,926), they first demonstrate that time spent with children and the frequency of shared dinners are significantly lower for single mothers than for their married counterparts. For single mothers living alone, less time with children reflects long work hours and work-related stress. Single mothers coresiding with parents spend less time with children and eat dinner together less frequently than either married mothers or their unmarried counterparts not living with parents, net of (grand)parental support, work hours, income, and stress. The findings suggest that rising divorce rates and associated growth in single-mother families may have a detrimental impact on parents' time with children in Japan and that the relatively high prevalence of intergenerational coresidence among single mothers may do little to temper this impact. PMID:25125704

Raymo, James M; Park, Hyunjoon; Iwasawa, Miho; Zhou, Yanfei

2014-08-01

419

Distribution of different mycorrhizal classes on Mount Koma, northern Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the role of mycorrhizae in nutrient-poor primary successional volcanic ecosystems, we surveyed mycorrhizal frequencies on the volcano Mount Koma (42°04'N, 140°42'E, 1,140 m elevation) in northern Japan. After the 1929 eruptions, plant community development started at the base of the volcano. Ammonia and nitrate levels, along with plant cover, decreased with increasing elevation, whereas phosphorus did not. In total,

Shiro Tsuyuzaki; Akira Hase; Hiroko Niinuma

2005-01-01

420

[[Attitudes on marriage among unmarried youths in contemporary Japan  

PubMed

"The purpose of this paper is to describe [attitudes on] marriage among unmarried youths in contemporary Japan, using the unmarried respondents' part of the Tenth Japanese National Fertility Survey carried out in July 1992." Aspects considered include the desirability of arranged marriage; desired age at marriage; desired characteristics of future spouse; women's attitudes on marriage and employment; and the desirability of residing with parents after marriage. (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12290212

Nakano, E; Watanabe, Y

1994-10-01

421

The United States and Japan pursue a common agenda.  

PubMed

In July 1993, the US and Japan formed the "Common Agenda for Cooperation in Global Perspective," an economic alliance to promote health and human development, respond to challenges to global stability, protect the global environment, advance science and technology, and foster exchanges for mutual understanding. A Global Issues Initiative (GII) has been created within this framework to support family planning, HIV and sexually transmitted disease prevention and control efforts, maternal and child health, primary health care, and women's empowerment. Participation in the GII has led Japan to more than double the technical assistance it provides and to broaden its geographic focus from Asia to the entire developing world. The US continues to fund population and health programs in more than 50 countries. The Common Agenda grew out of a US-Japan development assistance policy consultation dialogue known as the "Honolulu process," which sought ways to promote mutual understanding among US and Japanese development assistance personnel (through international internships) and nongovernmental organizations and to identify specific areas for joint or parallel development projects. Cooperative activities are underway in the Philippines, Indonesia, Bangladesh, India, Ghana, Peru, Guatemala, Mexico, and Jamaica. Joint project evaluations have also taken place in Zambia and Ghana. The Common Agenda's Children's Health Initiative has supported such initiatives as achieving child immunization in the Newly Independent States and joint efforts to eradicate polio and micronutrient disorders. The Women in Development initiative enhances girls' education and assists women engaged in small-scale enterprises. After initial difficulties in agreeing on joint strategies, the Common Agenda has been an "overwhelmingly positive" experience with the potential to meet critical challenges, because Japan and the US account for 40% of all development assistance worldwide. PMID:12347597

Westley, S B

1996-10-01

422

Fungi on submerged wood in the Koito River, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Woody substrates were collected from the Koito River in Japan, and the biodiversity of fungi on these substrates was investigated.\\u000a Twenty-eight species were identified, comprising 12 ascomycete and 16 anamorphic taxa. The common fungi included Chaetosphaeria sp., Ophioceras commune, Pseudohalonectria lignicola, and Savoryella lignicola. The occurrence of fungi on submerged wood is discussed, and three interesting taxa – Pseudohalonectria lignicola,

C. K. M. Tsui; K. D. Hyde; K. Fukushima

2003-01-01

423

Porphyrias in Japan: Compilation of All Cases Reported through 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first case of porphyria on record in Japan was a patient with congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) reported by Sato\\u000a and Takahashi in 1920. Since then until the end of December 2002, 827 cases of porphyrias have been diagnosed from characteristic\\u000a clinical and\\/or laboratory findings (463 males, 358 females, and 6 of unknown sex). Essentially all inherited porphyrias have\\u000a been

Masao Kondo; Yuzo Yano; Masuo Shirataka; Gumpei Urata; Shigeru Sassa

2004-01-01

424

Thermophotovoltaic potential applications for civilian and industrial use in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigative research on potential market for TPV power sources in Japan has been focused on how TPV can contribute to energy conservation and environmental protection and harmony. The application needs for TPV were surveyed in comparison with conventional engine or turbine generators and developing power generation technologies such as fuel cells or chemical batteries, etc. The investigation on the performance of commercial generators shows that regarding system efficiency, TPV can compete with conventional generators in the output power class of tens of kW. According to the sales for small scale generators in Japan, most of the generators below 10 kW class are utilized mainly for construction, communication, leisure, and that 10-100 kW class generators are for cogeneration in small buildings. Waste heat recovery in dispersed furnaces is another potential application of compact TPV cells. Exhaust heat from small scale incinerators and industrial furnaces is undesirable to be recorded into electricity due to excessive heat loss of the smaller steam turbine generators. Solar powered TPV is also of our concern as a natural energy use. From the viewpoint of applicability for TPV, portable generators cogeneration systems, and solar power plants were selected for our system consideration. Intermediate report on the feasibility study concerning such TPV systems is given as well as the review of the current status of competing power generation technologies in Japan.

Yamaguchi, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

1999-03-01

425

Excess mortality among the unmarried: a case study of Japan.  

PubMed

Recent research has demonstrated that mortality patterns by marital status in Japan are different from corresponding patterns in other industrialized countries. Most notably, the magnitude of the excess mortality experienced by single Japanese has been staggering. For example, estimates of life expectancy for the mid-1900s indicate that single Japanese men and women had life expectancies between 15 and 20 years lower than their married counterparts. In addition, gender differences among single Japanese have been smaller than elsewhere, while those among divorced persons have been unanticipatedly large; and, the excess mortality of the Japanese single population has been decreasing over the past few decades in contrast to generally increasing differentials elsewhere. In this paper, we use a variety of data sources to explore several explanations for these unique mortality patterns in Japan. Undeniably, the traditional Japanese system of arranged marriages makes the process of selecting a spouse a significant factor. Evidence from anthropological studies and attitudinal surveys indicates that marriage is likely to have been and probably continues to be more selective with regard to underlying health characteristics in Japan than in other industrialized countries. However, causal explanations related to the importance of marriage and the family in Japanese society may also be responsible for the relatively high mortality experienced by singles and by divorced men. PMID:8434277

Goldman, N; Hu, Y

1993-02-01

426

Status of reduced enrichment program for research reactors in Japan  

SciTech Connect

The status of reduced enrichment program for research reactors in Japan will be reviewed. The reduced enrichment programs for the JRR-3M, JRR-4 and JMTR of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA, former name is Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI)) has been completed by 1999, and the reactors are being satisfactory operated using LEU fuels. The KUR of Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) has been partially completed and is still in progress under the Joint Study Program with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The JRR-3M using LEU silicide fuel elements have done a functional test by the Japanese Government in 2000, and the property of the reactor core was satisfied. JAEA has established a 'U-Mo fuel ad hoc committee' and has been studying the U-Mo fuel installation plan by carefully observing the development situation of the U-Mo fuel. In KURRI, the KUR has terminated its operation using HEU fuel on February 2006. The HEU KUR spent fuel elements will be sent to the U.S. by March 2008. Licensing for the full core conversion of KUR to LEU fuel is under progress and the core conversion to LEU is expected to be completed in 2008. (author)

Unesaki, Hironobu [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Asashiro-nishi 2-1010, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Ohta, Kazunori; Inoue, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata Shirane 2-4, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan)

2008-07-15

427

"Shool Biotope" as science and environment educational tools in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have very small artificial pond in elementary school and junior high school in Japan. There are small fish, aquatic insect, and plant, and we can easily check and study. Recently, this type very small artificial pond that we call "Biotope" has been reconsidered as educational tool for study about biology and ecology. We introduce the some cases of the elementary school in Shimane Prefecture, Japan. And then, we pick up some important good educational materials and methods and their problems. Shimane prefecture is the place where relatively much nature is left even in Japan, and children are favored in the opportunity which usually touches nature and study it. It thought about use for Biotope in the inside of school of such from the viewpoint of science and environment education. It is possible with Biotope in the inside of school that a fish, aquatic insect, and plant in Biotope and that's environment are observed for every day and for a long time. As for the teacher of the elementary and junior high schools, it is important to make a plan of Biotope corresponding to the subject and those contents of learning through the year. We define School-Biotope as a thing that a teacher recognizes that educational importance and to make the most of as an education subject intentionally.

Yoshida, K.; Matsumoto, I.

2011-12-01

428

Clinical features and management of organic acidemias in Japan.  

