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Photomask Japan 2010 panel discussion overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photomask Japan each year hosts a meeting inviting the conference attendees to actively participate in a discussion on a selected topic. The topic selected for this year is on new mask inspection and metrology techniques that are just emerging in the market, namely, aerial/wafer image based inspection and metrology, and optical high sampling frequency CD uniformity measurement. The panel discussion hopes to identify potential values of each technique and at the same time discover any challenge if the industry were to adopt such technique.

Nagaoka, Yoshinori; Mohri, Hiroshi; Akima, Shinji



Photomask and pattern programming manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A user's manual for a set of computer programs written in FORTRAN for the layout and generation of photomasks is presented. A limited amount of related information on photomasks, their design, and use is included. Input to the programs includes data describing the photomask design. Possible outputs include plots of the layout and a magnetic tape for controlling generation of the photomask by a pattern generator.

Kirschman, R. K.



January 2004 update on the SEMI standards task force on photomask qualification terminology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the "2003" update of the SEMI Standards Task Force on Mask Qualification Terminology, covering of the progress made since the BACUS Photomask 2002 Symposium. The focus of the past 2 years has been on terminology for two-dimensional mask metrology. The main contents of the document is discussed, including the general approach for 2D qualification based on area assessment, together with its application to corner rounding, line-end shortening, contact hole measurement. The concept used is the same as used for the 1D terminology in the published proposed standard PR007-00-0302 [1]: together with a definition, mandatory and optional information are listed to minimize the ambiguity in a quality assessment result; distinction is made between true and measured value. The work also suggests how to take into account the actual 1D quality to deliver 2D assessment results that can be compared to those of other mask fabrication processes, for example in benchmarking exercises, and how overlay between nominal and actual features can be controlled. In Q2 of 2003 a survey has been issued, with the main intention to quantify the interest in the achieved result of this work and help to determine the further steps of the initiative. The feedback obtained through this survey is discussed. The first results of defining phase shift terminology are also presented.

Jonckheere, Rik M.



Gray-scale photolithography using microfluidic photomasks  

PubMed Central

The ability to produce three-dimensional (3D) microstructures is of increasing importance in the miniaturization of mechanical or fluidic devices, optical elements, self-assembling components, and tissue-engineering scaffolds, among others. Traditional photolithography, the most widely used process for microdevice fabrication, is ill-suited for 3D fabrication, because it is based on the illumination of a photosensitive layer through a “photomask” (a transparent plate that contains opaque, unalterable solid-state features), which inevitably results in features of uniform height. We have devised photomasks in which the light-absorbing features are made of fluids. Unlike in conventional photomasks, the opacity of the photomask features can be tailored to an arbitrary number of gray-scale levels, and their spatial pattern can be reconfigured in the time scale of seconds. Here we demonstrate the inexpensive fabrication of photoresist patterns that contain features of multiple and/or smoothly varying heights. For a given microfluidic photomask, the developed photoresist pattern can be predicted as a function of the dye concentrations and photomask dimensions. For selected applications, microfluidic photomasks offer a low-cost alternative to present gray-scale photolithography approaches. PMID:12574512

Chen, Chihchen; Hirdes, Danny; Folch, Albert



Effect of pressure differentials on pelliclized photomasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maintaining the integrity of a pelliclized photomask during air shipments can be very challenging. Changes in air pressure in the cargo area or cabin of an airplane can cause the volume of air under the pellicle membrane to expand or contract. Pellicle membranes can be damaged or even break under too much stress. Some evidence has suggested that particles may develop in the critical area in the pellicle cavity during shipment. Pellicle suppliers have developed several different methods for equalizing pressure differentials between the pellicle cavity and the surrounding environment. This paper surveys and characterizes the different methods used to relieve pressure differentials on pelliclized photomasks. The effect of membrane expansion on membrane quality and defect formation is also studied.

Murphy, Robert W.; Boyd, Rick




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Materials for a secondary level, interdisciplinary social studies course on Japan are divided into introductory information, 14 classroom units, and study and evaluation materials. Introductory material includes lists of objectives and skills, an outline of Japanese history, and an explanation of Japan's name and flag. The units cover the…

Jones, Savannah C.



ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the intergroup relations in Japanese society and Japan's educational system. Challenges the view that Japan is a homogeneous society by presenting the various forms of discrimination against Koreans, Ainu, and the burakumin. Suggests that despite ostracism and isolation, groups can affect public policy and achieve social advancement. (SA)

Hawkins, John N.



Calibration of single particle sizing velocimeters using photomask reticles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of photomask reticle calibration standards for single particle instruments is discussed. The calibration method studied involves the use of photomask reticles where the particle artifacts are actually disks of chrome thin film in the clear field reticles produced by photolithography and etching processes. Consideration is given to various aspects of theory, design, and performance.

Hirleman, E. D.; Holve, D. J.; Hovenac, E. A.



Continuous improvement journey at Du Pont photomasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the history and experiences of Du Pont Photomasks in their efforts to integrate the continuous improvement philosophy and practices embodied in the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award criteria into their way of doing business. A case study of key learnings in this almost four year long process is presented. Specific topics discussed include the process applied to achieve ISO 9000 certification, the quality systems deployed in this effort, and the use of a balanced set of business and quality metrics to assess and improve upon performance.

Henderson, Robert K.



Cr photomask etch performance and its modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mathematical prediction of dry etch results have been difficult, if not impossible, over the years due to the complexity inherent in plasma processing. With device requirements tightening combined with the high cost of running test masks, it becomes even more important for process engineers to have some means by which to model accurately this increasingly complex activity. In this paper, a correlation between a novel, plasma chrome etch model and empirical data will be presented. Practical effects of chrome loading are also discussed. From the empirical data side, studies on the photomask chrome etch process using e-beam resists were carried out following strict design of experiments (DOE) format. Photomask chrome etch processes with different resists (ZEP and positive CAR) were investigated using a Unaxis VLR 770 ICP etcher and an AMAT Tetra etcher. A Toshiba EBM-3500B (50KeV) was used for the pattern writing on positive CAR resist. A KLA-Tencor P12-EX profiler, Leica LWM 250 UV CD optical measurement system, and a KLA-Tencor 8250XP-R CD SEM were used for metrology and product characterization. Significant etch performance differences were shown on these etchers irrespective of the resist type used. A special measurable number was defined and found to have a linear relationship with etch movement on both AMAT and VLR etchers.

Wu, Banqiu; Chan, David Y.




NSDL National Science Digital Library

DESK Standard: Know the physical, political, and economic features of Japan. . DATES: You can begin this activity on April 16. You should complete it by April 20. OBJECTIVE: During fourth grade, we have learned about the history and physical features of Utah. This activity will allow you to compare what you\\'ve learned about the state of Utah with ...

Hughes, Mr.



Liquid crystal polymer composite films for reconfigurable photomasking applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show proof of concept of a real-time reconfigurable photomask fabricated from holographically formed polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (H-PDLC) reflection gratings on etched indium tin oxide patterned electrodes. H-PDLC films were formed using a thiolene based polymer to have a reflection wavelength that modulates 440nm, the peak sensitivity wavelength of Shipley 1800 series positive photoresist. A working prototype of this adaptable photomask device is shown by comparing patterns formed using the H-PDLC mask and similar patterns formed using a static contact photomask showing that H-PDLC films have the ability to modulate 440nm light and control the exposure dose of photoresist.

Fox, Anna E.; Fontecchio, Adam K.



Inline detection of Chrome degradation on binary 193nm photomasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

193nm binary photomasks are still used in the semiconductor industry for the lithography of some critical layers for the nodes 90nm and 65nm, with high volumes and over long periods. However, these 193nm binary photomasks can be impacted by a phenomenon of chrome oxidation leading to critical dimensions uniformity (CDU) degradation with a pronounced radial signature. If not detected early enough, this CDU degradation may cause defectivity issues and lower yield on wafers. Fortunately, a standard cleaning and repellicle service at the mask shop has been demonstrated as efficient to remove the grown materials and get the photomask CD back on target.Some detection methods have been already described in literature, such as wafer CD intrafield monitoring (ACLV), giving reliable results but also consuming additional SEM time with less precision than direct photomask measurement. In this paper, we propose another approach, by monitoring the CDU directly on the photomask, concurrently with defect inspection for regular requalification to production for wafer fabs. For this study, we focused on a Metal layer in a 90nm technology node. Wafers have been exposed with production conditions and then measured by SEM-CD. Afterwards, this photomask has been measured with a SEM-CD in mask shop and also inspected on a KLA-Tencor X5.2 inspection system, with pixels 125 and 90nm, to evaluate the Intensity based Critical Dimension Uniformity (iCDU) option. iCDU was firstly developed to provide feed-forward CDU maps for scanner intrafield corrections, from arrayed dense structures on memory photomasks. Due to layout complexity and differing feature types, CDU monitoring on logic photomasks used to pose unique challenges.The selection of suitable feature types for CDU monitoring on logic photomasks is no longer an issue, since the transmitted intensity map gives all the needed information, as shown in this paper. In this study, the photomask was heavily degraded after more than 18,000 300mm wafers exposed and the cleaning brought it back almost to its original state after manufacture. Wafer CD, photomask CD and iCDU results can be compared, before and after a standard mask shop cleaning. Measurement points have be chosen in logic areas and SRAM areas, so that their respective behaviours can be studied separately. Transmitted maps before and after cleaning were analysed in terms of CD shift and CDU degradation. The delta map shows a nice correlation with photomask CD shift. iCDU demonstrated the capability to detect a reliable CD range degradation of 5nm on photomask by a comparison between a reference inspection and the current inspection. Die to die inspection mode provides also valuable data, highlighting the degraded chrome sidewalls, more in the photomask centre than on the edges. Ultimately, these results would enable to trigger the preventive cleanings rather than on predefined thresholds. The expected gains for wafer fabs are cost savings (adapted cleanings frequency), increased photomask availability for production, longer photomask lifetime, no additional SEM time neither for photomask nor on wafer.

Dufaye, Félix; Sippel, Astrid; Wylie, Mark; García-Berríos, Edgardo; Crawford, Charles; Hess, Carl; Sartelli, Luca; Pogliani, Carlo; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Gough, Stuart; Sundermann, Frank; Brochard, Christophe



Multilayer Microfluidic Devices Created From A Single Photomask  

SciTech Connect

The time and expense associated with high quality photomask production can discourage the creation of multilayer microfluidic devices, as each layer currently requires a separate photomask. Here we describe an approach in which multilayer microfabricated devices can be created from a single photomask. The separate layers and their corresponding alignment marks are arranged in separate halves of the mask for two layer devices or quadrants for four layer devices. Selective exposure of the photomask features and rotation of the device substrate between exposures result in multiple copies of the devices on each wafer. Subsequent layers are aligned to patterned features on the substrate with the same alignment accuracy as when multiple photomasks are used. We demonstrate this approach for fabricating devices employing multilayer soft lithography (MSL) for pneumatic valving. MSL devices containing as many as 5 layers (4 aligned fluidic layers plus a manually aligned control layer) were successfully created using this approach. Device design is also modularized, enabling the presence or absence of features as well as channel heights to be selected independently from one another. The use of a single photomask to create multilayer devices results in a dramatic savings of time and/or money required to advance from device design to completed prototype.

Kelly, Ryan T.; Sheen, Allison M.; Jambovane, Sachin R.



DIFFRACTION BY PHOTOMASKS Apo Sezginer, Weitao Chen, Jens Christian Jorgensen, Dennis Moore, Anton Sakovich,  

E-print Network

DIFFRACTION BY PHOTOMASKS By Apo Sezginer, Weitao Chen, Jens Christian Jorgensen, Dennis Moore by Photomasks Dr. Apo Sezginer Weitao Chen, Jens Christian Jorgensen, Dennis Moore Anton Sakovich, Shirin Sardar


e-beam induced EUV photomask repair: a perfect match  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the updated ITRS roadmap EUV might enter the market as a productive solution for the 32 nm node1. Since the EUV-photomask is used as mirror and no longer as transitive device the severity of different defect types has changed significantly. Furthermore the EUV-photomask material stack is much more complex than the conventional 193nm photomask materials which expand the field of critical defect types even further. In this paper we will show, that "classical" 193 mask repair processes cannot be applied to EUV material. We will show the performance of a new repair process based on the novel ebeam repair tool MeRiT® HR 32. Furthermore this process will be applied on real EUV mask defects and the success of these repairs confirmed by wafer prints.

Waiblinger, M.; Kornilov, K.; Hofmann, T.; Edinger, K.



Qualification of BitClean technology in photomask production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Makers and users of advanced technology photomasks have seen increased difficulties with the removal of persistent, or stubborn, nano-particle contamination. Shrinking pattern geometries, and new mask clean technologies to minimize haze, have both increased the number of problems and loss of mask yield due to these non-removable nano-particles. A novel technique (BitCleanTM) has been developed using the MerlinTM platform, a scanning probe microscope system originally designed for nanomachining photomask defect repair. Progress in the technical development of this approach into a manufacture-able solution is reviewed and its effectiveness is shown in selectively removing adherent particles without touching surrounding sensitive structures. Results will also be reviewed that were generated in the qualification and acceptance of this new technology in a photomask production environment. These results will be discussed in their relation to the minimum particle size allowed on a given design, particle removal efficiency per pass of the NanoBitTM (PREPP), and the resultant average removal throughput of particles unaffected by any other available mask clean process.

Robinson, Tod; White, Roy; Bozak, Ron; Archuletta, Mike; Brinkley, David; Yi, Daniel



Aspect Ratio Study of Microstructures Formed using an Adaptable Photomask  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an aspect ratio study of microstructures fabricated using a holographically formed polymer dispersed liquid crystal (H-PDLC) adaptable photomask. Recently it has been shown that H-PDLC films can act as electrically controllable light valves to selectively allow transmission of UV exposure in the lithographic process, making it ideal for application as a reconfigurable photomask. This study focuses on comparing aspect ratios of structures patterned using this adaptable photomask and processed with wet etching and reactive ion etching techniques. Aspect ratio comparisons with structures fabricated using a binary mask and etched using an identical process are presented. Results indicate that features formed using an adaptable H-PDLC mask have comparable aspect ratios to features fabricated using a binary mask. H-PDLC is a polymeric material formed holographically to have periodically spaced stratified layers of cured monomer and liquid crystal droplets. Reflection of a particular band of wavelengths occurs due to the periodicity of the layers and the index mismatch of the randomly aligned liquid crystal droplets. Bias applied to the film electrically aligns the liquid crystal layers eliminating the index mismatch yielding a transparent film.

Fox, Anna; Fontecchio, Adam



Continuous-tone gray-scale photomask for deep-UV lithography applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous tone gray scale deep UV photomask technology offers new cost effective opportunities for the mass scale production of MEMS structures, diffractive optical elements (DOEs), computer generated holograms (CGHs), and kinoform optics. A new technology for the low cost fabrication of continuous tone gray scale photomasks for deep UV photolithography applications has been demonstrated. This technology is based on the

Edgar A. Mendoza; Fernando Sigoli; Heidi Paulus; Luan Q. Giang; Mahmood Seifouri; E. Lam; Lothar Kempen



Automation techniques for the handling of photomask data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews four different strategies that can be used in the automated processing of photomask manufacturing data. The first of these is the automation of specific process steps such as the generation of Barcodes and Titling data, or specific software to perform format conversion, job deck generation or automated fracturing. The second strategy is the automation of complete flows that are specific to a customer or product type. This type of automation can be successfully built using the primitives developed by the first strategy. The third strategy is the automation of generic flow steps that are then applied to all customers. This is a much more powerful solution, but is significantly more demanding in the effort required for the design and implementation. The final strategy, the integration of automation over multiple complete supply chains is a desirable end game. The paper will report on the latest activities of the European Commission Fifth Framework project called Automatic Mask Order Processing System (AutoMOPS) that is developing a prototype implementation of a distributed server architecture that will allow automation and integration within the photomask manufacturing supply chain. The advantages and weaknesses of each of these techniques are reviewed using examples of automation which has been undertaken within Compugraphics over the previous decade. The interaction between these techniques is reviewed, as well as the evolution of solutions from each technique and the systems environment where these techniques are used.

Hughes, J. Gordon; Drennan, Leslie



A soft photo-mask with embedded carbon black and its application in contact photolithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new type of soft photo-mask which can be used in contact photolithography for achieving small line-width, large area, and high throughput ultraviolet (UV) patterning. It starts from a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold replicated from a silicon master mold. A carbon black photo-resist (PR) is spin-coated on top of the PDMS mold and then thermally cured. After a contact transfer process, the solidified carbon black PR exists only in the concave region of the PDMS mold, which converts the PDMS mold into a carbon-black/PDMS soft photo-mask. Due to its flexibility, this soft photo-mask can be used in contact photolithography on a slightly curved substrate. Experiments on preparing this new soft photo-mask and its application for fabricating patterned sapphire substrates (PSSs) used in the light-emitting-diode (LED) industry are carried out. Successful results are observed.

Hsieh, Yi-Ta; Hsieh, Heng; Lee, Yung-Chun



Fundamental study of droplet spray characteristics in photomask cleaning for advanced lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamentals of droplet-based cleaning of photomasks are investigated and performance regimes that enable the use of binary spray technologies in advanced mask cleaning are identified. Using phase Doppler anemometry techniques, the effect of key performance parameters such as liquid and gas flow rates and temperature, nozzle design, and surface distance on droplet size, velocity, and distributions were studied. The data are correlated to particle removal efficiency (PRE) and feature damage results obtained on advanced photomasks for 193-nm immersion lithography.

Lu, C. L.; Yu, C. H.; Liu, W. H.; Hsu, Luke; Chin, Angus; Lee, S. C.; Yen, Anthony; Lee, Gaston; Dress, Peter; Singh, Sherjang; Dietze, Uwe



Development of photomask linewidth measurement and calibration using AFM and SEM in NMIJ  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a measurement method for linewidth patterns of photomasks, and started a calibration service of the photomask linewidth measurement. For the photomask standards, high-quality of chromium film patterns, typical thickness of about 80 nm, sharp edges (edge angles more than 85 degree) and smooth side walls on a quart glass substrate were used. Two kinds of microscopes, an atomic force microscope (AFM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM), were employed to calibrate the linewidth. At the first, the surface profile of line structures were inspected using the AFM, so that the distance between the left and the right side walls at the edge positions were geometrically-determined. Before the each measurement of photomask patterns by the AFM tips, each of the tip shape was checked using a needle artifact. Then AFM profiles of the photomask patterns were corrected using the tip shape data. The linewidth was calculated using the corrected profiles under a definition of the edge positions, a 10 % level from the top film surface. At the next, the linewidth bias between SEM and AFM were evaluated using the AFM data. Using this method, an uncertainty of the linewidth measurement was evaluated at 60 nm for a linewidth range of 0.5 ?m-10 ?m.

Sugawara, Kentaro; Sato, Osamu; Misumi, Ichiko; Gonda, Satoshi; Lu, Mingzi



Computational technique to overcome the limit of a photomask writer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the limit of a conventional photomask writer and new possibilities to meet various requirements of tight specifications for a sub-10 nm device. The issues of a variable shaped beam (VSB) writer and how to overcome the limit by computational techniques are discussed. Because VSB writing can use only one rectangular or triangular beam per shot, the complex design for computational lithography results in the increase of shot number to implement rounded or angled pattern. Based on model-based-fracturing, we have confirmed that the ideal curvilinear pattern can be optimized by using overlapping shots, and that they have the same patterning performance in mask and wafer. On the other hand, the multibeam writer can make ideally any kinds of shapes, even curvilinear design because the combination of small spots writes a design. In a real situation, each spot of multibeam writer is defined at fixed mesh and each beam has discrete dose level, so that there are fidelity errors if the pixel size is large or the dose level is not enough large. Here, we propose a "Buddhist cross" design as the evaluation pattern of digitization error in a multibeam writer. The "fidelity error" smaller than 0.5 nm error requires 5 nm pixel size and the required minimum number for dose level is 7 to implement a smaller error than 0.05 nm at one edge. To realize new technology for mass production, new data flow, model based pattern verification, and required computing power have been presented.

Choi, Jin; Shin, In Kyun; Jeon, Chan-Uk



Line width roughness and its control on photomask  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Line edge roughness (LER) or line width roughness (LWR) is a fundamental challenge in the semiconductor industry. LWR on transistor gate length is a dominant parameter for determining the variability of threshold voltage, on-current and off-current, and LER on interconnect impacts breakdown voltages. Integrated circuit (IC) scaling enabled by lithography is the technology to increase device density and improve performance. However, scaling below 32nn technology node induces short-channel effect (SCE) because of the short distance between the transistor source and the drain. Final LER on the working layer results from several processes, and, thus, LER controls rely on lithography, resist properties, post-resist-development processing, pattern transfer methods, and photomask LER. Now, pattern generation is main source of LER, where short exposure wavelength and consecutive low photon numbers result in discrete photon flux and shot noise, causing high LER. Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) uses shorter wavelengths and a lower dose than the current 193 nm lithography, making LWR one of the three most critical challenges. Characterization of LER is also a challenge. The current rms method is broadly used; however, this approach is not enough and a better method has yet to be established.

Wu, Banqiu; Kumar, Ajay



Advanced photomask fabrication process to increase pattern reliability for sub-20nm node  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As technical advances continue, the pattern size of semiconductor circuit has been shrunk. So the field of the photomask needs the processing more strictly. It is critical to the photomask which contained considerably shrank circuit and ultra high density pattern for sub-20 nm tech device, although a small defect is negligible in the conventional process. Even if some defect can be repaired, it is not satisfied with a strict pattern specification. Stricter fabrication process and pattern specification increase the manufacture cost. Furthermore, EUV photomask manufacture cost is several times expensive than the conventional photomask. Therefore the effort to decrease defects is important for the photomask fabrication process. In addition, when defects are generated, it is obviously important that the repaired patterns have better pattern reliability. In this paper, we studied about advanced processes that control and remove hard defects minutely .on ArF attenuated phase-shift mask. This study was accomplished for 4 areas. First of all, we developed advanced Mosi etch process. Defects are generated under this etch process are not fatal. The thickness of hard defects were controlled thinner under this etch process compared with conventional etch process. Secondly, we studied cleaning process that has good performance on Cr : MoSi surface and a poor hydrophilic contrast to control side effect by etch process. Thirdly, we made inspection technique for detecting thin thickness hard defects. Lastly, we researched a repair technology that is effective in hard defects of thin thickness. The performance of the repaired pattern was verified by AIMS. In this study, it is researched that control shape, properties of defects to prepare a reliable repair and improved repaired photomask pattern reliability by 30% over.

Shin, Dong I.; Jo, Sang J.; Jang, Hee Y.; Hong, Yun K.; Hwang, Dae H.; Choi, Chung S.; Jang, Dong S.; Jung, Ho Y.; Ha, Tae J.; Kim, Sang P.; Yim, Dong G.



Acoustic Streaming Effects in Megasonic Cleaning of EUV Photomasks: A continuum model.  

E-print Network

Acoustic Streaming Effects in Megasonic Cleaning of EUV Photomasks: A continuum model. Vivek for removal are believed to be active in megasonic cleaning systems, e.g., cavitation, and acoustic streaming approach is undertaken in this work with a focus on determining the contribution of acoustic streaming

Deymier, Pierre


Growth mechanism and inhibition technologies of a contamination on the surface of photomask for longtime LCD-TFT lithography process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the progressive contamination of photomasks has become a major concern for long-term LCD-TFT manufacturing, as it is the cause of significant defects. We have deciphered the chemical structure and growth mechanism of progressive contamination, and have devised an accelerated test procedure which simulates 2 years of TFT processes in order to determine how best to inhibit its growth (UG Series). By using the photomask with a new type of pellicle (UG series), we were able to inhibit the growth of progressive contamination to the extent that no contamination was confirmed on the photomask for approximately two years.

Murai, Makoto; Tsuchiya, Masayoshi; Shinchi, Hiroyuki; Hirano, Terumasa; Kitajima, Shintaro; Kaneko, Yasushi; Kimoto, Takahisa; Takayama, Shigeki



A Feasibility Study on the Micro Eletro-Discharge Machining Process for Photomask Fabrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feasibility study of micro electro-discharge machining (micro-EDM) technology has been conducted for its possible contri-bution\\u000a in the photomask industry. A series of experimental runs was performed on three specimens using a micro-EDM system with built-in\\u000a wire electro-discharge grinding. Different thicknesses of chromium films were coated on borosilicate glass substrates. Unwanted\\u000a chromium metal was machined through to the transparent glass

S. H. Yeo; G. G. Yap



Photomask repeater strategy for high-quality and low-cost reticle fabrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The severe mask specification makes mask cost increase drastically. Especially, the increase in the mask cost deals ASIC businesses a fatal blow due to its small chip volume per product. Pattern writing cost has always occupied the main part of the prime mask cost and the emphasis of this is still increasing. This paper reports on a Photomask Repeater strategy to be a solution for reducing mask cost in pattern writing, comparing with conventional EB system.

Kyoh, Suigen; Inoue, Soichi; Ikenaga, Osamu; Higaki, Tomotaka; Shigemitsu, Fumiaki; Mori, Ichiro; Kokubo, Haruo; Hayashi, Naoya; Irie, Nobuyuki; Ishii, Yuki; Umatate, Toshikazu



Ordered packing of emulsion droplets toward the preparation of adjustable photomasks.  


Monodisperse emulsion droplets with a high volume fraction form crystalline phases that can potentially serve as adjustable photomasks in photolithography. Such photomasks were prepared using a microfluidic device in which a flow-focusing junction, side channels, and a reservoir were connected in series. Transparent oil droplets were generated in a dye-containing continuous water phase at the flow-focusing junction. The droplets were then concentrated through the selective removal of the continuous phase using the side channels. This process led to the formation of a regular array of droplets in the reservoir with a configuration that depended on the relative height of the reservoir to the droplet diameter. The configurations could be selected among a single-layered hexagonal array, a bilayered square array, and a bilayered hexagonal array. The droplet arrays were used as a photomask to create hexagonal or square arrays of microdots. The transmittance profile of the ultraviolet (UV) light from each droplet was parabolic, which enabled the dot size to be tuned by controlling the UV irradiation time. This mask effect is otherwise difficult to achieve using conventional photomasks. The dot size and array periodicity could be adjusted by the in-situ control of the droplet size at the flow-focusing droplet maker. The combination of droplet size adjustments and the UV irradiation time provided independent control over the dot size and array periodicity to enable the preparation of a series of hexagonal microarrays with a wide spectrum of array parameters using a single microfluidic device. PMID:24787010

Kim, Ju Hyeon; Choi, Jae-Hoon; Sim, Jae Young; Jeong, Woong Chan; Yang, Seung-Man; Kim, Shin-Hyun



Onset of Material Alterations Due to Laser-Induced Plasma Exposure in Nanofilms Deposited on Photomasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damage-free removal of sub-100 nm particles from photomasks with deposited nanofilms is a challenge in lithography. Laser-induced plasma (LIP) is an emerging noncontact, chemical-free, dry, and selective nanoparticle removal technique. Investigation of the onset of material alterations on bonded nanofilms for optimizing LIP particle removal process is the objective of this paper. Shockwave thermomechanical excitation and radiation heating from the

Ivin Varghese; Dong Zhou; M. D. Murthy Peri; Cetin Cetinkaya



Photomask Iinewidth Measurement Correlation Techniques Using The Standard Reference Material (SRM) 474 National Bureau Of Standards (NBS) Linewidth Standard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 1980, the Photomask Technology Operations activity at the RCA Solid State Division at Somerville, N.J., initiated a program entitled "Metrology Techniques for Linewidth Measurements." The purpose of this program was to improve accuracy, precision, and correlation of linewidth measurements on photomasks. With the cooperation of the NBS (National Bureau of Standards) Dimensional Metrology Semiconductor Materials and Processes Division, this program reached an advanced state of development. Correlation tests between the video image-scanning system used by the RCA Photomask Technology Operations and an optical image-scanning system used by Qualitron, Danbury, CT. indicate the overall linewidth measurement error to be within +/- 0.1 micrometer. This error includes the +/- 0.05 micrometer uncertainty of the NBS SRM 474 standard. Routine production correlation linewidth measurements between the ITP Mark II and ITP Mark III Video Image-Scanning Systems show the uncertainty (systematic and random error) to be within +/- 0.05 micrometers at an 87% acceptance level.

Caprari, F.



Improved photomask accuracy with a high-productivity DUV laser pattern generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A strategy for sub-100 nm technology nodes is to maximize the use of high-speed deep-UV laser pattern generators, reserving e-beam tools for the most critical photomask layers. With a 248 nm excimer laser and 0.82 NA projection optics, the Sigma7500 increases the application space of laser pattern generators. A programmable spatial light modulator (SLM) is imaged with partially coherent optics to compose the photomask pattern. Image profiles are enhanced with phase shifting in the pattern generator, and features below 200 nm are reliably printed. The Sigma7500 extends the SLM-based architecture with improvements to CD uniformity and placement accuracy, resulting from an error budget-based methodology. Among these improvements is a stiffer focus stage design with digital servos, resulting in improved focus stability. Tighter climate controls and improved dose control reduce drift during mask patterning. As a result, global composite CD uniformity below 5 nm (3?) has been demonstrated, with placement accuracy below 10 nm (3?) across the mask. Self-calibration methods are used to optimize and monitor system performance, reducing the need to print test plates. The SLM calibration camera views programmed test patterns, making it possible to evaluate image metrics such as CD uniformity and line edge roughness. The camera is also used to characterize image placement over the optical field. A feature called ProcessEqualizer TM has been developed to correct long-range CD errors arising from process effects on production photomasks. Mask data is sized in real time to compensate for pattern-dependent errors related to local pattern density, as well as for systematic pattern-independent errors such as radial CD signatures. Corrections are made in the pixel domain in the advanced adjustments processor, which also performs global biasing, stamp distortion compensation, and corner enhancement. In the Sigma7500, the mask pattern is imaged with full edge addressability in each writing pass, providing the means of additionally improving write time by reducing the number of exposure passes. Photomask write time is generally under two hours in the 2-pass mode, compared to three hours with 4-pass writing. With a through-the-lens alignment system and both grid matching and pattern matching capabilities, the tool is also suitable for 2 nd layer patterning in advanced PSM applications. Improvements in alignment algorithms and writing accuracy have resulted in first-to-second level overlay below 15 nm (mean+3?).

Öström, Thomas; Måhlén, Jonas; Karawajczyk, Andrzej; Rosling, Mats; Carlqvist, Per; Askebjer, Per; Karlin, Tord; Sallander, Jesper; Österberg, Anders



A semi-automated AFM photomask repair process for manufacturing application using SPR6300  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For almost a decade Nanomachining application has been studied and developed to repair next generation of photomasks. This technique, based on Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), applies a mechanical removing of the defects with almost negligible quartz-damage, high accuracy of the edge-placement and without spurious depositions (stain, implanted elements, etc.) that may affect the optical transmission. SII NanoTechnology Inc. (SIINT) is carrying out a joint-development project with DNP Photomask Europe S.p.A. (DPE) that has allowed the installation in DPE of the next generation state-of-the-art AFM based system SPR6300 to meet the repair specifications for the 65 nm Node. Drift phenomena of the AFM probe represent one of the major obstacles for whichever kind of nano-manipulation (imaging and material or pattern modification). AFM drift undermines the repeatability and accuracy performances of the process. The repair methodology, called NewDLock, implemented on SPR6300, is a semi-automated procedure by which the drift amount, regardless of its origin, is estimated in advance and compensated during the process. Now AFM Nanomachining approach is going to reveal properties of repeatability and user-friendly utilization that make it suitable for the production environment.

Dellagiovanna, Mario; Yoshioka, Hidenori; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Murai, Shiaki; Nakaue, Takuya; Takaoka, Osamu; Uemoto, Atsushi; Kikuchi, Syuichi; Hagiwara, Ryoji; Benard, Stephane



Optimization of laser machining process for the preparation of photomasks, and its application to microsystems fabrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional photolithography normally utilizes a photomask for patterning light onto a chemical resist film. Therefore, the accuracy of microfabrication is highly dependent on the accuracy of the photomasks. Fabrication of hard masks involves the use of expensive laser pattern generators and other sophisticated machines using very high-precision stages and the necessary control instrumentation; therefore, an inexpensive strategy is highly necessary for laboratory-level fabrication. As this technology is primarily based on raster scanning of a laser beam, the mask making as such becomes a low-throughput process. A strategy of high-throughput manufacturing of hard masks with laser micromachining using a one-step exposure process of a chromated glass slide through a micromachined aluminum shadow mask is proposed. The features that are finally embedded in the mask are highly demagnified and well focused. Optimization of the laser machining process is carried out by considering all processing parameters. The features are characterized using an optical microscope, a scanning electron microscope, and a self-developed image analysis code. Geometrical methods are used to estimate the average edge roughness and feature size. We have also validated the usage of these masks by performing microfabrication on films made of photoresist.

Kumar, Avinash; Gupta, Ankur; Kant, Rishi; Akhtar, Syed Nadeem; Tiwari, Nachiketa; Ramkumar, Janakrajan; Bhattacharya, Shantanu



3D Monte Carlo modeling of the SEM: Are there applications to photomask metrology?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to model the effect of fields due to charges trapped in insulators with floating conductors has been added to JMONSEL (Java Monte Carlo simulator for Secondary Electrons) and applied to a simple photomask metal on glass geometry. These capabilities are prerequisites if model-based scanning electron microscope (SEM) metrology is to be extended beyond wafer to photomask applications, where such samples must frequently be measured. Model-based SEM is an alternative to the customary threshold- or gradient-based approach. It is more demanding inasmuch as it requires a model of the physics of image formation, but the reward is greater accuracy, lower sensitivity to secondary sample characteristics (e.g., edge shape) that affect the intensity, and information about 3D geometrical shape (not simply the width) of the measured features. The prerequisites are ability to measure a signal, such as the SEM image, that is sensitive to changes in the parameters one wishes to measure and a model that describes the relationship between the signal and the parameters. The simulation shows the development of the potential energy barrier to electron escape during an initial transient charging-up phase, accompanied by increasing electron recapture and stabilization of the average yield.

Villarrubia, J. S.; Vladár, A. E.; Postek, M. T.



Nuisance event reduction using sensitivity control layers (SCL) for advanced photomask inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional photomask inspection techniques utilize global sensitivity for all inspected area in the die; SRAF and OPC features become the sensitivity-limiters for advanced photomasks which can result in reduced sensitivity to defects of interest (DOI). We describe the implementation of Sensitivity Control Layer (SCL), a novel database inspection methodology for the KLA-Tencor TerascanHR platform to improve sensitivity and reduce nuisance detections. This methodology enables inspection at maximum sensitivity in critical die-areas via "layer definition" and reducing sensitivity to sub-resolution features during inspection which can dramatically improve false-rate. DRAM and FLASH inspection performance was improved through the use of up to 6-control layers to increase sensitivity in the active area while reducing false detections by as much as 100X. Post-inspection defect analysis, and improved disposition accuracy of the SCL-enabled inspections will also benefit cycle time and higher throughput. In all test cases, sensitivity parameters were increased in the regions of interest over baseline inspections run with typical, production-type inspection methodologies. SCL inspection-sensitivity management, and layer partitioning of OPC structures, SRAF's, and other sub-resolution features is discussed in detail.

Hedges, Shad; Le, Chin; Eickhoff, Mark; Wylie, Mark; Simmons, Tim; Vellanki, Venugopal; McMurran, Jeff



Photomask applications of traceable atomic force microscope dimensional metrology at NIST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a multifaceted program in atomic force microscope (AFM) dimensional metrology. Three major instruments are being used for traceable measurements. The first is a custom in-house metrology AFM, called the calibrated AFM (C-AFM), the second is the first generation of commercially available critical dimension AFM (CD-AFM), and the third is a current generation CD-AFM at SEMATECH - for which NIST has established the calibration and uncertainties. All of these instruments have useful applications in photomask metrology. Linewidth reference metrology is an important application of CD-AFM. We have performed a preliminary comparison of linewidths measured by CD-AFM and by electrical resistance metrology on a binary mask. For the ten selected test structures with on-mask linewidths between 350 nm and 600 nm, most of the observed differences were less than 5 nm, and all of them were less than 10 nm. The offsets were often within the estimated uncertainties of the AFM measurements, without accounting for the effect of linewidth roughness or the uncertainties of electrical measurements. The most recent release of the NIST photomask standard - which is Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2059 - was also supported by CD-AFM reference measurements. We review the recent advances in AFM linewidth metrology that will reduce the uncertainty of AFM measurements on this and future generations of the NIST photomask standard. The NIST C-AFM has displacement metrology for all three axes traceable to the 633 nm wavelength of the iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser. One of the important applications of the C-AFM is step height metrology, which has some relevance to phase shift calibration. In the current generation of the system, the approximate level of relative standard uncertainty for step height measurements at the 100 nm scale is 0.1 %. We discuss the monitor history of a 290 nm step height, originally measured on the C-AFM with a 1.9 nm (k = 2) expanded uncertainty, and describe advances that bring the step height uncertainty of recent measurements to an estimated 0.6 nm (k = 2). Based on this work, we expect to be able to reduce the topographic component of phase uncertainty in alternating aperture phase shift masks (AAPSM) by a factor of three compared to current calibrations based on earlier generation step height references.

