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Sample records for photomask japan bacus

  1. Thermal modeling of photomask precision baking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Koji; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Rack, Simon; Miyazaki, Shinsuke; Ikeda, Toshiya

    2006-10-01

    Baking processes are widely acknowledged as being crucial steps in Photomask manufacture, and in particular, the Post-Exposure Bake (PEB) is regarded as the most critical. For 45nm-node Photomasks, and subsequent technology generations, the performance requirements for baking systems significantly exceed those of currently-available equipment. In comparison with Silicon Wafers, Photomask substrates, (typically 6inch square quartz), exhibit markedly different thermal properties. These differences conspire to make Photomask precision baking far more difficult than is the case for wafers. Multi-zone heating systems have been developed, and in principle offer a practical tuning method allowing better surface temperature uniformity of Photomasks during critical bake steps to be achieved. The best of these systems compensate, to some extent, for multiple causes of temperature non-uniformity within the baking system. Generally however, the root causes of temperature non-uniformity in the baking process have not all been identified, still less eliminated, and thus there remains a limit to the degree of control of Photomask surface temperature which can be achieved. In this study, we devised a "Thermal model" of the Photomask baking process. This model has enabled us to identify root causes of non-uniformity of Photomask surface temperatures, as well as providing a quantitative way of assessing how Photomask baking systems may be improved. We present simulation results from the model, as well as actual test data measured by sensor array plate.

  2. January 2004 update on the SEMI standards task force on photomask qualification terminology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonckheere, Rik M.

    2004-06-01

    This paper presents the "2003" update of the SEMI Standards Task Force on Mask Qualification Terminology, covering of the progress made since the BACUS Photomask 2002 Symposium. The focus of the past 2 years has been on terminology for two-dimensional mask metrology. The main contents of the document is discussed, including the general approach for 2D qualification based on area assessment, together with its application to corner rounding, line-end shortening, contact hole measurement. The concept used is the same as used for the 1D terminology in the published proposed standard PR007-00-0302 [1]: together with a definition, mandatory and optional information are listed to minimize the ambiguity in a quality assessment result; distinction is made between true and measured value. The work also suggests how to take into account the actual 1D quality to deliver 2D assessment results that can be compared to those of other mask fabrication processes, for example in benchmarking exercises, and how overlay between nominal and actual features can be controlled. In Q2 of 2003 a survey has been issued, with the main intention to quantify the interest in the achieved result of this work and help to determine the further steps of the initiative. The feedback obtained through this survey is discussed. The first results of defining phase shift terminology are also presented.

  3. New NIST Photomask Linewidth Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potzick, James E.; Pedulla, J. Marc; Stocker, Michael T.

    2002-12-01

    NIST is preparing to issue the next generation in its line of binary photomask linewidth standards. Called SRM 2059, it was developed for calibrating microscopes used to measure linewidths on photomasks, and consists of antireflecting chrome line and space patterns on a 6 inch quartz substrate ( 6 6 0.25 inches, or 15.2 15.2 0.635 cm). Certified line- and space-widths range from nominal 0.250 ?m to 32 ?m, and pitches from 0.5 ?m to 250 ?m, and are traceable to the definition of the meter. NIST's reference value, the definition of the meter, is well defined and unconditionally stable. Any replacement or duplicate NIST linewidth standard will be traceable to this same reference, and thus traceable to any other NIST length standard. Such measurement traceability can be achieved only by evaluating the measurement uncertainty (not just the repeatability) of each length comparison in the metrology chain between the definition of the meter and the NIST linewidth standard. This process results in a confidence interval about the calibration result that has a 95% probability of containing the true value. While the meter (and the ?m) are well-defined, the geometrical width of a chrome line with nonrectangular cross section is not, and so the "true value" linewidth must be carefully defined to best meet users' needs. The paper and presentation will describe how these mask features are measured at NIST and how their measurement traceability is accomplished.

  4. 14-nm photomask simulation sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturtevant, John; Buck, Peter; Schulze, Steffen; Fryer, David; Tejnil, Edita; Adam, Kostas; Lam, Michael; Clifford, Chris; Oliver, Mike; Armeanu, Ana; Kalk, Franklin; Nakagawa, Kent; Ning, Guoxiang; Ackmann, Paul; Gans, Fritz; Buergel, Christian

    2014-10-01

    This study quantifies the impact of systematic mask errors on OPC model accuracy and proposes a methodology to reconcile the largest errors via calibration to the mask error signature in wafer data. First, we examine through simulation, the impact of uncertainties in the representation of photomask properties including CD bias, corner rounding, refractive index, thickness, and sidewall angle. The factors that are most critical to be accurately represented in the model are cataloged. CD bias values are based on state of the art mask manufacturing data while other variable values are speculated, highlighting the need for improved metrology and communication between mask and OPC model experts. It is shown that the wafer simulations are highly dependent upon the 1D/2D representation of the mask, in addition to the mask sidewall for 3D mask models. In addition, this paper demonstrates substantial accuracy improvements in the 3D mask model using physical perturbations of the input mask geometry when using Domain Decomposition Method (DDM) techniques. Results from four test cases demonstrate that small, direct modifications in the input mask stack slope and edge location can result in model calibration and verification accuracy benefit of up to 30%. We highlight the benefits of a more accurate description of the 3D EMF near field with crosstalk in model calibration and impact as a function of mask dimensions. The result is a useful technique to align DDM mask model accuracy with physical mask dimensions and scattering via model calibration.

  5. Driving photomask supplier quality through automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Drew; Espenscheid, Andrew

    2007-10-01

    In 2005, Freescale Semiconductor's newly centralized mask data prep organization (MSO) initiated a project to develop an automated global quality validation system for photomasks delivered to Freescale Semiconductor fabs. The system handles Certificate of Conformance (CofC) quality metric collection, validation, reporting and an alert system for all photomasks shipped to Freescale fabs from all qualified global suppliers. The completed system automatically collects 30+ quality metrics for each photomask shipped. Other quality metrics are generated from the collected data and quality metric conformance is automatically validated to specifications or control limits with failure alerts emailed to fab photomask and mask data prep engineering. A quality data warehouse stores the data for future analysis, which is performed quarterly. The improved access to data provided by the system has improved Freescale engineers' ability to spot trends and opportunities for improvement with our suppliers' processes. This paper will review each phase of the project, current system capabilities and quality system benefits for both our photomask suppliers and Freescale.

  6. Quality assurance and yield improvement in photomask fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Takashi

    2000-07-01

    Photomask used in aspect of semiconductor is called on 'No.0 process in wafer' or 'Key-parts', so that we are required to make it with Hi-reliability and Hi-quality level. On the other hand, its problem that cost of Photomask Fabrication jumps because machine price, inspection tool, and inspection steps in leading-edge are increasing. For decreasing what we call 'cost of quality assurance', its policy is significant that quality management in photomask production line is equal quality assurance in photomask, in addition improvement process capability. This report clears the requirement of customer, specification, and the problem, introduces quality assurance and yield improvement in photomask fabrication.

  7. Photomask pattern viewer and analyzer: HOTSCOPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narukawa, Shogo; Yamasaki, Kiyoshi; Machiya, Yuji; Hayashi, Naoya

    2005-06-01

    Recently, photomask pattern feature have become different from LSI layout pattern feature by the OPC process and CMP DUMMY pattern insertion. And then, photomask pattern data volume is very large compared with LSI layout pattern data volume. Therefore, in the usual JOBDECK pattern viewer software, it is difficult to draw those huge pattern data smoothly and quickly. Moreover, various proposals of RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology) are made from various companies and organizations, and it is discussed by various societies. According to the RET, mask pattern feature and structure have been more complicated than the present pattern, and mask difficulty and mask cost might be going to increase and will have great anxiety. Photomask pattern viewer, HOTSCOPE which we developed isn't an only high speed photomask pattern viewer and analyzer, but also can superpose and observe some other mask format pattern and GDS2 format pattern by changing pattern magnification and mirror processing by itself. And HOTSCOPE is the tool which fully incorporated the function required for mask manufactures, such as a plan of a mask, preparation of JOBDECK, and the mask pattern analysis purpose.

  8. Defect printability of advanced binary film photomask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naka, Masato; Yamaguchi, Shinji; Morishita, Keiko; Kanamitsu, Shingo; Yoshikawa, Ryoji; Mashita, Hiromitsu; Hirano, Takashi

    2011-05-01

    Based on an acceptable wafer critical dimension (CD) variation that takes device performance into consideration, we presented a methodology for deriving an acceptable mask defect size using defect printability [1]-[3]. The defect printability is measurable by Aerial Image Measurement System (AIMSTM) and simulated by lithography simulation without exposure. However, the defect printability of these tools is not always the same as the actual one. Therefore, the accuracy of these tools is confirmed by fabricating the programmed defect mask and exposing this mask on wafer. Advanced Binary Film (ABF) photomask has recently been studied as a substitute for the conventional MoSi phase shift mask. For ABF photomask fabrication, mask performance for process and guarantee for mask defects by repair and inspection are important. With regard to the mask performance, the ABF photomask has high performance in terms of resolution of pattern making, placement accuracy, and cleaning durability [4]. With regard to the guarantee for mask defects, it has already been confirmed that the defect on the ABF photomask is repairable for both clear and opaque defects. However, it has not been evaluated for inspection yet. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the defect printability, to derive the acceptable mask defect size, and to confirm the sensitivity of mask inspection tool. In this paper, the defect printability of the ABF photomask was investigated by the following process. Firstly, for opaque and clear defects, sizes and locations were designed as parameters for memory cell patterns. Secondly, the ABF programmed defect mask was fabricated and exposed. Thirdly, mask defect sizes on the ABF programmed defect mask and line CD variations on the exposed wafer were measured with CD-SEM. Finally, the defect printability was evaluated by comparing the correlation between the mask defect sizes and the wafer line CD variations with that of the AIMSTM and the lithography simulation. From these results, the defect printability of AIMSTM was almost the same as the actual one. On the other hand, the defect printability of the lithography simulation was relaxed from the actual one for the isolated defect types for both clear and opaque defects, though the defect printability for the edge defect types was almost the same. Additionally, the acceptable mask defect size based on the actual defect printability was derived and the sensitivity of the mask inspection tool (NPI-7000) was evaluated. Consequently, the sensitivity of the NPI-7000 was detectable for the derived acceptable mask defect size. Therefore, it was confirmed that the ABF photomask could be guaranteed for mask defects.

  9. Photomask linewidth comparison by PTB and NIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, D.; Bodermann, B.; Bosse, H.; Buhr, E.; Dai, G.; Dixson, R.; Häßler-Grohne, W.; Hahm, K.; Wurm, M.

    2015-10-01

    We report the initial results of a recent bilateral comparison of linewidth or critical dimension (CD) calibrations on photomask line features between two national metrology institutes (NMIs): the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the United States and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany. For the comparison, a chrome on glass (CoG) photomask was used which has a layout of line features down to 100 nm nominal size. Different measurement methods were used at both institutes. These included: critical dimension atomic force microscopy (CD-AFM), CD scanning electron microscopy (CD-SEM) and ultraviolet (UV) transmission optical microscopy. The measurands are CD at 50 % height of the features as well as sidewall angle and line width roughness (LWR) of the features. On the isolated opaque features, we found agreement of the CD measurements at the 3 nm to 5 nm level on most features - usually within the combined expanded uncertainties of the measurements.

  10. Calibration of single particle sizing velocimeters using photomask reticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirleman, E. D.; Holve, D. J.; Hovenac, E. A.

    1988-01-01

    The development of photomask reticle calibration standards for single particle instruments is discussed. The calibration method studied involves the use of photomask reticles where the particle artifacts are actually disks of chrome thin film in the clear field reticles produced by photolithography and etching processes. Consideration is given to various aspects of theory, design, and performance.

  11. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Rita; And Others

    The document offers practical and motivating techniques for studying Japan. Dedicated to promoting global awareness, separate sections discuss Japan's geography, history, culture, education, government, economics, energy, transportation, and communication. Each section presents a topical overview; suggested classroom activities; and easily

  12. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Rita; And Others

    The document offers practical and motivating techniques for studying Japan. Dedicated to promoting global awareness, separate sections discuss Japan's geography, history, culture, education, government, economics, energy, transportation, and communication. Each section presents a topical overview; suggested classroom activities; and easily…

  13. Japan.

    PubMed

    1989-02-01

    Japan consists of 3900 islands and lies off the east coast of Asia. Even though Japan is one of the most densely populated nations in the world, its growth rate has stabilized at .5%. 94% of all children go to senior high school and almost 90% finish. Responsibility for the sick, aged, and infirmed is changing from the family and private sector to government. Japan was founded in 600 BC and its 1st capital was in Nara (710-1867). The Portuguese, the 1st Westerners to make contact with Japan in 1542, opened trade which lasted until the mid 17th century. US Navy Commodore Matthew Perry forced Japan to reopen in 1854. Following wars with China and Russia in the late 1800s and early 1900s respectively, Japan took part in World Wars I and II. In between these wars Japan invaded Manchuria and China. The US dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Japanese surrendered in September, 1945 ending World War II (WWII). Following, WWII, the Allied Powers guided Japan's establishment as a nonthreatening nation and a democratic parliamentary government (a constitutional monarchy) with a limited defense force. Japan remains one of the most politically stable of all postwar democracies. The Liberal Democratic Party's Noboru Takeshita became prime minister in 1987. Japan has limited natural resources and only 19% of the land is arable. Japanese ingenuity and skill combine to produce one of the highest per hectare crop yields in the world. Japan is a major economic power, and its and the US economies are becoming more interdependent. Its exports, making up only 13% of the gross national product, mainly go to Canada and the US. Many in the US are concerned, however, with the trade deficit with Japan and are seeking ways to make trade more equitable. Japan wishes to maintain good relations with its Asian neighbors and other nations. The US and Japan enjoy a strong, productive relationship. PMID:12178004

  14. Japan.

    PubMed

    1987-02-01

    Japan is composed of 4 main islands and more than 3900 smaller islands and has 317.7 persons/square kilometer. This makes it one of the most densely populated nations in the world. Religion is an important force in the life of the Japanese and most consider themselves Buddhists. Schooling is free through junior high but 90% of Japanese students complete high school. In fact, Japan enjoys one of the highest literacy rates in the world. There are over 178 newspapers and 3500 magazines published in Japan and the number of new book titles issued each year is greater than that in the US. Since WW1, Japan expanded its influence in Asia and its holdings in the Pacific. However, as a direct result of WW2, Japan lost all of its overseas possessions and was able to retain only its own islands. Since 1952, Japan has been ruled by conservative governments which cooperate closely with the West. Great economic growth has come since the post-treaty period. Japan as a constitutional monarchy operates within the framework of a constitution which became effective in May 1947. Executive power is vested in a cabinet which includes the prime minister and the ministers of state. Japan is one of the most politically stable of the postwar democracies and the Liberal Democratic Party is representative of Japanese moderate conservatism. The economy of Japan is strong and growing. With few resources, there is only 19% of Japanese land suitable for cultivation. Its exports earn only about 19% of the country's gross national product. More than 59 million workers comprise Japan's labor force, 40% of whom are women. Japan and the US are strongly linked trading partners and after Canada, Japan is the largest trading partner of the US. Foreign policy since 1952 has fostered close cooperation with the West and Japan is vitally interested in good relations with its neighbors. Relations with the Soviet Union are not close although Japan is attempting to improve the situation. US policy is based on the following 3 principles: 1) the US views Japan as an equal trade partner, 2) that the relationship is global in scope, and 3) that Japan has become increasingly assertive in world matters and plays a greater international role. The combined efforts of the US and Japan will be utilized to promote world peace. PMID:12177912

  15. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Savannah C.

    Materials for a secondary level, interdisciplinary social studies course on Japan are divided into introductory information, 14 classroom units, and study and evaluation materials. Introductory material includes lists of objectives and skills, an outline of Japanese history, and an explanation of Japan's name and flag. The units cover the

  16. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Savannah C.

    Materials for a secondary level, interdisciplinary social studies course on Japan are divided into introductory information, 14 classroom units, and study and evaluation materials. Introductory material includes lists of objectives and skills, an outline of Japanese history, and an explanation of Japan's name and flag. The units cover the…

  17. Inline detection of Chrome degradation on binary 193nm photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufaye, Flix; Sippel, Astrid; Wylie, Mark; Garca-Berros, Edgardo; Crawford, Charles; Hess, Carl; Sartelli, Luca; Pogliani, Carlo; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Gough, Stuart; Sundermann, Frank; Brochard, Christophe

    2013-09-01

    193nm binary photomasks are still used in the semiconductor industry for the lithography of some critical layers for the nodes 90nm and 65nm, with high volumes and over long periods. However, these 193nm binary photomasks can be impacted by a phenomenon of chrome oxidation leading to critical dimensions uniformity (CDU) degradation with a pronounced radial signature. If not detected early enough, this CDU degradation may cause defectivity issues and lower yield on wafers. Fortunately, a standard cleaning and repellicle service at the mask shop has been demonstrated as efficient to remove the grown materials and get the photomask CD back on target.Some detection methods have been already described in literature, such as wafer CD intrafield monitoring (ACLV), giving reliable results but also consuming additional SEM time with less precision than direct photomask measurement. In this paper, we propose another approach, by monitoring the CDU directly on the photomask, concurrently with defect inspection for regular requalification to production for wafer fabs. For this study, we focused on a Metal layer in a 90nm technology node. Wafers have been exposed with production conditions and then measured by SEM-CD. Afterwards, this photomask has been measured with a SEM-CD in mask shop and also inspected on a KLA-Tencor X5.2 inspection system, with pixels 125 and 90nm, to evaluate the Intensity based Critical Dimension Uniformity (iCDU) option. iCDU was firstly developed to provide feed-forward CDU maps for scanner intrafield corrections, from arrayed dense structures on memory photomasks. Due to layout complexity and differing feature types, CDU monitoring on logic photomasks used to pose unique challenges.The selection of suitable feature types for CDU monitoring on logic photomasks is no longer an issue, since the transmitted intensity map gives all the needed information, as shown in this paper. In this study, the photomask was heavily degraded after more than 18,000 300mm wafers exposed and the cleaning brought it back almost to its original state after manufacture. Wafer CD, photomask CD and iCDU results can be compared, before and after a standard mask shop cleaning. Measurement points have be chosen in logic areas and SRAM areas, so that their respective behaviours can be studied separately. Transmitted maps before and after cleaning were analysed in terms of CD shift and CDU degradation. The delta map shows a nice correlation with photomask CD shift. iCDU demonstrated the capability to detect a reliable CD range degradation of 5nm on photomask by a comparison between a reference inspection and the current inspection. Die to die inspection mode provides also valuable data, highlighting the degraded chrome sidewalls, more in the photomask centre than on the edges. Ultimately, these results would enable to trigger the preventive cleanings rather than on predefined thresholds. The expected gains for wafer fabs are cost savings (adapted cleanings frequency), increased photomask availability for production, longer photomask lifetime, no additional SEM time neither for photomask nor on wafer.

  18. Photomask development for 90-nm technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuan; Cottle, Rand; Mackay, Scott; Xiao, Guangming; Unruh, James; Progler, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    To accelerate the time-to-market of advanced photomasks, Photronics launched its 90nm program in spring 2003. The program included three learning cycles and a technology transfer phase. Both 90nm test masks and product masks from leading integrated device manufacturers (IDMs) and foundries were exercised through the cycles. Stringent success criteria were set based on a survey of leading customers" requirements and the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). Hundreds of binary masks, embedded attenuated phase shift masks (EAPSMs), and alternating aperture phase shift masks (AAPSMs) were produced throughout the program. All targets were exceeded. This paper describes program success criteria, complexity of customer requirements, 90nm test vehicle design, and efforts on improving critical dimension (CD) uniformity and registration. Results in positive and negative chemically amplified resist (CAR) and tunable etching for AAPSM are shown. Details on AAPSM undercut optimization, intensity and CD imbalance are reported.

  19. Multilayer Microfluidic Devices Created From A Single Photomask

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Ryan T.; Sheen, Allison M.; Jambovane, Sachin R.

    2013-08-28

    The time and expense associated with high quality photomask production can discourage the creation of multilayer microfluidic devices, as each layer currently requires a separate photomask. Here we describe an approach in which multilayer microfabricated devices can be created from a single photomask. The separate layers and their corresponding alignment marks are arranged in separate halves of the mask for two layer devices or quadrants for four layer devices. Selective exposure of the photomask features and rotation of the device substrate between exposures result in multiple copies of the devices on each wafer. Subsequent layers are aligned to patterned features on the substrate with the same alignment accuracy as when multiple photomasks are used. We demonstrate this approach for fabricating devices employing multilayer soft lithography (MSL) for pneumatic valving. MSL devices containing as many as 5 layers (4 aligned fluidic layers plus a manually aligned control layer) were successfully created using this approach. Device design is also modularized, enabling the presence or absence of features as well as channel heights to be selected independently from one another. The use of a single photomask to create multilayer devices results in a dramatic savings of time and/or money required to advance from device design to completed prototype.

  20. Photomask repair using low-energetic electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edinger, K.; Wolff, K.; Spies, P.; Luchs, T.; Schneider, H.; Auth, N.; Hermanns, Ch. F.; Waiblinger, M.

    2015-10-01

    Mask repair is an essential step in the mask manufacturing process as the extension of 193nm technology and the insertion of EUV are drivers for mask complexity and cost. The ability to repair all types of defects on all mask blank materials is crucial for the economic success of a mask shop operation. In the future mask repair is facing several challenges. The mask minimum features sizes are shrinking and require a higher resolution repair tool. At the same time mask blanks with different new mask materials are introduced to optimize optical performance and long term durability. For EUV masks new classes of defects like multilayer and phase defects are entering the stage. In order to achieve a high yield, mask repair has to cover etch and deposition capabilities and must not damage the mask. We will demonstrate in this paper that low energetic electron-beam (e-beam)-based mask repair is a commercially viable solution. Therefore we developed a new repair platform called MeRiT neXT to address the technical challenges of this new technology. We will analyze the limits of the existing as well as lower energetic electron induced repair technologies theoretically and experimentally and show performance data on photomask reticles. Based on this data, we will give an outlook to future mask repair technology.

  1. High-performance photomask cleaning process using electrolyzed water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamura, Yoshikazu; Usui, Hozumi; Yoshioka, Nobuyuki; Morimoto, H.

    1998-09-01

    A new photomask cleaning process using electrolyzed water was suggested in this work. This process using the cathode water with a small amount of ammonium hydroxide showed good efficiencies of removing particles from photomask surfaces. MoSiON surface was not so damaged in the alkaline cathode water compared with in APM. The rinsing process in the anode water eliminated the sulfuric acid residue on the surfaces of quartz substrates. Using electrolyzed water reduced the consumptions of the chemicals, the water and the energy.

  2. Cleaning of photomask substrates using CO2 snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Werner V.

    2002-03-01

    CO2 snow cleaning technology has demonstrated the ability to clean a variety of contamination types in a non damaging, environmentally friendly manner. CO2 snow cleaning methods have been used to clean both particles and light organics and currently can be found in a variety of high tech industries to include, semiconductor (Si and GaAs), flat panel display, disk head and media manufacturing, and fiber optics. This paper offers an introduction to basic CO2 properties and cleaning methods in general and photomask cleaning in particular. Focus will be placed on the CO2 snow cleaning method to include: the snow making process, process parameters, process issues, contaminant types, CO2 sources and specification, and safety. A new CO2 snow system to clean current and next generation photomask substrates has been developed and is currently being tested. Machine specifics, process parameters, process issues, and cleaning data, will be discussed in detail.

  3. Defining defect specifications to optimize photomask production and requalification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiekowsky, Peter

    2006-10-01

    Reducing defect repairs and accelerating defect analysis is becoming more important as the total cost of defect repairs on advanced masks increases. Photomask defect specs based on printability, as measured on AIMS microscopes has been used for years, but the fundamental defect spec is still the defect size, as measured on the photomask, requiring the repair of many unprintable defects. ADAS, the Automated Defect Analysis System from AVI is now available in most advanced mask shops. It makes the use of pure printability specs, or "Optimal Defect Specs" practical. This software uses advanced algorithms to eliminate false defects caused by approximations in the inspection algorithm, classify each defect, simulate each defect and disposition each defect based on its printability and location. This paper defines "optimal defect specs", explains why they are now practical and economic, gives a method of determining them and provides accuracy data.

  4. Photomask cleaning process improvement to minimize ArF haze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Michael; McDonald, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    Growth of "haze" defects on photomasks exposed in ArF lithography is recognized as a serious problem. Haze defects that have grown to detectable sizes can be analysed in situ by techniques such as EDX or Raman, but to analyze at the photomask manufacturing stage requires extraction of residues by solution in DI water. The effect of extraction conditions, including surface area and material, water volume, time, and temperature, has been studied. A standard method to compare residual ion levels is proposed. Various methods for reducing residual ion levels from the photomask cleaning process have been published. These include SPM reduction, oxygen plasma, SC1 dilution, Megasonic agitation, hot rinse, UV exposure, thermal bake, ozone water, ozone gas, and hydrogenated water. Critical parameters for the cleaning process, besides residual ion levels and contamination removal efficiency, include CD shift, AR/chrome damage, scatter bar damage, and on phase shift masks, the change in phase and transmission. An optimized process combining conventional and novel techniques is described. Data is presented to show the importance of controlling all resist strip and clean processes, not just the final clean. It has achieved sulphate levels of 0.2ng/cm2 (well below the critical level for haze growth), as well as improved results for the other critical parameters. This process has been demonstrated to allow ArF exposure of large numbers of wafers without the appearance of haze defects.

  5. Post exposure bake tuning for 32nm photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweber, A. E.; Komizo, T.; Levin, J.; Whang, J.; Nemoto, S.; Kondo, S.

    2009-10-01

    In optimizing e-beam resist process conditions for photomask lithography, the primary performance measurements for optimization are resolution, critical dimension uniformity (CDU), line edge roughness (LER), and linearity. Through technology nodes, one parameter that has consistently shown a critical impact on these factors is the post exposure bake (PEB) condition. With 32nm e-beam resist technologies having reduced temperature sensitivity, this paper investigates the current impact of PEB conditions. The PEB assessment will summarize the influence of PEB temperature, duration and environment flow on 32 nm positive tone resists by reporting and analyzing two of the primary performance measurements: CDU and LER.

  6. Investigation of hyper-NA scanner emulation for photomask CDU performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poortinga, Eric; Scheruebl, Thomas; Conley, Will; Sundermann, Frank

    2007-02-01

    As the semiconductor industry moves toward immersion lithography using numerical apertures above 1.0 the quality of the photomask becomes even more crucial. Photomask specifications are driven by the critical dimension (CD) metrology within the wafer fab. Knowledge of the CD values at resist level provides a reliable mechanism for the prediction of device performance. Ultimately, tolerances of device electrical properties drive the wafer linewidth specifications of the lithography group. Staying within this budget is influenced mainly by the scanner settings, resist process, and photomask quality. Tightening of photomask specifications is one mechanism for meeting the wafer CD targets. The challenge lies in determining how photomask level metrology results influence wafer level imaging performance. Can it be inferred that photomask level CD performance is the direct contributor to wafer level CD performance? With respect to phase shift masks, criteria such as phase and transmission control are generally tightened with each technology node. Are there other photomask relevant influences that effect wafer CD performance? A comprehensive study is presented supporting the use of scanner emulation based photomask CD metrology to predict wafer level within chip CD uniformity (CDU). Using scanner emulation with the photomask can provide more accurate wafer level prediction because it inherently includes all contributors to image formation related to the 3D topography such as the physical CD, phase, transmission, sidewall angle, surface roughness, and other material properties. Emulated images from different photomask types were captured to provide CD values across chip. Emulated scanner image measurements were completed using an AIMS TM45-193i with its hyper-NA, through-pellicle data acquisition capability including the Global CDU Map TM software option for AIMS TM tools. The through-pellicle data acquisition capability is an essential prerequisite for capturing final CDU data (after final clean and pellicle mounting) before the photomask ships or for re-qualification at the wafer fab. Data was also collected on these photomasks using a conventional CD-SEM metrology system with the pellicles removed. A comparison was then made to wafer prints demonstrating the benefit of using scanner emulation based photomask CD metrology.

  7. Fabrication of photomasks consisting microlenses for the production of polymeric microneedle array.

    PubMed

    Kathuria, Himanshu; Fong, Michelle H M; Kang, Lifeng

    2015-08-01

    A photomask consisting plano-convex microlenses for the production of polymeric microneedles was fabricated from a microinjection array. The microinjection array was first fabricated using photolithographical approach and subsequently assembled onto a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp. Poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) solution was loaded into the microinjection stamp. The microinjection stamp was then applied onto a coverslip to dispense the polymer solution, producing liquid microdroplets. They were then irradiated to form plano-convex microlenses. These microlenses were evaluated for their geometric properties and were fabricated into photomasks. The photomask consisting microlenses was used to fabricate polymeric microneedles that were evaluated and tested for skin penetration efficiency. PMID:26208649

  8. Cluster tool solution for fabrication and qualification of advanced photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaetz, Thomas; Hartmann, Hans; Peter, Kai; Lalanne, Frederic P.; Maurin, Olivier; Baracchi, Emanuele; Miramond, Corinne; Brueck, Hans-Juergen; Scheuring, Gerd; Engel, Thomas; Eran, Yair; Sommer, Karl

    2000-07-01

    The reduction of wavelength in optical lithography, phase shift technology and optical proximity correction (OPC), requires a rapid increase in cost effective qualification of photomasks. The knowledge about CD variation, loss of pattern fidelity especially for OPC pattern and mask defects concerning the impact on wafer level is becoming a key issue for mask quality assessment. As part of the European Community supported ESPRIT projection 'Q-CAP', a new cluster concept has been developed, which allows the combination of hardware tools as well as software tools via network communication. It is designed to be open for any tool manufacturer and mask hose. The bi-directional network access allows the exchange of all relevant mask data including grayscale images, measurement results, lithography parameters, defect coordinates, layout data, process data etc. and its storage to a SQL database. The system uses SEMI format descriptions as well as standard network hardware and software components for the client server communication. Each tool is used mainly to perform its specific application without using expensive time to perform optional analysis, but the availability of the database allows each component to share the full data ste gathered by all components. Therefore, the cluster can be considered as one single virtual tool. The paper shows the advantage of the cluster approach, the benefits of the tools linked together already, and a vision of a mask house in the near future.

  9. The method of quartz damage recovery in the photomask repair process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namkung, Hoon; Kim, MunSik; Park, EuiSang; Jung, HoYong; Kim, SangPyo; Yim, DongGyu

    2015-07-01

    As the pattern size became gradually smaller, the defect detectability of the photomask inspection tool was more improved. For these reasons, we have to repair various defects more precisely. By improving the mask yield through the repair process, we can reduce the cost of mask fabrication. In this study, we studied the defect called quartz damage which distorts the AIMSTM (Arial Image Measurement System) intensity of the repaired pattern and causes the scrap of the photomask. The quartz damage is generally observed when the abnormal defects like particles were repaired in the poor repairing condition. The quartz damage occasionally results in repair errors and affects the AIMS intensity. Currently there is no clear solution for recovering the quartz damage. As a result, it is very difficult to get the high quality photomask if the quartz damage is generated on the photomask. Therefore, it is important to find a method of recovering the quartz damage for producing the high quality photomask. In this paper, we demonstrated that the quartz damage can be recovered through the TEOS (Tetraethoxysilane) gas deposition. Also we investigated the effect on the recovery of the quartz damage of various parameters such as the type and the depth of the quartz damage as well as the repair conditions of the TEOS gas deposition.

  10. Best-practice evaluation-methods for wafer-fab photomask-requalification inspection tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Chan Seob; Mungmode, Ashish; Taylor, Ron; Cho, David; Koh, Hui Peng

    2014-10-01

    Requalifying semiconductor photomasks remains critically important and is increasingly challenging for 20nm and 14nm node logic reticles. Patterns are becoming more complex on the photomask, and defect sensitivity requirements are more stringent than ever before. Reticle inspection tools are equally important for effective process development and the successful ramp and sustained yield for high volume manufacturing. The inspection stages considered were: incoming inspection to match with Mask Shop Outgoing result and to detect defects generated during transport; requalification by routine cycle inspection to detect Haze and any other defects; and inspection by in-house or Mask shop at the post cleaning. There are many critical capability and capacity factors for the decision for best inspection tool and strategy for high volume manufacturing, especially objective Lens NA, wavelength, power, pixel size, throughput, full-automation inspection linked with Overhead Transport, algorithm application, engineering application function, and inspection of PSM and OMOG . These tools are expensive but deliver differentiated value in terms of performance and throughput as well as extendibility. Performing a thorough evaluation and making a technically sound choice which explores these many factors is critical for success of a fab. This paper examines the methodology for evaluating two different photomask inspection tools. The focus is on ensuring production worthiness on real and advanced product photomasks requiring accurate evaluation of sensitivity, throughput, data analysis function and engineering work function on those product photomasks. Photomasks used for data collection are production reticles, PDM(Program defect Mask), SiN spray defect Reticle which is described that evaluates how the tools would perform on a contaminated plate.

  11. Lens wavefront compensation for 3D photomask effects in subwavelength optical lithography.

    PubMed

    Sears, Monica Kempsell; Bekaert, Joost; Smith, Bruce W

    2013-01-20

    As semiconductor optical lithography is pushed to smaller dimensions, resolution enhancement techniques have been required to maintain process yields. For some time, the customization of illumination coherence at the source plane has allowed for the control of diffraction order distribution across the projection lens pupil. Phase shifting at the photomask plane has allowed for some phase control as well. Geometries smaller than the imaging wavelength introduce complex wavefront effects that cannot be corrected at source or mask planes. Three-dimensional photomask topography effects can cause a loss of both focal depth and exposure latitude across geometry of varying density. Wavefront manipulation at the lens pupil plane becomes necessary to provide the degrees of freedom needed to correct for such effects. The focus of this research is the compensation of the wavefront phase error introduced by the topographical photomask structures of high resolution phase shift masking combined with off-axis illumination. The compensation is realized through phase manipulation of the lens pupil plane, specifically in the form of spherical aberration. Subwavelength resolution optimization and imaging is presented showing how phase pupil filtering can measurably improve the depth of focus for several photomask structures and types. PMID:23338176

  12. The effect of photomask resolution on separation efficiency on microfabricated devices.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Amanda R; Clark, Anna M; Culbertson, Christopher T

    2006-10-01

    Separation quality on glass microfluidic devices fabricated from photomasks of different optical resolutions was compared by measuring the dispersion (apparent diffusion) coefficients of a set of standard compounds separated on these devices. Currently, the channel manifolds of most microfluidic devices are patterned using chrome photomasks. A much cheaper, more robust alternative to chrome photomasks are laser photoplotted masks. The primary disadvantage to using laser photoplots is that the optical resolution of these masks is not as high as that of chrome masks, and this feature increases the side-wall roughness of etched channel manifolds patterned using such masks. The increased wall roughness may affect the fluid flow within the channels and, therefore, the separation quality. To determine the effect of increased sidewall channel roughness, microchip channel manifolds were patterned in soda lime glass using a chrome photomask and laser photoplots printed at resolutions of 620, 1240, 3100 and 6200 dots per centimetre (dpc). Separations were performed on these devices using dilute solutions of fluorescently labeled amino acids. The peak variances of the amino acids were calculated at increasing distances down the separation channel and plotted as a function of migration time. From this plot, dispersion coefficients of the analytes were measured. This allowed for a reliable, relatively easy, direct separation analysis among microchips fabricated from the various photomasks. After multiple separations using microchips fabricated from each resolution mask, we found that the change in sidewall surface roughness did not significantly affect the dispersion coefficients measured, and thus the separation quality. The lower mask resolution limit, rather, was governed by the fidelity to which the mask could capture the original CAD design. PMID:17102849

  13. Photomask Repair Using An Advanced Laser Based Repair System (MARS2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Michael R.; Flanigan, Phillip; Thibault, David

    2002-12-01

    The ability to deliver high end photomasks free of printable defects is key to the success of the photomask manufacturing process. Although investment in substrate purity, particulate control, and cleaning capability has increased dramatically, they have proven no match for the defects" ability to destroy an otherwise ideal mask. It is, therefore, essential to continue to have the capability to repair defects in order to deliver high-end photomasks. The vast variety of potential defects, combined with the different mask substrates, has driven the repair capability to not only be very technically driven, but also versatile and quick. Between the major defect categories of clear and opaque defects, opaque defects present the greatest challenge. Traditionally, this challenge lies in the reality that there is no perfect full height defect resulting in no one universal removal process. This is compounded with the fact that on any given photomask, these opaque defects can be greater than a micron, sub micron, very numerous, within tight geometries, or out in an isolated region of the photomask. Furthermore, defects identified as opaque defects have the possibility to be foreign material related, presenting a further challenge. They do not respond to repair in the same manner as the opaque defects. The multitude of issues, combined with the need to repair the defects with high throughput, has driven the need for an advanced opaque repair system. This paper will look into the practical application of a laser-based advanced opaque repair tool. Repair tool capability will show repair performance including substrate damage, transmission effects, and edge placement repeatability. This paper will also present a view of the operations of the repair system including imaging capabilities, and process throughput. This practical review of the advanced opaque repair system will show that technical needs of opaque repair, as well as practical needs of throughput and ease of use, can be achieved within one repair process.

  14. Aerial imaging technology for photomask qualification: from a microscope to a metrology tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garetto, Anthony; Scherbl, Thomas; Peters, Jan Hendrik

    2012-09-01

    Photomasks carry the structured information of the chip designs printed with lithography scanners onto wafers. These structures, for the most modern technologies, are enlarged by a factor of 4 with respect to the final circuit design, and 20-60 of these photomasks are needed for the production of a single completed chip used, for example, in computers or cell phones. Lately, designs have been reported to be on the drawing board with close to 100 of these layers. Each of these photomasks will be reproduced onto the wafer several hundred times and typically 5000-50 000 wafers will be produced with each of them. Hence, the photomasks need to be absolutely defect-free to avoid any fatal electrical shortcut in the design or drastic performance degradation. One well-known method in the semiconductor industry is to analyze the aerial image of the photomask in a dedicated tool referred to as Aerial Imaging Measurement System, which emulates the behavior of the respective lithography scanner used for the imaging of the mask. High-end lithography scanners use light with a wavelength of 193 nm and high numerical apertures (NAs) of 1.35 utilizing a water film between the last lens and the resist to be illuminated (immersion scanners). Complex illumination shapes enable the imaging of structures well below the wavelength used. Future lithography scanners will work at a wavelength of 13.5 nm [extreme ultraviolet (EUV)] and require the optical system to work with mirrors in vacuum instead of the classical lenses used in current systems. The exact behavior of these systems is emulated by the Aerial Image Measurement System (AIMS; a Trademark of Carl Zeiss). With these systems, any position of the photomask can be imaged under the same illumination condition used by the scanners, and hence, a prediction of the printing behavior of any structure can be derived. This system is used by mask manufacturers in their process flow to review critical defects or verify defect repair success. In this paper, we give a short introduction into the lithography roadmap driving the development cycles of the AIMS systems focusing primarily on the complexity of the structures to be reviewed. Second, we describe the basic principle of the AIMS technology and how it is used. The last section is dedicated to the development of the latest generation of the AIMS for EUV, which is cofinanced by several semiconductor companies in order to close a major gap in the mask manufacturing infrastructure and the challenges to be met.

  15. Circle parameters calibration and data analysis of two-dimensional shape photomask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuanghua; Xue, Zi; Wang, Heyan

    2015-10-01

    Two-dimensional shape photomask is widely used to calibrate and correct optical precision measurement system like image measurement instrument and to calibrate or distortion correction of camera probe with CCD/CMOS sensor. Among all 2-D shapes, circle is adopted frequently because of its information such as size, form and position. Standard photomask with circle shape is multi-parameter calibrated by high precision laser two-coordinate standard device based on coordinate measurement method. Roundness error is assessed by least square circle method. How center coordinate, radius and roundness of a circle affected by number of measurement points, incident light intensity and optical magnification of micro probe are analyzed. Test results indicate than that standard with circle shape could be calibrated with high precision.

  16. Development of a 1.5D reference comparator for position and straightness metrology on photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flgge, J.; Kning, R.; Weichert, Ch.; Hler-Grohne, W.; Geckeler, R. D.; Wiegmann, A.; Schulz, M.; Elster, C.; Bosse, H.

    2008-10-01

    The so-called Nanometer Comparator is the PTB vacuum length comparator which has been developed for high precision length metrology on measurement objects with micro- and nanostructured graduations, like e.g. line scales, incremental encoders or photomasks. The Nanometer Comparator allows to achieve smallest measurement uncertainties in the nm-range by use of vacuum laser interferometry for the displacement measurement. We will report on the achieved measurement performance of this high precision vacuum length comparator and the already started developments to substantially enhance its measurement capabilities by additional straightness measurement capabilities. The enhanced Nanometer Comparator will provide traceability for photomask pattern placement measurements in industry, also facing the challenges due to the increased requirements on registration metrology as set by the introduction of new lithography techniques like double patterning methods.

  17. Novel cleaning techniques to achieve defect-free photomasks for sub-65-nm nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Jin Ho; Lee, Dong Wook; Ryu, Ji Sun; Kim, Sang Pyo; Han, Oscar

    2006-10-01

    The ability to eliminate the critical source of haze contamination which can be derived from the cleaning chemistry residues and mass production environment has become a major challenge for 193 nm photolithography in semiconductor industry. Furthermore, as the specification for pattern generation on photomask becomes tighter, it is getting harder and harder to eliminate defects with both minimal structural damage and preservation of photophysical properties. We designed for the smart cleaning strategy to achieve the defect-free photomasks as a concern of above current issue with a combination of well-known cleaning technology, such as using the collective effects of ozonated water (DIO 3) for the alternative to conventional clean (SPM/SC1) and UV/O 3 treatment for the control of sulfate concentration. In addition to photomask clean, these strategies are also used for photoresist stripping. As well as the final cleaning process, it is a rational strategy that judicious modification of inter-process clean. Specially, that kind of view is focused on the after-development clean (ADC) process which mainly eliminated the source of fatal defects on the mask, such as pattern bridge following dry etch process. In this paper we will propose a novel cleaning strategy for the elimination of potential source of haze formation and fatal defects.

  18. Sub-20-nm node photomask cleaning enhancement by controlling zeta potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kuan-Wen; Lu, Chi-Lun; Shen, Chin-Wei; Hsu, Luke; Chin, Angus; Yen, Anthony

    2012-11-01

    As semiconductor manufacturing advances to sub-20-nm nodes, specification (size < 50 nm) for extremely fine particles on photomasks is getting more and more stringent. Photomask cleanliness, which seriously impacts manufacturing cycle time and productivity, is a serious challenge in the development of sub-20-nm node mask cleaning process. Several cleaning approaches, including the use of chemical and physical forces, are widely used in mask cleaning. In this study, we focus on the chemical force through zeta potential (ZP). ZP indicates the degree of repulsion between the particles and the mask surface (mostly quartz). In the nano-scale, stronger repulsion means easier removal of particles from mask surfaces. By controlling ZP of different chemicals from -10 mV to -150 mV in the cleaning process, the particle removal efficiency (PRE) is further improved by about 10%, especially for extremely fine particles. The ZP measurement methodology for different cleaning chemicals on quartz surface is also carried out. ZP is a helpful index in evaluating the performance of new chemicals for mask cleaning. To enhance photomask cleaning for sub-20-nm nodes, the chemical force needs to be increased because the physical force has been constrained to avoid pattern damages, especially when much smaller assistant features are commonly used to gain a greater lithography process window. How to choose a suitable cleaning approach for the next generation mask cleaning is very critical.

  19. Photomask etch system and process for 10nm technology node and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrachood, Madhavi; Grimbergen, Michael; Yu, Keven; Leung, Toi; Tran, Jeffrey; Chen, Jeff; Bivens, Darin; Yalamanchili, Rao; Wistrom, Richard; Faure, Tom; Bartlau, Peter; Crawford, Shaun; Sakamoto, Yoshifumi

    2015-10-01

    While the industry is making progress to offer EUV lithography schemes to attain ultimate critical dimensions down to 20 nm half pitch, an interim optical lithography solution to address an immediate need for resolution is offered by various integration schemes using advanced PSM (Phase Shift Mask) materials including thin e-beam resist and hard mask. Using the 193nm wavelength to produce 10nm or 7nm patterns requires a range of optimization techniques, including immersion and multiple patterning, which place a heavy demand on photomask technologies. Mask schemes with hard mask certainly help attain better selectivity and hence better resolution but pose integration challenges and defectivity issues. This paper presents a new photomask etch solution for attenuated phase shift masks that offers high selectivity (Cr:Resist > 1.5:1), tighter control on the CD uniformity with a 3sigma value approaching 1 nm and controllable CD bias (5-20 nm) with excellent CD linearity performance (<5 nm) down to the finer resolution. The new system has successfully demonstrated capability to meet the 10 nm node photomask CD requirements without the use of more complicated hard mask phase shift blanks. Significant improvement in post wet clean recovery performance was demonstrated by the use of advanced chamber materials. Examples of CD uniformity, linearity, and minimum feature size, and etch bias performance on 10 nm test site and production mask designs will be shown.

  20. Impact of EUV photomask line-edge roughness on wafer prints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhengqing John; Gallagher, Emily; Negishi, Yoshiyuki; McIntyre, Gregory; Zweber, Amy; Senna, Tasuku; Akutagawa, Satoshi; Konishi, Toshio

    2012-11-01

    The line-edge roughness (LER) of a photomask image has a measurable impact on the corresponding printed wafer LER. This impact increases as wafer exposures move from 193nm DUV to 13.5nm EUV wavelengths since the imaging tool is a low-pass filter with EUV passing more spatial frequencies. Even the high frequency mask LER may impact the wafer image by lowering its image log-slope (ILS). Studying the magnitude and frequency content of mask LER is a first step to reducing the wafer LER. The next step is to determine which components of mask line roughness actually contribute to the wafer line roughness. Order is imposed on this study by fabricating programmed LER patterns on an EUV mask to introduce controlled variations in LER spatial frequency and magnitude. More specifically, line-width roughness (LWR), LER and power spectral density (PSD) are extracted from 64nm and 90nm (1X) pitch lines on a programmed LER EUV photomask. The same mask is then exposed on the ASML EUV Alpha Demo Tool (ADT) at best focus and dose. Three chemically amplified EUV photoresists are evaluated using the programmed LER photomask through PSD and LWR comparisons and the highest performance resist is used for a comprehensive LER transfer analysis. Wafer LWR is extracted from 64nm and 90nm pitch lines and correlated back to the base mask patterns revealing an empirical LWR transfer function (LTF). Finally, the study is extended to 45nm (1X) pitch lines by deploying a pupil filter on the ADT to explore the effect on LWR as the feature sizes shrink.

  1. The study of develop optimization to control various resist defect in Photomask fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, JongHoon; Kim, ByungJu; Son, JaeSik; Park, EuiSang; Kim, SangPyo; Yim, DongGyu

    2015-07-01

    To reduce the pattern size in photomask is an inevitable trend because of the minimization of chip size. So it makes a big challenge to control defects in photomask industry. Defects below a certain size that had not been any problem in previous technology node are becoming an issue as the patterns are smaller. Therefore, the acceptable tolerance levels for current defect size and quantity are dramatically reduced. Because these defects on photomask can be the sources of the repeating defects on wafer, small size defects smaller than 200nm should not be ignored any more. Generally, almost defects are generated during develop process and etch process. Especially it is difficult to find the root cause of defects formed during the develop process because of their various types and very small size. In this paper, we studied how these small defects can be eliminated by analyzing the defects and tuning the develop process. There are 3 types of resist defects which are named as follows. The first type is `Popcorn' defect which is mainly occurred in negative resist and exists on the dark features. The second type is `Frog eggs' defect which is occurred in 2nd process of HTPSM and exists on the wide space area. The last type is `Spot' defect which also exists on the wide space area. These defects are generally appeared on the entire area of a plate and the number of these defects is about several hundred. It is thought that the original source is the surface's hydrophilic state before develop process or the incongruity between resist and developer. This study shows that the optimizing the develop process can be a good solution for some resist defects.