PubMed

Organic acidemias (OAs) are rare inborn errors of metabolism. The clinical presentations of methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) and propionic acidemia (PA) in Japan have not yet been examined in detail. We aimed to investigate the clinical presentations of OAs in Japan and evaluate current therapies for improving long-term outcomes, especially in MMA and PA cases. Questionnaires were sent to 928 institutions in 2009 inquiring about OAs, and secondary questionnaires were sent to those who confirmed that they had diagnosed and/or treated such cases; 119 cases were eventually included for analysis. In Japan, the majority of OAs was MMA, which was associated with a high mortality rate. The survival rates at 20 years of age in vitamin B12-unresponsive MMA, vitamin B12-responsive MMA and PA patients were 69.8%, 94.4% and 95.8%, respectively. Factors associated with mortality in MMA were failure to thrive, hypoglycemia and pancreatitis. Factors associated with mental retardation in vitamin B12-unresponsive MMA, vitamin B12-responsive MMA, and PA were seizure and liver dysfunction, seizure and failure to thrive, and failure to thrive, respectively. We advocated that avoiding failure to thrive due to too restricted protein diet, hypoglycemia and pancreatitis associated with mortality lead to improve outcome, especially in vitamin B12-unresponsive MMA patients. PMID:24067294

Fujisawa, Daisuke; Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Ohura, Toshihiro; Shigematsu, Yosuke; Yorifuji, Tohru; Kasahara, Mureo; Horikawa, Reiko; Endo, Fumio

2013-12-01

429

A short history of tsunami research and countermeasures in Japan  

PubMed Central

The tsunami science and engineering began in Japan, the country the most frequently hit by local and distant tsunamis. The gate to the tsunami science was opened in 1896 by a giant local tsunami of the highest run-up height of 38 m that claimed 22,000 lives. The crucial key was a tide record to conclude that this tsunami was generated by a “tsunami earthquake”. In 1933, the same area was hit again by another giant tsunami. A total system of tsunami disaster mitigation including 10 “hard” and “soft” countermeasures was proposed. Relocation of dwelling houses to high ground was the major countermeasures. The tsunami forecasting began in 1941. In 1960, the Chilean Tsunami damaged the whole Japanese Pacific coast. The height of this tsunami was 5–6 m at most. The countermeasures were the construction of structures including the tsunami breakwater which was the first one in the world. Since the late 1970s, tsunami numerical simulation was developed in Japan and refined to become the UNESCO standard scheme that was transformed to 22 different countries. In 1983, photos and videos of a tsunami in the Japan Sea revealed many faces of tsunami such as soliton fission and edge bores. The 1993 tsunami devastated a town protected by seawalls 4.5 m high. This experience introduced again the idea of comprehensive countermeasures, consisted of defense structure, tsunami-resistant town development and evacuation based on warning. PMID:19838008

Shuto, Nobuo; Fujima, Koji

2009-01-01

430

The Early Evolutionary History of Belemnites: New Data from Japan  

PubMed Central

Belemnites (Order Belemnitida), a very successful group of Mesozoic coleoid cephalopods, dominated the world's oceans throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous. According to the current view, the phylogenetically earliest belemnites are known from the lowermost Jurassic (Hettangian, 201–199 Ma) of northern Europe. They are of low diversity and have small sized rostra without clear grooves. Their distribution is restricted to this area until the Pliensbachian (191–183 Ma). Here we describe two new belemnite taxa of the Suborder Belemnitina from the Sinemurian (199–191 Ma) of Japan: Nipponoteuthis katana gen et sp. nov., which represents the new family Nipponoteuthidae, and Eocylindroteuthis (?) yokoyamai sp. nov. This is the first reliable report of Sinemurian belemnites outside of Europe and the earliest record of typical forms of Belemnitina in the world. The Sinemurian belemnites from Japan have small to large rostra with one deep and long apical groove. Morphologically these forms are completely different from coeval European genera of Hettangian–Sinemurian age. These new findings suggest that three groups of Belemnitina existed in the Hettangian–Sinemurian: 1) European small forms, 2) Japanese very large forms, and 3) the typical forms with a distinctive apical groove, reported here. The Suborder Belemnitina therefore did not necessarily originate in the Hettangian of northern Europe. The new material from Japan documents that the suborder Belemnitina had a much higher diversity in the early Jurassic than previously thought, and it also shows strong endemisms from the Sinemurian onwards. PMID:24788872

Iba, Yasuhiro; Sano, Shin-ichi; Mutterlose, Jörg

2014-01-01

431

Learning from Japan: strengthening US emergency care and disaster response.  

PubMed

As Hurricane Katrina demonstrated in 2005, US health response systems for disasters-typically designed to handle only short-term mass-casualty events-are inadequately prepared for disasters that result in large-scale population displacements. Similarly, after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, Japan found that many of its disaster shelters failed to meet international standards for long-term provision of basic needs and health care for the vulnerable populations that sought refuge in the shelters. Hospital disaster plans had not been tested and turned out to be inadequate, and emergency communication equipment did not function. We make policy recommendations that aim to improve US responses to mass-displacement disasters based on Japan's 2011 experience. First, response systems must provide for the extended care of large populations of chronically ill and vulnerable people. Second, policies should ensure that shelters meet or exceed international standards for the provision of food, water, sanitation, and privacy. Third, hospital disaster plans should include redundant communication systems and sufficient emergency provisions for both staff and patients. Finally, there must be routine drills for responses to mass-displacement disasters so that areas needing improvement can be uncovered before an emergency occurs. PMID:24301402

Parmar, Parveen; Arii, Maya; Kayden, Stephanie

2013-12-01

432

Hi-net: High sensitivity seismograph network, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high sensitivity seismograph network in Japan (Hi-net), composed of around 600 seismic stations, is a part of the project made by ‘The Headquarter for Earthquake Research Promotion’ after 1995 Hyogoken-nanbu Earthquake and has been constructed and operated by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). Seismic stations are distributed homogeneously covering whole Japan Islands with an average spacing of 20 30 km. Three-component short period velocity seismometers are installed at the bottom of boreholes with depth of 100 m or deeper. Seismic data are digitized by 24-bit A/D converter and decimated to 27bit data with the sampling frequency of 100Hz. Stations are connected to the Hi-net data center, NIED in Tsukuba by a frame relay network service. TCP/IP and SNMP are used for data transmission and network management, respectively. The data are continuously transmitted to the data center and local offices of Japan Meteorological Agency for routine monitoring of seismic activity. The data receiving, monitoring, processing, and archiving system is controlled by a database management system in the data center. Event detection, phase picking, hypocentral determination, spectra analyses, and extracting waveform parameters are processed automatically. Event information and continuous waveform data are available through the world-wide-web.

Obara, Kazushige

433

[Factors influencing the frequency of consanguineous marriages in Japan].  

PubMed

A survey of consanguineous marriages in Japan was conducted through questionnaires in 1983. The total number of couples studied was 9225, chosen from 6 widely different areas of Japan. The rates of first cousin marriages and of total consanguineous marriages for all areas were 1.6% and 3.9%, respectively. The rate of total consanguineous marriages was 10 times higher in Fukue-Shi (7.9%) than Asahikawa city area (.78%). The rate of total consanguineous marriages decreased with the marriage year in Japan, where the rate of first cousin marriages has changed remarkably. The rates of consanguineous marriages were estimated according to marital distance between birth places, socioeconomic classes, religion, marriage form, opportunity of encounter, and motivation towards marriage. Among educational groups, the rate was highest in graduates of junior high school for husbands and wives, and the rate was lowest in college or university graduates. Occupationally, the rate was the highest in agriculture, forestry, and fishery for husbands and wives, and the rate was lowest among salesmen for husbands and in professional occupations and researchers for wives. As for opportunities of encounter, the rate was 22-29 times higher in the group for friendship from the time of childhood (25.8%) than in those for school, workplace, and social gatherings (1.2%) and for chance meetings (.9%). A recommendation by parents and relatives was the most frequent reason for consanguineous marriage for both husbands and wives, followed by knowledge of the partner by relatives. PMID:12314927

Imaizumi, Y

1987-04-01

434

NTHAS8: The Eighth Japan-Korea Symposium on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics and Safety Beppu, Japan, December 9-12, 2012  

E-print Network

NTHAS8: The Eighth Japan-Korea Symposium on Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics and Safety Beppu, Japan for reducing the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop in the liquid metal blanket of a fusion reactor. An MHD flow experiment was conducted to verify the MHD pressure drop reduction by using the three

Abdou, Mohamed

435

PROCEEDINGS: UNITED STATES/JAPAN CONFERENCE ON SEWAGE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY (11TH), HELD IN TOKYO, JAPAN ON OCTOBER 12-14, 1987  

EPA Science Inventory

The publication contains Japanese and American papers presented at the Eleventh United States-Japan Conference on Sewage Treatment Technology held in Tokyo, Japan, October 12-14, 1987. The proceedings of the conference comprise a useful body of knowledge on advances in wastewater...

