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1

Advanced edge resist remover for photomask  

Microsoft Academic Search

In photomask manufacturing, the corner and the edge of the photomask are stained by photo-resist after coating. Since such resist remains cause the particles when substrates are transferred inside the photomask manufacturing equipment, it is important to remove the stained areas. The scanning type photomask edge resist remover developed this time enables a rapid and accurate resist removal compared with

Shinji Kobayashi; Norihisa Koga; Yasuo Mori; Masatoshi Kaneda

2004-01-01

2

Photomask automation improvement to eliminate manufacturing errors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photomask manufacturing automation has lagged semiconductor wafer process automation development. In a highly complex wafer fab, data automation and advanced process control techniques are required. Given limited demand, photomask equipment manufacturers have not unilaterally made the investment necessary to implement a standardized data flow protocol which would allow photomask process automation enhancements. Surveys indicate that significant photomask yield loss is attributed to manufacturing and administrative errors. By working with individual photomask equipment suppliers and through internal application development, IBM photomask manufacturing automation has eliminated nearly all manufacturing and administrative errors. Some examples of processes that were automated over the past several years are process routing selection, photomask yield prediction, linkage of photomask blank to mask build part number, automated recipe and setup download and dispositioning criteria, statistical analysis of process parameters and defect density, defect information management and automated data upload for photomask and wafer engineering use. Project highlights will be discussed and the case will be made for standardization of data flow protocol and for further photomask process automation improvements.

Watts, Andrew; Huang, Chet; Wang, Yiyang; Huynh, Cuc; Benson, Craig; Smith, Adam

2006-06-01

3

Spectroscopic ellipsometry applications in photomask technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development and manufacture of advanced photomasks requires understanding the optical properties of mask materials and the ability to carefully monitor and control the film thickness, refractive index, and absorption of each film layer. Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE), a nondestructive optical analysis technique for determination of film thickness, refractive index, absorption, and film microstructure has been applied to many applications in current

Ron A. Synowicki; James N. Hilfiker

2008-01-01

4

Advanced edge resist remover for photomask  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In photomask manufacturing, the corner and the edge of the photomask are stained by photo-resist after coating. Since such resist remains cause the particles when substrates are transferred inside the photomask manufacturing equipment, it is important to remove the stained areas. The scanning type photomask edge resist remover developed this time enables a rapid and accurate resist removal compared with similar type tool. Besides, the edge remover reduces the process time of edge resist removal to set slightly narrowing the removal width. The removal speed varies according to removal conditions; it decreases when the resist film density is high such as after the pre-bake. When determining removal conditions, defect and linearity of resist removal line should be well considered as well as the removal speed. It is important to define a balance among the thinner dispense rate, N2 flow and exhaust pressure to prevent defects and optimize the arm velocity to obtain good linearity of resist removal line. With this new edge resist remover, it is also possible to make a complex removal line that is difficult by conventional technology.

Kobayashi, Shinji; Koga, Norihisa; Mori, Yasuo; Kaneda, Masatoshi

2004-10-01

5

Haze generation effect by pellicle and packing box on photomask  

Microsoft Academic Search

ArF exposure tool have been implementing as a main work force of lithography. And haze generation by high actinic wavelength energy is big issue to be resolved. Many studies have been reported to remove or minimized ion residual on photomask surface and PKL developed haze free process. Even though the surface of photomask is free from ions generating haze defect

Jong-Min Kim; Manish Patil; Woo-Gun Jeong; Ik-Boum Hur; Cheol Shin; Sung-Mo Jung; Moon-Hwan Choi; Sang-Soo Choi

2007-01-01

6

Preliminary results for photomask haze mitigation in a fab environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A persistent industry problem impacting photomask yield and costs has been haze formation. The haze nucleation and growth phenomenon on critical photomask surfaces has periodically gained attention as it has significantly impacted wafer printability for different technology nodes over the years. A number of process solutions have been promoted in the semiconductor industry which has been shown to suppress or

Thomas Ku; Jeff Leclaire; Sia Kim Tan; Gek Soon Chua; Ron Bozak; Roy White; Tod Robinson; Michael Archuletta; David Lee

2010-01-01

7

Haze generation effect by pellicle and packing box on photomask  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ArF exposure tool have been implementing as a main work force of lithography. And haze generation by high actinic wavelength energy is big issue to be resolved. Many studies have been reported to remove or minimized ion residual on photomask surface and PKL developed haze free process. Even though the surface of photomask is free from ions generating haze defect by haze free process, but the ions from environment like pellicle and packing box make worsen to keep cleanness of photomask. The evaluation of environment effect like outgas from pellicle and packing box have been reported, but it was hard to know pure environmental effect because the surface of photomask was not enough clean to test it. Several pellicles and boxes with different material from supplies were tested in terms of outgas, contamination of ion and threshold energy generating haze. Some material of packing box and pellicle showed very sensitive to keep haze free photomask surface.

Kim, Jong-Min; Patil, Manish; Jeong, Woo-Gun; Hur, Ik-Boum; Shin, Cheol; Jung, Sung-Mo; Choi, Moon-Hwan; Choi, Sang-Soo

2007-10-01

8

Spectroscopic ellipsometry applications in photomask technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development and manufacture of advanced photomasks requires understanding the optical properties of mask materials and the ability to carefully monitor and control the film thickness, refractive index, and absorption of each film layer. Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE), a nondestructive optical analysis technique for determination of film thickness, refractive index, absorption, and film microstructure has been applied to many applications in current and emerging areas of photomask technology. This work surveys a variety of applications including analysis of fused silica mask blanks, imprint lithography templates, free-standing pellicles, deposited films of chromium, chromium oxide, MoSi, and multiple layers of these materials. For fused silica substrates we determine the optical properties (n & k) versus wavelength as well as the surface roughness. The near-surface index and surface roughness are used as indicators of surface polishing quality, which is an issue in the use of photomask substrates as template stamps in imprint lithography. Pellicles are free-standing films stretched over a metal frame. Because these thin pellicles are much thinner than the light coherence length, spectroscopic ellipsometry can determine the thickness, refractive index, and absorbance of the pellicle versus wavelength via interference between light reflecting from the upper and lower surfaces of the film. It is also possible to measure pellicles suspended over an underlying mask. The optical constants (n & k) of MoSi films vary widely with deposition conditions due to both composition and microstructure. Films optimized for 248 nm and 193 nm wavelengths have been analyzed. Spectroscopic ellipsometry shows good sensitivity to surface roughness and index gradients through the MoSi films. Multilayer masks such as NTAR have multiple absorbing layers such as chromium and chrome oxide. It is possible to simultaneously analyze multiple data sets acquired from the front side, from the back side through the substrate, and transmitted data through the stack. This increases the information content in the data, allowing more details from the multilayer to be determined. It is also possible to measure the birefringence in mask substrates and coated masks by using ellipsometry in transmission mode. By establishing a known polarization state incident on the mask it is possible to analyze the polarization after transmission to determine the phase difference, which is used to measure the birefringence of the sample. For patterned structures such as gratings it is possible to measure polarization-dependent diffraction effects versus angle. Measurement can be made in either reflection or transmission mode. It is possible to independently measure both s- and p-polarization components and compare to theory. As photomasks become more complex, with increasing numbers of layers (such as multilayer mirrors for EUV masks) in-situ ellipsometry shows great promise, providing the ultimate characterization of each film by allowing measurement in real-time as each layer is added to the mask structure.

Synowicki, Ron A.; Hilfiker, James N.

2008-10-01

9

Photomask development for 90-nm technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To accelerate the time-to-market of advanced photomasks, Photronics launched its 90nm program in spring 2003. The program included three learning cycles and a technology transfer phase. Both 90nm test masks and product masks from leading integrated device manufacturers (IDMs) and foundries were exercised through the cycles. Stringent success criteria were set based on a survey of leading customers" requirements and the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). Hundreds of binary masks, embedded attenuated phase shift masks (EAPSMs), and alternating aperture phase shift masks (AAPSMs) were produced throughout the program. All targets were exceeded. This paper describes program success criteria, complexity of customer requirements, 90nm test vehicle design, and efforts on improving critical dimension (CD) uniformity and registration. Results in positive and negative chemically amplified resist (CAR) and tunable etching for AAPSM are shown. Details on AAPSM undercut optimization, intensity and CD imbalance are reported.

Zhang, Yuan; Cottle, Rand; Mackay, Scott; Xiao, Guangming; Unruh, James; Progler, Christopher J.

2005-01-01

10

Sol-gel fabrication of high-quality photomask substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic silica photomask substrates are currently manufactured by cutting, grinding, and polishing glass boules prepared using a flame hydrolysis process. YTC America is developing an alternative technique, based on sol-gel processing, to fabricate high quality substrates. This new technology allows near net shape fabrication of synthetic silica monoliths, thus eliminating the need for cutting and grinding. The complex relationship between glass properties and process parameters in the formulation, drying, and sintering steps has been determined, and a repeatable process has been established. These substrates meet all SEMI specifications for ULTE hard surface photomask substrates for 248-nm lithography. The technology may also be extended to 193-nm and 157-nm photomask substrates. This sol-gel-based process may represent a unique and cost-effective alternative for manufacturing photomask substrates for deep UV lithography.

Ganguli, Rahul; Meixner, D. L.; Colbern, Steve G.; Gleason, Matt S.; Meyers, Douglas E.; Chaudhuri, Satyabrata R.

2003-06-01

11

Japan.  

PubMed

Japan is composed of 4 main islands and more than 3900 smaller islands and has 317.7 persons/square kilometer. This makes it one of the most densely populated nations in the world. Religion is an important force in the life of the Japanese and most consider themselves Buddhists. Schooling is free through junior high but 90% of Japanese students complete high school. In fact, Japan enjoys one of the highest literacy rates in the world. There are over 178 newspapers and 3500 magazines published in Japan and the number of new book titles issued each year is greater than that in the US. Since WW1, Japan expanded its influence in Asia and its holdings in the Pacific. However, as a direct result of WW2, Japan lost all of its overseas possessions and was able to retain only its own islands. Since 1952, Japan has been ruled by conservative governments which cooperate closely with the West. Great economic growth has come since the post-treaty period. Japan as a constitutional monarchy operates within the framework of a constitution which became effective in May 1947. Executive power is vested in a cabinet which includes the prime minister and the ministers of state. Japan is one of the most politically stable of the postwar democracies and the Liberal Democratic Party is representative of Japanese moderate conservatism. The economy of Japan is strong and growing. With few resources, there is only 19% of Japanese land suitable for cultivation. Its exports earn only about 19% of the country's gross national product. More than 59 million workers comprise Japan's labor force, 40% of whom are women. Japan and the US are strongly linked trading partners and after Canada, Japan is the largest trading partner of the US. Foreign policy since 1952 has fostered close cooperation with the West and Japan is vitally interested in good relations with its neighbors. Relations with the Soviet Union are not close although Japan is attempting to improve the situation. US policy is based on the following 3 principles: 1) the US views Japan as an equal trade partner, 2) that the relationship is global in scope, and 3) that Japan has become increasingly assertive in world matters and plays a greater international role. The combined efforts of the US and Japan will be utilized to promote world peace. PMID:12177912

1987-02-01

12

Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Materials for a secondary level, interdisciplinary social studies course on Japan are divided into introductory information, 14 classroom units, and study and evaluation materials. Introductory material includes lists of objectives and skills, an outline of Japanese history, and an explanation of Japan's name and flag. The units cover the…

Jones, Savannah C.

13

JAPAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Japanese populations are genetically different from other populations. Mass screening of newborns in Japan revealed that the\\u000a frequency of hyperphenylalanemia (PKU) was one-tenth and that of galactosemia one-twelfth of the frequency in other countries.1,2 Genetic diseases specific to the Japanese are acatalasia, Fukuyama muscular dystrophy and a few others. The incidence in\\u000a Japan of other common single gene disorders, including

Ichiro Matsuda

14

Printability and repair techniques for DUV photomasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intention of this paper is to discuss some issues resulting from increasing requirements on mask making for 0.25 micrometer technology and below. The key question to be discussed is: How can zero defects masks be guaranteed in future and what efforts are needed to reach that goal. Using state of the art equipment two photomasks were manufactured with typical sized and shaped programmed defects. First, criteria is discussed to characterize the printability of mask defects. Key element is the aerial image measurements system MSM100/AIMS. As a result it was found that the criteria strongly depends on the principle shape of the considered pattern. It is shown that the standard criteria used for mask repair, i.e. relative change of the maximum feature image intensity, is only applicable in case of best dose and best focus. The results were used to improve the performance of an attenuated DUV phase-shifting-mask (aPSM). Various repair techniques have been studied. As a result it can be concluded that high quality mask repairs are available which allow the fabrication of defect free aPSM.

Gans, Fritz; Jess, Marion; Kohlpoth, Stephanie; Pforr, Rainer

1997-02-01

15

Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is in Japan today a growing sense of crisis that something is fundamentally wrong with society. Some causes for the current intense public soul-searching are a decade-long recession, the inability of the government to deal with critical issues in the face of a rapidly graying society, and successive instances of corruption among government bureaucrats. Many Japanese feel that the

Yamamoto Tadashi

2001-01-01

16

Improvement of OPC data processing for photomask fabrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For common approach for low k1-factor process, or just shrink LSI chip size, Optical Proximity effect Correction (OPC) has been getting popular. Though only the OPC effect tends to be discussed at design or wafer process stages, the OPC data processing or OPC photomask writing should be also discussed. Through many experiments with fabricated OPC reticles using many kinds of OPC data, the pursuit of reasonable OPC has been continuing. Then practical design grid for reasonable OPC that will improve data processing, output volume and photomask writing time keeping with regardful OPC effect is discussed.

Toyama, Nobuhito; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Ishida, Kouji

1999-08-01

17

Preliminary results for photomask haze mitigation in a fab environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A persistent industry problem impacting photomask yield and costs has been haze formation. The haze nucleation and growth phenomenon on critical photomask surfaces has periodically gained attention as it has significantly impacted wafer printability for different technology nodes over the years. A number of process solutions have been promoted in the semiconductor industry which has been shown to suppress or minimize the propensity for haze formation, but none of these technologies can stop every instance of haze. Thus some capability will always be needed to remove haze on photomasks with their final pellicles mounted both at the manufacture and long term maintenance stages of a mask's lifetime. A novel technology is reviewed here which uses a dry (no chemical effluents) removal system to sweep the entire printable region of a pelliclized photomask to eliminate all removable haze regardless of the mask substrate materials or the presence of critical patterns. An operational process technique for this system and performance in removal is shown for haze located on the mask pattern surface. Finally, preliminary data from tool acceptance and preliminary use in a production environment will also be reviewed.

Ku, Thomas; Leclaire, Jeff; Tan, Sia Kim; Chua, Gek Soon; Bozak, Ron; White, Roy; Robinson, Tod; Archuletta, Michael; Lee, David

2010-03-01

18

Improvement of photomask repeater for 130-nm lithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Device masks for 180nm lithography was fabricated by PR system. These masks were verified by device yields comparing with masks written by other conventional systems. There were no differences in device yields between PR system and conventional system. Fine analysis of CD error was carried out for enhancement of CD uniformity to apply Photomask Repeater to 130nm lithography. It revealed

Suigen Kyoh; Soichi Inoue; Ichiro Mori; Nobuyuki Irie; Yuuki Ishii; Toshikazu Umatate; Haruo Kokubo; Naoya Hayashi

2001-01-01

19

Surface energy control techniques for photomask fabrication and their characterizations with scanning probe microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of photomask issues such as pattern collapse, HAZE, and cleaning damage relate to behavior of mask surfaces. Therefore it is coming to be important to control surface energy in photomask processes. Especially adhesion analysis in micro region is strongly desired to optimize material and process designs in photomask fabrication. Quantitative measurements of adhesive forces of resists on photomask blanks were realized with scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques. Then surface energy on photomask blanks was able to be controlled by modification with some silanization reagents. In addition, adhesive forces of resists on surfaces modified with some silanes were able to be also controlled. The SPM method is proved to be effective for measuring adhesive energy of micro patterns on photomask blanks.

Kurihara, Masaaki; Hatakeyama, Sho; Yoshida, Kouji; Abe, Makoto; Totsukawa, Daisuke; Morikawa, Yasutaka; Mohri, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Naoya

2008-06-01

20

Properties of fused silica for 157-nm photomasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modified fused silica is the primary candidate material for 157-nm photomask substrates. Standard UV excimer grade silica, such as Corning HPFSR, does not transmit below about 175- nm because of its high OH content. In contrast, we have prepared fused silicas with low OH contents and low levels of fluorine with measured transmissions up to 73.8%\\/6.4 mm and internal transmittances

Lisa A. Moore; Charlene M. Smith

1999-01-01

21

Photomask cleaning process improvement to minimize ArF haze  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth of "haze" defects on photomasks exposed in ArF lithography is recognized as a serious problem. Haze defects that have grown to detectable sizes can be analysed in situ by techniques such as EDX or Raman, but to analyze at the photomask manufacturing stage requires extraction of residues by solution in DI water. The effect of extraction conditions, including surface area and material, water volume, time, and temperature, has been studied. A standard method to compare residual ion levels is proposed. Various methods for reducing residual ion levels from the photomask cleaning process have been published. These include SPM reduction, oxygen plasma, SC1 dilution, Megasonic agitation, hot rinse, UV exposure, thermal bake, ozone water, ozone gas, and hydrogenated water. Critical parameters for the cleaning process, besides residual ion levels and contamination removal efficiency, include CD shift, AR/chrome damage, scatter bar damage, and on phase shift masks, the change in phase and transmission. An optimized process combining conventional and novel techniques is described. Data is presented to show the importance of controlling all resist strip and clean processes, not just the final clean. It has achieved sulphate levels of 0.2ng/cm2 (well below the critical level for haze growth), as well as improved results for the other critical parameters. This process has been demonstrated to allow ArF exposure of large numbers of wafers without the appearance of haze defects.

Graham, Michael; McDonald, Andrew

2008-04-01

22

Through-pellicle defect repair for advanced photomasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A developing reality with advancing DUV femto-second pulsed laser repair of advanced photomasks after pelliclization is a significant operational cost savings. This economic advantage comes from the elimination of a previously critical inspection step before mounting the pellicle on the mask. The laser repair processes developed allow reduce the number of times masks are cycled through mask inspection tools and prevent recontamination of the mask surface due to handling during and after the inspection before pelliclization. The latter would require, without effective through-pellicle repair, removal of the pellicle, repair and/or reclean, then re-inspection and re-pelliclization of the mask (assuming success with the first cycle of repair and/or reclean). Meanwhile, the cost and lack of feasibility for this additional process both increase the investment in the mask while at the same time bringing it closer to being completely scrapped. Recently developed processes that allow for effective through-pellicle laser repair on advanced photomask technologies (sub 65 nm node) are reviewed, that have economic advantages and also make the repair of lower-end (and higher volume) photomasks significantly more profitable to the typical mask maker.

Robinson, Tod; White, Roy; Bozak, Ron; Leclaire, Jeff; Archuletta, Mike; Lee, David

2010-04-01

23

An Automatic Method for Extracting and Classifying Defect in Optical Photomask Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the process of extracting and classifying defect in optical, photomask images. It describes photomask defect extraction which is the preprocessing of classification. In addition, it describes not only how to classify defect into false, particle on glass, and pattern defect but also how to classify pattern defect into spot, Cr extension, bridge, MoSiN bridge, pinhole, clear extension,

Youngmin Ha; Hong Jeong

2007-01-01

24

New photomask pattern generation method based on i-line stepper  

Microsoft Academic Search

New pattern generation system, Photomask Repeater, based on i-line stepper has been developed. This system can transfer device patterns from master masks onto a photomask plate with 22mm field size. To print a chip larger than the 22mm field, stitching technology has been developed. Critical dimension error in the region where fields are stitched is the key issue of this

Suigen Kyoh; Shun-Ichiro Tanaka; Soichi Inoue; Iwao Higashikawa; Ichiro Mori; Katsuya Okumura; Nobuyuki Irie; Kikuo Muramatsu; Yuki Ishii; Nobutaka Magome; Toshikazu Umatate

2000-01-01

25

Quality assessment of advanced photomasks using the Q-CAP cluster tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reduction of wavelength in optical lithography and the use of enhancement techniques like phase shift technology, optical proximity correction (OPC), or off-axis illumination, lead to new specifications for advanced photomasks: a challenge for cost effective mask qualification. `Q-CAP', the Qualification Cluster for Advanced Photomasks, comprising different inspection tools (a photomask defect inspection station, a CD metrology system, a photomask review station and a stepper simulation software tool) was developed to face these new requirements. This paper will show the performance and reliability of quality assessment using the Q-CAP cluster tool for inspection and qualification of photomasks. Special attention is paid to a key issue of mask qualification: the impact of CD deviations, loss of pattern fidelity-- especially for OPC pattern and mask defects on wafer level.

Peter, Kai; Schaetz, Thomas; Ordynskyy, Volodymyr; Liebe, Roman; Verbeek, Martin; Galan, Gerald; Baracchi, Emanuele; Miramond, Corinne; Brueck, Hans-Juergen; Scheuring, Gerd; Engel, Thomas; Eran, Yair; Sommer, Karl; Hartmann, Hans

2001-04-01

26

Applications of MICP source for next-generation photomask process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As critical dimensions of photomask extends into submicron range, critical dimension uniformity, edge roughness, macro loading effect, and pattern slope become tighter than before. Fabrication of photomask relies on the ability to pattern features with anisotropic profile. To improve critical dimension uniformity, dry etcher is one of the solution and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) sources have become one of promising high density plasma sources for dry etcher. In this paper, we have utilized dry etcher system with multi-pole ICP source for Cr etch and MoSi etch and have investigated critical dimension uniformity, slope, and defects. We will present dry etch process data by process optimization of newly designed dry etcher system. The designed pattern area is 132 by 132 mm2 with 23 by 23 matrix test patterns. 3 (sigma) of critical dimension uniformity is below 12 nm at 0.8 - 3.0 micrometers . In most cases, we can obtain zero defect masks which is operated by face- down loading.

Kwon, Hyuk-Joo; Chang, Byung-Soo; Choi, Boo Y.; Park, Kyung H.; Jeong, Soo-Hong

2000-07-01

27

Low-thermal expansion material for EUVL photomask substrate application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) uniformity and the surface finish performance of the low expansion glass-ceramic material produced by Ohara called CLEARCERAM-Z HS were investigated relative to the SEMI P37 specifications for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) Photomask Substrates. The study on the CTE uniformity utilizing precision CTE measurement system based on Fizeau Interferometry with a single ppb/degree C level repeatability revealed that the standard deviation of the latest product CTE (+19 to +25degree C) data was 0+/-10ppb/degree C, which meets the Class B CTE specification in the SEMI P37 with statistical confidence and was improved from the previous report (0+/-15ppb/degree C, Class C). For the surface finish performance, the flatness data less than 100 nm (meeting Class A in the SEMI P37) and the roughness of 0.15nm Rms (Conforming to the SEMI P37) were demonstrated. Additionally the roughness uniformity was investigated and shown to be 1% in the coefficient of variation. By reviewing the data and performances from actual measurements, the suitability of CLEARCERAM-Z HS for EUVL Photomask Substrate material is discussed and updated. Also, preliminary R&D data of a new CLEARCERAM-Z material now under developing to response to the further requirements from EUVL community are introduced.

Nakajima, Kousuke; Kawasaki, Nobuo; Nakajima, Toshihide

2004-08-01

28

Comprehensive simulation study of the photomask defects printability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical lithography will continue to be a leading patterning technology for 256 Mb and 1 GB DRAM production. As the device size diminishes, all the links of the technological chain must be significantly improved. Photomask technology then becomes one of the critical issues for the semiconductor industry. It is already admitted that only a combination of PSM technology coupled with OPC and state-of-the-art illumination schemes will allow the printing of 0.18 micrometer patterns using optical lithography. It has been shown that new patterning techniques may significantly degenerate mask defect tolerance. This will certainly require a new look at the mask defects detection and classification. A new 'process window' concept proposed by KLA has been applied to the mask defects printability study. Both conventional (chrome) and phase shifted (half-tone) masks have been examined. OPC corrected layouts were studied with a variety of defect types, sizes, and locations. 'Ideal' vs 'real' (corner rounding) reticles were tested. In addition, the impact of substrate reflectivity and photoresist contrast on defect printability has been determined using full scale 3D simulation. We found that implementing the OPC technique may produce new types of defects, and therefore requires a new defect classification.

Karklin, Linard

1995-12-01

29

Fuzzy pattern matching techniques for photomask layout data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pattern matching seems to be promising technique to the mask industry. It can be used for many applications such as hot spot detection of post-OPC data, search of AIMS reference location or CDSEM measurement point extraction. In particular, fuzzy pattern matching is more needed for mask data processing because the mask layout has different derivatives generated by OPC and there are many similar "OPC brothers" that come from the same layout. However, application of fuzzy pattern matching to the mask layout is challenging due to the reasons related to the characteristics of photomask data. In this paper we introduce a novel method of fuzzy pattern matching to cope with the issues that comes from the characteristics of mask data. The rule specification is quite simple - we only need to specify a single tolerance value for each edge displacement. We will show the experimental results using the actual mask layout and prove that the calculation speed and quality of the proposed technique is satisfactory from the view point of realistic MDP processing.

Kato, Kokoro; Taniguchi, Yoshiyuki; Nishizawa, Kuninori

2013-06-01

30

Chemically amplified positive resist for next-generation photomask fabrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been developing novolak-based chemically amplified positive resists for the next generation photomask fabrication. In this paper, we report two different types of EB resists: RE-5150P and RE-5160P. Our resist materials consist of four components: a novolak matrix resin, a polyphenol compound, an acid generator and a dissolution inhibitor. We applied two different types of dissolution inhibitors to our resist materials. RE-5150P and RE-5160P employed respective a high and a low activation energy type of a dissolution inhibitor. RE-5150P has high contrast and RE- 5160P has wide process window. As a result, we confirmed RE- 5150P could achieve 0.24 micrometer line-and-space vertical resist pattern profiles at 8 (mu) C/cm2 using the 50 kV EB- writer HL-800M, and RE-5160P has wide process window: post exposure delay stability is over 24 hrs. and post coating delay stability is over 30 days.

Katoh, Kohji; Kasuya, Kei; Arai, Tadashi; Sakamizu, Toshio; Satoh, Hidetoshi; Saitoh, Hidetaka; Hoga, Morihisa

1999-12-01

31

Plasma etching of chromium films in the fabrication of photomasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To meet the advanced CD uniformity and resolution requirements of state-of-the-art maskmaking, dry chrome etch processing may be required. Dry etching is a more anisotropic process, significantly reducing etch undercut. The absence of undercutting allows the lithographer to image the resist at the iso-focal point, eliminating the need to underexpose to maintain CDs. Also, dry etch parameters can be precisely controlled via a microprocessor- controlled etch system with a highly accurate parameter-metering system that ensures greater process control. Using design-of-experiment methodologies, a chrome plasma etch process (using OCG-895i) was developed. This work proves the feasibility of plasma etching chromium patterns on photomasks. The results show an etch that has excellent uniformity, is anisotropic, and has excellent edge quality. Also, resist selectivity is high for the etching of thin chrome films. SEM results show a significant reduction in the bias needed to achieve nominal CDs. As with many dry etch processes, loading and microloading effects (i.e., localized pattern density effect on etch rates) are a concern. Initial investigations of loading and microloading effects were conducted. Results suggest that due to the high anisotropy of the etch, microloading is not an issue. However, plate loading (or the amount of chrome removed) increases etch times and can result in radial etch patterns. Loading effects must be minimized or eliminated to optimize etch uniformity.

Coleman, Thomas P.; Buck, Peter D.

1995-12-01

32

157-nm photomask handling and infrastructure: requirements and feasibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photomask handling is significantly more challenging for 157nm lithography than for any previous generation of optical lithography. First, pellicle materials are not currently available which meet all the requirements for 157nm lithography. Polymeric materials used at 193nm higher wavelengths are not transmissive at 157nm, while modified fused silica materials have adequate transmission and durability but have mechanical issues that need to be resolved. Second, the problem of molecular level contamination on the reticle must be solved. This contamination is due to the presence of oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, and other attenuators of 157nm radiation on the mask surface. It must be removed using something other than the lithography laser due to throughput and cost of ownership considerations. Third, there is the issue of removing attenuators from under the pellicle after a material becomes available. Both the ambient atmosphere and other introduced contaminants must be removed from the space between the reticle and pellicle after cleaning but before exposure. Forth are the potential issues for storage of reticles both during transportation from the mask shop and after it is in the wafer fab. Finally, the problems associated with operating in an optically inert dry environment must be addressed. The lack of moisture in the environment removes one of the key electrical discharge paths off of the reticle, which greatly increases the risk of electro-static damage to the pattern (ESD).

Cullins, Jerry; Muzio, Edward G.

2001-09-01

33

Development of photomask linewidth measurement and calibration using AFM and SEM in NMIJ  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a measurement method for linewidth patterns of photomasks, and started a calibration service of the photomask linewidth measurement. For the photomask standards, high-quality of chromium film patterns, typical thickness of about 80 nm, sharp edges (edge angles more than 85 degree) and smooth side walls on a quart glass substrate were used. Two kinds of microscopes, an atomic force microscope (AFM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM), were employed to calibrate the linewidth. At the first, the surface profile of line structures were inspected using the AFM, so that the distance between the left and the right side walls at the edge positions were geometrically-determined. Before the each measurement of photomask patterns by the AFM tips, each of the tip shape was checked using a needle artifact. Then AFM profiles of the photomask patterns were corrected using the tip shape data. The linewidth was calculated using the corrected profiles under a definition of the edge positions, a 10 % level from the top film surface. At the next, the linewidth bias between SEM and AFM were evaluated using the AFM data. Using this method, an uncertainty of the linewidth measurement was evaluated at 60 nm for a linewidth range of 0.5 ?m-10 ?m.

Sugawara, Kentaro; Sato, Osamu; Misumi, Ichiko; Gonda, Satoshi; Lu, Mingzi

2011-05-01

34

Critical evaluation of photomask needs for competing 65-nm node RET options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive set of numerical, mask pattern operators is developed and applied for the purpose of understanding photomask fabrication tolerances supporting aggressive, optical lithography resolution enhancement. Using these numerical operators, the content and fidelity of the photomask is systematically degraded and wafer level results predicted using experimentally calibrated simulation. The concept of a mask sensitivity matrix is introduced and used as a bridge to full Monte Carlo analysis of photomask fabrication errors. A statistical approach to analyze mask defect tolerances for resolution enhancement options is presented within the same numerical framework. Such methodical and detailed analysis of mask construction parameters is a vital step toward understanding the complex interaction between mask quality and printed image and hence the delivery of 65 nm node lithography capability.

Progler, Christopher J.; Xiao, Guangming

2003-06-01

35

157-nm photomask handling and infrastructure: requirements and feasibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photomask handling is significantly more challenging for 157 nm lithography than for any previous generation of optical lithography. First, pellicle materials are not currently available which meet all the requirements for 157 nm lithography. Polymeric materials used at 193 nm higher wavelengths are not sufficiently transmissive at 157 nm, while modified fused silica materials have adequate transmission properties but introduce optical distortion. Second, the problem of molecular level contamination on the reticle must be solved. This contamination is due to the presence of oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, and other attenuators of 157 nm radiation on the mask surface. It must be removed using something other than the lithography laser due to throughput and cost of ownership considerations. Third, there is the issue of removing attenuators from under the pellicle after a material becomes available. Both the ambient atmosphere and other introduced contaminants must be removed from the space between the reticle and pellicle after cleaning but before exposure. Fourth are the potential issues for storage of reticles both during transportation from the mask shop and after it is in the wafer fab. Finally, the problems associated with operating in an optically inert dry environment must be addressed. The lack of moisture in the environment removes one of the key electrical discharge paths off of the reticle, which greatly increases the risk of electrostatic damage to the pattern (ESD). In order to address these and related issues in a timeframe consistent with the aggressive implementation plan for 157 nm lithography, International Sematech (ISMT) formed the 157 nm Reticle Handling Team in November of 1999. This paper details the most critical results to date of this industry-wide team, and gives a prognosis for successful completion of the team's primary goal: a demonstration of a feasible 157 nm reticle handling strategy by December of 2000.

Cullins, Jerry; Muzio, Edward G.

2001-09-01

36

Lens wavefront compensation for 3D photomask effects in subwavelength optical lithography.  

PubMed

As semiconductor optical lithography is pushed to smaller dimensions, resolution enhancement techniques have been required to maintain process yields. For some time, the customization of illumination coherence at the source plane has allowed for the control of diffraction order distribution across the projection lens pupil. Phase shifting at the photomask plane has allowed for some phase control as well. Geometries smaller than the imaging wavelength introduce complex wavefront effects that cannot be corrected at source or mask planes. Three-dimensional photomask topography effects can cause a loss of both focal depth and exposure latitude across geometry of varying density. Wavefront manipulation at the lens pupil plane becomes necessary to provide the degrees of freedom needed to correct for such effects. The focus of this research is the compensation of the wavefront phase error introduced by the topographical photomask structures of high resolution phase shift masking combined with off-axis illumination. The compensation is realized through phase manipulation of the lens pupil plane, specifically in the form of spherical aberration. Subwavelength resolution optimization and imaging is presented showing how phase pupil filtering can measurably improve the depth of focus for several photomask structures and types. PMID:23338176

Sears, Monica Kempsell; Bekaert, Joost; Smith, Bruce W

2013-01-20

37

APPLICATION OF TAGUCHI METHOD IN THE OPTIMIZATION OF LASER MICRO-ENGRAVING OF PHOTOMASKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photomasks are needed to generate various design patterns in the fabrication of liquid crystal displays (LCDs). This paper discusses the use of the Taguchi method of experimental design in optimising process parameters for micro - engraving of iron oxide coated glass using a Q -switched Nd:YAG laser. The effects of five key process parameters - beam expansion ratio, focal length,

Y. H. Chen; S. C. Tam; W. L. Chen; H. Y. Zheng

1996-01-01

38

Evaluation of reticle cleaning performance with different drying methods for high-grade photomasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reticle cleaning is one of the most important processes in photomask making, because the smallest particles on reticle are supposed to be printable on wafer. Moreover, the requirement for reticle cleaning is stricter, because reticle should be zero-defect and there is no killer factor on it. It is facing difficult challenges as it enters new era of 100 nm pattern,

Woo-Gun Jeong; Si-Woo Lee; Dae-Hong Kim; Young Jin Yoon; Dong-Heok Lee; Boo Yeon Choi; Sang-Soo Choi; Sung-Mo Jung; Soo-Hong Jeong

2002-01-01

39

Photomask repeater strategy for high-quality and low-cost reticle fabrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The severe mask specification makes mask cost increase drastically. Especially, the increase in the mask cost deals ASIC businesses a fatal blow due to its small chip volume per product. Pattern writing cost has always occupied the main part of the prime mask cost and the emphasis of this is still increasing. This paper reports on a Photomask Repeater strategy

Suigen Kyoh; Soichi Inoue; Osamu Ikenaga; Tomotaka Higaki; Fumiaki Shigemitsu; Ichiro Mori; Haruo Kokubo; Naoya Hayashi; Nobuyuki Irie; Yuki Ishii; Toshikazu Umatate

2003-01-01

40

An integrated solution for photomask manufacturing, handling, and storage at 65 nm and below  

Microsoft Academic Search

As reticle line widths shrink and RET complexity increases, even a single sub-micron defect can reject a photomask. High-end reticle manufacturers striving for increased yield and reduced cycle times are relying on low incoming rawstock defect levels and handling via SMIF mini environments for critical manufacturing steps. However, even in SMIF compatible reticle fabs, human handling is often required to

Jörg Schwitzgebel; Guangming Xiao; Barry Rockwell; Sammy Nozaki; Ali Darvish; Chris Wu

2006-01-01

41

Aerial imaging technology for photomask qualification: from a microscope to a metrology tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photomasks carry the structured information of the chip designs printed with lithography scanners onto wafers. These structures, for the most modern technologies, are enlarged by a factor of 4 with respect to the final circuit design, and 20-60 of these photomasks are needed for the production of a single completed chip used, for example, in computers or cell phones. Lately, designs have been reported to be on the drawing board with close to 100 of these layers. Each of these photomasks will be reproduced onto the wafer several hundred times and typically 5000-50 000 wafers will be produced with each of them. Hence, the photomasks need to be absolutely defect-free to avoid any fatal electrical shortcut in the design or drastic performance degradation. One well-known method in the semiconductor industry is to analyze the aerial image of the photomask in a dedicated tool referred to as Aerial Imaging Measurement System, which emulates the behavior of the respective lithography scanner used for the imaging of the mask. High-end lithography scanners use light with a wavelength of 193 nm and high numerical apertures (NAs) of 1.35 utilizing a water film between the last lens and the resist to be illuminated (immersion scanners). Complex illumination shapes enable the imaging of structures well below the wavelength used. Future lithography scanners will work at a wavelength of 13.5 nm [extreme ultraviolet (EUV)] and require the optical system to work with mirrors in vacuum instead of the classical lenses used in current systems. The exact behavior of these systems is emulated by the Aerial Image Measurement System (AIMS™; a Trademark of Carl Zeiss). With these systems, any position of the photomask can be imaged under the same illumination condition used by the scanners, and hence, a prediction of the printing behavior of any structure can be derived. This system is used by mask manufacturers in their process flow to review critical defects or verify defect repair success. In this paper, we give a short introduction into the lithography roadmap driving the development cycles of the AIMS systems focusing primarily on the complexity of the structures to be reviewed. Second, we describe the basic principle of the AIMS technology and how it is used. The last section is dedicated to the development of the latest generation of the AIMS for EUV, which is cofinanced by several semiconductor companies in order to close a major gap in the mask manufacturing infrastructure and the challenges to be met.