  2. Direct rapid prototyping of PDMS from a photomask film for micropatterning of biomolecules and cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyundoo; Kang, Gyumin; Yeon, Ju Hun; Nam, Yoonkey; Park, Je-Kyun

    2009-01-01

    The soft lithographic technique is a collection of simple and cost-effective patterning techniques which applies an elastomeric stamp to transfer a nano/micro-scale pattern. Patterning biological materials using soft lithography provides procedurally simple control of the surface chemistry and the cell environments. However, conventional methods for generating microstructures on a substrate require expensive clean room facilities and skillful training. Here we report a simple and inexpensive clean-room free process using a conventional photomask film as a master to fabricate elastomeric stamps or microfluidic channels. This ultra rapid prototyping technique was applied to print FITC labeled poly-L-lysine with a 10 microm feature size on a glass substrate using soft lithographic processes, such as micro-contact printing and micromolding in capillaries, for patterning human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, human skin fibroblasts and hippocampal neurons from E-18 Sprague-Dawley rat. This novel technique using a photomask film as a master would be very useful 'hands-on' tool for the generation of micro-patterned chemical or biological assays using cells and proteins. PMID:19209351

  3. Optimization of laser machining process for the preparation of photomasks, and its application to microsystems fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Avinash; Gupta, Ankur; Kant, Rishi; Akhtar, Syed Nadeem; Tiwari, Nachiketa; Ramkumar, Janakrajan; Bhattacharya, Shantanu

    2013-10-01

    Conventional photolithography normally utilizes a photomask for patterning light onto a chemical resist film. Therefore, the accuracy of microfabrication is highly dependent on the accuracy of the photomasks. Fabrication of hard masks involves the use of expensive laser pattern generators and other sophisticated machines using very high-precision stages and the necessary control instrumentation; therefore, an inexpensive strategy is highly necessary for laboratory-level fabrication. As this technology is primarily based on raster scanning of a laser beam, the mask making as such becomes a low-throughput process. A strategy of high-throughput manufacturing of hard masks with laser micromachining using a one-step exposure process of a chromated glass slide through a micromachined aluminum shadow mask is proposed. The features that are finally embedded in the mask are highly demagnified and well focused. Optimization of the laser machining process is carried out by considering all processing parameters. The features are characterized using an optical microscope, a scanning electron microscope, and a self-developed image analysis code. Geometrical methods are used to estimate the average edge roughness and feature size. We have also validated the usage of these masks by performing microfabrication on films made of photoresist.

  4. The impact of 14-nm photomask uncertainties on computational lithography solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturtevant, John; Tejnil, Edita; Lin, Tim; Schultze, Steffen; Buck, Peter; Kalk, Franklin; Nakagawa, Kent; Ning, Guoxiang; Ackmann, Paul; Gans, Fritz; Buergel, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Computational lithography solutions rely upon accurate process models to faithfully represent the imaging system output for a defined set of process and design inputs. These models, which must balance accuracy demands with simulation runtime boundary conditions, rely upon the accurate representation of multiple parameters associated with the scanner and the photomask. While certain system input variables, such as scanner numerical aperture, can be empirically tuned to wafer CD data over a small range around the presumed set point, it can be dangerous to do so since CD errors can alias across multiple input variables. Therefore, many input variables for simulation are based upon designed or recipe-requested values or independent measurements. It is known, however, that certain measurement methodologies, while precise, can have significant inaccuracies. Additionally, there are known errors associated with the representation of certain system parameters. With shrinking total CD control budgets, appropriate accounting for all sources of error becomes more important, and the cumulative consequence of input errors to the computational lithography model can become significant. In this work, we examine with a simulation sensitivity study, the impact of errors in the representation of photomask properties including CD bias, corner rounding, refractive index, thickness, and sidewall angle. The factors that are most critical to be accurately represented in the model are cataloged. CD Bias values are based on state of the art mask manufacturing data and other variables changes are speculated, highlighting the need for improved metrology and awareness.

  5. 3D Monte Carlo modeling of the SEM: Are there applications to photomask metrology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villarrubia, J. S.; Vladár, A. E.; Postek, M. T.

    2014-09-01

    The ability to model the effect of fields due to charges trapped in insulators with floating conductors has been added to JMONSEL (Java Monte Carlo simulator for Secondary Electrons) and applied to a simple photomask metal on glass geometry. These capabilities are prerequisites if model-based scanning electron microscope (SEM) metrology is to be extended beyond wafer to photomask applications, where such samples must frequently be measured. Model-based SEM is an alternative to the customary threshold- or gradient-based approach. It is more demanding inasmuch as it requires a model of the physics of image formation, but the reward is greater accuracy, lower sensitivity to secondary sample characteristics (e.g., edge shape) that affect the intensity, and information about 3D geometrical shape (not simply the width) of the measured features. The prerequisites are ability to measure a signal, such as the SEM image, that is sensitive to changes in the parameters one wishes to measure and a model that describes the relationship between the signal and the parameters. The simulation shows the development of the potential energy barrier to electron escape during an initial transient charging-up phase, accompanied by increasing electron recapture and stabilization of the average yield.

  6. Qualification of local advanced cryogenic cleaning technology for 14nm photomask fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taumer, Ralf; Krome, Thorsten; Bowers, Chuck; Varghese, Ivin; Hopkins, Tyler; White, Roy; Brunner, Martin; Yi, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    The march toward tighter design rules, and thus smaller defects, implies stronger surface adhesion between defects and the photomask surface compared to past generations, thereby resulting in increased difficulty in photomask cleaning. Current state-of-the-art wet clean technologies utilize functional water and various energies in an attempt to produce similar yield to the acid cleans of previous generations, but without some of the negative side effects. Still, wet cleans have continued to be plagued with issues such as persistent particles and contaminations, SRAF and feature damages, leaving contaminants behind that accelerate photo-induced defect growth, and others. This paper details work done through a design of experiments (DOE) utilized to qualify an improved cryogenic cleaning technology for production in the Advanced Mask Technology Center (AMTC) advanced production lines for 20 and 14 nm processing. All work was conducted at the AMTC facility in Dresden, Germany utilizing technology developed by Eco-Snow Systems and RAVE LLC for their cryogenic local cleaning VC1200F platform. This system uses a newly designed nozzle, improved gaseous CO2 delivery, extensive filtration to remove hydrocarbons and minimize particle adders, and other process improvements to overcome the limitations of the previous generation local cleaning tool. AMTC has successfully qualified this cryogenic cleaning technology and is currently using it regularly to enhance production yields even at the most challenging technology nodes.

  7. Correcting image placement errors using registration control (RegC) technology in the photomask periphery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Avi; Lange, Falk; Ben-Zvi, Guy; Graitzer, Erez; Vladimir, Dmitriev

    2012-11-01

    The ITRS roadmap specifies wafer overlay control as one of the major tasks for the sub 40 nm nodes in addition to CD control and defect control. Wafer overlay is strongly dependent on mask image placement error (registration errors or Reg errors)1. The specifications for registration or mask placement accuracy are significantly tighter in some of the double patterning techniques (DPT). This puts a heavy challenge on mask manufacturers (mask shops) to comply with advanced node registration specifications. The conventional methods of feeding back the systematic registration error to the E-beam writer and re-writing the mask are becoming difficult, expensive and not sufficient for the advanced nodes especially for double pattering technologies. Six production masks were measured on a standard registration metrology tool and the registration errors were calculated and plotted. Specially developed algorithm along with the RegC Wizard (dedicated software) was used to compute a correction lateral strain field that would minimize the registration errors. This strain field was then implemented in the photomask bulk material using an ultra short pulse laser based system. Finally the post process registration error maps were measured and the resulting residual registration error field with and without scale and orthogonal errors removal was calculated. In this paper we present a robust process flow in the mask shop which leads up to 32% registration 3sigma improvement, bringing some out-of-spec masks into spec, utilizing the RegC process in the photomask periphery while leaving the exposure field optically unaffected.

  8. Correcting image placement errors using registration control (RegC) technology in the photomask periphery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Avi; Lange, Falk; Ben-Zvi, Guy; Graitzer, Erez; Dmitriev, Vladimir

    2012-02-01

    The ITRS roadmap specifies wafer overlay control as one of the major tasks for the sub 40 nm nodes in addition to CD control and defect control. Wafer overlay is strongly dependent on mask image placement error (registration errors or Reg errors)1. The specifications for registration or mask placement accuracy are significantly tighter in some of the double patterning techniques (DPT). This puts a heavy challenge on mask manufacturers (mask shops) to comply with advanced node registration specifications. The conventional methods of feeding back the systematic registration error to the E-beam writer and re-writing the mask are becoming difficult, expensive and not sufficient for the advanced nodes especially for double pattering technologies. Six production masks were measured on a standard registration metrology tool and the registration errors were calculated and plotted. Specially developed algorithm along with the RegC Wizard (dedicated software) was used to compute a correction lateral strain field that would minimize the registration errors. This strain field was then implemented in the photomask bulk material using an ultra short pulse laser based system. Finally the post process registration error maps were measured and the resulting residual registration error field with and without scale and orthogonal errors removal was calculated. In this paper we present a robust process flow in the mask shop which leads up to 32% registration 3sigma improvement, bringing some out-of-spec masks into spec, utilizing the RegC process in the photomask periphery while leaving the exposure field optically unaffected.

  9. Identification of defect source to control reticle defect density for CAR and dry etching in the photomask process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sung-Yong; Ahn, Won-Suk; Cho, Won-Il; Sung, Moon-Gyu; Moon, Seong-Yong; Choi, Seong-Woon; Yoon, Hee-Sun; Sohn, Jung-Min

    2002-12-01

    As the design rule of lithography becomes smaller, printability of reticle defect to wafer is crucial for the photomask manufacturing technology. In order to improve the controllability of reticle defects, inspection and repair systems are expanding their capability by continuously modifying hardware and software. This is a good solution to detect and review the defect but it is indirect approaching to reduce the defect in the photomask process. To produce the photomask of defect free or low defect density, effort is needed to improve the capability of defect control in the mask-making process and to evaluate the source of hard defect as well as soft defect. In this paper, we concern the defect source and the feature of printed defects in photomask manufacturing steps. We also discuss the efforts to eliminate the defect source and to control the mask-making process with low defect density. In order to eliminate the source of defects, we partition the mask-making process with defect inspection system, SLF27 TeraStar and Lasertec MD2000, and review a defect shape with CD SEM and AFM. And we compare printed defects, which exist in each process steps, after dry etching process.

  10. Managing effects in CD control from PED and PEB in advanced DUV photomask manufacturing using FEP-171 resist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsson, Adisa; Xing, Kezhao; Fosshaug, Hans; Lundvall, Axel; Bjoernberg, Charles; Karlsson, Johan

    2005-05-01

    A continuing improvement in resist process is a necessity for high-end photomask fabrication. In advanced chemically amplified resist systems the lithographic performance is strongly influenced by diffusion of acid and acid quencher (i.e. bases). Beside the resist properties, e.g. size and volatility of the photoacid, the process conditions play important roles for the diffusion control. Understanding and managing these properties influences lithographic characteristics on the photomask such as CD uniformity, CD and pitch linearity, resolution, substrate contamination, clear-dark bias and iso-dense bias. In this paper we have investigated effects on the lithographic characteristics with respect to post exposure bake conditions, when using the chemically amplified resist FEP-171. We used commercially available mask blanks from the Hoya Mask Blank Division with NTAR7 chrome and an optimized resist thickness for the 248 nm laser tool at 3200. The photomasks were exposed on the optical DUV (248nm) Sigma7300 pattern generator. Additionally, we investigated the image stability between exposure and post exposure bake. Unlike in wafer fabrication, photomask writing requires several hours, making the resist susceptible to image blur and acid latent image degradation.

  11. Z-correction, a method for achieving ultraprecise self-calibration on large area coordinate measurement machines for photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekberg, Peter; Stiblert, Lars; Mattsson, Lars

    2014-05-01

    High-quality photomasks are a prerequisite for the production of flat panel TVs, tablets and other kinds of high-resolution displays. During the past years, the resolution demand has become more and more accelerated, and today, the high-definition standard HD, 1920 × 1080 pixels2, is well established, and already the next-generation so-called ultra-high-definition UHD or 4K display is entering the market. Highly advanced mask writers are used to produce the photomasks needed for the production of such displays. The dimensional tolerance in X and Y on absolute pattern placement on these photomasks, with sizes of square meters, has been in the range of 200-300 nm (3σ), but is now on the way to be <150 nm (3σ). To verify these photomasks, 2D ultra-precision coordinate measurement machines are used with even tighter tolerance requirements. The metrology tool MMS15000 is today the world standard tool used for the verification of large area photomasks. This paper will present a method called Z-correction that has been developed for the purpose of improving the absolute X, Y placement accuracy of features on the photomask in the writing process. However, Z-correction is also a prerequisite for achieving X and Y uncertainty levels <90 nm (3σ) in the self-calibration process of the MMS15000 stage area of 1.4 × 1.5 m2. When talking of uncertainty specifications below 200 nm (3σ) of such a large area, the calibration object used, here an 8-16 mm thick quartz plate of size approximately a square meter, cannot be treated as a rigid body. The reason for this is that the absolute shape of the plate will be affected by gravity and will therefore not be the same at different places on the measurement machine stage when it is used in the self-calibration process. This mechanical deformation will stretch or compress the top surface (i.e. the image side) of the plate where the pattern resides, and therefore spatially deform the mask pattern in the X- and Y-directions. Errors due to this deformation can easily be several hundred nanometers. When Z-correction is used in the writer, it is also possible to relax the flatness demand of the photomask backside, leading to reduced manufacturing costs of the plates.

  12. Laser-written binary OMOG photomasks for high-volume non-critical 193-nm photolithographic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivire, Rmi; Gopalakrishnan, Selvi; Mazur, Martin; ner, Nevzat; Mhle, Sven; Seltmann, Rolf

    2014-10-01

    Photomasks are key elements of photolithographic processes, implying that their degradation must be reliably monitored and strongly mitigated. Indeed, the photo-induced oxidation of Cr in Cr On Glass (COG) photomasks and the concomitant electrostatic-field migration present in high-volume production using 193-nm photolithographic scanners severely deteriorate the pattern transfer quality, therefore limiting the lifetime of these reticles. To moderate this effect, Opaque MoSi On Glass (OMOG) photomasks, significantly less prone to such degradation, are currently being massively used in leading-edge microfabrication flows. The type of mask fabrication process normally used involving ebeam writing is however not adapted for non-critical photolithographic layers that do not yet benefit from its inherent performances but still suffer from its high cost and its long processing time. It is therefore proposed in this work to combine the simplicity of laser writing and the resistance of MoSi to degradation by using laser-written binary OMOG photomasks for the non-critical layers (e.g. ion-implantation) of a 28-nm production flow. To evaluate one of this new reticle, its pattern transfer fidelity is compared to the one of a laser-written binary COG mask already qualified for production from a photolithographic quality perspective, both masks being treated using the same optical proximity correction (OPC) model. Dispersive and dissipative properties, critical dimension uniformity, pattern linearity and pattern proximity are directly measured on wafer level, subsequently revealing that both photomasks match in terms of OPC parameters. The utilized OPC model is moreover proven robust against the use of both types of masks, consequently making the conversion from COG to OMOG particularly simple. These experimental results therefore qualify the new mask fabrication type and pave the way for a major utilization in high-volume production.

  13. Photomask applications of traceable atomic force microscope dimensional metrology at NIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixson, Ronald; Orji, Ndubuisi G.; Potzick, James; Fu, Joseph; Allen, Richard A.; Cresswell, Michael; Smith, Stewart; Walton, Anthony J.; Tsiamis, Andreas

    2007-10-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a multifaceted program in atomic force microscope (AFM) dimensional metrology. Three major instruments are being used for traceable measurements. The first is a custom in-house metrology AFM, called the calibrated AFM (C-AFM), the second is the first generation of commercially available critical dimension AFM (CD-AFM), and the third is a current generation CD-AFM at SEMATECH - for which NIST has established the calibration and uncertainties. All of these instruments have useful applications in photomask metrology. Linewidth reference metrology is an important application of CD-AFM. We have performed a preliminary comparison of linewidths measured by CD-AFM and by electrical resistance metrology on a binary mask. For the ten selected test structures with on-mask linewidths between 350 nm and 600 nm, most of the observed differences were less than 5 nm, and all of them were less than 10 nm. The offsets were often within the estimated uncertainties of the AFM measurements, without accounting for the effect of linewidth roughness or the uncertainties of electrical measurements. The most recent release of the NIST photomask standard - which is Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2059 - was also supported by CD-AFM reference measurements. We review the recent advances in AFM linewidth metrology that will reduce the uncertainty of AFM measurements on this and future generations of the NIST photomask standard. The NIST C-AFM has displacement metrology for all three axes traceable to the 633 nm wavelength of the iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser. One of the important applications of the C-AFM is step height metrology, which has some relevance to phase shift calibration. In the current generation of the system, the approximate level of relative standard uncertainty for step height measurements at the 100 nm scale is 0.1 %. We discuss the monitor history of a 290 nm step height, originally measured on the C-AFM with a 1.9 nm (k = 2) expanded uncertainty, and describe advances that bring the step height uncertainty of recent measurements to an estimated 0.6 nm (k = 2). Based on this work, we expect to be able to reduce the topographic component of phase uncertainty in alternating aperture phase shift masks (AAPSM) by a factor of three compared to current calibrations based on earlier generation step height references.

  14. Algorithmic implementations of domain decomposition methods for the diffraction simulation of advanced photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Konstantinos; Neureuther, Andrew R.

    2002-07-01

    The domain decomposition method developed in [1] is examined in more detail. This method enables rapid computer simulation of advanced photomask (alt. PSM, masks with OPC) scattering and transmission properties. Compared to 3D computer simulation, speed-up factors of approximately 400, and up to approximately 200,000 when using the look-up table approach, are possible. Combined with the spatial frequency properties of projection printing systems, it facilitates accurate computer simulation of the projected image (normalized mean square error of a typical image is only a fraction of 1%). Some esoteric accuracy issues of the method are addressed and the way to handle arbitrary, Manhattan-type mask layouts is presented. The method is shown to be valid for off-axis incidence. The cross-talk model developed in [1] is used in 3D mask simulations (2D layouts).

  15. A new method to correct deformations in emulsion using a precise photomask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, M.; Ishida, H.; Shibuya, H.; Ogawa, S.; Matsuo, T.; Fukushima, C.; Takahashi, G.; Kuge, K.; Sato, Y.; Tezuka, I.; Mikado, S.

    2013-05-01

    A new method to correct the emulsion deformation, mainly produced in the development process, is developed to recover the high accuracy of nuclear emulsion as a tracking device. The method is based on a precise photomask and a careful treatment of the emulsion films. A position measurement accuracy of 0.6 μm is obtained over an area of 5 cm×7 cm. The method allows to measure positions of track segments with submicron accuracy in an ECC brick with as few as 10 reference tracks for alignment. Such a performance can be important for hybrid emulsion experiments at underground laboratories where only a small number of reference tracks for alignment are available.

  16. Reduction of image placement error on photomask-making for multiple patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiromatsu, Takahiro; Fukui, Toru; Tsukagoshi, Kenta; Ono, Kazunori; Hashimoto, Masahiro

    2014-03-01

    To make photomasks with high overlay accuracy, "Charge Dissipation Layer (CDL)" materials have been developed. Commercialized CDL materials can reduce electro-static charging on the surface of resist during electron beam exposure. However, some side effects are introduced to the mask-making process. The resolution performance of chemically amplified resist (CAR) is degraded owing to acid diffusion from the CDL components to the resist surface. A newly developed CDL solved this problem by controlling the acid diffusion. A positive-tone CAR with the CDL showed no resolution degradation, and performance was maintained for over 30 days after coating CDL and resist. Furthermore, the CDL has been evaluated on a negative-tone CAR which is more sensitive to CDL.

  17. Improved baking of photomasks by a dynamically zone-controlled process approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dress, Peter; Gairing, Thomas M.; Saule, Werner; Dietze, Uwe U.; Szekeresch, Jakob

    2001-09-01

    A new type of bake system for photomasks, APB5000, has been developed, using a dynamic and multiple zone approach, to enable more precise Post Exposure Bake (PEB) and Post Coat Bake (PCB) of conventional and chemically amplified resists (CAR). The principal equipment concept and the optimization strategies are presented. The baking performance of the APB5000 is demonstrated for several surface temperatures between 90 degree(s)C and 150 degree(s)C. The temperature uniformity ranges achieved at the resist plane are better than 0.25 degree(s)C after stabilization at the final temperature and better than 1.5 degree(s)C during the ramping period. The repeatability of the bake temperature is better than +/- 0.07 degree(s)C for the setpoint temperature.

  18. A simple method for producing freestanding 3D microstructures by integrated photomask micromolding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui

    2015-12-01

    Freestanding three-dimensional (3D) microstructures are widely used in micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) applications or can function as microdevices themselves. However, microfabrication methods for freestanding 3D microstructures have limitations in shape, size, cost, and mass production, etc. In this work, integrated photomask micromolding is demonstrated, which uses a portable UV light source and chrome glass micromolding to fabricate 3D microstructures without alignment. Specifically, a chrome layer on one side of the glass micromold shields the excess filling SU-8 photoresist from UV exposure and only the SU-8 photoresist in mold cavities is crosslinked. The 3D microstructures produced using this method have very high dimensional accuracy and the profile error is approximately 1.5%. This method can be used with features of virtually any size and shape and can be integrated into highly-parallel micromolding processes and has potential for MEMS applications.

  19. In-die photomask registration and overlay metrology with PROVE using 2D correlation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, D.; Arnz, M.; Beyer, D.

    2011-11-01

    According to the ITRS roadmap, semiconductor industry drives the 193nm lithography to its limits, using techniques like double exposure, double patterning, mask-source optimization and inverse lithography. For photomask metrology this translates to full in-die measurement capability for registration and critical dimension together with challenging specifications for repeatability and accuracy. Especially, overlay becomes more and more critical and must be ensured on every die. For this, Carl Zeiss SMS has developed the next generation photomask registration and overlay metrology tool PROVE which serves the 32nm node and below and which is already well established in the market. PROVE features highly stable hardware components for the stage and environmental control. To ensure in-die measurement capability, sophisticated image analysis methods based on 2D correlations have been developed. In this paper we demonstrate the in-die capability of PROVE and present corresponding measurement results for shortterm and long-term measurements as well as the attainable accuracy for feature sizes down to 85nm using different illumination modes and mask types. Standard measurement methods based on threshold criteria are compared with the new 2D correlation methods to demonstrate the performance gain of the latter. In addition, mask-to-mask overlay results of typical box-in-frame structures down to 200nm feature size are presented. It is shown, that from overlay measurements a reproducibility budget can be derived that takes into account stage, image analysis and global effects like mask loading and environmental control. The parts of the budget are quantified from measurement results to identify critical error contributions and to focus on the corresponding improvement strategies.

  20. An integrated solution for photomask manufacturing, handling, and storage at 65 nm and below

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwitzgebel, Jörg; Xiao, Guangming; Rockwell, Barry; Nozaki, Sammy; Darvish, Ali; Wu, Chris

    2006-03-01

    As reticle line widths shrink and RET complexity increases, even a single sub-micron defect can reject a photomask. High-end reticle manufacturers striving for increased yield and reduced cycle times are relying on low incoming rawstock defect levels and handling via SMIF mini environments for critical manufacturing steps. However, even in SMIF compatible reticle fabs, human handling is often required to load or unload a reticle to/from a SMIF environment. In an effort to provide a fully integrated solution to manufacturing 65 nm and below photomasks, Photronics has introduced a blank inspection/management system developed by Hitachi High Technologies and Fortrend Engineering. The clustered system is capable of robotic transfers in conjunction with blank storage, inspection, and material tracking capabilities. It consists of four major systems: a horizontal mask blank transfer system with state-of-the-art blank sorting capability, an integrated Hitachi GM3000 Mask Blank Surface Inspection System, a totally self-contained and sufficient Mask Blank Storage Station, and a material logistic control software system for material management and SPC. The Fortrend Lamina sorting system has a bright light inspection module for gross particle contamination detection, and a robotic transfer module for mask exchanges between SMIF and other shipping/transport boxes employed in the mask manufacturing facilities. The clustered Hitachi inspection system is an integral part of the solution allowing for additional inspections of stored and incoming blanks by optically detecting foreign particles and pinholes. The data is transferred and stored in the Foretrend handling system control module and may be used for rawstock management and screening based on a predefined criteria. The integrated system provides a total solution to mask manufacturing challenges at 65 nm and below.

  1. Analysis of the laser oxidation kinetics process of In-In(2)O(3) MTMO photomasks by laser direct writing.

    PubMed

    Xia, Feng; Zhang, Xinzheng; Wang, Meng; Liu, Qian; Xu, Jingjun

    2015-11-01

    One kind of novel grayscale photomask based on Metal-transparent-metallic-oxides (MTMOs) system fabricated by laser direct writing was demonstrated recently. Here, a multilayer oxidation model of In-In(2)O(3) film with a glass substrate was proposed to study the pulsed laser-induced oxidation mechanism. The distribution of the electromagnetic field in the film is calculated by the transfer matrix method. Temperature fields of the model are simulated based on the heat transfer equations with the Finite-Difference Time-Domain method. The oxidation kinetics process is studied based on the laser-induced Cabrera-Mott theory. The simulated oxidation processes are consistent with the experimental results, which mean that our laser-induced oxidation model can successfully interpret the fabrication mechanism of MTMO grayscale photomasks. PMID:26561189

  2. Sub-10 nm feature chromium photomasks for contact lithography patterning of square metal ring arrays.

    PubMed

    Park, Woongkyu; Rhie, Jiyeah; Kim, Na Yeon; Hong, Seunghun; Kim, Dai-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Advances in photolithographic processes have allowed semiconductor industries to manufacture smaller and denser chips. As the feature size of integrated circuits becomes smaller, there has been a growing need for a photomask embedded with ever narrower patterns. However, it is challenging for electron beam lithography to obtain <10 nm linewidths with wafer scale uniformity and a necessary speed. Here, we introduce a photolithography-based, cost-effective mask fabrication method based on atomic layer deposition and overhang structures for sacrificial layers. Using this method, we obtained sub-10 nm square ring arrays of side length 50 μm, and periodicity 100 μm on chromium film, on 1 cm by 1 cm quartz substrate. These patterns were then used as a contact-lithography photomask using 365 nm I-line, to generate metal ring arrays on silicon substrate. PMID:27025277

  3. Optimization and scale-down of wafer-based resist strip and rinse processes for photomask production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggus, Brant L.; Weaver, Gene

    2002-03-01

    Retrofitting of wafer processing equipment is a common scenario in the photomask industry, as most available tools are built to accommodate the high throughput and substrate size of wafers. The acid process tanks in use at most mask shops are built to suit a single rack of 25 8 inch wafers, each coated with roughly two microns of photoresist. Conversely, a typical photomask shop sends one to two masks at a time through the resist strip line, each coated with 4500 angstroms of resist. The amount of unused volume of active chemical within an 8 inch X 8.5 inch X 10 inch acid tank when it is dumped is enough to warrant a hardware change. Experimentation has shown that it is possible to decrease Piranha usage by 43 percent by optimizing tank size for photomasks. The same logic applies to quick dump rinsers (QDRs). Additionally, water is wasted with 'spray down' processes, whereby masks are sprayed via perforated bars or nozzles. Because a < 0.5 μm viscous sublayer can not be practically achieved through spraying the mask, better cleaning performance is obtained with a bottom-filled weiring process. This is demonstrated through experimental results and theoretical mass transfer models.

  4. Integration of optical inspection and metrology functions into DUV femtosecond laser repair tool for large-area FPD photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treyger, Leon; Heyl, Jon; Ronning, Donald; Ducharme, Donald

    2007-05-01

    In this paper we describe the early stages of introduction of the inspection and metrology capabilities for the large area mask repair tools. Commercially available MRT platform was used as a basis for integration of defect repair, metrology, review, inspection, and verification functions into a single MiRT prototype system. This system was designed for large area LCD/PDP photomasks of Generation 7 and beyond. Advanced DUV femtosecond laser technology was developed for repair of both clear and opaque defects on Chrome-on-Glass masks using laser CVD and laser ablation. Specifics of the system design and architecture is discussed. Laser processing module was based on the projection optics with imaged aperture. Image formation in such optical system is reviewed and outcome of the computer simulation is compared with the experimental data. For the first time, we report results of the feasibility study of grayscale photomask repair using laser CVD technology. By carefully controlling process parameters, we were able to deposit films with different thickness and therefore variable transmittance. We also discuss die-to-database inspection of half-tone masks and capabilities of the integrated metrology and review of the repaired photomask sites. Proprietary die-to-database inspection and verification algorithms combined with distributed super-fast computer architecture allowed effective process control with accurate, repeatable, and timely measurements. Different subsystems that enable integration of repair, metrology, and inspection functions into the MiRT system are discussed.

  5. Japan Smoke

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Smoke Plume from Industrial Fires in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan     View larger image ... aftermath of the massive earthquake that struck northeastern Japan at 2:46 p.m. local time on March 11, 2011, and its subsequent tsunami, ...

  6. Japan Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Andrea M.

    1985-01-01

    A teacher who traveled to Japan on a Japan Institute for Social and Economic Affairs (JISEA) travel-study fellowship talks about the many problems facing Japan today, including resource scarcity and concern about global conflict. Characteristics of the Japanese people are also discussed. (RM)

  7. The art of photomask materials for low-k1-193nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Masahiro; Iwashita, Hiroyuki; Mitsui, Hideaki

    2009-04-01

    The resolution of photomask patterns were improved with a hardmask (HM) system. The system which is thin Sicompounds layer is easily etched by the hyper-thin resist (below 100nm thickness). The HM material has sufficient etching selectivity against the chrome-compounds which is the second layer chrome absorber for the phase-shifter. This hardmask layer has been completely removed during the phase-shifter etching. It means that the conventional phase-shit mask (PSM) has been made with the ultimately high-resolution without configuration changes. Below 50nm resolution of PSM was made with 90nm thickness resist on HM layer in this paper. The CD bias between a resist feature CD and a chrome feature CD was almost zero (below 1nm) in the optimized etching condition. We confirmed that the mask performances were the equal to COMS (Cr-HM on MoSi binary mask) in resolution and CD linearity. The performances of hardmask blanks will be defined by resist performance because of almost zero bias.

  8. Dry etching of chrome for photomasks for 100-nm technology using chemically amplified resist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Mark; Komarov, Serguie; Baik, Ki-Ho

    2002-07-01

    Photo mask etching for the 100nm technology node places new requirements on dry etching processes. As the minimum-size features on the mask, such as assist bars and optical proximity correction (OPC) patterns, shrink down to 100nm, it is necessary to produce etch CD biases of below 20nm in order to reproduce minimum resist features into chrome with good pattern fidelity. In addition, vertical profiles are necessary. In previous generations of photomask technology, footing and sidewall profile slope were tolerated, since this dry etch profile was an improvement from wet etching. However, as feature sizes shrink, it is extremely important to select etch processes which do not generate a foot, because this will affect etch linearity and also limit the smallest etched feature size. Chemically amplified resist (CAR) from TOK is patterned with a 50keV MEBES eXara e-beam writer, allowing for patterning of small features with vertical resist profiles. This resist is developed for raster scan 50 kV e-beam systems. It has high contrast, good coating characteristics, good dry etch selectivity, and high environmental stability. Chrome etch process development has been performed using Design of Experiments to optimize parameters such as sidewall profile, etch CD bias, etch CD linearity for varying sizes of line/space patterns, etch CD linearity for varying sizes of isolated lines and spaces, loading effects, and application to contact etching.

  9. Improved estimates of the range of errors on photomasks using measured values of skewness and kurtosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaker, Henry Chris

    1995-12-01

    Statistical process control (SPC) techniques often use six times the standard deviation sigma to estimate the range of errors within a process. Two assumptions are inherent in this choice of metric for the range: (1) the normal distribution adequately describes the errors, and (2) the fraction of errors falling within plus or minus 3 sigma, about 99.73%, is sufficiently large that we may consider the fraction occurring outside this range to be negligible. In state-of-the-art photomasks, however, the assumption of normality frequently breaks down, and consequently plus or minus 3 sigma is not a good estimate of the range of errors. In this study, we show that improved estimates for the effective maximum error Em, which is defined as the value for which 99.73% of all errors fall within plus or minus Em of the mean mu, may be obtained by quantifying the deviation from normality of the error distributions using the skewness and kurtosis of the error sampling. Data are presented indicating that in laser reticle- writing tools, Em less than or equal to 3 sigma. We also extend this technique for estimating the range of errors to specifications that are usually described by mu plus 3 sigma. The implications for SPC are examined.

  10. Large-scale analytical Fourier transform of photomask layouts using graphics processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Julia A.

    2015-10-01

    Compensation of lens-heating effects during the exposure scan in an optical lithographic system requires knowledge of the heating profile in the pupil of the projection lens. A necessary component in the accurate estimation of this profile is the total integrated distribution of light, relying on the squared modulus of the Fourier transform (FT) of the photomask layout for individual process layers. Requiring a layout representation in pixelated image format, the most common approach is to compute the FT numerically via the fast Fourier transform (FFT). However, the file size for a standard 26- mm×33-mm mask with 5-nm pixels is an overwhelming 137 TB in single precision; the data importing process alone, prior to FFT computation, can render this method highly impractical. A more feasible solution is to handle layout data in a highly compact format with vertex locations of mask features (polygons), which correspond to elements in an integrated circuit, as well as pattern symmetries and repetitions (e.g., GDSII format). Provided the polygons can decompose into shapes for which analytical FT expressions are possible, the analytical approach dramatically reduces computation time and alleviates the burden of importing extensive mask data. Algorithms have been developed for importing and interpreting hierarchical layout data and computing the analytical FT on a graphics processing unit (GPU) for rapid parallel processing, not assuming incoherent imaging. Testing was performed on the active layer of a 392- μm×297-μm virtual chip test structure with 43 substructures distributed over six hierarchical levels. The factor of improvement in the analytical versus numerical approach for importing layout data, performing CPU-GPU memory transfers, and executing the FT on a single NVIDIA Tesla K20X GPU was 1.6×104, 4.9×103, and 3.8×103, respectively. Various ideas for algorithm enhancements will be discussed.

  11. Effects of heated substrates on bimetallic thermal resist for lithography and grayscale photomask applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykes, James M.; Tsui, Polly; Leung, Jenny; Chapman, Glenn H.

    2008-10-01

    Bimetallic thin-films of Bi/In act as negative thermal resists when laser exposure pulse (7mJ/sq. cm for 4 nsec) converts the film into a transparent eutectic metallic oxide alloy. Resist transparency varies with exposed laser power, changing from <0.1% (3.0 OD) unexposed to >60% (0.22 OD) exposed. This generates direct-write gray scale photomasks, and adding a feedback system where the transparency is measured and adjusts the writing process to account for local variations in the film, achieves >64 gray level control. These resists are also wavelength invariant, operating from visible to EUV with a resolution >42nm after development using a diluted RCA-2 solution (HCl:H2O2:H20 @ 1:1:48) with a gamma of 2-18. Longer duration exposures with lower instantaneous intensities result in lower gammas, while shorter exposures with higher energies give higher gammas. One limitation on these resists is that the exposure energy must be delivered in a single pulse. This limitation puts pulse energy requirements into the mJ per pulse range: greater than desired for EUV exposure systems. Bimetallic thermal resists remain almost unaffected during a sub-threshold exposure that does not reach the activation energy. It has been shown that the resist and substrate can be heated below the threshold energy, to temperatures of at least 90C, without creating any exposure of the resist. In this research, Bi/In resists are heated through a range of substrate temperatures, measured for their optical exposure requirements and gammas under these conditions, and used to determine if substrate heating can improve the film's sensitivity.

  12. High-resolution UV laser repair of phase-shifting photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Baorui; Chuang, Yung-Ho; Liu, Kuo-Ching

    1994-12-01

    Processes for repairing defects on phase shifting masks have been developed at Excel/Quantronix. The processes are based on DUV (248 nm) laser ablation and DUV laser- assisted chemical vapor deposition. The light source of the repair system consists of a gain- switched Ti:Sapphire laser system. The 248 nm wavelength is obtained by frequency tripling. The all-solid-state laser provides high stability, short pulse duration, and good beam quality required by the repair processes. By significantly improving the optical system, we are capable of repairing features with a diameter of approximately 0.2 micrometers . The repair of programmed defects such as 0.5 X 0.5 micrometers 2 extra quartz phase shifter (with or without chrome on top) and 1 X 1 micrometers 2 phase divots have been successfully demonstrated and examined by the aerial image measurement system (AIMS) developed by IBM. After opaque defect repair, the repaired area exhibits a transmission greater than 95% for both I-line and 248 nm. Clear defects are repaired in an open-air environment with controlled transmission. The deposited films show good uniformity and sharp edges. Extra quartz phase shifter defects are reliably repaired in an open-air environment with the technique of laser ablation by surface enhancement (LASE), which was developed at Excel/Quantronix. Phase divots have been successfully repaired by photolytic deposition of SiO2 in a vacuum system using a single precursor, without the need of an oxidizing co-reactant. The repair techniques developed by Excel/Quantronix have broad applicability to a wide variety of conventional and phase shifting photomasks.

  13. Tokyo, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Tokyo, (35.5N, 140.0E) the capital city of Japan, Tokyo Bay and the neighboring cities of Yokohama, Kawasaki and Chiba are seen in this view of Japan. This great international seaport facility covers almost all of the bayfront and is home to over thirty million people.

  14. A new generation of progressive mask defects on the pattern side of advanced photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenon, Brian J.; Bhattacharyya, Kaustuve; Eynon, Benjamin

    2006-06-01

    The progressive mask defect problem is an industry-wide mask reliability issue. Even if masks are determined to be clean upon arrival from the mask supplier, some of these masks can show catastrophic defect growth over the course of production usage in the fab. The categories of defects that cause reticle-quality degradation over time are defined as progressive defects, commonly known as crystal growth, haze, fungus or precipitate. This progressive defect problem has been around for more than a decade and was observed at almost every lithographic wavelength. This problem is especially severe at 193nm lithography. Triggering the increased severity are shorter wavelength lithography - where the photons are highly energized - and the concurrent transition to 300 mm wafers, which require photomasks to endure more prolonged exposure as compared to 200 mm wafers. Both embedded phase shift masks (EPSMs) and chrome-on-glass masks are affected by progressive defects. These defects are generally found on the patterned surface underneath the pellicle (on clear, half-tone or chrome patterns), as well as on the backside surface of the masks. Past cases have indicated that this problem mainly starts on the scribes and borders, with emerging semi-transmissive contamination of ~100nm. These defects then propagate into the die area while growing in both size and opaqueness. Compositional analysis has shown that the majority of these defects are ammonium sulfate. However, since significant effort focused on the elimination of ammonium sulfate a new trend has emerged. Current studies show severe defect growth consists of organic contaminants (ammonium oxalate, cyanuric acid etc.) on half-tone edges and on chromium edges. The sources for progressive defect mechanisms are under investigation, though several candidates have been considered: maskmaking materials and process residues (mainly ammonium or sulfate ions), the fab environment, or the stepper environment. Controlling or balancing these sources may help to reduce the frequency at which these defects occur, but thus far has been unable to eliminate the problem. With each successive device shrink, the resultant changes in lithographic wavelength and processing within the mask fabrication facility and IC fab disrupt the fine balance among the above suspected defect sources, resulting in the return of catastrophic progressive defect growth. Due to this uncertainty, strict mask quality monitoring in the fab is essential. The ideal reticle quality control goal in a fab should be to detect any nascent progressive defects before they become yield limiting. Hence, the masks should be monitored on an established frequency that allows problem masks to be removed from production and sent for rework prior to impacting device performance and fab yield.

  15. UV-induced grafting processes with in situ formed photomask for micropatterning of two-component biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Tang, S C; Xie, J Y; Huang, Z H; Xu, F J; Yang, Wantai

    2010-06-15

    We report a photolithographic process for micropatterning of two-component biomolecules on a transparent organic film via lateral functional polymer brushes of poly(sodium acrylate) (P(AA)) and poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (P(GMA)). The pattern of binary polymer brushes were prepared via consecutive UV-initiated grafting processes, under the assistance of the in situ formed poly (4,4'-bi[N-(4-vinylbenzyl) pyridinium]) (P(BVV)) photomask. The epoxy groups of the P(GMA) microdomains can be aminated for covalently coupling biotin, while the P(AA) microdomains were used for immobilizing immunoglobulin (IgG). The resulting biotin- and IgG-coupled microdomains interact specifically with their corresponding target proteins, avidin and anti-IgG, respectively. PMID:20486681

  16. Japan: Tsunami

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... tsunami triggered by the March 11, 2011, magnitude 8.9 earthquake centered off Japan's northeastern coast about 130 kilometers (82 ... inland from the eastern shoreline is visible in the post-earthquake image. The white sand beaches visible in the pre-earthquake view are ...

  17. Tokyo, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Tokyo, (35.5N, 140.0E) one of the most densely populated regions on Earth, and capital of Japan, is seen through the clouds. The city is at the north end of Edo Bay and Yokohama, partially cloud covered, is along the bay's western margin. The gray patches are close-packed urban urban areas and the brown valleys along the eastern side of the bay are cultivatedd, mostly rice. Although the Imperial Palace is obscured, many other features may be seen.

  18. Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Cities mingle with rugged hills and a dormant volcano in this image of Hokkaido, Japan. This three-dimensional image comes from observations made by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on July 23, 2006. The view is toward the north and slightly east. Green indicates vegetation; beige and gray indicate bare ground, paved surfaces, or buildings; and dark blue indicates water. The water body at the top of the image is the Pacific Ocean. Now dormant, Mount Yotei is a stratovolcano--a symmetrical cone composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and volcanic rocks ejected in previous eruptions. It reaches a height of 1,898 meters (6,227 feet), and its summit sports a 700-meter- (2,297-foot-) wide crater. Snow often caps this volcano, but in this summertime shot, the volcano's summit is snow-free. The volcano is also known as Ezo-Fuji for its resemblance to Mount Fuji. As angular patches of gray and beige indicate, urban areas surround the volcano, most notably the city of Kutchan to the northwest. Even when volcanoes remain active, people often settle close to them, drawn by benefits of good soil and mild climates that appear to outweigh the risks. NASA image by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  19. Exposure characterizations of polymer type electron beam resists with various molecular weights for next-generation photomask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, Tomohiro; Asada, Hironori; Kishimura, Yukiko; Hoshino, Ryoichi; Kawata, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    Higher resolution is eagerly requested to the electron beam resist for the next generation photomask production as well as higher sensitivity. The performance of a polymer resist is mainly characterized by its chemical structure and molecular weight. Positive tone polymer resists with various molecular weights ranging from 60 k to 500 k are synthesized and the molecular weight dependence on exposure characteristics is examined by fabricating line-and-space patterns. The molecular weight dependence of sensitivity for amyl acetate developer is small in the molecular weight range in this study. In a low molecular weight resist, the cross-section profile of the resist pattern becomes rounder and then the disconnections are observed in the 20-nm line-and-space pattern. Although the pattern width change by changing the exposure dose for each resist is quite similar, the exposure dose margin of pattern formation becomes wider with the higher molecular weight. The line width roughness is smaller in a high molecular weight resist than in a low molecular weight resist. The shift amount of the pattern width from the design value for various line-and-space patterns and the dry etching resistance to CF4 plasma are also presented.

  20. The design and qualification of the TEL CLEAN TRACK ACT TM M photomask coating tool at Intel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, Andrew; Dam, Thuc; Baik, Ki-Ho; Duerksen, Ken; Eidson, Elie; Akai, Keiji; Hisano, Kazuya; Kohama, Norifumi; Machidori, Shinichi

    2006-05-01

    As photomask complexity has increased, mask manufacturing has become significantly more challenging. Tightening specs on defect performance, resolution, and CD control have pushed mask manufacturing to achieve levels that nearly match wafer capabilities. To meet wafer manufacturing needs, mask production requires high yield and quick turn-around time, resulting in an increased demand for very high equipment reliability. In-line resist coating capability is important to meet these demands; both for robust 2 nd level phase-shift coating processes, and the enablement of advanced 1 st-level process development with new resists and new resist process conditions. Intel Corporation worked with Tokyo Electron Ltd (TEL) to bring one of the first CLEAN TRACK ACT M (ACT M) units through design, acceptance tests and into manufacturing. TEL's CLEAN TRACK ACT M is a resist coating tool based on the CLEAN TRACK ACT12 (ACT 12) wafer manufacturing platform, and contains multiple mask-specific modules including advanced softbake oven units, edge-bead removal modules, and cleaning systems. After setup and optimization, the tool shows impressive performance, (for example, within-plate thickness uniformity of < 8A (3s) for certain processes). The motivation of the tool layout is discussed thoroughly. Elements of the module designs and their performance are shown. The acceptance testing performance is presented and includes: cleaning capabilities, oven performance, thickness performance, coating defect levels and edge bead removal capabilities. Finally, there is a limited discussion of manufacturing performance.

  1. In-field CD uniformity control by altering transmission distribution of the photomask using ultra-fast pulsed laser technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morikawa, Yasutaka; Sutou, Takanori; Inazuki, Yuichi; Adachi, Takashi; Yoshida, Yuuichi; Kojima, Kouichirou; Sasaki, Shiho; Mohri, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Naoya; Dmitriev, Vladimir; Oshemkov, Sergey; Zait, Eitan; Ben-Zvi, Guy

    2006-05-01

    As pattern feature sizes on the wafer become smaller and smaller, requirements for CD variation control has become a critical issue. In order to correct CD uniformity on the wafer, the DUV light transmission distribution of the photomask was altered using an ultra-fast pulsed laser technology. By creating a small scattering pixel inside the quartz body of the mask, a multitude of such points creates Shading Elements inside the quartz according to a predetermined CD variations distribution map. These Shading Elements reduce the dose of scanner's laser illumination onto the wafer per a local area. Thus by changing the local light intensity, inside the exposure field, to a required level during the photolithographic process the wafer CD is changed locally inside the field. This complete process of writing a multitude of Shading Elements inside the mask in order to control the light transmission and hence wafer level CD locally is called the CD Control (CDC) process. We have evaluated the tool utilizing Ultra fast laser pulses (CDC 101) for local transmission and CD controllability on the wafer. We used Binary and Att-PSM test masks and three kinds of test patterns to confirm the sensitivity of transmission and CD change by the attenuation levels of Shading Elements which is sequentially changed from 0% to 10%. We will compare the AIMS results to printed CD on wafer or simulation results, so that we can correlate the transmission change and CD change by the attenuation levels. This paper also reports the CD uniformity correction performances by using attenuation mapping method on Binary mask. We also cover how Shading Elements affect the phase and transmission on the Att-PSM.

  2. Development of paper-based microfluidic analytical device for iron assay using photomask printed with 3D printer for fabrication of hydrophilic and hydrophobic zones on paper by photolithography.

    PubMed

    Asano, Hitoshi; Shiraishi, Yukihide

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes a paper-based microfluidic analytical device for iron assay using a photomask printed with a 3D printer for fabrication of hydrophilic and hydrophobic zones on the paper by photolithography. Several designed photomasks for patterning paper-based microfluidic analytical devices can be printed with a 3D printer easily, rapidly and inexpensively. A chromatography paper was impregnated with the octadecyltrichlorosilane n-hexane solution and hydrophobized. After the hydrophobic zone of the paper was exposed to the UV light through the photomask, the hydrophilic zone was generated. The smallest functional hydrophilic channel and hydrophobic barrier were ca. 500 μm and ca. 100 μm in width, respectively. The fabrication method has high stability, resolution and precision for hydrophilic channel and hydrophobic barrier. This test paper was applied to the analysis of iron in water samples using a colorimetry with phenanthroline. PMID:26088776

  3. Transmission-grating-photomasked transient spin grating and its application to measurement of electron-spin ambipolar diffusion in (110) GaAs quantum wells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Wang, Wenfang; Wu, Jingda; Schuh, D; Wegscheider, W; Korn, T; Lai, Tianshu

    2012-03-26

    A circular dichromatic transient absorption difference spectroscopy of transmission-grating-photomasked transient spin grating is developed and formularized. It is very simple in experimental setup and operation, and has high detection sensitivity. It is applied to measure spin diffusion dynamics and excited electron density dependence of spin ambipolar diffusion coefficient in (110) GaAs quantum wells. It is found that the spin ambipolar diffusion coefficient of (110) and (001) GaAs quantum wells is close to each other, but has an opposite dependence tendency on excited electron density. This spectroscopy is expected to have extensive applicability in the measurement of spin transport. PMID:22453489

  4. Academic Libraries in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  5. Academic Libraries in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and

  6. Photomasks for FPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaya, Yasuhiro; Iizuka, Tetsuya; Tomooka, Takatoshi

    2015-07-01

    Continuous innovation of mobile devices such as smart phones provides new and better experiences for users. Such innovations demand for FPD (Flat Panel Display) to have higher resolution, a smarter design, a lighter weight, lower energy consumption, and many other improvements. Among those requirements, higher resolution is the most critical feature to achieve realistic images on the screen and to provide different user experiences. However, higher resolution LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) panels cannot be easily achieved simply by scaling and shrinking the process rule as has been historically done in the semiconductor industry. This is because an LCD panel is an optical device as well as being an electrically controlled integrated circuit. The important factors in fabricating an LCD panel as an optical device are discussed here in conjunction with the photo mask requirements.