436

Early High Tc Activity in Japan: The Franco Rasetti Lecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From 1960 to 1980, R&D of superconductivity in Japan was carried out mainly to improve A15 superconducting wires and magnets. Improvement of wires were made mainly in the National Institute for Metals, and improvements of superconducting magnets were made in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for future nuclear fusion reactors, the National Railway Laboratory for future maglev trains and also in the Electo-Technical Laboratory for MHD generators. I began the research of BPBO in 1975 and at that time the research of oxide superconductors was limited only to my laboratory in the University of Tokyo. During the study of this new superconductor, we learned quite a lot on how to make ceramic samples, how to measure electrical conductivity and magnetic susceptibility at low temperatures. In 1982, Prof. S. Nakajima organized a rather small group for investigating ``New Superconducting Phenomena,'' and I became a member of the group. In 1985, Nakajima expanded the research group to include more than 5 experimentalists and 5 theoreticians. The title of the research was ``New Superconducting Materials'' and the funds came from the Ministry of Education of Japan. In late October, 1986, we followed the first paper of Bednorz and Muller, and immediately found the material includes high temperature superconductor and reported it to the group meeting held in early November. In early December, we confirmed La2-xBaxCuO4 is the real high temperature superconductor, the critical temperature is 28K. I sent a copy of our paper to Prof. Beasley of California and asked to inform this fact to his colleagues. Asahi Shimbun, the biggest newspaper in Japan announced this in its science section, and then many people knew the high temperature superconductor had been discovered. Then many physicists and chemists rushed to this field very quickly and many kinds of materials were synthesized. In the Government, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), and the Agency for Science and Technology began to make new development plans of their own. Superconductivity fever then started in Japan. ISTEC was established in early 1988 under the support of MITI and industries.

Tanaka, Shoji

2007-03-01

437

2012/13 abnormal cold winter in Japan associated with Large-scale Atmospheric Circulation and Local Sea Surface Temperature over the Sea of Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On Japan, wintertime cold wave has social, economic, psychological and political impacts because of the lack of atomic power stations in the era of post Fukushima world. The colder winter is the more electricity is needed. Wintertime weather of Japan and its prediction has come under the world spotlight. The winter of 2012/13 in Japan was abnormally cold, and such a cold winter has persisted for 3 years. Wintertime climate of Japan is governed by some dominant modes of the large-scale atmospheric circulations. Yasunaka and Hanawa (2008) demonstrated that the two dominant modes - Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Western Pacific (WP) pattern - account for about 65% of the interannual variation of the wintertime mean surface air temperature of Japan. A negative AO brings about cold winter in Japan. In addition, a negative WP also brings about cold winter in Japan. Looking back to the winter of 2012/13, both the negative AO and negative WP continued from October through December. If the previous studies were correct, it would have been extremely very cold from October through December. In fact, in December, in accordance with previous studies, it was colder than normal. Contrary to the expectation, in October and November, it was, however, warmer than normal. This discrepancy signifies that an additional hidden circumstance that heats Japan overwhelms these large-scale atmospheric circulations that cool Japan. In this study, we therefore seek an additional cause of wintertime climate of Japan particularly focusing 2012 as well as the AO and WP. We found that anomalously warm oceanic temperature surrounding Japan overwhelmed influences of the AO or WP. Unlike the inland climate, the island climate can be strongly influenced by surrounding ocean temperature, suggesting that large-scale atmospheric patterns alone do not determine the climate of islands. (a) Time series of a 5-day running mean AO index (blue) as defined by Ogi et al., (2004), who called it the SVNAM index. For reference, the conventional AO index is shown by the gray line. (b) a 5-day running mean WP index, (c) area-averaged Surface Air Temperature anomalies in Japan, (d) Air Temperature anomalies, (e) heat flux anomalies, and (f) Sea Surface Temperature anomalies. The boxed area on the Sea of Japan indicates the area in which the (d)-(f) indexes were calculated.

Ando, Y.; Ogi, M.; Tachibana, Y.

2013-12-01

438

Deep-Sea Research II 52 (2005) 16711683 Response of the southwestern Japan/East Sea  

E-print Network

Deep-Sea Research II 52 (2005) 1671­1683 Response of the southwestern Japan/East Sea to atmospheric of the southwestern Japan/East Sea (JES) to atmospheric pressure ðPatm� and wind-stress ð~t� forcing is investigated mass within the basin on a broad range of frequencies. The Japan/East Sea (JES) is a semi-enclosed sea

Rhode Island, University of

439

NSF/Tokyo Report: An Overview of Engineering Education in Japan  

NSF Publications Database

Special Scientific Report #97-08 (April 16, 1997) An Overview of Engineering Education in Japan The following report was prepared by Ms. Susan Coady Kemnitzer, Deputy Director, Engineering Education and Centers Division at the National Science Foundation. Japan had just embarked on implementing the Science and Technology Basic Law that established a broad and ambitious plan for changing government support of science and technology in Japan. The main features of the Science and Technology ...

440

Renewable Energy Opportunities at the Kanto Installations, Japan  

SciTech Connect

This document provides an overview of renewable resource development potential at the U.S. Army installations in the Kanto region in Japan, which includes Camp Zama, Yokohama North Dock, Sagamihara Family Housing Area (SFHA), Sagami General Depot, and Akasaka Press Center. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also on ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings. The effort was funded by the Huntsville Army Corps of Engineers, and includes the development of a methodology for renewable resource assessment at Army installations located on foreign soil. The methodology is documented in Renewable Energy Assessment Methodology for Japanese OCONUS Army Installations. The site visit to the Kanto installations took place on April 5 and 6, 2010. At the current time, there are some renewable technologies that show economic potential. Because of siting restrictions and the small size of these installations, development of most renewable energy technologies will likely be limited to Camp Zama. Project feasibility is based on installation-specific resource availability and energy costs and projections based on accepted life-cycle cost methods. Development of any renewable energy project will be challenging, as it will require investigation into existing contractual obligations, new contracts that could be developed, the legality of certain partnerships, and available financing avenues, which involves the U.S. Forces Japan (USFJ), the Government of Japan (GOJ), and a number of other parties on both sides. The Army will not be able to implement a project without involvement and approval from the other services and multiple levels of Japanese government. However, implementation of renewable energy projects could be an attractive method for GOJ to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower annual utility payments to USFJ. This report recommends projects to pursue and offers approaches to use. The most promising opportunities include waste-to-energy and ground source heat pumps. Solar photovoltaics (PV) may also prove successful. Other resources were found to be insufficient on the Kanto installations.

Solana, Amy E.; Horner, Jacob A.; Russo, Bryan J.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Kora, Angela R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Hand, James R.; Orrell, Alice C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.

2010-09-24

441

The Earthquake Early Warning System in Japan (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Japan, the earthquake early warning system (Kinkyu Jishin Sokuhou in Japanese) maintained by the Japan Meterological Agency (JMA) has been in operation and sending pubic information since October 1, 2007. Messages have been broadcast on television and radio to warn of strong shaking to the public. The threshold for broadcasting a message is an estimated intensity of JMA 5 lower, which is approximately equivalent to MM VII to VIII. During the period from October 2007 through August 2010, messages have been sent 9 times for earthquakes of magnitude 5.2 to 7.0. There have been a few instances of significantly over-estimating or under-estimating the predicted shaking, but in general the performance of the system has been quite good. The quality of the detection system depends on the dense network of high-quality seismometers that cover the Japanese Islands. Consequently, the system works very well for events on or close to the 4 main islands, but there is more uncertainty for events near the smaller and more distant islands where the density of instrumentation is much less The Early Warning System is also tied to an extensive education program so that the public can react appropriately in the short amount of time given by the warning. There appears to be good public support in Japan, where people have become accustomed to a high level of fast information on a daily basis. There has also been development of a number of specific safety applications in schools and industry that work off the backbone information provided in the national system.

Mori, J. J.; Yamada, M.

2010-12-01

442

Facts about the Eastern Japan Great Earthquake of March 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2011 great earthquake was a magnitude 9.0 Mw undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred early morning UTC on Friday, 11 March 2011, with the epicenter approximately 70 kilometres east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tohoku and the hypocenter at an underwater depth of approximately 32 km. It was the most powerful known earthquake to have hit Japan, and one of the five most powerful earthquakes in the world overall since modern record keeping began in 1900. The earthquake triggered extremely destructive tsunami waves of up to 38.9 metres that struck Tohoku Japan, in some cases traveling up to 10 km inland. In addition to loss of life and destruction of infrastructure, the tsunami caused a number of nuclear accidents, primarily the ongoing level 7 meltdowns at three reactors in the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant complex, and the associated evacuation zones affecting hundreds of thousands of residents. The Japanese National Police Agency has confirmed 1,5457 deaths, 5,389 injured, and 7,676 people missing across eighteen prefectures, as well as over 125,000 buildings damaged or destroyed. JAXA carried out ALOS emergency observation just after the earthquake occured, and acquired more than 400 scenes over the disaster area. The coseismic interferogram by InSAR analysis cleary showing the epicenter of the earthquake and land surface deformation over Tohoku area. By comparison of before and after satellite images, the large scale damaged area by tunami are extracted. These images and data can access via JAXA website and also GEO Tohoku oki event supersite website.

Moriyama, T.

2011-12-01

443

Y chromosomal DNA variation and the peopling of Japan.  