Garetto, Anthony; Scherübl, Thomas; Peters, Jan Hendrik

2012-09-01

42

Photomask fabrication of focusing diffractive optical elements using electron-beam lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electron beam lithography application to diffractive optical elements topology generation is examined. The formula for the estimation of exposure data volume for variable shaped electron beam lithography is presented as a function of diffractive optical element parameters and approximation accuracy. Special software was developed to prepare exposure data for diffractive optical elements fabrication. Diffractive optical elements with an artificial refractive index were manufactured with a feature size much less than the wavelength. Design and experimental results on photomasks fabrication are presented for an optical element focusing irradiation into a ring with ordered parameters. The photomask set was manufactured for reflecting optical element focusing high power CO2 laser beam into two points with required parameters for laser welding.

Babin, Sergey V.; Danilov, Victor A.

1995-06-01

43

Interplay of three-dimensional profile change and CD variation in 193-nm advanced binary photomasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the relationship between the depth profile of features and critical dimension (CD) deviation on MoSi binary photomasks is comprehensively investigated using 3D atomic force microscopy (3D-AFM) and aerial image metrology system (AIMS). Detailed profile description based on various surface analysis techniques, was performed to reconstruct the profile at various stages of the mask fabrication process. It is found that profile change and sidewall byproduct formation are strongly correlated with the etching environment, wet cleaning, and post-treatment. These process-induced profile changes subsequently lead to wafer CD change which can be verified by deviation in AIMS and CDSEM measurements. Visualization of these 3D profile and morphology change clearly reveals that etching gas control forms an outer layer, to enhance etch selectivity, film strength, and immunity to the mask cleaning process. Our finding provides a direction for optimizing advanced photomask materials and processing.

Lin, Yun-Yue; Su, Sean; Hsush, Wen-Chang; Lien, Ta-Cheng; Chen, Jia-Jen; Lee, Shin-Chang; Yen, Anthony

2012-06-01

44

Improvements in two-dimensional X/Y metrology on photomasks and wafers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently Leica introduced a new X/Y Metrology system called the LMS 2020. Performance results indicate an approximate 30% improvement over the existing model--the LMS 2000. Through-put, design grid accuracy, and precision have all been incrementally improved to varying degrees. Information presented includes: brief background description of the tool, a description of the measurement algorithms used to obtain the data, and the specific performance results obtained through measurements on both photomasks and wafers.

Whittey, John M.

1994-02-01

45

Photomask quality evaluation using lithography simulation and multi-detector MVM-SEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection and management of mask defects which are transferred onto wafer becomes more important day by day. As the photomask patterns becomes smaller and more complicated, using Inverse Lithography Technology (ILT) and Source Mask Optimization (SMO) with Optical Proximity Correction (OPC). To evaluate photomask quality, the current method uses aerial imaging by optical inspection tools. This technique at 1Xnm node has a resolution limit because small defects will be difficult to detect. We already reported the MEEF influence of high-end photomask using wide FOV SEM contour data of "E3630 MVM-SEM®" and lithography simulator "TrueMask® DS" of D2S Inc. in the prior paper [1]. In this paper we evaluate the correlation between our evaluation method and optical inspection tools as ongoing assessment. Also in order to reduce the defect classification work, we can compose the 3 Dimensional (3D) information of defects and can judge whether repairs of defects would be required. Moreover, we confirm the possibility of wafer plane CD measurement based on the combination between E3630 MVM-SEM® and 3D lithography simulation.

Ito, Keisuke; Murakawa, Tsutomu; Fukuda, Naoki; Shida, Soichi; Iwai, Toshimichi; Matsumoto, Jun; Nakamura, Takayuki; Matsushita, Shohei; Hagiwara, Kazuyuki; Hara, Daisuke

2013-06-01

46

Theoretical Analysis on Mechanical Deformation of Membrane-Based Photomask Blanks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Membrane-based photomask is used in proximity X-ray lithography including that in LIGA (Lithographie, Galvanoformung und Abformung) process, and near-field photolithography. In this article, out-of-plane deformation (OPD) and in-plane displacement (IPD) of membrane-based photomask blanks are theoretically analyzed to obtain the mask blanks with flat front surface and low stress absorber film. First, we derived the equations of OPD and IPD for the processing steps of membrane-based photomask such as film deposition, back-etching and bonding, using a theory of symmetrical bending of circular plates with a coaxial circular hole and that of deformation of cylinder under hydrostatic pressure. The validity of the equations was proved by comparing the calculation results with experimental ones. Using these equations, we investigated the relation between the geometry of the mask blanks and the distortions generally, and gave the criterion to attain the flat front surface. Moreover, the absorber stress-bias required to obtain zero-stress on finished mask blanks was also calculated and it has been found that only little stress-bias was required for adequate hole size of support plate.

Marumoto, Kenji; Aya, Sunao; Yabe, Hedeki; Okada, Tatsunori; Sumitani, Hiroaki

2012-04-01

47

A new method to correct deformations in emulsion using a precise photomask  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method to correct the emulsion deformation, mainly produced in the development process, is developed to recover the high accuracy of nuclear emulsion as a tracking device. The method is based on a precise photomask and a careful treatment of the emulsion films. A position measurement accuracy of 0.6?m is obtained over an area of 5 cm×7 cm. The method allows to measure positions of track segments with submicron accuracy in an ECC brick with as few as 10 reference tracks for alignment. Such a performance can be important for hybrid emulsion experiments at underground laboratories where only a small number of reference tracks for alignment are available.

Kimura, M.; Ishida, H.; Shibuya, H.; Ogawa, S.; Matsuo, T.; Fukushima, C.; Takahashi, G.; Kuge, K.; Sato, Y.; Tezuka, I.; Mikado, S.

2013-05-01

48

Direct rapid prototyping of PDMS from a photomask film for micropatterning of biomolecules and cells.  

PubMed

The soft lithographic technique is a collection of simple and cost-effective patterning techniques which applies an elastomeric stamp to transfer a nano/micro-scale pattern. Patterning biological materials using soft lithography provides procedurally simple control of the surface chemistry and the cell environments. However, conventional methods for generating microstructures on a substrate require expensive clean room facilities and skillful training. Here we report a simple and inexpensive clean-room free process using a conventional photomask film as a master to fabricate elastomeric stamps or microfluidic channels. This ultra rapid prototyping technique was applied to print FITC labeled poly-L-lysine with a 10 microm feature size on a glass substrate using soft lithographic processes, such as micro-contact printing and micromolding in capillaries, for patterning human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, human skin fibroblasts and hippocampal neurons from E-18 Sprague-Dawley rat. This novel technique using a photomask film as a master would be very useful 'hands-on' tool for the generation of micro-patterned chemical or biological assays using cells and proteins. PMID:19209351

Hwang, Hyundoo; Kang, Gyumin; Yeon, Ju Hun; Nam, Yoonkey; Park, Je-Kyun

2008-10-20

49

Nuisance event reduction using sensitivity control layers (SCL) for advanced photomask inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional photomask inspection techniques utilize global sensitivity for all inspected area in the die; SRAF and OPC features become the sensitivity-limiters for advanced photomasks which can result in reduced sensitivity to defects of interest (DOI). We describe the implementation of Sensitivity Control Layer (SCL), a novel database inspection methodology for the KLA-Tencor TerascanHR platform to improve sensitivity and reduce nuisance detections. This methodology enables inspection at maximum sensitivity in critical die-areas via "layer definition" and reducing sensitivity to sub-resolution features during inspection which can dramatically improve false-rate. DRAM and FLASH inspection performance was improved through the use of up to 6-control layers to increase sensitivity in the active area while reducing false detections by as much as 100X. Post-inspection defect analysis, and improved disposition accuracy of the SCL-enabled inspections will also benefit cycle time and higher throughput. In all test cases, sensitivity parameters were increased in the regions of interest over baseline inspections run with typical, production-type inspection methodologies. SCL inspection-sensitivity management, and layer partitioning of OPC structures, SRAF's, and other sub-resolution features is discussed in detail.

Hedges, Shad; Le, Chin; Eickhoff, Mark; Wylie, Mark; Simmons, Tim; Vellanki, Venugopal; McMurran, Jeff

2009-01-01

50

A semi-automated AFM photomask repair process for manufacturing application using SPR6300  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For almost a decade Nanomachining application has been studied and developed to repair next generation of photomasks. This technique, based on Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), applies a mechanical removing of the defects with almost negligible quartz-damage, high accuracy of the edge-placement and without spurious depositions (stain, implanted elements, etc.) that may affect the optical transmission. SII NanoTechnology Inc. (SIINT) is carrying out a joint-development project with DNP Photomask Europe S.p.A. (DPE) that has allowed the installation in DPE of the next generation state-of-the-art AFM based system SPR6300 to meet the repair specifications for the 65 nm Node. Drift phenomena of the AFM probe represent one of the major obstacles for whichever kind of nano-manipulation (imaging and material or pattern modification). AFM drift undermines the repeatability and accuracy performances of the process. The repair methodology, called NewDLock, implemented on SPR6300, is a semi-automated procedure by which the drift amount, regardless of its origin, is estimated in advance and compensated during the process. Now AFM Nanomachining approach is going to reveal properties of repeatability and user-friendly utilization that make it suitable for the production environment.

Dellagiovanna, Mario; Yoshioka, Hidenori; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Murai, Shiaki; Nakaue, Takuya; Takaoka, Osamu; Uemoto, Atsushi; Kikuchi, Syuichi; Hagiwara, Ryoji; Benard, Stephane

2007-10-01

51

Evaluation of a high-resolution negative-acting electron-beam resist GMC for photomask manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

As mask and reticle designs continue to evolve in complexity and resolution requirements, maskmakers are investigating what advantages negative acting electron beam resists may have in meeting these requirements. One candidate is Poly (glycidyl methacrylate-co-3- chlorostyrene), GMC, which is an advanced negative resist used for the purpose of photomask fabrication. In this paper, a statistically designed experiment will be described

Wen-Chih Chen; Anthony E. Novembre

1991-01-01

52

Applications of a microlens array and a photomask to the laser microfabrication of a periodic photopolymer rod array  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the simultaneous multipoint fabrication of polymer rods by the femtosecond laser processing of a negative photoresist using a microlens array (MLA). The rods were periodically arranged in the form of an array corresponding to the MLA and free-standing on a glass substrate. The use of a photomask enabled us to define the contour of the rod array. Furthermore,

Shigeki Matsuo; Takashi Miyamoto; Takuro Tomita; Shuichi Hashimoto

2007-01-01

53

Photomask ADI, AEI, and QA measurements using normal incidence optical CD metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical Critical Dimension (OCD) measurements using Normal-Incidence Spectroscopic Polarized Reflectance and Ellipsometry allows for the separation of transverse electric and transverse magnetic modes of light reflected from an anisotropic sample as found in a periodic grating structure. This can provide the means for determining line widths and analyzing complex profiles for a variety of structures found in mask fabrication. The normal-incidence methodology maintains much of the simplicity in mechanical design found in a standard reflectometer and the additional polarizing element has no effect on the footprint making the system amenable for integration, inline monitoring and advanced process control. The Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) method provides an exact method for calculating the diffraction of electromagnetic waves by periodic grating structures. We have continued development of OCD technology to critical measurement steps in the photomask fabrication process: After Development Inspection (ADI), After Etch Inspection (AEI) for binary and phase shift masks. Additionally, we have demonstrated the ability of monitoring the mask CD quality with the presence of a protective pellicle. The determination of important critical dimensions in photomasks via optical techniques is appealing for several reasons: the method is non-destructive to photoresist and the sample is not subject to charging effects; the technique is capable of measuring the critical dimensions of grating structures down to approximately 40 nm; finally, minimal facilities are required for installation (no high vacuum, cooling or shielding of electromagnetic fields). Results will be presented showing the capabilities of OCD metrology for ADI, AEI and masks monitoring applications that emphasizes how the technology can be incorporated at many steps in the mask manufacturing process.

Apak, Ebru; Sarathy, T. P.; McGahan, William A.; Rovira, Pablo I.; Hoobler, Ray J.

2004-08-01

54

Acoustic streaming effects in megasonic cleaning of EUV photomasks: a continuum model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Removal of nano-scale contaminant particles from the photomasks is of critical importance to the implementation of EUV lithography for 32nm node. Megasonic cleaning has traditionally been used for photomask cleaning and extensions to sub 50nm particulates removal is being considered as a pattern damage free cleaning approach. Several mechanisms for removal are believed to be active in megasonic cleaning systems, e.g., cavitation, and acoustic streaming (Eckart, Schlichting, and microstreaming). It is often difficult to separate the effects of these individual mechanisms on contamination removal in a conventional experimental setup. Therefore, a theoretical approach is undertaken in this work with a focus on determining the contribution of acoustic streaming in cleaning process. A continuum model is used to describe the interaction between megasonic waves and a substrate (fused silica) immersed in a fluid (water). The model accounts for the viscous nature of the fluid. We calculate the acoustic vibrational modes of the system. These in turn are used to determine the acoustic streaming forces that lead to Schlichting streaming in a narrow acoustic boundary layer at the substrate/fluid interface. These forces are subsequently used to estimate the streaming velocities that may in turn apply a pressure and drag force on the contaminant particles adhering to the substrate. These effects are calculated as a function of angle of incidence, frequency and intensity of the megasonic wave. The relevance of this study is then discussed in the context of the cleaning efficiency and pattern damage in competing megasonic cleaning technologies, such as immersion, and nozzle-based systems.

Kapila, Vivek; Deymier, Pierre A.; Shende, Hrishikesh; Pandit, Viraj; Raghavan, Srini; Eschbach, Florence O.

2005-11-01

55

An integrated solution for photomask manufacturing, handling, and storage at 65 nm and below  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As reticle line widths shrink and RET complexity increases, even a single sub-micron defect can reject a photomask. High-end reticle manufacturers striving for increased yield and reduced cycle times are relying on low incoming rawstock defect levels and handling via SMIF mini environments for critical manufacturing steps. However, even in SMIF compatible reticle fabs, human handling is often required to load or unload a reticle to/from a SMIF environment. In an effort to provide a fully integrated solution to manufacturing 65 nm and below photomasks, Photronics has introduced a blank inspection/management system developed by Hitachi High Technologies and Fortrend Engineering. The clustered system is capable of robotic transfers in conjunction with blank storage, inspection, and material tracking capabilities. It consists of four major systems: a horizontal mask blank transfer system with state-of-the-art blank sorting capability, an integrated Hitachi GM3000 Mask Blank Surface Inspection System, a totally self-contained and sufficient Mask Blank Storage Station, and a material logistic control software system for material management and SPC. The Fortrend Lamina sorting system has a bright light inspection module for gross particle contamination detection, and a robotic transfer module for mask exchanges between SMIF and other shipping/transport boxes employed in the mask manufacturing facilities. The clustered Hitachi inspection system is an integral part of the solution allowing for additional inspections of stored and incoming blanks by optically detecting foreign particles and pinholes. The data is transferred and stored in the Foretrend handling system control module and may be used for rawstock management and screening based on a predefined criteria. The integrated system provides a total solution to mask manufacturing challenges at 65 nm and below.

Schwitzgebel, Jörg; Xiao, Guangming; Rockwell, Barry; Nozaki, Sammy; Darvish, Ali; Wu, Chris

2006-04-01

56

Applications of a microlens array and a photomask to the laser microfabrication of a periodic photopolymer rod array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the simultaneous multipoint fabrication of polymer rods by the femtosecond laser processing of a negative photoresist using a microlens array (MLA). The rods were periodically arranged in the form of an array corresponding to the MLA and free-standing on a glass substrate. The use of a photomask enabled us to define the contour of the rod array. Furthermore, sample translation techniques were demonstrated for the effective fabrication of large-area structures.

Matsuo, Shigeki; Miyamoto, Takashi; Tomita, Takuro; Hashimoto, Shuichi

2007-12-01

57

Integration of optical inspection and metrology functions into DUV femtosecond laser repair tool for large-area FPD photomasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe the early stages of introduction of the inspection and metrology capabilities for the large area mask repair tools. Commercially available MRT platform was used as a basis for integration of defect repair, metrology, review, inspection, and verification functions into a single MiRT prototype system. This system was designed for large area LCD/PDP photomasks of Generation 7 and beyond. Advanced DUV femtosecond laser technology was developed for repair of both clear and opaque defects on Chrome-on-Glass masks using laser CVD and laser ablation. Specifics of the system design and architecture is discussed. Laser processing module was based on the projection optics with imaged aperture. Image formation in such optical system is reviewed and outcome of the computer simulation is compared with the experimental data. For the first time, we report results of the feasibility study of grayscale photomask repair using laser CVD technology. By carefully controlling process parameters, we were able to deposit films with different thickness and therefore variable transmittance. We also discuss die-to-database inspection of half-tone masks and capabilities of the integrated metrology and review of the repaired photomask sites. Proprietary die-to-database inspection and verification algorithms combined with distributed super-fast computer architecture allowed effective process control with accurate, repeatable, and timely measurements. Different subsystems that enable integration of repair, metrology, and inspection functions into the MiRT system are discussed.

Treyger, Leon; Heyl, Jon; Ronning, Donald; Ducharme, Donald

2007-05-01

58

Application of Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry to determine line edge roughness on photomasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on Mueller Matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry (MM-SE) to examine undesired asymmetries in structural parameters, i.e. line edge roughness (LER). The investigation was done on a photomask containing line space arrays with intentionally modulated line edges. The Mueller Matrix (MM) elements were measured within the complete azimuth angle range (0 - 360°) and a wavelength range from 300 nm to 980 nm. The results are presented in polar coordinates with the azimuth angle and wavelength as the angular and radial coordinate, respectively. It was found that LER significantly impacts the MM elements, which is indicated by the increase of the isotropic character of the array. The experimental data are confirmed by Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) simulations on perturbed arrays. Based on RCWA the impact of LER amplitudes in the nm range is determined. It was found that both deviation of critical dimension (CD) and LER amplitude impact the MM elements. Based on the intensity ratios of the elements and their spectral distribution both errors create a characteristic finger print, which allows to separate them. Finally, the required measurement precision for LER in the nm range is estimated at 0.001. This precision is challenging but achievable with today's metrology.

Heinrich, A.; Dirnstorfer, I.; Bischoff, J.; Richter, U.; Ketelson, H.; Meiner, K.; Mikolajick, T.

2013-10-01

59

European MEDEA+ CRYSTAL project: DFM photomasks inputs for EDA workflow task force  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cost of production of a photomask set has been soaring over the last few years, and now reaches $1 million to $2 million, almost 10% of the overall cost of a new project development. And new projects have seen their profitability lifetime reduced over time to 3 to 6 months. Any uncontrolled increase in cost or delay can make the difference between a profitable or non profitable project, and can even lead to the cancellation of the entire project. For the last few years, silicon manufacturability issues have been taken into account in the design process through a widespread use of Design For Manufacturing tools, but so far the impact of design on mask manufacturability has not been thoroughly studied. This article presents a novel Design For Mask Manufacturing approach, which defines a robust process encompassing design rules and constraints, validation procedures, exchange mechanisms between all actors in the flow (designers, mask shops, and foundry) in order to minimize the number and impact of mask design issues, to trace their root causes and severity, and automation of the handoff of design and administrative data to the mask shop. A demonstrator for the DFMM flow is being shown.

Beisser, Eric; Tissier, Michel; Au, David; Bonniol, Stéphane; Garcia, Patrick; Morey-Chaisemartin, Philippe; Sadran, Dominique; Servin, Isabelle; Tabusse, Michel

2009-04-01

60

Extensions of boundary layer modeling of photomask topography effects to fast-CAD using pattern matching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In lithography for the 45nm node and beyond, phase errors introduced through electromagnetic field (EMF) effects at photomask openings are significant sources of error in calculating on-wafer images. These edge effects create distortion in both real and imaginary field transmission, which leads to a tilt in the process window, and must be addressed in mask design to avoid loss of process latitude. This study presents a new formulation for pattern matching, which allows EMF effects to be included via boundary layer modeling to facilitate extremely fast assessment of EMF impact on imaging. Boundary layers are first used to model these edge effects, by adding additional transmission features to a layout to represent the error transmissions caused by edges. Pattern matching is then used to determine susceptibly to various pre-existing perturbations, in the presence of defocus. This process can be extremely fast and hotspot detection can be run on an entire chip in hours, compared to days for aerial imaging. Correlation between pattern matching and full aerial imaging can be as high as 0.97 for coherent imaging, and ~ 0.75 for off-axis dipole illumination. This pattern matching framework is extremely flexible and can be used for fast assessment of any series of effects which can be described as a path difference in the pupil or as a transmission on the mask.

Miller, Marshal A.; Yamazoe, Kenji; Neureuther, Andrew R.

2009-10-01

61

Extending analog design scaling to sub-wavelength lithography: co-optimization of RET and photomasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mask requirements for 110nm half-node BiCMOS process were analyzed with the goal to meet customer needs at lower cost and shorter cycle times. The key differentiating features for this technology were high density CMOS libraries along with high-power Bipolar, LDMOS and DECMOS components. The high voltage components were characterized by transistors that formed cylindrical junctions. The presence of curved features in the data is particularly detrimental to the write time on a 50KeV vector mask writer. The mask write times have a direct impact on both mask cost and cycle time. Design rules also permit rectangular or stretched contacts to allow conductance of high currents. To meet customer needs but still manage the computational lithography overhead as well as the patterning process performance, this process was evaluated in terms of computational lithography and photomask co-optimization for the base-line 50KeV vector and laser mask-writers. Due to the differences in imaging and processing of the different mask writing systems, comparative analysis of critical dimension (CD) performance both in terms of linearity and pitch was done. Differences in imaging on silicon due to mask fidelity were also expected and characterized. The required changes in OPC necessary to switch to the new mask process were analyzed.

Parikh, Ashesh; Dorris, Siew; Smelko, Tom; Walbrick, Walter; Mahalingam, Pushpa; Arch, John; Green, Kent; Garg, Vishal; Buck, Peter; West, Craig

2011-03-01

62

Threshold residual ion concentration on photomask surface to prevent haze defects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Haze generation has been serious issue on wafer lithography process, as illumination wavelength become shorter with 248nm and 193nm. Several published papers have been reported that ammonium and sulfate residual ion on mask surface is major source of haze generation. These ions are come from conventional photomask cleaning process. PKL have been studied new cleaning process to minimize haze generation and found cleaning process condition. Also, PKL found that residual ammonium ion is major source of haze generation than residual sulfate ion. New cleaning process improved residual ammonium ion concentration to less than 45 ppb from 900 ppb with conventional RCA cleaning. And illumination doses generating haze have been tested on five residual ammonium ion, 1500 ppb, 900 ppb, 160 ppb, 70 ppb, 45 ppb, respectively. In house designed Haze Acceleration Test Bench (HATB) was used to expose masks. Haze were not generated until from 25 kJ to 100 kJ, on 160 ppb to 45 ppb of ammonium ion concentration, respectively. And the residual of sulfate ion and its haze generation dose did not correspond. Residual ammonium ions need to be controlled tightly than sulfate ion. PKL concentrated on minimizing ammonium residual with new cleaning process and found the optimized cleaning process for preventing 100kJ of cumulative energy on ArF embedded attenuated PSM (EAPSM).

Kim, Jong-Min; Lee, Jae-Chul; Kang, Dong-Shik; Lee, Dong-Heok; Shin, Chul; Choi, Moon-Hwan; Choi, Sang-Soo

2007-05-01

63

The art of photomask materials for low-k1-193nm lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The resolution of photomask patterns were improved with a hardmask (HM) system. The system which is thin Sicompounds layer is easily etched by the hyper-thin resist (below 100nm thickness). The HM material has sufficient etching selectivity against the chrome-compounds which is the second layer chrome absorber for the phase-shifter. This hardmask layer has been completely removed during the phase-shifter etching. It means that the conventional phase-shit mask (PSM) has been made with the ultimately high-resolution without configuration changes. Below 50nm resolution of PSM was made with 90nm thickness resist on HM layer in this paper. The CD bias between a resist feature CD and a chrome feature CD was almost zero (below 1nm) in the optimized etching condition. We confirmed that the mask performances were the equal to COMS (Cr-HM on MoSi binary mask) in resolution and CD linearity. The performances of hardmask blanks will be defined by resist performance because of almost zero bias.

Hashimoto, Masahiro; Iwashita, Hiroyuki; Mitsui, Hideaki

2009-04-01

64

Evaluation of molecular contaminants in the micro-environment between photomask and pellicle using analysis tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of haze and related defects become more serious as the dimension of lithography becomes smaller. It has been reported that the causes of haze defects are organic and inorganic molecular contamination deposited on mask surface. These haze problems influence the productivity of lithography process, but the formation mechanism of haze has not been clear. So it is important to understand chemical composition and formation mechanism of haze to prevent it. To analyze the chemical composition, several analytical techniques are useful, that is, ion chromatography (IC) or gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GC/MS) after liquid extraction of mask surface, surface analysis such as time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), X-ray photon spectrometry (XPS) and so on. However, these techniques are all destructive methods and are difficult to evaluate the airborne molecular contaminants (AMCs) with high sensitivity between mask and pellicle. We have successfully developed new and sensitive analysis tool consists of two parts and applied it for the evaluation of micro-environment between photomask and pellicle. One is the equipment to collect AMCs effectively, that provides diagonal two holes with needles on the pellicle to collect the gas while ventilating the high-purity nitrogen gas. The other is sampler which is named BremS™ to collect and measure exhausted AMCs in the space with high sensitivity. We applied this method to masks with different exposure dosage rate and introduce the usefulness of our method.

Douzono, Mina; Shimada, Itsuka; Ueda, Tatsuji; Nonaka, Tatsuo; Kawano, Yukihiro; Murakami, Masashi

2012-06-01

65

Plasma etching of Cr films in the fabrication of photomasks: II. a comparison of etch technologies and a first look at defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advanced requirements for resolution, critical dimension control, and linearity on photomasks require chromium etch processes, which are highly anisotropic and extremely uniform. They must also allow lithographers to expose the resist at the iso-focal point of the exposure system. A reactive ion etching (RIE) process of chromium films, previously reported, met some of these demands. However, it was reported

Thomas P. Coleman; Peter D. Buck; David J. Johnson

1996-01-01

66

Integration and optimization of the DUV ALTA pattern generation system using a CAR process with the Tetra photomask etch system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Etec Systems, the Mask Business Group of Applied Materials, is in a unique position within the mask making industry - Etec has the opportunity to integrate individual parts of the overall mask manufacturing process to provide a more complete solution. Here we present the integration of the DUV ALTA laser pattern generator and the TetraTM photomask etch system with advanced CAR resist processes. Dry etch process effects of flow, overetch, and oxygen content (in a Cl2/O2/He plasma) are discussed for the baseline POR resist in terms of etch rate, selectivity, etch bias, CD uniformity and micro-loading; the optimized etch process space was then implemented for advanced CAR resists. Iso-dense bias, football pattern loading and other pattern transfer results influencing mask manufactureability are also presented. Within the synthesis and optimization of the pattern generation system, process, and dry etch sub 13 nm range process uniformity has been achieved. The integrated ALTA / Tetra / Advanced-CAR solution set is characterized on both Etec test patterns and customer demonstrations.

Buxbaum, Alex H.; Fuller, Scott E.; Montgomery, Warren; Ungureit, Michael E.

2003-12-01

67

The effects of simultaneous electrophoresis and thermophoresis on particulate contamination of an inverted EUVL photomask surface in parallel airflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combined influences of electrophoresis and thermophoresis on particle deposition on the inverted critical surface of a flat plate in parallel airflow were investigated by employing the statistical Lagrangian particle tracking approach in an effort to assess the degree of particulate contamination of EUVL photomasks during horizontal transport in cleanroom environments. The numerical method was validated through the comparison with the experimental data, found in the literature, about particle deposition velocity onto a wafer in vertical airflow with and without electrophoresis or thermophoresis. In addition, the validation of the present model was performed via the comparison with the theoretical prediction of particle deposition velocity onto a flat plate under no phoretic forces in parallel airflow. Then, the particle deposition velocity onto the face-down surface of a flat plate in parallel airflow was obtained by varying the temperature of the inverted critical surface in different strengths of uniform electric fields. Injected particles were assumed to be charged with -1 , 0, or +1 elementary unit of charge, in order to consider attractive or repulsive electric force. The degree of particulate contamination of the inverted critical surface was found to be significantly influenced by the combination of electrophoretic and thermophoretic effects.

Lee, Handol; Yook, Se-Jin; Young Han, Seog

2012-10-01

68

Academic Libraries in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan’s internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan’s strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and service quality development. Potential changes in education for librarianship and an

Rowena Cullen; Haruki Nagata

2008-01-01

69

Japan: Tradition and Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This textbook is designed to increase students' awareness of Japan. The study of Japan is worthwhile because Japan currently is and likely will continue to be one of the world's most important countries. U.S. knowledge of Japan is still quite limited compared to the level of understanding most Japanese exhibit about the United States. It is hoped…

Ellington, Lucien

70

Characterization of a non-chemically amplified resist for photomask fabrication using a 257-nm optical pattern generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I-line optical pattern generators using non-chemically amplified resists have become the workhorses for high throughput mask fabrication. The demand for smaller and more uniform features on photomasks has driven the development of a 257 nm optical pattern generator. A non-chemically amplified resist is being developed to maximize the performance of this new 257 nm mask tool. Resist characterization and lithography simulation are being used to formulate a non-chemically amplified resist for 257 nm optical pattern generators. Non- chemically amplified resists are advantageous for us in mask fabrication due to their storage and post-exposure stability. Chemically amplified resists may provide higher performance but they also require environmental mini-environments and a post-exposure bake equipment not commonly present in mask houses. Diazonaphthoquinone (DNQ)/novolak resists have not been used for DUV Integrated Circuit (IC) applications mainly due to the low sensitivity and the strong absorbance of the DNQ photoactive compound (PAC) at 248 nm. However, a 2,1,4 DNQ based resist has been characterized that bleaches at 257 nm and inhibits novolak. The photoproduct of the 2,1,4 DNQ PAC is much more transparent at 257 nm than 248 nm. Novolak resin is too strongly absorbing for use in formulating efficient 248 nm resists, but novolak has an absorbance minimum at 257 nm that provides transparency similar to poly (hydroxystyrene). Lithography simulation is being used to develop a non- chemically amplified resist to minimize the expensive iteration of manufacturing trials. An exposure system using a 257 nm frequency double Ar laser system has been constructed to study the resist photokinetics. Dill exposure parameters (A, B and C) have been extracted for a 2,1,4 DNQ/novolak based resist. Dissolution rate measurements have been made with a DRM developed at the University of Texas at Austin. Simulation is used to determine the optimal resist absorption, bleaching, dose and dissolution properties to maximize resolution. It is possible to formulate a high performance resist for 257 nm if care is taken in optimization of the formulation.

Rathsack, Benjamen M.; Tabery, Cyrus E.; Stachowiak, Timothy B.; Dallas, Tim E.; Xu, Cheng-Bai; Pochkowski, Mike; Willson, C. Grant

1999-12-01

71

Laser applications in the electronics and optoelectronics industry in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explains current status and technological trends in laser materials processing applications in electronics and optoelectronics industry in Japan. Various laser equipment based on solid state lasers or gas lasers such as excimer lasers or CO2 lasers has been developed and applied in manufacturing electronic and optoelectronic devices to meet the strong demands for advanced device manufacturing technologies for high-performance, lightweight, low power-consumption portable digital electronic appliances, cellular mobile phones, personal computers, etc. Representative applications of solid-state lasers are, opaque and clear defects repairing of photomasks for LSIs and LCDs, trimming of thick-film chip resistors and low resistance metal resistors, laser cutting and drilling of thin films for high-pin count semiconductor CSP packages, laser patterning of thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells, and laser welding of electronic components such as hard-disk head suspensions, optical modules, miniature relays and lithium ion batteries. Compact and highly efficient diode- pumped and Q-switched solid-state lasers in second or third harmonic operation mode are now being increasingly incorporated in various laser equipment for fine material processing. Representative applications of excimer lasers are, sub-quarter micron design-rule LSI lithography and low- temperature annealing of poly-silicon TFT LCD.

Washio, Kunihiko

1999-07-01

72

Landslides in Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This internet site, published by The Japan Landslide Society, focues on the current understanding of landslide origin, and discusses some of the problems concerning landslide investigations and research in Japan.

2008-09-29

73

Bank of Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bank of Japan serves as Japan's central bank. The web site contains publications such as Quarterly Economic Outlook, Balance of Payments Monthly, and Economic Statistics Monthly. Visitors can also find press releases, Governor's speeches and statistics on prices, money, interest rates, exchange rates, and the Bank of Japan accounts.

74

Greening Growth in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decade of sluggish economic growth, concluding with the sharpest recession since the Second World War, has underlined the need for Japan to develop a new growth model. Such a model should restore public finances and long-term growth while preserving environmental quality and ensuring a sustainable use of natural resources. This paper assesses Japan’s progress in moving towards such an

Ivana Capozza

2011-01-01

75

Japan's defence problematique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article attempts to construct an overview of Japan's defence problematique in the post?cold war era. Its approach is to survey the historical legacies that have shaped Japan's defence policies and perceptions, and to assess how these fit, or do not fit, with the new security environment within which Japan now finds itself. The purpose is to argue that a

Barry Buzan

1995-01-01

76

Space robotics in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space

William Whittaker; James W. Lowrie; Harry McCain; Antal Bejczy; Tom Sheridan; Takeo Kanade; Peter Allen

1994-01-01

77

Academic Libraries in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

2008-01-01

78

Poverty in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This English version of >u>Poverty in Japan>\\/u> is based mainly on a series of seminar reports delivered by individual chapter authors at the Japan Economic Research Center in August 1975 and published in the >u>Japan Economic Research Center Bulletin>\\/u>, No. 256 (September 15, 1975), 35-59, and No. 257 (October 1, 1975), 40-45. In preparing the English version, the reports were

Sueo Sekiguchi; Kazuo Sato

1976-01-01

79

Japan's Beef Market.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Japan imports large amounts of beef, primarily from Oceania and North America, and its consumers are willing to pay a premium for heavily marbled, grain-fed beef. As a result, Japan's import of certain beef cuts and offal raise the value of U.S. cattle. T...

J. Dyck K. Obara M. McConnell

2010-01-01

80

Scientific ballooning in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activities in scientific ballooning in Japan during 1998–1999 are reported. The total number of scientific balloons flown in Japan in 1998 and 1999 was sixteen, eight flights in each year. The scientific objectives were observations of high energy cosmic electrons, air samplings at various altitudes, monitoring of atmospheric ozone density, Galactic infrared observations, and test flights of new type balloons.

Fumiyoshi Makino

2002-01-01

81

A Cultural Experience: Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This activities unit for teaching about Japan is designed for use with elementary students. The activities reflect the growing importance of Japan in today's world, and the belief that the social studies curriculum should reflect principles of global education. The unit is intended to explore seven major goals included in the social studies…

Wood, Robert W.; And Others

82

Dairy Policies in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Border measures-tariffs and tariff-rate quotas (TRQs)-provide high levels of support to Japan's producers of milk for manufacturing purposes and keep consumer prices for dairy products in Japan high by world standards. Since drinking milk is not easily tr...

K. Obara J. Dyck J. Stout

2005-01-01

83

Trichinella britovi from Japan.  

PubMed

Although parasites of the genus Trichinella have been collected from wild animals in Japan, they have never been studied at species level. Muscle larvae of Trichinella collected from a black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) and from a raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus) in Japan have been identified as Trichinella britovi by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. The presence of T. britovi in Japan shows that this parasite has a wide distribution in the Palaearctic region, from western Europe to eastern Asia, and that the isotherm -6 C in January could be considered its northern border. PMID:8885903

Pozio, E; La Rosa, G; Yamaguchi, T; Saito, S

1996-10-01

84

Microelectronics in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this JTEC study is to evaluate Japan's electronic manufacturing and packaging capabilities within the context of global economic competition. To carry out this study, the JTEC panel evaluated the framework of the Japanese consumer electronics industry and various technological and organizational factors that are likely to determine who will win and lose in the marketplace. This study begins with a brief overview of the electronics industry, especially as it operates in Japan today. Succeeding chapters examine the electronics infrastructure in Japan and take an in-depth look at the central issues of product development in order to identify those parameters that will determine future directions for electronic packaging technologies.

Boulton, William R.

1995-02-01

85

Groundwater contamination in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed. 9 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Tase, Norio [Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

1992-07-01

86

Groundwater contamination in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed.

Tase, Norio

1992-07-01

87

Japan energy conservation handbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book consists of six chapters. In (1) Recent energy situation, the recent situation of energy consumption and supply in Japan and the world is shown using graphs and tables. In (2) Global environment and energy conservation, the relationship between ...

1992-01-01

88

Japan's nuclear dilemma  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that more than any other industrial country, Japan is staking its industrial future on nuclear power. Its 39 commercial reactors generate more than 31,000 megawatts of electricity-supplying more than a quarter of Japan's electricity. By early in the next century, reactors now planned or under construction will bring that figure to near 45,000 megawatts, and half of

Suzuki

1991-01-01

89

Space robotics in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; McCain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

1994-03-01

90

[Genetic medicine in Japan].  