Dixson, Ronald; Orji, Ndubuisi G.; Potzick, James; Fu, Joseph; Allen, Richard A.; Cresswell, Michael; Smith, Stewart; Walton, Anthony J.; Tsiamis, Andreas



Atomic force metrology and 3D modeling of microtrenching in etched photomask features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the acceptance of etched phase shift photomasks by most major semiconductor manufacturers, it is necessary to build a significant number of these masks in a cost-effective and controlled manner. Optical methods of metrology used for many years in the photomask industry for binary masks are unsuitable for certain metrology applications related to etched phase shift photomask manufacture and repair. Atomic Force Metrology (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) metrology and optical methods, in combination, are now providing the necessary metrology tools to characterize etched phase shift masks and generate metrology for phase defect repair. Modeling methods such as electromagnetic modeling (EM) are providing insight into the effect of non- ideal processing on the final printed wafer image and the aerial image presented by a lithography system. This paper uses AFM metrology and EM modeling to explore the details of micro-trenching that occurs at the base of vertical walls on etched phase shift masks. Results of etch profiles obtained using AFM metrology are correlated with EM modeling of 320nm - 720nm etched structures in alternating aperture phase shift masks for use with KrF 4x reduction steppers. Three generically different etch processes were used to create the measured structures on six different masks. These six masks were manufactured by four different mask makers. The metrology and EM modeling results clearly differentiate each of the generic etch processes with the ICP + Iso etches showing 50% less micro-trenching relative to three of the four RIE-only etch processes. The simulation predicts the process window changes resulting from modeled micro-trenching relative to an ideal etch case. The models chosen for simulation represent the real etched results observed with the AFM. Comparisons of micro-trenching lengths measured during these experiments with the results of trenching bias across different etched space widths as reported by McCallum, et al. suggest that micro-trenching is a universal phenomenon occurring during quartz etches. It is proposed that micro- trenching more correctly defines the geometries responsible for trenching bias. Depth detail taken from the vicinity of an unusually shaped phase bump defect show the effect of local geometry on the extent to which trenching occurs. Trenching is more than 50% greater at the base of concave or acute defects as compared to convex defects. Further investigation of local trenching sheds light on the reason why phase bump defects near or touching a vertical trench wall appear more difficult to repair.

Todd, Bradley; Miller, Edward K.; Pistor, Thomas V.



Dual Wavelength Laser Writing and Measurement Methodology for High Resolution Bimetallic Grayscale Photomasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grayscale bimetallic photomasks consist of bi-layer thermal resists (Bismuth-on-Indium or Tin-on-Indium) which become controllably transparent when exposed to a focused laser beam as a function of the absorbed power changing from ~3OD (unexposed) to <0.22OD (fully exposed). To achieve high accuracy grayscale pattern, the OD must be measured and controlled while writing. This thesis investigates using two wavelength beams for mask writing (514.5nm) and OD measurement (457.9nm) separated from a multi-line Argon ion laser source: a Dual Wavelength Writing and Measurement System. The writing laser profile was modified to a top-hat using a beam shaper. Several mask patterns tested the creation of high resolution grayscale masks. Finally, for creation of 3D structures in photoresist, the mask transparency to resist thickness requirements was formulated and linear slope patterns were successfully created.

Qarehbaghi, Reza


Development of Photolithography Process for Printed Circuit Board Using Liquid Crystal Mask in Place of Photomask  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a photolithography method for printed circuit boards using a liquid crystal mask (LCM) in place of a photomask. The LCM photolithography method has the advantage of ease of forming various patterns. There were opaque interpixel regions of the LCMs; the areas on the dry film resist (DFR) located under the interpixel regions of the LCM were not exposed to illumination. The unexposed DFR area could be exposed to illumination by utilizing the Fresnel diffraction effects that were due to a gap maintained between the LCM and the DFR during the exposure process. DFR patterns with a width of 200 µm were obtained successfully using the 160 µm gap between LCM and DFR and three sheets of DFR for the exposure process.

Oh, Min Sup; Lee, Jae Hong; Hong, Chinsoo; Lee, Ho-Nyeon; Kyo Kim, Chang



Algorithmic implementations of domain decomposition methods for the diffraction simulation of advanced photomasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The domain decomposition method developed in [1] is examined in more detail. This method enables rapid computer simulation of advanced photomask (alt. PSM, masks with OPC) scattering and transmission properties. Compared to 3D computer simulation, speed-up factors of approximately 400, and up to approximately 200,000 when using the look-up table approach, are possible. Combined with the spatial frequency properties of projection printing systems, it facilitates accurate computer simulation of the projected image (normalized mean square error of a typical image is only a fraction of 1%). Some esoteric accuracy issues of the method are addressed and the way to handle arbitrary, Manhattan-type mask layouts is presented. The method is shown to be valid for off-axis incidence. The cross-talk model developed in [1] is used in 3D mask simulations (2D layouts).

Adam, Konstantinos; Neureuther, Andrew R.



Numerical analysis of the sub-wavelength fabrication of MTMO grayscale photomasks by direct laser writing.  


Metal-transparent-metallic-oxide (MTMO) grayscale photomasks fabricated by direct laser writing have been proposed in recent years. The fabrication mechanism is attributed to light-induced melt-oxidization. The temporal-spatial distribution of temperature fields of indium film-glass samples under a laser pulse have been calculated by the Finite-Difference Time-Domain method. The laser action area of the indium film is studied based on the oxidation theories and the absorbed laser power density distribution in molten indium films. The calculated average sub-wavelength fabrication diameter of 302 nm is consistent with the experimental fabrication size under a laser power of 6.0 - 8.0 mW. PMID:25090505

Xia, Feng; Zhang, Xinzheng; Wang, Meng; Yi, Sanming; Liu, Qian; Xu, Jingjun



Reduction of image placement error on photomask-making for multiple patterning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To make photomasks with high overlay accuracy, "Charge Dissipation Layer (CDL)" materials have been developed. Commercialized CDL materials can reduce electro-static charging on the surface of resist during electron beam exposure. However, some side effects are introduced to the mask-making process. The resolution performance of chemically amplified resist (CAR) is degraded owing to acid diffusion from the CDL components to the resist surface. A newly developed CDL solved this problem by controlling the acid diffusion. A positive-tone CAR with the CDL showed no resolution degradation, and performance was maintained for over 30 days after coating CDL and resist. Furthermore, the CDL has been evaluated on a negative-tone CAR which is more sensitive to CDL.

Hiromatsu, Takahiro; Fukui, Toru; Tsukagoshi, Kenta; Ono, Kazunori; Hashimoto, Masahiro



Photomask ADI, AEI, and QA measurements using normal incidence optical CD metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical Critical Dimension (OCD) measurements using Normal-Incidence Spectroscopic Polarized Reflectance and Ellipsometry allows for the separation of transverse electric and transverse magnetic modes of light reflected from an anisotropic sample as found in a periodic grating structure. This can provide the means for determining line widths and analyzing complex profiles for a variety of structures found in mask fabrication. The normal-incidence methodology maintains much of the simplicity in mechanical design found in a standard reflectometer and the additional polarizing element has no effect on the footprint making the system amenable for integration, inline monitoring and advanced process control. The Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) method provides an exact method for calculating the diffraction of electromagnetic waves by periodic grating structures. We have continued development of OCD technology to critical measurement steps in the photomask fabrication process: After Development Inspection (ADI), After Etch Inspection (AEI) for binary and phase shift masks. Additionally, we have demonstrated the ability of monitoring the mask CD quality with the presence of a protective pellicle. The determination of important critical dimensions in photomasks via optical techniques is appealing for several reasons: the method is non-destructive to photoresist and the sample is not subject to charging effects; the technique is capable of measuring the critical dimensions of grating structures down to approximately 40 nm; finally, minimal facilities are required for installation (no high vacuum, cooling or shielding of electromagnetic fields). Results will be presented showing the capabilities of OCD metrology for ADI, AEI and masks monitoring applications that emphasizes how the technology can be incorporated at many steps in the mask manufacturing process.

Apak, Ebru; Sarathy, T. P.; McGahan, William A.; Rovira, Pablo I.; Hoobler, Ray J.



Calibrating bimetallic grayscale photomasks to photoresist response for precise micro-optics fabrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microfabricating high resolution micro-optics structures requires shape control to <1/8th wavelength (~60nm) in both vertical and horizontal surface precision. Grayscale bimetallic photomasks are bi-layer thermal resists consisting of two thin layers of Bi-on-Indium or Tin-on-Indium. A focused laser spot creates a thermal metal oxide with a controllably transparency set by the beam power of optical density from ~3OD (unexposed) to <0.22OD (fully exposed). A directwrite raster-scan photomask laser system with a CW Argon-ion laser at 514nm for the bimetallic writing and 457nm line for measuring the OD change used a feedback-controlled Gaussian beam to achieve 256-level grayscale masks. Setting the graylevels required to achieve uniform vertical steps in the photoresist requires adjustment in transparency based on the exact response curves of a given resist/development process. An initial model is developed using the classic resist threshold dose exposure D0 and dose to clear Dc creating a power law relation between the required exposure dose for each thickness step and the mask transparency. However real resists behave differently than the simple model near the threshold requiring careful calibrating of mask graylevel transparencies with the photoresist response curve for a given resist/development process. Test structures ranging from steps to ramps and complex patterns were examined via both SEM and profilometry from the resulting bimetallic grayscale masks. Secondary corrections modify the needed bimetallic OD due to the exposure source spectrum differences from the 457nm measurement. This enhances the patterning of micro-optic and 3D MEMS structures.

Chapman, Glenn H.; Qarehbaghi, Reza; Roche, Santiago



In-die photomask registration and overlay metrology with PROVE using 2D correlation methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the ITRS roadmap, semiconductor industry drives the 193nm lithography to its limits, using techniques like double exposure, double patterning, mask-source optimization and inverse lithography. For photomask metrology this translates to full in-die measurement capability for registration and critical dimension together with challenging specifications for repeatability and accuracy. Especially, overlay becomes more and more critical and must be ensured on every die. For this, Carl Zeiss SMS has developed the next generation photomask registration and overlay metrology tool PROVE® which serves the 32nm node and below and which is already well established in the market. PROVE® features highly stable hardware components for the stage and environmental control. To ensure in-die measurement capability, sophisticated image analysis methods based on 2D correlations have been developed. In this paper we demonstrate the in-die capability of PROVE® and present corresponding measurement results for shortterm and long-term measurements as well as the attainable accuracy for feature sizes down to 85nm using different illumination modes and mask types. Standard measurement methods based on threshold criteria are compared with the new 2D correlation methods to demonstrate the performance gain of the latter. In addition, mask-to-mask overlay results of typical box-in-frame structures down to 200nm feature size are presented. It is shown, that from overlay measurements a reproducibility budget can be derived that takes into account stage, image analysis and global effects like mask loading and environmental control. The parts of the budget are quantified from measurement results to identify critical error contributions and to focus on the corresponding improvement strategies.

Seidel, D.; Arnz, M.; Beyer, D.



Update Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a guide intended for persons planning on relocating to Japan. Following a chapter on background information, 13 additional chapters lead the reader step-by-step through the relocation process. These chapters include: before leaving, on arrival, language, culture, doing business in Japan, household pointers and everyday life, schools…

Hoopes, Aaron


Dot distribution type of grayscale mask and colorscale photomask for fabrication diffractive and refractive microlens arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamental relations of the ultraviolet (UV) light transmittance of the soft polymer film filled by a large number of basic micro-pattern-structures composed of micro-squares, are acquired experimentally. The polymer films with different distribution density of basic color-micro-pattern-structure in the visible range, are also constructed easily, so as to perform single photomask photolithography for fabrication microlenses with very fine surface profile. The patterned polymer films demonstrate a modulated UV-light penetrating property. Models for describing the penetrating behaviors of UV-light over polymer films covered by a large number of basic grayscale or colorscale micro-patternstructures constructed, for instance, typical micro-square and other micro-pattern-structures shaped by partially overlapping several micro-squares, are set up. Several key factors, which influence the penetrating behavior of UV-light, and then the surface character, and also the quality of correspondent functioned micro-structures in photoresist and further substrate, such as diffractive or refractive microlens, are discussed carefully. The UV-light transmitting measurements demonstrate a desired UV-light intensity variance trend, which is basically consistent with theoretical prediction.

Tang, Qingle



European MEDEA+ CRYSTAL project: DFM photomasks inputs for EDA workflow task force  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cost of production of a photomask set has been soaring over the last few years, and now reaches 1 million to 2 million, almost 10% of the overall cost of a new project development. And new projects have seen their profitability lifetime reduced over time to 3 to 6 months. Any uncontrolled increase in cost or delay can make the difference between a profitable or non profitable project, and can even lead to the cancellation of the entire project. For the last few years, silicon manufacturability issues have been taken into account in the design process through a widespread use of Design For Manufacturing tools, but so far the impact of design on mask manufacturability has not been thoroughly studied. This article presents a novel Design For Mask Manufacturing approach, which defines a robust process encompassing design rules and constraints, validation procedures, exchange mechanisms between all actors in the flow (designers, mask shops, and foundry) in order to minimize the number and impact of mask design issues, to trace their root causes and severity, and automation of the handoff of design and administrative data to the mask shop. A demonstrator for the DFMM flow is being shown.

Beisser, Eric; Tissier, Michel; Au, David; Bonniol, Stéphane; Garcia, Patrick; Morey-Chaisemartin, Philippe; Sadran, Dominique; Servin, Isabelle; Tabusse, Michel



Extending analog design scaling to sub-wavelength lithography: co-optimization of RET and photomasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mask requirements for 110nm half-node BiCMOS process were analyzed with the goal to meet customer needs at lower cost and shorter cycle times. The key differentiating features for this technology were high density CMOS libraries along with high-power Bipolar, LDMOS and DECMOS components. The high voltage components were characterized by transistors that formed cylindrical junctions. The presence of curved features in the data is particularly detrimental to the write time on a 50KeV vector mask writer. The mask write times have a direct impact on both mask cost and cycle time. Design rules also permit rectangular or stretched contacts to allow conductance of high currents. To meet customer needs but still manage the computational lithography overhead as well as the patterning process performance, this process was evaluated in terms of computational lithography and photomask co-optimization for the base-line 50KeV vector and laser mask-writers. Due to the differences in imaging and processing of the different mask writing systems, comparative analysis of critical dimension (CD) performance both in terms of linearity and pitch was done. Differences in imaging on silicon due to mask fidelity were also expected and characterized. The required changes in OPC necessary to switch to the new mask process were analyzed.

Parikh, Ashesh; Dorris, Siew; Smelko, Tom; Walbrick, Walter; Mahalingam, Pushpa; Arch, John; Green, Kent; Garg, Vishal; Buck, Peter; West, Craig



Evaluation of molecular contaminants in the micro-environment between photomask and pellicle using analysis tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of haze and related defects become more serious as the dimension of lithography becomes smaller. It has been reported that the causes of haze defects are organic and inorganic molecular contamination deposited on mask surface. These haze problems influence the productivity of lithography process, but the formation mechanism of haze has not been clear. So it is important to understand chemical composition and formation mechanism of haze to prevent it. To analyze the chemical composition, several analytical techniques are useful, that is, ion chromatography (IC) or gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GC/MS) after liquid extraction of mask surface, surface analysis such as time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), X-ray photon spectrometry (XPS) and so on. However, these techniques are all destructive methods and are difficult to evaluate the airborne molecular contaminants (AMCs) with high sensitivity between mask and pellicle. We have successfully developed new and sensitive analysis tool consists of two parts and applied it for the evaluation of micro-environment between photomask and pellicle. One is the equipment to collect AMCs effectively, that provides diagonal two holes with needles on the pellicle to collect the gas while ventilating the high-purity nitrogen gas. The other is sampler which is named BremS™ to collect and measure exhausted AMCs in the space with high sensitivity. We applied this method to masks with different exposure dosage rate and introduce the usefulness of our method.

Douzono, Mina; Shimada, Itsuka; Ueda, Tatsuji; Nonaka, Tatsuo; Kawano, Yukihiro; Murakami, Masashi



Photolithographic patterning at sub-micrometer scale using a three-dimensional soft photo-mask with application on localized surface plasma resonance.  


This paper presents a new method for fabricating arrayed metallic nano-structures with sub-micrometer line-widths over large patterning area sizes. It utilizes a soft mold containing arrayed surface micro-pyramids. A carbon-black photo-resist (PR) coating method is developed which can convert the soft mold into a photo-mask. This three-dimensional photo-mask is then applied for photolithographic ultraviolet (UV) patterning. In conjunction with standard metal lift-off process, arrayed metallic nano-structures are formed on glass substrates. A finite element simulation software is used to analyze the underlying mechanism of UV patterning using this new type of 3D photo-mask. The localized surface plasma resonance (LSPR) effects of the fabricated nano-structures are investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Good agreements are observed. PMID:24718211

Chen, Yu-Zen; Wu, Chun-Ying; Lee, Yung-Chun



Advances in post AFM repair cleaning of photomask with CO2 cryogenic aerosol technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the mask technology matures, critical printing features and sub-resolution assist features (SRAF) shrink below 100 nm, forcing critical cleaning processes to face significant challenges. These challenges include use of new materials, oxidation, chemical contamination sensitivity, proportionally decreasing printable defect size, and a requirement for a damage-free clean. CO2 cryogenic aerosol cleaning has the potential to offer a wide process window for meeting these new challenges, if residue adder issues and damage can be eliminated. Some key differentiations of CO2 cryogenic aerosol cleaning are the non-oxidizing and non-etching properties compared to conventional chemical wet clean processes with or without megasonics. In prior work, the feasibility of CO2 cryogenic aerosol in post AFM repair photomask cleaning was demonstrated. In this paper, recent advancements of CO2 cryogenic aerosol cleaning technology are presented, focusing on the traditional problem areas of particle adders, electrostatic discharge (ESD), and mask damage mitigation. Key aspects of successful CO2 cryogenic aerosol cleaning include the spray nozzle design, CO2 liquid purity, and system design. The design of the nozzle directly controls the size, density, and velocity of the CO2 snow particles. Methodology and measurements of the solid CO2 particle size and velocity distributions will be presented, and their responses to various control parameters will be discussed. Adder control can be achieved only through use of highly purified CO2 and careful materials selection. Recent advances in CO2 purity will be discussed and data shown. The mask cleaning efficiency by CO2 cryogenic aerosol and damage control is essentially an optimization of the momentum of the solid CO2 particles and elimination of adders. The previous damage threshold of 150 nm SRAF structures has been reduced to 70nm and data will be shown indicating 60 nm is possible in the near future. Data on CO2 tribocharge mitigation, the main cause of ESD, will also be presented and application to current technology nodes discussed.

Bowers, Charles; Varghese, Ivin; Balooch, Mehdi; Brandt, Werner



Nanocrystalline ceria dispersions for ultrafine polishing and defect reduction in EUVL photomask bland manufacture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasingly, a finer finish polish is being sought in a variety of technologically advanced glass polishing applications. From the production of photomask blanks to the manufacture of precision lenses and prisms, improvements in surface planarity and the reduction of incidents of defectivity are critical to achieving higher levels of device performance. Nanophase Technologies Corporation (NTC) uses a patented plasma arc synthesis technique to produce nanosized cerium dioxide (ceria) particles. The small particle size, narrow particle size distribution, and unique crystal morphology of this ceria allow new performance benchmarks to be realized in the areas of decreased surface roughness (increased planarity), and reduced residual defects and subsurface damage. However, the success or failure of a nanocrystalline material in a particular application depends on the ability to form and maintain a stable dispersion with controlled rheology. The preparation of stable dispersions of nanocrystalline cerium dioxide particles is discussed with the following performance figures of merit -- particle size stability, dispersion settling stability, and the ability to manipulate the isoelectric point and the zeta potential of the particles. Aspects of the dispersion specifically engineered for glass polishing, including pH and rheology characteristics, are presented. To illustrate the application of the nanocrystalline ceria dispersion, a specific example of an integrated program to reduce defects in the manufacture of quartz glass substrates and EUV (Extreme Ultraviolet) mask blanks at Schott Lithotech AG in Meiningen is presented. Substrates made of Low Thermal Expansion Materials (LTEM) require modified process formulations to achieve the flatness, roughness and defectivity goals of EUVL (Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography) mask blanks. Results of these processes for several LTEM options establish direction for material improvements, define key polishing process parameters, and guide the identification of important opportunities for future process adaptations. Results of the low defect polishing process for quartz glass substrates will be reported, along with activities directed toward adapting this process for LTEM substrates.

Murray, Patrick G.; Coy, Daniel; Brotzman, Richard; Leutbecher, Thomas; Walter, Kurt; Ruggeberg, Frauke; Lenzen, Frank



Bimetallic grayscale photomasks for micro-optics fabrication using dual wavelength laser writing techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microfabrication of high-resolution micro-optic devices requires <1/8? (~60nm) precision both vertically and horizontally. More critical is the creation of 256-level grayscale masks to create sufficient vertical precision in the photoresist. Grayscale bimetallic photomasks are bi-layer thermal resists of Bismuth-on-Indium or Tin-on-Indium become controllably transparent by varying laser power thermally producing alloy oxide ranging ~3OD (unexposed) to <0.22OD (fully exposed). Previously, a direct-write multi-line CW Argon-ion laser writing system with feedbackcontrolled Gaussian beam achieved 256-level grayscale masks. The feedback system effectively reduced the average gray-level error from ±4.2 gray-levels in an open-loop approach to ±0.3 gray-levels in a closed-loop approach. Remaining gray-level errors were due to the Gaussian beam profile creating variations in gray-levels. Preliminary results show that a beam shaper creating a flattop beam helps reducing gray-level fluctuations. The multi-line Argon laser enables having multiple single beams separated from a single stabilized laser source. The single 514.5nm line used for writing gives better control of beam shape in the modulated laser beam. At the same time a lower power 457.9nm line introduced in the beam path to characterize the grayscale pattern both during and after the writing process. Filtering the writing laser line, sensor below the mask plate measures only the 457.9nm line enabling the high accuracy transparency measurements of the written mask near G-line (435.8nm). One target application is the creation of micro-lens arrays, which are lenses whose optical shape varies from lenslet to lenslet across the entire patterned surface of cm size. Laser direct-written grayscale masks enable relatively low cost, rapid turnaround mask production needed for creating such structures with microfabrication processes.

Qarehbaghi, Reza; Chapman, Glenn H.



Methodology for accurate and rapid simulation of large arbitrary 2D layouts of advanced photomasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The edge domain decomposition method (edge-DDM) is developed as a very powerful extension of the domain decomposition methods presented for the rapid and accurate simulation of light scattering from advanced photomasks. The range of validity of the method is systematically evaluated and it is found to be accurate for wavelength-sized mask features with large vertical topography. The error associated primarily with neglecting corner effects is seen to concentrate at the extremities of the spectrum of propagating plane waves and is therefore filtered-out by the NA and the larger than one reduction factors in typical projection printing systems. A possible algorithmic implementation of the method, that involves rigorous pre-calculation of the edge-diffraction of all types of edges present in the layout, is presented for the simulation of large and arbitrary 2D layouts of alt. PSMs. A speed-up factor of 172,800 (1sec vs. 2days) is shown in the simulation of simple 3um by 3um (4X) 2D layouts (isolated hole and isolated island) with accuracy better than 99 percent compared to the rigorous 3D simulation of the mask diffraction. An example of the edge-DDM applied on a large 12um by 16um 2D layout of a 0deg/90deg/270deg alt. PSM, where the near fields are estimated in less than 1min, is also presented. Spectral matching of the edge-diffraction with more compact piecewise constant models is shown to lead to additional speed-ups of the edge-DDM.

Adam, Konstantinos; Neureuther, Andrew R.



Japan Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Japan Society was founded in New York City in 1907 by a group of businesspeople who were intimately interested in promoting relations between the United States and Japan. While the Society experienced a downturn in activities during World War II, the postwar period saw the Society come under the direction of John D. Rockefeller III, who was able to vastly expand its programs. Currently, the Society offers a number of programs, including programs for K-12 educators, a language center, a global affairs lecture and seminar series, and exhibitions in its gallery. One particularly nice resource is the mini-site, "Journey Through Japan", which may be found in the education section. This part of the site is designed specifically for educators, and includes background readings, lesson plans, maps, an interactive timeline and a photo gallery. Additionally, visitors can sign up to receive a number of specialized electronic newsletters sent out by the Society.


Japan: Tsunami  

... tsunami triggered by the March 11, 2011, magnitude 8.9 earthquake centered off Japan's northeastern coast about 130 kilometers (82 ... inland from the eastern shoreline is visible in the post-earthquake image. The white sand beaches visible in the pre-earthquake view are ...



Hokkaido, Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cities mingle with rugged hills and a dormant volcano in this image of Hokkaido, Japan. This three-dimensional image comes from observations made by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on July 23, 2006. The view is toward the north and slightly east. Green indicates vegetation; beige and gray indicate bare ground, paved surfaces, or buildings; and dark blue indicates water. The water body at the top of the image is the Pacific Ocean. Now dormant, Mount Yotei is a stratovolcano--a symmetrical cone composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and volcanic rocks ejected in previous eruptions. It reaches a height of 1,898 meters (6,227 feet), and its summit sports a 700-meter- (2,297-foot-) wide crater. Snow often caps this volcano, but in this summertime shot, the volcano's summit is snow-free. The volcano is also known as Ezo-Fuji for its resemblance to Mount Fuji. As angular patches of gray and beige indicate, urban areas surround the volcano, most notably the city of Kutchan to the northwest. Even when volcanoes remain active, people often settle close to them, drawn by benefits of good soil and mild climates that appear to outweigh the risks. NASA image by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.



Ancient ships of Japan  

E-print Network

Ancient ships of Japan, which are little known outside of Japan, are presented based on the studies of past researchers, as well as a comprehensive analysis of archaeological remains. The process of development from logboats to extended logboats...

Miyashita, Hiroaki



Academic Libraries in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki



A novel mask proximity correction software combining accuracy and reduced writing time for the manufacturing of advanced photomasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new generations of photomasks are seen to bring more and more challenges to the mask manufacturer. Maskshops face two conflicting requirements, namely improving pattern fidelity and reducing or at least maintaining acceptable writing time. These requirements are getting more and more challenging since pattern size continuously shrinks and data volumes continuously grows. Although the classical dose modulation Proximity Effect Correction is able to provide sufficient process control to the mainstream products, an increased number of published and wafer data show that the mask process is becoming a nonnegligible contributor to the 28nm technology yield. We will show in this paper that a novel approach of mask proximity effect correction is able to meet the dual challenge of the new generation of masks. Unlike the classical approach, the technique presented in this paper is based on a concurrent optimization of the dose and geometry of the fractured shots. Adding one more parameter allows providing the best possible compromise between accuracy and writing time since energy latitude can be taken into account as well. This solution is implemented in the Inscale software package from Aselta Nanographics. We have assessed the capability of this technology on several levels of a 28nm technology. On this set, the writing time has been reduced up to 25% without sacrificing the accuracy which at the same time has been improved significantly compared to the existing process. The experiments presented in the paper confirm that a versatile proximity effect correction strategy, combining dose and geometry modulation helps the users to tradeoff between resolution/accuracy and e-beam write time.

Schiavone, Patrick; Martin, Luc; Browning, Clyde; Farys, Vincent; Sundermann, Frank; Narukawa, Shogo; Takikawa, Tadahiko; Hayashi, Naoya



Sigma7500: an improved DUV laser pattern generator addressing sub-100-nm photomask accuracy and productivity requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As photomask pattern complexity continues to increase, it becomes more challenging to control write times of shaped e-beam tools. This raises the related concerns of increased mask costs and extended mask cycle times. A strategy for sub-100 nm technology nodes is to use high-speed DUV laser pattern generators for as many layers as possible, reserving e-beam tools for only the most critical layers. With 248 nm optics and high-NA partially coherent imaging, the Sigma7500 increases the application space available to laser pattern generators. Image profiles are steepened with phase shifting methods, and pattern fidelity is improved with on-line corner enhancement. In the Sigma architecture, mask patterns are imaged with full fidelity and addressability in each writing pass. Because of this, the Sigma7500 provides additional means to improve write time by reducing the number of exposure passes. Platform improvements have resulted in a 2-pass writing accuracy that meets the 4-pass specification of the previous system. Write time is typically under two hours in 2-pass mode, compared to approximately three hours for 4-pass. The Sigma7500 can generally be used for all binary mask layers at the 90 nm technology node, and for about half the layers at 45 nm. The ProcessEqualizer TM function addresses long range CD errors arising from mask process effects. Mask data is sized in real time to compensate for process errors related to local pattern density, and also to correct for static process CD signatures. With a through-the-lens alignment system and both grid matching and pattern matching capabilities, the tool is also suited to 2 nd layer patterning for advanced phase shifting mask (PSM) applications down to 45 nm, with extendibility to 32 nm. Process integration is facilitated by the use of standard FEP-171 chemically amplified resist (CAR).

Sjöberg, Henrik; Karlin, Tord; Rosling, Mats; Öström, Thomas; Måhlén, Jonas; Newman, Tom



Kids Web Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Managed by the Japan Center for Intercultural Communications, the Kids Web Japan site introduces schoolchildren aged between 10 and 14 to the country of Japan. The main page offers links to information about the physical and cultural aspects of the country, including its nature and climate, history, traditions, daily life, and more. Each subject contains a description, beautiful photographs, and questions that kids can answer. Other features include several maps, games, a cookbook for kids, language lab, and much more.



Nagoya, Ise Bay, Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This view of Nagoya, Ise Bay and nearby Kyoto, on the main island of Honshu, Japan (35.0N, 137.0E) combines in a single photo both the political, cultural and educational centers of early Japan as well as one of the main educational and business centers of modern Japan. Besides being a business, cultural and educational center, Nagoya is near the geographic center of the Japanese home islands.



Technology Education in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the history, current status, and future direction of technology education in Japan, including the process of curriculum transition, secondary and postsecondary structure, and lack of resources. (SK)

Murata, Shoji; Stern, Sam



Japan's “New Homeless”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mid-1990s, homelessness has become a major issue of public discussion in Japan, and is often viewed as a new social problem facing Japanese society. The issue of homelessness contrasts images of the absence of poverty and homelessness in postwar Japan, often explained based on the unique features of Japanese-style employment and welfare, containing poverty and unemployment. This paper

Aya Ezawa



Explaining Japan's Saving Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines what I believe to be the significant developments in research over the past ten years on Japan's saving. It is a world that has been turned upside down during this period. I hope this paper helps clarify the extraordinary changes that have taken place. The paper is organized as follows. The next section motivates why Japan's saving

David W. Campbell




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Journey to Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Create a variety of activities related to the country you are studying--Japan, for example--and arrange them by such subjects as art, games, creative writing, maps, dress and greetings. These activities can be tied in with classroom learning centers or stations. Here students make passports, learn about traditional styles of dress in Japan, learn…

Godfrey, Lorraine



Groundwater contamination in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed.

Tase, Norio



Organic/metal interface studies with reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy: Photomasked surfactants and organic photoconductors on aluminum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In organic/metal interfaces systems involving complex organic molecules or polymers, the effect of the physical interfaces can be extend further than a monolayer into the organic film. An example of such an effect is the preferential orienting of large molecules at a surface and thier subsequent stacking into the near-interface region. Reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, RAIR, is uniquely suited to studying such psuedomorphism on metal substrate. Unlike previous qualitative applications of RAIR, however, it is used in a quantitative mode in the two applications discussed here. In these applications the organic systems are very different but the approach taken to extract structural information at the interface is the same. RAIR spectra are obtained from very thin films with thickness being the parameter being varied. The interface region makes a larger contribution to the overall spectrum as the thickness decreases. By observing the "thickness" -normalized band absorbances as a functioning of "thickness", the percentage band intensity changes can be determined in going from the randomly oriented thick or bulk film case to the ordered thin film case. Given the RAIR selection rule that only dipole moment changes perpendicular to the surface can be observed and a reliable knowledge of the band assignments and transition moment directions in the organic molecule, the changes can be interpreted in terms of a specific orientation and conformation at the interface. This method of RAIR data sampling and analysis is refered to as quantitative absorption-reflection thickness IR or QUARTIR. In the first example, thin films of the photo-masked surfactant (PMS) 4, 5 dimethoxy-2 nitrobenzyl hexadecane sulfonate, solution cast in a copolyester matrix onto air oxidized Al substrate were studied. PMS to polyester weight ratios of 1:2 were used with estimated total film thicknesses varying from ca. 100 to 1000 Å. By digitally substracting out the stronger PE contribution from the combined spectra using plain PE preference sample spectra, the PMS spectra alone could be monitored as a function of thickness. From the fractional changes in the "thickness" -normalized intensities of 17 major bands upon going from the randomly oriented bulk state to the oriented interface state, the angles between the surface normal and the various transition moment directions could be deducted self-consistently. The resulting model of the blocked surfactant that preferentially diffuses to and orients at the Al oxide interface has the aromatic ring plane perpendicular to the surface with one nitro oxygen pointing towards it, leaving the hydrocarbon tail pointing away from the surface. The perpendicular bisector of the NO 2 group is inclined 30°C with respect to the surface normal. The preferred orientation of the SO 2, OCH 3 and S-O-CH 2 groups are also determined to be consistent with this model. In the second example thin films (30-1400 Å) of the photosensitive dye perylene red (PR) or N, N-Di (3, 5-xylyl) perylene-3, 4:9, 10 bis (dicarboxyimide), and metal free phthalocyanine (H 2Pc), were vacuum sublined onto air oxidized, sputter deposited Al substrates. From the strong monotonic variations in the "thickness" normalized relative band absorbances as the interface is approach, it can be concluded that at the interface the PR molecules are preferentially oriented such that all have thier major symmetry plane perpendicular to the surface. A unique orientation exists within that plane for a single molecular stack model and specified ranges of paired angles for a model of two stacks of differently oriented molecules. This behavior is in contrast to the H 2Pc films which appear to remain disordered down to ca. 100 Å.

Debe, M. K.


GPM Arrives in Japan  

NASA Video Gallery

An international satellite that will set a new standard for global precipitation measurements from space has completed a 7,300-mile journey from the United States to Japan, where it now will underg...


Japan's green dreams delayed  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the wake of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster, with nuclear power¿s future uncertain, Japan's parliament passed a bill in August aiming to boost green energy production. The bill-commonly called the feed-in tariff or FIT law-requires Japan's 10 power utilities to purchase electricity generated by suppliers of such renewable energy sources as solar, wind, and biomass and is slated to

John Boyd



Space robotics in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; Mccain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter



Japan’s Nuclear Hedge: Beyond "Allergy" and Breakout  

E-print Network

This chapter examines the future of Japan’s hedged dependence on U.S. extended deterrence and encourages more imaginative thinking about potential outcomes and strategic implications as the second nuclear age unfolds.

Samuels, Richard J.


Tokyo and Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tokyo and Japan should be interesting and educational for people from junior-high students to adults. It provides an interactive experience as a virtual tourist on a trip to Tokyo. You can also 'Ask the Old Japan Hand' questions about Tokyo and what it's like to live there. There are also links to many Japanese sites that publish in English. The site is young, but growing. It's direction and speed of growth will be determined by the reactions of the visitors. Your input is encouraged.


Disaster in Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happened in Japan? Navigate the photos and websites below to grasp the extent of the damage caused by the 2011 earthquake and tsunami. Part I: Summarize the event Read the article, Death Toll Estimate in Japan Soars as Relief Efforts Intensify , to better understand the basics of the event. On your own piece of paper, answer the 6 Q s About the News. You may type them on the computer and print them out. Be sure to write complete sentences. Part II: The One-Pager Now that you have summarized the ...

Wheeler, Mrs.



Diaspora without Homeland: Being Korean in Japan  

E-print Network

General Douglas MacArthur regarding Japan’s minorityin Peace: MacArthur, Yoshida, and Postwar Japan. Berkeley:MacArthur also added that he could “scarcely criticize the Japanese for this as the Koreans left in Japan

Ryang, Sonia; Lie, John



21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.  

...succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene, and naphtha, and insoluble in water and in cold...



21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...immature fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene, and...




Microsoft Academic Search

The IHY Japanese National Steering Committee (i.e., STPP subcommittee of SCJ) is promoting (1) two satellite missions, (2) five ground-based networks, (3) public outreach, (4) the international and domestic workshops, and (5) the nomination of IGY Gold Club members. In the present paper we will introduce these IHY activities in Japan, briefly summarize them, and propose the need for post

K Yumoto


Nuclear Power in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Energy consumption in Japan has grown at a faster rate than in any other major industrial country. To maintain continued prosperity, the government has embarked on a crash program for nuclear power. Current progress and issues/reactions to the plan are discussed. (JN)

Powell, John W.



Family Policy in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pervasive sense of crisis in Japan over the falling birth rate and aging society issues is generating an active public debate about gender, the fam- ily, the organization of the workplace and the policy approaches best able to cope with these problems. This article considers explanations for demographic change, then turns to current Japanese family policy, focus- ing on




Invasive Birds in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction of exotic birds has been increasing throughout the world. We conducted inquiry investigations in order to reveal the spread of introduced bird species in Japan. Forty-three exotic species are known to breed or are regarded as breeding. The Feral Pigeon (Columba livia), Chinese Bamboo Partridge (Bambusicola thoracica), Red-billed Leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea), Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Red Avadavat (Amandava amandava)

Kazuhiro EGUCHI; Hitoha E. AMANO



Holography in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present state of activities of holography in Japan is reviewed. Electro-holography, holographic 3D printer, recording material have been studying in research organizations, universities, and research institutes. Optical head using hologram has been developed by main electric companies. The market of hologram in security is going to extend. Several private and group exhibitions were opened within a year. HODIC meeting

Toshihiro Kubota



Domestic Violence in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, domestic violence in Japan referred to children’s physical and emotional violence against their parents. However, in recent years, the general public’s awareness of and actions toward other types of domestic violence, especially violence against women and children, has increased. Following a brief description of filial violence and elderly abuse, both spousal abuse and child abuse are discussed in terms

Junko Kozu



Language Testing in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers on second language testing in Japan include: "Differences Between Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests" (James Dean Brown); "Criterion-Referenced Test Construction and Evaluation" (Dale T. Griffe); "Behavioral Learning Objectives as an Evaluation Tool" (Judith A. Johnson); "Developing Norm- Referenced Tests for Program-Level…

Brown, James Dean, Ed.; Yamashita, Sayoko Okada, Ed.