PubMed Central

Four loci mapping to the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome were genotyped in Japanese populations from Okinawa, the southernmost island of Japan; Shizuoka and Aomori on the main island of Honshu; and a small sample of Taiwanese. The Y Alu polymorphic (YAP) element is present in 42% of the Japanese and absent in the Taiwanese, confirming the irregular distribution of this polymorphism in Asia. Data from the four loci were used to determine genetic distances among populations, construct Y chromosome haplotypes, and estimate the degree of genetic diversity in each population and on different Y chromosome haplotypes. Evolutionary analysis of Y haplotypes suggests that polymorphisms at the YAP (DYS287) and DXYS5Y loci originated a single time, whereas restriction patterns at the DYS1 locus and microsatellite alleles at the DYS19 locus arose more than once. Genetic distance analysis indicated that the Okinawans are differentiated from Japanese living on Honshu. The data support the hypotheses that modern Japanese populations have resulted from distinctive genetic contributions involving the ancient Jomon people and Yayoi immigrants from Korea or mainland China, with Okinawans experiencing the least amount of admixture with the Yayoi. It is suggested that YAP+ chromosomes migrated to Japan with the Jomon people > 10,000 years ago and that a large infusion of YAP- chromosomes entered Japan with the Yayoi migration starting 2,300 years ago. Different degrees of genetic diversity carried by these two ancient chromosomal lineages may be explained by the different life-styles (hunter-gatherer versus agriculturalist). of the migrant groups, the size of the founding populations, and the antiquities of the founding events. Images Figure 1 PMID:7717406

Hammer, M F; Horai, S

1995-01-01

444

The Science and Technology Resources of Japan: A Comparison with the United States  

NSF Publications Database

... Science and Technology Resources of Japan: A Comparison with the United States Hypertext Format ... A Comparison with the United States Portable Document Format (.pdf) The Science and Technology ...

445

Operation beauty: discourses of cosmetic surgery in popular women's magazines in Australia, Germany and Japan.  

E-print Network

??This thesis analyses representations of cosmetic surgery in the syndicated women’s magazines Cosmopolitan and Marie Claire across three cultural contexts: Australia, Germany and Japan. Through… (more)

Weinmann, M

2010-01-01

446

Seismic consequences of warm versus cool subduction metamorphism: examples from southwest and northeast japan  

PubMed

Warm and cool subduction zones exhibit differences in seismicity, seismic structure, and arc magmatism, which reflect differences in metamorphic reactions occurring in subducting oceanic crust. In southwest Japan, arc volcanism is sparse and intraslab earthquakes extend to 65 kilometers depth; in northeast Japan, arc volcanism is more common and intraslab earthquakes reach 200 kilometers depth. Thermal-petrologic models predict that oceanic crust subducting beneath southwest Japan is 300 degrees to 500 degrees C warmer than beneath northeast Japan, resulting in shallower eclogite transformation and slab dehydration reactions, and possible slab melting. PMID:10542143

Peacock; Wang

1999-10-29

447

Pandemic influenza virus surveillance, Izu-Oshima Island, Japan.  

PubMed

A population-based influenza surveillance study (using PCR virus subtyping) on Izu-Oshima Island, Japan, found that the cumulative incidence of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections 2 seasons after the pandemic was highest for those 10-14 years of age (43.1%). No postpandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 case-patients had been infected with A(H1N1)pdm09 virus during the pandemic season. PMID:23092603

Inamasu, Tomoko; Sudo, Kouji; Kato, Shingo; Deguchi, Hiroshi; Ichikawa, Manabu; Shimizu, Tadanori; Maeda, Tadami; Fujimoto, Shuhei; Takebayashi, Toru; Saito, Tomoya

2012-11-01

448

Pandemic Influenza Virus Surveillance, Izu-Oshima Island, Japan  

PubMed Central

A population-based influenza surveillance study (using PCR virus subtyping) on Izu-Oshima Island, Japan, found that the cumulative incidence of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections 2 seasons after the pandemic was highest for those 10–14 years of age (43.1%). No postpandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 case-patients had been infected with A(H1N1)pdm09 virus during the pandemic season. PMID:23092603

Inamasu, Tomoko; Sudo, Kouji; Kato, Shingo; Deguchi, Hiroshi; Ichikawa, Manabu; Shimizu, Tadanori; Maeda, Tadami; Fujimoto, Shuhei; Takebayashi, Toru

2012-01-01

449

Seasonal Distribution of Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 in Lake Biwa, Japan? †  

PubMed Central

The seasonal distribution of the cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) in Lake Biwa, Japan, was investigated. CyHV-3 was distributed all over the lake 5 years after the first outbreak. The mean concentration of CyHV-3 in water showed annual oscillation, with a peak in the summer and a trough in winter. Our results suggested that CyHV-3 is present at high density in reductive environments, such as reed zones and turbid or eutrophic water. PMID:19734343

Minamoto, Toshifumi; Honjo, Mie N.; Kawabata, Zen'ichiro

2009-01-01

450

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) safety measures in Japan.  

PubMed

Since the first identification of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Japan in September 2001, a series of safety measures was introduced by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and the Food Safety Commission of the Cabinet Office. These measures included blanket BSE testing and removal of specified risk materials at slaughterhouses, surveillance of risk animals and a ban on the use of meat-and-bone meals and traceability on all farms. The Japanese experience over the past five years has shed light on several issues in countries that have a low BSE incidence. PMID:17283392

Yamanouchi, Kazuya; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro

2007-01-01

451

An ongoing large submarine landslide at the Japan trench  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with an active submarine landslide on a landward trench slope in the Japan trench. Studied area is located on the upper terrace ranging from 400 to 1200 m in water depth, off Sendai, northeast Japan. We have surveyed in detail the seabed topography using a multi narrow beam (hereafter MBES) and a subbottom profiler (hereafter SBP) during the cruise MR12-E02 of R/V Mirai. The survey lines were 12 lines in N-S, and 3 lines in E-W, and situated in the region from 141°45'E, 37°40'N to 142°33'E, 38°32'N. Moreover, we used multi-channel seismic profile by the cruise KR04-10 of R/V Kairei in the interpretation of the SBP results. In general, horseshoe-shaped depressions of about 100 km wide along the trench slope are arrayed along the Japan trench. It has thought that they were formed by large submarine landslides, but we could not understand critically the relationship between the depressions and the submarine landslides. Based on the survey results, we found signals of an active submarine landslide in the depression as follows. 1) We observed arcuate-shaped lineaments, which are sub-parallel to a horseshoe-shaped depression. The lineaments concentrate in the south region from 38°N at about 20 km wide. These lineaments are formed by deformation structures as anticlines, synclines and normal fault sense displacements. 2) Most of the synclines and anticlines are not buried to form the lineaments. 3) Normal faults cutting about 1 km deep are observed in a multi-channel seismic profile. The normal faults are located just below the arcuate-shaped lineaments, and are tilted eastward being the downslope direction. It indicates a large submarine landslide. We concluded that the arcuate-shaped lineaments were generated by surface sediment movement with the submarine landsliding. We think that the submarine landslide of about 20 km wide and about 1 km thick move continuously down the landward trench slope. This would be the formation process of the horseshoe-shaped depression along the Japan trench.

Nitta, S.; Kasaya, T.; Miura, S.; Kawamura, K.

2013-12-01

452

Development of magnetically levitated high speed transport system in Japan  

SciTech Connect

In Japan, huge passenger traffic moves through the Tokyo-Osaka corridor and the demand is mounting on one more high speed line besides the Tokaido Shinkansen. A magnetically levitated vehicle (JR Maglev) using superconducting magnets has been developed for the Tokyo-Osaka superspeed express. JR Maglev has many advantages over conventional rail systems. This paper describes the necessity of one more high speed line in this corridor, the reason the author chose Maglev, the scheme of this system, history of the development and outline of the new Yamanashi test line project.

Sawada, Kazuo [Railway Technical Research Inst., Kokubunji (Japan). Maglev System Development Div.] [Railway Technical Research Inst., Kokubunji (Japan). Maglev System Development Div.

1996-07-01

453

Ocean bottom seismic and tsunami network along the Japan Trench  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Huge tsunami, which was generated by the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake of M9 subduction zone earthquake, attacked the coastal areas in the north-eastern Japan and gave severe casualties (about 20,000 people) and property damages in the areas. The present tsunami warning system, based on land seismic observation data, did not work effectively in the case of the M9 earthquake. For example, real tsunami height was higher than that of forecast by this system. It is strongly acknowledged that marine observation data is necessary to make tsunami height estimation more accurately. Therefore, new ocean bottom observation project has started in 2011 that advances the countermeasures against earthquake and tsunami disaster related to subduction zone earthquake and outer rise earthquake around Japan Trench and Kuril Trench. A large scale ocean bottom cabled observation network is scheduled to be deployed around Japan Trench and Kuril Trench by 2015. The network is consisted of 154 ocean bottom observation stations. Ocean bottom fiber optic cables, about 5100 km in total length, connect the stations to land. Observation stations with tsunami meters and seismometers will be placed on the seafloor off Hokkaido, off Tohoku and off Kanto, in a spacing of about 30 km almost in the direction of East-West (perpendicular to the trench axis) and in a spacing of about 50 - 60 km almost in the direction of North-South (parallel to the trench axis). Two or more sets of tsunami meters and seismometers will be installed in one station for redundancy. Two sets of three component servo accelerometers, a set of three component quartz type accelerometers (frequency outputs), a set of three component velocity seismometers will be installed, and two sets of quartz type depth sensors (frequency outputs) will be installed as tsunami meters. Tsunami data and seismometer data will be digitized at sampling frequency of 10 Hz and 100 Hz, respectively, and will be added clock information at land stations. These digitized data will be transmitted to the data centers, JMA (Japan Meteorological Agency), and so on, using IP network.

Uehira, K.; Kanazawa, T.; Noguchi, S.; Aoi, S.; Kunugi, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Okada, Y.; Sekiguchi, S.; Shiomi, K.; Shinohara, M.; Yamada, T.

