Sample records for photomask japan bacus

  1. Driving photomask supplier quality through automation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Drew Russell; Andrew Espenscheid

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, Freescale Semiconductor's newly centralized mask data prep organization (MSO) initiated a project to develop an automated global quality validation system for photomasks delivered to Freescale Semiconductor fabs. The system handles Certificate of Conformance (CofC) quality metric collection, validation, reporting and an alert system for all photomasks shipped to Freescale fabs from all qualified global suppliers. The completed system

  2. Automatic photomask defect classification method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Kyoji; Matsuki, Kazuto; Akeno, Kiminobu

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes a new image-processing algorithm for classifying photomask defects as pindots or contamination as a step toward automated inspection equipment for the one-micron generation. To detect contamination on quartz, our method extracts the gradient of the transmitted image within the dark region of reflected image. Contamination on the opaque membrane can also be detected by using the same method but with the transmitted image and reflected image mutually transposed. Standard particles of 0.3 to 0.5 micron can be detected with particles on quartz and particles on opaque membrane separated.

  3. 14-nm photomask simulation sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturtevant, John; Buck, Peter; Schulze, Steffen; Fryer, David; Tejnil, Edita; Adam, Kostas; Lam, Michael; Clifford, Chris; Oliver, Mike; Armeanu, Ana; Kalk, Franklin; Nakagawa, Kent; Ning, Guoxiang; Ackmann, Paul; Gans, Fritz; Buergel, Christian

    2014-10-01

    This study quantifies the impact of systematic mask errors on OPC model accuracy and proposes a methodology to reconcile the largest errors via calibration to the mask error signature in wafer data. First, we examine through simulation, the impact of uncertainties in the representation of photomask properties including CD bias, corner rounding, refractive index, thickness, and sidewall angle. The factors that are most critical to be accurately represented in the model are cataloged. CD bias values are based on state of the art mask manufacturing data while other variable values are speculated, highlighting the need for improved metrology and communication between mask and OPC model experts. It is shown that the wafer simulations are highly dependent upon the 1D/2D representation of the mask, in addition to the mask sidewall for 3D mask models. In addition, this paper demonstrates substantial accuracy improvements in the 3D mask model using physical perturbations of the input mask geometry when using Domain Decomposition Method (DDM) techniques. Results from four test cases demonstrate that small, direct modifications in the input mask stack slope and edge location can result in model calibration and verification accuracy benefit of up to 30%. We highlight the benefits of a more accurate description of the 3D EMF near field with crosstalk in model calibration and impact as a function of mask dimensions. The result is a useful technique to align DDM mask model accuracy with physical mask dimensions and scattering via model calibration.

  4. Japan.

    PubMed

    1989-02-01

    Japan consists of 3900 islands and lies off the east coast of Asia. Even though Japan is one of the most densely populated nations in the world, its growth rate has stabilized at .5%. 94% of all children go to senior high school and almost 90% finish. Responsibility for the sick, aged, and infirmed is changing from the family and private sector to government. Japan was founded in 600 BC and its 1st capital was in Nara (710-1867). The Portuguese, the 1st Westerners to make contact with Japan in 1542, opened trade which lasted until the mid 17th century. US Navy Commodore Matthew Perry forced Japan to reopen in 1854. Following wars with China and Russia in the late 1800s and early 1900s respectively, Japan took part in World Wars I and II. In between these wars Japan invaded Manchuria and China. The US dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Japanese surrendered in September, 1945 ending World War II (WWII). Following, WWII, the Allied Powers guided Japan's establishment as a nonthreatening nation and a democratic parliamentary government (a constitutional monarchy) with a limited defense force. Japan remains one of the most politically stable of all postwar democracies. The Liberal Democratic Party's Noboru Takeshita became prime minister in 1987. Japan has limited natural resources and only 19% of the land is arable. Japanese ingenuity and skill combine to produce one of the highest per hectare crop yields in the world. Japan is a major economic power, and its and the US economies are becoming more interdependent. Its exports, making up only 13% of the gross national product, mainly go to Canada and the US. Many in the US are concerned, however, with the trade deficit with Japan and are seeking ways to make trade more equitable. Japan wishes to maintain good relations with its Asian neighbors and other nations. The US and Japan enjoy a strong, productive relationship. PMID:12178004

  5. Carbon fiber composite photomask stage component

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian E. Catanzaro; Jack E. Dyer; David Trost

    1999-01-01

    The semiconductor industry utilizes complex patterning tools to achieve the patterning of fine features. These tools require stiff, lightweight, dimensionally stable components in order to reliably pattern photomasks and wafers. Traditionally, these tools have used metals, ceramics, and low expansion glasses. However, a new class of materials, high performance composites, have demonstrated promise for replacing these materials. This paper discusses

  6. Carbon fiber composite photomask stage component

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian E. Catanzaro; Jack E. Dyer; David Trost

    2000-01-01

    The semiconductor industry utilizes complex patterning tools to achieve the patterning of fine features. These tools require stiff, lightweight, dimensionally stable components in order to reliably pattern photomasks and wafers. Traditionally, these tools have used metals, ceramics, and low expansion glasses. However, a new class of materials, high performance composites, has demonstrated promise for replacing these materials. This paper discusses

  7. Pellicle dimensions for high NA photomasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Erber; Thomas Schulmeyer; Christian Holfeld

    2007-01-01

    At photomask manufacturing, post pellicle inspection suffers from an interference of pellicle size and height dimensions with the inspection equipment requirements. This pellicle shadow causes nonreliable inspection results. The evolution of this effect as well as similar potentially upcoming effects during other lithography processes need to be understood in order to identify potential problems ahead of time and guide the

  8. Japan.

    PubMed

    1987-02-01

    Japan is composed of 4 main islands and more than 3900 smaller islands and has 317.7 persons/square kilometer. This makes it one of the most densely populated nations in the world. Religion is an important force in the life of the Japanese and most consider themselves Buddhists. Schooling is free through junior high but 90% of Japanese students complete high school. In fact, Japan enjoys one of the highest literacy rates in the world. There are over 178 newspapers and 3500 magazines published in Japan and the number of new book titles issued each year is greater than that in the US. Since WW1, Japan expanded its influence in Asia and its holdings in the Pacific. However, as a direct result of WW2, Japan lost all of its overseas possessions and was able to retain only its own islands. Since 1952, Japan has been ruled by conservative governments which cooperate closely with the West. Great economic growth has come since the post-treaty period. Japan as a constitutional monarchy operates within the framework of a constitution which became effective in May 1947. Executive power is vested in a cabinet which includes the prime minister and the ministers of state. Japan is one of the most politically stable of the postwar democracies and the Liberal Democratic Party is representative of Japanese moderate conservatism. The economy of Japan is strong and growing. With few resources, there is only 19% of Japanese land suitable for cultivation. Its exports earn only about 19% of the country's gross national product. More than 59 million workers comprise Japan's labor force, 40% of whom are women. Japan and the US are strongly linked trading partners and after Canada, Japan is the largest trading partner of the US. Foreign policy since 1952 has fostered close cooperation with the West and Japan is vitally interested in good relations with its neighbors. Relations with the Soviet Union are not close although Japan is attempting to improve the situation. US policy is based on the following 3 principles: 1) the US views Japan as an equal trade partner, 2) that the relationship is global in scope, and 3) that Japan has become increasingly assertive in world matters and plays a greater international role. The combined efforts of the US and Japan will be utilized to promote world peace. PMID:12177912

  9. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Savannah C.

    Materials for a secondary level, interdisciplinary social studies course on Japan are divided into introductory information, 14 classroom units, and study and evaluation materials. Introductory material includes lists of objectives and skills, an outline of Japanese history, and an explanation of Japan's name and flag. The units cover the…

  10. Applications of MICP source for next-generation photomask process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyuk-Joo Kwon; Byung-Soo Chang; Boo Y. Choi; Kyung H. Park; Soo-Hong Jeong

    2000-01-01

    As critical dimensions of photomask extends into submicron range, critical dimension uniformity, edge roughness, macro loading effect, and pattern slope become tighter than before. Fabrication of photomask relies on the ability to pattern features with anisotropic profile. To improve critical dimension uniformity, dry etcher is one of the solution and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) sources have become one of promising

  11. JAPAN

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Hughes

    2006-03-04

    DESK Standard: Know the physical, political, and economic features of Japan. . DATES: You can begin this activity on April 16. You should complete it by April 20. OBJECTIVE: During fourth grade, we have learned about the history and physical features of Utah. This activity will allow you to compare what you\\'ve learned about the state of Utah with ...

  12. Inline detection of Chrome degradation on binary 193nm photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufaye, Félix; Sippel, Astrid; Wylie, Mark; García-Berríos, Edgardo; Crawford, Charles; Hess, Carl; Sartelli, Luca; Pogliani, Carlo; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Gough, Stuart; Sundermann, Frank; Brochard, Christophe

    2013-09-01

    193nm binary photomasks are still used in the semiconductor industry for the lithography of some critical layers for the nodes 90nm and 65nm, with high volumes and over long periods. However, these 193nm binary photomasks can be impacted by a phenomenon of chrome oxidation leading to critical dimensions uniformity (CDU) degradation with a pronounced radial signature. If not detected early enough, this CDU degradation may cause defectivity issues and lower yield on wafers. Fortunately, a standard cleaning and repellicle service at the mask shop has been demonstrated as efficient to remove the grown materials and get the photomask CD back on target.Some detection methods have been already described in literature, such as wafer CD intrafield monitoring (ACLV), giving reliable results but also consuming additional SEM time with less precision than direct photomask measurement. In this paper, we propose another approach, by monitoring the CDU directly on the photomask, concurrently with defect inspection for regular requalification to production for wafer fabs. For this study, we focused on a Metal layer in a 90nm technology node. Wafers have been exposed with production conditions and then measured by SEM-CD. Afterwards, this photomask has been measured with a SEM-CD in mask shop and also inspected on a KLA-Tencor X5.2 inspection system, with pixels 125 and 90nm, to evaluate the Intensity based Critical Dimension Uniformity (iCDU) option. iCDU was firstly developed to provide feed-forward CDU maps for scanner intrafield corrections, from arrayed dense structures on memory photomasks. Due to layout complexity and differing feature types, CDU monitoring on logic photomasks used to pose unique challenges.The selection of suitable feature types for CDU monitoring on logic photomasks is no longer an issue, since the transmitted intensity map gives all the needed information, as shown in this paper. In this study, the photomask was heavily degraded after more than 18,000 300mm wafers exposed and the cleaning brought it back almost to its original state after manufacture. Wafer CD, photomask CD and iCDU results can be compared, before and after a standard mask shop cleaning. Measurement points have be chosen in logic areas and SRAM areas, so that their respective behaviours can be studied separately. Transmitted maps before and after cleaning were analysed in terms of CD shift and CDU degradation. The delta map shows a nice correlation with photomask CD shift. iCDU demonstrated the capability to detect a reliable CD range degradation of 5nm on photomask by a comparison between a reference inspection and the current inspection. Die to die inspection mode provides also valuable data, highlighting the degraded chrome sidewalls, more in the photomask centre than on the edges. Ultimately, these results would enable to trigger the preventive cleanings rather than on predefined thresholds. The expected gains for wafer fabs are cost savings (adapted cleanings frequency), increased photomask availability for production, longer photomask lifetime, no additional SEM time neither for photomask nor on wafer.

  13. The relationship between mounting pressure and time on final photomask flatness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizoguchi, Takashi; Barrett, Monica; Akutagawa, Satoshi; Caterer, Michael; Nolan, Robert; Plouffe, Dennis; Zhou, Nancy

    2010-05-01

    Photomask flatness and image placement specifications for advanced technology masks are becoming more stringent. Therefore, it is important to understand the various factors that affect final photomask flatness due to the direct impact it has on image placement. Past studies have demonstrated that final photomask flatness can be controlled by modifying the mounting process of photomask pellicle as well as changing the pellicle material itself [1][2][3][4]. In particular, our previous results demonstrate the ability to successfully eliminate data deviations by remounting the same pellicle for each experiment. This paper focuses on the relationship between mounting pressure and time on final photomask flatness. Our initial results indicate that mounting time has minimal influence on final photomask flatness; however, final photomask flatness is greatly impacted by varying mounting pressure. Finally we explore the relationship between the final photomask flatness and the image placement for post pellicle mounting onto the photomask.

  14. Multilayer Microfluidic Devices Created From A Single Photomask

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Ryan T.; Sheen, Allison M.; Jambovane, Sachin R.

    2013-08-28

    The time and expense associated with high quality photomask production can discourage the creation of multilayer microfluidic devices, as each layer currently requires a separate photomask. Here we describe an approach in which multilayer microfabricated devices can be created from a single photomask. The separate layers and their corresponding alignment marks are arranged in separate halves of the mask for two layer devices or quadrants for four layer devices. Selective exposure of the photomask features and rotation of the device substrate between exposures result in multiple copies of the devices on each wafer. Subsequent layers are aligned to patterned features on the substrate with the same alignment accuracy as when multiple photomasks are used. We demonstrate this approach for fabricating devices employing multilayer soft lithography (MSL) for pneumatic valving. MSL devices containing as many as 5 layers (4 aligned fluidic layers plus a manually aligned control layer) were successfully created using this approach. Device design is also modularized, enabling the presence or absence of features as well as channel heights to be selected independently from one another. The use of a single photomask to create multilayer devices results in a dramatic savings of time and/or money required to advance from device design to completed prototype.

  15. DIFFRACTION BY PHOTOMASKS Apo Sezginer, Weitao Chen, Jens Christian Jorgensen, Dennis Moore, Anton Sakovich,

    E-print Network

    DIFFRACTION BY PHOTOMASKS By Apo Sezginer, Weitao Chen, Jens Christian Jorgensen, Dennis Moore by Photomasks Dr. Apo Sezginer Weitao Chen, Jens Christian Jorgensen, Dennis Moore Anton Sakovich, Shirin Sardar

  16. FAST CALCULATION OF DIFFRACTION BY PHOTOMASKS Timothy Costa, John Cummings, Michael Jenkinson,

    E-print Network

    FAST CALCULATION OF DIFFRACTION BY PHOTOMASKS By Timothy Costa, John Cummings, Michael Jenkinson of Diffraction by Photomasks Timothy Costa, John Cummings, Michael Jenkinson, Yeon Eung Kim, Jose de Jesus

  17. The large contour data generation from divided image of photomask pattern of 32 nm and beyond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsutomu Murakawa; Yoshiaki Ogiso; Toshimichi Iwai; Jun Matsumoto; Takayuki Nakamura

    2010-01-01

    The application of Mask CD-SEM for process management of photomask using two dimensional measurements as photomask patterns become smaller and more complex, [1]. Also, WPI technology application using an optical Mask inspection tool simulates wafer plane images using photomask images [2]. In order to simulate the MEEF influence for aggressive OPC and High-end photomask patterns in 32nm node and beyond,

  18. Removal Method of Nano-Cut Debris for Photomask Repair Using an Atomic Force Microscopy System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Futoshi Iwata; Kazutaka Saigo; Toshihiko Asao; Masatoshi Yasutake; Osamu Takaoka; Takuya Nakaue; Shuichi Kikuchi

    2009-01-01

    Recently, photomask repairing techniques by scratching fabrication using an atomic force microscopy (AFM) system have been developed. However, the machining method using AFM produces cut debris during photomask repair, which induces problems and errors in photolithography. Here, we describe a novel removal method for cut debris produced in an AFM photomask repair process. The removing method is based on electrophoretic

  19. High-performance photomask cleaning process using electrolyzed water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamura, Yoshikazu; Usui, Hozumi; Yoshioka, Nobuyuki; Morimoto, H.

    1998-09-01

    A new photomask cleaning process using electrolyzed water was suggested in this work. This process using the cathode water with a small amount of ammonium hydroxide showed good efficiencies of removing particles from photomask surfaces. MoSiON surface was not so damaged in the alkaline cathode water compared with in APM. The rinsing process in the anode water eliminated the sulfuric acid residue on the surfaces of quartz substrates. Using electrolyzed water reduced the consumptions of the chemicals, the water and the energy.

  20. Optical measurement of the IC photomask pattern area.

    PubMed

    Karatsu, O

    1979-07-01

    Optical measurement of the integrated-circuit (IC) photomask pattern area is performed. The relationship between aperture dimension and diverging angle of diffracted light is numerically estimated after scalar electromagnetic theory, and the expected measurement error is derived. The experimental measurement of the pattern area is made using typical IC photomasks. In the experiment, converging optics and an integrating sphere are suitably arranged so as to minimize the error introduced by omitting the higher-order diffraction. Some of the measured data are compared with values which are calculated from the IC layout design data, and they are found to be in good agreement. PMID:20212628

  1. Improving the uncertainty of photomask linewidth measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedulla, J. M.; Potzick, James; Silver, Richard M.

    2004-05-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is currently developing a photomask linewidth standard (SRM 2059) with a lower expected uncertainty of calibration than the previous NIST standards (SRMs 473, 475, 476). In calibrating these standards, optical simulation modeling has been used to predict the microscope image intensity profiles, which are then compared to the experimental profiles to determine the certified linewidths. Consequently, the total uncertainty in the linewidth calibration is a result of uncertainty components from the optical simulation modeling and uncertainty due to experimental errors or approximations (e.g., tool imaging errors and material characterization errors). Errors of approximation in the simulation model and uncertainty in the parameters used in the model can contribute a large component to the total linewidth uncertainty. We have studied the effects of model parameter variation on measurement uncertainty using several different optical simulation programs that utilize different mathematical techniques. We have also evaluated the effects of chrome edge runout and varying indices of refraction on the linewidth images. There are several experimental parameters that are not ordinarily included in the modeling simulation. For example, the modeling programs assume a uniform illuminating field (e.g., Koehler illumination), ideal optics and perfect optical alignment. In practice, determining whether Koehler illumination has been achieved is difficult, and the optical components and their alignments are never ideal. We will present some techniques for evaluating Koehler illumination and methods to compensate for scattered (flare) light. Any such experimental elements, that are assumed accurate in the modeling, may actually present significant components to the uncertainty and need to be quantitatively estimated. The present state of metrology does not permit the absolute calibration of linewidth standards to the level of uncertainty called for in the semiconductor roadmap. However, there are applications for a linewidth standard and calibration strategies which do not require a NIST certified calibration (e.g., determining measurement precision). In this paper we present various critical elements of a systematic and thorough evaluation of the key components of linewidth uncertainty as well as our methods for evaluating and reducing modeling and experimental uncertainties.