Student Radicals in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radical movement among Japanese students was brought to wide public attention with an airplane hijack ing in 1970, but the escalation of student radicalism had begun a decade ago with the discussion of the U.S.—Japan Security Treaty. Political matters have formed the basis for many of the radical actions by students since then, especially from 1967 on, when the

Michiya Shimbori



Japan's electronic packaging technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael



Youth marketing in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports on Japan, a country in which the falling birth rate gives marketers some interesting opportunities. Explores how smaller numbers of children leads to more money being spent on each, in particular the “six pockets” or six sources of financial support that children have from their two parents and four grandparents. Illustrates this by the example of Studio Alice, a

Nana Sato; Yuko Kato



Women and Representation in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan's high level of socio-economic advancement notwithstanding, the level of women's representation in Japan lags behind that in not only other advanced countries but also many developing countries. This article aims to elucidate the causes of the under-representation of women in Japan. Preceding studies suggest that multiple, intertwining factors have had a collective influence on the number of women representatives.

Mikiko Eto



Globalization and Education in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, the authors contend that globalization in Japan is the gradual process in which Japan's positioning of "self" within international relations, which had formerly been dominated by the West, has changed. Accordingly, Japan's relationships with the West and the rest of the world, for example, Asia, have also been reviewed and modified.…

Ohkura, Kentaro; Shibata, Masako



[Olive pollinosis in Japan].  


Olive (Olea europaes) is the most important allergic tree in the Mediterranean area. That is widely distributed at Syodoshima in Japan. I observed olive pollination period and studied the patients with pollinosis. The patients were examined by skin test, measuring of specific IgE antibody and nasal provocation test with olive pollen extract. Allergic responses to olive pollen were found to be present in 16.3% of pollinosis patients. And cross-reactivity between olive and grass pollen (Dactylis glomerata) was suggested. Other literature reported the cross reactivity between the pollens of the Oleaceae family, containing olive, and grass family. From our study we suppose that Oleaceae pollens cause allergic reaction of Gramineae pollinosis patients in Japan. PMID:8857110

Miyahara, S



Japan eyes China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research trip to Tokyo found contrasts between Japanese policies of engaging China economically and the U.S. emphasis on\\u000a human rights. It also found distinct differences between Washington and Tokyo in assessing the present and future security\\u000a threat of China in Asia. While the United States is apprehensive about increasing military power, Japan is more concerned\\u000a with China’s political and

Harvey W. Nelsen



The UN Seahorse in Japan!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The UN Seahorse, currently based in Yokohama, Japan, is a joint project of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP). The UN Seahorse project helps to increase awareness about the ocean and its significance to our daily lives. In the host port of Japan, visitors will find information about Japan's geography, oceans, climate, and general background information; Japanese institutions provide contact information and links to the many organizations working on ocean-related issues in Japan. In addition, maps and charts offer useful images of Japan and surrounding areas. After or before visiting the Japan port of call, visitors can jump the two previous ports of call, Vancouver, Canada and Honolulu, Hawaii. Detailed information about the project is available at the Ocean98 Website.



JPRS Report, Science Technology, Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Advanced Materials, laser, Japan, Optical Activation, Ultra Fine Crystal, Aerospace, Civil Aviation, Biotechnology, Energy, Microelectronics, Nuclear Engineering, Science and Technology Policy, International relation, Superconductivity, ...



Astrogeodetic geoid of Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three kinds of astrogeodetic geoid maps for Japan are presented: one referred to the global (18, 18) geoid of the 1973 Smithsonian Standard Earth (III) (SE III), referred to the best-fitting ellipsoid of SE III, and one referred to the reference ellipsoid of the Tokyo datum. Interpolations of the deflection of the vertical are carried out by a least squares estimation method. The geoid height differences obtained are compared with solutions of satellite-derived station positions. Good agreement is found in a comparison with Doppler tracking stations.

Ganeko, Y.



Ijime in Japan.  


This paper reviews the problem of ijime in Japan from a variety of perspectives, primarily through studies conducted in this country. The term ijime is not uniform in concept, open to different interpretations given the disparity in definitions among different circles, making precise assessment of the actual conditions difficult. Such being the case, what is needed is further study on the mechanisms and actual state of ijime accounting for the flow of the times, and compilation of research to enable the creation of ever more effective modes of prevention and intervention. PMID:22909914

Ogura, Masayoshi; Okada, Kaori; Hamada, Shoko; Asaga, Reiko; Honjo, Shuji



Perry Visits Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Upon opening this website, visitors will be treated to an image from an anonymous Japanese scroll which depicts a steam locomotive and several Japanese onlookers. It's an excellent way to start a digital collection dedicated to Commodore Matthew Perry's visit to Japan in 1854. The collection is part of Brown University's Center for Digital Initiatives, and it was created as part of a project by Professor Susan Smulyan and her students. On the site, visitors can peruse three different sets of images, including those created by the American artist William Heine and a set of broadsides by anonymous Japanese creators. The subject matter is the same for all of these works (Commodore Perry's visit to Japan), and visitors can take a close look at each image, and also read accompanying essays by students. That's far from all, as visitors can also read accounts of the expeditions written by Commodore Perry and William Heine. The site is rounded out by a detailed bibliography containing scholarly works, journal articles, and web sources.


75 FR 38119 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review)] Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade...finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan...finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to...



Higher Education Studies in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rapid development of higher education in the postwar period has given rise to various problems, and higher education studies in Japan have developed in response to them. What have been the major issues, and how did academic research respond to them, in postwar Japan? This article delineates an outline of higher education studies in general,…

Kaneko, Motohisa



Economic Crisis in Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News examines Japan's struggle against economic recession. The nine resources discussed provide an overview on various aspects of the topic. Due to economic crisis throughout Asia, the Japanese economy was severely strained this week as the yen continued to fall against the dollar in Tokyo trading. A "weak domestic financial sector" and shrinking private-sector investments and exports also contributed to Japanese economic woes, according to Economic Planning Minister Shimpei Nukaya. Although many top Japanese governmental officials believe their nation's economy can be revived through financial reform and international monetary support, some United States analysts remain uncertain. With a weak GDP, a weak yen, and ownership of over half the world's savings, international concern for Japanese impact on other economies is growing. To alleviate these fears, President Clinton bolstered the yen with US dollar sales on June 17, 1998. The long-term effects of this intervention remain to be seen.

Waters, Megan.



The Social Sciences in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article relates a brief historical background of social sciences in Japan, the institutional framework of social science education and research, and major issues and perspectives for the development of the social scinces. (ND)

Watanuki, Joji



Environment market keys in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Like all the developed countries, Japan is nowadays facing the problems of environment. In this publication, the japanese environment policy is presented, followed by a development on the different technical and industrial process applied to face those pr...



Japan's launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of Japan's Mu series scientific research launch vehicles, and N and H series practical applications vehicles, is described. The three-stage M-3C features a second-stage radio inertial guidance system. The evolution to the M-3S includes a first-stage TVC and Solid Motor Roll Control device, and eight 310-m strap-on boosters (SOB's). The M-3SII developed to launch an interplanetary satellite for the 1986 Halley's Comet apparition, employs two 735-mm SOB's and a microprocessor digitalized flight control system, and can put a 770 kg satellite into low earth orbit. The N-1 is a three-stage radio-guided vehicle using first and second stage liquid engines, a solid motor third stage, three SOB's, and having the capability to launch a 145 kg geostationary satellite. N-II improvements include a 350 kg geostationary payload capacity, nine SOB's, and an inertial guidance system. The H-1 planned for 1987 has a 550 kg geostationary payload capacity and a domestically developed cryogenic engine. The H-II planned for 1992 will be capable of launching a two-ton geostationary satellite, or LOX/LH2 plural satellites simultaneously. It will be powered by a single 95-ton thrust LE-7 main engine.

Kuroda, Y.; Hara, N.


Gluten ataxia in Japan.  


Gluten ataxia, a type of cerebellar ataxia caused by exposure to gluten in sensitive patients, has been considered common in the USA and Europe, and rare in Asia. We measured anti-deamidated gliadin peptide (DGP) antibody levels in 49 patients with cerebellar ataxia, excluding those with multiple system atrophy, hereditary spinocerebellar ataxia, or cancer, as well as those who were receiving oral administration of phenytoin. Anti-DGP antibody was positive in eight (16.3 %) patients, five of these patients were positive only for IgA, one was positive for both IgG and IgA, and two were positive only for IgG antibody. Intravenous immunoglobulin was administered to five of the eight patients, and was markedly effective in one, moderately effective in two, and ineffective in two. Steroid therapy was administered to four patients, but none had an apparent response. Ataxia symptoms improved in one patient treated with a gluten-free diet only. Although it had been thought to be extremely rare in Asia, we speculate that more than 10 % of cerebellar ataxia patients in Japan currently have gluten ataxia; therefore, measuring anti-DGP antibody or anti-gliadin antibody in cerebellar ataxia patients in Asia is important. PMID:24997752

Nanri, Kazunori; Mitoma, Hiroshi; Ihara, Masafumi; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Taguchi, Takeshi; Takeguchi, Masafumi; Ishiko, Tomoko; Mizusawa, Hidehiro



High definition systems in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The successful implementation of a strategy to produce high-definition systems within the Japanese economy will favorably affect the fundamental competitiveness of Japan relative to the rest of the world. The development of an infrastructure necessary to support high-definition products and systems in that country involves major commitments of engineering resources, plants and equipment, educational programs and funding. The results of these efforts appear to affect virtually every aspect of the Japanese industrial complex. The results of assessments of the current progress of Japan toward the development of high-definition products and systems are presented. The assessments are based on the findings of a panel of U.S. experts made up of individuals from U.S. academia and industry, and derived from a study of the Japanese literature combined with visits to the primary relevant industrial laboratories and development agencies in Japan. Specific coverage includes an evaluation of progress in R&D for high-definition television (HDTV) displays that are evolving in Japan; high-definition standards and equipment development; Japanese intentions for the use of HDTV; economic evaluation of Japan's public policy initiatives in support of high-definition systems; management analysis of Japan's strategy of leverage with respect to high-definition products and systems.

Elkus, Richard J., Jr.; Cohen, Robert B.; Dayton, Birney D.; Messerschmitt, David G.; Schreiber, William F.; Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Shelton, Duane



Mt. Fuji, Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the movie

The nearly perfectly conical profile of Fuji soars 3,776 meters (12,388 feet) above sea level on southern Honshu, near Tokyo. The highest mountain in Japan, Fuji is the country's most familiar symbol. The summit of this graceful, dormant volcano is broken by a crater 610 meters (2,000 feet) in diameter. The crater is ringed by eight jagged peaks. The five Fuji Lakes lie on the northern slopes of the mountain, all formed in the wake of lava flows. Mirrored in the still waters of Kawaguchi-ko, the most beautiful of the five lakes, is a reflection of Fuji. Part of Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, Fuji last erupted for a two-month period starting in November 1707, covering Tokyo, some 100 kilometers (60 miles) away, with a layer of ash. According to legend, Fuji arose from the plain during a single night in 286 BC. Geologically, the mountain is much older than this.

Considered sacred by many, Fuji is surrounded by temples and shrines. Thousands of pilgrims climb the mountain each year as part of their religious practice, hoping to reach the summit by dawn to watch the sunrise. This animated fly-by was created by draping visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's stereo bands. The spatial resolution of both the image and topography is 15 m. The image is centered at 35.3 degrees north latitude, 138.7 degrees east longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.



The educational system in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rapid economic growth of Japan since World War II has resulted in Japan becoming a reference point for developing nations and the West. This remarkable growth results from a combination of factors, one of which has been unyielding attention to education in order to cultivate the human talent necessary to provide the productivity for economic growth. The Japanese education system emphasizes quality of instruction and rewards hard work. Some of the principles of the system are outlined together with a summary of the content of the curriculum, the quantity and quality of instruction, and the influence of culture and environment.

Spearman, M. L.



American Occupation of Japan: A Retrospective View  

E-print Network

Ichi Building, the NYK Building, the Kaijo Building, the Meiji Building, the Imperial Hotel; Shidehara, Yoshida, Katayama, Hatoyama, Nosaka; Japan's American Interlude, MacArthur's Japan, Failure in Japan, Typhoon in Tokyo, Popcorn on the Ginza... of the era of the New Deal? Does the euphoric purposefulness of the Occupation headquarters staff, MacArthur included, reflect the American envi sioning of a whole destitute and prostrate society?Japan?serving as a practicum for the world's most advanced...

Goodman, Grant K.



Superconducting magnet development in Japan  

SciTech Connect

The present state of R and D works on the superconducting magnet and its applications in Japan are presented. On electrical rotating machines, 30 MVA superconducting synchronous rotary condenser (Mitsubishi and Fuji) and 50 MVA generator are under construction. Two ways of ship propulsion by superconducting magnets are developing. A superconducting magnetically levitated and linear motor propelled train ''MAGLEV'' was developed by the Japan National Railways (JNR). The superconducting magnet development for fusion is the most active field in Japan. The Cluster Test program has been demonstrated on a 10 T Nb/sub 3/Sn coil and the first coil of Large Coil Task in IEA collaboration has been constructed and the domestic test was completed in JAERI. These works are for the development of toroidal coils of the next generation tokamak machine. R and D works on superconducting ohmic heating coil are in progress in JAERI and ETL. The latter group has constructed 3.8 MJ pulsed coil. A high ramp rate of changing field in pulsed magnet, 200 T/s, has been tested successfully. High Energy Physics Laboratory (KEK) are conducting active works. The superconducting meson channel and ..pi.. meson channel have been constructed and are operating successfully. KEK has also a project of big accelerator named ''TRISTAN'', which is similar to ISABELLE project of BNL. Superconducting synchrotron magnets are developed for this project. The development of superconducting three thin wall solenoid has been started. One of them, CDF, is progressing under USA-Japan collaboration.

Yasukochi, K.



Efficient consumer response in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient consumer response (ECR) involves reengineering, redesigning, and computerizing of the supply chain and aims to provide greater value to the consumer. This article examines the current status of ECR in Japan. Data collected from Japanese manufacturers, wholesalers, and retailers are used to examine the current competitive environment facing channel members and the perceived benefits and barriers to implementing ECR.

Ritu Lohtia; “Frank” Tian Xie; Ramesh Subramaniam



Renewable energy strategy in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan has few indigenous energy supplies, and imports the bulk of its energy, so it is hardly surprising that, following the oil crises of the mid 1970's, it has taken renewable energy seriously. Moreover, increasing constrains on energy and the environment, especially the global environmental consequences of energy use, are causing a rising concern world wide, giving a warning that

Izumi Ushiyama



Japan Studies Association Journal, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This journal presents new perspectives and materials on Japan that are engaging, relatively jargon-free, and shaped so that their usefulness in a college classroom is readily apparent. The journal represents an example of the potential for genuine scholarship that lies within interdisciplinary studies. Articles grouped under the topic of "Minority…

Reichel, Philip L., Ed.



How Japan Supports Novice Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When U.S. educators first hear that Japanese teacher preparation programs require only four weeks of formal student teaching at the end of the credential program, they're appalled: How can this be? More surprising still, few new teachers in Japan (1.35 percent) leave the profession during their first year. So where are these beginning…

Ahn, Ruth



Ideologies of English in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines arguments for and against extensive English language teaching in non-Western cultures, particularly in Japan, including the ideologies of English in two Japanese discourses, "nihonjinron" and "kokusaika." It is concluded that instruction in English that is intended to promote social transformation should include both critical…

Kubota, Ryuko



Teaching and Learning in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essays gathered in this volume are united by the common goal of understanding teaching and learning in Japan as it actually occurs. The essays seek to answer questions about the actual conduct of learning in different settings and at different points in the life cycle. This volume explores the expectations and associations found in specific…

Rohlen, Thomas P., Ed.; LeTendre, Gerald K., Ed.


Superconducting magnet development in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present state of R and D works on the superconducting magnet and its applications in Japan are presented. On electrical rotating machines, 30 MVA superconducting synchronous rotary condenser (Mitsubishi and Fuji) and 50 MVA generator are under construction. Two ways of ship propulsion by superconducting magnets are developing. A superconducting magnetically levitated and linear motor propelled train ''MAGLEV'' was

K. Yasukochi



Sarin poisoning in Matsumoto, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryA presumed terrorist attack with sarin occurred in a residential area of the city of Matsumoto, Japan, on June 27, 1994. About 600 residents and rescue staff were poisoned; 58 were admitted to hospitals, and 7 died. We examined clinical and laboratory findings of 264 people who sought treatment and the results of health examinations on 155 residents done 3

N Yanagisawa; H Morita; T Nakajima; H Okudera; M Shimizu; H Hirabayashi; M Nohara; Y Midorikawa; S Mimura



Political Socialization in Contemporary Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews some interesting findings on political socialization in contemporary Japan, a field characterized by a fair amount of research but a paucity of empirical studies related to specific theories or propositions. The aspects of political socialization selected for discussion are the formation and development of party support, ideology, and attachment to the political system.

Jun-Ichi Kawata



Total laboratory automation in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of systematized automation in clinical laboratories in Japan started in 1981. At that time, about 12 laboratory technicians worked in a typical private University hospital laboratory (average size 1000 beds), whereas in national university hospitals (typical size 600 beds), the number of technicians was as low as 18–25. In 1981, the Kochi Medical School was founded as a

Masahide Sasaki; Takeshi Kageoka; Katsumi Ogura; Hiromi Kataoka; Tadashi Ueta; Shigeyoshi Sugihara



Japan: Images of a People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Art to Zoo" focuses on Japanese art and is adapted from materials developed by the education department of the Smithsonian Institution's Freer Gallery of Art and the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery. After learning how to look at paintings, students make paper screens that resemble Japanese screens. Background essays about Japan place the…

Smigielski, Alan; Casey, Douglas, Ed.



Japan and America: Culture Counts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultural distinctions in the approach to social relationships, access to information, personal motivation, and hierarchy make Japan an effective economic power. U.S. business can learn from the Japanese ways to create more information-based organizations, think in global terms, foster links between business and education, and develop internal…

Cooney, Barry D.



The Japan of Today, 1982.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following an introduction which discusses the history and geography of Japan, this book focuses on topics related to this country's government, economy, social conditions, and cultural life. Topics related to government include: constitution and emperor; legislature; executive power; judiciary system; foreign relations; and defense. Topics related…

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tokyo (Japan).


FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, March 28, 1996  

SciTech Connect

;Partial Contents: Advanced Materials (Japan: International Workshop for Supercritcal Fluid); Microelectronics (Japan: Tokyo Institute of Technology Develops Four-Legged Walking Robot, Japan: Hitachi Studies Nanometer Processing Using Probe Microscope; Japan: Osaka U. To Develop Microscopic Measurement Technology Using Lasers, Japan: NTT Develops Very-High-Speed Digital IC); Superconductivity (Japan: JAERI, ISTEC Develop Superconducting Coil, Japan: Practical Application of Neodymium Oxide Superconductor at Liquid Temperature is Near); Medical Technologies (Japan: Nagoya Institute of Technology Develops Surgical Method Using Virtual Reality).




Japan's Triple Disaster The Continuing News Story  

E-print Network

of a large tsunami striking the Sendai Plain is high," -Koji Minoura #12;11 News Focus "This is the returnJapan's Triple Disaster The Continuing News Story Dennis Normile Japan News Bureau Chief November not pragmatic." -Fumihiko Imamura #12;18 News Of The Week Does Japan Need Nuclear Power? #12;19 News & Analysis

Napp, Nils


"The March 11th , East Japan Earthquake &  

E-print Network

"The March 11th , East Japan Earthquake & Tsunami": Foreign Student Organizes International Seminar in English After the catastrophe caused by East Japan earthquake, many of the international students studying. The title of the discussion was "How foreigners see the great east Japan earthquake and what should be done

Kawato, Suguru


The US Occupation and Japan's New Democracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the US Occupation of Japan (1945-1952), a victorious America attempted to reform Japanese education by replacing Japan's tradition system of values with one that promoted American democratic values. The United States had considered the source of Japan's militarism to lie in the selfless loyalty and love of country that many older Japanese…

Kumano, Ruriko



Measures Against Human Trafficking in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early 1980s, Japan began to witness the human trafficking of females into the country from neighboring Asian countries; however, Japan's government did not take sufficient measures against human trafficking. Since 2000, the United States has actively moved to combat human trafficking, and Japan did not fare well in the annual Trafficking in Persons Report. According to the 2004

Minoru Yokoyama



Beam Test Possibilities in Japan Tatsushi NAKAMOTO  

E-print Network

) & IMR Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant KEK Narita Airport ·Facilities in East Japan were damagedBeam Test Possibilities in Japan Tatsushi NAKAMOTO KEK Feb. 15, 2012 1 Radiation Effects ­ Evaluation apparatuses #12;Overview of Facilities in Japan Feb. 15, 2012 Radiation Effects

McDonald, Kirk


Japan Resource Catalogue: A Guide for New England Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This catalog of instructional resources for teaching about Japan provides annotated entries under three main headings: Japan Resources (resources that are specific to Japan); General Resources (materials that are Japan-related but not Japan-specific); and Organizations. Japan Resources, which includes the major portion of the materials, lists 110…

Barsh, Adele L., Ed.


Japan`s nuclear weapons options and U.S. security interests  

SciTech Connect

Japan is a virtual nuclear weapons power. It has the scientific and technical ability to produce hundreds or even thousands of nuclear weapons, but has chosen not to do so for political reasons. This thesis examines the historical development of Japan`s nuclear energy and aerospace programs since the mid-1950s and considers the possibility that at various points in its history, Japan used these programs as a cover to insure that its nuclear weapons options remained open. This thesis analyzes internal and external factors that may have influenced Japan`s nuclear policies. External factors include regional threats, international pressures to join the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and distrust of US commitments to provide for Japan`s defense. Internal factors include Japan`s historical tradition of a strong military state and Japan`s unique nuclear allergy. While both external and internal factors have influenced the path of Japans nuclear energy and aerospace programs, internal factors will drive Japan to maintain its plutonium-based energy program and will allow Japan to remain a virtual nuclear power well into the twenty-first century.

Sharman, C.H.



Japan`s refiner/marketers headed for major shakeout  

SciTech Connect

Japan`s downstream oil industry is in a state of crisis and headed for a major shakeout. The major catalyst for this was a dramatic deregulation step during April 1996 that allowed refined petroleum product imports by non-refiners. The move, together with a sharp drop in refining margins, falling retail gasoline prices, and a service station sector on the brink of collapse, are all leading to massive changes in the way the country`s refiners and marketers do business. This paper reviews the collapse of corporate profits during this period of deregulation; the development of a new price system geared toward bringing the prices of gasoline, fuel oil, and kerosene into line with each other to offset the fall in gasoline prices; and industry restructuring including mergers, acquisitions, and marketing consolidation. The paper then makes predictions on the outcome of these changes on the Japanese oil industry.




Fruit harvesting robots in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed harvesting robots for tomato /1/, petty-tomato, cucumber /2/ and grape /3/ in Japan. These robots mainly consist of manipulators, end-effectors, visual sensors and traveling devices. These mechanisms of the robot components were developed based on the physical properties of the work objects. The robots must work automatically by themselves in greenhouses or fields, since we are considering for one operator to tend several robots in the production system. The system is modeled after Japanese agriculture which is commonly seen to produce many kinds of crops in greenhouses and in many small fields intensively. Bioproduction in space is somewhat similar to the agricultural system in Japan, because few operators have to work in a small space. Employing robots for bioproduction in space is considered desirable in near future. The following is a description of the harvesting robots.

Kondo, N.; Monta, M.; Fujiura, T.


Endangered vascular plants in Japan  

PubMed Central

The history of the Red List of Japanese vascular plants is briefly reviewed for editing and research. Especially on the results of recent monitoring, the present status of information and conservation activities on the endangered plants in Japan is discussed and the dynamics of the Japanese flora are taken up, in relation to basic research on plant biodiversity on the Japanese Archipelago. The figures of endangered plants are not very variable during the past quarter of a century, but we can surmise that the conservation of threatened species in Japan has been promoted to some extent. Based on the results of such a study, proposals are made to contribute to the sustainable use of plant biodiversity on the Japanese Archipelago under a global conspectus. PMID:18941303

Iwatsuki, Kunio



A Tourist's Album of Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you are looking to explore Japan in the year 1909 via the eyes of an informed and thoughtful Western tourist, look no further. This engaging collection from the University of Vermont Libraries' Center for Digital Initiatives brings together the photo album compiled by Katherine Wolcott and her uncle, Robert Hull Fleming. Fleming was a graduate of the University of Vermont and as part of a larger Asian trip, the two of them stopped in Japan and collected photos, postcards, and other printed ephemera. This collection contains nearly 40 leaves of collected items which depict daily life, landscapes, and pictures of the countryside. Visitors can browse the materials here by genre, topic, creator, format, or place. A good place to start here is with the photos of Mount Fuji, which are a real treat.



Japan's research on gaseous flames  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although research studies on gaseous flames in microgravity in Japan have not been one-sided, they have been limited, for the most part, to comparatively fundamental studies. At present it is only possible to achieve a microgravity field by the use of drop towers, as far as gaseous flames are concerned. Compared with experiments on droplets, including droplet arrays, which have been vigorously performed in Japan, studies on gaseous flames have just begun. Experiments on ignition of gaseous fuel, flammability limits, flame stability, effect of magnetic field on flames, and carbon formation from gaseous flames are currently being carried out in microgravity. Seven subjects related to these topics are introduced and discussed herein.

Niioka, Takashi



Accreted oceanic materials in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isozaki, Y., Maruyama, S. and Furuoka, IF., 1990. Accreted oceanic materials in Japan. In: M. Kono and B.C. Burchfiel (Editors), Tectonics of Eastern Asia and Western Pacific Continental Margin. Tectonophysics, 181: 179-205. The Phanerozoic &cum-Pacific erogenic belts contain numerous ocean-derived materials accreted through plate converg- ing processes. Japanese Islands, in particular, display various kinds of oceanic materials of different origins

Y. Isozaki; S. Maruyama; F. Furuoka



Citizenship Education Curriculum in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three Japanese citizens were freed in April 2004 after they had been threatened with execution by militants in Iraq. The Prime\\u000a Minister criticised the three, who returned to Japan, stating that they had been imprudent to go to Iraq at that time. Conservative\\u000a members of parliament insisted that those who had been captured in Iraq were anti-Japanese. Some media conducted

Kazuko Otsu


Prenatal Genetic Testing in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the use of prenatal diagnosis and maternal serum maker tests (MSMTs) from January 1 to December 31, 1997, in Japan. Methods: Questionnaires were sent to medical facilities, which represent about 80% of the facilities providing prenatal diagnosis. Results: Prenatal diagnosis was performed in 5,748 women, of whom 5,538 (5,516 amniocenteses and 22 chorionic villus sampling; 96.3%) were

Ichiro Matsuda; Kaoru Suzumori



Wind energy activities in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes recent activities on wind energy in Japan. The national “Sunshine Project” conducted by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, was reviewed in 1990 to map out a new energy strategy in the Age of Global Environment. As a result, a new 500kW WECS R&D project has started in FY1991 and the operation started in FY1996. A

Izumi Ushiyama



2011 Japan Earthquake and Tsunami  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this site is to provide access to teaching materials to respond to sudden hazard events, specifically the 2011 Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, in the classroom as well as more generalized materials that will help educators teach about hazards either before or soon after such an event. Resource includes images, videos and visualizations, classroom activities as well as current informational blogs and news reports.



Jurassic accretion tectonics of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Jurassic accretionary complex and coeval granites in Japan represent remnants of the Jurassic arc-trench system developed between the Asian continent and Pacific Ocean. The Jurassic accretionary complex occurs as a large-scale nappe that is tectonically sandwiched be- tween the overlying pre-Jurassic nappes and underlying post-Jurassic nappes. By virtue of new research styles (microfossil mapping and chronometric mapping) the following

Yukio Isozaki



On Earthquake Prediction in Japan  

PubMed Central

Japan’s National Project for Earthquake Prediction has been conducted since 1965 without success. An earthquake prediction should be a short-term prediction based on observable physical phenomena or precursors. The main reason of no success is the failure to capture precursors. Most of the financial resources and manpower of the National Project have been devoted to strengthening the seismographs networks, which are not generally effective for detecting precursors since many of precursors are non-seismic. The precursor research has never been supported appropriately because the project has always been run by a group of seismologists who, in the present author’s view, are mainly interested in securing funds for seismology — on pretense of prediction. After the 1995 Kobe disaster, the project decided to give up short-term prediction and this decision has been further fortified by the 2011 M9 Tohoku Mega-quake. On top of the National Project, there are other government projects, not formally but vaguely related to earthquake prediction, that consume many orders of magnitude more funds. They are also un-interested in short-term prediction. Financially, they are giants and the National Project is a dwarf. Thus, in Japan now, there is practically no support for short-term prediction research. Recently, however, substantial progress has been made in real short-term prediction by scientists of diverse disciplines. Some promising signs are also arising even from cooperation with private sectors. PMID:24213204

UYEDA, Seiya



FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, December 3, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Contents (selected articles): Japan: Nissan To Use Nickel-Hydrogen Battery in EV; Japan: Takii To Commercialize Cauliflower-Broccoli Hybrid; Japan: Kawasaki Steel Improves Recovery of Metals from Furnace Residue; Japan: Japan`s NEC Corp. To Develop Cost-Effective Photodection Chip; Japan: Japanese Companies Establish Research Association to Develop 16-gigabit DRAMS; Japan: Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants, Actual Achievements; Japan: Future for Nuclear Fuel Recycle as a Result of Monju Accident; Japan: Superconducting Magnet System Using No Liquid Helium; Japan: Hitachi`s MULTI Network Security Technologies; Japan: Defense Bureau Chief Tokita Interviewed; Japan: DRC Executive on GSDF, High Technology; and Japan: Retired Admiral on Post-Cold War MSDF Strategy.




FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, February 20, 1996  

SciTech Connect

;Partial Contents: Energy (Japan: MHI Discovers Maritime Photo Plankton that Produces Ethanol from CO2, Japan: Tokyo Electric Power Co.`s PAFC Development); Telecommunications (Japan: Report on 1st Asian Telecommunications Industry Exchange, Japan: MPT Reports Test Evaluation Results for PHS); Defense Industries (Japan: Expert on Shipbuilding, Welding Technology, Japan: Komatsu R&D Chief on Dream of Ground Robots; Japan: Defense Simulator Series, Part 7: Torpedo Simulator).




FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, May 7, 1996  

SciTech Connect

;Partial Contents: Japan: FH1 Aerospace Division Executive on UAV R&D; JapaN: MHI Delivers First F-2 Flight Test Model; Nuclear Technologies; Japan: Nuclear Material Research in Cross-Over Research Project; Japan: MITI To Subsidize Development of Cryptography; Defense Industries; Japan: JADI Announces FY96 Major Events Schedule; Japan: Rollout Ceremony Held for First OH-X Flight Test Model; and Japan: KHI Weapons Designer OH-X Development.




Frontiers of neutron scattering in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current neutron works representing frontiers of neutron scattering in Japan are surveyed. Only those works which either become possible with or have contributed significantly to new techniques and new instrumentations originated in Japan are selected because of the limited space and by the author's choice. Those works performed in the reactor centers (JAERI and KUR) in Japan, as well as in the two high flux reactor centers in the U.S. (BNL and ORNL), which are two coordinating institutions under the U.S.-Japan cooperative neutron scattering research program, and in Japan's spallation pulsed neutron facilities (KENS) are equally stressed for their contributions. Brief accounts of the new projects to renovate neutron sources and neutron facilities in Japan are also included.

Ito, Yuji



Changing Incidence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A trend in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Japan was studied from the data of the Osaka Cancer Registry (population, 8,512,351 in 1981) for the period of 1963-1983, the Vital Statistics of Japan, Ministry of Health and Welfare, and the Japan Autopsy Registry which contained 594,132 individually filed cases in the 26-year period from 1958 to 1983. Both

Kunio Okuda; Isaburo Fujimoto; Aya Hanai; Yoshinori Urano



Fitness and health promotion in Japan.  


Health promotion efforts in Japan are progressing much as they are in the United States. However, as Japan has different health problems and a different business culture, health promotion efforts in Japan differ from those in the United States. This paper will examine the major causes of death in Japan, prevalent lifestyle problems, cultural differences, types of health promotion programs which are offered, and program effectiveness. By making comparisons between two culturally different countries health promotion professionals will be able to understand their own programs better and develop new ideas for future programming efforts. PMID:10104215

Wilson, B R; Wagner, D I



Recent cryocooler progress in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progress of cryocoolers and related devices in Japan is reviewed. The Japanese National Railways has developed the light weight 4 K on-board refrigerators since 1977 as part of the MAGLEV train program. Superconducting and cryogenic fundamental technology was examined which included high performance cryocooler, magnetic refrigerator and superfluid refrigeration. Space cryogenics such as the cooling systems of IR-detectors was studied. Cryocooler for special applications such as cryopump, NMR-CT and JJ devices was investigated. Compact heat exchangers, high performance regenerators and reliable compressors are investigated as a critical component technology.

Matsubara, Y.



Solid waste management in Japan  

SciTech Connect

On Friday 17 June 1994, as the invited speaker of the International Congress of IWM/ISWA at Torbay, UK the author presented a paper of {open_quotes}A framework for success: the role of legislation{close_quotes}. THis was to introduce the amendment of Waste Disposal Cleansing Law and the Basic Environment Law in 1991, but the combination of the two amended laws has enforced promoting and assisting the fulfillment of the responsibilities of corporations and citizens. In addition to such presentation, the author pointed out a new manner of solid waste management (SWM) in Japan.

Naito, S.



DNA Data Bank of Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The DNA Data Bank of Japan collects DNA sequence data and assigns internationally recognized accession numbers mainly from Japanese researchers. It is one of the International DNA Databases that shares data on a daily basis with the European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL) and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI); as a result, all three sources should provide the same information. Users can search for data in several different ways or use one of the various analysis tools. The site also provides information for researchers looking to submit data. Most information is presented in both English and Japanese.



Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The JTEC panel found that, after four decades of development in electronics and manufacturing technologies, Japanese electronics companies are leaders in the development, support, and management of complex, low-cost packaging and assembly technologies used in the production of a broad range of consumer electronics products. The electronics industry's suppliers provide basic materials and equipment required for electronic packaging applications. Panelists concluded that some Japanese firms could be leading U.S. competitors by as much as a decade in these areas. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure is an integral part of its microelectronics industry's success.

Boulton, William R.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Tummala, Rao R.



JapanBizTech: The Source for Technology Business in Japan and Asia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Japan BizTech is a source for technology and business news from Japan and Asia developed by Nikkei Business Publications. It covers the latest news and research breakthroughs in the communications, electronics and computer industries in Japan and other Asian countries. An online directory for technology and business contacts throughout Asia in banking, communications, transport equipment and wholesale is available at the site.



PASJ: Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 59, 559587, 2007 June 25 c 2007. Astronomical Society of Japan.  

E-print Network

PASJ: Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 59, 559­587, 2007 June 25 c 2007. Astronomical Society of Japan of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 5Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JapanKoriyama City Fureai Science Center, 2-11-1 Ekimae, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-8002 11Academia Sinica

Nakashima, Jun-ichi


75 FR 67100 - Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-1090 (Review)] Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan AGENCY: United States International...antidumping duty order on superalloy degassed chromium from Japan...antidumping duty order on superalloy degassed chromium from Japan would be likely to lead...



75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade...polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan...polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan would be likely to lead to...