2012-12-01

454

Discussion on the progress and future of satellite communication (Japan)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status of communications satellite development in Japan is presented. It is shown that beginning with research on satellite communucations in the late 1950's, progress was made in the areas of communications, remote sensing, and technology experimentation. The current status of communication satellites is presented, stressing development in the areas of CFRP construction elements, the use of LSI and MIC circuits, advanced multibeam antenna systems, Ku and Ka band transmission systems, and the shift to small-scale earth stations. Methods for reducing costs and increasing transmission efficiency are shown. The technical specifications of all satellite projects currently under development are given. Users of Japanese communications satellite are presented.

Ogata, M.; Mizusawa, H.; Irie, K.

1985-01-01

455

Borna disease virus in Raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Japan.  

PubMed

We have examined the seroprevalence of BDV in wild Raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Hokkaido, Japan. Serum samples from raccoons were examined using ELISA and Western blot assays to detect the presence of serum antibodies that react specifically to BDV antigens. Among 549 investigated individuals, eleven (2.0%) showed a positive reaction to BDV antigens. Brain tissue samples from five individuals were subjected to RT-PCR, which detected BDV sequences in three of them. Sequence analysis revealed a high degree of genetic conservation between BDV sequences derived from raccoons and previously published sequences derived from other animal species. PMID:19721351

Hagiwara, Katsuro; Matoba, Youhei; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko

2009-08-01

456

Private Sector Initiative Between the U.S. and Japan  

SciTech Connect

OAK-A258 Private Sector Initiative Between the U.S. and Japan. This report for calendar years 1993 through September 1998 describes efforts performed under the Private Sector Initiatives contract. The report also describes those efforts that have continued with private funding after being initiated under this contract. The development of a pyrochemical process, called TRUMP-S, for partitioning actinides from PUREX waste, is described in this report. This effort is funded by the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), KHI, the United States Department of Energy, and Boeing.

None

1998-09-30

457

Research activities on digital holographic displays in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, researches on digital holographic 3D display are getting very active as well as the digital holography for 3D image acquisition. This paper reviews recent research activities in Japan, including digital holographic 3D video displays, digital holographic fringe printers and computer-generated holograms. The holographic video display includes 100 megapixel full-color full-parallax display, horizontal scanning display, enlarged viewing angle display. For the fringe printer, laser plotter and tiling systems are introduced. For the computer-generated hologram, various kinds of hologram types are described as well as fast computation methods.

Yoshikawa, Hiroshi

2011-06-01

458

Observations of the 1985 Giacobinid meteor shower in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A strong meteor shower was observed by members of the Nippon Meteor Society during the evening of October 8, 1985, across Japan. Most observations were visual but some were made telescopically or photographically. FM radio and TV camera techniques were also used. Considering the position of the radiant and the orbital elements of the meteors, the shower was undoubtedly the Giacobinids. The maximum zenithal hourly rate of the shower was 154 at 10h10m UT. This rate was, however, much lower than 5000 during the display of the Giacobinids in 1933 or in 1946.

Nagaswa, K.; Kawagoe, A.

1987-04-01

459

Four new Pythium species from aquatic environments in Japan.  

PubMed

Four new species of Pythium s.str., namely Pythium utonaiense, Pythium brachiatum, Pythium biforme and Pythium junctum, were described based on their morphology and molecular phylogeny. These species were isolated from freshwater samples collected from aquatic environments (pond and lake) in Japan. They were identified as belonging to the genus Pythium s.str. by their morphology, such as filamentous hyphal inflated structures, and molecular phylogenetic analyses based on the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA gene and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. The new species are compared to closely related Pythium species regarding their phylogenetic positions and morphological features. PMID:25411087

Uzuhashi, Shihomi; Okada, Gen; Ohkuma, Moriya

2015-02-01

460

Association of automobile passenger transportation and economic growth in Japan  

E-print Network

passenger-miles will be presented. These trends will show how the two modal use changed after the Var in Japan. CHAPTER II THE HISTORY OP PASSENGER TRANSPORTATION IN THE U. S. A. I'RON 1910 TO 1940 Pmil passengers increased prior to the early twenties... of Japanese post-war passenger transportation, a comparative study of the U. S. passenger transporta- ti. on development between 1910 and 1940 has been made. The growth rate of automobile ownership prior to the Great Depression is larger than the rate...

Horie, Teruhiko

1969-01-01

461

Nationwide measurements of cosmic-ray dose rates throughout Japan.  

PubMed

Cosmic-ray dose rates on the ground were measured throughout Japan. Neutron dose rates were measured as ambient dose equivalent rates (H*(10)) at 240 points using high-sensitivity neutron REM counters. In addition, cosmic rays directly ionising plus photon components were measured with an ionisation chamber. Time variation due to solar modulation during this study was corrected based on the results of sequential measurements. The effects of altitude, geomagnetic latitude, rainfall and snowfall on the neutron dose rate were inferred from the measured results. The mean value of the neutron dose rates (H*(10)) measured at 47 points of prefectural capitals in Japan was 4.0 nSv h(-1). The value corrected for the energy response of the REM counter was 6.4 nSv h(-1), corresponding to 4.8 nSv h(-1) as an effective dose (ISO). The mean value of the cosmic ray directly ionising plus photon components as an effective dose was 31 nSv h(-1). PMID:19151128

Nagaoka, K; Hiraide, I; Sato, K; Nakamura, T

2008-01-01

462

The structural characteristics of radiation oncology in Japan in 2003  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To ascertain the basic structural characteristics of radiation oncology facilities in Japan, we conducted a national survey on their status in 2003. The aims of the survey included the following: present status of radiation treatment facilities, equipment, personnel, patient loads, and other factors. Methods and Materials: A mail survey verified each potential facility delivering megavoltage radiation therapy and collected data on treatment devices, other equipment, personnel, new patients, and so on. Responses were obtained from 100% of potential facilities. Results: A total of 726 facilities delivered radiation therapy, with 859 megavoltage devices, 203 RALS (remote after-loading system) and other radioactive sources, with 941 FTE (full-time employee) radiation oncologists including 369 FTE Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiation Oncology-certified radiation oncologists, 1555 FTE radiation therapists, and 70 FTE physicists in 2003. Megavoltage devices included two heavy ion units and four proton units. In total, there were 149,793 new patients and 146,351 (98%) by external irradiation; 4379 (3%) were treated by brachytherapy with or without external irradiation. Eighty-six percent of the facilities had treatment-planning computers, but 4% had no treatment-planning capability. Six percent (44 facilities) of all facilities used hyperthermia, 12% (85 facilities) intraoperative radiation therapy, and 2% (12 facilities) intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Conclusion: Facilities surveys continue to provide a source of census data on radiation oncology in Japan, allowing comparisons among facility groups and over time.

Shibuya, Hitoshi [JASTRO Database Committee, Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan)]. E-mail: shibuya.mrad@tmd.ac.jp; Tsujii, Hirohiko [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba-shi, Chiba (Japan)

2005-08-01

463

Problems and Their Solutions in Genetic Counseling Education in Japan  

PubMed Central

With the expansion of novel chromosome testing, a career as a certified genetic counselor has been gathering a lot of attention. However, few people certified as a genetic counselor after completing postgraduate courses are able to find employment as a genetic counselor, and their salaries are quite low. It is also questionable whether or not such newly graduated genetic counselors, who have limited life experience and knowledge, can fully understand family issues and properly perform counseling sessions. To address these issues, a wide range of education and training may be necessary. In this study, we examined current problems in genetic counseling education in Japan, and proposed effective measures to address these problems. Toward creating a new society, we are currently establishing a national qualification system and cultivating qualified professionals capable of providing patients with accurate information on chromosome and genetic testing. In addition, these professionals could encourage younger generations to have an interest in genetic counseling. I also hope that these professionals will work not only in Japan but all over the world. PMID:25121085

Kohzaki, Hidetsugu

2014-01-01

464

Regulation of food-related carcinogens in Japan.  

PubMed

Use of hazardous environmental substances in Japan is regulated, based on their risk assessment, by laws of various ministries, depending upon the chemicals concerned. Food additives and food contaminants are controlled by the Food Sanitation Law of the Ministry of Health and Welfare. When manufacture or import of new food additives is intended, their physicochemical and biological data are evaluated by the Food Sanitation Investigation Council. When new data become available on the carcinogenicity of food additives that have been approved and are in use, these compounds are reevaluated. Between 1974 and 1986, twelve chemicals were proved to be carcinogenic in Japan by task groups for evaluation of the carcinogenicity of food additives, medical drugs and pesticides, which were organized by the Ministry of Health and Welfare. Of these compounds, 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide was banned from use, but use of hydrogen peroxide and potassium bromate was permitted, provided that these compounds were decomposed or removed from the final products. The use of butylated hydroxyanisole within fixed limits in some foodstuffs was also permitted. Decisions on the use of these compounds were based on the prevailing opinion on carcinogens at the time. This paper reports these facts with a consideration of future problems on the regulation of food carcinogens. PMID:2185510