  2. Selective removal of persistent particles with no photomask damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Tod; Bozak, Ron; White, Roy; Archuletta, Mike; Lee, David

    2009-04-01

    Makers and users of advanced technology photomasks have seen increased difficulties with the removal of persistent, or stubborn, nano-particle contamination. Shrinking pattern geometries, and new mask clean technologies to minimize haze, have both increased the number of problems and loss of mask yield due to these non-removable nano-particles. A novel technique (BitCleanTM) has been developed using a scanning probe microscope system originally designed for nanomachining photomask defect repair. Progress in the technical development of this approach into a manufacture-able solution is reviewed and its effectiveness is shown in selectively removing adherent particles without touching surrounding sensitive structures. Methods for generating targeted edge test particles along with considerations for removal of particles in various pattern geometries and materials are also discussed.

  3. Defining defect specifications to optimize photomask production and requalification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiekowsky, Peter

    2006-10-01

    Reducing defect repairs and accelerating defect analysis is becoming more important as the total cost of defect repairs on advanced masks increases. Photomask defect specs based on printability, as measured on AIMS microscopes has been used for years, but the fundamental defect spec is still the defect size, as measured on the photomask, requiring the repair of many unprintable defects. ADAS, the Automated Defect Analysis System from AVI is now available in most advanced mask shops. It makes the use of pure printability specs, or "Optimal Defect Specs" practical. This software uses advanced algorithms to eliminate false defects caused by approximations in the inspection algorithm, classify each defect, simulate each defect and disposition each defect based on its printability and location. This paper defines "optimal defect specs", explains why they are now practical and economic, gives a method of determining them and provides accuracy data.

  4. Qualification of BitClean technology in photomask production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Tod; White, Roy; Bozak, Ron; Archuletta, Mike; Brinkley, David; Yi, Daniel

    2010-09-01

    Makers and users of advanced technology photomasks have seen increased difficulties with the removal of persistent, or stubborn, nano-particle contamination. Shrinking pattern geometries, and new mask clean technologies to minimize haze, have both increased the number of problems and loss of mask yield due to these non-removable nano-particles. A novel technique (BitCleanTM) has been developed using the MerlinTM platform, a scanning probe microscope system originally designed for nanomachining photomask defect repair. Progress in the technical development of this approach into a manufacture-able solution is reviewed and its effectiveness is shown in selectively removing adherent particles without touching surrounding sensitive structures. Results will also be reviewed that were generated in the qualification and acceptance of this new technology in a photomask production environment. These results will be discussed in their relation to the minimum particle size allowed on a given design, particle removal efficiency per pass of the NanoBitTM (PREPP), and the resultant average removal throughput of particles unaffected by any other available mask clean process.

  5. Through-pellicle defect repair for advanced photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Tod; White, Roy; Bozak, Ron; LeClaire, Jeff; Archuletta, Mike; Lee, David

    2010-05-01

    A developing reality with advancing DUV femto-second pulsed laser repair of advanced photomasks after pelliclization is a significant operational cost savings. This economic advantage comes from the elimination of a previously critical inspection step before mounting the pellicle on the mask. The laser repair processes developed allow reduce the number of times masks are cycled through mask inspection tools and prevent recontamination of the mask surface due to handling during and after the inspection before pelliclization. The latter would require, without effective through-pellicle repair, removal of the pellicle, repair and/or reclean, then re-inspection and re-pelliclization of the mask (assuming success with the first cycle of repair and/or reclean). Meanwhile, the cost and lack of feasibility for this additional process both increase the investment in the mask while at the same time bringing it closer to being completely scrapped. Recently developed processes that allow for effective through-pellicle laser repair on advanced photomask technologies (sub 65 nm node) are reviewed, that have economic advantages and also make the repair of lower-end (and higher volume) photomasks significantly more profitable to the typical mask maker.

  6. The role of photomask resolution on the performance of arrayed-waveguide grating devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chauhan D. Lee; Wei Chen; Qiang Wang; Yung-Jui Chen; Warren T. Beard; Dennis Stone; Robert F. Smith; Rod Mincher; Ian R. Stewart

    2001-01-01

    The crosstalk performance of an arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) multiplexer or demultiplexer is primarily caused by random optical phase errors introduced in the arrayed waveguides. Because the layout of waveguides on a wafer is patterned via photomask through the photolithography process, the resolution of a photomask has a direct influence on the phase errors of an AWG. The paper presents a

  7. Level-set-based inverse lithography for photomask synthesis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yijiang; Wong, Ngai; Lam, Edmund Y

    2009-12-21

    Inverse lithography technology (ILT) treats photomask design for microlithography as an inverse mathematical problem. We show how the inverse lithography problem can be addressed as an obstacle reconstruction problem or an extended nonlinear image restoration problem, and then solved by a level set time-dependent model with finite difference schemes. We present explicit detailed formulation of the problem together with the first-order temporal and second-order spatial accurate discretization scheme. Experimental results show the superiority of the proposed level set-based ILT over the mainstream gradient methods. PMID:20052080

  8. Applications of MICP source for next-generation photomask process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyuk-Joo; Chang, Byung-Soo; Choi, Boo-Yeon; Park, Kyung H.; Jeong, Soo-Hong

    2000-07-01

    As critical dimensions of photomask extends into submicron range, critical dimension uniformity, edge roughness, macro loading effect, and pattern slope become tighter than before. Fabrication of photomask relies on the ability to pattern features with anisotropic profile. To improve critical dimension uniformity, dry etcher is one of the solution and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) sources have become one of promising high density plasma sources for dry etcher. In this paper, we have utilized dry etcher system with multi-pole ICP source for Cr etch and MoSi etch and have investigated critical dimension uniformity, slope, and defects. We will present dry etch process data by process optimization of newly designed dry etcher system. The designed pattern area is 132 by 132 mm2 with 23 by 23 matrix test patterns. 3 (sigma) of critical dimension uniformity is below 12 nm at 0.8 - 3.0 micrometers . In most cases, we can obtain zero defect masks which is operated by face- down loading.

  9. Simulation-based photomask qualification using i-Virtual Stepper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Darren; Morgan, Ray; Hu, Susan

    2005-11-01

    Mask manufacturers and mask users continue to pursue improvements in mask inspection and qualification processes driving standards to guarantee the highest performance of advanced photomasks while maintaining a high degree of predictability of turn-around-time. Simulation-based defect analysis and dispositioning has become an area of much interest for both mask manufacturers and mask users. Repairing only the defects that impact wafer level performance (lithographically significant) improves both mask cycle time and eliminates unnecessary and costly repairs. Mask maker and mask users can utilize defect simulation as a common standard by which to benchmark the quality of results. We report in this paper the results of a joint evaluation of the i-Virtual Stepper system (i-VSS) the automated simulation based defect dispositioning software solution in an advanced photomask qualification flow. Results discussed include the optimization and automation of the mask inspection flow using i-VSS, simulation accuracy comparisons of i-VSS versus AIMS versus wafer printability for binary and phase shifting masks at 130nm, 90nm, and 65nm technology nodes, and a comparison of the iVirtual Stepper system's automated defect severity scoring (ADSS) versus manual defect dispositioning.

  10. Airborne molecular contamination detection method for photomasks and ultra purging decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambara, Hisanori; Favre, Arnaud; Davenet, Magali; Rodier, Dan

    2009-04-01

    While photomask prices continue to increase and their lifetime continues to be shortened due to molecular contamination, it is a key issue to understand the chemical mechanism of the mask damage caused by haze problem to save fabrication cost. We show a unique method for in-situ Airborne Molecular Contamination, or AMC, measurement in the mask carrier mini-environment as well as the small volume confined under the pellicle protective film. Additionally, an ultimate solution to decontaminate the photomask and surrounding environment with a vacuum purging system shows preliminary positive results on the extension of photomask life time by elimination of the haze problem cause.

  11. Non-chemical cleaning technology for sub-90nm design node photomask manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyeh, Star; Chen, Richard; Kozuma, Makoto; Kuo, Joann; Huang, Torey; Chen, Frank F.

    2006-10-01

    Cleaning chemistry residue in photomask manufacturing is one of root causes to generate HAZE over surface of photomask for 193nm and shorter wavelength exposure tools. In order to reduce the residue, chemical free process is one of targets in photomask industry. In this paper novel clean technology without sulfuric acid and ammonia chemical are shown to manufacture sub-90nm node photomask. Photo and E-beam resist were removed by plasma and ozone water clean instead of sulfuric acid. SPM and APM in final clean sequence before defect inspection were substituted with ozone water and hydrogen water respectively. The clean performance was demonstrated in real production of 193nm phase shift mask. Sulfate and Ammonia residue after final clean were controlled same as blank material level without any clean process.

  12. Electrical test structures and measurement techniques for the characterisation of advanced photomasks 

    E-print Network

    Tsiamis, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Existing photomask metrology is struggling to keep pace with the rapid reduction of IC dimensions as traditional measurement techniques are being stretched to their limits. This thesis examines the use of on-mask probable ...

  13. A soft photo-mask with embedded carbon black and its application in contact photolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Yi-Ta; Hsieh, Heng; Lee, Yung-Chun

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a new type of soft photo-mask which can be used in contact photolithography for achieving small line-width, large area, and high throughput ultraviolet (UV) patterning. It starts from a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold replicated from a silicon master mold. A carbon black photo-resist (PR) is spin-coated on top of the PDMS mold and then thermally cured. After a contact transfer process, the solidified carbon black PR exists only in the concave region of the PDMS mold, which converts the PDMS mold into a carbon-black/PDMS soft photo-mask. Due to its flexibility, this soft photo-mask can be used in contact photolithography on a slightly curved substrate. Experiments on preparing this new soft photo-mask and its application for fabricating patterned sapphire substrates (PSSs) used in the light-emitting-diode (LED) industry are carried out. Successful results are observed.

  14. Atomic force metrology and 3D modeling of microtrenching in etched photomask features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradley Todd; Kirk Miller; Thomas V. Pistor

    2001-01-01

    We present a study of the micro-trenching caused by different quartz etch processes during the fabrication of phase-shift photomasks. Six different photomasks with quartz etches 320nm - 720nm deep were measured non-destructively by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to explore the details of micro-trenching that occurs at the base of vertical walls. Results of etch profiles obtained using AFM metrology are

  15. CD uniformity of photomasks written with high-voltage variable-shaped e beam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noriaki Nakayamada; Shigehiro Hara; Toshiyuki Magoshi; Hideaki Sakurai; Takayuki Abe; Iwao Higashikawa

    1996-01-01

    The critical dimension uniformity required in the fabrication of photomasks for 1 gigabit DRAMs will be more stringent that 20 nm in terms of 3 sigma. High-voltage variable-shaped e-beam (VSB) writing is advantageous because of its high resolution, linewidth stability, and throughput performance. However, stitching errors in VSB writing have been a critical problem in the fabrication of advanced photomasks.

  16. Photomask quality assessment strategy at 90-nm technology node with aerial image simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshikazu Nagamura; Kunihiro Hosono; Linyong Pang; Kevin K. Chan; Yoshio Tanaka

    2003-01-01

    As 90 nm devices enter into the pre-production phase, the quality assurance strategy of photomasks for those devices must be well established with the proper cost and turn-around-time in mind. Such devices will be manufactured with a state-of-the-art photolithography systems equipped with 193nm actinic light sources. Photomasks for these devices are being produced with the most advanced equipment, material and

  17. Cluster tool solution for fabrication and qualification of advanced photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaetz, Thomas; Hartmann, Hans; Peter, Kai; Lalanne, Frederic P.; Maurin, Olivier; Baracchi, Emanuele; Miramond, Corinne; Brueck, Hans-Juergen; Scheuring, Gerd; Engel, Thomas; Eran, Yair; Sommer, Karl

    2000-07-01

    The reduction of wavelength in optical lithography, phase shift technology and optical proximity correction (OPC), requires a rapid increase in cost effective qualification of photomasks. The knowledge about CD variation, loss of pattern fidelity especially for OPC pattern and mask defects concerning the impact on wafer level is becoming a key issue for mask quality assessment. As part of the European Community supported ESPRIT projection 'Q-CAP', a new cluster concept has been developed, which allows the combination of hardware tools as well as software tools via network communication. It is designed to be open for any tool manufacturer and mask hose. The bi-directional network access allows the exchange of all relevant mask data including grayscale images, measurement results, lithography parameters, defect coordinates, layout data, process data etc. and its storage to a SQL database. The system uses SEMI format descriptions as well as standard network hardware and software components for the client server communication. Each tool is used mainly to perform its specific application without using expensive time to perform optional analysis, but the availability of the database allows each component to share the full data ste gathered by all components. Therefore, the cluster can be considered as one single virtual tool. The paper shows the advantage of the cluster approach, the benefits of the tools linked together already, and a vision of a mask house in the near future.

  18. Photomask CD and LER characterization using Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, A.; Dirnstorfer, I.; Bischoff, J.; Meiner, K.; Ketelsen, H.; Richter, U.; Mikolajick, T.

    2014-10-01

    Critical dimension and line edge roughness on photomask arrays are determined with Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry. Arrays with large sinusoidal perturbations are measured for different azimuth angels and compared with simulations based on rigorous coupled wave analysis. Experiment and simulation show that line edge roughness leads to characteristic changes in the different Mueller matrix elements. The influence of line edge roughness is interpreted as an increase of isotropic character of the sample. The changes in the Mueller matrix elements are very similar when the arrays are statistically perturbed with rms roughness values in the nanometer range suggesting that the results on the sinusoidal test structures are also relevant for "real" mask errors. Critical dimension errors and line edge roughness have similar impact on the SE MM measurement. To distinguish between both deviations, a strategy based on the calculation of sensitivities and correlation coefficients for all Mueller matrix elements is shown. The Mueller matrix elements M13/M31 and M34/M43 are the most suitable elements due to their high sensitivities to critical dimension errors and line edge roughness and, at the same time, to a low correlation coefficient between both influences. From the simulated sensitivities, it is estimated that the measurement accuracy has to be in the order of 0.01 and 0.001 for the detection of 1 nm critical dimension error and 1 nm line edge roughness, respectively.

  19. Line width roughness and its control on photomask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Banqiu; Kumar, Ajay

    2013-09-01

    Line edge roughness (LER) or line width roughness (LWR) is a fundamental challenge in the semiconductor industry. LWR on transistor gate length is a dominant parameter for determining the variability of threshold voltage, on-current and off-current, and LER on interconnect impacts breakdown voltages. Integrated circuit (IC) scaling enabled by lithography is the technology to increase device density and improve performance. However, scaling below 32nn technology node induces short-channel effect (SCE) because of the short distance between the transistor source and the drain. Final LER on the working layer results from several processes, and, thus, LER controls rely on lithography, resist properties, post-resist-development processing, pattern transfer methods, and photomask LER. Now, pattern generation is main source of LER, where short exposure wavelength and consecutive low photon numbers result in discrete photon flux and shot noise, causing high LER. Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) uses shorter wavelengths and a lower dose than the current 193 nm lithography, making LWR one of the three most critical challenges. Characterization of LER is also a challenge. The current rms method is broadly used; however, this approach is not enough and a better method has yet to be established.

  20. New methods and processes based on advanced vacuum technology for photomask decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foray, J. M.; Bellet, B.; HadjRabah, S.; Palisson, J.; Veran, E.; Davenet, M.; Favre, A.; Sergent, P.; Tissier, M.; Baudiquez, V.; Nesladek, P.; Foca, E.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Hollein, I.; Dufaye, F.; Gough, S.

    2009-01-01

    Within the frame of the European R&D project the so called "HYMNE" project, lead by STM, advanced vacuum decontamination processes had been demonstrated to be efficient on wafer substrates in order to remove airborne molecular contamination (moisture, VOC..), to avoid crystalline defects after dry etching process and to improve yield for sub 90 nm technologies. Further to these significant results on wafers, a pool of partners investigated new methods and processes based on vacuum technology for photomask decontamination. These studies were carried out in the frame of the European R&D CRYSTAL project, focusing on photomask defect reduction. Today, vacuum process is not very widespread in photomask environment: in fab environment nor in mask manufacturing cycle. However such vacuum substrate decontamination could be also efficiently applied in order to reduce AMC contamination, which is one of the root causes of haze and crystalline defects. In this paper, we report for the first time, vacuum process investigations on pellicled photomasks that could be applied in fab environment, as well as vacuum process investigations on patterned blank that could be integrated into mask manufacturing cycle. First, vacuum process had been investigated on pellicled photomasks, including parameter influences. Goal is to renew and replace the environment under the pellicle by clean environment. During the process, specific care has to be taken on pellicle behavior under vacuum. The challenge is indeed to manage the pellicle during the vacuum process without damaging it, especially after several decontamination cycles. Finally, repeatability tests have also been successfully carried out and will be reported. We also report advanced vacuum process on patterned blank that could be integrated into mask manufacturing flow. Such procedure is an efficient complementary process in order to outgas contaminants from photomasks, and in order to reduce AMC residues (especially sulfate) in mask manufacturing cycle. Experimental results will be reported.