PubMed

Present status of genetic medicine in Japan is reviewed. More than five hundred medical doctors have now been qualified as Japanese board of clinical genetics. Training courses for genetic counselors have started in several colleges. Thirty-six hospitals organized by University or National Centers have independent units of clinical genetics. Two major Japanese homepages concerning about clinical genetics are available. Ethical guidelines for gene testing and prenatal diagnosis are published by Japanese Society for Human Genetics and other Japanese medical societies. Infrastructure for clinical genetics are now rapidly organized in Japan, however lots of problems are still waiting to be solved. PMID:15773337

Okuyama, Torayuki; Kosaki, Rika; Fukuhara, Yasuyuki

2005-03-01

91

Space weather in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Japan, Communications Research Laboratory engages in operational space environment information service as National Forecasting Center and Regional Warning Center of ISES. Data of local observation and data collected via internet from domestic and foreign institute are used for daily operational forecast. Fundamental research on space weather issue has been carried out at several institutes and university, including STE Laboratory and NASDA. In this presentation, overview of current space weather forecast operation and system for information outreach in Japan will be presented. Current and future observation program from ground-base and space will be also briefly reviewed.

Akioka, M.

92

Space weather in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Japan, Communications Research Laboratory engages in operational space environment information services as National Forecasting Center and Regional Warning Center of ISES. Data from local observations and data collected via internet from domestic and foreign institutes are used for the daily operational forecast. Fundamental research on space weather issues has been carried out at several institutes and universities, including STE Laboratory and NASDA. In this presentation, an overview of current space weather forecast operations and a system for information outreach in Japan will be presented. Current and future observation programs from ground-base and space will be also briefly reviewed.

Akioka, M.; Ishibashi, H.; Kikuchi, T.; Sagawa, E.; Nagatsuma, T.

93

Japan ADS Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been proceeding with the research and development on accelerator-driven system (ADS) for the transmutation of long-lived radioactive nuclides. The ADS proposed by JAEA is a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) cooled fast subcritical core with 800 MWth. Various activities were conducted to investigate the feasibility of the ADS from viewpoints of the accelerator, LBE handling technology, minor actinide bearing fuel and subcritical core design. The design study and discussion of effective application on the Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) was also continued under a framework of J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) project.

Sasa, Toshinobu

2010-06-01

94

Globalization and Education in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper, the authors contend that globalization in Japan is the gradual process in which Japan's positioning of "self" within international relations, which had formerly been dominated by the West, has changed. Accordingly, Japan's relationships with the West and the rest of the world, for example, Asia, have also been reviewed and…

Ohkura, Kentaro; Shibata, Masako

2009-01-01

95

Globalization and Education in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, the authors contend that globalization in Japan is the gradual process in which Japan's positioning of "self" within international relations, which had formerly been dominated by the West, has changed. Accordingly, Japan's relationships with the West and the rest of the world, for example, Asia, have also been reviewed and modified.…

Ohkura, Kentaro; Shibata, Masako

2009-01-01

96

Invasive Birds in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction of exotic birds has been increasing throughout the world. We conducted inquiry investigations in order to reveal the spread of introduced bird species in Japan. Forty-three exotic species are known to breed or are regarded as breeding. The Feral Pigeon (Columba livia), Chinese Bamboo Partridge (Bambusicola thoracica), Red-billed Leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea), Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Red Avadavat (Amandava amandava)

Kazuhiro EGUCHI; Hitoha E. AMANO

2004-01-01

97

Deflation and Japan revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

onventional wisdom tells us that deflation counts among the worst things that can happen to an economy. Lately, the word deflation has become almost synonymous with Japan and its economic problems. But are falling prices really that bad? According to the Austrian School of eco- nomics, this is not necessarily the case. In fact, falling prices are in most cases

Richard C. B. Johnsson

2005-01-01

98

Sapovirus in Water, Japan  

PubMed Central

Sapoviruses are etiologic agents of human gastroenteritis. We detected sapovirus in untreated wastewater, treated wastewater, and a river in Japan. A total of 7 of 69 water samples were positive by reverse transcription–PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral capsid gene grouped these strains into 4 genetic clusters.

Sano, Daisuke; Ueki, You; Imai, Takahiro; Oka, Tomoichiro; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Naokazu; Omura, Tatsuo

2007-01-01

99

Springs of Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are numerous springs in Japan. The largest and most famous ones are volcanic and karstic springs. Springs in the areas of Mount Fuji, Mount Aso, and Akiyoshidai are discussed here as sources of water used for drinking, irrigation, fish cultivation, industrial water, and sightseeing.

Yamamoto, S.

1996-03-01

100

The Situation in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting with the developement of education in Japan before World War 2, and in the 1950s and 1960s, the paper traces how changes have occurred in the 1970s and 1980s, and then sees how the developments in educational and information technology are now moving forward with the support of various ministries and major industrial enterprises

Yasuo Takakuwa

1997-01-01

101

Educational Technology in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This overview of the current state of educational technology in Japan includes discussions of professional associations; academic and popular journals; diffusion of media and the budget in elementary and secondary schools; recent trends in government policies; educational technology research; a literature review; and suggestions of future trends.…

Sakamoto, Takashi

1987-01-01

102

Early Reading in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are several reasons why Japan has one of the world's highest literacy rates. One reason is the nature of the Japanese written language, which employs a dual code of ideographs representing specific objects and a syllabary, in which each symbol represents a separate syllable. The syllable symbols are read consistently the same way, and…

Sheridan, E. Marcia

103

Blepharoplasty in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 90% of blepharoplasties performed in Japan include the double eyelid procedure. The reasons for the popularity of this procedure relate to changing concepts of beauty among the Japanese people. Facial anatomy contributes to the appearance of sleepiness and lethargy in the flat, monotone Japanese face. The narrower eye opening does not allow for the maximum viewing of the cornea.

Takuya Onizuka; Masaaki Iwanami

1984-01-01

104

The Graying of Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Japan's rapidly aging population has become a top policy issue, especially as the increasing costs of pensions and medical care are debated. With the highest life expectancy on earth, the Japanese potentially face long periods of retirement, as well as the possibility of long periods of disability. Although family support of the elderly is thought…

Martin, Linda G.

1989-01-01

105

Nuclear Power in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Energy consumption in Japan has grown at a faster rate than in any other major industrial country. To maintain continued prosperity, the government has embarked on a crash program for nuclear power. Current progress and issues/reactions to the plan are discussed. (JN)

Powell, John W.

1983-01-01

106

Holography in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present state of activities of holography in Japan is reviewed. Electro-holography, holographic 3D printer, recording material have been studying in research organizations, universities, and research institutes. Optical head using hologram has been developed by main electric companies. The market of hologram in security is going to extend. Several private and group exhibitions were opened within a year. HODIC meeting

Toshihiro Kubota

1998-01-01

107

Youth marketing in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports on Japan, a country in which the falling birth rate gives marketers some interesting opportunities. Explores how smaller numbers of children leads to more money being spent on each, in particular the “six pockets” or six sources of financial support that children have from their two parents and four grandparents. Illustrates this by the example of Studio Alice, a

Nana Sato; Yuko Kato

2005-01-01

108

Teacher Education in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion is presented on the education of Japanese teachers, their roles in the schools, and proposed reforms in their education. In describing the pre-World War II background of teacher education in Japan, three ideological forces are discussed: Western thought that impacted upon early Meiji reforms, Confucianism, and nationalism. Western…

Shimahara, Nobuo

109

Japan's electronic packaging technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

1995-02-01

110

Dutch surgery in Japan.  

PubMed

An isolation policy was adopted in feudal Japan from 1639 to 1853 owing to the fear of foreign influence. During those 200 years of isolation, all foreigners were withheld from the country with the exception of the Dutch, who were permitted to establish a trading post on a small island in the Bay of Nagasaki, called Decima. Western culture and science reached the Japanese exclusively through the Dutch on Decima. Health care on Decima was provided by Dutch barber-surgeons, who introduced Western surgical practice in Japan. Official interpreters were the only Japanese allowed on Decima. It was from among these interpreters that the first Japanese surgeons arose who, having mastered the Dutch language, translated several Dutch anatomic and surgical texts. Genpaku Sugita translated a Dutch anatomy textbook into Japanese, which was completed in 1774. This book, entitled Kaitai Shinsho [New Book on Anatomy], was the first Western scientific monograph to be translated entirely into Japanese. Several Dutch surgical schools were founded through which Dutch surgery, known in Japan as "surgery of the red-haired" was propagated. According to the custom of the surgical guilds in Holland, certificates were granted to Japanese apprentices who had completed their training in Dutch surgery. About 60 Dutch surgeons had served on Decima up to 1850, providing the basis for surgery to develop in Japan. Among them, Philipp Franz von Siebold was an exceptional scholar who also had a great impact in making Japanese culture known to the Western world. PMID:15599736

van Gulik, Thomas M; Nimura, Yuji

2005-01-01

111

Whither Japan's Corporate Governance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In retrospect, the early 1990s can be regarded as a threshold in the post-war history of Japan's political economy. In the political domain, the half-century-long, one-party rule of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) came to an end in 1993. By then it also became clear that the bubble in financial and real-estate markets had burst. These two events ushered in

Masahiko Aoki

2006-01-01

112

Japan eyes China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research trip to Tokyo found contrasts between Japanese policies of engaging China economically and the U.S. emphasis on\\u000a human rights. It also found distinct differences between Washington and Tokyo in assessing the present and future security\\u000a threat of China in Asia. While the United States is apprehensive about increasing military power, Japan is more concerned\\u000a with China’s political and

Harvey W. Nelsen

1995-01-01

113

Holography in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present state of activities of holography in Japan is reviewed. Electro-holography, holographic 3D printer, recording material have been studying in research organizations, universities, and research institutes. Optical head using hologram has been developed by main electric companies. The market of hologram in security is going to extend. Several private and group exhibitions were opened within a year. HODIC meeting is opened every three months and symposiums on 3D imaging are held every year.

Kubota, Toshihiro

1998-02-01

114

Terrorism in Japan.  

PubMed

Although the 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack probably was the most widely reported terrorist event in Japan to date (5,500 injured, 12 dead), the country has suffered numerous other large terrorism-related events in recent decades, including bombings of the headquarters of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in Tokyo in 1974 (207 injured, 8 dead), the Hokkaido Prefectural Government office building in Sapporo in 1976 (80 injured, 2 dead), and the Yosakoi-Soran Festival in Sapporo in 2000 (10 injured, none dead). Japan also has experienced two other mass-casualty terrorist events involving chemical releases, including the 1994 Matsumoto sarin attack (600 injured, 7 dead) and the 1998 Wakayama arsenic incident (67 injured, 4 dead). Until 1995, emergency management in Japan focused on planning and preparedness at the local level for the frequent disasters caused by natural events. Since that time, substantial progress has been made in advancing emergency planning and preparedness for terrorism-related events, including the designation of disaster centers in each prefecture, the implementation of several education and training programs for nuclear, biological, and chemical terrorism, and the establishment of a national Anti terrorism Office within the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare. PMID:15074491

Asai, Yasufumi; Arnold, Jeffrey L

115

The UN Seahorse in Japan!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The UN Seahorse, currently based in Yokohama, Japan, is a joint project of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP). The UN Seahorse project helps to increase awareness about the ocean and its significance to our daily lives. In the host port of Japan, visitors will find information about Japan's geography, oceans, climate, and general background information; Japanese institutions provide contact information and links to the many organizations working on ocean-related issues in Japan. In addition, maps and charts offer useful images of Japan and surrounding areas. After or before visiting the Japan port of call, visitors can jump the two previous ports of call, Vancouver, Canada and Honolulu, Hawaii. Detailed information about the project is available at the Ocean98 Website.

1998-01-01

116

Cryogenic aerosol cleaning of photomasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the mechanism and cleaning results of a dry cleaning technology using CO2 cryogenic aerosols. The cleaning mechanism relies on momentum transfer from the aerosol particles to overcome the force of adhesion of the contaminant particles on the surface. Particle removal is possible without degradation or etching of underlying film or the need for drying with IPA as

S. Banerjee; C. C. Lin; S. Su; H. F. Chung; W. Brandt; K. Tang

2005-01-01

117

The graying of Japan.  

PubMed

Japan's rapidly aging population has become a top policy issue, especially as the increasing costs of pensions and medical care are debated. With the highest life expectancy on earth, the Japanese potentially face long periods of retirement, as well as the possibility of long periods of disability. Although family support of the elderly is thought to have been strong traditionally, the recent decline in co-residence with children is 1 indication that the way support is given may be changing. This issue is of particular concern to the government, which wants to avoid any greater responsibility for the elderly than is necessary given the dramatic population aging yet to come. The government is also encouraging employers to provide more employment opportunities for the elderly at the same time that it is trying to raise the eligibility age for the receipt of public pensions. There is resistance on the part of employers, however, because wages and retirement allowances in Japan are positively related to length of employment. Furthermore, it is not clear whether elderly Japanese of the future will be as willing to work, if they learn to enjoy increased leisure early in their careers. Nevertheless, it is unlikely that population aging will lead to Japan's economic decline. Although the savings rate may decline somewhat, restructuring of the economy and continued overseas investment should keep the economy growing in the long run. Important in both the care of the frail elderly and the continued growth of the economy will be the roles played by middle-aged Japanese women. PMID:12282193

Martin, L G

1989-07-01

118

Ijime in Japan.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the problem of ijime in Japan from a variety of perspectives, primarily through studies conducted in this country. The term ijime is not uniform in concept, open to different interpretations given the disparity in definitions among different circles, making precise assessment of the actual conditions difficult. Such being the case, what is needed is further study on the mechanisms and actual state of ijime accounting for the flow of the times, and compilation of research to enable the creation of ever more effective modes of prevention and intervention. PMID:22909914

Ogura, Masayoshi; Okada, Kaori; Hamada, Shoko; Asaga, Reiko; Honjo, Shuji

2011-12-09

119

ITER Activities in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Japanese contributions to ITER engineering design activities are presented, together with an introduction of the objectives and design of the ITER, whose program has been carried out through international collaboration by the European Union, Japan, Russian Federation, and the United States. New technologies have been produced through the development, fabrication, and testing of scalable models in the fields of superconducting magnets, reactor structures with vacuum vessels, remote-maintenance machines, high-heat-flux plasma facing components, neutral beam injectors, high-power millimetre-wave generators, etc. As major contributions from Japan, development and testing results of a 13-T, 640-MJ, Nb{sub 3}Sn pulsed magnet; an 18-deg sector of a vacuum vessel with a height of 15 m and a width of 9 m; CFC armor for a CuCrZr cooling tube that withstood 20 MW/m{sup 2}; a 31 mA/cm{sup 2} negative ion beam source; a 1-MeV beam accelerator; and a 1-MW 170-GHz gyrotron are described.

Tsunematsu, Toshihide; Seki, Masahiro; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Okuno, Kiyoshi; Kato, Takashi; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi; Hanada, Masaya; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Sakamoto, Keishi; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Ezato, Koichiro; Akiba, Masato [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan)

2002-07-15

120

Japan's growing environmental movement  

SciTech Connect

Serious problems from overdevelopment and pollution along with a relaxation of restrictions on political protest are behind an active environmental movement in Japan. The historical development and structure of this movement is traced from the late 19th Century, when Japan was forced to admit western powers to avoid colonialization and set a path of industrial growth coupled with military strength. Serious health hazards began developing after World War II, but pro-growth policies limited public protest and government response. Polluting industries ignore their liability, while company-owned labor unions show little sympathy. Individual protests, especially among the young, increased and have organized into groups demanding compensation for injury from pollution, groups opposing development plans, and groups promoting altenative life styles. The strategies used by these groups fall into four categories: negotiation with polluter or developer, distribution of pamphlets, mass demonstration, and lawsuits. The movement is unique in its regional character, its independence from political parties, its weak political influence, and its limited impact on decision making. Its greatest contribution to date has been to alert an over-industrialized nation of the danger. 12 references, 6 figures. (DCK)

Hase, T.

1981-03-01

121

Nuclear Fission Industry In Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Status of the nuclear fission industry in Japan is described. Japanese nuclear policy, vision, goals, and supporting organizational structures are reviewed. The facilities of the Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC), and the Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPCO) are illustrated and described. Nuclear power statistics and power generation costs by power

Floyd A Wyczalek

1990-01-01

122

Japan's whaling plan under scrutiny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen years after initiating scientific whaling in Antarctic waters, Japan presented a new and more ambitious program to the International Whaling Commission (IWC); the proposal was made in early June during the IWC’s annual meeting in Ulsan, Korea. Japan now wishes to more than double its annual catch of Antarctic minke whales (from about 440 to 935), and to expand

Nicholas J. Gales; Toshio Kasuya; Phillip J. Clapham; Robert L. Brownell Jr

2005-01-01

123

[Buddhist mummies in Japan].  

PubMed

The mummy of priest Kochi (preserved at Saishoji Temple, Teradomari, Niigata Pref.) has become famous, since it appeared in the book "Snow Country Tales" written by Bokushi Suzuki in 1841 (Fig. 1). In a country of high humidity, such as Japan, the belief that mummification could not, and did not, exist would not be altogether unfounded, but rather more a matter of common sense. There are two dozen Buddhist mummies in this country. It was not known until 1961 that a reliable source of artificial mummification has existed in Japan. The Japanese Buddhist mummies, apart from those of the Fujiwara family, a powerful clan of northeast Japan in the 12th century, dated mostly from the 17th to the 19th century as given in Table 1. Three principal types of mummification described by Vreeland, Jr. and Cockburn (1980) could be identified in the Japanese Buddhist mummies: type I, natural mummification; type II, intentional natural; and type III, artificial. Matsumoto (1990) classified the mummies into four groups, based on their ideological backgrounds: group A, mummies of the priests having faith in the Amitabha (the Supreme Buddha presiding over the Pure Land in the West); group B, sokushin-butsu mummies of the priests belonging to the Shingon sect of Japanese Buddhism founded by Kukai (Kobo-daishi); group C, nyujo mummies of the priests having faith in the Maitreya (the Buddha presiding over the Pure Land in the North, or the Buddha of the future); and group D, other mummies. These mummies of groups A, B, C and D are respectively listed in Table 2. Previous papers have shown that the mummies of the groups A, C and D belonged to the mummification of type I (natural mummification) or type II (intentional natural), whereas those of only the group B were of type III (artificial). The mummies of groups A to D were given as follows. a) Mummies of group A. The four mummies of the Fujiwara family in the Amitabha faith (preserved at Chusonji Temple, Hiraizumi, Iwate Pref.), which were laid in daisies for Buddhist images at golden Konjikido, a model of the Western Pure Land of Amitabha, did not bear any evidence of Ainu character in their physical traits. Of these, the mummy of Yasuhira Fujiwara, of which the head and neck were severely injured by swords, showed that it had been decapitated. This decapitated head had suffered mutilations: i.e. a long iron nail had been driven into the forehead, and the both auricles and the nose had been cut off.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8237299

Morimoto, I

1993-08-01

124

Economic Crisis in Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News examines Japan's struggle against economic recession. The nine resources discussed provide an overview on various aspects of the topic. Due to economic crisis throughout Asia, the Japanese economy was severely strained this week as the yen continued to fall against the dollar in Tokyo trading. A "weak domestic financial sector" and shrinking private-sector investments and exports also contributed to Japanese economic woes, according to Economic Planning Minister Shimpei Nukaya. Although many top Japanese governmental officials believe their nation's economy can be revived through financial reform and international monetary support, some United States analysts remain uncertain. With a weak GDP, a weak yen, and ownership of over half the world's savings, international concern for Japanese impact on other economies is growing. To alleviate these fears, President Clinton bolstered the yen with US dollar sales on June 17, 1998. The long-term effects of this intervention remain to be seen.

Waters, Megan.

1998-01-01

125

JPRS Report. Science Technology: Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts on science and technology in Japan. Titles include: Ceramics/Metal Bonding Technology Update; Functionally Gradient Materials Workshop No. 1; Construction Company Enters Biotec...

1988-01-01

126

Japan and the Energy Crisis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The energy crisis in Japan is discussed in terms of market reliance on petroleum imports. Retrospective treatment is given the energy situation as it has existed in the economic milieu since the second World War. The requirements, possibilities, and diffi...

Y. K. Sergeyev

1974-01-01

127

Nuclear fuel cycle in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. and Japan reached agreement in 1977 on the reprocessing of spent nuclear reactor fuel of U.S. origin at a facility in Japan. Under the agreement, a plant at Tokai-mura will process up to 99 tons of spent fuel, extracting plutonium from the irradiated fuel assemblies of a demonstration reactor and power reactors. The extracted Pu will be stored

Kawakami

1978-01-01

128

High definition systems in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The successful implementation of a strategy to produce high-definition systems within the Japanese economy will favorably affect the fundamental competitiveness of Japan relative to the rest of the world. The development of an infrastructure necessary to support high-definition products and systems in that country involves major commitments of engineering resources, plants and equipment, educational programs and funding. The results of these efforts appear to affect virtually every aspect of the Japanese industrial complex. The results of assessments of the current progress of Japan toward the development of high-definition products and systems are presented. The assessments are based on the findings of a panel of U.S. experts made up of individuals from U.S. academia and industry, and derived from a study of the Japanese literature combined with visits to the primary relevant industrial laboratories and development agencies in Japan. Specific coverage includes an evaluation of progress in R&D for high-definition television (HDTV) displays that are evolving in Japan; high-definition standards and equipment development; Japanese intentions for the use of HDTV; economic evaluation of Japan's public policy initiatives in support of high-definition systems; management analysis of Japan's strategy of leverage with respect to high-definition products and systems.

Elkus, Richard J., Jr.; Cohen, Robert B.; Dayton, Birney D.; Messerschmitt, David G.; Schreiber, William F.; Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Shelton, Duane

1991-02-01

129

Global update: Japan.  

PubMed

Japan continues to be a major player in stem cell biology and related fields, boasting multiple world-class programs in a broad spectrum of stem cell studies, a permissive regulatory framework, an active society for regenerative medicine and a growing industry involvement. The most noted work in recent years has of course originated in the laboratory of Shinya Yamanaka, with the first report of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) in 2006, and numerous technical advancements since, which prompted the government to establish a Center for iPS Cell Research and Application in 2010 (see below). Additional concentrations of stem cell research excellence can be found in Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe and Kumamoto. In 2011, Yoshiki Sasai's laboratory in the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe, achieved another remarkable result in inducing optic cup-like structures from embryonic stem cells using 4D tissue culture techniques, building on previous work in which the group had generated stratified cerebral cortex-like tissue from embryonic stem cells in vitro. PMID:21999281

Sipp, Doug

2011-11-01

130

Scientific ballooning in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific ballooning activity in Japan during 2001 and 2002 is presented. Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) launched 10 balloons from Sanriku Balloon Center (SBC) located 500 km north of Tokyo in 2001. Six flights were for scientific observations, observations of high energy cosmic electrons, cryogenic sampling of the air at high altitude, an observation of atmospheric ozone distribution, an observation of hard X-ray spectra of solar flare and a sampling of microorganism in the stratosphere. Two balloons made with 3.4 micron polyethylene film, of 30,000 m^3 without exhaust tube and 1,000 m^3 with exhaust tube were successfully flown and reached at altitudes of 50.7 km and 30.8 km respectively. It has been scheduled to launch 10 balloons in 2002 to observe solar flare, NO_2 and O_3 in the atmosphere, low frequency radiation in the environment, and atmospheric ozone density and to sample the air at high altitude. International collaborative balloon observations of cosmic-rays, Galactic infrared radiation and atmospheric ozone density were successfully conducted in USA, India and Spitzbergen, respectively in 2001. Two balloons will be flown from antarctica for the observations of cosmic-ray electrons and for auroral X-rays, respectively in December of 2002.

Makino, F.

131

Japan’s new lifelong learning policy: exploring lessons from the European knowledge economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of ‘lifelong learning’ or sh?gai gakush? has rapidly become one of the topmost priorities in Japan’s education policy agenda. This was considerably evident in December 2006 when the term ‘lifelong learning’ was added to Japan’s educational charter, the Fundamental Law of Education. This paper explores, as a means to develop Japan’s new lifelong learning policy, the lessons that

Akihiro Ogawa

2009-01-01

132

FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, January 28, 1997  

SciTech Connect

;Partial Contents: Japan: AIST`s Frontier Carbon Technology Research Project Under Way; Japan: Sumitomo Electric Develops Aluminum Nitride Substrate; Japan: NASDA To Develop Small, High Performance, Low Cost Satellite; Japan to Haive Rocket Launch Cost; Japan: Combined-Cycle Technology for Higher Thermal Efficiency Using Various Fuels; Japan: S&T Corporation Develops Carbon Thin Film Solar Cell; Japan: Atomic Energy Commission of Japan Suports Using ITER for Japan`s Experimental Reactor; Japan: NO New Nuclear Power Plant Construction in Sight; and Japan: Mitsubishi Electric Executive on Guided Missile Development.

NONE

1997-01-28

133

FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, April 10, 1996  

SciTech Connect

;Partial Contents: Biotechnology (Japan: Japan`s RITE Introduces Biotech Projects, Japan: Pharmacia Biotech Develops Detection Method for Point Mutation); Energy (Japan: New Catalyst for Synthesis Gas Reduces Energy Needs, Japan: Major Company Activities for Promotion of Wind Power Generation, Japan: Waste Power Generation System in Saitama Draws Much Attention); Environment (Japan: AIST`s NIMC To Develop Efficient Decomposition Method for Waste Using Super-Critial Water, Japan: Kyoei Co. Develops High Temperature Fusion Furnace for Industrial Waste Treatment, Japan: Air Dry Cleaning for Recycling Chemically Contaminated Plastic Sheets); Microelectronics (Japan: Toshiba Corp. DEC To jointly Develop LSI for ATM); Science and Technology Policy (Japan`s MITI To Begin Electronic Commerce Experiment Project); Technology Transfer (Japan: Nissho Iwai Delivers Cleaner Plant to Russia`s Energiya, Japan: Energy Agency Transfers Coal Fired Power Generation Technology to Indonesia); Telecommunications (Japan`s MPT Releases Study Report on Advanced Information Technologies).

NONE

1996-04-10

134

Japan's national waste recovery plan  

SciTech Connect

The national program in Japan for waste recovery is reviewed. Japan's particular needs (relatively small area, large population, virtually no native energy or raw material sources) are discussed and the urgency of the program is stressed. Specific programs are described as well as government, citizen, and industrial contributions. Initiated in the early 1960's, primarily from environmental factors, the program has expanded to produce energy, fertilizers, pulp, rubber, cements, and other products. Research activities are summarized with emphasis on the Stardust Project (a national demonstration project to show that municipal wastes can be separated into garbage, paper, and plastics and each group can be processed to produce materials or energy). Clean Japan Center, an incorporated foundation, has functions of public education, surveys, demonstration plants and waste collection activities. An integrated system to process both urban and rural wastes in Toyohashi City is described. (MJJ)

Baller, J.

1982-08-01

135

Geothermal Field Developments in Japan  

SciTech Connect

The present situation of the geothermal field developments in Japan is such that eight geothermal power stations are being operated, while there are sill many geothermal areas to be explored. Up to this day, the target of geothermal exploration has mainly been the areas by surface geological survey and the existing geothermal reservoirs are located not deeper than 1,500m depth. Recent geothermal energy development shows a trend from the study on vapor dominated of liquid dominated hydrothermal resources in shallow zones to that on hydrothermal resources in deeper zones. Exploration wells of 3,000m depth class have been drilled in Japan.

Hirakawa, Seiichi

1983-12-15

136

FBIS Report. Science and Technology: Japan, February 28, 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Advanced Materials (JAPAN: Diamond Thin Film, Challenge Toward Year 2010); Aerospace (Japan: Supersonic Transport, Challenge Toward Year 2010); Energy (Japan: Supersonic Transport, Challenge Toward Year 2010); Energy (Japan: Whistling in...

1996-01-01

137

FBIS Report. Science and Technology: Japan, November 22, 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents (Selected articles): Japan: Diamond Thin Film Successfully Produced in Space, CVD Experiment Using Flowing Gas; Japan: ADEOS-Background, Purpose Behind Its Development; Japan: 20 Japanese Companies Establich Software CALS Consortium; Japan: Advan...

1996-01-01

138

Japan: Refining Options and Liberalization Plans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reformulation of Japan's petroleum import policy is important to Japan and to the international energy community. The technical and economic factors involved in opening the Japanese market is unknown. Assuming that foreign refiners have the technical ...

L. Totto D. T. Isaak

1988-01-01

139

Japan: A Traveler’s Literary Companion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This collection guides the reader through the complexity that is Japan. Although frequently misunderstood as a homogeneous nation, Japan is a land of tremendous linguistic, geographical, and cultural diversity. Hino Keizo leads the reader through Tokyo's mazes in \\

Jeffrey Angles

2006-01-01

140

Epidemiology of Diabetes Mellitus in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The clinical and epidemiological features of diabetes mellitus in Japan have been compiled and compared with data from other countries. Diabetes is basically the same in Japan as elsewhere: however, consideration of important differences has led to the fo...

W. G. Blackard Y. Omori L. R. Freedman

1964-01-01

141

Japan's Future Position in the World Economy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study examines Japan's domestic economic trends, its national interest, and the external economic developments. The rate of domestic economic growth is bound to have a pervasive effect on Japan's external economic relations. An examination of the sour...

E. R. Fried P. H. Trezise

1974-01-01

142

Philippines-Japan Economic Partnership: Where Is the Philippines in Japan's Plan?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Going by the statements of the Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Japan’s top priority with regards to regional and bilateral economic partnerships (EPA) is to carryout the framework of its EPA with ASEAN by 2012 or earlier. It must be stressed that Japan is economically interested in the whole Southeast Asia, and not in any single country in it. This

Lydia Y. Jose

2004-01-01

143

FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, March 4, 1997  

SciTech Connect

Partials Contents: JAPAN: Chiba University Develops Polyamide With High Bonding Strength at High Temperatures; JAPAN: NASDA, Tokyo Institute of Technology Develop Prototype Lunar Probe Robot; JAPAN: Solar Power Generation for Residential Use; JAPAN: Kobe Steel, Leader in Iron Ore Smelting Technology; JAPAN: Superconducting Permanent Magnet; JAPAN: Sumitomo Electric to Pioneer Industrial Superconductor Applications; JAPAN: Military Technology Revolution, Air Power Viewed; JAPAN: Defense Intelligence Units Reorganized with DIH Creation.

NONE

1997-03-04

144

Japan's Salmon Supply, 1974-83.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Japan's salmon supply has more than doubled during the decade from 1974 to 1983, and hatchery-produced salmon are contributing an increasingly larger portion of the salmon consumed in Japan. The Japan Fisheries Agency estimated that hatchery-produced salm...

A. G. Herrfurth

1984-01-01

145

Energy R and D in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1997, the public and private sectors in Japan invested $90.3 billion in R&D. Japan is the second largest supporter of R&D after the United States. A very large percentage (79.4%) of all R&D in Japan is supported by the private sector. The prolonged eco...

J. J. Dooley

1999-01-01

146

Historical Characteristics of Adult Education in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In its modern sense, adult education in Japan began after the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Until 1945, adult education functioned as an agent to indoctrinate the nationalistic and military ideology. Since World War II, Japan has adopted the democratic social system and has become a capitalist society like the West. In Japan, social education is the…

Miyasaka, Kosaku

147

Japan's Economic Impact on the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan has become increasingly competitive rather than complementary in relations with the United States. Its impact on the U.S. economy stems from structural and policy sources. An important structural source is the vertical anatomy of Japan's for eign trade, which in turn is largely determined by its unbalanced physical endowment. On the policy plane, Japan has pursued a supply-side strategy

Leon Hollerman

1982-01-01

148

The state of Japan's military art  

SciTech Connect

Japan has the world's third largest defense budget in the world, after the United States and Soviet Union. The author discusses how Japan acquires some of its weapons from the U.S. and how Japan is developing indigenous military technology. The article focuses on the Japanese codevelopment and coproduction of an advanced version of the F-16 fighter jet.

Chen, K.T.

1989-09-01

149

Japan's Security Policy in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan's strategic thinking has been driven by three main factors: a fear of isolation, calculation of the geopolitical strength of China (and to a lesser extent, Korea), and accommodation to the prevailing international power structure. During the Cold War Japan aligned with Washington, but maintained sufficient distance to explore a mutually beneficial relationship with China based on Japan's dominant economic

Michael AUSLIN; Michael GREEN

2007-01-01

150

21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Drugs 3 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known...

2009-04-01

151

Ehrlichia chaffeensis Infection of Sika Deer, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether Ehrlichia chaffeensis exists in Japan, we used PCR to examine blood from sika deer in Nara, Japan. Of 117 deer, 36 (31%) were infected with E. chaffeensis. The E. chaffeensis 16S rRNA base and GroEL amino acid sequences from Japan were most closely re- lated to those of E. chaffeensis Arkansas.

Makoto Kawahara; Tomoko Tajima; Harumi Torii; Mitsutaka Yabutani; Joji Ishii; Makiko Harasawa; Emiko Isogai; Yasuko Rikihisa

2009-01-01

152

The Allied Occupation of Japan in Retrospect  

Microsoft Academic Search

1995 was the fiftieth anniversary of the start of the Allied Occupation of Japan which lasted until 1952 and was a significant period in Japan's history. In order to make an assessment of the occupation a symposium under the title 'Allied Occupation of Japan' was held on 14 December 1995. Professor Richard B Finn who gave a paper on 'The

Chris Aldous; Richard B Finn

1996-01-01

153

Japan's National Security: Structures, norms, and policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan's national security policy has two distinctive aspects that deserve analysis. First, Japan's definition of national security goes far beyond traditional military notions. National security is viewed in comprehensive terms that also include economic and political dimensions. The second feature of Japan's security policy worth explanation is a distinctive mixture of flexibility and rigidity in the process of policy adaptation

P. J. Katzenstein; N. Okawara

2009-01-01

154

The state of Japan's military art  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan has the world's third largest defense budget in the world, after the United States and Soviet Union. The author discusses how Japan acquires some of its weapons from the U.S. and how Japan is developing indigenous military technology. The article focuses on the Japanese codevelopment and coproduction of an advanced version of the F-16 fighter jet.

K. T. Chen

1989-01-01

155

FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, March 3, 1997  

SciTech Connect

Partial Contents: JAPAN: Sumitomo Electric Industries Develops Exhaust Purification Equipment for Buses; JAPAN: Matsushita Battery to Market Next Generation Thin Film Solar Batteries by 2000; JAPAN: Hitachi, Toshiba Use Computer Networks to Build Nuclear Power Plants; JAPAN: Monju Incident Scars Not Yet Healed; JAPAN: Encryption Key Management Debate; and JAPAN: Military Infrared R&D Reviewed.

NONE

1997-03-03

156

Japan's Eco-School Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

Mori, Masayuki

2007-01-01

157

Sarin poisoning in Matsumoto, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryA presumed terrorist attack with sarin occurred in a residential area of the city of Matsumoto, Japan, on June 27, 1994. About 600 residents and rescue staff were poisoned; 58 were admitted to hospitals, and 7 died. We examined clinical and laboratory findings of 264 people who sought treatment and the results of health examinations on 155 residents done 3

N Yanagisawa; H Morita; T Nakajima; H Okudera; M Shimizu; H Hirabayashi; M Nohara; Y Midorikawa; S Mimura

1995-01-01

158

Review of Japan's privacy policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent trend of growing breaches of personal privacy suggests the urgent need for privacy protection. Legislated by Japan's General Services Administration in May 2003, the Privacy Act applies to activities dealing with personal information in private industry sectors including the information telecommunications industry. The Privacy Act stipulates the basic policies for the general execution of personal information protection and

K. S. Park

2005-01-01

159

Medical Education in Japan, 1969  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although Japan's 19th century feudalistic education system was abolished at the close of World War II and the country has wrought the greatest economic miracle in world history, the Japanese still assign low priorities to health and medical education. (IR)

Brooks, Thomas J., Jr.

1970-01-01

160

Japan Studies Association Journal, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This journal presents new perspectives and materials on Japan that are engaging, relatively jargon-free, and shaped so that their usefulness in a college classroom is readily apparent. The journal represents an example of the potential for genuine scholarship that lies within interdisciplinary studies. Articles grouped under the topic of…

Reichel, Philip L., Ed.

2001-01-01

161

Print club photography in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine the popularity of a new form of photographic representation in Japan, namely Print Club, or Purikura. Print Club machines initially delivered a page of 16 postage?stamp?sized photographs of their patrons, but many other formats have become common. This paper describes the 1995 emergence and development of the technology, image content, decorative frames, picture uses and functions and

Richard Chalfen; Mai Murui

2001-01-01

162

Japan's Strategic Future: Coalition Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The evolution of the Japanese Self-Defense Force (JSDF) over the past fifty years has created debate in Japan's Parliament over its legality, purpose, direction and normalization. The JSDF appears to be taking steps to 'normalize'. If so, what are the ind...