Japan's spent fuel and plutonium management challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan's commitment to plutonium recycling has been explicitly stated in its long-term program since 1956. Despite the clear cost disadvantage compared with direct disposal or storage of spent fuel, the Rokkasho reprocessing plant started active testing in 2006. Japan's cumulative consumption of plutonium has been only 5tons to date and its future consumption rate is still uncertain. But once the

Tadahiro Katsuta; Tatsujiro Suzuki



Is Japan's Household Saving Rate Really High?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses, and measures the quantitative impact of a number of conceptual issues relating to the household saving rate data in the National Accounts of Japan. It finds that Japan's seemingly high household saving rate is biased due to the exclusion of capital transfers and real capital gains, the valuation of depreciation at historical cost rather than at replacement

Charles Yuji Horioka



The Chromosome Network for biodosimetry in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chromosome Network in Japan was established just after the critical Tokai-mura accident in 2001 with the purposes of (1) integrating work to be ready for a large-scale radiation accident, (2) establishing standard methods for cytogenetic dose estimation, (3) creating a standard dose response curve in Japan, (4) preparing a training program for cytogenetic dose estimation and (5) training successors

Mitsuaki A. Yoshida; Isamu Hayata; Hiroyuki Tateno; Kimio Tanaka; Shinichi Sonta; Seiji Kodama; Yoshiaki Kodama; Masao S. Sasaki



The State of Continuing Education in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains the following articles about the state of continuing education and occupational training in Japan: "Funabashi City University of Sports Health" (Abe Nobuhiro); "Public Halls in Omiya City" (Kawamoto Koji); "Setagaya Senior Citizens College (Setagaya Rojin Daigaku)" (Sawamura Hiroshi); "Lifelong Sport in Japan: A Case Study of…

Masatoshi, Nagashima, Ed.; And Others


Japan's Sporting Diplomacy: The 1964 Tokyo Olympiad  

Microsoft Academic Search

At a time when Japanese foreign policy was constrained by the legacies of war and the exigencies of the Cold War, hosting the 1964 Tokyo Olympics was conceived as an alternative means of engagement with the international community. The sporting diplomacy of the Tokyo Olympics centered around elevating Japan’s international position by engaging the people of the world on a

Jessamyn R. Abel



Korean Students' Minority Schooling Experience in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative study conducted in western Japan examined the perceptions of Korean students in Japanese junior high school to identify factors contributing to a consistently low high school advancement rate compared to mainstream Japanese students. Fourteen people were interviewed about their Korean students' experiences in Japan. The findings of…

Ahn, Ruth



Japan's Squid Fishing Industry WILLIAM G. COURT  

E-print Network

Japan's Squid Fishing Industry WILLIAM G. COURT .. Introduction Dried-squid (surume) has been an item of commerce, ceremony, and diet in Japan for hundreds of years, and squid is caught of labor, and the low capital investment required for squid jigging stimulated the rapid de- velopment


People of Japan: Building Bridges of Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet was designed to facilitate interactions and communication with the people of Japan by providing information about their customs, attitudes and other cultural characteristics which influence their actions and values. A brief description of Japan is given, covering the following: history, government, the economy, education,…

Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.


Japan Space Imaging Corporation Business Overview  

E-print Network

Japan Space Imaging Corporation Business Overview 26-27 August 2010 Japan-Brazil Space Sector, Telespazio, e-Geos IKONOS GeoEye-1 Cosmo SkyMed History of Business at JSIHistory of Business at JSI 1998 Analyzing Dissemination Collection ReportingWMS, WCS, WFS and KML #12;Business Today and TomorrowBusiness


Venomous Snake Bites in Japan  

PubMed Central

Few reliable data are available on the incidence of snake bites in developing and developed nations. Insufficient epidemiologic data have hindered the recognition of snake bite as an important public health issue. We verified statistics of snake bites (mamushi and habu bites) in Japan by using a currently available, nationally representative, hospital-based database. We identified 1,670 inpatients with snake bites from 404 hospitals during July 1–December 31 in 2007 and 2008. More than 60% were males, the average age was 60.1 years, and the in-hospital mortality rate was 0.2%. The incidence of mamushi bite, distributed between latitudes 30°N and 46°N, was estimated to be 1.67 bites/100,000/6 months. It is important to continue collecting all available data to monitor the trends of this life-threatening disease. PMID:21212215

Yasunaga, Hideo; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Kuwabara, Kazuaki; Hashimoto, Hideki; Matsuda, Shinya



The Beveridge Report and Japan.  


After World War II, Japanese health insurance systems rejected the idea of a flat-rate premium contribution, a central concept in the Beveridge Report. Allegedly, outside of Great Britain, no other country was more influenced by this Report than Japan. However, the postwar Japanese health insurance systems adopted flat-rate benefits and earnings-related contributions, a clear rejection of the flat-rate premium contributions for flat-rate benefits advocated in the Report. This is not just a simple difference from the premium contributions method, it throws up fundamental questions concerning the essence of social insurance, and ultimately, the power of the State and the relationship between the State and the individual. This article aims to analyze the reasons for this rejection. PMID:24405200

Sugita, Yoneyuki



Industrial waste management in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Systematic management for industrial waste in Japan has been carried out based on the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law which was enacted in 1970. The law and its ordinances designate 19 kinds of waste materials discharged from business activities as industrial waste and prescribe the generator's responsibility, requirements for treatment contractors, standards for consignment, specific personnel, etc. from the view of proper management. And they also prescribe disposal standards, structure, and maintenance standards for treatment facilities, including final disposal sites, from the view of proper treatment and disposal. The Standard for Verification provides criteria to categorize as hazardous or nonhazardous industrial waste which is subjected to treatment and disposal in conformity with each standard. The fundamental policies to cope with industrial waste focus on reduction of generation, promotion of recycling, establishment of a comprehensive information management system and participation of the public which can contribute well to prevent environmental pollution caused by inappropriate management of industrial waste.

Hirota, Y.



Activities of Building Commissioning in Japan  

E-print Network

for Commissioning Guideline ?? BSCA Activity for Promotin g Commissionin g BSCA Activity for Promotin g Commissionin g BusinessBusiness ?? Actual ProjectActual Project ??Harumi Islands District Heating and CoolingHarumi Islands District Heating and Cooling... be noted that no specialized TAB engineers ever exist in Japan in contrast to USA.engineers ever exist in Japan in contrast to USA. Actual Project of Cxin Japan Stages Bldgs Size CA ForerunningStage Harumi IslandsDist. Heating & Cooling1989-2003 Dist...

Yanagihara, R.



The Entomological Society of Japan NII-Electronic Library Service  

E-print Network

The Entomological Society of Japan NII-Electronic Library Service #12;The Entomological Society of Japan NII-Electronic Library Service #12;The Entomological Society of Japan NII-Electronic Library Service #12;The Entomological Society of Japan NII-Electronic Library Service #12;The Entomological

Villemant, Claire


The Newhalf Net: Japan's “Intermediate Sex” On-Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

After English, Japanese is the most widely represented language on the Internet; yet, because Japanese is not widely spoken outside Japan, very little information exists in English about the ways in which the Internet is being used by queer communities in Japan. This essay looks at how one group within Japan's transgender community is deploying Internet technology. Japan's “newhalf” (nyuuhaafu)

Mark McLelland



Public assistance (PA) of nuclear energy in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan`s nuclear development is carried out in the spirit of the Atomic Energy Basic Law that it adopted in 1955. The only nation in the world devastated by nuclear weapons, Japan strongly hopes for the abolishment of nuclear weapons and promotes the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Since Japan is poor in natural resources, nuclear power has now become a




JTEC Panel on Display Technologies in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is one in a series of reports that describes research and development efforts in Japan in the area of display technologies. The following are included in this report: flat panel displays (technical findings, liquid crystal display development ...

A. H. Firester, J. W. Doane, L. E. Tannas, T. Credelle, W. E. Glenn



Process of designing city housing in Japan  

E-print Network

pose of this thesis is to show one design approach to providing more preferable housing for users in Japan. Chapter 1 gives an overview of trends in Japanese housing construction, describes user requirements, analyzes ...

Kurokawa, Shoji



River and Wetland Restoration: Lessons from Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a peer reviewed article from BioScience focuses on river and wetland restoration projects in Japan. River and wetland restoration has emerged as a worldwide phenomenon and is becoming a highly profitable business. Although researchers worldwide know a lot about restoration practices in Europe and the United States, we have only scant information about the activities in Japan, where more than 23,000 river restoration projects have been conducted during the past 15 years. In Japan, restoration is a daunting business because of the high human population density, urbanization, and harsh environmental conditions. Here we provide an overview of the various restoration activities in Japan and discuss the lessons that we can draw from them.




Eponyms in dermatology literature linked to Japan  

PubMed Central

There are many different eponyms in common use in dermatology today, originating from a variety of countries worldwide. This review discusses a selection of dermatological eponyms that are linked to Japan. PMID:22291476

Al Aboud, Ahmad; Al Aboud, Khalid



Exotic freshwater planarians currently known from Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogeographical and taxonomic information on the four non-indigenous freshwater planarians of Japan is reviewed, viz. Dugesia austroasiatica Kawakatsu, 1985, Girardia tigrina (Girard, 1850), G. dorotocephala (Woodworth, 1897), and Rhodax evelinae? Marcus, 1947. The occurrence of Girardia dorotocephala in Japan is unequivocally demonstrated. New karyological data are presented for populations of D. austroasiatica (chromosome complement: 2x=16, 3x=24), G. tigrina ( 2x=16,

R. Sluys; M. Kawakatsu; K. Yamamoto



Earthquake light: 1995 Kobe earthquake in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

There were eyewitness reports of earthquake light, co-seismic luminous phenomena in the 1995 Kobe earthquake (Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake) in Japan. The Kobe earthquake occurred at 5:46 a.m. (LT) on January 17, 1995 around the Hanshin area in Japan. The M7.2 earthquake strongly attacked Kobe City. On that early morning, two young persons on Mt. Rokko (northeast side of Kobe) saw

Masashi Kamogawa; Hideho Ofuruton; Yoshi-Hiko Ohtsuki



Millimeter-wave research activities in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millimeter-wave research activities in Japan are reviewed from various points of view. It is shown that a quarter of the papers presented at microwave sessions in the two major annual conferences of the Institute of Electronics. Information and Communications Engineers (IEICE), Japan, are millimeter-wave research papers. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) devices such as high-power amplifiers (HPAs), low-noise amplifiers (LNAs),

Tsukasa Yoneyama



Late Marriage and Less Marriage in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1975 and 1995, the singulate mean age at marriage in Japan increased from 24.5 to 27.7 years for women and from 27.6 to 30.7 years for men, making Japan one of the latest-marrying populations in the world. Over the same period, the proportion of women who will never marry, calculated from age-specific first-marriage probabilities pertaining to a particular calendar

Robert D. Retherford; Naohiro Ogawa; Rikiya Matsukura



Historical changes in diabetes therapy in Japan.  


The origins of many aspects of ancient Japanese culture lie in knowledge brought from China, and medicine was no exception. Subsequently, however, in the middle of the 16th century, Portuguese missionaries introduced Western medicine to Japan along with Christianity. They were followed by the Dutch in the 17th century, who introduced Western culture while carrying on commerce at their Dejima outpost in Nagasaki. This was called the Dutch school in Japan, and although there was thus contact with Western culture and the Japanese eagerly studied Western medicine, it was not until after the establishment of the Meiji Reform government in the middle of the 19th century that there was aggressive incorporation and acceptance of modern Western medicine in Japan. The University of Tokyo was the first university in Japan. Preserved in the library of the Third Department of Internal Medicine are old records of hospitalized cases in Japan, and those documents form the basis of this review of the history of the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Japan. PMID:7859609

Kosaka, K; Akanuma, Y



Japan as America’s global partner: Problems and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of global partnership remains a central theme in the conduct of U.S.-Japan relations in the post-Cold War world.\\u000a This article critically evaluates Japan’s performance and potential as a global partner for the United States. It notes the\\u000a qualified outcomes to Japan’s extended quest for a world role, its inability to lead by example in world trade and its

Aurelia George



Ocean Science Communication in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean literacy and education panel (OLEP) of the Oceanographic Society of Japan (JOS) has been established in 2003 for sharing the ocean literacy with the public and promoting the ocean science education in school and college. Its activities include publishing reference books and electronic teaching materials for primary school teachers and students, conducting surveys on the people's consciousness on the ocean, and supporting the events such as 'Ocean Science Cafe' for the public, oceanographer's talks in class room and sea side, and seminars on board of research vessel for high-school teachers and students. Its activities are announced to the public in its website and through Twitter. The records are available to the public in the websites. Some JOS members including me are telling the public the basic knowledge of ocean science, additional explanations to scientific topics in mass media, their thoughts on the ocean, the science, and STEM education, and their daily life such as travels, meetings and cruises through their own private websites, blogs, and accounts in Twitter and Facebook. In this presentation, as a coordinator of the 'Ocean Science Cafe', I will indicate how well it has worked as a good method for promoting mutual communication between non-professional citizens and oceanographers, and changed a scientist to a better citizen. Also, as an ocean science blogger, I will mention a good effect of the mutual communication with the public from my experience. It is concluded that the science communication by new media should not be one-way but really two-way to understand well what people wish to know and have difficulties to understand, and where they stop learning.

Ichikawa, H.



Japan’s Foreign Aid Sanctions Policy after the End of Cold War  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Cold War, Japan seldom showed an interest in the political conditions in aid recipients. However, after the Cold War, Japan has been actively imposing negative aid sanctions (the suspension or a decrease in foreign aid) on recipient countries where undesirable policy changes occur, while positive aid sanctions (an increase in foreign aid) would be applied to aid recipients

Larisa Nikitina; Fumitaka Furuoka



Japan-Korea Workshop 2007, Gifu, Japan Multi-Purpose Plasma (MP2) Facility as  

E-print Network

and Development KSTARApplied Technology Research Administration Plasma PhysicsPlasma Physics related withrelatedJapan-Korea Workshop 2007, Gifu, Japan Multi-Purpose Plasma (MP2) Facility as a Steady State Divertor Simulator B. J. Lee, K. Cho, A. England, T. Lho, J. Yoon, and plasma research team Div. Of Plasma

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory


Cenozoic rift tectonics of the Japan Sea  

SciTech Connect

The Japan Sea is one of the back-arc basins in trench-arc systems bordering the western Pacific. Recent paleomagnetic works suggest the Japan Sea opened during early to middle Miocene. Radiometric and microfossil ages of the Cenozoic onland sequences in the Japanese Islands elucidate the rift tectonics of the Japan Sea. The rifting history is summarized as follows: nonmarine volcanic formations of prerift stage before 50 Ma, rift-onset unconformity at 40 Ma, nonmarine volcanic formations of synrift stage 20-33 Ma, breakup unconformity 19 Ma showing the opening of the Japan Sea, marine volcanic and sedimentary formations of synrift stage 14.5-18 Ma, beginning of regional subsidence 14.5 Ma corresponding to the end of the Japan Sea opening, marine sedimentary formations of postdrift stage after 14.5 Ma. Rifting is not limited to the synrift stage but is continued to the syndrift stage. Rifting led to a horst-and-graben structure. Thus, the Cenozoic onland sequences in the Japanese Islands are suited for a study of rift tectonics because the sequences were subaerially exposed by the late Miocene-Holocene island-arc tectonics. Rift tectonics cannot be studied as easily in most Atlantic-type passive margins.

Kimura, K.



Low level waste solidification practice in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Both sea dumping and land isolation are planned to be accomplished for low level waste disposal in Japan. The conceptual design of land isolation facilities has been completed, and site selection will presently get underway. With respect to ocean dumping, safety surveys are being performed along the lines of the London Dumping Convention and the Revised Definitions and Recommendations of the IAEA, and the review of Japanese regulations and applicable criteria is being expedited. This paper discusses the present approach to waste solidification practices in Japan. It reports that the bitumen solidification process and the plastic solidification process are being increasingly used in Japan. Despite higher investment costs, both processes have advantages in operating cost, and are comparable to the cement solidification process in overall costs.

Sakata, S.; Kuribayashi, H.; Kono, Y.



Magic Lantern Slides Collection from Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) has a collection of approximately 1,500 magic lantern slides in its Japan Collection, which it has digitized with the permission of the Japan Foundation. The magic lantern was the precursor to the modern slide projector, and was extremely popular in Europe and Asia in the 1800s, with people going from towns to villages doing public shows. The slides featured on the UHM website are those that were produced and distributed by KBS, a group that was the predecessor of the Japan Foundation. To view the collection, you can browse alphabetically by title, category (from alcohol to fan making to Western clothes), and by slides with recent comments made about them. Visitors to the website shouldn't leave the site without browsing under the "University" category. With few exceptions, all the buildings are Western in style, and reminiscent of many U.S. colleges with their columns, stone, and tendency to sprawl.


Insights into software development in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interdependence of the U.S.-Japanese economies makes it imperative that we in the United States understand how business and technology developments take place in Japan. We can gain insight into these developments in software engineering by studying the context in which Japanese software is developed, the practices that are used, the problems encountered, the setting surrounding these problems, and the resolution of these problems. Context includes the technological and sociological characteristics of the software development environment, the software processes applied, personnel involved in the development process, and the corporate and social culture surrounding the development. Presented in this paper is a summary of results of a study that addresses these issues. Data for this study was collected during a three month visit to Japan where the author interviewed 20 software managers representing nine companies involved in developing software in Japan. These data are compared to similar data from the United States in which 12 managers from five companies were interviewed.

Duvall, Lorraine M.



Lead poisoning in swans in Japan.  


We investigated the occurrence, source and exposure time of lead poisoning in whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus cygnus) and Bewick's swans (Cygnus columbianus bewickii) in Japan during the winters of 1984-1987. Concentrations of lead in various tissues and physiological evidence of lead shot in some birds indicated that lead shotgun pellets were the source of lead, and exposure occurred after the birds arrived in Japan. Mortality probably occurred within 30 days after exposure to, and retention of, lead shot in the gizzard. PMID:15092262

Honda, K; Lee, D P; Tatsukawa, R



Epidemiology of atopic dermatitis in Japan.  


Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic or chronically relapsing, severely pruritic and eczematous skin disease. AD is the second most frequently observed skin disease in dermatology clinics in Japan. Prevalence of childhood AD is 12-13% in mainland Japan; however, it is only half that (~6%) in children from Ishigaki Island, Okinawa. Here, we summarize the prevalence, incidence and spontaneous regression of AD and the relation of AD to other allergic diseases from previous reports. We also refer to our recent findings from a population cohort study on Ishigaki Island, Okinawa. PMID:24628069

Takeuchi, Satoshi; Esaki, Hitokazu; Furue, Masutaka



Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite exceeding over 500,000 in number and the largest block is 108 ton in weight. Stoens of Hikone Castle came from Paleogene Koto Rhyolite. Edo (old Tokyo, biggest city, central Japan) castle ,Imperial Palace at present, Stones are late Quaternary andesite of Hakone Volcanic Products whose quarrying places are more than 100km far from Edo.They were transported by ships and manpower on land .

Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji



Postwar Japan and the U.S.A.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various factors in the relationship between postwar Japan and the United States which may have influenced Japan's phenomenal rise in the world economy. The role of General Douglas MacArthur is considered. (JN)

Nishi, Toshio



76 FR 8773 - Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Investigation No. 731-TA-1090 (Review)] Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission...revocation of the antidumping duty order on superalloy degassed chromium from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or...



India-Japan Science & Technology Collaboration: Past, Present and Future  

E-print Network

: India-Japan Science & Technology Collaboration: Past, Present and Future () Dr. Thadathil significant improvements in the India-Japan partnership reflected in all sectors, including science innovation". Considering the growing, multi-faceted partnership betweenJapanandIndia

Ejiri, Shinji


Kiyo Journals and Scholarly Communication in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kiyo are journals published by Japanese academic institutions. As a scholarly communication medium, they have inherent problems such as limited accessibility and lack of quality control. Despite these problems, they have evolved to comprise the majority of academic journals published in the humanities and social sciences in Japan because they fit…

Kamada, Hitoshi



Abyssal circulation in the Japan Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water below a depth of 1,000 m in the Japan Sea was found to consist of two water masses, the upper layer (the Deep Water) and the lower layer (the Bottom Water). The boundary of these water masses is marked by discontinuity of potential temperature, dissolved oxygen and silicate at about 2,000 m depth. The mean residence time of

Toshitaka Gamo; Yoshio Horibe



Japanese encephalitis virus in meningitis patients, Japan.  


Cerebrospinal fluid specimens from 57 patients diagnosed with meningitis were tested for Japanese encephalitis virus. Total RNA was extracted from the specimens and amplified. Two products had highest homology with Nakayama strain and 2 with Ishikawa strain. Results suggest that Japanese encephalitis virus causes some aseptic meningitis in Japan. PMID:15757569

Kuwayama, Masaru; Ito, Mikako; Takao, Shinichi; Shimazu, Yukie; Fukuda, Shinji; Miyazaki, Kazuo; Kurane, Ichiro; Takasaki, Tomohiko



Foreign Fishery Developments Japan's "Fugu" or  

E-print Network

of these are caught in the Sea of Japan, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea (Table 1). Two of the most important species to fish for fugu in the Yellow Sea off the west coast of North Korea. Because the North Kor eans do


Parental Educational Investments and Aspirations in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous models of parental educational investments focus on the composition of the sibship (number, gender, ordering, and spacing) and on the social and institutional context in which investment decisions are made. Social-institutional models predict that parents in Japan are likely to underinvest in girls because of their transient status in the…

Lee, Kristen Schultz



Living in Japan. Intercultural Exchange Series. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide provides a brief introduction to the culture and language of Japan, and is designed for visitors, students, and business travelers. It offers practical information on various aspects of daily living, including: money; banks; food; restaurants; hotels; tipping; postal and telecommunications services; transportation; shopping; health and…

Hawkinson, Annie


Child Development and Childcare in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With increasing numbers of women joining the workforce, there is a need for quality childcare. This project, conducted in Japan and using a large number of participants, sought to standardize an evaluation scale to measure the development of children. The development of children under six years of age (N = 22,819) who are enrolled in childcare…

Anme, Tokie; Segal, Uma A.



Understanding Japan's saving rate: the reconstruction hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates Hayashi's conjecture that Japan's postwar saving experience can be accounted for by the neoclassical model of economic growth as that country's efforts to reconstruct its capital stock that was severely damaged in World War II. I call this the reconstruction hypothesis. I take a simplified version of a standard neoclassical growth model that is in widespread use

Lawrence J. Christiano



Globalization and Educational Reform in Contemporary Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the notions of globalization as embodied in Japanese educational reforms. Modern institutional discourses of educational reform in Japan have shifted over time and all of these reform movements have been constructed by particular social and historical trajectories. Generally speaking, it has been taken for granted that the…

Qi, Jie; Zhang, Sheng Ping



Low level waste solidification practice in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both sea dumping and land isolation are planned to be accomplished for low level waste disposal in Japan. The conceptual design of land isolation facilities has been completed, and site selection will presently get underway. With respect to ocean dumping, safety surveys are being performed along the lines of the London Dumping Convention and the Revised Definitions and Recommendations of

S. Sakata; H. Kuribayashi; Y. Kono



14MIB*ft* * * Kyoto Japan  

E-print Network

£14MIB±*ft* * * » Kyoto Japan August 12-18, 1990 Volume II ! Commission II of Soil Science 14e OF SOIL CHEMICAL PROCESSES: AN OVERVIEW Donald L. Sparks* * Plant and Soil Sciences Department, University, 1989, 1990a,b). A major international symposium was held last year at the Soil Science Society

Sparks, Donald L.


Hydrogen energy research programs in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews the hydrogen energy research programs carried out under the Sunshine Project in Japan. Work on both electrolytic and thermochemical processes for large-scale hydrogen production is discussed. New methods for hydrogen production, such as direct thermal decomposition of water and photo-electrolysis of water with semiconductor electrodes are outlined. Storage and transportation of hydrogen and hydrogen burners are emphasized.

T. Ohta; M. V. C. Sastri



Japan's Financial Crisis and Economic Stagnation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We survey the macroeconomic stagnation and financial problems in Japan. The financial sector assessment includes separate analyses of the commercial banks, the life insurance companies and the government's fiscal investment and loan program (FILP). We estimate that the Japanese taxpayer will have to pay at least another 100 trillion yen (20% of GDP) to cover financial system losses. We explain

Takeo Hoshi; Anil K. Kashyap



Farmers' attitudes towards sustainable agriculture in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Japan, the need to proceed towards a more sustainable agriculture appears to be a common goal for the Ministry of Agriculture and farmers' organizations. However, agricultural policy aiming at a more sustainable agriculture will only be successful if it corresponds to farmers' values and convictions. Accordingly, the correspondence of young farmers' values and convictions with a new model of

Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios



Insights into Software Development in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The interdependence of the U.S.-Japanese economies makes it imperative that we in the United States understand how business and technology developments take place in Japan. We can gain insight into these developments in software engineering by studying th...

L. M. Duvall



Overview of human factors research in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of human factors in nuclear power plant operations was addressed in Japan after the Three Mile Island accident in 1979. In 1986, the Chernobyl accident provided the impetus for enforcing this recognition. The report by the Nuclear Safety Commission regarding the causes and lessons learned from this accident emphasized the necessity of human factors research. The safety improvement

Susumu Takashima; Tomihiko Furuta; Kazuhiro Kiyokawa; Shuzo Ueda



Silence in Japan and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the use of and attitudes toward silence in Japan and the United States. Five factors emerged in a first-order decultured factor analysis: (a) use of silence to avoid communicating, (b) negative view of silence, (c) strategic use of silence, (d) others' silence creates uncertainty, and (e) positive view of talking. Two dimensions

Tomohiro Hasegawa; William B. Gudykunst



SPARC Japan>> 20(2008)93()  

E-print Network

of Japan Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Applied Physics Express · National Institute of Informatics 11 1151721820 #12;7 11 4520084 Journal of the Physical Society Progress of Theoretical Physics IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals IEICE Transactions on Communications

Hattori, Tetsuya


Radiation Exposure from CT Examinations in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) is the largest source of medical radiation exposure to the general population, and is considered a potential source of increased cancer risk. The aim of this study was to assess the current situation of CT use in Japan, and to investigate variations in radiation exposure in CT studies among institutions and scanners. METHODS: Data-sheets were sent

Yoshito Tsushima; Ayako Taketomi-Takahashi; Hiroyuki Takei; Hidenori Otake; Keigo Endo



Social practice of Camera Phone in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The camera phone makes it possible to take and share pictures of the stream of people, places, pets and objects in the flow of everyday life. The work reported here is the emergent practice of camera phone use in Japan, providing concrete examples from \\

Daisuke Okabe



Professional Wrestling in Japan — Media and Message  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents the important role of Western-style professional wrestling in the popular culture of Japan, focusing on the early years in which it was established, 1953-1963. These were also the years in which television achieved its phenomenal growth, and the symbiotic relationship between the \\

Lee Austin Thompson



Promotion of School Children's Invention in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the late 1980s an American newspaper reported that by one measure--the number of patents cited by successive inventors--Japan overtook the United States in the number of inventions produced during the 1970s. The reasons for this are not clear, but educational efforts promoting creative behaviors in school children are probably essential and…

Sakamoto, Takashi



Cross-Cultural Psychology in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article portrays the situation of cross-cultural psychology in Japan, including historical background, institutional aspects, and research findings by Japanese investigators. Reflecting the internationalization of Japanese society, cultural influences on human behavior have recently drawn the attention of Japanese psychologists, and the number of researchers engaged in cross-cultural investigations is steadily increasing. A review of articles in current Japanese journals

Takashi Naito; Uwe P. Gielen



Ishimoto Shizue: The Margaret Sanger of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-1945 Japan is known for its remarkably low birth rate and a heavy reliance on abortion for birth control purposes. What may be less well known is the extensive use of contraceptive methods as well to limit or regulate births and the role played by the prewar birth control movement in making the concept of birth control socially acceptable. The

Elise K. Tipton



Core Discussion Networks in Japan and America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arguments regarding the high prevalence of interpersonal collectivism in Japan typically hinge on the assumption that Japanese communication networks are more enduring, frequently contacted, and dominated by kin and work ties than networks in Western countries. However, this assumption has not been examined using nationally representative data.…

Boase, Jeffrey; Ikeda, Ken'ichi




EPA Science Inventory

The report describes current NOx air pollution problems in Japan and the methods used there to control NOx emissions from stationary sources. The two most common techniques in use are combustion modifications and flue gas treatment (FGT). FGT technologies have been developed more...


Free Resources for Teaching About Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication describes free print and audiovisual materials for teaching about Japan in elementary and secondary schools. The booklet was written to enable teachers to take advantage of the many free materials that are currently available. The first section cites sources of free materials in the United States. Names and addresses of groups…

Wojtan, Linda S.


Alternative Education in Japan: A Brief Orientation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Japan, not attending public school is stigmatized, and alternative education is in its infancy. Reviews free spaces, which are not schools, but places for traumatized students to recover; home schooling networks; government-approved independent alternative schools; alternative after-school programs; and innovative programs within the system.…

Needle, Nat



The Teaching Materials System in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview is given of the state of teaching materials and aids used in schools in Japan. In section I, an outline is presented of the Japanese system of providing teaching materials. Several laws and regulations regarding the provision and use of textbooks are described, including: (1) school education law; (2) law concerning the organization…

Shimizu, Atsumi


Teaching English in Japan: A Professional Journey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of columns on teaching English as a Second Language in Japan appeared on the English education page of a Japanese English-language newspaper over a period of almost 4 years. Article topics include these: principles of second language learning; differences between language skills; standards of usage; avoiding stereotypes; school…

Bay, Dale


Thoron in the living environments of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

High thoron concentrations have been investigated in various living environments with radon–thoron discriminative measurements; however, behavior of the thoron and its decay products and their effects on human health have not been clearly elucidated yet. In Japan, some kinds of building materials rich in natural radionuclides of thorium series, such as clay and soil plaster, are commonly used for construction

H. Yonehara; S. Tokonami; W. Zhuo; T. Ishikawa; K. Fukutsu; Y. Yamada



Behavioural Strategies of Teachers in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the behavioural strategies adopted by a sample of teachers in Japan. The data for the study came from a total of 298 Japanese students who were invited to evaluate teacher behaviour by using the Student's Teacher Evaluation Questionnaire. The sixteen-item questionnaire was adopted from Paisey (1975), who had conducted similar…

Paisey, Alan; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Li, Jian



Basic Skills in Asian Studies: Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains 20 learning activities for developing basic skills while teaching about Japan at the secondary level. The activities are self-contained and each consists of a short description, followed by a five-item true or false test and five open-ended questions for student practice. The learning activities are followed by a…

Hantula, James


Japan & S. Korea India China North America  

E-print Network

in United States. Human population data is also used to evaluate the anthropogenic effects on air pollutions concentration, and this linear coefficient varies in different parts of the world. In United States, amongJapan & S. Korea India China North America Europe S. Hemisphere 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 Asian Mega

Wang, Jun


Proc. IROS 2000 Takamatsu, Japan, Nov. 2000  

E-print Network

of proven and often novel mechanisms in the biological realm, biomimetic sensors are being successfullyProc. IROS 2000 Takamatsu, Japan, Nov. 2000 Development of a Biomimetic Position Sensor for Robotic which transduces muscle displacement for kinesthetic awareness. The mechanical filter exhibits


Tohoku, Japan Earthquake: 2011 March 11  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The emphasis of this resource is on seismological data, products and early results of the earthquake which occurred near the east coast of Honshu, Japan in 2011. In addition to direct links to data and materials available from IRIS programs, this website includes a compilation of preliminary research results from the seismological community. Educational resources are available including powerpoint presentations and animations.




EPA Science Inventory

The report describes results of visits to Japan to assess research and development of new particulate control technology, and to evaluate the applicability of the Aut-Ainer particulate control device to diesel engines. New technology observed includes hooding systems for coke ove...


Geographic variation in nut size of Castanopsis species in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental conditions affecting the geographic variation in nut size of the Castanopsis species in Japan were examined. The mother trees having a relatively large nut tended to dominate in the geographically marginal area of the distribution range in Japan, i.e. the Japan Sea, Kanto, and Ryukyu areas, whereas in the central area, i.e. the Pacific area, mother trees having

Hiroo Yamada; Tomiyasu Miyaura



Neoliberal policy and the housing safety net in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Japan, economic decline has led to an increase in the number of people who cannot secure adequate housing. However, this increase has not only resulted from the economic situation but also from the introduction of neoliberal policy. This article explores Japan’s housing safety net system, giving particular attention to policy transformations that tend towards a more neoliberal model. As

Yosuke Hirayama



Validation activities in Japan: a report.  


Japanese activities in the validation of alternative test methods are reviewed. The validation of the Limulus endotoxin test as an alternative method to the rabbit pyrogen test was initiated by the Japanese Pharmacopoeia Society, and was successfully conducted under the direction of the National Institute of Health Sciences (NIHS), with the participation of many pharmaceutical company laboratories. The validation of in vitro alternatives to the Draize eye test for cosmetics were carried out by the NIHS and cosmetic company laboratories. Research on alternatives in Japan has been promoted by the Japanese Society of Alternatives to Animal Experiments (JSAAE) since 1989. Validation studies on alternatives were also attempted by the JSAAE. Interlaboratory reproducibility studies were carried out by the JSAAE on five different cytotoxicity tests. The JSAAE is planning the validation of in vitro alternatives to a local irritation test for intramuscular injection. Cell transformation assays have been carried out in Japan as adjuncts to the in vivo carcinogenicity test. PMID:23581151

Ono, Hiroshi



Overview of human factors research in Japan  

SciTech Connect

The importance of human factors in nuclear power plant operations was addressed in Japan after the Three Mile Island accident in 1979. In 1986, the Chernobyl accident provided the impetus for enforcing this recognition. The report by the Nuclear Safety Commission regarding the causes and lessons learned from this accident emphasized the necessity of human factors research. The safety improvement plan drafted by the government in August 1986 included human factors as one of the most important areas. The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) established the Institute of Human Factors as the government's research organization and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) as the private sector's research organization in 1987. Furthermore, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) established its Human Factors Research Laboratory.

Takashima, Susumu; Furuta, Tomihiko; Kiyokawa, Kazuhiro; Ueda, Shuzo (Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan))



The state of telepathology in Japan  

PubMed Central

Telepathology began in Japan in the early 1990s in response to advances in computing and telecommunications equipment development and a dearth of pathologists. Telepathology in Japan is most often used for rapid intraoperative pathological diagnosis using frozen section, followed by second opinions and consultation. Intraoperatively, telepathology is used to determine malignancy, metastasis of malignant tumors, and the extent of excision. Infrastructure and equipment has evolved from analog lines to digital lines like integrated services digital network (ISDN) and asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL), and recently to fiber optics. The use of communications satellites is also being considered. Image quality is being improved to Hi-Vision (HDTV), and from still images to real-time video. Digital microscopy has been introduced, and is used in education and consultation. PMID:20922030

Sawai, Takashi; Uzuki, Miwa; Kamataki, Akihisa; Tofukuji, Ikuo



The state of telepathology in Japan.  


Telepathology began in Japan in the early 1990s in response to advances in computing and telecommunications equipment development and a dearth of pathologists. Telepathology in Japan is most often used for rapid intraoperative pathological diagnosis using frozen section, followed by second opinions and consultation. Intraoperatively, telepathology is used to determine malignancy, metastasis of malignant tumors, and the extent of excision. Infrastructure and equipment has evolved from analog lines to digital lines like integrated services digital network (ISDN) and asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL), and recently to fiber optics. The use of communications satellites is also being considered. Image quality is being improved to Hi-Vision (HDTV), and from still images to real-time video. Digital microscopy has been introduced, and is used in education and consultation. PMID:20922030

Sawai, Takashi; Uzuki, Miwa; Kamataki, Akihisa; Tofukuji, Ikuo



Adolescent Alcohol Use in Japan, 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted the 1st nationwide survey on the use of alcohol by Japanese high school students. The survey design was a cross-sectional sampling survey. The targets of the survey were junior and senior high schools throughout Japan. Sample schools were selected by stratified cluster sampling. Self-administered anonymous questionnaires were sent to sample schools for all students to fill out. Among

Yoneatsu Osaki; Masumi Minowa; Kenji Suzuki; Kiyoshi Wada



Thallium Contamination in Wild Ducks in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although thallium (Tl) is toxic to both humans and animals, there is little infor- mation on contamination in wildlife. In this study, Tl contents in wild ducks in Japan were determined. Contents of Tl in kidney and liver ranged from 0.42 to 119.61 and 0.10 to 33.94 mg\\/g dry weight, respectively. Significant cor- relations between Tl contents in kidney and

Mariko Mochizuki; Makoto Mori; Mayumi Akinaga; Kyoko Yugami; Chika Oya; Ryo Hondo


Drug-resistant respiratory pathogens in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In order to investigate the trends of antimicrobial susceptibility in respiratory pathogens in Japan, the Japanese Society\\u000a of Chemotherapy (JSC) established a nationwide surveillance network in 2006. During the period from January to August, 2007,\\u000a 1,178 strains were collected from clinical specimens obtained from adult patients with well-diagnosed respiratory tract infections.\\u000a Susceptibility testing was evaluated for 1,108 strains (226 Staphylococcus

Tetsuya Matsumoto


the East Sea Sea of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment cores collected from the deep basins of the East Sea Sea of Japan provide an ongoing and historical record of artificial radionuclides contamination into one of the most highly publicized radioactive waste dumping areas in the world ocean. The depth distributions of 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu in sediment cores were investigated with 210 . the aid of Pb-derived sediment

Gi-Hoon Hong; Sang-Han Lee; Suk-Hyun Kim; Chang-Soo Chung; M. Baskaran


The Regulation of Medical Malpractice in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

How Japanese legal and social institutions handle medical errors is little known outside Japan. For almost all of the 20th\\u000a century, a paternalistic paradigm prevailed. Characteristics of the legal environment affecting Japanese medicine included\\u000a few attorneys handling medical cases, low litigation rates, long delays, predictable damage awards, and low-cost malpractice\\u000a insurance. However, transparency principles have gained traction and public concern

Robert B Leflar



Quality assurance and risk management in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality-control (QC) taskforce for the Japanese Society of Radiological Technology assesses QC activities found in radiology\\u000a departments throughout Japan by way of questionnaires sent out to nearly 500 hospitals. The average response rate is 44%.\\u000a With the data collected from the questionnaires, the problems seen in Japanese hospitals, in terms of QC and risk management,\\u000a are identified, and suggestions

N. Sato



Earthquake causes distant tremors off Japan coast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an abstract. Japan has a nationwide network to sense tremors triggered from waves that traveled long distances through the Earth�s crust. Data from the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake were used to study distant tremors found far from the earthquake epicenter. The tremors appeared to be deep in the Earth and triggered by the waves traveling across the planet's surface.