  1. Performance of positive-tone chemically amplified resists for next-generation photomask fabrication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshikazu Segawa; Masa-Aki Kurihara; Shiho Sasaki; Hiroyuki Inomata; Naoya Hayashi; Hisatake Sano

    1997-01-01

    Several types of chemically amplified resists (CARs) have been evaluated in comparison with other types of resists. The evaluated CARs were found to have better performance than conventional resists and to satisfy the requirements for next generation reticle fabrication. Especially CARs have high sensitivity and high contrast enough to make photomasks with e-beam writers and have good dry-etch durability. We

  2. Removal Method of Nano-Cut Debris for Photomask Repair Using an Atomic Force Microscopy System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Futoshi; Saigo, Kazutaka; Asao, Toshihiko; Yasutake, Masatoshi; Takaoka, Osamu; Nakaue, Takuya; Kikuchi, Shuichi

    2009-08-01

    Recently, photomask repairing techniques by scratching fabrication using an atomic force microscopy (AFM) system have been developed. However, the machining method using AFM produces cut debris during photomask repair, which induces problems and errors in photolithography. Here, we describe a novel removal method for cut debris produced in an AFM photomask repair process. The removing method is based on electrophoretic migration. A small amount of aqueous solution is dropped on a cantilever, then two electrodes placed on both sides of the cantilever form an electric field gradient around the cantilever under the liquid condition. Under the condition, the particles of cut debris produced by AFM scratching are dispersed and become spontaneously charged in the liquid, and then the particles can be consequently removed by electrophoresis migration. In particular, smaller cut particles produced by ultrasonic scratching, that is, scratching with probe oscillation, are very suitable for the removal method owing to the ease of electrophoresis migration. These techniques would be very effective in the AFM photomask repair process.

  3. Page 2 of 55 Low-cost photomask fabrication using laser ablation

    E-print Network

    -thick) on float glass substrate. Then a nitrocellulose lacquer, serving as a self-developing resist, is spin hydrofluoric acid. Both nitrocellulose lacquer characterization and laser parameters are discussed; Photomask; Laser ablation; Patterning; Nitrocellulose lacquer. hal-01060034,version1-2Sep2014 Author

  4. Laser Direct Write Patterned Indium Tin Oxide Films for Photomasks and Anisotropic Resist Applications

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Glenn H.

    Laser Direct Write Patterned Indium Tin Oxide Films for Photomasks and Anisotropic Resist bimetallic Sn/In film into a indium tin oxide layer. Sn over In films (15-120nm thick) with a 1:10 thickness mask, etch resist. 1. Introduction The transparent and conductive films like indium tin oxide (ITO

  5. Acoustic Streaming Effects in Megasonic Cleaning of EUV Photomasks: A continuum model.

    E-print Network

    Deymier, Pierre

    Acoustic Streaming Effects in Megasonic Cleaning of EUV Photomasks: A continuum model. Vivek for removal are believed to be active in megasonic cleaning systems, e.g., cavitation, and acoustic streaming approach is undertaken in this work with a focus on determining the contribution of acoustic streaming

  6. Matching of different CD-metrology tools for global CD signature on photomasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E.-M. Zerbe; T. Marschner; J. Richter; C. Utzny

    2007-01-01

    Critical Dimension uniformity (CDU) is one of the most critical parameters for the characterization of photomasks. For years the understanding was that CDU describes a rather random fluctuation of the CD across the mask. With more advanced CD tools and mask processes the local short-range CD variation (on a length scale of micrometre) can be distinguished from the global CD

  7. Bi/In Bimetallic Thermal Resists for Microfabrication, Photomasks and Micromachining Applications

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Glenn H.

    than 60:1. The etch rate of unexposed area is about 2.6 nm/sec. The Bi/In resist can be stripped away by an RCA2 clean. Bi/In resist was successfully used as a mask layer for KOH anisotropic silicon etchingBi/In Bimetallic Thermal Resists for Microfabrication, Photomasks and Micromachining Applications

  8. Particle free pellicle mounting inside of the large size photomask inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonezawa, Makoto; Matsumoto, Seiki; Zhang, Dongsheng; Hashimoto, Kohei

    2011-05-01

    While cleanness of Large Size Photomask (LSPM) is as important as that of LSI masks, the unit price of the pellicle for LSPM is much higher and pellicle removing from and remounting to LSPM is accompanied by troublesome tasks. Considering these facts, an automated pellicle inspection and mounting system that allows large size pellicle to be inspected and mounted onto a photomask automatically under a super clean condition is developed. The system size ranges from G6 to over G10. After picking up a pellicle from a carrier case, jigs remove liner sheet of the pellicle to allow stress free mounting of the pellicle on the LSPM using special chucks. Tow types of inspection heads are developed. One head has a sensitivity of 0.25 ?m PSL with 150 seconds inspection time for 6 inch pellicle. Another head has a sensitivity of around 5 ?m PSL with 20 minutes inspection time for size of G10. The jig can be flipped along with the Pellicle to allow inspection / blowing of the particles even on the inner side of the pellicle. Rejected pellicles are returned to the carrier case. The pellicle that passes a certain criteria is carried toward the Photomask Holder in the inspection system and mounted on the Photomask in the Holder.

  9. Growth mechanism and inhibition technologies of a contamination on the surface of photomask for longtime LCD-TFT lithography process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murai, Makoto; Tsuchiya, Masayoshi; Shinchi, Hiroyuki; Hirano, Terumasa; Kitajima, Shintaro; Kaneko, Yasushi; Kimoto, Takahisa; Takayama, Shigeki

    2011-05-01

    Recently, the progressive contamination of photomasks has become a major concern for long-term LCD-TFT manufacturing, as it is the cause of significant defects. We have deciphered the chemical structure and growth mechanism of progressive contamination, and have devised an accelerated test procedure which simulates 2 years of TFT processes in order to determine how best to inhibit its growth (UG Series). By using the photomask with a new type of pellicle (UG series), we were able to inhibit the growth of progressive contamination to the extent that no contamination was confirmed on the photomask for approximately two years.

  10. Productivity of femtosecond DUV laser photomask repair in a real world mask house

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jin-Hong; Chen, C. Y.; Tsai, F. G.; Robinson, Tod; Yi, Daniel; LeClaire, Jeff; White, Roy; Bozak, Ron; Archuletta, Mike

    2011-11-01

    A number of new technologies and processes have been developed for deep ultraviolet (DUV) wavelength and femtosecond pulsed laser repair of photomasks. These advances have been shown to improve and extend the repair of both pelliclized and non-pellicilized photomasks for both hard and soft (or nano-particle) in exhaustive testing at the factory and the end-user site. However, even the best testing is only a simulation of what a repair tool will see when brought into full production. The purpose of this work is to review some of the knowledge and experience gained in bringing the repair processes defined with manufactured defects to the more variable defects encountered in the real world. The impact of the repair technology on increases in mask house throughput and decrease in costs will also be compared to other (another laser and an advanced FIB) repair tools.

  11. High-resolution repair of photomasks using a deep-UV-laser-based defect repair system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Herman; Yung-Ho Chuang; Baorui Yang; Minchuan Wang; Stephen Palese

    1995-01-01

    A laser-based defect repair system developed at Excel\\/Quantronix is designed to repair photomasks with submicron resolution. The laser of the repair unit consists of a gain-switched Ti:Sapphire system configured to operate at 248 nm. The deep-UV light is obtained by frequency tripling the fundamental Ti:Sapphire wavelength. The Ti:Sapphire laser system generates pulses with temporal duration of approximately 12 ns and

  12. Using thermally printed transparency as photomasks to generate microfluidic structures in PDMS material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheuk-Wing Li; Jun Yang; Chi Hung Tzang; Jianlong Zhao; Mengsu Yang

    2006-01-01

    A simple fabrication method for poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic device with minimal specialized equipment and facilities was described. Thermal color-printed transparency was used as photomask that utilizing patterns of different light opacity to generate multi-height microscale structures. The method offers rapid prototyping (3h from concept to device) and high throughput production (multiple devices on 8in.×12in. PCB board) capability while allows the

  13. Improved photomask accuracy with a high-productivity DUV laser pattern generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Öström; Jonas Måhlén; Andrzej Karawajczyk; Mats Rosling; Per Carlqvist; Per Askebjer; Tord Karlin; Jesper Sallander; Anders Österberg

    2006-01-01

    A strategy for sub-100 nm technology nodes is to maximize the use of high-speed deep-UV laser pattern generators, reserving e-beam tools for the most critical photomask layers. With a 248 nm excimer laser and 0.82 NA projection optics, the Sigma7500 increases the application space of laser pattern generators. A programmable spatial light modulator (SLM) is imaged with partially coherent optics

  14. Sub-20-nm node photomask cleaning enhancement by controlling zeta potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kuan-Wen; Lu, Chi-Lun; Shen, Chin-Wei; Hsu, Luke; Chin, Angus; Yen, Anthony

    2012-11-01

    As semiconductor manufacturing advances to sub-20-nm nodes, specification (size < 50 nm) for extremely fine particles on photomasks is getting more and more stringent. Photomask cleanliness, which seriously impacts manufacturing cycle time and productivity, is a serious challenge in the development of sub-20-nm node mask cleaning process. Several cleaning approaches, including the use of chemical and physical forces, are widely used in mask cleaning. In this study, we focus on the chemical force through zeta potential (ZP). ZP indicates the degree of repulsion between the particles and the mask surface (mostly quartz). In the nano-scale, stronger repulsion means easier removal of particles from mask surfaces. By controlling ZP of different chemicals from -10 mV to -150 mV in the cleaning process, the particle removal efficiency (PRE) is further improved by about 10%, especially for extremely fine particles. The ZP measurement methodology for different cleaning chemicals on quartz surface is also carried out. ZP is a helpful index in evaluating the performance of new chemicals for mask cleaning. To enhance photomask cleaning for sub-20-nm nodes, the chemical force needs to be increased because the physical force has been constrained to avoid pattern damages, especially when much smaller assistant features are commonly used to gain a greater lithography process window. How to choose a suitable cleaning approach for the next generation mask cleaning is very critical.

  15. Improved photomask accuracy with a high-productivity DUV laser pattern generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öström, Thomas; Måhlén, Jonas; Karawajczyk, Andrzej; Rosling, Mats; Carlqvist, Per; Askebjer, Per; Karlin, Tord; Sallander, Jesper; Österberg, Anders

    2006-10-01

    A strategy for sub-100 nm technology nodes is to maximize the use of high-speed deep-UV laser pattern generators, reserving e-beam tools for the most critical photomask layers. With a 248 nm excimer laser and 0.82 NA projection optics, the Sigma7500 increases the application space of laser pattern generators. A programmable spatial light modulator (SLM) is imaged with partially coherent optics to compose the photomask pattern. Image profiles are enhanced with phase shifting in the pattern generator, and features below 200 nm are reliably printed. The Sigma7500 extends the SLM-based architecture with improvements to CD uniformity and placement accuracy, resulting from an error budget-based methodology. Among these improvements is a stiffer focus stage design with digital servos, resulting in improved focus stability. Tighter climate controls and improved dose control reduce drift during mask patterning. As a result, global composite CD uniformity below 5 nm (3?) has been demonstrated, with placement accuracy below 10 nm (3?) across the mask. Self-calibration methods are used to optimize and monitor system performance, reducing the need to print test plates. The SLM calibration camera views programmed test patterns, making it possible to evaluate image metrics such as CD uniformity and line edge roughness. The camera is also used to characterize image placement over the optical field. A feature called ProcessEqualizer TM has been developed to correct long-range CD errors arising from process effects on production photomasks. Mask data is sized in real time to compensate for pattern-dependent errors related to local pattern density, as well as for systematic pattern-independent errors such as radial CD signatures. Corrections are made in the pixel domain in the advanced adjustments processor, which also performs global biasing, stamp distortion compensation, and corner enhancement. In the Sigma7500, the mask pattern is imaged with full edge addressability in each writing pass, providing the means of additionally improving write time by reducing the number of exposure passes. Photomask write time is generally under two hours in the 2-pass mode, compared to three hours with 4-pass writing. With a through-the-lens alignment system and both grid matching and pattern matching capabilities, the tool is also suitable for 2 nd layer patterning in advanced PSM applications. Improvements in alignment algorithms and writing accuracy have resulted in first-to-second level overlay below 15 nm (mean+3?).

  16. Comparison of CD measurements of an EUV photomask by EUV scatterometry and CD-AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholze, Frank; Soltwisch, Victor; Dai, Gaoliang; Henn, Mark-Alexander; Gross, Hermann

    2013-09-01

    EUV scatterometry is a potential high-throughput measurement method for the characterization of EUV photomask structures. We present a comparison of angle resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) scatterometry and critical dimension atomic force microscope (CD-AFM) as a reference metrology for measurements of geometrical parameters like line width (CD), height and sidewall angle of EUV photomask structures. The structures investigated are dense and semidense bright and dark lines with different nominal CDs between 140 nm and 540 nm. The results show excellent linearity of the critical dimension measured with both methods within a range of only 1.8 nm and an offset of the absolute values below 3 nm. A maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method is used to reconstruct the shape parameters and to estimate their uncertainties from the measured scattering efficiencies. The newly developed CD-AFM at PTB allows versatile measurements of parameters such as height, CD, sidewall angle, line edge/width roughness, corner rounding, and pitch. It applies flared tips to probe steep and even undercut sidewalls and employs a new vector approaching probing (VAP) strategy which enables very low tip wear and high measurement flexibility. Its traceability is ensured by a set of calibrated step-height and reference CD standards.

  17. Implementation of an efficient defect classification method in photomask mass production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cathy; Wang, Crystal; Zhang, Skin; Guo, Eric; Liu, Steven; Lu, Eric Haodong; Fan, Dongsheng; Wang, Den; Ma, Weiming

    2007-10-01

    In photomask production environments, increasing productivity of defect inspection and improving fidelity of defect classification are important for mask makers to improve capacity of defect inspection tools and to enhance quality of production. In particular, defect classification time corresponds directly to the cost and the cycle time of mask manufacturing and new product development. KLA-Tencor has introduced an automatic defect grouping tool "ReviewSmart" which automatically bins defects with high fidelity. ReviewSmart has been reported in engineering R&D and evaluation. In this paper, we focus on implementation of ReviewSmart in photomask production. 592 plates were processed during the evaluation period. Those plates are for products of logic, memory and flash. Technology nodes are from 65nm to 180nm. With optimized production setting, the automatic defect grouping tool - ReviewSmart improves productivity of defect inspection by 7% with 100% fidelity. In addition to improve productivity, ReviewSmart is helpful to classify aggressive OPC caused nuisance, troubleshoot process issues and expedite product development and improve usable inspection sensitivity as well.

  18. The novel plasma etching process for defect reduction in photomask fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ji-Hyun; Jang, Il-Yong; Jeong, Yu Suk; Seung, Byounghoon; Moon, Seong-Yong; Woo, Sang-Gyun; Cho, Han Ku

    2009-04-01

    As the device design rule shrinks, photomask manufacturers need to have advanced defect controllability during the Cr and MoSi etch in the process of phase shift mask(PSM). In order to decrease the number of defects, which may be originated from the mechanical transferring, plasma ignition and cross-contamination of resist stripping or cleaning process, a novel plasma etching process was developed in a commercial photomask etcher. In this process named as the "In-situ. etching", Cr and Mosi is etched stepwise in a chamber. The In-situ. etching processes produce better defect level than that of the conventional process without deteriorating other mask quality such as CD performance, profile and process reproducibility. Particle generated by plasma ignition in in-situ. etching lead to defect which is an obstacle in Cr etch. Because plasma is stable from Cr etch to Mosi etch, no defect is added in Mosi etch. Furthermore quantitative analysis of by-products deposited and eroded by the chamber position shows that by-products are comprised of Al, chlorine, carbon. These byproducts can be removed by fluorine-containing plasma.

  19. Interferometric Metrology for Sub-90-nm Node Phase-Shifting Photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merriam, Andrew J.; Jacob, James J.

    2005-09-01

    A variety of phase-shifting photomask technologies are being developed to meet the challenges of sub-0.3 k1, 193-nm exposure wavelength photolithography. Each technology shares a common requirement for successful implementation: precise photomask characterization and cross-reticle phase control. A rapid, non-contact method for precision phase metrology at small (sub-1 ?m) feature scales is urgently needed. This paper describes a recently-developed phase metrology architecture that combines high-resolution optical microscopy with actinic, phase-coherent optical probes to facilitate optical path difference (OPD) measurements of isolated or dense features on a sub-200-nm spatial scale. This new architecture is suitable for OPD metrology on embedded-attenuator, alternating-aperture, and chromeless phase lithography (CPL) phase-shifting technologies. We describe preliminary imaging and phase metrology results on a 65-nm-node CPL reticle and a 90-nm-node EAPSM reticle. The microscope features a solid-state 5-kHz repetition rate, 193.4 nm actinic laser light source in conjunction with high-numerical-aperture (0.75 NA) optics to provide 200X magnification, 150-nm Rayleigh resolution and 35-nm pixel size over a 30-micron image field.

  20. Matching of different CD-metrology tools for global CD signature on photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerbe, E.-M.; Marschner, T.; Richter, J.; Utzny, C.

    2007-05-01

    Critical Dimension uniformity (CDU) is one of the most critical parameters for the characterization of photomasks. For years the understanding was that CDU describes a rather random fluctuation of the CD across the mask. With more advanced CD tools and mask processes the local short-range CD variation (on a length scale of micrometre) can be distinguished from the global CD signature (typically on a length scale of centimetre). Recent developments in the pattern generator sector allow correcting for such global CD signatures. This triggers the current challenge to find stable methods to characterize the global signature of photomasks. In our work we present matching results of a technique that calculates the CD signature using exponentially weighted surrounding points. We investigated different CD SEM tools of different technology generations. We show that our method allows determination of the CD signature independently of the measurement tool with low uncertainty and moderate measurement effort. This holds even true when the CDU value is mainly dominated by the measurement error. Thus our method provides a tool to extend the utilization of older generation metrology tools as well as the possibility to improve the measurement capability for CD signature of current tools.