  7. Study of the molecular contaminants deposition on Cr, MoSi and SiO2 surfaces representative of photomasks layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, Hervé; Cetre, Sylviane; Demenet, Ga"l.; Piallat, Fabien

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the deposition of the molecular contaminants on Cr, MoSi and quartz photomask surfaces by means of representative Cr, MoSi and SiO2 layers deposited on wafers using TD-GCMS for the organics and LPE-IC for the SO2 analysis. Mask-like layers were exposed to organic contaminants outgassed by three different types of mask pods during storage steps and Cr films were put in SO2 controlled contaminated atmosphere. Organic species contaminating the different mask surfaces were identified depending on time. A rapid contamination kinetic was highlighted. Results have shown that low volatile organic compounds have higher deposition rates and that few specific molecules (such as caprolactam ; acrylic acid, dodecyl ester, butyldiglycol...) contribute in very significant levels (few E+13 atC/cm2). It also appeared that organics present a higher affinity for quartz and MoSi layers than for Cr surfaces but also that some compounds can have a specific affinity depending on the surface. These affinity differences have been quantified through the calculation of the contaminants sticking coefficients. Regarding the SO2 deposition, Cr surfaces have showed a strong ability to be polluted in clean room conditions, up to a saturation level just higher than 1E+14 SO2/cm2. The kinetic is rapid and in good agreement with a Langmuir-type adsorption model allowing the determination of the deposition kinetic constant. Furthermore, it was showed a significant enhancement of SO2 deposition with air humidity. Finally, this work contributes to a better knowledge of the molecular contaminants deposition behavior on mask surfaces providing relevant data to control the photomask contamination in order to prevent crystal growth issues.

  8. Outdoor Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoshino, Tosio

    1986-01-01

    Discusses reasons for lack of outdoor education programs in Japan. Emphasizes importance of establishing outdoor education to recover traditional Japanese appreciation of nature. Examines Occidental and Oriental views of nature. Describes an innovative outdoor education program in Japan based on rice cultivation. (LFL)

  9. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  10. Japan Nuclear Fuel, Ltd.

    SciTech Connect

    1992-08-01

    Just over a month ago, on July 1, Japan Nuclear Fuel Industries (JNFI) and Japan Nuclear Fuel Services (JNFS) merged to form the integrated nuclear fuel cycle company, Japan Nuclear Fuel, Ltd. (JNFL). The announcement in mid-January that the country`s two major fuel cycle firms intended to merge had long been anticipated and represents one of the most significant restructuring events in Japan`s nuclear industry. The merger forming JNFL was a logical progression in the evolution of Japan`s fuel cycle, bringing complementary technologies together to encourage synergism, increased efficiency, and improved community relations. The main production facilities of both JNFI and JNFS were located near the village of Rokkashomura, on the northern end of the main island of Honshu, and their headquarters were in Tokyo. The former JNFS was responsible for spent fuel reprocessing and also was building a high-level waste (HLW) management facility. The former JNFI focused on uranium enrichment and low-level waste (LLW) disposal. It was operating the first stage of a centrifuge enrichment plant and continuing to construct additional capacity. These responsibilities and activities will be assumed by JNFL, which now will be responsible for all JNFI and JNFS operations, including those at Rokkashomura.

  11. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tase, Norio

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed.

  12. Space communications in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, T.

    This paper outlines some of the planned satellite comunication projects in Japan over the next 5-7 years. In addition, Japanese space development policies are set out along with a historic review of the development of artificial satellites.

  13. Teaching Materials on Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This annotated listing of resource materials for teaching elementary and secondary students about Japan describes videotapes, a film series, an activity booklet, a computer program, and units of study. (RM)

  14. OTEC research in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamogawa, H.

    1980-06-01

    The OTEC research in Japan carried out since 1970 is described. Design and cost estimates of the model 100 MW OTEC plants, two OTEC power loop experiments, and the development of new heat exchangers have been completed. Evaluation of OTEC thermal resources and the assessment of the OTEC concept as a power system have been made. However, these activities are still in the early stage, and a large amount of work is needed before OTEC power plants can contribute to Japan's energy demands.

  15. Japan's nuclear power tightrope

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, M.

    1991-04-01

    This paper reports that early in February, just as Japan's nuclear energy program was regaining a degree of popular support after three years of growing opposition, an aging pressurized-water reactor at Mihama in western Japan sprang a leak in its primary cooling system. The event occasioned Japan's first nontest use of an emergency core-cooling system. It also elicited a forecast of renewed public skepticism about nuclear power form the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), the Government body responsible for promoting and regulating Japan's ambitious nuclear power program. Public backing for this form of energy has always been a delicate flower in Japan, where virtually every school child visits the atomic bomb museums at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Yet the country, which imports 80 percent of its energy and just about all its oil, is behind only the United States, France, and the Soviet Union in installed nuclear capacity. In fiscal 1989, which started in April, Japan's 39 nuclear power stations accounted for 25.5 percent of electricity generated - the largest contribution - followed b coal and natural gas. Twelve more plants are under construction.

  16. Cultural Astronomy in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renshaw, Steven L.

    While Japan is known more for its contributions to modern astronomy than its archaeoastronomical sites, there is still much about the culture's heritage that is of interest in the study of cultural astronomy. This case study provides an overview of historical considerations necessary to understand the place of astronomy in Japanese society as well as methodological considerations that highlight traditional approaches that have at times been a barrier to interdisciplinary research. Some specific areas of study in the cultural astronomy of Japan are discussed including examples of contemporary research based on interdisciplinary approaches. Japan provides a fascinating background for scholars who are willing to go beyond their curiosity for sites of alignment and approach the culture with a desire to place astronomical iconography in social context.

  17. Occupational asthma in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Research into occupational asthma (OA) in Japan has been led by the Japanese Society of Occupational and Environmental Allergy. The first report about allergic OA identified konjac asthma. After that, many kinds of OA have been reported. Cases of some types of OA, such as konjac asthma and sea squirt asthma, have been dramatically reduced by the efforts of medical personnel. Recently, with the development of new technologies, chemical antigen-induced asthma has increased in Japan. Due to advances in anti-asthma medication, control by medical treatment tends to be emphasized and the search for causative antigens seems to be neglected. Furthermore, we do not have a Japanese guideline for diagnosis and management of OA. This article discusses the current state of OA in Japan. PMID:22872819

  18. Nuclear Power in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Energy consumption in Japan has grown at a faster rate than in any other major industrial country. To maintain continued prosperity, the government has embarked on a crash program for nuclear power. Current progress and issues/reactions to the plan are discussed. (JN)

  19. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  20. [Films: China and Japan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumport, Roberta H.

    The history of filmmaking in China and Japan and film usage in teaching are considered in this document. Pointing out how films describe historical context and culture, the document also describes various techniques of film making. Films in China were heavily influenced by western models and have tended to be tools of the power structure, as

  1. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  2. Photovoltaics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.

    1985-01-01

    Report surveys status of research and development on photovoltaics in Japan. Report based on literature searches, private communications, and visits by author to Japanese facilities. Included in survey are Sunshine Project, national program to develop energy sources; industrial development at private firms; and work at academic institutions.

  3. Film Resources on Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Audio-Visual Education Center.

    Sixteen millimeter motion pictures dealing with Japan are listed alphabetically by title and annotated. Length of film, whether color or black and white, and name of producer or distributor is given for each, and a subject index is provided. Films produced before 1960, "sponsored" films, and 35 mm filmstrips are listed without annotations. A list

  4. Dutch surgery in Japan.

    PubMed

    van Gulik, Thomas M; Nimura, Yuji

    2005-01-01

    An isolation policy was adopted in feudal Japan from 1639 to 1853 owing to the fear of foreign influence. During those 200 years of isolation, all foreigners were withheld from the country with the exception of the Dutch, who were permitted to establish a trading post on a small island in the Bay of Nagasaki, called Decima. Western culture and science reached the Japanese exclusively through the Dutch on Decima. Health care on Decima was provided by Dutch barber-surgeons, who introduced Western surgical practice in Japan. Official interpreters were the only Japanese allowed on Decima. It was from among these interpreters that the first Japanese surgeons arose who, having mastered the Dutch language, translated several Dutch anatomic and surgical texts. Genpaku Sugita translated a Dutch anatomy textbook into Japanese, which was completed in 1774. This book, entitled Kaitai Shinsho [New Book on Anatomy], was the first Western scientific monograph to be translated entirely into Japanese. Several Dutch surgical schools were founded through which Dutch surgery, known in Japan as "surgery of the red-haired" was propagated. According to the custom of the surgical guilds in Holland, certificates were granted to Japanese apprentices who had completed their training in Dutch surgery. About 60 Dutch surgeons had served on Decima up to 1850, providing the basis for surgery to develop in Japan. Among them, Philipp Franz von Siebold was an exceptional scholar who also had a great impact in making Japanese culture known to the Western world. PMID:15599736

  5. Japan's aging society.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, H

    1993-01-01

    This article concerns the consequences of current demographic aging in Japan. The emphasis is on the responsibilities of government to deal with the problems posed by an aging society and the increasing social and economic needs of a growing number of elderly people. PMID:12288894

  6. Political Corruption in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Steven R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)

  7. Advanced composites in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diefendorf, R. Judd; Hillig, William G.; Grisaffe, Salvatore J.; Pipes, R. Byron; Perepezko, John H.; Sheehan, James E.

    1994-01-01

    The JTEC Panel on Advanced Composites surveyed the status and future directions of Japanese high-performance ceramic and carbon fibers and their composites in metal, intermetallic, ceramic, and carbon matrices. Because of a strong carbon and fiber industry, Japan is the leader in carbon fiber technology. Japan has initiated an oxidation-resistant carbon/carbon composite program. With its outstanding technical base in carbon technology, Japan should be able to match present technology in the U.S. and introduce lower-cost manufacturing methods. However, the panel did not see any innovative approaches to oxidation protection. Ceramic and especially intermetallic matrix composites were not yet receiving much attention at the time of the panel's visit. There was a high level of monolithic ceramic research and development activity. High temperature monolithic intermetallic research was just starting, but notable products in titanium aluminides had already appeared. Matrixless ceramic composites was one novel approach noted. Technologies for high temperature composites fabrication existed, but large numbers of panels or parts had not been produced. The Japanese have selected aerospace as an important future industry. Because materials are an enabling technology for a strong aerospace industry, Japan initiated an ambitious long-term program to develop high temperature composites. Although just starting, its progress should be closely monitored in the U.S.

  8. Country Profiles. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muramatsu, Minoru

    This occasional paper on Japan is one of a series setting forth the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in specified countries. Here, an overview is given of population characteristics and growth patterns, the relationship of population growth to socioeconomic development, and the history of population concerns and…

  9. Globalization and Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohkura, Kentaro; Shibata, Masako

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors contend that globalization in Japan is the gradual process in which Japan's positioning of "self" within international relations, which had formerly been dominated by the West, has changed. Accordingly, Japan's relationships with the West and the rest of the world, for example, Asia, have also been reviewed and modified.…

  10. Globalization and Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohkura, Kentaro; Shibata, Masako

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors contend that globalization in Japan is the gradual process in which Japan's positioning of "self" within international relations, which had formerly been dominated by the West, has changed. Accordingly, Japan's relationships with the West and the rest of the world, for example, Asia, have also been reviewed and modified.

  11. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and....1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan tallow or sumac wax, is a... succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China,...

  12. Materials Data on Ba(CuS)2 (SG:139) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  13. [Gambling disorder in Japan].

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    Gambling disorder is a psychiatric disorder characterized by persistent and recurrent problematic gambling behavior, associated with impaired functioning, reduced quality of life, and frequent divorce and bankruptcy. Gambling disorder is reclassified in the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders in the DSM-5 because its clinical features closely resemble those of substance use disorders, and gambling activates the reward system in brain in much the same way drugs do. Prevalence of gambling disorder in Japan is high rate because of slot machines and pachinko game are very popular in Japan. The author recommend group psychotherapy and self-help group (Gamblers Anonymous), because group dynamics make them accept their wrongdoings related to gambling and believe that they can enjoy their lives without gambling. PMID:26394523

  14. Scientific ballooning in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Fumiyoshi

    Activities in scientific ballooning in Japan during 1998-1999 are reported. The total number of scientific balloons flown in Japan in 1998 and 1999 was sixteen, eight flights in each year. The scientific objectives were observations of high energy cosmic electrons, air samplings at various altitudes, monitoring of atmospheric ozone density, Galactic infrared observations, and test flights of new type balloons. Balloon expeditions were conducted in Antarctica by the National Institute of Polar Research, in Russia, in Canada and in India in collaboration with foreign countries' institutes to investigate cosmic rays, Galactic infrared radiation, and Earth's atmosphere. There were three flights in Antarctica, four flights in Russia, three flights in Canada and two flights in India. Four test balloons were flown for balloon technology, which included pumpkin-type super-pressure balloon and a balloon made with ultra-thin polyethylene film of 3.4 ?m thickness.

  15. DPAL activities in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Masamori; Wani, Fumio

    2015-02-01

    Activities on diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) in Japan is reviewed. We have started alkali laser works in 2011, and currently, we are the only players in Japan. Our interests are application oriented, and it is not only defense but also industrial. DPAL is a good candidate as a source of remote laser machining, thanks to its scalability and extremely good beam quality. We are studying on scientific and engineering problems of Cs DPAL with a small-scale apparatus. A commercial diode laser with volume Bragg grating outcoupler is used to pump the gain cell longitudinally. A 6.5 W continuous-wave output with optical to optical efficiency of 56% (based on the absorbed power) has been achieved. Numerical simulation codes are developed to understand the physics of DPAL and to help future developments.

  16. Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The city of Sapporo on the northernmost of the Japanese Home Island of Hokkaido (43.5N, 141.5E), host to the 1986 Winter Olympic Games is situated along the margin of a large valley which extends across the island from the Sea of Japan to the Pacific Ocean. The Valley is largely cultivated (the lighter green of the cultivated land distinguishes it from the gray urban development of Sapporo), but much of the island remains heavily forested.

  17. Northeast Coast, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The northeast coast of Hokkaido and Kunashir Island, Japan (44.0N, 143.0E) are seen bordered by drifting sea ice. The sea ice has formed a complex pattern of eddies in response to surface water currents and winds. Photos of this kind aid researchers in describing local ocean current patterns and the effects of wind speed and direction on the drift of surface material, such as ice floes or oil. Kunashir is the southernmost of the Kuril Islands.

  18. Terrorism in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asai, Yasufumi; Arnold, Jeffrey L

    2003-01-01

    Although the 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack probably was the most widely reported terrorist event in Japan to date (5,500 injured, 12 dead), the country has suffered numerous other large terrorism-related events in recent decades, including bombings of the headquarters of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in Tokyo in 1974 (207 injured, 8 dead), the Hokkaido Prefectural Government office building in Sapporo in 1976 (80 injured, 2 dead), and the Yosakoi-Soran Festival in Sapporo in 2000 (10 injured, none dead). Japan also has experienced two other mass-casualty terrorist events involving chemical releases, including the 1994 Matsumoto sarin attack (600 injured, 7 dead) and the 1998 Wakayama arsenic incident (67 injured, 4 dead). Until 1995, emergency management in Japan focused on planning and preparedness at the local level for the frequent disasters caused by natural events. Since that time, substantial progress has been made in advancing emergency planning and preparedness for terrorism-related events, including the designation of disaster centers in each prefecture, the implementation of several education and training programs for nuclear, biological, and chemical terrorism, and the establishment of a national Anti terrorism Office within the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare. PMID:15074491

  19. The graying of Japan.

    PubMed

    Martin, L G

    1989-07-01

    Japan's rapidly aging population has become a top policy issue, especially as the increasing costs of pensions and medical care are debated. With the highest life expectancy on earth, the Japanese potentially face long periods of retirement, as well as the possibility of long periods of disability. Although family support of the elderly is thought to have been strong traditionally, the recent decline in co-residence with children is 1 indication that the way support is given may be changing. This issue is of particular concern to the government, which wants to avoid any greater responsibility for the elderly than is necessary given the dramatic population aging yet to come. The government is also encouraging employers to provide more employment opportunities for the elderly at the same time that it is trying to raise the eligibility age for the receipt of public pensions. There is resistance on the part of employers, however, because wages and retirement allowances in Japan are positively related to length of employment. Furthermore, it is not clear whether elderly Japanese of the future will be as willing to work, if they learn to enjoy increased leisure early in their careers. Nevertheless, it is unlikely that population aging will lead to Japan's economic decline. Although the savings rate may decline somewhat, restructuring of the economy and continued overseas investment should keep the economy growing in the long run. Important in both the care of the frail elderly and the continued growth of the economy will be the roles played by middle-aged Japanese women. PMID:12282193

  20. Astrogeodetic geoid of Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganeko, Y.

    1976-01-01

    Three kinds of astrogeodetic geoid maps for Japan are presented: one referred to the global (18, 18) geoid of the 1973 Smithsonian Standard Earth (III) (SE III), referred to the best-fitting ellipsoid of SE III, and one referred to the reference ellipsoid of the Tokyo datum. Interpolations of the deflection of the vertical are carried out by a least squares estimation method. The geoid height differences obtained are compared with solutions of satellite-derived station positions. Good agreement is found in a comparison with Doppler tracking stations.

  1. Ijime in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Masayoshi; Okada, Kaori; Hamada, Shoko; Asaga, Reiko; Honjo, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the problem of ijime in Japan from a variety of perspectives, primarily through studies conducted in this country. The term ijime is not uniform in concept, open to different interpretations given the disparity in definitions among different circles, making precise assessment of the actual conditions difficult. Such being the case, what is needed is further study on the mechanisms and actual state of ijime accounting for the flow of the times, and compilation of research to enable the creation of ever more effective modes of prevention and intervention. PMID:22909914

  2. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera...

  3. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera...

  4. Strong Quake Strikes Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-03-01

    As Eos was about to go to press, a powerful earthquake with a preliminary estimated magnitude of 8.9 shook the northeast coast of Japan on 11 March at 05:46:23 UTC. It is the largest known earthquake along the Japan Trench subduction zone since 869 A.D. or earlier, Brian Atwater, geologist with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), told Eos. The quake's magnitude would place it fifth in terms of any earthquake magnitude worldwide since at least 1900, according to information from the USGS Earthquake Hazards Program. The amount of energy released in the quake—which occurred 130 kilometers east of Sendai, Honshu, at a depth of 24.4 kilometers—was equivalent to the energy from 30 earthquakes the size of the 1906 quake in San Francisco, Calif., according to David Applegate, USGS senior science advisor for earthquake and geologic hazards. He said the economic losses from the shaking are estimated to be in the tens of billions of dollars.

  5. Women of courage. Japan.

    PubMed

    1996-02-01

    JOICFP President Shidzue Kato was influenced by and friends with Margaret Sanger from their initial meeting in 1920 to Sanger's death in 1966. Bruce Alfred is currently directing and producing a 90-minute documentary film about Sanger and her pioneering work in promoting the development and use of family planning. Once completed in the Spring of 1997, the film will be broadcast nationally in the US on Public Television. It is being produced with support from the National Endowment for the Humanities and several private foundations. Alfred interviewed Kato for three hours to gain insight into the life and legacy of Margaret Sanger. Sanger inspired Kato to make birth control her life's work. Kato spoke about how the prewar, pronatalist Japanese government allowed Sanger to visit Japan in 1922 only on the condition that she not speak about birth control. This official opposition and the subsequent reaction, however, actually fueled interest in Sanger and her message, and caused her ideas to become widely known among the Japanese public. While in Japan, Sanger did manage to discuss family planning, but in English in a closed meeting. Oddly enough, the government honored Sanger after the second World War with the highest award presented to non-Japanese. Kato noted how unfortunate it was that Sanger died in 1966 without witnessing the realization of the UNFPA. PMID:12290713

  6. Teaching Elementary Students about Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    This paper presents a study unit on Japan for elementary students which can be adapted for any level. Lessons include: (1) "Video Traveling Activities To Accompany Students on Their Journey to Japan"; (2) "Travel Brochure"; (3) "Discovering Culture by Using a Realia Kit"; (4) "Comparative Geography Using the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography";…

  7. Higher Education Studies in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Motohisa

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of higher education in the postwar period has given rise to various problems, and higher education studies in Japan have developed in response to them. What have been the major issues, and how did academic research respond to them, in postwar Japan? This article delineates an outline of higher education studies in general,…

  8. Continuing Engineering Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshima, Keichi; Yamada, Keiichi

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: (1) the current status of continuing engineering education (CEE) in Japan; (2) characteristics of CEE in enterprises; and (3) future issues of CEE in Japan. Indicates that ways of improving CEE include increasing the role of universities, promoting creativity and education of elites, and re-education of middle- and advanced-aged

  9. [Buddhist mummies in Japan].

    PubMed

    Morimoto, I

    1993-08-01

    The mummy of priest Kochi (preserved at Saishoji Temple, Teradomari, Niigata Pref.) has become famous, since it appeared in the book "Snow Country Tales" written by Bokushi Suzuki in 1841 (Fig. 1). In a country of high humidity, such as Japan, the belief that mummification could not, and did not, exist would not be altogether unfounded, but rather more a matter of common sense. There are two dozen Buddhist mummies in this country. It was not known until 1961 that a reliable source of artificial mummification has existed in Japan. The Japanese Buddhist mummies, apart from those of the Fujiwara family, a powerful clan of northeast Japan in the 12th century, dated mostly from the 17th to the 19th century as given in Table 1. Three principal types of mummification described by Vreeland, Jr. and Cockburn (1980) could be identified in the Japanese Buddhist mummies: type I, natural mummification; type II, intentional natural; and type III, artificial. Matsumoto (1990) classified the mummies into four groups, based on their ideological backgrounds: group A, mummies of the priests having faith in the Amitabha (the Supreme Buddha presiding over the Pure Land in the West); group B, sokushin-butsu mummies of the priests belonging to the Shingon sect of Japanese Buddhism founded by Kukai (Kobo-daishi); group C, nyujo mummies of the priests having faith in the Maitreya (the Buddha presiding over the Pure Land in the North, or the Buddha of the future); and group D, other mummies. These mummies of groups A, B, C and D are respectively listed in Table 2. Previous papers have shown that the mummies of the groups A, C and D belonged to the mummification of type I (natural mummification) or type II (intentional natural), whereas those of only the group B were of type III (artificial). The mummies of groups A to D were given as follows. a) Mummies of group A. The four mummies of the Fujiwara family in the Amitabha faith (preserved at Chusonji Temple, Hiraizumi, Iwate Pref.), which were laid in daisies for Buddhist images at golden Konjikido, a model of the Western Pure Land of Amitabha, did not bear any evidence of Ainu character in their physical traits. Of these, the mummy of Yasuhira Fujiwara, of which the head and neck were severely injured by swords, showed that it had been decapitated. This decapitated head had suffered mutilations: i.e. a long iron nail had been driven into the forehead, and the both auricles and the nose had been cut off.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8237299

  10. Teaching about Japan in the Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, John J.

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on ideas for teaching about Japan which elementary school classroom teachers can use to supplement a textbook unit on Japan. Suggestions are intended to allow for reflection by students on their own culture, as well as the culture of Japan. Topics are children's perceptions of Japan and the Japanese, developing a geographical perspective,

  11. The Social Sciences in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanuki, Joji

    1975-01-01

    This article relates a brief historical background of social sciences in Japan, the institutional framework of social science education and research, and major issues and perspectives for the development of the social scinces. (ND)

  12. Japan's launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Y.; Hara, N.

    The development of Japan's Mu series scientific research launch vehicles, and N and H series practical applications vehicles, is described. The three-stage M-3C features a second-stage radio inertial guidance system. The evolution to the M-3S includes a first-stage TVC and Solid Motor Roll Control device, and eight 310-m strap-on boosters (SOB's). The M-3SII developed to launch an interplanetary satellite for the 1986 Halley's Comet apparition, employs two 735-mm SOB's and a microprocessor digitalized flight control system, and can put a 770 kg satellite into low earth orbit. The N-1 is a three-stage radio-guided vehicle using first and second stage liquid engines, a solid motor third stage, three SOB's, and having the capability to launch a 145 kg geostationary satellite. N-II improvements include a 350 kg geostationary payload capacity, nine SOB's, and an inertial guidance system. The H-1 planned for 1987 has a 550 kg geostationary payload capacity and a domestically developed cryogenic engine. The H-II planned for 1992 will be capable of launching a two-ton geostationary satellite, or LOX/LH2 plural satellites simultaneously. It will be powered by a single 95-ton thrust LE-7 main engine.

  13. Gluten ataxia in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nanri, Kazunori; Mitoma, Hiroshi; Ihara, Masafumi; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Taguchi, Takeshi; Takeguchi, Masafumi; Ishiko, Tomoko; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

    2014-10-01

    Gluten ataxia, a type of cerebellar ataxia caused by exposure to gluten in sensitive patients, has been considered common in the USA and Europe, and rare in Asia. We measured anti-deamidated gliadin peptide (DGP) antibody levels in 49 patients with cerebellar ataxia, excluding those with multiple system atrophy, hereditary spinocerebellar ataxia, or cancer, as well as those who were receiving oral administration of phenytoin. Anti-DGP antibody was positive in eight (16.3%) patients, five of these patients were positive only for IgA, one was positive for both IgG and IgA, and two were positive only for IgG antibody. Intravenous immunoglobulin was administered to five of the eight patients, and was markedly effective in one, moderately effective in two, and ineffective in two. Steroid therapy was administered to four patients, but none had an apparent response. Ataxia symptoms improved in one patient treated with a gluten-free diet only. Although it had been thought to be extremely rare in Asia, we speculate that more than 10% of cerebellar ataxia patients in Japan currently have gluten ataxia; therefore, measuring anti-DGP antibody or anti-gliadin antibody in cerebellar ataxia patients in Asia is important. PMID:24997752

  14. Illegal migrant laborers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Spencer, S A

    1992-01-01

    "The purpose of this article is to describe the problem of illegal labor migration into Japan. It begins with a view of the current situation of illegal laborers in Japan--their numbers, their legal status, and their working and living conditions. The principal issues affecting the development of Japanese policy toward illegal foreign laborers are then discussed, and finally some alternatives are considered." Data are from a variety of published sources and concern the period 1984-1989. PMID:12317591

  15. Clean coal technologies in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Ryoichi

    1997-11-01

    Coal provided 16.1% (116.3 million tons) of the energy for Japan in FY 1992. According to the long-term energy supply and demand outlook in Japan, prepared and revised in June 1994 by the Advisory Committee for Energy, it is estimated that coal will provide 16.4% (130 million tons) of the energy in 2000 and 15.4% (134 million tons) in 2010, and that coal demand will increase. Japan imports one-third of the amount of international coal trade and depends heavily on overseas coals. In FY 1993, Japan imported 112 million tons of overseas coals and depended on foreign countries for about 94% of coal used. Coal provides about 30% of the energy for the world. Owing to the stable supply of coal and its economic efficiency for the middle and long term, technologies for coal utilization such as clean coal conversion, including liquefaction, gasification, etc., and efficient combustion processes are being developed in Japan as the chief substitute for petroleum to reduce the excessive dependence on petroleum. Clean coal technologies being developed in Japan will spread widely throughout the world and are expected to create sustainable growth while solving energy and environmental issues.

  16. High definition systems in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkus, Richard J., Jr.; Cohen, Robert B.; Dayton, Birney D.; Messerschmitt, David G.; Schreiber, William F.; Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Shelton, Duane

    1991-01-01

    The successful implementation of a strategy to produce high-definition systems within the Japanese economy will favorably affect the fundamental competitiveness of Japan relative to the rest of the world. The development of an infrastructure necessary to support high-definition products and systems in that country involves major commitments of engineering resources, plants and equipment, educational programs and funding. The results of these efforts appear to affect virtually every aspect of the Japanese industrial complex. The results of assessments of the current progress of Japan toward the development of high-definition products and systems are presented. The assessments are based on the findings of a panel of U.S. experts made up of individuals from U.S. academia and industry, and derived from a study of the Japanese literature combined with visits to the primary relevant industrial laboratories and development agencies in Japan. Specific coverage includes an evaluation of progress in R&D for high-definition television (HDTV) displays that are evolving in Japan; high-definition standards and equipment development; Japanese intentions for the use of HDTV; economic evaluation of Japan's public policy initiatives in support of high-definition systems; management analysis of Japan's strategy of leverage with respect to high-definition products and systems.

  17. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera...

  18. Contraception in Japan.

    PubMed

    Marsumoto, S

    1969-01-01

    In a 1967 survey 72 percent of informants were either practicing contraception or had done so in the past. As the sale of oral contraceptives and IUDs is illegal in Japan other methods were used, mostly condoms or the safe period. However, studies relating to oral contraceptives and IUDs have been authorized. A committee established in 1960 gave the opinion in 1964 that oral contraceptives were effective and not seriously harmful. A doctor's prescription and supervision were recommended. In 1966 the Endocrine Committee of the Japanese Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology reported results among 1513 women treated in hospital clinics with oral contraceptives. Side-effects were found in 10 percent during 15,778 cycles. Among 859 women who discontinued medication after 12 cycles or more, menstruation took longer than 34 days to appear in 50 percent but became regular later. Among 3037 women pregnancy rate was .4 percent per 100 women years on combined therapy and .68 percent on sequential therapy. Although the Ota ring had been used for 30 years, its sale was prohibited in 1936 because of possible harmful effects. Insertion of an IUD is lawful only when done by a docter for the purpose of scientific study. However in 1967 IUDs were used by 6.1 percent of all contraceptors. They have been inserted by about 80 percent of gynecologists. Expulsions have been more frequent with Lippes loop B than with the Ota ring, the same for the ring and the C loop. Perforation of the uterus has been reported in 15 cases (presumably due to faulty insertion), ectopic pregnancy in 38 cases, and cases of cervical pregnancy, placenta praevia, and placenta accreta have been reported with conception while retaining an IUD. Fertility after removal is well-maintained and ovarian function of long-term IUD users is normal. Endometrial histology showed only local pressure effects from an IUD and of 1058 women with an IUD in place vaginal smears were similar to controls. Of 10 cervical carcinomas none was considered to have started in the area of contact with an Ota ring and a single case of carcinoma of the body of the uterus was thought to have been present before IUD insertion. Abortion has been used as a major form of birth control. Reported induced abortions reached a maximum in 1955 with 1,170,000; in 1966, 808,000. Reported numbers do not reflect the true incidence; in recent years 1.4 million abortions are believed to have been performed. In 1964 an induced abortion was performed for every 2 registered birth. A 1967 survey showed that 12.2 percent of wives who did not use contraceptives had resorted to induced abortion, while wives with current or past experience with contraception had abortion rates of 40.9 percent and 44.1 percent respectively. Serious complications from induced abortion have been uncommon in Japan. PMID:12331996

  19. Mt. Fuji, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the movie

    The nearly perfectly conical profile of Fuji soars 3,776 meters (12,388 feet) above sea level on southern Honshu, near Tokyo. The highest mountain in Japan, Fuji is the country's most familiar symbol. The summit of this graceful, dormant volcano is broken by a crater 610 meters (2,000 feet) in diameter. The crater is ringed by eight jagged peaks. The five Fuji Lakes lie on the northern slopes of the mountain, all formed in the wake of lava flows. Mirrored in the still waters of Kawaguchi-ko, the most beautiful of the five lakes, is a reflection of Fuji. Part of Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, Fuji last erupted for a two-month period starting in November 1707, covering Tokyo, some 100 kilometers (60 miles) away, with a layer of ash. According to legend, Fuji arose from the plain during a single night in 286 BC. Geologically, the mountain is much older than this.

    Considered sacred by many, Fuji is surrounded by temples and shrines. Thousands of pilgrims climb the mountain each year as part of their religious practice, hoping to reach the summit by dawn to watch the sunrise. This animated fly-by was created by draping visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's stereo bands. The spatial resolution of both the image and topography is 15 m. The image is centered at 35.3 degrees north latitude, 138.7 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Quo Vadis, Japan. [Status of Japan's Nuclear Power Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    A pile of plutonium - 1.4 tonnes in all - was on board Japanese nuclear transport ship Akatsuki Maru when it left France on November 8, 1992 for Japan. Alongside it were Greenpeace's hostile and ever-vigilant boats and the great swells of public protest from around the world. Transports like this are likely to follow. But more to the tune of 30 to 40 tonnes of plutonium cargo is expected from the Japanese spent fuel that is separated at European reprocessing plants. Both Japanese utilities and governmental agencies have agreed that plutonium is to be fabricated into mixed oxide fuel (MOX) before being returned to Japan. But in the meantime, critics are accusing Japan of being one of the greatest threats to international safety. After the Akatsuki Maru spectacle, the Japanese civil nuclear program is awash in criticism and can not escape the watchful eye of the international community. Now, with Japan's parliamentary elections over and a review of its nuclear program just around the corner, the question is: Quo vadis, Japan

  1. Japan lagging in reproductive rights.

    PubMed

    1994-12-01

    Japan is one of only 11 of the world's countries that have not authorized the oral contraceptive pill for contraceptive purposes, noted Margaret Catley-Carlson, president, Population Council. Catley-Carlson made her comments on the low-dose pill at a special lecture meeting in Tokyo on October 14 where she served as guest speaker. The meeting was organized by the Japan Family Planning Association (JFPA) in cooperation with the Family Planning Federation of Japan (FPFJ), and JOICFP. It was attended by medical experts, parliamentarians, representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the media. During her lecture, Catley-Carlson noted the emphasis on women's empowerment and reproductive health and rights for women made in the World Population Program of Action adopted at the recent International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo. She emphasized that NGOs have an important role to play in realizing the goals of the program of action. Widening the choice of contraceptives, an important reproductive health issue, is the responsibility of the service providers including NGOs, she added. Noting the relatively high rate of induced abortion in Japan, Catley-Carlson commented that the lack of access to the low-dose pill is not desirable from the perspective of reproductive health and rights. She called for widening the choice of contraceptives in Japan to include the low-dose pill and a wider selection of IUDs to promote reproductive health. PMID:12288242

  2. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, April 10, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-10

    ;Partial Contents: Biotechnology (Japan: Japan`s RITE Introduces Biotech Projects, Japan: Pharmacia Biotech Develops Detection Method for Point Mutation); Energy (Japan: New Catalyst for Synthesis Gas Reduces Energy Needs, Japan: Major Company Activities for Promotion of Wind Power Generation, Japan: Waste Power Generation System in Saitama Draws Much Attention); Environment (Japan: AIST`s NIMC To Develop Efficient Decomposition Method for Waste Using Super-Critial Water, Japan: Kyoei Co. Develops High Temperature Fusion Furnace for Industrial Waste Treatment, Japan: Air Dry Cleaning for Recycling Chemically Contaminated Plastic Sheets); Microelectronics (Japan: Toshiba Corp. DEC To jointly Develop LSI for ATM); Science and Technology Policy (Japan`s MITI To Begin Electronic Commerce Experiment Project); Technology Transfer (Japan: Nissho Iwai Delivers Cleaner Plant to Russia`s Energiya, Japan: Energy Agency Transfers Coal Fired Power Generation Technology to Indonesia); Telecommunications (Japan`s MPT Releases Study Report on Advanced Information Technologies).

  3. The educational system in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    The rapid economic growth of Japan since World War II has resulted in Japan becoming a reference point for developing nations and the West. This remarkable growth results from a combination of factors, one of which has been unyielding attention to education in order to cultivate the human talent necessary to provide the productivity for economic growth. The Japanese education system emphasizes quality of instruction and rewards hard work. Some of the principles of the system are outlined together with a summary of the content of the curriculum, the quantity and quality of instruction, and the influence of culture and environment.

  4. Japan starts two more reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Hokuriku Electric Power Company's first operating reactor, Shika 1, reached initial criticality on November 20. Construction on the 513-MWe BWR began in 1987, when the plant originally was called the Noto reactor. The name was changed in December 1988 to Shika, a name more familiar to local residents. The unit is Japan's 44th operating reactor and is scheduled to begin commercial operation in July 1993. Japan's 45th reactor reached initial criticality on December 2. Chubu Electric Power Company's Hamaoka 4, a 1,045-MWe BWR, is scheduled for pre-trial operation in February 1993, and full commercial operation in September.

  5. Unzen Volcano, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This is a space radar image of the area around the Unzen volcano, on the west coast of Kyushu Island in southwestern Japan. Unzen, which appears in this image as a large triangular peak with a white flank near the center of the peninsula, has been continuously active since a series of powerful eruptions began in 1991. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 93rd orbit on April 15, 1994. The image shows an area 41.5 kilometers by 32.8 kilometers (25.7 miles by 20.3 miles) that is centered at 32.75 degrees north latitude and 130.15 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left of the image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (vertically transmitted and received); green represents the average of L-band and C-band (vertically transmitted and received); blue represents the C-band (vertically transmitted and received). Unzen is one of 15 'Decade' volcanoes identified by the scientific community as posing significant potential threats to large local populations. The city of Shimabara sits along the coast at the foot of Unzen on its east and northeast sides. At the summit of Unzen a dome of thick lava has been growing continuously since 1991. Collapses of the sides of this dome have generated deadly avalanches of hot gas and rock known as pyroclastic flows. Volcanologists can use radar image data to monitor the growth of lava domes, to better understand and predict potentially hazardous collapses.

    Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

  6. Superconducting magnet development in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Yasukochi, K.

    1983-05-01

    The present state of R and D works on the superconducting magnet and its applications in Japan are presented. On electrical rotating machines, 30 MVA superconducting synchronous rotary condenser (Mitsubishi and Fuji) and 50 MVA generator are under construction. Two ways of ship propulsion by superconducting magnets are developing. A superconducting magnetically levitated and linear motor propelled train ''MAGLEV'' was developed by the Japan National Railways (JNR). The superconducting magnet development for fusion is the most active field in Japan. The Cluster Test program has been demonstrated on a 10 T Nb/sub 3/Sn coil and the first coil of Large Coil Task in IEA collaboration has been constructed and the domestic test was completed in JAERI. These works are for the development of toroidal coils of the next generation tokamak machine. R and D works on superconducting ohmic heating coil are in progress in JAERI and ETL. The latter group has constructed 3.8 MJ pulsed coil. A high ramp rate of changing field in pulsed magnet, 200 T/s, has been tested successfully. High Energy Physics Laboratory (KEK) are conducting active works. The superconducting ..mu.. meson channel and ..pi.. meson channel have been constructed and are operating successfully. KEK has also a project of big accelerator named ''TRISTAN'', which is similar to ISABELLE project of BNL. Superconducting synchrotron magnets are developed for this project. The development of superconducting three thin wall solenoid has been started. One of them, CDF, is progressing under USA-Japan collaboration.

  7. Aerial Measuring System in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, C., Colton, D. P.

    2012-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Agencys Aerial Measuring System deployed personnel and equipment to partner with the U.S. Air Force in Japan to conduct multiple aerial radiological surveys. These were the first and most comprehensive sources of actionable information for U.S. interests in Japan and provided early confirmation to the government of Japan as to the extent of the release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Generation Station. Many challenges were overcome quickly during the first 48 hours; including installation and operation of Aerial Measuring System equipment on multiple U.S. Air Force Japan aircraft, flying over difficult terrain, and flying with talented pilots who were unfamiliar with the Aerial Measuring System flight patterns. These all combined to make for a dynamic and non-textbook situation. In addition, the data challenges of the multiple and on-going releases, and integration with the Japanese government to provide valid aerial radiological survey products that both military and civilian customers could use to make informed decisions, was extremely complicated. The Aerial Measuring System Fukushima response provided insight in addressing these challenges and gave way to an opportunity for the expansion of the Aerial Measuring Systems mission beyond the borders of the US.

  8. Japan's Eco-School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new

  9. Direct Broadcasting Satellites in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Jiro

    The development and use of broadcasting satellites in Japan are discussed in this paper. The paper describes the medium-scale experimental broadcasting satellite, YURI, launched by NASA in 1978, and reports that experiments with YURI in the areas of basic technologies in the broadcasting satellite system, experiments on satellite control…

  10. The Japan of Today, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tokyo (Japan).

    Following an introduction which discusses the history and geography of Japan, this book focuses on topics related to this country's government, economy, social conditions, and cultural life. Topics related to government include: constitution and emperor; legislature; executive power; judiciary system; foreign relations; and defense. Topics related

  11. Japan Studies Association Journal, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichel, Philip L., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This journal presents new perspectives and materials on Japan that are engaging, relatively jargon-free, and shaped so that their usefulness in a college classroom is readily apparent. The journal represents an example of the potential for genuine scholarship that lies within interdisciplinary studies. Articles grouped under the topic of "Minority

  12. Japan and America: Culture Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooney, Barry D.

    1989-01-01

    Cultural distinctions in the approach to social relationships, access to information, personal motivation, and hierarchy make Japan an effective economic power. U.S. business can learn from the Japanese ways to create more information-based organizations, think in global terms, foster links between business and education, and develop internal

  13. Teaching and Learning in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlen, Thomas P., Ed.; LeTendre, Gerald K., Ed.

    The essays gathered in this volume are united by the common goal of understanding teaching and learning in Japan as it actually occurs. The essays seek to answer questions about the actual conduct of learning in different settings and at different points in the life cycle. This volume explores the expectations and associations found in specific…

  14. Teaching and Learning in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlen, Thomas P., Ed.; LeTendre, Gerald K., Ed.

    The essays gathered in this volume are united by the common goal of understanding teaching and learning in Japan as it actually occurs. The essays seek to answer questions about the actual conduct of learning in different settings and at different points in the life cycle. This volume explores the expectations and associations found in specific

  15. Direct Broadcasting Satellites in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Jiro

    The development and use of broadcasting satellites in Japan are discussed in this paper. The paper describes the medium-scale experimental broadcasting satellite, YURI, launched by NASA in 1978, and reports that experiments with YURI in the areas of basic technologies in the broadcasting satellite system, experiments on satellite control

  16. Japan Studies Association Journal, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speaker, Richard B., Jr., Ed.; Kawada, Louise Myers, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This journal presents new perspectives and materials on Japan that are engaging, relatively jargon-free, and shaped so that their usefulness in a college classroom is readily apparent. The journal represents an example of the potential for genuine scholarship that lies within interdisciplinary studies. Articles are divided among three thematic…

  17. Innovative shotcreting system in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Takashi

    1995-12-31

    Robotization of shotcreting has advanced remarkably in Japan in a short span of time for the purpose of avoiding exposure of human workers to adverse conditions. This paper provides an overview of various devices used in shotcreting and discusses the development of improved systems which ensure higher safety and larger productivity.

  18. Japan's Eco-School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

  19. Teaching about Japan: Lessons and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernson, Mary Hammond, Ed.; Wojtan, Linda S., Ed.

    This document is a revised and updated version of two publications: "Modern Japan: An Idea Book for K-12 Teachers" and "Resources for Teaching About Japan." These lesson plans were developed by teachers who participated in a summer institute on Japan, sponsored by the East Asia Resource Center at the Jackson School of International Studies,

  20. 75 FR 38119 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... from Japan (38 FR 33593). Following five-year reviews by the Department of Commerce (``Commerce'') and... imports of polychloroprene rubber from Japan (64 FR 47765, September 1, 1999). Following second five-year... antidumping duty finding on imports of polychloroprene rubber from Japan (70 FR 44893). The Commission is...

  1. AGU Expresses Condolences to People of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, Michael J.; McEntee, Christine W.

    2011-03-01

    AGU president Mike McPhaden and executive director/chief executive officer Chris McEntee sent the following letter to Gaku Kimura, president of the Japan Geoscience Union, conveying sympathy and condolences to the people of Japan following the devastating earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan on 11 March.

  2. Economics in Japan: A Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindfors, Burton R.

    Intended for use with students in grades 9-12, this collection of materials dealing with economics in Japan is based on and prepared from experiences and information gathered by a U.S.-Japan study trip. Materials focus on: (1) underlying values important to contemporary Japanese society, (2) Japan's rise from an "occupied country" (1945-1951) to

  3. Japan Resource Catalogue: A Guide for New England Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsh, Adele L., Ed.

    This catalog of instructional resources for teaching about Japan provides annotated entries under three main headings: Japan Resources (resources that are specific to Japan); General Resources (materials that are Japan-related but not Japan-specific); and Organizations. Japan Resources, which includes the major portion of the materials, lists 110

  4. Japan`s refiner/marketers headed for major shakeout

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-26

    Japan`s downstream oil industry is in a state of crisis and headed for a major shakeout. The major catalyst for this was a dramatic deregulation step during April 1996 that allowed refined petroleum product imports by non-refiners. The move, together with a sharp drop in refining margins, falling retail gasoline prices, and a service station sector on the brink of collapse, are all leading to massive changes in the way the country`s refiners and marketers do business. This paper reviews the collapse of corporate profits during this period of deregulation; the development of a new price system geared toward bringing the prices of gasoline, fuel oil, and kerosene into line with each other to offset the fall in gasoline prices; and industry restructuring including mergers, acquisitions, and marketing consolidation. The paper then makes predictions on the outcome of these changes on the Japanese oil industry.

  5. Harmonizing national with international standards in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Hohki, Keiichi; Hammons, T.J.

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents a Japanese engineer`s view on harmonization of global standards as the key factor in maintaining and promoting free trade. Japan is endowed with almost no natural resources, and, for this reason, Japan must rely on international trade to sustain its standard of living. Japan fully recognizes that the maintenance and promotion of mutually beneficial free trade is indispensable for cooperation in an international society, and is essential for Japan`s survival. It is very clear that the promotion of the international harmonization of standards is the key factor in the maintenance and promotion of free trade. And Japan is one of the countries most eagerly hoping for its realization. The authors focus on three issues concerning the international harmonization of Japanese standards: (1) Efforts Japan has made for the harmonization of Japanese standards with international ones; (2) natural or tectonic circumstances unique to Japanese standards; and (3) relationship between standard harmonization and international trade.

  6. Another setback for women. Japan.

    PubMed

    1996-08-01

    The Japanese government delivered a blow to women's groups by postponing legalization of low-dose oral contraceptives (OCs). Japan is unique among industrialized nations in refusing to allow its women access to OCs or to other effective methods such as the medicated IUD, or other hormone-based methods. Only nonmedicated IUDs are available to Japanese women. While the diaphragm is legal, a lack of demand for this method caused Japanese companies to stop producing it, and imported supplies are not yet available. Approximately 80% of couples rely on the male condom, which does not allow women any independent control over their fertility and which is likely to be misused. Indeed, 25.9% of married women in Japan have had an induced abortion, and, in 1995, there were 343,024 abortions and less than 1.2 million live births. Activists believe that the abortion rate would drop if the OC were available. PMID:12347291

  7. Japan's research on gaseous flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niioka, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    Although research studies on gaseous flames in microgravity in Japan have not been one-sided, they have been limited, for the most part, to comparatively fundamental studies. At present it is only possible to achieve a microgravity field by the use of drop towers, as far as gaseous flames are concerned. Compared with experiments on droplets, including droplet arrays, which have been vigorously performed in Japan, studies on gaseous flames have just begun. Experiments on ignition of gaseous fuel, flammability limits, flame stability, effect of magnetic field on flames, and carbon formation from gaseous flames are currently being carried out in microgravity. Seven subjects related to these topics are introduced and discussed herein.

  8. Fruit harvesting robots in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, N.; Monta, M.; Fujiura, T.

    We have developed harvesting robots for tomato /1/, petty-tomato, cucumber /2/ and grape /3/ in Japan. These robots mainly consist of manipulators, end-effectors, visual sensors and traveling devices. These mechanisms of the robot components were developed based on the physical properties of the work objects. The robots must work automatically by themselves in greenhouses or fields, since we are considering for one operator to tend several robots in the production system. The system is modeled after Japanese agriculture which is commonly seen to produce many kinds of crops in greenhouses and in many small fields intensively. Bioproduction in space is somewhat similar to the agricultural system in Japan, because few operators have to work in a small space. Employing robots for bioproduction in space is considered desirable in near future. The following is a description of the harvesting robots.