Miyazawa, Masatoshi; Mori, Jim; Agu


Status of thermal spray technology in japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes the present status and prospects for future progress of the thermal spraying business and technology\\u000a in Japan. Organizations that have supported thermal spraying business and technology consist of coating contract shops, producers\\u000a and suppliers of spray equipment and consumables, and large companies that have been using thermal spray technology in their\\u000a production lines. Moreover, out-side, noncommercial organizations

K. Tani; H. Nakahira



Practice of Archaeology in Contemporary Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Although the key goal of archaeology in Japan continues to be the construction of national identity with reference to the\\u000a past, increasing diversity in research objectives and methodology applied by the current generation of practicing archaeologists\\u000a is noticeable. This chapter begins with a review of the historical backgrounds that contributed to the present condition of\\u000a Japanese archaeology: (1) the antiquarian

Fumiko Ikawa-Smith


Surrogacy: donor conception regulation in Japan.  


As of 2008, surrogacy is legal and openly practised in various places; Japan, however, has no regulations or laws regarding surrogacy. This paper reports the situation of surrogacy in Japan and in five other regions (the USA, the UK, Taiwan, Korea and France) to clarify the pros and cons of prohibiting surrogacy, along with the problems and issues relating to surrogacy compensation. Not only in a country such as France that completely prohibits surrogacy within the country, but also in a country such as the UK that allows non-commercial surrogacy, infertile couples travel overseas for the purpose of surrogacy. In addition, some couples might seek underground surrogacy if the government prohibits surrogacy. If an intended parent couple and a surrogate make an agreement among themselves and then a problem occurs, they cannot ask for support from professionals or bring a case to court, as can be observed in South Korea and Taiwan. We also conclude that there is little difference between commercial surrogacy and non-commercial surrogacy in the absence of a clear definition of 'reasonable expenses.' In the UK, the law does not allow surrogates to receive compensation. However, in reality, there may be little difference between the amounts paid to surrogates for profit in the US and those paid to surrogates for reasonable expenses in the UK. We conclude that the issue of surrogacy demands further discussion in Japan. PMID:20002072

Semba, Yukari; Chang, Chiungfang; Hong, Hyunsoo; Kamisato, Ayako; Kokado, Minori; Muto, Kaori



[Japan Spastic Paraplegia Research Consortium (JASPAC)].  


Abstract Japan Spastic Paraplegia Research Consortium (JASPAC), a nationwide clinical and genetic survey of patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), was started in 2006 as a project of the Research Committee for Ataxic Diseases of the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare, Japan. To date (April 4, 2014), 448 indexed patients with HSP have been registered from 46 prefectures in Japan. We are now performing molecular testing of the HSP patients using Sanger sequencing (SPG4, SPG11, SPG31, and ARSACS), comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) array (SPG1, 2, 3A, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 15, 17, 20, 21, 31, 33, 39, 42, ABCD1, alsin, and ARSACS), and resequencing microarray (SPG1, 2, 3A, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 17, 20, 21, 31, 33, and ABCD1). In 206 Japanese families with autosomal dominant HSP, SPG4 was the most common form, accounting for 38%, followed by SPG3A (5%), SPG31 (5%), SPG10 (2%), and SPG8 (1%). In 88 patients with autosomal recessive HSP, although SPG11 was the most common form, accounting for 6%, most showed significant genetic heterogeneity. The results of molecular testing will be applicable to patients in terms of improved positive diagnosis, follow-up, and genetic counseling. JASPAC will contribute to elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying HSP, and will facilitate the development of better treatments for HSP. PMID:25296875

Takiyama, Yoshihisa



The Japan Medical Association's disaster preparedness: lessons from the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.  


A complex disaster, the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, consisted of a large-scale earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident, resulting in more than 15 000 fatalities, injuries, and missing persons and damage over a 500-km area. The entire Japanese public was profoundly affected by "3/11." The risk of radiation exposure initially delayed the medical response, prolonging the recovery efforts. Japan's representative medical organization, the Japan Medical Association (JMA), began dispatching Japan Medical Association Teams (JMATs) to affected areas beginning March 15, 2011. About 1400 JMATs comprising nearly 5500 health workers were launched. The JMA coordinated JMAT operations and cooperated in conducting postmortem examination, transporting large quantities of medical supplies, and establishing a multiorganizational council to provide health assistance to disaster survivors. Importantly, these response efforts contributed to the complete recovery of the health care system in affected areas within 3 months, and by July 15, 2011, JMATs were withdrawn. Subsequently, JMATs II have been providing long-term continuing medical support to disaster-affected areas. However, Japan is at great risk for future natural disasters because of its Pacific Rim location. Also, its rapidly aging population, uneven distribution of and shortage of medical resources in regional communities, and an overburdened public health insurance system highlight the need for a highly prepared and effective disaster response system. PMID:24274130

Ishii, Masami; Nagata, Takashi



[WHO Healthy City Initiative in Japan].  


City environmental conditions are associated with health outcomes in people living there. World Health Organization (WHO) initiated Healthy City in 1986. To promote the networking, Alliance for Healthy Cities (AFHC) was launched in 2003 with local offices including AFHC Japan. As of 2010, 26 cities are members of AFHC Japan. A questionnaire was sent to those member cities. It includes questions on why they became an AFHC member, which section is in charge of the initiatives, what factors are important for promotion, and others. Out of the 26 cities, 13 cities returned the completed questionnaire. As for factors important for promoting the initiatives, 10 (77%) out of the 13 cities answered "consciousness of residents", while five (38%) chose "budget". This result suggests that community participation is a more important factor than budget for promoting and succeeding in the initiatives. Aging is a problem in any of the member cities, and six cities out the 13 falls under the category of superaged society, which is defined as a society with the proportion of aged people < 65 years being greater than 21% of the whole population. Eleven cities (85%) agreed that bicycles are an alternative means of transportation to cars; however, infrastructure for ensuring safety needs further improvement. In the promotion of Healthy City, networking among the member cities in Japan and worldwide should be promoted. Community participation with empowerment from the planning stage should lead to sustainable initiatives. The function of AFHC in collaboration among the members should be strengthened to cope with the rapidly changing city environment. PMID:23718975

Yoshizawa, Kazuko



The 1998 World Solar Rallye: Akita, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In early August 1998, 81 solar/electric vehicles participated in a three day endurance race in Japan. The objective was to complete as many laps of the 31 km circuit as possible. Some of the cars used state-of-the-art motors, batteries, chassis, solar cells and tyres to produce vehicles which could travel at speeds of 70-80 km/h on about 1 kW of input power. With only 20 kg of battery, some solar cars were travelling around 450 km a day. This paper tells the story of the race and the technological developments behind the successful vehicles.

Shacklock, Andy; Duke, Mike; Burgess, Nigel


Countermeasures against chemical terrorism in Japan.  


Japan has experienced numerous incidents of chemical disasters and terrorist attacks. Here we review the history of changes in countermeasures against such incidents. Since 2004, the Civil Protection Law, more formally known as the "Law Concerning the Measures for Protection of the People in Armed Attack Situations etc" was enacted to fully prepare the nation for chemical terrorism. According to this law, the Japanese government must carry out Civil Protection Exercises on an annual basis to gauge response. Problem areas that remain are chosen and addressed one by one until they are judged to be resolved in subsequent exercises. PMID:23434376

Okumura, Tetsu; Seto, Yasuo; Fuse, Akira



PASJ: Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan , 1??, c 2007. Astronomical Society of Japan.  

E-print Network

210008, China 2 National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka-1-1, Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, 229-8510 Kanagawa 4 Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, 3251 Hanover Street-ray data from the Hinode satellite to study the response of solar chromosphere and corona to the emerging

Li, Hui


Japan’s Rhetoric of Crisis: Prospects for Change after 3.11  

E-print Network

For some Japanese political entrepreneurs, the March 2011 catastrophe in Tohoku (3.11) was a warning for Japan to “put it in gear” and head in a new direction—away from nuclear power or toward a muscular military. For ...

Samuels, Richard J.



Paleomagnetism of the early Miocene Kani group in southwest Japan and its implication for the opening of the Japan Sea  

SciTech Connect

Paleomagnetic directions of a volcanic and sedimentary sequence of the Kani Basin, ranging from 22 to 15 Ma, show a clockwise declination shift of about 50{degree}. This result implies that detectable rotation of Southwest Japan did not occur in this period, but after 15 Ma. The initial opening of the Japan Sea before 15 Ma might have caused a southeastward translation of Southwest Japan, which was then followed by clockwise rotation between 16 and 14 Ma.

Hayashida, Akira; Fukui, Takako (Doshisha Univ., Kyoto (Japan)); Torii, Masayuki (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))



Database and Related Activities in Japan  

SciTech Connect

We have constructed and made available atomic and molecular (AM) numerical databases on collision processes such as electron-impact excitation and ionization, recombination and charge transfer of atoms and molecules relevant for plasma physics, fusion research, astrophysics, applied-science plasma, and other related areas. The retrievable data is freely accessible via the internet. We also work on atomic data evaluation and constructing collisional-radiative models for spectroscopic plasma diagnostics. Recently we have worked on Fe ions and W ions theoretically and experimentally. The atomic data and collisional-radiative models for these ions are examined and applied to laboratory plasmas. A visible M1 transition of W{sup 26+} ion is identified at 389.41 nm by EBIT experiments and theoretical calculations. We have small non-retrievable databases in addition to our main database. Recently we evaluated photo-absorption cross sections for 9 atoms and 23 molecules and we present them as a new database. We established a new association ''Forum of Atomic and Molecular Data and Their Applications'' to exchange information among AM data producers, data providers and data users in Japan and we hope this will help to encourage AM data activities in Japan.

Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Kato, Masatoshi; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Kato, Takako; Ding, Xiaobin; Morita, Shigeru [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu, 509-5292 (Japan); Kitajima, Masashi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Koike, Fumihiro [School of Medicine, Kitasato University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-0373 (Japan); Nakamura, Nobuyuki [Institute for Laser Science, The University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo, 182-8585 (Japan); Sakamoto, Naoki [Department of Physics, Nara Women's University, Nara 630-8506 (Japan); Sasaki, Akira [KansaiPhoton Science Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kizugawa, Kyoto, 619-0215 (Japan); Skobelev, Igor [Joint Institute for High Temperatures of RAS, Izhorskaya 13/19, 125412 (Russian Federation); Tsuchida, Hidetsugu [Quantum Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Ulantsev, Artemiy [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 65, Leninsky av., Moscow, 119296 (Russian Federation); Watanabe, Tetsuya [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Yamamoto, Norimasa [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)



Hybrid electric vehicles in Europe and Japan  

SciTech Connect

Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again reexamined the battery powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Consequently, by 1995, vehicle manufacturers turned their attention to hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). This redirection of EV effort is highlighted by the focus on experimental hybrid EV displayed at the 1995 Frankfurt Motor Show and the Tokyo Motor Show in Japan. In Europe the 56th IAA in Frankfurt included twelve or more EV designed for personnel transportation, and among them, two featured hybrid-electric (HEV) systems: the Peugeot turboelectric HEV, and the Opel Ermscher Selectra HEV. In Japan, at the 31st Tokyo Motor Show, among the twenty or more EV on display, seven were hybrid HEV by: Daihatsu, Mitsubishi, Toyota: and, the Suburu, Suzuki, and the Kia KEV4 parallel type HEV. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the key features of these hybrid propulsion systems. Among the conclusions, two issues are evident: one, the focus is on series-type hybrid systems, with the exception of the parallel Suburu and Suzuki HEV, and, two, the major manufacturers are turning to the hybrid concept in their search for solutions to two key EV Issues: limited driving range; and, heating and air conditioning, associated with the low energy density characteristic of batteries.

Wyczalek, F.A. [FW Lilly Inc., Bloomfield Hills, MI (United States)



BSE crisis in Japan: A chronological overview.  


In recent years, food-related issues have become increasingly more publicised in developed countries. This holds true for Japan where food-related issues have been drawing attention as a socially significant topic, particularly since the appearance of BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy). In 2003 a new governmental office, the Food Safety Commission was established in the Cabinet Office of the Japanese Government based on a new law, "the Food Safety Basic Law". This change of administration was raised by the outbreak of BSE, which is considered to be a drastic reformation of food safety policy in Japan.In addition, BSE impact was significant not only on administration but also on the agriculture and food industries. It revealed to the public lots of holes in the food related system which have been concealed for years.In this paper, I would like to show the inadequacy of management before the outbreak of BSE and the subsequent governmental actions and reactions for food safety. Furthermore, problems that still remain after the reformation, such as ban on US beef and policy of blanket testing, will be discussed. PMID:21432134

Kamisato, Tatsuhiro



Trend of motorcycle engine valves in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Production of motorcycles in Japan has greatly decreased after peaking in 1981. However, as a result of an increase in local production, mainly in Asian nations, the production of sets, often called Knock Down (KD) sets, has been increasing. These sets are a shipment of parts that are ready for assembly in the importing country. In this area, motorcycle manufacturers are trying to improve performance and decrease noise and pollution. This report will outline the trends in motorcycle engine valves and the changes that have occurred with respect to valve materials, valve design specifications, and valve manufacturing processes, as experienced by Nittan Valve Co., Ltd. over the past 15 years. Motorcycles are used in various ways. They are used for transportation, sport, leisure, and hobby. Therefore, the forms and specifications of their bodies and engines are quite varied. The production of motorcycles in Japan has sharply decreased from an era of peak production in 1981 and in recent years, has remained low at around 3 million motorcycles per year. As a result, each motorcycle manufacturer has been promoting the local production in each country, and the production of KD sets is rapidly increasing today. The motorcycle and parts manufacturers are working on employing new technologies for anti-pollution measures, improving performance, decreasing noise, and better safety measures. With this in mind, the technological trends of Japanese engine valves being manufactured by Nittan Valve Co., Ltd. will be reported.

Kiriyama, M.; Sasakura, T. [Nittan Valve Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)



Rail safety and rail privatisation in Japan.  


Over the period from 1980 to the present, the economic status of the main line railway systems in many developed countries has changed, by privatisation or economic deregulation or both. The principal aims of such changes have been to improve the economic performance of the railways, and not to change the safety performance. Nevertheless, it is recognised that changing the organisational structure of railways might affect safety. The empirical evidence of the effect of restructuring on safety is limited, both in railways and in other industries. This paper adds to the empirical evidence by analysing train accidents in Japan before and after the privatisation of the Japanese National Railways (JNR) in 1987. The paper finds that the JNR achieved downward trends in the mean number of train accidents per train-kilometre in the 16 years 1971-1986, and the paper takes the extrapolation of these favourable trends as the yardstick by which to judge the safety performance of the privatised railways. The paper finds that the privatised railway had fewer train accidents in total than this yardstick in 1987-2006. This finding applies whether or not the high-speed Shinkansen train operations are included. Thus there is no evidence that rail privatisation in Japan had an adverse effect on train accidents. The methods adopted and the results are similar to those previously found by the author for rail privatisation in Great Britain. PMID:20441845

Evans, Andrew W



78 FR 55293 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Japan; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Japan; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing...chlorinated isocyanurates from China and Japan, provided for in subheadings 2933.69...United States at less than fair value by Japan and alleged to be subsidized by...



76 FR 11509 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade...strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan...strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely to lead to...



Tora no Maki III. Lessons for Teaching about Contemporary Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The elements of Japan, including history, geography, economics, civics, and cultural studies, are in this collection of original lesson plans. The lessons are meant to provide original content about Japan to augment and supplement an existing unit of study and evoke a spirit of inquiry and introspection. The 24 lessons are as follows: (1) "Family…

National Council for the Social Studies, Washington, DC.


Tectonic erosion along the Japan and Peru convergent margins  

E-print Network

Tectonic erosion along the Japan and Peru convergent margins R. VON HUENE U.S. Geological Survey, M erosion can be estimated quantita- tively if the position of the volcanic arc, the position the Japan and Peru Trenches indicate rates of erosion comparable to well-known rates of accretion. Proposed

Demouchy, Sylvie


Japan: Super-Aging Society Preparing for the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Japan has the highest proportion of older adults in the world. Aging is not only an immediate personal issue but also a salient factor in crucial public policies, such as pensions, health, and long-term care. The Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear power plant disaster of March 2011 has highlighted current and emerging issues of a…

Muramatsu, Naoko; Akiyama, Hiroko



Attitudes toward the Homeless: A U.S.-Japan Comparison.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares attitudes toward the homeless in Japan and the United States through a survey of 268 Japanese and 254 U.S. adults and adolescents interviewed in public places. In Japan, homelessness is seldom discussed, and poverty, which may be as widespread as in the United States, is often not recognized. (SLD)

Guzewicz, Tony D.; Takooshian, Harold



Japan's Reluctant Reformers and the Legacy of the Developmental State  

Microsoft Academic Search

No East Asian country is more important to the region's future economic development prospects than Japan. Japan's sheer economic weight ensures that it will inevitably exercise a major influence on its neighbors. Whether this role will prove to be as a beneficial engine of growth, or as a more malignant constraint on regional recovery is not clear. Much of difficulty

Mark Beeson


End-of-Life Ethical Issues in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the end-of-life ethical issues of disclosure of information to the terminally ill patient, informed consent, and overtreatment for the elderly people of Japan. These issues are placed within the cultural context of Japan, which is discussing and developing ways to deal with them. The ethical problems that nurses confront when they work clinically with elderly patients also

Anne J. Davis; Emiko Konishi



Japan Denies Report It Dropped Proposal to Host Fusion Reactor  

E-print Network

Print Japan Denies Report It Dropped Proposal to Host Fusion Reactor June 22 (Bloomberg) -- Japan fusion reactor, a decision that would end a standoff with France to site the 4.6 billion-euro ($5 the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor in return for assurances it will manage the project in France


High-level manpower movement and Japan's foreign aid.  


"Japan's technical assistance programs to Asian countries are summarized. Movements of high-level manpower accompanying direct foreign investments by private enterprise are also reviewed. Proposals for increased human resources development include education and training of foreigners in Japan as well as the training of Japanese aid experts and the development of networks for information exchange." PMID:12285771

Furuya, K



Keys for growth in Japan's mature mobile market  

E-print Network

The objective of this thesis is to identify key factors that will produce further growth for NTT DoCoMo in Japan's mature mobile market. Since the early 1990s, the mobile phone market in Japan has grown rapidly, and ...

Oto, Hiroyuki



Aquacultural Survey in Japan. (JA-639.3-S355).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this survey was to assess the value of Japan's aquacultural methods in terms of direct or indirect application in other countries, and to evaluate present and future status of aquacultures in Japan. The aquacultures discussed are: Ayu, Japa...

H. R. Schmittou



Tokugawa Japan and Industrial Revolution Britain: Two Misunderstood Societies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author presents a truer picture than economic historians have previously had of the economies of Tokugawa Japan, and Britain during the Industrial Revolution. Though substantially different, both societies were prosperous compared to most of the rest of the world. Japan's economic success began in the Tokugawa period…

Ellington, Lucien



Managing borders and managing bodies in contemporary Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matters of border control in twenty-first-century Japan interact with current social issues involving demography, the labour market and economic relationships with other countries in the region. Japan faces a rapidly ageing population, the highest life expectancy in the world, a birth rate well below replacement level and a shrinking population. Smaller families find it difficult to provide primary care for

Vera Mackie



Electronics and Autos: Driving the Japan-China relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses investment and trade in the electronics and automobile industries between China and Japan. The two sectors represented one third of the total bilateral trade value both ways between Japan and China in 2006 and one quarter of Japanese foreign direct investment (FDI) to China in 2007, down from 39 per cent in 2006. The two sectors continue

Shiro Armstrong


IAEA THEORY SUMMARY 1998 IAEA Meeting, Yokohama, Japan  

E-print Network

IAEA THEORY SUMMARY 1998 IAEA Meeting, Yokohama, Japan Oct. 17--24, 1998 Princeton University energy theory research presented at 17th International Atomic Energy Agency Fusion Energy Conference from 19--24 1998 Yokohama, Japan. Theory simulation results from conference provided encouraging evidence


New Urban Sociology in Japan: the changing debates  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Urban Sociology began in Europe at the beginning of the 1970s and then spread to the United States. It also influenced urban studies in Japan. This article examines the changing debates that have occurred in New Urban Sociology since its introduction to Japan in the late 1970s. The twenty years since its introduction from the West can be divided

Kazutaka Hashimoto



A review of liquid rocket propulsion programs in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment of Japan's current capabilities in the areas of space and transatmospheric propulsion is presented. The primary focus is upon Japan's programs in liquid rocket propulsion and in space plane and related transatmospheric areas. Brief reference is also made to their solid rocket programs, as well as to their supersonic air breathing propulsion efforts that are just getting underway.

Merkle, Charles L.



Digital Technology at the National Science Museum of Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Science Museum (NSM) in Japan has recently completed a project using different types of visitor-oriented digital technologies. With sponsorship from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), the NSM team carried out a four-year study to examine how digital technologies can be used to enhance as well as educationally…

Lydens, Lois; Saito, Yasuji; Inoue, Tohru



The Issue of Diversity and Multiculturalism in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to problematize that which has been taken for granted about the notion of multiculturalism in Japan. Multiculturalism is a "hot" issue in Japan. As the Japanese government started to promote "internationalization" since 1980s, slogans such as "international exchange," "cultural exchange," "understanding of other…

Qi, Jie; Zhang, Sheng Ping



The UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshop Programme...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors have been running UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshops at universities in Britain and Japan since 2001: for the past three years in England with Cambridge University and, last year, also with Kyoto University and Kyoto University of Education. For many years they have worked jointly with colleagues in a group of Super Science High…

Albone, Eric; Okano, Toru



Japan in the Classroom: Elementary and Secondary Activities, Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity book is designed to present information and insights on Japanese culture and society. Because few teachers can devote entire units to the study of Japan, the activities focus on teaching about Japan within the context of larger social science units. Some of the lessons can be taught within the context of the humanities and fine arts,…

Parisi, Lynn; And Others


Department of History -Japan Studies Option Worksheet 2012 -2014 Catalog  

E-print Network

Introduction to Japanese Literature 3cr JPNS 320 Classical Japanese Literature 3cr JPNS 321 Modern Japanese Literature 3cr JPNS 325 Women in Japanese Literature and Culture 3cr JPNS 350 Japanese Culture Japanese Film and Animé 3cr ANTY 242 Contemporary Japan 3cr ANTY 337 Sex, Gender, & Sexuality - Japan 3cr

Lawrence, Rick L.


Department of History -Japan Studies Option Worksheet 2010 -2012 Catalog  

E-print Network

Introduction to Japanese Literature 3cr JPNS 320 Classical Japanese Literature 3cr JPNS 321 Modern Japanese Literature 3cr JPNS 325 Women in Japanese Literature and Culture 3cr JPNS 350 Japanese Culture Japanese Film and Animé 3cr ANTY 242 Contemporary Japan 3cr ANTY 337 Sex, Gender, & Sexuality - Japan 3cr

Maxwell, Bruce D.


In Search of Mutual Understanding: A Classroom Approach to Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An activity book is designed to address problems and oversights in classroom coverage of Japan discovered by the Japan/United States Textbook Study Project. Activities which focus on Japanese religion, language, and geography address two important questions: what immediate application does the textbook study have for classroom teachers and how can…

Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Social Studies Development Center.


The Exponential Phase of HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Japan  

E-print Network

The Exponential Phase of HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Japan Hisashi INABA Institute of Population Problems between the reported HIV/AIDS incidence and the hidden prevalence of HIV could be so large. 1 #12;In the charac- teristics of HIV/AIDS in Japan based on the surveillance data. Next we develop the estimation

Inaba, Hisashi


The Independent Living Movement in Asia: Solidarity from Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Independent living movements of disabled people are emerging in Asian countries, supported by independent living centres (ILCs) in Japan. A study was conducted in Japan to explore the impact of the training program offered by Japanese ILCs to disabled people from other Asian countries. A sample of 35 people was selected by a snowballing method.…

Hayashi, Reiko; Okuhira, Masako



Science AFP Japan ready to pay 895 million  

E-print Network

Science ­ AFP Japan ready to pay 895 million dollars more to host ITER project: report Wed May 26 of the construction costs, the Nihon Keizai said. But Tokyo is now planning to increase the size of its contribution. If Japan is selected to host the reactor, it will cost the country a little over 700 billion yen, including


Bank recapitalization in the U.S. - lessons from Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study empirically investigates the effectiveness of the Capital Purchase Program (CPP), the centerpiece of the United States 700 billion dollar policy response to the global financial crisis of 2008. We frame our analysis of the United States policy response against the backdrop of Japan’s banking crisis and policy response in the late 1990s. As one of the only advanced

Heather Montgomery; Yuki Takahashi



Activities of the Remote Sensing Technology Center of Japan (RESTEC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Remote Sensing Technology Center of Japan (RESTEC) is a nonprofit-making, private foundation working in conjunction with the Science and Technology Agency and the National Space Development Agency of Japan. It strives to promote environmental protection, social economy and national welfare through the development and dissemination of remote sensing technology for the monitoring of global resources and environmental phenomena. This

Keiji Maruo



Early Cretaceous Lizards from the Okurodani Formation of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Early Cretaceous Okurodani Formation of Gifu Prefecture, Central Honshu, Japan, is yielding an assemblage of small freshwater and terrestrial vertebrates which represent some of the oldest specimens of their kind from Japan. Although rare, at least two types of lizards-probably more-have been recovered. The most common form, described here under the name Sakurasaurus shokawensis nov. gen. et ep., is

Makoto Manabe



The great East Japan earthquake disaster and ecological socialism  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the great earthquake disaster in Japan on 11 March 2011, Japan is considered to be confronting the third big change following the Meiji Restoration in 1868 and the defeat of World War II in 1945. In particular, the accident at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, which occurred as a result of the earthquake and tsunami, had a

Chikara Sasaki



Microgravity experiments in the field of physical chemistry in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan has been operating 'KIBO' (`hope' in Japanese) as Japanese experimental module on ISS (International Space Station) to perform researches on physical, life, medical, space sciences in space. Several research racks and facilities have already been accommodated in the pressurized module of 'KIBO' and some researches have already been carried out. Japan currently has 17 ISS flight projects (including 4

M Natsuisaka; K Tsujii; M Shimomura; H Yabu; Y Hirai; T Mashiko; S Deguchi; S Mukai; Y Inoue; Y Nishiyama; M Sawada; K Okumura; K Sakamoto



Family therapy in Japan—context and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan Association of Family Therapy (JAFT) was founded in 1984, which was the beginning of the era of enthusiasm of family therapy in Japan. Today, family therapy has developed to one of the important clinical fields of psychotherapy and family support. The member counts of JAFT is approximately 1200, one-third of them are medical doctors, which is one of the

Riichiro Narabayashi



Genetic Characterization of Coronaviruses from Domestic Ferrets, Japan  

PubMed Central

We detected ferret coronaviruses in 44 (55.7%) of 79 pet ferrets tested in Japan and classified the viruses into 2 genotypes on the basis of genotype-specific PCR. Our results show that 2 ferret coronaviruses that cause feline infectious peritonitis–like disease and epizootic catarrhal enteritis are enzootic among ferrets in Japan. PMID:24447852

Terada, Yutaka; Minami, Shohei; Noguchi, Keita; Mahmoud, Hassan Y.A.H.; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Masami; Une, Yumi



Policy-Based Finance: The Experience of Postwar Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines the activities of policy-based finance in post-WWII Japan. It focuses primarily on the activities of the Japan Development Bank (JDB), which, as the primary institution in charge of industrial finance, played a large role in bringing a...

K. Kato, T. Shibata, K. Fukui, A. Mogi, Y. Miwa, Y. Niwa, N. Ichikawa, M. Furuta




Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the relations between Japan and China as the key determinant of East Asian regional cooperation. To this purpose, methodological approaches of realism, liberalism and constructivism and the implications of their interpretations for East Asia are discussed. The paper argues that first, difficulties in China-Japan relations result from the rapidly changing economic, social and political environment in which

Christian WIRTH



NASDA and the Space Industry in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With over 30 years of history in space activities, Japan is now recognized as one of space powers in the world. Compared to other countries though, the features of Japanese space development are unique in several aspects. At first, its efforts are directed solely toward peaceful purposes and strictly separated from military uses. Secondly, there are many space related governmental agencies and institutes which are under supervision of different ministries. Thirdly, although the government budget is moderate and sales revenue of space industries is not so large, many large companies in aerospace or electronics industries see the importance of this business and compete each other mainly in the domestic market. NASDA, founded in 1969, is the largest governmental space organization and has played an important role in realizing practical applications of space activities. It has rapidly caught up the technology gap behind leading countries and has achieved remarkable successes with its own launch vehicles and satellites. Space industries, under the guidance of NASDA, have learned much from the U.S. companies and improved their technology levels and enjoyed steady growth during the early stage of Japanese space development. But before they became competitive enough in the world space business, the trade conflict between Japan and the U.S. made the procurement of Japanese non-R&D satellites open to the foreign satellite companies. Furthermore, interruptions of space activities due to recent successive failures of launch vehicles as well as Japanese economic slump have made space industries face hard situations. Under these circumstances, M&A of launch vehicle companies as well as satellite makers took place for the first time in Japanese aero-space history. Also at the government level, reorganization of space agencies is now under process. It is expected as a natural consequence of the merge of the Ministry of Education and the Science an Technology Agency, three space agencies under these Ministries, NASDA, ISAS and NAL, are going to consolidate within a couple of years. We expect the new organization could restore the confidence in Japanese space development by combining the enthusiasms for space activities and utilize effectively resources in Japan.

Takamatsu, Hideo



Pediatric allergy and immunology in Japan.  


The Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (JSPACI) was started in 1966 and currently has 3613 members as of August 1, 2012. The number of pediatricians specializing in allergies who have been certified by the Japanese Society of Allergology is 817. Among these, there are 125 training directors and training facilities for allergy and clinical immunology. The JSPACI first published an asthma guideline specific for children in 2000, and this has been revised every 3 yrs, contributing to better control of pediatric asthma. Food allergy management guidelines were first developed in 2005, which have helped to improve the care of food allergy patients. Among 514 pediatric training programs by the Japanese Society of Pediatrics, there are 312 facilities routinely performing oral food challenges. Among these, there were already 53 facilities performing oral immunotherapy at the end of 2011, treating 1400 cases of food allergy. The prevalence of pediatric allergic diseases has increased in Japan over the past 50 yrs. A number of International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood surveys have been conducted in the past at specific times. The prevalence of wheezing among children aged 13-14 yrs in 2002 was 13.0%. Multi-year surveys found a 1.5- to 2-fold increase every 10 yrs until 2002. However, according to the latest data in 2012, asthma prevalence seems to have slightly decreased in Japan. Food allergy mainly associated with infantile atopic eczema among infants younger than 1 yr of age is the most common form as with other developed countries. The estimated food allergy prevalence based on data from several surveys is 5-10% among infants (0-6 yrs) and 1-2% among schoolchildren (6-15 yrs). A variety of patients suffering from primary deficiency syndrome have been actively analyzed. Previously, antibody defects and well-defined syndromes with immunodeficiency were analyzed, but recent research is focusing on not only acquired immune disorders but also on innate immune disorders. In contrast to the widespread use of oral immunotherapy, one immediate issue is to develop and reassess subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapies for mite and Japanese cedar pollen antigens that have been disused in Japan since the 1990s. PMID:24112430

Ebisawa, Motohiro; Nishima, Sankei; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Kondo, Naomi



NSF/Tokyo Report: University-Industry Cooperation for Technology Innovation in Japan  

NSF Publications Database

... Report: University-Industry Cooperation for Technology Innovation in Japan Date: April 23, 1998 The ... UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY COOPERATION FOR TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION IN JAPAN A. INTRODUCTION Recent press ...


Collective Fishery Management Developed in Japan - Why Community-Based Fishery Management Has Been Well Developed in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often said that the reason why Community-Based Fishery Management System (CBFM) in Japan has been well practiced is due to a historical development of a fishing right system, which emerged during her feudal era. This is not always correct. Until August 1945, when Japan was defeated in the World War II, Japanese people served to the emperor under

Tadashi Yamamoto



Nuclear or not? The complex and uncertain politics of Japan’s post-Fukushima energy policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the wake of the Fukushima disaster, Japanese Prime Minister Naoto Kan announced that Japan should meet its energy needs without nuclear power plants. But his statement may have little relevance in the next administration. There is a complex power struggle underway over the future of nuclear energy in Japan involving political, governmental, industry, and union groups. Despite the seriousness

Masa Takubo



Surveys of postpartum depression in Miyagi, Japan, after the Great East Japan Earthquake.  


This study explores the correlation between the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the incidence of postpartum depression in Miyagi prefecture, Japan. The design used was a cross-sectional study with self-administered questionnaires, 6-9 months after the disaster. The results showed the prevalence of postnatal women with Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score of ?9 to be 21.3 %. Multivariate analysis showed that exposure to tsunami (odds ratio, 1.80; 95 % confidence interval, 1.16-2.78) was significantly and independently associated with an EPDS score of ?9. Postnatal women and their children should be treated as a vulnerable population, and a protective framework must be established to prepare for future devastating disasters. PMID:25204487

Nishigori, Hidekazu; Sugawara, Junichi; Obara, Taku; Nishigori, Toshie; Sato, Kineko; Sugiyama, Takashi; Okamura, Kunihiro; Yaegashi, Nobuo



Recent structural studies of peptides in Japan.  


Recent x-ray structure analyses of peptides in Japan were reviewed. A series of peptides containing an aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) residue was analyzed and their helical types were investigated. Two convenient methods to determine helical types were obtained. One method was obtained by calculating averaged helical parameters and the other was obtained by investigating meridional intensity distributions. The conformations of some peptides, such as aureobasidin E, ascidiacyclamide, synthetic analogues of heat-stable enterotoxin, were studied by an x-ray diffraction method, and in some cases, with the help of nmr spectroscopy and molecular mechanics calculations. Since these peptides have physiologically important activities, the structure-activity relationships of these peptides were discussed. Several other peptide structures and the polymorphism of amino acids are also reported. PMID:8541449

Okuyama, K; Ohuchi, S



Ski slope vegetation in central Honshu, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To determine the status of the vegetation of ski slopes in northeastern-central Honshu, Japan, 94 plots (2×2 m) were set up on five ski areas (101-520 m elevation) which were established between 1945 and 1985 by forest clear-cutting, land modification, and seeding. Six vegetation types were recognized: five grasslands dominated by Digitaria adscendens, Miscanthus sinensis, Zoysia japonica, Festuca rubra, and Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum, respectively, and bare areas of very low to no vegetation cover. Of the dominant species, F. rubra is the only introduced species; it does not, however, appear to persist. After the introduced grassland declines M. sinensis or annual grasslands develop. Native plants, especially woody species, can establish in M. sinensis grassland but do not establish in the other grasslands. It is concluded that the introduction of exotic species is inappropriate to maintain ski slope vegetation, and the development of M. sinensis grassland is desirable to promote natural revegetation.

Tsuyuzaki, Shiro



Thallium contamination in wild ducks in Japan.  


Although thallium (Tl) is toxic to both humans and animals, there is little information on contamination in wildlife. In this study, Tl contents in wild ducks in Japan were determined. Contents of Tl in kidney and liver ranged from 0.42 to 119.61 and 0.10 to 33.94 microg/g dry weight, respectively. Significant correlations between Tl contents in kidney and liver were observed for all dabbling ducks except mallard (Anas platyrhynchos); similar correlations were not observed in diving ducks. Variation in Tl content was observed between sampling locations with the highest mean Tl content in the Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope) collected in Ibaraki Prefecture. PMID:16244083

Mochizuki, Mariko; Mori, Makoto; Akinaga, Mayumi; Yugami, Kyoko; Oya, Chika; Hondo, Ryo; Ueda, Fukiko



Endoscopic management of esophagogastric varices in Japan  

PubMed Central

Esophagogastric varices are the most common complication in patients with portal hypertension, and endoscopy plays an important role in their diagnosis and in the prevention of acute bleeding from these structures. Recently, new modalities such as endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and narrow-band imaging have been introduced for the diagnosis of esophagogastric varices. In Japan, endoscopic therapy has become the first choice for the treatment of acutely bleeding esophageal or gastric varices. The two principal methods used to treat esophageal varices are endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) and endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL). Recently, combinations of EIS plus EVL and EVL plus argon plasma coagulation were reported to be more effective than EVL or EIS alone. Additionally, endoscopic cyanoacrylate injection is superior to EIS and EVL for the treatment of acutely bleeding gastric varices. PMID:25333017

Ichikawa, Tatsuki; Taura, Naota; Miuma, Satoshi; Isomoto, Hajime; Nakao, Kazuhiko



The "white kidney bean incident" in Japan.  


Lectin poisoning occurred in Japan in 2006 after a TV broadcast that introduced a new diet of eating staple foods with powdered toasted white kidney beans, seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris. Although the method is based on the action of a heat-stable ?-amylase inhibitor in the beans, phaseolamin, more than 1,000 viewers who tried the method suffered from acute intestinal symptoms and 100 people were hospitalized. Lectins in the white kidney beans were suspected to be the cause of the trouble. We were asked to investigate the lectin activity remaining in the beans after the heat treatment recommended on the TV program. The test suggested that the heat treatment was insufficient to inactivate the lectin activity, which, combined with our ignorance of carbohydrate signaling in the intestine, was the cause of the problem. PMID:25117222

Ogawa, Haruko; Date, Kimie



Online database of archaeomagnetism in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are now reconstructing the archaeomagnetic database and the geomagnetic secular variation model for the past 2000 years in Japan. Here we introduce a new online database of archaeomagnetism. There are several thousands of archaeomagnetic data mainly obtained from buried kilns and baked earths. Our goal is collecting and compiling these data and publishing to the geoscientists, the archaeologist, the people involved in education, students and citizens interested in geomagnetism and archaeology. Now we support a search engine of the archaeomagnetic data of direction and intensity, links to the references and sites outside, the site locations on a map and the educational documents (only in Japanese). We have a future plan to provide database improved and secular variation model reduced to given location in the Far East region.