  1. Infield CD uniformity control by altering transmission distribution of the photomask using ultra-fast pulsed laser technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasutaka Morikawa; Takanori Sutou; Yuichi Inazuki; Takashi Adachi; Yuuichi Yoshida; Kouichirou Kojima; Shiho Sasaki; Hiroshi Mohri; Naoya Hayashi; Vladimir Dmitriev; Sergey Oshemkov; Eitan Zait; Guy Ben-Zvi

    2006-01-01

    As pattern feature sizes on the wafer become smaller and smaller, requirements for CD variation control has become a critical issue. In order to correct CD uniformity on the wafer, the DUV light transmission distribution of the photomask was altered using an ultra-fast pulsed laser technology. By creating a small scattering pixel inside the quartz body of the mask, a

  2. CD variations correction by local transmission control of photomasks done with a novel laser-based process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eitan Zait; Vladimir Dmitriev; Sergey Oshemkov; Guy Ben-Zvi; Dany Michaelis

    2006-01-01

    As IC feature sizes become smaller and smaller, requirements for Critical Dimension (CD) variations control have become a critical issue. A new process for the control and correction of intra-field CD variations (Critical Dimension Control or CDC) was applied and it's influence on defects detection and photo-masks inspection capabilities at different modes of inspection was investigated. CD Control (CDC) of

  3. Photomask applications of traceable atomic force microscope dimensional metrology at NIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixson, Ronald; Orji, Ndubuisi G.; Potzick, James; Fu, Joseph; Allen, Richard A.; Cresswell, Michael; Smith, Stewart; Walton, Anthony J.; Tsiamis, Andreas

    2007-10-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a multifaceted program in atomic force microscope (AFM) dimensional metrology. Three major instruments are being used for traceable measurements. The first is a custom in-house metrology AFM, called the calibrated AFM (C-AFM), the second is the first generation of commercially available critical dimension AFM (CD-AFM), and the third is a current generation CD-AFM at SEMATECH - for which NIST has established the calibration and uncertainties. All of these instruments have useful applications in photomask metrology. Linewidth reference metrology is an important application of CD-AFM. We have performed a preliminary comparison of linewidths measured by CD-AFM and by electrical resistance metrology on a binary mask. For the ten selected test structures with on-mask linewidths between 350 nm and 600 nm, most of the observed differences were less than 5 nm, and all of them were less than 10 nm. The offsets were often within the estimated uncertainties of the AFM measurements, without accounting for the effect of linewidth roughness or the uncertainties of electrical measurements. The most recent release of the NIST photomask standard - which is Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2059 - was also supported by CD-AFM reference measurements. We review the recent advances in AFM linewidth metrology that will reduce the uncertainty of AFM measurements on this and future generations of the NIST photomask standard. The NIST C-AFM has displacement metrology for all three axes traceable to the 633 nm wavelength of the iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser. One of the important applications of the C-AFM is step height metrology, which has some relevance to phase shift calibration. In the current generation of the system, the approximate level of relative standard uncertainty for step height measurements at the 100 nm scale is 0.1 %. We discuss the monitor history of a 290 nm step height, originally measured on the C-AFM with a 1.9 nm (k = 2) expanded uncertainty, and describe advances that bring the step height uncertainty of recent measurements to an estimated 0.6 nm (k = 2). Based on this work, we expect to be able to reduce the topographic component of phase uncertainty in alternating aperture phase shift masks (AAPSM) by a factor of three compared to current calibrations based on earlier generation step height references.

  4. Algorithmic implementations of domain decomposition methods for the diffraction simulation of advanced photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Konstantinos; Neureuther, Andrew R.

    2002-07-01

    The domain decomposition method developed in [1] is examined in more detail. This method enables rapid computer simulation of advanced photomask (alt. PSM, masks with OPC) scattering and transmission properties. Compared to 3D computer simulation, speed-up factors of approximately 400, and up to approximately 200,000 when using the look-up table approach, are possible. Combined with the spatial frequency properties of projection printing systems, it facilitates accurate computer simulation of the projected image (normalized mean square error of a typical image is only a fraction of 1%). Some esoteric accuracy issues of the method are addressed and the way to handle arbitrary, Manhattan-type mask layouts is presented. The method is shown to be valid for off-axis incidence. The cross-talk model developed in [1] is used in 3D mask simulations (2D layouts).

  5. Mask aligner lithography for TSV-structures using a double-sided (structured) photomask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weichelt, T.; Stuerzebecher, L.; Zeitner, U. D.

    2015-03-01

    Through-silicon vias (TSV) are important for wafer level packaging (WLP) as they provide patterning holes through thick silicon dies to integrate and interconnect devices which are stacked in z-direction. For economic processing TSV fabrication primarily needs to be cost-effective including especially a high throughput. Furthermore, a lithography process for TSV has to be stable enough to allow patterning on pre-structured substrates with inhomogeneous topography. This can be addressed by an exposure process which offers a large depth of focus. We have developed a mask-aligner lithography process based on the use of a double-sided photomask to realize aerial images which meet these constraints.

  6. Reduction of image placement error on photomask-making for multiple patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiromatsu, Takahiro; Fukui, Toru; Tsukagoshi, Kenta; Ono, Kazunori; Hashimoto, Masahiro

    2014-03-01

    To make photomasks with high overlay accuracy, "Charge Dissipation Layer (CDL)" materials have been developed. Commercialized CDL materials can reduce electro-static charging on the surface of resist during electron beam exposure. However, some side effects are introduced to the mask-making process. The resolution performance of chemically amplified resist (CAR) is degraded owing to acid diffusion from the CDL components to the resist surface. A newly developed CDL solved this problem by controlling the acid diffusion. A positive-tone CAR with the CDL showed no resolution degradation, and performance was maintained for over 30 days after coating CDL and resist. Furthermore, the CDL has been evaluated on a negative-tone CAR which is more sensitive to CDL.

  7. An integrated solution for photomask manufacturing, handling, and storage at 65 nm and below

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwitzgebel, Jörg; Xiao, Guangming; Rockwell, Barry; Nozaki, Sammy; Darvish, Ali; Wu, Chris

    2006-03-01

    As reticle line widths shrink and RET complexity increases, even a single sub-micron defect can reject a photomask. High-end reticle manufacturers striving for increased yield and reduced cycle times are relying on low incoming rawstock defect levels and handling via SMIF mini environments for critical manufacturing steps. However, even in SMIF compatible reticle fabs, human handling is often required to load or unload a reticle to/from a SMIF environment. In an effort to provide a fully integrated solution to manufacturing 65 nm and below photomasks, Photronics has introduced a blank inspection/management system developed by Hitachi High Technologies and Fortrend Engineering. The clustered system is capable of robotic transfers in conjunction with blank storage, inspection, and material tracking capabilities. It consists of four major systems: a horizontal mask blank transfer system with state-of-the-art blank sorting capability, an integrated Hitachi GM3000 Mask Blank Surface Inspection System, a totally self-contained and sufficient Mask Blank Storage Station, and a material logistic control software system for material management and SPC. The Fortrend Lamina sorting system has a bright light inspection module for gross particle contamination detection, and a robotic transfer module for mask exchanges between SMIF and other shipping/transport boxes employed in the mask manufacturing facilities. The clustered Hitachi inspection system is an integral part of the solution allowing for additional inspections of stored and incoming blanks by optically detecting foreign particles and pinholes. The data is transferred and stored in the Foretrend handling system control module and may be used for rawstock management and screening based on a predefined criteria. The integrated system provides a total solution to mask manufacturing challenges at 65 nm and below.

  8. Update Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoopes, Aaron

    This book is a guide intended for persons planning on relocating to Japan. Following a chapter on background information, 13 additional chapters lead the reader step-by-step through the relocation process. These chapters include: before leaving, on arrival, language, culture, doing business in Japan, household pointers and everyday life, schools…

  9. CD variations correction by local transmission control of photomasks done with a novel laser-based process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zait, Eitan; Dmitriev, Vladimir; Oshemkov, Sergey; Ben-Zvi, Guy; Michaelis, Dany

    2006-03-01

    As IC feature sizes become smaller and smaller, requirements for Critical Dimension (CD) variations control have become a critical issue. A new process for the control and correction of intra-field CD variations (Critical Dimension Control or CDC) was applied and it's influence on defects detection and photo-masks inspection capabilities at different modes of inspection was investigated. CD Control (CDC) of the photomask is a process in which Deep UV transmittance is selectively altered by patterns of small partially scattering shading elements (Shade in Element Tm) inside the quartz. The shading elements are formed by a process of shooting an ultrafast laser beam focused inside the mask substrate, resulting in localized intra-volume breakdown inside the quartz which creates local pixels of modified index of refraction (delta n). An array of such pixels with constant density constitutes one shading element. Process patterns are predetermined according to a CD variations map which may be supplied from wafer CD SEM, Optical CD or mask aerial imaging simulation tool (AIMS). Thus by changing local photomask transmission levels, it is possible to correct for the CD variations inside the field. Attenuation level, or optical density of the shading elements depends on the laser pulse energy, distance between pixels, number of layers and the size of the shading element itself. Since photomask transmittance is being changed, qualification of the impact of the transmittance changes on the defect detection and analysis capabilities are required. In this study, the principles of patterning of scattering elements inside transparent media by focusing of ultra-short laser pulses were introduced and explained. Analysis of the effects to both mask and wafer due to the CDC process was verified by full printing process applied to wafers, and by aerial imaging simulation tool. More tests for CDC required also tests by automatic reticle inspection tool to be production-worthy for the 65nm node and beyond.

  10. Improved estimates of the range of errors on photomasks using measured values of skewness and kurtosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaker, Henry Chris

    1995-12-01

    Statistical process control (SPC) techniques often use six times the standard deviation sigma to estimate the range of errors within a process. Two assumptions are inherent in this choice of metric for the range: (1) the normal distribution adequately describes the errors, and (2) the fraction of errors falling within plus or minus 3 sigma, about 99.73%, is sufficiently large that we may consider the fraction occurring outside this range to be negligible. In state-of-the-art photomasks, however, the assumption of normality frequently breaks down, and consequently plus or minus 3 sigma is not a good estimate of the range of errors. In this study, we show that improved estimates for the effective maximum error Em, which is defined as the value for which 99.73% of all errors fall within plus or minus Em of the mean mu, may be obtained by quantifying the deviation from normality of the error distributions using the skewness and kurtosis of the error sampling. Data are presented indicating that in laser reticle- writing tools, Em less than or equal to 3 sigma. We also extend this technique for estimating the range of errors to specifications that are usually described by mu plus 3 sigma. The implications for SPC are examined.

  11. European MEDEA+ CRYSTAL project: DFM photomasks inputs for EDA workflow task force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beisser, Eric; Tissier, Michel; Au, David; Bonniol, Stéphane; Garcia, Patrick; Morey-Chaisemartin, Philippe; Sadran, Dominique; Servin, Isabelle; Tabusse, Michel

    2009-04-01

    The cost of production of a photomask set has been soaring over the last few years, and now reaches 1 million to 2 million, almost 10% of the overall cost of a new project development. And new projects have seen their profitability lifetime reduced over time to 3 to 6 months. Any uncontrolled increase in cost or delay can make the difference between a profitable or non profitable project, and can even lead to the cancellation of the entire project. For the last few years, silicon manufacturability issues have been taken into account in the design process through a widespread use of Design For Manufacturing tools, but so far the impact of design on mask manufacturability has not been thoroughly studied. This article presents a novel Design For Mask Manufacturing approach, which defines a robust process encompassing design rules and constraints, validation procedures, exchange mechanisms between all actors in the flow (designers, mask shops, and foundry) in order to minimize the number and impact of mask design issues, to trace their root causes and severity, and automation of the handoff of design and administrative data to the mask shop. A demonstrator for the DFMM flow is being shown.

  12. The art of photomask materials for low-k1-193nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Masahiro; Iwashita, Hiroyuki; Mitsui, Hideaki

    2009-04-01

    The resolution of photomask patterns were improved with a hardmask (HM) system. The system which is thin Sicompounds layer is easily etched by the hyper-thin resist (below 100nm thickness). The HM material has sufficient etching selectivity against the chrome-compounds which is the second layer chrome absorber for the phase-shifter. This hardmask layer has been completely removed during the phase-shifter etching. It means that the conventional phase-shit mask (PSM) has been made with the ultimately high-resolution without configuration changes. Below 50nm resolution of PSM was made with 90nm thickness resist on HM layer in this paper. The CD bias between a resist feature CD and a chrome feature CD was almost zero (below 1nm) in the optimized etching condition. We confirmed that the mask performances were the equal to COMS (Cr-HM on MoSi binary mask) in resolution and CD linearity. The performances of hardmask blanks will be defined by resist performance because of almost zero bias.

  13. Study on surface integrity in photomask resist strip and final cleaning processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sherjang; Helbig, Stefan; Dress, Peter; Dietze, Uwe

    2009-04-01

    In recent years, photomask resist strip and cleaning technology development was substantially driven by the industry's need to prevent surface haze formation through the elimination of sulfuric acid from these processes. As a result, ozone water was introduced to the resist strip and cleaning processes as a promising alternative to a Sulfuric - Peroxide Mixture (SPM). However, with the introduction of 193i double patterning, EUVL (Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography) and NanoImprint Lithography (NIL) the demand on CD-linewidth control and surface layer integrity is significantly expanded and the use of ozone water is questionable. Ozone water has been found to cause significant damage to metal based mask surface layers, leading to significant changes in optical properties and CD-linewidth shift. In this paper HamaTech APE demonstrates the use of an alternative acid-free resist strip and cleaning process, which not only overcomes the named drawbacks of conventional ozone water use, but reduces resist strip time by 50% to 75%. The surface materials investigated during this study are; chrome absorber layers on binary masks, MoSi based shifters, chrome hard mask layers on EPSM, and ruthenium capping layers on EUV masks. Surface material integrity and CD-stability results using this new, acid-free approach are presented in the following pages.

  14. Evaluation of molecular contaminants in the micro-environment between photomask and pellicle using analysis tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douzono, Mina; Shimada, Itsuka; Ueda, Tatsuji; Nonaka, Tatsuo; Kawano, Yukihiro; Murakami, Masashi

    2012-06-01

    The problem of haze and related defects become more serious as the dimension of lithography becomes smaller. It has been reported that the causes of haze defects are organic and inorganic molecular contamination deposited on mask surface. These haze problems influence the productivity of lithography process, but the formation mechanism of haze has not been clear. So it is important to understand chemical composition and formation mechanism of haze to prevent it. To analyze the chemical composition, several analytical techniques are useful, that is, ion chromatography (IC) or gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GC/MS) after liquid extraction of mask surface, surface analysis such as time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), X-ray photon spectrometry (XPS) and so on. However, these techniques are all destructive methods and are difficult to evaluate the airborne molecular contaminants (AMCs) with high sensitivity between mask and pellicle. We have successfully developed new and sensitive analysis tool consists of two parts and applied it for the evaluation of micro-environment between photomask and pellicle. One is the equipment to collect AMCs effectively, that provides diagonal two holes with needles on the pellicle to collect the gas while ventilating the high-purity nitrogen gas. The other is sampler which is named BremS™ to collect and measure exhausted AMCs in the space with high sensitivity. We applied this method to masks with different exposure dosage rate and introduce the usefulness of our method.

  15. Japan: Tsunami

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... tsunami triggered by the March 11, 2011, magnitude 8.9 earthquake centered off Japan's northeastern coast about 130 kilometers (82 ... inland from the eastern shoreline is visible in the post-earthquake image. The white sand beaches visible in the pre-earthquake view are ...

  16. Laser direct write patterned indium tin oxide films for photomasks and anisotropic resist applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jun; Chapman, Glenn H.; Tu, Yuqiang

    2004-10-01

    A laser direct write process has been developed for turning patterned bimetallic Sn/In film into a indium tin oxide layer. Sn over In films (15-120nm thick) with a 1:10 thickness ratio were deposited by DC sputtering. An argon laser beam (0.1 -0.9 W, spot size: 2 micron, scan speed: 1 cm/s) exposes the film into patterns. These Sn/In films' optical absorption changed from 3 OD at deposition to 0.24 OD after exposure (at 356 nm). XRD, SEM, EDX, and Auger have been used to investigate the film's microstructure and composition suggesting ITO like characteristics. XRD indicated a preferred In2O3 (222) orientation which is similar to ITO films deposited by other methods. Four-point probe tests showed a converted film resistivity of 0.26x10-3 to 9.7x10-3 ohm-cm depending on the laser power and Sn concentration. Hall tests indicated that the bulk carrier concentration was in the range of 1018 to 1020 cm-3. Developed in a wet HCl: H2O2: H2O =1:1:48 solution removes unexposed Sn/In leaving patterned ITO films created at much lower laser power levels than needed for ablative patterning of ITO. Developed films are also resistant to KOH anisotropic etching at a 1:700 ratio producing <111> trenches in Si (100). The large change in optical density means Sn/In films can be used as a material of the direct write photomasks.

  17. Determination of line profiles on photomasks using DUV, EUV, and x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholze, F.; Bodermann, B.; Burger, S.; Endres, J.; Haase, A.; Krumrey, M.; Laubis, C.; Soltwisch, V.; Ullrich, A.; Wernecke, J.

