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1

Dynamic Microfluidic Photomasking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel microfluidic photomasking strategy. Laminar microfluidic streaming is exploited to achieve photomasking with dynamic spatial control. Two light-absorbing streams hydrodynamically focus a transparent stream to define a line of light transmission. A device incorporating two such microfluidic layers, which are aligned orthogonally, enables light transmission only where the transparent streams overlap. Control of fluid flow in

Jonathan McKechnie; David Sinton

2007-01-01

2

Photomask and pattern programming manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A user's manual for a set of computer programs written in FORTRAN for the layout and generation of photomasks is presented. A limited amount of related information on photomasks, their design, and use is included. Input to the programs includes data describing the photomask design. Possible outputs include plots of the layout and a magnetic tape for controlling generation of the photomask by a pattern generator.

Kirschman, R. K.

1978-01-01

3

Gray-scale photolithography using microfluidic photomasks  

PubMed Central

The ability to produce three-dimensional (3D) microstructures is of increasing importance in the miniaturization of mechanical or fluidic devices, optical elements, self-assembling components, and tissue-engineering scaffolds, among others. Traditional photolithography, the most widely used process for microdevice fabrication, is ill-suited for 3D fabrication, because it is based on the illumination of a photosensitive layer through a “photomask” (a transparent plate that contains opaque, unalterable solid-state features), which inevitably results in features of uniform height. We have devised photomasks in which the light-absorbing features are made of fluids. Unlike in conventional photomasks, the opacity of the photomask features can be tailored to an arbitrary number of gray-scale levels, and their spatial pattern can be reconfigured in the time scale of seconds. Here we demonstrate the inexpensive fabrication of photoresist patterns that contain features of multiple and/or smoothly varying heights. For a given microfluidic photomask, the developed photoresist pattern can be predicted as a function of the dye concentrations and photomask dimensions. For selected applications, microfluidic photomasks offer a low-cost alternative to present gray-scale photolithography approaches. PMID:12574512

Chen, Chihchen; Hirdes, Danny; Folch, Albert

2003-01-01

4

Defect mitigation considerations for EUV photomasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The introduction of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography into manufacturing requires changes in all aspects of the infrastructure, including the photomask. EUV reflective masks consist of a sophisticated multilayer (ML) mirror, capping layer, absorber layer, and anti-reflective coating thereby dramatically increasing the complexity of the photomask. In addition to absorber type defects similar to those the industry was forced to contend with for deep ultraviolet lithography, the complexity of the mask leads to new classes of ML defects. Furthermore, these approaches are complicated not only by the mask itself but also by unique aspects associated with the exposure of the photomask by the EUV scanner. This paper focuses on the challenges for handling defects associated with inspection, review, and repair for EUV photomasks. Blank inspection and pattern shifting, two completely new steps within the mask manufacturing process that arise from these considerations, and their relationship to mask review and repair are discussed. The impact of shadowing effects on absorber defect repair height is taken into account. The effect of mask biasing and the chief ray angle rotation due to the scanner slit arc shape will be discussed along with the implications of obtaining die-to-die references for inspection and repair. The success criteria for compensational repair of ML defects will be reviewed.

Garetto, Anthony; Capelli, Renzo; Blumrich, Frederik; Magnusson, Krister; Waiblinger, Markus; Scheruebl, Thomas; Peters, Jan Hendrik; Goldstein, Michael

2014-10-01

5

Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document offers practical and motivating techniques for studying Japan. Dedicated to promoting global awareness, separate sections discuss Japan's geography, history, culture, education, government, economics, energy, transportation, and communication. Each section presents a topical overview; suggested classroom activities; and easily…

Geiger, Rita; And Others

6

Japan.  

PubMed

Japan consists of 3900 islands and lies off the east coast of Asia. Even though Japan is one of the most densely populated nations in the world, its growth rate has stabilized at .5%. 94% of all children go to senior high school and almost 90% finish. Responsibility for the sick, aged, and infirmed is changing from the family and private sector to government. Japan was founded in 600 BC and its 1st capital was in Nara (710-1867). The Portuguese, the 1st Westerners to make contact with Japan in 1542, opened trade which lasted until the mid 17th century. US Navy Commodore Matthew Perry forced Japan to reopen in 1854. Following wars with China and Russia in the late 1800s and early 1900s respectively, Japan took part in World Wars I and II. In between these wars Japan invaded Manchuria and China. The US dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Japanese surrendered in September, 1945 ending World War II (WWII). Following, WWII, the Allied Powers guided Japan's establishment as a nonthreatening nation and a democratic parliamentary government (a constitutional monarchy) with a limited defense force. Japan remains one of the most politically stable of all postwar democracies. The Liberal Democratic Party's Noboru Takeshita became prime minister in 1987. Japan has limited natural resources and only 19% of the land is arable. Japanese ingenuity and skill combine to produce one of the highest per hectare crop yields in the world. Japan is a major economic power, and its and the US economies are becoming more interdependent. Its exports, making up only 13% of the gross national product, mainly go to Canada and the US. Many in the US are concerned, however, with the trade deficit with Japan and are seeking ways to make trade more equitable. Japan wishes to maintain good relations with its Asian neighbors and other nations. The US and Japan enjoy a strong, productive relationship. PMID:12178004

1989-02-01

7

Japan.  

PubMed

Japan is composed of 4 main islands and more than 3900 smaller islands and has 317.7 persons/square kilometer. This makes it one of the most densely populated nations in the world. Religion is an important force in the life of the Japanese and most consider themselves Buddhists. Schooling is free through junior high but 90% of Japanese students complete high school. In fact, Japan enjoys one of the highest literacy rates in the world. There are over 178 newspapers and 3500 magazines published in Japan and the number of new book titles issued each year is greater than that in the US. Since WW1, Japan expanded its influence in Asia and its holdings in the Pacific. However, as a direct result of WW2, Japan lost all of its overseas possessions and was able to retain only its own islands. Since 1952, Japan has been ruled by conservative governments which cooperate closely with the West. Great economic growth has come since the post-treaty period. Japan as a constitutional monarchy operates within the framework of a constitution which became effective in May 1947. Executive power is vested in a cabinet which includes the prime minister and the ministers of state. Japan is one of the most politically stable of the postwar democracies and the Liberal Democratic Party is representative of Japanese moderate conservatism. The economy of Japan is strong and growing. With few resources, there is only 19% of Japanese land suitable for cultivation. Its exports earn only about 19% of the country's gross national product. More than 59 million workers comprise Japan's labor force, 40% of whom are women. Japan and the US are strongly linked trading partners and after Canada, Japan is the largest trading partner of the US. Foreign policy since 1952 has fostered close cooperation with the West and Japan is vitally interested in good relations with its neighbors. Relations with the Soviet Union are not close although Japan is attempting to improve the situation. US policy is based on the following 3 principles: 1) the US views Japan as an equal trade partner, 2) that the relationship is global in scope, and 3) that Japan has become increasingly assertive in world matters and plays a greater international role. The combined efforts of the US and Japan will be utilized to promote world peace. PMID:12177912

1987-02-01

8

Inline detection of Chrome degradation on binary 193nm photomasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

193nm binary photomasks are still used in the semiconductor industry for the lithography of some critical layers for the nodes 90nm and 65nm, with high volumes and over long periods. However, these 193nm binary photomasks can be impacted by a phenomenon of chrome oxidation leading to critical dimensions uniformity (CDU) degradation with a pronounced radial signature. If not detected early enough, this CDU degradation may cause defectivity issues and lower yield on wafers. Fortunately, a standard cleaning and repellicle service at the mask shop has been demonstrated as efficient to remove the grown materials and get the photomask CD back on target.Some detection methods have been already described in literature, such as wafer CD intrafield monitoring (ACLV), giving reliable results but also consuming additional SEM time with less precision than direct photomask measurement. In this paper, we propose another approach, by monitoring the CDU directly on the photomask, concurrently with defect inspection for regular requalification to production for wafer fabs. For this study, we focused on a Metal layer in a 90nm technology node. Wafers have been exposed with production conditions and then measured by SEM-CD. Afterwards, this photomask has been measured with a SEM-CD in mask shop and also inspected on a KLA-Tencor X5.2 inspection system, with pixels 125 and 90nm, to evaluate the Intensity based Critical Dimension Uniformity (iCDU) option. iCDU was firstly developed to provide feed-forward CDU maps for scanner intrafield corrections, from arrayed dense structures on memory photomasks. Due to layout complexity and differing feature types, CDU monitoring on logic photomasks used to pose unique challenges.The selection of suitable feature types for CDU monitoring on logic photomasks is no longer an issue, since the transmitted intensity map gives all the needed information, as shown in this paper. In this study, the photomask was heavily degraded after more than 18,000 300mm wafers exposed and the cleaning brought it back almost to its original state after manufacture. Wafer CD, photomask CD and iCDU results can be compared, before and after a standard mask shop cleaning. Measurement points have be chosen in logic areas and SRAM areas, so that their respective behaviours can be studied separately. Transmitted maps before and after cleaning were analysed in terms of CD shift and CDU degradation. The delta map shows a nice correlation with photomask CD shift. iCDU demonstrated the capability to detect a reliable CD range degradation of 5nm on photomask by a comparison between a reference inspection and the current inspection. Die to die inspection mode provides also valuable data, highlighting the degraded chrome sidewalls, more in the photomask centre than on the edges. Ultimately, these results would enable to trigger the preventive cleanings rather than on predefined thresholds. The expected gains for wafer fabs are cost savings (adapted cleanings frequency), increased photomask availability for production, longer photomask lifetime, no additional SEM time neither for photomask nor on wafer.

Dufaye, Félix; Sippel, Astrid; Wylie, Mark; García-Berríos, Edgardo; Crawford, Charles; Hess, Carl; Sartelli, Luca; Pogliani, Carlo; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Gough, Stuart; Sundermann, Frank; Brochard, Christophe

2013-09-01

9

Finishing of EUV photomask substrates by CNC precessed bonnet polisher  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progressive transition from Excimer to EUV lithography is driving a need for flatter and smoother photomasks. It is proving difficult to meet this next generation specification with the conventional chemical mechanical polishing technology commonly used for finishing photomasks. This paper reports on the application of sub-aperture CNC precessed bonnet polishing technology to the corrective finishing of photomask substrates for EUV lithography. Fullfactorial analysis was used to identify process parameters capable of delivering 0.5 nm rms surface roughness whilst achieving removal rates above 0.1 mm3/min. Experimental results show that masks pre-polished to 300~600 nm P-V flatness by CMP can then be improved down to 50~100 nm P-V flatness using the automated technology described in this paper. A series of edge polishing experiments also hints at the possibility of increasing the quality area beyond the 5 mm defined in the official EUV photomask specification.

Beaucamp, Anthony T. H.; Namba, Yoshiharu; Charlton, Phillip; Freeman, Richard R.

2013-09-01

10

Resist charging effect correction function qualification for photomasks production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We quantitatively evaluate Nuflare's latest resist charging effect correction (CEC) model for advanced photomask production using e-beam lithography. Functionality of this CEC model includes the simulation of static and timedependent charging effects together with an improved calibration method. CEC model calibration is performed by polynomial fitting of image placement distortions induced by various beam scattering effects on a special test design with writing density variations. CEC model parameters can be fine tuned for different photomask blank materials facilitating resist charging compensation maps for different product layers. Application of this CEC model into production yields a significant reduction in photomask image placement (IP), as well as improving photomask overlay between critical neighbouring layers. The correlations between IP improvement facilitated by this CEC model and single mask parameters are presented and discussed. The layer design specifics, resist and blank materials, coupled with their required exposure parameters are observed to be the major influences on CEC model performance.

Sidorkin, Vadim; Finken, Michael; Wandel, Timo; Nakayamada, Noriaki; Cantrell, G. R.

2014-10-01

11

Multilayer Microfluidic Devices Created From A Single Photomask  

SciTech Connect

The time and expense associated with high quality photomask production can discourage the creation of multilayer microfluidic devices, as each layer currently requires a separate photomask. Here we describe an approach in which multilayer microfabricated devices can be created from a single photomask. The separate layers and their corresponding alignment marks are arranged in separate halves of the mask for two layer devices or quadrants for four layer devices. Selective exposure of the photomask features and rotation of the device substrate between exposures result in multiple copies of the devices on each wafer. Subsequent layers are aligned to patterned features on the substrate with the same alignment accuracy as when multiple photomasks are used. We demonstrate this approach for fabricating devices employing multilayer soft lithography (MSL) for pneumatic valving. MSL devices containing as many as 5 layers (4 aligned fluidic layers plus a manually aligned control layer) were successfully created using this approach. Device design is also modularized, enabling the presence or absence of features as well as channel heights to be selected independently from one another. The use of a single photomask to create multilayer devices results in a dramatic savings of time and/or money required to advance from device design to completed prototype.

Kelly, Ryan T.; Sheen, Allison M.; Jambovane, Sachin R.

2013-08-28

12

JAPAN  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DESK Standard: Know the physical, political, and economic features of Japan. . DATES: You can begin this activity on April 16. You should complete it by April 20. OBJECTIVE: During fourth grade, we have learned about the history and physical features of Utah. This activity will allow you to compare what you\\'ve learned about the state of Utah with ...

Mr. Hughes

2006-03-04

13

Estimating DPL photomask fabrication load compared with single exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DPL (Double Patterning Lithography) has been identified as one of major candidates for 45nm and 32nm HP since ITRS2006update and several reports of the performance or challenges of DPL have been published. DPL requires at least two photomasks with tighter specification of image placement and the difference of mean to target according to ITRS2006update. On the other hand, approximately half of whole features of single layer are written on each photomask and the densest features are split into other photomask in consequence of pitch relaxation for DPL. Then the photomask writing data of two sets for DPL and single data for single exposure are evaluated for photomask fabrication load. The design will be automatically decomposed with EDA tool and OPC will be tuned as DPL or single exposure. Not only number of fractured features but also feasibility study of automatic decomposition will be presented and discussed. The consequences of relaxed pitch on process, inspection, repair, yield, MEEF and cycle time will be discussed with results as available.

Toyama, Nobuhito; Inazuki, Yuichi; Sutou, Takanori; Nagai, Takaharu; Morikawa, Yasutaka; Mohri, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Naoya; Huckabay, Judy A.; Abe, Yoshikuni

2007-10-01

14

Estimating DPL photomask fabrication load compared with single exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

DPL (Double Patterning Lithography) has been identified as one of major candidates for 45nm and 32nm HP since ITRS2006update and several reports of the performance or challenges of DPL have been published. DPL requires at least two photomasks with tighter specification of image placement and the difference of mean to target according to ITRS2006update. On the other hand, approximately half

Nobuhito Toyama; Yuichi Inazuki; Takanori Sutou; Takaharu Nagai; Yasutaka Morikawa; Hiroshi Mohri; Naoya Hayashi; Judy A. Huckabay; Yoshikuni Abe

2007-01-01

15

Qualification of BitClean technology in photomask production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Makers and users of advanced technology photomasks have seen increased difficulties with the removal of persistent, or stubborn, nano-particle contamination. Shrinking pattern geometries, and new mask clean technologies to minimize haze, have both increased the number of problems and loss of mask yield due to these non-removable nano-particles. A novel technique (BitCleanTM) has been developed using the MerlinTM platform, a scanning probe microscope system originally designed for nanomachining photomask defect repair. Progress in the technical development of this approach into a manufacture-able solution is reviewed and its effectiveness is shown in selectively removing adherent particles without touching surrounding sensitive structures. Results will also be reviewed that were generated in the qualification and acceptance of this new technology in a photomask production environment. These results will be discussed in their relation to the minimum particle size allowed on a given design, particle removal efficiency per pass of the NanoBitTM (PREPP), and the resultant average removal throughput of particles unaffected by any other available mask clean process.

Robinson, Tod; White, Roy; Bozak, Ron; Archuletta, Mike; Brinkley, David; Yi, Daniel

2010-09-01

16

Investigation of hyper-NA scanner emulation for photomask CDU performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the semiconductor industry moves toward immersion lithography using numerical apertures above 1.0 the quality of the photomask becomes even more crucial. Photomask specifications are driven by the critical dimension (CD) metrology within the wafer fab. Knowledge of the CD values at resist level provides a reliable mechanism for the prediction of device performance. Ultimately, tolerances of device electrical properties drive the wafer linewidth specifications of the lithography group. Staying within this budget is influenced mainly by the scanner settings, resist process, and photomask quality. Tightening of photomask specifications is one mechanism for meeting the wafer CD targets. The challenge lies in determining how photomask level metrology results influence wafer level imaging performance. Can it be inferred that photomask level CD performance is the direct contributor to wafer level CD performance? With respect to phase shift masks, criteria such as phase and transmission control are generally tightened with each technology node. Are there other photomask relevant influences that effect wafer CD performance? A comprehensive study is presented supporting the use of scanner emulation based photomask CD metrology to predict wafer level within chip CD uniformity (CDU). Using scanner emulation with the photomask can provide more accurate wafer level prediction because it inherently includes all contributors to image formation related to the 3D topography such as the physical CD, phase, transmission, sidewall angle, surface roughness, and other material properties. Emulated images from different photomask types were captured to provide CD values across chip. Emulated scanner image measurements were completed using an AIMS TM45-193i with its hyper-NA, through-pellicle data acquisition capability including the Global CDU Map TM software option for AIMS TM tools. The through-pellicle data acquisition capability is an essential prerequisite for capturing final CDU data (after final clean and pellicle mounting) before the photomask ships or for re-qualification at the wafer fab. Data was also collected on these photomasks using a conventional CD-SEM metrology system with the pellicles removed. A comparison was then made to wafer prints demonstrating the benefit of using scanner emulation based photomask CD metrology.

Poortinga, Eric; Scheruebl, Thomas; Conley, Will; Sundermann, Frank

2007-02-01

17

MoSi absorber photomask for 32nm node  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of semiconductor process for 32nm node is in progress. Immersion lithography has been introduced as an extension of 193nm lithograpy. In addition, DPL (Double patterning lithography) is becoming a strong candidate of next generation lithography. The extension of optical lithography increases more mask complexity and tighter specification of photomasks. CD performance is the most important issue in the advanced photomask technology. However, it is expected that conventional mask cannot satisfy the required mask specifications for 32nm node and beyond. Most of CD errors are contributed to the dry etching process. Mask CD variation is greatly influenced by the loading effect from dry etching of the absorber. As the required accuracy of the mask arises, Cr absorber thickness has been gradually thinner. CD linearity with the thinner Cr absorber thickness has better performance. However, it is difficult to apply thinner Cr absorber thickness simply under the condition of OD > 3, which is needed for wafer printing. So, we adopted MoSi absorber instead of conventional Cr absorber, because MoSi absorber has less micro and global loading effect than that of Cr absorber. By using MoSi absorber, we can reduce Cr thickness as a hardmask. The thinner Cr hardmask allows for reduce resist thickness and become same condition for conventional EB resist lithography. The lithography performances were confirmed by the simulation and wafer printing. The new MoSi absorber mask behaves similar to the conventional Cr absorber mask. The adoption of super thin Cr as a hardmask made it possible to reduce resist thickness. By the application of the thin resist and the latest tools, we'll improve the mask performance to meet the 32 nm generation specification.

Konishi, Toshio; Kojima, Yosuke; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tanabe, Masato; Haraguchi, Takashi; Lamantia, Matthew; Fukushima, Yuichi; Okuda, Yoshimitsu

2008-05-01

18

Calibration procedures and application of the PTB photomask CD standard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PTB has developed a new 6025 photomask standard for calibration of CD metrology tools in a joint project with partners from mask industry in Germany [1]. We report on the design of the standard, its calibration procedures and the results of recent round robin measurements on this standard in which different CD metrology tools of the project partners were involved. The layout of the CD photomask standard (COG and 193 nm halftone PSM) contains isolated as well as dense features in both tones with nominal CD down to 100 nm. Calibration of the standards was performed at PTB by UV microscopy and LV-SEM, supported by additional AFM measurements for edge slope characterization. For analysis of UV microscopy as well as SEM images appropriate signal modeling was applied, which allowed to extract the feature widths at the top of the structures as well as the widths at 50% height of the structures. In this contribution we will also discuss results of a recent round robin comparison measurement performed on up-to-date metrology tools available for CD metrology today by means of one of the newly developed CD standards. We used PTB calibrated CD standards in order to provide a set of CD references for the different tools which then should be used in a "blind" comparison to calibrate an unknown CD mask of the same design as the standards. Different type of CD metrology instrumentation, namely standard UV and DUV optical as well as DUV water immersion CD microscopes, a new UV dark field optical microscope, CD-SEM, and AFM/SFM were applied. The outcome of this comparison on cur-rently applied metrology instrumentation provides a valuable source of information for cross calibration issues which are discussed in mask industry today.

Häßler-Grohne, W.; Frase, C. G.; Czerkas, S.; Dirscherl, K.; Bodermann, B.; Mirandé, W.; Ehret, G.; Bosse, H.

2005-11-01

19

DIFFRACTION BY PHOTOMASKS Apo Sezginer, Weitao Chen, Jens Christian Jorgensen, Dennis Moore, Anton Sakovich,  

E-print Network

. Specifically, light is passed through a photomask and an image of the mask is projected onto a photoresist is spanned by x and z, and that tj, rj are, respectively, the down-going and up-going wave coefficients

20

Fuzzy pattern matching techniques for photomask layout data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pattern matching seems to be promising technique to the mask industry. It can be used for many applications such as hot spot detection of post-OPC data, search of AIMS reference location or CDSEM measurement point extraction. In particular, fuzzy pattern matching is more needed for mask data processing because the mask layout has different derivatives generated by OPC and there are many similar "OPC brothers" that come from the same layout. However, application of fuzzy pattern matching to the mask layout is challenging due to the reasons related to the characteristics of photomask data. In this paper we introduce a novel method of fuzzy pattern matching to cope with the issues that comes from the characteristics of mask data. The rule specification is quite simple - we only need to specify a single tolerance value for each edge displacement. We will show the experimental results using the actual mask layout and prove that the calculation speed and quality of the proposed technique is satisfactory from the view point of realistic MDP processing.

Kato, Kokoro; Taniguchi, Yoshiyuki; Nishizawa, Kuninori

2013-06-01

21

Photomask CD and LER characterization using Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Critical dimension and line edge roughness on photomask arrays are determined with Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry. Arrays with large sinusoidal perturbations are measured for different azimuth angels and compared with simulations based on rigorous coupled wave analysis. Experiment and simulation show that line edge roughness leads to characteristic changes in the different Mueller matrix elements. The influence of line edge roughness is interpreted as an increase of isotropic character of the sample. The changes in the Mueller matrix elements are very similar when the arrays are statistically perturbed with rms roughness values in the nanometer range suggesting that the results on the sinusoidal test structures are also relevant for "real" mask errors. Critical dimension errors and line edge roughness have similar impact on the SE MM measurement. To distinguish between both deviations, a strategy based on the calculation of sensitivities and correlation coefficients for all Mueller matrix elements is shown. The Mueller matrix elements M13/M31 and M34/M43 are the most suitable elements due to their high sensitivities to critical dimension errors and line edge roughness and, at the same time, to a low correlation coefficient between both influences. From the simulated sensitivities, it is estimated that the measurement accuracy has to be in the order of 0.01 and 0.001 for the detection of 1 nm critical dimension error and 1 nm line edge roughness, respectively.

Heinrich, A.; Dirnstorfer, I.; Bischoff, J.; Meiner, K.; Ketelsen, H.; Richter, U.; Mikolajick, T.

2014-10-01

22

Best-practice evaluation-methods for wafer-fab photomask-requalification inspection tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Requalifying semiconductor photomasks remains critically important and is increasingly challenging for 20nm and 14nm node logic reticles. Patterns are becoming more complex on the photomask, and defect sensitivity requirements are more stringent than ever before. Reticle inspection tools are equally important for effective process development and the successful ramp and sustained yield for high volume manufacturing. The inspection stages considered were: incoming inspection to match with Mask Shop Outgoing result and to detect defects generated during transport; requalification by routine cycle inspection to detect Haze and any other defects; and inspection by in-house or Mask shop at the post cleaning. There are many critical capability and capacity factors for the decision for best inspection tool and strategy for high volume manufacturing, especially objective Lens NA, wavelength, power, pixel size, throughput, full-automation inspection linked with Overhead Transport, algorithm application, engineering application function, and inspection of PSM and OMOG . These tools are expensive but deliver differentiated value in terms of performance and throughput as well as extendibility. Performing a thorough evaluation and making a technically sound choice which explores these many factors is critical for success of a fab. This paper examines the methodology for evaluating two different photomask inspection tools. The focus is on ensuring production worthiness on real and advanced product photomasks requiring accurate evaluation of sensitivity, throughput, data analysis function and engineering work function on those product photomasks. Photomasks used for data collection are production reticles, PDM(Program defect Mask), SiN spray defect Reticle which is described that evaluates how the tools would perform on a contaminated plate.

Cho, Chan Seob; Mungmode, Ashish; Taylor, Ron; Cho, David; Koh, Hui Peng

2014-10-01

23

New methods and processes based on advanced vacuum technology for photomask decontamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the frame of the European R&D project the so called "HYMNE" project, lead by STM, advanced vacuum decontamination processes had been demonstrated to be efficient on wafer substrates in order to remove airborne molecular contamination (moisture, VOC..), to avoid crystalline defects after dry etching process and to improve yield for sub 90 nm technologies. Further to these significant results on wafers, a pool of partners investigated new methods and processes based on vacuum technology for photomask decontamination. These studies were carried out in the frame of the European R&D CRYSTAL project, focusing on photomask defect reduction. Today, vacuum process is not very widespread in photomask environment: in fab environment nor in mask manufacturing cycle. However such vacuum substrate decontamination could be also efficiently applied in order to reduce AMC contamination, which is one of the root causes of haze and crystalline defects. In this paper, we report for the first time, vacuum process investigations on pellicled photomasks that could be applied in fab environment, as well as vacuum process investigations on patterned blank that could be integrated into mask manufacturing cycle. First, vacuum process had been investigated on pellicled photomasks, including parameter influences. Goal is to renew and replace the environment under the pellicle by clean environment. During the process, specific care has to be taken on pellicle behavior under vacuum. The challenge is indeed to manage the pellicle during the vacuum process without damaging it, especially after several decontamination cycles. Finally, repeatability tests have also been successfully carried out and will be reported. We also report advanced vacuum process on patterned blank that could be integrated into mask manufacturing flow. Such procedure is an efficient complementary process in order to outgas contaminants from photomasks, and in order to reduce AMC residues (especially sulfate) in mask manufacturing cycle. Experimental results will be reported.

Foray, J. M.; Bellet, B.; HadjRabah, S.; Palisson, J.; Veran, E.; Davenet, M.; Favre, A.; Sergent, P.; Tissier, M.; Baudiquez, V.; Nesladek, P.; Foca, E.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Hollein, I.; Dufaye, F.; Gough, S.

2009-01-01

24

Processing chemically amplified resists on advanced photomasks using a thermal array  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermal array, which consists of a dense distribution of multivariate controlled heat\\/chill elements, is developed to achieve temperature uniformity of a quartz photomask throughout the processing temperature cycle of ramp, hold and quench. The thermal array spatially tunes the uniformity in response to calibrated feedback provided by temperature sensor instrumented masks or by linewidth data. The system can stabilize

Charles D. Schaper; Khalid El-Awady; T. Kailath; Arthur Tay; Lay Lay Lee; W.-Khuen Ho; Scott E. Fuller

2004-01-01

25

Acoustic Streaming Effects in Megasonic Cleaning of EUV Photomasks: A continuum model.  

E-print Network

Acoustic Streaming Effects in Megasonic Cleaning of EUV Photomasks: A continuum model. Vivek for removal are believed to be active in megasonic cleaning systems, e.g., cavitation, and acoustic streaming approach is undertaken in this work with a focus on determining the contribution of acoustic streaming

Deymier, Pierre

26

Laser Direct Write Patterned Indium Tin Oxide Films for Photomasks and Anisotropic Resist Applications  

E-print Network

Laser Direct Write Patterned Indium Tin Oxide Films for Photomasks and Anisotropic Resist bimetallic Sn/In film into a indium tin oxide layer. Sn over In films (15-120nm thick) with a 1:10 thickness mask, etch resist. 1. Introduction The transparent and conductive films like indium tin oxide (ITO

Chapman, Glenn H.

27

Page 2 of 55 Low-cost photomask fabrication using laser ablation  

E-print Network

Page 2 of 55 Accepted M anuscript 2 Low-cost photomask fabrication using laser ablation G. Legeaya-coated on titanium. It is ablated with partially-overlapping laser impacts and undergoes self-combustion under laser beam. Proper heat treatments are applied before and after laser ablation to circumvent smearing

28

Methodology for accurate and rapid simulation of large arbitrary 2D layouts of advanced photomasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The edge domain decomposition method (edge-DDM) is developed as a very powerful extension of the domain decomposition methods presented for the rapid and accurate simulation of light scattering from advanced photomasks. The range of validity of the method is systematically evaluated and it is found to be accurate for wavelength-sized mask features with large vertical topography. The error associated primarily

Konstantinos Adam; Andrew R. Neureuther

2002-01-01

29

Aerial imaging technology for photomask qualification: from a microscope to a metrology tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photomasks carry the structured information of the chip designs printed with lithography scanners onto wafers. These structures, for the most modern technologies, are enlarged by a factor of 4 with respect to the final circuit design, and 20-60 of these photomasks are needed for the production of a single completed chip used, for example, in computers or cell phones. Lately, designs have been reported to be on the drawing board with close to 100 of these layers. Each of these photomasks will be reproduced onto the wafer several hundred times and typically 5000-50 000 wafers will be produced with each of them. Hence, the photomasks need to be absolutely defect-free to avoid any fatal electrical shortcut in the design or drastic performance degradation. One well-known method in the semiconductor industry is to analyze the aerial image of the photomask in a dedicated tool referred to as Aerial Imaging Measurement System, which emulates the behavior of the respective lithography scanner used for the imaging of the mask. High-end lithography scanners use light with a wavelength of 193 nm and high numerical apertures (NAs) of 1.35 utilizing a water film between the last lens and the resist to be illuminated (immersion scanners). Complex illumination shapes enable the imaging of structures well below the wavelength used. Future lithography scanners will work at a wavelength of 13.5 nm [extreme ultraviolet (EUV)] and require the optical system to work with mirrors in vacuum instead of the classical lenses used in current systems. The exact behavior of these systems is emulated by the Aerial Image Measurement System (AIMS™; a Trademark of Carl Zeiss). With these systems, any position of the photomask can be imaged under the same illumination condition used by the scanners, and hence, a prediction of the printing behavior of any structure can be derived. This system is used by mask manufacturers in their process flow to review critical defects or verify defect repair success. In this paper, we give a short introduction into the lithography roadmap driving the development cycles of the AIMS systems focusing primarily on the complexity of the structures to be reviewed. Second, we describe the basic principle of the AIMS technology and how it is used. The last section is dedicated to the development of the latest generation of the AIMS for EUV, which is cofinanced by several semiconductor companies in order to close a major gap in the mask manufacturing infrastructure and the challenges to be met.

Garetto, Anthony; Scherübl, Thomas; Peters, Jan Hendrik

2012-09-01

30

Polymer-confined colloidal monolayer: a reusable soft photomask for rapid wafer-scale nanopatterning.  

PubMed

We demonstrate the repeated utilization of self-assembled colloidal spheres for rapid nanopattern generations. Highly ordered micro-/nanosphere arrays were interlinked and confined by a soft transparent polymer (polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS), which can be used as light-focusing elements/photomasks for area-selective exposures of photoresist in contact. Because of the stiffness of the colloidal spheres, the photomasks do not encounter feature-deformation problems, enabling reliable production of highly uniform patterns over large areas. The geometrical feature of the patterns, including the size, pitch, and even the shape, can be finely tuned by adjusting the mask design and exposure time. The obtained patterns could be used as deposition or etching mask, allowing easy pattern transfer for various applications. PMID:25375239

Fang, Ming; Lin, Hao; Cheung, Ho-Yuen; Xiu, Fei; Shen, Lifan; Yip, SenPo; Pun, Edwin Yue-Bun; Wong, Chun-Yuen; Ho, Johnny C

2014-12-10

31

Onset of Material Alterations Due to Laser-Induced Plasma Exposure in Nanofilms Deposited on Photomasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damage-free removal of sub-100 nm particles from photomasks with deposited nanofilms is a challenge in lithography. Laser-induced plasma (LIP) is an emerging noncontact, chemical-free, dry, and selective nanoparticle removal technique. Investigation of the onset of material alterations on bonded nanofilms for optimizing LIP particle removal process is the objective of this paper. Shockwave thermomechanical excitation and radiation heating from the

Ivin Varghese; Dong Zhou; M. D. Murthy Peri; Cetin Cetinkaya

2009-01-01

32

Photomask Iinewidth Measurement Correlation Techniques Using The Standard Reference Material (SRM) 474 National Bureau Of Standards (NBS) Linewidth Standard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 1980, the Photomask Technology Operations activity at the RCA Solid State Division at Somerville, N.J., initiated a program entitled "Metrology Techniques for Linewidth Measurements." The purpose of this program was to improve accuracy, precision, and correlation of linewidth measurements on photomasks. With the cooperation of the NBS (National Bureau of Standards) Dimensional Metrology Semiconductor Materials and Processes Division, this program reached an advanced state of development. Correlation tests between the video image-scanning system used by the RCA Photomask Technology Operations and an optical image-scanning system used by Qualitron, Danbury, CT. indicate the overall linewidth measurement error to be within +/- 0.1 micrometer. This error includes the +/- 0.05 micrometer uncertainty of the NBS SRM 474 standard. Routine production correlation linewidth measurements between the ITP Mark II and ITP Mark III Video Image-Scanning Systems show the uncertainty (systematic and random error) to be within +/- 0.05 micrometers at an 87% acceptance level.

Caprari, F.

1982-10-01

33

Sensitivity analysis for OMOG and EUV photomasks characterized by UV-NIR spectroscopic ellipsometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the potentials, applicability and advantages of spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) for the characterization of high-end photomasks. The SE measurements were done in the ultraviolet-near infrared (UVNIR) wavelength range from 300 nm to 980 nm, at angle of incidences (AOI) between 10 and 70° and with a microspot size of 45 x 10 ?m2 (AOI=70°). The measured ? and 𝛥 spectra were modeled using the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) to determine the structural parameters of a periodic array, i.e. the pitch and critical dimension (CD). Two different types of industrial photomasks consisting of line/space structures were evaluated, the reflecting extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and the transmitting opaque MoSi on glass (OMOG) mask. The ? and 𝛥 spectra of both masks show characteristic differences, which were related to the Rayleigh singularities and the missing transmission diffraction in the EUV mask. In the second part of the paper, a simulation based sensitivity analysis of the Fourier coefficients ? and ? is presented, which is used to define the required measurement precision to detect a CD deviation of 1%. This study was done for both mask types to investigate the influence of the stack transmission. It was found that sensitivities to CD variations are comparable for OMOG and EUV masks. For both masks, the highest sensitivities appear close to the Rayleigh singularities and significantly increase at very low AOI. To detect a 1% CD deviation for pitches below 150 nm a measurement precision in the order of 0.01 is required. This measurement precision can be realized with advanced optical hardware. It is concluded that UV-NIR ellipsometry is qualified to characterize photomasks down to the 13 nm technology node in 2020.

Heinrich, A.; Dirnstorfer, I.; Bischoff, J.; Meiner, K.; Richter, U.; Mikolajick, T.

2013-09-01

34

Correcting image placement errors using registration control (RegC®) technology in the photomask periphery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ITRS roadmap specifies wafer overlay control as one of the major tasks for the sub 40 nm nodes in addition to CD control and defect control. Wafer overlay is strongly dependent on mask image placement error (registration errors or Reg errors)1. The specifications for registration or mask placement accuracy are significantly tighter in some of the double patterning techniques (DPT). This puts a heavy challenge on mask manufacturers (mask shops) to comply with advanced node registration specifications. The conventional methods of feeding back the systematic registration error to the E-beam writer and re-writing the mask are becoming difficult, expensive and not sufficient for the advanced nodes especially for double pattering technologies. Six production masks were measured on a standard registration metrology tool and the registration errors were calculated and plotted. Specially developed algorithm along with the RegC Wizard (dedicated software) was used to compute a correction lateral strain field that would minimize the registration errors. This strain field was then implemented in the photomask bulk material using an ultra short pulse laser based system. Finally the post process registration error maps were measured and the resulting residual registration error field with and without scale and orthogonal errors removal was calculated. In this paper we present a robust process flow in the mask shop which leads up to 32% registration 3sigma improvement, bringing some out-of-spec masks into spec, utilizing the RegC® process in the photomask periphery while leaving the exposure field optically unaffected.

Cohen, Avi; Lange, Falk; Ben-Zvi, Guy; Graitzer, Erez; Vladimir, Dmitriev

2012-11-01

35

Correcting image placement errors using registration control (RegC) technology in the photomask periphery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ITRS roadmap specifies wafer overlay control as one of the major tasks for the sub 40 nm nodes in addition to CD control and defect control. Wafer overlay is strongly dependent on mask image placement error (registration errors or Reg errors)1. The specifications for registration or mask placement accuracy are significantly tighter in some of the double patterning techniques (DPT). This puts a heavy challenge on mask manufacturers (mask shops) to comply with advanced node registration specifications. The conventional methods of feeding back the systematic registration error to the E-beam writer and re-writing the mask are becoming difficult, expensive and not sufficient for the advanced nodes especially for double pattering technologies. Six production masks were measured on a standard registration metrology tool and the registration errors were calculated and plotted. Specially developed algorithm along with the RegC Wizard (dedicated software) was used to compute a correction lateral strain field that would minimize the registration errors. This strain field was then implemented in the photomask bulk material using an ultra short pulse laser based system. Finally the post process registration error maps were measured and the resulting residual registration error field with and without scale and orthogonal errors removal was calculated. In this paper we present a robust process flow in the mask shop which leads up to 32% registration 3sigma improvement, bringing some out-of-spec masks into spec, utilizing the RegC® process in the photomask periphery while leaving the exposure field optically unaffected.

Cohen, Avi; Lange, Falk; Ben-Zvi, Guy; Graitzer, Erez; Dmitriev, Vladimir

2012-02-01

36

Optimization of laser machining process for the preparation of photomasks, and its application to microsystems fabrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional photolithography normally utilizes a photomask for patterning light onto a chemical resist film. Therefore, the accuracy of microfabrication is highly dependent on the accuracy of the photomasks. Fabrication of hard masks involves the use of expensive laser pattern generators and other sophisticated machines using very high-precision stages and the necessary control instrumentation; therefore, an inexpensive strategy is highly necessary for laboratory-level fabrication. As this technology is primarily based on raster scanning of a laser beam, the mask making as such becomes a low-throughput process. A strategy of high-throughput manufacturing of hard masks with laser micromachining using a one-step exposure process of a chromated glass slide through a micromachined aluminum shadow mask is proposed. The features that are finally embedded in the mask are highly demagnified and well focused. Optimization of the laser machining process is carried out by considering all processing parameters. The features are characterized using an optical microscope, a scanning electron microscope, and a self-developed image analysis code. Geometrical methods are used to estimate the average edge roughness and feature size. We have also validated the usage of these masks by performing microfabrication on films made of photoresist.

Kumar, Avinash; Gupta, Ankur; Kant, Rishi; Akhtar, Syed Nadeem; Tiwari, Nachiketa; Ramkumar, Janakrajan; Bhattacharya, Shantanu

2013-10-01

37

3D Monte Carlo modeling of the SEM: Are there applications to photomask metrology?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to model the effect of fields due to charges trapped in insulators with floating conductors has been added to JMONSEL (Java Monte Carlo simulator for Secondary Electrons) and applied to a simple photomask metal on glass geometry. These capabilities are prerequisites if model-based scanning electron microscope (SEM) metrology is to be extended beyond wafer to photomask applications, where such samples must frequently be measured. Model-based SEM is an alternative to the customary threshold- or gradient-based approach. It is more demanding inasmuch as it requires a model of the physics of image formation, but the reward is greater accuracy, lower sensitivity to secondary sample characteristics (e.g., edge shape) that affect the intensity, and information about 3D geometrical shape (not simply the width) of the measured features. The prerequisites are ability to measure a signal, such as the SEM image, that is sensitive to changes in the parameters one wishes to measure and a model that describes the relationship between the signal and the parameters. The simulation shows the development of the potential energy barrier to electron escape during an initial transient charging-up phase, accompanied by increasing electron recapture and stabilization of the average yield.

Villarrubia, J. S.; Vladár, A. E.; Postek, M. T.

2014-09-01

38

Qualification of local advanced cryogenic cleaning technology for 14nm photomask fabrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The march toward tighter design rules, and thus smaller defects, implies stronger surface adhesion between defects and the photomask surface compared to past generations, thereby resulting in increased difficulty in photomask cleaning. Current state-of-the-art wet clean technologies utilize functional water and various energies in an attempt to produce similar yield to the acid cleans of previous generations, but without some of the negative side effects. Still, wet cleans have continued to be plagued with issues such as persistent particles and contaminations, SRAF and feature damages, leaving contaminants behind that accelerate photo-induced defect growth, and others. This paper details work done through a design of experiments (DOE) utilized to qualify an improved cryogenic cleaning technology for production in the Advanced Mask Technology Center (AMTC) advanced production lines for 20 and 14 nm processing. All work was conducted at the AMTC facility in Dresden, Germany utilizing technology developed by Eco-Snow Systems and RAVE LLC for their cryogenic local cleaning VC1200F platform. This system uses a newly designed nozzle, improved gaseous CO2 delivery, extensive filtration to remove hydrocarbons and minimize particle adders, and other process improvements to overcome the limitations of the previous generation local cleaning tool. AMTC has successfully qualified this cryogenic cleaning technology and is currently using it regularly to enhance production yields even at the most challenging technology nodes.

Taumer, Ralf; Krome, Thorsten; Bowers, Chuck; Varghese, Ivin; Hopkins, Tyler; White, Roy; Brunner, Martin; Yi, Daniel

2014-10-01

39

Scanner arc illumination and impact on EUV photomasks and scanner imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combination of a reflective photomask with the non-telecentric illumination and arc shaped slit of the EUV scanner introduces what are known as shadowing effects. The compensation of these effects requires proper biasing of the photomask to generate the intended image on the wafer. Thus, the physical pattern on the mask ends up being noticeably different from the desired pattern to be written on the wafer. This difference has a strong dependence on both the illumination settings and the features to be printed. In this work, the impact of shadowing effects from line and space patterns with a nominal CD of 16nm at wafer was investigated with particular focus on the influence of pattern orientation and pitch, illumination pupil shape and fill (coherence) and absorber height. CD, best focus shift and contrast at best focus are utilized in detail in order to study the impact of the shadowing effects. All the simulation cases presented employ a complete scanner arc emulation, i.e. describe the impact of the azimuthal angle component of the illumination arc as in the NXE:3300 scanner and as it can be emulated by the AIMSTM EUV.