  9. Marketing medical devices in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, J

    1998-01-01

    The control of medical devices in Japan has recently undergone significant changes as the country brings its systems into line with those of the United States and Europe. This article discusses pre-market approval, quality system requirements and post-market surveillance. Many technical issues have been harmonized but language is likely to continue to be a barrier to trade. Details of information services that are available to foreign manufacturers and importers are supplied. PMID:10176143

  10. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Seki, M.; Yoshida, H.; Nakamura, T.; Watanabe, H.; Kudo, H. )

    1990-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) organizes many fusion nuclear technology research and development activities. JAERI is also involved in the design of next-step machines such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER). In this paper, research using relatively large facilities are discussed, such as tritium technology, high heat flux technology, fusion neutronics, and breeding material research.

  11. Aerial measuring system in Japan.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Craig; Colton, David

    2012-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) deployed personnel and equipment to partner with the U.S. Forces in Japan (USFJ) to conduct multiple aerial radiological surveys. These were the first and most comprehensive sources of actionable information for U.S. interests in Japan and provided early confirmation to the Government of Japan as to the extent of the release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Many challenges were overcome quickly during the first 48 h, including installation and operation of Aerial Measuring System equipment on multiple USFJ aircraft, flying over difficult terrain, and flying with USFJ pilots who were unfamiliar with the Aerial Measuring System flight patterns. These factors combined to make for a programmatically unanticipated situation. In addition to the challenges of multiple and ongoing releases, integration with the Japanese government to provide valid aerial radiological survey products that both military and civilian customers could use to make informed decisions was extremely complicated. The Aerial Measuring System Fukushima response provided insight into addressing these challenges and gave way to an opportunity for the expansion of the Aerial Measuring System's mission beyond the borders of the U.S. PMID:22469929

  12. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, December 3, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-03

    Contents (selected articles): Japan: Nissan To Use Nickel-Hydrogen Battery in EV; Japan: Takii To Commercialize Cauliflower-Broccoli Hybrid; Japan: Kawasaki Steel Improves Recovery of Metals from Furnace Residue; Japan: Japan`s NEC Corp. To Develop Cost-Effective Photodection Chip; Japan: Japanese Companies Establish Research Association to Develop 16-gigabit DRAMS; Japan: Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants, Actual Achievements; Japan: Future for Nuclear Fuel Recycle as a Result of Monju Accident; Japan: Superconducting Magnet System Using No Liquid Helium; Japan: Hitachi`s MULTI Network Security Technologies; Japan: Defense Bureau Chief Tokita Interviewed; Japan: DRC Executive on GSDF, High Technology; and Japan: Retired Admiral on Post-Cold War MSDF Strategy.

  13. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, February 20, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-20

    ;Partial Contents: Energy (Japan: MHI Discovers Maritime Photo Plankton that Produces Ethanol from CO2, Japan: Tokyo Electric Power Co.`s PAFC Development); Telecommunications (Japan: Report on 1st Asian Telecommunications Industry Exchange, Japan: MPT Reports Test Evaluation Results for PHS); Defense Industries (Japan: Expert on Shipbuilding, Welding Technology, Japan: Komatsu R&D Chief on Dream of Ground Robots; Japan: Defense Simulator Series, Part 7: Torpedo Simulator).

  14. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, May 7, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-07

    ;Partial Contents: Japan: FH1 Aerospace Division Executive on UAV R&D; JapaN: MHI Delivers First F-2 Flight Test Model; Nuclear Technologies; Japan: Nuclear Material Research in Cross-Over Research Project; Japan: MITI To Subsidize Development of Cryptography; Defense Industries; Japan: JADI Announces FY96 Major Events Schedule; Japan: Rollout Ceremony Held for First OH-X Flight Test Model; and Japan: KHI Weapons Designer OH-X Development.

  15. Japan's hidden youths: mainstreaming the emotionally distressed in Japan.

    PubMed

    Borovoy, Amy

    2008-12-01

    One of the most talked-about social issues in Japan in recent years has been the problem of the nation's purportedly one million "hidden" youths, known as hikikomori (literally, "the withdrawn"). Most observers agree that the category of hikikomori encompasses a wide range of problems and provocations. The fact that these various dilemmas lead to the shared outcome of shutting oneself away at home is the point of departure here. The article explores the spheres of mental health care, education and family, focusing on the reluctance to highlight underlying psychological dimensions of hikikomori and the desire on the part of schools and families to "mainstream" Japanese children, accommodating as many as possible within standardized public education. Hikikomori can perhaps be seen as a manifestation of Japanese democracy, in which the good society is imagined as cohesive, protective and secure, rather than one in which the individual can freely exercise the right to be different. Schools, families and the sphere of mental health care have focused on producing social inclusion but have discouraged citizens from being labeled as "different" -- even when such a distinction might help them. The dearth of facilities and discourse for caring for the mentally ill or learning disabled is, in many respects, the darker side of Japan's successes. Those who cannot adjust are cared for through the institutions of families, companies and various other spheres that offer spaces to rest and to temporarily "drop out"; however, the expectation is that rest will eventually lead to a re-entry into mainstream society. Often the psychological problem or disability that led to the problem goes unnamed and untreated (hikikomori, psychiatry, special education, youth, family, Japan). PMID:18818992

  16. [Discussion on collateral puncture therapy in Japan].

    PubMed

    Takagi, Ken; Li, Zhong-Zheng; Li, Xi-Zhong; Liu, Yang-Yang; Wang, Chao; Guo, Yi

    2011-02-01

    The history of collateral puncture therapy in Japan was traced, the current status and characteristics of collateral puncture therapy in Japan were introduced in this paper. Originated in China, the collateral puncture therapy in Japan combined Japanese knowledge of acupuncture with the theory and practice of bloodletting of Portugal Medicine and Netherlands Medicine. The discussion on the theory and technique of the collateral puncture therapy by Kudo Kunsei became the standard of the collateral puncture therapy in Japan in modern times. Based on this discussion, Tetuo Asami proposed a new theory of the collateral puncture therapy which improved the collateral puncture therapy in Japan. Currently, as a part of Japanese health care system, the collateral puncture therapy with Japanese characteristics is gradually accepted by the medical profession in Japan. PMID:21442826

  17. Us-Japan cooperation on safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Beddingfield, David H; Menlove, Howard O; Hori, Masato; Kawakubo, Yoko; Mcclelland - Kerr, J

    2009-01-01

    There is a long history of collaborative safeguards development between the United States and Japan. Japan has built, and continues to expand, the largest civil nuclear fuel cycle under full-scope IAEA safeguards in world. This development has posed unique challenges to the international safeguards system. Safeguards developments made through the US-Japan cooperation to address these unique challenges have significantly impacted the technologies deployed for international safeguards applications around the world.

  18. Solid waste management in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Naito, S.

    1995-09-01

    On Friday 17 June 1994, as the invited speaker of the International Congress of IWM/ISWA at Torbay, UK the author presented a paper of {open_quotes}A framework for success: the role of legislation{close_quotes}. THis was to introduce the amendment of Waste Disposal Cleansing Law and the Basic Environment Law in 1991, but the combination of the two amended laws has enforced promoting and assisting the fulfillment of the responsibilities of corporations and citizens. In addition to such presentation, the author pointed out a new manner of solid waste management (SWM) in Japan.

  19. Clandestine migrant workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, T

    1992-01-01

    The author assesses the problem of illegal labor migration to Japan. "Labor policies, regulations, types of immigration violations, and the role of the recruitment industry are described. Most of the estimated 200,000 illegal workers are employed in small and medium sized enterprises, especially construction and manufacturing, which pay them wages well below the normal rate. A key issue is the infringement of human rights of these illegal workers, who lack the protection of labor laws and the social security system." PMID:12285773

  20. Japan taxis already on LNG

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, K.D.

    1980-09-15

    Most of Japan's taxi fleet has been using liquefied propane or butane gas for more than a decade. About 45,000 taxis in Tokyo, logging an average of approx. 75,000 mi/yr, use LPG because of significant (50%) savings on fuel costs. LPG use requires good engineering of the vehicle and rigorous maintenance, including a mandatory change of gas tanks every two years. Peoples Gas Light and Coke Co. is planning to fuel its fleet of automotive vehicles with natural gas.

  1. Recent cryocooler progress in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Y.

    1985-05-01

    The progress of cryocoolers and related devices in Japan is reviewed. The Japanese National Railways has developed the light weight 4 K on-board refrigerators since 1977 as part of the MAGLEV train program. Superconducting and cryogenic fundamental technology was examined which included high performance cryocooler, magnetic refrigerator and superfluid refrigeration. Space cryogenics such as the cooling systems of IR-detectors was studied. Cryocooler for special applications such as cryopump, NMR-CT and JJ devices was investigated. Compact heat exchangers, high performance regenerators and reliable compressors are investigated as a critical component technology.

  2. Reforming Education in Postwar Japan: American Planning for a Democratic Japan, 1943-1946.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchamp, Edward R.

    1995-01-01

    If the American goal in occupying Japan was to transform the nation from a militaristic, authoritarian state to a democratic one, the venture can be judged successful. Japan's postwar record in democratic education is good, if imperfect. Japan faces problems of bureaucratization and alienation, excessive achievement pressures on students, and

  3. Teachers' Unions and the Politics of Education in Japan. SUNY Series on Japan in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspinall, Robert W.

    In 1989, the Japan Teachers' Union, Nikkyoso, split into two unions after 2 years of factional infighting. Japan has two political camps, the governing conservative Liberal Democratic Party and the left-wing Japan Socialist Party. The teachers' union is a powerful member in the camp of the latter. This book incorporates studies of the links

  4. On earthquake prediction in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uyeda, Seiya

    2013-01-01

    Japan's National Project for Earthquake Prediction has been conducted since 1965 without success. An earthquake prediction should be a short-term prediction based on observable physical phenomena or precursors. The main reason of no success is the failure to capture precursors. Most of the financial resources and manpower of the National Project have been devoted to strengthening the seismographs networks, which are not generally effective for detecting precursors since many of precursors are non-seismic. The precursor research has never been supported appropriately because the project has always been run by a group of seismologists who, in the present author's view, are mainly interested in securing funds for seismology - on pretense of prediction. After the 1995 Kobe disaster, the project decided to give up short-term prediction and this decision has been further fortified by the 2011 M9 Tohoku Mega-quake. On top of the National Project, there are other government projects, not formally but vaguely related to earthquake prediction, that consume many orders of magnitude more funds. They are also un-interested in short-term prediction. Financially, they are giants and the National Project is a dwarf. Thus, in Japan now, there is practically no support for short-term prediction research. Recently, however, substantial progress has been made in real short-term prediction by scientists of diverse disciplines. Some promising signs are also arising even from cooperation with private sectors. PMID:24213204

  5. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of key transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturers factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCBs actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  6. Laser precision microfabrication in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Isamu; Ooie, Toshihiko; Takeno, Shozui

    2000-11-01

    Electronic devices such as handy phones and micro computers have been rapidly expanding their market recent years due to their enhanced performance, down sizing and cost down. This has been realized by the innovation in the precision micro- fabrication technology of semiconductors and printed wiring circuit boards (PWB) where laser technologies such as lithography, drilling, trimming, welding and soldering play an important role. In phot lithography, for instance, KrF excimer lasers having a resolution of 0.18 micrometers has been used in production instead of mercury lamp. Laser drilling of PWB has been increased up to over 1000 holes per second, and approximately 800 laser drilling systems of PWB are expected to be delivered in the world market this year, and most of these laser processing systems are manufactured in Japan. Trend of laser micro-fabrication in Japanese industry is described along with recent topics of R&D, government supported project and future tasks of industrial laser precision micro-fabrication on the basis of the survey conducted by Japan laser Processing Society.

  7. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-08-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  8. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  9. Human Infections with Borrelia miyamotoi, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kozue; Takano, Ai; Konnai, Satoru; Nakao, Minoru; Ito, Takuya; Koyama, Kojiro; Kaneko, Minoru; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    We confirmed infection of 2 patients with Borrelia miyamotoi in Japan by retrospective surveillance of Lyme disease patients and detection of B. miyamotoi DNA in serum samples. One patient also showed seroconversion for antibody against recombinant glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase of B. miyamotoi. Indigenous relapsing fever should be considered a health concern in Japan. PMID:25061761

  10. Autochthonous Dengue Fever, Tokyo, Japan, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Yasuyuki; Moi, Meng Ling; Kotaki, Akira; Ota, Masayuki; Shinohara, Koh; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Yamamoto, Kei; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Mawatari, Momoko; Sato, Tastuya; Kunimatsu, Junwa; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Ohmagari, Norio

    2015-01-01

    After 70 years with no confirmed autochthonous cases of dengue fever in Japan, 19 cases were reported during August–September 2014. Dengue virus serotype 1 was detected in 18 patients. Phylogenetic analysis of the envelope protein genome sequence from 3 patients revealed 100% identity with the strain from the first patient (2014) in Japan. PMID:25695200

  11. The Role of German in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sang, Juergen

    This historical overview of German studies in Japan, dating from the birth of modern Japan in the 1870's to the present time, includes commentary on the nature and scope of existing language programs. The importance of German idealism--reflected in the philosophy of Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Marx--on Japanese culture is noted.

  12. People of Japan: Building Bridges of Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This booklet was designed to facilitate interactions and communication with the people of Japan by providing information about their customs, attitudes and other cultural characteristics which influence their actions and values. A brief description of Japan is given, covering the following: history, government, the economy, education,…

  13. Learning by the Aged in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekiguchi, Reiko W.

    This paper discusses demographic changes in Japan, the sources of pleasure of the retired Japanese senior citizen, and lifelong learning. It also describes a study that examined learning preferences of Japanese senior citizens. Data for 1983 show that life expectancy has increased in Japan to 74.20 years for males and 79.78 for females. The level

  14. Educational Reform in Japan for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawachi, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the current state of affairs and reform in Japan in 2007 of the theory, policy, and practice of lifelong education. As in most countries, Japan has been talking of decentralisation in government, of giving more local autonomy to communities and of promoting individuality in education. In line with these aims, the government

  15. 75 FR 57980 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... interested parties did not participate in this sunset review * * *.'' (75 FR 51981). Accordingly, pursuant to... COMMISSION Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... whether revocation of the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely...

  16. Perspectives on Japan: A Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, John J., Ed.; Schneider, Donald O., Ed.

    Provided are some perspectives, ideas, and resources for teaching about Japan and the Japanese. A major objective is to provide an opportunity for K-12 students to study a culture that can be both compared and contrasted to their own. Following an introduction, which provides a rationale for teaching about Japan, there are three major parts.

  17. Japan's Winning Margins. Management, Training, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorriman, John; Kenjo, Takashi

    This book explains the fundamental reasons for Japan's astonishing commercial success in relation to its Western competitors. Chapter 1 is an introduction. Chapter 2 discusses implications of Japanese history for education, training, and management. Chapter 3 looks at the first winning margin--education. It covers the following: Japan's long

  18. Sharing a Common Future. Report from Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Makoto

    This document contains seven previously published papers examining trends in adult education in Japan. "Deepening Democracy" (1992) examines democracy and adult education for special needs groups (women, dropouts, disabled persons, ethnic minorities, and refugees). "Literacy Movement" (1990) traces literacy education in Japan from its beginnings…

  19. Autochthonous dengue fever, Tokyo, Japan, 2014.

    PubMed

    Kutsuna, Satoshi; Kato, Yasuyuki; Moi, Meng Ling; Kotaki, Akira; Ota, Masayuki; Shinohara, Koh; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Yamamoto, Kei; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Mawatari, Momoko; Sato, Tastuya; Kunimatsu, Junwa; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Ohmagari, Norio

    2015-03-01

    After 70 years with no confirmed autochthonous cases of dengue fever in Japan, 19 cases were reported during August-September 2014. Dengue virus serotype 1 was detected in 18 patients. Phylogenetic analysis of the envelope protein genome sequence from 3 patients revealed 100% identity with the strain from the first patient (2014) in Japan. PMID:25695200

  20. The State of Continuing Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masatoshi, Nagashima, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains the following articles about the state of continuing education and occupational training in Japan: "Funabashi City University of Sports Health" (Abe Nobuhiro); "Public Halls in Omiya City" (Kawamoto Koji); "Setagaya Senior Citizens College (Setagaya Rojin Daigaku)" (Sawamura Hiroshi); "Lifelong Sport in Japan: A Case Study of…

  1. The State of Continuing Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masatoshi, Nagashima, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains the following articles about the state of continuing education and occupational training in Japan: "Funabashi City University of Sports Health" (Abe Nobuhiro); "Public Halls in Omiya City" (Kawamoto Koji); "Setagaya Senior Citizens College (Setagaya Rojin Daigaku)" (Sawamura Hiroshi); "Lifelong Sport in Japan: A Case Study of

  2. Getah Virus Infection among Racehorses, Japan, 2014.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Manabu; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Kobayashi, Minoru; Kikuchi, Takuya; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi

    2015-05-01

    An outbreak of Getah virus infection occurred among racehorses in Japan during September and October 2014. Of 49 febrile horses tested by reverse transcription PCR, 25 were positive for Getah virus. Viruses detected in 2014 were phylogenetically different from the virus isolated in Japan in 1978. PMID:25898181

  3. Outdoor Education and Camping in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebashi, Shinshiro

    Professor Shinshiro Ebashi of the University of Tokyo discusses outdoor education in Japan, especially in relation to legislation (e.g., the Sport Promotion Law of 1961) and programs endorsed by the Ministry of Education. A typical outdoor education program for junior-high students is given. Also discussed are the programs of the All Japan Senior

  4. Penicillin and the reconstruction of Japan.

    PubMed

    Cozzoli, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores postwar American strategies regarding penicillin in Japan. Perceived as both an American gift and a symbol of reconstruction, penicillin played a singular role in Washington's postwar policies towards Europe and Japan. Washington encouraged US pharmaceutical companies to penetrate Europe but sought to protect intra-European trade. In Japan, however, importing penicillin from the US or establishing private American factories was forbidden. Jackson W. Foster implemented a smaller-scale, military-directed version of the US's wartime penicillin project. In this paper, it is argued that the MacArthur administration aimed to boost Japanese penicillin production and transfer American industrial culture to Japan. This was initially a major success. However, the Japanese pharmaceutical industry failed to break down barriers to market entry established by first movers and, consequently, was uncompetitive throughout the twentieth century. This paper regards the American penicillin project in Japan as a factor in the weakness of the postwar Japanese pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26054211

  5. Industrial waste management in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Hirota, Y.

    1986-12-01

    Systematic management for industrial waste in Japan has been carried out based on the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law which was enacted in 1970. The law and its ordinances designate 19 kinds of waste materials discharged from business activities as industrial waste and prescribe the generator's responsibility, requirements for treatment contractors, standards for consignment, specific personnel, etc. from the view of proper management. And they also prescribe disposal standards, structure, and maintenance standards for treatment facilities, including final disposal sites, from the view of proper treatment and disposal. The Standard for Verification provides criteria to categorize as hazardous or nonhazardous industrial waste which is subjected to treatment and disposal in conformity with each standard. The fundamental policies to cope with industrial waste focus on reduction of generation, promotion of recycling, establishment of a comprehensive information management system and participation of the public which can contribute well to prevent environmental pollution caused by inappropriate management of industrial waste.

  6. Venomous Snake Bites in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yasunaga, Hideo; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Kuwabara, Kazuaki; Hashimoto, Hideki; Matsuda, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    Few reliable data are available on the incidence of snake bites in developing and developed nations. Insufficient epidemiologic data have hindered the recognition of snake bite as an important public health issue. We verified statistics of snake bites (mamushi and habu bites) in Japan by using a currently available, nationally representative, hospital-based database. We identified 1,670 inpatients with snake bites from 404 hospitals during July 1December 31 in 2007 and 2008. More than 60% were males, the average age was 60.1 years, and the in-hospital mortality rate was 0.2%. The incidence of mamushi bite, distributed between latitudes 30N and 46N, was estimated to be 1.67 bites/100,000/6 months. It is important to continue collecting all available data to monitor the trends of this life-threatening disease. PMID:21212215

  7. Sanger Center reaches out. Japan.

    PubMed

    1997-06-01

    In an interview with the Japanese Family Planning Association (FPA), Alexander Sanger, president of Margaret Sanger Center International (MSCI), Planned Parenthood of New York City (PPNYC), sketched the history of the clinic and research center founded by his grandmother, Margaret Sanger. The first person to come to the clinic from another country for training was Shidzue Kato of Japan. In addition to providing FP services and training, the clinic became known as a research center for new methods of contraception. After its 1973 merger with PPNYC, the clinic continued to function as an international training center with funding from the US Agency for International Development and the UN Population Fund. MSCI works with governments and nongovernmental organizations worldwide and focuses on 1) improving quality of care in FP clinics, 2) integrating FP into primary health-care centers, 3) promoting family life education, 4) improving male involvement in FP, 5) HIV/AIDS education, and 6) training FPAs in FP and women's rights advocacy. Sanger noted that FP advocates in the US were unsuccessful in lobbying to prevent a decrease in US funding of international FP programs (down to $385 million in 1996 from $548 million in 1994). Sanger called upon Japan and European countries to help make US politicians understand that providing FP funding is a responsibility of the most powerful nation in the world. Rather than cutting support, the US should be increasing funds for international FP efforts in conjunction with the US commitment to the International Conference on Population and Development's Program of Action. PMID:12292625

  8. Electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (Editor); Kukowski, John A.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John W.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies. Japan has established this marked competitive advantage in electronics as a consequence of developing low-cost, high-volume consumer products. Japan's infrastructure, and the remarkable cohesiveness of vision and purpose in government and industry, are key factors in the success of Japan's electronics industry. Although Japan will continue to dominate consumer electronics in the foreseeable future, opportunities exist for the United States and other industrial countries to capture an increasingly large part of the market. The JTEC panel has identified no insurmountable barriers that would prevent the United States from regaining a significant share of the consumer electronics market; in fact, there is ample evidence that the United States needs to aggressively pursue high-volume, low-cost electronic assembly, because it is a critical path leading to high-performance electronic systems.

  9. Explaining unusual winter lightning in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindo, Takatoshi; Ishii, Masaru; Williams, Earle

    2011-11-01

    Third International Symposium on Winter Lightning; Sapporo, Japan, 15-16 June 2011 Japan's meteorological setting in winter is unusual: It is an island in a relatively warm sea frequently overswept by colder air from Siberia. This sets up appreciable atmospheric instability in the fringe of the land adjacent to the Sea of Japan. Heavy snowstorms overlap the edge of the island and produce extraordinarily energetic lightning flashes that initiate from points on the ground (known as ground-to-cloud (GC) strokes) and wreak havoc on power lines and, more recently, wind turbines. These troublesome and costly conditions set the stage for the third in a series of conferences on winter lightning.

  10. Deoxygenation of Lake Ikeda, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, R.; Hasegawa, N.

    2010-12-01

    Lake Ikeda (Kagoshima prefecture, Japan) is a deep lake with a maximum depth of 233 m. Monitoring data of lake Ikeda exist since 1975. We have analyzed the long-term variability in the water conditions of Lake Ikeda. Recently, Lake Ikeda has exhibited the phenomenon of incomplete overturning because of climate warming. The concentrations of DO (dissolved oxygen) in the deepest parts of the lake have reduced. This phenomenon was observed to have started in the 1980s, and gradually, the deepest parts of the lake became anoxic. Later, the anoxic layer became thicker. Currently, winter mixing in Lake Ikeda reaches to depths of only 100 m. According to our simple estimation, the total volume of oxygen in Lake Ikeda will reduce from approximately 70% in the mid-1980s to 40% by the end of 2010. In addition to this phenomenon, the oxygen concentration appears to vary with several years oscillations. The depths to which mixing occurs depends on the severity of the winter, such as the air temperature during the winter season. The mixing period generally occurs in February; hence, the limnological year is considered to start in February. During our analysis period, the total DO mass showed high values in 1996, 2001, and 2003. Air temperature data obtained for regions near Lake Ikeda (the station name is Ibusuki) are used to clarify the cause of the high DO mass values in the three abovementioned years. During the period prior to the occurrence of the high DO mass in February 1996, i.e., in December 1995 and January 1996, the air temperature was low. Similarly, in 2001 and 2003, the air temperature was low in January (one month before the high DO mass was observed). In January 2001 and 2003, the AO (Atlantic Oscillation) index was negative. When the AO index is negative, there tends to be a greater movement of cold polar air into mid-latitudinal regions including Japan (Yamakawa, 2005). This movement induced a low air temperature in Ibusuki, and consequently, a high DO mass was observed in Lake Ikeda. On the other hand, the AO index was negative in December 1995 and January 1996. In addition, the WP (Western Pacific) index was also negative in the winter of 1995/96. When the WP index is negative, Japan experiences a cold winter (Koide and Kodera, 1999; Yasunaka and Hanawa, 2008). Therefore, the combination of the negative phase of AO and the negative phase of WP led to the occurrence of cold surges near Lake Ikeda, which in turn resulted in the high DO mass in February 1996. When DO concentration in the deep layer of the lake becomes higher caused winter mixing, we observe also a reduction in the DO concentration in the surface layer. The DO concentration in the surface layer sometimes decreased to 70%. In future, once Lake Ikeda will deep mixing during very cold winters, the DO concentration in the surface water might reduce largely.

  11. Challenges and solutions ensuring EUVL photomask integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brux, O.; Dreß, P.; Schmalfuß, H.; Jonckheere, R.; Koolen-Hermkens, W.

    2012-06-01

    Industry roadmaps indicate that the introduction of Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) is on track for high volume manufacturing. Although, there has been significant progress in each of the individual subsets of the EUVL infrastructure, the absolute management of the process outside of the scanner and up to the point-of-exposure has been highlighted as critical requirement for the adoption of EUVL. Significant changes in the EUV system environment and mask architecture are driving a zero process tolerance level. Any unforeseen contamination introduced to the scanner environment from the EUV mask could cause considerable downtime and yield loss. Absolute mask integrity at the point-of-exposure must be guaranteed. EUV mask cleaning processes-of-record have been developed and introduced to the industry [1]. The issue is not longer "how to clean the mask" but, "how to keep it clean". With the introduction of EUVL, mask cleanliness extends out beyond the traditional mask cleaning tool. Complete control of contamination and/or particles during transportation, handling and storage will require a holistic approach to mask management. A new environment specifically for EUV mask integrity must be developed and fully tested for the sub 16nm half-pitch node introduction. The SUSS MaskTrack Pro (MTP) InSync was introduced as the solution for EUV mask integrity. SUSS demonstrated the fully automated handling of EUV masks into and out of a Dual Pod System [2]. Intrinsic cleanliness of each individual handling and storage step of the inner pod (EIP) and EUV mask inside the MTP InSync Tool was investigated and reported. A target specification of a PRP <= 0.08 as criterion for the cross contamination between EIP and the EUV reticle during handling within MTP InSync has been achieved and therefore proofing the applicability for the Dual Pod automation. Moreover an appropriate automated handling, other aspects like backside particle contamination and EIP cleanliness plays a significant role to ensure EUV mask integrity. With this concept in mind a system for particle detection has been integrated into MTP InSync. This allows verifying the POR performance for backside cleaning by measuring particles down to 150nm size. A dynamic capture rate of larger 97% at 200nm particle size based on PSLs was achieved; for EIP cleaning, a dry-cleaning technology is under investigation. During feasibility studies high particle removal efficiency (PRE) results larger 99% has been achieved for particles down to 100nm. In this paper, the full scope and roadmap of the MTP InSync will be discussed. Preliminary results of backside particle detection and challenges on EUV Inner Pod (EIP) cleaning will be presented.

  12. Mobile metrology for advanced photomask manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Paul; Goudy, Michael P.; Koty, Devi; Omoregie, Henryson; Webster, M. David

    2005-11-01

    Accuracy and fabrication cost of optical masks continue to be major concerns for the semiconductor industry. While immersion and other process technologies promise to extend optical lithography down to the 45nm node, the resulting technical and commercial requirements for the mask fabrication process become increasingly difficult to achieve. Potential solutions that are readily available to wafer fabricators are either too expensive to deploy or have not been commercialized for mask manufactures- up until now. Mobile metrology has the inherent ability to provide the required measurement accuracy, on any tool, at a low cost of ownership. This paper will discuss the application of a self-contained, wireless SensorPlate for providing process optimization and control within a leading mask blank manufacturing facility. Three critical process steps are characterized: Quartz Cleaning, Chromium Physical Vapor Deposition, and Photoresist Post-Applied Baking. Process optimization was completed to achieve improved performance of the mask blank product.

  13. Contemporary Japan: A Teaching Workbook. Third Edition Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Roberta, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to supplement and enliven standard textbook presentations of Japan, this workbook, through student exercises, seeks to answer some of the most common questions U.S. students have about Japan and its people. Classes exploring only one aspect of Japan as well as those seeking an integrated picture of Japan's traditional culture and…

  14. Teaching Primary School Children about Japan through Art. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Patricia Berg

    There are a variety reasons for teaching about Japan. Many students in the United States are of Japanese heritage; Japan is the second largest trading partner of the United States; and some healing still needs to occur between the United States and Japan because of the damage and pain of World War II. Further, the Unites States and Japan share the

  15. MAP in Japan: Organization and projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, S.

    1982-01-01

    Japan's participation in the following five map projects are discussed: (1) winds and waves; (2) constituents; (3) aerosols and radiation; (4) coordinated observations in Antarctica; and (5) data analysis and modeling.

  16. [Cutaneous mycoses in Japan originating from animals].

    PubMed

    Kano, Rui

    2012-01-01

    Human cases of dermatophytoses are occasionally transmitted from animals, and suffered from tinea corporis and sometimes Kerion celsi. The most frequent causative agent of these diseases is Microsporum canis. The other dermatophyte, Arthroderma benhamiae is now prevailing in rabbits, rodents and hedgehogs that are popular household pets in Japan. Therefore, some human cases of A. benhamiae infection were reported and the transmission of this infection from rabbits and rodents was confirmed.Cryptococcosis is regarded as dangerous zoonosis, but its transmission from animal to peoples has not been documented in Japan. Animal cases of cryptococcosis are possible to increase in number by developing immunosuppressive animals as well as by spreading of newly introduced C. gattii to Japan.Animal cases of sporotrichosis are rarely reported in Japan. However, feline sporotrichosis should be prevented and promptly treated since it easily transmitted to people from cat lesions and the exudates where copious numbers of organisms are found in tissues. PMID:22467127

  17. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Front, left to right: Efthymios Papadopoulos (Georgia Tech) and Jun Yoneda (AIST)....

  18. US--Japan energy policy consultations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    These papers, from the US--Japan Energy Policy Consultations Meeting in Hawaii, deal with topics relating to: energy outlook; electric utilities; nuclear energy; coal and petroleum based energies; and new energy source development. (JF)

  19. GPM Arrives in Japan - Duration: 19 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    An international satellite that will set a new standard for global precipitation measurements from space has completed a 7,300-mile journey from the United States to Japan, where it now will underg...

  20. History of Nuclear Fusion Research in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Harukazu; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Kimura, Kazue; Namba, Chusei; Matsuda, Shinzaburo

    In the late 1950s just after the atomic energy research was opened worldwide, there was a lively discussion among scientists on the strategy of nuclear fusion research in Japan. Finally, decision was made that fusion research should be started from the basic, namely, research on plasma physics and from cultivation of human resources at universities under the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (MOE). However, an endorsement was given that construction of an experimental device for fusion research would be approved sooner or later. Studies on toroidal plasma confinement started at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) under the Science and Technology Agency (STA) in the mid-1960s. Dualistic fusion research framework in Japan was established. This structure has lasted until now. Fusion research activities over the last 50 years are described by the use of a flowchart, which is convenient to glance the historical development of fusion research in Japan.

  1. Diagnostics in Japan's microgravity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadota, Toshikazu

    1995-01-01

    The achievement of the combustion research under microgravity depends substantially on the availability of diagnostic systems. The non-intrusive diagnostic systems are potentially applicable for providing the accurate, realistic and detailed information on momentum, mass and energy transport, complex gas phase chemistry, and phase change in the combustion field under microgravity. The non-intrusive nature of optical instruments is essential to the measurement of combustion process under microgravity which is very nervous to any perturbation. However, the implementation of the non-intrusive combustion diagnostic systems under microgravity is accompanied by several constraints. Usually, a very limited space is only available for constructing a highly sophisticated system which is so sensitive that it is easily affected by the magnitude of the gravitational force, vibration and heterogeneous field of temperature and density of the environments. The system should be properly adjusted prior to the experiment. Generally, it is quite difficult to tune the instruments during measurements. The programmed sequence of operation should also be provided. Extensive effort has been toward the development of non-intrusive diagnostic systems available for the combustion experiments under microgravity. This paper aims to describe the current art and the future strategy on the non-intrusive diagnostic systems potentially applicable to the combustion experiments under microgravity in Japan.

  2. On Earthquake Prediction in Japan

    PubMed Central

    UYEDA, Seiya

    2013-01-01

    Japan’s National Project for Earthquake Prediction has been conducted since 1965 without success. An earthquake prediction should be a short-term prediction based on observable physical phenomena or precursors. The main reason of no success is the failure to capture precursors. Most of the financial resources and manpower of the National Project have been devoted to strengthening the seismographs networks, which are not generally effective for detecting precursors since many of precursors are non-seismic. The precursor research has never been supported appropriately because the project has always been run by a group of seismologists who, in the present author’s view, are mainly interested in securing funds for seismology — on pretense of prediction. After the 1995 Kobe disaster, the project decided to give up short-term prediction and this decision has been further fortified by the 2011 M9 Tohoku Mega-quake. On top of the National Project, there are other government projects, not formally but vaguely related to earthquake prediction, that consume many orders of magnitude more funds. They are also un-interested in short-term prediction. Financially, they are giants and the National Project is a dwarf. Thus, in Japan now, there is practically no support for short-term prediction research. Recently, however, substantial progress has been made in real short-term prediction by scientists of diverse disciplines. Some promising signs are also arising even from cooperation with private sectors. PMID:24213204

  3. [Legislations on radiation in Japan].

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Ryuji

    2013-10-01

    The Atomic Energy Basic Act was the first law for the prevention of radiation damage in Japan, and was enforced in 1955. The law focused on the research, development and promotion of the use of atomic energy. With an increase in the importing of radioactive isotopes from foreign countries, the Act on Prevention of Radiation Disease Due to Radioisotopes was established under the jurisdiction of the Science and Technology Agency in 1957 and enforced in 1958. The Nuclear Regulation Authority began as an extra-ministerial committee of the Ministry of the Environment in 2012 and has jurisdiction in the area of ionizing radiations regulations.Substantial regulation has been provided by the Labor Standards Act, and the Ordinance on Prevention of Ionizing Radiation Hazards was established as the eleventh ordinance of the Ministry of Labor in 1959. There have been many revisions to the Ordinance, including revisions following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011. This paper explains the Act on Prevention of Radiation Disease Due to Radioisotopes, the Ordinance on Prevention of Ionizing Radiation Hazards, and workmen's accident authorization. PMID:24107339

  4. Research and improving web accessibility in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Hitoshi; Ando, Masaya; Ohta, Kenji; Shimizu, Hirokazu; Hayashi, Yoshio; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Yamazaki, Ryoji

    2001-12-01

    Internet use by the people with disabilities and the elderly in Japan is still low, but growing. However, the majority of web contents written in Japanese, even government sites, have very low accessibility. This paper introduces the active measures being taken in Japan to improve such conditions; consideration of a web contents accessibility guideline tailored to the unique characteristics of the Japanese language, development of a system to evaluate accessibility and implementation of actual trials.

  5. Distant Mt. Fuji, Island of Honshu Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This distant view of Mt. Fuji, on the main home island of Honshu, Japan (34.0N, 139.0E) was taken from about 450 miles to the south. Evan at that great distance, the majestic and inspiring Mt. Fuji is still plainly visible and easily recognized as a world renowned symbol of Japan. The snow capped extinct volcano lies just a few miles south of Tokyo.

  6. The history of schizophrenia research in Japan.

    PubMed

    Utena, H; Niwa, S

    1992-01-01

    When schizophrenia research began in Japan in the late 19th century, it mainly followed the German school. Since World War II, however, Japanese research has been more influenced by the developments in American psychiatry. The research in Japan has included studies in epidemiology, histopathology, cerebral metabolism, animal models using amphetamine, postmortem brain chemistry, psychophysiology, psychopathology, and protective intervention from relapses. Principal domains of current studies are subjective phenomena in psychopathology and biological correlates of cerebral dysfunctioning in schizophrenia. PMID:1553503

  7. Historical changes in diabetes therapy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, K; Akanuma, Y

    1994-10-01

    The origins of many aspects of ancient Japanese culture lie in knowledge brought from China, and medicine was no exception. Subsequently, however, in the middle of the 16th century, Portuguese missionaries introduced Western medicine to Japan along with Christianity. They were followed by the Dutch in the 17th century, who introduced Western culture while carrying on commerce at their Dejima outpost in Nagasaki. This was called the Dutch school in Japan, and although there was thus contact with Western culture and the Japanese eagerly studied Western medicine, it was not until after the establishment of the Meiji Reform government in the middle of the 19th century that there was aggressive incorporation and acceptance of modern Western medicine in Japan. The University of Tokyo was the first university in Japan. Preserved in the library of the Third Department of Internal Medicine are old records of hospitalized cases in Japan, and those documents form the basis of this review of the history of the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Japan. PMID:7859609

  8. Universal varicella vaccine immunization in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Kawamura, Yoshiki; Ohashi, Masahiro

    2016-04-01

    In 1974, Japanese scientists developed a live attenuated varicella vaccine based on the Oka strain. The efficacy of the vaccine for the prevention of varicella has been primarily demonstrated in studies conducted in the United States following the adoption of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in 1996. Although the vaccine was developed by Japanese scientists, until recently, the vaccine has been administered on a voluntary basis in Japan resulting in a vaccine coverage rate of approximately 40%. Therefore, Japan initiated universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in November 2014. Given the transition from voluntary to universal immunization in Japan, it will also be important to monitor the epidemiology of varicella and herpes zoster. The efficacy and safety of co-administration of the varicella vaccine and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine have been demonstrated in many countries; however, there was no data from Japan. In order to adopt the practice of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in Japan, data demonstrating the efficacy and safety of co-administration of varicella vaccine and measles and rubella (MR) vaccine were required. Additionally, we needed to elucidate the appropriate time interval between the first and second administrations of the vaccine. It is also important to differentiate between wild type and Oka vaccine type strains in herpes zoster patient with past history of varicella vaccine. Thus, there are many factors to consider regarding the adoption of universal immunization in Japan to control varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections. PMID:26944711

  9. Ocean Science Communication in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, H.

    2011-12-01

    Ocean literacy and education panel (OLEP) of the Oceanographic Society of Japan (JOS) has been established in 2003 for sharing the ocean literacy with the public and promoting the ocean science education in school and college. Its activities include publishing reference books and electronic teaching materials for primary school teachers and students, conducting surveys on the people's consciousness on the ocean, and supporting the events such as 'Ocean Science Cafe' for the public, oceanographer's talks in class room and sea side, and seminars on board of research vessel for high-school teachers and students. Its activities are announced to the public in its website and through Twitter. The records are available to the public in the websites. Some JOS members including me are telling the public the basic knowledge of ocean science, additional explanations to scientific topics in mass media, their thoughts on the ocean, the science, and STEM education, and their daily life such as travels, meetings and cruises through their own private websites, blogs, and accounts in Twitter and Facebook. In this presentation, as a coordinator of the 'Ocean Science Cafe', I will indicate how well it has worked as a good method for promoting mutual communication between non-professional citizens and oceanographers, and changed a scientist to a better citizen. Also, as an ocean science blogger, I will mention a good effect of the mutual communication with the public from my experience. It is concluded that the science communication by new media should not be one-way but really two-way to understand well what people wish to know and have difficulties to understand, and where they stop learning.

  10. Reconsidering Japan's underperformance in pharmaceuticals: evidence from Japan's anticancer drug sector.

    PubMed

    Umemura, Maki

    2010-01-01

    Unlike its automobile or electronics industries, Japan's pharmaceutical industry did not become a global leader. Japan remains a net importer of pharmaceuticals and has introduced few global blockbuster drugs. Alfred Chandler argued that Japan's pharmaceutical firms remained relatively weak because Western firms enjoyed an insurmountable first first-mover advantage. However, this case study of the anticancer drug sector illustrates that Chandler's explanation is incomplete. Japanese medical culture, government policy, and research environment also played a substantial role in shaping the industry. In the 1970s and 1980s, these factors encouraged firms to develop little few effective drugs with low side effects, and profit from Japan's domestic market. But, these drugs were unsuitable to foreign markets with more demanding efficacy standards. As a result, Japan not only lost more than a decade in developing ineffective drugs, but also neglected to create the infrastructure necessary to develop innovative drugs and build a stronger pharmaceutical industry. PMID:20821877

  11. A prospective earthquake forecast experiment for Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, Sayoko; Nanjo, Kazuyoshi; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Hirata, Naoshi

    2013-04-01

    One major focus of the current Japanese earthquake prediction research program (2009-2013) is to move toward creating testable earthquake forecast models. For this purpose we started an experiment of forecasting earthquake activity in Japan under the framework of the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) through an international collaboration. We established the CSEP Testing Centre, an infrastructure to encourage researchers to develop testable models for Japan, and to conduct verifiable prospective tests of their model performance. On 1 November in 2009, we started the 1st earthquake forecast testing experiment for the Japan area. We use the unified JMA catalogue compiled by the Japan Meteorological Agency as authorized catalogue. The experiment consists of 12 categories, with 4 testing classes with different time spans (1 day, 3 months, 1 year, and 3 years) and 3 testing regions called All Japan, Mainland, and Kanto. A total of 91 models were submitted to CSEP-Japan, and are evaluated with the CSEP official suite of tests about forecast performance. In this presentation, we show the results of the experiment of the 3-month testing class for 5 rounds. HIST-ETAS7pa, MARFS and RI10K models corresponding to the All Japan, Mainland and Kanto regions showed the best score based on the total log-likelihood. It is also clarified that time dependency of model parameters is no effective factor to pass the CSEP consistency tests for the 3-month testing class in all regions. Especially, spatial distribution in the All Japan region was too difficult to pass consistency test due to multiple events at a bin. Number of target events for a round in the Mainland region tended to be smaller than model's expectation during all rounds, which resulted in rejections of consistency test because of overestimation. In the Kanto region, pass ratios of consistency tests in each model showed more than 80%, which was associated with good balanced forecasting of event number and spatial distribution. Due to the multiple rounds of the experiment, we are now understanding the stability of models, robustness of model selection and earthquake predictability in each region beyond stochastic fluctuations of seismicity. We plan to use the results for design of 3 dimensional earthquake forecasting model in Kanto region, which is supported by the special project for reducing vulnerability for urban mega earthquake disasters from Ministy of Education, Culture, Sports and Technology of Japan.

  12. Electronics manufacturing and assembly in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kukowski, John A.; Boulton, William R.

    1995-01-01

    In the consumer electronics industry, precision processing technology is the basis for enhancing product functions and for minimizing components and end products. Throughout Japan, manufacturing technology is seen as critical to the production and assembly of advanced products. While its population has increased less than 30 percent over twenty-five years, Japan's gross national product has increase thirtyfold; this growth has resulted in large part from rapid replacement of manual operations with innovative, high-speed, large-scale, continuously running, complex machines that process a growing number of miniaturized components. The JTEC panel found that introduction of next-generation electronics products in Japan goes hand-in-hand with introduction of new and improved production equipment. In the panel's judgment, Japan's advanced process technologies and equipment development and its highly automated factories are crucial elements of its domination of the consumer electronics marketplace - and Japan's expertise in manufacturing consumer electronics products gives it potentially unapproachable process expertise in all electronics markets.

  13. Cenozoic rift tectonics of the Japan Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, K.

    1988-08-01

    The Japan Sea is one of the back-arc basins in trench-arc systems bordering the western Pacific. Recent paleomagnetic works suggest the Japan Sea opened during early to middle Miocene. Radiometric and microfossil ages of the Cenozoic onland sequences in the Japanese Islands elucidate the rift tectonics of the Japan Sea. The rifting history is summarized as follows: nonmarine volcanic formations of prerift stage before 50 Ma, rift-onset unconformity at 40 Ma, nonmarine volcanic formations of synrift stage 20-33 Ma, breakup unconformity 19 Ma showing the opening of the Japan Sea, marine volcanic and sedimentary formations of synrift stage 14.5-18 Ma, beginning of regional subsidence 14.5 Ma corresponding to the end of the Japan Sea opening, marine sedimentary formations of postdrift stage after 14.5 Ma. Rifting is not limited to the synrift stage but is continued to the syndrift stage. Rifting led to a horst-and-graben structure. Thus, the Cenozoic onland sequences in the Japanese Islands are suited for a study of rift tectonics because the sequences were subaerially exposed by the late Miocene-Holocene island-arc tectonics. Rift tectonics cannot be studied as easily in most Atlantic-type passive margins.

  14. Low level waste solidification practice in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Sakata, S.; Kuribayashi, H.; Kono, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Both sea dumping and land isolation are planned to be accomplished for low level waste disposal in Japan. The conceptual design of land isolation facilities has been completed, and site selection will presently get underway. With respect to ocean dumping, safety surveys are being performed along the lines of the London Dumping Convention and the Revised Definitions and Recommendations of the IAEA, and the review of Japanese regulations and applicable criteria is being expedited. This paper discusses the present approach to waste solidification practices in Japan. It reports that the bitumen solidification process and the plastic solidification process are being increasingly used in Japan. Despite higher investment costs, both processes have advantages in operating cost, and are comparable to the cement solidification process in overall costs.

  15. Insights into software development in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, Lorraine M.

    1992-01-01

    The interdependence of the U.S.-Japanese economies makes it imperative that we in the United States understand how business and technology developments take place in Japan. We can gain insight into these developments in software engineering by studying the context in which Japanese software is developed, the practices that are used, the problems encountered, the setting surrounding these problems, and the resolution of these problems. Context includes the technological and sociological characteristics of the software development environment, the software processes applied, personnel involved in the development process, and the corporate and social culture surrounding the development. Presented in this paper is a summary of results of a study that addresses these issues. Data for this study was collected during a three month visit to Japan where the author interviewed 20 software managers representing nine companies involved in developing software in Japan. These data are compared to similar data from the United States in which 12 managers from five companies were interviewed.

  16. The development of electroconvulsive therapy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takebayashi, Minoru

    2010-03-01

    The history of the practice and the guidelines of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in Japan is reviewed in this paper. Although the practice of ECT began in Japan at the same time as the discovery of ECT in the world, the diffusion and buildup of ECT practice did not progress in comparison with this treatment modality worldwide for a long time. Recently, the establishment of the Japanese ECT guidelines, which emphasize the administration of a modified ECT using a brief pulse device, has been underway. In 2009, the first ECT network meeting was held in Tokyo, which helped to stimulate the development of ECT practice and improve the guidelines for its use in Japan. PMID:20190595

  17. Social security reform ideas in Japan.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Noriyasu

    2002-01-01

    Japan has a complex social security system. This article discusses the demographic and economic situation in Japan as background for understanding the setting in which the social security system functions. Japan has a three-pillar system for retirement income. The first pillar is the social security pension plan; the second pillar is the voluntary occupational pension plan; and the third pillar is personal savings, including the personal pension plan. The most important part of the retirement income system is the social security pension plan, which paid benefits accounting for 64% of the total income of elderly households in 1998. The five Employees' Pension Plans are established on a compulsory social insurance basis. Most large Japanese employers have a mandatory retirement age. Over 90% of all employees, including public sector ones, must retire from their career jobs at age 60. PMID:12503331

  18. Toward freedom from cancer pain in Japan.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Kuniko; Yasuhara, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    Life expectancy in Japan is highest in the world. Cancer is the leading cause of mortality in Japan, accounting for about 30 percent of all deaths. Many Japanese cancer patients experience severe pain although they and their families hope to be pain free at the end of their lives. Toward that end, the consumption of morphine in Japan has increased markedly since 1989. The amount of morphine hydrochloride and morphine sulfate consumed in 2001 was 6.1 times that used in Japan in 1989. However, the amount of morphine consumed in Japan is still less than in other developed nations, and was only one-sixth of the amount used in Australia in 2001. As a result, many Japanese cancer patients experience potentially manageable cancer pain, largely because the amount of the drug used by doctors is insufficient for pain control. An increasing number of Japanese doctors now understand that their patients' quality of life is most important in end-of-life care and how to use the three step analgesic ladder of the World Health Organization (WHO). However, other doctors do not understand these issues sufficiently causing some patients to die without good pain control. Both the general population and some medical professionals misunderstand and have prejudice against the use of morphine. Patients often do not participate in decision making about medical treatment because of remaining paternalism in the relationship between Japanese doctors and patients. Thus, cancer pain management in Japan is not as effective as it can be and not all Japanese cancer patients receive appropriate management for their cancer pain. To improve outcomes for Japanese patients, it is necessary for health professional and social work students and practicing professionals to receive contemporary education including an introduction to palliative care and ethics. PMID:18032354

  19. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

    2013-04-01

    As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic magma.to make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite exceeding over 500,000 in number and the largest block is 108 ton in weight. Stoens of Hikone Castle came from Paleogene Koto Rhyolite. Edo (old Tokyo, biggest city, central Japan) castle ,Imperial Palace at present, Stones are late Quaternary andesite of Hakone Volcanic Products whose quarrying places are more than 100km far from Edo.They were transported by ships and manpower on land .