    2014-10-01

    Non-imaging techniques like X-ray scattering are supposed to play an important role in the further development of CD metrology for the semiconductor industry. GISAXS provides directly assessable information on structure roughness and long-range periodic perturbations. The disadvantage of the method is the large footprint of the X-ray beam on the sample due to the extremely shallow angle of incidence. This can be overcome by using wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range which allow for much steeper angles of incidence but preserve the large range of momentum transfer that can be observed. At the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the available photon energy range extends from 50 eV up to 10 keV at two adjacent beamlines. PTB commissioned a new versatile Ellipso-Scatterometer which is capable of measuring 6" square substrates in a clean, hydrocarbon-free environment with full flexibility regarding the direction of the incident light polarization. The reconstruction of line profiles using a geometrical model with six free parameters, a finite element method (FEM) Maxwell solver and least-squares optimization yielded consistent results for EUV and deep ultraviolet (DUV) scatterometry. For EUV photomasks, the actinic wavelength EUV scatterometry yields particular advantages. A significant polarization dependence of the diffraction intensities for 0th and +1st orders in the geometry with the grating lines perpendicular to the plane of reflection is observed and the 0th order intensity shows sufficient sensitivity to the line width such that a CD-resolution below 0.1 nm is within reach. In this contribution we present scatterometry data for line gratings using GISAXS, and EUV and DUV scatterometry and consistent reconstruction results of the line geometry for EUV and DUV scatterometry.

  18. Bi/In bimetallic thermal resists for microfabrication, photomasks, and micromachining applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Glenn H.; Tu, Richard Y.; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2002-07-01

    Bilayer Bi/In thin films form thermal resists with many new microfabrication and micromachining applications due to their changed physical, chemical and optical characteristics after the laser exposures. Wavelength invariance has been shown from the results of both experiment and Airy Summation optical modeling. The modeling projects bimetallic resist sensitivity to be nearly constant at about ~7 mJ/cm2 from 248 to 13.4 nm and is still very sensitive at 1 nm in X-ray range. Two kinds of acid solutions were effective in developing the exposed films by removing the unexposed area. Both nitric acid mixture (HNO3:CH3COOH:H2O=1:3:6) and hydrochloride acid mixture (HCl:H2O2:H2O=1:1:48) give etching selectivity of exposed to unexposed area of larger than 60:1. The etch rate of unexposed area is about 2.6 nm/sec. The Bi/In resist can be stripped away by an RCA2 clean. Bi/In resist was successfully used as a mask layer for KOH anisotropic silicon etching process. Due to the unusual conductive property of its exposed and developed films, Bi/In has demonstrated that it can be used as a direct laser write electroplating resist material. Copper and nickel plating was carried out on developed Bi/In layers on various substrates such as Si wafers, glass slides, wet-oxidized wafers. Large optical transmission changes (OD>3.5 before exposure and OD<0.3 after exposure at I-line) indicate that Bi/In can be used as a direct-write photomask material.

  19. Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Cities mingle with rugged hills and a dormant volcano in this image of Hokkaido, Japan. This three-dimensional image comes from observations made by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on July 23, 2006. The view is toward the north and slightly east. Green indicates vegetation; beige and gray indicate bare ground, paved surfaces, or buildings; and dark blue indicates water. The water body at the top of the image is the Pacific Ocean. Now dormant, Mount Yotei is a stratovolcano--a symmetrical cone composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and volcanic rocks ejected in previous eruptions. It reaches a height of 1,898 meters (6,227 feet), and its summit sports a 700-meter- (2,297-foot-) wide crater. Snow often caps this volcano, but in this summertime shot, the volcano's summit is snow-free. The volcano is also known as Ezo-Fuji for its resemblance to Mount Fuji. As angular patches of gray and beige indicate, urban areas surround the volcano, most notably the city of Kutchan to the northwest. Even when volcanoes remain active, people often settle close to them, drawn by benefits of good soil and mild climates that appear to outweigh the risks. NASA image by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  20. Design for CD correction strategy using a resist shrink method via UV irradiation for defect-free photomask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Jin Ho; Lee, Dong Wook; Jung, Ho Yong; Kim, Sang Pyo; Han, Oscar

    2007-10-01

    As the specification for photomask becomes tighter, it is strongly demanded for achieving precise CD MTT (critical dimension mean to target) and enhanced defect controllability in photomask fabrication. First of all, it is necessary that reducing the factors of CD MTT error and introducing the reliable method to correct CD error for accurate CD requirement of attenuated PSM (phase shift mask). From this point of view, one of CD correction methods which consist of Cr CD measurement step after resist strip (strip inspection CD: SI CD) and additional corrective Cr dry etch step was developed. Previous SI CD correction process resulted in accurate CD control within the range of CD MTT. However it was not appropriate for defect control due to additional resist processes for selective protection of Cr pattern during CD correction process. In this study, the method for achieving precise CD MTT by correcting CD error without any resist process is investigated. It is not suitable for the CD correction process to control CD MTT precisely that Cr etched resist (etch inspection CD: EI CD) is very vulnerable to E-beam scanning during CD measurement. Otherwise, photoresist after Cr etch selectively shrinks via UV irradiation under ozone (O3) condition, which drives a reduction of CD MTT error as a result of accurate CD measurement (UV-irradiation inspection CD: UI CD). Moreover, it is not necessary any resist process for Cr protection due to UV irradiated resist as enough for a etch barrier. It is a strong advantage of novel CD correction method. This strategy solves the problems such as both CD measurement error on the EI CD correction method and defects originated from resist process on the SI CD correction method at once. For the successful incorporation of UI CD correction method, several items related with CD should be evaluated: accuracy and repeatability of CD measurement under UI CD, control of CD MTT and CD uniformity, additional corrective etch bias for UI CD, independence of corrective Cr etch process from UV irradiated resist, isolated-dense CD difference,.. etc. In this paper, strategy of design for the progressive CD correction method for defect-free photomask and process details will be discussed.

  1. Japan: Tradition and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Lucien

    This textbook is designed to increase students' awareness of Japan. The study of Japan is worthwhile because Japan currently is and likely will continue to be one of the world's most important countries. U.S. knowledge of Japan is still quite limited compared to the level of understanding most Japanese exhibit about the United States. It is hoped…

  2. Ancient ships of Japan 

    E-print Network

    Miyashita, Hiroaki

    2006-10-30

    Ancient ships of Japan, which are little known outside of Japan, are presented based on the studies of past researchers, as well as a comprehensive analysis of archaeological remains. The process of development from logboats ...

  3. The effects of simultaneous electrophoresis and thermophoresis on particulate contamination of an inverted EUVL photomask surface in parallel airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Handol; Yook, Se-Jin; Young Han, Seog

    2012-10-01

    The combined influences of electrophoresis and thermophoresis on particle deposition on the inverted critical surface of a flat plate in parallel airflow were investigated by employing the statistical Lagrangian particle tracking approach in an effort to assess the degree of particulate contamination of EUVL photomasks during horizontal transport in cleanroom environments. The numerical method was validated through the comparison with the experimental data, found in the literature, about particle deposition velocity onto a wafer in vertical airflow with and without electrophoresis or thermophoresis. In addition, the validation of the present model was performed via the comparison with the theoretical prediction of particle deposition velocity onto a flat plate under no phoretic forces in parallel airflow. Then, the particle deposition velocity onto the face-down surface of a flat plate in parallel airflow was obtained by varying the temperature of the inverted critical surface in different strengths of uniform electric fields. Injected particles were assumed to be charged with -1 , 0, or +1 elementary unit of charge, in order to consider attractive or repulsive electric force. The degree of particulate contamination of the inverted critical surface was found to be significantly influenced by the combination of electrophoretic and thermophoretic effects.

  4. Centimeter-scale subwavelength photolithography using metal-coated elastomeric photomasks with modulated light intensity at the oblique sidewalls.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin; Liu, Yayuan; Guo, Yuanyuan; Feng, Shuanglong; Zou, Binghua; Mao, Hui; Yu, Cheng-Han; Tian, Danbi; Huang, Wei; Huo, Fengwei

    2015-05-01

    By coating polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) relief structures with a layer of opaque metal such as gold, the incident light is strictly allowed to pass through the nanoscopic apertures at the sidewalls of PDMS reliefs to expose underlying photoresist at nanoscale regions, thus producing subwavelength nanopatterns covering centimeter-scale areas. It was found that the sidewalls were a little oblique, which was the key to form the nanoscale apertures. Two-sided and one-sided subwavelength apertures can be constructed by employing vertical and oblique metal evaporation directions, respectively. Consequently, two-line and one-line subwavelength nanopatterns with programmable feature shapes, sizes, and periodicities could be produced using the obtained photomasks. The smallest aperture size and line width of 80 nm were achieved. In contrast to the generation of raised positive photoresist nanopatterns in phase shifting photolithography, the recessed positive photoresist nanopatterns produced in this study provide a convenient route to transfer the resist nanopatterns to metal nanopatterns. This nanolithography methodology possesses the distinctive advantages of simplicity, low cost, high throughput, and nanoscale feature size and shape controllability, making it a potent nanofabrication technique to enable functional nanostructures for various potential applications. PMID:25866865

  5. Development of paper-based microfluidic analytical device for iron assay using photomask printed with 3D printer for fabrication of hydrophilic and hydrophobic zones on paper by photolithography.

    PubMed

    Asano, Hitoshi; Shiraishi, Yukihide

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes a paper-based microfluidic analytical device for iron assay using a photomask printed with a 3D printer for fabrication of hydrophilic and hydrophobic zones on the paper by photolithography. Several designed photomasks for patterning paper-based microfluidic analytical devices can be printed with a 3D printer easily, rapidly and inexpensively. A chromatography paper was impregnated with the octadecyltrichlorosilane n-hexane solution and hydrophobized. After the hydrophobic zone of the paper was exposed to the UV light through the photomask, the hydrophilic zone was generated. The smallest functional hydrophilic channel and hydrophobic barrier were ca. 500?m and ca. 100?m in width, respectively. The fabrication method has high stability, resolution and precision for hydrophilic channel and hydrophobic barrier. This test paper was applied to the analysis of iron in water samples using a colorimetry with phenanthroline. PMID:26088776

  6. In-field CD uniformity control by altering transmission distribution of the photomask using ultra-fast pulsed laser technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morikawa, Yasutaka; Sutou, Takanori; Inazuki, Yuichi; Adachi, Takashi; Yoshida, Yuuichi; Kojima, Kouichirou; Sasaki, Shiho; Mohri, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Naoya; Dmitriev, Vladimir; Oshemkov, Sergey; Zait, Eitan; Ben-Zvi, Guy

    2006-05-01

    As pattern feature sizes on the wafer become smaller and smaller, requirements for CD variation control has become a critical issue. In order to correct CD uniformity on the wafer, the DUV light transmission distribution of the photomask was altered using an ultra-fast pulsed laser technology. By creating a small scattering pixel inside the quartz body of the mask, a multitude of such points creates Shading Elements inside the quartz according to a predetermined CD variations distribution map. These Shading Elements reduce the dose of scanner's laser illumination onto the wafer per a local area. Thus by changing the local light intensity, inside the exposure field, to a required level during the photolithographic process the wafer CD is changed locally inside the field. This complete process of writing a multitude of Shading Elements inside the mask in order to control the light transmission and hence wafer level CD locally is called the CD Control (CDC) process. We have evaluated the tool utilizing Ultra fast laser pulses (CDC 101) for local transmission and CD controllability on the wafer. We used Binary and Att-PSM test masks and three kinds of test patterns to confirm the sensitivity of transmission and CD change by the attenuation levels of Shading Elements which is sequentially changed from 0% to 10%. We will compare the AIMS results to printed CD on wafer or simulation results, so that we can correlate the transmission change and CD change by the attenuation levels. This paper also reports the CD uniformity correction performances by using attenuation mapping method on Binary mask. We also cover how Shading Elements affect the phase and transmission on the Att-PSM.

  7. Understanding Japan's Role in a

    E-print Network

    Qian, Ning

    Understanding Japan's Role in a Global Economy #12;Promoting Knowledge on Japan The Center Japan focused on understanding Japan's role in the global economy. Established in 1986 under... · Organizing conferences, workshops and seminars on topics related to Japan and the United States, and the role

  8. Rehabilitation in Japan, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japanese Society for Rehabilitation of the Disabled, Tokyo.

    The scope of Japan's rehabilitation services for persons with disabilities is reviewed and discussed from the perspective of social and demographic change in that country. An introductory chapter on the current situation in Japan looks at characteristics of the land, the people, the government, industry and the economy, and the culture. The second…

  9. Teaching English in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, Kenji, Ed.; And Others

    English language instruction, which is considered very important in Japan, is offered in 90 percent of all secondary schools and is studied by almost all students, even though it is an elective subject. English is considered a cultural and commercial link with the western world and has been taught in Japan since the mid-nineteenth century. Most…

  10. Geothermal resources of Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sumi

    1978-01-01

    Characteristics of geothermal resources of Japan are summarized with special attention given to their geological distributions. Japan has four potential types of geothermal resources: natural dry steam, high-enthalpy thermal water in volcanic areas; low-enthalpy thermal water in sedimentary basins in non-volcanic regions; hot dry rock; and volcanic heat. Among these, the high-enthalpy thermal water in volcanic areas is of the

  11. OTEC research in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamogawa, H.

    1980-06-01

    The OTEC research in Japan carried out since 1970 is described. Design and cost estimates of the model 100 MW OTEC plants, two OTEC power loop experiments, and the development of new heat exchangers have been completed. Evaluation of OTEC thermal resources and the assessment of the OTEC concept as a power system have been made. However, these activities are still in the early stage, and a large amount of work is needed before OTEC power plants can contribute to Japan's energy demands.

  12. Organic/metal interface studies with reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy: Photomasked surfactants and organic photoconductors on aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debe, M. K.

    In organic/metal interfaces systems involving complex organic molecules or polymers, the effect of the physical interfaces can be extend further than a monolayer into the organic film. An example of such an effect is the preferential orienting of large molecules at a surface and thier subsequent stacking into the near-interface region. Reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, RAIR, is uniquely suited to studying such psuedomorphism on metal substrate. Unlike previous qualitative applications of RAIR, however, it is used in a quantitative mode in the two applications discussed here. In these applications the organic systems are very different but the approach taken to extract structural information at the interface is the same. RAIR spectra are obtained from very thin films with thickness being the parameter being varied. The interface region makes a larger contribution to the overall spectrum as the thickness decreases. By observing the "thickness" -normalized band absorbances as a functioning of "thickness", the percentage band intensity changes can be determined in going from the randomly oriented thick or bulk film case to the ordered thin film case. Given the RAIR selection rule that only dipole moment changes perpendicular to the surface can be observed and a reliable knowledge of the band assignments and transition moment directions in the organic molecule, the changes can be interpreted in terms of a specific orientation and conformation at the interface. This method of RAIR data sampling and analysis is refered to as quantitative absorption-reflection thickness IR or QUARTIR. In the first example, thin films of the photo-masked surfactant (PMS) 4, 5 dimethoxy-2 nitrobenzyl hexadecane sulfonate, solution cast in a copolyester matrix onto air oxidized Al substrate were studied. PMS to polyester weight ratios of 1:2 were used with estimated total film thicknesses varying from ca. 100 to 1000 Å. By digitally substracting out the stronger PE contribution from the combined spectra using plain PE preference sample spectra, the PMS spectra alone could be monitored as a function of thickness. From the fractional changes in the "thickness" -normalized intensities of 17 major bands upon going from the randomly oriented bulk state to the oriented interface state, the angles between the surface normal and the various transition moment directions could be deducted self-consistently. The resulting model of the blocked surfactant that preferentially diffuses to and orients at the Al oxide interface has the aromatic ring plane perpendicular to the surface with one nitro oxygen pointing towards it, leaving the hydrocarbon tail pointing away from the surface. The perpendicular bisector of the NO 2 group is inclined 30°C with respect to the surface normal. The preferred orientation of the SO 2, OCH 3 and S-O-CH 2 groups are also determined to be consistent with this model. In the second example thin films (30-1400 Å) of the photosensitive dye perylene red (PR) or N, N-Di (3, 5-xylyl) perylene-3, 4:9, 10 bis (dicarboxyimide), and metal free phthalocyanine (H 2Pc), were vacuum sublined onto air oxidized, sputter deposited Al substrates. From the strong monotonic variations in the "thickness" normalized relative band absorbances as the interface is approach, it can be concluded that at the interface the PR molecules are preferentially oriented such that all have thier major symmetry plane perpendicular to the surface. A unique orientation exists within that plane for a single molecular stack model and specified ranges of paired angles for a model of two stacks of differently oriented molecules. This behavior is in contrast to the H 2Pc films which appear to remain disordered down to ca. 100 Å.

  13. Space robotics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; McCain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

    1994-03-01

    Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

  14. Japan’s Nuclear Hedge: Beyond "Allergy" and Breakout

    E-print Network

    Samuels, Richard J.

    This chapter examines the future of Japan’s hedged dependence on U.S. extended deterrence and encourages more imaginative thinking about potential outcomes and strategic implications as the second nuclear age unfolds.

  15. Disaster in Japan

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Wheeler

    2011-03-28

    What happened in Japan? Navigate the photos and websites below to grasp the extent of the damage caused by the 2011 earthquake and tsunami. Part I: Summarize the event Read the article, Death Toll Estimate in Japan Soars as Relief Efforts Intensify , to better understand the basics of the event. On your own piece of paper, answer the 6 Q s About the News. You may type them on the computer and print them out. Be sure to write complete sentences. Part II: The One-Pager Now that you have summarized the ...

  16. The Japan Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jackson H.; And Others

    This publication contains three papers on college student exchange between Japan and the United States. The first paper, entitled "The University of Massachusetts and Hokkaido University: A Case Study in Educational Cooperation," by Barbara B. Burn, describes the long-standing relationship between these two institutions in order to identify some…

  17. Neutrino factory in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Yoshiharu

    2000-11-01

    A possible scheme of the neutrino factory in Japan based on the 50-GeV PS of the KEK-JAERI joint project is described. In this scheme, beam power of about 1 MW is expected from the 50-GeV PS with a repetition rate of about 0.4 Hz.