Capelli, Renzo; Garetto, Anthony; Magnusson, Krister; Scherübl, Thomas

2014-10-01

40

Transport of intensity phase imaging in the presence of curl effects induced by strongly absorbing photomasks.  

PubMed

We report theoretical and experimental results for imaging of electromagnetic phase edge effects in lithography photomasks. Our method starts from the transport of intensity equation (TIE), which solves for phase from through-focus intensity images. Traditional TIE algorithms make an implicit assumption that the underlying in-plane power flow is curl-free. Motivated by our current study, we describe a practical situation in which this assumption breaks down. Strong absorption gradients in mask features interact with phase edges to contribute a curl to the in-plane Poynting vector, causing severe artifacts in the phase recovered. We derive how curl effects are coupled into intensity measurements and propose an iterative algorithm that not only corrects the artifacts, but also recovers missing curl components. PMID:25607976

Shanker, Aamod; Tian, Lei; Sczyrba, Martin; Connolly, Brid; Neureuther, Andrew; Waller, Laura

2014-12-01

41

Studying the effects of modified surface chemistry on chrome migration in binary photomasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Migration of the Cr/CrxOy film in binary photomasks during use in 193nm photolithography has been observed for some time in the semiconductor industry. This phenomenon leads to a shift in the reticle critical dimensions (CDs) that worsen with increased exposure eventually resulting in wafer yield loss. This paper studies the impact of varying annealing conditions on the CrxOy species on the surface of the mask. Further, we examined the effect of a surface condition with maximized Cr2O3 content on the 193nm-induced chrome migration phenomenon. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the composition of the Cr/CrxOy film. A 193nm accelerated exposure test bench was used to induce film migration in samples of varying surface chemistry.

Kossow, Christopher; Kirlin, Peter; Green, Michael

2013-09-01

42

In-die photomask registration and overlay metrology with PROVE using 2D correlation methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the ITRS roadmap, semiconductor industry drives the 193nm lithography to its limits, using techniques like double exposure, double patterning, mask-source optimization and inverse lithography. For photomask metrology this translates to full in-die measurement capability for registration and critical dimension together with challenging specifications for repeatability and accuracy. Especially, overlay becomes more and more critical and must be ensured on every die. For this, Carl Zeiss SMS has developed the next generation photomask registration and overlay metrology tool PROVE® which serves the 32nm node and below and which is already well established in the market. PROVE® features highly stable hardware components for the stage and environmental control. To ensure in-die measurement capability, sophisticated image analysis methods based on 2D correlations have been developed. In this paper we demonstrate the in-die capability of PROVE® and present corresponding measurement results for shortterm and long-term measurements as well as the attainable accuracy for feature sizes down to 85nm using different illumination modes and mask types. Standard measurement methods based on threshold criteria are compared with the new 2D correlation methods to demonstrate the performance gain of the latter. In addition, mask-to-mask overlay results of typical box-in-frame structures down to 200nm feature size are presented. It is shown, that from overlay measurements a reproducibility budget can be derived that takes into account stage, image analysis and global effects like mask loading and environmental control. The parts of the budget are quantified from measurement results to identify critical error contributions and to focus on the corresponding improvement strategies.

Seidel, D.; Arnz, M.; Beyer, D.

2011-11-01

43

Expanding grayscale capability of direct-write grayscale photomask by using modified Bi/In compositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bimetallic thin films have been proven to be effective in creating analog direct write grayscale photomasks. DC-sputtered Bi/In or Sn/In oxidizes under laser writing exposure. The optical density decreases from >3OD as deposited to a transparency of <0.22OD at 365 nm with increasing laser power. The bimetallic film has a response curve that is nearly linear for much of the curve, but non-linear at maximum absorption and transmission. In order to create more accurate gray levels, a more gradual OD change versus laser writing power is desired. In this research a new reactive sputtered, oxygenated Bi/In film was created that has an 8-bits grayscale level sensitivity of 1.1 gray levels/mV, compared with the previous Bi/In of 3.2 gray levels/mV and Sn/In of 2.8 gray levels/mV. This modified Bi/In film provides more than twice the laser writing power range for controlling the same OD range, as compared to our original Bi/In or Sn/In films. This wider power range provides easier and more accurate laser power-to-grayscale calibration, because each grayscale can now be spaced more evenly over the increased laser writing power range. In addition, the surface of modified Bi/In is found to be much smoother than the original Bi/In and Sn/In films, thus increasing the overall quality of grayscale photomask. Finally grayscale uniformity of the laser writing process has been investigated and techniques such as laser beam shaping and defocusing have been used successfully to eliminate the variations.

Poon, David K.; Chapman, Glenn H.; Choo, Chinheng; Wang, Jun; Tu, Yuqiang; La Haye, Michelle L.

2005-11-01

44

Photomask ADI, AEI, and QA measurements using normal incidence optical CD metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical Critical Dimension (OCD) measurements using Normal-Incidence Spectroscopic Polarized Reflectance and Ellipsometry allows for the separation of transverse electric and transverse magnetic modes of light reflected from an anisotropic sample as found in a periodic grating structure. This can provide the means for determining line widths and analyzing complex profiles for a variety of structures found in mask fabrication. The normal-incidence methodology maintains much of the simplicity in mechanical design found in a standard reflectometer and the additional polarizing element has no effect on the footprint making the system amenable for integration, inline monitoring and advanced process control. The Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) method provides an exact method for calculating the diffraction of electromagnetic waves by periodic grating structures. We have continued development of OCD technology to critical measurement steps in the photomask fabrication process: After Development Inspection (ADI), After Etch Inspection (AEI) for binary and phase shift masks. Additionally, we have demonstrated the ability of monitoring the mask CD quality with the presence of a protective pellicle. The determination of important critical dimensions in photomasks via optical techniques is appealing for several reasons: the method is non-destructive to photoresist and the sample is not subject to charging effects; the technique is capable of measuring the critical dimensions of grating structures down to approximately 40 nm; finally, minimal facilities are required for installation (no high vacuum, cooling or shielding of electromagnetic fields). Results will be presented showing the capabilities of OCD metrology for ADI, AEI and masks monitoring applications that emphasizes how the technology can be incorporated at many steps in the mask manufacturing process.

Apak, Ebru; Sarathy, T. P.; McGahan, William A.; Rovira, Pablo I.; Hoobler, Ray J.

2004-08-01

45

Calibrating bimetallic grayscale photomasks to photoresist response for precise micro-optics fabrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microfabricating high resolution micro-optics structures requires shape control to <1/8th wavelength (~60nm) in both vertical and horizontal surface precision. Grayscale bimetallic photomasks are bi-layer thermal resists consisting of two thin layers of Bi-on-Indium or Tin-on-Indium. A focused laser spot creates a thermal metal oxide with a controllably transparency set by the beam power of optical density from ~3OD (unexposed) to <0.22OD (fully exposed). A directwrite raster-scan photomask laser system with a CW Argon-ion laser at 514nm for the bimetallic writing and 457nm line for measuring the OD change used a feedback-controlled Gaussian beam to achieve 256-level grayscale masks. Setting the graylevels required to achieve uniform vertical steps in the photoresist requires adjustment in transparency based on the exact response curves of a given resist/development process. An initial model is developed using the classic resist threshold dose exposure D0 and dose to clear Dc creating a power law relation between the required exposure dose for each thickness step and the mask transparency. However real resists behave differently than the simple model near the threshold requiring careful calibrating of mask graylevel transparencies with the photoresist response curve for a given resist/development process. Test structures ranging from steps to ramps and complex patterns were examined via both SEM and profilometry from the resulting bimetallic grayscale masks. Secondary corrections modify the needed bimetallic OD due to the exposure source spectrum differences from the 457nm measurement. This enhances the patterning of micro-optic and 3D MEMS structures.

Chapman, Glenn H.; Qarehbaghi, Reza; Roche, Santiago

2014-03-01

46

Image placement error of photomask due to pattern loading effect: analysis and correction technique for sub-45 nm node  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As semiconductor features shrink in size and pitch, the image placement error at photomask has been interested as an important factor to be reduced. Especially, by the development of double exposure technique (DET) or double patterning technique (DPT) for sub-45 nm node the image placement error is required to be controlled tightly. Following ITRS roadmap, when DET or DPT is used the registration for sub-45 nm node is required to be less than 4 nm but this specification still corresponds to the challengeable goal. Among various sources of image placement errors, here, we focus on the error occurring at patterning process of photomask and discuss its effect on the photomask overlay. We name the image placement error occurred at patterning process due to e-beam charging effect, absorber etching effect, and so on as the pattern loading effect. We quantify the amount of pattern loading effect on registration error, analyze it with the help of simulation and experiment, and discuss the character of each error and correction method.

Choi, Jin; Lee, Sang Hee; Nam, Dongseok; Kim, Byung Gook; Woo, Sang-Gyun; Cho, Han Ku

2008-05-01

47

European MEDEA+ CRYSTAL project: DFM photomasks inputs for EDA workflow task force  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cost of production of a photomask set has been soaring over the last few years, and now reaches 1 million to 2 million, almost 10% of the overall cost of a new project development. And new projects have seen their profitability lifetime reduced over time to 3 to 6 months. Any uncontrolled increase in cost or delay can make the difference between a profitable or non profitable project, and can even lead to the cancellation of the entire project. For the last few years, silicon manufacturability issues have been taken into account in the design process through a widespread use of Design For Manufacturing tools, but so far the impact of design on mask manufacturability has not been thoroughly studied. This article presents a novel Design For Mask Manufacturing approach, which defines a robust process encompassing design rules and constraints, validation procedures, exchange mechanisms between all actors in the flow (designers, mask shops, and foundry) in order to minimize the number and impact of mask design issues, to trace their root causes and severity, and automation of the handoff of design and administrative data to the mask shop. A demonstrator for the DFMM flow is being shown.

Beisser, Eric; Tissier, Michel; Au, David; Bonniol, Stéphane; Garcia, Patrick; Morey-Chaisemartin, Philippe; Sadran, Dominique; Servin, Isabelle; Tabusse, Michel

2009-04-01

48

Evaluation of molecular contaminants in the micro-environment between photomask and pellicle using analysis tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of haze and related defects become more serious as the dimension of lithography becomes smaller. It has been reported that the causes of haze defects are organic and inorganic molecular contamination deposited on mask surface. These haze problems influence the productivity of lithography process, but the formation mechanism of haze has not been clear. So it is important to understand chemical composition and formation mechanism of haze to prevent it. To analyze the chemical composition, several analytical techniques are useful, that is, ion chromatography (IC) or gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GC/MS) after liquid extraction of mask surface, surface analysis such as time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), X-ray photon spectrometry (XPS) and so on. However, these techniques are all destructive methods and are difficult to evaluate the airborne molecular contaminants (AMCs) with high sensitivity between mask and pellicle. We have successfully developed new and sensitive analysis tool consists of two parts and applied it for the evaluation of micro-environment between photomask and pellicle. One is the equipment to collect AMCs effectively, that provides diagonal two holes with needles on the pellicle to collect the gas while ventilating the high-purity nitrogen gas. The other is sampler which is named BremS™ to collect and measure exhausted AMCs in the space with high sensitivity. We applied this method to masks with different exposure dosage rate and introduce the usefulness of our method.

Douzono, Mina; Shimada, Itsuka; Ueda, Tatsuji; Nonaka, Tatsuo; Kawano, Yukihiro; Murakami, Masashi

2012-06-01

49

Photomask-based integration process of low-defect suspended carbon nanotubes into SOI MEMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fully-developed photomask-based integration process is reported. The process can integrate suspended carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into micro-structures on silicon-on-insulator chips. The process features batch-compatible fabrication and post-growth metallization of suspended CNTs, which has never been demonstrated by any other processes. The post-growth metallization avoids deterioration of the metals at the elevated CNT growth temperature and enables mechanically robust double-clamped configuration. Two key steps ensure a significant reduction of the risk for damage or contamination of the CNTs during post-growth processing. SiO2 bridges were fabricated to physically support CNTs during the wet processing, and a protective Al2O3 layer (˜40 nm) was deposited to prevent resist contamination during lithography. The combination of these two steps enables the removal of the unprotected suspended segments of unwanted CNTs by oxygen plasma ashing, improving device yield by a factor of six. The electrically interfaced suspended CNT device possessed high CNT quality (D/G+ intensity ratio of 1/224 in Raman spectroscopy) and good electrical properties, such as low device resistances as low as 105 k? and reduced gate hysteresis as low as 65 mV in ambient air. Measurements of eights devices indicate that the release step did not have a systematic influence on the device resistances.

Lee, Shih-Wei; Muoth, Matthias; Hierold, Christofer

2014-05-01

50

Photomask-based integration process of low-defect suspended carbon nanotubes into SOI MEMS.  

PubMed

A fully-developed photomask-based integration process is reported. The process can integrate suspended carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into micro-structures on silicon-on-insulator chips. The process features batch-compatible fabrication and post-growth metallization of suspended CNTs, which has never been demonstrated by any other processes. The post-growth metallization avoids deterioration of the metals at the elevated CNT growth temperature and enables mechanically robust double-clamped configuration. Two key steps ensure a significant reduction of the risk for damage or contamination of the CNTs during post-growth processing. SiO2 bridges were fabricated to physically support CNTs during the wet processing, and a protective Al2O3 layer (?40 nm) was deposited to prevent resist contamination during lithography. The combination of these two steps enables the removal of the unprotected suspended segments of unwanted CNTs by oxygen plasma ashing, improving device yield by a factor of six. The electrically interfaced suspended CNT device possessed high CNT quality (D/G(+) intensity ratio of 1/224 in Raman spectroscopy) and good electrical properties, such as low device resistances as low as 105 k? and reduced gate hysteresis as low as 65 mV in ambient air. Measurements of eights devices indicate that the release step did not have a systematic influence on the device resistances. PMID:24787500

Lee, Shih-Wei; Muoth, Matthias; Hierold, Christofer

2014-05-30

51

Application of Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry to determine line edge roughness on photomasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on Mueller Matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry (MM-SE) to examine undesired asymmetries in structural parameters, i.e. line edge roughness (LER). The investigation was done on a photomask containing line space arrays with intentionally modulated line edges. The Mueller Matrix (MM) elements were measured within the complete azimuth angle range (0 - 360°) and a wavelength range from 300 nm to 980 nm. The results are presented in polar coordinates with the azimuth angle and wavelength as the angular and radial coordinate, respectively. It was found that LER significantly impacts the MM elements, which is indicated by the increase of the isotropic character of the array. The experimental data are confirmed by Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) simulations on perturbed arrays. Based on RCWA the impact of LER amplitudes in the nm range is determined. It was found that both deviation of critical dimension (CD) and LER amplitude impact the MM elements. Based on the intensity ratios of the elements and their spectral distribution both errors create a characteristic finger print, which allows to separate them. Finally, the required measurement precision for LER in the nm range is estimated at 0.001. This precision is challenging but achievable with today's metrology.

Heinrich, A.; Dirnstorfer, I.; Bischoff, J.; Richter, U.; Ketelson, H.; Meiner, K.; Mikolajick, T.

2013-10-01

52

Tokyo, Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tokyo, (35.5N, 140.0E) the capital city of Japan, Tokyo Bay and the neighboring cities of Yokohama, Kawasaki and Chiba are seen in this view of Japan. This great international seaport facility covers almost all of the bayfront and is home to over thirty million people.

1981-01-01

53

Determination of line profiles on photomasks using DUV, EUV, and x-ray scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-imaging techniques like X-ray scattering are supposed to play an important role in the further development of CD metrology for the semiconductor industry. GISAXS provides directly assessable information on structure roughness and long-range periodic perturbations. The disadvantage of the method is the large footprint of the X-ray beam on the sample due to the extremely shallow angle of incidence. This can be overcome by using wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range which allow for much steeper angles of incidence but preserve the large range of momentum transfer that can be observed. At the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the available photon energy range extends from 50 eV up to 10 keV at two adjacent beamlines. PTB commissioned a new versatile Ellipso-Scatterometer which is capable of measuring 6" square substrates in a clean, hydrocarbon-free environment with full flexibility regarding the direction of the incident light polarization. The reconstruction of line profiles using a geometrical model with six free parameters, a finite element method (FEM) Maxwell solver and least-squares optimization yielded consistent results for EUV and deep ultraviolet (DUV) scatterometry. For EUV photomasks, the actinic wavelength EUV scatterometry yields particular advantages. A significant polarization dependence of the diffraction intensities for 0th and +1st orders in the geometry with the grating lines perpendicular to the plane of reflection is observed and the 0th order intensity shows sufficient sensitivity to the line width such that a CD-resolution below 0.1 nm is within reach. In this contribution we present scatterometry data for line gratings using GISAXS, and EUV and DUV scatterometry and consistent reconstruction results of the line geometry for EUV and DUV scatterometry.

Scholze, F.; Bodermann, B.; Burger, S.; Endres, J.; Haase, A.; Krumrey, M.; Laubis, C.; Soltwisch, V.; Ullrich, A.; Wernecke, J.

2014-10-01

54

Japan Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Japan Society was founded in New York City in 1907 by a group of businesspeople who were intimately interested in promoting relations between the United States and Japan. While the Society experienced a downturn in activities during World War II, the postwar period saw the Society come under the direction of John D. Rockefeller III, who was able to vastly expand its programs. Currently, the Society offers a number of programs, including programs for K-12 educators, a language center, a global affairs lecture and seminar series, and exhibitions in its gallery. One particularly nice resource is the mini-site, "Journey Through Japan", which may be found in the education section. This part of the site is designed specifically for educators, and includes background readings, lesson plans, maps, an interactive timeline and a photo gallery. Additionally, visitors can sign up to receive a number of specialized electronic newsletters sent out by the Society.

55

Japan: Tsunami  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... tsunami triggered by the March 11, 2011, magnitude 8.9 earthquake centered off Japan's northeastern coast about 130 kilometers (82 ... inland from the eastern shoreline is visible in the post-earthquake image. The white sand beaches visible in the pre-earthquake view are ...

2013-04-16

56

Hokkaido, Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cities mingle with rugged hills and a dormant volcano in this image of Hokkaido, Japan. This three-dimensional image comes from observations made by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on July 23, 2006. The view is toward the north and slightly east. Green indicates vegetation; beige and gray indicate bare ground, paved surfaces, or buildings; and dark blue indicates water. The water body at the top of the image is the Pacific Ocean. Now dormant, Mount Yotei is a stratovolcano--a symmetrical cone composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and volcanic rocks ejected in previous eruptions. It reaches a height of 1,898 meters (6,227 feet), and its summit sports a 700-meter- (2,297-foot-) wide crater. Snow often caps this volcano, but in this summertime shot, the volcano's summit is snow-free. The volcano is also known as Ezo-Fuji for its resemblance to Mount Fuji. As angular patches of gray and beige indicate, urban areas surround the volcano, most notably the city of Kutchan to the northwest. Even when volcanoes remain active, people often settle close to them, drawn by benefits of good soil and mild climates that appear to outweigh the risks. NASA image by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

2006-01-01

57

Landslides in Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This internet site, published by The Japan Landslide Society, focues on the current understanding of landslide origin, and discusses some of the problems concerning landslide investigations and research in Japan.

58

Japan: Shikoku Island  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... and island stations in the waters surrounding Japan and Korea. They characterized meteorological conditions, measured the atmospheric ... flew overhead. These MISR images, centered just north of Shikoku Island in southwest Japan, were acquired on April 13, 2001 ...

2013-04-16

59

Bank of Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bank of Japan serves as Japan's central bank. The web site contains publications such as Quarterly Economic Outlook, Balance of Payments Monthly, and Economic Statistics Monthly. Visitors can also find press releases, Governor's speeches and statistics on prices, money, interest rates, exchange rates, and the Bank of Japan accounts.

60

Academic Libraries in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

2008-01-01

61

Japan's nuclear fuel cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear power is the largest single source of electrical power in Japan, providing a third of Japan's energy needs. Because of its lack of natural resources, Japan has long supported a nuclear power program with a special focus on recycling nuclear fuel. The first commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant is now under construction in Aomori Prefecture. Nuclear energy is

Atsuyuki Suzuki

1997-01-01

62

Fast simulation methods for non-planar phase and multilayer defects in DUV and EUV photomasks for lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation develops rapid modeling methodologies for the printability and inspectability of various types of defects on photomasks in DUV and EUV lithography. Several fast and approximate methods for defect simulation are introduced and validated by comparing their results with Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) calculations of scattering from the same geometry. The common strategy is to decompose the electromagnetic (EM) scattering into individual signal contributions by analyzing rigorous simulations, and then to develop efficient alternative models for each contribution. Two methods are introduced to calculate the observed scattering from DUV phase defects. First, the through focus behavior of an isolated defect can be used to extract two defect parameters, size and phase, which fully characterize the defect by means of an EM equivalent thin mask model. Post and void defects can also be differentiated based on the side of defocus that their peak signal occurs. Second, a defect projector methodology is introduced that allows results for an isolated defect and a defect-free pattern to be combined to predict their interaction for any defect location. The defect projector is four orders of magnitude faster than 3D FDTD simulation, and can correctly predict the defect induced dimension change to within 30% for worst case. The main emphasis of this dissertation is on scattering from non-planar multilayer structures to understand the printability of buried defects inside of EUV mask blanks. A new method based on ray tracing is developed by exploiting the small non-specular forward angular scattering of individual bilayers, which is 10X smaller than the back scatter, and its approximation as zero allows a new and tractable mathematical factoring. The method is tested for various deposition strategies, defect sizes, defect shapes, as well as various illumination angles of incidence and polarization. Smoothing of the defect shape during deposition is confirmed to help mitigate isolated defect printability to a size less than about 70nm for 3D defects. The method is 4 to 5 orders of magnitude faster than FDTD simulation, takes 40X less memory, and still achieves equivalent accuracy. FDTD results for resonant multilayers were also found to suffer from convergence lulls and reflection errors at angles >10° due to small wavelength shifts from numerical dispersion. The new methodology is then extended to model the interaction between absorber features and buried defects by developing a new 2D thin mask model for features. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Lam, Michael Christopher

63

Kids Web Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Managed by the Japan Center for Intercultural Communications, the Kids Web Japan site introduces schoolchildren aged between 10 and 14 to the country of Japan. The main page offers links to information about the physical and cultural aspects of the country, including its nature and climate, history, traditions, daily life, and more. Each subject contains a description, beautiful photographs, and questions that kids can answer. Other features include several maps, games, a cookbook for kids, language lab, and much more.

64

Electrical Characteristics of Low-Temperature Polycrystalline Silicon Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Thin-Film Transistors with Six-Step Photomask Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose two types of six-step photomask, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS), thin-film transistor (TFT) PCT device structures in order to simplify their fabrication process compared with that of conventional, low-temperature, polycrystalline silicon (LTPS) CMOS TFT devices. The initial charge transfer characteristics of both types of six-step PCT are equivalent to those of the conventional nine-step PCT. Both types of six-step PCT are comparable to the conventional nine-step mask lightly doped drain (LDD) device in terms of the dc device lifetime of over 10 years at Vds=5 V for line inversion driving, which is the normally recognized duration time for semiconducting devices.

Lee, Sang-Jin; Park, Jae-Hoon; Oh, Kum-Mi; Lee, Seok-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Eon; Shin, Woo-Sup; Jun, Myung-chul; Yang, Yong-Suk; Hwang, Yong-Kee

2011-06-01

65

Study of the molecular contaminants deposition on Cr, MoSi and SiO2 surfaces representative of photomasks layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the deposition of the molecular contaminants on Cr, MoSi and quartz photomask surfaces by means of representative Cr, MoSi and SiO2 layers deposited on wafers using TD-GCMS for the organics and LPE-IC for the SO2 analysis. Mask-like layers were exposed to organic contaminants outgassed by three different types of mask pods during storage steps and Cr films were put in SO2 controlled contaminated atmosphere. Organic species contaminating the different mask surfaces were identified depending on time. A rapid contamination kinetic was highlighted. Results have shown that low volatile organic compounds have higher deposition rates and that few specific molecules (such as caprolactam ; acrylic acid, dodecyl ester, butyldiglycol...) contribute in very significant levels (few E+13 atC/cm2). It also appeared that organics present a higher affinity for quartz and MoSi layers than for Cr surfaces but also that some compounds can have a specific affinity depending on the surface. These affinity differences have been quantified through the calculation of the contaminants sticking coefficients. Regarding the SO2 deposition, Cr surfaces have showed a strong ability to be polluted in clean room conditions, up to a saturation level just higher than 1E+14 SO2/cm2. The kinetic is rapid and in good agreement with a Langmuir-type adsorption model allowing the determination of the deposition kinetic constant. Furthermore, it was showed a significant enhancement of SO2 deposition with air humidity. Finally, this work contributes to a better knowledge of the molecular contaminants deposition behavior on mask surfaces providing relevant data to control the photomask contamination in order to prevent crystal growth issues.

Fontaine, Hervé; Cetre, Sylviane; Demenet, Ga"l.; Piallat, Fabien

2010-05-01

66

Journey to Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Create a variety of activities related to the country you are studying--Japan, for example--and arrange them by such subjects as art, games, creative writing, maps, dress and greetings. These activities can be tied in with classroom learning centers or stations. Here students make passports, learn about traditional styles of dress in Japan, learn…

Godfrey, Lorraine

1978-01-01

67

Japan's “New Homeless”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mid-1990s, homelessness has become a major issue of public discussion in Japan, and is often viewed as a new social problem facing Japanese society. The issue of homelessness contrasts images of the absence of poverty and homelessness in postwar Japan, often explained based on the unique features of Japanese-style employment and welfare, containing poverty and unemployment. This paper

Aya Ezawa

2002-01-01

68

Changing Divorce in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A century of historical perspective on divorce in Japan confirms that it occurred at an extraordinarily high rate before the turn of the century, and then declined until 1964. But with the progress of industrialization to even more ad vanced levels during the postwar era, divorce rates in Japan have gradually risen again, although not to the same high degree

Fumie Kumagai

1983-01-01

69

Major Earthquake Strikes Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 16 July 2007 at 10:13 A.M. local time (0113 UT) an earthquake of local magnitude 6.8 rumbled offshore Niigata Prefecture on Japan's Honshu Island, originating approximately 17 kilometers underground at 37.5°N, 138.6°E, according to the Japan Meteorological Agency.

Suyehiro, Kiyoshi

2007-07-01

70

Groundwater contamination in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed. 9 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Tase, Norio [Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

1992-07-01

71

FAQs: Japan Nuclear Concerns  

MedlinePLUS

... of Japan? During the early phase of the nuclear emergency radiation-related health were dependant on exposure, which is ... material released into the atmosphere from the Japanese nuclear power plants. Radiation levels measured to date in other countries are ...

72

Geothermal resources of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of geothermal resources of Japan are summarized with special attention given to their geological distributions. Japan has four potential types of geothermal resources: natural dry steam, high-enthalpy thermal water in volcanic areas; low-enthalpy thermal water in sedimentary basins in non-volcanic regions; hot dry rock; and volcanic heat. Among these, the high-enthalpy thermal water in volcanic areas is of the

Sumi

1978-01-01

73

Plasma etching of Cr films in the fabrication of photomasks: II. a comparison of etch technologies and a first look at defects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advanced requirements for resolution, critical dimension control, and linearity on photomasks require chromium etch processes, which are highly anisotropic and extremely uniform. They must also allow lithographers to expose the resist at the iso-focal point of the exposure system. A reactive ion etching (RIE) process of chromium films, previously reported, met some of these demands. However, it was reported that system loading effects significantly reduced the etch rate, etch rate uniformity, and CD uniformity. An alternative plasma etch system technology, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), has been investigated, which makes it possible to achieve much higher plasma densities, operate at lower pressures, and control ion energies independently. The combination of these features minimizes loading effects, makes it easier to control selectivity, accelerates etch rates, decreases undercutting,a nd improves etch uniformity. This allows the maskmaker to transfer the resist image into the chrome with minimal nominal CD shift and degradation of CD uniformity. Furthermore, with little or no undercutting, resolution and CD linearity are greatly improved. Results using the ICP configuration will be presented and compared with the RIE process. Preliminary studies of defects will be presented. Defect densities will be quantified using a plasma etch process and compared to a wet etch process. Sources of defects and possible solutions to defect reduction will be discussed.

Coleman, Thomas P.; Buck, Peter D.; Johnson, David J.

1996-12-01

74

Japan’s Nuclear Hedge: Beyond "Allergy" and Breakout  

E-print Network

This chapter examines the future of Japan’s hedged dependence on U.S. extended deterrence and encourages more imaginative thinking about potential outcomes and strategic implications as the second nuclear age unfolds.

Samuels, Richard J.

75

Space robotics in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; Mccain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

1994-01-01

76

Cultural Astronomy in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While Japan is known more for its contributions to modern astronomy than its archaeoastronomical sites, there is still much about the culture's heritage that is of interest in the study of cultural astronomy. This case study provides an overview of historical considerations necessary to understand the place of astronomy in Japanese society as well as methodological considerations that highlight traditional approaches that have at times been a barrier to interdisciplinary research. Some specific areas of study in the cultural astronomy of Japan are discussed including examples of contemporary research based on interdisciplinary approaches. Japan provides a fascinating background for scholars who are willing to go beyond their curiosity for sites of alignment and approach the culture with a desire to place astronomical iconography in social context.

Renshaw, Steven L.

77

Tokyo and Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tokyo and Japan should be interesting and educational for people from junior-high students to adults. It provides an interactive experience as a virtual tourist on a trip to Tokyo. You can also 'Ask the Old Japan Hand' questions about Tokyo and what it's like to live there. There are also links to many Japanese sites that publish in English. The site is young, but growing. It's direction and speed of growth will be determined by the reactions of the visitors. Your input is encouraged.

78

Disaster in Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happened in Japan? Navigate the photos and websites below to grasp the extent of the damage caused by the 2011 earthquake and tsunami. Part I: Summarize the event Read the article, Death Toll Estimate in Japan Soars as Relief Efforts Intensify , to better understand the basics of the event. On your own piece of paper, answer the 6 Q s About the News. You may type them on the computer and print them out. Be sure to write complete sentences. Part II: The One-Pager Now that you have summarized the ...

Mrs. Wheeler

2011-03-28

79

21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene, and naphtha, and insoluble in water and in cold...

2014-04-01

80

21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene, and naphtha, and insoluble in water and in cold...

2011-04-01

81

21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene, and naphtha, and insoluble in water and in cold...

2010-04-01

82

21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene, and naphtha, and insoluble in water and in cold...

2012-04-01

83

21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene, and naphtha, and insoluble in water and in cold...

2013-04-01

84

Why Has Japan 'Succeeded'?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book, by a distinguished Japanese economist now resident in the West, offers a new interpretation of the current success of the Japanese economy. By placing the rise of Japan in the context of its historical development, Michio Morishima shows how a strongly-held national ethos has interacted with religious, social and technological ideas imported from elsewhere to produce highly distinctive

Michio Morishima

1982-01-01

85

Nuclear Power in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Energy consumption in Japan has grown at a faster rate than in any other major industrial country. To maintain continued prosperity, the government has embarked on a crash program for nuclear power. Current progress and issues/reactions to the plan are discussed. (JN)

Powell, John W.

1983-01-01

86

Holography in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present state of activities of holography in Japan is reviewed. Electro-holography, holographic 3D printer, recording material have been studying in research organizations, universities, and research institutes. Optical head using hologram has been developed by main electric companies. The market of hologram in security is going to extend. Several private and group exhibitions were opened within a year. HODIC meeting

Toshihiro Kubota

1998-01-01

87

Language Testing in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers on second language testing in Japan include: "Differences Between Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests" (James Dean Brown); "Criterion-Referenced Test Construction and Evaluation" (Dale T. Griffe); "Behavioral Learning Objectives as an Evaluation Tool" (Judith A. Johnson); "Developing Norm- Referenced Tests for Program-Level…

Brown, James Dean, Ed.; Yamashita, Sayoko Okada, Ed.

88

Educational Administration in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes administrative roles from the Ministry of Education to boards of education elected by each prefecture and municipality. Discusses local autonomy in relation to national measures promoting educational equality. Identifies educational needs resulting from Japan's world trade, progress in science and technology, and changes in family life.…

Kida, Hiroshi

1986-01-01

89

Japan's electronic packaging technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

1995-02-01

90

Japan's electronic packaging technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

1995-01-01

91

Photovoltaics in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report surveys status of research and development on photovoltaics in Japan. Report based on literature searches, private communications, and visits by author to Japanese facilities. Included in survey are Sunshine Project, national program to develop energy sources; industrial development at private firms; and work at academic institutions.

Shimada, K.

1985-01-01

92

Invasive Birds in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction of exotic birds has been increasing throughout the world. We conducted inquiry investigations in order to reveal the spread of introduced bird species in Japan. Forty-three exotic species are known to breed or are regarded as breeding. The Feral Pigeon (Columba livia), Chinese Bamboo Partridge (Bambusicola thoracica), Red-billed Leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea), Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Red Avadavat (Amandava amandava)

Kazuhiro EGUCHI; Hitoha E. AMANO

2004-01-01

93

Advanced composites in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The JTEC Panel on Advanced Composites surveyed the status and future directions of Japanese high-performance ceramic and carbon fibers and their composites in metal, intermetallic, ceramic, and carbon matrices. Because of a strong carbon and fiber industry, Japan is the leader in carbon fiber technology. Japan has initiated an oxidation-resistant carbon/carbon composite program. With its outstanding technical base in carbon technology, Japan should be able to match present technology in the U.S. and introduce lower-cost manufacturing methods. However, the panel did not see any innovative approaches to oxidation protection. Ceramic and especially intermetallic matrix composites were not yet receiving much attention at the time of the panel's visit. There was a high level of monolithic ceramic research and development activity. High temperature monolithic intermetallic research was just starting, but notable products in titanium aluminides had already appeared. Matrixless ceramic composites was one novel approach noted. Technologies for high temperature composites fabrication existed, but large numbers of panels or parts had not been produced. The Japanese have selected aerospace as an important future industry. Because materials are an enabling technology for a strong aerospace industry, Japan initiated an ambitious long-term program to develop high temperature composites. Although just starting, its progress should be closely monitored in the U.S.

Diefendorf, R. Judd; Hillig, William G.; Grisaffe, Salvatore J.; Pipes, R. Byron; Perepezko, John H.; Sheehan, James E.

1994-01-01

94

[Films: China and Japan].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history of filmmaking in China and Japan and film usage in teaching are considered in this document. Pointing out how films describe historical context and culture, the document also describes various techniques of film making. Films in China were heavily influenced by western models and have tended to be tools of the power structure, as…

Gumport, Roberta H.

95

Juvenile Justice in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why has youth crime been increasing in the developing countries, and how well have their juvenile justice systems coped with this trend? This anthology profiles delinquency rates and juvenile justice systems in China, India, Japan, Macao, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Thailand and Turkey. Each nation's distinctive response to youth crime is described in the contexts of:

Preston Elrod; Minoru Yokoyma

2006-01-01

96

Dutch surgery in Japan.  

PubMed

An isolation policy was adopted in feudal Japan from 1639 to 1853 owing to the fear of foreign influence. During those 200 years of isolation, all foreigners were withheld from the country with the exception of the Dutch, who were permitted to establish a trading post on a small island in the Bay of Nagasaki, called Decima. Western culture and science reached the Japanese exclusively through the Dutch on Decima. Health care on Decima was provided by Dutch barber-surgeons, who introduced Western surgical practice in Japan. Official interpreters were the only Japanese allowed on Decima. It was from among these interpreters that the first Japanese surgeons arose who, having mastered the Dutch language, translated several Dutch anatomic and surgical texts. Genpaku Sugita translated a Dutch anatomy textbook into Japanese, which was completed in 1774. This book, entitled Kaitai Shinsho [New Book on Anatomy], was the first Western scientific monograph to be translated entirely into Japanese. Several Dutch surgical schools were founded through which Dutch surgery, known in Japan as "surgery of the red-haired" was propagated. According to the custom of the surgical guilds in Holland, certificates were granted to Japanese apprentices who had completed their training in Dutch surgery. About 60 Dutch surgeons had served on Decima up to 1850, providing the basis for surgery to develop in Japan. Among them, Philipp Franz von Siebold was an exceptional scholar who also had a great impact in making Japanese culture known to the Western world. PMID:15599736

van Gulik, Thomas M; Nimura, Yuji

2005-01-01

97

Globalization and Education in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, the authors contend that globalization in Japan is the gradual process in which Japan's positioning of "self" within international relations, which had formerly been dominated by the West, has changed. Accordingly, Japan's relationships with the West and the rest of the world, for example, Asia, have also been reviewed and modified.…

Ohkura, Kentaro; Shibata, Masako

2009-01-01

98

NOAAINMFS Developments Japan Eases Stance  

E-print Network

NOAAINMFS Developments Japan Eases Stance on U.S. Fish Imports The Japanese government has taken important steps to make it eas- ier for the U.S. fishing industry to ex- port seafood products to Japan, ac Fisheries Agency officials and Japanese fishing industry representa- tives to review steps taken by Japan

99

Scientific ballooning in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activities in scientific ballooning in Japan during 1998-1999 are reported. The total number of scientific balloons flown in Japan in 1998 and 1999 was sixteen, eight flights in each year. The scientific objectives were observations of high energy cosmic electrons, air samplings at various altitudes, monitoring of atmospheric ozone density, Galactic infrared observations, and test flights of new type balloons. Balloon expeditions were conducted in Antarctica by the National Institute of Polar Research, in Russia, in Canada and in India in collaboration with foreign countries' institutes to investigate cosmic rays, Galactic infrared radiation, and Earth's atmosphere. There were three flights in Antarctica, four flights in Russia, three flights in Canada and two flights in India. Four test balloons were flown for balloon technology, which included pumpkin-type super-pressure balloon and a balloon made with ultra-thin polyethylene film of 3.4 ?m thickness.

Makino, Fumiyoshi

100

DPAL activities in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activities on diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) in Japan is reviewed. We have started alkali laser works in 2011, and currently, we are the only players in Japan. Our interests are application oriented, and it is not only defense but also industrial. DPAL is a good candidate as a source of remote laser machining, thanks to its scalability and extremely good beam quality. We are studying on scientific and engineering problems of Cs DPAL with a small-scale apparatus. A commercial diode laser with volume Bragg grating outcoupler is used to pump the gain cell longitudinally. A 6.5 W continuous-wave output with optical to optical efficiency of 56% (based on the absorbed power) has been achieved. Numerical simulation codes are developed to understand the physics of DPAL and to help future developments.

Endo, Masamori; Wani, Fumio

2015-02-01

101

Terrorism in Japan.  

PubMed

Although the 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack probably was the most widely reported terrorist event in Japan to date (5,500 injured, 12 dead), the country has suffered numerous other large terrorism-related events in recent decades, including bombings of the headquarters of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in Tokyo in 1974 (207 injured, 8 dead), the Hokkaido Prefectural Government office building in Sapporo in 1976 (80 injured, 2 dead), and the Yosakoi-Soran Festival in Sapporo in 2000 (10 injured, none dead). Japan also has experienced two other mass-casualty terrorist events involving chemical releases, including the 1994 Matsumoto sarin attack (600 injured, 7 dead) and the 1998 Wakayama arsenic incident (67 injured, 4 dead). Until 1995, emergency management in Japan focused on planning and preparedness at the local level for the frequent disasters caused by natural events. Since that time, substantial progress has been made in advancing emergency planning and preparedness for terrorism-related events, including the designation of disaster centers in each prefecture, the implementation of several education and training programs for nuclear, biological, and chemical terrorism, and the establishment of a national Anti terrorism Office within the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare. PMID:15074491

Asai, Yasufumi; Arnold, Jeffrey L

2003-01-01

102

The UN Seahorse in Japan!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The UN Seahorse, currently based in Yokohama, Japan, is a joint project of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP). The UN Seahorse project helps to increase awareness about the ocean and its significance to our daily lives. In the host port of Japan, visitors will find information about Japan's geography, oceans, climate, and general background information; Japanese institutions provide contact information and links to the many organizations working on ocean-related issues in Japan. In addition, maps and charts offer useful images of Japan and surrounding areas. After or before visiting the Japan port of call, visitors can jump the two previous ports of call, Vancouver, Canada and Honolulu, Hawaii. Detailed information about the project is available at the Ocean98 Website.

1998-01-01

103

Ijime in Japan.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the problem of ijime in Japan from a variety of perspectives, primarily through studies conducted in this country. The term ijime is not uniform in concept, open to different interpretations given the disparity in definitions among different circles, making precise assessment of the actual conditions difficult. Such being the case, what is needed is further study on the mechanisms and actual state of ijime accounting for the flow of the times, and compilation of research to enable the creation of ever more effective modes of prevention and intervention. PMID:22909914

Ogura, Masayoshi; Okada, Kaori; Hamada, Shoko; Asaga, Reiko; Honjo, Shuji

2012-01-01

104

Japan-Korea Workshop 2007, Gifu, Japan Multi-Purpose Plasma (MP2) Facility as  

E-print Network

Japan-Korea Workshop 2007, Gifu, Japan Multi-Purpose Plasma (MP2) Facility as a Steady State Application and Technology, NFRC, Korea #12;Japan-Korea Workshop 2007, Gifu, Japan AbstractAbstract Half experiment is described. #12;Japan-Korea Workshop 2007, Gifu, Japan OutlinesOutlines · Renovation for HANBIT

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

105

Perry Visits Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Upon opening this website, visitors will be treated to an image from an anonymous Japanese scroll which depicts a steam locomotive and several Japanese onlookers. It's an excellent way to start a digital collection dedicated to Commodore Matthew Perry's visit to Japan in 1854. The collection is part of Brown University's Center for Digital Initiatives, and it was created as part of a project by Professor Susan Smulyan and her students. On the site, visitors can peruse three different sets of images, including those created by the American artist William Heine and a set of broadsides by anonymous Japanese creators. The subject matter is the same for all of these works (Commodore Perry's visit to Japan), and visitors can take a close look at each image, and also read accompanying essays by students. That's far from all, as visitors can also read accounts of the expeditions written by Commodore Perry and William Heine. The site is rounded out by a detailed bibliography containing scholarly works, journal articles, and web sources.

106

Women of courage. Japan.  