Hatakeyama, T.



U.S. and Japan’s trends in attitudes toward the Korean peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that Japan would not only be concerned about the creation of a united Korea, which could be a serious\\u000a economic and political rival in her own backyard, but would actively fear the prospect of the extension of Chinese or Russian\\u000a military influence to the Straits of Tsushima through a Korean regime that leaned towards either of these

Sharif M. Shuja



Japan’s search for an independent foreign policy: An American perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the analysis that follows, I will attempt to present an assessment of the costs and benefits of the U.S.-Japan bilateral alliance by examining three actual multilateral issues involving both sides: U.S. opposition to Western cooperation in the Soviet gas pipeline project, the humanitarian aspects of U.S. policy toward the holding of American hostages in Iran, and the U.S. request

Ronald A. Morse



[2006 Epidemiological survey of dermatomycoses in Japan].  


An epidemiological survey of dermatomycoses and the causative fungus flora of dermatomycoses in Japan for 2006 was made on a total number of 63,029 outpatients who visited 16 dermatological clinics throughout Japan. The results were as follows. 1) Dermatophytosis was the most prevalent cutaneus fungal infection (7,582 cases) seen in these clinics, followed by candidiasis (842 cases) and then Malassezia infections (283 cases). 2) Among dermatophytoses, tinea pedis was the most frequent (4,779 cases : male 2,358, female 2,241), then in decreasing order, tinea unguium (2,582 cases : male 1,376, female 1,206), tinea corporis (564 cases : male 341, female 223), tinea cruris (309 cases : male 254, female 57), tinea manuum (145 cases : male 92, female 53), and tinea capitis including kerion (17 cases : male 12, female 5). 3) Tinea pedis and tinea unguium are seen to increase in the summer season, among the aged population. When compared to the last survey 2002 by clinical form, t. unguium patients increased 459 cases. 4) As the causative dermatophyte species, Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated among all dermatophyte infections except tinea capitis. Microsporum canis was slightly increased. M.gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum are small number. T.tonsurans was increased up to 37 cases. 5) Cutaneous candidiasis was seen in 842 cases (305 male, 537 female). Intertrigo (298 cases) was the most frequent clinical form, followed by erosion interdigitalis (136 cases), oral candidiasis (135 cases), onychia et paronychia (108 cases), genital and diaper candidiasis in total (88 cases). 6) Tinea versicolor was seen in 175 cases. Malassezia folliculitis were collected 108 cases, 63 cases are reported from one clinic. PMID:23149353

Sei, Yoshihiro



Advances in cancer epidemiology in Japan.  


Epidemiologists in Japan have been performing calculations to estimate nationwide cancer incidence rates as well as 5-year survival rates using population-based cancer registry data. There have been remarkable changes in cancer incidence and/or mortality in cancers of the lung, liver and stomach, which were thought to be attributed to the changing impact of exposure to cigarette smoking, chronic hepatitis C virus infection and Helicobacter pylori infection, respectively. In systematic reviews providing evidence in risk/protective factors for cancer sites using case-control and cohort studies of the Japanese population, there were associations between cancer sites (esophagus, stomach, colo-rectum, liver, pancreas, lung and breast) and various lifestyle factors. In the past 10 years, a hospital-based case-control study at Aichi Cancer Center provided valuable evidence of gene-environment interaction on the development of cancer [i.e., the effects of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) polymorphism and heavy alcohol drinking on esophageal cancer, ALDH2 polymorphism and smoking on lung cancer, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism and heavy alcohol drinking on pancreatic cancer]. The database with stored DNA was also used and identified seven loci containing significant but low-penetrance polymorphisms associated with the development of breast cancer. These findings together with established risk factors are likely to be useful to predict personalized breast cancer risk in East Asian women. In 2005, the Japan Multi-Institution Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study was launched to elucidate gene-environment interactions as well as to confirm preclinical diagnostic biomarkers of cancer. J-MICC, which has recruited 92,000 healthy individuals by the end of 2012, will follow the individuals until 2025. PMID:24105756

Tanaka, Hideo



Incidence of Myelodysplastic Syndrome in Japan  

PubMed Central

Background Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a diverse group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell malignancies that primarily affect the elderly. Although the incidence of MDS in western countries has been well investigated, little is known about the incidence in Asian populations. Methods To identify the incidence of MDS in Japan, we used population-based registry data from 1993 to 2008. The data represented 33.1% of the Japanese population. A total of 7995 patients were reported to the registry with newly diagnosed MDS during the study period. Results Median age at diagnosis was 76 years. Incidence sharply increased with age, particularly in those aged over 70 years. The most recent crude incidence rate of MDS was 3.8 (95% CI 3.6–4.1) cases per 100 000 for men and 2.4 (95% CI 2.2–2.6) cases per 100 000 for women in 2008. Age-adjusted incidences of MDS in 2008, standardized by the world standard population, were 1.6 and 0.8 cases per 100 000 for men and women, respectively, while incidences standardized by the 1985 Japanese population were 2.5 and 1.2 cases per 100 000 for men and women, respectively. Conclusions Our study reveals that some elderly patients suffer from MDS in Japan, but the incidence is lower than in Western countries. In current clinical practice, many elderly MDS patients are treated with supportive therapy based on an incomplete diagnosis, suggesting that the incidence estimated in this study might still be substantially underestimated. Accurate evaluation of the health impact of MDS requires evaluation of the mortality of the disease, continued surveillance, and improvement in the quality of cancer registry data. PMID:25088696

Chihara, Dai; Ito, Hidemi; Katanoda, Kota; Shibata, Akiko; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Sobue, Tomotaka; Matsuo, Keitaro



Results obtained with the CHARPAN Engineering Tool and prospects of the ion Mask Exposure Tool (iMET)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Projection Mask-Less Patterning (PMLP) is based on many hundred thousands of ion beams working in parallel. A PMLP proof-of-concept tool has been realized as part of the European project CHARPAN (Charged Particle Nanotech) and has been presented at SPIE Photomask BACUS 2007. Using 10 keV protons, 16nm hp resolution has been demonstrated in non- CAR materials (HSQ) with 25?C/cm2 exposure dose. The system is upgraded to a CHARPAN Engineering Tool (CHET) with a laser-interferometer controlled vacuum stage and a CMOS based programmable Aperture Plate System (APS) providing ca. 40,000 beams with < 20nm spot size. The engineering of an ion Mask Exposure Tool (iMET) for the 22nm hp mask node has been started; main iMET features are discussed.

Platzgummer, Elmar; Loeschner, Hans; Gross, Gerhard



Activities of the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This reports a history and future prospects of the activities by the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan. For growths of academic fields, active communications among students and young scientists are indispensable. Several academic communities in geoinformation fields are established by youths and play important roles of building networks over schools and institutes. The networks are expected to be innovative cooperation after the youths achieve their professions. Although academic communities are getting fixed growth particularly in Japan, youths had gotten little opportunities to make contacts with youths themselves. To promote gotten youth activities among geoinformation fields, in 1998, we started a series of programs that named the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan involving students and young scientists within the annual conferences, Geoinformation Forum Japan. The programs have provided opportunities to do presentation their studies by posters, some events, and motivations to create networks among students and young scientists. From 2009, some members of our activities set additional conference in west area of Japan. Thus our activities are spread within Japan. As a result of these achievements, the number of youth dedicating to the programs keeps growing. From 2009, it's getting international gradually, however, almost all the participants are still Japanese. To keep and expand the network, we are planning to make some nodes with some Asian youth organizations in the field of geoinformation. This paper is concluded with proposals and future prospects on the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan.

Oba, A.; Miyazaki, H.



Is Histoplasma capsulatum a native inhabitant of Japan?  


Histoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by inhaling spores of the fungal pathogen H. capsulatum and in Japan is considered an imported mycosis. However, some patients in Japan with histoplasmosis have no history of traveling overseas nor of risk of occupational exposure to Histoplasma. To investigate the possibility of native distribution of Histoplasma in Japan, 187 bat guano samples from 67 bat-inhabited caves in 17 prefectures were collected. These were examined for H. capsulatum by culture and Histoplasma-specific PCR in three independent laboratories. No H. capsulatum was detected by either method, therefore H. capsulatum is unlikely to be present in bat guano in Japanese caves. PMID:19039954

Kikuchi, Ken; Sugita, Takashi; Makimura, Koichi; Urata, Kensaku; Someya, Takashi; Sasaki, Takashi; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Niimi, Masakazu; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Uehara, Yoshimasa



The bumpy road to socialise nature: sex education in Japan.  


This study was prompted by an empirical puzzle: why is sex education in schools so underdeveloped in Japan compared to many other industrialised societies? On the one hand, formal pedagogy under state policy is conservative, emphasising reproductive and prophylactic purposes rather than a comprehensive understanding of sexuality. On the other hand, however, Japan has a highly visible sexual environment where a variety of commercial sex activities are tolerated and even encouraged. The aim of the paper is to provide an integrated picture of these apparently contradictory trends by examining the nexus of political, economic and sociocultural factors that affect sex education in contemporary Japan. PMID:21787254

Fu, Huiyan



Effective Exchange Rates in Japan, 1879-1938  

E-print Network

comparison of different indices suggests that the new data offer new insights into Japanese’s economic history. JEL Classifications: F31, N11, N43 Key Words: Gold standard, Effective exchange rates, Business cycles Effective Exchange Rates in Japan 1879... Donald, 1991), for this period only trade weights are feasible, given the extremely limited availability of output data for most of Japan’s trading partners during this period. For the period 1879-1913 the nominal effective exchange rate (EER) is calculated...

Shimazaki, Masao; Solomou, Solomos



Japan's declining fertility: "1.53 shock".  


In 1990, the Japanese were upset over the low 1989 total fertility rate (TFR) of 1.57 and continued to be so when they learned that the 1990 rate was even lower (1.53). This meant an annual population growth rate of only 0.33% with population decline beginning after 2010. In the early 1990s, Japan began to feel the demographic effects of such low fertility: a shortage of young workers and rising costs of health care for the elderly. Further, this shortage resulted in increasing business closings between 1988-1990 (1-6%). In 1990, the government began a survey to monitor the beliefs of the population on demographic concerns. The survey revealed that people wanted 2.2 children. Ideal family size was 2.6 which remained the same since 1977. Almost 40% found the falling TFR to be undesirable, especially because the population was aging. Moreover 65% of them though the government should undertake efforts to increase births. The major suggestions included reducing economic costs of raising a child (53%), a more favorable environment to have children such as affordable housing (29%), and developing child care facilities and child care leave (13%). 38% of 25-29 year old women were still unmarried, yet only 2% intended to never marry. Women in their late 20s and early 30s were critical of the 3 generation household with women doing all the housework. Women were more likely to be against premarital and extramarital sex than men. 25-33%, especially women 45 years old, felt the abortion law should be restricted. The 1990 abortion rate was 37.4/100 births. 7% relied on sterilization, yet 25-30% felt it to be an acceptable means of contraception. 75% of those that used a contraceptive used the condom. The government continued to ban oral contraceptives (OCs) claiming they would spread AIDS. Men were more in favor of OCs than women. 48% of those who found the falling population undesirable favored a pronatalist policy over importing foreign laborers. 41% wanted Japan to still help developing countries with family planning. PMID:12285109

Yanagishita, M



Earthquake Early Warning System in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan is located in one of the most tectonically active region in the world. We have suffered from many disasters brought by earthquakes and tsunamis. Significant efforts to mitigate disasters have been made as one of the most important national programs. Considering the difficulty of the earthquake prediction in time, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) considers it is important to issue the early warning immediately when the large earthquake occurs. JMA has been developing the "Earthquake Early Warning(EEW)" as a countermeasure to strong motion. JMA's EEW estimates hypocenter and magnitude using initial seismic waveform observed at the stations close to the epicenter, and issues estimated seismic intensity before the strong motion arrival. It also enables prompter issuance of the tsunami warning. We adopt a step-by-step method to improve the accuracy and reliance of the estimated focal parameters as the available data increases as the time lapse, ensuring the promptness of the first estimation at the same time. We estimate the hypocenter using Single Station Method and Network Method. Single Station Method is fitting simple function (Bt*exp(-At)) to the absolute value of acceleration waveform envelope of the first two seconds from the P onset by the cooperative study with Railway Technical Research Institute(RTRI). Network Method is using "territory" and "grid search" in combination. In addition to this procedure, we use the result of "Not Yet Arrived Data Method", a kind of grid search method, from June 2005. This method is developed by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention(NIED). After the hypocenter is determined, we estimate the magnitude by using hypocentral distance and maximum displacement amplitudes (Dmax) updated every second and the formula is as follows: M = log (Dmax) + logR + a1*R + a2 (R: Hypocentral distance (km)) We can calculate each site of Seismic Intensity estimation by using up-to-date hypocenter and magnitude in addition. JMA has started test distribution of EEW in Feb. 2004 to specific users to fieldtest the effectiveness of the warning, for the events that occur in the region where JMA has integrated data processing functions at the seismic stations. EEW issued 245 times from Feb. 25th 2004 to Aug 31st 2005 (including 22 times of false alarm almost due to initial artificial mistakes). We will discuss the detail of EEW distribution at the session.

Kiyomoto, M.; Tsukada, S.; Ohtake, K.; Shiozu, Y.; Morimoto, M.; Saito, M.; Sekita, Y.; Doi, K.; Yoshida, Y.; Odaka, T.; Ashiya, K.; Horiuchi, S.



Guidelines for obstetrical practice in Japan: Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology (JSOG) and Japan Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (JAOG) 2014 edition.  


The 'Clinical Guidelines for Obstetrical Practice, 2011 edition' were revised and published as a 2014 edition (in Japanese) in April 2014 by the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the Japan Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. The aims of this publication include the determination of current standard care practices for pregnant women in Japan, the widespread use of standard care practices, the enhancement of safety in obstetrical practice, the reduction of burdens associated with medico-legal and medico-economical problems, and a better understanding between pregnant women and maternity-service providers. The number of Clinical Questions and Answers items increased from 87 in the 2011 edition to 104 in the 2014 edition. The Japanese 2014 version included a Discussion, a List of References, and some Tables and Figures following the Answers to the 104 Clinical Questions; these additional sections covered common problems and questions encountered in obstetrical practice, helping Japanese readers to achieve a comprehensive understanding. Each answer with a recommendation level of A, B or C was prepared based principally on 'evidence' or a consensus among Japanese obstetricians in situations where 'evidence' was weak or lacking. Answers with a recommendation level of A or B represent current standard care practices in Japan. All 104 Clinical Questions and Answers items, with the omission of the Discussion, List of References, and Tables and Figures, are presented herein to promote a better understanding among English readers of the current standard care practices for pregnant women in Japan. PMID:24888907

Minakami, Hisanori; Maeda, Tsugio; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Hamada, Hiromi; Iitsuka, Yoshinori; Itakura, Atsuo; Itoh, Hiroaki; Iwashita, Mitsutoshi; Kanagawa, Takeshi; Kanai, Makoto; Kasuga, Yoshio; Kawabata, Masakiyo; Kobayashi, Kosuke; Kotani, Tomomi; Kudo, Yoshiki; Makino, Yasuo; Matsubara, Shigeki; Matsuda, Hideo; Miura, Kiyonori; Murakoshi, Takeshi; Murotsuki, Jun; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Ohno, Yasumasa; Ohshiba, Yoko; Satoh, Shoji; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Sugiura, Mayumi; Suzuki, Shunji; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Tsukahara, Yuki; Unno, Nobuya; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki



This study was supported by a grant from the Japan Science and Technology  

E-print Network

LETTERS This study was supported by a grant from the Japan Science and Technology Agency, Japan. Takashi Ito,* Makiko Iijima,* Takayoshi Fukushima,* Masato Nonoyama,* Masahiro Ishii,* Tatiana Baranovich, Japan; and Niigata Univer- sity Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan DOI: 10

Winker, Kevin


Atlas of Japan (East) Sea hydrographic properties in summer, 1999  

E-print Network

to the Okhotsk Sea by two even shallower straits ­ Soya (La Perouse) between Hokkaido and Sakhalin, and Tatar, between Sakhalin and the continent. In June through August, 1999, a hydrographic survey of the Japan (East

Talley, Lynne D.


First record of a Cretaceous cheilostome bryozoan from Hokkaido, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small collection of recrystallised, encrusting colonies of a single species from the Mikasa Formation (lower Middle Cenomanian), represents the first record of cheilostome (malacostegan or anascan) bryozoans from Hokkaido, Japan.

Andrew N. Ostrovsky; Reishi Takashima; Matthew H. Dick; Andrei V. Grischenko; Hiroshi Nishi; Shunsuke F. Mawatari



Democratization and the development of Japan's uneven welfare state  

E-print Network

Comparative data reveal that Japan consistently has had one of the highest poverty rates among advanced industrialized nations, yet its government taxes the poor more heavily and gives them less in public cash transfers ...

Shimabukuro, Yumiko T



The Cost of Kyoto Protocol Targets: The Case of Japan  

E-print Network

This paper applies the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model to analysis of the cost of the Kyoto Protocol targets, with a special focus on Japan. The analysis demonstrates the implications of the use ...

Paltsev, Sergey.


Secondary residential demand trends in contemporary Japan and North Asia  

E-print Network

This research paper attempts to address the opportunity and challenges for Vacation Residential Development in North Asia, with specific geographic focus on Japan first through an analysis of national and regional consumption, ...

Lam, Michael M



Energy Demand and Resources of Japan. Volume II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The five major energy resources of Japan (hydroelectric, coal, oil, gas, and nuclear power) are discussed in detail. Areas of demand, consumption, future prospects, and potential political problems are covered.

K. Dance, B. Ryan, J. F. Schneider



Simmel and Baudrillard on schoolgirl prostitution in Japan  

E-print Network

of the study examines the applicability of the theories in the analysis of contemporary schoolgirl prostitution in Japan. It incorporates Jungian psychology and assumes that Japanese culture is Mother-Archetypal in general. Simmel argues women as primary...

Yoshida, Takuji



Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Japan  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode that causes taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. The parasite is traditionally found in developing countries where undercooked pork is consumed under poor sanitary conditions and/or as part of traditional food cultures. However, the recent increase in international tourism and immigration is spreading the disease into non-endemic developed countries such as the United States. Although there has been concern that the number of cysticercosis cases is increasing in Japan, the current situation is not clear. This is largely because taeniasis and cysticercosis are not notifiable conditions in Japan and because there have been no comprehensive reviews of T. solium infections in Japan conducted in the last 15 years. Herein, we provide an overview of the status of T. solium infection in Japan over the past 35 years and point out the potential risks to Japanese society. PMID:22248435



JPRS Report, Science and Technology Japan, 18th FRP Symposium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1985, the Electronic Communications Business Law was enacted in Japan. This law decontrolled the country's electrical communication business. Following the liberalization of the business, many newcomers entered into this field to compete with the monop...



Japan's Monbusho Research Experience Fellowships for Young Foreign Researchers, 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eight American graduate students in science and engineering will participate in Japan's 1996 Monbusho Research Experience Fellowships forYoung Foreign Researchers Program from July 1 - August 29, 1996. The application deadline for the 'Research Experience...



Application of lean enterprise concept to construction firms in Japan  

E-print Network

Construction firms in Japan are struggling with the change in construction industry environment and need a new business model to meet the change. On the other hand, Japanese manufacturing companies, especially automobile ...

Taguchi, Hiroshi, 1973-




EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a particulate control technology assessment visit to Japan by a team of U.S. investigators. The visit included discussions with personnel from universities, industries, and other major installations involved with particulate control. Significant resear...



EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a particulate control technology assessment visit to Japan by a team of U.S. investigators. The visit included discussions with personnel from universities, industries, and other major installations involved with particulate control. Significant resear...


Japan's delayed antinuclear power mobilization after 3.11  

E-print Network

The meltdown of Fukushima Daiichi's nuclear plant was one of three disasters that rocked Japan on 11 March 2011, a day often referred to as "3.11." This nuclear accident led to increased attention to and disapproval of ...

Teo, Lin Ern Charis



[Safety of food additives in Japan].  


Recently, many accidents relating to food happened in Japan. The consumer's distrust for food, food companies, and the administration is increasing. The consumer especially has an extreme refusal feeling for chemicals such as food additives and agricultural chemicals, and begins to request agricultural chemical-free vegetables and food additive-free food. Food companies also state no agricultural chemicals and no food additives to correspond with consumers' request and aim at differentiating. The food additive is that the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare specifies the one that person's health might not be ruined by providing for Food Sanitation Law Article 10 in our country. The standard for food additives and standard for use of food additives are provided according to regulations of Food Sanitation Law Article 11. Therefore, it is thought that the food additive used is safe now. Then, it reports on the procedure and the safety examination, etc. in our country for designation for food additive this time. PMID:21720132

Ito, Sumio



Food policy for health in Japan.  


In this half century, dietary habits in Japan have greatly changed and there is some confusion about what is healthy. In this report the causes of the confusion are analysed. To establish a healthy and normal dietary life, the recommendations for the public were considered from the various standpoints. There have been great changes in economic and social factors, and in supply and availability. Consumers rate convenience, diversity, good taste, healthiness, and "fashionableness" as important. To create a new food culture, the following three points would become the base; 1. It is necessary for each of us to have a sense of responsibility for our eating habits and our health. 2. We must cooperate with family and friends to work for the creation of an abundant and enjoyable dining table. 3. We have reached the stage in our dining culture where we must think not about what to eat, but how to eat, what conduct we should use when eating, and about our awareness of eating and what we are eating. PMID:1407827

Fukuba, H



The earliest telescope preserved in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the antique telescope owned by one of Japan's major feudal warlords, Tokugawa Yoshinao. As he died in 1650, this means that this telescope was produced in or before that year. Our recent investigation of the telescope revealed that it is of Schyrlean type, consisting of four convex lenses, so that it gives erect images with a measured magnifying power of 3.9 (± 0.2-0.3). This also implies that Yoshinao's telescope could be one of the earliest Schyrlean telescopes ever. The design, fabrication technique, and the surface decoration of the telescopic tube and caps all suggest that it is not a Western make at all, but was produced probably under the guidance of a Chinese Jesuit missionary or by the Chinese, in Suzhou or Hangzhou in Zhejiang province, China, or in Nagasaki. Following descriptions in the Japanese and Chinese historical literature, we also discuss the possibility that production of Schyrlean-type telescopes started independently in the Far East nearly simultaneously with the publication of Oculus Enoch et Eliae by Anton Maria Schyrle in 1645.

Nakamura, Tsuko



A new archeomagnetic database in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Japan, after Watanabe's paleomagnetic works (1958) of historical lavas, paleomagnetism in historical ages have been actively continued with archeological objects (Momose et al., 1964; Hirooka, 1971, 1983; Shibuya, 1980), and the archeomagnetic database have grew and some local geomagnetic models have been proposed. The archeomagnetic measurements are also used for dating baked earths of archeological sites. However, those data have not been added in the international paleomagnetic data archives. Here, we are re-organizing the archeomagnetic data to construct a database referable internationally. In this database, archeomagnetic direction data well controlled in age are collected mainly from [1] Kinki and adjacent areas including the Suemura old pottery kilns formally compiled in Hirooka (1971, 1981) and Shibuya (1980), [2] Tokai area including old Seto pottery kilns compiled by Hirooka and Fujisawa (2002, in Japanese) and [3] Northern Kyushu area including recently published results of Ushikubi ruins of pottery kilns. The database comprises more than 600 paleomagnetic directions of AD to 19 centuries, will largely contribute to the paleo/archeomagnetic databases, and will fill the gap of geomagnetic secular variation researches.

Hatakeyama, T.; Shibuya, H.; Hirooka, K.; Nakamura, H.; Torii, M.



Common approach to childhood obesity in Japan.  


Although the prevalence of childhood obesity is plateauing, it remains a social concern. The Japan Society for the Study of Obesity devised criteria for obesity disease as a morbid state that requires medical treatment in 2002. Moreover, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare announced diagnostic criteria for childhood metabolic syndrome in 2010 because of the increasing number of children with lifestyle-related diseases. The treatment of obesity needs to be prioritized, and three principles, other than behavioral therapy, have been introduced in this study for the general medical treatment of obesity without underlying diseases: (1) diet therapy, (2) exercise, and (3) no pharmacotherapy. However, preventing obesity is more important than its treatment. A previous study reported the tracking of an overweight status from infancy; therefore, it is important to prevent infants from becoming overweight. The concept of the developmental origins of health and disease has been attracting more attention in recent years; however, preventative measures prior to birth should also be considered to reduce the incidence of obesity. Although the methods used to approach the treatment of childhood obesity change with differences in race or lifestyle, those who are engaged in the medical treatment of childhood obesity worldwide can contribute to its treatment and prevention by a mutual exchange of information. PMID:24810559

Kubo, Toshihide



Neonectria castaneicola and Neo. rugulosa in Japan.  


Differences between Neonectria castaneicola, which causes stem and perennial canker of trees, and Neo. rugulosa have not been clearly shown in previous studies. In this study these two species were compared in detail using 17 Japanese isolates consisting of 10 strains of Neo. castaneicola and seven of Neo. rugulosa. Four-spored asci were constantly found in Neo. castaneicola and this species produced larger ascospores and macroconidia than Neo. rugulosa which produced eight-spored asci. The mating system of Neo. castaneicola was homothallic while Neo. rugulosa was heterothallic. Characters in each species, such as the number of ascospores in an ascus and mating system, were constantly transferred to the 3rd generation. Molecular analysis revealed that the 10 isolates of Neo. castaneicola and seven of Neo. rugulosa were differentiated using rDNA sequence data from the nuclear rDNA ITS region. Moreover, Neo. castaneicola and Neo. rugulosa were separated into different clades. From these results, it was concluded that Neo. castaneicola should be maintained as an independent species, separate from Neo. rugulosa. The isolates of Neo. rugulosa used in this study were the first reported in Japan and found on Castanea crenata, Castanopsis sp., Myrica rubra and Quercus acutissima. PMID:16596957

Hirooka, Yuuri; Kobayashi, Takao; Natsuaki, Keiko T



Japan's big trading companies find themselves underemployed  

SciTech Connect

Japan's sogoshosha - its large trading companies - are fighting their way through an identity crisis. Originally established to help connect Japanese products and companies with offshore customers and a global market, the sogoshosha suddenly find that they are no longer in demand. The trading companies were originally intermediaries, says Yasunori Masuda, v.p. of Mitsui's chemical dividion (New York). But now we are less intermediaries and more organizers of joint ventures. Mitsubishi has a position in Saudi Arabia in methanol, ethylene glycol, and polyethylene (PE), currently being expanded. More recently the company teamed up with Pequiven, Venezuela's state-owned petrochemicals firm, on a 2,000-m.t./day methanol plant to be completed by the end of 1993 at Jose. Sone says Mitsubishi plans to market the methanol in the US Mitsubishi is also working on a feasibility study for a chlor-alkali/ethylene dichloride venture with Pequiven. Mitsubishi has jointed with five Japanese trading companies - Itochu, Marubeni, Mitsui, Sumitomo, and Nissho Iwai - to build a 450,000-m.t./year ethylene plant in China.

Coeyman, M.



Blackfly vectors of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan.  


Studies of blackfly vectors of Onchocerca dewittei japonica Uni, Bain & Takaoka (Spirurida: Onchocercidae), a parasite of wild boar implicated in the aetiology of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan, and six other zoonotic Onchocerca species of this country are reviewed. Molecular identification of infective larvae found in wild-caught female blackflies showed that Simulium bidentatum (Shiraki) (Diptera: Simuliidae) is a natural vector of O. dewittei japonica, and also Onchocerca sp. sensu Fukuda et al., another parasite of wild boar. Inoculation experiments demonstrated that Simulium arakawae Matsumura and four other Simulium species are putative vectors. Similarly, S. arakawae, S. bidentatum and Simulium oitanum (Shiraki) are putative vectors of Onchocerca eberhardi Uni & Bain and Onchocerca skrjabini Rukhlyadev, parasites of sika deer. Morphometric studies of infective larvae indicated that Onchocerca lienalis Stiles, a bovine species, is transmitted by S. arakawae, Simulium daisense (Takahasi) and Simulium kyushuense Takaoka, and that Onchocerca sp. sensu Takaoka & Bain, another bovine species, is transmitted by S. arakawae, S. bidentatum, S. daisense and S. oitanum. Prosimulium sp. (Diptera: Simuliidae) and Simulium japonicum Matsumura are suspected vectors of Onchocerca suzukii Yagi, Bain & Shoho and O. skrjabini [Twinnia japonensis Rubtsov (Diptera: Simuliidae) may also transmit the latter], parasites of Japanese serow, following detection of the parasites' DNA genes in wild-caught blackflies. PMID:22827756

Takaoka, H; Fukuda, M; Otsuka, Y; Aoki, C; Uni, S; Bain, O



Advanced Nuclear Fuel Development in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The verification test programs of high burnup BWR and PWR fuels have been carried out by Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation under the sponsorship of Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry since 1986. BWR and PWR fuel assemblies of high burnup range of up to about 48 GWd/t and 53 GWd/t, respectively were examined by hot cell PIEs and many segment rods of local burnup range of up to more than 60GWd/t were power ramped in test reactors. Though some fuel rods showed minor failure after power ramp tests beyond commercial reactor condition, the results have shown good performance of the high burnup fuels in general. In BWR power ramp tests, the new failure mode of segment rods and the decrease of the failure threshold for higher burnup fuels have been found. Other than oxide fuel, new type fuels such as metallic, nitride and hydride fuels are under research and development in Japan for fast breeder reactors and, in case of hydride fuel, for both fast reactors and LWRs. Topics on some of these new type fuels will be also presented.

Yamawaki, Michio



Introduction of clean coal technology in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Coal is an abundant resource, found throughout the world, and inexpensive and constant in price. For this reason, coal is expected to play a role as one of the energy supply sources in the world. The most critical issues to promote utilization of coal are to decrease the environmental load. In this report, the history, outline and recent developments of the clean coal technology in Japan, mainly the thermal power generation technology are discussed. As recent topics, here outlined first is the technology against global warming such as the improvement of steam condition for steam turbines, improvement of power generation efficiency by introducing combined generation, carbon neutral combined combustion of biomass, and carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology. Also introduced are outlines of Japanese superiority in application technology against NOx and SO{sub 2} which create acid rain, development status of the technical improvement in the handling method for coal which is a rather difficult solid-state resource, and utilization of coal ash.

Takashi Kiga [Japan Coal Energy Center (JCOAL), Tokyo (Japan). R and D Department



Japan discloses 16,520 "eugenic" sterilizations.  


In Japan, the government has reported that the Eugenic Protection Law led to sterilization of 16,520 people from 1949 to 1994. The Eugenic Protection Law was replaced in 1996 with a Maternal Protection Law. Both laws provide legal loopholes that allow women to have abortions despite the 1907 Criminal Abortion Law. The disclosure was sparked when Sweden announced that approximately 60,000 of its people were sterilized between 1935 and 1976 for eugenic reasons. It was then disclosed that Denmark had sterilized approximately 11,000 people from 1929 to 1967, Finland sterilized 11,000 people and performed 4000 involuntary abortions from 1945 to 1970, and Norway had 2000 sterilizations. A consortium of 17 Japanese groups and individuals representing women and the disabled requested that the Japanese Minister of Health and Welfare issue an apology and provide compensation to victims of coercive sterilization. The group is calling for research into coercive sterilizations to be conducted in ways that respect the privacy of the victims. The government response has been that no apologies or compensation would be forthcoming because the sterilizations were legal under existing law and (it claims) were not coercive. PMID:12321235



Profiling psychiatric inpatient suicide attempts in Japan.  


Suicide is an adverse event that can occur even when patient are hospitalized in psychiatric facilities. This study delineates the demographic characteristics of suicide attempts in mental hospitals and psychiatric wards of general hospitals in Japan, a country where the suicide rate is remarkably high. Analyses of incident reports on serious suicide attempts in psychiatric inpatients were performed using prefectural incident records between April 1, 2001, and December 31, 2012. Suicide reports were included for 35 incidents that occurred over 11 years, and demonstrated that 83% of patients (n = 29) committed suicide and 17% (n = 6) survived their attempt with serious aftereffects, such as cognitive impairment or persistent vegetative state. The male/female ratio of inpatient suicide was 1.5:1. The mean age of the attempters was 50.5 years (SD = 18.2). The most common psychiatric diagnoses for those with suicide incident reports were schizophrenia spectrum disorders (51.4%) and affective disorders (40%). Hanging (60%) was the most common method of suicide attempt, followed by jumping in front of moving objects (14.3%) and jumping from height (11.4%). Fifty-four percent of suicides (n = 19) occurred within hospital sites and the remainder (46%; n = 16) occurred outside hospital sites (e.g., on medical leave or elopement) while they were still inpatients. PMID:25345233

Ikeshita, Katsumi; Shimoda, Shigero; Norimoto, Kazunobu; Arita, Keisuke; Shimamoto, Takuya; Murata, Kiyoshi; Makinodan, Manabu; Kishimoto, Toshifumi





Reference service in medical libraries should be considered more seriously by the members of the Japan Medical Library Association, as their interest so far has been focused mainly on interlibrary loan service, compilation of union lists and union catalogs, and the business side of library administration. The Association does not have enough funds to be very active, and its membership is limited to the libraries of medical and of some large dental schools. It should open its membership to other medical libraries, such as those of hospitals and medical laboratories, and eventually to individuals. Many of the member libraries do not have complete control of their own budget, as each department of the school earmarks part of its budget for the library while it still holds the right of deciding which books and journals are to be bought and keeps a large part of them in its departmental library. Lack of proper library school education among the library staff is one of the major problems. There are some training courses for medical librarians in the library schools and also some workshops held by the Association, but they are limited in their usefulness by the fact that there are not enough library school graduates who can take advantage of them. PMID:14223739




Nutritional policies and dietary guidelines in Japan.  


The national government settled on "Healthy Japan 21" as the premier preventive policy of lifestyle related diseases in 2000. In 2005, the effectiveness of the campaign was conducted, but the results did not turn out as expected. The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare made the "Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top (JFG-ST)" as a practical and easy way to improve eating habits for all of the people. The JFG-ST falls down when the balance of the diets worsens and expresses a stable thing in what a turn (exercise) does. Eyes down quantity to take out of each group per day is shown in the basic form by the 5 distinction from grain dishes, vegetable dishes, fish and meat dishes, milk, and fruits. In 2005, the Basic Law on Dietary Education was enacted to promote the dietary education about the importance of eating proper meals in order to solve problems such as inappropriate eating habits and nutrition intake, disturbances in diets, increases in lifestyle-related diseases, a fall in the rate of food self-sufficiency and so forth. The Ministry of Education and Science started a program to train people to become "diet and nutrition teacher" in primary school. JFG- ST is developed in a dietary education campaign as a standard method of the dietary education. In May, 2011, the government has announced the second dietary education promotional basic plan to assume five years. PMID:21859666

Nakamura, Teiji



Immigrants' experiences of maternity care in Japan.  


Language and cultural differences can negatively impact immigrant women's birth experience. However, little is known about their experiences in Japan's highly homogenous culture. This cross-sectional study used survey data from a purposive sampling of immigrant women from 16 hospitals in several Japanese prefectures. Meeting the criteria and recruited to this study were 804 participants consisting of 236 immigrant women: Chinese (n = 83), Brazilian (n = 62), Filipino (n = 43), South Korean (n = 29) and from variety of English speaking nations (n = 19) and 568 Japanese women. The questionnaire was prepared in six languages: Japanese (kana syllables), Chinese, English, Korean, Portuguese, and Tagalog (Filipino). Associations among quality of maternity care, Japanese literacy level, loneliness and care satisfaction were explored using analysis of variance and multiple linear regression. The valid and reliable instruments used were Quality of Care for Pregnancy, Delivery and Postpartum Questionnaire, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine Japanese version, the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale-Japanese version and Care satisfaction. Care was evaluated across prenatal, labor and delivery and post-partum periods. Immigrant women scored higher than Japanese women for both positive and negative aspects. When loneliness was strongly felt, care satisfaction was lower. Some competence of Japanese literacy was more likely to obstruct positive communication with healthcare providers, and was associated with loneliness. Immigrant women rated overall care as satisfactory. Japanese literacy decreased communication with healthcare providers, and was associated with loneliness presumably because some literacy unreasonably increased health care providers' expectations of a higher level of communication. PMID:23609237

Igarashi, Yukari; Horiuchi, Shigeko; Porter, Sarah E



The Regulation of Medical Malpractice in Japan  

PubMed Central

How Japanese legal and social institutions handle medical errors is little known outside Japan. For almost all of the 20th century, a paternalistic paradigm prevailed. Characteristics of the legal environment affecting Japanese medicine included few attorneys handling medical cases, low litigation rates, long delays, predictable damage awards, and low-cost malpractice insurance. However, transparency principles have gained traction and public concern over medical errors has intensified. Recent legal developments include courts’ adoption of a less deferential standard of informed consent; increases in the numbers of malpractice claims and of practicing attorneys; more efficient claims handling by specialist judges and speedier trials; and highly publicized criminal prosecutions of medical personnel. The health ministry is undertaking a noteworthy “model project” to enlist impartial specialists in investigation and analysis of possible iatrogenic hospital deaths to regain public trust in medicine’s capacity to assess its mistakes honestly and to improve patient safety and has proposed a nationwide peer review system based on the project’s methods. PMID:19002542



Veraphis yoshitomii sp. n. (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Scydmaeninae) from Japan.  