  18. Teaching Unit: Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Dina

    The cultural diversity of Japan can provide a rewarding learning experience for children of all grade levels. This teaching unit includes resources and ideas for the study of Japanese society, art, folklore, and poetry. Included among the instructional objectives are: (1) children will compare U.S. lifestyles with Japanese lifestyles by reading…

  19. Language Testing in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James Dean, Ed.; Yamashita, Sayoko Okada, Ed.

    Papers on second language testing in Japan include: "Differences Between Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests" (James Dean Brown); "Criterion-Referenced Test Construction and Evaluation" (Dale T. Griffe); "Behavioral Learning Objectives as an Evaluation Tool" (Judith A. Johnson); "Developing Norm- Referenced Tests for Program-Level…

  20. THE JAPAN PRESSS PRECAST CONCRETE

    E-print Network

    Shiohara, Hitoshi

    THE JAPAN PRESSS PRECAST CONCRETE CONNECTION DESIGN Hitoshi Shiohara Associate Professor of this Presentation To introduce the seismic design of precast concrete con- nection (Japan-PRESSS Connection Design and subassembledges with precast concrete connection were carried out in Japan in 1980's. Based on the tests, the con

  1. Scientific ballooning in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Fumiyoshi

    Activities in scientific ballooning in Japan during 1998-1999 are reported. The total number of scientific balloons flown in Japan in 1998 and 1999 was sixteen, eight flights in each year. The scientific objectives were observations of high energy cosmic electrons, air samplings at various altitudes, monitoring of atmospheric ozone density, Galactic infrared observations, and test flights of new type balloons. Balloon expeditions were conducted in Antarctica by the National Institute of Polar Research, in Russia, in Canada and in India in collaboration with foreign countries' institutes to investigate cosmic rays, Galactic infrared radiation, and Earth's atmosphere. There were three flights in Antarctica, four flights in Russia, three flights in Canada and two flights in India. Four test balloons were flown for balloon technology, which included pumpkin-type super-pressure balloon and a balloon made with ultra-thin polyethylene film of 3.4 ?m thickness.

  2. Perry Visits Japan

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Upon opening this website, visitors will be treated to an image from an anonymous Japanese scroll which depicts a steam locomotive and several Japanese onlookers. It's an excellent way to start a digital collection dedicated to Commodore Matthew Perry's visit to Japan in 1854. The collection is part of Brown University's Center for Digital Initiatives, and it was created as part of a project by Professor Susan Smulyan and her students. On the site, visitors can peruse three different sets of images, including those created by the American artist William Heine and a set of broadsides by anonymous Japanese creators. The subject matter is the same for all of these works (Commodore Perry's visit to Japan), and visitors can take a close look at each image, and also read accompanying essays by students. That's far from all, as visitors can also read accounts of the expeditions written by Commodore Perry and William Heine. The site is rounded out by a detailed bibliography containing scholarly works, journal articles, and web sources.

  3. Gateball: The Shuffleboard of Japan

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

    2006-04-26

    of the shuffleboard of Japan. By the 1990s, it was so popular that the police became concerned over reports of white-haired gateballers forcing kids out of parks and fights between geriatric players. Japanese croquet clearly isn't for sissies. #caes #hacker #japan...

  4. Technology Forecasting Activities in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terutaka Kuwahara

    1999-01-01

    Japan started its development in science and technology later than other countries but was nevertheless quite successful. Many factors contributed to this success—and one of them was the adaptation of large foresight studies at the end of the 1960s. In Japan, the Science and Technology Agency (STA), among others, in 1971 started to conduct a large study on the future

  5. Continuing Engineering Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshima, Keichi; Yamada, Keiichi

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: (1) the current status of continuing engineering education (CEE) in Japan; (2) characteristics of CEE in enterprises; and (3) future issues of CEE in Japan. Indicates that ways of improving CEE include increasing the role of universities, promoting creativity and education of elites, and re-education of middle- and advanced-aged…

  6. Polymer composites technology in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M. Karbhari; D. S. Kukich

    1993-01-01

    In 1992, the National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, Army Research Office, and Air Force Office of Scientific Research convened a panel to assess advanced manufacturing technology for polymer composite structures in Japan. The panel was charged with comparing the levels of the technology and the industry in both the United States and Japan. The Panel on Advanced Polymer Composites

  7. Japan's whaling plan under scrutiny

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas J. Gales; Toshio Kasuya; Phillip J. Clapham; Robert L. Brownell Jr

    2005-01-01

    Eighteen years after initiating scientific whaling in Antarctic waters, Japan presented a new and more ambitious program to the International Whaling Commission (IWC); the proposal was made in early June during the IWC’s annual meeting in Ulsan, Korea. Japan now wishes to more than double its annual catch of Antarctic minke whales (from about 440 to 935), and to expand

  8. Generic antibiotics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Shigeru; Watanabe, Akira

    2012-08-01

    Generic drugs have been used extensively in many developed countries, although their use in Japan has been limited. Generic drugs reduce drug expenses and thereby national medical expenditure. Because generic drugs provide advantages for both public administration and consumers, it is expected that they will be more widely used in the future. However, the diffusion rate of generic drugs in Japan is quite low compared with that of other developed countries. An investigation on generic drugs conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan revealed that 17.2 % of doctors and 37.2 % of patients had not used generic drugs. The major reasons for this low use rate included distrust of off-patent products and lower drug price margin compared with the brand name drug. The generic drugs available in the market include external drugs such as wet packs, antihypertensive agents, analgesics, anticancer drugs, and antibiotics. Among them, antibiotics are frequently used in cases of acute infectious diseases. When the treatment of these infections is delayed, the infection might be aggravated rapidly. The pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) theory has been adopted in recent chemotherapy, and in many cases, the most appropriate dosage and administration of antibiotics are determined for individual patients considering renal function; high-dosage antibiotics are used preferably for a short duration. Therefore, a highly detailed antimicrobial agent is necessary. However, some of the generic antibiotics have less antibacterial potency or solubility than the brand name products. We showed that the potency of the generic products of vancomycin and teicoplanin is lower than that of the branded drugs by 14.6 % and 17.3 %, respectively. Furthermore, we confirmed that a generic meropenem drug for injection required about 82 s to solubilize in saline, whereas the brand product required only about 21 s. It was thought that the cause may be the difference in size of bulk particle and amount of solubilizer. The Japanese government hopes to increase the diffusion rate of generic drugs (in terms of quantity) from 20.2 % in 2010 to 30 % or more in 2012, and therefore it will be necessary to clarify the advantages of generic antibiotics in terms of expenditure and equivalency with the branded drugs. PMID:22684334

  9. Japan's BSE program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, N.; Matsushita, M.; Kajikawa, M.

    1982-12-01

    An overview of the program for Japan's Medium-scale Broadcasting Satellite for Experimental Purpose (BSE), placed in orbit in 1978, is presented. The BSE was developed in order to provide useful technical data for establishing the fundamental technology of satellite broadcasting systems, the controlling and operational techniques of the broadcasting satellite, and the reception of broadcasting satellite radio waves. The satellite system and the ground facilities are discussed, and tables are included which list the system parameters and subsystems of the BSE. In addition, an outline is presented of the various experiments conducted utilizing the BSE, including the evaluation of the broadcasting service area, the transmission methods and their characteristics, controlling technique of the satellite, multiple access from different stations, and the improvement of receiving systems

  10. Typhoon Chataan off Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Slowly winding its way down, Typhoon Chataan had dropped to tropical storm status by Thursday, July 11, 2002, when this image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was captured. In the image, the storm is located off the east coast of central Japan in the Pacific Ocean. The storm is much less organized than it was in the previous day's image. Through a gap in the clouds to the southwest of the storm's eye, Tokyo can be seen as a grayish cluster of pixels surrounding a small bay or inlet that protrudes into the island of Honshu. Credit: Image courtesy Jesse Allen, NASA Earth Observatory; data provided by the MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  11. Multiple personality disorder in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Y; Suzuki, K; Sato, T; Murakami, Y; Takahashi, T

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the features of multiple personality disorder (MPD) in Japan are similar to those in North America, although a wide disparity exists in the prevalence of MPD between the two areas. In order to describe the features of MPD in Japan, we obtained clinical data from MPD case reports, including two of our own cases, published in Japanese academic journals and compared it with the data from other countries. The cases in Japan differed significantly from those in North America in the mean number of personalities and prevalence of sexual and/or physical abuse. PMID:9681581

  12. Japan's Transition from Socialism to Capitalism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuo Takeuchi

    1998-01-01

    I believe that Japan should be regarded as a country of socialism, not capitalism. Most people have misperceived Japan as a capitalist country. Indeed, Japan has had capitalismâalong with the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, other European countries, and Korea. Japan was affiliated with the Western capitalism during the cold war and when confronted with Eastern socialism. Liberalism and

  13. Helicobacter pylori infection in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Seiji; Murakawi, Kazunari; Suzuki, Rumiko; Fujioka, Toshio; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is gradually decreasing in Japan. On the main island of Japan, nearly all H. pylori isolates possess cagA and vacA with strong virulence. However, less virulent H. pylori strains are frequently found in Okinawa where cases of gastric cancer are the lowest in Japan. Eradication therapy for peptic ulcer, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and early gastric cancer after endoscopic resection has been approved by the Japanese national health insurance system. However, the Japanese Society for Helicobacter Research recently stated that all 'H. pylori infection' was considered as the indication for eradication irrespective of the background diseases. To eliminate H. pylori in Japan, the Japanese health insurance system should approve the eradication of all H. pylori infections. PMID:23265147

  14. Global update: Japan.

    PubMed

    Sipp, Doug

    2011-11-01

    Japan continues to be a major player in stem cell biology and related fields, boasting multiple world-class programs in a broad spectrum of stem cell studies, a permissive regulatory framework, an active society for regenerative medicine and a growing industry involvement. The most noted work in recent years has of course originated in the laboratory of Shinya Yamanaka, with the first report of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) in 2006, and numerous technical advancements since, which prompted the government to establish a Center for iPS Cell Research and Application in 2010 (see below). Additional concentrations of stem cell research excellence can be found in Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe and Kumamoto. In 2011, Yoshiki Sasai's laboratory in the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe, achieved another remarkable result in inducing optic cup-like structures from embryonic stem cells using 4D tissue culture techniques, building on previous work in which the group had generated stratified cerebral cortex-like tissue from embryonic stem cells in vitro. PMID:21999281

  15. Clean Coal Technologies in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RYOICHI YOSHIDA; Ryoichi

    1997-01-01

    Coal provided 16·1% (116·3 million tons) of the energy for Japan in FY 1992. According to the long-term energy supply and demand outlook in Japan, prepared and revised in June 1994 by the Advisory Committee for Energy, it is estimated that coal will provide 16·4% (130 million tons) of the energy in 2000 and 15·4% (134 million tons) in 2010,

  16. High definition systems in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkus, Richard J., Jr.; Cohen, Robert B.; Dayton, Birney D.; Messerschmitt, David G.; Schreiber, William F.; Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Shelton, Duane

    1991-01-01

    The successful implementation of a strategy to produce high-definition systems within the Japanese economy will favorably affect the fundamental competitiveness of Japan relative to the rest of the world. The development of an infrastructure necessary to support high-definition products and systems in that country involves major commitments of engineering resources, plants and equipment, educational programs and funding. The results of these efforts appear to affect virtually every aspect of the Japanese industrial complex. The results of assessments of the current progress of Japan toward the development of high-definition products and systems are presented. The assessments are based on the findings of a panel of U.S. experts made up of individuals from U.S. academia and industry, and derived from a study of the Japanese literature combined with visits to the primary relevant industrial laboratories and development agencies in Japan. Specific coverage includes an evaluation of progress in R&D for high-definition television (HDTV) displays that are evolving in Japan; high-definition standards and equipment development; Japanese intentions for the use of HDTV; economic evaluation of Japan's public policy initiatives in support of high-definition systems; management analysis of Japan's strategy of leverage with respect to high-definition products and systems.

  17. Evaluation of attenuated PSM photomask blanks with TF11 chrome and FEP-171 resist on a 248 nm DUV laser pattern generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Kezhao; Björnborg, Charles; Karlsson, Henrik; Paulsson, Adisa; Rosendahl, Anna; Beiming, Peter; Vedenpää, Jukka; Walford, Jonathan; Newman, Tom

    2007-10-01

    Tighter requirements on mask resolution, CD and image positioning accuracy at and beyond the 45 nm technology node push the development of improved photomask blanks. One such blank for attenuated phase-shift masks (att-PSM) provides a thinner chrome film, named TF11, with higher chrome etch rate compared to the previous generation Att- PSM blank (NTAR5 chrome film) from the same supplier. Reduced stress in the chrome film also results in less image placement error induced by the material. FEP-171 is the positive chemically amplified resist (PCAR) that is most commonly used in advanced mask manufacturing with both 50 keV variable shaped e-beam (VSB) and DUV laser pattern generators. TF11 allows an FEP-171 resist film down to about 2000 Å thickness with sufficient etch resistance, while the standard resist thickness for NTAR5 is around 3000 Å. This work has experimentally evaluated the use of TF11 chrome and FEP-171 resist together with a 248 nm DUV laser pattern generator, the Sigma7500. First, patterning performance in resist with thicknesses from 2000 Å to 2600 Å, in steps of 100 Å, was tested with respect to swing curve and basic lithographic parameters including resolution, CD linearity, CD iso-dense bias and dose sensitivity. Patterning results on mask showed a swing minimum at around 2200 Å and a swing maximum at around 2500 Å, which correspond to reflectivity measurements for 248 nm wavelength performed by the blank supplier. It was concluded that the overall patterning performance was best close to the swing maximum. Thereafter the patterning performance using TF11 at two resist thicknesses, 2000 Å and 2550 Å, was studied in more detail and compared to performance using NTAR5 with 3200 Å resist. The evaluation showed that the Sigma7500-II offers good compatibility with TF11, especially using the optimized FEP-171 resist thickness of 2550 Å. It also showed that the patterning capability of the Sigma7500-II using TF11 and 2550 Å resist is improved compared to using NTAR5 and 3200 Å resist.

  18. Mt. Fuji, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the movie

    The nearly perfectly conical profile of Fuji soars 3,776 meters (12,388 feet) above sea level on southern Honshu, near Tokyo. The highest mountain in Japan, Fuji is the country's most familiar symbol. The summit of this graceful, dormant volcano is broken by a crater 610 meters (2,000 feet) in diameter. The crater is ringed by eight jagged peaks. The five Fuji Lakes lie on the northern slopes of the mountain, all formed in the wake of lava flows. Mirrored in the still waters of Kawaguchi-ko, the most beautiful of the five lakes, is a reflection of Fuji. Part of Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, Fuji last erupted for a two-month period starting in November 1707, covering Tokyo, some 100 kilometers (60 miles) away, with a layer of ash. According to legend, Fuji arose from the plain during a single night in 286 BC. Geologically, the mountain is much older than this.

    Considered sacred by many, Fuji is surrounded by temples and shrines. Thousands of pilgrims climb the mountain each year as part of their religious practice, hoping to reach the summit by dawn to watch the sunrise. This animated fly-by was created by draping visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's stereo bands. The spatial resolution of both the image and topography is 15 m. The image is centered at 35.3 degrees north latitude, 138.7 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  19. Radar Image, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The southeast part of the island of Hokkaido, Japan, is an area dominated by volcanoes and volcanic caldera. The active Usu Volcano is at the lower right edge of the circular Lake Toya-Ko and near the center of the image. The prominent cone above and to the left of the lake is Yotei Volcano with its summit crater. The city of Sapporo lies at the base of the mountains at the top of the image and the town of Yoichi -- the hometown of SRTM astronaut Mamoru Mohri -- is at the upper left edge. The bay of Uchiura-Wan takes up the lower center of the image. In this image, color represents elevation, from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest. The radar image has been overlaid to provide more details of the terrain. Due to a processing problem, an island in the center of this crater lake is missing and will be properly placed when further SRTM swaths are processed. The horizontal banding in this image is a processing artifact that will be removed when the navigation information collected by SRTM is fully calibrated. This image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 100 by 150 kilometers (62 by 93 miles) Location: 42.5 deg. North lat., 140.3 deg. East lon. Orientation: North towards upper left Image Data: SRTM Original Data Resolution: SRTM 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 17, 2000

  20. Japan and deep seabed mining

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes Japan's uniqueness and identifies four possible factors that the author believes have influenced the shaping of Japan's deep seabed mining policy. These factors are: the importance of the use of oceans and a stable legal order, the near-total dependence on imports of the four mineral resources which are contained in manganese nodules, the need to cooperate with Western industrialized countries, and the traditional close ties between the government and private industry. The paper then examines the past and current developments regarding Japan's involvement in deep seabed affairs from the perspectives provided by these four salient facts. The authors concludes with the hope that current differences in the positions of potential mining states will be reconciled as actual deep seabed exploitation becomes more of a reality.

  1. The educational system in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    The rapid economic growth of Japan since World War II has resulted in Japan becoming a reference point for developing nations and the West. This remarkable growth results from a combination of factors, one of which has been unyielding attention to education in order to cultivate the human talent necessary to provide the productivity for economic growth. The Japanese education system emphasizes quality of instruction and rewards hard work. Some of the principles of the system are outlined together with a summary of the content of the curriculum, the quantity and quality of instruction, and the influence of culture and environment.