PubMed

JOICFP President Shidzue Kato was influenced by and friends with Margaret Sanger from their initial meeting in 1920 to Sanger's death in 1966. Bruce Alfred is currently directing and producing a 90-minute documentary film about Sanger and her pioneering work in promoting the development and use of family planning. Once completed in the Spring of 1997, the film will be broadcast nationally in the US on Public Television. It is being produced with support from the National Endowment for the Humanities and several private foundations. Alfred interviewed Kato for three hours to gain insight into the life and legacy of Margaret Sanger. Sanger inspired Kato to make birth control her life's work. Kato spoke about how the prewar, pronatalist Japanese government allowed Sanger to visit Japan in 1922 only on the condition that she not speak about birth control. This official opposition and the subsequent reaction, however, actually fueled interest in Sanger and her message, and caused her ideas to become widely known among the Japanese public. While in Japan, Sanger did manage to discuss family planning, but in English in a closed meeting. Oddly enough, the government honored Sanger after the second World War with the highest award presented to non-Japanese. Kato noted how unfortunate it was that Sanger died in 1966 without witnessing the realization of the UNFPA. PMID:12290713

1996-02-01

107

Strong Quake Strikes Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As Eos was about to go to press, a powerful earthquake with a preliminary estimated magnitude of 8.9 shook the northeast coast of Japan on 11 March at 05:46:23 UTC. It is the largest known earthquake along the Japan Trench subduction zone since 869 A.D. or earlier, Brian Atwater, geologist with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), told Eos. The quake's magnitude would place it fifth in terms of any earthquake magnitude worldwide since at least 1900, according to information from the USGS Earthquake Hazards Program. The amount of energy released in the quake—which occurred 130 kilometers east of Sendai, Honshu, at a depth of 24.4 kilometers—was equivalent to the energy from 30 earthquakes the size of the 1906 quake in San Francisco, Calif., according to David Applegate, USGS senior science advisor for earthquake and geologic hazards. He said the economic losses from the shaking are estimated to be in the tens of billions of dollars.

Showstack, Randy

2011-03-01

108

75 FR 38119 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Review)] Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade...finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan...finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to...

2010-07-01

109

Higher Education Studies in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rapid development of higher education in the postwar period has given rise to various problems, and higher education studies in Japan have developed in response to them. What have been the major issues, and how did academic research respond to them, in postwar Japan? This article delineates an outline of higher education studies in general,…

Kaneko, Motohisa

2010-01-01

110

[Buddhist mummies in Japan].  

PubMed

The mummy of priest Kochi (preserved at Saishoji Temple, Teradomari, Niigata Pref.) has become famous, since it appeared in the book "Snow Country Tales" written by Bokushi Suzuki in 1841 (Fig. 1). In a country of high humidity, such as Japan, the belief that mummification could not, and did not, exist would not be altogether unfounded, but rather more a matter of common sense. There are two dozen Buddhist mummies in this country. It was not known until 1961 that a reliable source of artificial mummification has existed in Japan. The Japanese Buddhist mummies, apart from those of the Fujiwara family, a powerful clan of northeast Japan in the 12th century, dated mostly from the 17th to the 19th century as given in Table 1. Three principal types of mummification described by Vreeland, Jr. and Cockburn (1980) could be identified in the Japanese Buddhist mummies: type I, natural mummification; type II, intentional natural; and type III, artificial. Matsumoto (1990) classified the mummies into four groups, based on their ideological backgrounds: group A, mummies of the priests having faith in the Amitabha (the Supreme Buddha presiding over the Pure Land in the West); group B, sokushin-butsu mummies of the priests belonging to the Shingon sect of Japanese Buddhism founded by Kukai (Kobo-daishi); group C, nyujo mummies of the priests having faith in the Maitreya (the Buddha presiding over the Pure Land in the North, or the Buddha of the future); and group D, other mummies. These mummies of groups A, B, C and D are respectively listed in Table 2. Previous papers have shown that the mummies of the groups A, C and D belonged to the mummification of type I (natural mummification) or type II (intentional natural), whereas those of only the group B were of type III (artificial). The mummies of groups A to D were given as follows. a) Mummies of group A. The four mummies of the Fujiwara family in the Amitabha faith (preserved at Chusonji Temple, Hiraizumi, Iwate Pref.), which were laid in daisies for Buddhist images at golden Konjikido, a model of the Western Pure Land of Amitabha, did not bear any evidence of Ainu character in their physical traits. Of these, the mummy of Yasuhira Fujiwara, of which the head and neck were severely injured by swords, showed that it had been decapitated. This decapitated head had suffered mutilations: i.e. a long iron nail had been driven into the forehead, and the both auricles and the nose had been cut off.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8237299

Morimoto, I

1993-08-01

111

Generic antibiotics in Japan.  

PubMed

Generic drugs have been used extensively in many developed countries, although their use in Japan has been limited. Generic drugs reduce drug expenses and thereby national medical expenditure. Because generic drugs provide advantages for both public administration and consumers, it is expected that they will be more widely used in the future. However, the diffusion rate of generic drugs in Japan is quite low compared with that of other developed countries. An investigation on generic drugs conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan revealed that 17.2 % of doctors and 37.2 % of patients had not used generic drugs. The major reasons for this low use rate included distrust of off-patent products and lower drug price margin compared with the brand name drug. The generic drugs available in the market include external drugs such as wet packs, antihypertensive agents, analgesics, anticancer drugs, and antibiotics. Among them, antibiotics are frequently used in cases of acute infectious diseases. When the treatment of these infections is delayed, the infection might be aggravated rapidly. The pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) theory has been adopted in recent chemotherapy, and in many cases, the most appropriate dosage and administration of antibiotics are determined for individual patients considering renal function; high-dosage antibiotics are used preferably for a short duration. Therefore, a highly detailed antimicrobial agent is necessary. However, some of the generic antibiotics have less antibacterial potency or solubility than the brand name products. We showed that the potency of the generic products of vancomycin and teicoplanin is lower than that of the branded drugs by 14.6 % and 17.3 %, respectively. Furthermore, we confirmed that a generic meropenem drug for injection required about 82 s to solubilize in saline, whereas the brand product required only about 21 s. It was thought that the cause may be the difference in size of bulk particle and amount of solubilizer. The Japanese government hopes to increase the diffusion rate of generic drugs (in terms of quantity) from 20.2 % in 2010 to 30 % or more in 2012, and therefore it will be necessary to clarify the advantages of generic antibiotics in terms of expenditure and equivalency with the branded drugs. PMID:22684334

Fujimura, Shigeru; Watanabe, Akira

2012-08-01

112

Economic Crisis in Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News examines Japan's struggle against economic recession. The nine resources discussed provide an overview on various aspects of the topic. Due to economic crisis throughout Asia, the Japanese economy was severely strained this week as the yen continued to fall against the dollar in Tokyo trading. A "weak domestic financial sector" and shrinking private-sector investments and exports also contributed to Japanese economic woes, according to Economic Planning Minister Shimpei Nukaya. Although many top Japanese governmental officials believe their nation's economy can be revived through financial reform and international monetary support, some United States analysts remain uncertain. With a weak GDP, a weak yen, and ownership of over half the world's savings, international concern for Japanese impact on other economies is growing. To alleviate these fears, President Clinton bolstered the yen with US dollar sales on June 17, 1998. The long-term effects of this intervention remain to be seen.

Waters, Megan.

113

Final inspection of photomask blanks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to increase the quality in manufacturing of future photon mask generations Schott Lithotec is brought in a brand new, much increased automatic laser inspection system into a new manufacturing line of photo mask blanks. It is in a position to detect additionally to the standard defect types further defect types like dim- and bright-chrome defects. The resolution of the system is less than 100 nm. With a quickly inspecting time per blank of less than three minutes and for the first time in the world used automatic SMIF-pod-handling this is a tool for the 100 percent final inspection in the manufacturing of photo mask blanks.

Schubert, Fredi; Sauerbrei, Hartmut; Aschke, Lutz; Knapp, Konrad

2001-04-01

114

EU Institute in Japan, Kansai Institute of  

E-print Network

Kansai University Wakayama University Kagawa University European Union Delegation of the European Union of the European Union to Japan, the EUIJ-Kansai collects and disseminates EU-related information through the EUIJ in Kansai and western Japan. EU Institute in Japan, Kansai 44 EUInstituteinJapan,Kansai #12;

Banbara, Mutsunori

115

Early Childhood Education in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The two kinds of educational facilities for early childhood in Japan are the kindergarten, established in accordance with the School Education Law, and the day nursery, based upon the Children's Welfare Law. (Author/MB)

Yamashita, T.

1972-01-01

116

High definition systems in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful implementation of a strategy to produce high-definition systems within the Japanese economy will favorably affect the fundamental competitiveness of Japan relative to the rest of the world. The development of an infrastructure necessary to support high-definition products and systems in that country involves major commitments of engineering resources, plants and equipment, educational programs and funding. The results of these efforts appear to affect virtually every aspect of the Japanese industrial complex. The results of assessments of the current progress of Japan toward the development of high-definition products and systems are presented. The assessments are based on the findings of a panel of U.S. experts made up of individuals from U.S. academia and industry, and derived from a study of the Japanese literature combined with visits to the primary relevant industrial laboratories and development agencies in Japan. Specific coverage includes an evaluation of progress in R&D for high-definition television (HDTV) displays that are evolving in Japan; high-definition standards and equipment development; Japanese intentions for the use of HDTV; economic evaluation of Japan's public policy initiatives in support of high-definition systems; management analysis of Japan's strategy of leverage with respect to high-definition products and systems.

Elkus, Richard J., Jr.; Cohen, Robert B.; Dayton, Birney D.; Messerschmitt, David G.; Schreiber, William F.; Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Shelton, Duane

1991-01-01

117

Proton therapy in Japan.  

PubMed

There are two facilities for clinical trials with protons in Japan: the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, and the Particle Radiation Medical Science Center (PARMS), University of Tsukuba. At the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, patient treatment with the 70 MeV proton beam began in November 1979, and 29 patients were treated through December 1984. Of 11 patients who received protons only, 9 have had local control of the tumor. Two of the 9 patients, suffering from recurrent tumor after radical photon beam irradiation, developed complications after proton treatment. In the patients treated with photons or neutrons followed by proton boost, tumors were controlled in 12 of 18 patients (66.6%), and no complications were observed in this series. Malignant melanoma could not be controlled with the proton beam. A spot-beam-scanning system for protons has been effectively used in the clinical trials to minimize the dose to the normal tissues and to concentrate the dose in the target volume. At the Particle Radiation Medical Science Center, University of Tsukuba, treatment with a vertical 250 MeV proton beam was begun in April 1983, and 22 patients were treated through February 1984. Local control of the tumor was observed in 14 of 22 patients (63.6%), whereas there was no local control in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. There have been no severe complications in patients treated at PARMS. The results suggest that local control of tumors will be better with proton beams than with photon beams, whereas additional modalities are required to manage radioresistant tumors. PMID:3003785

Tsunemoto, H; Morita, S; Ishikawa, T; Furukawa, S; Kawachi, K; Kanai, T; Ohara, H; Kitagawa, T; Inada, T

1985-01-01

118

Mt. Fuji, Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the movie

The nearly perfectly conical profile of Fuji soars 3,776 meters (12,388 feet) above sea level on southern Honshu, near Tokyo. The highest mountain in Japan, Fuji is the country's most familiar symbol. The summit of this graceful, dormant volcano is broken by a crater 610 meters (2,000 feet) in diameter. The crater is ringed by eight jagged peaks. The five Fuji Lakes lie on the northern slopes of the mountain, all formed in the wake of lava flows. Mirrored in the still waters of Kawaguchi-ko, the most beautiful of the five lakes, is a reflection of Fuji. Part of Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, Fuji last erupted for a two-month period starting in November 1707, covering Tokyo, some 100 kilometers (60 miles) away, with a layer of ash. According to legend, Fuji arose from the plain during a single night in 286 BC. Geologically, the mountain is much older than this.

Considered sacred by many, Fuji is surrounded by temples and shrines. Thousands of pilgrims climb the mountain each year as part of their religious practice, hoping to reach the summit by dawn to watch the sunrise. This animated fly-by was created by draping visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's stereo bands. The spatial resolution of both the image and topography is 15 m. The image is centered at 35.3 degrees north latitude, 138.7 degrees east longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2001-01-01

119

Quo Vadis, Japan. [Status of Japan's Nuclear Power Program  

SciTech Connect

A pile of plutonium - 1.4 tonnes in all - was on board Japanese nuclear transport ship Akatsuki Maru when it left France on November 8, 1992 for Japan. Alongside it were Greenpeace's hostile and ever-vigilant boats and the great swells of public protest from around the world. Transports like this are likely to follow. But more to the tune of 30 to 40 tonnes of plutonium cargo is expected from the Japanese spent fuel that is separated at European reprocessing plants. Both Japanese utilities and governmental agencies have agreed that plutonium is to be fabricated into mixed oxide fuel (MOX) before being returned to Japan. But in the meantime, critics are accusing Japan of being one of the greatest threats to international safety. After the Akatsuki Maru spectacle, the Japanese civil nuclear program is awash in criticism and can not escape the watchful eye of the international community. Now, with Japan's parliamentary elections over and a review of its nuclear program just around the corner, the question is: Quo vadis, Japan

Not Available

1993-08-01

120

FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, January 28, 1997  

SciTech Connect

;Partial Contents: Japan: AIST`s Frontier Carbon Technology Research Project Under Way; Japan: Sumitomo Electric Develops Aluminum Nitride Substrate; Japan: NASDA To Develop Small, High Performance, Low Cost Satellite; Japan to Haive Rocket Launch Cost; Japan: Combined-Cycle Technology for Higher Thermal Efficiency Using Various Fuels; Japan: S&T Corporation Develops Carbon Thin Film Solar Cell; Japan: Atomic Energy Commission of Japan Suports Using ITER for Japan`s Experimental Reactor; Japan: NO New Nuclear Power Plant Construction in Sight; and Japan: Mitsubishi Electric Executive on Guided Missile Development.

NONE

1997-01-28

121

Radar Image, Hokkaido, Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The southeast part of the island of Hokkaido, Japan, is an area dominated by volcanoes and volcanic caldera. The active Usu Volcano is at the lower right edge of the circular Lake Toya-Ko and near the center of the image. The prominent cone above and to the left of the lake is Yotei Volcano with its summit crater. The city of Sapporo lies at the base of the mountains at the top of the image and the town of Yoichi -- the hometown of SRTM astronaut Mamoru Mohri -- is at the upper left edge. The bay of Uchiura-Wan takes up the lower center of the image. In this image, color represents elevation, from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest. The radar image has been overlaid to provide more details of the terrain. Due to a processing problem, an island in the center of this crater lake is missing and will be properly placed when further SRTM swaths are processed. The horizontal banding in this image is a processing artifact that will be removed when the navigation information collected by SRTM is fully calibrated. This image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 100 by 150 kilometers (62 by 93 miles) Location: 42.5 deg. North lat., 140.3 deg. East lon. Orientation: North towards upper left Image Data: SRTM Original Data Resolution: SRTM 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 17, 2000

2000-01-01

122

The educational system in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rapid economic growth of Japan since World War II has resulted in Japan becoming a reference point for developing nations and the West. This remarkable growth results from a combination of factors, one of which has been unyielding attention to education in order to cultivate the human talent necessary to provide the productivity for economic growth. The Japanese education system emphasizes quality of instruction and rewards hard work. Some of the principles of the system are outlined together with a summary of the content of the curriculum, the quantity and quality of instruction, and the influence of culture and environment.

Spearman, M. L.

1986-01-01

123

Geothermal Field Developments in Japan  

SciTech Connect

The present situation of the geothermal field developments in Japan is such that eight geothermal power stations are being operated, while there are sill many geothermal areas to be explored. Up to this day, the target of geothermal exploration has mainly been the areas by surface geological survey and the existing geothermal reservoirs are located not deeper than 1,500m depth. Recent geothermal energy development shows a trend from the study on vapor dominated of liquid dominated hydrothermal resources in shallow zones to that on hydrothermal resources in deeper zones. Exploration wells of 3,000m depth class have been drilled in Japan.

Hirakawa, Seiichi

1983-12-15

124

Unzen Volcano, Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a space radar image of the area around the Unzen volcano, on the west coast of Kyushu Island in southwestern Japan. Unzen, which appears in this image as a large triangular peak with a white flank near the center of the peninsula, has been continuously active since a series of powerful eruptions began in 1991. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 93rd orbit on April 15, 1994. The image shows an area 41.5 kilometers by 32.8 kilometers (25.7 miles by 20.3 miles) that is centered at 32.75 degrees north latitude and 130.15 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left of the image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (vertically transmitted and received); green represents the average of L-band and C-band (vertically transmitted and received); blue represents the C-band (vertically transmitted and received). Unzen is one of 15 'Decade' volcanoes identified by the scientific community as posing significant potential threats to large local populations. The city of Shimabara sits along the coast at the foot of Unzen on its east and northeast sides. At the summit of Unzen a dome of thick lava has been growing continuously since 1991. Collapses of the sides of this dome have generated deadly avalanches of hot gas and rock known as pyroclastic flows. Volcanologists can use radar image data to monitor the growth of lava domes, to better understand and predict potentially hazardous collapses.

Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

1995-01-01

125

75 FR 57980 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Investigation No. AA1921-129 (Third Review)] Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission...revocation of the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or...

2010-09-23

126

Is Japan a military threat to Asia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The foreign minister of Japan, Yohei Kono, stood in the UN General Assembly in September and sought to reassure delegates that Japan would not again employ military power in the international area. {open_quotes}Japan does not, nor will it, resort to the use of force prohibited by its constitution,{close_quotes} Kono said, {open_quotes}Japan will remain resolutely a nation of peace.{close_quotes}

Halloran

1994-01-01

127

Human Rickettsia heilongjiangensis Infection, Japan  

PubMed Central

A case of Rickettsia heilongjiangensis infection in Japan was identified in a 35-year-old man who had rash, fever, and eschars. Serum contained R. heilongjiangensis antibodies, and eschars contained R. heilongjiangensis DNA. R. heilongjiangensis was also isolated from ticks in the suspected geographic area of infection. PMID:20678332

Kurosawa, Masahiro; Sakata, Akiko; Fujita, Hiromi; Sakai, Katsurou; Sekine, Masao; Katsumi, Masanori; Saitou, Wakana; Yano, Yasuhiro; Takada, Nobuhiro; Takano, Ai; Kawabata, Hiroki; Hanaoka, Nozomu; Watanabe, Haruo; Kurane, Ichiro; Kishimoto, Toshio

2010-01-01

128

Japan Studies Association Journal, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This journal presents new perspectives and materials on Japan that are engaging, relatively jargon-free, and shaped so that their usefulness in a college classroom is readily apparent. The journal represents an example of the potential for genuine scholarship that lies within interdisciplinary studies. Articles grouped under the topic of "Minority…

Reichel, Philip L., Ed.

2001-01-01

129

Human genome efforts in Japan.  

PubMed

Some project-oriented biosciences have been promoted cooperatively by three governmental agencies in Japan: the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, the Ministry of Health and Welfare, and the Science and Technology Agency. All three agencies have increased their budgetary requests for human genome analyses for FY 1991. The Panel on Life Sciences (chaired by Dr. W. Mori, former president of the University of Tokyo) of the Science and Technology Council of Japan which is chaired by the Prime Minister has decided to organize a working group to suggest how best to coordinate efforts in human genome analyses in Japan. The genome project was initially promoted by the Science and Technology Agency through a program for the design and construction of automated machines for DNA sequencing. Work is ongoing at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research to integrate, by system engineering, instruments that can separate DNA fragments, perform plaque selection, carry out dideoxy reaction, and read the resulting DNA sequence. However, scientists now realize the enormity of the tasks of compiling DNA sequence data and of mapping the genes and fragments obtained, and efforts are being made to solve these problems. Academic societies have organized symposia to promote general interest in this subject. The most important way for Japan to contribute to research on human genome analyses, however, may be in the evaluation of supporting mechanisms (technical assistance and research resources) and in the recognition and preparation of the transition of biology to a big science approach. PMID:1991587

Ikawa, Y

1991-01-01

130

Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) organizes many fusion nuclear technology research and development activities. JAERI is also involved in the design of next-step machines such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER). In this paper, research using relatively large facilities are discussed, such as tritium technology, high heat flux technology, fusion neutronics,

M. Seki; H. Yoshida; T. Nakamura; H. Watanabe; H. Kudo

1990-01-01

131

Nuclear Fusion Technology In Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a technological assessment of the status of nuclear fusion researah and development technology in Japan. The Japanese nuclear policy, vision, goals, and supporting organizational structure are reviewed. The supporting facilities of the Japanese Atomic Energy Re- search Institute (JAERI) are illustrated and described. Specific emphasis is placed on the JAERI Naka Fusion Research Establishment near Mito. New photographic

Floyd A Wyczalek

1990-01-01

132

Resources for Teaching about Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book lists resources for materials and ideas for teaching about Japan. The resource listings are not intended to be encyclopedic and are not intended to be a comprehensive listing of every useful curriculum item. The attempt has been made to highlight especially those organizations that work with kindergarten through grade 12 teachers,…

Wojtan, Linda S.

133

Superconducting magnet development in Japan  

SciTech Connect

The present state of R and D works on the superconducting magnet and its applications in Japan are presented. On electrical rotating machines, 30 MVA superconducting synchronous rotary condenser (Mitsubishi and Fuji) and 50 MVA generator are under construction. Two ways of ship propulsion by superconducting magnets are developing. A superconducting magnetically levitated and linear motor propelled train ''MAGLEV'' was developed by the Japan National Railways (JNR). The superconducting magnet development for fusion is the most active field in Japan. The Cluster Test program has been demonstrated on a 10 T Nb/sub 3/Sn coil and the first coil of Large Coil Task in IEA collaboration has been constructed and the domestic test was completed in JAERI. These works are for the development of toroidal coils of the next generation tokamak machine. R and D works on superconducting ohmic heating coil are in progress in JAERI and ETL. The latter group has constructed 3.8 MJ pulsed coil. A high ramp rate of changing field in pulsed magnet, 200 T/s, has been tested successfully. High Energy Physics Laboratory (KEK) are conducting active works. The superconducting ..mu.. meson channel and ..pi.. meson channel have been constructed and are operating successfully. KEK has also a project of big accelerator named ''TRISTAN'', which is similar to ISABELLE project of BNL. Superconducting synchrotron magnets are developed for this project. The development of superconducting three thin wall solenoid has been started. One of them, CDF, is progressing under USA-Japan collaboration.

Yasukochi, K.

1983-05-01

134

Japan Studies Association Journal, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This journal presents new perspectives and materials on Japan that are engaging, relatively jargon-free, and shaped so that their usefulness in a college classroom is readily apparent. The journal represents an example of the potential for genuine scholarship that lies within interdisciplinary studies. Articles are divided among three thematic…

Speaker, Richard B., Jr., Ed.; Kawada, Louise Myers, Ed.

1998-01-01

135

Policies on Japan's Space Industry  

E-print Network

on the Basic Space Law legislated in 2008. 1. The government sets space policy as a national strategy as a strategic industry Practical space use in National Security Diplomacy ...etc Policy Administrative Structure the space industry plays an important role in Japan's national space program, METI initiated a policy

136

Japan's Eco-School Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

Mori, Masayuki

2007-01-01

137

Type 1 diabetes in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 1 diabetes is a multifactorial disease which results from a T-cell-mediated autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells in genetically predisposed individuals. The risk for individuals of developing type 1 diabetes varies remarkably according to country of residence and race. Japan has one of the lowest incidence rates of type 1 diabetes in the world, and recognises at least

E. Kawasaki; N. Matsuura; K. Eguchi

2006-01-01

138

Aerial Measuring System in Japan  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Agency’s Aerial Measuring System deployed personnel and equipment to partner with the U.S. Air Force in Japan to conduct multiple aerial radiological surveys. These were the first and most comprehensive sources of actionable information for U.S. interests in Japan and provided early confirmation to the government of Japan as to the extent of the release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Generation Station. Many challenges were overcome quickly during the first 48 hours; including installation and operation of Aerial Measuring System equipment on multiple U.S. Air Force Japan aircraft, flying over difficult terrain, and flying with talented pilots who were unfamiliar with the Aerial Measuring System flight patterns. These all combined to make for a dynamic and non-textbook situation. In addition, the data challenges of the multiple and on-going releases, and integration with the Japanese government to provide valid aerial radiological survey products that both military and civilian customers could use to make informed decisions, was extremely complicated. The Aerial Measuring System Fukushima response provided insight in addressing these challenges and gave way to an opportunity for the expansion of the Aerial Measuring System’s mission beyond the borders of the US.

Lyons, C., Colton, D. P.

2012-05-01

139

Direct Broadcasting Satellites in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development and use of broadcasting satellites in Japan are discussed in this paper. The paper describes the medium-scale experimental broadcasting satellite, YURI, launched by NASA in 1978, and reports that experiments with YURI in the areas of basic technologies in the broadcasting satellite system, experiments on satellite control…

Maeda, Jiro

140

Measures Against Human Trafficking in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early 1980s, Japan began to witness the human trafficking of females into the country from neighboring Asian countries; however, Japan's government did not take sufficient measures against human trafficking. Since 2000, the United States has actively moved to combat human trafficking, and Japan did not fare well in the annual Trafficking in Persons Report. According to the 2004

Minoru Yokoyama

2010-01-01

141

Japan's Triple Disaster The Continuing News Story  

E-print Network

of a large tsunami striking the Sendai Plain is high," -Koji Minoura #12;11 News Focus "This is the returnJapan's Triple Disaster The Continuing News Story Dennis Normile Japan News Bureau Chief November not pragmatic." -Fumihiko Imamura #12;18 News Of The Week Does Japan Need Nuclear Power? #12;19 News & Analysis

Napp, Nils

142

Japan's clinic physicians and their behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the behavior of the Japanese general practitioner or clinic physician. Clinic physicians in Japan are entrepreneurs who own and operate their own clinics with either no beds or less than 20 beds. They have been the prime providers of Japan's health care, and they are represented by the politically powerful Japan Medical Association. General practitioners are reimbursed

Maratoshi A. Abe

1985-01-01

143

Foreign Fishery Developments Japan's "Fugu" or  

E-print Network

Foreign Fishery Developments Japan's "Fugu" or Puffer Fish Market Japan imported nearly 1 not allow fugu longlining, the Japanese use only pole-and-line fish ing methods. Japan has historically,700 metric tons (t) of fugu (commonly known as blowfish, globefish, puffer, or swell fish), valued at $9

144

Japan's Squid Fishing Industry WILLIAM G. COURT  

E-print Network

Japan's Squid Fishing Industry WILLIAM G. COURT .. Introduction Dried-squid (surume) has been, Japan's squid imports are increasing and its squid fishing in- dustry is actively seeking and par- ticipating in joint ventures overseas. What opportunities does Japan's squid market offer the U.S. fishing in

145

SPARC Japan>> 20(2008)93()  

E-print Network

2008 SPARC JapanSPARC Japan UniBio Press J-STAGE Project Euclid EuclidProject Euclid · 8Project Euclid Tohoku Mathematical Journal Euclid Select Journal of the Mathematical Society of Japan Euclid Select National Institute of Informatics 16 Journal of the Mathematical

Hattori, Tetsuya

2008-01-01

146

Beam Test Possibilities in Japan Tatsushi NAKAMOTO  

E-print Network

) & IMR Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant KEK Narita Airport ·Facilities in East Japan were damagedBeam Test Possibilities in Japan Tatsushi NAKAMOTO KEK Feb. 15, 2012 1 Radiation Effects ­ Evaluation apparatuses #12;Overview of Facilities in Japan Feb. 15, 2012 Radiation Effects

McDonald, Kirk

147

"The March 11th , East Japan Earthquake &  

E-print Network

"The March 11th , East Japan Earthquake & Tsunami": Foreign Student Organizes International Seminar in English After the catastrophe caused by East Japan earthquake, many of the international students studying. The title of the discussion was "How foreigners see the great east Japan earthquake and what should be done

Kawato, Suguru

148

Japan-Korea Workshop 2007, Gifu, Japan Honeycomb-like Large Area LaB6 Plasma Source  

E-print Network

Japan-Korea Workshop 2007, Gifu, Japan Honeycomb-like Large Area LaB6 Plasma Source for Multi Research Center, 2) Hanyang University #12;Japan-Korea Workshop 2007, Gifu, Japan AbstractAbstract Multi field intensity of 870 G #12;Japan-Korea Workshop 2007, Gifu, Japan Overview of MP2Overview of MP2 #12

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

149

Japan’s Quest for “Soft Power”: Attraction and Limitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan is seeking to project its “soft power” through the allure of manga and anime in its public diplomacy. The production, diffusion and global consumption of manga and anime are driven by market forces and consumer tastes and not by the Japanese state. However, the latter is seeking to harness\\u000a this popular culture to burnish Tokyo’s international image. Despite the

Peng Er Lam

2007-01-01

150

A Tourist's Album of Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you are looking to explore Japan in the year 1909 via the eyes of an informed and thoughtful Western tourist, look no further. This engaging collection from the University of Vermont Libraries' Center for Digital Initiatives brings together the photo album compiled by Katherine Wolcott and her uncle, Robert Hull Fleming. Fleming was a graduate of the University of Vermont and as part of a larger Asian trip, the two of them stopped in Japan and collected photos, postcards, and other printed ephemera. This collection contains nearly 40 leaves of collected items which depict daily life, landscapes, and pictures of the countryside. Visitors can browse the materials here by genre, topic, creator, format, or place. A good place to start here is with the photos of Mount Fuji, which are a real treat.

2011-02-01

151

Endangered vascular plants in Japan  

PubMed Central

The history of the Red List of Japanese vascular plants is briefly reviewed for editing and research. Especially on the results of recent monitoring, the present status of information and conservation activities on the endangered plants in Japan is discussed and the dynamics of the Japanese flora are taken up, in relation to basic research on plant biodiversity on the Japanese Archipelago. The figures of endangered plants are not very variable during the past quarter of a century, but we can surmise that the conservation of threatened species in Japan has been promoted to some extent. Based on the results of such a study, proposals are made to contribute to the sustainable use of plant biodiversity on the Japanese Archipelago under a global conspectus. PMID:18941303

Iwatsuki, Kunio

2008-01-01

152

Large Earthquake Strikes Hokkaido, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 26 September 2003, a magnitude 8.0 earthquake, Earth's most powerful in 2.5 years, struck offshore Tokachi, Hokkaido, Japan, at 0450 local time. The hypocenter was at 40 km depth along the boundary of the Pacific and North American plates (www.jma.go.jp). The focal mechanism shows a reverse fault with a northwest-southeast compressional axis (P-axis) (see http:\\/\\/www.bosai.go.jp). Following the main shock,

M. Coffin; N. Hirata

2003-01-01

153

RECOVERY BOILER TECHNOLOGY IN JAPAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kraft pulp mills in Japan g enerate 42,000 metric tons\\/day of black liquor dry solids that need to be burned in recovery boilers. High-energy costs and stringent environmental regulations in recent years have directed the recovery boiler technology toward co-generation, high steam temperature and pressure operation, and waste heat recovery. New recovery boilers are commonly equipped with chloride and potassium

Honghi Tran; Yashihisa Arakawa

154

On Earthquake Prediction in Japan  

PubMed Central

Japan’s National Project for Earthquake Prediction has been conducted since 1965 without success. An earthquake prediction should be a short-term prediction based on observable physical phenomena or precursors. The main reason of no success is the failure to capture precursors. Most of the financial resources and manpower of the National Project have been devoted to strengthening the seismographs networks, which are not generally effective for detecting precursors since many of precursors are non-seismic. The precursor research has never been supported appropriately because the project has always been run by a group of seismologists who, in the present author’s view, are mainly interested in securing funds for seismology — on pretense of prediction. After the 1995 Kobe disaster, the project decided to give up short-term prediction and this decision has been further fortified by the 2011 M9 Tohoku Mega-quake. On top of the National Project, there are other government projects, not formally but vaguely related to earthquake prediction, that consume many orders of magnitude more funds. They are also un-interested in short-term prediction. Financially, they are giants and the National Project is a dwarf. Thus, in Japan now, there is practically no support for short-term prediction research. Recently, however, substantial progress has been made in real short-term prediction by scientists of diverse disciplines. Some promising signs are also arising even from cooperation with private sectors. PMID:24213204

UYEDA, Seiya

2013-01-01

155

FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, February 20, 1996  

SciTech Connect

;Partial Contents: Energy (Japan: MHI Discovers Maritime Photo Plankton that Produces Ethanol from CO2, Japan: Tokyo Electric Power Co.`s PAFC Development); Telecommunications (Japan: Report on 1st Asian Telecommunications Industry Exchange, Japan: MPT Reports Test Evaluation Results for PHS); Defense Industries (Japan: Expert on Shipbuilding, Welding Technology, Japan: Komatsu R&D Chief on Dream of Ground Robots; Japan: Defense Simulator Series, Part 7: Torpedo Simulator).

NONE

1996-02-20

156

Us-Japan cooperation on safeguards  

SciTech Connect

There is a long history of collaborative safeguards development between the United States and Japan. Japan has built, and continues to expand, the largest civil nuclear fuel cycle under full-scope IAEA safeguards in world. This development has posed unique challenges to the international safeguards system. Safeguards developments made through the US-Japan cooperation to address these unique challenges have significantly impacted the technologies deployed for international safeguards applications around the world.

Beddingfield, David H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hori, Masato [JAEA; Kawakubo, Yoko [JAEA; Mcclelland - Kerr, J [NNSA

2009-01-01

157

DNA Data Bank of Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The DNA Data Bank of Japan collects DNA sequence data and assigns internationally recognized accession numbers mainly from Japanese researchers. It is one of the International DNA Databases that shares data on a daily basis with the European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL) and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI); as a result, all three sources should provide the same information. Users can search for data in several different ways or use one of the various analysis tools. The site also provides information for researchers looking to submit data. Most information is presented in both English and Japanese.

158

Solid waste management in Japan  

SciTech Connect

On Friday 17 June 1994, as the invited speaker of the International Congress of IWM/ISWA at Torbay, UK the author presented a paper of {open_quotes}A framework for success: the role of legislation{close_quotes}. THis was to introduce the amendment of Waste Disposal Cleansing Law and the Basic Environment Law in 1991, but the combination of the two amended laws has enforced promoting and assisting the fulfillment of the responsibilities of corporations and citizens. In addition to such presentation, the author pointed out a new manner of solid waste management (SWM) in Japan.

Naito, S.

1995-09-01

159

Japan's CS-2 pilot program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose and present status of Japan's CS-2 pilot program are reviewed, the program is outlined, and experimental items in the program are discussed. The program satellite is shown and its characteristics are given. The users of the system are named and the system is graphicaly depicted. The structure and management of the experimental program are described. The problems of channel quality, protocols, and security in the construction of satellite links are summarized. The main experimental purpose, to transmit newspaper page and news material facsimile from a major office to local scattered stations, is examined in detail.

Otsu, Y.; Muranaga, K.; Tsuchiya, K.; Takahashi, H.; Kosaka, K.

1984-10-01

160

Reactor physics activities in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report reviews the research activity in reactor physics field in Japan during July, 1992 - July, 1993. The review was performed in the following fields: nuclear data evaluation, calculational method development, fast reactor physics, thermal reactor physics, advanced core design, fusion reactor neutronics, nuclear criticality safety, shielding, incineration of radioactive nuclear wastes, noise analysis and control and national programs. The main references were taken from journals and reports published during this period. The research committee of reactor physics is responsible for the review work.

1994-01-01

161

Teachers' Unions and the Politics of Education in Japan. SUNY Series on Japan in Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1989, the Japan Teachers' Union, Nikkyoso, split into two unions after 2 years of factional infighting. Japan has two political camps, the governing conservative Liberal Democratic Party and the left-wing Japan Socialist Party. The teachers' union is a powerful member in the camp of the latter. This book incorporates studies of the links…

Aspinall, Robert W.

162

JapanBizTech: The Source for Technology Business in Japan and Asia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Japan BizTech is a source for technology and business news from Japan and Asia developed by Nikkei Business Publications. It covers the latest news and research breakthroughs in the communications, electronics and computer industries in Japan and other Asian countries. An online directory for technology and business contacts throughout Asia in banking, communications, transport equipment and wholesale is available at the site.

163

Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan  

SciTech Connect

The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

2012-05-01

164

Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan  

SciTech Connect

The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

2012-08-01

165

On earthquake prediction in Japan.  

PubMed

Japan's National Project for Earthquake Prediction has been conducted since 1965 without success. An earthquake prediction should be a short-term prediction based on observable physical phenomena or precursors. The main reason of no success is the failure to capture precursors. Most of the financial resources and manpower of the National Project have been devoted to strengthening the seismographs networks, which are not generally effective for detecting precursors since many of precursors are non-seismic. The precursor research has never been supported appropriately because the project has always been run by a group of seismologists who, in the present author's view, are mainly interested in securing funds for seismology - on pretense of prediction. After the 1995 Kobe disaster, the project decided to give up short-term prediction and this decision has been further fortified by the 2011 M9 Tohoku Mega-quake. On top of the National Project, there are other government projects, not formally but vaguely related to earthquake prediction, that consume many orders of magnitude more funds. They are also un-interested in short-term prediction. Financially, they are giants and the National Project is a dwarf. Thus, in Japan now, there is practically no support for short-term prediction research. Recently, however, substantial progress has been made in real short-term prediction by scientists of diverse disciplines. Some promising signs are also arising even from cooperation with private sectors. PMID:24213204

Uyeda, Seiya

2013-01-01

166

Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 11 March 2011, Mw 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake, already among the most destructive earthquakes in modern history, emanated from a fault rupture that extended an estimated 500 km along the Pacific coast of Honshu. This earthquake is the fourth among five of the strongest temblors since AD 1900 and the largest in Japan since modern instrumental recordings began 130 years ago. The earthquake triggered a huge tsunami, which invaded the seaside areas of the Pacific coast of East Japan, causing devastating damages on the coast. Artificial structures were destroyed and planted forests were thoroughly eroded. Inrush of turbulent flows washed backshore areas and dunes. Coastal materials including beach sand were transported onto inland areas by going-up currents. Just after the occurrence of the tsunami, we started field investigation of measuring thickness and distribution of sediment layers by the tsunami and the inundation depth of water in Sendai plain. Ripple marks showing direction of sediment transport were the important object of observation. We used a soil auger for collecting sediments in the field, and sediment samples were submitted for analyzing grain size and interstitial water chemistry. Satellite images and aerial photographs are very useful for estimating the hydrogeological effects of tsunami inundation. We checked the correspondence of micro-topography, vegetation and sediment covering between before and after the tsunami. The most conspicuous phenomenon is the damage of pine forests planted in the purpose of preventing sand shifting. About ninety-five percent of vegetation coverage was lost during the period of rapid currents changed from first wave. The landward slopes of seawalls were mostly damaged and destroyed. Some aerial photographs leave detailed records of wave destruction just behind seawalls, which shows the occurrence of supercritical flows. The large-scale erosion of backshore behind seawalls is interpreted to have been caused by supercritical flows, resulting in the loss of landward seawall slopes. Such erosion was also observed at landward side of footpath between rice fields. The Sendai plain was subjected just after the main shock of the earthquake. Seawater inundation resulting from tsunami run-up lasted two months. The historical document Sandai-jitsuroku, which gives a detailed history of all of Japan, describes the Jogan earthquake and subsequent tsunami which have attacked Sendai plain in AD 869. The document describes the prolonged period of flooding, and it is suggested that co-seismic subsidence of the plain took place. The inundation area of the Jogan tsunami estimated by the distribution of tsunami deposit mostly overlaps with that of the 3.11 tsunami. Considering the very similarity of seismic shocks between the both, we interpreted the Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami is the second coming of the Jogan Earthquake Tsunami.

Iijima, Y.; Minoura, K.; Hirano, S.; Yamada, T.

2011-12-01

167

75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade...polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan...polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan would be likely to lead to...

2010-11-01

168

75 FR 67100 - Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...731-TA-1090 (Review)] Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan AGENCY: United States International...antidumping duty order on superalloy degassed chromium from Japan...antidumping duty order on superalloy degassed chromium from Japan would be likely to lead...

2010-11-01

169

Korean Students' Minority Schooling Experience in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative study conducted in western Japan examined the perceptions of Korean students in Japanese junior high school to identify factors contributing to a consistently low high school advancement rate compared to mainstream Japanese students. Fourteen people were interviewed about their Korean students' experiences in Japan. The findings of…

Ahn, Ruth

2012-01-01

170

Recent Developments in Japan's HDR Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan is one of the most active volcanic countries in the world, and it is understood to have very abundant geothermal energy. In Japan, where only a limited amount of other natural energy resources are domestically available, geothermal energy is one of the nation's purely indigenous energy sources. Its development therefore, has, been anxiously urged. Geothermal energy is classified generally

Yamaguchi; Tsutomu

1992-01-01

171

People of Japan: Building Bridges of Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet was designed to facilitate interactions and communication with the people of Japan by providing information about their customs, attitudes and other cultural characteristics which influence their actions and values. A brief description of Japan is given, covering the following: history, government, the economy, education,…

Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

172

The Role of German in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This historical overview of German studies in Japan, dating from the birth of modern Japan in the 1870's to the present time, includes commentary on the nature and scope of existing language programs. The importance of German idealism--reflected in the philosophy of Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Marx--on Japanese culture is noted.…

Sang, Juergen

173

Foreign Fishery Developments Papua New Guinea, Japan  

E-print Network

to assume that the PNG-Japan fishing fee arrangements will set the pattern for other such I PNG establishedForeign Fishery Developments Papua New Guinea, Japan Okay Fisheries Agreement Note: Unless 1976 Fish Tilapia 9,000 10,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Giant sea perch 400 89 300 Anchovy 1,000 750 '950

174

The State of Continuing Education in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains the following articles about the state of continuing education and occupational training in Japan: "Funabashi City University of Sports Health" (Abe Nobuhiro); "Public Halls in Omiya City" (Kawamoto Koji); "Setagaya Senior Citizens College (Setagaya Rojin Daigaku)" (Sawamura Hiroshi); "Lifelong Sport in Japan: A Case Study of…

Masatoshi, Nagashima, Ed.; And Others

175

Japan's Competitive Advantages in the Global Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyzes Japan's competitive advantages in trade, comparing the nation with other industrialized countries. Paucity in resources, often mentioned in reference to Japan, we note, is overstated. Favorable climate and certain other aspects of the geography, for example, are unacclaimed but important bounties of nature. Relevant also in the context are such other factors as population, culture, and events

John Riew

176

Industrial waste management in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Systematic management for industrial waste in Japan has been carried out based on the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law which was enacted in 1970. The law and its ordinances designate 19 kinds of waste materials discharged from business activities as industrial waste and prescribe the generator's responsibility, requirements for treatment contractors, standards for consignment, specific personnel, etc. from the view of proper management. And they also prescribe disposal standards, structure, and maintenance standards for treatment facilities, including final disposal sites, from the view of proper treatment and disposal. The Standard for Verification provides criteria to categorize as hazardous or nonhazardous industrial waste which is subjected to treatment and disposal in conformity with each standard. The fundamental policies to cope with industrial waste focus on reduction of generation, promotion of recycling, establishment of a comprehensive information management system and participation of the public which can contribute well to prevent environmental pollution caused by inappropriate management of industrial waste.