A new species of Eutheiini, Veraphis yoshitomii sp. n. is described from Shikoku, Japan. Diagnostic characters are discussed and key structures, including the aedeagus, are illustrated. The new species belongs to the Veraphis japonicus species group, which includes five species distributed in mountains of Japan and five possibly closely related ones in the sub-Himalayan China. The distribution of Japanese Veraphis is summarized and discussed.  PMID:25283294

Ja?oszy?ski, Pawe?



Perfluorooctanoate and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Concentrations in Surface Water in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctanoate and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Concentrations in Surface Water in Japan: Norimitsu S AITO , et al. Institute for Environmental Sciences and Public Health of Iwate Prefecture—Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are synthetic surfactants used in Japan. An epidemiological study of workers exposed to PFOA revealed a significant increase in prostate cancer mortality. A cross-sectional study of PFOA-exposed workers showed

Norimitsu Saito; Kouji Harada; Kayoko Inoue; Kazuaki Sasaki; Takeo Yoshinaga; Akio Koizumi



Spiritual Life in Modern Japan: Understanding Religion in Everyday Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter focuses on Japan, where religion is conceived differently in many ways from in the West – even though economically\\u000a Japan stands with the West. His major emphasis is to examine practice at the individual level rather than to focus on historic\\u000a institutionalized macro traditions. He offers a variety of examples to substantiate the argument that scholars study Japanese

Andrea Molle


Owed Justice: Thai Women Trafficked into Debt Bondage in Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In September, Human Rights Watch posted five new reports on their Website. Owed Justice: Thai Women Trafficked into Debt Bondage in Japan deals with the violation of women's rights as it examines the trafficking of Thai women who are delivered under false pretenses into atrocious labor conditions in Japan where they are often forced to work for years to pay off the "debt" of their transport.


A Survey On Management Of Software Engineering In Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to clarity the mechanism of how software engineering capabilities relate to the business performance of IT vendors in Japan. To do this, we developed a structural model using factors related to software engineering, business performance and competitive environment. By analyzing the data collected from 78 major IT vendors in Japan, we found that superior deliverables and business performance were correlated with the effort expended particularly on human resource development, quality assurance, research and development and process improvement.

Kadono, Yasuo; Tsubaki, Hiroe; Tsuruho, Seishiro



Seismic isolation and passive response-control buildings in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a brief introduction to seismic isolation and passive structural response-control buildings in Japan. A total number of 287 projects on seismic-isolated building structures had obtained the required special permission in Japan by the end of September 1996. The effectiveness of seismic isolation buildings has been demonstrated and verified through the 1995 Hyogoken-nanbu (Kobe) earthquake. It has resulted

Yoshikazu Kitagawa; Mitsumasa Midorikawa



FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, April 2, 1997  

SciTech Connect

;Contents(Partial): Japan To Enter Commercial Launch Market; Significance of Lunar Mission Discussed; Hitachi Maxell, Sanyo Develop 14 GB Magneto-Optical Disc Technology; Coal Liquefaction Pilot Plant Ready for Testing; MITI develops Next-Generation Freon Substitute; Stable Power Supply Through Nuclear Power; JR Tokai Targets 550km for Maglev Test Run on Yamanaashi Line; and Japan to Establish Nationwide High-Speed Telecommunications Network Using CATV Networks.




Metal-Induced Lung Disease. Lessons from Japan's Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Metal-Induced Lung Disease: Lessons from Japan’s Experience: Yukinori K USAKA, et al. Department of Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Fukui Medical University— Metals inducing occupational respiratory diseases, e.g. metal fever, acute and chronic pneumonia, asthma, bronchitis, chronic obstructive lung disease, pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer are described. The metals mentioned are the following: aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium,

Yukinori KUSAKA; Kazuhiro SATO; Narufumi SUGANUMA; Yutaka HOSODA



The 10th Japan-Russia Seminar on Semiconductor Surfaces  

E-print Network

of Japan Supported by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan, and Far Hasegawa "Ultrathin Bi films: Electronic structure and topological properties" (10:40­11:00) Coffee Break by a dynamic Moiré pattern" (16:10­16:30) Coffee Break Session D (16:30­18:30), Chair: V.G. Kotlyar (IACP, RAS

Katsumoto, Shingo


Permafrost at the Summit of Mount Fuji, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE existence of permafrost at the summit of Mount Fuji, Japan (35° 21' N, 138° 44' E, 3,776.3 m above sea level), was suspected by some of the staff members of the Japan Meteorological Agency who work at the Fuji-san Weather Station located at the summit, and also by some of the workers who constructed the station building (personal communication

Keiji Higuchi; Yoshiyuki Fujii



Anti-doping activites of volleyball in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAnti-doping activities are necessary for justice and fairness in sports. In and out of competition doping tests are now mainly responsible for anti-doping activities.ObjectiveTo clarify the anti-doping activities in Japan in recent years.Design, setting, and participantsThe object of the investigation is to summarize the doping tests performed after the volleyball games in Japan between 2006–2009. The anti-doping activities were mainly

Y Hashimoto; T Yamashita; Y Hamu; M Hayashi



Determinants of the Japan premium: actions speak louder than words  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since August 1995, Japanese banks have had to pay a premium on Eurodollar and Euroyen interbank loans relative to their U.S. and U.K. competitors. This so-called “Japan premium” provides a market indicator of investor anxiety about the ability of Japanese banks to repay loans. We examine the determinants of the Japan premium and find that government announcements not associated with

Joe Peek; Eric S. Rosengren



Certified diabetes expert nurse and nurse educators in Japan.  


The Japanese Certification Board for Diabetes Educator (JCBDE) was inaugurated on 29 February 2000 through the collaboration of the Japan Diabetes Society, Japan Society of Metabolism and Clinical Nutrition, and Japan Academy of Diabetes Education and Nursing. Certified Diabetes Educator of Japan (CDEJ) is a qualification awarded to a nurse, dietitian, pharmacist, clinical laboratory technician, or physiotherapist possessing wide specialist knowledge on diabetes. CDEJ have passed the required examinations and approved by the board. CDEJ have worked continuously for at least 2 years in medical institutions, and have engaged in duties related to education of diabetic patients for at least 1000 h. In Japan, a qualification similar to certified diabetes educator is the "Certified Expert Nurse (CEN) in diabetic nursing". A certified expert nurse is a qualification awarded by the Japanese Nursing Association. Nurses who have received 6 months training in an accredited training institution and passed certification examinations after graduating from the training are awarded the qualification of CEN. CEN have at least 5 years of practical nursing experience and at least 3 years experience in diabetic nursing. There are already 11,778 certified diabetes educators, 5753 of whom are nurses, and 87 certified expert nurses in Japan. PMID:17482711

Kawaguchi, Teruko



Japan's Renuciation of War Clause, Article 9: A case study of Japan's journey towards 'a normal nation'  

E-print Network

Japan has struggled with the decision to either revise or to reinterpret the renunciation of war clause, Chapter 2, Article 9, in the Japanese Constitution. This debate is significant because the outcome of this decision will have a direct impact...

Mitchell, Lakisha Chevon



University of Michigan Japan Technology Management Prgm U.S.-Japan Industry and Technology Management Training Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Japan Technology Management Program has carried out research, study, and dissemination activities on Japanese technology management and manufacturing. Activities include publication by researchers of journal articles, publication of a book, fellowship...

J. Liker, J. Campbell



Preliminary Benchmark Evaluation of Japan’s High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

A benchmark model of the initial fully-loaded start-up core critical of Japan’s High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) was developed to provide data in support of ongoing validation efforts of the Very High Temperature Reactor Program using publicly available resources. The HTTR is a 30 MWt test reactor utilizing graphite moderation, helium coolant, and prismatic TRISO fuel. The benchmark was modeled using MCNP5 with various neutron cross-section libraries. An uncertainty evaluation was performed by perturbing the benchmark model and comparing the resultant eigenvalues. The calculated eigenvalues are approximately 2-3% greater than expected with an uncertainty of ±0.70%. The primary sources of uncertainty are the impurities in the core and reflector graphite. The release of additional HTTR data could effectively reduce the benchmark model uncertainties and bias. Sensitivity of the results to the graphite impurity content might imply that further evaluation of the graphite content could significantly improve calculated results. Proper characterization of graphite for future Next Generation Nuclear Power reactor designs will improve computational modeling capabilities. Current benchmarking activities include evaluation of the annular HTTR cores and assessment of the remaining start-up core physics experiments, including reactivity effects, reactivity coefficient, and reaction-rate distribution measurements. Long term benchmarking goals might include analyses of the hot zero-power critical, rise-to-power tests, and other irradiation, safety, and technical evaluations performed with the HTTR.

John Darrell Bess



The 1991 Japan Solar Energy Society. Japan Wind Energy Association Joint Conference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thie paper summarizes the lectures presented at the research presentation conference held by the Japan Solar Energy Society and the Japan Wind Energy Association. The contents include a lecture relating to photovoltaic cells intended for efficiency improvement; a lecture relating to a light power generation system including the field test reports, improvements on peripheral devices and output characteristics; a lecture relating to optical chemistry; a lecture relating to heat pumps utilizing solar heat and well water; a lecture relating air conditioning utilizing photovoltaic cells; a lecture relating to heat systems utilizing solar heat directly; a lecture relating to heat collection; a lecture relating to cold heat for cooling using earth tubes; a lecture relating to direct utilization of ground water heat and solar heat; a lecture relating to underground heat storage; a lecture relating to accumulation of cold heat and hot heat; a lecture relating to insolation on the amount of insolation and spectroscopy; a lecture relating to light collection intended of energy saving; a lecture relating to improving materials including light collecting plates and thin films; a lecture relating to development and characteristics of solar cars; and a lecture relating to wind energy.



Seasonal and spatial variation of atmospheric 210Pb and 7Be deposition: features of the Japan Sea side of Japan.  


Monthly depositional fluxes of (210)Pb and (7)Be at Tatsunokuchi, Japan which faces the Japan Sea were studied over a 12-year period from 1991 to 2002. The data were compared with the spatial variability of these fluxes at Taejon in Korea and at 11 other sites in Japan from Ishigaki of the southern islands of Okinawa to Wakkanai of the northern end of Hokkaido over a 2-year period from 2000 to 2001. The monthly depositions of both (210)Pb and (7)Be at Tatsunokuchi revealed very similar seasonal variations with a single peak; both depositions were high in winter and low in summer. This phenomenon was found to be not transient but stationary. The deposition of these nuclides was much greater on the Japan Sea side of Japan than on the Pacific Ocean side. The cause for high deposition of (210)Pb and (7)Be in winter might be explained by a combination of a series of the following processes: blowing out of air masses with a high (210)Pb concentration near the surface layer over the continent by strong winter monsoons, additional flow of cold air masses with high (7)Be concentration at high latitude, well-mixing with generation of ascending current and convection clouds over the Japan Sea, and heavy snowfalls accompanying them. PMID:16181712

Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Sakaguchi, Aya; Sasaki, Keiichi; Hirose, Katsumi; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Kim, Chang Kyu



[Disease mongering and bipolar disorder in Japan].  


Frequently used in a pejorative sense, "disease mongering" connotes a widening of the diagnostic boundaries of illness. Pharmaceutical companies conduct disease awareness campaigns on the pretext of educating the public about the prevention of illness or the promotion of health. Encouraged by disease awareness advertisements, people gradually become filled with concern that they are ill and need medical treatment. As a result, pharmacotherapy is increasingly being applied to ever-milder conditions, leading to potentially unnecessary medication, wasted resources, and even adverse side effects. Among all fields of clinical medicine, psychiatry is undoubtedly the most vulnerable to the danger of disease mongering. In Japan, depression provides the most drastic example of the impact of disease awareness campaigns on the number of patients seeking treatment. Until the late 1990s, Japanese psychiatrists focused almost exclusively on psychosis and endogenous depression, the latter being severe enough to require conventional forms of antidepressants, known as tricyclic antidepressants, and even hospitalization. At this time, people's attitude toward depression was generally unfavorable. Indeed, the Japanese word for clinical depression, utubyo, has a negative connotation, implying severe mental illness. This situation, however, changed immediately after fluvoxiamine (Luvox-Fujisawa, Depromel-Meiji Seika), the first selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) to receive approval in Japan, was introduced in 1999. In order to aid the drug's acceptance by the Japanese public, pharmaceutical companies began using the catchphrase kokoro no kaze, which literally means "a cold of the soul". Thus armed with this phrase, the pharmaceutical industry embarked on a campaign to lessen the stigma surrounding depression. According to national data from the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the number of patients with a diagnosis of mood disorder increased from 327,000 in 1999 to 591,600 in 2003. At the same time, antidepressant sales have sextupled, from\\14.5 billion in 1998 to\\87 billion in 2006, according to statistics from GlaxoSmithKline. Recently, the pharmaceutical industry has shifted its focus from depression to bipolar disorder. Historically, Japanese psychiatrists have been familiar with Emil Kraepelin's "manic depressive insanity" (1899), whose definition was much narrower than that of its contemporary counterpart, bipolar disorder. Thus far, perhaps due partly to the reference in Kraepelin's definition of "manic depressive" disorder, Japanese psychiatrists have rather conservatively prescribed mood stabilizers for persons with frequent mood swings. Japanese psychiatrists can learn a great deal from their experience with the aggressive marketing of antidepressants. In the case of depression, over-medication arguably did more harm than good. The same risk exists with bipolar disorder. Disease mongering may occur whenever the interests of a pharmaceutical company exceed the expected benefits from the proposed pharmacotherapy on those affected by the putative bipolar disorder. In cases that are not severe enough for aggressive medication, psychiatrists should propose natural alternatives, such as an alteration of lifestyle and psychotherapy. PMID:22352006

Ihara, Hiroshi



Japan's research on particle clouds and sprays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most of energy used by us is generated by combustion of liquid and solid fuels. These fuels are burned in combustors mainly as liquid sprays and pulverized solids, respectively. A knowledge of the combustion processes in combustors is needed to achieve proper designs that have stable operation, high efficiency, and low emission levels. However, current understanding of liquid and solid particle cloud combustion is far from complete. If combustion experiments for these fuels are performed under a normal gravity field, some experimental difficulties are encountered. These difficulties encountered include, that since the particles fall by the force of gravity it is impossible to stop the particles in the air, the falling speeds of particles are different from each other, and are depend on the particle size, the flame is lifted up and deformed by the buoyancy force, and natural convection makes the flow field more complex. Since these experimental difficulties are attributable to the gravity force, a microgravity field can eliminate the above problems. This means that the flame propagation experiments in static homogeneous liquid and solid particle clouds can be carried out under a microgravity field. This will provide much information for the basic questions related to combustion processes of particle clouds and sprays. In Japan, flame propagation processes in the combustible liquid and solid particle clouds have been studied experimentally by using a microgravity field generated by a 4.5 s dropshaft, a 10 s dropshaft, and by parabolic flight. Described in this presentation are the recent results of flame propagations studies in a homogeneous liquid particle cloud, in a mixture of liquid particles/gas fuel/air, in a PMMA particle cloud, and in a pulverized coal particle cloud.

Sato, Jun'ichi



Strategy for Eliminating Gastric Cancer in Japan  

PubMed Central

A study conducted by the Japan Gast Study Group showed that eradication of Helicobacter pylori reduced the risk of gastric cancer by about one-thirds However, it did not completely prevent the onset of latent gastric cancer among those at high risk (i.e., with atrophic gastritis). To prevent deaths from gastric cancer, it necessary to eradicate H. pylori infections. We propose a program of risk stratification based on presence of H. pylori infection with or without atrophic gastritis followed by targeted interventions. Those at no risk for gastric cancer (no H. pylori, no atrophic gastritis) need to therapy or follow-up. Those at low risk (H. pylori infected, nonatrophic gastritis) need only H. pylori eradication therapy. The smaller groups at high or very high risk need eradication and cancer surveillance. We estimated the costs and the benefits of this strategy. Gastric cancer screening by simultaneous measurement of serum pepsinogen and H. pylori antibody combined with eradication of H. pylori in all individuals at risk would initially increase national healthcare expenditure, but this would be offset by markedly reducing the cost of treating gastric cancer. The proposed strategy should prevent about 150,000 deaths from gastric cancer during the 5 years after its adoption. If the loss caused by these deaths is also taken into account, the economic effect of this strategy becomes enormous. It would probably reduce the incidence of gastric cancer by more than 80–90% within 10 years. The Japanese government should take the initiative to implement this strategy as soon as possible. PMID:21073603

Asaka, Masahiro; Graham, David Y.



Unzipping of the volcano arc, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A working hypothesis for the recent evolution of the southern Volcano Arc, Japan, is presented which calls upon a northward-progressing sundering of the arc in response to a northward-propagating back-arc basin extensional regime. This model appears to explain several localized and recent changes in the tectonic and magrnatic evolution of the Volcano Arc. Most important among these changes is the unusual composition of Iwo Jima volcanic rocks. This contrasts with normal arc tholeiites typical of the rest of the Izu-Volcano-Mariana and other primitive arcs in having alkaline tendencies, high concentrations of light REE and other incompatible elements, and relatively high silica contents. In spite of such fractionated characteristics, these lavas appear to be very early manifestations of a new volcanic and tectonic cycle in the southern Volcano Arc. These alkaline characteristics and indications of strong regional uplift are consistent with the recent development of an early stage of inter-arc basin rifting in the southern Volcano Arc. New bathymetric data are presented in support of this model which indicate: (1) structural elements of the Mariana Trough extend north to the southern Volcano Arc. (2) both the Mariana Trough and frontal arc shoal rapidly northwards as the Volcano Arc is approached. (3) rugged bathymetry associated with the rifted Mariana Trough is replaced just south of Iwo Jima by the development of a huge dome (50-75 km diameter) centered around Iwo Jima. Such uplifted domes are the immediate precursors of rifts in other environments, and it appears that a similar situation may now exist in the southern Volcano Arc. The present distribution of unrifted Volcano Arc to the north and rifted Mariana Arc to the south is interpreted not as a stable tectonic configuration but as representing a tectonic "snapshot" of an arc in the process of being rifted to form a back-arc basin.

Stern, R. J.; Smoot, N. C.; Rubin, M.



Effects of market liberalisation on smoking in Japan  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To document the effect of the liberalisation of the Japanese tobacco market on Japanese smoking rates and on Japanese tobacco industry practices.?DATA SOURCE—Asahi Shimbun (major daily newspaper) from 1980 to 1996.?STUDY SELECTION—Review of media coverage on the effects of market liberalisation following the imposition of the USA's section 301 trade sanction.?DATA SYNTHESIS—The opening of Japan's tobacco market to foreign cigarette companies stalled a decline in smoking prevalence. Smoking rates among young women increased significantly, and also appear to be on the rise among adolescents. Aggressive marketing and promotional activities by US and Japanese tobacco companies in response to trade liberalisation appear responsible for these adverse trends. Steep increases in sales through vending machines were also possible contributors to the rising smoking prevalence among adolescents. On the positive side, market liberalisation indirectly promoted smoking control efforts in Japan, by causing an anti-smoking movement to coalesce.?CONCLUSION—Market liberalisation in Japan played a significant role in increasing smoking prevalence among young women and adolescents while helping to transform the issue of smoking in Japan from a matter of individual choice to a public health problem.???Keywords: Japan; market liberalisation PMID:10841856

Honjo, K.; Kawachi, I.



JTEC panel report on machine translation in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this report is to provide an overview of the state of the art of machine translation (MT) in Japan and to provide a comparison between Japanese and Western technology in this area. The term 'machine translation' as used here, includes both the science and technology required for automating the translation of text from one human language to another. Machine translation is viewed in Japan as an important strategic technology that is expected to play a key role in Japan's increasing participation in the world economy. MT is seen in Japan as important both for assimilating information into Japanese as well as for disseminating Japanese information throughout the world. Most of the MT systems now available in Japan are transfer-based systems. The majority of them exploit a case-frame representation of the source text as the basis of the transfer process. There is a gradual movement toward the use of deeper semantic representations, and some groups are beginning to look at interlingua-based systems.

Carbonell, Jaime; Rich, Elaine; Johnson, David; Tomita, Masaru; Vasconcellos, Muriel; Wilks, Yorick



Regional and transported aerosols during DRAGON-Japan experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol properties over Japan have been monitored by AERONET sun / sky photometers since 2000. These measurements provides us with long term information of local aerosols, which are influenced by transported aerosols, such as Asian dusts or anthropogenic pollutants due to rapid increasing of energy consumption in Asian countries. A new aerosol monitoring experiment, Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) - Japan is operated in spring of 2012. The main instrument of DRAGON network is AERONET sun/sky radiometers. Some of them are sparsely set along the Japanese coast and some others make a dense network in Osaka, which is the second-largest city in Japan and famous for manufacturing town. Several 2ch NIES-LIDAR systems are also co-located with AERONET instrument to monitor Asian dusts throughout the campaign. The objects of Dragon-Japan are to characterize local aerosols as well as transported ones from the continent of China, and to acquire the detailed aerosol information for validating satellite data with high resolved spatial scale. This work presents the comprehensive results of aerosol properties with respect to regional- and/or transported- scale during DRAGON-Japan experiments.

Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.; Mukai, S.; Nakata, M.; Nakaguchi, Y.; Sugimoto, N.; Hatakeyama, S.; Nishizawa, T.; Takamura, T.; Takemura, T.; Yonemitsu, M.; Fujito, T.; Schafer, J.; Eck, T. F.; Sorokin, M.; Kenny, P.; Goto, M.; Hiraki, T.; Iguchi, N.; Kouzai, K.; KUJI, M.; Muramatsu, K.; Okada, Y.; Sadanaga, Y.; Tohno, S.; Toyazaki, Y.; Yamamoto, K.



JTEC Panel report on electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies.

Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (editor); Kukowski, John; Meieran, Gene; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John; Tummala, Rao; Dehaemer, Michael J.; Holdridge, Geoff (editor); Gamota, George



Research on fall prevention and protection from heights in Japan.  


The high frequency of fall accidents is a serious problem in Japan. Thus, more stringent countermeasures for preventing falls from scaffolds were developed and incorporated into institutional guidelines. These countermeasures aim to decrease deaths caused by falls from scaffolds. Despite the improvements in such measures, however, the rate of accidental fall deaths remains high in Japan's construction industries. To improve the rigor of the countermeasures, a committee was established in our institute by the Japan Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. This committee investigated the regulations applied in other countries and evaluated construction industry compliance with existing fall prevention guidelines. After considerable research and discussion, the Occupational Safety and Health Regulations and Guidelines were amended in 2009. The effects of the amended regulations have recently been investigated on the basis of accident reports. This paper describes the investigation and its results. The paper also discusses other research and workplace safety countermeasures for preventing falls and ensuring fall protection from heights. PMID:25098387

Ohdo, Katsutoshi; Hino, Yasumichi; Takahashi, Hiroki



Thermophotovoltaic systems for civilian and industrial applications in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential market for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications has been studied for civilian and industrial sectors in Japan. Comparing the performance of gas engines or turbines, as well as the underdeveloped power generation technologies such as fuel cells or chemical batteries, we have discussed the feasible application field of TPV systems to compete with those power generations. From the point of view of applicability for TPV systems in Japan, portable generators, co-generation systems and solar power plants are selected for our system analysis. The cost and performance targets of TPV systems for co-generation are also discussed by assuming a typical daily profile of electricity and hot water demands in Japanese homes. A progress report on the recent TPV research activities is given as well as a feasibility study concerning such TPV systems in Japan.

Yugami, Hiroo; Sasa, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Masafumi



Changes in hepatitis C virus genotype distribution in Japan.  


SUMMARY Genotypes are associated with the natural course of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and response to antiviral therapy for HCV. HCV genotype 1b has been the dominant genotype in Japan, where the prevention of HCV transmission through blood transfusion or nosocomial infection has been established since 1990. The distribution of HCV genotype was investigated based on patient's birth year in 5515 HCV-infected Japanese individuals at three institutions from different areas of Japan. At all three institutions, the proportion of HCV genotype 1b decreased and was <50% in individuals born after 1970. By contrast, the percentage of HCV genotype 2b increased in subsequent birth cohorts after 1920-1929. Significant changes in HCV genotype distribution were observed across Japan regardless of area. PMID:24598252

Toyoda, H; Kumada, T; Takaguchi, K; Shimada, N; Tanaka, J



R & D on Offshore Wind Power Generation System in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Offshore wind energy has been widely exploited in Europe. Having a long coastline, the offshore wind energy will be the one of the important solutions for the increase of renewable energy in Japan. However, due to the difference in wind and marine condition between Japan and Europe, the safety, the environmental impact and the economical feasibility of the offshore wind power generation system have to be investigated in Japan. According to the data observed offshore, the wind speed is enough higher than that on land and the wind energy is economically feasible. In order to utilize the energy, the design method of the foundation against very high waves in typhoon storm should be established. For shallow offshore coastal area, gravity foundation type has been improved by hydraulic experiment. Additionally, for deeper ocean, floating types such as semi-submersible float and spar-buoy have been researched.

Oishi, Kazuhito; Fukumoto, Yukinari


Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii isolated from 24 farmed fishes in western Japan.  


Mycobacteria isolated from epizootics of farmed fishes in western Japan were examined for the first time using multigenotypic analysis. By analysis of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes (ITS) region and the partial 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB genes, M. pseudoshottsii was identified as the causative agent in these infections. Prior to this study, only M. marinum has been known as the causative agent of lethal mycobacterial disease in marine fishes in Japan. PMID:21986278

Nakanaga, Kazue; Hoshino, Yoshihiko; Hattori, Yoko; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Wada, Shinpei; Hatai, Kishio; Makino, Masahiko; Ishii, Norihisa



Encephalitozoon infections in Rodentia and Soricomorpha in Japan.  


Encephalitozoon is an obligate intracellular microsporidian parasite that infects a wide range of mammalian hosts. In this study, we used nested PCR to investigate the presence of Encephalitozoon infection in Rodentia and Soricomorpha in Japan. We attempted to amplify and sequence Encephalitozoon-specific DNA from brain and viscera samples of 180 animals collected between 2008 and 2010. Forty-three samples (23.9%) from the orders Rodentia and Soricomorpha were positive for Encephalitozoon. This study is the first report of Encephalitozoon infection in Rodentia and Soricomorpha in Japan, and our findings suggest that these hosts may play a role in the spread of microsporidian spores in the environment. PMID:24060383

Tsukada, Ryusuke; Tsuchiyama, Atsuko; Sasaki, Mizuki; Park, Chun-Ho; Fujii, Yoshito; Takesue, Masataka; Hatai, Hitoshi; Kudo, Noboru; Ikadai, Hiromi



Establishment and activities of the Japan Chemistry Program Exchange  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, many chemists have developed various computer programs for the research of computer chemistry such as computer-aided design of new chemicals or materials. The Japan Chemistry Program Exchange (JCPE) has just started in order to further develop computer chemistry in Japan by making these programs effectively accessible to other chemists who desire to use them. The JCPE will undertake such activities as registration, reference service and distribution of the computer chemistry programs and will contribute to international exchange of these programs. Every chemist who has an interest in this field, regardless of academic or industrial, is asked to be a member of the Exchange.

Tanabe, Kazutoshi


Concerns about unapproved meningococcal vaccination for eculizumab therapy in Japan  

PubMed Central

An orphan medicinal product, eculizumab is approved in Japan and globally for treating paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Eculizumab therapy can cause late complement pathway deficiencies that predispose patients to meningococcal infections. Although meningococcal vaccinations are typically considered mandatory for eculizumab therapy, no approved vaccine is available in Japan as of March, 2014. Advertising unapproved, privately imported pharmaceuticals is prohibited under Japanese pharmaceutical law; detailed information concerning the unapproved meningococcal vaccines is therefore not widely available. The situation jeopardizes the safety of patients receiving eculizumab therapy, and Japanese clinicians are advised caution when prescribing this therapy. PMID:24716834



Concerns about unapproved meningococcal vaccination for eculizumab therapy in Japan.  


An orphan medicinal product, eculizumab is approved in Japan and globally for treating paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Eculizumab therapy can cause late complement pathway deficiencies that predispose patients to meningococcal infections. Although meningococcal vaccinations are typically considered mandatory for eculizumab therapy, no approved vaccine is available in Japan as of March, 2014. Advertising unapproved, privately imported pharmaceuticals is prohibited under Japanese pharmaceutical law; detailed information concerning the unapproved meningococcal vaccines is therefore not widely available. The situation jeopardizes the safety of patients receiving eculizumab therapy, and Japanese clinicians are advised caution when prescribing this therapy. PMID:24716834

Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Kusumi, Eiji; Hosoda, Kazutaka; Kouno, Kaduki; Hamaki, Tamae; Kami, Masahiro



76 FR 44608 - Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania; Scheduling of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania; Scheduling...Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from Japan and Romania AGENCY...alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan and Romania would...



75 FR 18153 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan: Extension of Time Limit...alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan, covering the period...and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe from Japan: Extension of Time...



Cancer incidence and novel therapies developed in Japan.  


According to the ministry of Health, Labour and welfare of Japan, Cancer has been the leading cause of death in Japan since 1981. ([1]) As per the data in 2010, in Japan, one in every three deaths was due to cancer. ([2]) The Japanese Government has introduced so far, three terms of 10 years strategies for Cancer control since 1984 till date. The budget allocated for cancer control in 2009 was 52.5 billion yen in Japan. ([3]) Lung is the leading site for cancer in both males and females in Japan. In males, following the lung, stomach, liver, colon and pancreas are other leading sites while in the females, stomach, colon, pancreas and breast are the other leading sites. ([1]) In 2006, the cancer incidence was 694,000 and the male cancer incidence was 1.4 times as large as that of females. The peak age for cancer deaths in males is their fifties while in the females it is the sixties among Japanese. In addition to the conventional treatments such as surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, some of other therapies in practice in Japan are the Hyperthermia ([4]) that uses high temperatures to kill or damage the cancer cells, the Ion Beam therapy using proton beams ([5]) to damage the DNA of the cells as cancer cells have high rate of cell divisions and lesser ability to repair DNA damage, the molecular targeted therapies that interfere with a specific molecular target involved in tumour growth and progression([6]) and most importantly the autologous cell based Immunotherapies. Modern Cancer Immunotherapy started in the 1970s in Japan. The immunopotentiators using compounds from Bacteria, Beta Glucans from fungi were the first forms of modern Immunotherapy. Then was the era of direct injection of cytokines such as Interleukins, Interferons etc. The adverse effects associated with the injection of cytokines led to development of cell based Immunotherapies in the 1980s. ([7]) Immuno-cell therapies involve isolation of immune cells which are then processed and re-injected into the body to exert their action against the cancer. There are different kinds of Immuno-cell therapies being practised in more than 25 private and public institutions in Japan using Natural Killer (NK) cells, Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), Tumour Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TIL), Lymphokine activated Killer (LAK) cells, Dendritic cells and Gamma Delta T (?? T) cells.([7]) Importantly most of the innovations in cell based therapies in the world have been made in Japan because immunotherapy is a part of the Japanese Health care system and routine therapies for cancer in Japan. There have been randomized clinical trials on Immuno-cell therapy for liver cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer, ovarian cancer with the results suggesting statistically significant increase in survival rate and increase in disease free survival rate. ([8, 9, 10, 11]) There are more than 25 institutions in Japan performing such cell based immunotherapies. A comprehensive review by Egawa et al on 1401 patients showed that when Immuno-cell therapy was combined with the conventional therapies, the efficacy increased upto 20-30%. ([7]) Immuno-cell is the least toxic of all therapies and can be administered even to terminally ill cancer patients. ([12]) Contrast to drugs, as autologous cell based Immuno-therapies are from the patient's own blood and as they are custom tailored to each patient, though expensive, the adverse effects are minimal. To conclude, cancer-Immunocell therapies are the future of cancer therapies and further research is needed to enhance its efficacy and validate the results. PMID:24693199

Iwasaki, M



Radio broadcasting and the politics of mass culture in transwar Japan  

E-print Network

MacArthur Foundation, 1988); Catherine Luther and Douglas Boyd, “American Occupation Control over Broadcasting in Japan,Japan: Arts and Culture, edited by Thomas W. Burkman ( Norfolk: The General Douglas MacArthur

Jung, Ji Hee



Today's Japan: A system of flood risk estimation in real time  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new river discharge predicting system all over Japan in order to issue alerts of flood risks utilizing Japan Meteorological Agency's Meso-scale model Grid Point Value (MSM-GPV) datasets has been developed. The system, \\

Taikan Oki; Kei Yoshimura; Shinjiro Kanae; Shinta Seto; Takahito Sakimura


77 FR 41969 - Stainless Steel Bar From Japan: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-588-833] Stainless Steel Bar From Japan: Rescission of...the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar from Japan (the Order...Suruga to the Secretary, ``Stainless Steel Bar--Withdrawal of...



The Science and Technology Resources of Japan: A Comparison with the United States  

NSF Publications Database

... in different formats. The Science and Technology Resources of Japan: A Comparison with the United ... and Technology Resources of Japan: A Comparison with the United States Portable Document Format ...


NSF/Tokyo Report: The Prospects of Interdisciplinary Studies of Science, Technology and Society in Japan  

NSF Publications Database

... for Interdisciplinary Studies of Science, Technology and Society in Japan Date: 4/28/97 The National ... for Interdisciplinary Studies of Science, Technology and Society in Japan The following report was ...


76 FR 60083 - Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania Determinations...alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan and Romania would be...alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from...



Volatility-constrained correlation identifies the directionality of the influence between Japan’s Nikkei 225 and other financial markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent financial crises have shown the importance of determining the directionality of the influence between financial assets in order to identify the origin of market instabilities. Here, we analyze the correlation between Japan’s Nikkei stock average index (Nikkei 225) and other financial markets by introducing a volatility-constrained correlation metric. The asymmetric feature of the metric reveals which asset is more influential than the other. As a result, this method allows us to unveil the directionality of the correlation effect, which could not be observed from the standard correlation analysis. Furthermore, we present a theoretical model that reproduces the results observed in empirical analysis.

Ochiai, Tomoshiro; Nacher, Jose C.



Fermented vegetable (soybean) protein and related foods of Japan and China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Main fermented vegetable protein foods in Japan and China are soy sauce (shoyu in Japan, chiang-yu in China), fermented soy\\u000a paste (miso in Japan, chiang in China), sufu, and natto, which are all traditional foods. Chiang, which originated in China\\u000a some 2,500 years ago, was introduced into Japan during the seventh century and transformed into the present Japanese shoyu\\u000a and

D. Fukushima



Should We Abolish Chapter 11? The Evidence from Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimizing reorganization proceedings for small and midsized businesses is an important issue in every industrial country. But little information exists about the actual operation of such proceedings. Recent U.S. bankruptcy studies focus either on consumer bankruptcies or on large Chapter 11 cases involving publicly listed firms. This article presents the results of a comprehensive empirical study of Japan's most frequently

Theodore Eisenberg; Shoichi Tagashira



One of the family: Domestic service in early modern Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the effect of domestic service upon social practice and asks if domestic service led to self-affirmation and individualistic behavior in early modern Japan. It begins by describing various employees classified as domestic servants. Next the role of the servant as a member of the employer's family shows fluid kinship relations that resulted in changes in the family

Mary Louise Nagata



"Downward Mobility" as a Form of Phased Retirement in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author describes Japan's phased retirement system, consisting of the "step down" from a management or supervisory position (commonly in the mid-50s) and the mandatory transfer to a subsidiary company later. The system allows companies to promote younger workers. However, in a depressed industry, the system generally results in significant…

Osako, Masako M.



Is Vietnam the youngest goose in Japan's flight formation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan was the first country to achieve successful economic development after World War II. The following paper discusses whether\\u000a the Japanese model of ‘state-led development’ can offer a possible alternative strategy to the neo-liberal recipes of the\\u000a World Bank and the IMF for systemic transition, taking the example of Vietnam.

Tim Goydke



Great east Japan earthquake viewed from a URL shortener  

Microsoft Academic Search

On March 11th 2011, a great earthquake and tsunami hit eastern Japan. After that, several web sites, especially those providing helpful disaster-related information, were overloaded due to flash crowds caused by Twitter users. In order to mitigate the flash crowds, we develop a new URL shortener that redirects Twitter users to a CDN instead of original sites, since Twitter users

Takeru Inoue; Fujio Toriumi; Yasuyuki Shirai; Shin-ichi Minato



A new species of Megoura (Hemiptera, Aphididae) from Japan.  