  2. Japan`s nuclear power faces uncertain future

    SciTech Connect

    Mashimo, Toshiki [People`s Research Institute on Energy and Environment, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-01

    With no major domestic fossil-fuel reserves or uranium mines, Japan is the world`s third largest producer of nuclear energy. However, {open_quotes}today, Japan`s nuclear-power industry is nearing a standstill,{close_quotes} says Toshiki Mashimo, a researcher at People`s Research Institute on Energy and Environment in Tokyo. Opposition to nuclear energy is putting the brakes on further construction of nuclear power plant. {open_quotes}Farmers and fisherman have refused to sell their lands and fishery rights at three sites.{close_quotes} In addition, fears about the safety of nuclear plants have caused the cost of new plants to rise as construction is delayed and safety features are added. {open_quotes}Meanwhile power demand continues to rise,{close_quotes} Mashimo says. To meet that demand, utilities will need to diversify. {open_quotes}The bottom line for nuclear power in Japan is this: It will continue to play a significant role in the nation`s energy mix, but the projections of rapid growth, which were in vogue just a few years ago, likely have been stymied by rising costs, public concerns for safety, and increasing opportunities afforded by other sources of energy.{close_quotes}

  3. [[Fertility in Japan: 1990

    PubMed

    Hirosima, K; Yamamoto, C

    1992-04-01

    Japan's number of births for 1990 was 1,229,044, which was 25,000 less than 1989. The decrease, however, was smaller than the decrease which occurred between 1988 and 1989. Table 1 shows total number of births of Japanese and number of births of non-Japanese. Since 1987 number of births of non-Japanese has been slightly over 7000 every year, constituting 0.6% of total births. Table 2 shows total number of Japanese births, number of those with Japanese parents, number of those with non-Japanese mothers and number of those with non-Japanese fathers. The number of those with at least one non-Japanese parent was slightly over 1% in 1990. Table 3 shows in thousands, (1) number of births, (2) married female population ages 20-34, (3) female population ages 20-34, (4) total population. The second wave of baby boomers is now beginning to get married and reproduce, which has resulted in a slight increase in child births among women below 24. Child births among those below age 23 were 94,871 in 1988, 95,102 in 1989, and 98,632 in 1990. The same data for those below age 24 was 143,495 in 1989 and 147,037 in 1990. 1990's number of births was 63.1% of 1970's, which showed the onset of a second baby boom. This is due to a lower rate of currently married women, lower number of women ages 20 to 34, and lower fertility rate among currently married women. Total fertility rate dropped from 2.18 to 1.47 for males, from 2.13 to 1.53 for females, from 2.16 to 1.50 for the total. Ever-married total fertility rate went from 2.08 to 1.95 for males, from 2.13 to 1.98 for females. The reason why TFR was so low in 1980's was that total first marriage rate was as low as 70%. Between 1989 and 1990 age-specific fertility rates for males 34 years and above and for females 31 years and above, as well as that for both males and females 22 years and under, increased. 31-year-old males and 28-year-old females showed the highest age-specific fertility rate in 1990. Between 1975 and 1990 average age for child births rose by 1.13 for males and 1.47 for females. Age-specific fertility rate for currently married increased for males above 32 and below 23 years and for females above 29 and below 22 years. PMID:12343787

  4. Japan and America: Culture Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooney, Barry D.

    1989-01-01

    Cultural distinctions in the approach to social relationships, access to information, personal motivation, and hierarchy make Japan an effective economic power. U.S. business can learn from the Japanese ways to create more information-based organizations, think in global terms, foster links between business and education, and develop internal…

  5. Print club photography in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Chalfen; Mai Murui

    2001-01-01

    The authors examine the popularity of a new form of photographic representation in Japan, namely Print Club, or Purikura. Print Club machines initially delivered a page of 16 postage?stamp?sized photographs of their patrons, but many other formats have become common. This paper describes the 1995 emergence and development of the technology, image content, decorative frames, picture uses and functions and

  6. Total laboratory automation in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahide Sasaki; Takeshi Kageoka; Katsumi Ogura; Hiromi Kataoka; Tadashi Ueta; Shigeyoshi Sugihara

    1998-01-01

    The history of systematized automation in clinical laboratories in Japan started in 1981. At that time, about 12 laboratory technicians worked in a typical private University hospital laboratory (average size 1000 beds), whereas in national university hospitals (typical size 600 beds), the number of technicians was as low as 18–25. In 1981, the Kochi Medical School was founded as a

  7. Test generation systems in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Funatsu; N. Wakatsuki; T. Arima

    1975-01-01

    With the advent of large scale and medium scale integrated circuit, test and diagnosis of digital logic circuits become more and more difficult to get an efficient and economical goal. In this paper, Test Generation Systems for testing digital logic circuits (IC Cards) in Japan are introduced. One implemented in Nippon Electric Co. is described in detail. Future problems of

  8. Innovative shotcreting system in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Takashi

    1995-12-31

    Robotization of shotcreting has advanced remarkably in Japan in a short span of time for the purpose of avoiding exposure of human workers to adverse conditions. This paper provides an overview of various devices used in shotcreting and discusses the development of improved systems which ensure higher safety and larger productivity.

  9. Human Rickettsia heilongjiangensis Infection, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kurosawa, Masahiro; Sakata, Akiko; Fujita, Hiromi; Sakai, Katsurou; Sekine, Masao; Katsumi, Masanori; Saitou, Wakana; Yano, Yasuhiro; Takada, Nobuhiro; Takano, Ai; Kawabata, Hiroki; Hanaoka, Nozomu; Watanabe, Haruo; Kurane, Ichiro; Kishimoto, Toshio

    2010-01-01

    A case of Rickettsia heilongjiangensis infection in Japan was identified in a 35-year-old man who had rash, fever, and eschars. Serum contained R. heilongjiangensis antibodies, and eschars contained R. heilongjiangensis DNA. R. heilongjiangensis was also isolated from ticks in the suspected geographic area of infection. PMID:20678332

  10. Teaching and Learning in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlen, Thomas P., Ed.; LeTendre, Gerald K., Ed.

    The essays gathered in this volume are united by the common goal of understanding teaching and learning in Japan as it actually occurs. The essays seek to answer questions about the actual conduct of learning in different settings and at different points in the life cycle. This volume explores the expectations and associations found in specific…

  11. Japan: Images of a People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smigielski, Alan; Casey, Douglas, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This issue of "Art to Zoo" focuses on Japanese art and is adapted from materials developed by the education department of the Smithsonian Institution's Freer Gallery of Art and the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery. After learning how to look at paintings, students make paper screens that resemble Japanese screens. Background essays about Japan place the…

  12. Teaching about Japan: Lessons and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernson, Mary Hammond, Ed.; Wojtan, Linda S., Ed.

    This document is a revised and updated version of two publications: "Modern Japan: An Idea Book for K-12 Teachers" and "Resources for Teaching About Japan." These lesson plans were developed by teachers who participated in a summer institute on Japan, sponsored by the East Asia Resource Center at the Jackson School of International Studies,…

  13. Japan's Squid Fishing Industry WILLIAM G. COURT

    E-print Network

    Japan's Squid Fishing Industry WILLIAM G. COURT .. Introduction Dried-squid (surume) has been an item of commerce, ceremony, and diet in Japan for hundreds of years, and squid is caught of the fishery. In 1952 squid landings reached 646,730 tons and, at 15 percent of the total, became Japan's most

  14. KANSAI GAIDAI UNIVERSITY Hirakata City, Japan

    E-print Network

    Young, Paul Thomas

    KANSAI GAIDAI UNIVERSITY Hirakata City, Japan College of Charleston Bilateral Exchange Program in Japan, students are given a monthly stipend for food expenses. Most CofC financial aid will apply Science, Located within an hour's train ride from Osaka, Japan's second largest city, and Kyoto, the an

  15. The Japan Scotland Association Scholarship 1. Objective

    E-print Network

    Little, Tony

    The Japan Scotland Association Scholarship 1. Objective To assist Japanese students at Master society. 2. Background This scholarship scheme was set up to help improve links between Japan and Scotland (one of the aims of the Japan Scotland Association). Planned to commence September 2013. 3. Number

  16. "The March 11th , East Japan Earthquake &

    E-print Network

    Kawato, Suguru

    "The March 11th , East Japan Earthquake & Tsunami": Foreign Student Organizes International Seminar in English After the catastrophe caused by East Japan earthquake, many of the international students studying. The title of the discussion was "How foreigners see the great east Japan earthquake and what should be done

  17. History Textbook Controversies in Japan. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masalski, Kathleen Woods

    Currently, there is a controversy in Japan about textbook treatments of Japanese military actions during World War II. This digest examines: (1) the importance of history textbooks in schools in Japan and the United States; (2) the context of history textbook controversies in Japan; (3) the current issues and contending positions in the Japanese…

  18. Japan`s nuclear weapons options and U.S. security interests

    SciTech Connect

    Sharman, C.H.

    1998-06-01

    Japan is a virtual nuclear weapons power. It has the scientific and technical ability to produce hundreds or even thousands of nuclear weapons, but has chosen not to do so for political reasons. This thesis examines the historical development of Japan`s nuclear energy and aerospace programs since the mid-1950s and considers the possibility that at various points in its history, Japan used these programs as a cover to insure that its nuclear weapons options remained open. This thesis analyzes internal and external factors that may have influenced Japan`s nuclear policies. External factors include regional threats, international pressures to join the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and distrust of US commitments to provide for Japan`s defense. Internal factors include Japan`s historical tradition of a strong military state and Japan`s unique nuclear allergy. While both external and internal factors have influenced the path of Japans nuclear energy and aerospace programs, internal factors will drive Japan to maintain its plutonium-based energy program and will allow Japan to remain a virtual nuclear power well into the twenty-first century.

  19. Harmonizing national with international standards in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Hohki, Keiichi [Tokyo Electric Power Co. (Japan); Hammons, T.J. [Univ. of Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents a Japanese engineer`s view on harmonization of global standards as the key factor in maintaining and promoting free trade. Japan is endowed with almost no natural resources, and, for this reason, Japan must rely on international trade to sustain its standard of living. Japan fully recognizes that the maintenance and promotion of mutually beneficial free trade is indispensable for cooperation in an international society, and is essential for Japan`s survival. It is very clear that the promotion of the international harmonization of standards is the key factor in the maintenance and promotion of free trade. And Japan is one of the countries most eagerly hoping for its realization. The authors focus on three issues concerning the international harmonization of Japanese standards: (1) Efforts Japan has made for the harmonization of Japanese standards with international ones; (2) natural or tectonic circumstances unique to Japanese standards; and (3) relationship between standard harmonization and international trade.

  20. Cerebral Palsy in Tottori, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenzo Takeshita; Yukinori Ando; Kyoiti Ohtani; Satio Takashima

    1989-01-01

    From the changing incidence of cerebral palsy (CP) in the Tottori joint study, the absolute number of saved non-CP babies in the period 1955–1984 in the whole of Japan was calculated as about 33,000. The significant decrease of the incidence in the period 1955–1980 was mainly related to the advances made in perinatal medicine. In contrast, the recent reincrease is

  1. Novel anticancer drugs in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makota Ogawa

    1999-01-01

    This review summarizes the results reported in preclinical and clinical trials of three novel anticancer drugs developed\\u000a and tested in Japan. In phase II trials, Irinotecan, a semisynthetic analog of camptothecin, has yielded response rates exceeding\\u000a 20% in non-small-cell lung cancer, small-cell lung cancer, breast cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, ovarian cancer,\\u000a uterine cervical cancer, and non-Hodgkini's lymphoma. It was

  2. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, December 10, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-12-10

    Contents (partial): Japan: Fabrication of Diamond Single Crystal Thin Film by Ion Beam Deposition; Japan: Hitachi Metal Develops New Semi Solid Metal Processing Technology; Japan: NTT Develops Fuel Cell System That Uses Both City Gas, LPG; Japan: Daihatsu Motor Completes Prototype EV; Japan: NIRIM Announces Success With Synthetic Bone Development; Japan: Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Plans Clinical Trials of Gene Therapy to Cerebral Tumor in Japan; Japan: MITI To Provide Aid for Residential Solar Power Generation Systems; Japan: MELCO To Provide Satellite Solar Cell Panel for SSL, USA; Japan: Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Leads Nuclear Research; Japan: Kobe Steel`s Superconducting Magnet Ready to Go Fast; Japan: MPT To Begin Validation Test for Electric Money Implementation; and Japan: Defense Agency to Send ASDF`s Pilots to Russia for Training.

  3. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, May 7, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-05-07

    ;Partial Contents: Japan: FH1 Aerospace Division Executive on UAV R&D; JapaN: MHI Delivers First F-2 Flight Test Model; Nuclear Technologies; Japan: Nuclear Material Research in Cross-Over Research Project; Japan: MITI To Subsidize Development of Cryptography; Defense Industries; Japan: JADI Announces FY96 Major Events Schedule; Japan: Rollout Ceremony Held for First OH-X Flight Test Model; and Japan: KHI Weapons Designer OH-X Development.

  4. Japan's hidden youths: mainstreaming the emotionally distressed in Japan.

    PubMed

    Borovoy, Amy

    2008-12-01

    One of the most talked-about social issues in Japan in recent years has been the problem of the nation's purportedly one million "hidden" youths, known as hikikomori (literally, "the withdrawn"). Most observers agree that the category of hikikomori encompasses a wide range of problems and provocations. The fact that these various dilemmas lead to the shared outcome of shutting oneself away at home is the point of departure here. The article explores the spheres of mental health care, education and family, focusing on the reluctance to highlight underlying psychological dimensions of hikikomori and the desire on the part of schools and families to "mainstream" Japanese children, accommodating as many as possible within standardized public education. Hikikomori can perhaps be seen as a manifestation of Japanese democracy, in which the good society is imagined as cohesive, protective and secure, rather than one in which the individual can freely exercise the right to be different. Schools, families and the sphere of mental health care have focused on producing social inclusion but have discouraged citizens from being labeled as "different" -- even when such a distinction might help them. The dearth of facilities and discourse for caring for the mentally ill or learning disabled is, in many respects, the darker side of Japan's successes. Those who cannot adjust are cared for through the institutions of families, companies and various other spheres that offer spaces to rest and to temporarily "drop out"; however, the expectation is that rest will eventually lead to a re-entry into mainstream society. Often the psychological problem or disability that led to the problem goes unnamed and untreated (hikikomori, psychiatry, special education, youth, family, Japan). PMID:18818992

  5. Changing Incidence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kunio Okuda; Isaburo Fujimoto; Aya Hanai; Yoshinori Urano

    1987-01-01

    A trend in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Japan was studied from the data of the Osaka Cancer Registry (population, 8,512,351 in 1981) for the period of 1963-1983, the Vital Statistics of Japan, Ministry of Health and Welfare, and the Japan Autopsy Registry which contained 594,132 individually filed cases in the 26-year period from 1958 to 1983. Both

  6. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, November 22, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-11-22

    Contents (Selected articles): Japan: Diamond Thin Film Successfully Produced in Space, CVD Experiment Using Flowing Gas; Japan: ADEOS-Background, Purpose Behind Its Development; Japan: 20 Japanese Companies Establich Software CALS Consortium; Japan: Advanced Technology on Thermal Recycling Systems for Combustible Refuse; Japan: Sanyo Electric Co. To Develop Low Temperature Processed Poly-Silicon TFT-LCD; Japan: Mitsubishi Heavy Delivers Nuclear Simulator to Russians; Japan: Magnets Attract Plenty of R&D Attention; Japan: Latest Survey Shows Dramatic Increase in Number of Internet Users; and Japan: NTT Fabricates Multivalued Logic Circuit Applicable to IC.

  7. Kyoto University Facilities in Japan Supporting Research

    E-print Network

    Takada, Shoji

    , Yamaguchi....................................... Graduate School of Agriculture Livestock Farm;Kyoto University Facilities in Japan Disaster Prevention Research Institute Research Center for Fluvial and Coastal Disasters... ........................... Ogata Wave Observatory, Niigata

  8. Solid waste management in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Naito, S.

    1995-09-01

    On Friday 17 June 1994, as the invited speaker of the International Congress of IWM/ISWA at Torbay, UK the author presented a paper of {open_quotes}A framework for success: the role of legislation{close_quotes}. THis was to introduce the amendment of Waste Disposal Cleansing Law and the Basic Environment Law in 1991, but the combination of the two amended laws has enforced promoting and assisting the fulfillment of the responsibilities of corporations and citizens. In addition to such presentation, the author pointed out a new manner of solid waste management (SWM) in Japan.

  9. Perinatal health care in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishida, H

    1997-01-01

    The maternal and infant health care system and vital statistics in Japan are reviewed. The improvement of socioeconomic conditions, higher education for women, comprehensive health care provided by the government, regionalization for high-risk pregnancy, medical advances in the care of pregnant women and neonates, the significant decline of perinatal and neonatal mortality rates in recent decades are all contributing factors in improved maternal-infant health care. On the basis of recent statistics showing that the survival rate of extremely low birth weight infants increased over 80%, the viability limit defined by Eugenic Protection Act was amended in 1991 from 24 to 22 completed weeks of gestation. PMID:9069070

  10. Japan's CS-2 pilot program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsu, Y.; Muranaga, K.; Tsuchiya, K.; Takahashi, H.; Kosaka, K.

    1984-10-01

    The purpose and present status of Japan's CS-2 pilot program are reviewed, the program is outlined, and experimental items in the program are discussed. The program satellite is shown and its characteristics are given. The users of the system are named and the system is graphicaly depicted. The structure and management of the experimental program are described. The problems of channel quality, protocols, and security in the construction of satellite links are summarized. The main experimental purpose, to transmit newspaper page and news material facsimile from a major office to local scattered stations, is examined in detail.

  11. JapanBizTech: The Source for Technology Business in Japan and Asia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Japan BizTech is a source for technology and business news from Japan and Asia developed by Nikkei Business Publications. It covers the latest news and research breakthroughs in the communications, electronics and computer industries in Japan and other Asian countries. An online directory for technology and business contacts throughout Asia in banking, communications, transport equipment and wholesale is available at the site.