  20. Utilization of LPG for vehicles in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Kusakabe, M.; Makino, M.; Tokunoh, M.

    1988-01-01

    LPG demand for vehicles amounts to 1.8 MM tons annually, equivalent to about 11% of the total LPG consumption in Japan. The feature which dominates the demand of LPG as a vehicle fuel in Japan is the high penetration of LPG powered vehicles into taxi fleets. This has been made possible following the rationalization in the taxi business in the early 1960s. Today, three quarters of LPG vehicles, numbering some 235,000 while representing only about 1% of the total number of vehicles, account for nearly 93% of all taxicabs.

  1. History Textbook Reform in Allied Occupation Japan, 1945-52.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakur, Yoko H.

    1995-01-01

    Observes that, although textbook reform in occupied Japan originally supported democratic principles of openness and competition, it later became a mechanism for anticommunist censorship. Maintains that interpretations of Japan's military conduct remain highly politicized and controversial. (MJP)

  2. Ideas for Teaching about Japan in Preschools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lokon, Elizabeth

    This curriculum unit consists of a series of lesson plans focused on Japan for preschool students ages 3 to 5 years. The unit has five themes: (1) geography; (2) language; (3) people and clothing; (4) customs; and (5) food. Each theme has from four to eight activity lessons which address different developmental domains, including language, social

  3. Living in Japan. Intercultural Exchange Series. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkinson, Annie

    The guide provides a brief introduction to the culture and language of Japan, and is designed for visitors, students, and business travelers. It offers practical information on various aspects of daily living, including: money; banks; food; restaurants; hotels; tipping; postal and telecommunications services; transportation; shopping; health and

  4. Behavioural Strategies of Teachers in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paisey, Alan; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Li, Jian

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the behavioural strategies adopted by a sample of teachers in Japan. The data for the study came from a total of 298 Japanese students who were invited to evaluate teacher behaviour by using the Student's Teacher Evaluation Questionnaire. The sixteen-item questionnaire was adopted from Paisey (1975), who had conducted similar…

  5. Child Development and Childcare in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anme, Tokie; Segal, Uma A.

    2010-01-01

    With increasing numbers of women joining the workforce, there is a need for quality childcare. This project, conducted in Japan and using a large number of participants, sought to standardize an evaluation scale to measure the development of children. The development of children under six years of age (N = 22,819) who are enrolled in childcare

  6. Free Resources for Teaching About Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    This publication describes free print and audiovisual materials for teaching about Japan in elementary and secondary schools. The booklet was written to enable teachers to take advantage of the many free materials that are currently available. The first section cites sources of free materials in the United States. Names and addresses of groups

  7. PARTICULATE CONTROL HIGHLIGHTS: RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN JAPAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes results of visits to Japan to assess research and development of new particulate control technology, and to evaluate the applicability of the Aut-Ainer particulate control device to diesel engines. New technology observed includes hooding systems for coke ove...

  8. [Historical research on cinchona cultivation in Japan].

    PubMed

    Nagumo, Seiji

    2011-01-01

    Cinchona is one of the most important medicinal plants as it contains quinine, a potent medicine for malaria. In this review, I reveal the history of cinchona introduction and cultivation in Japan. Cinchona was first introduced to Japan in 1876 from Java based on the proposal submitted by Takeaki Enomoto to the Meiji government. However, the cultivation attempt ended in failure. Later in 1922, Hoshi Pharmaceutical Co. succeeded for the first time in cultivating cinchona in Taiwan, which was then under Japanese colonial rule, and in manufacturing quinine from the cinchona tree in 1934. This was a historic feat in Japan, completing an entire process from cinchona cultivation to quinine manufacture all within the confines of the country. To commemorate this undertaking, the company dedicated a cinchona log harvested for the first time to the Imperial court. It was revealed that a log of unknown origin, which had been left untouched for years at Hoshi University, was the cinchona log from the time of commemoration. Yasusada Tashiro (1856-1928), who has made a great contribution to cinchona cultivation in Japan for over 50 years, led Hoshi Pharmaceutical Co. to success in cultivation. PMID:22041691

  9. With a Little Help from Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, John

    2009-01-01

    Over the last year, the author's students have become very interested in popular culture from Korea and Japan. In particular, the class liked the films of Hayao Miyazaki, an Oscar-winning director who is considered one of the foremost anime filmmakers. In this article, the author came to an idea while he and the first-grade class were discussing…

  10. Alternative Education in Japan: A Brief Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needle, Nat

    2000-01-01

    In Japan, not attending public school is stigmatized, and alternative education is in its infancy. Reviews free spaces, which are not schools, but places for traumatized students to recover; home schooling networks; government-approved independent alternative schools; alternative after-school programs; and innovative programs within the system.

  11. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Photograph of the international team studying gas hydrates in Japan. Front row, kneeling: Jun Yoneda (AIST). Front row, standing, left to right: Yoshihiro Konno (AIST), Jiro Nagao (AIST), Marco Terzariol (Georgia Tech), William Winters (USGS), Junbong Jang (Georgia Tech), Kiyofumi Suzuki (JOGMEC), S...

  12. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: Emile Bergeron (USGS), Kiyofumi Suzuki (JOGMEC), Marco Terzariol (Georgia Tech), William Waite (USGS), and Carlos Santamarina (Geo...

  13. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. The cores and pressure vessels are very heavy to move around, so they are using an overhead hoist system with chains to move the devices. Left to...

  14. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: Yoshihiro Konno (AIST) and David Mason (USGS). The AIST IPTC (right) is being prepared for movement to the left side of the refrig...

  15. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. In this photo is Marco Terzariol (Georgia Tech) is preparing a Direct Shear Cell for testing a core section from the manipulator (background), st...

  16. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: Junbong Jang (Georgia Tech), David Mason (USGS), Carlos Santamarina (Georgia Tech), and Emile Bergeron (USGS). A ball valve has ju...

  17. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: Efthymios Papadopoulos (Georgia Tech), Yoshihiro Konno (AIST), and William Winters (USGS)....

  18. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. This photo shows the pressure core storage chambers, which contain hydrate-bearing sediment samples obtained from the Nankai Trough offshore Japa...

  19. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: Carlos Santamarina (Georgia Tech) and David Mason (USGS). A ball valve is in the process of being opened, which allows a core to b...

  20. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Front to back: Efthymios Papadopoulos (Georgia Tech), William Waite (USGS), and Yoshihiro Konno (AIST) analyze data from sensors inserted into hy...

  1. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: Emile Bergeron (USGS) and Carlos Santamarina (Georgia Tech) are preparing to use a cutter (center) to saw a pressure core into sho...

  2. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Standing, left to right: Jun Yoneda (AIST), Masato Kida (AIST), Marco Terzariol (Georgia Tech), Sheng Dai (Georgia Tech), Efthymios Papadopoulos ...

  3. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Front to back: Masato Kida (AIST), Yoshihiro Konno (AIST), William Waite (USGS), Jiro Nagao (AIST), and Yusuke Jin (AIST), analyze test results f...

  4. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: David Mason (USGS), Carlos Santamarina (Georgia Tech), and Yoshihiro Konno (AIST). Two ball valves are connected allowing a pressu...

  5. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: Emile Bergeron (USGS) and Carlos Santamarina (Georgia Tech) watch the movement of a sediment pressure core on a video screen. An o...

  6. Parental Educational Investments and Aspirations in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kristen Schultz

    2010-01-01

    Previous models of parental educational investments focus on the composition of the sibship (number, gender, ordering, and spacing) and on the social and institutional context in which investment decisions are made. Social-institutional models predict that parents in Japan are likely to underinvest in girls because of their transient status in the

  7. Education in Japan. A Graphic Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Tokyo (Japan).

    The eighth edition of this publication presents a general description of the educational system in Japan in order to introduce foreign educators and others interested in Japanese education to the fundamental aspects of the Japanese educational system and to certain relevant facets of its cultural and economic context. The major organizational

  8. Multicultural and Multiethnic Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nomoto, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    In Japan, the Ainu people have been living mainly in Hokkaido and many Koreans continue to live since the end of the World War Two. Since 1990's, the number of migrant workers has increased rapidly. In this sense, Japanese society has been multicultural and multiethnic. However, those minority groups have been strictly discriminated against in

  9. The foreign worker problem in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, K

    1992-01-01

    The author examines problems posed by the rapid increase in the number of illegal aliens in Japan. The reported number of such immigrants has increased from 28,000 in 1986 to 278,872 in 1992, and is increasing at an estimated rate of 10,000 per month. A sharp increase in crimes involving foreigners is noted. PMID:12317886

  10. English Textbooks in Japan and Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuasa, Katsura

    2010-01-01

    English education in Japan and Korea are similar in some respects. Although both countries are not completely but mostly monolingual societies, where citizens do not need English in their daily life, they have begun to realize the importance of English as a tool for international communication, and as a result their English education is becoming…

  11. Japan's Teachers Earn Tenure on Day One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Ruth; Asanuma, Shigeru; Mori, Hisayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Teachers in Japan earn tenure on their first day of employment--not after two years of experience based on evaluations of teaching performance or student test scores. This is almost too good to be true. If tenure is so easy to attain, how do the Japanese make sure their teachers, especially novice teachers hired with little teaching experience,…

  12. Basic Skills in Asian Studies: Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    This publication contains 20 learning activities for developing basic skills while teaching about Japan at the secondary level. The activities are self-contained and each consists of a short description, followed by a five-item true or false test and five open-ended questions for student practice. The learning activities are followed by a

  13. Globalization and Educational Reform in Contemporary Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie; Zhang, Sheng Ping

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the notions of globalization as embodied in Japanese educational reforms. Modern institutional discourses of educational reform in Japan have shifted over time and all of these reform movements have been constructed by particular social and historical trajectories. Generally speaking, it has been taken for granted that the…

  14. Living in Japan. Intercultural Exchange Series. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkinson, Annie

    The guide provides a brief introduction to the culture and language of Japan, and is designed for visitors, students, and business travelers. It offers practical information on various aspects of daily living, including: money; banks; food; restaurants; hotels; tipping; postal and telecommunications services; transportation; shopping; health and…

  15. Japan's Poetry Boxers Get Ready to Grumble

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that in Japan, a scholar of communications, in the hope of getting people to talk with one another, holds "boxing" competitions in which the blows are thrown verbally, in verse. In a crowded Yokohama hall, boxers file into a ring watched by cheering students and a panel of university professors. Nobody is predicting a winner,

  16. Overview of Hepatocellular Adenoma in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Motoko; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is generally a benign hepatocellular tumor arising in a nonfibrotic/cirrhotic liver, and recently four major subgroups were identified based on genotype and phenotype classification from Europe. HCA is rare in Asian countries including Japan, and there have been few studies regarding the subgroups of HCA in Japan. We surveyed subgroups of HCA in 13 patients (7 women) in Japan, based on the phenotypic classification. As results, we identified 2 hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 1?-inactivated HCAs (15%), two ?-catenin-activated HCAs (15%), 5 inflammatory HCAs (39%), and 4 unclassified HCAs (29%). The use of oral contraceptives was found only in 2 unclassified HCAs (29%). Rather low percentage of female patients and use of oral contraceptives appear to be common clinicopathological features in Japan and also East Asian countries. Furthermore, a group of possible inflammatory HCAs characterized by strong immunoreactivity for serum amyloid A (SAA) was found in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. The inflammatory HCA/SAA-positive hepatocellular neoplasm in alcoholic cirrhosis may be a new entity of HCA, which may have potential of malignant transformation. Further studies are needed to clarify genetic changes, monoclonality, and pathogenesis of this new type of hepatocellular neoplasm. PMID:22973519

  17. Core Discussion Networks in Japan and America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boase, Jeffrey; Ikeda, Ken'ichi

    2012-01-01

    Arguments regarding the high prevalence of interpersonal collectivism in Japan typically hinge on the assumption that Japanese communication networks are more enduring, frequently contacted, and dominated by kin and work ties than networks in Western countries. However, this assumption has not been examined using nationally representative data.

  18. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS ...

  19. With a Little Help from Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, John

    2009-01-01

    Over the last year, the author's students have become very interested in popular culture from Korea and Japan. In particular, the class liked the films of Hayao Miyazaki, an Oscar-winning director who is considered one of the foremost anime filmmakers. In this article, the author came to an idea while he and the first-grade class were discussing

  20. Promotion of School Children's Invention in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakamoto, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    In the late 1980s an American newspaper reported that by one measure--the number of patents cited by successive inventors--Japan overtook the United States in the number of inventions produced during the 1970s. The reasons for this are not clear, but educational efforts promoting creative behaviors in school children are probably essential and…

  1. Cohabitation and Family Formation in Japan

    PubMed Central

    RAYMO, JAMES M.; IWASAWA, MIHO; BUMPASS, LARRY

    2009-01-01

    This article documents the prevalence, duration, and marital outcomes of cohabiting unions in Japan. It then examines the correlates of cohabitation experiences and also describes differences in the family-formation trajectories of women who have and have not cohabited. Cohabitation has increased rapidly among recent cohorts of women, and cohabiting unions in Japan tend to be relatively short in duration and are almost as likely to dissolve as to result in marriage. Life table analyses demonstrate that the cumulative probabilities of marriage and parenthood within marriage are roughly similar for women who did and those who did not cohabit. The most notable difference is in the pathways to family formation, with women who cohabited more likely both to marry subsequent to pregnancy and to delay childbearing within marriage. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that cohabiting unions in Japan are best viewed as an emerging prelude to marriage rather than as an alternative to marriage or singlehood. We conclude with speculation about the likelihood of further increases in cohabitation in Japan and the potential implications for marriage and fertility. PMID:20084829

  2. Free Resources for Teaching About Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    This publication describes free print and audiovisual materials for teaching about Japan in elementary and secondary schools. The booklet was written to enable teachers to take advantage of the many free materials that are currently available. The first section cites sources of free materials in the United States. Names and addresses of groups…

  3. NOX ABATEMENT FOR STATIONARY SOURCES IN JAPAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes current NOx air pollution problems in Japan and the methods used there to control NOx emissions from stationary sources. The two most common techniques in use are combustion modifications and flue gas treatment (FGT). FGT technologies have been developed more...

  4. Current Educational Technology Research Trends in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Minoru; Ueno, Maomi

    2009-01-01

    To examine trends in educational practice research, this article conducted a survey and analysis of factors affecting the review of research papers in the field of the educational technology in Japan. Two factors, namely, practical orientation and theoretical orientation, were extracted from 63 survey responses, and scores from members of a

  5. USGS and Japan Scientists Discuss Arctic Data

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS oceanographer Ellyn Montgomery and Shigeto Nishino with the Japan Agency for Marine Earth Science & Technology (JAMSTEC) discuss measurements in a lab on Healy. Shigeto has spent three months on Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St. Laurent this summer using XCTD's to characterize the physical...

  6. Child Development and Childcare in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anme, Tokie; Segal, Uma A.

    2010-01-01

    With increasing numbers of women joining the workforce, there is a need for quality childcare. This project, conducted in Japan and using a large number of participants, sought to standardize an evaluation scale to measure the development of children. The development of children under six years of age (N = 22,819) who are enrolled in childcare…

  7. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan (53 FR 32267). On August 30, 1988, Commerce issued an... from Italy and Japan (65 FR 6147, February 8, 2000). Following second five-year reviews by Commerce and... orders on imports of granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan (70 FR 76026)....

  8. The AFS Volunteer Resources Study: Summary of Findings from Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naka, Chieko Nabetani; Hansel, Bettina

    The concept of volunteerism is not well known in Japan and the word itself, "borantia" is borrowed from English. However, voluntary programs do exist in Japan. This report attempts to describe the way in which volunteerism operates (or does not operate) in Japan by discussing the organization of Japanese society, its implications for volunteerism,

  9. What is nuclear power in Japan?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshikazu

    2011-03-01

    The aggressive use of such non-fossil energy as the atomic energy with high power density and energy production efficiency is an indispensable choice aiming at the low-carbon society. There is a trial calculation that the carbon dioxide emission of 40000 ton can be suppressed by nuclear power generation by one ton of uranium. The basis of nuclear research after the Second World War in Japan was established by the researchers learnt in Argonne National Laboratory. In 2010, NPPs under operation are 54 units and the total electric generating power is 48.85GW. The amount of nuclear power generation per person of the people is 0.38kW in Japan, and it is near 0.34kW of the United States. However, the TMI accident and the Chernobyl disaster should have greatly stagnated the nuclear industry of Japan although it is not more serious than the United States. A lot of Japanese unconsciously associate a nuclear accident with the atomic bomb. According to the investigation which Science and Technology Agency carried out to the specialist in 1999, ``What will be the field where talent should be emphatically sent in the future?'' the rank of nuclear technology was the lowest in 32 fields. The influence of the nuclear industry stagnation was remarkable in the education. The subject related to the atomic energy of a university existed 19 in 1985 that was the previous year of the Chernobyl disaster decreased to 7 in 2003. In such a situation, we have to rely on the atomic energy because Japan depends for 96% of energy resources on import. The development of the fuel reprocessing and the fast breeder reactor has been continued in spite of a heavy failure. That is the only means left behind for Japan to be released from both fossil fuel and carbon dioxide.

  10. A Hybrid Tsunami Risk Model for Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haseemkunju, A. V.; Smith, D. F.; Khater, M.; Khemici, O.; Betov, B.; Scott, J.

    2014-12-01

    Around the margins of the Pacific Ocean, denser oceanic plates slipping under continental plates cause subduction earthquakes generating large tsunami waves. The subducting Pacific and Philippine Sea plates create damaging interplate earthquakes followed by huge tsunami waves. It was a rupture of the Japan Trench subduction zone (JTSZ) and the resultant M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake that caused the unprecedented tsunami along the Pacific coast of Japan on March 11, 2011. EQECAT's Japan Earthquake model is a fully probabilistic model which includes a seismo-tectonic model describing the geometries, magnitudes, and frequencies of all potential earthquake events; a ground motion model; and a tsunami model. Within the much larger set of all modeled earthquake events, fault rupture parameters for about 24000 stochastic and 25 historical tsunamigenic earthquake events are defined to simulate tsunami footprints using the numerical tsunami model COMCOT. A hybrid approach using COMCOT simulated tsunami waves is used to generate inundation footprints, including the impact of tides and flood defenses. Modeled tsunami waves of major historical events are validated against observed data. Modeled tsunami flood depths on 30 m grids together with tsunami vulnerability and financial models are then used to estimate insured loss in Japan from the 2011 tsunami. The primary direct report of damage from the 2011 tsunami is in terms of the number of buildings damaged by municipality in the tsunami affected area. Modeled loss in Japan from the 2011 tsunami is proportional to the number of buildings damaged. A 1000-year return period map of tsunami waves shows high hazard along the west coast of southern Honshu, on the Pacific coast of Shikoku, and on the east coast of Kyushu, primarily associated with major earthquake events on the Nankai Trough subduction zone (NTSZ). The highest tsunami hazard of more than 20m is seen on the Sanriku coast in northern Honshu, associated with the JTSZ.

  11. Recycling of used aluminum beverage cans in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Itou, Tatsuo

    1995-12-31

    Both sales volume of aluminum cans and the recycling rate are remarkably increasing in Japan. In 1993, recycled can volume was 11.78 billion cans (116,258 metric tons) and its recycling rate 57.8 percent. Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, the leading manufacturer of aluminum cans in Japan, and their affiliated companies are very deeply involved in recycling used beverage cans (U.B.C) and recycling them back to can stock. In this paper, the author presents the following: (1) recent trends of beverage can consumption in Japan; (2) trend of aluminum cans and recycling rate in Japan; and (3) future of the aluminum can business in Japan.

  12. [Medical pots of Yakushi Buddha in Japan].

    PubMed

    Okuda, Jun; Noro, Yukio; Ito, Shiro

    2005-01-01

    The origin of Yakushi buddha (Bhaisajyaguru in Sanscrit, buddha of healing) is not clearly known. It has been proposed the original statue of Yakushi buddha may have been conceived from Varna, a god in Brahminism, believed to be a god of justice who possessed medicines and prolonged life. It is believed that Yakushi buddha appeared in Japan when the buddhism was imported from Korea and China in VI century, Yakushi buddha was believed more profoundly in Japan, compared with Korea and China.The reasons are probably as follows: Yakushi buddha is buddha of healing, Emperor Temmu (672-685) built Yakushi-ji temple in Nara, Emperor Shomu (724-749) built Kokubun-ji temples at principal towns. The principal statues of buddha in these temples are Yakushi buddha. In Japan, there are 252 Yakushi Buddha statues in Buddhistical Temples, which are listed in Important Cultural Property including 14 National Treasures. Belief in Yakushi Buddha was especially prevalent from the 7th to the 13th centuries in Japan. The oldest wooden Yakushi Buddha statue is in the Horin-ji temple in Nara. Among the 252 Yakushi Buddha statues, 224 are in wood, 15 are in copper, 6 are in picture and etc. 212 (84,1%) have medicinal pots (or rarely, a bowl) on the palm of left hand. However, these medicinal containers are wooden blocks. Very recently, it was found that Yakushi Buddha statue in the Suho-Kokubun-ji temple (Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan) has a medicinal pot on the palm of the left hand in which an offering (220 g materials) was found. The date on the reverse side of lid places the offering at October 12, 1699. The offering is composed of five cereals (rice, barley, wheat, soybean, adzuki bean), five medicinal plants (Acori Graminei, Acori Calami, Radix Ginseng, Flos Caryophylli, Lignum Santali Albi), and five minerals (rock crystals, purple and blue glasse, CaCO3, particles, silver and golden foils). DNA analysis proved those three randomly selected seeds of rice all belongs to the template japonica, which is predominant in the present variety of Japan. PMID:16021752

  13. Study and application of molluscicides in Japan*

    PubMed Central

    Komiya, Yoshitaka

    1961-01-01

    For several years after the First World War calcium oxide was the main compound used in the control of Oncomelania nosophora in Japan. This was generally replaced in 1944 by calcium cyanamide; since 1952 the prefectural authorities in areas of endemic bilharziasis have increasingly turned to the use of sodium pentachlorophenate as the molluscicide of choice. Applied at a rate of 5 g per m2, this compound has been found to kill 70%-80% of snails per application. Laboratory and field experiments with calcium-arsenic compounds have been conducted in Japan and have indicated that these products have a relatively high molluscicidal effect; they have, however, not been used on a wide scale for snail control. PMID:14458130

  14. JTEC panel on display technologies in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Glenn, William E.; Credelle, Thomas; Doane, J. William; Firester, Arthur H.; Thompson, Malcolm

    1992-01-01

    This report is one in a series of reports that describes research and development efforts in Japan in the area of display technologies. The following are included in this report: flat panel displays (technical findings, liquid crystal display development and production, large flat panel displays (FPD's), electroluminescent displays and plasma panels, infrastructure in Japan's FPD industry, market and projected sales, and new a-Si active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) factory); materials for flat panel displays (liquid crystal materials, and light-emissive display materials); manufacturing and infrastructure of active matrix liquid crystal displays (manufacturing logistics and equipment); passive matrix liquid crystal displays (LCD basics, twisted nematics LCD's, supertwisted nematic LCD's, ferroelectric LCD's, and a comparison of passive matrix LCD technology); active matrix technology (basic active matrix technology, investment environment, amorphous silicon, polysilicon, and commercial products and prototypes); and projection displays (comparison of Japanese and U.S. display research, and technical evaluation of work).

  15. Earthquake Prediction Techniques: Their Application in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Carl

    Japan is serious about solving the earthquake prediction problem. A well-organized and well-funded program of research has been under way for almost 20 years in pursuit of the national goal of protecting the dense population of this earthquake-prone country through reliable predictions.This rather amazing book, edited by Toshi Asada, retired director of the Geophysical Institute of the University of Tokyo, has been written by 10 scientists, each of whom has made important contributions to earthquake science, but who have not been known in the past as principal spokesmen for the Japanese earthquake prediction program. The result is a combination of a very readable tutorial presentation of basic earthquake science that will make the book understandable to the nonspecialist, a good summary of Japanese data and research conclusions, and a bare-knuckles appraisal of current philosophy and strategy for prediction in Japan.

  16. The state of telepathology in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sawai, Takashi; Uzuki, Miwa; Kamataki, Akihisa; Tofukuji, Ikuo

    2010-01-01

    Telepathology began in Japan in the early 1990s in response to advances in computing and telecommunications equipment development and a dearth of pathologists. Telepathology in Japan is most often used for rapid intraoperative pathological diagnosis using frozen section, followed by second opinions and consultation. Intraoperatively, telepathology is used to determine malignancy, metastasis of malignant tumors, and the extent of excision. Infrastructure and equipment has evolved from analog lines to digital lines like integrated services digital network (ISDN) and asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL), and recently to fiber optics. The use of communications satellites is also being considered. Image quality is being improved to Hi-Vision (HDTV), and from still images to real-time video. Digital microscopy has been introduced, and is used in education and consultation. PMID:20922030

  17. Recent trends in bagassosis in Japan.

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, A; Aoyama, K; Ueda, T; Obama, K; Ueno, T; Hokama, S; Nomura, S

    1992-01-01

    The only workers presently exposed to bagasse dust in Japan are the employees of sugar refineries and lacquerware factories. A follow up study of six former cases of bagassosis from among the retired employees of a paper board factory, closed since 1973, showed that none of the subjects still had bagassosis. Examinations of 70 employees of a sugar refinery for allergic reactions also showed no case of bagassosis. Seven cases with suspicious shadows of bagassosis on chest radiographs and four cases with positive serum precipitin to stored bagasse were, however, found among those 70 subjects. The results show the disappearance of a past episode of bagassosis and the possibility of a new occurrence of bagassosis among the employees of sugar refineries and lacquerware factories in the near future in Japan. Images PMID:1637710

  18. Culture and the environment in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murota, Yasuhiro

    1985-03-01

    This article discusses the environmental problems of Japan from a cultural point of view. The traditional Japanese view of nature differs from that of Western culture. During the 19th century, Japan introduced Western technology to modernize its industries as quickly as possible. Its transition into the modern industrial world was successful but resulted in serious problems. One of these was the rapid destruction of the natural environment; another, the feeling of homelessness that the Japanese people experienced in their newly Westernized surroundings. The Japanese people have now reached the point where they must reevaluate their traditional ideas about nature and their responses to technology. Their solutions to some of the problems that result from industrialization may be useful to Western countries as well.

  19. Steatitis in egrets and herons from Japan.

    PubMed

    Neagari, Yasuko; Arii, Suzue; Udagawa, Mai; Onuma, Manabu; Odaya, Yoshiya; Kawasaki, Takeshi; Tenpaku, Makio; Hayama, Hisayo; Harada, Ken-ichi; Mizukami, Masaya; Murata, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    More than 70 egrets and herons were found sick or dead at an agricultural water reservoir in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan between September and October 2008. The birds showed weakness, lethargy, and inability to fly before death. Postmortem findings included large amounts of firm subcutaneous and cavitary fat comprised of necrotic adipose tissues with infiltrates of heterophils and macrophages. The birds were diagnosed with steatitis on the basis of the gross lesions and histopathology. Egrets with steatitis had low blood levels of vitamin E. High counts of cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa) were found in the reservoir concurrent with the outbreak of steatitis. No microcystin was detected in the reservoir water or the livers from the egrets. This is the first report of steatitis in wild birds in Japan. PMID:21269996

  20. Dissecting Japan's Dengue Outbreak in 2014.

    PubMed

    Quam, Mikkel B; Sessions, October; Kamaraj, Uma Sangumathi; Rocklöv, Joacim; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2016-02-01

    Despite Japan's temperate climate, a dengue outbreak occurred in Tokyo for the first time in over 70 years in 2014. We dissected this dengue outbreak based on phylogenetic analysis, travel interconnectivity, and environmental drivers for dengue epidemics. Comparing the available dengue virus 1 (DENV1) E gene sequence from this outbreak with 3,282 unique DENV1 sequences in National Center for Biotechnology Information suggested that the DENV might have been imported from China, Indonesia, Singapore, or Vietnam. With travelers arriving into Japan, Guangzhou (China) may have been the source of DENV introduction, given that Guangzhou also reported a large-scale dengue outbreak in 2014. Coinciding with the 2014 outbreak, Tokyo's climate conditions permitted the amplification of Aedes vectors and the annual peak of vectorial capacity. Given suitable vectors and climate conditions in addition to increasing interconnectivity with endemic areas of Asia, Tokyo's 2014 outbreak did not come as a surprise and may foretell more to come. PMID:26711518

  1. Marriage and labor market discrimination in Japan.

    PubMed

    Anderson, K H; Hill, M A

    1983-04-01

    "Many Japanese firms have engaged in the practice of compulsory retirement upon a female employee's marriage. In 1966, this practice was ruled as being contrary to provisions in Japan's Civil Code. [The authors] have specified and estimated a model of the economic determinants of age at marriage in order to analyze the effect that this discrimination has had on nuptiality in Japan. [The] results indicate that on average, after accounting for an upward trend, women who married after the 1966 court decision married about one year younger than women who married before 1966." It is also found that age at marriage is influenced by several socioeconomic variables, including wife's wage and educational level, husband's income and educational level, and wife's family background. Data are from a 1975 survey of women aged 20-59 who were living in the Tokyo metropolitan area. PMID:12265425

  2. Dissecting Japan's Dengue Outbreak in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Quam, Mikkel B.; Sessions, October; Kamaraj, Uma Sangumathi; Rocklöv, Joacim; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2016-01-01

    Despite Japan's temperate climate, a dengue outbreak occurred in Tokyo for the first time in over 70 years in 2014. We dissected this dengue outbreak based on phylogenetic analysis, travel interconnectivity, and environmental drivers for dengue epidemics. Comparing the available dengue virus 1 (DENV1) E gene sequence from this outbreak with 3,282 unique DENV1 sequences in National Center for Biotechnology Information suggested that the DENV might have been imported from China, Indonesia, Singapore, or Vietnam. With travelers arriving into Japan, Guangzhou (China) may have been the source of DENV introduction, given that Guangzhou also reported a large-scale dengue outbreak in 2014. Coinciding with the 2014 outbreak, Tokyo's climate conditions permitted the amplification of Aedes vectors and the annual peak of vectorial capacity. Given suitable vectors and climate conditions in addition to increasing interconnectivity with endemic areas of Asia, Tokyo's 2014 outbreak did not come as a surprise and may foretell more to come. PMID:26711518

  3. History of nuclear technology development in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Kiyonobu

    2015-04-01

    Nuclear technology development in Japan has been carried out based on the Atomic Energy Basic Act brought into effect in 1955. The nuclear technology development is limited to peaceful purposes and made in a principle to assure their safety. Now, the technologies for research reactors radiation application and nuclear power plants are delivered to developing countries. First of all, safety measures of nuclear power plants (NPPs) will be enhanced based on lesson learned from TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident.

  4. Human papillomavirus vaccination crisis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Dornbusch, Hans Jrgen; Stiris, Tom; Del Torso, Stefano; Ross-Russell, Robert; Zavrsnik, Jernej; Wettergren, Bjrn; Mercier, Jean-Christophe; Valiulis, Arunas; Hadjipanayis, Adamos

    2015-12-01

    The European Academy of Paediatrics (EAP) is gravely concerned about the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination crisis in Japan and particularly about the negative position taken by governmental authorities. Given that the HPV vaccine is both safe and effective, there is no recognizable reason to date to withhold this lifesaving and cost effective public health measure from a population. Therefore, the EAP strongly encourages the Japanese health authorities to actively support HPV vaccination for the future health of their children and adolescents. PMID:26633608

  5. History of nuclear technology development in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, Kiyonobu

    2015-04-29

    Nuclear technology development in Japan has been carried out based on the Atomic Energy Basic Act brought into effect in 1955. The nuclear technology development is limited to peaceful purposes and made in a principle to assure their safety. Now, the technologies for research reactors radiation application and nuclear power plants are delivered to developing countries. First of all, safety measures of nuclear power plants (NPPs) will be enhanced based on lesson learned from TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident.

  6. Energy R and D in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. Dooley

    1999-08-09

    In 1997, the public and private sectors in Japan invested $90.3 billion in R and D. Japan is the second largest supporter of R and D after the United States. A very large percentage (79.4%) of all R and D in Japan is supported by the private sector. The prolonged economic recession that has plagued the Japanese economy for most of the 1990s has significantly reduced the scale of the Japanese R and D effort compared to what it would have been had the economy been more robust. The Japanese government has recently attempted to bring the economy out of this recession through the use of economic stimulus packages. These stimulus packages have contained significant new funding for R and D, although it is apparent that much of the funding is going to R and D programs and R and D construction projects with very near tern payoff and not to the support of longer term R and D. In 1998, the Japanese government devoted 13.7% of all public R and D funds to the support of energy R and D. The priority accorded to energy R and D in Japan is significantly higher than in any other industrialized nation. The Japanese energy R and D program, which was funded at $2.5 billion in 1997, is overwhelmingly focused on nuclear energy R and D. Nuclear energy R and D (fission and fusion) accounts for 75% of the total national energy R and D budget. The fission energy R and D effort has decreased nearly 24% since 1996 as the government attempts to refocus this program in the face of growing public opposition to the Japanese government's efforts to expand the nuclear power program. Energy efficiency R and D (8% of the total national energy R and D budget) and renewable energy R and D receive relatively modest support from the Japanese government.

  7. Organic solvent use in enterprises in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Yasuhiro; Ukai, Hirohiko; Okamoto, Satoru; Samoto, Hajime; Itoh, Kenji; Moriguchi, Jiro; Sakuragi, Sonoko; Ohashi, Fumiko; Takada, Shiro; Kawakami, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    This study was initiated to elucidate possible changes in types of organic solvents (to be called solvents in short) used in enterprises in Japan through comparison of current solvent types with historical data since 1983. To investigate current situation in solvent use in enterprises, surveys were conducted during one year of 2009 to 2010. In total, workroom air samples in 1,497 unit workplaces with solvent use were analyzed in accordance with regulatory requirements. Typical use pattern of solvents was as mixtures, accounting for >70% of cases. Adhesives spreading (followed by adhesion) was relatively common in small-scale enterprises, whereas printing and painting work was more common in middle-scale ones, and solvent use for testing and research purpose was basically in large-scaled enterprises. Through-out printing, painting, surface coating and adhesive application, toluene was most common (being detected in 49 to 82% of workplaces depending on work types), whereas isopropyl alcohol was most common (49%) in degreasing, cleaning and wiping workplaces. Other commonly used solvents were methyl alcohol, ethyl acetate and acetone (33 to 37%). Comparison with historical data in Japan and literature-retrieved data outside of Japan all agreed with the observation that toluene is the most commonly used solvent. Application of trichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane, once common in 1980s, has ceased to exist in recent years. PMID:21697614

  8. [The institutionalization of bacteriology in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yoko, Yokota

    2009-01-01

    Within the history of public health in Japan, Shibasaburo Kitasato is widely known for introducing bacteriology to Japan in the Meiji. This paper looks into the factors behind the success of the Institute of Infectious Diseases(IID), which Kitasato headed, focusing specifically on Kitasato's strategy, institutional rivalries in the medical world and early development in the field of bacteriology. Kitasato used IID to spread bacteriology through a bacteriology training course and the publication of a professional journal, both modeled on the German system, which Kitasato absorbed during his previous studies in Germany under Robert Koch, who was one of the founders of bacteriological science. At the time, doctors related to the university system and those related to sanitary administration competed for leadership in the medical world in Japan. The latter had pushed for IID to be established, and the outbreak of plague in 1899 gave them the opportunity to successfully lobby the Diet into passing legislation that enlarged enrollment in the bacteriology course and earmarked money specifically to IID. In the late 19th century, the application of knowledge from the nascent field of bacteriology led to major advances in the fight against infectious diseases, which led to rapid accumulation of knowledge about bacteria, in turn. Thus, Kitasato emphasized that bacteriology should be mission-oriented and based in sanitary administrations. Indeed, as sanitary administrations were on the frontline of the battle against infectious diseases and as IID laboratories were connected to the sanitary administrations, IID succeeded in dominating the field of bacteriology. PMID:20027927

  9. Mercury emission from crematories in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaoka, M.; Oshita, K.; Takeda, N.; Morisawa, S.

    2009-12-01

    Anthropogenic sources of mercury emissions have a significant impact on global pollution. Therefore, finding uncharacterised sources and assessing the emissions from these sources are important. However, limited data are available worldwide on mercury emissions from crematories. In Japan, 99.9% of dead bodies are cremated, which is the highest percentage in the world, and more than 1600 crematories are in operation. We thus focused on emissions from crematories in Japan. The number of targeted facilities was seven, and we used continuous emission monitoring to measure the mercury concentrations and investigate mercury behaviour. The total mercury concentrations in stack gases were a few ?g/Nm3 (normal cubic meters). Considering the time profile of mercury and its species in cremations, the findings confirmed that the mercury in stack gas originated from dental amalgam. The amount of mercury emissions was calculated using the total concentration and gas flow rate. Furthermore, the annual amount of mercury emission from crematories in Japan was estimated by using the total number of corpses. The emission amount was considerably lower than that estimated in the UK. From statistical analyses on population demographics and measurements, future total emissions from crematories were also predicted. As a result, the amount of mercury emitted by crematories will likely increase by 2.6-fold from 2007 to 2037.

  10. Mercury emission from crematories in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaoka, M.; Oshita, K.; Takeda, N.; Morisawa, S.

    2010-04-01

    Anthropogenic sources of mercury emissions have a significant impact on global pollution. Therefore, finding uncharacterised sources and assessing the emissions from these sources are important. However, limited data are available worldwide on mercury emissions from crematories. In Japan, 99.9% of dead bodies are cremated, which is the highest percentage in the world, and more than 1600 crematories are in operation. We thus focused on emissions from crematories in Japan. The number of targeted facilities was seven, and we used continuous emission monitoring to measure the mercury concentrations and investigate mercury behaviour. The total mercury concentrations in stack gases were a few ?g/Nm3 (normal cubic meters). Considering the time profile of mercury and its species in cremations, the findings confirmed that the mercury in stack gas originated from dental amalgam. The amount of mercury emissions was calculated using the total concentration and gas flow rate. Furthermore, the annual amount of mercury emission from crematories in Japan was estimated by using the total number of corpses. The emission amount was considerably lower than that estimated in the United Kingdom. From statistical analyses on population demographics and measurements, future total emissions from crematories were also predicted. As a result, the amount of mercury emitted by crematories will likely increase by 2.6-fold from 2007 to 2037.

  11. Survey of ceramic machining in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, B.P.; Blau, P.J.

    1993-07-01

    This report is a compilation of four subcontract reports provided by B. P. Bandyopadhyay who, while a visiting professor at Toyohashi University in Japan, conducted a survey of ceramic machining technology in that country from January 1 through December 31, 1992. Various aspects of machining technology were surveyed: types of parts being produced, types of ceramic materials being used, the nature of current ceramic machining research and development, and types of machine tools. The four separate reports compiled here were originally provided in a narrative, chronological form, and some of the information has been reorganized into topical areas for this compilation. This report is organized into three sections: The first describes ten ceramic machining research and development organizations and provides a reference list of their current technical publications; the second, two major trade shows; and the third, several other products and commercial developments noted during the course of Bandyopadhyay`s stay in Japan. An Appendix lists key individuals who are currently conducting ceramic machining research in Japan.

  12. Admixtures and fibers for shotcrete in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Tazawa, Yujiro

    1995-12-31

    In recent years in Japan the following additives are increasingly being used for Shotcreting in tunnels: Accelerator for shotcreting based on calcium aluminate; dust control agent; and fiber. While dry mix shotcrete was predominantly used in Japan, accelerator of shotcrete based on inorganic salts contributed a great deal to the performance of shotcrete. However this type of accelerator is not so effective to wet mix which has been taking the place of dry mix in recent years. For wet mix shotcrete, accelerator for shotcrete based on Amorphous calcium aluminate is found to be quite effective in gaining sufficient early strength without aggravating long term strength. Practical performance in various cases is reported. A dust control agent for shotcreting is often used to improve working conditions in tunnels. This agent is reported to reduce a great deal of the dust generated in shotcreting operations. A variety of dust control agents are now available, of which constituents are cellulose epoxy , acrylic epoxy, polyvinyl alcohol etc. Use of fibers in shotcrete is also becoming popular in Japan to increase strength and toughness of the concrete. Not only steel fibers but also glass fibers are widely used. Recently more variety of materials such as PVA fiber acrylic and aramid fibers have been tested and some of them are being put into practical use, giving similar properties to shotcrete with steel fibers.

  13. Development of biological soil disinfestations in Japan.

    PubMed

    Momma, Noriaki; Kobara, Yuso; Uematsu, Seiji; Kita, Nobuhiro; Shinmura, Akinori

    2013-05-01

    Biological soil disinfestations (BSDs) were developed separately in Japan and in The Netherlands as an alternative to chemical fumigations. In Japan, it was developed based on the knowledge of irrigated paddy rice and upland crop rotation system that was rather tolerant of soil-borne disease development. The methods consist of application of easily decomposable organic matter, irrigation, and covering the soil surface with plastic film, thereby inducing anaerobic (reductive) soil conditions and suppressing many soil-borne pests including fungi, bacteria, nematodes, and weeds. The methods are widely used by organic farmers in the area where residences and agricultural fields are intermingled. To note one advantage of these methods, maintenance of soil suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt of tomato was suggested, while soil treated with chloropicrin became conducive to the disease. Suppression of soil-borne fungal pathogens by BSDs might be attributed to anaerobicity and high temperature, organic acids generated, and metal ions released into soil water. Contributions of respective factors to suppression of respective pathogens might be diverse. Presumably, these factors might vary on the fungal community structure in BSD-treated soil. These factors also work in paddy fields. Therefore, the BSDs developed in Japan are probably a method to raise the efficacy of paddy-upland rotation through intensive organic matter application and through maintenance of a strongly anaerobic (reductive) soil condition. PMID:23549745

  14. Current affairs in earthquake prediction in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyeda, Seiya

    2015-12-01

    As of mid-2014, the main organizations of the earthquake (EQ hereafter) prediction program, including the Seismological Society of Japan (SSJ), the MEXT Headquarters for EQ Research Promotion, hold the official position that they neither can nor want to make any short-term prediction. It is an extraordinary stance of responsible authorities when the nation, after the devastating 2011 M9 Tohoku EQ, most urgently needs whatever information that may exist on forthcoming EQs. Japan's national project for EQ prediction started in 1965, but it has made no success. The main reason for no success is the failure to capture precursors. After the 1995 Kobe disaster, the project decided to give up short-term prediction and this stance has been further fortified by the 2011 M9 Tohoku Mega-quake. This paper tries to explain how this situation came about and suggest that it may in fact be a legitimate one which should have come a long time ago. Actually, substantial positive changes are taking place now. Some promising signs are arising even from cooperation of researchers with private sectors and there is a move to establish an "EQ Prediction Society of Japan". From now on, maintaining the high scientific standards in EQ prediction will be of crucial importance.

  15. [Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in Japan].

    PubMed

    Shimojima, Masayuki; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Tani, Hideki; Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Morikawa, Shigeru; Saijo, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is characterized by sudden onset of fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and gastrointestinal tract symptoms and approximately 12% of patients die from disseminated intravascular coagulation and/or multiple organ failures. Agent of the disease is a novel bunyavirus SFTS virus, and is transmitted by bite of a possible vector tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis, and through direct contact with virus-containing patient body fluids, or through unknown routes. SFTS case reports have been limited in China, and more than two thousand cases were reported in 2011 and 2012. In late 2012, a woman living in Yamaguchi prefecture in Japan showed symptoms reminiscent of those of SFTS and died 6 days after the onset of symptoms. Virus was isolated from her acute serum in Vero cells and a next generation-sequencing identified it as SFTS virus. SFTS viral genome and proteins were detected in the patient's serum. Based on the first demonstration of SFTS in Japan, a retrospective study started. Until March of 2013, totally 8 patients were diagnosed as having SFTS and the most early case was in 2005. Phylogenetic analysis of virus sequences revealed that Japanese isolates form an independent branch distinct from Chinese isolates, indicating that SFTS has been present not only in China but also in Japan. PMID:24769572

  16. The Japan Medical Association's disaster preparedness: lessons from the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Masami; Nagata, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    A complex disaster, the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, consisted of a large-scale earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident, resulting in more than 15 000 fatalities, injuries, and missing persons and damage over a 500-km area. The entire Japanese public was profoundly affected by "3/11." The risk of radiation exposure initially delayed the medical response, prolonging the recovery efforts. Japan's representative medical organization, the Japan Medical Association (JMA), began dispatching Japan Medical Association Teams (JMATs) to affected areas beginning March 15, 2011. About 1400 JMATs comprising nearly 5500 health workers were launched. The JMA coordinated JMAT operations and cooperated in conducting postmortem examination, transporting large quantities of medical supplies, and establishing a multiorganizational council to provide health assistance to disaster survivors. Importantly, these response efforts contributed to the complete recovery of the health care system in affected areas within 3 months, and by July 15, 2011, JMATs were withdrawn. Subsequently, JMATs II have been providing long-term continuing medical support to disaster-affected areas. However, Japan is at great risk for future natural disasters because of its Pacific Rim location. Also, its rapidly aging population, uneven distribution of and shortage of medical resources in regional communities, and an overburdened public health insurance system highlight the need for a highly prepared and effective disaster response system. PMID:24274130

  17. Towards the Realization of Geo-Referencing Infrastructure for Dynamic Japan (GRID-Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Hiromichi; Komaki, Kazuo

    2005-03-01

    The recent change of the geodetic reference system of Japan from the Tokyo Datum to the Japanese geodetic Datum 2000 (JGD2000) is an ongoing process to keep the system precise and up-to-date for the various demands of modern society. In the rapidly changing archipelago over tectonic plate converging zones and with the advent of an information society, future directions of the national geodetic reference system require special thought. A combination of GPS and information technology is now leading to the emergence of a Location Base Service (LBS) where positional information plays a key role to relate real space to cyberspace, opening up a geo-information society. Although the basic role of the geodetic reference system to control precise coodinates for surveying never change, a new role to support precise, real-time positioning should be developed. In addition, incessant crustal deformation in Japan should be properly handled by a semi-dynamic correction system for precise surveys with GPS. This paper presents a future design of the national geodetic reference system, introducing the concept of Geo-Referencing Infrastructure for Dynamic Japan (GRID-Japan). Through the partnership of local governments and the private sector, GSI will start the process of realizing the concept of GRID-Japan in the next ten years.