R. Shu

2004-01-01

163

Direct Broadcasting Satellites in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The development and use of broadcasting satellites in Japan are discussed in this paper. The paper describes the medium-scale experimental broadcasting satellite, YURI, launched by NASA in 1978, and reports that experiments with YURI in the areas of basic technologies in the broadcasting satellite system, experiments on satellite control…

Maeda, Jiro

164

Revisiting America's Occupation of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay surveys and evaluates the last decade of English-language scholarship on the Occupation of Japan, locating it within American history, Japanese history, post-colonial studies, and the new international history, noting how new work in each field affects our interpretations.

Laura Hein

2011-01-01

165

Japan's Eco-School Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

Mori, Masayuki

2007-01-01

166

Aerial Measuring System in Japan  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Agency’s Aerial Measuring System deployed personnel and equipment to partner with the U.S. Air Force in Japan to conduct multiple aerial radiological surveys. These were the first and most comprehensive sources of actionable information for U.S. interests in Japan and provided early confirmation to the government of Japan as to the extent of the release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Generation Station. Many challenges were overcome quickly during the first 48 hours; including installation and operation of Aerial Measuring System equipment on multiple U.S. Air Force Japan aircraft, flying over difficult terrain, and flying with talented pilots who were unfamiliar with the Aerial Measuring System flight patterns. These all combined to make for a dynamic and non-textbook situation. In addition, the data challenges of the multiple and on-going releases, and integration with the Japanese government to provide valid aerial radiological survey products that both military and civilian customers could use to make informed decisions, was extremely complicated. The Aerial Measuring System Fukushima response provided insight in addressing these challenges and gave way to an opportunity for the expansion of the Aerial Measuring System’s mission beyond the borders of the US.

Lyons, C., Colton, D. P.

2012-05-01

167

Type 1 diabetes in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 1 diabetes is a multifactorial disease which results from a T-cell-mediated autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells in genetically predisposed individuals. The risk for individuals of developing type 1 diabetes varies remarkably according to country of residence and race. Japan has one of the lowest incidence rates of type 1 diabetes in the world, and recognises at least

E. Kawasaki; N. Matsuura; K. Eguchi

2006-01-01

168

Yakuza – organized crime in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce some facts about Yakuza and countermeasures by the Japanese police. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper provides some statistics and descriptive explanation about Yakuza and countermeasures by the Japanese police. Findings – In Japan, there are more than 80,000 regular or associate Yakuza gang members. Yakuza groups are changing their styles and

Ko Shikata

2006-01-01

169

Forecasts of RWC Tokyo, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We operate Regional Warning Center (RWC) of International Space Environment Service (ISES). Twenty-four hour forecasts of solar flares, geomagnetic storms, and solar energetic particles are made everyday according to criterion of ISES. We report the verification of our forecasts based on the observation data and the result of analysis of the verification. We also report recent activities of RWC Tokyo, Japan.

Watari, Shinichi; Kato, Hisao

170

Civil Society in Japan Reconsidered  

Microsoft Academic Search

When defined broadly, we can proceed on the assumption that in all but the most totalitarian of modern contexts, there is some kind of civil society that can be identified and compared cross-nationally. Although Japan may not strike the casual observer as the most fertile ground for such an investigation, setting bounds to the state and freeing space for plurality

FRANK S CHWARTZ

2002-01-01

171

Resources for Teaching about Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book lists resources for materials and ideas for teaching about Japan. The resource listings are not intended to be encyclopedic and are not intended to be a comprehensive listing of every useful curriculum item. The attempt has been made to highlight especially those organizations that work with kindergarten through grade 12 teachers,…

Wojtan, Linda S.

172

Japan`s nuclear weapons options and U.S. security interests  

SciTech Connect

Japan is a virtual nuclear weapons power. It has the scientific and technical ability to produce hundreds or even thousands of nuclear weapons, but has chosen not to do so for political reasons. This thesis examines the historical development of Japan`s nuclear energy and aerospace programs since the mid-1950s and considers the possibility that at various points in its history, Japan used these programs as a cover to insure that its nuclear weapons options remained open. This thesis analyzes internal and external factors that may have influenced Japan`s nuclear policies. External factors include regional threats, international pressures to join the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and distrust of US commitments to provide for Japan`s defense. Internal factors include Japan`s historical tradition of a strong military state and Japan`s unique nuclear allergy. While both external and internal factors have influenced the path of Japans nuclear energy and aerospace programs, internal factors will drive Japan to maintain its plutonium-based energy program and will allow Japan to remain a virtual nuclear power well into the twenty-first century.

Sharman, C.H.

1998-06-01

173

FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, December 3, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Contents (selected articles): Japan: Nissan To Use Nickel-Hydrogen Battery in EV; Japan: Takii To Commercialize Cauliflower-Broccoli Hybrid; Japan: Kawasaki Steel Improves Recovery of Metals from Furnace Residue; Japan: Japan`s NEC Corp. To Develop Cost-Effective Photodection Chip; Japan: Japanese Companies Establish Research Association to Develop 16-gigabit DRAMS; Japan: Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants, Actual Achievements; Japan: Future for Nuclear Fuel Recycle as a Result of Monju Accident; Japan: Superconducting Magnet System Using No Liquid Helium; Japan: Hitachi`s MULTI Network Security Technologies; Japan: Defense Bureau Chief Tokita Interviewed; Japan: DRC Executive on GSDF, High Technology; and Japan: Retired Admiral on Post-Cold War MSDF Strategy.

NONE

1996-12-03

174

FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, December 10, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Contents (partial): Japan: Fabrication of Diamond Single Crystal Thin Film by Ion Beam Deposition; Japan: Hitachi Metal Develops New Semi Solid Metal Processing Technology; Japan: NTT Develops Fuel Cell System That Uses Both City Gas, LPG; Japan: Daihatsu Motor Completes Prototype EV; Japan: NIRIM Announces Success With Synthetic Bone Development; Japan: Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Plans Clinical Trials of Gene Therapy to Cerebral Tumor in Japan; Japan: MITI To Provide Aid for Residential Solar Power Generation Systems; Japan: MELCO To Provide Satellite Solar Cell Panel for SSL, USA; Japan: Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Leads Nuclear Research; Japan: Kobe Steel`s Superconducting Magnet Ready to Go Fast; Japan: MPT To Begin Validation Test for Electric Money Implementation; and Japan: Defense Agency to Send ASDF`s Pilots to Russia for Training.

NONE

1996-12-10

175

A Tourist's Album of Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you are looking to explore Japan in the year 1909 via the eyes of an informed and thoughtful Western tourist, look no further. This engaging collection from the University of Vermont Libraries' Center for Digital Initiatives brings together the photo album compiled by Katherine Wolcott and her uncle, Robert Hull Fleming. Fleming was a graduate of the University of Vermont and as part of a larger Asian trip, the two of them stopped in Japan and collected photos, postcards, and other printed ephemera. This collection contains nearly 40 leaves of collected items which depict daily life, landscapes, and pictures of the countryside. Visitors can browse the materials here by genre, topic, creator, format, or place. A good place to start here is with the photos of Mount Fuji, which are a real treat.

2011-02-01

176

Endangered vascular plants in Japan  

PubMed Central

The history of the Red List of Japanese vascular plants is briefly reviewed for editing and research. Especially on the results of recent monitoring, the present status of information and conservation activities on the endangered plants in Japan is discussed and the dynamics of the Japanese flora are taken up, in relation to basic research on plant biodiversity on the Japanese Archipelago. The figures of endangered plants are not very variable during the past quarter of a century, but we can surmise that the conservation of threatened species in Japan has been promoted to some extent. Based on the results of such a study, proposals are made to contribute to the sustainable use of plant biodiversity on the Japanese Archipelago under a global conspectus.

Iwatsuki, Kunio

2008-01-01

177

Biomedical materials research in Japan  

SciTech Connect

The state of research in biomedical materials, particularly biomedical polymers, in Japan as of July 1981 is summerized. Based on visits to approximately 30 universities, research institutes, and medical schools, this report does not cover every relevant research group in Japan. References to provide further information to readers in selected areas are included, including recent articles by Japanese scientists that are written in English or have an English abstract. R and D in the areas of artificial heart blood pumps, artificial organs, bioenergetics, polymers for pharmaceutical use, the biocompatibility and structure of hydrogels, and the synthesis of photosensitive materials is discussed. The authors note that the Japanese Ministry of Education published a major report, approx. 600 pages long and containing 80 separate reports, which dealt with various aspects of basis research on biomedical polymers from 1977 to 1980.

Anderson, J.M.

1982-09-01

178

Fruit harvesting robots in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed harvesting robots for tomato /1/, petty-tomato, cucumber /2/ and grape /3/ in Japan. These robots mainly consist of manipulators, end-effectors, visual sensors and traveling devices. These mechanisms of the robot components were developed based on the physical properties of the work objects. The robots must work automatically by themselves in greenhouses or fields, since we are considering for one operator to tend several robots in the production system. The system is modeled after Japanese agriculture which is commonly seen to produce many kinds of crops in greenhouses and in many small fields intensively. Bioproduction in space is somewhat similar to the agricultural system in Japan, because few operators have to work in a small space. Employing robots for bioproduction in space is considered desirable in near future. The following is a description of the harvesting robots.

Kondo, N.; Monta, M.; Fujiura, T.

179

Fruit harvesting robots in Japan.  

PubMed

We have developed harvesting robots for tomato, petty-tomato, cucumber and grape in Japan. These robots mainly consist of manipulators, end-effectors, visual sensors and traveling devices. These mechanisms of the robot components were developed based on the physical properties of the work objects. The robots must work automatically by themselves in greenhouses or fields, since we are considering for one operator to tend several robots in the production system. The system is modeled after Japanese agriculture which is commonly seen to produce many kinds of crops in greenhouses and in many small fields intensively. Bioproduction in space is somewhat similar to the agricultural system in Japan, because few operators have to work in a small space. Employing robots for bioproduction in space is considered desirable in near future. The following is a description of the harvesting robots. PMID:11538961

Kondo, N; Monta, M; Fujiura, T

1996-01-01

180

Prenatal Genetic Testing in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the use of prenatal diagnosis and maternal serum maker tests (MSMTs) from January 1 to December 31, 1997, in Japan. Methods: Questionnaires were sent to medical facilities, which represent about 80% of the facilities providing prenatal diagnosis. Results: Prenatal diagnosis was performed in 5,748 women, of whom 5,538 (5,516 amniocenteses and 22 chorionic villus sampling; 96.3%) were

Ichiro Matsuda; Kaoru Suzumori

2000-01-01

181

FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, May 7, 1996  

SciTech Connect

;Partial Contents: Japan: FH1 Aerospace Division Executive on UAV R&D; JapaN: MHI Delivers First F-2 Flight Test Model; Nuclear Technologies; Japan: Nuclear Material Research in Cross-Over Research Project; Japan: MITI To Subsidize Development of Cryptography; Defense Industries; Japan: JADI Announces FY96 Major Events Schedule; Japan: Rollout Ceremony Held for First OH-X Flight Test Model; and Japan: KHI Weapons Designer OH-X Development.

NONE

1996-05-07

182

FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, March 18, 1996  

SciTech Connect

;Partial Contents: Advanced Materials (Japan: Synergy Ceramics Group Develops High Thermal Conductivity, High Mechanical Strength SiN Ceramics); Aerospace (Japan: STA to Encourage a Major Role for Japan in SST Development, Japan: CRL Develops High Resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar); Automotive Technologies (Japan: Nuclear Fusion R & D); Superconductivity (Japan: Sumitomo Electric Demonstrates World`s First Practical Use of High Temperature Superconductor); Defense Industries (Japan: TRDI Aero Equipment Official Views 1996).

NONE

1996-03-18

183

FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, February 20, 1996  

SciTech Connect

;Partial Contents: Energy (Japan: MHI Discovers Maritime Photo Plankton that Produces Ethanol from CO2, Japan: Tokyo Electric Power Co.`s PAFC Development); Telecommunications (Japan: Report on 1st Asian Telecommunications Industry Exchange, Japan: MPT Reports Test Evaluation Results for PHS); Defense Industries (Japan: Expert on Shipbuilding, Welding Technology, Japan: Komatsu R&D Chief on Dream of Ground Robots; Japan: Defense Simulator Series, Part 7: Torpedo Simulator).

NONE

1996-02-20

184

JapanÂs Pop Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Not so long ago, young people in the United States borrowed extensively from European consumer fashions and tastes to create trends in a variety of areas. For a time in the early 1990s, all things that dealt with former Communist regimes were all the rage, and Anglophilia has been a common condition since the cult of people who have found Queen Elizabeth and the Beatles fashionable. These days, many young people around the world are flocking to countries such as Japan and South Korea for the latest trends in popular culture. This fun and intriguing radio documentary from the American RadioWorks group takes visitors inside the world of JapanÂs pop culture products, with stops to visit an anime convention and such. Utilizing a visual interface that resembles a typical manga comic book, visitors can look through the available audio segments, or listen to the program in its entirety. The site is rounded out by a selection of links and resources that will be of interest to those who are seeking more material on the world of contemporary popular culture in Japan.

2006-01-01

185

Aerial measuring system in Japan.  

PubMed

The U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) deployed personnel and equipment to partner with the U.S. Forces in Japan (USFJ) to conduct multiple aerial radiological surveys. These were the first and most comprehensive sources of actionable information for U.S. interests in Japan and provided early confirmation to the Government of Japan as to the extent of the release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Many challenges were overcome quickly during the first 48 h, including installation and operation of Aerial Measuring System equipment on multiple USFJ aircraft, flying over difficult terrain, and flying with USFJ pilots who were unfamiliar with the Aerial Measuring System flight patterns. These factors combined to make for a programmatically unanticipated situation. In addition to the challenges of multiple and ongoing releases, integration with the Japanese government to provide valid aerial radiological survey products that both military and civilian customers could use to make informed decisions was extremely complicated. The Aerial Measuring System Fukushima response provided insight into addressing these challenges and gave way to an opportunity for the expansion of the Aerial Measuring System's mission beyond the borders of the U.S. PMID:22469929

Lyons, Craig; Colton, David

2012-05-01

186

Japan's hidden youths: mainstreaming the emotionally distressed in Japan.  

PubMed

One of the most talked-about social issues in Japan in recent years has been the problem of the nation's purportedly one million "hidden" youths, known as hikikomori (literally, "the withdrawn"). Most observers agree that the category of hikikomori encompasses a wide range of problems and provocations. The fact that these various dilemmas lead to the shared outcome of shutting oneself away at home is the point of departure here. The article explores the spheres of mental health care, education and family, focusing on the reluctance to highlight underlying psychological dimensions of hikikomori and the desire on the part of schools and families to "mainstream" Japanese children, accommodating as many as possible within standardized public education. Hikikomori can perhaps be seen as a manifestation of Japanese democracy, in which the good society is imagined as cohesive, protective and secure, rather than one in which the individual can freely exercise the right to be different. Schools, families and the sphere of mental health care have focused on producing social inclusion but have discouraged citizens from being labeled as "different" -- even when such a distinction might help them. The dearth of facilities and discourse for caring for the mentally ill or learning disabled is, in many respects, the darker side of Japan's successes. Those who cannot adjust are cared for through the institutions of families, companies and various other spheres that offer spaces to rest and to temporarily "drop out"; however, the expectation is that rest will eventually lead to a re-entry into mainstream society. Often the psychological problem or disability that led to the problem goes unnamed and untreated (hikikomori, psychiatry, special education, youth, family, Japan). PMID:18818992

Borovoy, Amy

2008-12-01

187

FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, February 19, 1997  

SciTech Connect

Partial Contents: JAPAN: The Second International Micromachine Symposium; JAPAN: National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya Develops Three Dimensional Fiber Reinforced Ceramics Composites; JAPAN: State-of-the Art Technologies by Three Major Aerospace Companies; JAPAN: Toyota Starts Program to Aid Scientific Technological Research; JAPAN; AIST`s Shikoku Institute Develops New Ion Generation Technology; JAPAN: STA Revises Supply and Demand Plan for Plutonium; JAPAN: Nagoya University Separates Rare Metals from Fission Products; JAPAN: Fiscal 1997 Outline Budget Proposal for S&T and JAPAN: Tokyo Gas Develops High Tc Superconducting High Sensitivity Oxygen Sensor.

NONE

1997-02-19

188

FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, November 22, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Contents (Selected articles): Japan: Diamond Thin Film Successfully Produced in Space, CVD Experiment Using Flowing Gas; Japan: ADEOS-Background, Purpose Behind Its Development; Japan: 20 Japanese Companies Establich Software CALS Consortium; Japan: Advanced Technology on Thermal Recycling Systems for Combustible Refuse; Japan: Sanyo Electric Co. To Develop Low Temperature Processed Poly-Silicon TFT-LCD; Japan: Mitsubishi Heavy Delivers Nuclear Simulator to Russians; Japan: Magnets Attract Plenty of R&D Attention; Japan: Latest Survey Shows Dramatic Increase in Number of Internet Users; and Japan: NTT Fabricates Multivalued Logic Circuit Applicable to IC.

NONE

1996-11-22

189

“Karoshi (Work to Death)” in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the collapse of Japan’s bubble economy in the early 1990’s, the Japanese economy has only recovered slightly. This has\\u000a direct implications for employment. Both the seniority wage system and the lifetime employment system, which were popular\\u000a during the period of economic growth in Japan, unavoidably changed to an outcome-wage system. Now there is greater mobility\\u000a in employment, increased use

Atsuko Kanai

2009-01-01

190

Changing Incidence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A trend in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Japan was studied from the data of the Osaka Cancer Registry (population, 8,512,351 in 1981) for the period of 1963-1983, the Vital Statistics of Japan, Ministry of Health and Welfare, and the Japan Autopsy Registry which contained 594,132 individually filed cases in the 26-year period from 1958 to 1983. Both

Kunio Okuda; Isaburo Fujimoto; Aya Hanai; Yoshinori Urano

1987-01-01

191

The Growing Role of Japan in International Politics and Economics. Japan Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With its increasing economic importance throughout the world, Japan has the potential to expand its political influence as well. Generally, however, Japan has been reluctant to use its growing power to influence political affairs both in Asia and in the rest of the world. This digest surveys the factors affecting Japan's role in world affairs,…

Becker, James

192

The Fast Reactor and Its Fuel Cycle Developments in Japan: Can Japan Unlock its Development Path?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the history, status, and probable future of fast reactor and associated fuel cycle development in Japan. The fast breeder reactor and its closed fuel cycle have been the cornerstone of Japan's nuclear-energy development program since the 1950s. For economic, technological, and political reasons, Japan's development and implementation of these technologies is significantly delayed. The budget for fast

TATSUJIRO SUZUKI

2009-01-01

193

The Growing Role of Japan in International Politics and Economics. Japan Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With its increasing economic importance throughout the world, Japan has the potential to expand its political influence as well. Generally, however, Japan has been reluctant to use its growing power to influence political affairs both in Asia and in the rest of the world. This digest surveys the factors affecting Japan's role in world affairs, and…

Becker, James

194

The United States’ and Japan’s Immigration Dilemmas in Comparative Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explains the dilemmas facing Japan and the United States in undertaking immigration policy reform. For the Japanese, the main dilemma is how to confront the inevitable consequences of a rapidly aging population and declining workforce on Japan’s ability to maintain its competitive edge in the global market and to sustain its social security system without increasing immigration, which

Manolo Abella

2012-01-01

195

Teachers' Unions and the Politics of Education in Japan. SUNY Series on Japan in Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1989, the Japan Teachers' Union, Nikkyoso, split into two unions after 2 years of factional infighting. Japan has two political camps, the governing conservative Liberal Democratic Party and the left-wing Japan Socialist Party. The teachers' union is a powerful member in the camp of the latter. This book incorporates studies of the links…

Aspinall, Robert W.

196

Children in Japan and multimedia.  

PubMed

Many parents in Japan today are very concerned and have daily problems with their children over the following kind of issues concerning video games, multimedia, and similar devices. 1) Is children's enthusiasm for video games actually harming their growth (physically or mentally)? 2) Is there any way that video games can help children in the future? For example, will playing these games help children learn to use computers or develop their power of thought? 3) Will excessive enthusiasm for TV games undermine our basic lifestyle? Is the time they spend studying at home or playing outside actually decreasing? 4) Will the methods of communication brought about by computers, pagers, and cellular phones weaken human relations among children? 5) Will being immersed in a virtual world created by computers result in a diminished sense of reality? The causes of this uneasiness may be traced to parents' own anxieties and concerns about the exceedingly rapid growth of the "information society" of today, together with the fact that their children are directly caught up in the deluge of this information and multimedia society. The development of media has coincided with the growth of today's adults, but children are immersed in a media-filled environment from the day they are born. In Japan, there are now children who can play video games before even learning to write. No one can predict what kind of adults these children will grow to be in the future, and it is fair to say that the most parents and children in Japan are being tossed about on the waves of this information explosion. At this international symposium, we hope to hear the many views that are held around the world concerning children and multimedia. PMID:10770069

Shimauchi, Y

1999-01-01

197

Reactor physics activities in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report reviews the research activity in reactor physics field in Japan during July, 1992 - July, 1993. The review was performed in the following fields: nuclear data evaluation, calculational method development, fast reactor physics, thermal reactor physics, advanced core design, fusion reactor neutronics, nuclear criticality safety, shielding, incineration of radioactive nuclear wastes, noise analysis and control and national programs. The main references were taken from journals and reports published during this period. The research committee of reactor physics is responsible for the review work.

1994-01-01

198

Recent cryocooler progress in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progress of cryocoolers and related devices in Japan is reviewed. The Japanese National Railways has developed the light weight 4 K on-board refrigerators since 1977 as part of the MAGLEV train program. Superconducting and cryogenic fundamental technology was examined which included high performance cryocooler, magnetic refrigerator and superfluid refrigeration. Space cryogenics such as the cooling systems of IR-detectors was studied. Cryocooler for special applications such as cryopump, NMR-CT and JJ devices was investigated. Compact heat exchangers, high performance regenerators and reliable compressors are investigated as a critical component technology.

Matsubara, Y.

1985-05-01

199

FBIS Report. Science and Technology: Japan, October 15, 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents (Partial): Japan: Hybrid Cars Improve Gas Fuel Consumption; Power Generation in Space; Electric Power Development Company; Japanese LSI Manufacturers To Build DRAM, Logic on Single Chip; and Japan: Japan Key Technology Center To Finance Super Sil...

1996-01-01

200

75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan AGENCY: United States International...granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan...granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan would be likely to lead to...

2010-11-01

201

Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan  

SciTech Connect

The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

2012-08-01

202

Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan  

SciTech Connect

The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

2012-05-01

203

Laser precision microfabrication in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electronic devices such as handy phones and micro computers have been rapidly expanding their market recent years due to their enhanced performance, down sizing and cost down. This has been realized by the innovation in the precision micro- fabrication technology of semiconductors and printed wiring circuit boards (PWB) where laser technologies such as lithography, drilling, trimming, welding and soldering play an important role. In phot lithography, for instance, KrF excimer lasers having a resolution of 0.18 micrometers has been used in production instead of mercury lamp. Laser drilling of PWB has been increased up to over 1000 holes per second, and approximately 800 laser drilling systems of PWB are expected to be delivered in the world market this year, and most of these laser processing systems are manufactured in Japan. Trend of laser micro-fabrication in Japanese industry is described along with recent topics of R&D, government supported project and future tasks of industrial laser precision micro-fabrication on the basis of the survey conducted by Japan laser Processing Society.

Miyamoto, Isamu; Ooie, Toshihiko; Takeno, Shozui

2000-11-01

204

FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, February 24, 1997  

SciTech Connect

;Partial Contents: JAPAN; MITI`s Ceramic R&D Programs Update; JAPAN: Satellites Taking on Down-to-Earth Jobs; JAPAN: Electrotechnical Laboratory Estimates Specifications, Operating Conditions of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Test Facility; JAPAN NEDO To Develop Next-Generation Coal Liquefaction, Gasification Technologies; JAPAN: PNC Submits Comprehensive Safety Inspection Plan for Monju FBR to STA; and JAPAN: Asian Nuclear Power Plant Safety Discussed at Tokyo Conference.

NONE

1997-02-24

205

Recent Developments in Japan's HDR Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan is one of the most active volcanic countries in the world, and it is understood to have very abundant geothermal energy. In Japan, where only a limited amount of other natural energy resources are domestically available, geothermal energy is one of the nation's purely indigenous energy sources. Its development therefore, has, been anxiously urged. Geothermal energy is classified generally

Yamaguchi; Tsutomu

1992-01-01

206

Labor Turnover Behavior: Japan Versus the West  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared to other countries, Japan's labor turnover rate is generally said to be extremely low. It is believed that after taking a job upon graduation, most individuals work in the same firm until retirement without ever changing jobs. People take this as a sign of Japan's established lifetime employment system, but to how many individuals does this actually apply? Only

Yoshio Higuchi

1993-01-01

207

Korean Students' Minority Schooling Experience in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A qualitative study conducted in western Japan examined the perceptions of Korean students in Japanese junior high school to identify factors contributing to a consistently low high school advancement rate compared to mainstream Japanese students. Fourteen people were interviewed about their Korean students' experiences in Japan. The findings of…

Ahn, Ruth

2012-01-01

208

The State of Continuing Education in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book contains the following articles about the state of continuing education and occupational training in Japan: "Funabashi City University of Sports Health" (Abe Nobuhiro); "Public Halls in Omiya City" (Kawamoto Koji); "Setagaya Senior Citizens College (Setagaya Rojin Daigaku)" (Sawamura Hiroshi); "Lifelong Sport in Japan: A Case Study of…

Masatoshi, Nagashima, Ed.; And Others

209

GRÜNDUNGSDYNAMIK IN ALTERNDEN GESELLSCHAFTEN - DAS BEISPIEL JAPAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan has the largest proportion of elderly people in the world. Despite the widely held assumption that beyond a certain age, the economic dynamics in most people's lives decrease, elderly Japanese tend to remain economically active. In this work I investigate the relationship between demographic and economic changes with respect to entrepreneurship in Japan. Surprisingly, according to statistics, older Japanese

Kazue Haga

210

Educational Reform in Japan for Lifelong Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report describes the current state of affairs and reform in Japan in 2007 of the theory, policy, and practice of lifelong education. As in most countries, Japan has been talking of decentralisation in government, of giving more local autonomy to communities and of promoting individuality in education. In line with these aims, the government…

Kawachi, Paul

2008-01-01

211

People of Japan: Building Bridges of Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet was designed to facilitate interactions and communication with the people of Japan by providing information about their customs, attitudes and other cultural characteristics which influence their actions and values. A brief description of Japan is given, covering the following: history, government, the economy, education,…

Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

212

Suicide and its prevention in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan is one of the countries with high suicide rate. In this article, number and rate of suicide, comparison between countries, causes of death, occupations of the people who commit suicide and geographical distribution of suicide victims in Japan were explained. Influential reports by the media and by the appeal of the internet were added. Then history and trends of

Makiko Kaga; Tadashi Takeshima; Toshihiko Matsumoto

2009-01-01

213

RISK COMPARISON OF NATURAL HAZARDS IN JAPAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan has various natural hazards that have been great threat to building safety so far. The likelihood of failure of buildings highly depends both upon where the buildings are located and on what kind of natural hazard is focused, since recent hazard maps reveal significant locality throughout Japan. The current structural design code does not reflect the locality adequately since

Tsuyoshi Takada; Yoshito Horiuchi

214

Progress of metallic superconductors in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article overviews the development of metallic superconductors in Japan covering different kinds of alloys and intermetallic compounds. Metallic superconductors have opened many new application areas in science and technology. Japan has been one of the leading countries in the world, both in the research and development and in large-scale manufacturing of metallic superconductors.

Tachikawa, Kyoji

2013-01-01

215

Perspectives on Japan: A Guide for Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provided are some perspectives, ideas, and resources for teaching about Japan and the Japanese. A major objective is to provide an opportunity for K-12 students to study a culture that can be both compared and contrasted to their own. Following an introduction, which provides a rationale for teaching about Japan, there are three major parts.…

Cogan, John J., Ed.; Schneider, Donald O., Ed.

216

ALTERNATIVE UNDERSTANDINGS OF POWER IN MEIJI JAPAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike building railroads, writing treaties and conducting diplomacy was by no means a new practice in Meiji Japan (1868-1912). Performing these transac- tions in the terms of international law, however, required new techniques to control the discourse. The scholars and state aggrandizers who translated international law into Japanese at the time did not cause Japan to become the imperialist nation

Alexis Dudden

217

Japan's Sporting Diplomacy: The 1964 Tokyo Olympiad  

Microsoft Academic Search

At a time when Japanese foreign policy was constrained by the legacies of war and the exigencies of the Cold War, hosting the 1964 Tokyo Olympics was conceived as an alternative means of engagement with the international community. The sporting diplomacy of the Tokyo Olympics centered around elevating Japan’s international position by engaging the people of the world on a

Jessamyn R. Abel

2012-01-01

218

Japan's global environmentalism: rhetoric and reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1992 Earth Summit marked the emergence of a new type of global environmentalism in which nation states increasingly sought to represent themselves as key environmental actors. Since the early 1990s, Japan has attempted to position itself rhetorically as a global environmental leader. This rhetoric must be compared to Japan's international environmental impacts, which are considerable, especially in East and

Jonathan Taylor

1999-01-01

219

Japan - High-Bay Warehouse Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rapid growth in the use of mechanized and automated warehouses in Japan between 1965 and 1976 was the reason for a warehouse study tour of Japan which formed the basis of the investigation. Eleven warehouses were visted, including the Nissan Motor Par...

K. Firth

1981-01-01

220

Computer Forensics in Japan: A Preliminary Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many national studies on computer forensics have been reported in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia, except Japan. As one of the economic powers in the world and the only Asian country represented in the G8, Japan has been playing a critical role in Asia as well as in the world in fighting against the cyber crime and

Jigang Liu; Tetsutaro Uehara

2009-01-01

221

Epidemiology of breast cancer in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mortality and incidence of breast cancer are high in Western industrialized countries and relatively low in developing countries in Asia and other parts of the world. In Japan the mortality of breast cancer has gradually been increasing, but is still much lower compared with that of Western countries. Within Japan the mortality of breast cancer is higher in urban

Suketami Tominaga; Tetsuo Kuroishi

1995-01-01

222

Experiences of food irradiation in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we shall attempt to present the history and current status of food irradiation research and commercialization in Japan. In 1967 the Japan Atomic Energy Commission decided to promote the research and development of food irradiation, based on research activities since 1954. The national project on food irradiation investigated the following: 1) the inhibition of sprout growth of

Masaa Ki Takehisa; Hitoshi Ito

1986-01-01

223

Japan's Competitive Advantages in the Global Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyzes Japan's competitive advantages in trade, comparing the nation with other industrialized countries. Paucity in resources, often mentioned in reference to Japan, we note, is overstated. Favorable climate and certain other aspects of the geography, for example, are unacclaimed but important bounties of nature. Relevant also in the context are such other factors as population, culture, and events

John Riew

224

Japan, Creative Masochism, and Transnationality in Vineland  

Microsoft Academic Search

How can the presence of Japan in Vineland be explained? Western critics have been content either to take its presence for granted or to comprehend Japan as part of the purely formal or structural dynamics of cyberpunk. Thus, Brian McHale insists on cyberpunk's “principle of incongruous juxaposition”—including that of American culture with Japanese culture (226). His chapter on Vineland, which

Terry Caesar; Takashi Aso

2003-01-01

225

JTEC panel on display technologies in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is one in a series of reports that describes research and development efforts in Japan in the area of display technologies. The following are included in this report: flat panel displays (technical findings, liquid crystal display development and production, large flat panel displays (FPD's), electroluminescent displays and plasma panels, infrastructure in Japan's FPD industry, market and projected sales,

Lawrence E. Tannas Jr.; William E. Glenn; Thomas Credelle; J. William Doane; Arthur H. Firester; Malcolm Thompson

1992-01-01

226

Permanent disability social insurance programs in Japan.  

PubMed

This article examines Japan's permanent disability social insurance programs. Because there is limited information available about these programs in the literature outside Japan, this analysis helps to further international disability research. Primary public pension systems and their corresponding programs for permanently disabled workers and their families are described, including trends in the number of beneficiaries and benefit expenditures. Importantly, the article analyzes the determination and appeals processes in Japan for claiming permanent social insurance disability pensions. The study also references the Social Security Disability Insurance program operating in the United States and offers comparisons with the system in Japan, which provides insights about operational procedures to researchers and policymakers in both countries. Permanent disability programs in Japan and the United States share similar characteristics, including aspects of their benefit determination and appeals procedures. However, these country program experiences diverge markedly in several areas, making the comparison worthwhile from a policy perspective. PMID:20337138

Rajnes, David

2010-01-01

227

Sanger Center reaches out. Japan.  

PubMed

In an interview with the Japanese Family Planning Association (FPA), Alexander Sanger, president of Margaret Sanger Center International (MSCI), Planned Parenthood of New York City (PPNYC), sketched the history of the clinic and research center founded by his grandmother, Margaret Sanger. The first person to come to the clinic from another country for training was Shidzue Kato of Japan. In addition to providing FP services and training, the clinic became known as a research center for new methods of contraception. After its 1973 merger with PPNYC, the clinic continued to function as an international training center with funding from the US Agency for International Development and the UN Population Fund. MSCI works with governments and nongovernmental organizations worldwide and focuses on 1) improving quality of care in FP clinics, 2) integrating FP into primary health-care centers, 3) promoting family life education, 4) improving male involvement in FP, 5) HIV/AIDS education, and 6) training FPAs in FP and women's rights advocacy. Sanger noted that FP advocates in the US were unsuccessful in lobbying to prevent a decrease in US funding of international FP programs (down to $385 million in 1996 from $548 million in 1994). Sanger called upon Japan and European countries to help make US politicians understand that providing FP funding is a responsibility of the most powerful nation in the world. Rather than cutting support, the US should be increasing funds for international FP efforts in conjunction with the US commitment to the International Conference on Population and Development's Program of Action. PMID:12292625

1997-06-01

228

Sleep, serotonin, and suicide in Japan.  

PubMed

This article reviews evidence supporting the hypothesis that suicide rates in Japan could be reduced by elevating serotonin levels via increasing the average duration of sleep. Seven major relevant findings were apparent in the literature: 1) Sleep loss is associated with suicide, but the direction of causality is equivocal. 2) Decreased serotonergic activity may be involved in suicidal behavior. 3) Sleep debt may decrease serotonergic activity. 4) The suicide rate in Japan has remained at a heightened level for the past 12 years. 5) The average sleep duration in Japan has decreased over the past 40 years. 6) The average sleep duration in Japan is among the lowest in the world. 7) The average sleep duration in Japan plateaued in 1995 and has been relatively stable since. From the research reviewed, two major problematic issues were apparent: 1) Most people in Japan receive inadequate sleep. 2) Individuals whose sleep is inadequate are unlikely to be sufficiently physically active to stimulate serotonergic systems to a desirable level. I propose that public health initiatives encouraging a longer duration of sleep may provide a relatively simple way of addressing the disturbing current trend in Japan. The combination of actigraph and brain serotonin level measurement could allow large population-based cohort studies to be designed, to elucidate the causal links between sleep duration, serotonin levels, and suicide rates. PMID:21307614

Kohyama, Jun

2011-01-01

229

The history of glycobiology in Japan.  

PubMed

This mini review surveys the major accomplishments in the field of glycoconjugates research in Japan, which were made after World War II. It describes early movements in the field of glycoconjugate research in Japan, development of the new techniques to investigate structures of the sugar chains of glycoconjugates, studies of the functions of the sugar chain moieties, and the political movement in Japan to support the basic research necessary for the development of glycotechnology. As introduced in this short article, important groundwork for glycobiology was made by Japanese researchers. PMID:11479271

Kobata, A

2001-08-01

230

Challenges and solutions ensuring EUVL photomask integrity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industry roadmaps indicate that the introduction of Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) is on track for high volume manufacturing. Although, there has been significant progress in each of the individual subsets of the EUVL infrastructure, the absolute management of the process outside of the scanner and up to the point-of-exposure has been highlighted as critical requirement for the adoption of EUVL. Significant changes in the EUV system environment and mask architecture are driving a zero process tolerance level. Any unforeseen contamination introduced to the scanner environment from the EUV mask could cause considerable downtime and yield loss. Absolute mask integrity at the point-of-exposure must be guaranteed. EUV mask cleaning processes-of-record have been developed and introduced to the industry [1]. The issue is not longer "how to clean the mask" but, "how to keep it clean". With the introduction of EUVL, mask cleanliness extends out beyond the traditional mask cleaning tool. Complete control of contamination and/or particles during transportation, handling and storage will require a holistic approach to mask management. A new environment specifically for EUV mask integrity must be developed and fully tested for the sub 16nm half-pitch node introduction. The SUSS MaskTrack Pro (MTP) InSync was introduced as the solution for EUV mask integrity. SUSS demonstrated the fully automated handling of EUV masks into and out of a Dual Pod System [2]. Intrinsic cleanliness of each individual handling and storage step of the inner pod (EIP) and EUV mask inside the MTP InSync Tool was investigated and reported. A target specification of a PRP <= 0.08 as criterion for the cross contamination between EIP and the EUV reticle during handling within MTP InSync has been achieved and therefore proofing the applicability for the Dual Pod automation. Moreover an appropriate automated handling, other aspects like backside particle contamination and EIP cleanliness plays a significant role to ensure EUV mask integrity. With this concept in mind a system for particle detection has been integrated into MTP InSync. This allows verifying the POR performance for backside cleaning by measuring particles down to 150nm size. A dynamic capture rate of larger 97% at 200nm particle size based on PSLs was achieved; for EIP cleaning, a dry-cleaning technology is under investigation. During feasibility studies high particle removal efficiency (PRE) results larger 99% has been achieved for particles down to 100nm. In this paper, the full scope and roadmap of the MTP InSync will be discussed. Preliminary results of backside particle detection and challenges on EUV Inner Pod (EIP) cleaning will be presented.