Hirota, Y.

1986-12-01

177

Large Earthquake Strikes Hokkaido, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 26 September 2003, a magnitude 8.0 earthquake, Earth's most powerful in 2.5 years, struck offshore Tokachi, Hokkaido, Japan, at 0450 local time. The hypocenter was at 40 km depth along the boundary of the Pacific and North American plates (www.jma.go.jp). The focal mechanism shows a reverse fault with a northwest-southeast compressional axis (P-axis) (see http://www.bosai.go.jp). Following the main shock, named ``Heisei 15 Tokachioki-jishin,'' seismic activity has continued in the region. As of 30 September, the largest aftershock was M7.1 on 26 September at 0608. Tsunamis were observed on the Pacific coast of Hokkaido and the Tohoku region, including waves of 1.2 m at Kushiro, 1.3 m at Urakawa, and 1.0 m at Hachinohe.

Coffin, M.; Hirata, N.

178

Sanger Center reaches out. Japan.  

PubMed

In an interview with the Japanese Family Planning Association (FPA), Alexander Sanger, president of Margaret Sanger Center International (MSCI), Planned Parenthood of New York City (PPNYC), sketched the history of the clinic and research center founded by his grandmother, Margaret Sanger. The first person to come to the clinic from another country for training was Shidzue Kato of Japan. In addition to providing FP services and training, the clinic became known as a research center for new methods of contraception. After its 1973 merger with PPNYC, the clinic continued to function as an international training center with funding from the US Agency for International Development and the UN Population Fund. MSCI works with governments and nongovernmental organizations worldwide and focuses on 1) improving quality of care in FP clinics, 2) integrating FP into primary health-care centers, 3) promoting family life education, 4) improving male involvement in FP, 5) HIV/AIDS education, and 6) training FPAs in FP and women's rights advocacy. Sanger noted that FP advocates in the US were unsuccessful in lobbying to prevent a decrease in US funding of international FP programs (down to $385 million in 1996 from $548 million in 1994). Sanger called upon Japan and European countries to help make US politicians understand that providing FP funding is a responsibility of the most powerful nation in the world. Rather than cutting support, the US should be increasing funds for international FP efforts in conjunction with the US commitment to the International Conference on Population and Development's Program of Action. PMID:12292625

1997-06-01

179

Electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies. Japan has established this marked competitive advantage in electronics as a consequence of developing low-cost, high-volume consumer products. Japan's infrastructure, and the remarkable cohesiveness of vision and purpose in government and industry, are key factors in the success of Japan's electronics industry. Although Japan will continue to dominate consumer electronics in the foreseeable future, opportunities exist for the United States and other industrial countries to capture an increasingly large part of the market. The JTEC panel has identified no insurmountable barriers that would prevent the United States from regaining a significant share of the consumer electronics market; in fact, there is ample evidence that the United States needs to aggressively pursue high-volume, low-cost electronic assembly, because it is a critical path leading to high-performance electronic systems.

Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (Editor); Kukowski, John A.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John W.; Tummala, Rao R.

1995-01-01

180

Tsutomu Ikeda Japan Sea National Fisheries Research Institute  

E-print Network

ofthe mesopelagic fish Maurolicus muelleri from the Sea of Japan. Oxygen consumption rates were49 Tsutomu Ikeda Japan Sea National Fisheries Research Institute 1 Suido-cho, Niigata 95 J, Japan Present address: Nansei National Fisheries Research Institute Ohno-cho, Saeki-gun. Hiroshima 739-04, Japan

181

THE FISHERIES OF JAPAN CONSIDERED FROM A GEOGRAPHICAL STANDPOINT  

E-print Network

extensively fish-eating people of the world. The average annual consumption of fish in Japan, to my estimation to fish near at hand all around the country. The Empire of Japan, as you know, stands off the northeast, the Gulf of St. Lawrence, probably, with the Japan Sea. The fishes which inhabit the waters of Japan

182

Essays on Well-Being in Japan  

E-print Network

implicit hypothesis in the existing literature on happiness.Happiness in Japan? ” This paper tests the hypothesis thathypothesis that social trust is valuable intrinsically by examining the effects of social trust on self-reported happiness.

Kuroki, Masanori

2011-01-01

183

Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Front, left to right: Efthymios Papadopoulos (Georgia Tech) and Jun Yoneda (AIST)....

184

Visible Light Communications: Recent Activities in Japan  

E-print Network

) continuously takes images of a scene with an LED light and a Visible Light Communications: Recent Activities in Japan Shinichiro Haruyama, Professor Lighting ERC Industry - Academia Day at BU Photonics Center, Boston University February 8, 2011 Shinichiro

Lü, James Jian-Qiang

185

Process of designing city housing in Japan  

E-print Network

pose of this thesis is to show one design approach to providing more preferable housing for users in Japan. Chapter 1 gives an overview of trends in Japanese housing construction, describes user requirements, analyzes ...

Kurokawa, Shoji

1983-01-01

186

1940 Japan-America Student Conference (JASC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first release in a new electronic series published by the Center for East Asian Studies at the University of Kansas, James J. Halsema's "Diary of the 1940 Japan America Student Conference" (ed. Grant Goodman) offers an interesting account of the last JASC conference before the Second World War. A student delegate to the conference (which was held in Japan), Halsema made a number of astute observations on Japan and its imperial state in Northeast Asia in his diary, which he fortunately kept and has now shared with readers. The diary is offered as a large single HTML document, accompanied by an introduction from the editor and an appendix. The new series, which the diary inaugurates, will publish primary documents, translations, and scholarly studies relating to China, Japan, and Korea.

Halsema, James A.

187

Japan Races to Avert Multiple Nuclear Meltdowns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Japan's nuclear crisis intensified Sunday as authorities raced to combat the threat of multiple reactor meltdowns and more than 170,000 people evacuated the northeastern coast where fears spread over possible radioactive contamination. (March 13, 2011)

Associated Press

188

River and Wetland Restoration: Lessons from Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a peer reviewed article from BioScience focuses on river and wetland restoration projects in Japan. River and wetland restoration has emerged as a worldwide phenomenon and is becoming a highly profitable business. Although researchers worldwide know a lot about restoration practices in Europe and the United States, we have only scant information about the activities in Japan, where more than 23,000 river restoration projects have been conducted during the past 15 years. In Japan, restoration is a daunting business because of the high human population density, urbanization, and harsh environmental conditions. Here we provide an overview of the various restoration activities in Japan and discuss the lessons that we can draw from them.

KEIGO NAKAMURA, KLEMENT TOCKNER, and KUNIHIKO AMANO (; )

2006-05-01

189

Fusion R&D strategy for Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present status and the strategy of fusion R&D in Japan are outlined. Although the past fusion research subjects in Japan were strongly oriented to plasma confinement and related device technologies, activity in fusion engineering, especially materials engineering, is now growing. It is recognized that the development of radiation-resistant low activation materials is the key to the realization of fusion reactors. It is of vital importance to establish the sound research plan for materials development.

Iiyoshi, A.

1998-10-01

190

Japan's Share of Published Research in Ophthalmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study was conducted to determine Japan's share of published research in ophthalmology during the last decade.Methods: Ophthalmology journals with higher impact factors were accessed through the Medline database to elicit the number of articles published in 1991–2000 that originated in various countries, including Japan. The proportion of articles with a higher grade of evidence (randomized controlled trials\\/clinical trials,

Mahbubur Rahman; Junichi Sakamoto; Tsuguya Fukui

2003-01-01

191

Trauma care systems in Japan.  

PubMed

The trauma care system in Japan was set up in the 1960s in response to social problems caused by traffic accidents and has since been altered extensively. First-aid and patient transfer are performed by emergency personnel belonging to a fire station. Instead of 'western-style trauma centres', three types of facilities exist: (1) primary emergency care facilities for treating mild cases not requiring hospitalisation; (2) secondary emergency hospitals directed to treating moderately severe disease or injury; (3) tertiary emergency hospitals corresponding to the emergency departments of university hospitals, or lifesaving emergency centres, able to manage the most severe cases such as myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident and polytrauma. Although the quantity of emergency facilities and hospitals appears sufficient, the quality of emergency care needs to be improved. This could be accomplished by the unification of small hospitals to create larger hospitals, and/or by the establishment of trauma centres, as well as by improvements in relevant education and training. PMID:12951296

Tanaka, Tadashi; Kitamura, Nobuya; Shindo, Masateru

2003-09-01

192

[Legislations on radiation in Japan].  

PubMed

The Atomic Energy Basic Act was the first law for the prevention of radiation damage in Japan, and was enforced in 1955. The law focused on the research, development and promotion of the use of atomic energy. With an increase in the importing of radioactive isotopes from foreign countries, the Act on Prevention of Radiation Disease Due to Radioisotopes was established under the jurisdiction of the Science and Technology Agency in 1957 and enforced in 1958. The Nuclear Regulation Authority began as an extra-ministerial committee of the Ministry of the Environment in 2012 and has jurisdiction in the area of ionizing radiations regulations.Substantial regulation has been provided by the Labor Standards Act, and the Ordinance on Prevention of Ionizing Radiation Hazards was established as the eleventh ordinance of the Ministry of Labor in 1959. There have been many revisions to the Ordinance, including revisions following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011. This paper explains the Act on Prevention of Radiation Disease Due to Radioisotopes, the Ordinance on Prevention of Ionizing Radiation Hazards, and workmen's accident authorization. PMID:24107339

Okazaki, Ryuji

2013-10-01

193

Ocean Science Communication in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean literacy and education panel (OLEP) of the Oceanographic Society of Japan (JOS) has been established in 2003 for sharing the ocean literacy with the public and promoting the ocean science education in school and college. Its activities include publishing reference books and electronic teaching materials for primary school teachers and students, conducting surveys on the people's consciousness on the ocean, and supporting the events such as 'Ocean Science Cafe' for the public, oceanographer's talks in class room and sea side, and seminars on board of research vessel for high-school teachers and students. Its activities are announced to the public in its website and through Twitter. The records are available to the public in the websites. Some JOS members including me are telling the public the basic knowledge of ocean science, additional explanations to scientific topics in mass media, their thoughts on the ocean, the science, and STEM education, and their daily life such as travels, meetings and cruises through their own private websites, blogs, and accounts in Twitter and Facebook. In this presentation, as a coordinator of the 'Ocean Science Cafe', I will indicate how well it has worked as a good method for promoting mutual communication between non-professional citizens and oceanographers, and changed a scientist to a better citizen. Also, as an ocean science blogger, I will mention a good effect of the mutual communication with the public from my experience. It is concluded that the science communication by new media should not be one-way but really two-way to understand well what people wish to know and have difficulties to understand, and where they stop learning.

Ichikawa, H.

2011-12-01

194

PASJ: Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan , 1??, c 2010. Astronomical Society of Japan.  

E-print Network

PASJ: Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan , 1­??, c 2010. Astronomical Society of Japan. All-sky video orbits - meteor showers: individual (Lyrids) - all-sky observation - orbits 1. Introduction The fish-eye video observations on April 1, 2007. The sys- tem was originally developed at our institute and consists of a fish

Veres, Peter

195

Japan and Georgia: Economic Partners. For Students in Grade Eight. Instructional Materials about Japan (IMAJ).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides suggestions and materials for teaching about Japan. Designed as a supplement to typical textbook treatments, the lessons provide a range of readings, visuals, and activities to enrich and deepen student learning about Japan. Organized around topics dealing with history, geography, government, economics, and culture, the…

Haywood, Jane; Morgan, Nancy

196

Cooperation needed for securing Japan`s imports of refined products from neighbors  

SciTech Connect

As of April 1996, Japan repealed the Provisional Law on Importation of Specified Petroleum Products (Plispp), thus further freeing imports from regulation. Since the dawn of the 1990s, Asia has suffered an imbalance of soaring oil demand and lack of refining capacity. In addition, to intraregional trade, product imports from outside the region, such as the US West Coast and the Mediterranean Sea, have expanded. Given such conditions in Asia, as well as japan`s stringent product specifications for environmental reasons, potential exporters of the three specified products (gasoline, diesel, and kerosene) in Asia should virtually be limited to the Republic of Korea (ROK), Taiwan, and Singapore. This study is designed to make an in-depth examination of the current and future supply/demand and trade for refined products of the three countries with respect to Japan`s potential import needs.

Koyama, Yasuo; Ogawa, Yoshike [Inst of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

1996-08-26

197

A prospective earthquake forecast experiment for Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One major focus of the current Japanese earthquake prediction research program (2009-2013) is to move toward creating testable earthquake forecast models. For this purpose we started an experiment of forecasting earthquake activity in Japan under the framework of the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) through an international collaboration. We established the CSEP Testing Centre, an infrastructure to encourage researchers to develop testable models for Japan, and to conduct verifiable prospective tests of their model performance. On 1 November in 2009, we started the 1st earthquake forecast testing experiment for the Japan area. We use the unified JMA catalogue compiled by the Japan Meteorological Agency as authorized catalogue. The experiment consists of 12 categories, with 4 testing classes with different time spans (1 day, 3 months, 1 year, and 3 years) and 3 testing regions called All Japan, Mainland, and Kanto. A total of 91 models were submitted to CSEP-Japan, and are evaluated with the CSEP official suite of tests about forecast performance. In this presentation, we show the results of the experiment of the 3-month testing class for 5 rounds. HIST-ETAS7pa, MARFS and RI10K models corresponding to the All Japan, Mainland and Kanto regions showed the best score based on the total log-likelihood. It is also clarified that time dependency of model parameters is no effective factor to pass the CSEP consistency tests for the 3-month testing class in all regions. Especially, spatial distribution in the All Japan region was too difficult to pass consistency test due to multiple events at a bin. Number of target events for a round in the Mainland region tended to be smaller than model's expectation during all rounds, which resulted in rejections of consistency test because of overestimation. In the Kanto region, pass ratios of consistency tests in each model showed more than 80%, which was associated with good balanced forecasting of event number and spatial distribution. Due to the multiple rounds of the experiment, we are now understanding the stability of models, robustness of model selection and earthquake predictability in each region beyond stochastic fluctuations of seismicity. We plan to use the results for design of 3 dimensional earthquake forecasting model in Kanto region, which is supported by the special project for reducing vulnerability for urban mega earthquake disasters from Ministy of Education, Culture, Sports and Technology of Japan.

Yokoi, Sayoko; Nanjo, Kazuyoshi; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Hirata, Naoshi

2013-04-01

198

Challenges and solutions ensuring EUVL photomask integrity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industry roadmaps indicate that the introduction of Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) is on track for high volume manufacturing. Although, there has been significant progress in each of the individual subsets of the EUVL infrastructure, the absolute management of the process outside of the scanner and up to the point-of-exposure has been highlighted as critical requirement for the adoption of EUVL. Significant changes in the EUV system environment and mask architecture are driving a zero process tolerance level. Any unforeseen contamination introduced to the scanner environment from the EUV mask could cause considerable downtime and yield loss. Absolute mask integrity at the point-of-exposure must be guaranteed. EUV mask cleaning processes-of-record have been developed and introduced to the industry [1]. The issue is not longer "how to clean the mask" but, "how to keep it clean". With the introduction of EUVL, mask cleanliness extends out beyond the traditional mask cleaning tool. Complete control of contamination and/or particles during transportation, handling and storage will require a holistic approach to mask management. A new environment specifically for EUV mask integrity must be developed and fully tested for the sub 16nm half-pitch node introduction. The SUSS MaskTrack Pro (MTP) InSync was introduced as the solution for EUV mask integrity. SUSS demonstrated the fully automated handling of EUV masks into and out of a Dual Pod System [2]. Intrinsic cleanliness of each individual handling and storage step of the inner pod (EIP) and EUV mask inside the MTP InSync Tool was investigated and reported. A target specification of a PRP <= 0.08 as criterion for the cross contamination between EIP and the EUV reticle during handling within MTP InSync has been achieved and therefore proofing the applicability for the Dual Pod automation. Moreover an appropriate automated handling, other aspects like backside particle contamination and EIP cleanliness plays a significant role to ensure EUV mask integrity. With this concept in mind a system for particle detection has been integrated into MTP InSync. This allows verifying the POR performance for backside cleaning by measuring particles down to 150nm size. A dynamic capture rate of larger 97% at 200nm particle size based on PSLs was achieved; for EIP cleaning, a dry-cleaning technology is under investigation. During feasibility studies high particle removal efficiency (PRE) results larger 99% has been achieved for particles down to 100nm. In this paper, the full scope and roadmap of the MTP InSync will be discussed. Preliminary results of backside particle detection and challenges on EUV Inner Pod (EIP) cleaning will be presented.

Brux, O.; Dreß, P.; Schmalfuß, H.; Jonckheere, R.; Koolen-Hermkens, W.

2012-06-01

199

Electronics manufacturing and assembly in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the consumer electronics industry, precision processing technology is the basis for enhancing product functions and for minimizing components and end products. Throughout Japan, manufacturing technology is seen as critical to the production and assembly of advanced products. While its population has increased less than 30 percent over twenty-five years, Japan's gross national product has increase thirtyfold; this growth has resulted in large part from rapid replacement of manual operations with innovative, high-speed, large-scale, continuously running, complex machines that process a growing number of miniaturized components. The JTEC panel found that introduction of next-generation electronics products in Japan goes hand-in-hand with introduction of new and improved production equipment. In the panel's judgment, Japan's advanced process technologies and equipment development and its highly automated factories are crucial elements of its domination of the consumer electronics marketplace - and Japan's expertise in manufacturing consumer electronics products gives it potentially unapproachable process expertise in all electronics markets.

Kukowski, John A.; Boulton, William R.

1995-01-01

200

[Tuberculosis prevalence survey in Japan].  

PubMed

Chest X-ray examination had been used rather soon after the discovery of X-ray by Rontgen K in 1895 as it was possible to detect chest abnormality by simple radiography. After the discovery of radiophotography independently by Abreu M and Koga Y in 1936, it was applied as a method of mass screening for TB in Japan, and Imamura A made a special lecture on "The mass screening for TB" using radiophotography in 1940 in the Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for TB. From experiences of mass screening, it was found that there were many cases of TB who do not aware of their own disease, and to know the prevalence of TB, the screening of survey subjects by X-ray examination is indispensable. Noticing the importance of mass health examination by chest X-ray, Dr. Tanaka S, then director of information division, JATAHQ, edited a book entitled "How to carry out mass health examination for TB" in 1951, then he moved to the Ministry of Health and Welfare and engaged in the preparation of the first TB prevalence survey. Random sampling technique was already developed, and health center network covering the whole country was already completed in early 1950s. Using these background, the first TB prevalence survey was conducted in 1953. TB Prevalence Survey Committee was organized asking cooperation of experts in TB, epidemiology and statistics, and the survey in sampled area was carried out by a survey team headed by the director of health center in charge of the sampled area. The survey teams engaged in the survey with enthusiasm, and the rate of response to the survey was 99.3%. The result of this survey was published in the WHO Bulletin, 1955. After the survey in 1953, the following prevalence surveys were carried out in 1958, 1963, 1968 and 1973. Outline of these surveys was shown in Table 1, and the rate of examination was high in all, except the survey in 1973. In this year, TB prevalence survey was carried out in conjunction with the national nutritional survey and the national mental health survey, and unfortunately, there were some opponent groups against the national mental health survey, which affected the rate of response to the TB survey, too. In addition to the 5 prevalence surveys, one thirds of the survey population in 1953, 1958 and 1963 was surveyed in the next year to know the incidence of TB. Follow-up survey on active TB cases found in the 1953 and 1958 survey was carried out in 1964, and similar follow-up survey was carried out in 1968 for active TB cases found in 1953, 1958 and 1963 surveys. Moreover, survey subjects excluding active TB cases in 1968 were followed up until 1973, and the incidence of newly registered TB cases during this period was surveyed. Summarized results of TB prevalence surveys are reported. The first survey was carried out in 1953, and had been repeated every 5 years until 1973. As national TB control program (NTP) under new TB Control Law had been implemented since 1951, the results of 5 surveys clearly indicated the outcome of NTP of Japan. Age-specific prevalence of active TB in 5 surveys is shown in Fig. 1. Due to advances in chemotherapy, there was certain difference in the definition of active TB in 1953 and 1958, and chemotherapy was indicated more widely for those with TB pathology in lung in 1958. Comparing the age-specific prevalence of active TB in 1953 and 1958, the prevalence decreased in 1958 below 35 years of age, and increased above 35 years. The decline in the prevalence of active TB in age groups below 35 in spite of widening of definition of active TB in 1958 indicated the efficacy of TB control with mass screening and BCG vaccination and treatment for detected cases. As the definition of active TB had been unchanged since 1958 up to 1973, the decline in the prevalence of active TB seen in all age groups clearly indicated the achievements of NTP. Overall trend of prevalence of active TB, cavitary TB, bacillary TB and smear+PTB in 5 surveys is shown in Fig. 2 together with epidemiological figures obtained from vital registration, namely incidence of

Shimao, Tadao

2009-11-01

201

Magic Lantern Slides Collection from Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) has a collection of approximately 1,500 magic lantern slides in its Japan Collection, which it has digitized with the permission of the Japan Foundation. The magic lantern was the precursor to the modern slide projector, and was extremely popular in Europe and Asia in the 1800s, with people going from towns to villages doing public shows. The slides featured on the UHM website are those that were produced and distributed by KBS, a group that was the predecessor of the Japan Foundation. To view the collection, you can browse alphabetically by title, category (from alcohol to fan making to Western clothes), and by slides with recent comments made about them. Visitors to the website shouldn't leave the site without browsing under the "University" category. With few exceptions, all the buildings are Western in style, and reminiscent of many U.S. colleges with their columns, stone, and tendency to sprawl.

202

Activities of Building Commissioning in Japan  

E-print Network

??TepcoTepcoTachikawaTachikawaBuildingBuilding ??Yamatake Research CenterYamatake Research Center ??Red Cross Medical Center Red Cross Medical Center Commissioning Map, Japan and WorldCommissioning Map, Japan and World SHASE BEMS Committee.... Heating & CoolingSupply Area:6.1 haFloor Space:43.8 ha Nakahara TEC staffIbamoto Testing &Research TachikawaBldg. Tokyo Elec. Co.2002-2005 Newly BuiltAir Conditioning70,000 m 2? Matsunawa Practi-calStage NES-TEC Yamatake Research Center 2000-2002 Newly...

Yanagihara, R.

2006-01-01

203

Lead poisoning in swans in Japan.  

PubMed

We investigated the occurrence, source and exposure time of lead poisoning in whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus cygnus) and Bewick's swans (Cygnus columbianus bewickii) in Japan during the winters of 1984-1987. Concentrations of lead in various tissues and physiological evidence of lead shot in some birds indicated that lead shotgun pellets were the source of lead, and exposure occurred after the birds arrived in Japan. Mortality probably occurred within 30 days after exposure to, and retention of, lead shot in the gizzard. PMID:15092262

Honda, K; Lee, D P; Tatsukawa, R

1990-01-01

204

Japan earthquake: Footage of moment tsunami hit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video footage shows the force at which the tsunami struck Japan's coast. In the fishing port of Miyako, in Iwate prefecture, boats were overturned, while video from Kamaishi city shows cars being dragged down city streets by the water. The tsunami that followed the 8.9-magnitude earthquake wreaked havoc along a huge stretch of Japan's north-east coast, sweeping far inland and devastating a number of towns and villages. Powerful aftershocks are continuing to hit the region. Footage courtesy of TV Asahi and TBS

BBC

205

From bloodletting to apheresis in Japan.  

PubMed

The ancient therapy of bloodletting that was universal in the West traveled to Japan 500 years ago on the trading vessels that carried physicians and barber-surgeons to care for the body and Christian missionaries to care for the soul. Then bloodletting was replaced by blood transfusion in the 19th century, only to return less than 50 years ago as apheresis. An understanding of those transitions can be gained from the story of the introduction of Western medicine to Japan and the events that have led to the practice of apheresis there today. PMID:19932058

Mazda, Toshio; Schmidt, Paul J

2010-02-01

206

Recycling scheme for scrapped automobiles in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Over 5 million cars are scrapped yearly in Japan. After dismantling scrapped automobiles, they are put into a shredder for differential recovery of ferrous and nonferrous metals. The residue, which is called shredder dust, runs over 1.2 million tons per year. This paper reports a entire sequence of scrapping cars in Japan with the following sections: (1) production and scrapped car management, (2) material composition, (3) dismantling, (4) shredder plant, (5) differential recovery of metals including specific gravity and newly developed color separation.

Suzuki, Masao [AI Tech Associates, Tokyo (Japan); Nakajima, Akira [Car Steel Co., Ltd., Gunnma (Japan); Taya, Sadao [Shinsei Co., Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

1995-12-31

207

76 FR 8773 - Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Investigation No. 731-TA-1090 (Review)] Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission...revocation of the antidumping duty order on superalloy degassed chromium from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or...

2011-02-15

208

India-Japan Science & Technology Collaboration: Past, Present and Future  

E-print Network

: India-Japan Science & Technology Collaboration: Past, Present and Future () Dr. Thadathil significant improvements in the India-Japan partnership reflected in all sectors, including science innovation". Considering the growing, multi-faceted partnership betweenJapanandIndia

Ejiri, Shinji

209

14MIB*ft* * * Kyoto Japan  

E-print Network

the kinetics and mechanisms of ion sorption on soil constituents. 11-294 #12;£14MIB±*ft* * * » Kyoto Japan August 12-18, 1990 Volume II ! Commission II of Soil Science 14e SORPTION/DESORPTION ON SOIL CONSTITUENTS USING PRESSURE-JUMP RELAXATION D. L. Sparks and P. Zhang

Sparks, Donald L.

210

Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: Emile Bergeron (USGS) and Carlos Santamarina (Georgia Tech) watch the movement of a sediment pressure core on a video screen. An o...

211

Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: Efthymios Papadopoulos (Georgia Tech), Yoshihiro Konno (AIST), and William Winters (USGS)....

212

Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. The cores and pressure vessels are very heavy to move around, so they are using an overhead hoist system with chains to move the devices. Left to...

213

Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. In this photo is Marco Terzariol (Georgia Tech) is preparing a Direct Shear Cell for testing a core section from the manipulator (background), st...

214

Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Front to back: Efthymios Papadopoulos (Georgia Tech), William Waite (USGS), and Yoshihiro Konno (AIST) analyze data from sensors inserted into hy...

215

Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: Emile Bergeron (USGS) and Carlos Santamarina (Georgia Tech) are preparing to use a cutter (center) to saw a pressure core into sho...

216

Globalization and Educational Reform in Contemporary Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the notions of globalization as embodied in Japanese educational reforms. Modern institutional discourses of educational reform in Japan have shifted over time and all of these reform movements have been constructed by particular social and historical trajectories. Generally speaking, it has been taken for granted that the…

Qi, Jie; Zhang, Sheng Ping

2008-01-01

217

Core Discussion Networks in Japan and America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arguments regarding the high prevalence of interpersonal collectivism in Japan typically hinge on the assumption that Japanese communication networks are more enduring, frequently contacted, and dominated by kin and work ties than networks in Western countries. However, this assumption has not been examined using nationally representative data.…

Boase, Jeffrey; Ikeda, Ken'ichi

2012-01-01

218

NOX ABATEMENT FOR STATIONARY SOURCES IN JAPAN  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes current NOx air pollution problems in Japan and the methods used there to control NOx emissions from stationary sources. The two most common techniques in use are combustion modifications and flue gas treatment (FGT). FGT technologies have been developed more...

219

History Of Holographic Display In Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first exhibition of holographic display was held at Seibu Museum of Art in Tokyo in 1975 and played a role of opening of the holographic era in Japan. This exhibition and the next big exhibition of holography held at Isetan department store 3 years later in 1978 were really epoch-making facts on holographic display in Japan. Since these two exhibitions, holographic display in Japan has come to attract attention of a lot of people to the new display media, holography. At that time, mass production technology of holograms had not been fully developed yet, and the hologram was so expensive that they were found only at the big event. Some companies and universities still continued research and development to have holograms get into practical applications of display media. Few years later, people became interested in 3-D displays and sometimes many peoples took an interest in holographic display, mainly mass produced embossed type holograms applied to the field of publications, book and magazine, etc. 3-D display booms occurred in the year of Tsukuba Science Expo'85 in 1985 and embossed type hologram became much popular. History of holographic display of Japan in terms of technical development and practical use on laser reconstruction hologram, rainbow hologram, multiplex hologram and lippmann hologram will be introduced.

Iwata, Fujio

1987-06-01

220

‘Eternal Other’ Japan: South Koreans' Postcolonial Identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores South Korean women's postcolonial and ethnic identities. In particular, it investigates their postcolonial consciousness by examining their perspectives of, and relations to, Japan. The discussion expands to include the women's ethnic identity with respect to North Korea in order to interrogate the intersection of their postcolonial and ethnic identities. The research data have been collected from two

Miyoung Oh

2009-01-01

221

Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: David Mason (USGS), Carlos Santamarina (Georgia Tech), and Yoshihiro Konno (AIST). Two ball valves are connected allowing a pressu...

222

Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. This photo shows the pressure core storage chambers, which contain hydrate-bearing sediment samples obtained from the Nankai Trough offshore Japa...

223

Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: Carlos Santamarina (Georgia Tech) and David Mason (USGS). A ball valve is in the process of being opened, which allows a core to b...

224

Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: Yoshihiro Konno (AIST) and David Mason (USGS). The AIST IPTC (right) is being prepared for movement to the left side of the refrig...

225

Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: Emile Bergeron (USGS), Kiyofumi Suzuki (JOGMEC), Marco Terzariol (Georgia Tech), William Waite (USGS), and Carlos Santamarina (Geo...

226

Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Front to back: Masato Kida (AIST), Yoshihiro Konno (AIST), William Waite (USGS), Jiro Nagao (AIST), and Yusuke Jin (AIST), analyze test results f...

227

Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: Junbong Jang (Georgia Tech), David Mason (USGS), Carlos Santamarina (Georgia Tech), and Emile Bergeron (USGS). A ball valve has ju...

228

Hydrogen energy research programs in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews the hydrogen energy research programs carried out under the Sunshine Project in Japan. Work on both electrolytic and thermochemical processes for large-scale hydrogen production is discussed. New methods for hydrogen production, such as direct thermal decomposition of water and photo-electrolysis of water with semiconductor electrodes are outlined. Storage and transportation of hydrogen and hydrogen burners are emphasized.

T. Ohta; M. V. C. Sastri

1979-01-01

229

ALTERN UND SUIZIDALITÄT IM HEUTIGEN JAPAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the suicide rates in Japan have been particularly high for many years, they reached a new peak in 2007. As a population group, older people sub- stantially contributed to this grim record. According to National Police Agency statistics, the most common individual motives for suicide were health and finan- cial problems. With the ageing of Japanese society and the

Julius Popp; Johannes H. Wilhelm

230

Japan's Poetry Boxers Get Ready to Grumble  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports that in Japan, a scholar of communications, in the hope of getting people to talk with one another, holds "boxing" competitions in which the blows are thrown verbally, in verse. In a crowded Yokohama hall, boxers file into a ring watched by cheering students and a panel of university professors. Nobody is predicting a winner,…

McNeill, David

2008-01-01

231

Discontinuous Climate Changes in Japan after 1900  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the statistical hypothesis test (the Lepage test) has successfully shown the regional abrupt changes in precipitation in Japan after 1900, changes of the temperature and sea-level air pressure are studied by means of the same method. The analysis shows that the temperature and sea-level pressure also presented discontinuous changes. Also, it is noted that the changes in the temperature

Tsuneharu Yonetani

1992-01-01

232

PARTICULATE CONTROL HIGHLIGHTS: RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN JAPAN  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes results of visits to Japan to assess research and development of new particulate control technology, and to evaluate the applicability of the Aut-Ainer particulate control device to diesel engines. New technology observed includes hooding systems for coke ove...

233

Parental Educational Investments and Aspirations in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous models of parental educational investments focus on the composition of the sibship (number, gender, ordering, and spacing) and on the social and institutional context in which investment decisions are made. Social-institutional models predict that parents in Japan are likely to underinvest in girls because of their transient status in the…

Lee, Kristen Schultz

2010-01-01

234

USGS and Japan Scientists Discuss Arctic Data  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS oceanographer Ellyn Montgomery and Shigeto Nishino with the Japan Agency for Marine Earth Science & Technology (JAMSTEC) discuss measurements in a lab on Healy. Shigeto has spent three months on Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St. Laurent this summer using XCTD's to characterize the physical...

235

Women's Growing Role in Contemporary Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the ongoing changes in socio-cultural values regarding women in business and industrial infrastructure accruing from the emerging womenpower in contemporary Japan. Women are becoming an important part of corporate culture. Their role in political life is also increasing. The mass media programmes are frequently targeted to female audiences. In contrast, the fate of men, especially that of

Yasumasa Tanaka

1990-01-01

236

World heritage and cultural tourism in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to examine a conflict between local élites and local forest workers in relation to the designation of Kumano Kodo in Japan as a World Heritage site. Aesthetics of landscapes are highly politicized, which creates conflicts for forest workers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study examines two concepts of “heritage” and “authenticity,” that World Heritage emphasizes. Types of

Hiroko Yasuda

2010-01-01

237

Academic Libraries in Australia and Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares academic libraries in Japan and Australia in three areas: general background (number of libraries, financial support, size of collections, and student/staff ratios); the role of libraries (services offered, library instruction, accessibility, library cooperation, and expenditures); and library staffs (qualifications of directors, staff…

Ito, Megumi

1987-01-01

238

Cohabitation and Family Formation in Japan  

PubMed Central

This article documents the prevalence, duration, and marital outcomes of cohabiting unions in Japan. It then examines the correlates of cohabitation experiences and also describes differences in the family-formation trajectories of women who have and have not cohabited. Cohabitation has increased rapidly among recent cohorts of women, and cohabiting unions in Japan tend to be relatively short in duration and are almost as likely to dissolve as to result in marriage. Life table analyses demonstrate that the cumulative probabilities of marriage and parenthood within marriage are roughly similar for women who did and those who did not cohabit. The most notable difference is in the pathways to family formation, with women who cohabited more likely both to marry subsequent to pregnancy and to delay childbearing within marriage. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that cohabiting unions in Japan are best viewed as an emerging prelude to marriage rather than as an alternative to marriage or singlehood. We conclude with speculation about the likelihood of further increases in cohabitation in Japan and the potential implications for marriage and fertility. PMID:20084829

RAYMO, JAMES M.; IWASAWA, MIHO; BUMPASS, LARRY

2009-01-01

239

English Textbooks in Japan and Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

English education in Japan and Korea are similar in some respects. Although both countries are not completely but mostly monolingual societies, where citizens do not need English in their daily life, they have begun to realize the importance of English as a tool for international communication, and as a result their English education is becoming…

Yuasa, Katsura

2010-01-01

240

Proc. IROS 2000 Takamatsu, Japan, Nov. 2000  

E-print Network

Proc. IROS 2000 Takamatsu, Japan, Nov. 2000 Development of a Biomimetic Position Sensor for Robotic of biological concepts in robotic hardware. This paper describes the development of an actuated biomimetic of proven and often novel mechanisms in the biological realm, biomimetic sensors are being successfully

241

The kitchen furniture market in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This market research report offers an overview of the kitchen furniture market in Japan providing trends in kitchen furniture production and consumption, imports and exports, prices, marketing policies and distribution. Short profiles of major players are given as well their market shares. Relevant data on household appliances are included. Data on kitchen furniture production and consumption, imports and exports are

Aurelio Volpe

2007-01-01

242

Promotion of School Children's Invention in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the late 1980s an American newspaper reported that by one measure--the number of patents cited by successive inventors--Japan overtook the United States in the number of inventions produced during the 1970s. The reasons for this are not clear, but educational efforts promoting creative behaviors in school children are probably essential and…

Sakamoto, Takashi

1989-01-01

243

Japan Space Imaging Corporation Business Overview  

E-print Network

Service: IKONOS ONLINEImagery Service: IKONOS ONLINE 6 ASP onASP on--line Service, powered by Google Uplink Tasking Command Data Receiving Data Receiving Satellite Antenna Cone for Window Reservation cover) #12;Power of GeoEye-1 and COSMO-SkyMed SAKURAJIMA (Japan) VOLCANO COLLECTED SAME DAY #12;Imagery

244

Recycling of used tires in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recycling rate of used tires in Japan is much higher than that in other countries. However, it is necessary to achieve light weight and high performance of tires that match the high performance of automobiles year by year. Consequently, tire material separation and reutilization for recycling are getting extremely difficult. For this reason, the tire manufacturers and tire dealers

Hiroshi Hayashi

1996-01-01

245

Ishimoto Shizue: The Margaret Sanger of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-1945 Japan is known for its remarkably low birth rate and a heavy reliance on abortion for birth control purposes. What may be less well known is the extensive use of contraceptive methods as well to limit or regulate births and the role played by the prewar birth control movement in making the concept of birth control socially acceptable. The

Elise K. Tipton

1997-01-01

246

Earthquake Early Warning Starts Nationwide in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When an earthquake occurs, a certain amount of time elapses before destructive seismic energy hits nearby population centers. Though this time is measured on the order of seconds, depending on the proximity of the rupture to a given city or town, a new public safety program in Japan is taking advantage of the fact that seismic energy travels slower than electronic communication.

Hoshiba, Mitsuyuki; Kamigaichi, Osamu; Saito, Makoto; Tsukada, Shin'ya; Hamada, Nobuo

2008-02-01

247

Education in Japan. A Graphic Presentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The eighth edition of this publication presents a general description of the educational system in Japan in order to introduce foreign educators and others interested in Japanese education to the fundamental aspects of the Japanese educational system and to certain relevant facets of its cultural and economic context. The major organizational…

Ministry of Education, Tokyo (Japan).

248

Planning a Teachers' Workshop on Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a basic "cookbook" for social studies educators who want to plan and organize a workshop dealing with another culture for elementary and secondary teachers. Japan has been chosen as the model. However, most of the suggestions can be used to present a workshop on another culture as well. There are six major sections. The first…

Heinz, Elgin

249

DEREGULATION OF TRANSGENIC PAPAYA FOR JAPAN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The transgenic SunUp and Rainbow papaya developed for Hawaii was commercialized in 1998 and virtually saved Hawaii’s papaya industry from further damage being caused by papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Since Japan makes up a significant part (about 35% in 1992) in Hawaii’s papaya export market, effort...

250

Child Development and Childcare in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With increasing numbers of women joining the workforce, there is a need for quality childcare. This project, conducted in Japan and using a large number of participants, sought to standardize an evaluation scale to measure the development of children. The development of children under six years of age (N = 22,819) who are enrolled in childcare…

Anme, Tokie; Segal, Uma A.

2010-01-01

251

Atlas of Japan (East) Sea hydrographic properties in summer, 1999  

E-print Network

Atlas of Japan (East) Sea hydrographic properties in summer, 1999 Lynne D. Talley a,*, Pavel: Japan sea; Ocean chemistry; Ocean atlas; Marginal seas; Water masses 1. Introduction The Japan or East (Talley et al., 2004a). Here we present a comprehensive atlas of the methods and property distributions

Talley, Lynne D.

252

Career Counseling in Japan: Today and in the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of young people who postpone their career decision is increasing in Japan, as is the high unemployment rate. This article examines some problems in Japan's career counseling, compared with career counseling in the U.S., and discusses which course Japan's career counseling should take to cope with dramatic social changes. (GCP)

Tatsuno, Ryoji

2002-01-01

253

Foreign Fishery Developments Mediterranean Bluefin Tuna Airlifted to Japan  

E-print Network

of annual bilat- eral conSUltations. This proposal was accepted by Japan. In return for the fishingForeign Fishery Developments Mediterranean Bluefin Tuna Airlifted to Japan Japan-Soviet Fishery Treaty Curtails Japanese Salmon Fishing The Japanese salmon fishery in the northwest Pacific has been

254

MFR PAPER 1165 Japan's tuna fishery faces a  

E-print Network

. Depressed fish prices in Japan. 5. The virtual closing of the U.S. markets to Japanese exports of alba- core the conference he spent two more weeks in Japan conferring with fish- ery biologists and members of the JapaneseMFR PAPER 1165 Japan's tuna fishery faces a major depression as catch rates decline, oil prices

255

Japan Seismic Hazard Information Station, J-SHIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion (HERP) of Japan published the national seismic hazard maps of Japan in March 2005. The national seismic hazard maps are made by the earthquake research committee of Japan in the basis of the long-term evaluation of seismic activity and evaluation of strong-motion. The hazard maps consist of two kinds of hazard maps. One kind

Hiroyuki Fujiwara; Shinichi Kawai; Shin Aoi; Toru Ishii; Toshihiko Okumura; Yuzuru Hayakawa; Nobuyuki Morikawa; Shigeki Senna; Kyoko Kobayashi

2005-01-01

256

Iron distributions in the water column of the Japan Basin and Yamato Basin (Japan Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Japan and Yamato basins (Japan Sea), dissolved Fe ([D-Fe], <0.22 ?m fraction) was characterized by surface depletion, mid-depth maxima, then a slight decrease with depth in deep water and uniform concentration in bottom waters because of biological uptake in the surface water and release by microbial decomposition of sinking organic matter in mid-depth waters. Total Fe concentrations ([T-Fe])

Satoshi Fujita; Kenshi Kuma; Satoko Ishikawa; Shotaroh Nishimura; Yuta Nakayama; Satomi Ushizaka; Yutaka Isoda; Shigeyoshi Otosaka; Takafumi Aramaki

2010-01-01

257

JTEC panel on display technologies in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is one in a series of reports that describes research and development efforts in Japan in the area of display technologies. The following are included in this report: flat panel displays (technical findings, liquid crystal display development and production, large flat panel displays (FPD's), electroluminescent displays and plasma panels, infrastructure in Japan's FPD industry, market and projected sales, and new a-Si active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) factory); materials for flat panel displays (liquid crystal materials, and light-emissive display materials); manufacturing and infrastructure of active matrix liquid crystal displays (manufacturing logistics and equipment); passive matrix liquid crystal displays (LCD basics, twisted nematics LCD's, supertwisted nematic LCD's, ferroelectric LCD's, and a comparison of passive matrix LCD technology); active matrix technology (basic active matrix technology, investment environment, amorphous silicon, polysilicon, and commercial products and prototypes); and projection displays (comparison of Japanese and U.S. display research, and technical evaluation of work).

Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Glenn, William E.; Credelle, Thomas; Doane, J. William; Firester, Arthur H.; Thompson, Malcolm

1992-01-01

258

Viewpoint of Science Council of Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Science Council of Japan (SCJ) is an academic body that represents Japanese 700,000 scientists. The activity of SCJ is changing rapidly, in which the science associated with society is increasingly important. In this context, the engineering education for ethics is treated at SCJ. The importance of engineering ethics was first recognized at the 5th division of 17th term (1999-2001) of SCJ, in which education for engineering ethics based on the analysis of ethical problems occurred in Japan is recommended and it asked the engineering societies to establish the code of ethics. Following this proposal, SCJ founded a committee to treat the problem at 18th and 19th terms. The committee proposed a procedure to prevent misconduct associated with scientific activities and the importance of education of science and engineering ethics especially for young students at tertiary education.