  18. Can GRACE detect winter snows in Japan?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heki, Kosuke

    2010-05-01

    Current spatial resolution of the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites is 300-400 km, and so its hydrological applications have been limited to continents and large islands. The Japanese Islands have width slightly smaller than this spatial resolution, but are known to show large amplitude seasonal changes in surface masses due mainly to winter snow. Such loads are responsible for seasonal crustal deformation observed with GEONET, a dense array of GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers in Japan (Heki, 2001). There is also a dense network of surface meteorological sensors for, e.g. snow depths, atmospheric pressures, etc. Heki (2004) showed that combined effects of surface loads, i.e. snow (predominant), atmosphere, soil moisture, dam impoundment, can explain seasonal crustal deformation observed by GPS to a large extent. The total weight of the winter snow in the Japanese Islands in its peak season may reach ~50 Gt. This is comparable to the annual loss of mountain glaciers in the Asian high mountains (Matsuo & Heki, 2010), and is above the detection level of GRACE. In this study, I use GRACE Level-2 Release-4 data from CSR, Univ. Texas, up to 2009 November, and evaluated seasonal changes in surface loads in and around the Japanese Islands. After applying a 350 km Gaussian filter and a de-striping filter, the peak-to-peak change of the water depth becomes ~4 cm in northern Japan. The maximum value is achieved in February-March. The region of large winter load spans from Hokkaido, Japan, to northeastern Honshu, which roughly coincides with the region of deep snow in Japan. Next I compiled snow depth data from surface meteorological observations, and converted them to loads using time-dependent snow density due to compaction. By applying the same spatial filter as the GRACE data, its spatial pattern becomes similar to the GRACE results. The present study suggests that GRACE is capable of detecting seasonal mass changes in an island arc not wider than a few hundreds of kilometers. References: Heki, K., Seasonal modulation of interseismic strain buildup in Northeastern Japan driven by snow loads, Science, 293, 89-92, 2001. Heki, K., Dense GPS array as a new sensor of seasonal changes of surface loads, AGU Monograph, 150, 177-196, 2004. Matsuo, K. and K. Heki, Time-variable ice loss in Asian high mountains from satellite gravimetry, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2009.11.053, 2010.

  19. High-resolution seismic imaging in the Japan Trench axis area off Miyagi, northeastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Kodaira, Shuichi; Miura, Seiichi; Regalla, Christine; Takahashi, Narumi

    2013-05-01

    obtained high-resolution seismic data reveal the detailed structure of the Japan Trench axis off Miyagi, Japan, in the region of large shallow slip during the 11 March 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake. Correlation of seismic images with previous drilling results identifies a possible basal chert-rich layer and hemipelagic/pelagic mudstones overlying igneous Pacific crust. Mapping of acoustic basement depicts the subduction of horst-and-graben topography. The basement and basal chert are subducted beneath a seismically chaotic frontal prism, but the majority of overlying hemipelagic mudstones is offscraped and imbricated at the trench axis as a result of plate boundary compression. A possible dcollement is imaged as a seaward dipping reflection at landward part of the trench graben and was likely generated by loading and failure of underthrust sediments. Collectively, these analyses provide a structural framework for understanding sedimentary inputs and the localization of shallow plate boundary slip at the Japan Trench.

  20. The implementation of Narrative Pedagogy into nursing education in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Asako

    2005-01-01

    The conventional approach to nursing education has been dominant in the teaching and learning environment in Japan. Some teachers are now seeking alternative approaches that can offer new ways of practice for reforming nursing education. Narrative Pedagogy can be used to guide the reconstruction of nursing education in Japan. The author reviews contemporary approaches to nursing education in Japan and discusses the strategies for implementing Narrative Pedagogy into the nursing education environment. PMID:16021939

  1. Disaster monitoring for Japan Earthquake with satellites by JAXA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Masuo; Shimada, Masanobu; Miyagi, Yousuke; Ohki, Masato; Kawano, Noriyuki; Shiraishi, Tomohiro; Motohka, Takeshi

    2011-11-01

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) performed disaster monitoring of the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS), "Daichi," acquired 450 scenes of disaster monitoring of the earthquake. JAXA also received more than 5,000 scenes via the International Disaster Charter and Sentinel Asia. JAXA analyzed these images and provided the results to the Government of Japan as well as to the local governments.

  2. Japanese-U.S. Economic Relations. Japan Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Lucien

    World War II was the last time when overall U.S.-Japan relations, and the economic relationship in particular, were as bad as appears to be the case in the 1990s. The United States and Japan are, respectively, the two largest economies in the world. The Japanese have the second leading market for U.S. products trailing only Canada. Japan buys more

  3. Nationwide tsunami hazard assessment project in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, K.; Fujiwara, H.; Nakamura, H.; Osada, M.; Ohsumi, T.; Morikawa, N.; Kawai, S.; Aoi, S.; Yamamoto, N.; Matsuyama, H.; Toyama, N.; Kito, T.; Murashima, Y.; Murata, Y.; Inoue, T.; Saito, R.; Akiyama, S.; Korenaga, M.; Abe, Y.; Hashimoto, N.

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, we began a project of nationwide Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) in Japan to support various measures (Fujiwara et al., 2013, JpGU; Hirata et al., 2014, AOGS). The most important strategy in the nationwide PTHA is predominance of aleatory uncertainty in the assessment but use of epistemic uncertainty is limited to the minimum, because the number of all possible combinations among epistemic uncertainties diverges quickly when the number of epistemic uncertainties in the assessment increases ; we consider only a type of earthquake occurrence probability distribution as epistemic uncertainty. We briefly show outlines of the nationwide PTHA as follows; (i) we consider all possible earthquakes in the future, including those that the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion (HERP) of Japanese Government, already assessed. (ii) We construct a set of simplified earthquake fault models, called "Characterized Earthquake Fault Models (CEFMs)", for all of the earthquakes by following prescribed rules (Toyama et al., 2014, JpGU; Korenaga et al., 2014, JpGU). (iii) For all of initial water surface distributions caused by a number of the CEFMs, we calculate tsunamis by solving a nonlinear long wave equation, using FDM, including runup calculation, over a nesting grid system with a minimum grid size of 50 meters. (iv) Finally, we integrate information about the tsunamis calculated from the numerous CEFMs to get nationwide tsunami hazard assessments. One of the most popular representations of the integrated information is a tsunami hazard curve for coastal tsunami heights, incorporating uncertainties inherent in tsunami simulation and earthquake fault slip heterogeneity (Abe et al., 2014, JpGU). We will show a PTHA along the eastern coast of Honshu, Japan, based on approximately 1,800 tsunami sources located within the subduction zone along the Japan Trench, as a prototype of the nationwide PTHA. This study is supported by part of the research project on research on evaluation of hazard and risk of natural disasters, under the direction of the HERP of Japanese Government.

  4. Countermeasures against chemical terrorism in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Tetsu; Seto, Yasuo; Fuse, Akira

    2013-04-10

    Japan has experienced numerous incidents of chemical disasters and terrorist attacks. Here we review the history of changes in countermeasures against such incidents. Since 2004, the Civil Protection Law, more formally known as the "Law Concerning the Measures for Protection of the People in Armed Attack Situations etc" was enacted to fully prepare the nation for chemical terrorism. According to this law, the Japanese government must carry out Civil Protection Exercises on an annual basis to gauge response. Problem areas that remain are chosen and addressed one by one until they are judged to be resolved in subsequent exercises. PMID:23434376

  5. The 1998 World Solar Rallye: Akita, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shacklock, Andy; Duke, Mike; Burgess, Nigel

    In early August 1998, 81 solar/electric vehicles participated in a three day endurance race in Japan. The objective was to complete as many laps of the 31 km circuit as possible. Some of the cars used state-of-the-art motors, batteries, chassis, solar cells and tyres to produce vehicles which could travel at speeds of 70-80 km/h on about 1 kW of input power. With only 20 kg of battery, some solar cars were travelling around 450 km a day. This paper tells the story of the race and the technological developments behind the successful vehicles.

  6. Knowledge-based systems in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigenbaum, Edward; Engelmore, Robert S.; Friedland, Peter E.; Johnson, Bruce B.; Nii, H. Penny; Schorr, Herbert; Shrobe, Howard

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes a study of the state-of-the-art in knowledge-based systems technology in Japan, organized by the Japanese Technology Evaluation Center (JTEC) under the sponsorship of the National Science Foundation and the Advanced Research Projects Agency. The panel visited 19 Japanese sites in March 1992. Based on these site visits plus other interactions with Japanese organizations, both before and after the site visits, the panel prepared a draft final report. JTEC sent the draft to the host organizations for their review. The final report was published in May 1993.

  7. Seismology in Japan in 1939-1947

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kawasumi, Hirosi

    1950-01-01

    In the latter half of this period the seismology in Japan was so much affected by the war that retrogressions in the instrumental seismology became very remarkable. Much regretted three leading seismologists, professors Ishimoto, Sezawa, and Inamura died in this period. But the seismic activities in this well-known land of earthquakes were not less active than usual as will be seen in the annexed table of destructive earthquakes. Seismologists in this country are now endeavoring to restore its former prosperity in this bitter circumstance.

  8. Integrated solid waste management in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The Japanese, through a combination of public policy, private market conditions, a geographic necessity, practice integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management. The approach of MSW management in Japan is as follows: The basic concept of refuse treatment consists of recycling discharged refuse into usable resources, reusing such resources as much as possible, and then treating or disposing of the usable portion into a sanitary condition. Considering the difficulty of procuring land or seaside areas for such purpose as a refuse disposal site, it will be necessary to minimize the volume of refuse collected for treatment or disposal.

  9. Lifestyle and cardiovascular disease in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iso, Hiroyasu

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to give on overview of the profile of cardiovascular disease, vascular pathology and the relationships between lifestyle and cardiovascular disease in Japanese. Compared with the United States and Europe, the higher mortality from stroke and lower mortality from coronary heart disease constitute a unique cardiovascular profile for Japan. A selective review of population-based pathology, trend and prospective cohort studies was performed to clarify the characteristics of cardiovascular disease and vascular pathology, trends in the incidence and mortality of cardiovascular disease, and the relationships between lifestyle and cardiovascular disease among Japanese adults. Since the 1970s, mortality from coronary heart disease as well as stroke has declined substantially in Japan, probably due to a major decline in blood pressure levels and for men a more recent decline in smoking, in spite of an increase in body mass index and total cholesterol levels. However, the decline in mortality was smaller and plateaued in middle-aged men aged 30-49 in the metropolitan cities of Tokyo and Osaka. The incidence of coronary heart disease has increased among middle-aged men residing in the suburbs of Osaka. As for the associations between lifestyle and cardiovascular disease, higher sodium, lower calcium and lower animal protein content in the diet and for men higher alcohol consumption may account for the higher prevalence of hypertension and higher risk of stroke for Japanese than for western populations. On the other hand, lower saturated fat (meat) and higher n3 polyunsaturated fat (fish) in the Japanese diet may contribute to the lower prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and lower risk of coronary heart disease among Japanese. Japan is unique among developed countries in that coronary heart disease mortality has been low and has continued to decline, while stroke mortality has declined substantially. However, a recent trend for coronary heart disease incidence to increase among urban men is a cause for concern as a potential source of future problems for public health and clinical practice in Japan. PMID:21307610

  10. Lesson Plans for a Secondary Level Unit on Japan To Accompany "Contemporary Japan: A Teaching Workbook."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsunoda, Elizabeth P.; And Others

    These 30 lesson plans were designed to accompany "Contemporary Japan: A Teaching Workbook", a collection of class activities, primary source selections, student readings, and role-play exercises. The lesson plans are based primarily on materials in the workbook, although materials from other sources also are recommended. Some of the lesson titles…

  11. Disaster relief activities of the Japan self-defense force following the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yasumasa

    2014-06-01

    Cooperation between civilian and military forces, including the Japan Self-Defense Force (JSDF), enabled wide-ranging disaster relief after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Nevertheless, many preventable fatalities occurred, particularly related to an inability to treat chronic disease, indicating the need to plan for the provision of long-term medical aid after natural disasters in stricken areas and evacuation shelters. To assist in this effort, this report (1) provides an overview of the consequences of the medical response to the Great East Japan Earthquake, the largest natural disaster ever to hit Japan, focusing on the role and actions of the JSDF; (2) discusses the lessons learned regarding the provision of medical aid and management by the JSDF after this disaster, looking at the special challenges of meeting the needs of a rapidly aging population in a disaster situation; and (3) provides recommendations for the development of strategies for the long-term medical aid and support after natural disasters, especially with regard to the demographics of the Japanese population. PMID:24901381

  12. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in Japan: Results from the World Mental Health Japan Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Norito; Tsuchiya, Masao; Umeda, Maki; Koenen, Karestan C.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to report the prevalence of trauma exposure and PTSD, conditional risk of PTSD associated with each trauma exposure in the community population in Japan. An interview survey was conducted of a random sample of adult residents in 11 communities of Japan. Among 4134 respondents (response rate, 55%), data from those who completed the part 2 interview (n = 1682) were analyzed with a weight for this subsample. Lifetime experiences of 27 trauma events and PTSD were assessed using the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. Sixty percent of the part 2 sample reported exposure to at least one lifetime traumatic event. Lifetime and 12-month PTSD prevalences were 1.3% and 0.7%, respectively. Percentage of all months lived with PTSD in the population was predominantly accounted for by physical/sexual assaults and having a child with serious illness, and unexpected death of loved one. Ten percent of respondents reported private events, for which respondents did not have to describe the content, which accounted for 19% of months with PTSD. The lower prevalence of PTSD in Japan seems attributable to lower conditional risks of PTSD following these events, as well as different distributions of the events. The greater impact of events that occurred to loved ones rather than to oneself and private events on PTSD in Japan warrants further research of cross-cultural assessment of trauma exposure and cultural heterogeneity in the trauma-PTSD relationship. PMID:24572682

  13. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in Japan: results from the World Mental Health Japan Survey.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Norito; Tsuchiya, Masao; Umeda, Maki; Koenen, Karestan C; Kessler, Ronald C

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to report the prevalence of trauma exposure and PTSD, conditional risk of PTSD associated with each trauma exposure in the community population in Japan. An interview survey was conducted of a random sample of adult residents in 11 communities of Japan. Among 4134 respondents (response rate, 55%), data from those who completed the part 2 interview (n=1682) were analyzed with a weight for this subsample. Lifetime experiences of 27 trauma events and PTSD were assessed using the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. Sixty percent of the part 2 sample reported exposure to at least one lifetime traumatic event. Lifetime and 12-month PTSD prevalences were 1.3% and 0.7%, respectively. Percentage of all months lived with PTSD in the population was predominantly accounted for by physical/sexual assaults and having a child with serious illness, and unexpected death of loved one. Ten percent of respondents reported "private events", for which respondents did not have to describe the content, which accounted for 19% of months with PTSD. The lower prevalence of PTSD in Japan seems attributable to lower conditional risks of PTSD following these events, as well as different distributions of the events. The greater impact of events that occurred to loved ones rather than to oneself and "private events" on PTSD in Japan warrants further research of cross-cultural assessment of trauma exposure and cultural heterogeneity in the trauma-PTSD relationship. PMID:24572682

  14. Non-Commercial Audiovisual Instructional Materials in Japan. AVE in Japan No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takakuwa, Yasuo

    This report outlines the history of non-commercial and local production of audiovisual instructional materials in Japan since World War II, discusses current trends in instructional materials usage, and presents four case studies of materials production at the prefectural level. Topics addressed include: (1) materials production prior to the…

  15. Japan's baby bust: an economic issue?

    PubMed

    1998-09-01

    This brief article articulates that the solution to the declining birthrate in Japan is to change the corporate culture and societal values and begin putting the family first. At the present rate of fertility decline, Japan could well have just over 67 million total population in another 100 years, which is 50% of the present total. In 1990, the Finance Minister tried to convince Japanese couples to have more babies by abandoning policies that led women to higher education. The implication is that women would then want to stay at home and have babies. The prosperity of the late 1980s and early 1990s did not encourage higher fertility. The likely reason for low fertility is the male-dominated, corporate culture where male workers leave home early in the morning and work till late at night. Wives are left to care for children and maintain a full-time job. The total fertility rate (TFR) was 3.65 in 1950 and 1.39 in 1998. Both Germany and Italy have lower fertility but higher rates of immigration. The decline in the TFR is responsible for many of the current economic policies. New taxes were introduced in 1997 to pay for social security of the aged, and then the economy stalled. Life expectancies continue to rise. The elderly are a larger proportion of total population than children aged under 15 years. Women marry late, and the divorce rate is high. PMID:12348885

  16. Japan's aging population. Implications for healthcare.

    PubMed

    Oliver, A J; Ikegami, N; Ikeda, S

    1997-04-01

    In the early years of the next century, the Japanese population may well become the oldest in the world. The Japanese government's concentration on post-World War II economic expansion meant that the government only fully woke up to the financial implications of having a large elderly population when oil prices were raised in the 1970s, highlighting Japan's economic dependence on global markets. This article explains the process by which policy regarding Japan's elderly developed both before and after these oil price increases. The measures of healthcare cost containment that the government introduced in response to the increased financial pressure are described, with a particular focus on pharmaceuticals. This article shows that the government has achieved a degree of success in terms of containing pharmaceutical costs, but that future effects on the quality of healthcare are uncertain. Ultimately, a wider application of a per diem fee in place of the prevalent fee-for-service system, and the realisation of plans to improve the social service infrastructure, would be the best path for policy to follow. PMID:10172965

  17. Database and Related Activities in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Kato, Masatoshi; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Kato, Takako; Ding, Xiaobin; Morita, Shigeru; Kitajima, Masashi; Koike, Fumihiro; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Naoki; Sasaki, Akira; Skobelev, Igor; Ulantsev, Artemiy; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Norimasa

    2011-05-11

    We have constructed and made available atomic and molecular (AM) numerical databases on collision processes such as electron-impact excitation and ionization, recombination and charge transfer of atoms and molecules relevant for plasma physics, fusion research, astrophysics, applied-science plasma, and other related areas. The retrievable data is freely accessible via the internet. We also work on atomic data evaluation and constructing collisional-radiative models for spectroscopic plasma diagnostics. Recently we have worked on Fe ions and W ions theoretically and experimentally. The atomic data and collisional-radiative models for these ions are examined and applied to laboratory plasmas. A visible M1 transition of W{sup 26+} ion is identified at 389.41 nm by EBIT experiments and theoretical calculations. We have small non-retrievable databases in addition to our main database. Recently we evaluated photo-absorption cross sections for 9 atoms and 23 molecules and we present them as a new database. We established a new association ''Forum of Atomic and Molecular Data and Their Applications'' to exchange information among AM data producers, data providers and data users in Japan and we hope this will help to encourage AM data activities in Japan.

  18. Rail safety and rail privatisation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Evans, Andrew W

    2010-07-01

    Over the period from 1980 to the present, the economic status of the main line railway systems in many developed countries has changed, by privatisation or economic deregulation or both. The principal aims of such changes have been to improve the economic performance of the railways, and not to change the safety performance. Nevertheless, it is recognised that changing the organisational structure of railways might affect safety. The empirical evidence of the effect of restructuring on safety is limited, both in railways and in other industries. This paper adds to the empirical evidence by analysing train accidents in Japan before and after the privatisation of the Japanese National Railways (JNR) in 1987. The paper finds that the JNR achieved downward trends in the mean number of train accidents per train-kilometre in the 16 years 1971-1986, and the paper takes the extrapolation of these favourable trends as the yardstick by which to judge the safety performance of the privatised railways. The paper finds that the privatised railway had fewer train accidents in total than this yardstick in 1987-2006. This finding applies whether or not the high-speed Shinkansen train operations are included. Thus there is no evidence that rail privatisation in Japan had an adverse effect on train accidents. The methods adopted and the results are similar to those previously found by the author for rail privatisation in Great Britain. PMID:20441845

  19. Premature mortality in Japan due to ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawahda, Amin; Yamashita, Ken; Ohara, Toshimasa; Kurokawa, Junichi; Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi; Chen, Fang; Akimoto, Hajime

    2013-12-01

    In Japan, all 47 prefectures conduct routine air quality monitoring at 1145 stations throughout the country to assess environmental effects. This study aims to provide a better understanding of possible estimations of premature mortality in Japan caused by exposure to monitored and modeled concentrations of tropospheric ozone during the period from January to December, 2005. The spatial distribution and temporal variation of ozone concentrations were modeled using the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system coupled with the Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (CMAQ/REAS). Premature mortality caused by exposure to ozone was calculated assuming a relative risk (RR) value of 1.003 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.001-1.004] for concentrations above 35 ppb according to the SOMO35 index (annual Sum of daily maximum 8-h Ozone Means Over 35 ppb) recommended by WHO (2008). Based on CMAQ/REAS simulations, the estimated all-cause premature mortality in 2005 is about 13,000 (95% CI: 4320-17,300) cases. This value is 2.5 times greater than the estimated premature mortality based on monitored ozone concentrations, which is 5220 (95% CI: 1740-6960) cases.

  20. Importation of aquaculture seedlings to Japan.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, H

    1996-06-01

    Japan is one of the largest consumers of fishery products in the world. Importation of various fishery commodities - including larvae and eggs for aquaculture - is increasing due to high consumer demand. Elvers of Anguilla anguilla have been imported from Europe since the late 1960s. Eyed eggs of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) are imported from North America. During the last decade, over-production caused the price of Japanese amberjack (or 'yellowtail') (Seriola quinqueradiata) and Japanese seabream (Pagrus major) to drop, forcing farmers to venture into the culture of other species. A variety of marine fish seedlings are now imported from Asian countries. Almost all aquaculture production of coho salmon, greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili), seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus), rockfish (Sebastes spp.) and groupers (Epinephlus septemfaciatus, etc.) depends on imported seedlings. These species accounted for approximately 9% by value of marine finfish production in Japan in 1993. Apart from ubiquitous or endemic pathogens, a considerable number of exotic microorganisms and parasites are suspected to have accompanied fish eggs and larvae imported for aquaculture purposes. On a voluntary basis, 80-90% of imported salmon eggs are being examined for bacterial kidney disease and salmon viruses by semi-governmental organisation. Voluntary inspections are also being conducted on some other fish species imported from foreign countries. No legislation exists, however, for the control of exotic fish pathogens. PMID:8890372

  1. Current status of robotic surgery in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Kazuo

    2015-03-01

    The da Vinci S surgical system (Intuitive Surgical) was approved as a medical device in 2009 by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Robotic surgery has since been used in gastrointestinal, thoracic, gynecological, and urological surgeries. In April 2012, robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) was first approved for insurance coverage. Since then, RALP has been increasingly used, with more than 3,000 RALP procedures performed by March 2013. By July 2014, 183 institutions in Japan had installed the da Vinci surgical system. Other types of robotic surgeries are not widespread because they are not covered by public health insurance. Clinical trials using robotic partial nephrectomy and robotic gastrectomy for renal and gastric cancers, respectively, have recently begun as advanced medical treatments to evaluate health insurance coverage. These procedures must be evaluated for efficacy and safety before being covered by public health insurance. Other types of robotic surgery are being evaluated in clinical studies. There are several challenges in robotic surgery, including accreditation, training, efficacy, and cost. The largest issue is the cost-benefit balance. In this review, the current situation and a prospective view of robotic surgery in Japan are discussed. PMID:25763120

  2. Nationwide rubella epidemic--Japan, 2013.

    PubMed

    2013-06-14

    Rubella usually is a mild, febrile rash illness in children and adults; however, infection early in pregnancy, particularly during the first 16 weeks, can result in miscarriage, stillbirth, or an infant born with birth defects (i.e., congenital rubella syndrome [CRS]). As of 2013, goals to eliminate rubella have been established in two World Health Organization regions (the Region of the Americas by 2010 and the European Region by 2015), and targets for accelerated rubella control and CRS prevention have been established by the Western Pacific Region (WPR). In 1976, Japan introduced single-antigen rubella vaccine in its national immunization program, targeting girls in junior high school. In 1989, a measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine was introduced, targeting children aged 12-72 months. However, adult males remain susceptible to rubella. From January 1 to May 1, 2013, a total of 5,442 rubella cases were reported through the rubella surveillance system in Japan, with the majority (77%) of cases occurring among adult males. Ten infants with CRS were reported during October 2012-May 1, 2013. Countries and regions establishing a goal of accelerated control or elimination of rubella should review their previous and current immunization policies and strategies to identify and vaccinate susceptible persons and to ensure high population immunity in all cohorts, both male and female. PMID:23760185

  3. Current status of robotic surgery in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The da Vinci S surgical system (Intuitive Surgical) was approved as a medical device in 2009 by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Robotic surgery has since been used in gastrointestinal, thoracic, gynecological, and urological surgeries. In April 2012, robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) was first approved for insurance coverage. Since then, RALP has been increasingly used, with more than 3,000 RALP procedures performed by March 2013. By July 2014, 183 institutions in Japan had installed the da Vinci surgical system. Other types of robotic surgeries are not widespread because they are not covered by public health insurance. Clinical trials using robotic partial nephrectomy and robotic gastrectomy for renal and gastric cancers, respectively, have recently begun as advanced medical treatments to evaluate health insurance coverage. These procedures must be evaluated for efficacy and safety before being covered by public health insurance. Other types of robotic surgery are being evaluated in clinical studies. There are several challenges in robotic surgery, including accreditation, training, efficacy, and cost. The largest issue is the cost-benefit balance. In this review, the current situation and a prospective view of robotic surgery in Japan are discussed. PMID:25763120

  4. Recent Developments in Japan's HDR Program

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Tsutomu

    1992-03-24

    Japan is one of the most active volcanic countries in the world, and it is understood to have very abundant geothermal energy. In Japan, where only a limited amount of other natural energy resources are domestically available, geothermal energy is one of the nation's purely indigenous energy sources. Its development therefore, has, been anxiously urged. Geothermal energy is classified generally in several types: vapor dominated type resources, which are mainly used to generate electric power, and low grade hydrothermal fluid and hot dry rock type resources, most of which are not used at present in Japan. NEDO, the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, promotes the technological development of geothermal energy utilization in order to increase the use of this type of energy, particularly in such technical fields as the development of a power plant that uses hydrothermal fluids. This type of plant will enable the effective use for power generation of not only steam, but also geothermal fluid, so as to permit the use of hot water that flows out in great quantities together with useful geothermal steam. The vast volume of geothermal water with medium to high temperature left intact underground will also be possible to utilize. Research themes promoted by NEDO, the Geothermal Energy Technology Department and the budget for FY 1991 (from April 1991 to March 1992) are: (1) Development of 10MW Class Binary Cycle Power Plant ($2.0M); (2) Development of Down-hole Pump ($3.0M); (3) Development of Technology for increasing Geothermal Energy Recovery ($5.9M); (4) Development of Measurement While Drilling System ($0.4M); and (5) Development of Hot Dry Rock Power Generation Technology ($7.1M). The total amount of 18.4 Million dollars is allocated for FY 1991 ($1 = 130 yen). Figure 1 shows the budgets from FY 1990 to 1992 (requested). The total amount of budgets listed above is grouped into ''Technology R & D'' in Figure 1. Figure 1 also shows the budgets for ''Survey & Promotion'' items conducted by NEDO. This paper reviews the history of HDR development in Japan and summarizes the recent development of NEDO's HDR project. Since FY 1985, NEDO has been conducting research to develop basic technologies for hot dry rock geothermal power generation at Hijiori, Okura Village in Yamagata Prefecture. The main purpose of this research is developing a heat extracting circulation system in hot dry rock of depth and temperature similar to those expected for a commercial scale operation. Within this scope, NEDO developed fundamental technologies for creating an artificial geothermal reservoir, establishing hydraulic communication between wells, logging boreholes, observing acoustic emission (AE) events for fracture mapping, evaluating flow through the reservoir, and estimating geothermal heat recovery. In the hot dry rock geothermal project, especially in Japan, it is important to understand how pre-existing fractures affect hydrofracture development. At present, there are a number of methods that can be employed to understand the fractures, but it is necessary to evaluate which are, most appropriate and accurate. Since FY 1989, we have been performing small-scale fracture characterization experiments on-site in I-itate Village, Fukushima Prefecture, where the granite basement rock outcrops.

  5. The Politics of Religion: Modernity, Nationhood and Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Masako

    2008-01-01

    While religion in Japan is traditionally linked to nationhood and nation-building, the post-war period has seen Shinto consciously invoked to restore a sense of national identity through a focus on Japan's victimhood. In this context, there is a focus on the Yasukuni Shrine, dedicated to the war dead and an icon of contemporary Japanese cultural…

  6. Perceptions of Aging and Disability among College Students in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Nicholas J.; Kamimura, Akiko; Trinh, Ha Ngoc; Stephens, Emily; Omi, Keita; Kanaoka, Ana; Ishikawa, Ai; Yamanaka, Katsuo

    2015-01-01

    Japan launched the Long-term Care Insurance program in 2000, and ratified the United Nations' Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2014. Japan has been taking significant steps to support their elderly population and individuals with disabilities. However, information is lacking on the understanding and opinions of either of…

  7. Japan's Teacher Acculturation: Critical Analysis through Comparative Ethnographic Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Edward R.

    2005-01-01

    Cross-cultural teaching and research in Canada and Japan is reported. Ethnographic narrative methods were used to examine Japan's teacher acculturation. Canada's teachers are largely required to work in isolation, to learn their practice through trial and error. There is little provision for mentorship and insufficient time to reflect. In

  8. Tokugawa Japan and Industrial Revolution Britain: Two Misunderstood Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Lucien

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a truer picture than economic historians have previously had of the economies of Tokugawa Japan, and Britain during the Industrial Revolution. Though substantially different, both societies were prosperous compared to most of the rest of the world. Japan's economic success began in the Tokugawa period…

  9. Few Women Reach the Top in Japan's Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2007-01-01

    Japan's higher-education system is the second largest in the world, after the United States, but it fares much worse than the United States when it comes to gender equity. Just 7 percent of Japan's 750-odd colleges and universities are run by women, compared with 23 percent of those in the United States. While four out of the eight members of the

  10. A review of liquid rocket propulsion programs in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkle, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    An assessment of Japan's current capabilities in the areas of space and transatmospheric propulsion is presented. The primary focus is upon Japan's programs in liquid rocket propulsion and in space plane and related transatmospheric areas. Brief reference is also made to their solid rocket programs, as well as to their supersonic air breathing propulsion efforts that are just getting underway.

  11. Digital Technology at the National Science Museum of Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lydens, Lois; Saito, Yasuji; Inoue, Tohru

    2007-01-01

    The National Science Museum (NSM) in Japan has recently completed a project using different types of visitor-oriented digital technologies. With sponsorship from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), the NSM team carried out a four-year study to examine how digital technologies can be used to enhance as well as educationally…

  12. Our Common Home: Earth. Japan (A Culture Study Unit).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard

    Designed to provide students and teachers with opportunities to investigate the social, cultural, and historical traits of Japan, this study unit can be adapted to the needs of any group within the social studies curriculum (grades 4-12). An overview and outline on Japan covers the areas of geography, population, history, unique features (e.g.,…

  13. 77 FR 60380 - Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable in Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable in Japan AGENCY: International... International Trade Administration will lead a delegation of U.S. companies to participate in a Renewable Energy....-Japan Energy Policy Dialogue. The U.S. Department of Energy--the lead U.S. agency for the...

  14. The UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshop Programme...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albone, Eric; Okano, Toru

    2012-01-01

    The authors have been running UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshops at universities in Britain and Japan since 2001: for the past three years in England with Cambridge University and, last year, also with Kyoto University and Kyoto University of Education. For many years they have worked jointly with colleagues in a group of Super Science High

  15. Continuity and Change in Disaster Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitagawa, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to describe post-war continuity and change in disaster education in Japan. Preparedness for natural disasters has been a continuous agenda in Japan for geographical and meteorological reasons, and disaster education has been practised in both formal and informal settings. Post-war disaster management and education have taken a

  16. Tokugawa Japan and Industrial Revolution Britain: Two Misunderstood Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Lucien

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a truer picture than economic historians have previously had of the economies of Tokugawa Japan, and Britain during the Industrial Revolution. Though substantially different, both societies were prosperous compared to most of the rest of the world. Japan's economic success began in the Tokugawa period

  17. The Politics of Religion: Modernity, Nationhood and Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Masako

    2008-01-01

    While religion in Japan is traditionally linked to nationhood and nation-building, the post-war period has seen Shinto consciously invoked to restore a sense of national identity through a focus on Japan's victimhood. In this context, there is a focus on the Yasukuni Shrine, dedicated to the war dead and an icon of contemporary Japanese cultural

  18. The Issue of Diversity and Multiculturalism in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie; Zhang, Sheng Ping

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to problematize that which has been taken for granted about the notion of multiculturalism in Japan. Multiculturalism is a "hot" issue in Japan. As the Japanese government started to promote "internationalization" since 1980s, slogans such as "international exchange," "cultural exchange," "understanding of other…

  19. 76 FR 8774 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... December 22, 2010, because ``the domestic parties did not participate in this review.'' (76 FR 3614... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade... polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury....

  20. Ethics Education for Professionals in Japan: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruyama, Yasushi; Ueno, Tetsu

    2010-01-01

    Ethics education for professionals has become popular in Japan over the last two decades. Many professional schools now require students to take an applied ethics or professional ethics course. In contrast, very few courses of professional ethics for teaching exist or have been taught in Japan. In order to obtain suggestions for teacher education,…

  1. 74 FR 6920 - Ceramic Station Post Insulators From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2009-02-11

    ... COMMISSION Ceramic Station Post Insulators From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... 2008 to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on ceramic station post insulators from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury. On December...

  2. Teaching the History of Empire in Japan and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cave, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Japan has often been criticized for allegedly teaching its schoolchildren about the history of Imperial Japan 1895-1945 in selective and misleading ways. Is this criticism justified, and how does it compare with the record of another former colonial power in East Asia: England? International criticism of history teaching in England has been

  3. Japan: Super-Aging Society Preparing for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muramatsu, Naoko; Akiyama, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    Japan has the highest proportion of older adults in the world. Aging is not only an immediate personal issue but also a salient factor in crucial public policies, such as pensions, health, and long-term care. The Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear power plant disaster of March 2011 has highlighted current and emerging issues of a

  4. Tora no Maki III. Lessons for Teaching about Contemporary Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for the Social Studies, Washington, DC.

    The elements of Japan, including history, geography, economics, civics, and cultural studies, are in this collection of original lesson plans. The lessons are meant to provide original content about Japan to augment and supplement an existing unit of study and evoke a spirit of inquiry and introspection. The 24 lessons are as follows: (1) "Family…

  5. Bunko: Private Mini-Libraries for Children in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Satoru

    "Bunko" are local mini-libraries for children in Japan, operated voluntarily by individuals or groups of parents, intended to nurture children's reading interest by offering them an inviting reading environment. In 1993, there were an estimated 4,000 bunko in Japan, with approximately 32,000 adult bunko members (90% female). Bunko members

  6. Genetic Characterization of Coronaviruses from Domestic Ferrets, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Terada, Yutaka; Minami, Shohei; Noguchi, Keita; Mahmoud, Hassan Y.A.H.; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Masami; Une, Yumi

    2014-01-01

    We detected ferret coronaviruses in 44 (55.7%) of 79 pet ferrets tested in Japan and classified the viruses into 2 genotypes on the basis of genotype-specific PCR. Our results show that 2 ferret coronaviruses that cause feline infectious peritonitislike disease and epizootic catarrhal enteritis are enzootic among ferrets in Japan. PMID:24447852

  7. Genetic characterization of coronaviruses from domestic ferrets, Japan.

    PubMed

    Terada, Yutaka; Minami, Shohei; Noguchi, Keita; Mahmoud, Hassan Y A H; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Masami; Une, Yumi; Maeda, Ken

    2014-02-01

    We detected ferret coronaviruses in 44 (55.7%) of 79 pet ferrets tested in Japan and classified the viruses into 2 genotypes on the basis of genotype-specific PCR. Our results show that 2 ferret coronaviruses that cause feline infectious peritonitis-like disease and epizootic catarrhal enteritis are enzootic among ferrets in Japan. PMID:24447852

  8. Income Inequality and Economic Development, A Case Study: Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Tsunehiko

    The changes in income inequality during the post-war period in Japan are investigated quantitatively and extensively in order to shed some light on the relationship between income inequality and the rapid economic development experienced in Japan. Following a presentation of some summary pictures on income inequality in the Japanese society the

  9. Few Women Reach the Top in Japan's Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2007-01-01

    Japan's higher-education system is the second largest in the world, after the United States, but it fares much worse than the United States when it comes to gender equity. Just 7 percent of Japan's 750-odd colleges and universities are run by women, compared with 23 percent of those in the United States. While four out of the eight members of the…

  10. Textbook Development and Selection in Japan and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tani, Masaru; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a study trip by 13 U.S. social studies educators and publishers to Japan. Compares development, marketing, and selection of textbooks in the United States and Japan. Concludes that both nations should improve textbooks and textbook selection processes. (CFR)

  11. Continuity and Change in Disaster Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitagawa, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to describe post-war continuity and change in disaster education in Japan. Preparedness for natural disasters has been a continuous agenda in Japan for geographical and meteorological reasons, and disaster education has been practised in both formal and informal settings. Post-war disaster management and education have taken a…

  12. Japan in the Classroom: Elementary and Secondary Activities, Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Lynn; And Others

    This activity book is designed to present information and insights on Japanese culture and society. Because few teachers can devote entire units to the study of Japan, the activities focus on teaching about Japan within the context of larger social science units. Some of the lessons can be taught within the context of the humanities and fine arts,

  13. In Search of Mutual Understanding: A Classroom Approach to Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Social Studies Development Center.

    An activity book is designed to address problems and oversights in classroom coverage of Japan discovered by the Japan/United States Textbook Study Project. Activities which focus on Japanese religion, language, and geography address two important questions: what immediate application does the textbook study have for classroom teachers and how can

  14. Teaching the History of Empire in Japan and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cave, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Japan has often been criticized for allegedly teaching its schoolchildren about the history of Imperial Japan 1895-1945 in selective and misleading ways. Is this criticism justified, and how does it compare with the record of another former colonial power in East Asia: England? International criticism of history teaching in England has been…

  15. Digital Technology at the National Science Museum of Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lydens, Lois; Saito, Yasuji; Inoue, Tohru

    2007-01-01

    The National Science Museum (NSM) in Japan has recently completed a project using different types of visitor-oriented digital technologies. With sponsorship from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), the NSM team carried out a four-year study to examine how digital technologies can be used to enhance as well as educationally

  16. Ethics Education for Professionals in Japan: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruyama, Yasushi; Ueno, Tetsu

    2010-01-01

    Ethics education for professionals has become popular in Japan over the last two decades. Many professional schools now require students to take an applied ethics or professional ethics course. In contrast, very few courses of professional ethics for teaching exist or have been taught in Japan. In order to obtain suggestions for teacher education,

  17. In Search of Mutual Understanding: A Classroom Approach to Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Social Studies Development Center.

    An activity book is designed to address problems and oversights in classroom coverage of Japan discovered by the Japan/United States Textbook Study Project. Activities which focus on Japanese religion, language, and geography address two important questions: what immediate application does the textbook study have for classroom teachers and how can…

  18. The UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshop Programme...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albone, Eric; Okano, Toru

    2012-01-01

    The authors have been running UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshops at universities in Britain and Japan since 2001: for the past three years in England with Cambridge University and, last year, also with Kyoto University and Kyoto University of Education. For many years they have worked jointly with colleagues in a group of Super Science High…

  19. Japan: Super-Aging Society Preparing for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muramatsu, Naoko; Akiyama, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    Japan has the highest proportion of older adults in the world. Aging is not only an immediate personal issue but also a salient factor in crucial public policies, such as pensions, health, and long-term care. The Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear power plant disaster of March 2011 has highlighted current and emerging issues of a…

  20. The English Language in Japan: History, Attitudes, and Functions. Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachru, Braj B.; Smith, Larry E.

    1995-01-01

    Introduces this special issue on the English language in Japan, which focuses on the historical phases of the introduction of English, the role of English in the educational system and the media, the contact and convergence of Japanese and English, the functions of English in Japan, and Japanese attitudes toward English. (three references) (MDM)

  1. Words of Tohkaku Wada: medical heritage in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, M.; Inoue, K.; Kajii, E.

    2001-01-01

    The origins of Japan's medical ideas, which are deeply rooted in its religion, culture and history, are not widely understood in medical societies of other countries. We have taken up the task of summarising this tradition here so that some insight can be gained into the unique issues that characterise the practice of medicine in Japan. We borrow from the sayings of Tohkaku Wada, a medical philosopher of late eighteenth-century Japan, for a look at Japanese medical tradition. Wada's medical thought was very much reflective of the Buddhism, Zen, and swordsmanship that informed eighteenth-century philosophy in Japan. His central concepts were "chu" and "sei", that is, complete and selfless dedication to the patient and the practice of medicine. This paper explores Wada's thought, explaining it mainly from the standpoint of Japanese traditional culture. Key Words: Tohkaku Wada ethics philosophy Buddhism Zen Japan PMID:11233381

  2. Epidemiological analysis of bovine torovirus in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ito, Toshihiro; Okada, Nobutaka; Fukuyama, Shin-ichi

    2007-06-01

    Bovine torovirus (BToV), a member of the Coronaviridae family, is an established gastrointestinal infectious agent in cattle. No epidemiological research on BToV has been reported from Japan. In this study, we performed a survey to detect BToV in Japan in 2004 and 2005 using 231 fecal samples (167 from diarrheic cattle and 64 from asymptomatic cattle) that were analyzed by nested reverse transcription (RT) PCR using primers located in the consensus sequences of the reported BToV nucleocapsid (N), membrane (M), and spike (S) genes. BToV N, M, and S genes were detected in 6.5% (15/231), 6.1% (14/231), and 5.6% (13/231) of samples by nested-RT-PCR, respectively. In conclusion, detectability was improved compared to the results of the first round of RT-PCR. BToV was detected at a significantly higher rate in diarrheic samples than in asymptomatic samples (14/167 diarrheic samples [8.4%] and 1/64 asymptomatic samples [1.6%]), suggesting that BToV may act as a risk factor for diarrhea in Japanese cattle. The nucleotide sequence of M fragments from the BToV isolates including the newly identified Japanese isolates showed more than 97% identity. A similar degree of homology was observed in the N gene fragment among BToV isolates with the exception of BRV-1 and BRV-2. Domestic samples were classified into three clusters by phylogenetic analysis of the S gene fragment, which were considerably correlated with the geographic origin of the samples. BToV positive areas did not adjoin each other but were spread across a wide range, suggesting that BToV exists conventionally in Japan and is geographically differentiated. We also developed an RFLP method to distinguish these clusters using two restriction enzymes, HaeIII and AccI. This method should be useful for comparing newly acquired BToV-positive samples with the reported BToVs. PMID:17320234

  3. NASDA and the Space Industry in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamatsu, Hideo

    2002-01-01

    With over 30 years of history in space activities, Japan is now recognized as one of space powers in the world. Compared to other countries though, the features of Japanese space development are unique in several aspects. At first, its efforts are directed solely toward peaceful purposes and strictly separated from military uses. Secondly, there are many space related governmental agencies and institutes which are under supervision of different ministries. Thirdly, although the government budget is moderate and sales revenue of space industries is not so large, many large companies in aerospace or electronics industries see the importance of this business and compete each other mainly in the domestic market. NASDA, founded in 1969, is the largest governmental space organization and has played an important role in realizing practical applications of space activities. It has rapidly caught up the technology gap behind leading countries and has achieved remarkable successes with its own launch vehicles and satellites. Space industries, under the guidance of NASDA, have learned much from the U.S. companies and improved their technology levels and enjoyed steady growth during the early stage of Japanese space development. But before they became competitive enough in the world space business, the trade conflict between Japan and the U.S. made the procurement of Japanese non-R&D satellites open to the foreign satellite companies. Furthermore, interruptions of space activities due to recent successive failures of launch vehicles as well as Japanese economic slump have made space industries face hard situations. Under these circumstances, M&A of launch vehicle companies as well as satellite makers took place for the first time in Japanese aero-space history. Also at the government level, reorganization of space agencies is now under process. It is expected as a natural consequence of the merge of the Ministry of Education and the Science an Technology Agency, three space agencies under these Ministries, NASDA, ISAS and NAL, are going to consolidate within a couple of years. We expect the new organization could restore the confidence in Japanese space development by combining the enthusiasms for space activities and utilize effectively resources in Japan.

  4. Overview of DRAGON-Japan in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.; Mukai, S.; Sugimoto, N.; Hatakeyama, S.; Schafer, J. S.; Eck, T. F.; Nishizawa, T.; Takemura, T.; Takamura, T.; Teruyuki, N.; Nakajima, T. Y.; Takami, A.; Kaneyasu, N.; Goto, M.; Hiraki, T.; Iguchi, N.; Kenny, P.; Kouzai, K.; Kuji, M.; Muramatsu, K.; Nakata, M.; Okada, Y.; Sadanaga, Y.; Sorokin, M.; Tohno, S.; Toyazaki, Y.; Kim, J.; Li, Z.

    2012-12-01

    The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) is an on-going project since early 1990s. The 400 sun/sky radiometers are sparsely deployed and provide us with the information of aerosol properties over the world. In summer of 2011, the first DRAGON field campaign was made in Washington, D.C./Baltimore metropolitan area, where about 40 AERONET Cimel instruments were set according to small square grid boxes. Thus it has been shown that the detail scale observations are useful to investigate the local influence of aerosols and validation of high resolution satellite product such as newly developed 3 km x 3 km aerosol product from MODIS. The second DRAGON project is done in East Asia because this region emits huge amount of anthropogenic gases and aerosols. The emission influences not only local atmosphere near the origin but also out of Asian continent by long range transportation. The aim of DRAGON-Japan is as follows: 1: retrieval of optical properties of trans-boundary aerosols, 2: detection of aerosols over megacity, 3: investigation of the influence to local aerosols by inbound aerosols from continent. During the DRAGON-Asia (March-May, 2012), AERONET instruments were set sparsely from Fukue Island (in the East China Sea) to Osaka (in the middle of Japan) as well as 2ch-LIDAR system. As for megacity region, dense sun/sky radiometer network was made by using nine instruments at Mt. Rokko (840 m/asl.), Mt. Ikoma (640 m/asl.), Kobe, North-Osaka, South-Osaka, Central-Osaka, East-Osaka (simply named by Osaka in AERONET web), Nara, and Kyoto. The following results on AOT (Aerosol optical thickness at a wavelength of 500 nm: AERONET Level 1.5) have been driven from the measurements : 1: Fukue Island provides the highest value as 0.56, 2: in respect of urban cities; 0.42 at Fukuoka, 0.42~0.47 over Osaka area, and 0.39 at Kyoto or Nara, 3: in the remote place; 0.33~0.35 at Nishiharima, Noto or Shirahama, 4: the difference between AOT values at mountain (ex. Mt. Rokko, Mt. Ikoma) and those at sea level takes the value of about 0.1. It is drawn from the above facts that the influence of inbound aerosols to total one is really high in western part of Japan.

  5. 78 FR 78338 - Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19, 2014 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Event Description The...

  6. Guide to Teaching Materials on Japan. Revised Edition of the 1994 Database of Teaching Materials on Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Elizabeth

    This booklet is the printed version of an on-line database of teaching materials on Japan. The book is divided into four parts. Each part contains bibliographic information on resources for teaching about Japan at specific grade levels or subject areas. Part 1, "Elementary School Materials," includes: (1) "Art Education"; (2) "Geography"; (3)

  7. Surveys of postpartum depression in Miyagi, Japan, after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Nishigori, Hidekazu; Sugawara, Junichi; Obara, Taku; Nishigori, Toshie; Sato, Kineko; Sugiyama, Takashi; Okamura, Kunihiro; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2014-12-01

    This study explores the correlation between the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the incidence of postpartum depression in Miyagi prefecture, Japan. The design used was a cross-sectional study with self-administered questionnaires, 6-9months after the disaster. The results showed the prevalence of postnatal women with Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score of ?9 to be 21.3%. Multivariate analysis showed that exposure to tsunami (odds ratio, 1.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-2.78) was significantly and independently associated with an EPDS score of ?9. Postnatal women and their children should be treated as a vulnerable population, and a protective framework must be established to prepare for future devastating disasters. PMID:25204487

  8. Results obtained with the CHARPAN Engineering Tool and prospects of the ion Mask Exposure Tool (iMET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platzgummer, Elmar; Loeschner, Hans; Gross, Gerhard

    2008-10-01

    Projection Mask-Less Patterning (PMLP) is based on many hundred thousands of ion beams working in parallel. A PMLP proof-of-concept tool has been realized as part of the European project CHARPAN (Charged Particle Nanotech) and has been presented at SPIE Photomask BACUS 2007. Using 10 keV protons, 16nm hp resolution has been demonstrated in non- CAR materials (HSQ) with 25?C/cm2 exposure dose. The system is upgraded to a CHARPAN Engineering Tool (CHET) with a laser-interferometer controlled vacuum stage and a CMOS based programmable Aperture Plate System (APS) providing ca. 40,000 beams with < 20nm spot size. The engineering of an ion Mask Exposure Tool (iMET) for the 22nm hp mask node has been started; main iMET features are discussed.