Brux, O.; Dreß, P.; Schmalfuß, H.; Jonckheere, R.; Koolen-Hermkens, W.

2012-06-01

231

Physical force optimization for advanced photomask cleaning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated methods to extend the damage-free process window for fragile Sub-Resolution Assist Features (SRAF) in mask cleaning using MegaSonic and binary spray techniques. Particle removal efficiency (PRE) was found to increase by 8% and damage reduced from 7 ppm to 0 ppm with the optimization of the spray droplet characteristics through liquid media control. MegaSonic damage was eliminated completely from 10 ppm to 0 ppm by varying physical and chemical properties of the cleaning media. Since particles in the deep trenches are very difficult to remove using droplet spray alone, a combination of MegaSonic and Binary Spray processes was tested. The acoustic effects generated through the MegaSonic combined with optimized droplet impact showed an improvement of 4% in PRE of hard-to-remove trench particles. Overall, the improved process points to a promising solution for overcoming the roadblock in mask cleaning for the advanced mask cleaning.

Shen, C. W.; Lin, K. W.; Lu, C. L.; Hsu, Luke; Chin, Angus; Yen, Anthony

2013-06-01

232

Thin Film Materials and Processes for Photomasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research has been to improve critical dimension control for 1X mask fabrication in the quarter micron regime. This has necessitated the use of different processes and materials from those currently used in state-of-the-art technology. With regard to processes, low voltage (2kV) electron beam lithography was explored and found to demonstrate excellent critical dimension control with negligible

Yu Hey Lee

1993-01-01

233

The Newhalf Net: Japan's “Intermediate Sex” On-Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

After English, Japanese is the most widely represented language on the Internet; yet, because Japanese is not widely spoken outside Japan, very little information exists in English about the ways in which the Internet is being used by queer communities in Japan. This essay looks at how one group within Japan's transgender community is deploying Internet technology. Japan's “newhalf” (nyuuhaafu)

Mark McLelland

2002-01-01

234

Japan Eyes the North Korean Nuclear Crisis (2006–09)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) has been the primary security concern for Japan since the mid-1990s. By examining the content of debates revealed in the political, security and intellectual communities in Japan between 2006 and 2009, this article analyses Japan's views on the North Korean nuclear crises. It argues that Japan is still engaged in a vigorous domestic

Mong Cheung

2011-01-01

235

Japan & Nuclear Disarmament Looking through the US Umbrella  

Microsoft Academic Search

thereby abandoning the pursuit of military power. The Cold War and the China's acquisition of nuclear weapons were consequential in Japan's decision to seek extended deterrence from the US. As an economic partner for a small maritime country like Japan, America is considered important for Japan's development. For the United States, Japan is a key country in its strategy. It

Tomoko Kiyota; Former Intern

2009-01-01

236

Safety concerns regarding combination vaccines: the experience in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the safety concerns associated with combination vaccines in Japan. The impact of Japan’s decision in 1975 to withdraw the combined diptheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTP) vaccine, and then in 1993, the combined measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine and provide only the single antigen vaccines was analyzed. Interviews with both governmental and non-governmental agency officials in Japan

Margie C. Andreae; Gary L. Freed; Samuel L. Katz

2004-01-01

237

Japan's Changing Defense Policy: Military Deployment in the Persian Gulf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1990s Japan's defense policy has been under incremental significant change, revealed mainly in the legislative field. This paper explores the extent to which Japan's defense policy is changing in military terms. Analysis of Japan's latest security posture in Iraq (2003–2006) brings to light changes in Japan's overall defense policy in terms of defense priorities and implementation.

Raquel Shaoul

2007-01-01

238

Teaching Primary School Children about Japan through Art. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There are a variety reasons for teaching about Japan. Many students in the United States are of Japanese heritage; Japan is the second largest trading partner of the United States; and some healing still needs to occur between the United States and Japan because of the damage and pain of World War II. Further, the Unites States and Japan share…

Ward, Patricia Berg

239

Contemporary Japan: A Teaching Workbook. Third Edition Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to supplement and enliven standard textbook presentations of Japan, this workbook, through student exercises, seeks to answer some of the most common questions U.S. students have about Japan and its people. Classes exploring only one aspect of Japan as well as those seeking an integrated picture of Japan's traditional culture and…

Martin, Roberta, Ed.; And Others

240

[Cutaneous mycoses in Japan originating from animals].  

PubMed

Human cases of dermatophytoses are occasionally transmitted from animals, and suffered from tinea corporis and sometimes Kerion celsi. The most frequent causative agent of these diseases is Microsporum canis. The other dermatophyte, Arthroderma benhamiae is now prevailing in rabbits, rodents and hedgehogs that are popular household pets in Japan. Therefore, some human cases of A. benhamiae infection were reported and the transmission of this infection from rabbits and rodents was confirmed.Cryptococcosis is regarded as dangerous zoonosis, but its transmission from animal to peoples has not been documented in Japan. Animal cases of cryptococcosis are possible to increase in number by developing immunosuppressive animals as well as by spreading of newly introduced C. gattii to Japan.Animal cases of sporotrichosis are rarely reported in Japan. However, feline sporotrichosis should be prevented and promptly treated since it easily transmitted to people from cat lesions and the exudates where copious numbers of organisms are found in tissues. PMID:22467127

Kano, Rui

2012-01-01

241

Japan's Technical Cooperation with Asian Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presented herein are details on Japan's ODA-supported technical cooperation, as well as some other programs for scientific and technical cooperation, with Asian countries. Data on the ODA technical cooperation are based on the '1995 ODA Annual Report' com...

1996-01-01

242

Utilization of Educational Technology in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gives an overview of the development of educational technology in Japan evident in the increase of publications, the diffusion of technological innovations, and the organization of research pertaining to the field. (Author/MER)

Sakamoto, Takashi

1980-01-01

243

Japan Races to Avert Multiple Nuclear Meltdowns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Japan's nuclear crisis intensified Sunday as authorities raced to combat the threat of multiple reactor meltdowns and more than 170,000 people evacuated the northeastern coast where fears spread over possible radioactive contamination. (March 13, 2011)

Press, Associated

244

JTEC Panel on Display Technologies in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is one in a series of reports that describes research and development efforts in Japan in the area of display technologies. The following are included in this report: flat panel displays (technical findings, liquid crystal display development ...

A. H. Firester J. W. Doane L. E. Tannas T. Credelle W. E. Glenn

1992-01-01

245

Why Japan ought to legalize the Pill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare is again considering legalization of steroid oral contraceptives. Approval could greatly reduce the incidence of abortion in Japan, which is at least twice that officially reported.

Hiromi Maruyama; James H. Raphael; Carl Djerassi

1996-01-01

246

Recent Retardation of Mortality Trends in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a study of recent trends in the death rates of Japan according to sex, age, and cause of death, undertaken as part of a survey of mortality trends in the United States and other countries.

T. Soda M. Kimura T. Hirayama R. Tsunoda T. Suganuma

1968-01-01

247

Public Notification: “Japan Weight Loss Blue” Contains ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... [2-18-2012] The Food and Drug ... analysis confirmed that “Japan Weight Loss Blue” contains ... dietary supplements or conventional foods with hidden ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou/consumers

248

Shear wall experiments and design in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper summarizes the results of recent survey studies on the available experimental data bases and design codes/standards for reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall structures in Japan. Information related to the seismic design of RC reactor buildings a...

Y. J. Park C. Hofmayer

1994-01-01

249

A Critical Assessment of Japan’s Foreign Aid Sanctions Policy: Case Studies of Latin American Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japanese government introduced new foreign aid guidelines in 1991 and it pledged to impose aid sanctions on those aid recipient countries whose governments violated human rights or democratic principles. The introduction of the new aid guidelines is expected to produce a certain effect on Japan’s foreign aid policy. This paper examines Japan’s aid sanctions policy toward Latin American countries

Fumitaka Furuoka

2007-01-01

250

Nihonkai Koyusui No Seisei to Nihonkai No Kaisui Junkan ( Japan Sea Proper Water and Water Circulation in the Japan Sea).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water circulation in the Sea of Japan is characterized as a formation of the Sea of Japan proper water from the data observed in 1969 by research vessels belonging to the Japan Meteorological Agency. Below 500 m depth in the Sea of Japan, salinity is rela...

K. Nishiyama M. Inagawa T. Mizuno

1993-01-01

251

[New approved drugs for osteoporosis in Japan].  

PubMed

These 2 years, we had had new therapeutic options for osteoporotic patients, for example minodoronate, bazedoxifene, teriparatide and eldecalcitol in Japan. Minodoronate and eldecalcitol came from Japan and they had many clinical evidences on Japanese patients. Teriparatide is a powerful anabolic agent for bone, had been provided as daily or weekly subcutaneous injection. These reagents may become helpful drug for osteoporotic patients. This review shows the character and clinical evidences of these drugs. PMID:22653027

Endo, Itsuro; Matsumoto, Toshio

2012-06-01

252

A review of FBR physics in Japan  

SciTech Connect

The development of the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) has continued in Japan as a national development project, and reactor physics research has been continued to support it. This paper reviews the progress in fast breeder reactor (FBR) physics in Japan during the past decade. The paper discusses benchmark test and adjustment of the cross-section set; calculation method development; large-core design study and critical experiment; physics activity at Joyo; and advanced core design study.

Shirakata, Keisho

1990-01-01

253

The Discovery Science Project in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Discovery Science project in Japan in which more than sixty scientists participated was a three-year project sponsored\\u000a by Grantin- Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Area from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology\\u000a (MEXT) of Japan. This project mainly aimed to (1) develop new methods for knowledge discovery, (2) install network environments\\u000a for knowledge discovery, and

Setsuo Arikawa

2001-01-01

254

Decentralization and Intergovernmental Finance in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japans mid-nineteenth century opening-up to Western influence, the so-called Meiji Restoration, drove political leaders to form a politically modern centralized country. Although Japan experienced a number of major decentralization processes under the post World War II Allied occupation, the Japanese government reviewed these reforms after the occupation. In fact during the post WWII era, the centralized system played a major

Ichiro Aoki

2008-01-01

255

Epidemiology of breast cancer in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mortality and incidence of breast cancer are high in Western industrialized countries and relatively low in developing\\u000a countries in Asia and other parts of the world. In Japan the mortality of breast cancer has gradually been increasing, but\\u000a is still much lower compared with those of Western countries. Within Japan the mortality of breast cancer is higher in urban

Suketami Tominaga; Tetsuo Kuroishi

1995-01-01

256

X ray lithography in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated circuits (semiconductors) are the key components of modern computers, communication systems, consumer electronics, and the new generations of smart machines and instruments. Japan's strong position and growing influence in the manufacture of semiconductors and systems based on them is well known and well documented. Microlithography is one the most critical elements of the semiconductor manufacturing process because it determines the minimum feature size and the functional capabilities of the semiconductor. Because it is used many times in the manufacturing sequence, the quality of the microlithography process (i.e., number of defects, control for feature size, etc.) is critical in determining the yield and cost of semiconductors and hence the competitiveness of the electronics industry. At present all volume semiconductor manufacturing is done with optical UV (ultraviolet) projection lithography, twenty-year-old photographic technology which has been and is still evolving. There are many issues that limit the technical capability and cost-effectiveness of UV lithography, and thus, alternate lithographic techniques are continuously being researched and developed. X-ray lithography, which was invented in the early 1970's, holds the promise of providing higher yields in manufacturing semiconductors by virtue of enhanced process latitude, process robustness, and resolution.

Clemens, James T.; Hill, Robert W.; Cerrina, Franco; Fuller, Gene E.; Pease, R. F.

1991-10-01

257

Scientific Balloon Activities in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2008, new Japanese balloon base at Taiki-town, Hokkaido has been in operation. In these two years, eight heavy balloons were successfully launched using the sliding launcher, which enables us to inflate a balloon inside the large hangar. By these balloon flights, scientific observations and engineering demonstrations were carried out, such as the cosmic-ray electron observation and the development of the micro-gravity experiment system. The standardization of balloons and balloon system is close to be completed. We have designed seven types of heavy balloons and two types of high altitude balloons with thin film. The development of new tracking, telemetry and command system is almost done, and it will be verified in the balloon flights in 2010. The development of the next generation balloons, i.e., the super-pressure balloons and the mesospheric balloons fabricated with ultra-thin film are also in progress. In this paper, the recent status of the scientific balloon activities in Japan will be presented. The prospects of the development of new balloon technologies and the international collaboration will also be discussed.

Yoshida, Tetsuya

258

[Metallurgic drugs in ancient Japan].  

PubMed

Advancements in metallurgic and pharmaceutical chemistry in ancient Japan were made by people like Mangan-Shonin, who combined elements from Shinto, Buddhism, and Taoism to take advantage of technologies brought by Chinese and Korean immigrants. The Shonin himself, though it may be considered a wild speculation, could well be such an immigrant. Along with the immigrants, the Shonin established government-subsidized temples (Jingu-ji, Jogaku-ji) throughout the country under sponsorship by the Imperial Court for the purpose of raising funds through private donations. Research and educational activities conducted in these temples ultimately resulted in a well-established body of chemical engineers who could excavate chemical substances as well as alter their natures. According to a list of regional products (Sasaki,19) 1972) up to the 14th century, these chemical substances and their derivative products included iron from the Hitachi region, cast metal from Shimotsuke, swords from Sagami, face powder (lead carbonate) from Ise, mercury, and gold. PMID:11776993

Sugiyama, S

2001-01-01

259

Japan’s Official Development Assistance to IndiaA Critical Appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

India was the first country to receive Japanese Official Development Assistance in 1958. However, it was only in 2003–2004 that India became the topmost recipient of Japanese ODA. Providing ODA is an important tool used by Japan to secure its interests. Consequently India becoming a topmost recipient of Japanese ODA is an indication of its growing importance for Japan. This

Lalima Varma

2009-01-01

260

History Teaching--Japan and the Russian Federation (Tokyo, Japan, October 25-27, 2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Tokyo (Japan) October 2000 meeting of experts on History Teaching in Japan and the Russian Federation was organized by the International Society for Educational Information (ISEI) and the Council of Europe. This was the second meeting, following the initial 1999 St. Petersburg (Russia) meeting conducted to increase mutual understanding in the…

Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

261

[Future tuberculosis care in Japan].  

PubMed

In Japan, the care of patients with tuberculosis has been mainly dependent on the state of hospital wards. The number of patients that have tuberculosis has steadily declined over the years, and we are now on the way to low prevalence state of tuberculosis. However there is a need for discussion about how future care for patients with tuberculosis should take place. The problems of present tuberculosis care system are as follows: (i) there is inefficiency and difficulty in maintaining the tuberculosis wards because of the declining number of patients and specialists; (ii) there are difficulties in treating complications such as renal insufficiency which requires blood dialysis, delivery, psychiatric diseases in tuberculosis beds; (iii) there is a high proportion of elderly patients that require substantial nursing care and long-term admission in the hospital; (iv) there is not only insufficient patient care but also financial support for patients with socioeconomic problems such as foreign-born worker or homelessness, (v) in addition to the medical care for patients of MDR-TB being insufficient, there are also inappropriate environment and amenities for long-term hospitalization. Moreover the public subsidy system for medical treatment requires patients to pay 5% of expense cost in the outpatient clinic. The following points should be discussed for the future tuberculosis care system: (i) general hospitals should take more part in caring for patients with complications and there should be a close cooperation among general hospitals, tuberculosis specialists and the administration; (ii) there should be a limited number of hospitals maintained for the integrated treatment of MDR-TB including surgical treatment and suitable circumstances for long-term hospital care. Additionally, there should be a system of detention for non-adherent patients or home isolation for adherent patient; (iii) there should be reinforcement of public commitment for patients with socioeconomic problems or MDR patients such as public subsidized full coverage of medical expense, free treatment in regional health centers PMID:21404573

Shigeto, Eriko

2010-12-01

262

Ocean Science Communication in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean literacy and education panel (OLEP) of the Oceanographic Society of Japan (JOS) has been established in 2003 for sharing the ocean literacy with the public and promoting the ocean science education in school and college. Its activities include publishing reference books and electronic teaching materials for primary school teachers and students, conducting surveys on the people's consciousness on the ocean, and supporting the events such as 'Ocean Science Cafe' for the public, oceanographer's talks in class room and sea side, and seminars on board of research vessel for high-school teachers and students. Its activities are announced to the public in its website and through Twitter. The records are available to the public in the websites. Some JOS members including me are telling the public the basic knowledge of ocean science, additional explanations to scientific topics in mass media, their thoughts on the ocean, the science, and STEM education, and their daily life such as travels, meetings and cruises through their own private websites, blogs, and accounts in Twitter and Facebook. In this presentation, as a coordinator of the 'Ocean Science Cafe', I will indicate how well it has worked as a good method for promoting mutual communication between non-professional citizens and oceanographers, and changed a scientist to a better citizen. Also, as an ocean science blogger, I will mention a good effect of the mutual communication with the public from my experience. It is concluded that the science communication by new media should not be one-way but really two-way to understand well what people wish to know and have difficulties to understand, and where they stop learning.

Ichikawa, H.

2011-12-01

263

Recent trends of drug abuse in Japan.  

PubMed

Methamphetamine has been a continuous cause for concern for many years in Japan. Japan experienced the pandemics of methamphetamine abuse twice after World War II and is now facing the third pandemic. New data indicate that the abuse of drugs such as MDMA (ecstasy) and cannabis is rising at an alarming pace. An epidemiologic survey conducted by the National Research Institute reveals that drug abuse in Japan is still very low compared to that in other countries and regions; however, the current situation seems to be changing for the worse. Two major factors accelerate access to illicit drugs among young people. One is the presence of illicit drug-dealing groups, which indiscriminately offer drugs. The other is new technology such as the Internet and mobile phones. Strict law enforcement and intensive public awareness and prevention activities are indispensable in protecting young people from drug abuse. PMID:15542746

Yamamoto, J

2004-10-01

264

High-technology ceramics in Japan  

SciTech Connect

High-technology ceramics are made from extremely pure, composition-controlled, ultra-minute particles formed, sintered, and treated under closely regulated conditions. These properties and processes give superior performance characteristics that allow the materials to be used in a wide range of demanding applications far beyond the capabilities of conventional ceramics. Japan is widely viewed as having a significant national commitment to developing and exploiting high-technology ceramics in order to advance its domestic and international markets. This situation contrasts markedly with that in the United States, where such an intensive effort has not been mounted. This report presents the findings of a committee formed to assess the situation in Japan, with the objective of providing an understanding of the possible effects on high-technology ceramics in the United States. Another important objective was to establish a basis for possible future cooperation in ceramics science and technology between Japan and the United States. The committee concluded that there is, indeed, a strong commitment in Japan to the rapid development and exploitation of high-technology ceramics. The greatest potential for application of this technology appears to be in the automobile and electronics industries. Cooperation between Japan and the United States would be feasible and welcome, especially in the development of common standards, the exchange of nonproprietary information, and possibly cooperative projects. The committee recommends several steps that should be taken in the United States to advance the field of high-technology ceramics, particularly in view of the effort now taking place in Japan.

Not Available

1984-01-01

265

Status of LMFBR development project in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Initiation of the LMFBR development project in Japan was decided by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan in 1966. In 1967, the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) was established to realize the project as a part of its tasks of a wide scope covering all the research and development activities concerning fuel cycle. In the present paper the status of experimental fast reactor (Joyo), which is the first milestone of the LMFBR project, prototype fast reactor (Monju) and R and D activities supporting the project including that for larger LMFBRs in the future is described.

Nagane, G.; Akebi, M.

1988-01-01

266

The emperor of Japan and the aurora  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 3, 1985, I gave a special lecture on the aurora for the Emperor of Japan in his palace in Tokyo. It seems the Emperor, a marine biologist, has an unusual interest in the aurora. After my slide presentation, he asked how we confirm ancient sighting reports of the aurora in Japan. He was not satisfied with my response that anomalous events in the sky were well documented in an ancient publication entitled Japanese Meteorological Data and asked further how one could confirm such sightings as auroral events. He was visibly pleased to learn that the dates of these sightings coincided with those recorded elsewhere in the world.

Akasofu, S. I.

267

Widespread use of neuraminidase inhibitors in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost all patients with an influenza-like illness in Japan are now tested with rapid diagnostic tests, and when positive,\\u000a they are treated with a neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI). Japan may have had the lowest case fatality rate for symptomatic illness\\u000a (<0.001%, 198\\/20.7 million) in the H1N1\\/09 pandemic because of the universal implementation of early treatment with NAI. A\\u000a study of 1,000

Norio Sugaya

268

Biomass upgrading. New R and D programs in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review of the Research and Development programs and trends concerning biomass upgrading in Japan (except food industry and pulp and paper industry) is presented: review of the biotechnology programs in Japan and its policy, presentation of the Human Fro...

1987-01-01

269

Japan Between the United States and East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter integrates the explanations for Japan's relations with the United States, East Asia, and the three international financial institutions provided in the previous chapters. By resorting mainly to economic meansâand mostly cooperative at thatâJapan behaves \\

Ming Wan

1999-01-01

270

Adaptation to a new world: experience of Bangladeshis in Japan.  

PubMed

The author explores aspects of Bangladeshi migration to Japan. "The information base for the study is two major sources: sections on the level and trend of migration, socio-economic characteristics of migrants and their job experiences in Japan are based on a survey of Bangladeshi returned migrants from Japan. Information on their socio-economic adjustment was obtained from personal interviews with migrants who had lived and worked in Japan." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12346403

Mahmood, R A

1994-01-01

271

Japan Seismic Hazard Information Station, J-SHIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion (HERP) of Japan published the national seismic hazard maps of Japan in March 2005. The national seismic hazard maps are made by the earthquake research committee of Japan in the basis of the long-term evaluation of seismic activity and evaluation of strong-motion. The hazard maps consist of two kinds of hazard maps. One kind

Hiroyuki Fujiwara; Shinichi Kawai; Shin Aoi; Toru Ishii; Toshihiko Okumura; Yuzuru Hayakawa; Nobuyuki Morikawa; Shigeki Senna; Kyoko Kobayashi

2005-01-01

272

Multicultural Social Work in Japan The Need for Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of foreigners in Japan has been rapidly increasing in the last two decades. The noteworthy trend is that the majority of these foreigners are no longer short time visitors and they stay in Japan long term as residents. Since the population of Japan has predominantly consisted of Japanese nationals until recently, social welfare and social service systems have

Kumiko Ishikawa

273

Impacts of the Japan-Mexico EPA on Bilateral Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impacts of the Japan-Mexico EPA on bilateral trade by using two different types of information, trade statistics and the EPA utilization rate. Using trade data, we found that Japan's exports of built-up cars, auto parts, base metals, electrical machinery, precision machinery, and ballpoint pens to Mexico increased sharply. We also found that Japan's imports of live

ANDO Mitsuyo; URATA Shujiro

2011-01-01

274

Warm eddy movements in the eastern Japan Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Warm eddy movements and their areal extent in the eastern Japan Sea were described by presenting space-time diagrams for the warm eddy locations and magnitudes. The analyzed data were compiled from Japan Maritime Safety Agency thermal maps at 200 m depth from 1985 to 1992. Two to four warm eddies always existed in the eastern Japan Sea and exhibited both

Yutaka Isoda

1994-01-01

275

Weston was the icon of meters in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weston Electrical Instrument Corporation was founded in 1888 and began to manufacture portable direct-current meters. At that time, the electricity power industry emerged in Japan, and in 1888, the Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan (IEEJ) was also established. Many Weston meters were imported to Japan and used by government institutions and universities. Japanese meter manufacturers were established around 1900

Eiju MATSUMOTO

2007-01-01

276

Luminous environment: light, architecture and decoration in modern Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

From lantern to electric lighting, the motif of light has remained central to the Western visualization of Japan. Why has the motif of light been so crucial to the way in which Japan was perceived across the twentieth century? What role, if any, have Western stereotypes of Japan – seen as a mysterious world decorated by paper lights, and later

Miya Elise Mizuta

2006-01-01

277

VAR Model Analysis on Japan's OFDI and Industrial Structural Upgrading  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper employs the VAR model to analyzes Japan's outward foreign direct investment and its domestic industrial structural upgrading. The Granger causality test results indicate that Japan's outward FDI does help explain the changes of the proportion of Japan's second industry and the tertiary industry, but couldn't help explain the changes of the proportion of the first industry. The co

Ren Liang

2011-01-01

278

Japan-US cooperation in dismantling nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan is in a perfect position to work closely with the US in dismantling nuclear weapons in Russia and the CIS countries, says Yasuhide Yamanouchi, director of the Department of Research and Education, Center for Global Communications (GLOCOM) at the International University of Japan. Japan must become more involved, and will have to overcome its self-imposed constraints on dealing with

Yasuhide Yamanouchi

1997-01-01

279

Motion Engineering: Japan '94 Symposium Papers. Held in Japan on April 20-22, 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A translation of the Motion Engineering Symposium's papers, held in Japan (April 1994), this report discusses research on geared transmission, specifically: Harmonic drives, miniature gears, and plastic gears. Research is also presented on non-geared tran...

1995-01-01

280

Japan: Market Development Reports. Japan Food Trends, November 2008. GAIN Report Number JA8522.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fashion show models develop soup product with major Japanese food company. New products, packaging ideas and other Japanese food market trends are covered in this issue. Japan Food Trends (JFT) communicates Japanese food and lifestyle trends that may help...

S. T. Aoki

2008-01-01

281

Japan in the Contemporary World: A Gift Collection from the Government of Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An annotated bibliography of English- and Japanese-language monographs, annual and biennial serial publications, and video cassettes in relation to contemporary Japan. The collection includes 132 books and video cassettes presented to the U.S. Department ...

R. E. Dolan R. L. Worden

1992-01-01

282

Privacy and Data Protection in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of individual rights and privacy in Japan focuses on the Privacy Protection Act, which acknowledges the threat posed by government databases to the individual's right of privacy. Characteristics of the Japanese legal system are described, origins of privacy in Japanese law are examined, and privacy and government databases are…

Srinivasan, Srinija

1992-01-01

283

Water Pollution and Japan's Declining Fish Catch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The decline in Japan's fish catch that started in 1989 can be attributed mainly to stock depletions due to overfishing in deep seas and offshore waters and polluting of water in inland and coastal waters. Animal wastes, nitrogen, phosphate fertilizer, and...

F. A. Taha

1996-01-01

284

Multiple Cost Sharing: The Japan Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the approximately 120 countries with Fulbright programs, Japan's Fulbright program is the only Fulbright program where cost sharing by the United States and the host society is on a fifty-fifty basis and where the Fulbright alumni contribute approximately 15 percent of the program's budget. This article analyzes the factors behind this unique multiple cost-sharing of the Fulbright program, particularly

Caroline A. Matano Yang

1987-01-01

285

Child Development and Childcare in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With increasing numbers of women joining the workforce, there is a need for quality childcare. This project, conducted in Japan and using a large number of participants, sought to standardize an evaluation scale to measure the development of children. The development of children under six years of age (N = 22,819) who are enrolled in childcare…

Anme, Tokie; Segal, Uma A.

2010-01-01

286

Current Educational Technology Research Trends in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To examine trends in educational practice research, this article conducted a survey and analysis of factors affecting the review of research papers in the field of the educational technology in Japan. Two factors, namely, practical orientation and theoretical orientation, were extracted from 63 survey responses, and scores from members of a…

Nakayama, Minoru; Ueno, Maomi

2009-01-01

287

Recent Earthquake Prediction Research in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan has experienced many major earthquake disasters in the past. Early in this century research began that was aimed at predicting the occurrence of earthquakes, and in 1965 an earthquake prediction program was started as a national project. In 1978 a program for constant monitoring and assessment was formally inaugurated with the goal of forecasting the major earthquake that is

Kiyoo Mogi

1986-01-01

288

Macroeconomic Fluctuations and Mortality in Postwar Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has shown that after long-term declining trends are excluded, mortality rates in industrial countries tend to rise in economic expansions and fall in economic recessions. In the present work, co-movements between economic fluctuations and mortality changes in postwar Japan are investigated by analyzing time series of mortality rates and eight economic indicators. To eliminate spurious associations attributable to

2008-01-01

289

Ishimoto Shizue: The Margaret Sanger of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-1945 Japan is known for its remarkably low birth rate and a heavy reliance on abortion for birth control purposes. What may be less well known is the extensive use of contraceptive methods as well to limit or regulate births and the role played by the prewar birth control movement in making the concept of birth control socially acceptable. The

Elise K. Tipton

1997-01-01

290

Japan's big trading companies find themselves underemployed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan's sogoshosha - its large trading companies - are fighting their way through an identity crisis. Originally established to help connect Japanese products and companies with offshore customers and a global market, the sogoshosha suddenly find that they are no longer in demand. The trading companies were originally intermediaries, says Yasunori Masuda, v.p. of Mitsui's chemical dividion (New York). But

Coeyman

1992-01-01

291

Core Discussion Networks in Japan and America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Arguments regarding the high prevalence of interpersonal collectivism in Japan typically hinge on the assumption that Japanese communication networks are more enduring, frequently contacted, and dominated by kin and work ties than networks in Western countries. However, this assumption has not been examined using nationally representative data.…

Boase, Jeffrey; Ikeda, Ken'ichi

2012-01-01

292

Epidemiological study on BSE outbreak in Japan.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to identify, as hypotheses, all feasible sources and routes of infection for the BSE cases in Japan, and to study the probability of each hypothesis. The strategy of this epidemiological study is as follows. 1) BSE risk status in Japan is tentatively divided into 3 stages, i.e., before 1996 April when administrative guidance for feed ban of cattle MBM introduced. After that to 2001 September, the first case of BSE in Japan, then, after 2001 October with real feed ban in the law. 2) Make hypotheses depending on the invasive risk scenarios and propagation risk of BSE in Japan, and they are checked by evidences, case control study or statistics. 3) Grouping of BSE cattle was conducted time sequentially and spatially; that is Group-A (1995-96, born in Hokkaido, Kanto), Group-B (1999 in Kyushu), Group-C (1999-2001 in Hokkaido), Group-D (young cattle born after real feed ban) and Pre-A, Post-D groups. As a result, a milk replacer was considered one of the most probable cause of group-A contamination, and group-C outbreak might be caused by an indigenous BSE propagation of group-A in Hokkaido. If the hypothesis of Holland animal fat as causative material was accepted, however, there are several unexplainable points. Collection of scientific evidences on animal fat impurity and age dependent susceptibility to BSE will be needed to clarify the true causative material. PMID:18460825

Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro

2008-04-01

293

Business Ethics and Corporate Governance in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Japan, although many people are interested in corporate governance and business ethics, there is little consensus on what good corporate governance entails. The Japanese Commercial Code (revised in 2003) enables Japanese companies to introduce a board committee system and abolish the company auditor system. After the recent exposure of various corporate malpractices, many Japanese companies have started institutionalizing business

Nobuyuki Demise

2005-01-01

294

Stellar bibliography retrieving system in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On-line retrieving systems of BSI in Japan is briefly described. The BSI reference file was adapted to be retrieved by some keywords other than star names. Then the retrieval system of BSI was constructed on a general retrieval language CIR. Some efforts to make the system efficient and to save the disk space are discussed.

Nishimura, S.

295

Japan's Poetry Boxers Get Ready to Grumble  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports that in Japan, a scholar of communications, in the hope of getting people to talk with one another, holds "boxing" competitions in which the blows are thrown verbally, in verse. In a crowded Yokohama hall, boxers file into a ring watched by cheering students and a panel of university professors. Nobody is predicting a winner,…

McNeill, David

2008-01-01

296

Current topics in tardive dyskinesia in Japan.  

PubMed

This article reviews current topics in tardive dyskinesia (TD), a movement disorder associated with the prolonged use of neuroleptic agents, especially therapeutic and preventive strategies which have been or are now being studied in Japan. Tardive dyskinesia has become a major problem in the clinical psychiatric field since the early 1970s in Japan, lagging behind Western countries by more than 10 years. The average prevalence rate of TD has been estimated as 7.7% in Japan, while it has been reported in the English literature at around 15 to 20%. Clinical trials of treatments for TD have been or are now being performed in Japan with a number of novel compounds, such as ceruletide, meclofenoxate, and rolipram; however, no effective treatment has yet been established and measures to prevent TD have therefore been emphasized. These include (i) the development of new antipsychotic drugs which are free from TD, (ii) the identification of risk factors from prospective longitudinal studies, and (iii) the investigation of genetic variations that could act as a marker to identify especially vulnerable patients within the whole population of patients who need neuroleptic therapy. PMID:8726107

Inada, T; Yagi, G

1995-12-01

297

Present status of industrial psychology in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports on the status of industrial psychology in Japan. It was about 1916 that the Japanese awakened to the practical application of psychology. Prior to this, even the intelligence test and the psychology of advertisement, though reviewed at large, had no practical importance. Since the awakening, the Psychological Laboratory of the Tokyo Imperial University has discharged its duties as the

Yoichi Uyeno

1924-01-01

298

Chronic Pancreatitis in the Elderly in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: Although the elderly comprise an increasingly large segment of the population, little has been written about chronic pancreatitis in this age group in Japan. In this study, we analyzed the clinical features of elderly Japanese patients with chronic pancreatitis and compared them with those of late-onset chronic pancreatitis patients in Western countries. Methods: Subjects were 182 patients (162 males

Terumi Kamisawa; Masami Yoshiike; Naoto Egawa; Hitoshi Nakajima; Kouji Tsuruta; Atsutake Okamoto; Teruo Nakamura

2004-01-01

299

Fluvial geomorphology and paleohydrology in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

An introduction to fluvial geomorphology and paleohydrology in Japan is provided for researchers who are unfamiliar with these topics. Studies by Japanese geomorphologists are reviewed including those published only in Japanese-language journals. Emphasis is placed upon the following aspects: (1) abundant sediment yields from steep watersheds subjected to frequent heavy rains despite heavily vegetated conditions, (2) extensive sedimentation in mountain

Takashi Oguchi; Kyoji Saito; Hiroshi Kadomura; Michael Grossman

2001-01-01

300

Current Educational Technology Research Trends in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine trends in educational practice research, this article conducted a survey and analysis of factors affecting the review of research papers in the field of the educational technology in Japan. Two factors, namely, practical orientation and theoretical orientation, were extracted from 63 survey responses, and scores from members of a…

Nakayama, Minoru; Ueno, Maomi

2009-01-01

301

Overwork and Fertility Decline in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effect of long working hours on the timing of marriage and childbirth in Japan. Using panel data, we found the following results. Firstly, women who work longer hours not only delay the timing of marriage, but also delay the timing of the first childbirth even after marriage. More specifically, it is the long working hours that

Akihito Toda; Masako Kurosawa; Yoshio Higuchi

302

Abyssal circulation in the Japan Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water below a depth of 1,000 m in the Japan Sea was found to consist of two water masses, the upper layer (the Deep Water) and the lower layer (the Bottom Water). The boundary of these water masses is marked by discontinuity of potential temperature, dissolved oxygen and silicate at about 2,000 m depth. The mean residence time of

Toshitaka Gamo; Yoshio Horibe

1983-01-01

303

USGS and Japan Scientists Discuss Arctic Data  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS oceanographer Ellyn Montgomery and Shigeto Nishino with the Japan Agency for Marine Earth Science & Technology (JAMSTEC) discuss measurements in a lab on Healy. Shigeto has spent three months on Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St. Laurent this summer using XCTD's to characterize the physical...

2009-01-28

304

Epidemiology of hypertension in China and Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in Chinese and Japanese with a low to moderate serum cholesterol level. The prevalence of hypertension is diverse in Chinese populations with different geographic region, lifestyles and cultures. The same diversity was observed in Japan in the past, but recently the regional difference has become smaller. The large decline in stroke

H Ueshima; X-H Zhang; SR Choudhury

2000-01-01

305

Parental Educational Investments and Aspirations in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Previous models of parental educational investments focus on the composition of the sibship (number, gender, ordering, and spacing) and on the social and institutional context in which investment decisions are made. Social-institutional models predict that parents in Japan are likely to underinvest in girls because of their transient status in…

Lee, Kristen Schultz

2010-01-01

306

Computer Assisted School Automation (CASA) in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This assessment of the status of computer assisted school automation (CASA) in Japan begins by describing the structure of the Japanese educational system and the roles of CASA in that system. Statistics on various aspects of computers in Japanese schools and the findings of several surveys are cited to report on the present state of educational…

Sakamoto, Takashi; Nakanome, Naoaki

1991-01-01

307

Behavioural Strategies of Teachers in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores the behavioural strategies adopted by a sample of teachers in Japan. The data for the study came from a total of 298 Japanese students who were invited to evaluate teacher behaviour by using the Student's Teacher Evaluation Questionnaire. The sixteen-item questionnaire was adopted from Paisey (1975), who had conducted…

Paisey, Alan; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Li, Jian

2007-01-01

308

Development of active microwave sensors in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active microwave sensors under development in Japan to be incorporated as part of a future remote sensing satellite are described. The microwave altimeter will have RF, signal processor, and tracking processor sections. FM radar pulses would be emitted using SAW technology. Advances are still required to effectively configure the on-board signal processing equipment for maximum likelihood estimation with a 16-bit

K. Matsumoto; H. Kishida; H. Yamada; Y. Hisada

1982-01-01

309

Japan: Faculty and Curriculum Development Seminar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Association of American Colleges and Universities' Faculty and Curriculum Development Seminar, held in Japan and designed to open faculty minds to global issues. The year-long seminar involves three-person teams from eight institutions, competitively selected through proposals. Its three phases include preparatory reading and…

Johnston, Joseph, Jr.; Hurst, G. Cameron, III; Coble, Parks; Ruder, Philip J.; Knippling, Alpana Sharma

1998-01-01

310

Japan's Poetry Boxers Get Ready to Grumble  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports that in Japan, a scholar of communications, in the hope of getting people to talk with one another, holds "boxing" competitions in which the blows are thrown verbally, in verse. In a crowded Yokohama hall, boxers file into a ring watched by cheering students and a panel of university professors. Nobody is predicting a winner,…

McNeill, David

2008-01-01

311

Recent space debris related topics in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces recent space debris related activities in Japan. As for the ground based observation, the progress of the 1 m optical telescope construction at the Bisei Space Guard Center is to be reported as well as technology development such as the automated debris detection and attitude estimation techniques from optical image data. Next, activities on the hypervelocity acceleration

S. Kibe; S. Kawamoto; G. Gilardi

2002-01-01

312

Potential F-22 Raptor Export to Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Japan has expressed interest in purchasing the F-22A Raptor aircraft from the United States. Although the export of the plane is now prohibited by U.S. law, Congress has recently and may again consider repealing this ban. Arguments for the sale include po...