Ikeda, Syunsuke

259

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has become an important problem not only for the animal industry, but also for public\\u000a health. BSE was first recognized in Japan in September 2001 as a result of fallen stock surveillance. Since October 2001,\\u000a all cattle slaughtered at abattoirs have been tested for BSE. From April 2004, examination of all dead cattle aged over 24

Takashi Yokoyama; Kumiko M. Kimura; Morikazu Shinagawa

260

Earthquake causes distant tremors off Japan coast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an abstract. Japan has a nationwide network to sense tremors triggered from waves that traveled long distances through the Earth?s crust. Data from the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake were used to study distant tremors found far from the earthquake epicenter. The tremors appeared to be deep in the Earth and triggered by the waves traveling across the planet's surface.

Masatoshi Miyazawa

261

Lipid of sunflower seeds produced in japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid composition and tocopherol content of sunflower seeds from experimental plantings in Japan were determined.\\u000a Lipid content of sunflower seed was almost the same irrespective of the variety and the average lipid content was 38.8%. The\\u000a saturated fatty acids were low and the combined percentage of linoleic acid and oleic acid was ca. 90%. The ratio of oleic

Akihiko Nagao; Megumi Yamazaki

1983-01-01

262

Energy R and D in Japan  

SciTech Connect

In 1997, the public and private sectors in Japan invested $90.3 billion in R and D. Japan is the second largest supporter of R and D after the United States. A very large percentage (79.4%) of all R and D in Japan is supported by the private sector. The prolonged economic recession that has plagued the Japanese economy for most of the 1990s has significantly reduced the scale of the Japanese R and D effort compared to what it would have been had the economy been more robust. The Japanese government has recently attempted to bring the economy out of this recession through the use of economic stimulus packages. These stimulus packages have contained significant new funding for R and D, although it is apparent that much of the funding is going to R and D programs and R and D construction projects with very near tern payoff and not to the support of longer term R and D. In 1998, the Japanese government devoted 13.7% of all public R and D funds to the support of energy R and D. The priority accorded to energy R and D in Japan is significantly higher than in any other industrialized nation. The Japanese energy R and D program, which was funded at $2.5 billion in 1997, is overwhelmingly focused on nuclear energy R and D. Nuclear energy R and D (fission and fusion) accounts for 75% of the total national energy R and D budget. The fission energy R and D effort has decreased nearly 24% since 1996 as the government attempts to refocus this program in the face of growing public opposition to the Japanese government's efforts to expand the nuclear power program. Energy efficiency R and D (8% of the total national energy R and D budget) and renewable energy R and D receive relatively modest support from the Japanese government.

J.J. Dooley

1999-08-09

263

Thallium Contamination in Wild Ducks in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although thallium (Tl) is toxic to both humans and animals, there is little infor- mation on contamination in wildlife. In this study, Tl contents in wild ducks in Japan were determined. Contents of Tl in kidney and liver ranged from 0.42 to 119.61 and 0.10 to 33.94 mg\\/g dry weight, respectively. Significant cor- relations between Tl contents in kidney and

Mariko Mochizuki; Makoto Mori; Mayumi Akinaga; Kyoko Yugami; Chika Oya; Ryo Hondo

264

Sentinel lymph node biopsy in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Similar to the practice in Western countries, intraoperative lymphatic mapping and selected lymphadenectomy (SLNB) have been\\u000a validated and are widely performed for the staging of melanoma in Japan. Recent studies have shown that approximately 90%\\u000a (73\\/81) of university hospitals and several cancer hospitals routinely perform SLNB, and half of all melanoma patients receive\\u000a this examination. SLNB is performed according to

Hisashi Uhara; Minoru Takata; Toshiaki Saida

2009-01-01

265

From bloodletting to apheresis in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ancient therapy of bloodletting that was universal in the West traveled to Japan 500years ago on the trading vessels that carried physicians and barber-surgeons to care for the body and Christian missionaries to care for the soul. Then bloodletting was replaced by blood transfusion in the 19th century, only to return less than 50years ago as apheresis. An understanding

Toshio Mazda; Paul J. Schmidt

2010-01-01

266

Policy functions of smoking control in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of policy functions, with a focus on their major participants, elicits a clear picture of the decision-making process\\u000a for smoking control in Japan. Activities of various advocacy groups have affected the functions of policy, including: Intelligence,\\u000a Promotion, Prescription, Invocation, Application and Appraisal. In fulfilling these functions, they have affected every issue\\u000a they faced by creating, transforming and propagating information

Hajime Sato; Shunichi Araki; Kazuhito Yokoyama

2000-01-01

267

Heat budget in the Japan Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term mean (31-year mean) surface heat fluxes over the Japan Sea are estimated by the bulk method using the most of the available vessel data with the resolution of 1o×1o. The long-term annual mean net heat flux is about ?53 W m?2 (negative sign means upward heat flux) with the annual range from 133 W m?2 in May to

NAOILI HIROSE; Cheol-Ho Kim; Jong-Hwan Yoon

1996-01-01

268

Adolescent Alcohol Use in Japan, 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted the 1st nationwide survey on the use of alcohol by Japanese high school students. The survey design was a cross-sectional sampling survey. The targets of the survey were junior and senior high schools throughout Japan. Sample schools were selected by stratified cluster sampling. Self-administered anonymous questionnaires were sent to sample schools for all students to fill out. Among

Yoneatsu Osaki; Masumi Minowa; Kenji Suzuki; Kiyoshi Wada

2003-01-01

269

Zombie firms and economic stagnation in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often claimed that one contributing factor to Japan's weak economic performance over the past decade is that Japanese\\u000a banks have continued to provide financial support for highly inefficient, debt-ridden companies, commonly referred to as ‘zombie’\\u000a firms. Such poor banking practices in turn prevent more productive companies from gaining market share, strangling a potentially\\u000a important source of productivity gains

Alan G. Ahearne; Naoki Shinada

2005-01-01

270

Gastric cancer treatment guidelines in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  \\u000a Recent developments in treatment modalities for gastric cancer have allowed the selection of a variety of treatments, and\\u000a this has resulted in some confusion in daily practice. The Japan Gastric Cancer Association issued the first edition of Gastric cancer treatment guidlelines in March, 2001 to provide a common basis of understanding of the extent of disease and selection of

Toshifusa Nakajima

2002-01-01

271

Survey of ceramic machining in Japan  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of four subcontract reports provided by B. P. Bandyopadhyay who, while a visiting professor at Toyohashi University in Japan, conducted a survey of ceramic machining technology in that country from January 1 through December 31, 1992. Various aspects of machining technology were surveyed: types of parts being produced, types of ceramic materials being used, the nature of current ceramic machining research and development, and types of machine tools. The four separate reports compiled here were originally provided in a narrative, chronological form, and some of the information has been reorganized into topical areas for this compilation. This report is organized into three sections: The first describes ten ceramic machining research and development organizations and provides a reference list of their current technical publications; the second, two major trade shows; and the third, several other products and commercial developments noted during the course of Bandyopadhyay`s stay in Japan. An Appendix lists key individuals who are currently conducting ceramic machining research in Japan.

Bandyopadhyay, B.P. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering] [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Blau, P.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1993-07-01

272

Medical Internet exchange project in Japan.  

PubMed

The Internet has been widely used by medical institutes and hospitals around the world, however; its use for telemedicine is still low. The main reason for this is the availability of bandwidth and poor security through the net. Meanwhile, we have established and have been operating 'Cancer Information Network' among 11 Cancer Centers in Japan, mainly for Multipoint TV Conference using HDTV image. There are also similar projects among 9 cardiovascular centers in Japan. By March, all 240 national hospitals will have been connected by an IP network using an ATM backbone. The above network projects are operated independently, and have an 'Intranet' characteristics within them. There are also many hospitals and clinics connected to the Internet by commercial internet providers. To make a secure and efficient network between these medical networks and medical sites, we started the Medical Internet eXchange project (MDX project) constructing a Medical Network Operation Center to create a link between them. To provide the administrative policy of this project, we established the Medical Internet eXchange Association. We are planning to expand this project to Asian-Pacific countries using the Asian-Pacific Advanced Network (APAN), and also expand it to worldwide connections in the future. For this purpose, we are currently asking other countries to form a structure similar to MDX-Japan. The concept, hardware system, software system, firewall configuration, and routing policy will be also discussed. PMID:10384490

Mizushima, H; Uchiyama, E; Akiyama, M; Yamamoto, R; Tatsumi, H

1998-01-01

273

Vesnarinone-induced WBC disorders in Japan.  

PubMed

Vesnarinone is a new oral inotropic agent that augments myocardial contractility with little effect on heart rate or myocardial oxygen consumption. In Japan, vesnarinone was approved in June 1990 and first marketed in September 1990. Although the efficacy of vesnarinone has been confirmed, WBC disorders, which are principal adverse events associated with the use of vesnarinone, were found after marketing was begun in Japan. This survey was carried out to estimate the incidence of WBC disorders, the predominant periods in which these adverse events develop, and the effects of risk factors in the cohort of patients who have been administered vesnarinone since its market release in Japan. Data were available for 14,921 patients who took vesnarinone at least once during the period from 1 March 1991, through 28 February 1994. Vesnarinone-induced agranulocytosis, which is usually evidenced by a sharp decrease in granulocyte count, was seen in 0.25% of the patients. The cumulative incidence of agranulocytosis was 0.34% at 12 weeks. The predominant period of development was estimated to be the first 4 months after initiation of therapy, with the rate peaking in the second month. The risk of WBC disorders was higher among females. PMID:15073836

Matsuyama, Y; Ohashi, Y; Uchino, H; Takaku, F; Otsuka, Y; Suzuki, A

1996-03-01

274

Japan sets up program for biological research  

SciTech Connect

Japanese officials have put final touches on plans for a global biological research program, called the Human Frontier Science Program, that they hope will launch their country into a new era of international science. Japan will establish a nongovernmental secretariat for the program and will manage it through an international governing council. Almost all the funding in the countries involved- Japan, the U.S., Canada, and the European Community countries- will be provided by Japan, at least at first. In its present design, the program consists of two thrusts- one in the neurosciences with emphasis on brain function, the other on the chemistry and molecular biology of gene expression. The program in the first year would consist of 30 to 50 direct research grants to researchers working in teams, 100 to 200 postdoctoral fellowships, and 10 to 20 workshops. Young researchers would be favored for funding. The average annual grant size would total $500,000, and postdoctoral awards would average $50,000.

Lepkowski, W.

1988-05-16

275

Surrogacy: donor conception regulation in Japan.  

PubMed

As of 2008, surrogacy is legal and openly practised in various places; Japan, however, has no regulations or laws regarding surrogacy. This paper reports the situation of surrogacy in Japan and in five other regions (the USA, the UK, Taiwan, Korea and France) to clarify the pros and cons of prohibiting surrogacy, along with the problems and issues relating to surrogacy compensation. Not only in a country such as France that completely prohibits surrogacy within the country, but also in a country such as the UK that allows non-commercial surrogacy, infertile couples travel overseas for the purpose of surrogacy. In addition, some couples might seek underground surrogacy if the government prohibits surrogacy. If an intended parent couple and a surrogate make an agreement among themselves and then a problem occurs, they cannot ask for support from professionals or bring a case to court, as can be observed in South Korea and Taiwan. We also conclude that there is little difference between commercial surrogacy and non-commercial surrogacy in the absence of a clear definition of 'reasonable expenses.' In the UK, the law does not allow surrogates to receive compensation. However, in reality, there may be little difference between the amounts paid to surrogates for profit in the US and those paid to surrogates for reasonable expenses in the UK. We conclude that the issue of surrogacy demands further discussion in Japan. PMID:20002072

Semba, Yukari; Chang, Chiungfang; Hong, Hyunsoo; Kamisato, Ayako; Kokado, Minori; Muto, Kaori

2010-09-01

276

Admixtures and fibers for shotcrete in Japan  

SciTech Connect

In recent years in Japan the following additives are increasingly being used for Shotcreting in tunnels: Accelerator for shotcreting based on calcium aluminate; dust control agent; and fiber. While dry mix shotcrete was predominantly used in Japan, accelerator of shotcrete based on inorganic salts contributed a great deal to the performance of shotcrete. However this type of accelerator is not so effective to wet mix which has been taking the place of dry mix in recent years. For wet mix shotcrete, accelerator for shotcrete based on Amorphous calcium aluminate is found to be quite effective in gaining sufficient early strength without aggravating long term strength. Practical performance in various cases is reported. A dust control agent for shotcreting is often used to improve working conditions in tunnels. This agent is reported to reduce a great deal of the dust generated in shotcreting operations. A variety of dust control agents are now available, of which constituents are cellulose epoxy , acrylic epoxy, polyvinyl alcohol etc. Use of fibers in shotcrete is also becoming popular in Japan to increase strength and toughness of the concrete. Not only steel fibers but also glass fibers are widely used. Recently more variety of materials such as PVA fiber acrylic and aramid fibers have been tested and some of them are being put into practical use, giving similar properties to shotcrete with steel fibers.

Tazawa, Yujiro

1995-12-31

277

Can GRACE detect winter snows in Japan?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current spatial resolution of the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites is 300-400 km, and so its hydrological applications have been limited to continents and large islands. The Japanese Islands have width slightly smaller than this spatial resolution, but are known to show large amplitude seasonal changes in surface masses due mainly to winter snow. Such loads are responsible for seasonal crustal deformation observed with GEONET, a dense array of GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers in Japan (Heki, 2001). There is also a dense network of surface meteorological sensors for, e.g. snow depths, atmospheric pressures, etc. Heki (2004) showed that combined effects of surface loads, i.e. snow (predominant), atmosphere, soil moisture, dam impoundment, can explain seasonal crustal deformation observed by GPS to a large extent. The total weight of the winter snow in the Japanese Islands in its peak season may reach ~50 Gt. This is comparable to the annual loss of mountain glaciers in the Asian high mountains (Matsuo & Heki, 2010), and is above the detection level of GRACE. In this study, I use GRACE Level-2 Release-4 data from CSR, Univ. Texas, up to 2009 November, and evaluated seasonal changes in surface loads in and around the Japanese Islands. After applying a 350 km Gaussian filter and a de-striping filter, the peak-to-peak change of the water depth becomes ~4 cm in northern Japan. The maximum value is achieved in February-March. The region of large winter load spans from Hokkaido, Japan, to northeastern Honshu, which roughly coincides with the region of deep snow in Japan. Next I compiled snow depth data from surface meteorological observations, and converted them to loads using time-dependent snow density due to compaction. By applying the same spatial filter as the GRACE data, its spatial pattern becomes similar to the GRACE results. The present study suggests that GRACE is capable of detecting seasonal mass changes in an island arc not wider than a few hundreds of kilometers. References: Heki, K., Seasonal modulation of interseismic strain buildup in Northeastern Japan driven by snow loads, Science, 293, 89-92, 2001. Heki, K., Dense GPS array as a new sensor of seasonal changes of surface loads, AGU Monograph, 150, 177-196, 2004. Matsuo, K. and K. Heki, Time-variable ice loss in Asian high mountains from satellite gravimetry, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2009.11.053, 2010.

Heki, Kosuke

2010-05-01

278

FBIS report. Science and technology. Japan: Japan begins promotion of CALS development, February 21, 1996  

SciTech Connect

;JAPAN: Japan Begins Promotion of CALS Development (TRIGGER, Sep 95); Introduction Table of Contents; First Special Symposium on CALS; CALS` Impact on the Japanese Economy; CALS and the Automobile Industry; CALS Developments and Small and Medium Businesses From Now On; Panel Discussion: Upheaval Because of CALS. Company Management; This is CALS; International CALS Organization Established; CALS and STEP; and CALS and EDI; CALS and SGML; Nissan Motor Co.--Compliance with International STEP and EDI Standards; Tokyo Electric Power--CALS Demonstration Project Model; Fuji Heavy Industries--International Joint Development Based on CALS-type Methods; Nippon Steel--Collaborative Engineering Office Pursuing the New Engineering Office; Toyko Engineering--Utilizing `Hardware System Integration` in a Virtual Enterprise; Fujitsu--Accumulating Knowhow for Electronic Commerce; Deciding a CALS Business Strategy Centered on SGML; IBM Japan--Promoting Worldwide Business Process Reengineering; and CALS Survey-Confidence in an Industrial Revolution, Enthusiasm About Introduction of CALS.

NONE

1996-02-21

279

Late Permian Early Triassic paleogeography of northern Japan: Did Pacific microplates accrete to Japan?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive and detailed field studies were conducted in the Kitakami Mountains of northern Japan in order to sample Permian rocks and to make paleogeographic reconstructions for Permian time. These field studies demonstrate that large landmasses were present on both sides of the Honshu geosyncline during Permian time (i.e., on both the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan sides). These landmasses appear, on the basis of sediment studies, to have been present during Permian, Mesozoic, and Paleogene time. The paleogeographic reconstructions presented here and papers by other authors show that neither the accretion of microplates from the Pacific nor major horizontal movements of the Japanese part of Tethys occurred in Mesozoic time. *Present address: 164-2 Fujima, Kawagoe City, Saitama Prefect 356, Japan

Choi, Dong Ryong

1984-12-01

280

A QUARTER CENTURY OF NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN JAPAN  

SciTech Connect

This paper is entitled ''A QUARTER CENTURY OF NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN JAPAN''. Since the first statement on the strategy for radioactive waste management in Japan was made by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in 1976, a quarter century has passed, in which much experience has been accumulated both in technical and social domains. This paper looks back in this 25-year history of radioactive waste management in Japan by highlighting activities related to high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal.

Masuda, S.

2002-02-25

281

Presence of avian pneumovirus subtypes A and B in Japan.  

PubMed

Four avian pneumovirus (APV) isolates from chickens clinically diagnosed with swollen head syndrome were genetically characterized as to the subtypes of the virus in Japan. The results of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions based on subtype-specific primers and direct sequence analysis of G genes indicated subtypes A and B but not C or D of APV were present in Japan. Several routes or sources are conceivable for APV to invade into Japan. PMID:12887210

Mase, Masaji; Yamaguchi, Shigeo; Tsukamoto, Kenji; Imada, Tadao; Imai, Kunitoshi; Nakamura, Kikuyasu

2003-01-01

282

New expectations: Pediatric cochlear implantation in Japan  

PubMed Central

Funding for cochlear implants The Japanese health-care system provides universal health coverage for the entire 127 million population of Japan. This includes all aspects of cochlear implantation, from diagnosis to implantation to mapping and habilitation aftercare. Japan has the third largest developed economy; however, the uptake rate for cochlear implants is lower than that of countries with similar economic status. Japan has an uptake rate of approximately 1% of potentially suitable subjects of all ages, compared with 5.6% in the USA. Cochlear implant provision for children In Japan, about 55% of cochlear implant recipients are children of less than 18 years of age. This represents an increase of 20% in the last 10 years, with a relative increase in the numbers of children receiving implants compared with the numbers of adults. However, only 3–4% of children under the age of 3 years are being implanted at less than 18 months of age. This is in accordance with the Japanese ENT Academy's guidelines, which currently puts the minimum age limit for implants in children at 18 months. Neonatal screening For hearing loss was first piloted nationally in Japan in 2000. Funding for screening subsequently stopped in 2005, though the national treasury provided a further 2 years' funding. Since 2007 local government organizations have been given responsibility to support these screening programs, but there remains considerable variation in funding between different prefectures. In one prefecture, Okayama, 95% of babies were screened and followed up for 2 years. However, the support system for children who need further diagnostic testing after screening remains insufficient. Referral When diagnosed, children with hearing loss are referred for counselling, hearing aids and habilitation. The responsibility for these is divided between the Ministry of Health and Welfare (including surgery, device programming, and therapy) and the Ministry of Education. Schools for the deaf and preschool hearing impaired education centers have had most of the responsibility for early intervention, educational choices and referral for cochlear implantation. In the past 98% of schools for children with hearing loss have used communication methods relying mostly on visual cues. In recent years, however, there has been a shift toward ‘inclusive’ mainstream education. Between 2008 and 2011 the number of children with cochlear implants in special needs schools increased to 16%. It is now estimated that 67% of children with cochlear implants may now be in mainstream schools. There is still the need for support services for these implanted children attending mainstream schools, with adequate provision of resources. Conclusion Cochlear Implantation has had a significant role in changing the medical management and education of children in Japan with hearing loss. Much remains to be done, though the situation has greatly improved in recent years and continues to do so. PMID:23453147

Oliver, Janette

2013-01-01

283

The first nurse practitioner graduate programme in Japan  

PubMed Central

Aim This paper describes the establishment of the first Japanese nurse practitioner graduate programme and legislative activities to institutionalize nurse practitioners in Japan. Background To address the super-ageing population, Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences initiated the first academic graduate level nurse practitioner programme in Japan, based upon the global standard defined by the International Council of Nurses. Conclusion In 2010, Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences graduated the first nurse practitioner. We believe that nurse practitioners will be highly valued in Japan for thoughtful nursing care to the fragile elders living in rural and urban Japan. PMID:25168623

Fukuda, H; Miyauchi, S; Tonai, M; Ono, M; Magilvy, JK; Murashima, S

2014-01-01

284

Seismology in Japan in 1939-1947  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the latter half of this period the seismology in Japan was so much affected by the war that retrogressions in the instrumental seismology became very remarkable. Much regretted three leading seismologists, professors Ishimoto, Sezawa, and Inamura died in this period. But the seismic activities in this well-known land of earthquakes were not less active than usual as will be seen in the annexed table of destructive earthquakes. Seismologists in this country are now endeavoring to restore its former prosperity in this bitter circumstance.

Kawasumi, Hirosi

1950-01-01

285

Subaru Telescope: National Astronomical Observatory of Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Built and operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, the Subaru Telescope sits atop Mauna Kea on Hawaii's Big Island. With a 24-ton mirror, the largest single-piece glass mirror ever used in a telescope, Subaru has produced infrared images as clear and striking as astronomers have been receiving from the Hubble Space Telescope. On January 28, 1999, the director and staff at Subaru Telescope presented "first-light" results for their new telescope. The Subaru homepage contains background information on the project, a description of the telescope and its construction, and overviews of the instrumentation and anticipated scientific activities involving the telescope.

286

Test of Plums, Apricots and Japan Persimmons.  

E-print Network

. The Wild Goose group does not seem so well adapted to Texas as the Chickasaw group. 4. The Chickasaw group seems better adapted to Texas than the American group. 5. The European species of plunis has almost entirely failed. 6. The Japan plums...- ingly difficult to classify them correctly at the present time. I. CHIC'ICASAW GROUP (Fig. No. l).-Prunus nngustt~olia, Marshall; Prunus chicknsaw, Mich. ) This group is described by Bailey as differing from the Wild Goose group (Prlmus hortulana...

Price, R. H. (Robert Henderson)

1894-01-01

287

Communicating ALMA with the Public in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I present the strategy and activities of the public outreach and communication of ALMA in Japan. Since most of the public is not familiar with the radio astronomy, we present the human side of ALMA to attract the public interest, as well as by showing the science results. To evoke the public interest on the radio astronomy, it is also effective to show the radio astronomy research topics on the planets, the Sun, and bright stars so that they can connect the daily night sky with the radio universe explored by ALMA.

Hiramatsu, M.

2015-03-01

288

Knowledge-based systems in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes a study of the state-of-the-art in knowledge-based systems technology in Japan, organized by the Japanese Technology Evaluation Center (JTEC) under the sponsorship of the National Science Foundation and the Advanced Research Projects Agency. The panel visited 19 Japanese sites in March 1992. Based on these site visits plus other interactions with Japanese organizations, both before and after the site visits, the panel prepared a draft final report. JTEC sent the draft to the host organizations for their review. The final report was published in May 1993.

Feigenbaum, Edward; Engelmore, Robert S.; Friedland, Peter E.; Johnson, Bruce B.; Nii, H. Penny; Schorr, Herbert; Shrobe, Howard

1994-01-01

289

tHe LeAdING MBA IN JAPAN Japan's Leading  

E-print Network

): 42 : Modern Corporate Finance Derivatives and Risk Management Investment and Portfolio ManagementM the mcgill mBa JaPan Program, oFFered By mcgill University's desaUtels FacUlty oF management, is the leading of management at mcgill University in montreal. renoWneD Faculty our professors from the desautels Faculty

Shoubridge, Eric

290

Japan’s Rhetoric of Crisis: Prospects for Change after 3.11  

E-print Network

For some Japanese political entrepreneurs, the March 2011 catastrophe in Tohoku (3.11) was a warning for Japan to “put it in gear” and head in a new direction—away from nuclear power or toward a muscular military. For ...

Samuels, Richard J.

2013-01-01

291

PNC\\/DOE Remote Monitoring Project at Japan`s Joyo Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan and the US Department of Energy (DOE) are cooperating on the development of a remote monitoring system for nuclear nonproliferation efforts. This cooperation is part of a broader safeguards agreement between PNC and DOE. A remote monitoring system is being installed in a spent fuel storage area at PNC`s

M. Ross; Yu Hashimoto; Masao Senzaki; Toshinori Shigeto; C. Sonnier; S. Dupree; K. Ystesund; W. Hale

1996-01-01

292

PASJ: Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 60, 303314, 2008 April 25 c 2008. Astronomical Society of Japan.  

E-print Network

. Novel Spectral Imaging Method for Fizeau Interferometers Taro MATSUO, Hiroshi SHIBAI, and Mitsunobu KAWADA Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 matsuo@astr.tohoku.ac.jp and Hiroshi MATSUO Advanced Technology Center, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181

Okabe, Nobuhiro

293

Paleomagnetism of the early Miocene Kani group in southwest Japan and its implication for the opening of the Japan Sea  

SciTech Connect

Paleomagnetic directions of a volcanic and sedimentary sequence of the Kani Basin, ranging from 22 to 15 Ma, show a clockwise declination shift of about 50{degree}. This result implies that detectable rotation of Southwest Japan did not occur in this period, but after 15 Ma. The initial opening of the Japan Sea before 15 Ma might have caused a southeastward translation of Southwest Japan, which was then followed by clockwise rotation between 16 and 14 Ma.

Hayashida, Akira; Fukui, Takako (Doshisha Univ., Kyoto (Japan)); Torii, Masayuki (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

1991-06-01

294

Premature mortality in Japan due to ozone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Japan, all 47 prefectures conduct routine air quality monitoring at 1145 stations throughout the country to assess environmental effects. This study aims to provide a better understanding of possible estimations of premature mortality in Japan caused by exposure to monitored and modeled concentrations of tropospheric ozone during the period from January to December, 2005. The spatial distribution and temporal variation of ozone concentrations were modeled using the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system coupled with the Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (CMAQ/REAS). Premature mortality caused by exposure to ozone was calculated assuming a relative risk (RR) value of 1.003 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.001-1.004] for concentrations above 35 ppb according to the SOMO35 index (annual Sum of daily maximum 8-h Ozone Means Over 35 ppb) recommended by WHO (2008). Based on CMAQ/REAS simulations, the estimated all-cause premature mortality in 2005 is about 13,000 (95% CI: 4320-17,300) cases. This value is 2.5 times greater than the estimated premature mortality based on monitored ozone concentrations, which is 5220 (95% CI: 1740-6960) cases.

Nawahda, Amin; Yamashita, Ken; Ohara, Toshimasa; Kurokawa, Junichi; Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi; Chen, Fang; Akimoto, Hajime

2013-12-01

295

Occurrence of Arthroderma benhamiae Genotype in Japan.  

PubMed

In this study, we epidemiologically investigated on clinical isolates of Arthroderma benhamiae from humans and animals in Japan by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequence analysis and mating type (MAT)-specific PCR. Seven of 8 A. benhamiae isolates from a human, rabbits and guinea pigs were identified as group I (white phenotype) by morphological characters and ITS region sequence analysis. One strain isolated from a degus (Octodon degus) produced colonies with few irregular folds and yellow velvety mycelium without macro- and microconidia. This strain resembled to group II (yellow phenotype) strain. ITS sequence analysis was also 100 % identical to that of group II. MAT-specific PCR indicated that 6 of these 7 isolates of group I contained an alpha-box gene and that one strain contained high-mobility-group (HMG) gene. One strain of group II was revealed to have an alpha-box gene and no HMG gene. To our knowledge, it is the first A. benhamiae isolate of group II found in Japan. The A. benhamiae may be more widespread in worldwide than our surpassing what is common or usual or expected. PMID:25433509

Hiruma, Junichiro; Kano, Rui; Harada, Kazutoshi; Monod, Michel; Hiruma, Masataro; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Tsuboi, Ryoji

2015-04-01

296

Current status of robotic surgery in Japan  

PubMed Central

The da Vinci S surgical system (Intuitive Surgical) was approved as a medical device in 2009 by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Robotic surgery has since been used in gastrointestinal, thoracic, gynecological, and urological surgeries. In April 2012, robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) was first approved for insurance coverage. Since then, RALP has been increasingly used, with more than 3,000 RALP procedures performed by March 2013. By July 2014, 183 institutions in Japan had installed the da Vinci surgical system. Other types of robotic surgeries are not widespread because they are not covered by public health insurance. Clinical trials using robotic partial nephrectomy and robotic gastrectomy for renal and gastric cancers, respectively, have recently begun as advanced medical treatments to evaluate health insurance coverage. These procedures must be evaluated for efficacy and safety before being covered by public health insurance. Other types of robotic surgery are being evaluated in clinical studies. There are several challenges in robotic surgery, including accreditation, training, efficacy, and cost. The largest issue is the cost-benefit balance. In this review, the current situation and a prospective view of robotic surgery in Japan are discussed.

2015-01-01

297

Database and Related Activities in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have constructed and made available atomic and molecular (AM) numerical databases on collision processes such as electron-impact excitation and ionization, recombination and charge transfer of atoms and molecules relevant for plasma physics, fusion research, astrophysics, applied-science plasma, and other related areas. The retrievable data is freely accessible via the internet. We also work on atomic data evaluation and constructing collisional-radiative models for spectroscopic plasma diagnostics. Recently we have worked on Fe ions and W ions theoretically and experimentally. The atomic data and collisional-radiative models for these ions are examined and applied to laboratory plasmas. A visible M1 transition of W26+ ion is identified at 389.41 nm by EBIT experiments and theoretical calculations. We have small non-retrievable databases in addition to our main database. Recently we evaluated photo-absorption cross sections for 9 atoms and 23 molecules and we present them as a new database. We established a new association "Forum of Atomic and Molecular Data and Their Applications" to exchange information among AM data producers, data providers and data users in Japan and we hope this will help to encourage AM data activities in Japan.

Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Kato, Masatoshi; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Kato, Takako; Ding, Xiaobin; Morita, Shigeru; Kitajima, Masashi; Koike, Fumihiro; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Naoki; Sasaki, Akira; Skobelev, Igor; Tsuchida, Hidetsugu; Ulantsev, Artemiy; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Norimasa

2011-05-01

298

Hybrid electric vehicles in Europe and Japan  

SciTech Connect

Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again reexamined the battery powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Consequently, by 1995, vehicle manufacturers turned their attention to hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). This redirection of EV effort is highlighted by the focus on experimental hybrid EV displayed at the 1995 Frankfurt Motor Show and the Tokyo Motor Show in Japan. In Europe the 56th IAA in Frankfurt included twelve or more EV designed for personnel transportation, and among them, two featured hybrid-electric (HEV) systems: the Peugeot turboelectric HEV, and the Opel Ermscher Selectra HEV. In Japan, at the 31st Tokyo Motor Show, among the twenty or more EV on display, seven were hybrid HEV by: Daihatsu, Mitsubishi, Toyota: and, the Suburu, Suzuki, and the Kia KEV4 parallel type HEV. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the key features of these hybrid propulsion systems. Among the conclusions, two issues are evident: one, the focus is on series-type hybrid systems, with the exception of the parallel Suburu and Suzuki HEV, and, two, the major manufacturers are turning to the hybrid concept in their search for solutions to two key EV Issues: limited driving range; and, heating and air conditioning, associated with the low energy density characteristic of batteries.

Wyczalek, F.A. [FW Lilly Inc., Bloomfield Hills, MI (United States)

1996-12-31

299

Kampo medicine for palliative care in Japan  

PubMed Central

Kampo medicines are currently manufactured under strict quality controls. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan has approved 148 Kampo formulas. There is increasing evidence for the efficacy of Kampo medicines, and some are used clinically for palliative care in Japan. The specific aim of this review is to evaluate the clinical use of Kampo medicines in palliative care in the treatment of cancer. The conclusions are as follows: Juzentaihoto inhibits the progression of liver tumors in a dose-dependent manner and contributes to long-term survival. Hochuekkito has clinical effects on cachexia for genitourinary cancer and improves the QOL and immunological status of weak patients, such as postoperative patients. Daikenchuto increases intestinal motility and decreases the postoperative symptoms of patients with total gastrectomy with jejunal pouch interposition, suppresses postoperative inflammation following surgery for colorectal cancer, and controls radiation-induced enteritis. Rikkunshito contributes to the amelioration of anorectic conditions in cancer cachexia-anorexia syndrome. Goshajinkigan and Shakuyakukanzoto reduce the neurotoxicity of patients with colorectal cancer who undergo oxaliplatin and FOLFOX (5-fluorouracil/folinic acid plus oxaliplatin) therapy. Hangeshashinto has the effect of preventing and alleviating diarrhea induced by CPT-11(irinotecan) and combination therapy with S-1/CPT-11. O’rengedokuto significantly improves mucositis caused by anticancer agents. PMID:24447861

2014-01-01

300

Japan's baby bust: an economic issue?  

PubMed

This brief article articulates that the solution to the declining birthrate in Japan is to change the corporate culture and societal values and begin putting the family first. At the present rate of fertility decline, Japan could well have just over 67 million total population in another 100 years, which is 50% of the present total. In 1990, the Finance Minister tried to convince Japanese couples to have more babies by abandoning policies that led women to higher education. The implication is that women would then want to stay at home and have babies. The prosperity of the late 1980s and early 1990s did not encourage higher fertility. The likely reason for low fertility is the male-dominated, corporate culture where male workers leave home early in the morning and work till late at night. Wives are left to care for children and maintain a full-time job. The total fertility rate (TFR) was 3.65 in 1950 and 1.39 in 1998. Both Germany and Italy have lower fertility but higher rates of immigration. The decline in the TFR is responsible for many of the current economic policies. New taxes were introduced in 1997 to pay for social security of the aged, and then the economy stalled. Life expectancies continue to rise. The elderly are a larger proportion of total population than children aged under 15 years. Women marry late, and the divorce rate is high. PMID:12348885

1998-09-01

301

Nationwide rubella epidemic--Japan, 2013.  

PubMed

Rubella usually is a mild, febrile rash illness in children and adults; however, infection early in pregnancy, particularly during the first 16 weeks, can result in miscarriage, stillbirth, or an infant born with birth defects (i.e., congenital rubella syndrome [CRS]). As of 2013, goals to eliminate rubella have been established in two World Health Organization regions (the Region of the Americas by 2010 and the European Region by 2015), and targets for accelerated rubella control and CRS prevention have been established by the Western Pacific Region (WPR). In 1976, Japan introduced single-antigen rubella vaccine in its national immunization program, targeting girls in junior high school. In 1989, a measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine was introduced, targeting children aged 12-72 months. However, adult males remain susceptible to rubella. From January 1 to May 1, 2013, a total of 5,442 rubella cases were reported through the rubella surveillance system in Japan, with the majority (77%) of cases occurring among adult males. Ten infants with CRS were reported during October 2012-May 1, 2013. Countries and regions establishing a goal of accelerated control or elimination of rubella should review their previous and current immunization policies and strategies to identify and vaccinate susceptible persons and to ensure high population immunity in all cohorts, both male and female. PMID:23760185

2013-06-14

302

Sentinel lymph node biopsy in Japan.  

PubMed

Similar to the practice in Western countries, intraoperative lymphatic mapping and selected lymphadenectomy (SLNB) have been validated and are widely performed for the staging of melanoma in Japan. Recent studies have shown that approximately 90% (73/81) of university hospitals and several cancer hospitals routinely perform SLNB, and half of all melanoma patients receive this examination. SLNB is performed according to a variation of the standard procedure described by Morton and Cochran. The most frequently used tracers are Tc(99m)-tin colloid or Tc(99m)-phytate for scintigraphy and patent blue violet or indigo carmine as a blue dye. Some institutions use indocyanine green, which is fluorescent and can be used to visualize sentinel lymph node(s) (SLNs) under an infrared camera. The recent detection rate of SLNs has increased to more than 95% with the method using blue dye, lymphoscintigraphy, and a handheld gamma probe. In a multicenter study, the rates of metastasis in SLN were as follows: pTis, 0% (0/36); pT1, 10.7% (6/56); pT2, 21.0% (13/63); pT3, 34.0% (35/103); and pT4, 62.4% (63/101). The metastasis rate was also significantly related to ulceration of the primary tumor. Here, we discuss data from Japanese patients and the present status of SLNB in Japan. PMID:19967483

Uhara, Hisashi; Takata, Minoru; Saida, Toshiaki

2009-12-01

303

Asthma exacerbations after the East Japan Disaster.  

PubMed

On March 11, 2011, a 9.0-magnitude earthquake struck east Japan, following tsunami. Many people are forced to live in evacuation shelters without enough life-saving drugs. Asthma control for management of health crisis is required, because asthma exacerbation is a major cause of morbidity, can need acute care and results in death. However, it remains obscure what parameter should be used in primary clinic of evacuation shelters. The objective of this study is to elucidate the practical efficacy of asthma assessment tool in primary clinic for victims of this disaster. Asthma control test (ACT), a brief and patient-based tool to evaluate asthma control, was conducted for 17 patients with asthma in evacuation shelters at Tohoku district. Total sum of ACT scores were significantly decreased after this disaster. Significant decreases were observed for the items; "Asthma keeps you from getting much done at work", "Shortness of breath", "Asthma symptoms wake you up" and "Patient rating of control". ACT, an easy and practicable tool, clearly demonstrated the asthma exacerbation in evacuation shelters without the use of lung function testing. ACT may contribute to the management of health crisis not only for this East Japan disaster but also for the other forthcoming unavoidable disasters. PMID:23614913

Ishiura, Yoshihisa; Fujimura, Masaki; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Shiba, Yasutaka; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Kasahara, Kazuo; Ishida, Youichi

2013-01-01

304

Is Japan a step behind on genome?  

SciTech Connect

Grants to four teams will allow Japanese researchers to begin sequencing selected regions of the human genome, but the government has delayed large-scale efforts to match those in other countries. Like human genome researchers throughout the world, scientists in Japan are convinced the time has come for large-scale sequencing. But many here are worried that the time may pass before they get their effort into high gear. This month the Japanese government is set to announce funding that will allow four research groups with links to overseas teams to start sequencing efforts. But the size of these teams is small, and their work will be confined to limited stretches of selected chromosomes. In addition, Science has learned that a proposal to launch a larger scale effort on a par with those being contemplated in the West is likely to be scaled back to insignificance. Together, say researchers, those decisions could leave Japan with an embarrassingly small contribution to the worldwide sequencing effort and hamper related research throughout the life sciences and medicine.

Normile, D.

1995-09-15

305

Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss in Japan  

PubMed Central

Conclusion An epidemiological survey of hospitals and private clinics in Japan regarding idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) revealed that the incidence of SSNHL was 60.9 per 100 000 population. There were more females than males in the younger generation. Objective The incidence of SSNHL varies largely by country. Because the Japanese criteria for diagnosing SSNHL have changed in accordance with those widely used in other parts of the world, a clinicoepidemiological study was undertaken using the new criteria. Methods Ehime, Aichi, and Iwate Prefectures were selected from the western, central, and northeastern regions of Japan, respectively. The subjects for this study were patients who suffered SSNHL between April 1, 2012 and March 31, 2013. Questionnaires were mailed to all hospitals and private clinics in which ENT doctors were working. Initial and final audiograms were requested for 10% of the patients. Results In all, 78 of 90 hospitals (87%) and 303 of 407 private clinics (74%) responded. It was reported that 1663 patients visited hospitals and 3090 patients visited only private clinics. It was estimated that 6205 SSNHL patients visited hospitals or private clinics in 1 year from a population of 10 145 000. Also, 23% of patients suffered acute low-tone SNHL (female to male ratio; 3:1 in definite cases). PMID:25315915

Sato, Hiroaki; Gyo, Kiyofumi; Hato, Naohito; Yoshida, Tadao; Shimono, Mariko; Teranishi, Masaaki; Sone, Michihiko; Fukunaga, Yukari; Kobashi, Gen; Takahashi, Kunihiko; Matsui, Shigeyuki; Ogawa, Kaoru

2014-01-01

306

High Energy Astrophysical Missions in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are five X-ray astronomy satellites launched from Japan. The latest satellite, Suzaku, was launched in 2005. MAXI is an all sky survey mission in X-ray that was attached to the ISS in 2009. These two are functioning at present. ASTRO-H is the only approved mission in X-ray that will be launched in 2014. There are four X-ray detectors on board ASTRO-H, SXS, SXI, HXI and SGD as well as X-ray telescopes made of thin foil mirrors. Most of the future missions heavily depend on them both in technology and in science. From this point of view, we have to concentrate on ASTRO-H so that we can expand our activities in future. In Japan, the small scientific satellite project is now on-going. Two missions are already allocated while no X-ray mission is approved. DIOS, PolariS, CAST and FFAST are proposed. Here we explain FFAST in detail that will study the evolution of the universe.

Tsunemi, Hiroshi

307

Advances in rectal cancer surgery in Japan.  

PubMed

A review of advancement of rectal cancer surgery in Japan is presented. The standard operation for rectal cancer was altered in the 1960s from abdominoperineal resection to the pull-through technique and the handsewn anterior resection in the 1970s, and it became the stapled anterior resection in the 1980s. Today, more than 75 percent of rectal cancers are treated with sphincter-preserving anterior resections, and the remaining 20 percent by abdominoperineal resections. Colonic J-pouch is used with anastomoses involving very low anterior rectal resection for cancers. In the late 1970s, a method of dissecting extended pelvic nodes was adopted to decrease local recurrence. However, extended dissection has been applied to only T3 and T4 cancers of the lower rectum because of postoperative dysfunction of pelvic organs. This was caused by injury to the pelvic nerve plexus, thus lowering the quality of life of the patients. Since the middle of the 1980s, the autonomic nerve-preserving operation attracted surgeons' attention because it prevented these dysfunctions from occurring as a result of the treatment of cancer in the upper rectum and for T1 or T2 cancers in the lower rectum. In this article, recent advances in rectal cancer surgery in Japan are reviewed. PMID:9378017

Yasutomi, M

1997-10-01

308

78 FR 55293 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Japan; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Japan; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing...chlorinated isocyanurates from China and Japan, provided for in subheadings 2933.69...United States at less than fair value by Japan and alleged to be subsidized by...