  9. Reproductive technology: in Japan, consensus has limits.

    PubMed

    Bai, Koichi; Shirai, Yasuko; Ishii, Michiko

    1987-06-01

    As part of a Hastings Center Report series of six articles on reproductive technologies around the world, three Japanese scholars report on the situation in their country. At present, artificial insemination and in vitro fertilization are offered to infertile married couples, and research is performed on early embryos up to 14 days after fertilization. Neither surrogate mothers nor donated gametes are used in Japan. Bai, Shirai, and Ishii identify several issues that they believe merit further public debate, among them the legal status of AID children, the experimental nature of in vitro fertilization, genetic manipulation of embryos, and gender selection. They summarize the findings of four opinion surveys that show a lack of consensus among the Japanese on the acceptability of reproductive technologies, which in the words of the authors "create a tension and a link between traditional belief and contemporary practice." PMID:11644024

  10. Ultracold Neutrons in Canada and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jeffery

    2009-10-01

    When neutrons are taken out of atomic nuclei and cooled down, they have weird properties: they bounce off walls, they can be stored in magnetic bottles, and they form quantized energy levels in Earth's gravitational field. Once they've been trapped using such methods, their properties can be studied very carefully to search for deviations from expectations based on the standard model of particle physics. If a deviation is found, it would signify new physics beyond the standard model. We are building a new source of ultracold neutrons in Canada (at TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC) with the help of collaborators from Japan (Masuda, et al). The source is projected to provide the highest density of ultracold neutrons ever produced in the world, and we'll use the neutrons to push some very interesting physics experiments to unprecedented levels of precision, as I'll describe.

  11. STAR WEEK: A Successful Campaign in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Junichi

    2011-06-01

    A campaign of the Star Week, set as August 1 - 7, has been started in 1995 throughout various life-learning facilities. Astronomical facilities including planetariums, science museums, and public observatories has been participating in this campaign, together with amateur astronomers clubs or private observatories. More than 300 astronomical events such as star watching parties were coordinated for general public every year. The Star Week has been grown up to one of the most successful campaigns not only for for astronomy but also for basic sciences in Japan over this 15 years. In this paper, a brief history and the present status of the Star Week are introduced together with the with some statistics.

  12. EMS communication system in Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Onji, Y

    1977-07-01

    Osaka prefecture, an industrial and commercial center in western Japan with a population of 7.4 million, is divided into 40 municipalities. Each municipality has an independent ambulance dispatching center to provide ambulances and rescue personnel information about availability of physicians and hospital beds in that municipality's receiving hospitals. An Emergency Medical Services Information Center (EMS-IC), equipped with a wireless network and memory devices, collects information on available specialits and vacant hospital beds every three hours from 300 hospitals and clinics in the whole prefecture and supplies them to physicians, ambulances, medical institutions, fire services headquarters, police departments, ambulance dispatching centers, medical societies and the Red Cross. EMS-IC can provide the name of the most appropriate medical institution to a running ambulance on request from rescue personnel. EMS-IC also stores information on bank blood and antiserum. PMID:875250

  13. Survey of tuberculosis prevalence in Japan, 1954*

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Masayoshi; Oka, Harumiti; Kumabe, Hideo; Yosano, Hikaru

    1959-01-01

    A survey of the prevalence of tuberculosis in Japan conducted in 1953 showed that the unexpectedly high proportion of 3.4% of the total population stood in need of medical treatment for that disease and provided much-needed basic information on a variety of aspects of the tuberculosis situation in the country. In 1954, 70 of the 210 survey areas of the previous year were re-surveyed in order to assess the trends in types and extent of tuberculosis and in reactions to tuberculin-testing during the year and to determine the tuberculosis incidence. This paper reports on the findings made on re-survey. It is considered, however, that in view of the brief interval between the two surveys no final conclusions can be drawn and that a further survey is needed at some later date. PMID:13846395

  14. Imported malaria cases in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Higa, Futoshi; Tateyama, Masao; Tasato, Daisuke; Karimata, Yosuke; Nakamura, Hideta; Miyagi, Kazuya; Haranaga, Shusaku; Hirata, Tetsuo; Hokama, Akira; Cash, Haley L; Toma, Hiromu; Fujita, Jiro

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in global transportation, imported malaria has become a significant public health concern in Japan. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed all imported malaria cases in Okinawa Prefecture from 1988 to 2012. In that period, 23 patients with imported malaria were admitted to the University of the Ryukyus Hospital. Malaria types observed included Plasmodium falciparum (14 cases), P. vivax (7 cases), combined P. falciparum and P. ovale (1 case), and combined P. vivax and P. malariae (1 case). All cases were resolved by anti-malarial treatment. The clinical data from these patients highlights the importance of collecting patient travel history and ensuring an adequate supply of both diagnostic test and drug treatments in Okinawa. PMID:23429082

  15. The fusion technology program in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Iso, Y.

    1983-09-01

    Japanese fusion development program is being carried out as one of the national projects aming at the realization of fusion power in early 21st century. Major near term objective is to demonstrate reactor grade plasmas in tokamak confinement by JT-60. This project started in 1975, and since then a rapid progress has been made in every field of fusion research and development, supported by wide national concensus. In light of this progress and in expection of the achievement of scientific feasibility within a few years by the large tokamaks, JAEC expressed their intention in the newly revised Long-Term Program that Japan should proceed with the development of the next machine, the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER), to achieve the self-ignition and to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of fusion reactor within this century.

  16. Japan nurtures telecommunications on classic formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Neil

    1987-03-01

    As in other industrial sectors, Japanese telecommunications organizations export significantly more products than they import, even when substantial cost-savings can be realized. One example is optical fibers, which some Japanese service companies do not buy from outside suppliers who have taken advantage of economies of scale. Nippon Telephone and Telegraph, until recently a common carrier, is meeting increasing competition from newly-formed indigenous telecommunications subsidiaries who are taking advantage of fiber optics and microwave communications capabilities. Various cooperative projects with U.S. companies are described, noting the tendency of Japanese manufacturers to cease relationships with U.S. companies when Japanese products become competitive and also the necessity of U.S. firms to gain political cooperation from the Japanese government in order to make sales in Japan.

  17. A perspective on space robotics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohkami, Yoshiaki; Nakatani, Ichiro; Wakabayashi, Yasufumi; Iwata, Tsutomu

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the research and development status and perspective on space robotics in Japan. The R & D status emphasizes the current on-going projects at NASDA including the JEM Remote Manipulator System (JEMRMS) to be used on Space Station Freedom and the robotics experiments on Engineering Satellite 7 (ETS-7). As a future perspective, not only NASDA, but also ISAS and other government institutes have been promoting their own research in space robotics in order to support wide spread space activities in the future. Included in this future research is an autonomous satellite retrieval experiment, a dexterous robot experiment, an on-orbit servicing platform, an IVA robot, and several moon/planetary rovers proposed by NASDA or ISAS and other organizations.

  18. Effectiveness of the BSE interventions in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Katsuaki; Benedictus, A; Hogeveen, H

    2014-11-01

    Using a stochastic simulation model, we estimated the effectiveness of the three BSE interventions (SRM removal, post-mortem testing and cohort culling) in Japan, in terms of the amount of bovine ID50 that would be prevented from entering the human food supply and the number of life years that would be saved from resulting vCJD cases. The average reduction of the BSE load on the human food supply under SRM removal was 97% over the period from 2002 to 2009. The average reduction of the BSE load under most-mortem testing was 83% over the period from 2002 to 2007. The risk reducing effect of the three interventions combined was 99%. The maximum number of life years saved by the three interventions combined was 40.84 in 2006. PMID:25085601

  19. Activities for the Promotion of Gender Equality in JapanJapan Society of Applied Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodate, Kashiko; Tanaka, Kazuo

    2005-10-01

    Since 1946, the Japan Society of Applied Physics (JSAP) has strived to promote research and development in applied physics for benefits beyond national boundaries. Activities of JSAP involve multidisciplinary fields, from physics and engineering to life sciences. Of its 23,000 members, 48% are from industry, 29% from academia, and about 7% from semi-autonomous national research laboratories. Its large industrial membership is one of the distinctive features of JSAP. In preparation for the First IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics (Paris, 2002), JSAP members took the first step under the strong leadership of then-JSAP President Toshio Goto, setting up the Committee for the Promotion Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Technology. Equality rather than women's advancement is highlighted to further development in science and technology. Attention is also paid to balancing the number of researchers from different age groups and affiliations. The committee has 22 members: 12 female and 10 male; 7 from corporations, 12 from universities, and 3 from semi-autonomous national research institutes. Its main activities are to organize symposia and meetings, conduct surveys among JSAP members, and provide child-care facilities at meetings and conferences. In 2002 the Japan Physics Society and the Chemical Society of Japan jointly created the Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association for the Promotion of Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering. Membership has grown to 44 societies (of which 19 are observers) ranging from mathematics, information, and life sciences to civil engineering. Joint activities across sectors and empower the whole. The Gender Equality Bureau in the Cabinet Office recently launched a large-scale project called "Challenge Campaign" to encourage girls to major in natural science and engineering, which JSAP is co-sponsoring.

  20. Incidence of Myelodysplastic Syndrome in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Chihara, Dai; Ito, Hidemi; Katanoda, Kota; Shibata, Akiko; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Sobue, Tomotaka; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2014-01-01

    Background Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a diverse group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell malignancies that primarily affect the elderly. Although the incidence of MDS in western countries has been well investigated, little is known about the incidence in Asian populations. Methods To identify the incidence of MDS in Japan, we used population-based registry data from 1993 to 2008. The data represented 33.1% of the Japanese population. A total of 7995 patients were reported to the registry with newly diagnosed MDS during the study period. Results Median age at diagnosis was 76 years. Incidence sharply increased with age, particularly in those aged over 70 years. The most recent crude incidence rate of MDS was 3.8 (95% CI 3.64.1) cases per 100 000 for men and 2.4 (95% CI 2.22.6) cases per 100 000 for women in 2008. Age-adjusted incidences of MDS in 2008, standardized by the world standard population, were 1.6 and 0.8 cases per 100 000 for men and women, respectively, while incidences standardized by the 1985 Japanese population were 2.5 and 1.2 cases per 100 000 for men and women, respectively. Conclusions Our study reveals that some elderly patients suffer from MDS in Japan, but the incidence is lower than in Western countries. In current clinical practice, many elderly MDS patients are treated with supportive therapy based on an incomplete diagnosis, suggesting that the incidence estimated in this study might still be substantially underestimated. Accurate evaluation of the health impact of MDS requires evaluation of the mortality of the disease, continued surveillance, and improvement in the quality of cancer registry data. PMID:25088696

  1. Impact Materials of Takamatsu Crater in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Y.; Okamoto, M.; Fukuchi, T.

    1995-09-01

    Shocked quartz materials have been found in Japanese K.T boundary (Hokkaido) and mountains of middle main-islands of Japan, though there are few direct evidence of "natural circular structure" on the surface in Japan. However circular structure has been recently found as a buried crater(up to 150m deep) [1] which is ca. 4km in diameter with -10 mgal of Bouguer gravity anomaly from surrounding Rhyoke granitic region of the southern part of Takamatsu City, Kagawa Prefecture, northeast Shikoku, Japan [1,2,3]. Two boring cores of 300m deep near small mountains inside the crater could not reach the bottom of the crater so far. From model calculation of the negative gravity anomaly, the Takamatsu crater shows deep basin structure up to 1.4km. If the Takamatsu crater is considered to be only impact crater, it is difficult to discuss only surface materials on the crater. But anomalous minerals are found only around small volcanic intrusions inside the crater, which the mixed minerals are clearly different with those of other volcanic intrusions of the Yashima and Goshikidai outside the crater [1,2,3]. The small volcanic intrusions are not origin of large Takamatsu crater, because the small volcanic intrusions are found on whole areas of Kagawa Prefecture. Major different activity of the small intrusions inside the crater is to bring the brecciated materials of the interior (esp. crater sediments). The xenolith materials around only volcanic intrusion of andesite are divided into the following four major mineral materials:(a) round pebble fragments from the Rhyoke granitic basement (Sampling No.15), (b) rock fragments from intruded biotite andesites (Nos. 2,15), (c) impact-induced fragments of shocked Quartz grains (Nos. 2,3,6,15), diaplectic feldspars (Nos. 2,3,6,15), silica glasses (Nos. 2,15) and small Fe-Ni metallic grains (No.15), and (d) small sedimentary fragments of halite and mordenite, as listed in Table 1. Table I, showing the characterization of surface samples around small intrusions of the Takamatsu crater, appears here in the hard copy. The following anomalous mixed materials are considered to be impact-induced origin: 1) Fe-Ni grains: Black glassy rocks at Jissojiyama (No. 15) contain irregularly Fe-Ni grains of 10 to 100 micrometers in diameter. Chemical composition of the small Fe+Ni grains varies from ca. 18~90 atom. % mixed with the major granitic components. Atomic ratios of Fe/Ni are the same of kamacite as 3.4 to 68.7, but differ from those of awaruite (Fe/Ni<0.5) from the deep seated rock of the interior of the Earth [4]. The similar tiny Fe grains are found on the Wolf Creek and Ries impact craters. 2) Shocked quartz with high-density and shock lamellae: Anomalous quartz grains with undulatory anomalous extinction and shock lamellae are found at the Hiyama (Nos. 2,3,6 in whitish fine rocks) and Jissoiiyama (No. 15 in black glass) as brecciated xenolith from the interior of crater sediments. Typical shocked quartz grain shows with two sets of shock lamellae along pi (102) crystallographic planes [5]. The main X-ray diffraction peaks of each Miller plane show high Bragg angle and X-ray density (Delta rho=+0.9+/-0.3%) and lower values (ca.- 0.4%) of each plane-distance of all shock-generated Plane deformation features (PDFs). The structural data of high density are the same of shocked quartz grains in terrestrial impact craters [6,7]. 3) Diaplectic feldspars: Shock-generated diaplectic feldspars with compositions of albite plagioclases with undulatory extinction are observed with dark or partly dark (i.e. diaplectic) glassy materials under cross-polarized microscope (Nos. 2,3,6,15). Crushed plagioclases with circular or ellipsoidal shape are also found at Hiyama (No. 6) and Hiraike (No. ll). Diffuse and irregular textures of feldspar fragments are different with other localities outside the crater [2,3]. 4) G1asses of potassium feldspar compositions: Many glassy fragments with flow texture are observed from fine-grained sediments around Hiyama (Nos. 2,3,6), which have potassium feldspars compositions by the AEM of high-silica (SiO2=78~85wt.%) without MgO [2]. K-Ar dating of the glassy breccias is 14.2 +/-0.7(Ma). This suggests that fine-grained breccias are mixed with Hiyama andesitic intrusion, suggesting that formation of the Takamatsu crater is older than small and many volcanic intrusions [2,3]. Therefore, the Takamatsu crater is considered to be the similar type of crater as buried impact crater followed by small volcanic intrusions [2,3]. The Takamatsu crater seems to be the first impact crater in Japan. Referenocs: [1] Y. Kono et al. (1994): ISAS Lunar and Planetary Symp.(Japan), 27, 67-70. [2] Y. Miura et al. (1995): Lunar. Planet. Sci.(USA), XXVI, 987-988. [3] Y. Miura et al.(1995): Antarctic Metcorites (NIPR), 2?, 163-165. [4] Y. Miura et al. (1981): Contrib. Mineral. Petr?l., 76, 17-23. ?5] R.A.F.Grieve et al.(l988): LPI Technical RePorl (USA), No.88-03, 89 pp. [6] Y. Miura (1991): Shock ?aves (Springer-Verlag), 1, 35-41. [7] Y. Miura et al. (1992): Celestial ?echanic? ?4 ?4 ?

  2. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Takagi, T.

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Japan, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Japan.

  3. JTEC panel report on advanced composites in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diefendorf, R. J.; Grisaffe, S. J.; Hillig, W. B.; Perepezko, J. H.; Pipes, R. B.; Sheehan, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    The JTEC Panel on Advanced Composites visited Japan and surveyed the status and future directions of Japanese high performance ceramic and carbon fibers and their composites in metal, intermetallic, ceramic and carbon matrices. The panel's interests included not only what composite systems were chosen, but also how these systems were developed. A strong carbon and fiber industry makes Japan the leader in carbon fiber technology. Japan has initiated an oxidation resistant carbon/carbon composite program. The goals for this program are ambitious, and it is just starting, but its progress should be closely monitored in the United States.

  4. The bumpy road to socialise nature: sex education in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fu, Huiyan

    2011-09-01

    This study was prompted by an empirical puzzle: why is sex education in schools so underdeveloped in Japan compared to many other industrialised societies? On the one hand, formal pedagogy under state policy is conservative, emphasising reproductive and prophylactic purposes rather than a comprehensive understanding of sexuality. On the other hand, however, Japan has a highly visible sexual environment where a variety of commercial sex activities are tolerated and even encouraged. The aim of the paper is to provide an integrated picture of these apparently contradictory trends by examining the nexus of political, economic and sociocultural factors that affect sex education in contemporary Japan. PMID:21787254

  5. Interdecadal variation of TC frequency in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ki-Seon; Cha, Yu-Mi; Kang, Sung-Dae; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2015-07-01

    This study analyzed the climate regime shift using statistical change-point analysis on the time-series tropical cyclone (TC) frequency that affected Japan in July to September. The result showed that there was a significant change in 1995, and since then, it showed a trend of rapidly decreasing frequency. To determine the reason for this, differences between 1995 to 2012 (9512) period and 1978 to 1994 (7894) period were analyzed. First, regarding TC genesis, TCs during the 9512 period showed a characteristic of genesis from the southeast quadrant of the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific and TCs during the 7894 period showed their genesis from the northwest quadrant. Regarding a TC track, TCs in the 7894 period had a strong trend of moving from the far east sea of the Philippines via the East China Sea to the mid-latitude region in East Asia while TCs in the 9512 period showed a trend of moving from the Philippines toward the southern part of China westward. Thus, TC intensity in the 7894 period, which can absorb sufficient energy from the sea as they moved a long distance over the sea, was stronger than that of 9512. Large-scale environments were analyzed to determine the cause of such difference in TC activity occurred between two periods. During the 9512 period, anomalous cold and dry anticyclones were developed strongly in the East Asia continent. As a result, Korea and Japan were affected by the anomalous northerlies thereby preventing TCs in this period from moving toward the mid-latitude region in East Asia. Instead, anomalous easterlies (anomalous trade wind) were developed in the tropical western Pacific so that a high passage frequency from the Philippines to the south China region along the anomalous steering flows was revealed. The characteristics of the anomalous cold and dry anticyclone developed in the East Asia continent were also confirmed by the analysis of air temperature, relative humidity, and sensible heat net flux showing that most regions in East Asia had negative values.

  6. [Counterfeit medicines--Japan and the world].

    PubMed

    Sato, Daisaku

    2014-01-01

    Circulating counterfeit medicines in the market is a public health threat. Counterfeit medicines become common problem, not only in developing countries, but also in industrialised countries, as internet has made them more accessible. In Japan, the recent survey on the medicines purchased through on-line pharmacy (targeting Japanese consumers) showed that the majority of erectile dysfunction (ED) medicines imported by individuals in Japan were counterfeit version. The survey of Japanese consumers, who privately imported medicines through on-line pharmacy, indicated that 16% of these consumers experienced adverse events associated with these products. Not only that it is just fake brand, but fake medicines may even cause health hazard. The counterfeit version of Avastin recently detected in the United States became a serious threat for those who desperately need these medicines for life-threatening disease. The Japanese regulatory authorities have provided risk information of counterfeit medicines to general public, as well as monitored on-line pharmacies and conducted enforcement action where necessary. However, more resources of compliance activity should be allocated to respond to the situation of growing threats of counterfeit medicines. Purchasing medicines from abroad through unauthorised channel is the major source of counterfeit medicines. It is essential to prevent circulation of counterfeit medicines through international collaboration of various regulatory authorities. To address these problems, the World Health Organization (WHO) has launched a new Member States Mechanism (MSM) to build network of the authorities. Also, INTERPOL (ICPO) initiated globally concerted enforcement actions (Operation Pangea) against pharmaceutical crime as well as built partnership with pharmaceutical industry to create Pharmaceutical Crime Programme. It is also necessary to prevent consumers encountering counterfeit medicines and to prevent health hazard. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) has been actively involved in prevention and educational activities such as public awareness campaign. MHLW started anti-counterfeit medicines and new psychoactive substance project from February 2013, which centrally collects information about counterfeit medicines, in particular, and provides the risk information more effectively to the public. Japanese Government will work together with international community and contribute to combating counterfeiting through public and private partnership. PMID:24492225

  7. Family nursing practice and education: what is happening in Japan?

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Michiko

    2008-11-01

    Significant developments in family nursing in Japan are described and analyzed beginning with the political and health care legislation in the country that stimulated a need for family nursing and the early adoption of family nursing theories and models by visionary leaders in nursing education. In 1994, Japan was the first country in the world to establish a national family nursing association, the Japanese Association for Research in Family Nursing, that provided the necessary infrastructure and leadership for family nursing in Japan to flourish. The strengths and challenges of family nursing in Japan are identified and a call is made for innovations in nursing curricula as well as global networking of family nurses around the world. PMID:19139158

  8. 77 FR 64487 - Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable in Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This notice updates and replaces 77 FR 60380 Document Number 2012-24297, published... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable in Japan AGENCY: International... Commerce's International Trade Administration (ITA) is coordinating a Renewable Energy Policy...

  9. Developments in High School Physics Teaching in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Tae

    1988-01-01

    Gives an overview of high school physics education in Japan. Discusses the history, curricular objectives, textbooks, and the entrance examination. Discusses several research groups and individuals and their activities. (YP)

  10. "Lifetime Earnings" in Japan for the Class of 1955.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Robert, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Japan's employment model has been that of "lifetime employment," especially for male college-educated workers. Under such a system, an individual becomes employed by a firm upon graduation and remains in its employ until retirement. (Author/SSH)

  11. Constraints on interseismic deformation at Japan trench from VLBI data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argus, Donald F.; Lyzenga, Gregory A.

    1993-01-01

    Space geodetic data from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) was used to estimate velocity relative to the plate interiors of two sites on the deforming leading edge at the Japan trench. Elastic models of interseismic deformation and results obtained were used to put constraints on the slip rate along the main thrust of the Japan subduction zone. Observed velocities reflect the sum of permanent west-northwest shortening in Honshu, elastic deformation due to locking of the main thrust fault at the Japan trench, and deformation associated with the subducting Phillipine plate. These velocities limit the locked segment of the main thrust at the Japan trench to 27 km vertically and 100 km along the dip. This indicates that the main Pacific plate thrust fault is not strongly coupled and probably does not generate strong earthquakes.

  12. Arms production in Japan: The military applications of civilian technology

    SciTech Connect

    Drifte, R.

    1986-01-01

    The author examines both the domestic and international environments encouraging Japan's leaders not only to strengthen the country's defense, but to do so more independently. Until recently, the arms industry has been nurtured by U.S. weapons technology, but growing dependence on electronics dramatically increases Japan's contribution to modern weapons systems. The electronics revolution is creating more and more dual-purpose products, undermining the Japanese cabinet policy of prohibiting arms export. The discovery of wider applications for Japanese manufacturers' most advanced civilian technology is a strong motivation for entering the arms arena. The book illustrates that Japan's entry into the field is a dynamic example of the success of Japanese industry as it enters new technological areas. The author discusses: Development and the Present Situation of Japan's Arms Production Capability; Research and Development; The Shipbuilding Industry; The Aircraft Industry; The Space and Missile Industry; and Arms Exports with conclusions.

  13. Words of Tohkaku Wada: medical heritage in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, M; Inoue, K; Kajii, E

    2001-02-01

    The origins of Japan's medical ideas, which are deeply rooted in its religion, culture and history, are not widely understood in medical societies of other countries. We have taken up the task of summarising this tradition here so that some insight can be gained into the unique issues that characterise the practice of medicine in Japan. We borrow from the sayings of Tohkaku Wada, a medical philosopher of late eighteenth-century Japan, for a look at Japanese medical tradition. Wada's medical thought was very much reflective of the Buddhism, Zen, and swordsmanship that informed eighteenth-century philosophy in Japan. His central concepts were "chu" and "sei", that is, complete and selfless dedication to the patient and the practice of medicine. This paper explores Wada's thought, explaining it mainly from the standpoint of Japanese traditional culture. PMID:11233381

  14. Homicide patterns in the Toyama Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kominato, Y; Shimada, I; Hata, N; Takizawa, H; Fujikura, T

    1997-10-01

    Homicides occurring in the Toyama prefecture, Japan, during the past 10 years were reviewed. Between 1985 and 1994, 56 offenders committed 63 homicides. The mean death rate for homicide was 0.55 per 100,000. The ratio of male to female victims was 1:1, while 82% of the assailants were male and 18% were female. The victim and the assailant had a close family relationship in 58.7% of the cases. Dyadic death (homicide followed by suicide) accounted for 27% of all victims. Twenty-nine per cent of the victims were murdered by mentally unstable offenders, and in almost half (44%) of the cases the offender was convicted. Homicides during robbery were rare (only two cases), and there was only one homicide during sexual assault. Death was caused by blunt instrument injury in 38.1% of cases, asphyxia in 31.7%, stabbing in 17.5%, burns in 9.5% and shooting in 3.2% (only two cases). The majority (80%) of homicides occurred at the residence of the victim(s). None of the victims had a history of drug abuse. Social conditions in Toyama prefecture, and their possible relevance to local homicide patterns, are discussed briefly. PMID:9383940

  15. A new archeomagnetic database in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatakeyama, T.; Shibuya, H.; Hirooka, K.; Nakamura, H.; Torii, M.

    2011-12-01

    In Japan, after Watanabe's paleomagnetic works (1958) of historical lavas, paleomagnetism in historical ages have been actively continued with archeological objects (Momose et al., 1964; Hirooka, 1971, 1983; Shibuya, 1980), and the archeomagnetic database have grew and some local geomagnetic models have been proposed. The archeomagnetic measurements are also used for dating baked earths of archeological sites. However, those data have not been added in the international paleomagnetic data archives. Here, we are re-organizing the archeomagnetic data to construct a database referable internationally. In this database, archeomagnetic direction data well controlled in age are collected mainly from [1] Kinki and adjacent areas including the Suemura old pottery kilns formally compiled in Hirooka (1971, 1981) and Shibuya (1980), [2] Tokai area including old Seto pottery kilns compiled by Hirooka and Fujisawa (2002, in Japanese) and [3] Northern Kyushu area including recently published results of Ushikubi ruins of pottery kilns. The database comprises more than 600 paleomagnetic directions of AD to 19 centuries, will largely contribute to the paleo/archeomagnetic databases, and will fill the gap of geomagnetic secular variation researches.

  16. Ebola virus disease: preparedness in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ashino, Yugo; Chagan-Yasutan, Haorile; Egawa, Shinichi; Hattori, Toshio

    2015-02-01

    The current outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) is due to a lack of resources, untrained medical personnel, and the specific contact-mediated type of infection of this virus. In Japan's history, education and mass vaccination of the native Ainu people successfully eradicated epidemics of smallpox. Even though a zoonotic virus is hard to control, appropriate precautions and personal protection, as well as anti-symptomatic treatment, will control the outbreak of EVD. Ebola virus utilizes the antibody-dependent enhancement of infection to seed the cells of various organs. The pathogenesis of EVD is due to the cytokine storm of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the lack of antiviral interferon-α2. Matricellular proteins of galectin-9 and osteopontin might also be involved in the edema and abnormality of the coagulation system in EVD. Anti-fibrinolytic treatment will be effective. In the era of globalization, interviews of travelers with fever within 3 weeks of departure from the affected areas will be necessary. Not only the hospitals designated for specific biohazards but every hospital should be aware of the biology of biohazards and establish measures to protect both patients and the community. PMID:25399765

  17. Difficulties facing physician mothers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yuka; Kozono, Yuki; Mori, Ryo; Marui, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent increases in the number of female physicians graduating in Japan, their premature resignations after childbirth are contributing to the acute shortage of physicians. Previous Japanese studies have explored supportive measures in the workplace, but have rarely focused on the specific problems or concerns of physician-mothers. Therefore, this study explored the challenges facing Japanese physician-mothers in efforts to identify solutions for their retention. Open-ended questionnaires were mailed to 646 alumnae of Juntendo University School of Medicine. We asked subjects to describe their opinions about 'The challenges related to female physicians' resignations'. Comments gathered from alumnae who graduated between 6 and 30 years ago and have children were analyzed qualitatively. Overall, 249 physicians returned the questionnaire (response rate 38.5%), and 73 alumnae with children who graduated in the stated time period provided comments. The challenges facing physician-mothers mainly consisted of factors associated with Japanese society, family responsibilities, and work environment. Japanese society epitomized by traditional gender roles heightened stress related to family responsibilities and promoted gender discrimination at work environment. Additionally, changing Japanese society positively influenced working atmosphere and husband's support. Moreover, the introduction of educational curriculums that alleviated traditional gender role was proposed for pre- and post- medical students. Traditional gender roles encourage discrimination by male physicians or work-family conflicts. The problems facing female physicians involve more than just family responsibilities: diminishing the notion of gender role is key to helping retain them in the workforce. PMID:22027270

  18. Q fever pneumonia in children in Japan.

    PubMed Central

    To, H; Kako, N; Zhang, G Q; Otsuka, H; Ogawa, M; Ochiai, O; Nguyen, S V; Yamaguchi, T; Fukushi, H; Nagaoka, N; Akiyama, M; Amano, K; Hirai, K

    1996-01-01

    The prevalence of Q fever pneumonia among children with atypical pneumonia from whom only an acute-phase serum sample was available was traced by using an indirect immunofluorescence (IF) test, nested PCR, and isolation. Twenty (34.5%) of 58 sera were found to have both polyvalent and immunoglobulin M antibodies to the phase II antigen of Coxiella burnetii by the IF test. Q fever pneumonia was present in 23 (39.7%) of 58 patients as determined by both the nested PCR and isolation and in 20 patients as determined by the IF test. The sensitivities for nested PCR and isolation were 100%, and that for the IF test was 87%. Our results indicate that nested PCR was faster and more sensitive than isolation and the IF test in the diagnosis of acute Q fever when a single acute-phase serum was available. These findings suggest that C. burnetii is an important cause of atypical pneumonia in children in Japan. PMID:8904431

  19. [Dermatological zoonosis by fungi in Japan].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yuka

    2006-01-01

    Dermatophytosis, cryptococcosis and sporotrichosis are dermatological zoonosis caused by fungi. Control of dermatophytosis is still difficult, although it is well known as a transmittable disease from animal to human. Exotic animals such as hamster, guinea pig and rabbit, some imported from foreign countries, have become a frequent source of human dermatophytosis, and the emergence of fungal pathogens followed. The nasal cavity of dogs and cats is an important reservoir of pathogens of cryptococcosis, in addition to bird droppings. Though there have been many reports of human sporotrichosis caused by patients' pet, especially cats in Europe and U.S., since there has been no report of zoonotic transmission of sporotrichosis, zoonosis is not believed do be present in Japan. The interrelation and cooperation of medical and veterinary doctors and all other scientists involved is therefore required to prevent fungal zoonosis, because the condition may be partly due to changes in the environments of human and animal life and the more intimate relationships between humans and animals. PMID:16699487

  20. Born in 1949 in postwar Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yasusi

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I would like to look back at my life as a researcher of photosynthesis. I was born in 1949, and grew up and was educated in postwar Japan in the 1950s and 1960s. I have studied photosynthesis, in particular Photosystem II, after research experiences in the USA and UK. My study of Photosystem II has continued over 43years until now. Through the present retrospection, I would like to suggest that all photosynthesis researchers, including the members of the "49ers", many other established scientists, and young students as well, should not simply stay in the lab working hard on their studies and writing papers; but should also do something for the public. People want to learn from us about many critical social issues such as the environment, food, energy and, most importantly, peace. I believe that our knowledge must form an important basis for people to take action to create a peaceful and harmonious human society. PMID:25557391

  1. Nutritional policies and dietary guidelines in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Teiji

    2011-01-01

    The national government settled on "Healthy Japan 21" as the premier preventive policy of lifestyle related diseases in 2000. In 2005, the effectiveness of the campaign was conducted, but the results did not turn out as expected. The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare made the "Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top (JFG-ST)" as a practical and easy way to improve eating habits for all of the people. The JFG-ST falls down when the balance of the diets worsens and expresses a stable thing in what a turn (exercise) does. Eyes down quantity to take out of each group per day is shown in the basic form by the 5 distinction from grain dishes, vegetable dishes, fish and meat dishes, milk, and fruits. In 2005, the Basic Law on Dietary Education was enacted to promote the dietary education about the importance of eating proper meals in order to solve problems such as inappropriate eating habits and nutrition intake, disturbances in diets, increases in lifestyle-related diseases, a fall in the rate of food self-sufficiency and so forth. The Ministry of Education and Science started a program to train people to become "diet and nutrition teacher" in primary school. JFG- ST is developed in a dietary education campaign as a standard method of the dietary education. In May, 2011, the government has announced the second dietary education promotional basic plan to assume five years. PMID:21859666

  2. Lung Transplantation for Lymphangioleiomyomatosis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Katsutoshi; Okada, Yoshinori; Akiba, Miki; Kondo, Takashi; Kawamura, Tomohiro; Okumura, Meinoshin; Chen, Fengshi; Date, Hiroshi; Shiraishi, Takeshi; Iwasaki, Akinori; Yamasaki, Naoya; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Chida, Masayuki; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Hirai, Toyohiro; Seyama, Kuniaki; Mishima, Michiaki

    2016-01-01

    Background Lung transplantation has been established as the definitive treatment option for patients with advanced lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). However, the prognosis after registration and the circumstances of lung transplantation with sirolimus therapy have never been reported. Methods In this national survey, we analyzed data from 98 LAM patients registered for lung transplantation in the Japan Organ Transplantation Network. Results Transplantation was performed in 57 patients as of March 2014. Survival rate was 86.7% at 1 year, 82.5% at 3 years, 73.7% at 5 years, and 73.7% at 10 years. Of the 98 patients, 21 had an inactive status and received sirolimus more frequently than those with an active history (67% vs. 5%, p<0.001). Nine of twelve patients who remained inactive as of March 2014 initiated sirolimus before or while on a waiting list, and remained on sirolimus thereafter. Although the statistical analysis showed no statistically significant difference, the survival rate after registration tended to be better for lung transplant recipients than for those who awaited transplantation (p = 0.053). Conclusions Lung transplantation is a satisfactory therapeutic option for advanced LAM, but the circumstances for pre-transplantation LAM patients are likely to alter with the use of sirolimus. PMID:26771878

  3. Mortality in the 2011 Tsunami in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Shinji; Ichikawa, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Introduction On 11 March 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake caused a huge tsunami that struck Northeast Japan, resulting in nearly 20 000 deaths. We investigated mortality patterns by age, sex, and region in the 3 most severely affected prefectures. Methods Using police data on earthquake victims in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures, mortality rates by sex, age group, and region were calculated, and regional variability in mortality rates across age groups was compared using rate ratios (RRs), with the rates in Iwate as the reference. Results In all regions, age-specific mortality showed a tendency to increase with age; there were no sex differences. Among residents of Iwate, mortality was markedly lower among school-aged children as compared with other age groups. In northern Miyagi and the southern part of the study area, RRs were higher among school-aged children than among other age groups. Conclusions The present study could not address the reasons for the observed mortality patterns and regional differences. To improve preparedness policies, future research should investigate the reasons for regional differences. PMID:23089585

  4. Bushido and medical professionalism in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishigori, Hiroshi; Harrison, Rebecca; Busari, Jamiu; Dornan, Tim

    2014-04-01

    Medical professionalism has become a core topic in medical education. As it has been considered mostly from a Western perspective, there is a need to examine how the same or similar concepts are reflected in a wider range of cultural contexts. To gain insights into medical professionalism concepts in Japanese culture, the authors compare the tenets of a frequently referenced Western guide to professionalism (the physician charter proposed by the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation, American College of Physicians Foundation, and the European Federation of Internal Medicine) with the concepts of Bushido, a Japanese code of personal conduct originating from the ancient samurai warriors. The authors also present survey evidence about how a group of present-day Japanese doctors view the values of Bushido.Cultural scholars have demonstrated Bushido's continuing influence on Japanese people today. The authors explain the seven main virtues of Bushido (e.g., rectitude), describe the similarities and differences between Bushido and the physician charter, and speculate on factors that may account for the differences, including the influence of religion, how much the group versus the individual is emphasized in a culture, and what emphasis is given to virtue-based versus duty-based ethics.The authors suggest that for those who are teaching and practicing in Japan today, Bushido's virtues are applicable when considering medical professionalism and merit further study. They urge that there be a richer discussion, from the viewpoints of different cultures, on the meaning of professionalism in today's health care practice. PMID:24556758

  5. Investigation of environmental change pattern in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruyasu, T. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In the Plains of Tokachi, where the scale of agricultural field was comparatively large in Japan, LANDSAT data with its accuracy have proved to be useful enough to observe the actual condition of agricultural land use and changes more accurately than present methods. Species and ages of grasses in pasture were identified and soils were classified into several types. The actual land cover and ecological environment were remarkably changeable at the rapidly industrialized area by the urbanization in the flat plane and also by the forest works and road construction in the mountainous area. The practical use of the recognition results was proved as the base map of the field survey or the retouching work of the vegetation and land use. There was a 10% cut in cost, labor, and time. Vegetation cover in Tokyo districts was estimated by both the multiregression model and the parametric model. Multicorrelation coefficient between observed value and estimated value was 0.87 and standard deviation was + or - 15%. Vegetation cover in Tokyo was mapped into five levels with equal intervals of 20%.

  6. Introduction of clean coal technology in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Takashi Kiga

    2008-01-15

    Coal is an abundant resource, found throughout the world, and inexpensive and constant in price. For this reason, coal is expected to play a role as one of the energy supply sources in the world. The most critical issues to promote utilization of coal are to decrease the environmental load. In this report, the history, outline and recent developments of the clean coal technology in Japan, mainly the thermal power generation technology are discussed. As recent topics, here outlined first is the technology against global warming such as the improvement of steam condition for steam turbines, improvement of power generation efficiency by introducing combined generation, carbon neutral combined combustion of biomass, and carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology. Also introduced are outlines of Japanese superiority in application technology against NOx and SO{sub 2} which create acid rain, development status of the technical improvement in the handling method for coal which is a rather difficult solid-state resource, and utilization of coal ash.

  7. Highlights of coated conductor development in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teranishi, R.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    2006-03-01

    Coated conductors using RE-Ba-Cu-O (RE: rare earth element) superconductors have been expected to be used in many electric power applications since they have a high critical current density at liquid nitrogen temperature even under high magnetic fields. Many efforts have been made in development of processing for a long coated conductor with high superconducting performance. In Japan, the new five-year national project for development of coated conductor processing was started in FY2003 and was scheduled until the end of FY2007. The expected goals in this project are 500 m long tapes with a high Ic value of 300 A cm-1 W-1 at a production rate of 5 m h-1 etc. The progress in recent years is remarkable, such as long tapes over 100 m in length with high Ic values of over 100 A cm-1 W-1. The long tapes have been successfully realized by not only one institution but several. Additionally, a solenoid type magnet and a power cable using YBCO conductors have already been demonstrated as one of the preliminary results for applications. For the future plans of coated conductor applications, the following power devices using coated conductors have been proposed: (1) power cable, (2) transformer, (3) motor, (4) fault current limiter, (5) cryocooler and so on.

  8. [Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Japan].

    PubMed

    Kanno, Hitoshi; Ogura, Hiromi

    2015-07-01

    In the past 10 years, we have diagnosed congenital hemolytic anemia in 294 patients, approximately 33% of whom were found to have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. It is becoming more common for Japanese to marry people of other ethnic origins, such that G6PD deficiency is becoming more prevalent in Japan. Japanese G6PD deficiency tends to be diagnosed in the neonatal period due to severe jaundice, while G6PD-deficient patients with foreign ancestors tend to be diagnosed at the onset of an acute hemolytic crisis before the age of six. It is difficult to predict the clinical course of each patient by G6PD activity, reduced glutathione content, or the presence/absence of severe neonatal jaundice. We propose that both neonatal G6PD screening and systematic analyses of G6PD gene mutations may be useful for personalized management of patients with G6PD-deficient hemolytic anemia. PMID:26251139

  9. Recent results for concentrator photovoltaics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Takamoto, Tatsuya; Araki, Kenji; Kojima, Nobuaki

    2016-04-01

    We summarize the Europe–Japan Collaborative Research Project on Concentrator Photovoltaics (CPV); NGCPV Project (a New Generation of Concentrator PhotoVoltaic cells, modules and systems). The aim of this project was to accelerate the move to very high efficiency and lower cost CPV technologies and to enhance the widespread deployment of CPV systems. Seven European partners and nine Japanese partners have contributed to this international collaboration. The following objectives have been reached: 1) a CPV cell with InGaP/GaAs/InGaAs three-junction world-record efficiency of 44.4% has been developed by Sharp, 2) 50 kW and 15 kW CPV plant operations with an average DC efficiency of 27.8% have been demonstrated in Spain (since mid-2012), 3) a new “Intrepid” CPV module with 31.3% efficiency has been developed by Daido Steel, 4) standard measurement of CPV cells has been established by FhG-ISE and AIST, and 46.0% efficiency has been confirmed for the direct-bonded GaInP/GaAs/GaInAsP/GaInAs four-junction solar cell under this project, 5) the fundamental research on novel materials and structures for CPV has also been conducted.

  10. Comparisons in good and bad: criminality in Japan and Germany.

    PubMed

    Kühne, H H

    1994-12-16

    In the field of criminological comparison, Japan and Germany are very suitable subjects. A nearly identical penal law and a social structure of highly developed industrial societies after a complete destruction at the end of World War War II give a good match. At first sight, Japan's crime rate is less than 1/4 of that in Germany. The impact of organised crime on the reduction of general crime is discussed. PMID:7860005

  11. Research and development on ocean thermal energy conversion in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Uehara, H.

    1982-08-01

    The study of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) in Japan has been conducted under the leadership of a team of the ''Sunshine Project'', a national new energy development project promoted by the Ministry of International Trade and Industries (MITI) since 1974. At present, two experimental OTEC power plants -Nauru's OTEC plant and Imari's OTEC plant are operating. In this paper, the review of research and development activity of these two OTEC plants in Japan is made.

  12. Winter marine atmospheric conditions over the Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, C. E.; Beardsley, R. C.; Dashko, N. A.; Friehe, C. A.; Kheilf, D.; Cho, K.; Limeburner, R.; Varlamov, S. M.

    2004-12-01

    Four basic types of synoptic-scale conditions describe the atmospheric structure and variability observed over the Japan Sea during the 1999/2000 winter season: (1) flow of cold Asian air from the northwest, (2) an outbreak of very cold Siberian air from the north and northeast, (3) passage of a weak cyclone over the southern Japan Sea with a cold air outbreak on the backside of the low, and (4) passage of a moderate cyclone along the northwestern side of the Japan Sea. In winter, the Russian coastal mountains and a surface-air temperature inversion typically block cold surface continental air from the Japan Sea. Instead, the adiabatic warming of coastal mountain lee-side air results in small air-sea temperature differences. Occasional outbreaks of very cold Siberian air eliminate the continental surface-based inversion and stability, allowing very cold air to push out over the Japan Sea for 1-3 days. During these outbreaks, the 0°C surface air isotherm extends well southward of 40°N, the surface heat losses in the center of the Japan Sea can exceed 600 W m-2, and sheet clouds cover most of the Japan Sea, with individual roll clouds extending from near the Russian coast to Honshu. During December through February, 1991-2002, these strong cold-air outbreak conditions occur 39% of the time and contribute 43% of the net heat loss from the Japan Sea. The average number of strong cold-air events per winter (November-March) season is 13 (ranging from 5 to 19); the 1999/2000 winter season covered in our measurements was normal.

  13. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, April 2, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-02

    ;Contents(Partial): Japan To Enter Commercial Launch Market; Significance of Lunar Mission Discussed; Hitachi Maxell, Sanyo Develop 14 GB Magneto-Optical Disc Technology; Coal Liquefaction Pilot Plant Ready for Testing; MITI develops Next-Generation Freon Substitute; Stable Power Supply Through Nuclear Power; JR Tokai Targets 550km for Maglev Test Run on Yamanaashi Line; and Japan to Establish Nationwide High-Speed Telecommunications Network Using CATV Networks.

  14. Japan takes no-compromise stand at Beijing.

    PubMed

    1995-10-01

    Japan credits itself with being the first government to develop a comprehensive initiative on women in development. Japan's government indicated that its commitment of $600 million yearly to development assistance would be expanded. The goal of the development effort is the empowerment of women through education, participation in the labor force, and inclusion in decision making. Japan's initiative was outlined by the Minister of Women's Affairs in the official statement prepared for the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, the Nongovernmental Organization (NGO) Forum, and the prior development initiatives. Japan indicated a commitment to grassroots level activities that protect women's human rights in a thoughtful and effective manner. Strong actions will be taken in Japanese funded programs to eliminate women as victims of prostitution, sexual crimes, and sexual exploitation. Japan's program initiatives are founded on the principles of full development of the potential of women, protection of universal human rights and health, and a partnership between nongovernmental organizations and government. The goal of equity for women was a reaffirmation of its commitment to the Program of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development. Japan is credited with supporting about 20% of the world's official development assistance and $2.5 million for the Beijing conference and NGO Forum. PMID:12290488

  15. Environmental and food contamination with PCB's in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, K

    1975-09-01

    In Japan "yusho", i.e., poisoning caused by ingestion of rice oil contaminated with PCB's, broke out in October 1968, and produced more than 1200 officially certified cases. Nevertheless, it was only regarded as a kind of food poisoning and its connection with environmental and biological contamination was only imperfectly taken into consideration. Finally, in the autumn of 1970, two study groups, from the Ehime University and the Kyoto City Hygienic Institute, reported on the PCB contamination of salt water and fresh water fishes in Japan. Subsequently many reports about PCB's as an environmental contaminant have been published by several study groups throughout Japan, and nowadays the PCB polluted state of Japan has become rather clearly recognized. This report will present information on environmental, food and human contamination with PCB's in Japan especially also in some typically contaminated local areas, in addition to summarizing some overall aspects of the PCB problem in Japan (e.g., the production, shipment and use of PCB's). PMID:808853

  16. Investigation of Environmental Change Pattern in Japan: Multidisciplinary Application of LANDSAT-2 Data to Marine Environment in Central Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruyasu, T. (Principal Investigator); Ochiai, H.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The multidisciplinary application of multispectral scanner data acquired over central Japan revealed several coastal features including pollution, river effluent, shorelines, red tide, etc. Supporting data were obtained by airborne remote sensing.

  17. The 1991 Japan Solar Energy Society. Japan Wind Energy Association Joint Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-09-01

    Thie paper summarizes the lectures presented at the research presentation conference held by the Japan Solar Energy Society and the Japan Wind Energy Association. The contents include a lecture relating to photovoltaic cells intended for efficiency improvement; a lecture relating to a light power generation system including the field test reports, improvements on peripheral devices and output characteristics; a lecture relating to optical chemistry; a lecture relating to heat pumps utilizing solar heat and well water; a lecture relating air conditioning utilizing photovoltaic cells; a lecture relating to heat systems utilizing solar heat directly; a lecture relating to heat collection; a lecture relating to cold heat for cooling using earth tubes; a lecture relating to direct utilization of ground water heat and solar heat; a lecture relating to underground heat storage; a lecture relating to accumulation of cold heat and hot heat; a lecture relating to insolation on the amount of insolation and spectroscopy; a lecture relating to light collection intended of energy saving; a lecture relating to improving materials including light collecting plates and thin films; a lecture relating to development and characteristics of solar cars; and a lecture relating to wind energy.