C. Bolkcom E. Chanlett-Avery

2007-01-01

313

21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan tallow or sumac wax, is a pale yellow vegetable tallow, containing glycerides of the C19 -C23 dibasic acids and a high content of tripalmitin. It is prepared from the mesocarp by hot pressing...

2013-04-01

314

A New HTS Cable Project in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new HTS cable project supported by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) has just started in Japan. Target of this project is to operate a 66 kV, 200 MVA HTS cable in a real grid in order to demonstrate its reliability and stable operation. Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO)

Takato Masuda; Hiroyasu Yumura; M. Ohya; T. Kikuta; M. Hirose; S. Honjo; T. Mimura; Y. Kito; K. Yamamoto; M. Ikeuchi; R. Ohno

2009-01-01

315

With a Little Help from Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Over the last year, the author's students have become very interested in popular culture from Korea and Japan. In particular, the class liked the films of Hayao Miyazaki, an Oscar-winning director who is considered one of the foremost anime filmmakers. In this article, the author came to an idea while he and the first-grade class were discussing…

Purcell, John

2009-01-01

316

Student Teaching In Japan: The Lesson  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) reports that the mathematics teaching in Japan is distinctly different from that found in the United States. They attribute part of that difference to the professional development practice of Lesson Study. However, is the pre-service preparation of Japanese mathematics teachers also different? In an effort to understand the Japanese secondary mathematics student

Blake E. Peterson

2005-01-01

317

Investigation of Environmental Change Pattern in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author has identified the following significant results. In the Plains of Tokachi, where the scale of agricultural field was comparatively large in Japan, LANDSAT data with its accuracy have proved to be useful enough to observe the actual condition o...

T. Maruyasu

1977-01-01

318

The chemical disaster response system in Japan.  

PubMed

During the last decade, Japan has experienced the largest burden of chemical terrorism-related events in the world, including the: (1) 1994 Matsumoto sarin attack; (2) 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack; (3) 1998 Wakayama arsenic incident; (4) 1998 Niigata sodium-azide incident; and (5) 1998 Nagano cyanide incident. Two other intentional cyanide releases in Tokyo subway and railway station restrooms were thwarted in 1995. These events spurred Japan to improve the following components of its chemical disaster-response system: (1) scene demarcation; (2) emergency medical care; (3) mass decontamination; (4) personal protective equipment; (5) chemical detection; (6) information-sharing and coordination; and (7) education and training. Further advances occurred as result of potential chemical terrorist threats to the 2000 Kyushu-Okinawa G8 Summit, which Japan hosted. Today, Japan has an integrated system of chemical disaster response that involves local fire and police services, local emergency medical services (EMS), local hospitals, Japanese Self-Defense Forces, and the Japanese Poison Information Center. PMID:15141857

Okumura, Tetsu; Ninomiya, Norifumi; Ohta, Muneo

319

Child Development and Childcare in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With increasing numbers of women joining the workforce, there is a need for quality childcare. This project, conducted in Japan and using a large number of participants, sought to standardize an evaluation scale to measure the development of children. The development of children under six years of age (N = 22,819) who are enrolled in childcare…

Anme, Tokie; Segal, Uma A.

2010-01-01

320

Pesticide regulations and residue problems in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are three laws concerned with pesticides in Japan. The Agricultural Chemicals Control Law is aimed primarily at ensuring the quality of pesticides and plant-growth regulators and preventing inferior products from reaching the market. The law was amended in 1963 to strengthen regulatory measures for preventing fishery damages. Pesticides with high mammalian toxicity are further controlled by the Poisonous and

K. Fukunaga; Y. Tsukano

1969-01-01

321

NASDA and the Space Industry in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

With over 30 years of history in space activities, Japan is now recognized as one of space powers in the world. Compared to other countries though, the features of Japanese space development are unique in several aspects. At first, its efforts are directed solely toward peaceful purposes and strictly separated from military uses. Secondly, there are many space related governmental

Hideo Takamatsu

2002-01-01

322

The Structure of Corporate Ownership in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author examines the structure of corporate ownership in a sample of Japanese firms in the mid 1980s. Ownership is highly concentrated in Japan, with financial institutions by far the most important large shareholders. Ownership concentration in independent Japanese firms is positively related to the returns from exerting greater control over management. This is not the case in firms that

Stephen D. Prowse

1992-01-01

323

Regeneration dynamics of beech forests in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual model of the regeneration of beech (Fagus crenata) forests in Japan is presented; stand structure, tree population dynamics and characteristics of gap formation are summarized. Beech forest can be recognized as a regeneration complex, and three phases: gap, building and mature, are distinguished through the structure of regenerating populations. The mean return interval is 100–200 yr. Disturbances by

Tohru Nakashizuka; Tsukuba Norin; Kenkyu Danchi-nai

1987-01-01

324

Professional Wrestling in Japan — Media and Message  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents the important role of Western-style professional wrestling in the popular culture of Japan, focusing on the early years in which it was established, 1953-1963. These were also the years in which television achieved its phenomenal growth, and the symbiotic relationship between the \\

Lee Austin Thompson

1986-01-01

325

The Teaching Materials System in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An overview is given of the state of teaching materials and aids used in schools in Japan. In section I, an outline is presented of the Japanese system of providing teaching materials. Several laws and regulations regarding the provision and use of textbooks are described, including: (1) school education law; (2) law concerning the organization…

Shimizu, Atsumi

326

Leadership preferences in Japan: an exploratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to explore Japanese followers' leadership preferences and consider the suitability of Bass and Avolio's full-range leadership model in Japan. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A qualitative approach is used predominantly, including template analyses and several content analyses. Data collection is divided into two phases: Phase 1 was conducted by semi-structured interviews and Phase 2 by questionnaires. Findings –

Aya Fukushige; David P. Spicer

2007-01-01

327

Municipal solid waste management in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic measures taken in recent years to control waste management in Japan include: (1) Pollution prevention, (2) reuse and recycling, and (3) waste incineration with air pollution control. It is generally agreed that it is appropriate to follow the assigned priority of these options. Municipal solid waste (MSW) is the responsibility of the citizen, the local government and the business

Shin-ichi Sakai; Shinichi

1996-01-01

328

Japan-US collaboration in Nuclear Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

I will mention some highlights from the history of Japan-US collaboration in Nuclear Physics. Although I have memories of my personal strong ties with many friends in US, I shall rather skip them, and focus on three major collaborative works which have made significant impacts on the developments of nuclear physics. The first one is the INS (Institute for Nuclear

Akito Arima

2009-01-01

329

Outlier: Japan between Asia and the West.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Throughout its history, Japan has been an outlier, a country 'in' but in many ways not 'of' Asia. In premodern times it was set off by its feudal order, its refusal to participate in the Chinese tributary system, and its withdrawal into national seclusion...

J. H. Miller

2004-01-01

330

Major Issues in Japan'S Security Policy Debate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examines Japanese views on major aspects of Japan's security policy debate: (a) The Self-Defense Forces--their legal status, proper level and kind of armament, and the permissibility of their overseas deployment. (b) The proper interpretation a...

Y. C. Kim

1969-01-01

331

Fish Farming and the Constraints in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The essence and significance of fish farming in Japan are described and information is given on two types of fish farming. Present and/or proposed farming fisheries could be classified into two types: Stock recruitment and artificial control. After consid...

M. Fujiya

1974-01-01

332

Rescue Robots and Systems in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent rescue systems with high information and robot technology have been expected to mitigate disaster damages, especially in Japan after the 1995 Hanshin-Awaji earthquake. In development of robots for search and rescue tasks it is important to develop a robot which can actually work in a real disaster site. Several robots were used for the search and detection operation in

Fumitoshi MATSUNO; Satoshi TADOKORO

2004-01-01

333

Modeling geomagnetically induced currents in Hokkaido, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a model for computing geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) from local geomagnetic field observations carried out in Hokkaido, Japan is constructed. The model is composed of system parameters mapping the horizontal geoelectric field to GIC and of 1D conductivity model. A rigorous model validation is used to show that the model reproduces the observed GIC with a very

A. Pulkkinen; R. Kataoka; S. Watari; M. Ichiki

2010-01-01

334

Microgrid field test experiences in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Japan, three field tests of microgrid were started in 2005. The DER (distributed energy resources) capacity of each microgrid is 710, 750, and 2400 kW, respectively. A field test of voltage control for a distribution feeder connected with multiple PV systems was started in 2003. In this paper, at first proposed microgrid control system is outlined and then field

T. Funabashi; R. Yokoyama

2006-01-01

335

Intelligent systems for agriculture in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents findings of agriculture research conducted in Japan in three areas: 1) artificial intelligence applications in agriculture and the environments: 2) intelligent environment control for plant production systems; and 3) intelligent robots in agriculture. The latest biosystem derived algorithms are discussed. A finite element inverse technique using a photosynthesis algorithm is described, following by a comparison of neural

Y. Hashimoto; H. Murase; T. Morimoto; T. Torii

2001-01-01

336

Financial Policy and Central Banking in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan's financial institutions and policy underwent remarkable change in the past decade. The country began the 1990s with a heavily regulated financial system managed by an unchallenged Ministry of Finance and ended the decade with a Big Bang financial market reform, a complete restructuring of its regulatory financial institutions, and an independent central bank. These reforms have taken place amid

Thomas F. Cargill; Michael M. Hutchison; Takatoshi Ito

2000-01-01

337

Shear wall experiments and design in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the results of recent survey studies on the available experimental data bases and design codes\\/standards for reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall structures in Japan. Information related to the seismic design of RC reactor buildings and containment structures was emphasized in the survey. The seismic requirements for concrete structures, particularly those related to shear strength design, are outlined.

Y. J. Park; C. Hofmayer

1994-01-01

338

Transition from School to Work in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using retrospective data of young people's work experience in Japan, this paper found that initial labor market conditions, i.e., when workers first enter the labor market after permanently leaving school, have a significant lasting impact on the employment experiences of workers in their teens and twenties. An increase in the unemployment rate at the time of labor market entry reduces

Yuji Genda; Masako Kurosawa

2001-01-01

339

Iron distributions in the water column of the Japan Basin and Yamato Basin (Japan Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Japan and Yamato basins (Japan Sea), dissolved Fe ([D-Fe], <0.22 ?m fraction) was characterized by surface depletion, mid-depth maxima, then a slight decrease with depth in deep water and uniform concentration in bottom waters because of biological uptake in the surface water and release by microbial decomposition of sinking organic matter in mid-depth waters. Total Fe concentrations ([T-Fe])

Satoshi Fujita; Kenshi Kuma; Satoko Ishikawa; Shotaroh Nishimura; Yuta Nakayama; Satomi Ushizaka; Yutaka Isoda; Shigeyoshi Otosaka; Takafumi Aramaki

2010-01-01

340

FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, February 23, 1996  

SciTech Connect

;Partial Contents: Advanced Materials (New Uses Bring New Life to Carbon Fiber); Aerospace (Preliminary Results of Microgravity Experiment by TR-1A, MHI Takes Seat on Corporate-Jet Project; Ground Facilities To Launch J-1 Rocket); Automotive Technologies (Japan: JEVA`s 4th Standardization of FY 1995 Reported, Integrated CAD/CAM/CAT System for Body Assembly Jigs); Nuclear Technologies (Monju Breeder-Reactor Accident Breeds Public Distrust); Science and Technology Policy (Japan: JSC Chairman on S&T Issues); Defense Industries (Japan: TRDI`s Organization, Duties Outlined, Japan: Defense Agency Officials Attend Defense Industry Conference, Japan: GSDF Official on Developing Military Technology).

NONE

1996-02-23

341

An overview of work, retirement, and pensions in Japan.  

PubMed

Work to retirement in Japan is a sequential transition for the most part, and Japan permits mandatory retirement by firms at age 60. But many older people work beyond the age of 60, many more than in other industrialized countries. A number of hypotheses are examined, having to do with pensions, health, opportunity, interest in working, cultural attitudes (including the concept of ikigai), and public policy initiatives (such as employment policy and the Silver Human Resource Centers). Japan's cultural attitudes and existing policies appear to have set Japan on a unique course in considering the aging of its population. To what extent should other nations emulate Japan? PMID:10183244

Bass, S A

1996-01-01

342

[Medical pots of Yakushi Buddha in Japan].  

PubMed

The origin of Yakushi buddha (Bhaisajyaguru in Sanscrit, buddha of healing) is not clearly known. It has been proposed the original statue of Yakushi buddha may have been conceived from Varna, a god in Brahminism, believed to be a god of justice who possessed medicines and prolonged life. It is believed that Yakushi buddha appeared in Japan when the buddhism was imported from Korea and China in VI century, Yakushi buddha was believed more profoundly in Japan, compared with Korea and China.The reasons are probably as follows: Yakushi buddha is buddha of healing, Emperor Temmu (672-685) built Yakushi-ji temple in Nara, Emperor Shomu (724-749) built Kokubun-ji temples at principal towns. The principal statues of buddha in these temples are Yakushi buddha. In Japan, there are 252 Yakushi Buddha statues in Buddhistical Temples, which are listed in Important Cultural Property including 14 National Treasures. Belief in Yakushi Buddha was especially prevalent from the 7th to the 13th centuries in Japan. The oldest wooden Yakushi Buddha statue is in the Horin-ji temple in Nara. Among the 252 Yakushi Buddha statues, 224 are in wood, 15 are in copper, 6 are in picture and etc. 212 (84,1%) have medicinal pots (or rarely, a bowl) on the palm of left hand. However, these medicinal containers are wooden blocks. Very recently, it was found that Yakushi Buddha statue in the Suho-Kokubun-ji temple (Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan) has a medicinal pot on the palm of the left hand in which an offering (220 g materials) was found. The date on the reverse side of lid places the offering at October 12, 1699. The offering is composed of five cereals (rice, barley, wheat, soybean, adzuki bean), five medicinal plants (Acori Graminei, Acori Calami, Radix Ginseng, Flos Caryophylli, Lignum Santali Albi), and five minerals (rock crystals, purple and blue glasse, CaCO3, particles, silver and golden foils). DNA analysis proved those three randomly selected seeds of rice all belongs to the template japonica, which is predominant in the present variety of Japan. PMID:16021752

Okuda, Jun; Noro, Yukio; Ito, Shiro

2005-01-01

343

Sub Moho boundary beneath island arc, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Moho is a seismic boundary discovered by Mohorovicic in 1909. It is generally considered as the boundary between Earth"fs crust and mantle, although the origin of the Moho and the definition of the crust-mantle boundary are still debated. Regardless whether it represents a phase or chemical boundary, it has been investigated world wide by seismologists since its discovery. Reflection/refraction data acquired from active sources were the main sources of the investigation. Recently, receiver function analysis provided an emerging tool for mapping this boundary below a seismic station. Since reflection/refraction data sample P- wave structure while receiver-function data are basically sensitive to S-wave velocity, a comparison of the two can provide better constraints on the composition of the lowermost crust and the uppermost mantle. In this study, we used receiver function data to determine subsurface boundaries. Receiver functions are calculated from teleseismic records of a borehole seismic network in Japan, the Hi-net, which covers the entire Japan with a 20-km station spacing. We used the multi-taper deconvolution method to generate individual receiver functions and a common-conversion-point gathering method for stacking the receiver functions. Results along several profiles where seismic refraction surveys have been conducted in the past were selected for comparison. We found remarkable difference between southwestern and central/northeastern Japan. In southwestern Japan both receiver function and refraction data yield a consistent and distinct Moho at around 35 km. In central and northeastern Japan, however, receiver function images reveal two P-to-S conversion events at approximately 30 km and 40 km, respectively. The shallow 30-km deep boundary is consistent with the refraction Moho. The deep boundary (sub-Moho) is about 10 km deeper than the refraction Moho boundary. The uppermost mantle seismic structure at central and northeastern Japan was known to be reflective to seismic waves as compared to the continental ones which are relatively transparent. Locations of the observed sub-Moho appear to correlate well with the active volcanic front, suggesting that the sub-Moho might be formed as the result of arc magmatism.

Iidaka, T.; Igarashi, T.; Lee, C.; Iwasaki, T.; Niu, F.

2008-12-01

344

Role of Japan's oil industry and emergence of Japan as a world leader  

SciTech Connect

The existence of three powerful economic centers, Japan, Europe, America, collapse of Soviet political empire, and emergence of a new global nationalism are evident of a transitional period in the history of world leadership. Experiences of the previous world hegemon have taught us that extraordinary economic performance of an industrial country has been the necessary step in the process of becoming the world hegemon. Given its powerful industrial productivity and its economic expansionism, Japan has been considered by some scholars and journalists as a potential candidate for the new world hegemon. Japan's lack of influence on natural resource supply, particuarly energy supply, and its unfit political structure for world leadership are two interrelated problems that this study investigates. A careful investigation of Japan's industrial and political structures suggests that Japan has to resolve a series of complicated and time consuming obstacles in order to achieve world hegemon status. Historically, domination of the world economy has been tied with having an influential role in international energy industry. In this respect and the fact that over 50 percent of the internationally traded petroleum is under the control of American and European entities, it is essential for Japan to gain some tangible control and influence over the international oil industry in order to achieve world leadership status. This success has to be at the expense of American and European oil companies rather than the OPEC countries. This study suggests that Japan has to anticipate more cooperation with these oil-producing countries if it desires to become a world leader. Furthermore, there is a positive relation between the current global political power transition and the present power transition in the international oil industry. Japanese political institutions have not developed to a degree that enable its government to act as a world superpower.

Taeb, S.

1993-01-01

345

Split Philippine Sea plate beneath Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shape of the Philippine Sea Plate subducting beneath western Japan is a crucial factor in understanding earthquakes and volcanic activity. We propose that the subducted plate was split along an extinct ridge due to an abrupt change of subduction direction, followed by elastic deformation of the plate and an accumulation of stress near the ridge. This shape is consistent with receiver function images, the distribution of deep tremor sources, the seismicity and focal mechanisms of intraplate earthquakes, and the distribution of anomalous ratios of helium isotopes in ground water. The movement history of the plate can explain active tectonics in western Japan in the last 2-4 Ma. The location history of the volcanic front and the tear control where fluids ascend in the crust, and these fluids are responsible for the generation of large earthquakes and volcanoes.

Ide, Satoshi; Shiomi, Katsuhiko; Mochizuki, Kimihiro; Tonegawa, Takashi; Kimura, Gaku

2010-11-01

346

The state of telepathology in Japan.  

PubMed

Telepathology began in Japan in the early 1990s in response to advances in computing and telecommunications equipment development and a dearth of pathologists. Telepathology in Japan is most often used for rapid intraoperative pathological diagnosis using frozen section, followed by second opinions and consultation. Intraoperatively, telepathology is used to determine malignancy, metastasis of malignant tumors, and the extent of excision. Infrastructure and equipment has evolved from analog lines to digital lines like integrated services digital network (ISDN) and asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL), and recently to fiber optics. The use of communications satellites is also being considered. Image quality is being improved to Hi-Vision (HDTV), and from still images to real-time video. Digital microscopy has been introduced, and is used in education and consultation. PMID:20922030

Sawai, Takashi; Uzuki, Miwa; Kamataki, Akihisa; Tofukuji, Ikuo

2010-08-10

347

Recent trends in bagassosis in Japan.  

PubMed Central

The only workers presently exposed to bagasse dust in Japan are the employees of sugar refineries and lacquerware factories. A follow up study of six former cases of bagassosis from among the retired employees of a paper board factory, closed since 1973, showed that none of the subjects still had bagassosis. Examinations of 70 employees of a sugar refinery for allergic reactions also showed no case of bagassosis. Seven cases with suspicious shadows of bagassosis on chest radiographs and four cases with positive serum precipitin to stored bagasse were, however, found among those 70 subjects. The results show the disappearance of a past episode of bagassosis and the possibility of a new occurrence of bagassosis among the employees of sugar refineries and lacquerware factories in the near future in Japan. Images

Ueda, A; Aoyama, K; Ueda, T; Obama, K; Ueno, T; Hokama, S; Nomura, S

1992-01-01

348

CSEP Earthquake Forecast Testing Center for Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One major focus of the next Japanese earthquake prediction research plan 2009-2013 are testable earthquake forecast models. For this purpose, the Earthquake Research Institute joined the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) and installed in an international collaboration a prototype testing center for rigorous evaluation of earthquake forecast models. We report on the implementation of this testing center, the quality characterization of the earthquake catalog data stream from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), the definition of a Japanese testing region, and first test results. A first set of three one-year smoothed-seismicity models are fully implemented in the testing center and are under test since 1 September 2008. In the near future, additional models will be introduced and new specialized testing areas will be defined to promote rigorous earthquake prediction research on different topics and regions in Japan.

Tsuruoka, H.; Hirata, N.; Schorlemmer, D.; Euchner, F.; Jordan, T. H.

2008-12-01

349

Earthquake Prediction Techniques: Their Application in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan is serious about solving the earthquake prediction problem. A well-organized and well-funded program of research has been under way for almost 20 years in pursuit of the national goal of protecting the dense population of this earthquake-prone country through reliable predictions.This rather amazing book, edited by Toshi Asada, retired director of the Geophysical Institute of the University of Tokyo, has been written by 10 scientists, each of whom has made important contributions to earthquake science, but who have not been known in the past as principal spokesmen for the Japanese earthquake prediction program. The result is a combination of a very readable tutorial presentation of basic earthquake science that will make the book understandable to the nonspecialist, a good summary of Japanese data and research conclusions, and a bare-knuckles appraisal of current philosophy and strategy for prediction in Japan.

Kisslinger, Carl

350

The first pterosaur trackways from Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1990, five well-preserved pterosaur trackways were discovered in the Kitadani Formation (Lower Cretaceous) of the Kitadani Dinosaur Quarry, Fukui Prefecture, Japan. They occur on the surface of an isolated dark grey siltstone slab (70×50cm) along with amphibian and bird tracks as well as feeding marks. All pterosaur trackways (a total of 64 imprints) show a clear quadrupedal gait pattern

Yuong-Nam Lee; Yoichi Azuma; Hang-Jae Lee; Masateru Shibata; Junchang Lü

2010-01-01

351

Sexually dimorphic mate preference in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lonely hearts advertisements (LHA) published in Japan were examined in a comparative study on sexually dimorphic mate preference.\\u000a I analyzed 944 LHA written by Japanese (730 by males and 214 by females) seeking short-term relationships and 780 LHA (577\\u000a by males and 203 by females) seeking long-term relationships. Some universal patterns of mate preference were confirmed and\\u000a others were not.

Ryo Oda

2001-01-01

352

Macroeconomic fluctuations and mortality in postwar Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has shown that after long-term declining trends are excluded, mortality rates in industrial countries tend\\u000a to rise in economic expansions and fall in economic recessions. In the present work, co-movements between economic fluctuations\\u000a and mortality changes in postwar Japan are investigated by analyzing time series of mortality rates and eight economic indicators.\\u000a To eliminate spurious associations attributable to

José A. Tapia granados

2008-01-01

353

Development of celestial mechanics in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, a brief history of Japanese astronomy before the Meiji restoration is described at the beginning. Then the development of celestial mechanics research in Japan after the Meiji is traced until the 1950s by describing, particularly, the careers and works of H. Terao, K. Hirayama and Y. Hagihara, the three consecutive professors of celestial mechanics at Tokyo University, as well as those by their students.

Kozai, Y.

1998-08-01

354

Development of celestial mechanics in Japan.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, a brief history of Japanese astronomy before the Meiji restoration is described at the beginning. Then the development of celestial mechanics research in Japan after the Meiji is traced until the 1950s by describing, particularly, the careers and works of H. Terao, K. Hirayama and Y. Hagihara, the three consecutive professors of celestial mechanics at Tokyo University, as well as those by their students.

Kozai, Yoshihide

1998-08-01

355

Energy R and D in Japan  

SciTech Connect

In 1997, the public and private sectors in Japan invested $90.3 billion in R and D. Japan is the second largest supporter of R and D after the United States. A very large percentage (79.4%) of all R and D in Japan is supported by the private sector. The prolonged economic recession that has plagued the Japanese economy for most of the 1990s has significantly reduced the scale of the Japanese R and D effort compared to what it would have been had the economy been more robust. The Japanese government has recently attempted to bring the economy out of this recession through the use of economic stimulus packages. These stimulus packages have contained significant new funding for R and D, although it is apparent that much of the funding is going to R and D programs and R and D construction projects with very near tern payoff and not to the support of longer term R and D. In 1998, the Japanese government devoted 13.7% of all public R and D funds to the support of energy R and D. The priority accorded to energy R and D in Japan is significantly higher than in any other industrialized nation. The Japanese energy R and D program, which was funded at $2.5 billion in 1997, is overwhelmingly focused on nuclear energy R and D. Nuclear energy R and D (fission and fusion) accounts for 75% of the total national energy R and D budget. The fission energy R and D effort has decreased nearly 24% since 1996 as the government attempts to refocus this program in the face of growing public opposition to the Japanese government's efforts to expand the nuclear power program. Energy efficiency R and D (8% of the total national energy R and D budget) and renewable energy R and D receive relatively modest support from the Japanese government.

J.J. Dooley

1999-08-09

356

Does information technology raise Japan's productivity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A standard growth accounting exercise indicates that, after Japan's “lost decade,” its overall total-factor-productivity (TFP) growth has increased notably since 2000. This productivity revival has been limited, however, to information technology (IT) production—has not been a broad-based productivity acceleration like that seen in the United States after the mid-1990s. This paper examines the relationship between IT and productivity gains by

Takuji Fueki; Takuji Kawamoto

2009-01-01

357

Millimeter wave research activities in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is intended to give an insight into millimeter wave research activities in Japan particularly to participants from abroad. Quasigovernmental and academic organizations for promoting millimeter wave research and development are described. Then, state-of-the-art millimeter wave techniques such as MMICs, low cost production module techniques and MCM techniques are presented. The NRD-guide technology is also a topic to be

T. Yoneyama

1997-01-01

358

Millimeter-Wave Activities in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millimeter-wave activities in Japan have been reviewed historically and current technical trends in millimeter-wave region are shown. A number of interests are focused on wireless and short range communication systems, broadcasting systems, radar systems and sensor networks. Also a spectrum assignment plan and a road map for developing less-used spectrum are introduced based on the Japanese government policy, which can

Kiyomichi Araki

2007-01-01

359

The first Japan-China VLBI experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first Japan-China VLBI experiment was carried out in September, 1985. Using good fringes obtained in two 24-hour observations, the baseline length between Kashima and Shanghai was determined with an error less than 3 cm. In the baseline analysis, the chi-square test was applied to the delay residuals in order to see the validity of the axis-offset correction and the

Noriyuki Kawaguchi; Jun Amagai; Hiroshi Kuroiwa; Fujinobu Takahashi; Kaichi Yamamoto

1987-01-01

360

Unexpected Excessive Settlements: Kansai International Airport, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Kansai International Airport (KIA) in Osaka Bay, Japan (Fig. 2.1a) was singled out by the American Society of Civil Engineers\\u000a as one of the “Monuments of the Millennium” – a designation awarded to the ten civil engineering projects deemed to have had\\u000a the greatest positive impact on life in the 20th century. This is an even more remarkable achievement, considering

A. M. Puzrin; E. E. Alonso; N. M. Pinyol

361

Magnetic fusion energy studies in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary facility for magnetic fusion energy (MFE) research in Japan is JT-60, in which DD plasma is heated up to an electron temperature of Te>10keV with neutral beam injection (NBI) and radio frequency (RF) powers. It is noted that a normalized ?N of 2.3 was maintained for 22s. The JT-60 team has discovered internal transport barrier (ITB) in high-beta-poloidal

M. Ogawa; S. Tsuji-Iio; A. Komori; K. Kawahata; O. Kaneko; T. Inoue; Y. Kamada

2007-01-01

362

How is suicide different in Japan?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates suicide rates among OECD countries, with particular effort made to gain insight into how suicide in Japan is different from suicides in other OECD countries. Several findings emerged from fixed-effect panel regressions with country-specific time-trends. First, the impacts of socioeconomic variables vary across different gender–age groups. Second, in general, better economic conditions such as high levels of

Joe Chen; Yun Jeong Choi; Yasuyuki Sawada

2009-01-01

363

Visions of Innovation: The Firm and Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computers, telecommunications equipment, semiconductorsthe products and technologies of the information and communications industry (IC)have transformed our world. Most of these products were initially developed in Western countries, but by the early 1990s some of the world's largest companies in the field were Japanese. This book explains the resurgence of Japan's IC giants, their global status, and their strengths and weaknesses.Empirical

Martin Fransman

364

Traditional healthful fermented products of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of fermentation products, such as foods containing probiotic bacteria, black rice vinegar (kurosu), soy sauce (shoyu), soybean-barley paste (miso), natto and tempeh, are sold in food stores in Japan. These fermented food products are produced by traditional methods that exploit mixed cultures\\u000a of various non-toxic microorganisms. These microorganisms include lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, sake yeast, koji

Yoshikatsu Murooka; Mitsuo Yamshita

2008-01-01

365

[Establishment of anatomical terminology in Japan].  

PubMed

The history of anatomical terminology in Japan began with the publication of Waran Naikei Ihan-teim? in 1805 and Ch?tei Kaitai Shinsho in 1826. Although the establishment of Japanese anatomical terminology became necessary during the Meiji era when many western anatomy books imported into Janan were translated, such terminology was not unified during this period and varied among translators. In 1871, Tsukumo Ono's Kaib?gaku Gosen was published by the Ministry of Education. Although this book is considered to be the first anatomical glossary terms in Japan, its contents were incomplete. Overseas, the German Anatomical Society established a unified anatomical terminology in 1895 called the Basle Nomina Anatomica (B.N.A.). Based on this development, Kaib?gaku Meish? which follows the BNA, by Buntar? Suzuki was published in 1905. With the subsequent establishment in 1935 of Jena Nomina Anatomica (J.N.A.), the unification of anatomical terminology was also accelerated in Japan, leading to the further development of terminology. PMID:19108488

Shimada, Kazuyuki

2008-12-01

366

Landslides and Debris Flows Strike Kyushu, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 20 July 2003, several damaging landslides and debris flows in southern Kyushu, Japan, attracted international attention and resulted in one of the most major natural disasters of recent years. Large amounts of rain fell on 19 and 20 July as a Baiu front passing over the Sea of Japan met a high-pressure zone moving up from the southeast over the Pacific Ocean. Altogether, 21 lives were lost due to the sediment disasters and more than 240 homes were either damaged or destroyed by landslides, debris flows, and flooding. Nevertheless, such natural disasters related to landslides and debris flows occur frequently in Japan. In summer 1993, 121 people were killed by landslides and debris flows within an area of unwelded pyroclastic flow deposits (known as Shirasu) in the Kagoshima Bay area of Kyushu. Thus, local residents generally acknowledge their potential exposure to these hazards, but risk and vulnerability issues may be clouded by inadequate warnings and scientific knowledge, socioeconomic factors, and the general feeling that local and national governments are overly protective.

Sidle, Roy C.; Chigira, Masahiro

2004-04-01

367

Results obtained with the CHARPAN Engineering Tool and prospects of the ion Mask Exposure Tool (iMET)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Projection Mask-Less Patterning (PMLP) is based on many hundred thousands of ion beams working in parallel. A PMLP proof-of-concept tool has been realized as part of the European project CHARPAN (Charged Particle Nanotech) and has been presented at SPIE Photomask BACUS 2007. Using 10 keV protons, 16nm hp resolution has been demonstrated in non- CAR materials (HSQ) with 25?C/cm2 exposure dose. The system is upgraded to a CHARPAN Engineering Tool (CHET) with a laser-interferometer controlled vacuum stage and a CMOS based programmable Aperture Plate System (APS) providing ca. 40,000 beams with < 20nm spot size. The engineering of an ion Mask Exposure Tool (iMET) for the 22nm hp mask node has been started; main iMET features are discussed.

Platzgummer, Elmar; Loeschner, Hans; Gross, Gerhard

2008-10-01

368

High-resolution seismic imaging in the Japan Trench axis area off Miyagi, northeastern Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

obtained high-resolution seismic data reveal the detailed structure of the Japan Trench axis off Miyagi, Japan, in the region of large shallow slip during the 11 March 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake. Correlation of seismic images with previous drilling results identifies a possible basal chert-rich layer and hemipelagic/pelagic mudstones overlying igneous Pacific crust. Mapping of acoustic basement depicts the subduction of horst-and-graben topography. The basement and basal chert are subducted beneath a seismically chaotic frontal prism, but the majority of overlying hemipelagic mudstones is offscraped and imbricated at the trench axis as a result of plate boundary compression. A possible décollement is imaged as a seaward dipping reflection at landward part of the trench graben and was likely generated by loading and failure of underthrust sediments. Collectively, these analyses provide a structural framework for understanding sedimentary inputs and the localization of shallow plate boundary slip at the Japan Trench.

Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Kodaira, Shuichi; Miura, Seiichi; Regalla, Christine; Takahashi, Narumi

2013-05-01

369

New Developments in Human Resource Management in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan's economic performance in the post-war period has attracted world-wide attention and admiration. This article examines the fundamental features of human resource management in Japan. Special emphasis is placed on the difference between corporate structure in Japan and the West. The Japanese firm is seen as 'quasi employee managed'—with major implications for the quality of labour relations and employee commitment.

Yasuo Kuwahara

1993-01-01

370

Status and trends of nanotechnology R&D in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intense competition exists in the realm of research and development in nanotechnology. The government of Japan, one of the countries most advanced in this field, has been actively promoting this form of R&D in cooperation with industrial and academic circles. The hope is that success in nanotechnology will also revitalize Japan's economy. Here, we outline the current status of national projects and future trends of nanotechnology in Japan.

Kishi, Teruo; Bando, Yoshio

2004-03-01

371

Risk Factors for Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Aomori, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Japan is known to have an incidence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) as high as that in Finland, where SAH is especially common. However, the risk factors for SAH in Japan are unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors and then examine their possible roles in cases of SAH in Japan. Methods—Case-control data

Hiroki Ohkuma; Hidefumi Tabata; Shigeharu Suzuki; Shafiqul Islam

2010-01-01

372

Geographic distribution of primary care physicians in Japan and Britain.  

PubMed

Geographic distributions of primary care physicians in Japan and Britain were compared with each other. Regional variation in the number of primary care physicians per unit population was larger in Japan than in Britain. The Gini coefficient of primary care physicians against population in Japan (0.1755) was more than twice that observed for Britain (0.0837), indicating a substantially less equal distribution in Japan. The results can probably be explained by differences in the primary care systems of the two countries. PMID:19733111

Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Farmer, Jane; Inada, Haruhiko; Kajii, Eiji

2009-08-21

373

WHO Healthy City Initiative in Japan.  