2013-09-10

309

76 FR 3614 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan: Final Results of Sunset Review and Revocation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan: Final Results of Sunset Review and Revocation...polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``PTFE resin'') from Japan. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset...duty order on imports of PTFE resin from Japan. See Antidumping Duty Order;...

2011-01-20

310

76 FR 798 - Ball Bearings From Japan and the United Kingdom  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fourth Remand)] Ball Bearings From Japan and the United Kingdom AGENCY: United...antidumping duty order on ball bearings from Japan. For further information concerning the...Certain Bearings and Parts Thereof from Japan and the United Kingdom, Inv. Nos....

2011-01-06

311

75 FR 51981 - Polychloroprene Rubber from Japan: Final Results of Sunset Review and Revocation of Finding  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...A-588-046] Polychloroprene Rubber from Japan: Final Results of Sunset Review and Revocation...finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan. Because the domestic interested parties...finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan. See Polychloroprene Rubber from...

2010-08-24

312

75 FR 80457 - Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan: Final Results of Sunset Review and Revocation of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Trade Administration [A-588-866] Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan: Final...review of the antidumping duty order on superalloy degassed chromium (SDC) [[Page 80458...Japan. See Antidumping Duty Order: Superalloy Degassed Chromium from Japan, 70...

2010-12-22

313

76 FR 11509 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan AGENCY: United States...on brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan...on brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely...

2011-03-02

314

75 FR 81308 - Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And Taiwan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And...on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and...on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico,...

2010-12-27

315

75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and...on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and...on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico,...

2010-09-28

316

Foreign migrant workers in Japan: trends and policies.  

PubMed

"This research note presents data on trends in foreign workers in Japan, and reviews recent policy changes relating to these workers. Trends from 1973-1993 are reviewed and data for recent years include disaggregation by country of origin, residence within Japan, status of residence, illegal workers, and gender." PMID:12320108

Mori, H

1995-01-01

317

Neonatal Nurse Practitioner Development in the United States and Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neonatal nursing as a specialty is recognized in many countries, but the role differs considerably. Even in the developed world, the advanced practice role of a neonatal nurse practitioner may not exist in some countries. This article will describe the current state of neonatal nursing in the United States and Japan, outlining the need for neonatal nurse practitioners in Japan

Wakako Eklund

2011-01-01

318

The Issue of Diversity and Multiculturalism in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to problematize that which has been taken for granted about the notion of multiculturalism in Japan. Multiculturalism is a "hot" issue in Japan. As the Japanese government started to promote "internationalization" since 1980s, slogans such as "international exchange," "cultural exchange," "understanding of other…

Qi, Jie; Zhang, Sheng Ping

2008-01-01

319

Australia, Japan and the OECD: GDP Rankings and Revealed Preference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on volumes and prices of consumption and investment are used to compare Australian real GDP for 1990 with the other OECD countries. Australian consumption patterns, including leisure, and price structure are very different from most other countries and especially from those of Japan. The Australian bundle of consumption, investment and leisure is revealed preferred to that of Japan and

Steve Dowrick; John Quiggin

1993-01-01

320

Epidemiology of Esophageal Cancer in Japan and China  

PubMed Central

In preparation for a collaborative multidisciplinary study of the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer, the authors reviewed the published literature to identify similarities and differences between Japan and China in esophageal cancer epidemiology. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the predominant histologic type, while the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma remains extremely low in both countries. Numerous epidemiologic studies in both countries show that alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are contributing risk factors for ESCC. There are differences, however, in many aspects of esophageal cancer between Japan and China, including cancer burden, patterns of incidence and mortality, sex ratio of mortality, risk factor profiles, and genetic variants. Overall incidence and mortality rates are higher in China than in Japan, and variation in mortality and incidence patterns is greater in China than in Japan. During the study period (1987–2000), the decline in age-adjusted mortality rates was more apparent in China than in Japan. Risk factor profiles differed between high- and low-incidence areas within China, but not in Japan. The association of smoking and drinking with ESCC risk appears to be weaker in China than in Japan. Genome-wide association studies in China showed that variants in several chromosome regions conferred increased risk, but only genetic variants in alcohol-metabolizing genes were significantly associated with ESCC risk in Japan. A well-designed multidisciplinary epidemiologic study is needed to examine the role of diet and eating habits in ESCC risk. PMID:23629646

Lin, Yingsong; Totsuka, Yukari; He, Yutong; Kikuchi, Shogo; Qiao, Youlin; Ueda, Junko; Wei, Wenqiang; Inoue, Manami; Tanaka, Hideo

2013-01-01

321

Media Education in Japan (Retrospect and Present Trends).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This overview of the development of media education in Japan begins with a discussion of the motion picture as entertainment and the public attitude toward film in Japan during the early years of the century. The introduction of film education into the schools in the 1920s--both teaching by film and teaching about film--is then described together…

Takakuwa, Yasuo

322

What determines the spatial distribution of homeless people in Japan?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of homeless people has been increasing dramatically in Japan since the collapse of the bubble economy in the early of 1990s. This article is the first economic analysis using Geographic Information System (GIS) data to study the spatial distribution of Japan's homeless population. Results suggest that the availability of employment, public medical care and food significantly affect the

Wataru Suzuki

2008-01-01

323

Digital Technology at the National Science Museum of Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Science Museum (NSM) in Japan has recently completed a project using different types of visitor-oriented digital technologies. With sponsorship from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), the NSM team carried out a four-year study to examine how digital technologies can be used to enhance as well as educationally…

Lydens, Lois; Saito, Yasuji; Inoue, Tohru

2007-01-01

324

Sun-Sentinel How Florida's nuclear plants compare to Japan's  

E-print Network

Sun-Sentinel How Florida's nuclear plants compare to Japan's By Julie Patel March 17, 2011 01:35 PM What went wrong at the Fukushima nuclear plant in Japan and how are Florida's nuclear plants prepared to deal with similar problems? Nuclear operators in Florida say the biggest risk their plants face is from

Belogay, Eugene A.

325

Sounding rocket activities of Japan in 2003 and 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

In October 2003, a new space agency, JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) was reorganized and started as a primary space agency to promote all space activities in Japan. The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) belonged to JAXA and continued to promote space science and technologies using unique scientific satellites, sounding rockets and balloons. This paper summarizes sounding rocket

Nobuaki Ishii; Yoshifumi Inatani; Satoshi Nonaka; Takashi Nakajima; Abe Takumi; Tsuda Yuichi; Takamasa Yamagami

2005-01-01

326

Tokugawa Japan and Industrial Revolution Britain: Two Misunderstood Societies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author presents a truer picture than economic historians have previously had of the economies of Tokugawa Japan, and Britain during the Industrial Revolution. Though substantially different, both societies were prosperous compared to most of the rest of the world. Japan's economic success began in the Tokugawa period…

Ellington, Lucien

2013-01-01

327

Japan rejects EU ITER deal 02 February 2005  

E-print Network

this year. The joint project between Japan, the EU, the US, Russia, China and South Korea will see). Japan, backed by the US and South Korea, wants the reactor in the Japanese village of Rokkasho. The EU. In a related development, South Korea has announced a budget of $27.8 million this year for a new fusion

328

Ethics Education for Professionals in Japan: A Critical Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethics education for professionals has become popular in Japan over the last two decades. Many professional schools now require students to take an applied ethics or professional ethics course. In contrast, very few courses of professional ethics for teaching exist or have been taught in Japan. In order to obtain suggestions for teacher education,…

Maruyama, Yasushi; Ueno, Tetsu

2010-01-01

329

Archaeological investigations of anadromous salmonid fishing in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the archaeology of salmon fishing in Japan, mostly during the Jomon period. The starting point is Sugao Yamanouchi's ‘salmon\\/trout theory’, which suggested that the greater density of Jomon sites in northeastern Japan could be linked to greater availability of dog salmon (Oncorynchus keta) and trout (O. masou) in this area. Many archaeologists disputed this theory on the

Akira Matsui

1996-01-01

330

Othello in Tokyo: Performing Race and Empire in 1903 Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1903, the theatrical troupe of Kawakami Otojirō performed an adaptation of Shakespeare's Othello on the Japanese stage. Kawakami asked the popular writer Emi Suiin to adapt the play to the circumstances of Meiji Japan. In Emi's version, which entitled Osero, the dramatic action is transposed from Renaissance Venice and Cyprus to twentieth-century Japan and Taiwan. Washiro (Othello), a Japanese

Robert Tierney

2011-01-01

331

Othello in Tokyo: Performing Race and Empire in 1903 Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

:In 1903, the theatrical troupe of Kawakami Otojirō performed an adaptation of Shakespeare's Othello on the Japanese stage. Kawakami asked the popular writer Emi Suiin to adapt the play to the circumstances of Meiji Japan. In Emi's version, which entitled Osero, the dramatic action is transposed from Renaissance Venice and Cyprus to twentieth-century Japan and Taiwan. Washiro (Othello), a Japanese

Robert Tierney

2011-01-01

332

Japan's Teacher Acculturation: Critical Analysis through Comparative Ethnographic Narrative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cross-cultural teaching and research in Canada and Japan is reported. Ethnographic narrative methods were used to examine Japan's teacher acculturation. Canada's teachers are largely required to work in isolation, to learn their practice through trial and error. There is little provision for mentorship and insufficient time to reflect. In…

Howe, Edward R.

2005-01-01

333

Keys for growth in Japan's mature mobile market  

E-print Network

The objective of this thesis is to identify key factors that will produce further growth for NTT DoCoMo in Japan's mature mobile market. Since the early 1990s, the mobile phone market in Japan has grown rapidly, and ...

Oto, Hiroyuki

2005-01-01

334

Clinical features of probable Moyamoya disease in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify the current clinical features of probable Moyamoya disease in Japan, 180 cases were analyzed based on the cases collected by the Research Committee on Spontaneous Occlusion of the Circle of Willis of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Japan. Although the age distribution patterns of probable Moyamoya disease showed two peaks similar to that of definite cases, the

Kiyonobu Ikezaki; Takanori Inamura; Teruaki Kawano; Masashi Fukui

1997-01-01

335

Japan: Super-Aging Society Preparing for the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Japan has the highest proportion of older adults in the world. Aging is not only an immediate personal issue but also a salient factor in crucial public policies, such as pensions, health, and long-term care. The Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear power plant disaster of March 2011 has highlighted current and emerging issues of a…

Muramatsu, Naoko; Akiyama, Hiroko

2011-01-01

336

The UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshop Programme...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors have been running UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshops at universities in Britain and Japan since 2001: for the past three years in England with Cambridge University and, last year, also with Kyoto University and Kyoto University of Education. For many years they have worked jointly with colleagues in a group of Super Science High…

Albone, Eric; Okano, Toru

2012-01-01

337

An Overview of Electric and Advanced Propulsion Activities in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the current status of electric propulsion technology development and related studies in Japan. Ion engine systems (IES) onboard the Engineering Test Satellite VI (ETS-VI) and the Communications and Broadcasting Engineering Test Satellite (COMETS), and a quasisteady MPD thruster onboard the Space Flyer Unit (SFU) were successfully demonstrated. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is to

Kimiya Komurasaki; Yoshihiro Arakawa; Haruki Takegahara

2000-01-01

338

Current development of counseling and psychological services in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a brief history and overview of the development of clinical psychology and counseling psychology in Japan and describes the current development of counseling and psychological services in Japan. Clinical psychologists are the largest group of mental health professionals providing counseling and psychological services along with, to a lesser degree, counseling psychologists. The major focus of this article

Darryl Takizo Yagi

2010-01-01

339

East Asia Institute March 31, 2011 UTSA Cares about Japan  

E-print Network

East Asia Institute March 31, 2011 UTSA Cares about Japan Donation Drive for the Japan Tsunami currently studying Communications at UTSA. "I am very glad that our campus has organized a fundraiser helping out started off small. Gradually, more and more people offered Donation drive at UTSA to help

Dodla, Ramana

340

Kinematic modeling of crustal deformation in the Central Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central Japan is situated on a complex plate boundary region where 3 or 4 tectonic plates or microplates converging one another. Crustal deformation along the southern coast is dominated by locking effects on the subducting plate boundary, while East-West compression caused by collision between northeast and southwest Japan is prominent further inland. In order to understand plate interaction and seismotectonics

K. Ozawa; T. Sagiya

2008-01-01

341

An Animated ImbalanceJapan's Television Heroines in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along with Japanese children, other Asian children are watching such cartoon shows as Doraemon, Dragonball Z and Sailor Moon. Animated cartoons, accounting for 58.3 percent of Japan's television exports, reach Asia's large youth population, just as the birth rate in Japan is declining. In Asia, animation constitutes the largest category of children's television programming (28.4 percent) - almost all of

Anne Cooper-Chen

1999-01-01

342

Japan has Joined the IPhO Shuji Hasegawa*  

E-print Network

to hold a domestic competition, "Physics Challenge", for high-school students in the summer of 2005 as one Society of Japan (JPS) created asmallpreparatorycommitteein2002.Later on,The Physics Education Society The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) 2006 in Singapore was a mo- mentous occasion for Japan, because

Hasegawa, Shuji

343

Primary sclerosing cholangitis in Japan—analysis of 192 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary sclerosing cholangitis is very rare in Japan. The aim of the present study was to identify the characteristics of such patients in Japan. A questionnaire was sent to the members of the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology and responses for 192 cases were analyzed. There was male predominancy (61%), and two peaks in the age distribution at diagnosis (20–30 years

Hajime Takikawa; Tadao Manabe

1997-01-01

344

Nuclear Catastrophe, Disaster-Related Environmental Injustice, and Fukushima, Japan  

E-print Network

Nuclear Catastrophe, Disaster-Related Environmental Injustice, and Fukushima, Japan: Prima-Facie Evidence for a Japanese ``Katrina'' Kristin Shrader-Frechette ABSTRACT Because Japan has few minorities the 2011 Japanese Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear disaster (FD) as a preliminary case study-- despite the limits

Shrader-Frechette, Kristin

345

NASDA and the Space Industry in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With over 30 years of history in space activities, Japan is now recognized as one of space powers in the world. Compared to other countries though, the features of Japanese space development are unique in several aspects. At first, its efforts are directed solely toward peaceful purposes and strictly separated from military uses. Secondly, there are many space related governmental agencies and institutes which are under supervision of different ministries. Thirdly, although the government budget is moderate and sales revenue of space industries is not so large, many large companies in aerospace or electronics industries see the importance of this business and compete each other mainly in the domestic market. NASDA, founded in 1969, is the largest governmental space organization and has played an important role in realizing practical applications of space activities. It has rapidly caught up the technology gap behind leading countries and has achieved remarkable successes with its own launch vehicles and satellites. Space industries, under the guidance of NASDA, have learned much from the U.S. companies and improved their technology levels and enjoyed steady growth during the early stage of Japanese space development. But before they became competitive enough in the world space business, the trade conflict between Japan and the U.S. made the procurement of Japanese non-R&D satellites open to the foreign satellite companies. Furthermore, interruptions of space activities due to recent successive failures of launch vehicles as well as Japanese economic slump have made space industries face hard situations. Under these circumstances, M&A of launch vehicle companies as well as satellite makers took place for the first time in Japanese aero-space history. Also at the government level, reorganization of space agencies is now under process. It is expected as a natural consequence of the merge of the Ministry of Education and the Science an Technology Agency, three space agencies under these Ministries, NASDA, ISAS and NAL, are going to consolidate within a couple of years. We expect the new organization could restore the confidence in Japanese space development by combining the enthusiasms for space activities and utilize effectively resources in Japan.

Takamatsu, Hideo

2002-01-01

346

The burden of insomnia in Japan  

PubMed Central

Objectives Several studies have suggested that patients who experience insomnia report a number of significant impairments. However, despite this literature, fewer studies have focused on the burden of insomnia among patients in Japan. The objective of the current study is to extend this work in Japan to further understand the effect of insomnia on health-related quality of life (hrQOL). Further, another objective is to understand general predictors of hrQOL among patients with insomnia. Methods Data from the 2012 Japan National Health and Wellness Survey, an annual, cross-sectional study of adults aged 18 years or older, were used (N=30,000). All National Health and Wellness Survey respondents were categorized based on the incidence of self-reported insomnia diagnosis and prescription medication usage (clinical insomniacs under treatment versus [vs] good sleepers without insomnia or insomnia symptoms). Comparisons among different groups were made using multiple regression models controlling for demographics and health history. Results Clinical insomniacs (n=1,018; 3.4%) reported significantly worse hrQOL compared with good sleepers (n=20,542) (mental component summary: 34.2 vs 48.0; physical component summary: 48.0 vs 52.8; health utilities: 0.61 vs 0.76; all P<0.05). Health behaviors (smoking, exercise, alcohol use) and comorbidities were the strongest predictors of health utilities for clinical insomniacs. For all three clinical insomniac subgroups of interest, those with a physical comorbidity but not a psychiatric one, those with a psychiatric comorbidity but not a physical one, and those without either a physical or psychiatric comorbidity, large decrements in health utilities were observed for respondents who did not engage in any positive health behaviors (0.61, 0.57, 0.64, respectively) relative to good sleepers (0.78). However, the gap in health utility scores between these subgroups and good sleepers diminishes with an increasing number of positive health behaviors (eg, clinical insomniacs with a physical comorbidity but not a psychiatric comorbidity performing all three positive health behaviors =0.67 vs good sleepers =0.78). Discussion A significant burden remains for those with insomnia who are treated. Given the particularly low levels of hrQOL among treated insomnia patients who have poor health behavior profiles and have psychiatric comorbidities, physicians should place particular emphasis on these patients who are most in need of intervention. Improved treatments may help to address the unmet needs of these patient populations. PMID:25610008

Mishima, Kazuo; DiBonaventura, Marco daCosta; Gross, Hillary

2015-01-01

347

Overview of DRAGON-Japan in 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) is an on-going project since early 1990s. The 400 sun/sky radiometers are sparsely deployed and provide us with the information of aerosol properties over the world. In summer of 2011, the first DRAGON field campaign was made in Washington, D.C./Baltimore metropolitan area, where about 40 AERONET Cimel instruments were set according to small square grid boxes. Thus it has been shown that the detail scale observations are useful to investigate the local influence of aerosols and validation of high resolution satellite product such as newly developed 3 km x 3 km aerosol product from MODIS. The second DRAGON project is done in East Asia because this region emits huge amount of anthropogenic gases and aerosols. The emission influences not only local atmosphere near the origin but also out of Asian continent by long range transportation. The aim of DRAGON-Japan is as follows: 1: retrieval of optical properties of trans-boundary aerosols, 2: detection of aerosols over megacity, 3: investigation of the influence to local aerosols by inbound aerosols from continent. During the DRAGON-Asia (March-May, 2012), AERONET instruments were set sparsely from Fukue Island (in the East China Sea) to Osaka (in the middle of Japan) as well as 2ch-LIDAR system. As for megacity region, dense sun/sky radiometer network was made by using nine instruments at Mt. Rokko (840 m/asl.), Mt. Ikoma (640 m/asl.), Kobe, North-Osaka, South-Osaka, Central-Osaka, East-Osaka (simply named by Osaka in AERONET web), Nara, and Kyoto. The following results on AOT (Aerosol optical thickness at a wavelength of 500 nm: AERONET Level 1.5) have been driven from the measurements : 1: Fukue Island provides the highest value as 0.56, 2: in respect of urban cities; 0.42 at Fukuoka, 0.42~0.47 over Osaka area, and 0.39 at Kyoto or Nara, 3: in the remote place; 0.33~0.35 at Nishiharima, Noto or Shirahama, 4: the difference between AOT values at mountain (ex. Mt. Rokko, Mt. Ikoma) and those at sea level takes the value of about 0.1. It is drawn from the above facts that the influence of inbound aerosols to total one is really high in western part of Japan.

Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.; Mukai, S.; Sugimoto, N.; Hatakeyama, S.; Schafer, J. S.; Eck, T. F.; Nishizawa, T.; Takemura, T.; Takamura, T.; Teruyuki, N.; Nakajima, T. Y.; Takami, A.; Kaneyasu, N.; Goto, M.; Hiraki, T.; Iguchi, N.; Kenny, P.; Kouzai, K.; Kuji, M.; Muramatsu, K.; Nakata, M.; Okada, Y.; Sadanaga, Y.; Sorokin, M.; Tohno, S.; Toyazaki, Y.; Kim, J.; Li, Z.

2012-12-01

348

US-Japan Workshop on Soil-Structure Interaction, Tsukuba, Japan, March 2007 COMMENTS ON SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTION  

E-print Network

). Properly speaking, the theory of SSI began in the 1930's with the publication of Reissner [14th US-Japan Workshop on Soil-Structure Interaction, Tsukuba, Japan, March 2007 1 COMMENTS ON SOIL in general, and from the vast accumulation of earthquake records obtained by seismological stations as well

Entekhabi, Dara

349

Surveys of postpartum depression in Miyagi, Japan, after the Great East Japan Earthquake.  

PubMed

This study explores the correlation between the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the incidence of postpartum depression in Miyagi prefecture, Japan. The design used was a cross-sectional study with self-administered questionnaires, 6-9 months after the disaster. The results showed the prevalence of postnatal women with Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score of ?9 to be 21.3 %. Multivariate analysis showed that exposure to tsunami (odds ratio, 1.80; 95 % confidence interval, 1.16-2.78) was significantly and independently associated with an EPDS score of ?9. Postnatal women and their children should be treated as a vulnerable population, and a protective framework must be established to prepare for future devastating disasters. PMID:25204487

Nishigori, Hidekazu; Sugawara, Junichi; Obara, Taku; Nishigori, Toshie; Sato, Kineko; Sugiyama, Takashi; Okamura, Kunihiro; Yaegashi, Nobuo

2014-12-01

350

Online database of archaeomagnetism in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are now reconstructing the archaeomagnetic database and the geomagnetic secular variation model for the past 2000 years in Japan. Here we introduce a new online database of archaeomagnetism. There are several thousands of archaeomagnetic data mainly obtained from buried kilns and baked earths. Our goal is collecting and compiling these data and publishing to the geoscientists, the archaeologist, the people involved in education, students and citizens interested in geomagnetism and archaeology. Now we support a search engine of the archaeomagnetic data of direction and intensity, links to the references and sites outside, the site locations on a map and the educational documents (only in Japanese). We have a future plan to provide database improved and secular variation model reduced to given location in the Far East region.

Hatakeyama, T.

2013-12-01

351

Thallium contamination in wild ducks in Japan.  

PubMed

Although thallium (Tl) is toxic to both humans and animals, there is little information on contamination in wildlife. In this study, Tl contents in wild ducks in Japan were determined. Contents of Tl in kidney and liver ranged from 0.42 to 119.61 and 0.10 to 33.94 microg/g dry weight, respectively. Significant correlations between Tl contents in kidney and liver were observed for all dabbling ducks except mallard (Anas platyrhynchos); similar correlations were not observed in diving ducks. Variation in Tl content was observed between sampling locations with the highest mean Tl content in the Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope) collected in Ibaraki Prefecture. PMID:16244083

Mochizuki, Mariko; Mori, Makoto; Akinaga, Mayumi; Yugami, Kyoko; Oya, Chika; Hondo, Ryo; Ueda, Fukiko

2005-07-01

352

STAR WEEK: A Successful Campaign in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A campaign of the Star Week, set as August 1 - 7, has been started in 1995 throughout various life-learning facilities. Astronomical facilities including planetariums, science museums, and public observatories has been participating in this campaign, together with amateur astronomers clubs or private observatories. More than 300 astronomical events such as star watching parties were coordinated for general public every year. The Star Week has been grown up to one of the most successful campaigns not only for for astronomy but also for basic sciences in Japan over this 15 years. In this paper, a brief history and the present status of the Star Week are introduced together with the with some statistics.

Watanabe, Junichi

2011-06-01

353

Activities for the Promotion of Gender Equality in Japan—Japan Society of Applied Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1946, the Japan Society of Applied Physics (JSAP) has strived to promote research and development in applied physics for benefits beyond national boundaries. Activities of JSAP involve multidisciplinary fields, from physics and engineering to life sciences. Of its 23,000 members, 48% are from industry, 29% from academia, and about 7% from semi-autonomous national research laboratories. Its large industrial membership is one of the distinctive features of JSAP. In preparation for the First IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics (Paris, 2002), JSAP members took the first step under the strong leadership of then-JSAP President Toshio Goto, setting up the Committee for the Promotion Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Technology. Equality rather than women's advancement is highlighted to further development in science and technology. Attention is also paid to balancing the number of researchers from different age groups and affiliations. The committee has 22 members: 12 female and 10 male; 7 from corporations, 12 from universities, and 3 from semi-autonomous national research institutes. Its main activities are to organize symposia and meetings, conduct surveys among JSAP members, and provide child-care facilities at meetings and conferences. In 2002 the Japan Physics Society and the Chemical Society of Japan jointly created the Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association for the Promotion of Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering. Membership has grown to 44 societies (of which 19 are observers) ranging from mathematics, information, and life sciences to civil engineering. Joint activities across sectors and empower the whole. The Gender Equality Bureau in the Cabinet Office recently launched a large-scale project called "Challenge Campaign" to encourage girls to major in natural science and engineering, which JSAP is co-sponsoring.

Kodate, Kashiko; Tanaka, Kazuo

2005-10-01

354

Japan’s waste management policies for dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls  

Microsoft Academic Search

We summarize the measures taken by the Japanese government to prevent the emission of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls\\u000a (PCBs) into the environment. Because incineration is the main method of waste management in Japan, reducing the amount of\\u000a dioxins emitted from waste incinerators is an essential aspect of proper waste treatment. Intensive measures to prevent the\\u000a formation of dioxins at the

Hideto Yoshida; Kazuaki Takahashi; Nobuo Takeda; Shin-ichi Sakai

2009-01-01

355

Multipurpose soft contact lens care in Japan  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the use of multipurpose lens care products via an online survey conducted among soft contact lens (SCL) wearers in Japan. Methods The subjects were 1000 men and women aged 15–44 years who reported that they cleaned their SCL by using multipurpose solution at least twice a week. Via the internet, they were asked questions about SCL care, the use of a rubbing step when cleaning SCL, cleaning and replacing lens cases, and recommended SCL care methods. Results Of the 1000 SCL wearers enrolled, 94.3% performed lens care every day lenses were worn, 64.2% reported rubbing the lenses every time, 57.9% rubbed the lenses for at least 10 seconds per side, and 64.7% reported they rubbed the lenses on both sides. Further, 61.2% reported that they had been given an explanation of SCL cleaning at an eye clinic or contact lens store. Only 49.8% of subjects reported that they cleaned the lens case every time and 61.7% replaced the case within 3 months. Only 19.5% had been given an explanation about lens case care. Half of the subjects reported they had been given no recommendation to use specific SCL care products or could not remember whether or not they had. The most common reason for the recommendation was good compatibility with their type of lens. Conclusion More education is needed in Japan regarding methods of SCL care to ensure correct lens cleaning with inclusion of a rubbing step, as well as sufficient cleaning and replacement of the lens case. Of particular interest is the finding that many subjects were not given an explanation about proper SCL care and lens case cleaning and replacement at the time of lens purchase or prescription. PMID:22291454

Toshida, Hiroshi; Kadota, Yoshiaki; Suto, Chikako; Ohta, Toshihiko; Murakami, Akira

2012-01-01

356

Advances in cancer epidemiology in Japan.  

PubMed

Epidemiologists in Japan have been performing calculations to estimate nationwide cancer incidence rates as well as 5-year survival rates using population-based cancer registry data. There have been remarkable changes in cancer incidence and/or mortality in cancers of the lung, liver and stomach, which were thought to be attributed to the changing impact of exposure to cigarette smoking, chronic hepatitis C virus infection and Helicobacter pylori infection, respectively. In systematic reviews providing evidence in risk/protective factors for cancer sites using case-control and cohort studies of the Japanese population, there were associations between cancer sites (esophagus, stomach, colo-rectum, liver, pancreas, lung and breast) and various lifestyle factors. In the past 10 years, a hospital-based case-control study at Aichi Cancer Center provided valuable evidence of gene-environment interaction on the development of cancer [i.e., the effects of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) polymorphism and heavy alcohol drinking on esophageal cancer, ALDH2 polymorphism and smoking on lung cancer, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism and heavy alcohol drinking on pancreatic cancer]. The database with stored DNA was also used and identified seven loci containing significant but low-penetrance polymorphisms associated with the development of breast cancer. These findings together with established risk factors are likely to be useful to predict personalized breast cancer risk in East Asian women. In 2005, the Japan Multi-Institution Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study was launched to elucidate gene-environment interactions as well as to confirm preclinical diagnostic biomarkers of cancer. J-MICC, which has recruited 92,000 healthy individuals by the end of 2012, will follow the individuals until 2025. PMID:24105756

Tanaka, Hideo

2014-02-15

357

Incidence of Myelodysplastic Syndrome in Japan  

PubMed Central

Background Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a diverse group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell malignancies that primarily affect the elderly. Although the incidence of MDS in western countries has been well investigated, little is known about the incidence in Asian populations. Methods To identify the incidence of MDS in Japan, we used population-based registry data from 1993 to 2008. The data represented 33.1% of the Japanese population. A total of 7995 patients were reported to the registry with newly diagnosed MDS during the study period. Results Median age at diagnosis was 76 years. Incidence sharply increased with age, particularly in those aged over 70 years. The most recent crude incidence rate of MDS was 3.8 (95% CI 3.6–4.1) cases per 100 000 for men and 2.4 (95% CI 2.2–2.6) cases per 100 000 for women in 2008. Age-adjusted incidences of MDS in 2008, standardized by the world standard population, were 1.6 and 0.8 cases per 100 000 for men and women, respectively, while incidences standardized by the 1985 Japanese population were 2.5 and 1.2 cases per 100 000 for men and women, respectively. Conclusions Our study reveals that some elderly patients suffer from MDS in Japan, but the incidence is lower than in Western countries. In current clinical practice, many elderly MDS patients are treated with supportive therapy based on an incomplete diagnosis, suggesting that the incidence estimated in this study might still be substantially underestimated. Accurate evaluation of the health impact of MDS requires evaluation of the mortality of the disease, continued surveillance, and improvement in the quality of cancer registry data. PMID:25088696

Chihara, Dai; Ito, Hidemi; Katanoda, Kota; Shibata, Akiko; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Sobue, Tomotaka; Matsuo, Keitaro

2014-01-01

358

Current state of family planning in Japan.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes the findings of the 19th National Survey on Family Planning, conducted in June 1988, covering 3400 married women under 50 years of age. The survey was carried out by the Population Problems Research Council of the Mainichi Newspapers in cooperation with the Japan Federation of Family Planning, the Japan Family Planning Association, and the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning. The ideal number of children a couple wishes to have began to go down with the occurrence of the global oil crisis in 1973. Since 1979, 2 children have ranked 1st in preference. Younger and urban mothers had a stronger preference for 2 children than older or rural mothers. More than half, or 56.3% of the respondents, are currently practicing contraception. These rates are not as high as those of European or American women. 39.1% of the contraceptors began practicing contraception after the birth of their 2nd child. In 1986, the number of abortions was .52 million, less than half the number of abortions at their peak in 1955. 30% of the respondents have had at least 1 abortion. Findings suggest that under the current situation, where sufficient information and knowledge of contraception is present, many married women are against abortion in cases of contraceptive failure, while they are sympathetic to abortions due to straitened circumstances. Many people no longer seem to have as strong feeling of obligation towards the aging as before. They expect more support from the government. 74.6% of the mothers thought that schools needed to provide sex education, including contraceptive methods. Only 6.4% responded negatively. More than 70% feel that sex education should start in junior high school. A slightly higher percentage of younger mothers have breastfed their children than did older mothers. PMID:12282144

Ozaki, M

1989-07-01

359

Gendering Knowledge in Discourse on Japan's Herbivore Boys  

E-print Network

language, or rather through the act of discourse that creates, from the very fact that it is articulated, a rule of law” (Foucault 1990: 83). Yet power and discourse are fluid and unpredictable, double-edged strategies that may impede the very people who...’s devastation during World War II. Close collaboration among industry, the state, and the educational system earned Japan the moniker Japan Inc. (Yoda 2006b: 29), and collectively Japan Inc. produced what many today still call an “economic miracle.” Because...

Koike, Evan

2013-08-31

360

JTEC panel report on advanced composites in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The JTEC Panel on Advanced Composites visited Japan and surveyed the status and future directions of Japanese high performance ceramic and carbon fibers and their composites in metal, intermetallic, ceramic and carbon matrices. The panel's interests included not only what composite systems were chosen, but also how these systems were developed. A strong carbon and fiber industry makes Japan the leader in carbon fiber technology. Japan has initiated an oxidation resistant carbon/carbon composite program. The goals for this program are ambitious, and it is just starting, but its progress should be closely monitored in the United States.

Diefendorf, R. J.; Grisaffe, S. J.; Hillig, W. B.; Perepezko, J. H.; Pipes, R. B.; Sheehan, J. E.

1991-01-01

361

Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Japan  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Japan, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Japan.

Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Takagi, T.

2009-04-15

362

Current Status and Perspectives of Cysticercosis and Taeniasis in Japan  

PubMed Central

This mini-review describes recent epidemiological trends in cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan. Some of the topics discussed herein were presented at the first symposium on "Current perspectives of Taenia asiatica researches", that was held in Osong in Chungbuk Province, South Korea, in October 2011 and organized by Prof. K. S. Eom, Chungbuk National University School of Medicine. To better understand the trends in the occurrence of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan, clinical cases reported in 2005 have been updated. In addition, the current status of Taenia asiatica infections successively occurring in Japan since 2010 is also discussed. PMID:23467264

2013-01-01

363

[Counterfeit medicines--Japan and the world].  

PubMed

Circulating counterfeit medicines in the market is a public health threat. Counterfeit medicines become common problem, not only in developing countries, but also in industrialised countries, as internet has made them more accessible. In Japan, the recent survey on the medicines purchased through on-line pharmacy (targeting Japanese consumers) showed that the majority of erectile dysfunction (ED) medicines imported by individuals in Japan were counterfeit version. The survey of Japanese consumers, who privately imported medicines through on-line pharmacy, indicated that 16% of these consumers experienced adverse events associated with these products. Not only that it is just fake brand, but fake medicines may even cause health hazard. The counterfeit version of Avastin recently detected in the United States became a serious threat for those who desperately need these medicines for life-threatening disease. The Japanese regulatory authorities have provided risk information of counterfeit medicines to general public, as well as monitored on-line pharmacies and conducted enforcement action where necessary. However, more resources of compliance activity should be allocated to respond to the situation of growing threats of counterfeit medicines. Purchasing medicines from abroad through unauthorised channel is the major source of counterfeit medicines. It is essential to prevent circulation of counterfeit medicines through international collaboration of various regulatory authorities. To address these problems, the World Health Organization (WHO) has launched a new Member States Mechanism (MSM) to build network of the authorities. Also, INTERPOL (ICPO) initiated globally concerted enforcement actions (Operation Pangea) against pharmaceutical crime as well as built partnership with pharmaceutical industry to create Pharmaceutical Crime Programme. It is also necessary to prevent consumers encountering counterfeit medicines and to prevent health hazard. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) has been actively involved in prevention and educational activities such as public awareness campaign. MHLW started anti-counterfeit medicines and new psychoactive substance project from February 2013, which centrally collects information about counterfeit medicines, in particular, and provides the risk information more effectively to the public. Japanese Government will work together with international community and contribute to combating counterfeiting through public and private partnership. PMID:24492225

Sato, Daisaku

2014-01-01

364

Interdecadal variation of TC frequency in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzed the climate regime shift using statistical change-point analysis on the time-series tropical cyclone (TC) frequency that affected Japan in July to September. The result showed that there was a significant change in 1995, and since then, it showed a trend of rapidly decreasing frequency. To determine the reason for this, differences between 1995 to 2012 (9512) period and 1978 to 1994 (7894) period were analyzed. First, regarding TC genesis, TCs during the 9512 period showed a characteristic of genesis from the southeast quadrant of the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific and TCs during the 7894 period showed their genesis from the northwest quadrant. Regarding a TC track, TCs in the 7894 period had a strong trend of moving from the far east sea of the Philippines via the East China Sea to the mid-latitude region in East Asia while TCs in the 9512 period showed a trend of moving from the Philippines toward the southern part of China westward. Thus, TC intensity in the 7894 period, which can absorb sufficient energy from the sea as they moved a long distance over the sea, was stronger than that of 9512. Large-scale environments were analyzed to determine the cause of such difference in TC activity occurred between two periods. During the 9512 period, anomalous cold and dry anticyclones were developed strongly in the East Asia continent. As a result, Korea and Japan were affected by the anomalous northerlies thereby preventing TCs in this period from moving toward the mid-latitude region in East Asia. Instead, anomalous easterlies (anomalous trade wind) were developed in the tropical western Pacific so that a high passage frequency from the Philippines to the south China region along the anomalous steering flows was revealed. The characteristics of the anomalous cold and dry anticyclone developed in the East Asia continent were also confirmed by the analysis of air temperature, relative humidity, and sensible heat net flux showing that most regions in East Asia had negative values.

Choi, Ki-Seon; Cha, Yu-Mi; Kang, Sung-Dae; Kim, Hae-Dong

2014-07-01

365

Earthquake Early Warning System in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan is located in one of the most tectonically active region in the world. We have suffered from many disasters brought by earthquakes and tsunamis. Significant efforts to mitigate disasters have been made as one of the most important national programs. Considering the difficulty of the earthquake prediction in time, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) considers it is important to issue the early warning immediately when the large earthquake occurs. JMA has been developing the "Earthquake Early Warning(EEW)" as a countermeasure to strong motion. JMA's EEW estimates hypocenter and magnitude using initial seismic waveform observed at the stations close to the epicenter, and issues estimated seismic intensity before the strong motion arrival. It also enables prompter issuance of the tsunami warning. We adopt a step-by-step method to improve the accuracy and reliance of the estimated focal parameters as the available data increases as the time lapse, ensuring the promptness of the first estimation at the same time. We estimate the hypocenter using Single Station Method and Network Method. Single Station Method is fitting simple function (Bt*exp(-At)) to the absolute value of acceleration waveform envelope of the first two seconds from the P onset by the cooperative study with Railway Technical Research Institute(RTRI). Network Method is using "territory" and "grid search" in combination. In addition to this procedure, we use the result of "Not Yet Arrived Data Method", a kind of grid search method, from June 2005. This method is developed by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention(NIED). After the hypocenter is determined, we estimate the magnitude by using hypocentral distance and maximum displacement amplitudes (Dmax) updated every second and the formula is as follows: M = log (Dmax) + logR + a1*R + a2 (R: Hypocentral distance (km)) We can calculate each site of Seismic Intensity estimation by using up-to-date hypocenter and magnitude in addition. JMA has started test distribution of EEW in Feb. 2004 to specific users to fieldtest the effectiveness of the warning, for the events that occur in the region where JMA has integrated data processing functions at the seismic stations. EEW issued 245 times from Feb. 25th 2004 to Aug 31st 2005 (including 22 times of false alarm almost due to initial artificial mistakes). We will discuss the detail of EEW distribution at the session.

Kiyomoto, M.; Tsukada, S.; Ohtake, K.; Shiozu, Y.; Morimoto, M.; Saito, M.; Sekita, Y.; Doi, K.; Yoshida, Y.; Odaka, T.; Ashiya, K.; Horiuchi, S.

2005-12-01

366

This study was supported by a grant from the Japan Science and Technology  

E-print Network

LETTERS This study was supported by a grant from the Japan Science and Technology Agency, Japan. Takashi Ito,* Makiko Iijima,* Takayoshi Fukushima,* Masato Nonoyama,* Masahiro Ishii,* Tatiana Baranovich, Japan; and Niigata Univer- sity Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan DOI: 10

Winker, Kevin

367

Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Japan  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode that causes taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. The parasite is traditionally found in developing countries where undercooked pork is consumed under poor sanitary conditions and/or as part of traditional food cultures. However, the recent increase in international tourism and immigration is spreading the disease into non-endemic developed countries such as the United States. Although there has been concern that the number of cysticercosis cases is increasing in Japan, the current situation is not clear. This is largely because taeniasis and cysticercosis are not notifiable conditions in Japan and because there have been no comprehensive reviews of T. solium infections in Japan conducted in the last 15 years. Herein, we provide an overview of the status of T. solium infection in Japan over the past 35 years and point out the potential risks to Japanese society. PMID:22248435

2012-01-01

368

Japan's delayed antinuclear power mobilization after 3.11  

E-print Network

The meltdown of Fukushima Daiichi's nuclear plant was one of three disasters that rocked Japan on 11 March 2011, a day often referred to as "3.11." This nuclear accident led to increased attention to and disapproval of ...

Teo, Lin Ern Charis

2013-01-01

369

Secondary residential demand trends in contemporary Japan and North Asia  

E-print Network

This research paper attempts to address the opportunity and challenges for Vacation Residential Development in North Asia, with specific geographic focus on Japan first through an analysis of national and regional consumption, ...

Lam, Michael M

2009-01-01

370

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT: VISITS IN JAPAN, NOVEMBER 1977  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a particulate control technology assessment visit to Japan by a team of U.S. investigators. The visit included discussions with personnel from universities, industries, and other major installations involved with particulate control. Significant resear...

371

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT: VISITS IN JAPAN, NOVEMBER 1977 - APPENDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a particulate control technology assessment visit to Japan by a team of U.S. investigators. The visit included discussions with personnel from universities, industries, and other major installations involved with particulate control. Significant resear...

372

Democratization and the development of Japan's uneven welfare state  

E-print Network

Comparative data reveal that Japan consistently has had one of the highest poverty rates among advanced industrialized nations, yet its government taxes the poor more heavily and gives them less in public cash transfers ...

Shimabukuro, Yumiko T

2012-01-01

373

JAPAN ATOMIC ENERGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE. A BRIEF GUIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activities of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute are reported. ; Topics covered include research and development, research facilities, service ; facilities, other institute activities, schools, Takasaki Research Establishment, ; and general affairs. (M.C.G.)

1963-01-01

374

Application of lean enterprise concept to construction firms in Japan  

E-print Network

Construction firms in Japan are struggling with the change in construction industry environment and need a new business model to meet the change. On the other hand, Japanese manufacturing companies, especially automobile ...

Taguchi, Hiroshi, 1973-

2004-01-01

375

GPM Arrives in Japan - Duration: 0:19.  

NASA Video Gallery

An international satellite that will set a new standard for global precipitation measurements from space has completed a 7,300-mile journey from the United States to Japan, where it now will underg...