A new species of the genus Megoura, M. lathyricola sp. n., was collected from Lathyrus japonicus subsp. japonicus (Leguminosae) in seashore areas of northern and southern Japan. This species is described and illustrated, and a revised key to the identification of the world species of Megoura is presented. PMID:25061353

Lee, Wonhoon; Kanbe, Takashi; Akimoto, Shin-Ichi



A new species of Megoura (Hemiptera, Aphididae) from Japan  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of the genus Megoura, M. lathyricola sp. n., was collected from Lathyrus japonicus subsp. japonicus (Leguminosae) in seashore areas of northern and southern Japan. This species is described and illustrated, and a revised key to the identification of the world species of Megoura is presented. PMID:25061353

Lee, Wonhoon; Kanbe, Takashi; Akimoto, Shin-ichi



Prof. Dr. Katsunori Okajima Yokohama National University, Japan  

E-print Network

Prof. Dr. Katsunori Okajima Yokohama National University, Japan http://read for Color Universal Design Abstract: It is important to know the visual characteristics of the elderly filters which can simulate human crystalline lens of the elderly for young people and the validity

König, Peter


Tora no Maki II. Lessons for Teaching about Contemporary Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Tora no Maki" or "Scroll of the Tiger" is a teacher's guide designed to aid in teaching appropriate standards for social studies content and skills, using a contemporary focus on Japan's culture and economy. Topics of the 22 lessons include: group culture, school population, economics, geography, the Internet, family values, Japanese gardens,…

National Council for the Social Studies, Washington, DC.


Thin-Film Module Field Test Results in Japan  

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

Research Center for Photovoltaic Technologies Overview *Though&3;Japan&3;has&3;a&3;long&3;experience&3;in&3;commercial&3;deployment&3;of&3;thin&3; film&3;modules,&3;only&3;very&3;few&3;longterm&3;performance...


Why did the solar power sector develop quickly in Japan?  

E-print Network

The solar power sector grew quickly in Japan during the decade 1994 to 2003. During this period, annual installations increased 32-fold from 7MW in 1994 to 223MW in 2003, and annual production increased 22-fold, from 16MW ...

Rogol, Michael G



Japan-Brazil Space Sector Workshop August 26 27, 2010  

E-print Network

Japan-Brazil Space Sector Workshop August 26 ­ 27, 2010 Sergio Sobral de Oliveira Auditorium (IAI potential estimation Crop anomalies identification Systematic methodologies for crop mapping using spectro- temporal NDVI profiles Automatic methods of soybean and sugar cane mapping #12;Software Development


The vertical distribution of Radiolaria in the waters surrounding Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic and vertical distribution patterns of living Radiolaria are closely related to the characters of the water column. We studied living Radiolaria in samples collected at closely spaced depth intervals in the waters surrounding Japan in order to understand their vertical distribution and its controlling factors. Such information is needed to reconstruct past vertical water mass structure. The Japanese Islands

Yoshiyuki Ishitani; Kozo Takahashi



Multicultural Education in the United States and Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper compares multicultural education in U.S. and Japanese schools, analyzing multicultural education from the ethnic perspective. The paper notes that while the United States is a country with a long history of immigration and is composed of people with many different racial backgrounds, Japan is a country of a single race with only a few…

Nagai, Hideo


Measuring Information Behavior: A Time Budget Survey in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the results of a time budget survey which was conducted nationwide in Japan in 1995 on ‘information behavior’, that is, the amount of time people spent communicating and using information media ranging from conversations to computers. We propose a three-dimensional time budget survey as a method for measuring information behavior in actual life. The method classifies information

Hirohisa Suzuki; Yoshiaki Hashimoto; Kenichi Ishii



[Collaboration between Korea and Japan for basic research on leprosy].  


New case detection in Japan has been markedly decreased and same trends have been also shown in Korea. Despite of unfavorable circumstances, research activities are still continuing and we have the accumulation of knowledge on leprosy both in Japan and Korea. Following basic studies for leprosy on going in Japan were reviewed. 1. Analysis of drug resistance mechanism and its application for clinical samples. 2. Establishment of early diagnostic technique. 3. Clarification of mechanisms of neuropathy. 4. Analysis of in vivo growth mechanisms of Mycobacterium leprae. 5. Molecular epidemiology of leprosy. 6. Searching for new anti leprosy drugs. 7. Developing vaccine. 8. In vitro cultivation. Other subjects as follows was proposed as prospective studies. 1. Mechanisms of relapse. 2. Establishing diagnostic tool of reaction and preventive measures. 3. Clarification of immunological mechanisms of anergy in LL case. The possibility of future collaboration between Korea and Japan to solve remaining problems in the clinical field was discussed and a course of action for collaboration was deliberated. PMID:23012849

Matsuoka, Masanori



Team Teaching Styles Utilized in Japan: Do They Really Work?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper continues the debate over TT (team-teaching) benefits and detriments. TT has been utilized extensively in Japan in English Language instructional courses at the elementary and junior high school levels over the past 20 years. Although at times satirical, the author in all seriousness discusses TT and; its advantages and disadvantages in…

Carley, Harry F., III



Persons with Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author outlines the history, current situation, and the future of the care and support system for people with intellectual and multiple disabilities in Japan. He describes how the service system has been shaped from within by Japanese legislation dating back to the Child Welfare Act of 1947, and how international events such as the…

Suemitsu, Shigeru



The American Occupation of Japan— Perspectives after Three Decades  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occupation of Japan provided an unusual opportunity for the United States to influence the patterns of political life in a country that was defeated both psycho logically and physically. Under the personal leadership of General Douglas MacArthur, punishment was dealt to \\

Robert A. Scalapino



Prerequisites To Ministerial Careers in Japan 1885-1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan adopted a Cabinet form of government in 1885. In the intervening 100 years, different sets of criteria prevailed in selecting cabinet ministers. Initially (1885 until 1918), precedence was given to individuals who came from those fiefs ( han) whose leaders had engineered the Meiji Restoration (1868). From the end of World War I until the end of World II,

Nobuo Tomita; Hans Baerwald; Akira Nakamura



Sexual Minority Issues and Human Rights Education in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Dowa" (Human Rights) education program has become an effective method of changing concept and situations of "Burakumin," a group of people that has been discriminated against in Japan. One educational strategy was to speak out their personal stories, which has become a trigger to some sexual minority teachers to come out, as well as others to…

Ofuji, Keiko



Commentaries on Being Gay in Japan and China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents commentaries on being gay in Japan and China by distinguished educators with various backgrounds and from different countries. Given space limitations, these are more evocative than particulate, but collectively they provide multiple platforms for reflection. As noted by some commentators in this article and others (e.g.,…

Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education, 2003




EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of Japanese government efforts to regulate SOx emissions: the efforts were prompted by serious air pollution problems in Japan during the 1960s. Several technologies are being developed including production of low sulfur gas from coal, fuel des...


On computer education in Japan Yoko ONO and Yumi ASAHI  

E-print Network

285 On computer education in Japan Yoko ONO and Yumi ASAHI Department of Management Science, Abstract: In recent years, the number of university classes using computers has increased with the widespread availability of computers. In Japanese universities as well, computer and intramural information

Spagnolo, Filippo


Outbreaks of forest defoliating insects in Japan, 1950-2000.  


In Japan, several forest-defoliating insects reach outbreak levels and cause serious defoliation. Stand mortality sometimes occurs after severe defoliation. However, in general, tree mortality caused by insect defoliation is low because of the prevailing moist climate in Japan. Evergreen conifers are more susceptible to tree mortality as a result of insect defoliation whereas deciduous broad-leaved trees are seldom killed. Insect defoliation occurs more frequently in man-made environments such as among shade trees, orchards, and plantations than in natural habitats. Outbreaks of some defoliators tend to occur in stands of a particular age: e.g. outbreaks of the pine caterpillar, Dendrolimus spectabilis Butler (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) occur more frequently in young pine plantations. In contrast, defoliation caused by outbreaks of lepidopterous and hymenopterous pests in larch plantations is more frequent with stand maturation. There is a relationship between outbreaks of some defoliators and altitude above sea level. Most outbreaks of forest defoliators were terminated by insect pathogens that operated in a density-dependent fashion. Since the 1970s, Japan has been prosperous and can afford to buy timber from abroad. More recently, there has been an increasing demand for timber in Japan, that coincides with a huge demand internationally, so that the country will need to produce more timber locally in the future. The increasing pressure on the forestry industry to meet this demand will require more sophisticated methods of pest control coupled with more sustainable methods of silviculture. PMID:12020368

Kamata, N; Kamata, N



JapanU.S. Symposium on International Standardization  

E-print Network

and Conformity Assessment Policy Division, Industrial Science and Technology Policy and Environment Bureau, METI of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) This symposium is supported by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) in the framework of "Japan-US collaboration project toward a novel low carbon


Development of Snow Avalanche Forecasting System in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the development of an avalanche warning system in Japan. Study area was set on southern part of Niigata prefecture, where we had huge amount of snow in winter 2005-2006 and the snow depth exceeded 4 m in February. The snow cover model SNOWPACK, which was developed at the Swiss Federal Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research, was used.

Kouichi Nishimura; Hiroyuki Hirashima; Satoru Yamaguchi; Kenji Kosugi; Atsushi Sato; Kaoru Izumi; Keisuke Suzuki; Masaaki Hanaoka; Michael Lehning



International models of investigator-initiated trials: implications for Japan  

PubMed Central

Background Academic/institutional investigator-initiated clinical trials benefit individuals and society by supplementing gaps in industry-sponsored clinical trials. Materials In May 2010, experts from Japan, the Republic of Korea, the UK, and the United States, met at a symposium in Tokyo, Japan, to discuss how policies related to the conduct of clinical trials, which have been shown to be effective, may be applied to other regions of the world. Results In order to increase the availability of anticancer drugs world-wide, nations including Japan should examine the benefits of increasing the number of investigator-initiated clinical trials. These trials represent one of the most effective ways to translate basic scientific knowledge into clinical practice. These trials should be conducted under GCP guidelines and include Investigational New Drug application submissions with the ultimate goal of future drug approval. Conclusions To maximize the effectiveness of these trials, a policy to educate health care professionals, cancer patients and their families, and the public in general on the benefits of clinical trials should be strengthened. Finally, policies that expedite the clinical development of novel cancer drugs which have already been shown to be effective in other countries are needed in many nations including Japan to accelerate drug approval. PMID:22843420

Trimble, E. L.; Ledermann, J.; Law, K.; Miyata, T.; Imamura, C. K.; Nam, B.-H.; Kim, Y.H.; Bang, Y.-J.; Michaels, M.; Ardron, D.; Amano, S.; Ando, Y.; Tominaga, T.; Kurokawa, K.; Takebe, N.



Differing Perceptions of EFL Writing among Readers in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated perceptions of English compositions among four groups of readers in Japan. Analyses of evaluative criteria and readers' comments yielded the following parallel results: inexperienced English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) students attended predominantly to content in both judging and commenting on compositions, more experienced EFL…

Rinnert, Carol; Kobayashi, Hiroe



The Adoption of Efficient Consumer Response in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient Consumer Response (ECR) involves re-engineering, redesigning, and computerization of the supply chain and aims to bring more value to the consumer. Even though ECR is being adopted in the United States and various international markets, it has received very little attention in the marketing literature. In Japan, companies have only recently started adopting ECR. Using innovation adoption theory, this

Ritu Lohtia; Toshihiro Murakoshi



Implications of climate change for crop production in Japan  

SciTech Connect

This study uses climate change scenarios derived from three global climate models (GCMs) to assess the possible impacts of climate change on rice (Oryza sativa L. japonica), maize (Zea mays L.), and wheat (Triticum spp.) production in Japan. Crop models were used to simulate the possible changes in crop yields under different climate change scenarios. Increased temperatures resulted in decreases in simulated crop yield in many regions under the present management systems. While the direct beneficial effects of CO{sub 2} may compensate for the yield decreases in central and northern Japan, the effects did not compensate for the larger yield decreases in southwestern japan, especially in Kyushu. Early planting and irrigation are possible adaptation strategies of the management systems to climate change. In most cases, simulated yields increased under climate change conditions if an earlier planting date was adopted; however, in Kyushu because of high temperature stress, an earlier planting did not improve simulated yields, and the introduction of new cultivars better adapted to the climate change conditions would be required. In Hokkaido, the major upland production area of Japan, climate change increased simulated crop yields under some conditions, depending on the scenario precipitation and irrigation systems.

Seino, Hiroshi [National Inst. of Agro-Environmental Sciences, Ibaraki (Japan)



Challenges for Higher Education and Research: A Perspective from Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is to identify key challenges facing Japan's higher education since the early 1990s and their impacts on major research themes. In this paper key challenges include those resulting from the decline in the 18-year population, the cultivation of high-quality university graduates, the incorporation of national universities,…

Huang, Futao



Reuse of secondhand TVs exported from Japan to the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trade of secondhand electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) from developed to developing countries has become a growing environmental issue owing to concerns about improper recycling of these goods in developing countries. We followed a 12-m cargo container of cathode-ray-tube color TVs exported from Japan to the Philippines in February 2008. We surveyed the number of TVs damaged in transport,

Aya Yoshida; Atsushi Terazono



Determinants of the choice of bankruptcy procedure in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates close bank–firm relations (keiretsu) among troubled Japanese firms by examining the type of bankruptcy. In Japan, creditors control the fate of the bankrupt firm, which may be costly if managers destroy firm value to avoid bankruptcy or, alternatively, if creditors liquidate too often. Recently, researchers have argued that keiretsu banks prop up weak firms that should fail.

Jean Helwege; Frank Packer




E-print Network

1 URBAN LOGISTICS BY RAIL AND WATERWAYS IN FRANCE AND JAPAN Main author: Diana Diziain, Greater-Est, France KEYWORDS: rail, waterways, intermodal logistics, urban freight, city logistics ABSTRACT for the "mile before last" have been implemented in recent years. In the global supply chain, rail, shipping

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


World Perspective Case Descriptions on Educational Programs for Adults: Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three adult education programs being conducted in Japan are described in the case studies in this packet. The first case study (by K. Moro'oka) describes an adult education center in Ohyama in which education and community services are integrated. The program first put emphasis on community building, then on the development of human resources.…

Moro'oka, Kazufusa; And Others


The Japanese Automobile Worker: A Microcosm of Japan's Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A teaching unit on the Japanese automobile worker was developed from a compilation of on-site interviews with Japanese company managers and production line employees, and official publications of the Japanese car industry. The unit is designed to present a balanced picture of Japan's economic success and labor relations and to develop global…

Kaderabeck, Elizabeth A.


Statistical Learning Theory Machine Learning Summer School, Kyoto, Japan  

E-print Network

Selection Sequential Prediction / Online Learning Motivation Supervised Learning Online Convex and LinearStatistical Learning Theory Machine Learning Summer School, Kyoto, Japan Alexander (Sasha) Rakhlin University of Pennsylvania, The Wharton School Penn Research in Machine Learning (PRiML) August 27-28, 2012 1

Rakhlin, Alexander "Sasha"


Same War Different Views: Germany, Japan, and Counterterrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

German and Japanese counterterrorism policies differ from those adopted by the United States as well as from one another. Defeated in war, occupied, and partially remade during the Cold War, Germany and Japan became clients of the United States first, then close allies. Both countries offer easy tests to explore the extent to which the United States can hope to

Peter J. Katzenstein



Latest technology of underground rock cavern excavation in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four major projects with large-scale rock underground caverns are discussed in this report; two hydropower stations, one underground oil storage facility and one underground museum in Japan. The technology applied to the construction of these caverns have some unique characteristics and can be applied to various other underground uses for different purposes and applied to larger-scale underground rock caverns with

Masanobu Tezuka; Tadahiko Seoka



Teacher Internship and the Culture of Teaching in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan's teacher internship was a hotly debated political issue for three decades until the legislature finally approved its implementation in 1988. The aim of this paper is to explore how the culture of teaching mediated the implementation of the government?sponsored teacher internship. The data presented in this paper come from ethnographic research conducted in 1989 with a focus on three

Nobuo K. Shimahara; Akira Sakai



Primary health care in Japan and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan has universal health insurance and its total health expenditure as a percentage of the gross domestic product is almost 50% less than that of the United States where 15% of persons under age 65 are uninsured. The health of the Japanese population as judged by neonatal, postnatal, and total infant mortality, percent of infants born with birth weights below

Toshihide Tsuda; Hideyasu Aoyama; Jack Froom



77 FR 64487 - Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable in Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...developing in Japan at this time. Following the Roundtable, the delegation will travel to Fukushima practices; and Travel to the northeast region...Japanese market for the first time may apply. Applications...not include any personal travel expenses such as...



Toward Reform of Local Bond System in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outstanding of local government bonds in Japan has increased rapidly after the 1990s, and now reached the highest level. It is important to reduce and manage not only the outstanding amount of national government bonds but also local government bonds. We can find that the change of the management system of local government bonds in advanced countries because of decentralization

Takero Doi; Tomoko Hayashi



Themenparks re-made in Japan: ein Reisebericht  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thematisierung zählt zu den generativen Formschemata der Erlebnisgesellschaft und liegt weltweit im Trend. Trotz der zu beobachtenden globalen Homogenisierung bei Erlebnis- und Konsumwelten spielen lokale Freizeitkulturen weiterhin eine wichtige Rolle. Das Beispiel Japans zeigt anschaulich, wie stark Aufschwung und Niedergang der Erlebnisparkindustrie mit der allgemeinen wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung verflochten ist. Die Geschichte der japanischen Freizeitparkindustrie reicht ins 19. Jahrhundert zurück und

Ute Hoffmann



Attachment and Culture: Security in the United States and Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights evidence of cultural variations in child attachment, noting how western values and meanings permeate attachment theory. Comparisons of the United States and Japan emphasize the cultural relativity of three core hypotheses of attachment theory related to: caregiver sensitivity, child social competence, and a secure base for exploring the…

Rothman, Fred; Weisz, John; Pott, Martha; Morelli, Gilda; Miyake, Kazuo



Case Studies in Special Education: Cuba, Japan, Kenya, Sweden.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collected is information provided by Cuba, Japan, Kenya, and Sweden on the historical background, the present situation, and the future outlook of their systems of special education. Introductory comments compare the national systems in terms of historical developments, arrangements for identifying the handicapped, special educational provisions,…

Japanese National Commission for UNESCO, Tokyo.


Planet-C: Venus Climate Orbiter mission of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Venus Climate Orbiter mission (PLANET-C), one of the future planetary missions of Japan, aims at understanding the atmospheric circulation of Venus. Meteorological information will be obtained by globally mapping clouds and minor constituents successively with four cameras at ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, detecting lightning with a high-speed imager, and observing the vertical structure of the atmosphere with radio science

Masato Nakamura; Takeshi Imamura; Munetaka Ueno; Naomoto Iwagami; Takehiko Satoh; Shigeto Watanabe; Makoto Taguchi; Yukihiro Takahashi; Makoto Suzuki; Takumi Abe; George L. Hashimoto; Takeshi Sakanoi; Shoichi Okano; Yasumasa Kasaba; Jun Yoshida; Manabu Yamada; Nobuaki Ishii; Takahiro Yamada; Kazunori Uemizu; Tetsuya Fukuhara; Koh-Ichiro Oyama



Comparative Study of Base Community Relations in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. military bases in Japan have dealt with differing levels of controversy since the end of World War II. Since the mid-1990s, this has been especially true of Okinawa. After the 1995 rape of an Okinawan schoolgirl, protests aimed at closing the Marine ...

J. M. Volkle



Leptospirosis in squirrels imported from United States to Japan.  


We diagnosed leptospirosis in 2 patients exposed to southern flying squirrels imported from the United States to Japan. Patients worked with exotic animals in their company. Leptospira isolates from 1 patient and 5 of 10 squirrels at the company were genetically and serologically identical and were identified as Leptospira kirschneri. PMID:16836840

Masuzawa, Toshiyuki; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Une, Yumi; Takeuchi, Takahiro; Tsukagoshi, Keiko; Koizumi, Nobuo; Kawabata, Hiroki; Ohta, Shuji; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro



Revision of the genus Buchneria (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata) from Japan  

PubMed Central

Abstract Buchneria dofleini (Buchner, 1924), type species of Buchneria Harmer, 1957,was first described from material collected in 1904–1905 from Sagami Bay, Japan, but the type specimens had not been reexamined since the original description. In this study, I examined specimens of Buchneria from historical collections and material recently collected near Akkeshi, Hokkaido, Japan. Three Buchneria species were detected, two from Sagami Bay that Ortmann (1890) had placed in Escharoides, and one from Akkeshi that Androsova (1958) had described as Porella variabilis. I concluded that Buchneria dofleini is a junior synonym of Escharoides teres Ortmann, 1890; selected a lectotype for Escharoides teres among Ortmann’s syntypes; and established the new combination Buchneria teres (Ortmann, 1890), which becomes the type species of Buchneria. I also established the new combination Buchneria rhomboidalis (Ortmann, 1890) and selected a lectotype among Ortmann’s syntypes. Porella variabilis is transferred to Buchneria establishing the new combination Buchneria variabilis (Androsova, 1958). Here the three new combinations are redescribed and a key to the Japanese Buchneria species is provided. Finally, I transferred Buchneria to Bryocryptellidae on the basis of ovicell and orifice morphology. Therefore, Buchneria now includes a total of three species; Buchneria sinuata Harmer, 1957, a species from Indonesia that has hitherto been placed in this genus, is almost certainly not congeneric with other Buchneria. As far as is now known, Buchneria is endemic to northern Japan and the northern Sea of Japan. PMID:23372410

Hirose, Masato



Thin-Film Module Field Test Results in Japan  

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

ai,&3;Kazuhiko&3;Kato,&3;Tetsuyuki&3;Ishii, Yoshihiro&3;Hishikawa,&3;Michio Kondo AIST&3;RCPVT,&3;Japan 2013.2.28 International&3;PV&3;Module&3;QA&3;Task&3;Force Thin&3;Film&3;Task&3;Group,&3;Kick&3;Off&3;Meeting 1...


English Language Teaching in Japan: Policy Plans and Their Implementations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes Japan's most recent attempts to improve English teaching and learning at all levels of the education system both for students and teachers as well as for the public in general. Based on policy recommendations by several advisory committees, the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology has…

Honna, Nobuyuki; Takeshita, Yuko



Oil and territory in Putin's relations with China and Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia's President Vladimir Putin has centralized decision making in Moscow and has reduced the role of domestic actors. He has demonstrated his own personal management of foreign policy in relation to China and Japan. He has used negotiations over oil and territory to place Russia in a more favourable position between them. In relation to oil, he has overruled the

Leszek Buszynski



A Human Rights Perspective on Infectious Disease Laws in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines infectious disease laws in Japan from a human rights perspective using international standards. Background In public health, frameworks and assessments integrating human rights concerns are beginning to be developed. One challenging area is infectious disease control where human rights offer and approach for addressing the rights and health of infected and vulnerable populations. Methods We examined the



Intercultural communication patterns and tactics: Nordic expatriates in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides a Nordic expatriate perspective on intercultural communication patterns and tactics in Japan. Interviews with 30 Nordic expatriates reveal that divergent communication styles, the cultural values of verticality and collectivism, and the lack of shared language have a negative impact on intercultural communication. The interviews reveal that rather than remaining passive bystanders, expatriates adopt various tactics to increase

Vesa Peltokorpi




E-print Network

, Princeton Plasma Physics Lab (3/9 - 3/22) Lee Cadwallader, Fusion Safety Analyst/Advisor, Idaho National Lab, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). One result of this change was that the major universities are now subject to Japan national rules for occupational and industrial safety. Some of the professors

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory


continued on Page 3 CSU/Japan Partnership Explores  

E-print Network

most common cause of death in the United States ­ exceeded only by heart disease ­ accountingcontinued on Page 3 CSU/Japan Partnership Explores Promising New Cancer Therapy DNA damage signaling pathways, and how cancer and normal cells respond to this novel therapy." The relative survival


Cities and growth: Theory and evidence from France and Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative populations of the top 40 urban areas of France and Japan remained very constant during these countries' periods of industrialization and urbanization, and are described quite well by the ‘rank-size rule.’ Moreover, projection of their future distributions based on past growth indicates that their size-distributions in steady state will not differ essentially from what they have been historically.

Jonathan Eaton; Zvi Eckstein



Food Firms and Food Flows in Japan 1945–98  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan's food capitals in food processing, retailing, and services have grown to rank among the world's largest companies in three stages over the past 50 years. In each stage, firms have increased the import content of their products and expanded their interdependencies with foreign firms. This paper traces the growth and survival strategies of four firms: Ajinomoto, Kikkoman, Kirin Brewery,

Mary G. McDonald



Technological Progress by Small and Medium Enterprises in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines various aspects of total factor productivity across different firm sizes in Japan. It shows that larger firms have higher total factor productivity levels and growth than smaller firms. There are, however, some exceptions to this pattern especially in the electric machinery sector where small firms tend to have the edge. The paper also finds that two distinctive

Shujiro Urata; Hiroki Kawai



Aeromagnetic surveys in the seas around Japan in 1980  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aeromagnetic surveys in the seas around Japan were carried out in 1979 to 1980 by a YS-11 aircraft of the Maritime Safety Agency of Japan using a new type of airborne magnetometer system. The new type of airborne magnetometer system consists of a ring-core type three-component fluxgate magnetometer, an inertial sensing system, a fish-eye camera to measure the true north, an 8-bit microcomputer and a proton magnetometer. The VLF/OMEGA system is used to fix the position of the aircraft. Tracks extended to about 600 nautical miles off the coast of the Japanese islands in the Sea of Japan and the North-West Pacific Ocean. Average spacing between tracks was about 80 miles. The flights were carried out at an altitude of 9500 feet. From the survey results, magnetic charts of the seven geomagnetic elements for 1980 over the sea around Japan were compiled by the method of least squares using a polynomial. Also, the contour charts of secular variation in 1980 were compiled.

Utashiro, S.; Oshima, S.; Kaneko, T.



The Rise of Modern Japan. Teacher's Manual [and] Textbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This textbook highlights key aspects of Japan's history and culture from the Tokugawa era (1600-1868) to the present. The textbook includes role plays, primary documents, first-person accounts, diary entries, excerpts from literary works, songs, poems, maps and timelines, charts and graphs, and political cartoons. It also includes a glossary that…

Menton, Linda K.; Lush, Noren W.; Tamura, Eileen H.; Gusukuma, Chance I.


Questioning Linguistic Instrumentalism: English, Neoliberalism, and Language Tests in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Linguistic instrumentalism, which underscores the importance of English skills for work and for achieving individual economic success, has influenced language education policies and proliferated the language teaching and testing industry in Japan. Linguistic instrumentalism is linked to the notion of human capital (i.e., skills deemed necessary…

Kubota, Ryuko



An analysis of the new medical payment system in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the report of the Central Social Insurance Medical Council concerning the 2002 Revision of the Medical Service Fee Schedule, a new inclusive payment system was introduced in 82 special functioning hospitals (university hospitals, National Cancer Center, National Cardiovascular Center) in Japan in April 2003. Beginning in April 2004, the system was gradually extended to general hospitals which satisfy

H. Toyama; T. Takahashi


Mineralogical controls on uranium immobilization at Tono Uranium Deposit, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tono uranium deposit, located in central Japan, is thought to have formed when oxidizing groundwater leached uranium from the underlying Toki Granite and transported it to the overlying host sedimentary formations where it precipitated under reducing conditions. Fission-track dating shows that this uranium mineralization took place ~10 million years ago and has remained immobilized despite episodes of sedimentation, uplift,

M. A. Berke; M. A. McKibben; R. C. Arthur; K. Ota; T. Iwatsuki



The ‘Japan Prize’ Contest: encouraging excellence in educational television  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japan Prize is probably the world's most prestigious international award for educational television programming. This article discusses how the contest is conducted, and reviews some of the criteria by which jurors determine prize winners, placing a particular emphasis upon the challenges involved in comparing productions from different cultures. The contest includes a number of professional activities for participants, including

Drew Tiene




EPA Science Inventory

The report documents the travels of a four-member study team in Japan during March 1980 to assess NOx flue gas treatment (FGT) technology and related areas. Overall goals of the study were to obtain new information on current issues concerning application of FGT technology and to...


Speciation of Antimony in PET Bottles Produced in Japan and  

E-print Network

Speciation of Antimony in PET Bottles Produced in Japan and China by X-ray Absorption Fine of antimony (Sb) incorporated into polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles were estimated based on X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS)atSbK-edge.PriortoXAFSanalyses,Sbconcentrations in 177 PET bottles collected

Short, Daniel


Diversity and Multiculturalism in Japan: What Is Called into Question?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the different ways in which the notion of multiculturalism in Japan has been influenced by various social and historical trajectories. Since the Japanese government started to promote "internationalization" in the 1980's, slogans such as "international exchange," "cultural exchange," and "understanding of other cultures" have…

Qi, Jie



How Shifting Plates Caused the Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page features USGS visualizations including a slide show of the sudden movement of the Pacific tectonic plate under the North American plate caused a massive earthquake and a tsunami. It also contains maps of the magnitude of shaking and predicted tsunami wave heights from the March 11, 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan.

Times, New Y.


Education, Employment and Household Dynamics: Brazilian Migrants in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By treating the household as a primary unit of analysis and social production, this article considers the mutually influential ways in which migrant families shape the educational pathways and experiences of Brazilian children living in Japan. Through an ethnographic exploration of relations between parents, children and their working siblings I…

Green, Paul



Global Talent Program Explore High technology in Japan  

E-print Network

2011 Global Talent Program : Explore High technology in Japan SNU Career Development Center #12;#12;2011 Global Talent Program : 2011 GTP #12;4 2011 Global Talent Program ? Global Talent', , , ` ( , )' , , , `Fujitsu's Global Mission' . #12;6 2011 Global Talent Program . , KOTRA

Sung, Wokyung


Japan Association for Language Teaching (JALT) Journal, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The two issues of the journal for teachers of English as a second language in Japan include these articles: "What Do JTEs Really Want?" (Wendy F. Scholefield); "Do EFL Learners Make Instrumental Inferences When Reading? Some Evidence from Implicit Memory Tests" (Suzanne Collins, Hidetsugu Tajika); "Function and Structure of Academic English"…

Swenson, Tamara, Ed.




Microsoft Academic Search

This subject is designed for graduate students interested in international politics, national security and comparative political economy. It examines the political, military, and economic challenges facing Japan, its neighbors, and the international system under conditions of great uncertainty. Topics range from the history of once \\

Richard J. Samuels


Ishinomaki Japan Tsunami Before and After Urban 3D Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an urban 3D Model animation showing Ishinomaki, Japan before and after the 2011 tsunami caused severe damage. The before model was created from archival scanned film aerials. The after model was created from Pictometry imagery collected by KKC.

Modelworks, Plw


Science on a Sphere- Japan Earthquake and Tsunami Wave Heights  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3 animations provide a visual of the March 11, 2011 Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. Predicted Tsunami wave heights from the Center for Tsunami Research, Real-Time Earthquake dataset of hourly images from Feb. 19, 2011 to March 24, 2011. A third video merges these two datasets.


Vegetation development patterns on skislopes in lowland Hokkaido, northern Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japanese montane zones are usually covered with well-developed forests, and most ski resorts are constructed there. Therefore, the construction of skislopes requires the destruction of forest ecosystems. To detect vegetation development patterns on skislopes, I assessed vegetation on seven skislopes in the lowland of Hokkaido Island, Japan, using 155 2 m×2 m plots. The surrounding vegetation was mostly consisted

Shiro Tsuyuzaki



Edo: Art in Japan 1615-1868. Teaching Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Edo period in Japan (1615-1868) saw the flowering of many forms of cultural expression, colorful and boisterous, muted and restrained, that today is thought of as typically Japanese. These include kabuki and no drama, the tea ceremony, martial arts, woodblock prints, and porcelain. This culturally diverse and vibrant period gets its name from…

Guth, Christine; Henderson, Anne; Hinish, Heidi; Moore, Barbara


Soaring Voices: Recent Ceramics by Women from Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Japanese ceramics enjoy a long and distinguished history, and the Japanese aesthetic of elegant simplicity, along with their approach to materials, has influenced ceramic artists around the world for centuries. Women in Japan have been involved in the production of ceramics for thousands of years, but with few exceptions, their names have remained…

Johnson, Mark M.



Japan's research on droplet and droplet array combustion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In Japan, the ignition and combustion of the droplet and droplet array have been investigated by using microgravity condition. This is the short introduction of those studies; interactive combustion of two droplets, ignition experiment on droplet array, and microexplosion behavior of an emulsified fuel droplet.

Kono, Michikata



Mycorrhizal fungi associated with Monotropastrum humile (Ericaceae) in central Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored the diversity of mycorrhizal fungi associated with Monotropastrum humile in the central part of Japan's main island. We collected 103 M. humile individuals from 12 sites with various forest types. We analyzed the DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region\\u000a from fungal and plant nuclear ribosomal DNAs to assess the genetic diversity of the fungi associated with

Yosuke Matsuda; Shun Okochi; Tomoyuki Katayama; Akiyoshi Yamada; Shin-ichiro Ito



The Group in Japan and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most important differences between American and Japanese cultures is the difference in group interaction. The Japanese have been described as group-oriented and Americans as individualistic. In Japan, groups are hierarchical and usually make decisions by consensus. Japanese groups play an important role in the lives of their members,…

Kitao, S. Kathleen


Back to Basics: The Family and the School in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports of Japanese educational practices have overlooked the strong family-school bond and the significant role of the mother as educator. Interviews with non-Japanese mothers in Japan illustrate the differences in values, family systems, and gender roles make adoption of Japanese educational techniques unlikely and inappropriate for American…

Imamura, Anne E.



Journal of the Operations Research Society of Japan  

E-print Network

Journal of the Operations Research Society of Japan 2003, Vol. 46, No. 1, 74-98 CONJECTURES are shown to be useful to see how the decay rates are changed according to modeling parameters for the product form networks, where the product form is meant that the stationary distribution of the whole

Miyazawa, Masakiyo



Microsoft Academic Search

This course will seek to engage these issues while providing a general overview of politics and government in contemporary Japan. The course is divided into three parts. The first part of the course consists of a three week general overview of the origins and evolution of the Japanese polity - the emergence of the modern Japanese state, the construction of

Thomas U. Berger


Oligochaetes in Lake Towada, Japan, an oligotrophic caldera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-nine oligochaete taxa were recorded from the oligotrophic caldera Lake Towada, northern Japan. All the taxa were found at littoral bottoms shallower than 20 m, and 79% (23 taxa) occurred there exclusively. The profundal bottoms deeper than 40 m were inhabited by three tubificids (Rhyacodrilus komarovi, Tubifex tubifex and Tubificidae gen. sp.) and one lumbriculid (Lumbriculus variegatus). Among them, R.

Akifumi Ohtaka



Alien Aquatic Plants Naturalized in Japan: History and Present Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction of alien aquatic plants started in the Meiji Era (late 1800s) and some of them have been naturalized and caused serious weed problems in Japan. Eichhornia crassipes, Elodea nuttallii, Egeria densa and Pistia stratiotes have proven to be typical noxious aquatic weeds. The history of such invasive alien aquatic plants is briefly reviewed. Recently, more and more alien aquatic



Second Language Acquisition Research in Japan. JALT Applied Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers includes the following: "Second Language Acquisition Research in Japan: Theoretical Issues" (Peter Robinson, Mark Sawyer, and Steven Ross); (2) "Focus on Form: Implicit and Explicit Form Focused Instruction Incorporated into a Communicative Task" (Hitoshi Muranoi); (3) "A Task that Works for Negotiation of Meaning"…

Robinson, Peter, Ed.; Sawyer, Mark, Ed.; Ross, Steven, Ed.


Lightning detection and lightning protection of power systems in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lightning occurrence data have been collected with the lightning location systems operated by electric power companies in Japan. Seasonal variations and annual variations of lightning occurrence have been clarified from the seasonal and annual lightning stroke frequency maps made by the above data. These data were compared with the faults on transmission lines. The number of faults is almost proportional

Shigeru Yokoyama



South Kitakami region: An allochthonous Terrane in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pre-Cretaceous geology of the Japanese Island may be interpreted as an accretion complex in which many terranes of several origins are juxtaposed and a number of allochthonous blocks are involved. The South Kitakami and Abukuma regions of northeast Japan, and probably also Silurian and Devonian blocks in the Kurosegawa fault zone and the border fault zone of the Hida

Yasuji Saito; Mitsuo Hashimoto



Organic Synthesis in Japan: From Natural Products to Synthetic Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic chemistry in present day Japan, which has developed from early interest in natural products chemistry, now includes total synthesis, physical organic chemistry, synthetic methods, and organometallic chemistry. In this article, the current state of Japanese organic chemistry is briefly reviewed and a representative aspect of today's organic chemistry--exploration of new synthetic methodology--is discussed.

Teruaki Mukaiyama



Higher Education for Sustainable Development in Japan: Policy and Progress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review key developments and the role of governmental support in the field of education for sustainable development (ESD) in higher education in Japan. Design/methodology/approach: This is an analytical review paper on policy and practice, using an evaluative perspective to consider developments, challenges…

Nomura, Ko; Abe, Osamu



Coping Styles That Predict Achievement in Germany, Japan, and America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Coping skills and work motivation were investigated as predictors of academic achievement in Japan, West Germany, and Austin, Texas. Data were gathered from a sample of 3,600 ten and fourteen-year olds. Aptitude was measured by the Raven Progressive Matrices; achievement was measured by standardized tests in reading and mathematics, and by grade…

Peck, Robert F.; And Others


Social Capital and Mental Health in Japan: A Multilevel Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundA national cross-sectional survey was conducted in Japan. This is because the growing recognition of the social determinants of health has stimulated research on social capital and mental health. In recent years, systematic reviews have found that social capital may be a useful factor in the prevention of mental illness. Despite these studies, evidence on the association between social capital

Tsuyoshi Hamano; Yoshikazu Fujisawa; Yu Ishida; S. V. Subramanian; Ichiro Kawachi; Kuninori Shiwaku