PubMed

City environmental conditions are associated with health outcomes in people living there. World Health Organization (WHO) initiated Healthy City in 1986. To promote the networking, Alliance for Healthy Cities (AFHC) was launched in 2003 with local offices including AFHC Japan. As of 2010, 26 cities are members of AFHC Japan. A questionnaire was sent to those member cities. It includes questions on why they became an AFHC member, which section is in charge of the initiatives, what factors are important for promotion, and others. Out of the 26 cities, 13 cities returned the completed questionnaire. As for factors important for promoting the initiatives, 10 (77%) out of the 13 cities answered "consciousness of residents", while five (38%) chose "budget". This result suggests that community participation is a more important factor than budget for promoting and succeeding in the initiatives. Aging is a problem in any of the member cities, and six cities out the 13 falls under the category of superaged society, which is defined as a society with the proportion of aged people < 65 years being greater than 21% of the whole population. Eleven cities (85%) agreed that bicycles are an alternative means of transportation to cars; however, infrastructure for ensuring safety needs further improvement. In the promotion of Healthy City, networking among the member cities in Japan and worldwide should be promoted. Community participation with empowerment from the planning stage should lead to sustainable initiatives. The function of AFHC in collaboration among the members should be strengthened to cope with the rapidly changing city environment. PMID:23718975

Yoshizawa, Kazuko

2013-01-01

374

PNC\\/DOE Remote Monitoring Project at Japan`s Joyo Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan and the US Department of Energy (DOE) are cooperating on the development of a remote monitoring system for nuclear nonproliferation efforts. This cooperation is part of a broader safeguards agreement between PNC and DOE. A remote monitoring system is being installed in a spent fuel storage area at PNC`s

M. Ross; Yu Hashimoto; Masao Senzaki; Toshinori Shigeto; C. Sonnier; S. Dupree; K. Ystesund; W. Hale

1996-01-01

375

Non-Commercial Audiovisual Instructional Materials in Japan. AVE in Japan No. 24.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report outlines the history of non-commercial and local production of audiovisual instructional materials in Japan since World War II, discusses current trends in instructional materials usage, and presents four case studies of materials production at the prefectural level. Topics addressed include: (1) materials production prior to the…

Takakuwa, Yasuo

376

Banking Relationships and Access to Equity Capital Markets: Evidence from Japan’s Main Bank System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the role of banking relationships in IPO underwriting using a sample of 484 Japanese IPOs. Among other issues, we consider whether bank relationships lead to increased access to public equity markets, especially for smaller, lesser-known firms. When a firm in Japan goes public, it can engage an investment bank that is related through a common main bank, or

Kenji Ketsuna; Janet Kiholm Smith; Richard L. Smith

2003-01-01

377

Banking relationships and access to equity capital markets: Evidence from Japan’s main bank system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the role of banking relationships in IPO underwriting. When a firm in Japan goes public, it can engage an investment bank that is related through a common main bank, or can select an alternative investment bank. The main bank relationship can be an efficient way for the investment bank to acquire information generated by the main bank, but

Kenji Kutsuna; Janet Kiholm Smith; Richard L. Smith

2007-01-01

378

The People vs. Koizumi? Japan-U.S. Relations and Japan's Struggle for National Identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi has pleased Washington by deploying Self-Defense Forces (SDF) in Iraq. But half the public remains opposed. How serious is the gap between Koizumi and the Japanese people on security affairs? This Special Report includes three very different perspectives, and extends beyond the immediate question of SDF deployment to such issues as Japan's role in the

NAOYUKI AGAWA; MASARU TAMAMOTO; TOSHIO NISHI

379

An analysis of remanufacturing practices in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This study presents case studies of selected remanufacturing operations in Japan. It investigates Japanese companies' motives\\u000a and incentives for remanufacturing, clarifies the requirements and obstacles facing remanufacturers, itemizes what measures\\u000a companies take to address them, and discusses the influence of Japanese laws related to remanufacturing.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This study involves case studies of four product areas: photocopiers, single-use cameras, auto parts, and

Mitsutaka Matsumoto; Yasushi Umeda

2011-01-01

380

North Korean nuclear development program and Japan  

SciTech Connect

In the past year, the Northeast Asian security debate has been preoccupied with the status and potential implications of a North Korean nuclear program. Recently, one of the more common assertions has been that Japan may be on the verge of developing nuclear weapons in response to the North Korean nuclear program. Before such predictions are made, it is important to examine the extent of the North Korean nuclear program, and the likely ramifications of a North Korean nuclear capability. Only then is it possible to make any assessments of potential Japanese responses.

Cheng, D.

1994-01-01

381

Legal intervention against medical accidents in Japan  

PubMed Central

The number of civil lawsuits in Japan concerning medical accidents has been increasing gradually. Emotional reports in the media about medical accidents have amplified people’s distrust of physicians. Since 2002, the police have been more actively involved, and the number of criminal prosecutions against physicians as a result of medical accidents has increased. Fear of litigation and arrest has demoralized physicians. Communication of the risks associated with various medical practices is considered vital if physician–patient relationships are to be improved. Moreover, there needs to be a reconsideration of legal interventions into medical affairs.

Yasunaga, Hideo

2008-01-01

382

Japan's dilemma with the definition of death.  

PubMed

Japan is unusual among industrialized countries in its reluctance to use brain criteria to determine death and harvest transplant organs. This results from public distrust of the medical profession due to an earlier incident, and from concern that technological interventions will threaten religious and cultural traditions surrounding death and dying. Public acceptance is growing, however, as medical professional groups and universities develop brain criteria, and as pressure from patients who could benefit from a transplant, as well as from foreign countries, increases. PMID:10113822

Kimura, R

1991-06-01

383

The first Japan-China VLBI experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first Japan-China VLBI experiment was carried out in September, 1985. Using good fringes obtained in two 24-hour observations, the baseline length between Kashima and Shanghai was determined with an error less than 3 cm. In the baseline analysis, the chi-square test was applied to the delay residuals in order to see the validity of the axis-offset correction and the ionospheric correction. According to the variation of the fringe amplitudes observed on 3C84, the best time for a fringe test in the next experiment was established.

Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Amagai, Jun; Kuroiwa, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Fujinobu; Yamamoto, Kaichi

1987-03-01

384

76 FR 798 - Ball Bearings From Japan and the United Kingdom  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Second Review) (Fourth Remand)] Ball Bearings From Japan and the United Kingdom AGENCY...of the antidumping duty order on ball bearings from Japan. For further information...Commission's determinations in Certain Bearings and Parts Thereof from Japan and...

2011-01-06

385

78 FR 60897 - Certain Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe From Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Second Review)] Certain Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe From Japan Determination...antidumping duty order on certain welded large diameter line pipe from Japan would likely...2013), entitled Certain Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe from Japan:...

2013-10-02

386

22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, and Japan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, and Japan. 126.14 Section 126...comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, and Japan. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the...

2009-04-01

387

22 CFR 126.14 - Special comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, and Japan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, and Japan. 126.14 Section 126...comprehensive export authorizations for NATO, Australia, and Japan. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the...

2010-04-01

388

Electron temperature probe onboard Japan's Mars orbiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan' s first Mars spacecraft PLANET-B was successfully launched on 4th of July, 1998 and was named "NOZOMI" after the launch. One of the scientific instruments is a unique electron temperature probe which was developed in Japan and has been used for more than 20 years on sounding rockets as well as on scientific satellites (Oyama, 1991). The electron temperature probe dubbed PET (Probe for Electron Temperature measurements) consists of two planar electrodes, 150 mm in diameter, placed at the edges of the two solar cell panels of the "NOZOMI" spacecraft. Electron temperatures can be measured in plasmas with densities exceeding 1000 cm-1 with sufficient accuracy. The maximum sampling rate of 8 data points per satellite spin for each probe allows high resolution measurements (i.e., an angular resolution around the spin axis of 23 degrees). Additionally, the probe can measure the anisotropy of the electron temperature, if it exists. It is also possible to infer the existence of nonthermal electrons.

Oyama, K.; Abe, T.; Schlegel, K.; Nagy, A.; Kim, J.; Marubashi, K.

1999-12-01

389

Macroeconomic Fluctuations and Mortality in Postwar Japan  

PubMed Central

Recent research has shown that after long-term declining trends are excluded, mortality rates in industrial countries tend to rise in economic expansions and fall in economic recessions. In the present work, co-movements between economic fluctuations and mortality changes in postwar Japan are investigated by analyzing time series of mortality rates and eight economic indicators. To eliminate spurious associations attributable to trends, series are detrended either via Hodrick-Prescott filtering or through differencing. As previously found in other industrial economies, general mortality and age-specific death rates in Japan tend to increase in expansions and drop in recessions, for both males and females. The effect, which is slightly stronger for males, is particularly noticeable in those aged 45–64. Deaths attributed to heart disease, pneumonia, accidents, liver disease, and senility—making up about 41% of total mortality—tend to fluctuate procyclically, increasing in expansions. Suicides, as well as deaths attributable to diabetes and hypertensive disease, make up about 4% of total mortality and fluctuate countercyclically, increasing in recessions. Deaths attributed to other causes, making up about half of total deaths, don’t show a clearly defined relationship with the fluctuations of the economy.

TAPIA GRANADOS, JOSE A.

2008-01-01

390

Newborn screening for Pompe disease in Japan.  

PubMed

Pompe disease is caused by a deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) that results in glycogen accumulation, primarily in muscle. Newborn screening (NBS) for Pompe disease has been initiated in Taiwan and is reportedly successful. However, the comparatively high frequency of pseudodeficiency allele makes NBS for Pompe disease complicated in Taiwan. To investigate the feasibility of NBS for Pompe disease in Japan, we obtained dried blood spots (DBSs) from 496 healthy Japanese controls, 29 Japanese patients with Pompe disease, and five obligate carriers, and assayed GAA activity under the following conditions: (1) total GAA measured at pH 3.8, (2) GAA measured at pH 3.8 in the presence of acarbose, and (3) neutral glucosidase activity (NAG) measured at pH 7.0 without acarbose. The % inhibition and NAG/GAA ratio were calculated. For screening, samples with GAA<8% of the normal mean, % inhibition>60%, and NAG/GAA ratio>30 were considered to be positive. Two false positive cases (0.3%) were found, one was a healthy homozygote of pseudodeficiency allele (c.1726G>A). The low false-positive rate suggests that NBS for Pompe disease is feasible in Japan. PMID:21963784

Oda, Eri; Tanaka, Toju; Migita, Ohsuke; Kosuga, Motomichi; Fukushi, Masaru; Okumiya, Toshika; Osawa, Makiko; Okuyama, Torayuki

2011-09-10

391

Macroeconomic fluctuations and mortality in postwar Japan.  

PubMed

Recent research has shown that after long-term declining trends are excluded, mortality rates in industrial countries tend to rise in economic expansions and fall in economic recessions. In the present work, co-movements between economic fluctuations and mortality changes in postwar Japan are investigated by analyzing time series of mortality rates and eight economic indicators. To eliminate spurious associations attributable to trends, series are detrended either via Hodrick-Prescott filtering or through differencing. As previously found in other industrial economies, general mortality and age-specific death rates in Japan tend to increase in expansions and drop in recessions, for both males and females. The effect, which is slightly stronger for males, is particularly noticeable in those aged 45-64. Deaths attributed to heart disease, pneumonia, accidents, liver disease, and senility--making up about 41% of total mortality--tend to fluctuate procyclically, increasing in expansions. Suicides, as well as deaths attributable to diabetes and hypertensive disease, make up about 4% of total mortality and fluctuate countercyclically, increasing in recessions. Deaths attributed to other causes, making up about half of total deaths, don't show a clearly defined relationship with the fluctuations of the economy. PMID:18613484

Granados, José A Tapia

2008-05-01

392

Sentinel lymph node biopsy in Japan.  

PubMed

Similar to the practice in Western countries, intraoperative lymphatic mapping and selected lymphadenectomy (SLNB) have been validated and are widely performed for the staging of melanoma in Japan. Recent studies have shown that approximately 90% (73/81) of university hospitals and several cancer hospitals routinely perform SLNB, and half of all melanoma patients receive this examination. SLNB is performed according to a variation of the standard procedure described by Morton and Cochran. The most frequently used tracers are Tc(99m)-tin colloid or Tc(99m)-phytate for scintigraphy and patent blue violet or indigo carmine as a blue dye. Some institutions use indocyanine green, which is fluorescent and can be used to visualize sentinel lymph node(s) (SLNs) under an infrared camera. The recent detection rate of SLNs has increased to more than 95% with the method using blue dye, lymphoscintigraphy, and a handheld gamma probe. In a multicenter study, the rates of metastasis in SLN were as follows: pTis, 0% (0/36); pT1, 10.7% (6/56); pT2, 21.0% (13/63); pT3, 34.0% (35/103); and pT4, 62.4% (63/101). The metastasis rate was also significantly related to ulceration of the primary tumor. Here, we discuss data from Japanese patients and the present status of SLNB in Japan. PMID:19967483

Uhara, Hisashi; Takata, Minoru; Saida, Toshiaki

2009-12-05

393

Siting Process for HLW Repository in Japan  

SciTech Connect

In the year 2000, the geological disposal program for high-level radioactive waste in Japan moved from the phase of generic research and development (R&D) into the phase of implementation. Following legislation entitled the ''Specified Radioactive Waste Final Disposal Act'', the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) was established as the implementing organization. The assigned activities of NUMO include selection of the repository site, demonstration of disposal technology at the site, developing relevant licensing applications and construction, operation and closure of the repository. As the first milestone of siting process, NUMO announced to the public an overall procedure for selection of preliminary investigation areas for potential candidate sites on October 29, 2001. The procedure specifies that NUMO will solicit volunteer municipalities for preliminary investigation areas with publishing four documents as an information package. These documents are tentatively entitled ''Instructions for Application'', ''Siting Factors for the Preliminary Investigation Areas'', a ''Repository Concepts'' as well as an ''Site Investigation Community Outreach Scheme''.

Masuda, S.; Kitayama, K.; Umeki, H.; Naito, M.

2002-02-27

394

Japan's aging population. Implications for healthcare.  

PubMed

In the early years of the next century, the Japanese population may well become the oldest in the world. The Japanese government's concentration on post-World War II economic expansion meant that the government only fully woke up to the financial implications of having a large elderly population when oil prices were raised in the 1970s, highlighting Japan's economic dependence on global markets. This article explains the process by which policy regarding Japan's elderly developed both before and after these oil price increases. The measures of healthcare cost containment that the government introduced in response to the increased financial pressure are described, with a particular focus on pharmaceuticals. This article shows that the government has achieved a degree of success in terms of containing pharmaceutical costs, but that future effects on the quality of healthcare are uncertain. Ultimately, a wider application of a per diem fee in place of the prevalent fee-for-service system, and the realisation of plans to improve the social service infrastructure, would be the best path for policy to follow. PMID:10172965

Oliver, A J; Ikegami, N; Ikeda, S

1997-04-01

395

Cost of Depression Among Adults in Japan  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the annual national cost of major depressive disorder among adults 20 years and older in Japan in 2008. Method: The analysis used was a top-down costing approach based on national health statistics. From the societal perspective, the costs examined were direct medical costs, depression-related suicide costs, and workplace costs for all members of society. Direct medical costs included both inpatient and outpatient medical costs, while workplace costs included both absenteeism and presenteeism costs. The authors performed 1-way sensitivity analyses to examine the extent to which results were affected by the choice of parameters used in the cost calculation. All costs were expressed in 2008 US dollar terms. Results: The economic burden of depression in Japan was approximately $11 billion, with $1,570 million relating to direct medical costs, $2,542 million to depression-related suicide costs, and $6,912 million to workplace costs. Compared to previously published studies, this study adopted conservative key assumptions; this may have resulted in a conservative estimate of the annual national cost of depression. Conclusions: Depression imposes a substantial economic burden on Japanese society, which highlights the urgent need for policymakers to allocate resources toward implementing strategies that prevent and manage depression in the Japanese population.

Higuchi, Teruhiko

2011-01-01

396

Pediatric perfusion in Japan: 2010 practice survey.  

PubMed

We report here Japan's first pediatric perfusion survey. It covers practices from January 2007 through December 2009. Of the 70 congenital heart centers contacted, 53 (76%) completed the survey. They reported performing 3,379 pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) procedures in 2009, 3,408 in 2008, and 3,358 in 2007.Twenty-eight percent of all centers used CPB circuits with a priming volume between 151-200 ml. All centers used pre-bypass ultrafiltration and only 6% used retrograde autologous priming. A biomaterial-coated circuit was used by 78% of the centers, a roller pump as the arterial pump by 91%, vacuum-assisted venous drainage by 39%, dilutional ultrafiltration by 48%, and modified ultrafiltration at the end of the procedure by 30%. A regional oxygen saturation monitor was used by 69% of the centers and high flow (150-200 ml/kg/min) management with alpha-stat blood gas control was standard during moderate to normothermic CPBs. Crystalloid cardioplegia solution was used as myocardial protection by 56% of the centers, electronic recording of monitoring data by 51%. The centers performed 98 pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation procedures in 2007, 109 in 2008, and 119 in 2009; 58% of the centers used a centrifugal pump. This survey provides a description of the current practice in Japan. Future surveys will identify trends and rate of change in practice. PMID:22005885

Itoh, H; Sano, S; Pouard, P

2011-10-17

397

Implementation of the GHS in Japan.  

PubMed

The GHS is a United Nations Recommendations issued in 2003 which aims to enhance the protection of human health and the environment by providing an internationally comprehensible system for hazard communication. It is expected for countries to implement the GHS as soon as possible with a view to having the system fully operational by 2008. Capacity building projects are ongoing in many countries in order to achieve full implementation. In Japan, GHS-related activities that have been initiated include translation of the GHS documents, gap analysis between the GHS and the current laws, model classification of regulated substances, amendment of Industrial Safety and Health Law, standardization of the GHS elements, development of manual, guidance and educational tools. These activities are briefly described in this paper. Critical issues that impede full implementation of the GHS in the country are also discussed. Focus is given to the system for classification and labelling of hazardous chemicals limited to regulated and controlled chemicals and on the need to develop "Right to know" concepts in chemical management. These issues may be addressed adequately as Japan works towards the full implementation of the GHS. PMID:18840933

Jonai, Hiroshi

2008-10-01

398

[The new Tuberculosis Control Program of Japan].  

PubMed

The 1951 Tuberculosis Control Law of Japan was amended extensively and has been in effect since April, 2005. The revision of the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP) is to respond to the tremendous changes that have occurred during the last 50 years in tuberculosis epidemiology and in the environment in tuberculosis control implementation. In this review, the main points and framework of the revisions were summarized and the perspective of the development of new technical innovations relevant to each area of the revised TB control legislation is discussed. Also, challenges of Japan's NTP in the recent future are discussed, including the controversies over the proposed abolishment of the Tuberculosis Control Law. 1. IMMUNIZATION: In the revision of NTP, the BCG vaccination of elementary school and junior-high school entrants was discontinued. In order to strengthen the early primary vaccination for infants, the new Law has adopted the direct vaccination scheme omitting tuberculin testing prior to immunization. This program is implemented to young babies, i.e., less than six months old, as defined by the decree. It is a heavy responsibility for the municipalities to ensure the high coverage of immunization when the period of legal vaccination is rather strictly limited practically to the fourth to sixth months after birth. The safe direct vaccination is another new challenge where appropriate management of the Koch's phenomenon or similar reactions should be warranted. 2. CHEMOPROPHYLAXIS: Though unfortunately suspended for some legal reason currently, the expansion and improvement of chemoprophylaxis, or treatment of latent tuberculosis infection, to cover anyone with higher risk of clinical development of TB would have a tremendous effect in Japan, especially since 90% of patients who developed TB were infected tens of years ago. The technical innovations in diagnosis of TB infection such as QuantiFERON will be very helpful. Development of new drugs or drug regimens for this purpose is also expected. 3. CASE DETECTION: The "indiscriminate" screening scheme in the periodic mass health examination has been replaced with a selective one. Only subjects aged 65 or older are eligible for the screening, supplemented with selected occupational groups who are considered to become source of infection, should they develop tuberculosis, such as health-care providers and school teachers. Local autonomies are also responsible for offering screening to the socio-economic high-risk populations, such as homeless people, slum residents, day laborers, and/or workers in small businesses, as decided by the autonomies at their disposal. Another important mode of active case-finding, i.e., contact investigation has been legally enforced so that anybody cannot refuse to be examined by the Health Center. This investigation service will be greatly enhanced by such new technologies as DNA fingerprinting of TB bacilli and a new diagnostic of TB infection. Regarding the clinical service of the symptomatic patients that detect 75% of new cases currently will be improved in its quality by introducing an external quality assurance system of commercial bacteriological laboratory services. 4. TREATMENT AND PATIENT SUPPORT: The revised NTP clearly states the government's responsibility for treating TB patients in close cooperation with a doctor, in the framework of the DOTS Japan version. While the development of new anti-tuberculosis drugs will be realized in the near future, Japan still has to overcome the issues of improper practice of treatment, as well as the government's slow process for approving drugs to be used for multi-drug resistant TB and non-tuberculous mycobacterioses, such as quinolones, macrolides and others. 5. PREFECTURAL TB CONTROL PLAN: In order to respond to the specific issues of tuberculosis problem in the respective prefectures in terms of epidemiology or in available resources, the Law requests every prefecture to develop and implement its own TB control plan. The rather abruptly proposed argument of abolishing Tuberculo

Mori, Toru

2006-07-01

399

Ethics Education for Professionals in Japan: A Critical Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ethics education for professionals has become popular in Japan over the last two decades. Many professional schools now require students to take an applied ethics or professional ethics course. In contrast, very few courses of professional ethics for teaching exist or have been taught in Japan. In order to obtain suggestions for teacher…

Maruyama, Yasushi; Ueno, Tetsu

2010-01-01

400

Chrysanthemum's Strange Life: Ruth Benedict in Postwar Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Revisiting Ruth Benedict's The Chrysanthemum and the Sword, I follow in this article the postwar controversies in Japan over the book. Although enormously significant in the formation of postwar Japanese cultural identity and social scientific discourse, the book has gone through a strange life, subjected to diverse interpretations which reflect historical changes in Japan's self-perception. I propose that what is

Sonia RYANG

2002-01-01

401

Media Education in Japan (Retrospect and Present Trends).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This overview of the development of media education in Japan begins with a discussion of the motion picture as entertainment and the public attitude toward film in Japan during the early years of the century. The introduction of film education into the schools in the 1920s--both teaching by film and teaching about film--is then described together…

Takakuwa, Yasuo

402

Japan: Super-Aging Society Preparing for the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Japan has the highest proportion of older adults in the world. Aging is not only an immediate personal issue but also a salient factor in crucial public policies, such as pensions, health, and long-term care. The Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear power plant disaster of March 2011 has highlighted current and emerging issues of a…

Muramatsu, Naoko; Akiyama, Hiroko

2011-01-01

403

Change and Problems about Women Farmers in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this presentation is to show outline of the change about women farmers in Japan and to point out problems. The prototype for the rural family image in Japan can be found before rapid economic growth from middle 1950's to early 1970's. The rural family was essentially a patriarchal stem family which is called \\

Tokuya Kawate

404

Will Japan Go Nuclear in the 70's.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the brief monograph is to examine some of the issues and reasons that are driving Japan toward the acquisition of nuclear weapons. The paper compares Japan's military , political and economic problems with the known incentives for a nation ...

R. G. Lynn

1973-01-01

405

Newport- Commodore Matthew Perry opened Japan in 1853-54  

Microsoft Academic Search

“On March 31 1854 representatives of Japan and the United States signed a historic treaty. A United States naval officer, Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry [April 10, 1794 – March 4, 1858], negotiated tirelessly for several months with Japanese officials to achieve the goal of opening the doors of trade with Japan. For two centuries, Japanese ports were closed to all

Chet Smolski; John Quincy Adams Ward

1971-01-01

406

Politics and the Economy in Pre-War Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper by Richard J Smethurst discusses the influences that led to the economic policies pursued in the interwar period by Takahashi Korekiyo, who engineered Japan's recovery from the depression in the early 1930s, and is often thought of as the 'Keynes' of Japan. The paper traces the influence on Takahashi's thinking of his Western experiences and diverse bureaucratic career,

Masataka Matsuura; Richard J Smethurst

2000-01-01

407

Paleomagnetic evidence for the clockwise rotation of Southwest Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 500 oriented samples of felsic rocks of Cretaceous to Middle Miocene age were collected along the Go River in the central part of Southwest Japan, in an attempt to detect the process of tectonic rotation of Southwest Japan from the paleomagnetic view point. Thermal demagnetization was successful in isolating characteristic directions from the remanent magnetization of samples. Reliability of

Yo-Ichiro Otofuji; Takaaki Matsuda

1983-01-01

408

Ballistic Missile Defence: Perspectives on India–Japan Cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both India and Japan have evinced interest in deploying defences against ballistic missiles because of the threat they pose. Significantly, both have shifted their stance on US Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD), from previous opposition to active support. Notwithstanding certain basic differences between India and Japan on the nature and degree of interest and participation at present, shared interests offer an

G. V. C. Naidu

2007-01-01

409

US-Japan Cooperative Program on neutron scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US-Japan Cooperative Program on Neutron Scattering was implemented through arrangements by the United States Department of Energy with the Science and Technology Agency (STA) and the Ministry of Science, Education, and Culture (Monbusho) of Japan. It involves research collaboration in neutron scattering by Japanese scientists with scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and

M. K. Wilkinson; M. Blume; D. K. Stevens; M. Iizumi; Y. Yamada

1987-01-01

410

High-level manpower movement and Japan's foreign aid.  

PubMed

"Japan's technical assistance programs to Asian countries are summarized. Movements of high-level manpower accompanying direct foreign investments by private enterprise are also reviewed. Proposals for increased human resources development include education and training of foreigners in Japan as well as the training of Japanese aid experts and the development of networks for information exchange." PMID:12285771

Furuya, K

1992-01-01

411

Neonatal Nurse Practitioner Development in the United States and Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neonatal nursing as a specialty is recognized in many countries, but the role differs considerably. Even in the developed world, the advanced practice role of a neonatal nurse practitioner may not exist in some countries. This article will describe the current state of neonatal nursing in the United States and Japan, outlining the need for neonatal nurse practitioners in Japan

Wakako Eklund

2011-01-01

412

No relationship between schizophrenic birth and influenza epidemics in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finding that influenza epidemics are associated with an increased risk of adult schizophrenia has been controversial. Data was obtained from Japan’s governmental statistics, the Patient Survey. Index years were defined as 1957\\/1958, 1962, and 1965, and comparison years were defined 2 years before and 2 years after the index year. Subjects were patients with schizophrenia who were born in

Yoshio Mino; Iwao Oshima; Toshihide Tsuda; Kazuo Okagami

2000-01-01

413

Regulatory impacts on stem cell research in Japan.  

PubMed

Although it is a leader in many fields of stem cell research, Japan's policies on many areas of stem cell research have not been widely reported or analyzed in the international literature. In this report, we provide an overview of Japan's centralized approach to regulation and analyze its policy implementation. PMID:20452315

Kawakami, Masahiro; Sipp, Douglas; Kato, Kazuto

2010-05-01

414

Recent concert halls and opera house in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since we invited Dr. Beranek to Japan for the first time in 1989, we had been working together with him for a period of 13 years, until 2001, on seven hall projects as acoustic design consultants. All of these halls are of premium importance to Japan. Dr. Beranek always came up with innovative concepts and helped create halls endowed with

Takayuki Hidaka

2001-01-01

415

Aquacultural Survey in Japan. (JA-639.3-S355).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this survey was to assess the value of Japan's aquacultural methods in terms of direct or indirect application in other countries, and to evaluate present and future status of aquacultures in Japan. The aquacultures discussed are: Ayu, Japa...

H. R. Schmittou

1972-01-01

416

‘Managing China’: risk and risk management in Japan's China policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the ways in which various risks, threats and opportunities posed to Japan by the ‘rise of China’ have been articulated and managed in post-Cold War Japan. It focuses in particular on the period since 2001, and more narrowly on the nature of threat perceptions and risk assessments that emerged during Koizumi Junichir?'s prime ministership, but also considers

Caroline Rose

2010-01-01

417

The English Language in Japan: History, Attitudes, and Functions. Introduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduces this special issue on the English language in Japan, which focuses on the historical phases of the introduction of English, the role of English in the educational system and the media, the contact and convergence of Japanese and English, the functions of English in Japan, and Japanese attitudes toward English. (three references) (MDM)|

Kachru, Braj B.; Smith, Larry E.

1995-01-01

418

Caught in the Middle East: Japan's diplomacy in transition  

SciTech Connect

Japan's increasing dependence on Persian Gulf oil has caused its U.S.-centered foreign policy to shift. Drawing on personal interviews with senior Japanese officials, the author discusses Japan's changing diplomacy in regard to such problems as the Iran-Iraq war, Soviet aggression, and the Palestinian struggle for autonomy.

Yoshitsu, M.M.

1984-01-01

419

Work and Pay in the United States and Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Work and Pay in the United States and Japan, authors Clair Brown, Yoshifumi Nakata, Michael Reich, and Lloyd Ulman provide an integrated and detailed analysis of the components of firm human resources systems in the US and Japan. Drawing on data obtained from fieldwork in comparable establishments in these two countries, as well as from national sources, this work

Clair Brown; Michael Reich; Lloyd Ulman; Yoshifumi Nakata

1997-01-01

420

Managing the Medusa: Japan–USA relations in GX summitry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the ways in which Japan manages its bilateral relationship with the USA. It contributes to the extant literature on Japan–USA bilateral relations by focusing particularly upon the management of this core bilateral relationship from a Japanese perspective and within two mechanisms of global governance, the G8 and G20 summits, collectively referred to as GX summitry. Specifically, the

Hugo Dobson

2012-01-01

421

Reconcilable Differences? United States-Japan Economic Conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

United States-Japan economic conflict has four major dimensions: the large global trade imbalances of the two countries, structural differences between them, a large number of sectoral disputes, and their joint responsibility for global prosperity and stability. Two leading experts on United States-Japan economic relations examine the macroeconomic and microeconomic causes of these frictions and assess possible policy responses, including several

C. Fred Bergsten; Marcus Noland

422

An Animated ImbalanceJapan's Television Heroines in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along with Japanese children, other Asian children are watching such cartoon shows as Doraemon, Dragonball Z and Sailor Moon. Animated cartoons, accounting for 58.3 percent of Japan's television exports, reach Asia's large youth population, just as the birth rate in Japan is declining. In Asia, animation constitutes the largest category of children's television programming (28.4 percent) - almost all of

Anne Cooper-Chen

1999-01-01

423

Japan's Political Mess: Abe Failed, Can Fukuda Do Better?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Special Report examines the reasons behind the dramatic political demise of Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, as well as what his failure means for the future of Japan's two major political parties. Robert Pekkanen of the University of Washington points to elec- toral refor ms since the 1990s as having fundamentally changed Japan's political landscape and put more emphasis

ROBERT PEKKANEN; SHINJU FUJIHIRA; JUN SAITO; SHERRY L. MARTIN

2008-01-01

424

Dental hygiene education in Japan: present status and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this report is to provide basic information about the historical development, current status and future needs of education and training of dental hygienists in Japan. The first formal training of dental hygienists in Japan started at Tokyo in 1949. Restructure and modification of the dental hygiene education system has been reiterated over the years in order to

N Yoshida; K Endo; M Komaki

2004-01-01

425

Religious Pluralism in Japan and the Yasukuni Question  

Microsoft Academic Search

With its defeat in World War II in 1945, Japan lost its overseas colonies. As a result, former imperial subjects of other ethnic origin, among them Taiwanese and Koreans, who had previously made up about thirty percent of the total population of Japan at the time, were stripped of Japanese nationality. A large number of Koreans who had been brought

Michiaki Okuyama

426

Wolves in Japan? an examination of the reintroduction proposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early 1990s a proposal to reintroduce wolves to Japan was made by the Japan Wolf Association. This article examines (i) the proposal itself and the reasoning on which it is based and (ii) responses to it, especially among mountain villagers of the Kii Peninsula (one area of which is a candidate site for reintroduction). In particular, the culturalist

John Knight

1998-01-01

427

The Politics of Religion: Modernity, Nationhood and Education in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While religion in Japan is traditionally linked to nationhood and nation-building, the post-war period has seen Shinto consciously invoked to restore a sense of national identity through a focus on Japan's victimhood. In this context, there is a focus on the Yasukuni Shrine, dedicated to the war dead and an icon of contemporary Japanese cultural…

Shibata, Masako

2008-01-01

428

The UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshop Programme...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors have been running UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshops at universities in Britain and Japan since 2001: for the past three years in England with Cambridge University and, last year, also with Kyoto University and Kyoto University of Education. For many years they have worked jointly with colleagues in a group of Super Science High…

Albone, Eric; Okano, Toru

2012-01-01

429

Digital Technology at the National Science Museum of Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The National Science Museum (NSM) in Japan has recently completed a project using different types of visitor-oriented digital technologies. With sponsorship from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), the NSM team carried out a four-year study to examine how digital technologies can be used to enhance as well as educationally…

Lydens, Lois; Saito, Yasuji; Inoue, Tohru

2007-01-01

430

Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, 2008: Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Japan is a parliamentary democracy with a population of approximately 127.7 million. Sovereignty is vested in the citizenry, and the emperor is defined as the symbol of state. In July 2007 elections the Democratic Party of Japan ended the Liberal Democrat...

2008-01-01

431

Arms production in Japan: The military applications of civilian technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author examines both the domestic and international environments encouraging Japan's leaders not only to strengthen the country's defense, but to do so more independently. Until recently, the arms industry has been nurtured by U.S. weapons technology, but growing dependence on electronics dramatically increases Japan's contribution to modern weapons systems. The electronics revolution is creating more and more dual-purpose products,

Drifte

1986-01-01

432

Australia, Japan and the OECD: GDP Rankings and Revealed Preference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on volumes and prices of consumption and investment are used to compare Australian real GDP for 1990 with the other OECD countries. Australian consumption patterns, including leisure, and price structure are very different from most other countries and especially from those of Japan. The Australian bundle of consumption, investment and leisure is revealed preferred to that of Japan and

Steve Dowrick; John Quiggin

1993-01-01

433

End-of-Life Ethical Issues in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the end-of-life ethical issues of disclosure of information to the terminally ill patient, informed consent, and overtreatment for the elderly people of Japan. These issues are placed within the cultural context of Japan, which is discussing and developing ways to deal with them. The ethical problems that nurses confront when they work clinically with elderly patients also

Anne J. Davis; Emiko Konishi

2000-01-01

434

Leadership in Bandwagon: A Historical Sketch of Japan's Security Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article has two purposes. The first is to provide a historical overview of Japan's security leadership, while at the same time it seeks to locate Japan's response to the September 11 terrorism in the context of a larger process of defining its security leadership. As opposed to the Japanese transforming leadership that sought to balance the power of the

Go Ito

2004-01-01

435

Development of the electronic health record in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Japan, the order entry system has been employed in almost all university hospitals and popularisation of this system has also started in medium-sized hospitals. However, there has been a tendency in general hospitals in Japan to consider the electronic chart system where there has been no order entry system. Moreover, in small-scale clinics, there is no benefit in using

Hiroyuki Yoshihara

1998-01-01

436

Made in Japan: Revitalizing Japanese Manufacturing for Economic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1989 the MIT Press published Made in America, a landmark study by The MIT Commission on Industrial Productivity, an interdisciplinary group of MIT faculty members. The study analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of American industry and set forth a strategic plan for revitalizing American productivity. Inspired by the MIT study, the Japan Techno-Economics Society formed the Japan Commission on

437

Archaeological investigations of anadromous salmonid fishing in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the archaeology of salmon fishing in Japan, mostly during the Jomon period. The starting point is Sugao Yamanouchi's ‘salmon\\/trout theory’, which suggested that the greater density of Jomon sites in northeastern Japan could be linked to greater availability of dog salmon (Oncorynchus keta) and trout (O. masou) in this area. Many archaeologists disputed this theory on the

Akira Matsui

1996-01-01

438

United States-Japan Investment Initiative 2009 Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States-Japan Investment Initiative for the past eight years has facilitated active discussion and cooperation on ways to improve the climate for foreign direct investment (FDI) in Japan, in the United States, and globally. The importance of FDI...

2009-01-01

439

Prospects for security cooperation between India and Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the end of the Cold War, the strategic divide between India and Japan is also over. For the first time in the past five decades there is a convergence of interests between the two countries.Japan is gradually shedding post?World War II constraints and engaging in a more activist foreign policy. India must take into account this changing reality. India

Sanjana Joshi

2001-01-01

440

Tora no Maki III. Lessons for Teaching about Contemporary Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The elements of Japan, including history, geography, economics, civics, and cultural studies, are in this collection of original lesson plans. The lessons are meant to provide original content about Japan to augment and supplement an existing unit of study and evoke a spirit of inquiry and introspection. The 24 lessons are as follows: (1) "Family…

National Council for the Social Studies, Washington, DC.

441

Atomic and molecular databases in Japan and Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomic and molecular data activities and databases in Japan and Asia are introduced. In China IAPCM has a database on windows95/NT. In Korea KAERI has A+M databases with original engines. In Japan JAERI shows evaluated data as graphs on WWW and NIFS offers numerical A+M databases on WWW. .

Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Takako

2000-11-01

442

Why did Countries Adopt the Gold Standard? Lessons from Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why did policymakers adopt the gold standard? Although previous research has identified ex post effects of gold standard adoption on trade and bond yields, few studies have sought to understand whether these were the actual outcomes of interest to policymakers at the time of adoption. We examine the political economy of Japan’s adoption of the gold standard in 1897 by

Kris James Mitchener; Masato Shizume; Marc D. Weidenmier

2009-01-01

443

United States-Japan Trade Study Group Progress Report: 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. - Japan Trade Study Group (TSG) is comprised of both Japanese businessmen and U.S. Businessmen working in Japan, all acting in an individual capacity. The purpose of TSG is to promote trade and investment between the two countries. The approach i...

1984-01-01

444

Better Off Jobless? Scarring Effects of Contingent Employment in Japan  

PubMed Central

Previous research fails to address whether contingent employment benefits individuals’ careers more than the alternative they often face: being without a job. Using work history data from Japan, this study shows that accepting a contingent job delays individuals’ transition to standard employment more than remaining jobless. Moreover, having a contingent job, rather than having no job, leads Japanese men to have lower occupational status after they transition back to standard employment. I argue that in a highly segmented labor market like Japan’s, the strict separation of labor pools for standard and contingent jobs makes being labeled as a contingent worker particularly detrimental. Meanwhile, the legacy of Japan’s welfare corporatism alleviates the stigma of unemployment, making individuals better off jobless than having a contingent job. This research thus demonstrates the importance of labor-market contexts in shaping the scarring effects of contingent work arrangements.