376

Older Workers in the European Community, Japan, and Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "Older Workers in the European Community: Pervasive Discrimination, Little Awareness" (Drury); "Aging Workers in Japan: From Reverence to Redundance" (Takada); and "Canada's Labor Market: Older Workers Need Not Apply" (David). (JOW)

Drury, Elizabeth; And Others

1993-01-01

377

Constraints on interseismic deformation at Japan trench from VLBI data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space geodetic data from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) was used to estimate velocity relative to the plate interiors of two sites on the deforming leading edge at the Japan trench. Elastic models of interseismic deformation and results obtained were used to put constraints on the slip rate along the main thrust of the Japan subduction zone. Observed velocities reflect the sum of permanent west-northwest shortening in Honshu, elastic deformation due to locking of the main thrust fault at the Japan trench, and deformation associated with the subducting Phillipine plate. These velocities limit the locked segment of the main thrust at the Japan trench to 27 km vertically and 100 km along the dip. This indicates that the main Pacific plate thrust fault is not strongly coupled and probably does not generate strong earthquakes.

Argus, Donald F.; Lyzenga, Gregory A.

1993-01-01

378

Amphibian chytridiomycosis in Japan: distribution, haplotypes and possible route of entry into Japan.  

PubMed

A serious disease of amphibians caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis was first found in Japan in December 2006 in imported pet frogs. This was the first report of chytridiomycosis in Asia. To assess the risk of pandemic chytridiomycosis to Japanese frogs, we surveyed the distribution of the fungus among captive and wild frog populations. We established a nested PCR assay that uses two pairs of PCR primers to amplify the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of a ribosomal RNA cassette to detect mild fungal infections from as little as 0.001 pg (1 fg) of B. dendrobatidis DNA. We collected swab samples from 265 amphibians sold at pet shops, 294 bred at institutes and 2103 collected at field sites from northern to southwestern Japan. We detected infections in native and exotic species, both in captivity and in the field. Sequencing of PCR products revealed 26 haplotypes of the B. dendrobatidis ITS region. Phylogenetic analysis showed that three of these haplotypes were specific to the Japanese giant salamander (Andrias japonicus) and appeared to have established a commensal relationship with this native amphibian. Many other haplotypes were carried by alien amphibians. The highest genetic diversity of B. dendrobatidis was found in the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). Some strains of B. dendrobatidis appeared to be endemic to Japanese native amphibians, but many alien strains are being introduced into Japan via imported amphibians. To improve chytridiomycosis risk management, we must consider the risk of B. dendrobatidis changing hosts as a result of anthropogenic disturbance of the host-specific distribution of the fungus. PMID:19840263

Goka, Koichi; Yokoyama, Jun; Une, Yumi; Kuroki, Toshiro; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Nakahara, Miri; Kobayashi, Arei; Inaba, Shigeki; Mizutani, Tomoo; Hyatt, Alex D

2009-12-01

379

An epidemiological study of food poisoning in Korea and Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to make a comparative epidemiological observation on outbreaks of food poisoning between Korea and Japan, during the period from 1971 to 1990. The mean morbidity rate by fiscal year from 1971 to 1990 was 3.0 per 100000 population in Korea, and 29.2 in Japan. The mean mortality rate, in Korea was 2.48%, and in

Won-Chang Lee; Takeo Sakai; Myeong-Jin Lee; Masaaki Hamakawa; Song-Mog Lee; In-Mo Lee

1996-01-01

380

Outcome study of renal biopsy patients in Okinawa, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outcome study of renal biopsy patients in Okinawa, Japan. Here we report a community-based epidemiologic study of patients who received renal biopsy in Okinawa, Japan between 1967 and 1994. The total number of cases was 2832 (1395 men and 1437 women), and the mean (SD) age at biopsy was 30.0 (10.0) years (range 1.0 to 88.0 years). The most common

KUNITOSHI ISEKI; FUJIHIKO MIYASATO; HAJIME UEHARA; KIYOYUKI TOKUYAMA; SHIGEKI TOMA; KEIZO NISHIME; SHINICHIRO YOSHI; YOSHIKI SHIOHIRA; TAKASHI OURA; MASAHIKO TOZAWA; KOSHIRO FUKIYAMA

2004-01-01

381

Owed Justice: Thai Women Trafficked into Debt Bondage in Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In September, Human Rights Watch posted five new reports on their Website. Owed Justice: Thai Women Trafficked into Debt Bondage in Japan deals with the violation of women's rights as it examines the trafficking of Thai women who are delivered under false pretenses into atrocious labor conditions in Japan where they are often forced to work for years to pay off the "debt" of their transport.

382

Electoral Reform in Italy and Japan: Unanticipated Outcomes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Over the 1980s and into the 1990s, citizens in Italy and Japan grew fed up with the politics of their country. The elite politician\\u000a class of both countries faced problems of accountability and corruption. Finally, news of scandals in both countries in the\\u000a early 1990s provided the impetus for substantial institutional change. By 1994, both Italy and Japan reformed the

Ethan Scheiner; Filippo Tronconi

2010-01-01

383

Japan: super-aging society preparing for the future.  

PubMed

Japan has the highest proportion of older adults in the world. Aging is not only an immediate personal issue but also a salient factor in crucial public policies, such as pensions, health, and long-term care. The Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear power plant disaster of March 2011 has highlighted current and emerging issues of a "super-aging" society, especially the need for community-based support systems. PMID:21804114

Muramatsu, Naoko; Akiyama, Hiroko

2011-08-01

384

A review of higher education reform in modern Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of different parties in Japan have been discussinghigher educational reform for over thirty years. Many of theseideas finally started to take form in the 1990s as the Ministryof Education's University Council began implementing many of thepropositions that had been put forth during the deliberations ofthe 1970s and 1980s. As Japan enters the 21st century, its18-year-old population has decreased

Paul Doyon

2001-01-01

385

Frequency of Alternaria brassicicola in commercial cabbage seeds in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug seedlings, widely used in cabbage cultivation in Japan, are often infected by seed-borne pathogens, especially the serious\\u000a pathogen Alternaria brassicicola. Because information on seed infestation is scant in Japan, we investigated fungal infestation in commercial batches of cabbage\\u000a seeds produced between 1984 and 2001. A total of 123 lots were divided into six groups by production period (1984–1989, 1994–1998,

Masaharu Kubota; Kazuo Abiko; Yukio Yanagisawa; Kazufumi Nishi

2006-01-01

386

Epidemiological study on Lactococcus garvieae isolates from fish in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Japan, Lactococcus garvieae infection has been the main fish disease in aquaculture. Although commercial oral and injectable vaccines have been used\\u000a to prevent L. garvieae infection in Japan, L. garvieae has been isolated not only from unvaccinated fish but also from vaccinated fish in which immunity induced by vaccination\\u000a had diminished. In order to obtain epidemiological information on this

Issei Nishiki; Mikiko Furukawa; Sho Matui; Toshiaki Itami; Toshihiro Nakai; Terutoyo Yoshida

2011-01-01

387

Association of automobile passenger transportation and economic growth in Japan  

E-print Network

ASSOCIATION OF AUTOMOBIEE PASSENGER TRANSPORTATION , 'QJD ECONOMIC GROVTH IY, JAPAN A Thesis by TERUHIKO HORIE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the veguirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE January 1969 Major Subject: Economics ASSOCIATION OF AUTOHOBILE PASSENGER TRANSPORTATION AND ECONOHIC GROMTH IN JAPAN A Thesis by TERUHIKO HORIE Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Department) (Hember...

Horie, Teruhiko

1969-01-01

388

Alien Marine Crustaceans of Japan: A Preliminary Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Although invasions may have commenced in the 1500s, our record of invasions of alien marine and estuarine species in Japan\\u000a begins largely in the 1930s. We expand the previous inventory of 10 alien species to 31 alien and cryptogenic species, underscoring\\u000a that this, too, may be a striking underestimate. Most of the marine crustacean invasions into Japan have occurred along

Wataru Doi; Seiichi Watanabe; James T. Carlton

389

Communist China's foreign trade and its implication for Japan  

E-print Network

COMMUNIST CHINA'S FOREIGN TRADE AND ITS IMPLICATION FOR JAPAN A Thesis by LEH-AN HSIEH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August lg72... Major Subject: Economics COMMUNIST CHINA'S FOREIGI'J TRADE AND ITS IMPLICATION FOR JAPAN A Thesis LEH-AN HSIEH Approved as to style and content by: Head of Department Member / Member Member (Member) ABSTRACT Communist China's Foreign Trade...

Hsieh, Leh-An

1972-01-01

390

The Regionalization of Science and Innovation Governance in Japan?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kitagawa F. (2007) The regionalization of science and innovation governance in Japan?, Regional Studies41, 1099–1114. Traditionally a country that has favoured the centralized national direction of industry–science relationships, Japan is gradually transforming its innovation system with the ‘regionalization’ of science and technology (S&T) policies, characterized by the promotion of ‘clusters’ and academic entrepreneurship. However, there remain fundamental questions as to

Fumi Kitagawa

2007-01-01

391

[Current status of nuclear medicine in Japan].  

PubMed

Radionuclides have been used for the diagnosis and therapy of cancers. In Japan, about 1.8 million studies are performed annually, especially on bone, the heart, the brain and cancer. In contrast to anatomical studies with X-ray, US or CT, nuclear medicine provides physiological or metabolic images. The characteristics of nuclear medicine come from the use of tracer studies employing various radiopharmaceuticals. The most commonly used radionuclides for cancer studies are 67Ga and 201T1. Recently, however, many other radiopharmaceuticals with tumor specificity have been developed, such as 99mTc labeled monoclonal antibodies and 111In labeled octreotide. 18F-FDG, which images glucose metabolism, is very useful in the management of lung, colorectal and other cancers. Furthermore, radionuclides are also employed in the therapy of cancer, such 131I-labeled anti-CD20 antibody for the B-cell lymphoma and 89Sr for the palliation of bone pain caused by prostate and breast cancer metastases. PMID:10410141

Endo, K

1999-05-01

392

Investigation of environmental change pattern in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. In the Plains of Tokachi, where the scale of agricultural field was comparatively large in Japan, LANDSAT data with its accuracy have proved to be useful enough to observe the actual condition of agricultural land use and changes more accurately than present methods. Species and ages of grasses in pasture were identified and soils were classified into several types. The actual land cover and ecological environment were remarkably changeable at the rapidly industrialized area by the urbanization in the flat plane and also by the forest works and road construction in the mountainous area. The practical use of the recognition results was proved as the base map of the field survey or the retouching work of the vegetation and land use. There was a 10% cut in cost, labor, and time. Vegetation cover in Tokyo districts was estimated by both the multiregression model and the parametric model. Multicorrelation coefficient between observed value and estimated value was 0.87 and standard deviation was + or - 15%. Vegetation cover in Tokyo was mapped into five levels with equal intervals of 20%.

Maruyasu, T. (principal investigator)

1977-01-01

393

Japan discloses 16,520 "eugenic" sterilizations.  

PubMed

In Japan, the government has reported that the Eugenic Protection Law led to sterilization of 16,520 people from 1949 to 1994. The Eugenic Protection Law was replaced in 1996 with a Maternal Protection Law. Both laws provide legal loopholes that allow women to have abortions despite the 1907 Criminal Abortion Law. The disclosure was sparked when Sweden announced that approximately 60,000 of its people were sterilized between 1935 and 1976 for eugenic reasons. It was then disclosed that Denmark had sterilized approximately 11,000 people from 1929 to 1967, Finland sterilized 11,000 people and performed 4000 involuntary abortions from 1945 to 1970, and Norway had 2000 sterilizations. A consortium of 17 Japanese groups and individuals representing women and the disabled requested that the Japanese Minister of Health and Welfare issue an apology and provide compensation to victims of coercive sterilization. The group is calling for research into coercive sterilizations to be conducted in ways that respect the privacy of the victims. The government response has been that no apologies or compensation would be forthcoming because the sterilizations were legal under existing law and (it claims) were not coercive. PMID:12321235

1997-11-01

394

Introduction of clean coal technology in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Coal is an abundant resource, found throughout the world, and inexpensive and constant in price. For this reason, coal is expected to play a role as one of the energy supply sources in the world. The most critical issues to promote utilization of coal are to decrease the environmental load. In this report, the history, outline and recent developments of the clean coal technology in Japan, mainly the thermal power generation technology are discussed. As recent topics, here outlined first is the technology against global warming such as the improvement of steam condition for steam turbines, improvement of power generation efficiency by introducing combined generation, carbon neutral combined combustion of biomass, and carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology. Also introduced are outlines of Japanese superiority in application technology against NOx and SO{sub 2} which create acid rain, development status of the technical improvement in the handling method for coal which is a rather difficult solid-state resource, and utilization of coal ash.

Takashi Kiga [Japan Coal Energy Center (JCOAL), Tokyo (Japan). R and D Department

2008-01-15

395

Perspectives on home hemodialysis in Japan.  

PubMed

Home hemodialysis (HHD) started in Japan in 1969. It has been done in the largest number of patients with the purpose of better social reintegration, followed by patients for whom commuting to a hospital is geographically difficult. In a subanalysis of the JSDT patient registry, the survival rate at 9 years for male patients excluding those with diabetes was significantly better in HHD patients than in facility dialysis patients. This result was thought to indicate that HHD was superior treatment both medically and socially, but it has not increased greatly because of conditions that impede the implementation of HHD, such as finding a caregiver and the burden on the caregiver, as well as the burden of light, heat, and water costs. However, long-duration dialysis and frequent dialysis are done even in general dialysis treatment, and the number of HHD patients has increased recently because of some improvement in health insurance payments for HHD in 1998. The spread of HHD is essential also in the broad implementation of diversifying HD modalities, and maintaining an accurate registry of HHD patients, analyzing factors that affect survival rates with each modality, clarifying conditions for adequacy of dialysis, and clarifying which treatments are superior are important future issues for dialysis treatment. PMID:22613920

Maeda, Kenji; Nakai, Shigeru

2012-01-01

396

Mortality in the 2011 Tsunami in Japan  

PubMed Central

Introduction On 11 March 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake caused a huge tsunami that struck Northeast Japan, resulting in nearly 20 000 deaths. We investigated mortality patterns by age, sex, and region in the 3 most severely affected prefectures. Methods Using police data on earthquake victims in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures, mortality rates by sex, age group, and region were calculated, and regional variability in mortality rates across age groups was compared using rate ratios (RRs), with the rates in Iwate as the reference. Results In all regions, age-specific mortality showed a tendency to increase with age; there were no sex differences. Among residents of Iwate, mortality was markedly lower among school-aged children as compared with other age groups. In northern Miyagi and the southern part of the study area, RRs were higher among school-aged children than among other age groups. Conclusions The present study could not address the reasons for the observed mortality patterns and regional differences. To improve preparedness policies, future research should investigate the reasons for regional differences. PMID:23089585

Nakahara, Shinji; Ichikawa, Masao

2013-01-01

397

Shotgun weddings (dekichatta kekkon) in contemporary Japan.  

PubMed

The accelerated greying of its population along with birth rates plummeting below replacement levels synergise into one of the most acute social issues in contemporary Japan. Although singleness, childlessness, delayed marriage and late-in-life-childbirth have become endemic, official records nevertheless reveal an increase in childbirth among women aged 15-19 in 2013. Furthermore, official statistics for 2010 show that 50% of Japanese women aged 25 or younger who married were expecting a baby. This paper focuses on 17 Japanese mothers who had a 'shotgun wedding' (dekichatta kekkon) - a ceremony organised due to an unplanned pregnancy. Aged between 29 and 35 years, the mothers came from Tokyo and Kanagawa and were interviewed for the purposes of exploring their experiences with and viewpoints on unplanned childbirth, contraception and marriage. Grounded in a symbolic interactionist perspective, the analysis of interviews suggested that shotgun weddings largely stem from contraception issues, the will to get pregnant in order to keep a partner and homosocial pressure to prevent the termination of the unexpected pregnancy. PMID:25706712

Castro-Vázquez, Genaro

2015-06-01

398

Magnetic fusion energy studies in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary facility for magnetic fusion energy (MFE) research in Japan is JT-60, in which DD plasma is heated up to an electron temperature of Te>10 keV with neutral beam injection (NBI) and radio frequency (RF) powers. It is noted that a normalized ?N of 2.3 was maintained for 22 s. The JT-60 team has discovered internal transport barrier (ITB) in high-beta-poloidal discharges as an additional improved confinement mechanism like a previously known edge transport barrier (ETB). The operation forming the ITB has remarkably improved the plasma confinement. The second major MFE facility is a large helical device (LHD) at National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS). The world's largest superconducting coil system of LHD generates helical magnetic field of 3 T where the stored magnetic energy reaches 1 GJ. A quasi-stationary plasma with an electron density of 4×10 18 m -3 at a temperature of about 1 keV was sustained for 54 min with the help of ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) and electron cyclotron range of frequency (ECRF). The maximum electron density so far achieved is 5×10 20 m -3 with Te˜1 keV. We report MFE programs related to International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER).

Ogawa, M.; Tsuji-Iio, S.; Komori, A.; Kawahata, K.; Kaneko, O.; Inoue, T.; Kamada, Y.

2007-07-01

399

Phosphoric acid fuel cells in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japanese gas companies have taken a keen interest in the energy-saving characteristics and superior environmental friendliness of fuel cells; since 1972 they have vigorously pursued the development of phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) for on-site generation purpose. The Japan Gas Association has been contributing to these activities. At present, field tests are carried out on 55 units on PAFC systems with a total capacity of approximately 8000 kW, including a US-made 200 kW unit, and Japanese-made 50, 100, 200 and 500 kW units. 24 units of PAFC systems out of 55 units have received a subsidy from the national government as a NEDO Field Test Project. In addition, a 1000 kW unit constructed with the assistance of a national government subsidy is to begin operation in 1995. As the results of field operations of many PAFC systems, valuable data on performance and durability were obtained, and useful maintenance techniques were accumulated towards commercialization. Both hardware and software of PAFC systems have been greatly improved, reflecting the experience gained from field operation. The durability of the cell stack differs with manufacturers and system models. For certain models of 200 kW systems, the performance almost satisfies the target of 20 000 h operation. One of the future tasks is to verify the durability of PAFC systems for 40 000 h operation. Another one is manufacturing cost reduction.

Hojo, Naoji; Okuda, Makoto; Nakamura, Masanori

400

Difficulties facing physician mothers in Japan.  

PubMed

Despite recent increases in the number of female physicians graduating in Japan, their premature resignations after childbirth are contributing to the acute shortage of physicians. Previous Japanese studies have explored supportive measures in the workplace, but have rarely focused on the specific problems or concerns of physician-mothers. Therefore, this study explored the challenges facing Japanese physician-mothers in efforts to identify solutions for their retention. Open-ended questionnaires were mailed to 646 alumnae of Juntendo University School of Medicine. We asked subjects to describe their opinions about 'The challenges related to female physicians' resignations'. Comments gathered from alumnae who graduated between 6 and 30 years ago and have children were analyzed qualitatively. Overall, 249 physicians returned the questionnaire (response rate 38.5%), and 73 alumnae with children who graduated in the stated time period provided comments. The challenges facing physician-mothers mainly consisted of factors associated with Japanese society, family responsibilities, and work environment. Japanese society epitomized by traditional gender roles heightened stress related to family responsibilities and promoted gender discrimination at work environment. Additionally, changing Japanese society positively influenced working atmosphere and husband's support. Moreover, the introduction of educational curriculums that alleviated traditional gender role was proposed for pre- and post- medical students. Traditional gender roles encourage discrimination by male physicians or work-family conflicts. The problems facing female physicians involve more than just family responsibilities: diminishing the notion of gender role is key to helping retain them in the workforce. PMID:22027270

Yamazaki, Yuka; Kozono, Yuki; Mori, Ryo; Marui, Eiji

2011-01-01

401

Acquired pure red cell aplasia in Japan.  

PubMed

We reviewed the clinical features of 150 patients with acquired pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) in Japan. There were 35 patients with acute type and 115 with chronic type PRCA. Of the acute PRCA patients, 17 had human parvovirus B19 infection. Drug-induced PRCA was demonstrated in 7 patients. Of the 115 patients with chronic PRCA, 51 patients were classified as primary and 64 cases were associated with miscellaneous diseases such as thymoma, a variety of hematological disorders and collagen diseases. Among the hematological disorders, PRCA was most frequently seen in granular lymphocyte proliferative disorders (GLPD). The erythroid colony growth patterns from bone marrow were variable. The serum erythropoietin level was high in most patients. Various kinds of treatment were tried for the chronic PRCA cases. Cyclosporin A (CyA) was the most effective form of treatment and the response rate was 82% (31/38). Twenty-three of 37 patients (62%) responded to bolus methylprednisolone therapy. The largest number of patients were treated with oral prednisolone, and the therapy was effective in 27 of the 55 (49%). The response rate to cyclophosphamide was only 29% (5/17), but in combination with prednisolone, half of the patients (7/14) responded to the therapy. CyA is recommended as the first-line therapy for acquired chronic PRCA. PMID:9338617

Mamiya, S; Itoh, T; Miura, A B

1997-10-01

402

Ebola virus disease: preparedness in Japan.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The current outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) is due to a lack of resources, untrained medical personnel, and the specific contact-mediated type of infection of this virus. In Japan's history, education and mass vaccination of the native Ainu people successfully eradicated epidemics of smallpox. Even though a zoonotic virus is hard to control, appropriate precautions and personal protection, as well as anti-symptomatic treatment, will control the outbreak of EVD. Ebola virus utilizes the antibody-dependent enhancement of infection to seed the cells of various organs. The pathogenesis of EVD is due to the cytokine storm of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the lack of antiviral interferon-?2. Matricellular proteins of galectin-9 and osteopontin might also be involved in the edema and abnormality of the coagulation system in EVD. Anti-fibrinolytic treatment will be effective. In the era of globalization, interviews of travelers with fever within 3 weeks of departure from the affected areas will be necessary. Not only the hospitals designated for specific biohazards but every hospital should be aware of the biology of biohazards and establish measures to protect both patients and the community. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;0:1-5). PMID:25399765

Ashino, Yugo; Chagan-Yasutan, Haorile; Egawa, Shinichi; Hattori, Toshio

2015-02-01

403

Food policy for health in Japan.  

PubMed

In this half century, dietary habits in Japan have greatly changed and there is some confusion about what is healthy. In this report the causes of the confusion are analysed. To establish a healthy and normal dietary life, the recommendations for the public were considered from the various standpoints. There have been great changes in economic and social factors, and in supply and availability. Consumers rate convenience, diversity, good taste, healthiness, and "fashionableness" as important. To create a new food culture, the following three points would become the base; 1. It is necessary for each of us to have a sense of responsibility for our eating habits and our health. 2. We must cooperate with family and friends to work for the creation of an abundant and enjoyable dining table. 3. We have reached the stage in our dining culture where we must think not about what to eat, but how to eat, what conduct we should use when eating, and about our awareness of eating and what we are eating. PMID:1407827

Fukuba, H

1992-01-01

404

Advanced Nuclear Fuel Development in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The verification test programs of high burnup BWR and PWR fuels have been carried out by Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation under the sponsorship of Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry since 1986. BWR and PWR fuel assemblies of high burnup range of up to about 48 GWd/t and 53 GWd/t, respectively were examined by hot cell PIEs and many segment rods of local burnup range of up to more than 60GWd/t were power ramped in test reactors. Though some fuel rods showed minor failure after power ramp tests beyond commercial reactor condition, the results have shown good performance of the high burnup fuels in general. In BWR power ramp tests, the new failure mode of segment rods and the decrease of the failure threshold for higher burnup fuels have been found. Other than oxide fuel, new type fuels such as metallic, nitride and hydride fuels are under research and development in Japan for fast breeder reactors and, in case of hydride fuel, for both fast reactors and LWRs. Topics on some of these new type fuels will be also presented.

Yamawaki, Michio

2003-06-01

405

Yesterday's Japan: A system of flood risk estimation over Japan with remote-sensing precipitation data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new river discharge prediction and hindcast system all over Japan in order to issue alerts of flood risks has been developed. It utilizes Japan Meteorological Agency"fs Meso-scale model outputs and remote-sensing precipitation data. A statistical approach that compromises the bias and uncertainty of models is proposed for interpreting the simulated river discharge as a flood risk. A 29-year simulation was implemented to estimate parameters of the Gumbel distribution for the probability of extreme discharge, and the estimated discharge probability index (DPI) showed good agreement with that estimated based on observations. Even more strikingly, high DPI in the simulation corresponded to actual flood damage records. This indicates that the real-time simulation of the DPI could potentially provide reasonable flood warnings. A method to overcome the lack of sufficiently long simulation data through the use of a pre-existing long-term simulation and to estimate statistical parameters is also proposed. A preliminary flood risk prediction that used operational weather forecast data for 2003 and 2004 gave results similar to those of the 29-year simulation for the Typhoon T0423 event on October 2004, demonstrating the transferability of the technique to real-time prediction. In addition, the usefulness of satellite precipitation data for the flood estimation is evaluated via hindcast. We conducted it using several precipitation satellite datasets. The GSMaP product can detect heavy precipitation events, but floods being not well simulated in many cases because of GSMAP"fs underestimation. The GSMaP product adjusted by using monthly and 1 degree rain gauge information can be used to detect flood events as well as hourly rain gauge observations. Another quantitative issue is also disscussed. When a remote-sensing based precipitation data is used as an input for hindcast, we are suffering from underestimation of precipitation amount. The effort for improvement will be shown. In addtion, here, we want to raise quantitavie bias (underestimateion) in in-situ observation precipitation; that is wind-induced undercatch. In our water budget study for many basins over Japan, the correction for wind-induced undercatch has a great role rather than orographic effect. Global estimation of undercatch is also large. Thus, calibration and validation of remote-sensing precipitation data against observed precipitation should be based on observed precipitation data after undercatch, although some more uncertainty would be added. The Radar-AMeDAS data that is an operational radar-based precipitation dataset over Japan is examined from this aspect.

Kanae, S.; Seto, S.; Yoshimura, K.; Oki, T.

2008-12-01

406

Public assistance (PA) of nuclear energy in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Japan`s nuclear development is carried out in the spirit of the Atomic Energy Basic Law that it adopted in 1955. The only nation in the world devastated by nuclear weapons, Japan strongly hopes for the abolishment of nuclear weapons and promotes the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Since Japan is poor in natural resources, nuclear power has now become a major foundation of our society and economy. As far as the Japanese people`s awareness of nuclear power generation is concerned, 60% recognize it as necessary although 70% are concerned about its safety. The public acceptance (PA) of nuclear energy is facing a critical juncture at this point due to such imminent issues as the use of plutonium and the disposal of high-level wastes. The entire Japanese government is currently striving to promote PA measures targeting various population groups. This paper reports on the peaceful use of nuclear energy and Japan`s stance on this issue; people`s awareness; and the current state of nuclear energy PA measures.

Ishii, M.

1994-12-31

407

History of ferroelectric ceramics in Japan-glimpse of historic ferroelectric ceramic technology in Japan before 1955  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author reviews the development of ferroelectric ceramics in Japan, following the production of TiO2 capacitors and steatite insulators by Hessho and Stemag in Germany in around 1935. He charts the research into ceramic capacitors to 1955

K. Okazaki

1994-01-01

408

Investigation of Environmental Change Pattern in Japan: Multidisciplinary Application of LANDSAT-2 Data to Marine Environment in Central Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The multidisciplinary application of multispectral scanner data acquired over central Japan revealed several coastal features including pollution, river effluent, shorelines, red tide, etc. Supporting data were obtained by airborne remote sensing.

Maruyasu, T. (principal investigator); Ochiai, H.

1976-01-01

409

78 FR 78338 - Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...significant amounts of spent nuclear fuel, which were also damaged by the disaster and the subsequent explosions. In addition, radioactivity was released into the surrounding area, causing thousands of people to be evacuated. Japan faces an unprecedented...

2013-12-26

410

The 1991 Japan Solar Energy Society. Japan Wind Energy Association Joint Conference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thie paper summarizes the lectures presented at the research presentation conference held by the Japan Solar Energy Society and the Japan Wind Energy Association. The contents include a lecture relating to photovoltaic cells intended for efficiency improvement; a lecture relating to a light power generation system including the field test reports, improvements on peripheral devices and output characteristics; a lecture relating to optical chemistry; a lecture relating to heat pumps utilizing solar heat and well water; a lecture relating air conditioning utilizing photovoltaic cells; a lecture relating to heat systems utilizing solar heat directly; a lecture relating to heat collection; a lecture relating to cold heat for cooling using earth tubes; a lecture relating to direct utilization of ground water heat and solar heat; a lecture relating to underground heat storage; a lecture relating to accumulation of cold heat and hot heat; a lecture relating to insolation on the amount of insolation and spectroscopy; a lecture relating to light collection intended of energy saving; a lecture relating to improving materials including light collecting plates and thin films; a lecture relating to development and characteristics of solar cars; and a lecture relating to wind energy.

1991-09-01

411

Preliminary Benchmark Evaluation of Japan’s High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

A benchmark model of the initial fully-loaded start-up core critical of Japan’s High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) was developed to provide data in support of ongoing validation efforts of the Very High Temperature Reactor Program using publicly available resources. The HTTR is a 30 MWt test reactor utilizing graphite moderation, helium coolant, and prismatic TRISO fuel. The benchmark was modeled using MCNP5 with various neutron cross-section libraries. An uncertainty evaluation was performed by perturbing the benchmark model and comparing the resultant eigenvalues. The calculated eigenvalues are approximately 2-3% greater than expected with an uncertainty of ±0.70%. The primary sources of uncertainty are the impurities in the core and reflector graphite. The release of additional HTTR data could effectively reduce the benchmark model uncertainties and bias. Sensitivity of the results to the graphite impurity content might imply that further evaluation of the graphite content could significantly improve calculated results. Proper characterization of graphite for future Next Generation Nuclear Power reactor designs will improve computational modeling capabilities. Current benchmarking activities include evaluation of the annular HTTR cores and assessment of the remaining start-up core physics experiments, including reactivity effects, reactivity coefficient, and reaction-rate distribution measurements. Long term benchmarking goals might include analyses of the hot zero-power critical, rise-to-power tests, and other irradiation, safety, and technical evaluations performed with the HTTR.

John Darrell Bess

2009-05-01

412

Unzipping of the volcano arc, Japan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A working hypothesis for the recent evolution of the southern Volcano Arc, Japan, is presented which calls upon a northward-progressing sundering of the arc in response to a northward-propagating back-arc basin extensional regime. This model appears to explain several localized and recent changes in the tectonic and magrnatic evolution of the Volcano Arc. Most important among these changes is the unusual composition of Iwo Jima volcanic rocks. This contrasts with normal arc tholeiites typical of the rest of the Izu-Volcano-Mariana and other primitive arcs in having alkaline tendencies, high concentrations of light REE and other incompatible elements, and relatively high silica contents. In spite of such fractionated characteristics, these lavas appear to be very early manifestations of a new volcanic and tectonic cycle in the southern Volcano Arc. These alkaline characteristics and indications of strong regional uplift are consistent with the recent development of an early stage of inter-arc basin rifting in the southern Volcano Arc. New bathymetric data are presented in support of this model which indicate: 1. (1) structural elements of the Mariana Trough extend north to the southern Volcano Arc. 2. (2) both the Mariana Trough and frontal arc shoal rapidly northwards as the Volcano Arc is approached. 3. (3) rugged bathymetry associated with the rifted Mariana Trough is replaced just south of Iwo Jima by the development of a huge dome (50-75 km diameter) centered around Iwo Jima. Such uplifted domes are the immediate precursors of rifts in other environments, and it appears that a similar situation may now exist in the southern Volcano Arc. The present distribution of unrifted Volcano Arc to the north and rifted Mariana Arc to the south is interpreted not as a stable tectonic configuration but as representing a tectonic "snapshot" of an arc in the process of being rifted to form a back-arc basin. ?? 1984.

Stern, R.J.; Smoot, N.C.; Rubin, M.

1984-01-01

413

Japan's research on particle clouds and sprays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most of energy used by us is generated by combustion of liquid and solid fuels. These fuels are burned in combustors mainly as liquid sprays and pulverized solids, respectively. A knowledge of the combustion processes in combustors is needed to achieve proper designs that have stable operation, high efficiency, and low emission levels. However, current understanding of liquid and solid particle cloud combustion is far from complete. If combustion experiments for these fuels are performed under a normal gravity field, some experimental difficulties are encountered. These difficulties encountered include, that since the particles fall by the force of gravity it is impossible to stop the particles in the air, the falling speeds of particles are different from each other, and are depend on the particle size, the flame is lifted up and deformed by the buoyancy force, and natural convection makes the flow field more complex. Since these experimental difficulties are attributable to the gravity force, a microgravity field can eliminate the above problems. This means that the flame propagation experiments in static homogeneous liquid and solid particle clouds can be carried out under a microgravity field. This will provide much information for the basic questions related to combustion processes of particle clouds and sprays. In Japan, flame propagation processes in the combustible liquid and solid particle clouds have been studied experimentally by using a microgravity field generated by a 4.5 s dropshaft, a 10 s dropshaft, and by parabolic flight. Described in this presentation are the recent results of flame propagations studies in a homogeneous liquid particle cloud, in a mixture of liquid particles/gas fuel/air, in a PMMA particle cloud, and in a pulverized coal particle cloud.

Sato, Jun'ichi

1995-01-01

414

Trade, Foreign Investment, and Competitiveness. The Japan Business Study Program. Based on a Seminar Series entitled "Japan Business Study Program 1989" (Austin, Texas, October 12-27, 1989).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven articles are presented addressing topics related to United States-Japan trade, foreign investment, and U.S. competitiveness in the global market. The first article, "Super 301 and the Changing Japan-American Relationship" by Glenn Davis describes recent U.S.-Japan trade frictions, epitomized by Super 301, and explains the influence of the…

Matsuo, Hirofumi, Ed.

415

Impact Materials of Takamatsu Crater in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shocked quartz materials have been found in Japanese K.T boundary (Hokkaido) and mountains of middle main-islands of Japan, though there are few direct evidence of "natural circular structure" on the surface in Japan. However circular structure has been recently found as a buried crater(up to 150m deep) [1] which is ca. 4km in diameter with -10 mgal of Bouguer gravity anomaly from surrounding Rhyoke granitic region of the southern part of Takamatsu City, Kagawa Prefecture, northeast Shikoku, Japan [1,2,3]. Two boring cores of 300m deep near small mountains inside the crater could not reach the bottom of the crater so far. From model calculation of the negative gravity anomaly, the Takamatsu crater shows deep basin structure up to 1.4km. If the Takamatsu crater is considered to be only impact crater, it is difficult to discuss only surface materials on the crater. But anomalous minerals are found only around small volcanic intrusions inside the crater, which the mixed minerals are clearly different with those of other volcanic intrusions of the Yashima and Goshikidai outside the crater [1,2,3]. The small volcanic intrusions are not origin of large Takamatsu crater, because the small volcanic intrusions are found on whole areas of Kagawa Prefecture. Major different activity of the small intrusions inside the crater is to bring the brecciated materials of the interior (esp. crater sediments). The xenolith materials around only volcanic intrusion of andesite are divided into the following four major mineral materials:(a) round pebble fragments from the Rhyoke granitic basement (Sampling No.15), (b) rock fragments from intruded biotite andesites (Nos. 2,15), (c) impact-induced fragments of shocked Quartz grains (Nos. 2,3,6,15), diaplectic feldspars (Nos. 2,3,6,15), silica glasses (Nos. 2,15) and small Fe-Ni metallic grains (No.15), and (d) small sedimentary fragments of halite and mordenite, as listed in Table 1. Table I, showing the characterization of surface samples around small intrusions of the Takamatsu crater, appears here in the hard copy. The following anomalous mixed materials are considered to be impact-induced origin: 1) Fe-Ni grains: Black glassy rocks at Jissojiyama (No. 15) contain irregularly Fe-Ni grains of 10 to 100 micrometers in diameter. Chemical composition of the small Fe+Ni grains varies from ca. 18~90 atom. % mixed with the major granitic components. Atomic ratios of Fe/Ni are the same of kamacite as 3.4 to 68.7, but differ from those of awaruite (Fe/Ni<0.5) from the deep seated rock of the interior of the Earth [4]. The similar tiny Fe grains are found on the Wolf Creek and Ries impact craters. 2) Shocked quartz with high-density and shock lamellae: Anomalous quartz grains with undulatory anomalous extinction and shock lamellae are found at the Hiyama (Nos. 2,3,6 in whitish fine rocks) and Jissoiiyama (No. 15 in black glass) as brecciated xenolith from the interior of crater sediments. Typical shocked quartz grain shows with two sets of shock lamellae along pi (102) crystallographic planes [5]. The main X-ray diffraction peaks of each Miller plane show high Bragg angle and X-ray density (Delta rho=+0.9+/-0.3%) and lower values (ca.- 0.4%) of each plane-distance of all shock-generated Plane deformation features (PDFs). The structural data of high density are the same of shocked quartz grains in terrestrial impact craters [6,7]. 3) Diaplectic feldspars: Shock-generated diaplectic feldspars with compositions of albite plagioclases with undulatory extinction are observed with dark or partly dark (i.e. diaplectic) glassy materials under cross-polarized microscope (Nos. 2,3,6,15). Crushed plagioclases with circular or ellipsoidal shape are also found at Hiyama (No. 6) and Hiraike (No. ll). Diffuse and irregular textures of feldspar fragments are different with other localities outside the crater [2,3]. 4) G1asses of potassium feldspar compositions: Many glassy fragments with flow texture are observed from fine-grained sediments around Hiyama (Nos. 2,3,6), which have potassium feldspars compos

Miura, Y.; Okamoto, M.; Fukuchi, T.

1995-09-01

416

Clinical pharmacologists and drug regulation—future perspective in Japan  

PubMed Central

1The Japanese pharmaceutical administration system, and recommendations for the improvement of clinical trial methodology following the implementation of GCP guidelines in Japan are described with special reference to three recent developments in Japanese drug regulation. 2The implementation of GCP guidelines has not been fully satisfactory and clinical trials in Japan still run into problems. The Ministry of Health and Welfare has recently established a Committee on Safety of Medicines after serious trouble with a new drug was experienced. The Committee released an interim report on the reform of clinical trials supervision and the system for examination of New Drug Applications. 3ICH-GCP guidelines will be implemented in Japan in the next few years. The principal differences between Japanese GCP and ICH-GCP guidelines, and their effects on clinical trials in Japan with reference to the acceptability of ICH-GCP, are discussed. 4The final proposals on the National Health Insurance drug pricing method and the appropriate use of drugs by the Central Social Insurance Medical Council are anticipated to have a significant impact on the drug market. The changes in pricing system, especially premiums for innovative drugs, and the implications for the drug market are considered. 5In these changed circumstances, the importance of the role of clinical pharmacologists in the framework of the new drug regulations in Japan is reviewed. PMID:8807146

HIROKAWA, K.

1996-01-01

417

Japan Seismic Hazard Information Station, J-SHIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion (HERP) of Japan published the national seismic hazard maps of Japan in March 2005. The national seismic hazard maps are made by the earthquake research committee of Japan in the basis of the long-term evaluation of seismic activity and evaluation of strong-motion. The hazard maps consist of two kinds of hazard maps. One kind of hazard maps are probabilistic seismic hazard maps that show the relation between seismic intensity value and its probability of exceedance within certain time period. The other kind of hazard maps are scenario earthquake shake maps. The National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) promoted the special research project _eNational Seismic Hazard Mapping Project of Japan_f to support the preparation of the seismic hazard maps. In this project, we developed an open web system to provide interactive information retrieval system for the hazard maps and we named this system Japan Seismic Hazard Information Station, J-SHIS(http://www.j-shis.bosai.go.jp/). We aimed to disseminate processes of uncertainty evaluation and to meet multi-purpose needs in engineering uses. The information provided from J-SHIS include not only the results of the hazard maps but also various information required in the processes of making the hazard maps, such as data on seismic activity, source models and underground structure. We will develop the J-SHIS as seismic hazard information sharing bases.

Fujiwara, H.; Kawai, S.; Aoi, S.; Ishii, T.; Okumura, T.; Hayakawa, Y.; Morikawa, N.; Senna, S.; Kobayashi, K.

2005-12-01

418

NASD and Softbank to Launch Nasdaq-Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News looks at the establishment of a Nasdaq mirror in Japan. The six resources discussed provide news coverage and company information on the National Association of Securities Dealers (NASD) and Softbank collaboration. On June 17, 1999, the Tokyo-based internet group Softbank and the NASD, the largest securities-industry, self-regulatory organization in the US, signed an agreement to launch a new electronic stock market in Japan by the fourth quarter 2000. According to a NASD press release, Nasdaq-Japan will share the American Nasdaq's screen-based approach to trading equity securities and will use the Internet as a major conduit. The new exchange will allow Japanese traders to invest in top US technology stocks during US trading hours in addition to emerging Japanese companies not listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Although organizers hope the venture will help stimulate Japan's lagging economy, skeptics are wary of a system that depends so heavily on new technology. As Wired News reporter David Lazarus maintains, "it will take a while--perhaps a very long while--before Japan gets anywhere near the more than 630,000 daily online trades now being logged on the other side of the Pacific."

Waters, Megan.

419

Low-dose Computed Tomography Screening in Japan.  

PubMed

Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in both male and female individuals in Japan. The effect of screening using chest radiography is assumed to be limited. In Japan, screening using low-dose computed tomography (CT) was initiated in 1993, and its dissemination has progressed with studies evaluating its efficacy, although it is not officially recommended. In addition to the academic activities of the Japanese Society of CT Screening, certification of physicians and radiologic technologists by the Japan Accreditation Council for CT Screening has been progressing. Currently, several hundred thousand low-dose CT screenings are performed annually in Japan. In Hitachi City, Ibaraki Prefecture, low-dose CT screening among employees and in communities started in 2001, and it was estimated that 40% of 50- to 69-year-old citizens had undergone screening at least once by March 2009. The lung cancer mortality rate in citizens in this age group decreased by 24% in 2005 to 2009 compared with the national statistics. Low-dose CT screening targeting the general population may be effective, but it is necessary to consider the target and interval of screening separately from those for the high-risk group. Observational study may play a role in evaluating the efficacy of screening in Japan. PMID:25658475

Nawa, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Tohru; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Endo, Katsuyuki

2015-03-01

420

JTEC panel report on machine translation in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this report is to provide an overview of the state of the art of machine translation (MT) in Japan and to provide a comparison between Japanese and Western technology in this area. The term 'machine translation' as used here, includes both the science and technology required for automating the translation of text from one human language to another. Machine translation is viewed in Japan as an important strategic technology that is expected to play a key role in Japan's increasing participation in the world economy. MT is seen in Japan as important both for assimilating information into Japanese as well as for disseminating Japanese information throughout the world. Most of the MT systems now available in Japan are transfer-based systems. The majority of them exploit a case-frame representation of the source text as the basis of the transfer process. There is a gradual movement toward the use of deeper semantic representations, and some groups are beginning to look at interlingua-based systems.