Sato, S

1990-04-01

465

The Relationship between H. pylori Infection and Osteoporosis in Japan  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective. H. pylori infection causes a chronic inflammation in the gastric mucosa. However, this local inflammation may result in extra-digestive conditions. Our aim is to investigate the relationship between H. pylori infection and osteoporosis in Japan. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted among outpatients at the Juntendo University Hospital between 2008 and 2014. Participants for patient profile, H. pylori infection status, comorbidity, internal medical therapies, lumbar dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and bone turnover marker were collected and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for reflux esophagitis, hiatal hernia, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), and endoscopic gastric mucosal atrophy (EGA) was performed. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was performed in accordance with the Japanese criteria. We investigated risk factors of osteoporosis. Results. Of the eligible 200 study subjects, 41 cases were of osteoporosis. Bivariate analysis showed that age, being female, BMI, alcohol, smoking, H. pylori, bone-specific ALP, PUD, and EGA were related to osteoporosis. Multivariate analysis showed that age (OR 1.13; 95%CI 1.07–1.20), being female (OR 4.77; 95%CI 1.78–12.77), BMI (OR 0.79; 95%CI 0.68–0.92), H. pylori (OR 5.33; 95%CI 1.73–16.42), and PUD (OR 4.98; 95%CI 1.51–16.45) were related to osteoporosis. Conclusions. H. pylori infection may be a risk factor of osteoporosis in Japan. PMID:25024699

Asaoka, Daisuke; Nagahara, Akihito; Hojo, Mariko; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Shimada, Yuji; Yoshizawa, Takashi; Osada, Taro; Watanabe, Sumio

2014-01-01

466

Climatological Diversity of Producing Places for Vegetables in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climatic variability, including extreme events such as heat waves, floods, and droughts, is one of main factors that threaten stable agricultural production. In fact, it has caused many agro-meteorological disasters all over the world. Furthermore, climate change will increase the frequency and severity of extreme events and will increase the risk of agro-meteorological disasters. Crop diversification that increase the variety of production locations, crops, enterprises or income sources, has been commonly identified at local scale, and is thought as an useful adaptation to climatic variability. However, little is known about crop diversification at national or international scales. Here, I focus on the spatial diversity of producing places, and propose a new index that quantifies the spatial diversity of producing places in consideration of climatological correlations between producing places. I named the index "Climatological Diversity of Producing Places (CDPP)." Second, using the CDPP, I investigated the long-term trends of vulnerability to climatic variability for 14 vegetables (31 cropping types) in Japan. I found that the GDPPs of 12 vegetables (17 cropping types) showed statistically significant increases. The results revealed the vulnerability to climatic variability has been reducing for many vegetables in Japan.

Masutomi, Y.

2012-12-01

467

Isolation and characterization of Leptospira spp. from raccoons in Japan.  

PubMed

We investigated whether raccoons (Procyon lotor) carried leptospires in their kidneys in Japan. Leptospira was isolated from 2 of 71 raccoons captured in Kanagawa Prefecture and 1 of 53 raccoons at a zoological park in Nagasaki Prefecture. Anti-Leptospira antibodies were detected in 16 of 124 raccoons (12.9%) in Kanagawa and 33 of 53 raccoons (62.3%) in Nagasaki, respectively. The partial nucleotide sequences of their flaB genes suggested that the isolates belonged to L. interrogans. The serovars of the isolates were identified as Copenhageni/Icterohaemorrhagiae (1 strain in Kanagawa) and Hebdomadis (1 strain both in Kanagawa and Nagasaki) by reactivity with the reference antisera and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and cross-agglutination-absorption test, respectively. RFLP analysis on the serovars Hebdomadis strains revealed genetic diversity among serovar Hebdomadis. Although it is unclear if the raccoons carried leptospires in their kidneys at the time imported, there is no doubt that imported animals are a new reservoir animal of leptospires in Japan. PMID:19420844

Koizumi, Nobuo; Uchida, Masaki; Makino, Takashi; Taguri, Toshitsugu; Kuroki, Toshiro; Muto, Maki; Kato, Yukio; Watanabe, Haruo

2009-04-01

468

Blood Donor Deferral among Students in Northern Japan: Challenges Ahead  

PubMed Central

Summary Background As Japan's aging society needs more blood, young students comprise a progressively smaller portion of the donor pool. To ensure a safe and sustainable blood supply, it is crucial to select suitable donors. This study aims to evaluate donor deferral rates, causes of deferral, and characteristics of deferred Japanese students. Methods Computerized records of blood centers in northern Japan (Miyagi and Fukushima Prefectures) from March 2010 through March 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Results Among 231,361 individuals visiting during the 12-month period, 24,778 were students. Of these, 19,193 (77%) attempted donation, and 5,585 (23%) were deferred. Low hemoglobin, questionnaire-based interview decisions, and medication were the main reasons for temporary deferral. Age, sex, and blood center location were associated with low hemoglobin; donation history and blood center location were associated with medication-based deferral. The odds ratio among female students deferred for low hemoglobin was 35.48 with a 95% CI of 27.74–45.38. Conclusions These results suggest that continued efforts are needed to motivate deferred potential donors to return, to prevent low hemoglobin especially among females, and to review medical interview decisions, while paying close attention to regional differences. PMID:25254020

Ngoma, Alain Mayindu; Goto, Aya; Nollet, Kenneth E.; Sawamura, Yoshihiro; Ohto, Hitoshi; Yasumura, Seiji

2014-01-01

469

Practical experience of telehealth between an Antarctic station and Japan.  

PubMed

The Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) has had a presence in Antarctica since 1956. The Syowa station is 15,000 km from Japan and evacuation of patients is impossible during the winter months. From 1956 to 2003, a total of 4932 telemedical consultations were undertaken, i.e. every member of the station needed an average of 4 medical consultations each winter. Forty five percent of the consultations were surgical or orthopaedic cases, 23% were for internal medicine and 12% were for dental problems. In the early 1980s, satellite radio-telephony was found to be useful for consultations, but did not have the ability to transmit medical pictures. Email was transmitted by the International Mobile Satellite Organization (INMARSAT) but the connection was only available every 2 hours and the maximum message size was 100 kByte. In 2004, the International Telecommunications Satellite (INTELSAT) system made a connection constantly available, and increased the maximum message size to 10 MByte. Transmission of still and moving pictures became possible. Scheduled consultations are performed monthly. A doctor in Japan can ask the patient questions and perform a proxy examination with the assistance of the Antarctic doctor. Real-time telemedicine is very effective in orthopaedic and surgical cases, skin, eye and dental troubles. Still pictures are more effective for understanding in detail skin and eye problems. Emergency consultations are effective if adequate consulting staff are available. PMID:23209273

Ohno, Giichiro; Watanabe, Kentaro; Okada, Yutaka; Higuchi, Kazuo

2012-12-01

470

Pathological examination of breast cancer biomarkers: current status in Japan.  

PubMed

This article reviews the current status of pathological evaluation for biomarkers in Japan. The introduced issues are the international trends for estimation of biomarkers considering diagnosis and treatment decision, and pathological issues under discussion, and how Japanese Breast Cancer Society (JBCS) members have addressed issues related to pathology and biomarkers evaluation. As topics of immunohistochemical study, (1) ASCO/CAP guidelines, (2) Ki67 and other markers, (3) quantification and image analysis, (4) application of cytologic samples, (5) pre-analytical process, and (6) Japan Pathology Quality Assurance System are introduced. Various phases of concepts, guidelines, and methodologies are co-existed in today's clinical practice. It is expected in near future that conventional methods and molecular procedures will be emerged, and Japanese Quality assurance/Quality control (QA/QC) system will work practically. What we have to do in the next generation are to validate novel procedures, to evaluate the relationship between traditional concepts and newly proposed ideas, to establish a well organized QA/QC system, and to standardize pre-analytical process that are the basis of all procedures using pathological tissues. PMID:25239167

Masuda, Shinobu

2014-09-20

471

Cytogenetics and clinical features of pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome in Japan.  

PubMed

We analyzed the cytogenetics and clinical features of pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) in Japan. Data on patients (<16 years) diagnosed with MDS from 1990 to 2000 were retrospectively collected from pediatric hematologists in 234 institutions. Chromosome analysis was successfully performed in 255 of 277 MDS patients. The numbers of patients with refractory anemia, refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts, refractory anemia with excess of blasts (RAEB), refractory anemia with excess of blasts in transformation (RAEBt), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia were 67 (24%), 51 (18%), 51 (18%), 20 (7%), and 65 (23%), respectively. The other 23 patients (8%) could not be classified specifically. The distribution of childhood MDS in Japan according to the French-American-British subclassification was similar to that in other countries. However, we identified a higher incidence of therapy-related cases. As for relationship between cytogenetics and prognoses, abnormal karyotypes were related to poorer prognoses than normal karyotype (P < 0.01). However, patients with trisomy 8 had prognoses comparable to those with normal karyotypes. Complex karyotypes were associated with poorer prognoses among RAEB and RAEBt patients. In conclusion, prognosis of pediatric MDS is related to cytogenetics. A more precise diagnosis and classification system is needed for childhood MDS. PMID:25261124

Moriwaki, Koichi; Manabe, Atsushi; Taketani, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Akira; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Hayashi, Yasuhide

2014-11-01

472

Midterm Summary of Japan-US Fusion Cooperation Program TITAN  

SciTech Connect

Japan-US cooperation program TITAN (Tritium, Irradiation and Thermofluid for America and Nippon) started in April 2007 as 6-year project. This is the summary report at the midterm of the project. Historical overview of the Japan-US cooperation programs and direction of the TITAN project in its second half are presented in addition to the technical highlights. Blankets are component systems whose principal functions are extraction of heat and tritium. Thus it is crucial to clarify the potentiality for controlling heat and tritium flow throughout the first wall, blanket and out-of-vessel recovery systems. The TITAN project continues the JUPITER-II activity but extends its scope including the first wall and the recovery systems with the title of 'Tritium and thermofluid control for magnetic and inertial confinement systems'. The objective of the program is to clarify the mechanisms of tritium and heat transfer throughout the first-wall, the blanket and the heat/tritium recovery systems under specific conditions to fusion such as irradiation, high heat flux, circulation and high magnetic fields. Based on integrated models, the breeding, transfer, inventory of tritium and heat extraction properties will be evaluated for some representative liquid breeder blankets and the necessary database will be obtained for focused research in the future.