Yu, Wei-hsin

2011-01-01

445

Words of Tohkaku Wada: medical heritage in Japan  

PubMed Central

The origins of Japan's medical ideas, which are deeply rooted in its religion, culture and history, are not widely understood in medical societies of other countries. We have taken up the task of summarising this tradition here so that some insight can be gained into the unique issues that characterise the practice of medicine in Japan. We borrow from the sayings of Tohkaku Wada, a medical philosopher of late eighteenth-century Japan, for a look at Japanese medical tradition. Wada's medical thought was very much reflective of the Buddhism, Zen, and swordsmanship that informed eighteenth-century philosophy in Japan. His central concepts were "chu" and "sei", that is, complete and selfless dedication to the patient and the practice of medicine. This paper explores Wada's thought, explaining it mainly from the standpoint of Japanese traditional culture. Key Words: Tohkaku Wada • ethics • philosophy • Buddhism • Zen • Japan

Matsumoto, M.; Inoue, K.; Kajii, E.

2001-01-01

446

Paleomagnetic evidence for the Miocene counter-clockwise rotation of Northeast Japan-rifting process of the Japan arc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleomagnetic results have been obtained from more than 700 oriented samples in igneous rocks of Cretaceous to Miocene age from Northeast Japan. The remanent magnetizations of welded tuffs with age between 32 Ma and 21 Ma old from 17 widely distributed sampling sites in Northeast Japan are fairly well grouped with a mean of D = -41.2°, I = 56.5°,

Yo-Ichiro Otofuji; Takaaki Matsuda; Susumu Nohda

1985-01-01

447

How sustainable is Japan's foreign aid policy? An analysis of Japan's official development assistance and funding for energy sector projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan has adopted a sustainable development strategy since the late 1980s in the effort to address social and environmental damages caused by past Japan-funded projects in partner nations. Even after about a decade and a half of the policy implementation, however, there are few reports which critically examine effects of the adoption of the idea of sustainable development. This dissertation

Hideka Yamaguchi

2009-01-01

448

Vergleichende Ethnographische Studien zu Bildungssystemen: USA, Japan, Deutschland (Comparative Ethnographic Studies on Educational Systems: United States, Japan, Germany).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews three qualitative case studies on the educational systems of Japan, the United States, and Germany, conducted as a component of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). States that the studies provide a basis for understanding the differences in mathematics and science achievement among Japan, Germany, and the United…

Roeder, Peter Martin

2001-01-01

449

A fresh breeze after Fukushima? Analysing Japan’s current limitations and future prospects of wind power development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind power generation in Japan is underdeveloped. Despite relatively good geographical and meteorological conditions, wind supplies less than 0.2% of the national electricity demand. Germany, in contrast, is able to provide over 6% of its electricity from wind power. This article will outline the main reasons for the marginal position of wind power in Japan by comparing and contrasting it

Anna Schrade

2012-01-01

450

The Dynamics of Philippines-Japan Economic Cooperation: The Case of Japan's Official Development Assistance in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement is envisioned to further boost Japan's ODA to the Philippines, particularly for capital formation in the infrastructure sector. It will stimulate an increase in investment and capital accumulation causing more employment opportunities to be created. Output capacity will expand and so with cost of production. Moreover, export volume will increase at lower prices, thus enhancing

Jose V. Camacho Jr.; Agham C. Cuevas

2004-01-01

451

Pediatric allergy and immunology in Japan.  

PubMed

The Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (JSPACI) was started in 1966 and currently has 3613 members as of August 1, 2012. The number of pediatricians specializing in allergies who have been certified by the Japanese Society of Allergology is 817. Among these, there are 125 training directors and training facilities for allergy and clinical immunology. The JSPACI first published an asthma guideline specific for children in 2000, and this has been revised every 3 yrs, contributing to better control of pediatric asthma. Food allergy management guidelines were first developed in 2005, which have helped to improve the care of food allergy patients. Among 514 pediatric training programs by the Japanese Society of Pediatrics, there are 312 facilities routinely performing oral food challenges. Among these, there were already 53 facilities performing oral immunotherapy at the end of 2011, treating 1400 cases of food allergy. The prevalence of pediatric allergic diseases has increased in Japan over the past 50 yrs. A number of International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood surveys have been conducted in the past at specific times. The prevalence of wheezing among children aged 13-14 yrs in 2002 was 13.0%. Multi-year surveys found a 1.5- to 2-fold increase every 10 yrs until 2002. However, according to the latest data in 2012, asthma prevalence seems to have slightly decreased in Japan. Food allergy mainly associated with infantile atopic eczema among infants younger than 1 yr of age is the most common form as with other developed countries. The estimated food allergy prevalence based on data from several surveys is 5-10% among infants (0-6 yrs) and 1-2% among schoolchildren (6-15 yrs). A variety of patients suffering from primary deficiency syndrome have been actively analyzed. Previously, antibody defects and well-defined syndromes with immunodeficiency were analyzed, but recent research is focusing on not only acquired immune disorders but also on innate immune disorders. In contrast to the widespread use of oral immunotherapy, one immediate issue is to develop and reassess subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapies for mite and Japanese cedar pollen antigens that have been disused in Japan since the 1990s. PMID:24112430

Ebisawa, Motohiro; Nishima, Sankei; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Kondo, Naomi

2013-09-16

452

Epidemiological analysis of bovine torovirus in Japan.  

PubMed

Bovine torovirus (BToV), a member of the Coronaviridae family, is an established gastrointestinal infectious agent in cattle. No epidemiological research on BToV has been reported from Japan. In this study, we performed a survey to detect BToV in Japan in 2004 and 2005 using 231 fecal samples (167 from diarrheic cattle and 64 from asymptomatic cattle) that were analyzed by nested reverse transcription (RT) PCR using primers located in the consensus sequences of the reported BToV nucleocapsid (N), membrane (M), and spike (S) genes. BToV N, M, and S genes were detected in 6.5% (15/231), 6.1% (14/231), and 5.6% (13/231) of samples by nested-RT-PCR, respectively. In conclusion, detectability was improved compared to the results of the first round of RT-PCR. BToV was detected at a significantly higher rate in diarrheic samples than in asymptomatic samples (14/167 diarrheic samples [8.4%] and 1/64 asymptomatic samples [1.6%]), suggesting that BToV may act as a risk factor for diarrhea in Japanese cattle. The nucleotide sequence of M fragments from the BToV isolates including the newly identified Japanese isolates showed more than 97% identity. A similar degree of homology was observed in the N gene fragment among BToV isolates with the exception of BRV-1 and BRV-2. Domestic samples were classified into three clusters by phylogenetic analysis of the S gene fragment, which were considerably correlated with the geographic origin of the samples. BToV positive areas did not adjoin each other but were spread across a wide range, suggesting that BToV exists conventionally in Japan and is geographically differentiated. We also developed an RFLP method to distinguish these clusters using two restriction enzymes, HaeIII and AccI. This method should be useful for comparing newly acquired BToV-positive samples with the reported BToVs. PMID:17320234

Ito, Toshihiro; Okada, Nobutaka; Fukuyama, Shin-ichi

2007-02-21

453

USSR-Japan energy cooperation in Siberia. Implications for US-Japan relations  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines how a seemingly straight-forward bilateral Japanese energy cooperation project can become a contentious problem when multilateral foreign policy issues come to the fore. The focus is on how joint Soviet-Japanese oil and gas exploration in Eastern Siberia became a source of bitter US-Japan disagreement when President Reagan sought to impose trade and technology sanctions against the Soviet Union to block or delay the completion of the Siberian gas pipeline deal with Europe. This is only one of several examples of how sudden changes in US foreign policy have served to dampen Tokyo's enthusiasm for close energy cooperation with Washington. Prospects for future Japan-US energy cooperation, I would maintain, will be better understood by examining them within a broader economic foreign policy context.

Chapman, D.K.

1983-03-01

454

Japan’s growing silver market – An attractive business opportunity for foreign companies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Japan is often considered a lead market for silver products as it is the country that has experienced the most dramatic demographic change. It has been labelled the most advanced\\u000a in terms of product development and innovation, with – at least according to the stereotypical view – very affluent, free-spending,\\u000a and demanding customers. The deeply rooted changes in the structure

Florian Kohlbacher; Pascal Gudorf; Cornelius Herstatt

455

Activities for the Promotion of Gender Equality in Japan-Japan Society of Applied Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1946, the Japan Society of Applied Physics (JSAP) has strived to promote research and development in applied physics for benefits beyond national boundaries. Activities of JSAP involve multidisciplinary fields, from physics and engineering to life sciences. Of its 23,000 members, 48% are from industry, 29% from academia, and about 7% from semi-autonomous national research laboratories. Its large industrial membership is one of the distinctive features of JSAP. In preparation for the First IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics (Paris, 2002), JSAP members took the first step under the strong leadership of then-JSAP President Toshio Goto, setting up the Committee for the Promotion Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Technology. Equality rather than women's advancement is highlighted to further development in science and technology. Attention is also paid to balancing the number of researchers from different age groups and affiliations. The committee has 22 members: 12 female and 10 male; 7 from corporations, 12 from universities, and 3 from semi-autonomous national research institutes. Its main activities are to organize symposia and meetings, conduct surveys among JSAP members, and provide child-care facilities at meetings and conferences. In 2002 the Japan Physics Society and the Chemical Society of Japan jointly created the Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association for the Promotion of Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering. Membership has grown to 44 societies (of which 19 are observers) ranging from mathematics, information, and life sciences to civil engineering. Joint activities across sectors and empower the whole. The Gender Equality Bureau in the Cabinet Office recently launched a large-scale project called ``Challenge Campaign'' to encourage girls to major in natural science and engineering, which JSAP is co-sponsoring.

Kodate, Kashiko; Tanaka, Kazuo

2005-10-01

456

Japan's international NGOs: a small but growing presence in Japan-China relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although home-grown NGO-type organisations have existed in Japan for a century or more, it has only been in the last two decades that significant numbers of Japanese NGOs have become active internationally, promoting international educational, cultural, scientific, economic and environmental co-operation. This is particularly noticeable in the case of Japanese NGOs’ activities in China. With the growth in China's economy,

Utpal Vyas

2010-01-01

457

Cooperation in astronomy between Indonesia and Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cooperation programme in astronomy between Indonesia and Japan is presented as an example of a well-coordinated bilateral cooperation between Asian countries. This cooperation has started in 1979, in the fields of galactic astronomy and stellar physics. The form of the cooperation is principally the exchange of persons between both countries for the purposes of collaborative works in some specific fields, the training of young astronomers, and technical cooperation. The main subjects of collaborative works are: (1) survey of red giants in the galactic center region, (2) survey ofHc&emission stars in some areas of the sky, (3) theoretical study of the dynamical evolution of stellar systems, (4) photoelectric observations of southern close binaries, (5) X-ray binaries and pulsars, (6) Be stars, and (7) other topics. The organization and main results of these works are presented, along with a future aspect of the cooperation

Kogure, T.

1986-01-01

458

[Current situation of pancreas transplantation in Japan].  

PubMed

Pancreas transplantation has been recognized as the best treatment for advanced type 1 diabetic patients. In Japan, we have performed 64 SPK, PAK or PTA from 62 brain-dead donors and two non-heart beating donors since the enforcement of Organ Transplant Act in 1997. In addition, 18 cases have been performed from living related donors. The patient survival, pancreas graft survival and kidney graft survival rate of the cadaveric transplantation at five years are 97.5%, 73.9% and 71.0%, respectively. The QOL of the recipients in both mental and physical aspects has been wonderfully improved leading to the happy second life. In front of the revised low in this year, the number of the donor and the transplantation are expected to increase. PMID:21174693

Sugitani, Atsushi; Yoshida, Junichi; Hoshinaga, Kiyotaka; Okabe, Yasuhiro; Kitada, Hidehisa; Tanaka, Masao

2010-12-01

459

Sodium-sulfur battery program in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An 11-year program was started in Japan in 1980 to develop new electric-energy storage systems. The advanced batteries chosen for this project are sodium-sulfur, zinc-chlorine, zinc-bromine, and Redox batteries. Here, the development of a Na/S battery is discussed. The battery consists of a series of cells containing beta-alumina tubes as electrolyte and molten sodium and sulfur as active materials. A 1kW/8kWh battery is to be built by the end of 1983. The system, if successful, will be scaled up to 10kW/80kWh by the end of 1986 and to 1MW/8MWh in 1987. The basic design features of the 1kW/8kWh battery and its expected performance characteristics are presented.

Fuchida, K.; Okada, K.; Iwabuchi, S.; Yokoyama, T.; Nakahara, K.

460

Development of active microwave sensors in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active microwave sensors under development in Japan to be incorporated as part of a future remote sensing satellite are described. The microwave altimeter will have RF, signal processor, and tracking processor sections. FM radar pulses would be emitted using SAW technology. Advances are still required to effectively configure the on-board signal processing equipment for maximum likelihood estimation with a 16-bit microprocessor. A pulse Doppler wind scatterometer, similar to the Seasat SASS instrument, will have fan beam scanning with a swath width of 500 km. The Doppler filter will identify 20 unit cells 25 x 25 km in size, using six antennas switched on in 2 sec intervals. An SAR unit would involve a chirp modulator with a SAW dispersive delay line, with the received echo detected for recording with the transmitted signal as a hologram for on-board storage or transmission on the X-band.

Matsumoto, K.; Kishida, H.; Yamada, H.; Hisada, Y.

461

Japan nurtures telecommunications on classic formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As in other industrial sectors, Japanese telecommunications organizations export significantly more products than they import, even when substantial cost-savings can be realized. One example is optical fibers, which some Japanese service companies do not buy from outside suppliers who have taken advantage of economies of scale. Nippon Telephone and Telegraph, until recently a common carrier, is meeting increasing competition from newly-formed indigenous telecommunications subsidiaries who are taking advantage of fiber optics and microwave communications capabilities. Various cooperative projects with U.S. companies are described, noting the tendency of Japanese manufacturers to cease relationships with U.S. companies when Japanese products become competitive and also the necessity of U.S. firms to gain political cooperation from the Japanese government in order to make sales in Japan.

Davis, Neil

1987-03-01

462

Activities on circuit theory in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is pointed out that a systematical study on circuit theory in Japan was initiated by Nukiyama in the early 1920s. Investigations related to classical circuit theory and filter design are discussed, taking into account developments in the 1930s, two-terminal network synthesis, transformerless three-terminal network synthesis, 2n-terminal network synthesis, a filter design theory with Chebyshev characteristics, active circuits, the concept of a multivariable positive real function, aspects of sensitivity, a wave separation filter, maximal flat ground delay characteristics, a transmission-line network, and mechanical filters. Graph theory and its application are considered, giving attention to the early period, the growth of topological circuit analysis, topological degrees of freedom and principal partition, and recent activities.

Watanabe, H.

1984-01-01

463

[Current state of oncolytic virotherapy in Japan].  

PubMed

Oncolytic virotherapy is an emerging treatment strategy that uses replication-competent viruses to destroy cancers. Recent advances include preclinical proof of feasibility for a single-shot virotherapy cure, identification of drugs that accelerate intratumoral virus propagation, and strategies to maximize the immunotherapeutic action of oncolytic viruses. The primary clinical milestone has been completion of accrual in a phase 3 trial of intratumoral herpes simplex virus therapy using OncoVEX for metastatic melanoma. In Japan, clinical treatments such as oncolytic adenoviruses(OBP-301)for esophageal cancer and oncolytic herpes simplex viruses(G47b)for brain cancer have accelerated considerably. We hope that a steady stream of new oncolytic viruses will enter the clinical arena in our country. PMID:23863576

Nakamori, Mikihito; Yamaue, Hiroki

2013-05-01

464

J. Heyrovský, Japan, and organic polarography.  

PubMed

Polarography is an electroanalytical technique based on recording current-voltage curves using a dropping mercury as the working electrode. It can be used for investigations of both reductions and oxidations of inorganic and organic species. Before WWII the developments of this technique linked Prague (in the then Czechoslovakia) with Kyoto (in Japan, where reductions of organic compounds were first observed). After WWII wide use of this technique has developed, so that in the 1950s and 1960 it became the fifth most frequently used analytical technique. More recently the analytical applications were limited to those of heterogeneous solutions and analyses of some drugs. Its applications in physical organic chemistry involve studies of structure-reactivity relationships and applications to investigations of equilibria and kinetics of rapidly or slowly established processes. PMID:22331770

Zuman, Petr

2012-02-01

465

Ski slope vegetation in central Honshu, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To determine the status of the vegetation of ski slopes in northeastern-central Honshu, Japan, 94 plots (2×2 m) were set up on five ski areas (101-520 m elevation) which were established between 1945 and 1985 by forest clear-cutting, land modification, and seeding. Six vegetation types were recognized: five grasslands dominated by Digitaria adscendens, Miscanthus sinensis, Zoysia japonica, Festuca rubra, and Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum, respectively, and bare areas of very low to no vegetation cover. Of the dominant species, F. rubra is the only introduced species; it does not, however, appear to persist. After the introduced grassland declines M. sinensis or annual grasslands develop. Native plants, especially woody species, can establish in M. sinensis grassland but do not establish in the other grasslands. It is concluded that the introduction of exotic species is inappropriate to maintain ski slope vegetation, and the development of M. sinensis grassland is desirable to promote natural revegetation.

Tsuyuzaki, Shiro

1995-09-01

466

Lesbian mothers in Japan: an insider's report.  

PubMed

This report introduces Remaza-Kansai, a lesbian mother group in Japan based in the Kansai area, their activities, and the lives of some of the participants in the activities based on interviews by the author. Remaza-Kansai organizes activities and special events for lesbian mothers and their children. It also manages a website and operates a bulletin board for lesbian mothers. In the interviews, it is found that besides the lack of legal recognition of lesbian mothers not biologically connected to the children, they also experience difficulties relating to schools. Another issue requiring further inquiry is how lesbian mothers "come out" to their children. doi:10.1300/J155v10n03_07. PMID:17210561

Arita, Keiko

2006-01-01

467

Epidemiology of childhood diabetes mellitus in Japan.  

PubMed

The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Japan among those below 15 years of age is reportedly 1.5-2.5 per 100,000; however, population-based data have not been available in recent years. Although the incidence of T1DM in Japan is extremely low compared with that in Caucasians, the vast majority of Japanese children who are diagnosed with diabetes before the age of 10 years have T1DM. The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in childhood is approximately 3.0 per 100,000, with the figure among junior high school children being 3-6 times higher than that among primary school children. The most common type of diabetes in children appears to shift from T1DM to T2DM with advancing age, especially after puberty. The mortality risk of patients with childhood-onset T1DM diagnosed between 1965 and 1979 is 12.9-fold higher than that of the general population. However, due to efforts aimed at improving medical care and ameliorating the effects of diabetes among children and adolescents, the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) has declined markedly over the past 30 years. The progression of complications in T2DM appears to be more rapid than that in T1DM, primarily due to the number of drop-out cases. Therefore, appropriate education and treatment programs are necessary to protect against diabetic complications in the younger generation. The establishment of an ongoing population-based national T1DM and T2DM registry system is critical for identifying risk factors associated with diabetes and its complications. PMID:23330245

Tajima, Naoko; Morimoto, Aya

2012-10-01

468

[2006 Epidemiological survey of dermatomycoses in Japan].  

PubMed

An epidemiological survey of dermatomycoses and the causative fungus flora of dermatomycoses in Japan for 2006 was made on a total number of 63,029 outpatients who visited 16 dermatological clinics throughout Japan. The results were as follows. 1) Dermatophytosis was the most prevalent cutaneus fungal infection (7,582 cases) seen in these clinics, followed by candidiasis (842 cases) and then Malassezia infections (283 cases). 2) Among dermatophytoses, tinea pedis was the most frequent (4,779 cases : male 2,358, female 2,241), then in decreasing order, tinea unguium (2,582 cases : male 1,376, female 1,206), tinea corporis (564 cases : male 341, female 223), tinea cruris (309 cases : male 254, female 57), tinea manuum (145 cases : male 92, female 53), and tinea capitis including kerion (17 cases : male 12, female 5). 3) Tinea pedis and tinea unguium are seen to increase in the summer season, among the aged population. When compared to the last survey 2002 by clinical form, t. unguium patients increased 459 cases. 4) As the causative dermatophyte species, Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated among all dermatophyte infections except tinea capitis. Microsporum canis was slightly increased. M.gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum are small number. T.tonsurans was increased up to 37 cases. 5) Cutaneous candidiasis was seen in 842 cases (305 male, 537 female). Intertrigo (298 cases) was the most frequent clinical form, followed by erosion interdigitalis (136 cases), oral candidiasis (135 cases), onychia et paronychia (108 cases), genital and diaper candidiasis in total (88 cases). 6) Tinea versicolor was seen in 175 cases. Malassezia folliculitis were collected 108 cases, 63 cases are reported from one clinic. PMID:23149353

Sei, Yoshihiro

2012-01-01

469

Toward better management of nuclear materials in Japan and Asia  

SciTech Connect

The Asian region is drawing a great deal of attention from all over the world regarding its possible future role as the core of worldwide peaceful nuclear energy development. Northeast Asia, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan already have a significant amount of nuclear power generation. Furthermore, these countries together with China have expansion plans. Southeast Asia is just beginning to plan and construct civilian nuclear power stations. Among these Asian countries, Japan can be regarded as one of the most developed nations as far as peaceful nuclear energy is concerned. Within Japan several nuclear fuel cycle facilities, including reprocessing and uranium enrichment facilities, are in operation. Research and developmental activities on fast breeder reactors are continuing. On this occasion the author explains three topics in general. The first is the history and the present situation of Japanese nuclear energy development and nuclear materials management. The second topic is Japan`s efforts to strengthen international nonproliferation efforts, which include: various assistances in the dismantling of the former Soviet Union`s nuclear forces; Japan`s participation in the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO), which is responsible for the supply of two light water reactors to the Democratic people`s Republic of Korea (DPRK); Japan`s initiative and contributions to the establishment of guidelines for use and storage of separated plutonium; technical and financial support to the IAEA safeguards implementation; and the strengthening of the Japanese system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials (SSAC) in connection with the Agency`s activity, Program 93+2. The last topic addresses is concerned with nuclear energy in the Asian region. The concept of ASIATOM, or PACIFIC ATOM is now being widely discussed in several countries in Asia. The author discusses this idea, especially regarding the objectives, possible contents and the structures.

Kurihara, Hiroyoshi [Nuclear Material Control Center, Tokyo (Japan)

1996-11-01

470

FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, January 21, 1997  

SciTech Connect

;Selected titles include: Fine Ceramics Center Observes Formation Process for Carbon Nanotubes; Hitachi Ltd. Develops Atomic Manipulation Technology; Structural Thermal Model Tests on Exposed Facility of Japanese Experiment Module for International Space Station; Status of Japan`s Intelligent Transport System; Status of AIST Fuel Cell Projects; Kawasaki Heavy to Conduct Demonstration Test for Internal Circulating Fluidized Bed Refuse Incinerator; Osaka Gas Develops New Battery Electrode Material for Lithium-Ion Battery; Toshiba Corp. Develops World`s Smallest DRAM Memory Cell; Ten Card Companies To Work on Secure Electronic Commerce; and Japan: Column Views DA Internal Bureau Recasting.

NONE

1997-01-21

471

Current status and perspectives of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan.  

PubMed

This mini-review describes recent epidemiological trends in cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan. Some of the topics discussed herein were presented at the first symposium on "Current perspectives of Taenia asiatica researches", that was held in Osong in Chungbuk Province, South Korea, in October 2011 and organized by Prof. K. S. Eom, Chungbuk National University School of Medicine. To better understand the trends in the occurrence of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan, clinical cases reported in 2005 have been updated. In addition, the current status of Taenia asiatica infections successively occurring in Japan since 2010 is also discussed. PMID:23467264

Yamasaki, Hiroshi

2013-02-18

472

Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Japan  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Japan, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Japan.

Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Takagi, T.

2009-04-15

473

Analysis of Japan-Thailand Free Trade Agreement using Asian International Input-Output Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since September 2005, Japan and Thailand have agreed upon establishing Japan- Thailand Economic Partnership Agreement (JTEPA). The agreement, mainly, focuses on setting up free trade between the two nations. Specifically, Japan would be grated tariff reduction on automobiles, auto parts, and iron and steel products. On the other hand, Thailand would gain market assess to Japan in textile and agricultural

Wilairat TONGSIRI; Hiroyuki KOSAKA

2008-01-01

474

Japan's Policy Towards East and Southeast AsiaTrends in Re-Asianization&ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years Japan's definition of Asia has been undergoing a significant change. So farfor Japan, Asia meant mainly China, the two Koreas and the Southeast Asian countriesAfter the events of 11 September, the US invasion of Afghanistan, the war in Iraq, the massivanti-Japan movement in China and South Korea and other developments Japan was impelleto strengthen its relations with

Lalima Varma

2006-01-01

475

Deep Seismic reflection profiling across the back-arc fold-and-thrust belt, central Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associated with the opening of the Japan Sea, back arc basins have been developed along the Japan Sea coast of northern Honshu, Japan and the eastern part of the Japan Sea during the early Miocene time. These basins were filled by thick Neogene sediments. By subsequent convergence since the Pliocene, an arc-parallel fold and thrust belt has been developed along

H. Sato; S. Abe; A. Takahashi; N. Kato; T. Iwasaki; H. Saito; K. Shiraishi; H. Fukasawa

2009-01-01

476

Pyro-processing Technology Development in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Metal fuel cycle with pyro-processing technology has another potential different from oxide fuel cycle with aqueous process. In addition to the advantage of metal fuel fast reactor, such as achieving a high breeding ratio over 1.3, the pyro-processing with metal electrorefining expects that no additional process is required to separate minor actinides and no organic solvent that degrades by radiation and acid is utilized. 'Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor (FR) Cycle Systems' in Japan selected the metal fuel fast reactor fuel cycle with metal-electrorefining as the sub-system for future development. CRIEPI has been involving on R and D of pyro-processing technology with metal-electrorefining since 1980's and followed JAERI, that orients to apply on the treatment of spent target with nitride fuel for ADS, and JNC, currently merged to JAEA, and, then, wider collaboration started among CRIEPI/JAERI/JNC. The series verification of process starting with MOX pellets have produced U-Pu alloy after distillation through reduction and electrorefining at the facility installed in Tokai, JAEA. The metal fuel fabrication has started from the stage of U-Pu alloy fabrication from UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} mixture by electrochemical reduction, and currently succeeds to produce a fuel slag of U-Pu-Zr of 30 cm by injection casting in Oarai, JAEA. The alloys are scheduled to irradiate in JOYO fast reactor core. The development of engineering model of electro-refiner and electrochemical reduction device has successfully conducted by use of UO{sub 2} with kg scale. In addition to domestic R and Ds, pyro-processing verification with genuine material is proceeding in the joint study of CRIEPI/ITU. TRU is extracted into cadmium from chloride prepared from HLLW through denitration by reductive extraction in a caisson installed in a hot cell, and, then, electrorefining by use of PHENIX-irradiated metal fuel with minor actinides is scheduled. Thus, the R and D on pyro-processing technology with metal electrorefining is steadily progressed in Japan from the points of flow-sheet verification and engineering scale application. (authors)

Inoue, Tadashi; Koyama, Tadafumi [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, CRIEPI, 2-11-1, Iwato-Kita, Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Myochin, Munetaka [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-33 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan); Arai, Yasuo [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

2007-07-01

477

JTEC panel report on advanced computing in Japan. Executive summary  

SciTech Connect

The report examines the status and direction of Japanese technology in six areas related to advanced computing: electronic components, data storage, computer architecture, software, human interfaces, and supercomputers. The report is based on a review of the literature and a one week trip to Japan in November 1989 during which members of the Panel visited numerous Japanese laboratories and other computing facilities. The overall findings of the Panel suggest that advanced computing technology in Japan is equal to or ahead of that in the United States in the areas of electronic components, data storage, scientific calculations and supercomputers, as well as multimedia hardware. The U.S. is clearly ahead in computer architecture, software, and computer and human interfaces. Japan is gaining ground relative to the United States in all but one of those areas (human interfaces). The report concludes that Japan's position in advanced computing hardware will become dominant unless new initiatives are taken in the United States.

Harrison, M.A.; Hayes, E.F.; Meindl, J.D.; Morris, J.H.; Siewiorek, D.P.

1990-10-01

478

Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper provides radioactivity survey data in dietary materials, which were collected from January through September 1992. The samples were sent to the Japan Chemical Analysis Center from 46 contracted prefectures. The samples were prepared for radioch...

1994-01-01

479

Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a compilation of radioactivity survey data in dietary materials, which were collected from May 1992 through March 1993. The samples were sent to the Japan Chemical Analysis Center from 46 contracted prefectures. The samples were prepared for radio...

1994-01-01

480

US-Japan Industry and Technology Management Training Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Japan Technology Management Program at the University of Michigan began in late September 1991. The Program operated under three separate grants from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the final one from September 1995-March 2000. The progra...

J. K. Liker

2000-01-01

481

Human Gastroenteritis Outbreak Associated with Escherichia albertii, Japan  

PubMed Central

Although Escherichia albertii is an emerging intestinal pathogen, it has been associated only with sporadic human infections. In this study, we determined that a human gastroenteritis outbreak at a restaurant in Japan had E. albertii as the major causative agent.

Ooka, Tadasuke; Tokuoka, Eisuke; Furukawa, Masato; Nagamura, Tetsuya; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Arisawa, Kokichi; Harada, Seiya

2013-01-01

482

Antibiotic Industry in Japan, History and Development (Technical Report).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The case study on antibiotics industry in Japan, history and development is part of an effort by the UNIDO Secretariat to undertake case studies which would review the development of this important industry in selected developed and developing countries w...

M. Aizawa

1985-01-01

483

Development and Structure of Consumer Credit in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary goals of this study are to describe and analyze the development, structure, and regulation of consumer credit in Japan, and to identify significant laws, regulations, or ministerial guidance that may restrict consumer credit markets and constr...

A. J. Alexander K. D. Oh

1989-01-01

484

Energy Efficient Industrial Technology in Japan: A Compendium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The compendium describes energy efficient industrial technologies currently in use in Japan. The study concentrated on gas-fired equipment in the aluminum, steel and cement industries. Some of these technologies are unique and some are currently available...

A. G. Fassbender Y. Yanase M. J. McGee

1982-01-01

485

Arms production in Japan: The military applications of civilian technology  

SciTech Connect

The author examines both the domestic and international environments encouraging Japan's leaders not only to strengthen the country's defense, but to do so more independently. Until recently, the arms industry has been nurtured by U.S. weapons technology, but growing dependence on electronics dramatically increases Japan's contribution to modern weapons systems. The electronics revolution is creating more and more dual-purpose products, undermining the Japanese cabinet policy of prohibiting arms export. The discovery of wider applications for Japanese manufacturers' most advanced civilian technology is a strong motivation for entering the arms arena. The book illustrates that Japan's entry into the field is a dynamic example of the success of Japanese industry as it enters new technological areas. The author discusses: Development and the Present Situation of Japan's Arms Production Capability; Research and Development; The Shipbuilding Industry; The Aircraft Industry; The Space and Missile Industry; and Arms Exports with conclusions.

Drifte, R.

1986-01-01

486

Energy Demand and Resources of Japan. Volume II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The five major energy resources of Japan (hydroelectric, coal, oil, gas, and nuclear power) are discussed in detail. Areas of demand, consumption, future prospects, and potential political problems are covered.

K. Dance B. Ryan J. F. Schneider

1973-01-01

487

Biological Structure and Seasonality in the Japan/East Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Japan/East Sea (JES) contains several oceanic regions separated by dynamic boundaries. These distinct regions and the physicals feature that establish and maintain the boundaries between the regions have significant impacts on its ocean biology. Until...

B. Jones C. Ashijan C. Davis M. Kahru R. A. Arnone

2006-01-01

488

The Japan-China preliminary VLBI experiment. II. Data analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first Japan-China VLBI experiment was carried out in September, 1985. From good fringes obtained in two 24-hour observations, the authors determined the baseline length between Kashima and Shanghai with an error less than 4 centimeters.

N. Kawaguchi; J. Amagai; H. Kuroiwa; F. Takahashi

1986-01-01

489

The revolution of train control system in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following report introduces train control systems applied in railway lines in Japan. The report also shows that train control systems have been developed and these are classified four levels from \\

M. Matsumo

2005-01-01

490

JTEC Panel Report on Electronic Manufacturing and Packaging in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing techno...

E. S. Meieran J. A. Kukowski J. W. Peeples M. Pecht M. J. Kelly R. R. Tummala W. R. Boulton

1995-01-01

491

Competing with Japan in Intellectual Property: A Strategic Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The growing strength of Japanese firms in intellectual property and the difficulties experienced by American firms in protecting their intellectual property positions in Japan are well known. This paper attempts to take a larger view of the problem of int...

J. P. Womack

1992-01-01

492

Hydraulic Fracturing and Propping Tests at Yakedake Field in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hydraulic fracturing experiments have been conducted at Yakedake field in Gifu prefecture, Japan. From the data obtained during the fracturing operation, the open-hole section permeability was estimated of the wellbore, the minimum pressure required to pr...

T. Yamaguchi K. Seo S. Suga T. Itoh M. Kuriyagawa

1984-01-01

493

Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Japan  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode that causes taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. The parasite is traditionally found in developing countries where undercooked pork is consumed under poor sanitary conditions and/or as part of traditional food cultures. However, the recent increase in international tourism and immigration is spreading the disease into non-endemic developed countries such as the United States. Although there has been concern that the number of cysticercosis cases is increasing in Japan, the current situation is not clear. This is largely because taeniasis and cysticercosis are not notifiable conditions in Japan and because there have been no comprehensive reviews of T. solium infections in Japan conducted in the last 15 years. Herein, we provide an overview of the status of T. solium infection in Japan over the past 35 years and point out the potential risks to Japanese society.

2012-01-01

494

FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, April 2, 1997  

SciTech Connect

;Contents(Partial): Japan To Enter Commercial Launch Market; Significance of Lunar Mission Discussed; Hitachi Maxell, Sanyo Develop 14 GB Magneto-Optical Disc Technology; Coal Liquefaction Pilot Plant Ready for Testing; MITI develops Next-Generation Freon Substitute; Stable Power Supply Through Nuclear Power; JR Tokai Targets 550km for Maglev Test Run on Yamanaashi Line; and Japan to Establish Nationwide High-Speed Telecommunications Network Using CATV Networks.

NONE

1997-04-02

495

Seismic isolation and passive response-control buildings in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a brief introduction to seismic isolation and passive structural response-control buildings in Japan. A total number of 287 projects on seismic-isolated building structures had obtained the required special permission in Japan by the end of September 1996. The effectiveness of seismic isolation buildings has been demonstrated and verified through the 1995 Hyogoken-nanbu (Kobe) earthquake. It has resulted

Yoshikazu Kitagawa; Mitsumasa Midorikawa

1998-01-01

496

Midterm Summary of Japan-US Fusion Cooperation Program TITAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan-US cooperation program TITAN (Tritium, Irradiation and Thermofluid for America and Nippon) started in April 2007 as 6-year project. This is the summary report at the midterm of the project. Historical overview of the Japan-US cooperation programs and direction of the TITAN project in its second half are presented in addition to the technical highlights. Blankets are component systems whose

Takeo Muroga; Dai-Kai Sze; Mikhail Sokolov; Yutai Katoh; Roger E Stoller

2011-01-01

497

Age-related characteristics of uterine cancer mortality in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several studies have proved that uterine cancer mortality has decreased in Japan over the past 50 years, but the age demographics in this regard are not clear. This study investigated the change pattern of age characteristics for this cancer. Methods: Cause-specific mortality was identified in the population of Japan and Ireland in the years 1950–2000. Time trends of age-specific mortality

Kazuo Aoki; Juan Sun; Akihiro Kono; Junichi Misumi

2005-01-01

498

LANDSLIDE DISASTERS AND HAZARD MAPS ALONG NATIONAL HIGHWAYS IN JAPAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes characteristics of 1,310 landslide disasters along national highways in Japan for fifteen years from FY1990 to FY2004, and shows a trial example of roadside landslide hazard map. Road bureau of Ministry of land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) of Japan government collected 1,310 landslide disasters with road traffic suspension on the direct administrative highway of 20,000 kilometers

Toshiyuki Kurahashi; Yoshinori Yajima; Yasuhito Sasaki

2008-01-01

499

Anti-doping activites of volleyball in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAnti-doping activities are necessary for justice and fairness in sports. In and out of competition doping tests are now mainly responsible for anti-doping activities.ObjectiveTo clarify the anti-doping activities in Japan in recent years.Design, setting, and participantsThe object of the investigation is to summarize the doping tests performed after the volleyball games in Japan between 2006–2009. The anti-doping activities were mainly

Y Hashimoto; T Yamashita; Y Hamu; M Hayashi

2011-01-01

500

Japan: super-aging society preparing for the future.  

PubMed

Japan has the highest proportion of older adults in the world. Aging is not only an immediate personal issue but also a salient factor in crucial public policies, such as pensions, health, and long-term care. The Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear power plant disaster of March 2011 has highlighted current and emerging issues of a "super-aging" society, especially the need for community-based support systems. PMID:21804114

Muramatsu, Naoko; Akiyama, Hiroko

2011-08-01