Carbonell, Jaime; Rich, Elaine; Johnson, David; Tomita, Masaru; Vasconcellos, Muriel; Wilks, Yorick

1992-01-01

421

Effects of market liberalisation on smoking in Japan  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To document the effect of the liberalisation of the Japanese tobacco market on Japanese smoking rates and on Japanese tobacco industry practices.?DATA SOURCE—Asahi Shimbun (major daily newspaper) from 1980 to 1996.?STUDY SELECTION—Review of media coverage on the effects of market liberalisation following the imposition of the USA's section 301 trade sanction.?DATA SYNTHESIS—The opening of Japan's tobacco market to foreign cigarette companies stalled a decline in smoking prevalence. Smoking rates among young women increased significantly, and also appear to be on the rise among adolescents. Aggressive marketing and promotional activities by US and Japanese tobacco companies in response to trade liberalisation appear responsible for these adverse trends. Steep increases in sales through vending machines were also possible contributors to the rising smoking prevalence among adolescents. On the positive side, market liberalisation indirectly promoted smoking control efforts in Japan, by causing an anti-smoking movement to coalesce.?CONCLUSION—Market liberalisation in Japan played a significant role in increasing smoking prevalence among young women and adolescents while helping to transform the issue of smoking in Japan from a matter of individual choice to a public health problem.???Keywords: Japan; market liberalisation PMID:10841856

Honjo, K.; Kawachi, I.

2000-01-01

422

Regional and transported aerosols during DRAGON-Japan experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol properties over Japan have been monitored by AERONET sun / sky photometers since 2000. These measurements provides us with long term information of local aerosols, which are influenced by transported aerosols, such as Asian dusts or anthropogenic pollutants due to rapid increasing of energy consumption in Asian countries. A new aerosol monitoring experiment, Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) - Japan is operated in spring of 2012. The main instrument of DRAGON network is AERONET sun/sky radiometers. Some of them are sparsely set along the Japanese coast and some others make a dense network in Osaka, which is the second-largest city in Japan and famous for manufacturing town. Several 2ch NIES-LIDAR systems are also co-located with AERONET instrument to monitor Asian dusts throughout the campaign. The objects of Dragon-Japan are to characterize local aerosols as well as transported ones from the continent of China, and to acquire the detailed aerosol information for validating satellite data with high resolved spatial scale. This work presents the comprehensive results of aerosol properties with respect to regional- and/or transported- scale during DRAGON-Japan experiments.

Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.; Mukai, S.; Nakata, M.; Nakaguchi, Y.; Sugimoto, N.; Hatakeyama, S.; Nishizawa, T.; Takamura, T.; Takemura, T.; Yonemitsu, M.; Fujito, T.; Schafer, J.; Eck, T. F.; Sorokin, M.; Kenny, P.; Goto, M.; Hiraki, T.; Iguchi, N.; Kouzai, K.; KUJI, M.; Muramatsu, K.; Okada, Y.; Sadanaga, Y.; Tohno, S.; Toyazaki, Y.; Yamamoto, K.

2013-12-01

423

PNC/DOE Remote Monitoring Project at Japan`s Joyo Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan and the US Department of Energy (DOE) are cooperating on the development of a remote monitoring system for nuclear nonproliferation efforts. This cooperation is part of a broader safeguards agreement between PNC and DOE. A remote monitoring system is being installed in a spent fuel storage area at PNC`s experimental reactor facility Joyo in Oarai. The system has been designed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and is closely related to those used in other SNL remote monitoring projects. The Joyo project will particularly study the unique aspects of remote monitoring in contribution to nuclear nonproliferation. The project will also test and evaluate the fundamental design and implementation of the remote monitoring system in its application to regional and international safeguards efficiency. This paper will present a short history of the cooperation, the details of the monitoring system and a general schedule of activities.

Ross, M.; Hashimoto, Yu [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Senzaki, Masao; Shigeto, Toshinori [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Sonnier, C. [Jupiter Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dupree, S.; Ystesund, K.; Hale, W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-07-25

424

Activities for the Promotion of Gender Equality in Japan—Physical Society of Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gender Equality Promotion Committee of the Physical Society of Japan (JPS) was established as a result of the First International IUPAP Conference on Women in Physics (Paris, 2002). It is a gender-balanced team of 12 full members and a group of net-commentators. The former chairperson of the committee, Masako Bando, was selected to be the president of JPS between September 2006 and August 2007. Based on the survey on the present status of the gender equality and the research environment of the JPS members in 2001, JPS advanced two recommendations to the governmental authorities, academic institutes, and organizations: for flexible childcare supports and for improved research granting systems for post-doctoral fellows and part-time researchers in August 2003. Now these activities have become nationwide with the establishment in October 2002 of the Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association Committee for Promoting Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering (EPMEWSE). It has 44 member societies, including 19 observers, from various academic fields. An extended survey was carried out by EPMEWSE in November 2003; 20,000 respondents revealed diverse visions of scientists and engineers. These activities effectively help foster public understanding and awareness of the state of women in physics, especially among policy-making authorities. In 2005 the Cabinet is drawing up two Basic Plans for 2006-2010: the Science and Technology Basic Plan for the third term and the Basic Plan for the Gender-Equal Society for the second term. To attract girls into science and engineering, JPS is organizing the Girls Science Summer School to be held in August 2005 in collaboration with the National Women Education Center and EPMEWSE.

Agui, Akane; Tanida, Kiyoshi; Torikai, Eiko

2005-10-01

425

Thermophotovoltaic systems for civilian and industrial applications in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential market for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications has been studied for civilian and industrial sectors in Japan. Comparing the performance of gas engines or turbines, as well as the underdeveloped power generation technologies such as fuel cells or chemical batteries, we have discussed the feasible application field of TPV systems to compete with those power generations. From the point of view of applicability for TPV systems in Japan, portable generators, co-generation systems and solar power plants are selected for our system analysis. The cost and performance targets of TPV systems for co-generation are also discussed by assuming a typical daily profile of electricity and hot water demands in Japanese homes. A progress report on the recent TPV research activities is given as well as a feasibility study concerning such TPV systems in Japan.

Yugami, Hiroo; Sasa, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

2003-05-01

426

Black brant from Alaska staging and wintering in Japan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) nest in colonies in arctic Canada, Alaska, and Russia (Derksen and Ward 1993, Sedinger et al. 1993). Virtually the entire population stages in fall at Izembek Lagoon near the tip of the Alaska Peninsula (Bellrose 1976) before southward migration (Dau 1992) to winter habitats in British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California, and Baja California (Subcommittee on Black Brant 1992). A small number of black brant winter in Japan, Korea, and China (Owen 1980). In Japan 3,000–5,000 brant of unknown origin stop over in fall, and a declining population (<1,000) of birds winter here, primarily in the northern islands (Brazil 1991, Miyabayashi et al. 1994). Here, we report sightings of brant in Japan that were marked in Alaska and propose a migration route based on historical and recent observations and weather patterns.

Derksen, Dirk V.; Bollinger, K.S.; Ward, David H.; Sedinger, J.S.; Miyabayashi, Y.

1996-01-01

427

Epidemiological situation and control strategies for paratuberculosis in Japan.  

PubMed

Paratuberculosis (Ptb), caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is a chronic and progressive granulomatous enteritis that affects many livestock and wild animals worldwide. The clinical disease is called Johne's disease (JD). In Japan, all dairy cattle (harf million head) are examined for Ptb every five years. About 1000 the officially examined cattle are diagnosed annually as positive for Ptb, but most of these exhibit only minor or no clinical signs and typical lesions in recent years. In contrast to the situation in Japan, the disease prevalence in western countries is very high. We have used ELISA and a culture examination of Map, and recently real-time PCR to diagnose this disease. In this review, the author outlines the history of the epidemic and national practical strategies to control paratuberculosis in Japan. PMID:22458197

Momotani, Eiichi

2012-02-01

428

Draft of new maintenance standards for LWR in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Activities of development of new maintenance standards for operating nuclear power plant in Japan are described. The work of drafting the standards has been done by the Committee of Nuclear Plant Operation and Maintenance Standards (POMS), that was organized in the Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation under the entrustment from the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. The articles of ASME Section XI related to inspection, flaw evaluation and repair have been examined and modified, if necessary, so as to introduce latest Japanese database and technological knowledge. In the area of repairs, many repair techniques verified in recent years in Japan were incorporated i n addition to those specified in ASME Section XI. Finally major differences between ASME Section XI and the draft of the standards are listed.

Iida, Kunihiro [Shibaura Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-12-01

429

Kato carries the torch for women worldwide. Japan.  

PubMed

101 years old on March 2, 1998, Shidzue Kato is one of the founding members of JOICFP and president of both the IPPF-affiliated Family Planning Federation of Japan (FPFJ) and JOICFP. Kato was inspired to start the then called birth control movement after meeting Margaret Sanger in 1920. She was subsequently imprisoned for her beliefs by the pronatalist military government, but remained committed to the notions of family planning (FP) and women's empowerment, and has since become the single-most prominent person in the FP movement in Japan. Kato remains a vocal and powerful advocate of reproductive health (RH) and rights in Japan. Kato expressed her determination to keep working for women's empowerment and RH at JOICFP's 30th anniversary in January. With approximately 585,000 women dying annually from pregnancy-related causes, Kato understands that much remains to be accomplished in the way of FP, RH, and reproductive rights. PMID:12348366

1998-03-01

430

JTEC Panel report on electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies.

Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (editor); Kukowski, John; Meieran, Gene; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John; Tummala, Rao; Dehaemer, Michael J.; Holdridge, Geoff (editor); Gamota, George

1995-01-01

431

ETS-5, ETS-6, and COMETS projects in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three satellite communication projects now in progress in Japan are described. The first is a project to establish a telecommunication network for tele-education, TV conference, and tele-medicine in the Asia-Pacific region by using the Japan's Engineering Test Satellite-5 (ETS-5). The second is a project of the ETS-6 satellite, to be launched in 1993, for inter-satellite communication, mobile and fixed communication, and millimeter wave personal communication experiments. The third is a project of the Communications and Broadcasting Engineering Test Satellite (COMETS), to be launched in 1997, for advanced mobile satellite communication, inter-satellite link, and advanced broadcasting experiments at higher frequencies.

Iida, Takashi; Wakana, Hiromitsu; Obara, Noriaki

1992-08-01

432

Comparison of the dental education systems in Korea and Japan.  

PubMed

In recent years, international relationships in dentistry have grown stronger through journals, books, academies, seminars, researcher exchanges and so forth. Korea and Japan are neighbours in East Asia. However, no comparison of the dental education systems of the two countries has been published. Therefore, the authors have provided the present comparison to promote mutual understanding and to familiarise dentists around the world with dental education in these two countries. The number of dentists, life expectancy at birth, and number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) at age 12 years in Korea and Japan are summarised. PMID:15119795

Heo, Seok-Mo; Kim, K J; Kawamura, Makoto; Komabayashi, Takashi

2004-04-01

433

JUSTIPEN: Japan US Theory Institute for Physics with Exotic Nuclei  

SciTech Connect

The grant “JUSTIPEN: Japan US Theory Institute for Physics with Exotic Nuclei ” (DOE DE?FG02?06ER41407) ran from 02/01/2006 thru 12/31/2013. JUSTIPEN is a venue for international collaboration between U.S.?based and Japanese scientists who share an interest in theory of rare isotopes. Since its inception JUSTIPEN has supported many visitors, fostered collaborations between physicists in the U.S. and Japan, and enabled them to deepen our understanding of exotic nuclei and their role in cosmos.

Papenbrock, Thomas

2014-05-16

434

Encephalitozoon infections in Rodentia and Soricomorpha in Japan.  

PubMed

Encephalitozoon is an obligate intracellular microsporidian parasite that infects a wide range of mammalian hosts. In this study, we used nested PCR to investigate the presence of Encephalitozoon infection in Rodentia and Soricomorpha in Japan. We attempted to amplify and sequence Encephalitozoon-specific DNA from brain and viscera samples of 180 animals collected between 2008 and 2010. Forty-three samples (23.9%) from the orders Rodentia and Soricomorpha were positive for Encephalitozoon. This study is the first report of Encephalitozoon infection in Rodentia and Soricomorpha in Japan, and our findings suggest that these hosts may play a role in the spread of microsporidian spores in the environment. PMID:24060383

Tsukada, Ryusuke; Tsuchiyama, Atsuko; Sasaki, Mizuki; Park, Chun-Ho; Fujii, Yoshito; Takesue, Masataka; Hatai, Hitoshi; Kudo, Noboru; Ikadai, Hiromi

2013-11-15

435

Introduction to the INIST's activities and its Japan Unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to provide any user with the best information from all over the world in the field of science and technology, CNRS(Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique), the main french research organization, settled up a highly specialized body named "Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique"(lNIST) which activities are breafly and roughly introduced hereafter. In this purpose, and according to the increasing demand and needs in France for japanese scientific and technical information, a very specialized service called "Japan Unit" was created inside INIST to make anybody easier to reach this particul ar type of information without any knowledge on Japan and japanese language.

Guidi, Written By André,; Ono, Translated By Shuichi

436

Recent status of microwave applications in Japan and Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current status of microwave applications in Japan and Asia is presented. In Japan, research on HTS filters and HTS filter subsystems is being carried out in only a few companies and universities. Compact lumped-element filters, small and light HTS filter subsystems for the IMT-2000 system and new applications using HTS bandpass filters are being proposed. In China and Korea, HTS filter subsystems have recently been developed for mobile telecommunications base stations. Field trials of these HTS filter subsystems were carried out and their effectiveness was verified.

Ohshima, Shigetoshi

2004-10-01

437

76 FR 5205 - Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand AGENCY: United...butt-weld pipe fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand...butt-weld pipe fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand would be...

2011-01-28

438

76 FR 76478 - Request for Comments on Japan's Expression of Interest in the Proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...REPRESENTATIVE Request for Comments on Japan's Expression of Interest in the Proposed...Prime Minister Noda recently announced Japan's intention to begin consultations with...Trade Representative (USTR) is assessing Japan's expression of interest in the TPP...

2011-12-07

439

76 FR 15940 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom: Extension of Time Limit for...Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom for the period May 1, 2009...Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom. See Ball Bearings and...

2011-03-22

440

78 FR 70574 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia; Determinations On the basis...Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia of grain-oriented electrical...Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia. Accordingly,...

2013-11-26

441

76 FR 35401 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Japan and the United Kingdom: Notice of Court Decision Not...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Singapore, and the United Kingdom, 70 FR 31531...Bearings and Parts Thereof From Japan and Singapore; Five-Year Sunset Reviews of Antidumping...France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Singapore, and the United Kingdom, 71 FR...

2011-06-17

442

76 FR 41761 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Japan and the United Kingdom: Revocation of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Singapore, and the United Kingdom, 70 FR 31531...Bearings and Parts Thereof from Japan and Singapore; Five-year Sunset Reviews of Antidumping...France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Singapore, and the United Kingdom, 71 FR...

2011-07-15

443

78 FR 76104 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Japan and the United Kingdom: Notice of Reinstatement of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Singapore, and the United Kingdom, 70 FR 31531...Bearings and Parts Thereof From Japan and Singapore; Five-year Sunset Reviews of Antidumping...France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Singapore, and the United Kingdom, 71 FR...

2013-12-16

444

75 FR 69402 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United...

2010-11-12

445

78 FR 73562 - Non-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Germany, Japan, Korea, Sweden, and Taiwan; Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Non-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Germany, Japan, Korea, Sweden, and Taiwan...injured by reason of imports from China, Germany, Japan, Korea, Sweden, and Taiwan...non-oriented electrical steel from China, Germany, Japan, Korea, Sweden, and...

2013-12-06

446

75 FR 18153 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan: Extension of Time Limit...alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan, covering the period...and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe from Japan: Extension of Time...

2010-04-09

447

76 FR 44608 - Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania; Scheduling of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania; Scheduling...Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from Japan and Romania AGENCY...alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan and Romania would...

2011-07-26

448

Ocean Bottom Pressure Measurements Off Sanriku, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variable motions of the ocean are changing the Earth's gravity field. For example, mass exchange in the Pacific Ocean is considered to be the most probable source of the recent rapid and large change in the J2 term, which may be related to the ENSO event in 1997 (Cox and Chao, 2002). The actual ocean mass exchange related to that event was also observed from ocean bottom pressure records (OBPRs) offshore of Peru (Fujimoto et al., 2003). On the other hand, satellite altimetry measurements, such as TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P), enable us to estimate the oceanic effect on gravity observations using globally-gridded data for sea surface height (SSH) variability. However, the altimeter data are affected by steric changes in the ocean, which should not contribute to the observed gravity changes (for example, Sato et al., 2001). In order to examine the relation among the mass exchange in the oceans, SSH variation, and gravity changes, we began a three-year observation project in 2001 to measure the ocean bottom pressure changes at the three crossover points of the T/P satellite off Sanriku, Japan: 143.1E, 39.2N (Point-A); 146.0E, 39.2N (Point-B); and 144.6E, 41.5N (Point-N). The data are sampled at an interval of one minute. Here, we will report the analysis results for the OBPR data for the two years since the beginning of the observations. Although the records at Point-N show a peculiar time variation, we obtained clear tidal signals at Point-A and Point-B. We compared the tidal analysis results with a global ocean tide model, NAO99b (Matsumoto et al., 2000), and we confirmed that, at both Point-A and Point-B, the predicted tides agree to the actual observations within the difference of 1 % in amplitude for the four major tidal waves: M2, S2, K1 and O1. This suggests that it may be possible to correct the tidal effect on the satellite gravity data with an accuracy of about 1 % by using recent global tide models. We also compared residuals of the OBPR data, which were obtained by subtracting the tides and long-term trend, with the T/P data. Two corrections were applied to the T/P data: one for the tide and one for the inverted barometer (IB) response of the ocean to air pressure changes. We found that at Point-B (about 350 km from the nearest coast) the corrected T/P data show temporal variations well correlated with the pressure observations. However, at Point-A (about 110 km from the coast), no meaningful correlation is observed. Our results suggest the possibility that the SSH variations observed from T/P may exhibit the barotropic component in the open ocean distant from coastal regions where western boundary currents are dominant. For the two-year observations at Point-B, the barotropic signals have a magnitude of about 7 cm in the peak-to-peak amplitude and show four dominant peaks at periods of 205, 128, 50, and 28 days.

Sato, T.; Fujimoto, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Tamura, Y.; Higashi, T.; Nishino, M.; Hino, R.; Kanazawa, T.

2003-12-01

449

Scientific brief on the March 2011 M9 Tohoku-oki Earthquake (Japan)  

E-print Network

TOKYO YOKOHAMA Pacific PlateEurasian Plate Japan JapanTrench 2011Eq 1896 1933 0 125 250 km Figure 1: Map. Earthquakes are caused by the movement of the Earth's tec- tonic plates; huge rigid areas of the Earth

450

76 FR 76760 - Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...No. 731-TA-461 (Third Review)] Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan Determination On the basis of the...revocation of the antidumping duty order on gray Portland cement and cement clinker from Japan would be likely to...

2011-12-08

451

7 CFR 319.56-27 - Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea...Vegetables § 319.56-27 Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

2010-01-01

452

77 FR 45653 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain; Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain; Determination Determination On the basis...steel bar from Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain would be likely to lead to continuation...the negative with respect to Brazil and...

2012-08-01

453

75 FR 32503 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan Determinations On the basis...steel wire rod from Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to...Okun dissenting with respect to Korea and...

2010-06-08

454

76 FR 60083 - Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania Determinations...alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan and Romania would be...alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from...

2011-09-28

455

Volatility-constrained correlation identifies the directionality of the influence between Japan’s Nikkei 225 and other financial markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent financial crises have shown the importance of determining the directionality of the influence between financial assets in order to identify the origin of market instabilities. Here, we analyze the correlation between Japan’s Nikkei stock average index (Nikkei 225) and other financial markets by introducing a volatility-constrained correlation metric. The asymmetric feature of the metric reveals which asset is more influential than the other. As a result, this method allows us to unveil the directionality of the correlation effect, which could not be observed from the standard correlation analysis. Furthermore, we present a theoretical model that reproduces the results observed in empirical analysis.

Ochiai, Tomoshiro; Nacher, Jose C.

2014-01-01

456

Japan Renal Biopsy Registry and Japan Kidney Disease Registry: Committee Report for 2009 and 2010.  

PubMed

The Japan Renal Biopsy Registry (J-RBR) was started in 2007 and the Japan Kidney Disease Registry (J-KDR) was then started in 2009 by the Committee for Standardization of Renal Pathological Diagnosis and the Committee for the Kidney Disease Registry of the Japanese Society of Nephrology. The purpose of this report is to describe and summarize the registered data from 2009 and 2010. For the J-KDR, data were collected from 4,016 cases, including 3,336 (83.1 %) by the J-RBR and 680 (16.9 %) other cases from 59 centers in 2009, and from 4,681 cases including 4,106 J-RBR cases (87.7 %) and 575 other cases (12.3 %) from 94 centers in 2010, including the affiliate hospitals. In the J-RBR, 3,165 native kidneys (94.9 %) and 171 renal grafts (5.1 %) and 3,869 native kidneys (94.2 %) and 237 renal grafts (5.8 %) were registered in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Patients younger than 20 years of age comprised 12.1 % of the registered cases, and those 65 years and over comprised 24.5 % of the cases with native kidneys in 2009 and 2010. The most common clinical diagnosis was chronic nephritic syndrome (55.4 % and 50.0 % in 2009 and 2010, respectively), followed by nephrotic syndrome (22.4 % and 27.0 %); the most frequent pathological diagnosis as classified by the pathogenesis was IgA nephropathy (31.6 % and 30.4 %), followed by primary glomerular diseases (except IgA nephropathy) (27.2 % and 28.1 %). Among the primary glomerular diseases (except IgA nephropathy) in the patients with nephrotic syndrome, membranous nephropathy was the most common histopathology in 2009 (40.3 %) and minor glomerular abnormalities (50.0 %) were the most common in 2010 in native kidneys in the J-RBR. Five new secondary and longitudinal research studies by the J-KDR were started in 2009 and one was started in 2010. PMID:23385776

Sugiyama, Hitoshi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Sato, Hiroshi; Saito, Takao; Kohda, Yukimasa; Nishi, Shinichi; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Kiyomoto, Hideyasu; Iida, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Tamaki; Higuchi, Makoto; Hattori, Motoshi; Oka, Kazumasa; Kagami, Shoji; Kawamura, Tetsuya; Takeda, Tetsuro; Hataya, Hiroshi; Fukasawa, Yuichiro; Fukatsu, Atsushi; Morozumi, Kunio; Yoshikawa, Norishige; Shimizu, Akira; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Yuzawa, Yukio; Matsuo, Seiichi; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Joh, Kensuke; Nagata, Michio; Taguchi, Takashi; Makino, Hirofumi

2013-04-01

457

Fermented vegetable (soybean) protein and related foods of Japan and China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Main fermented vegetable protein foods in Japan and China are soy sauce (shoyu in Japan, chiang-yu in China), fermented soy\\u000a paste (miso in Japan, chiang in China), sufu, and natto, which are all traditional foods. Chiang, which originated in China\\u000a some 2,500 years ago, was introduced into Japan during the seventh century and transformed into the present Japanese shoyu\\u000a and

D. Fukushima

1979-01-01

458

Quantification of major earthquake tsunamis of the Japan Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size of major tsunamigenic earthquakes which occurred in the Japan Sea is quantified on the basis of seismic and tsunamigenic source parameters. The tsunami magnitude Mt is determined from the instrumental tsunami-wave amplitudes. The Mt values thus obtained are on average 0.2 units larger than the values of moment magnitude Mw, though the Mt scale has originally been adjusted

Katsuyuki Abe

1985-01-01

459

Shiatsu in Britain and Japan: Personhood, holism and embodied aesthetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, globalisation processes are examined through the prism of shiatsu, an originally Japanese, touch-based therapy, now practised in Europe, Japan, North America, and many other places. Examining this emergent plane of therapeutic practice provides an opportunity to reflect on categories of personhood, notably that of the individual, and its place within processes of globalisation. The article is divided

GLYN ADAMS

2002-01-01

460

Small and Medium-Size Enterprise Support Policies in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

December 1994Technical and marketing support for small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) in Japan comes mostly through private networks. Public support is more important in the area of finance. Three sources of directed credit -- loans from specialized parastatals, loans channeled through local governments, and loan guarantees -- account for about 20 percent of all SME borrowing and 35 to 60

Shujiro Urata; Motoshige Itoh

1999-01-01

461

Small and medium-size enterprise support policies in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine how Japan's public and private sectors support small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs). They focus on technical, financial, and marketing assistance. Their findings are based on a survey of 107 firms; 40 that produce silverware, 33 engaged in synthetic textile weaving, and 34 that manufacture auto parts. Each sector represents a distinctive form of industrial organization, but they

Motoshige Itoh; Shujiro Urata

1994-01-01

462

Japan's research on droplet and droplet array combustion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In Japan, the ignition and combustion of the droplet and droplet array have been investigated by using microgravity condition. This is the short introduction of those studies; interactive combustion of two droplets, ignition experiment on droplet array, and microexplosion behavior of an emulsified fuel droplet.

Kono, Michikata

1995-01-01

463

Book Review: “A Guide to the Lepidoptera of Japan”  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The caterpillars of butterflies and moths are among the most destructive pests of agricultural, ornamental, and forest plants. This paper is a review of new book on the butterflies and moths of Japan, which includes a section on pest species. The subject is highly relevant to U.S. agriculture becaus...

464

Research on Fall Prevention and Protection from Heights in Japan  

PubMed Central

The high frequency of fall accidents is a serious problem in Japan. Thus, more stringent countermeasures for preventing falls from scaffolds were developed and incorporated into institutional guidelines. These countermeasures aim to decrease deaths caused by falls from scaffolds. Despite the improvements in such measures, however, the rate of accidental fall deaths remains high in Japan’s construction industries. To improve the rigor of the countermeasures, a committee was established in our institute by the Japan Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. This committee investigated the regulations applied in other countries and evaluated construction industry compliance with existing fall prevention guidelines. After considerable research and discussion, the Occupational Safety and Health Regulations and Guidelines were amended in 2009. The effects of the amended regulations have recently been investigated on the basis of accident reports. This paper describes the investigation and its results. The paper also discusses other research and workplace safety countermeasures for preventing falls and ensuring fall protection from heights. PMID:25098387

OHDO, Katsutoshi; HINO, Yasumichi; TAKAHASHI, Hiroki

2014-01-01

465

On computer education in Japan Yoko ONO and Yumi ASAHI  

E-print Network

285 On computer education in Japan Yoko ONO and Yumi ASAHI Department of Management Science, Tokyo@ess.rikkyo.ne.jp Abstract: In recent years, the number of university classes using computers has increased with the widespread availability of computers. In Japanese universities as well, computer and intramural information

Spagnolo, Filippo

466

Japan Food Allergen Labeling Regulation—History and Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to a national survey of food allergy cases, the food-labeling system for specific allergenic ingredients (i.e., egg, milk, wheat, buckwheat, and peanut) in Japan was mandated under law on April 1, 2002. By Japanese law, labeling of allergens is designated as mandatory or recommended based on the number of cases of actual illness and the degree of seriousness. Mandatory

Hiroshi Akiyama; Takanori Imai; Motohiro Ebisawa

2011-01-01

467

Challenges for Higher Education and Research: A Perspective from Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is to identify key challenges facing Japan's higher education since the early 1990s and their impacts on major research themes. In this paper key challenges include those resulting from the decline in the 18-year population, the cultivation of high-quality university graduates, the incorporation of national universities,…

Huang, Futao

2014-01-01

468

Idealized English Teachers: The Implicit Influence of Race in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

English as a Foreign Language (EFL) education within the context of Japan is firmly underpinned by sociohistorical constructions of racial difference and racial hierarchies that have considerable influence on contemporary student and institutional attitudes. Embracing these sociohistorical foundations, this article adopts experimental procedures…

Rivers, Damian J.; Ross, Andrew S.

2013-01-01

469

Science on a Sphere- Japan Earthquake and Tsunami Wave Heights  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3 animations provide a visual of the March 11, 2011 Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. Predicted Tsunami wave heights from the Center for Tsunami Research, Real-Time Earthquake dataset of hourly images from Feb. 19, 2011 to March 24, 2011. A third video merges these two datasets.

470

Diversity and Multiculturalism in Japan: What Is Called into Question?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the different ways in which the notion of multiculturalism in Japan has been influenced by various social and historical trajectories. Since the Japanese government started to promote "internationalization" in the 1980's, slogans such as "international exchange," "cultural exchange," and "understanding of other cultures" have…

Qi, Jie

2011-01-01

471

Taxonomic studies of nectrioid fungi in Japan: The genus Cosmospora  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seven species of the genus Cosmospora collected in Japan are reported in this article. Among them, Cosmospora japonica is described as a new species. Cosmospora henanensis, C. rubrisetosa and C. triqua, all of which are known only from their type localities, are added to the Japanese mycoflora. Othe...

472

Education, Employment and Household Dynamics: Brazilian Migrants in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By treating the household as a primary unit of analysis and social production, this article considers the mutually influential ways in which migrant families shape the educational pathways and experiences of Brazilian children living in Japan. Through an ethnographic exploration of relations between parents, children and their working siblings I…

Green, Paul

2013-01-01

473

Persons with Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author outlines the history, current situation, and the future of the care and support system for people with intellectual and multiple disabilities in Japan. He describes how the service system has been shaped from within by Japanese legislation dating back to the Child Welfare Act of 1947, and how international events such as the…

Suemitsu, Shigeru

2009-01-01

474

How Shifting Plates Caused the Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page features USGS visualizations including a slide show of the sudden movement of the Pacific tectonic plate under the North American plate caused a massive earthquake and a tsunami. It also contains maps of the magnitude of shaking and predicted tsunami wave heights from the March 11, 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan.

New York Times

475

Speciation of Antimony in PET Bottles Produced in Japan and  

E-print Network

Speciation of Antimony in PET Bottles Produced in Japan and China by X-ray Absorption Fine of antimony (Sb) incorporated into polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles were estimated based on X of PET itself, but is not related to the Sb species in the PET bottles. 1. Introduction Antimony (Sb) has

Short, Daniel

476

Japan's ZEMPOREN: A Model Educational Broadcasting Organization for Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses origins, structure, objectives, and implications for U.S. schools of ZEMPOREN, the All Japan Teachers' Federation Studying the Use of Radio and Television in Education, which promotes effective use of classroom broadcasting through a published journal, research, conventions, and by acting as liaison between the educational network and…

Tiene, Drew; Urakawa, Tomoji

1985-01-01

477

Japan's Elementary Science Series: The Chemistry of Successful Educational Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a detailed look at combination of factors contributing to the success of the elementary science television programs of Japan, including production facilities, research, instructional approach, production techniques, and promotion. It is suggested that this series could serve as a model for the development of televised instruction in…

Tiene, Drew; Urakawa, Tomoji

1983-01-01

478

Commentaries on Being Gay in Japan and China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents commentaries on being gay in Japan and China by distinguished educators with various backgrounds and from different countries. Given space limitations, these are more evocative than particulate, but collectively they provide multiple platforms for reflection. As noted by some commentators in this article and others (e.g.,…

Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education, 2003

2003-01-01

479

Lightning detection and lightning protection of power systems in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lightning occurrence data have been collected with the lightning location systems operated by electric power companies in Japan. Seasonal variations and annual variations of lightning occurrence have been clarified from the seasonal and annual lightning stroke frequency maps made by the above data. These data were compared with the faults on transmission lines. The number of faults is almost proportional

Shigeru Yokoyama

2002-01-01

480

Primary health care and health education in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the substance of the Alma Ata Declaration on Primary Health Care is discussed. Minimum requirements and working goals of Primary Health Care are reviewed. The health status of the Japanese people, and the medical and health delivery systems in Japan are considered, with reference to the Alma Ata Declaration. While the Alma Ata Declaration sets forth the

Mikio Yamamoto

1983-01-01

481

Japan Association for Language Teaching (JALT) Journal, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The two issues of the journal for teachers of English as a second language in Japan include these articles: "What Do JTEs Really Want?" (Wendy F. Scholefield); "Do EFL Learners Make Instrumental Inferences When Reading? Some Evidence from Implicit Memory Tests" (Suzanne Collins, Hidetsugu Tajika); "Function and Structure of Academic English"…

Swenson, Tamara, Ed.

1996-01-01

482

Music Teacher Education in Japan: Structure, Problems, and Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School music education in Japan is in a less than ideal situation. In April 2002, the new course of study was implemented by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). The total number of music classes in the new curriculum was reduced to 33% of what it had been by the end of 2002. The reduction went from two hours…

Ogawa, Masafumi

2004-01-01

483

Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in feral raccoons, Japan.  

PubMed

Although raccoons (Procyon lotor) are susceptible to influenza viruses, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection in these animals has not been reported. We performed a serosurvey of apparently healthy feral raccoons in Japan and found specific antibodies to subtype H5N1 viruses. Feral raccoons may pose a risk to farms and public health. PMID:21470469

Horimoto, Taisuke; Maeda, Ken; Murakami, Shin; Kiso, Maki; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; Sashika, Mariko; Ito, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Kazuo; Yokoyama, Mayumi; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2011-04-01

484

Strategies for eliminating death from gastric cancer in Japan  

PubMed Central

In Japan, efforts have been directed toward improving the detection of early gastric cancer by double contrast radiography and endoscopy, since early cancer has a good prognosis, resulting in Japan having the world’s best diagnostic system for early gastric cancer. The 5-year survival rate of gastric cancer patients in Japan is much higher than in Western countries by the development of endoscopic treatment for early gastric cancer. In February 2013, Japanese national health insurance cover for H. pylori eradication therapy was expanded to patients with H. pylori-associated gastritis, a type of chronic gastritis. H. pylori-associated gastritis causes gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric polyps, therefore, providing treatment for this gastritis is likely to substantially decrease the prevalence of both gastric and duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer. Patients with gastritis are tested for H. pylori infection and those who are positive receive eradication therapy followed by periodic endoscopic surveillance. If such an approach is pursued further in Japan, gastric cancer deaths will show a dramatic decline after 10–20 years. PMID:25169671

ASAKA, Masahiro; MABE, Katsuhiro

2014-01-01

485

Universities and Government in Post-War Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Japan's higher education system, in which private universities and colleges play an important part, has embarked on far-reaching reform in the 1990s. Its main objective was to free the national (public) universities from tight control by the central government and to give them more autonomy. In light of dramatic demographic changes, especially a…

Yamamoto, Shinichi

2004-01-01

486

Japan Association of Language Teachers Journal (JALT). 1982-1984.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This compilation of four issues of the Japan Association of Language Teachers Journal (JALT) covers the years 1982-1984. The four issues contain a total of 21 articles, as follows: "Communicative Needs in Foreign Language Learning" (Jack C. Richards); "Language Proficiency Interview Testing" (David J. Keitges); "Speculations into the Distributive…

Japan Association of Language Teaching Journal, 1982

1982-01-01

487

Japan's Whaling Triangle – The Power Behind the Whaling Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper looks at the Japanese whaling policy and inquires into what lies behind its direction. The policy has many features and the longer Japan continues with its research whaling, the more controversial the policy becomes. Reasons put forward by the government, such as the maintenance of its culture and the utilization of the whale resource, have not convinced Western

Midori Kagawa-Fox

2009-01-01

488

Neritic squid resources and cuttlefish resources in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge concerning biology of two loliginids and three sepiids which are found in the Japanese waters was reviewed including unpublished information of the authors.The swordtip squid, Photololigo edulis, is one of the most important resources for the coastal fisheries of Kyushu and the prefectures facing the southwest Japan Sea. This species is the only species of genus Photololigo found along

Yutaka Natsukari; Masatoki Tashiro

1991-01-01

489

Very Low Fertility in Japan and Value Change Hypotheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fertility in Japan dropped below replacement level in the middle of the 1970s and declined further since the middle of the 1980s, having reached the total fertility rate (TFR) of 1.42 in 1995. There is much evidence to show that such fertility decline occurred directly as the result of the rise in the proportion never married and the rise in

Makoto ATOH

2001-01-01

490

Magnetic properties of Kurokami pumices from Mt. Sakurajima, Japan  

E-print Network

Magnetic properties of Kurokami pumices from Mt. Sakurajima, Japan Yongjae Yu aY *, David J. Dunlop-Ti titanomagnetite are carriers of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) in Kurokami andesitic pumices of Mt reserved. Keywords: chromite; titanomagnetite; pumice; Sakura-jima; magnetic properties 1. Introduction

Dunlop, David J.

491

EXPOSURE SYSTEMS AND ASSESSMENT FOR SEVERAL ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS IN JAPAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible health effects of exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) have become a great concern of the general public. Therefore, many animal experiments have been conducted. For the animal experiments, the development of desirable exposure system and precise exposure assessment are important. We developed several exposure systems for animal experiments in Japan. The head localized microwave exposure systems for rats with

Kanako Wake; Masahiro Hanazawa; Soichi Watanabe; Osamu Fujiwara; Masao Taki

492

Revision of the genus Buchneria (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata) from Japan  

PubMed Central

Abstract Buchneria dofleini (Buchner, 1924), type species of Buchneria Harmer, 1957,was first described from material collected in 1904–1905 from Sagami Bay, Japan, but the type specimens had not been reexamined since the original description. In this study, I examined specimens of Buchneria from historical collections and material recently collected near Akkeshi, Hokkaido, Japan. Three Buchneria species were detected, two from Sagami Bay that Ortmann (1890) had placed in Escharoides, and one from Akkeshi that Androsova (1958) had described as Porella variabilis. I concluded that Buchneria dofleini is a junior synonym of Escharoides teres Ortmann, 1890; selected a lectotype for Escharoides teres among Ortmann’s syntypes; and established the new combination Buchneria teres (Ortmann, 1890), which becomes the type species of Buchneria. I also established the new combination Buchneria rhomboidalis (Ortmann, 1890) and selected a lectotype among Ortmann’s syntypes. Porella variabilis is transferred to Buchneria establishing the new combination Buchneria variabilis (Androsova, 1958). Here the three new combinations are redescribed and a key to the Japanese Buchneria species is provided. Finally, I transferred Buchneria to Bryocryptellidae on the basis of ovicell and orifice morphology. Therefore, Buchneria now includes a total of three species; Buchneria sinuata Harmer, 1957, a species from Indonesia that has hitherto been placed in this genus, is almost certainly not congeneric with other Buchneria. As far as is now known, Buchneria is endemic to northern Japan and the northern Sea of Japan. PMID:23372410

Hirose, Masato

2012-01-01

493

Revision of the genus Buchneria (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata) from Japan.  

PubMed

Buchneria dofleini (Buchner, 1924), type species of Buchneria Harmer, 1957,was first described from material collected in 1904-1905 from Sagami Bay, Japan, but the type specimens had not been reexamined since the original description. In this study, I examined specimens of Buchneria from historical collections and material recently collected near Akkeshi, Hokkaido, Japan. Three Buchneria species were detected, two from Sagami Bay that Ortmann (1890) had placed in Escharoides, and one from Akkeshi that Androsova (1958) had described as Porella variabilis. I concluded that Buchneria dofleini is a junior synonym of Escharoides teres Ortmann, 1890; selected a lectotype for Escharoides teres among Ortmann's syntypes; and established the new combination Buchneria teres (Ortmann, 1890), which becomes the type species of Buchneria. I also established the new combination Buchneria rhomboidalis (Ortmann, 1890) and selected a lectotype among Ortmann's syntypes. Porella variabilis is transferred to Buchneria establishing the new combination Buchneria variabilis (Androsova, 1958). Here the three new combinations are redescribed and a key to the Japanese Buchneria species is provided. Finally, I transferred Buchneria to Bryocryptellidae on the basis of ovicell and orifice morphology. Therefore, Buchneria now includes a total of three species; Buchneria sinuata Harmer, 1957, a species from Indonesia that has hitherto been placed in this genus, is almost certainly not congeneric with other Buchneria. As far as is now known, Buchneria is endemic to northern Japan and the northern Sea of Japan. PMID:23372410

Hirose, Masato

2012-01-01

494

Status of Laser Fusion Research in Japan Kunioki Mima  

E-print Network

1 Status of Laser Fusion Research in Japan Kunioki Mima Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka coupling efficiency DT core Corona e- e- 1. Single Cone target 2. Double-cone target Corona DT coree- E electron energy density in single cone and double cone Single cone Double cone 1ps 1,5ps Hongbo Cai, etal

495

"Downward Mobility" as a Form of Phased Retirement in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author describes Japan's phased retirement system, consisting of the "step down" from a management or supervisory position (commonly in the mid-50s) and the mandatory transfer to a subsidiary company later. The system allows companies to promote younger workers. However, in a depressed industry, the system generally results in significant…

Osako, Masako M.

1988-01-01

496

INTERPRETING JAPAN'S INTERPRETERS THE PROBLEM OF LAFCADIO HEARN  

Microsoft Academic Search

), and because he eventually died and was buried in Japan. In the years spanning the transition from the nineteenth to the twentieth centuries, he taught English language and literature to Japanese students at secondary schools and universities, influenced some Japanese modern writers, and contributed to the development of research on Japanese folklore. More unusually, Hearn loved what he thought

NANYAN GUO

2001-01-01

497

Japan Tuna Fishery Bankruptcies Mount New Manuals Promote Seafood Quality  

E-print Network

Japan Tuna Fishery Bankruptcies Mount New Manuals Promote Seafood Quality Severe management and appealing seafood products requires strict quality control, say Texas A&M University Sea Grant Marine Advisory Services specialists. To help insure high seafood quality, they have produced three sea- food

498

SO2 ABATEMENT FOR COAL-FIRED BOILERS IN JAPAN  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a compilation of information on the current status of SO2 abatement technologies for coal-fired boilers in Japan, where strict ambient air quality standards for SO2 and NOx mandate the use of various air pollution control technologies. It focuses on flue gas desulfu...

499

Nonvolcanic Deep Tremor Associated with Subduction in Southwest Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep long-period tremors were recognized and located in a nonvolcanic region in southwest Japan. Epicenters of the tremors were distributed along the strike of the subducting Philippine Sea plate over a length of 600 kilometers. The depth of the tremors averaged about 30 kilometers, near the Mohorovic discontinuity. Each tremor lasted for at most a few weeks. The location of

Kazushige Obara

2002-01-01

500

Norovirus Infections in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Food Handlers in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noroviruses are the leading cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the world. At present, norovirus genogroup II, genotype 4 (GII\\/4), strains are the most prevalent in many countries. In this study we investi- gated 55 outbreaks and 35 sporadic cases of norovirus-associated gastroenteritis in food handlers in food- catering settings between 10 November 2005 and 9 December 2006 in Japan.

Kazuhiro Ozawa; Naokazu Takeda; Grant S. Hansman

2007-01-01