  18. [Disease mongering and bipolar disorder in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ihara, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Frequently used in a pejorative sense, "disease mongering" connotes a widening of the diagnostic boundaries of illness. Pharmaceutical companies conduct disease awareness campaigns on the pretext of educating the public about the prevention of illness or the promotion of health. Encouraged by disease awareness advertisements, people gradually become filled with concern that they are ill and need medical treatment. As a result, pharmacotherapy is increasingly being applied to ever-milder conditions, leading to potentially unnecessary medication, wasted resources, and even adverse side effects. Among all fields of clinical medicine, psychiatry is undoubtedly the most vulnerable to the danger of disease mongering. In Japan, depression provides the most drastic example of the impact of disease awareness campaigns on the number of patients seeking treatment. Until the late 1990s, Japanese psychiatrists focused almost exclusively on psychosis and endogenous depression, the latter being severe enough to require conventional forms of antidepressants, known as tricyclic antidepressants, and even hospitalization. At this time, people's attitude toward depression was generally unfavorable. Indeed, the Japanese word for clinical depression, utubyo, has a negative connotation, implying severe mental illness. This situation, however, changed immediately after fluvoxiamine (Luvox-Fujisawa, Depromel-Meiji Seika), the first selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) to receive approval in Japan, was introduced in 1999. In order to aid the drug's acceptance by the Japanese public, pharmaceutical companies began using the catchphrase kokoro no kaze, which literally means "a cold of the soul". Thus armed with this phrase, the pharmaceutical industry embarked on a campaign to lessen the stigma surrounding depression. According to national data from the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the number of patients with a diagnosis of mood disorder increased from 327,000 in 1999 to 591,600 in 2003. At the same time, antidepressant sales have sextupled, from\\14.5 billion in 1998 to\\87 billion in 2006, according to statistics from GlaxoSmithKline. Recently, the pharmaceutical industry has shifted its focus from depression to bipolar disorder. Historically, Japanese psychiatrists have been familiar with Emil Kraepelin's "manic depressive insanity" (1899), whose definition was much narrower than that of its contemporary counterpart, bipolar disorder. Thus far, perhaps due partly to the reference in Kraepelin's definition of "manic depressive" disorder, Japanese psychiatrists have rather conservatively prescribed mood stabilizers for persons with frequent mood swings. Japanese psychiatrists can learn a great deal from their experience with the aggressive marketing of antidepressants. In the case of depression, over-medication arguably did more harm than good. The same risk exists with bipolar disorder. Disease mongering may occur whenever the interests of a pharmaceutical company exceed the expected benefits from the proposed pharmacotherapy on those affected by the putative bipolar disorder. In cases that are not severe enough for aggressive medication, psychiatrists should propose natural alternatives, such as an alteration of lifestyle and psychotherapy. PMID:22352006

  19. Seasonal and spatial variation of atmospheric 210Pb and 7Be deposition: features of the Japan Sea side of Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Sakaguchi, Aya; Sasaki, Keiichi; Hirose, Katsumi; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Kim, Chang Kyu

    2006-01-01

    Monthly depositional fluxes of (210)Pb and (7)Be at Tatsunokuchi, Japan which faces the Japan Sea were studied over a 12-year period from 1991 to 2002. The data were compared with the spatial variability of these fluxes at Taejon in Korea and at 11 other sites in Japan from Ishigaki of the southern islands of Okinawa to Wakkanai of the northern end of Hokkaido over a 2-year period from 2000 to 2001. The monthly depositions of both (210)Pb and (7)Be at Tatsunokuchi revealed very similar seasonal variations with a single peak; both depositions were high in winter and low in summer. This phenomenon was found to be not transient but stationary. The deposition of these nuclides was much greater on the Japan Sea side of Japan than on the Pacific Ocean side. The cause for high deposition of (210)Pb and (7)Be in winter might be explained by a combination of a series of the following processes: blowing out of air masses with a high (210)Pb concentration near the surface layer over the continent by strong winter monsoons, additional flow of cold air masses with high (7)Be concentration at high latitude, well-mixing with generation of ascending current and convection clouds over the Japan Sea, and heavy snowfalls accompanying them. PMID:16181712

  20. Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2009: a study of 32 population-based cancer registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project.

    PubMed

    Hori, Megumi; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2009 based on data collected from 32 of 37 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project. The incidence of only primary invasive cancer in Japan for 2009 was estimated to be 775 601. Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively. PMID:26142437

  1. Seismic Attenuation beneath Tateyama Volcano, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, K.; Kawakata, H.; Doi, I.

    2014-12-01

    Subsurface structures beneath active volcanoes have frequently been investigated (e.g., Oikawa et al., 1994: Sudo et al., 1996), and seismic attenuation beneath some active volcanoes are reported to be strong. On the other hand, few local subsurface structures beneath volcanoes whose volcanic activities are low have been investigated in detail, though it is important to study them to understand the potential of volcanic activity of these volcanoes. Then, we analyzed the seismic attenuation beneath Tateyama volcano (Midagahara volcano) located in central Japan, whose volcanic activity is quite low. We used seismograms obtained by Hi-net deployed by NIED (National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention). Hi-net is one of the densest seismic station networks in the world, and the spatial interval of their seismographs is about 20 km, which is suitable for investigating local structure beneath an individual volcano. We estimated S-wave attenuation using seismograms at five stations near Tateyama volcano for nineteen small, local, shallow earthquakes (M 2.7-4.0) that occurred from January 2012 to December 2013. We divided these earthquakes into six groups according to their hypocenter locations. We used twofold spectral ratios around the first S-arrivals to investigate the S-wave attenuation when S-waves passed through the region beneath Tateyama volcano. We focused on station pairs located on opposite sides of Tateyama volcano to each other, and earthquake pairs whose epicenters were located almost along the line connecting Tateyama volcano and the two stations, so that the spectral ratios reflect a local structure beneath Tateyama volcano. Twofold spectral ratios of all seismograms for S waves having northwestern or southeastern sources show strong attenuation beneath Tateyama volcano. On the other hand, those of seismograms having northeastern or southwestern sources show much weaker attenuation, which suggested that the region of strong attenuation is anisotropic and/or has complicated shape.

  2. Unzipping of the volcano arc, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, R. J.; Smoot, N. C.; Rubin, M.

    1984-02-01

    A working hypothesis for the recent evolution of the southern Volcano Arc, Japan, is presented which calls upon a northward-progressing sundering of the arc in response to a northward-propagating back-arc basin extensional regime. This model appears to explain several localized and recent changes in the tectonic and magrnatic evolution of the Volcano Arc. Most important among these changes is the unusual composition of Iwo Jima volcanic rocks. This contrasts with normal arc tholeiites typical of the rest of the Izu-Volcano-Mariana and other primitive arcs in having alkaline tendencies, high concentrations of light REE and other incompatible elements, and relatively high silica contents. In spite of such fractionated characteristics, these lavas appear to be very early manifestations of a new volcanic and tectonic cycle in the southern Volcano Arc. These alkaline characteristics and indications of strong regional uplift are consistent with the recent development of an early stage of inter-arc basin rifting in the southern Volcano Arc. New bathymetric data are presented in support of this model which indicate: (1) structural elements of the Mariana Trough extend north to the southern Volcano Arc. (2) both the Mariana Trough and frontal arc shoal rapidly northwards as the Volcano Arc is approached. (3) rugged bathymetry associated with the rifted Mariana Trough is replaced just south of Iwo Jima by the development of a huge dome (50-75 km diameter) centered around Iwo Jima. Such uplifted domes are the immediate precursors of rifts in other environments, and it appears that a similar situation may now exist in the southern Volcano Arc. The present distribution of unrifted Volcano Arc to the north and rifted Mariana Arc to the south is interpreted not as a stable tectonic configuration but as representing a tectonic "snapshot" of an arc in the process of being rifted to form a back-arc basin.

  3. Japan's research on particle clouds and sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Jun'ichi

    1995-01-01

    Most of energy used by us is generated by combustion of liquid and solid fuels. These fuels are burned in combustors mainly as liquid sprays and pulverized solids, respectively. A knowledge of the combustion processes in combustors is needed to achieve proper designs that have stable operation, high efficiency, and low emission levels. However, current understanding of liquid and solid particle cloud combustion is far from complete. If combustion experiments for these fuels are performed under a normal gravity field, some experimental difficulties are encountered. These difficulties encountered include, that since the particles fall by the force of gravity it is impossible to stop the particles in the air, the falling speeds of particles are different from each other, and are depend on the particle size, the flame is lifted up and deformed by the buoyancy force, and natural convection makes the flow field more complex. Since these experimental difficulties are attributable to the gravity force, a microgravity field can eliminate the above problems. This means that the flame propagation experiments in static homogeneous liquid and solid particle clouds can be carried out under a microgravity field. This will provide much information for the basic questions related to combustion processes of particle clouds and sprays. In Japan, flame propagation processes in the combustible liquid and solid particle clouds have been studied experimentally by using a microgravity field generated by a 4.5 s dropshaft, a 10 s dropshaft, and by parabolic flight. Described in this presentation are the recent results of flame propagations studies in a homogeneous liquid particle cloud, in a mixture of liquid particles/gas fuel/air, in a PMMA particle cloud, and in a pulverized coal particle cloud.

  4. Nature of the Moho in Japan and Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Takaya; Levin, Vadim; Nikulin, Alex; Iidaka, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    The Kamchatka peninsula and the islands of Japan are located along the eastern margin of the Asian continent. The natures of the Moho in these areas have been studied for decades, with a variety of geophysical methods, including active and passive seismic methods, gravity and other techniques. The Moho and the upper mantle structures in the NE Japan and SE Japan Arcs have been investigated well both from active and passive seismic source studies. The Moho depth in the NE Japan is ranging from 30 to 40 km. Almost parallel to the present volcanic front, there exists a belt of deep Moho (34-36 km) with a lower Pn velocity (7.5-7.7 km/s). Amplitude analysis of the PmP phase indicates that the Moho beneath the NE Japan Arc is not a simple velocity contrast, but rather a gradual transition. Toward the backarc side, remarkable crustal thinning is recognized. Actually, the Moho depth decreases from 35 km beneath the central part of NE Japan to 18 km beneath the Sea of Japan. This thinning is evident in the upper crust, while the lower crust remains constant in thickness. This may be explained by the continuous magmatic underplating beneath the rifted crust or deformation under a simple shear mode, allowing the lower crustal thickness to remain unchanged. The Moho in the SW Japan Arc is also at a depth of 30-40 km. The Pn velocity is 7.7-7.8 km/s, slightly higher than that in the NE Japan, although this value was mostly sampled in the eastern half of the SW Japan Arc where the recent volcanic activity has been less effective. Fluids expelled from the subducted oceanic lithosphere (the PHS plate) play an important role in controlling the structure of the mantle wedge. As these fluids leak into the mantle wedge they induce serpentinization there, transforming original mantle materials to those of lower velocity and higher Vp/Vs. The crustal thinning of the SW Japan Arc is characterized by notable decrease in upper crustal thickness, which is similar to the case of the NE Japan Arc. The Moho and uppermost mantle structures beneath the southern part of the Kamchatka have a lot of similarities to those beneath the NE Japan Arc. Earlier DSS investigations and converted wave analyses show that Moho is situated at a depth of 38-40 km along the east coast of Kamchatka, that is beneath the volcanic front, but decreases to about 32 km near the west coast. Moho depth values based on modern receiver function methodology are also ranging from 31 to over 38 km. Moho is a fairly simple boundary under the western coast of Kamchatka, while in the Central Kamchatka Depression and especially along the eastern coast it is likely gradational. Uppermost mantle material beneath the Moho is complex, with additional impedance contrasts that are likely anisotropic in their properties being present under the entire Kamchatka peninsula. The dominant anisotorpy-inducing fabric varies from site to site along the west coast, but is almost universally trench-normal along the east coast. The seismic velocities beneath Kamchatka are very low (7.4-7.8 km/s for P-wave and 4.1-4.2 km/s for S wave). Also, gradual structural change is recognized around the Moho beneath the active volcanoes. These features are quite similar to those in NE Japan Arc.

  5. Trade, Foreign Investment, and Competitiveness. The Japan Business Study Program. Based on a Seminar Series entitled "Japan Business Study Program 1989" (Austin, Texas, October 12-27, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuo, Hirofumi, Ed.

    Seven articles are presented addressing topics related to United States-Japan trade, foreign investment, and U.S. competitiveness in the global market. The first article, "Super 301 and the Changing Japan-American Relationship" by Glenn Davis describes recent U.S.-Japan trade frictions, epitomized by Super 301, and explains the influence of the

  6. Japan Studies through the Lenses of Different Disciplines: First Yearbook of the Japan Studies Association. [Papers from the Japan Studies Association Annual Conference (San Diego, California, 1995)].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speaker, Richard B., Jr., Ed.; Kawada, Louise Myers, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This yearbook presents new perspectives and materials on Japan that are engaging, relatively jargon-free, and shaped so that their usefulness in a college classroom is readily apparent. The yearbook represents an example of the potential for genuine scholarship that lies within interdisciplinary studies. Articles are divided among five thematic…

  7. Tohoku, Japan Tsunami Sets us West Coast Into Ringing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberopoulou, A.; Legg, M. R.; Gica, E.; Legg, G.

    2011-12-01

    Tsunamis can last a long time compared to the geophysical events that generate them. The Tohoku, Japan tsunami of March 11, 2011 was an extreme event that continued to disturb the Pacific Ocean for many days following its initiation. Historically Japan was considered a source of low tsunami wave energy for the US West Coast. However, damage in California from the last great Japan tsunami was second to that suffered during the 1964 Alaska earthquake. Computer animations of the catastrophic Japan tsunami and other recent significant tsunamis combined with seismological techniques help to identify multiple paths of tsunami waves refracted and reflected by complex bathymetry across the Pacific Ocean basin. Using recent large tsunamigenic earthquakes we demonstrate that the long duration and damage noticed during the last great Japan tsunami in the farfield is a result of several factors. Waveguides acting as tsunami lenses and mirrors, including continental margins, direct the tsunami wave energy to diverse locations around the ocean basin; directionality affected by islands and seamounts, large reflections off of South America, bathymetric features far and near the area of impact and shelf geometry may delay and further amplify the main tsunami energy. This has direct implications on the prediction of tsunami impacts since the US West Coast appears to receive maximum waves much later than first wave arrivals.

  8. Review of mental-health-related stigma in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ando, Shuntaro; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Aoki, Yuta; Thornicroft, Graham

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the nature and characteristics of mental-health-related stigma among Japanese people. We searched relevant studies in English or Japanese published since 2001 using MEDLINE and PsycINFO, and found 19 studies that examined mental-health-related stigma in Japan. Regarding knowledge about mental illness, reviewed studies showed that in the Japanese general population, few people think that people can recover from mental disorders. Psychosocial factors, including weakness of personality, are often considered the cause of mental illness, rather than biological factors. In addition, the majority of the general public in Japan keep a greater social distance from individuals with mental illness, especially in close personal relationships. Schizophrenia is more stigmatized than depression, and its severity increases the stigmatizing attitude toward mental illness. The literature also showed an association between more direct social contact between health professionals and individuals with mental illness and less stigmatization by these professionals. Less stigmatization by mental health professionals may be associated with accumulation of clinical experience and daily contact with people who have mental illness. Stigmatizing attitudes in Japan are stronger than in Taiwan or Australia, possibly due to institutionalism, lack of national campaigns to tackle stigma, and/or society's valuing of conformity in Japan. Although educational programs appear to be effective in reducing mental-health-related stigma, future programs in Japan need to address problems regarding institutionalism and offer direct social contact with people with mental illness. PMID:24118217

  9. Teleseismic shear wave tomography of the Japan subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asamori, Koichi; Zhao, Dapeng

    2015-12-01

    We present a high-resolution shear wave tomography of the Japan subduction zone down to a depth of 700 km, which is determined by inverting a large number of high-quality S-wave arrival-time data from local earthquakes and teleseismic events. The subducting Pacific and Philippine Sea (PHS) slabs are revealed clearly as high-velocity (high-V) zones, whereas low-velocity (low-V) anomalies are revealed in the mantle wedge above the two slabs. The PHS slab has subducted aseismically down to a depth of 480 km under the Japan Sea and to a depth of 540 km under the Tsushima Strait. A window is revealed within the aseismic PHS slab, being consistent with P-wave tomography. Prominent low-V and high-Poisson's ratio (σ) anomalies exist below the PHS slab and above the Pacific slab, which reflect hot and wet mantle upwelling caused by the joint effect of deep dehydration of the Pacific slab and convective circulation process in the mantle wedge above the Pacific slab. The hot and wet mantle upwelling has caused the complex geometry and structure of the PHS slab in SW Japan, and contributed to the Quaternary volcanism along the Japan Sea coast. In eastern Japan, low-V zones are revealed at depths of 200-700 km below the Pacific slab, which may reflect hot upwelling from the lower mantle or even the core-mantle boundary.

  10. JTEC panel report on machine translation in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carbonell, Jaime; Rich, Elaine; Johnson, David; Tomita, Masaru; Vasconcellos, Muriel; Wilks, Yorick

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this report is to provide an overview of the state of the art of machine translation (MT) in Japan and to provide a comparison between Japanese and Western technology in this area. The term 'machine translation' as used here, includes both the science and technology required for automating the translation of text from one human language to another. Machine translation is viewed in Japan as an important strategic technology that is expected to play a key role in Japan's increasing participation in the world economy. MT is seen in Japan as important both for assimilating information into Japanese as well as for disseminating Japanese information throughout the world. Most of the MT systems now available in Japan are transfer-based systems. The majority of them exploit a case-frame representation of the source text as the basis of the transfer process. There is a gradual movement toward the use of deeper semantic representations, and some groups are beginning to look at interlingua-based systems.

  11. Estimating the burden of foodborne diseases in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Yuko; Gilmour, Stuart; Ota, Erika; Momose, Yoshika; Onishi, Toshiro; Bilano, Ver Luanni Feliciano; Kasuga, Fumiko; Sekizaki, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the burden posed by foodborne diseases in Japan using methods developed by the World Health Organization’s Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG). Methods Expert consultation and statistics on food poisoning during 2011 were used to identify three common causes of foodborne disease in Japan: Campylobacter and Salmonella species and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). We conducted systematic reviews of English and Japanese literature on the complications caused by these pathogens, by searching Embase, the Japan medical society abstract database and Medline. We estimated the annual incidence of acute gastroenteritis from reported surveillance data, based on estimated probabilities that an affected person would visit a physician and have gastroenteritis confirmed. We then calculated disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost in 2011, using the incidence estimates along with disability weights derived from published studies. Findings In 2011, foodborne disease caused by Campylobacter species, Salmonella species and EHEC led to an estimated loss of 6099, 3145 and 463 DALYs in Japan, respectively. These estimated burdens are based on the pyramid reconstruction method; are largely due to morbidity rather than mortality; and are much higher than those indicated by routine surveillance data. Conclusion Routine surveillance data may indicate foodborne disease burdens that are much lower than the true values. Most of the burden posed by foodborne disease in Japan comes from secondary complications. The tools developed by FERG appear useful in estimating disease burdens and setting priorities in the field of food safety. PMID:26478611

  12. PNC/DOE Remote Monitoring Project at Japan`s Joyo Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.; Hashimoto, Yu; Senzaki, Masao; Shigeto, Toshinori; Sonnier, C.; Dupree, S.; Ystesund, K.; Hale, W.

    1996-07-25

    The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan and the US Department of Energy (DOE) are cooperating on the development of a remote monitoring system for nuclear nonproliferation efforts. This cooperation is part of a broader safeguards agreement between PNC and DOE. A remote monitoring system is being installed in a spent fuel storage area at PNC`s experimental reactor facility Joyo in Oarai. The system has been designed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and is closely related to those used in other SNL remote monitoring projects. The Joyo project will particularly study the unique aspects of remote monitoring in contribution to nuclear nonproliferation. The project will also test and evaluate the fundamental design and implementation of the remote monitoring system in its application to regional and international safeguards efficiency. This paper will present a short history of the cooperation, the details of the monitoring system and a general schedule of activities.

  13. DNA data bank of Japan (DDBJ) progress report.

    PubMed

    Mashima, Jun; Kodama, Yuichi; Kosuge, Takehide; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Katayama, Toshiaki; Nagasaki, Hideki; Okuda, Yoshihiro; Kaminuma, Eli; Ogasawara, Osamu; Okubo, Kousaku; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Takagi, Toshihisa

    2016-01-01

    The DNA Data Bank of Japan Center (DDBJ Center; http://www.ddbj.nig.ac.jp) maintains and provides public archival, retrieval and analytical services for biological information. The contents of the DDBJ databases are shared with the US National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) within the framework of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC). Since 2013, the DDBJ Center has been operating the Japanese Genotype-phenotype Archive (JGA) in collaboration with the National Bioscience Database Center (NBDC) in Japan. In addition, the DDBJ Center develops semantic web technologies for data integration and sharing in collaboration with the Database Center for Life Science (DBCLS) in Japan. This paper briefly reports on the activities of the DDBJ Center over the past year including submissions to databases and improvements in our services for data retrieval, analysis, and integration. PMID:26578571

  14. [Pharmacological therapies for alcohol use disorder in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yumoto, Yosuke; Higuchi, Susumu

    2015-09-01

    We reviewed the available pharmacological therapies for alcohol use disorder in Japan. For treatment of withdrawal delirium, therapists prefer to use antipsychotic drugs rather than benzodiazepines, which is different from other countries. Japan does not have any substantial treatment guidelines for withdrawal delirium. Therefore, so treatment strategies matching the environment of each facility need to be formulated. Moreover, current choices for prescribing anti-alcoholic drugs to cope with alcohol craving are limited to drugs such as cyanamide and disulfiram. However, the use of acamprosate has recently begun and a clinical trial for nalmefene is starting soon. We anticipate that these newer pharmacological therapies will contribute to better treatment of alcohol use disorder also in Japan. PMID:26394517

  15. Research on fall prevention and protection from heights in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohdo, Katsutoshi; Hino, Yasumichi; Takahashi, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    The high frequency of fall accidents is a serious problem in Japan. Thus, more stringent countermeasures for preventing falls from scaffolds were developed and incorporated into institutional guidelines. These countermeasures aim to decrease deaths caused by falls from scaffolds. Despite the improvements in such measures, however, the rate of accidental fall deaths remains high in Japan's construction industries. To improve the rigor of the countermeasures, a committee was established in our institute by the Japan Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. This committee investigated the regulations applied in other countries and evaluated construction industry compliance with existing fall prevention guidelines. After considerable research and discussion, the Occupational Safety and Health Regulations and Guidelines were amended in 2009. The effects of the amended regulations have recently been investigated on the basis of accident reports. This paper describes the investigation and its results. The paper also discusses other research and workplace safety countermeasures for preventing falls and ensuring fall protection from heights. PMID:25098387

  16. Guidelines for developmental toxicity testing of chemicals in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Tanimura, T.

    1985-11-01

    With the definition of teratogenicity expanded in terms of the developmental stages when an agent acts and the types of developmental anomalies induced, the concept of developmental toxicity has been established. The examination of functional developmental disorders including behavior has become one of the most important items for the evaluation of developmental toxicity of chemicals, especially pharmaceutical drugs. The guidelines for developmental toxicity testing of drugs in Japan stress the need for examination of growth and development including behavior and fertility on the postweaning offspring. The outline of the Japanese guidelines is presented and it is emphasized that studies should be done as research and include self evaluation of the scientific truth of the experiment and extrapolation to humans. In addition, the activities of the Behavioral Teratology Meeting, a satellite meeting to the Japanese Teratology Society, are introduced and enquete surveys of the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association and collaborative studies for the standardization of learning tests in Japan are briefly presented.

  17. Black brant from Alaska staging and wintering in Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derksen, Dirk V.; Bollinger, K.S.; Ward, David H.; Sedinger, J.S.; Miyabayashi, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) nest in colonies in arctic Canada, Alaska, and Russia (Derksen and Ward 1993, Sedinger et al. 1993). Virtually the entire population stages in fall at Izembek Lagoon near the tip of the Alaska Peninsula (Bellrose 1976) before southward migration (Dau 1992) to winter habitats in British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California, and Baja California (Subcommittee on Black Brant 1992). A small number of black brant winter in Japan, Korea, and China (Owen 1980). In Japan 3,000–5,000 brant of unknown origin stop over in fall, and a declining population (<1,000) of birds winter here, primarily in the northern islands (Brazil 1991, Miyabayashi et al. 1994). Here, we report sightings of brant in Japan that were marked in Alaska and propose a migration route based on historical and recent observations and weather patterns.

  18. The birth of cosmic ray work in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Jun

    2013-02-01

    Systematic studies of cosmic rays in Japan were started when the Nishina Laboratory was established in Riken in 1931, after Nishina came back from the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen. He was already known as an author of Klein-Nishina formula. He spent a great deal of effort to spread modern physics in Japan, inviting Dirac and Heisenberg to give series of lectures at the university of Tokyo, which later established the strong group of theoretical physicists including Yukawa, Tomonaga, Sakata and others. He also spent a great deal of effort in comprehensive studies of cosmic-rays including the precise measurements of the mass of mesons, of the intensity at the deepest underground of 3000 m.w.e., and of other research to be discussed. It is to be noted that the encouragement by the theoretical group of Yukawa, Tomonaga and others stimulated the recovery of the research after World War II in Japan.

  19. DNA data bank of Japan (DDBJ) progress report

    PubMed Central

    Mashima, Jun; Kodama, Yuichi; Kosuge, Takehide; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Katayama, Toshiaki; Nagasaki, Hideki; Okuda, Yoshihiro; Kaminuma, Eli; Ogasawara, Osamu; Okubo, Kousaku; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Takagi, Toshihisa

    2016-01-01

    The DNA Data Bank of Japan Center (DDBJ Center; http://www.ddbj.nig.ac.jp) maintains and provides public archival, retrieval and analytical services for biological information. The contents of the DDBJ databases are shared with the US National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) within the framework of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC). Since 2013, the DDBJ Center has been operating the Japanese Genotype-phenotype Archive (JGA) in collaboration with the National Bioscience Database Center (NBDC) in Japan. In addition, the DDBJ Center develops semantic web technologies for data integration and sharing in collaboration with the Database Center for Life Science (DBCLS) in Japan. This paper briefly reports on the activities of the DDBJ Center over the past year including submissions to databases and improvements in our services for data retrieval, analysis, and integration. PMID:26578571

  20. Popular drama prompts interest in HIV in Japan.

    PubMed

    Watts, J

    1998-12-01

    The Japanese are among the least aware of all developed country populations of HIV/AIDS. A popular 12-week television drama discussing HIV/AIDS and prostitution, however, raised awareness about the subjects in Japan and led to a sharp increase in the number of people tested for infection with HIV. Broadcast by Fuji TV and featuring a high school girl infected with HIV through prostitution, "Kamisama Mo Sukoshidake" ("Please God, Just a Little More Time") garnered the second-highest audience ratings of the summer. During July-September 1998, public health centers i Japan conducted 18,561 tests for HIV-1, compared to 9444 during the preceding 3 months. The number of requests for counseling also rose from 19,842 to 39,073 for the period. Fuji TV's dramas are seen as the best way to influence young people in Japan. PMID:9851399

  1. JTEC Panel report on electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (Editor); Kukowski, John; Meieran, Gene; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John; Tummala, Rao; Dehaemer, Michael J.; Holdridge, Geoff (Editor); Gamota, George

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies.

  2. Present status of CWM demonstration tests in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, T.

    1993-12-31

    After oil crisis, R&D crises, R&D of coal fluid technology in Japan was launched by COM (Coal Oil Mixture) technology, R&D of COM technology was completed in 1984 and the technology was commercially applied in Yokosuka project by Japan COM and Tokyo Electric Power Company. On other other hand, R&D of CWM (Coal Water Mixture) technology for higher economic performance and easier equipment maintenance and handling was launched in 1983. After finishing basic researches and pilot plant tests, various demonstration tests such as Nakosa demonstration plant project, Himeji project, Wakayam project, Tomakomai project and Ube project has been conducted while accumulating various information data as shown. In fact, CWM technologies for production, storage, transportation and combustion are satisfactorily in high level for practical applications. However, users especially in general industries are less interested in shifting fuels to CWM at present because of the fall of oil prices since 1986, recent recession in economy and uncertainty about new fuel. Under this circumstances, a new test for CWM distribution relay system, or West Japan Project was launched in 1991 to appeal CWM to users as a more attractive commodity. Emphasis of this demonstration test is placed on a distribution relay system of CWM in which CWM is produced in China and transported to Japan. The manufacture of CWM is a project achieved through cooperation between China and Japan. And this project is a world-first international CWM trade. In this project, it is intended to supply CWM to users more economically and stably through a relay station in Japan. TAYCA Corporation, one of the major Japanese titanium oxide producers is the first user with using 40,000 tons per year in general industries.

  3. [Mycobacterium immunogenum isolated from a metal worker in Japan].

    PubMed

    Omura, Harutaka; Kajiki, Akira; Ikegame, Satoshi; Aono, Akio; Mitarai, Satoshi; Kitahara, Yoshinari

    2012-04-01

    In the United States and European countries, Mycobacterium immunogenum has been identified in metalworking fluids and is reported to be a causative agent of metalworking fluid-associated hypersensitivity pneumonitis. However, in Japan, there has been no reports of M. immunogenum isolated from metalworking fluids. This is the first report of isolation of the microorganism from the sputum of a metal-grinding machine worker in Japan. We should consider the possibility of M. immunogenum infection in case of non-tuberculosis mycobacteriosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis in metalworkers. PMID:22702082

  4. Diphenylarsinic acid poisoning from chemical weapons in Kamisu, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kazuhiro; Tamaoka, Akira; Otsuka, Fujio; Iwasaki, Nobuaki; Shin, Kenji; Matsui, Akira; Endo, Ginji; Kumagai, Yoshito; Ishii, Tetsuro; Shoji, Shin'ichi; Ogata, Tsuyoshi; Ishizaki, Mutsuo; Doi, Mikio; Shimojo, Nobuhiro

    2004-11-01

    We noted a new clinical syndrome with prominent cerebellar symptoms in apartment building residents in Kamisu, Japan. The well that provided drinking water contained diphenylarsinic acid, a degradation product of diphenylcyanoarsine or diphenylchloroarsine, which were developed for use as chemical weapons, inducing severe vomiting and sneezing. Characteristics of diphenylarsinic acid poisoning include brainstem-cerebellar and cerebral symptoms. Mental retardation associated with brain atrophy in magnetic resonance images was evident in some infants. We must be vigilant to prevent or minimize the effects of further diphenylarsinic acid poisoning in Japan or elsewhere. PMID:15505777

  5. ETS-5, ETS-6, and COMETS projects in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iida, Takashi; Wakana, Hiromitsu; Obara, Noriaki

    1992-01-01

    Three satellite communication projects now in progress in Japan are described. The first is a project to establish a telecommunication network for tele-education, TV conference, and tele-medicine in the Asia-Pacific region by using the Japan's Engineering Test Satellite-5 (ETS-5). The second is a project of the ETS-6 satellite, to be launched in 1993, for inter-satellite communication, mobile and fixed communication, and millimeter wave personal communication experiments. The third is a project of the Communications and Broadcasting Engineering Test Satellite (COMETS), to be launched in 1997, for advanced mobile satellite communication, inter-satellite link, and advanced broadcasting experiments at higher frequencies.

  6. Development of the rubella vaccine and vaccination strategy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Kohji

    2009-05-21

    The development of the rubella vaccine and vaccination strategy in Japan was unique. Five rubella vaccines used in Japan were licensed, and the rubella vaccine program to schoolgirls was started in 1977. The measles-mumps-rubella vaccination to children which started in 1989, was terminated in 1993 due to the adverse effect of aseptic meningitis. In 1994, rubella vaccination to children, using the monovalent rubella vaccine, was restarted. Then, a new vaccination program, vaccinating twice by using the combined measles and rubella vaccine, was started in 2006. The increase in the rate of vaccination leads us to hope for the "Elimination of Rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndrome in 2012". PMID:19366581

  7. Seafloor Geodesy for Approaching Great Earthquakes Around Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, M.; Sato, M.; Ishikawa, T.; Watanabe, S. I.; Yokota, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Seafloor geodesy has been developed as an application of space geodetic technique for the purpose of investigating geodynamic phenomena having their major information in offshore regions. One of such targets is the occurrence of disastrous earthquakes in plate subduction areas. Japan, among others, has repeatedly experienced offshore megathrust earthquakes because of its tectonic location, where multiple plates interact with each other. Most recently, an earthquake of M9.0 occurred off the Pacific coast of east Japan in 2011 with a subsequent huge tsunami, which totally devastated coastal areas and claimed nearly 20,000 lives including those still missing. We, the group of Japan Coast Guard (JCG), have developed a seafloor geodetic technique combining the GPS positioning and underwater acoustic ranging, which is able to measure the position of the seafloor reference point consisting of multiple acoustic transponders with a precision of a few centimeters. We have deployed our seafloor reference points over two regions on the Pacific side of Japan; one is the region along the Japan trench off the eastern coast where the huge 2011 event occurred and another is the region along the Nankai Trough off the southern coast where earthquakes of around M8 have repeated every 100-150 years. With these measurements, we have so far successfully obtained important results providing exclusive information for elucidating the plate boundary behavior causing huge earthquakes. In particular, in the region off east Japan, we have revealed different phases of seafloor movements during the period between several years before and after the 2011 event. They include linear intraplate movements with several centimeters per year before the event, which were the first significant offshore geodetic signals detected around Japan, as well as the coseismic displacements of unprecedentedly huge amount over 20 m close to the epicenter and subsequent postseismic movements with various characteristics depending on the area. These seafloor data contribute to the understandings of physical processes relevant to the event beneath the seafloor in this region, which are unable to be clarified only by the terrestrial data. The presentation summarizes efforts in the field of seafloor geodesy in Japan with a focus on the results obtained by the JCG group.

  8. [A new approach for extermination of gastric cancer from Japan].

    PubMed

    Asaka, Masahiro

    2013-08-01

    A gastric cancer elimination project that combines H. pylori eradication therapy and endoscopic examination is both appropriate and feasible for Japan, where excellent methods of diagnosis and endoscopic treatment for early gastric cancer are already available. In this country, the baby-boom generation is now passing 60 years old and reaching the cancer-prone age, so an increase of medical costs related to gastric cancer is impending. Application for medical insurance in patients with H. pylori related chronic gastritis due to the Basic Plan to Promote Cancer Control Programs might be a first step to eliminate gastric cancer deaths in Japan. PMID:23967660

  9. Status of carbon-ion radiotherapy facilities in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, Atsushi

    2013-05-01

    Carbon-ion radiotherapy has large physical and biological advantages, and clinical results performed by HIMAC at NIRS awaken a deep interest. Several hospital-specified facilities are recently under commissioning or construction in Japan. Carbon-ion radiotherapy is based on the advanced technology in wide various fields. In order to promote this treatment method to the daily treatment, constant cooperative efforts by public and private organizations are necessary, i.e. providing of abundant clinical data, technology transfer, personnel training, organizing of the specialists' network, and so on. The present status and future prospects in Japan are reported.

  10. Introduction to the INIST's activities and its Japan Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, Written By André,; Ono, Translated By Shuichi

    In order to provide any user with the best information from all over the world in the field of science and technology, CNRS(Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique), the main french research organization, settled up a highly specialized body named "Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique"(lNIST) which activities are breafly and roughly introduced hereafter. In this purpose, and according to the increasing demand and needs in France for japanese scientific and technical information, a very specialized service called "Japan Unit" was created inside INIST to make anybody easier to reach this particul ar type of information without any knowledge on Japan and japanese language.

  11. [Epidemiology of addictive disorders and behaviors in Japan].

    PubMed

    Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kinjo, Aya

    2015-09-01

    Nationwide surveys to clarify the characteristics and trends of the addictive disorders and behaviors including alcohol dependence, nicotine dependence, internet addiction and pathological gambling among Japanese adults were carried out in 2003, 2008, and 2013. At the part of the surveys on addictive behaviors in disaster stricken area by the Great East Japan Earthquake, the nationwide survey on benzodiazepine dependence was conducted in 2013. Epidemiological features of prevalent addictive disorders and behaviors were described. We observed large number of estimated patients with addictive disorders or behaviors in Japan, and the considerable proportion of them was not connect to appropriate medical services. PMID:26394504

  12. JUSTIPEN: Japan US Theory Institute for Physics with Exotic Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Papenbrock, Thomas

    2014-05-16

    The grant “JUSTIPEN: Japan US Theory Institute for Physics with Exotic Nuclei ” (DOE DE‐FG02‐06ER41407) ran from 02/01/2006 thru 12/31/2013. JUSTIPEN is a venue for international collaboration between U.S.‐based and Japanese scientists who share an interest in theory of rare isotopes. Since its inception JUSTIPEN has supported many visitors, fostered collaborations between physicists in the U.S. and Japan, and enabled them to deepen our understanding of exotic nuclei and their role in cosmos.

  13. Effective control of photomask surface chemical residuals through thermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Han-Byul; Kim, Jong-Min; Kim, Yong-Dae; Cho, Hyun-Joon; Choi, Sang-Soo

    2005-05-01

    We investigated the control of residual ions on the mask surface and the phase/transmission change rate by using thermal treatment after a conventional cleaning process. We hypothesized that the remaining sulfuric ions on the mask surface could combine with other ions and produce compounds during the thermal treatment. These compounds are easily removed by a hot D.I water rinse. Our study shows that the amount of remaining sulfuric ions is 250ng/mask when the mask has been thermally treated. The amount of sulfuric ions is substantially reduced compared to the results of other cleaning processes. Additionally we have found that the thermal treatment can be reduced varying the phase/trans value according to the cleaning cycle and the variation was stable even with a higher concentration of SC-1 solution.

  14. Laser Repair Of Transparent Microfaults In IC Photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preiswerk, Hp.; Sheu, C. C.; Allen, S. D.

    1986-08-01

    A laser direct writing method based on the pyrolysis of a thin solid state organometallic film for repairing transparent defects in pholomasks has been developed. The film is applied using standard photoresist spin-coating techniques and a focused Ar laser beam is used to locally decompose the metallo organic coating. This technique is capable of generating submicron opaque metallic features under ambient atmosphere conditions. Experimental results as well as limitinp factors are discussed.

  15. Cleaning Of Chromium On Glass Photomasks And Reticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, David L.; Johnson, Paul H.; Ashkenaz, Scott

    1981-07-01

    Solvent and plasma cleaning of RF sputtered, DC sputtered, and vacuum evaporated chromium-chrome oxide films on soda-lime glass substrates was investigated. One-cycle cleaning was evaluated using KLA automatic inspection. Long-term (eleven-cycle) effects on critical dimension, optical density and reflectivity by each process were measured. Deposition type had no effect on cleaning efficiency, although each did show long term effects on linewidth and optical parameters. RF sputtered chrome reflectivity increased drastically with all types of cleaning. Chrome lines grew, as did the optical density. DC sputtered chrome demonstrated a decrease in density in some cleaning methods, while vacuum evaporated films varied in linewidth.

  16. Taxonomic studies of nectrioid fungi in Japan: The genus Cosmospora

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven species of the genus Cosmospora collected in Japan are reported in this article. Among them, Cosmospora japonica is described as a new species. Cosmospora henanensis, C. rubrisetosa and C. triqua, all of which are known only from their type localities, are added to the Japanese mycoflora. Othe...

  17. The Present State of Economic Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaoka, Michio; Asano, Tadayoshi; Abe, Shintaro

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe the present state of economic education in Japan. There is a larger number of undergraduate students who major in economics, but their purpose of studying economics and their economic literacy differ. Precollege economic education is regulated by the course of study and limited by the poor ability of teachers to teach the…

  18. Japan Association for Language Teaching (JALT) Journal, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Tamara, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    The two issues of the journal for teachers of English as a second language in Japan include these articles: "What Do JTEs Really Want?" (Wendy F. Scholefield); "Do EFL Learners Make Instrumental Inferences When Reading? Some Evidence from Implicit Memory Tests" (Suzanne Collins, Hidetsugu Tajika); "Function and Structure of Academic English"

  19. Tora no Maki II. Lessons for Teaching about Contemporary Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for the Social Studies, Washington, DC.

    "Tora no Maki" or "Scroll of the Tiger" is a teacher's guide designed to aid in teaching appropriate standards for social studies content and skills, using a contemporary focus on Japan's culture and economy. Topics of the 22 lessons include: group culture, school population, economics, geography, the Internet, family values, Japanese gardens,

  20. Soaring Voices: Recent Ceramics by Women from Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2011-01-01

    Japanese ceramics enjoy a long and distinguished history, and the Japanese aesthetic of elegant simplicity, along with their approach to materials, has influenced ceramic artists around the world for centuries. Women in Japan have been involved in the production of ceramics for thousands of years, but with few exceptions, their names have remained…

  1. English Language Teaching in Japan: Policy Plans and Their Implementations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honna, Nobuyuki; Takeshita, Yuko

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes Japan's most recent attempts to improve English teaching and learning at all levels of the education system both for students and teachers as well as for the public in general. Based on policy recommendations by several advisory committees, the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology has

  2. Music Teacher Education in Japan: Structure, Problems, and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Masafumi

    2004-01-01

    School music education in Japan is in a less than ideal situation. In April 2002, the new course of study was implemented by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). The total number of music classes in the new curriculum was reduced to 33% of what it had been by the end of 2002. The reduction went from two hours

  3. Edo: Art in Japan 1615-1868. Teaching Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guth, Christine; Henderson, Anne; Hinish, Heidi; Moore, Barbara

    The Edo period in Japan (1615-1868) saw the flowering of many forms of cultural expression, colorful and boisterous, muted and restrained, that today is thought of as typically Japanese. These include kabuki and no drama, the tea ceremony, martial arts, woodblock prints, and porcelain. This culturally diverse and vibrant period gets its name from

  4. The Corporeality of Learning: Confucian Education in Early Modern Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsujimoto, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The intellectual foundation of early modern Japan was provided by Confucianism--a system of knowledge set forth in Chinese classical writings. In order to gain access to this knowledge, the Japanese applied reading markers to modify the original Chinese to fit the peculiarities of Japanese grammar and pronunciation. Confucian education started by…

  5. Libraries and Librarianship in Japan. Guides to Asian Librarianship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Theodore F.

    More than ever before, Japan is aware of its potential for shaping the global library and information scene and the Japanese are responding to the current flood of information with new media technologies and improved database services with a synergistic approach that involves library professionals, information specialists, governmental leaders,

  6. How Japan Prepares Its Graduates for Future Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Hiroshi

    1980-01-01

    Developing corporate leadership is an important task in Japan. The practice of life-time employment exists. Loyalty is to the company rather than to a job. Preemployment and on-the-job training methods of major companies are described. (JAC)

  7. Sexuality Education in Junior High Schools in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, N.; Shinohara, H.; Tashiro, M.; Suzuki, S.; Hirose, H.; Ikeya, H.; Ushitora, K.; Komiya, A.; Watanabe, M.; Motegi, T.; Morioka, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to determine via responses to three questionnaire surveys how sexuality education programs are conducted at junior high schools in Japan. Study 1 examined the practice of sexuality education in schools, Study 2 investigated junior high school students' (age 12-13 and 14-15 years) knowledge of sexuality, and Study 3 examined

  8. Commentaries on Being Gay in Japan and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This article presents commentaries on being gay in Japan and China by distinguished educators with various backgrounds and from different countries. Given space limitations, these are more evocative than particulate, but collectively they provide multiple platforms for reflection. As noted by some commentators in this article and others (e.g.,

  9. [A Booklet of Teaching Activities about Japan.] Draft Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadd, Pauline, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to assist elementary teachers in developing global understanding among their students, this publication contains a collection of activities for teaching about Japan. Material is divided into sections on the Japanese people and way of life, arts, natural features, economy, and transportation and communication. The 25 lessons include

  10. A qualitative study of infectious diseases fellowships in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Asako

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this research is to elucidate the actual status of Infectious Diseases (ID) Fellowship programs in Japan to improve them further. Methods We conducted qualitative interviews with infectious diseases fellows and his/her faculty consultants from 10 institutions providing ID Fellowships in Japan. We qualitatively analysed the data to delineate the actual status of each program and the fellowship program policies overall, and to identify measures for further improvement. Results The interviews revealed that there are largely two kinds of ID fellowships; ID programs entirely devoting full time to infectious diseases, and programs that are subordinate concepts of other subspecialties, where only a portion of hours were devoted to ID. Some institutions did not even have an ID department. Time spent by the faculty consultants on fellows also varied among programs. The desire for improvement also varied among interviewees; some being happy with the current system while others demanded radical reform. Conclusions Even though there are many ID fellowship programs in Japan, the content, quality, and concepts apparently vary among programs. The perceptions by interviewees on the educational system differed, depending on the standpoints they have on ID physicians. There probably needs to be a coherency in the provision of ID fellowship programs so that fellows acquire competency in the subspecialty with sufficient expertise to act as independent ID specialists. Further studies are necessary for the improvement of ID subspecialty training in Japan.  PMID:26896873

  11. Second Language Acquisition Research in Japan. JALT Applied Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Peter, Ed.; Sawyer, Mark, Ed.; Ross, Steven, Ed.

    This collection of papers includes the following: "Second Language Acquisition Research in Japan: Theoretical Issues" (Peter Robinson, Mark Sawyer, and Steven Ross); (2) "Focus on Form: Implicit and Explicit Form Focused Instruction Incorporated into a Communicative Task" (Hitoshi Muranoi); (3) "A Task that Works for Negotiation of Meaning"

  12. Gender Salary Differences in Economics Departments in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Ana Maria; Takahashi, Shingo

    2011-01-01

    By using unique survey data, we conduct a detailed study of the gender salary gap within economics departments in Japan. Despite the presence of rigid pay scales emphasizing age and experience, there is a 7% gender salary gap after controlling for rank and detailed personal, job, institutional and human capital characteristics. This gender salary

  13. Modern Japan: An Idea Book for K-12 Teachers. [Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernson, Mary Hammond; Goolian, Betsy

    This collection of supplementary lessons about Japan is organized into four sections: writing skills; visual arts; games, music, and other arts; and social studies. Each lesson lists appropriate grade level, objective, materials needed, time required, and procedure. The following titles from each section are representative of the lessons: Writing

  14. Persons with Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suemitsu, Shigeru

    2009-01-01

    The author outlines the history, current situation, and the future of the care and support system for people with intellectual and multiple disabilities in Japan. He describes how the service system has been shaped from within by Japanese legislation dating back to the Child Welfare Act of 1947, and how international events such as the

  15. Japan - USSR joint emulsion chamber experiment at Pamir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The results are presented for the systematic measurement of cosmic ray showers in the first carbon chamber of Japan-USSR joint experiment at Pamir Plateau. The intensity and the energy distribution of electromagnetic particles, of hadrons and of families are in good agreement with the results of other mountain experiment if the relative error in energy estimation is taken into consideration.

  16. Idealized English Teachers: The Implicit Influence of Race in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Damian J.; Ross, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    English as a Foreign Language (EFL) education within the context of Japan is firmly underpinned by sociohistorical constructions of racial difference and racial hierarchies that have considerable influence on contemporary student and institutional attitudes. Embracing these sociohistorical foundations, this article adopts experimental procedures

  17. Constraints on the Moho in Japan and Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Takaya; Levin, Vadim; Nikulin, Alex; Iidaka, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    This review collects and systematizes in one place a variety of results which offer constraints on the depth and the nature of the Moho beneath the Kamchatka peninsula and the islands of Japan. We also include studies of the Izu-Bonin volcanic arc. All results have already been published separately in a variety of venues, and the primary goal of the present review is to describe them in the same language and in comparable terms. For both regions we include studies using artificial and natural seismic sources, such as refraction and reflection profiling, detection and interpretation of converted-mode body waves (receiver functions), surface wave dispersion studies (in Kamchatka) and tomographic imaging (in Japan). The amount of work done in Japan is significantly larger than in Kamchatka, and resulting constraints on the properties of the crust and the uppermost mantle are more detailed. Japan and Kamchatka display a number of similarities in their crustal structure, most notably the average crustal thickness in excess of 30 km (typical of continental regions), and the generally gradational nature of the crust-mantle transition where volcanic arcs are presently active.

  18. The Japan disaster and U.S. hay exports

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quarantine control of Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), by agricultural systems used to produce export quality hay for the Japan market was studied in the laboratory and field. Survival of Hessian fly puparia was evaluated under simulated seasonal weather conditions in incubators, regional o...

  19. SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION AND NOX CONTROL IN JAPAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the travels of a four-member study team in Japan during March 1980 to assess NOx flue gas treatment (FGT) technology and related areas. Overall goals of the study were to obtain new information on current issues concerning application of FGT technology and to...

  20. SO2 ABATEMENT FOR COAL-FIRED BOILERS IN JAPAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a compilation of information on the current status of SO2 abatement technologies for coal-fired boilers in Japan, where strict ambient air quality standards for SO2 and NOx mandate the use of various air pollution control technologies. It focuses on flue gas desulfu...