Muroga, Takeo [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan; Sze, Dai-Kai [University of California, San Diego; Sokolov, Mikhail [ORNL; Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL

2011-01-01

473

Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy for Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Japan  

PubMed Central

Transcatheter methods such as transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) have an important role in the treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, sorafenib, an inhibitor of tyrosine kinases, has been found to obtain survival benefits in patients with HCC, leading to major advances in the treatment of advanced HCC. However, it is associated with a low tumor response rate, minimal survival advantage, and high rates of adverse events. On the other hand, high rates of objective treatment response with HAIC for advanced HCC have been reported, although convincing evidence of it contributing to overall survival in HAIC has been lacking. In Japan, HAIC still tends to be the preferred method for the treatment of advanced HCC, even in patients with poor liver function. However, the choice of chemotherapeutic agents in TACE/HAIC for HCC varies between institutions. In this review, based on studies reported to date in the literature, we refer to current knowledge regarding the chemotherapeutic agents used for TACE/HAIC for HCC in Japan and consider the future perspectives for HAIC for this cancer. PMID:24213234

Nishikawa, Hiroki; Osaki, Yukio; Kita, Ryuichi; Kimura, Toru

2012-01-01

474

US-Japan Cooperative Program on neutron scattering  

SciTech Connect

The US-Japan Cooperative Program on Neutron Scattering was implemented through arrangements by the United States Department of Energy with the Science and Technology Agency (STA) and the Ministry of Science, Education, and Culture (Monbusho) of Japan. It involves research collaboration in neutron scattering by Japanese scientists with scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and the construction of new neutron scattering equipment at both laboratories with funds provided by the Japanese government. The United States provides neutrons in exchange for the new equipment, and other costs of the program are equally shared by the two countries. The assignments of Japanese scientists to ORNL and BNL vary in length, but they correspond to about two person years annually at each laboratory. An equal number of US scientists also participate in the research program. The main research collaboration is centered around the new equipment provided by the Japanese, but other facilities are utilized when they are needed. The new equipment includes a new type of wide-angle diffractometer and equipment for maintaining extreme sample environments at ORNL and a sophisticated polarized-beam triple-axis spectrometer at BNL. 13 refs., 3 figs.

Wilkinson, M.K.; Blume, M.; Stevens, D.K.; Iizumi, M.; Yamada, Y.

1987-01-01

475

Diagnosis and treatment of urea cycle disorder in Japan.  

PubMed

Urea cycle disorder (UCD) is an inborn error of the metabolic pathway producing urea from ammonia, which occurs primarily in the liver. Decreased excretion of nitrogen in the urea cycle due to deficiency of carbamoyl phosphate synthase I (CPSI), ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC), argininosuccinate synthase (ASS), argininosuccinate lyase (ASL), and N-acetyl glutamate synthase (NAGS) causes hyperammonemia. We examined the clinical manifestations, treatment, and prognosis of 177 patients with UCD from January 1999 to March 2009 in Japan. Compared with a previous study conducted in Japan, a larger number of patients survived without mental retardation, even when the peak blood ammonia was >360 ?mol/L. In those with peak blood ammonia >360 ?mol/L, an indicator of poor prognosis, the frequency of convulsions, mental retardation, brain abnormality on magnetic resonance imaging, hemodialysis, liver transplantation, and intake of non-protein formulas was significantly higher than in those with peak blood ammonia <360 ?mol/L. In this article, we have reported the current state of UCD to evaluate prognosis and its relationship with peak blood ammonia and hemodialysis. PMID:25039902

Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Kido, Jun; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Endo, Fumio

2014-08-01

476

Outreach Activities of National Astronomical Observatory of Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activities on the outreach issues in the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) are mainly conducted by the Public Relations Center established in June 1998. Its mission is to present the latest findings in astronomy to the public in a manner that is understandable, contemporary, and exciting. For this purpose, we provide a wide range of services and deliver a variety of scientific information through multiple ways. We also maintain an effective partnership with lots of dissemination experts working at the public observatories, the science museums, and the planetariums in Japan. The representative outreach activities in NAOJ are follows. • Telephone service to answer the questions on astronomy (about 10,000 calls a year) • Press release (about 60 a year) to about 100 registered journalists • Press Members' Lounge" for registered journalists • A special seminar for science journalists every year • Service of astronomical ephemeredes, and nautical almanacs. • Weekly news letter service named "Astro-Topics" • Monthly paper magazine "NAOJ news" • Web site service (http://www.nao.ac.jp/) (about 10^7 hits a year) • Open campus or visitor service to the public • Regular star party using a modern 50-cm reflector twice a month • Coordination and cooperation with other astronomical facilities. Such as Public Astronomical Observatory Network (PAONET), Star Week Program

Ono, T.; Watanabe, J.; Agata, H.

2006-08-01

477

Problems and their solutions in genetic counseling education in Japan.  

PubMed

With the expansion of novel chromosome testing, a career as a certified genetic counselor has been gathering a lot of attention. However, few people certified as a genetic counselor after completing postgraduate courses are able to find employment as a genetic counselor, and their salaries are quite low. It is also questionable whether or not such newly graduated genetic counselors, who have limited life experience and knowledge, can fully understand family issues and properly perform counseling sessions. To address these issues, a wide range of education and training may be necessary. In this study, we examined current problems in genetic counseling education in Japan, and proposed effective measures to address these problems. Toward creating a new society, we are currently establishing a national qualification system and cultivating qualified professionals capable of providing patients with accurate information on chromosome and genetic testing. In addition, these professionals could encourage younger generations to have an interest in genetic counseling. I also hope that these professionals will work not only in Japan but all over the world. PMID:25121085

Kohzaki, Hidetsugu

2014-01-01

478

Gold seal and Kyushu dynasty: Unsolved mysteries of ancient Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A central dogma of the Japanese history is that, throughout the history, there was absolutely no other dynasty or kingdom than the dynasty of the Imperial House of Japan (Yamato dynasty) which continues to exist since some 1500˜2000 years ago. Although much inconsistency has been noted between this dogma and accumulated records of Chinese historical documents on ancient Japan, almost all the Japanese historians have not taken such inconsistency seriously and even attributed it to mistakes or confusion of the Chinese historians who wrote the documents. But, one historian, Takehiko Furuta, who fully believes in the Chinese records, analyzed them recently in a very logical and even scientific manner and reached a surprising conclusion that there was a dynasty in northern Kyushu (Kyushu dynasty) and it was always this dynasty that appeared in the Chinese old records until 648 A.D., whereas the Yamato dynasty which started as a branch of the Kyushu dynasty finally overcame the Kyushu dynasty around 700 A.D. This new theory seems to be supported by many archaeological discoveries in and around the Fukuoka area, one of the most notable examples of which is the Gold Seal that appears in the Symposium poster. These remind us of the famous story that Heinrich Scliemann who believed in Homer's The Iliad as real finally succeeded in excavating the ruins of Troy.

Kamimura, Masayasu

1992-05-01

479

Prospects for increased contraceptive pill use in Japan.  

PubMed

Although oral contraceptives are not commercially available in Japan, a low-dose contraceptive pill is expected to become available soon. The current rate of pill use is less than 1 percent, but recent survey data indicate that about 10 percent of currently married women of reproductive age intend to use the pill when it comes on the market. Those who favor the pill do so because it is highly effective in preventing unwanted pregnancies, and because it reduces the need for abortions. Many other women report uncertainty about the pill because of concern about side effects. Given that Japan has a contraceptive failure rate of about 25 percent, with 29 percent of women having had at least one abortion, many women who do not yet favor the pill may shift to it once the low-dose pill comes on the market and they are reassured about its safety. Thus, the rate of pill use is likely to rise well above 10 percent. PMID:1792677

Ogawa, N; Retherford, R D

1991-01-01

480

A review of factors affecting vaccine preventable disease in Japan.  

PubMed

Japan is well known as a country with a strong health record. However its incidence rates of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) such as hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella remain higher than other developed countries. This article reviews the factors that contribute to the high rates of VPD in Japan. These include historical and political factors that delayed the introduction of several important vaccines until recently. Access has also been affected by vaccines being divided into government-funded "routine" (eg, polio, pertussis) and self-pay "voluntary" groups (eg, hepatitis A and B). Routine vaccines have higher rates of administration than voluntary vaccines. Administration factors include differences in well child care schedules, the approach to simultaneous vaccination, vaccination contraindication due to fever, and vaccination spacing. Parental factors include low intention to fully vaccinate their children and misperceptions about side effects and efficacy. There are also provider knowledge gaps regarding indications, adverse effects, interval, and simultaneous vaccination. These multifactorial issues combine to produce lower population immunization rates and a higher incidence of VPD than other developed countries. This article will provide insight into the current situation of Japanese vaccinations, the issues to be addressed and suggestions for public health promotion. PMID:25628969

Kuwabara, Norimitsu; Ching, Michael Sl

2014-12-01

481

A Review of Factors Affecting Vaccine Preventable Disease in Japan  

PubMed Central

Japan is well known as a country with a strong health record. However its incidence rates of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) such as hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella remain higher than other developed countries. This article reviews the factors that contribute to the high rates of VPD in Japan. These include historical and political factors that delayed the introduction of several important vaccines until recently. Access has also been affected by vaccines being divided into government-funded “routine” (eg, polio, pertussis) and self-pay “voluntary” groups (eg, hepatitis A and B). Routine vaccines have higher rates of administration than voluntary vaccines. Administration factors include differences in well child care schedules, the approach to simultaneous vaccination, vaccination contraindication due to fever, and vaccination spacing. Parental factors include low intention to fully vaccinate their children and misperceptions about side effects and efficacy. There are also provider knowledge gaps regarding indications, adverse effects, interval, and simultaneous vaccination. These multifactorial issues combine to produce lower population immunization rates and a higher incidence of VPD than other developed countries. This article will provide insight into the current situation of Japanese vaccinations, the issues to be addressed and suggestions for public health promotion.

Ching, Michael SL

2014-01-01

482

Octants and Sextants before the 1860s Preserved in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The octant was invented in 1731 independently in the UK and US, and the sextant by John Campbell around 1757. Octants were brought to Japan in the 1770s by ships of the Dutch East India Company. A Dutch booklet manual on octants ``Beschryvinge van het Octant en deszelfs Gebruik" (Description of the octant and its usage) written in 1749 by Cornelis Douwes was translated into Japanese at Nagasaki in the 1780s--90s. This translation triggered serious attention of Japanese astronomers to octants. Because those instruments had no chance to be used in ocean navigation due to the strict seclusion policy forced by the then Shogunal government, the Japanese instead devised methods to use octants and sextants for land surveying. Sextants specially designed for the ground measurements were made, and even precursor instruments of the modern range finder were also produced. In this paper we report results of our recent survey investigation of octants and sextants preserved in Japan, which were imported or home-made before the 1860s. About ten objects were identified. We describe their characteristics in terms of originality and influence from overseas products. We also plan to report on accurate measurements of some of domestic products of the 19th century using a modern standard scale, in an attempt to infer how the Japanese artisans at that time could inscribe the graduation without such as a Ramsden's dividing machine.

Nakamura, Tsuko

2012-09-01

483

Creating the wholesale market for electricity in Japan : what should Japan learn from major markets in the United States and Europe?  

E-print Network

The movement of deregulation in Japan's electric power industry started in 1995 with the revision of the Electric Utility Industry Law. During these past over five years, levels of various discussions have been made in ...

Hori, Takahide

2001-01-01

484

An Application of Convergence Theory to Japan's Post-WWII Economic "Miracle."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an explanation of the post-World War II economic phenomenon of Japan as a process of economic convergence within the framework of the neoclassical Solo-Swan model of economic growth. States that this interpretation helps students understand economic growth and development and Japan's modern economic history. (JEH)

Valdes, Benigno

2003-01-01

485

Psychological process from hospitalization to death among uninformed terminal liver cancer patients in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although the attitude among doctors toward disclosing a cancer diagnosis is becoming more positive, informing patients of their disease has not yet become a common practice in Japan. We examined the psychological process, from hospitalization until death, among uninformed terminal cancer patients in Japan, and developed a psychological model. METHODS: Terminal cancer patients hospitalized during the recruiting period voluntarily

Yuko Maeda; Akihito Hagihara; Eiko Kobori; Takeo Nakayama

2006-01-01

486

778 VOLUME 12 | NUMBER 7 | JULY 2006 NATURE MEDICINE Alzheimer disease research in Japan  

E-print Network

; the disease affects more than 1 out of 20 Japanese citizens age 65 or older. The medical costs for Alzheimer778 VOLUME 12 | NUMBER 7 | JULY 2006 NATURE MEDICINE Alzheimer disease research in Japan: public- ple, age-associated dementia is threatening Japan.Alzheimer disease has become the most common cause

Cai, Long

487

Governmental Reform and Education for the Gifted in Japan: A Current Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though targeted for governmental reform since 2002, services envisioned for gifted and talented students have not materialized in Japan. From the perspective of his personal experience as a Japan Fulbright Memorial Fund participant in 2005 and an extensive review of available literature and contacts with the Japanese Ministry of Education,…

Bugaj, Stephen J.

2009-01-01

488

Characteristics of Hospital-Based Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This article explores characteristics of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP) in Japan, a country which provides an egalitarian, low cost, and easy-access health care system. Methods: We sent a questionnaire survey to 11 leading doctors in the child abuse field in Japan, each located in different hospital-based sites. Child abuse doctors…

Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Kasahara, Mari; Nakamura, Ayako

2008-01-01

489

A Collection of Teaching Units about Japan for Secondary Social Studies Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains a collection of eight selected secondary level units of study about Japan. Individual units were planned and written by teachers who participated in the first Southwest Program for Teaching about Japan (SPTAJ) study tour to that country during 1987. Unit topics include: (1) "An Introduction To Japanese Medicine" (G. Adams);…

Barker, Bruce, Comp; Christian, Duane, Comp.

490

France, Japan vie for fusion site From AFP 21feb04  

E-print Network

States, South Korea and Japan held informal closed-door discussions here Friday on plans to build a multi and South Korea are backing Japan while France has the support of the European Union, China and Russia-mura-based project. The participation of the United States and South Korea would mainly be sought for the new project

491

Factors Influencing Japanese Women to Choose Two-Year Colleges in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two-year colleges in Japan have traditionally absorbed the major portion of female college entrants due to long-held gender stereotypes. Recently, Japanese women began to explore selfhood outside the traditional realm of marriage and motherhood. However, two-year colleges in Japan today continue to enroll mostly female students and few male…

Anzai, Shinobu; Paik, Chie Matsuzawa

2012-01-01

492

Problems of teaching about religion in Japan: another textbook controversy against peace?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although inter?religious conflicts have not yet surfaced as major social problems in Japan, religious education for peace and tolerance is needed in the country as much as in other countries. This article aims to disclose that, in light of political contexts, supposedly neutral ‘teaching about religion’ can be as problematic as history education is in Japan. The central problem lies

Satoko Fujiwara

2007-01-01

493

A seismic experiment in the Ulleung basin (Tsuhima basin), Southwestern Japan sea (East sea of Korea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the crustal structure of the Ulleung basin (Tsushima basin) in the southwestern Japan sea (East sea of Korea) is important for reconstructing the opening tectonics of the Japan sea. A Korea and Russia collaborative seismic experiment was carried out in 1991 to investigate the crustal structure of this basin using ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) and large capacity air guns.

Han Joon Kim; Chan Hong Park; Jong Kuk Hong; Hyeong Tae Jou; Tae Woong Chung; V. Zhigulef; G. I. Anosov

1994-01-01

494

A seismic experiment in the Ulleung Basin (Tsushima Basin), southwestern Japan Sea (East Sea of Korea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the crustal structure of the Ulleung basin (Tsushima basin) in the southwestern Japan sea (East sea of Korea) is important for reconstructing the opening tectonics of the Japan sea. A Korea and Russia collaborative seismic experiment was carried out in 1991 to investigate the crustal structure of this basin using ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) and large capacity air guns.

Han Joon Kim; Chan Hong Park; Jong Kuk Hong; Hyeong Tae Jou; Tae Woong Chung; V. Zhigulef; G. I. Anosov

1994-01-01

495

-News Home Help EU gives Japan until June to reach deal on nuclear project  

E-print Network

-News Home Help EU gives Japan until June to reach deal on nuclear project 6 minutes ago BRUSSELS's support. news web sites Japan and France are vying to host the multi-billion dollar International, China and Russia back France's bid for it to be based in Cadarache, southern France. news web sites

496

-News Home Help EU presses Japan to compromise on nuclear project  

E-print Network

-News Home Help EU presses Japan to compromise on nuclear project 2 hours, 23 minutes ago BRUSSELS. news web sites But Japan has not yet responded to the suggestion to end the row over the International, while the EU, China and Russia back France's bid for it to be based in Cadarache, southern France. news

497

Concepts of deviance in children and adolescents: The case of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the theoretical, clinical, and empirical literature on three forms of deviance in Japan: bullying, school refusal, and children's violence against parents. These behaviors are among the most widely discussed and extensively researched behavioral problems of children and adolescents in Japan today, yet they occur with relatively low frequency compared with other industrialized nations This paper analyzes the

David S. Crystal

1994-01-01

498

Concept study of Japan Extremely Large Telescope M. lye and JELT WG  

E-print Network

with adaptive optics has gain over space telescopes of smaller sizConcept study of Japan Extremely Large Telescope M. lye and JELT WG National Astronomical of the optical and infrared astronomy community of Japan is reported. The community established a working group

Iye, Masanori

499

Japan's policy on steel trade disputes with the United States: a comparative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines interactions among the United States, Japan and the European Union over steel trade disputes with particular interest in Japan's reactions to the disputes. For this objective, this paper establishes an analytical framework that takes into account bilateral, international, and domestic factors in formulating a state's external policy and relations. It was found that the special relationship with

Hidetaka Yoshimatsu

2007-01-01

500

Japanese Fundraising: A Comparative Study of the United States and Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The enactment of the Law to Promote Specified Nonprofit Activities in 1998 has resulted not only in a rapid increase in the number of specified nonprofit corporations (NPO corporations) but also in an urgent need for effective fundraising in Japan. Despite Japan's long and rich tradition of philanthropy and a serious need for fundraising, very…

Onishi, Tamaki

2007-01-01