  12. On earthquake prediction in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uyeda, Seiya

    2013-01-01

    Japan's National Project for Earthquake Prediction has been conducted since 1965 without success. An earthquake prediction should be a short-term prediction based on observable physical phenomena or precursors. The main reason of no success is the failure to capture precursors. Most of the financial resources and manpower of the National Project have been devoted to strengthening the seismographs networks, which are not generally effective for detecting precursors since many of precursors are non-seismic. The precursor research has never been supported appropriately because the project has always been run by a group of seismologists who, in the present author's view, are mainly interested in securing funds for seismology - on pretense of prediction. After the 1995 Kobe disaster, the project decided to give up short-term prediction and this decision has been further fortified by the 2011 M9 Tohoku Mega-quake. On top of the National Project, there are other government projects, not formally but vaguely related to earthquake prediction, that consume many orders of magnitude more funds. They are also un-interested in short-term prediction. Financially, they are giants and the National Project is a dwarf. Thus, in Japan now, there is practically no support for short-term prediction research. Recently, however, substantial progress has been made in real short-term prediction by scientists of diverse disciplines. Some promising signs are also arising even from cooperation with private sectors. PMID:24213204

  13. JAPAN GOING TOWARD FOREST CERTIFICATION September 24, 2004

    E-print Network

    JAPAN GOING TOWARD FOREST CERTIFICATION September 24, 2004 Toshiaki Owari #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS JAPAN: GROWING INTEREST IN FOREST CERTIFICATION................................ 2 FOREST, FORESTRY AND FOREST INDUSTRY IN JAPAN ................................... 2 DIFFERENT FOREST CERTIFICATION SCHEMES

  14. The State of Continuing Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masatoshi, Nagashima, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains the following articles about the state of continuing education and occupational training in Japan: "Funabashi City University of Sports Health" (Abe Nobuhiro); "Public Halls in Omiya City" (Kawamoto Koji); "Setagaya Senior Citizens College (Setagaya Rojin Daigaku)" (Sawamura Hiroshi); "Lifelong Sport in Japan: A Case Study of…

  15. Sharing a Common Future. Report from Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Makoto

    This document contains seven previously published papers examining trends in adult education in Japan. "Deepening Democracy" (1992) examines democracy and adult education for special needs groups (women, dropouts, disabled persons, ethnic minorities, and refugees). "Literacy Movement" (1990) traces literacy education in Japan from its beginnings…

  16. Computer Forensics in Japan: A Preliminary Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jigang Liu; Tetsutaro Uehara

    2009-01-01

    Many national studies on computer forensics have been reported in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia, except Japan. As one of the economic powers in the world and the only Asian country represented in the G8, Japan has been playing a critical role in Asia as well as in the world in fighting against the cyber crime and

  17. Understanding earthquake design criteria used in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Park, Y.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Costello, J.F. [US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper summarizes the current earthquake design criteria used in Japan for nuclear power plants. Information is presented on the codes and standards and seismic requirements for reactor buildings and containment structures. The most interesting features of the earthquake design criteria used in Japan, in the light of those used in the United States, are summarized.

  18. Foreign Fishery Developments Soviet Union and Japan

    E-print Network

    Foreign Fishery Developments Soviet Union and Japan Agree on 1978 Quotas The Soviet Union and Japan); the Soviet Union's quota in the Japanese zone at 650,000 t. These final quotas, which were disappointingly,000 t for the Soviet Union during July-December. The Soviet Union modified its posi- tion during the first week

  19. Japan: Language Policy and Planning in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Nanette

    2008-01-01

    This monograph discusses the language situation in Japan, with an emphasis on language planning and policy. Japan has long considered itself to be a monoethnic and therefore monolingual society, despite the existence of substantial old-comer ethnic minorities, and this--with the instrumental exception of English--has been reflected in its language…

  20. The Decline of marital fertility in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl Mosk

    1979-01-01

    Studies concerning the demographic history of Tokuwara and Meiji Japan suggest that fertility rose substantially before declining during the twentieth century. Were the motivations and circumstances which held down natality during the feudal period similar to those which account for the modern fertility decline and the low birth rate obtaining in the Japan of to-day? The thesis of this paper

  1. Korean Students' Minority Schooling Experience in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative study conducted in western Japan examined the perceptions of Korean students in Japanese junior high school to identify factors contributing to a consistently low high school advancement rate compared to mainstream Japanese students. Fourteen people were interviewed about their Korean students' experiences in Japan. The findings of…

  2. Internet use via mobile phone in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenichi Ishii

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 40% of the population enjoy access to the Internet via mobile phones in Japan, where user needs have driven developments of the mobile Internet such as “i-mode”. After reviewing mobile Internet services in Japan, this article examines key social and cultural factors of mobile Internet use based on nationally representative surveys focusing on differences between PC and mobile Internet.

  3. 78 FR 78338 - Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ...Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19...Japan-United States Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum (``Fukushima Recovery Forum'') on February 18-19...

  4. PASJ: Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 63, L13L17, 2011 April 25 c 2011. Astronomical Society of Japan.

    E-print Network

    Oka, Takeshi

    PASJ: Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 63, L13­L17, 2011 April 25 c 2011. Astronomical Society of Japan by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Oka et al. (2005) determined the physical state of the gas

  5. Industrial waste management in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Hirota, Y.

    1986-12-01

    Systematic management for industrial waste in Japan has been carried out based on the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law which was enacted in 1970. The law and its ordinances designate 19 kinds of waste materials discharged from business activities as industrial waste and prescribe the generator's responsibility, requirements for treatment contractors, standards for consignment, specific personnel, etc. from the view of proper management. And they also prescribe disposal standards, structure, and maintenance standards for treatment facilities, including final disposal sites, from the view of proper treatment and disposal. The Standard for Verification provides criteria to categorize as hazardous or nonhazardous industrial waste which is subjected to treatment and disposal in conformity with each standard. The fundamental policies to cope with industrial waste focus on reduction of generation, promotion of recycling, establishment of a comprehensive information management system and participation of the public which can contribute well to prevent environmental pollution caused by inappropriate management of industrial waste.

  6. Age at motherhood in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ermisch, J; Ogawa, N

    1994-01-01

    This study analyzed the factors influencing maternal age in Japan. Data was obtained from the National Survey on Family Planning (20th round) conducted by the Mainichi Newspapers of Japan in June 1990 and from vital statistics records on first births over a 25-year period. Both time-series and cross-sectional data provided support for the link between educational attainment and wages and the rising age at childbearing. Proportional hazards models and accelerated-failure time models with unobserved heterogeneity of the Heckman and Walker and Greene types were constructed. The median age at first birth was estimated at 26.6 years, based on Kaplan-Meier methods. The log-logistic model with move-stayer heterogeneity (Heckman and Walker) revealed that women with a senior high school education delayed marriage 9 months longer than women with less education. Women with a junior college education had first births 15 months later than high school educated women. Women with a university degree had first births two years later than women with a junior college degree. Urban mothers started childbearing 5 months later than rural mothers. The Weibull model with unobserved heterogeneity indicated that the hazard of a first birth increased with the age of the woman, while the observed hazard in the population increased and then declined. The age pattern of the log-logistic model had a more concentrated hazard rate. The estimated childless rate among women at the age of 40 years was 10.6% in the log-logistic model and 6.9% in the Weibull model. The Cox proportional hazard model supported the findings from the log-logistic and Weibull models and the explanatory importance of childhood residence, recent age, and educational status. All three models showed similar estimates of the impacts of the explanatory variables on age at first marriage. Median first birth interval was found to be shorter among more recent cohorts. Women in arranged marriages were estimated to have a later median age at childbearing by 9 months, and living with husband's parents shortened the median age by about 7 months. Women who married men from large families tended to marry and bear children earlier. The time-series analysis indicated that the decline in first birth rates was related to the decline in traditional values, but when the tradition variable was excluded, wages appeared to be the significant determinant of decline in first birth rates. The findings suggested that other factors were involved in the sharp decline in first birth rates. PMID:12288506

  7. China and Japan’s Energy Security Approaches in the Central AsiaA Comparative Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elaheh Koolaee; Mandana Tishehyar

    2009-01-01

    Japan and China’s expanding global outreach is not entirely the result of their growing reliance on imported oil and their efforts to secure supplies globally. Rather, it is consistent with both countries’ overall economic growth and enhanced political standing. The build-up of closer ties with the developing world, and China and Japan’s growing presence should be seen in the context

  8. Foreign Fishery Developments Mediterranean Bluefin Tuna Airlifted to Japan

    E-print Network

    Foreign Fishery Developments Mediterranean Bluefin Tuna Airlifted to Japan Japan-Soviet Fishery dealt a seri- ous blow by the various new restric- tions introduced in the S-year Japan- Soviet in Japan has revived a once-abandoned airlift of fresh bluefin tuna from the Mediterranean. Two earlier

  9. Japan-Asian Studies Program Academic Year 2011-2012

    E-print Network

    Yamamoto, Hirosuke

    Japan-Asian Studies Program Academic Year 2011-2012 Eligibility All University of Tokyo students by University of Tokyo #12;01 IntroductionIntroduction Japan-Asian Studies Program 2011 The Japan-Asian Studies approach to Asia, including Japan, that transcends departments and fields. It can be participated

  10. Japan Denies Report It Dropped Proposal to Host Fusion Reactor

    E-print Network

    Print Japan Denies Report It Dropped Proposal to Host Fusion Reactor June 22 (Bloomberg) -- Japan.6 billion) project. The Mainichi newspaper today reported Japan has given up its bid to site the same.'' Japan is waiting for the outcome of a June 28 meeting in Russia of the countries involved

  11. The Entomological Society of Japan NII-Electronic Library Service

    E-print Network

    Villemant, Claire

    The Entomological Society of Japan NII-Electronic Library Service #12;The Entomological Society of Japan NII-Electronic Library Service #12;The Entomological Society of Japan NII-Electronic Library Service #12;The Entomological Society of Japan NII-Electronic Library Service #12;The Entomological

  12. Contemporary Japan: A Teaching Workbook. Third Edition Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Roberta, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to supplement and enliven standard textbook presentations of Japan, this workbook, through student exercises, seeks to answer some of the most common questions U.S. students have about Japan and its people. Classes exploring only one aspect of Japan as well as those seeking an integrated picture of Japan's traditional culture and…

  13. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...1555 Section 186.1555 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED... (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera...

  14. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...1555 Section 186.1555 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED... (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera...

  15. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...1555 Section 186.1555 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED... (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera...

  16. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...1555 Section 186.1555 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY...Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera...

  17. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...1555 Section 186.1555 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED... (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera...

  18. Norcholestane in Miocene Onnagawa siliceous sediments, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Noriyuki; Sampei, Yoshikazu; Koga, Osamu (Shimane Univ. (Japan))

    1993-09-01

    A significant amount of 24-norcholestane with 20R, 5[alpha](H), 14[alpha](H), 17[alpha](H) stereochemistry is often found in marine siliceous sediments of the Middle Miocene Onnagawa Formation, Japan. Some Onnagawa siliceous sediments are abnormally abundant in 24-norcholestane. The primary production in the northeastern Japan Sea during the Middle Miocene was markedly increased due to the invasion of nutrient-rich cold seawater from the north accompanied by the tectonic opening of the Japan Sea. 24-norcholestane in high relative abundance is derived mainly from the marine diatoms which were enhanced during this event. The drastic ecological change caused by rapid tectonic opening of the Japan Sea and global climatic deterioration during Middle Miocene time is suggested to be influential in the formation of 24-norcholestane-rich Onnagawa siliceous sediments.

  19. Utilization of Educational Technology in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakamoto, Takashi

    1980-01-01

    Gives an overview of the development of educational technology in Japan evident in the increase of publications, the diffusion of technological innovations, and the organization of research pertaining to the field. (Author/MER)

  20. Process of designing city housing in Japan

    E-print Network

    Kurokawa, Shoji

    1983-01-01

    pose of this thesis is to show one design approach to providing more preferable housing for users in Japan. Chapter 1 gives an overview of trends in Japanese housing construction, describes user requirements, analyzes ...

  1. Reflections After a Visit to Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornby, A. A.

    1970-01-01

    The author discusses trends in teaching English as a foreign language in Japan and briefly comments on the value of pattern drills, transformation drills and contrastive analysis in language teaching. (FB)

  2. River and Wetland Restoration: Lessons from Japan

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    KEIGO NAKAMURA, KLEMENT TOCKNER, and KUNIHIKO AMANO (; )

    2006-05-01

    This is a peer reviewed article from BioScience focuses on river and wetland restoration projects in Japan. River and wetland restoration has emerged as a worldwide phenomenon and is becoming a highly profitable business. Although researchers worldwide know a lot about restoration practices in Europe and the United States, we have only scant information about the activities in Japan, where more than 23,000 river restoration projects have been conducted during the past 15 years. In Japan, restoration is a daunting business because of the high human population density, urbanization, and harsh environmental conditions. Here we provide an overview of the various restoration activities in Japan and discuss the lessons that we can draw from them.

  3. GPM Arrives in Japan - Duration: 19 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    An international satellite that will set a new standard for global precipitation measurements from space has completed a 7,300-mile journey from the United States to Japan, where it now will underg...

  4. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Front, left to right: Efthymios Papadopoulos (Georgia Tech) and Jun Yoneda (AIST)....

  5. Japan Races to Avert Multiple Nuclear Meltdowns

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Associated Press

    Japan's nuclear crisis intensified Sunday as authorities raced to combat the threat of multiple reactor meltdowns and more than 170,000 people evacuated the northeastern coast where fears spread over possible radioactive contamination. (March 13, 2011)

  6. Diagnostics in Japan's microgravity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadota, Toshikazu

    1995-01-01

    The achievement of the combustion research under microgravity depends substantially on the availability of diagnostic systems. The non-intrusive diagnostic systems are potentially applicable for providing the accurate, realistic and detailed information on momentum, mass and energy transport, complex gas phase chemistry, and phase change in the combustion field under microgravity. The non-intrusive nature of optical instruments is essential to the measurement of combustion process under microgravity which is very nervous to any perturbation. However, the implementation of the non-intrusive combustion diagnostic systems under microgravity is accompanied by several constraints. Usually, a very limited space is only available for constructing a highly sophisticated system which is so sensitive that it is easily affected by the magnitude of the gravitational force, vibration and heterogeneous field of temperature and density of the environments. The system should be properly adjusted prior to the experiment. Generally, it is quite difficult to tune the instruments during measurements. The programmed sequence of operation should also be provided. Extensive effort has been toward the development of non-intrusive diagnostic systems available for the combustion experiments under microgravity. This paper aims to describe the current art and the future strategy on the non-intrusive diagnostic systems potentially applicable to the combustion experiments under microgravity in Japan.

  7. Debris flow and its countermeasures in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Ikeya

    1989-01-01

    Summary  Japan is an island lying off the east border of the Asian Continent. Its total area is about 370,000 km2 75% of the whole land area of Japan is mountainous. The lowlands, chiefly plains and alluvial fans, that constitute the remaining\\u000a 25% are formed from sediments which have flowed there from the mountains in the past. In these lowlands live

  8. Update on Japan's Contribution to the ISW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, K.; Hayakawa, H.; Obara, T.; Watari, S.; Stpp Sub-Committee Of Japan

    2011-12-01

    We are conducting three initiatives in Japan, in order to accomplish the ISWI objectives. The first is an instrument array program to deploy new and existing observation networks. The second is data coordination to develop predictive models using ISWI data. And the third is training, education (that is capacity building), and public outreach programs, such as the ISWI Newsletter. An update on Japan's Contribution to the ISWI in 2010 will be summarized in the present paper.

  9. 1. Webcat Plus 1. Japan Knowledge

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    . Japan Knowledge 1. 2. 1. 2. GeNii 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Web / 1. Japan Knowledge 2. 3. 4. weblio 5. 6. on the WEB / 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. JAANUS 8. ( 1 5 20 25 30 8 11 13 15 17 19 4 #12 50 53 #12; h p://jpndbs.lib.ntu.edu.tw/DB/search.jsp 1 #12; 1. 2. 3. 4. /CD-ROM4 1 2 3 4 h

  10. How Intangible is Japan's Traditional Dietary Culture?

    E-print Network

    Rath, Eric C.

    2012-11-01

    - ties facing aging populations and demographic decline among other economic problems . Japan’s Tasty Secrets, a free pamphlet in English available for download from maff’s Web site, promises gratification in its subtitle, Local Food that Satisfies... not always been celebrated for their deli- ciousness . During World War ii the Imperial Rule Assistance Association designated a “national food” (kokumin shoku) comprised of regional foods that were spotlighted not for their local flavor...

  11. Historical changes in diabetes therapy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, K; Akanuma, Y

    1994-10-01

    The origins of many aspects of ancient Japanese culture lie in knowledge brought from China, and medicine was no exception. Subsequently, however, in the middle of the 16th century, Portuguese missionaries introduced Western medicine to Japan along with Christianity. They were followed by the Dutch in the 17th century, who introduced Western culture while carrying on commerce at their Dejima outpost in Nagasaki. This was called the Dutch school in Japan, and although there was thus contact with Western culture and the Japanese eagerly studied Western medicine, it was not until after the establishment of the Meiji Reform government in the middle of the 19th century that there was aggressive incorporation and acceptance of modern Western medicine in Japan. The University of Tokyo was the first university in Japan. Preserved in the library of the Third Department of Internal Medicine are old records of hospitalized cases in Japan, and those documents form the basis of this review of the history of the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Japan. PMID:7859609

  12. Japan, EU adamant about their proposals to host ITER, put off negotiations to next year; Joint construction plan involving Japan,

    E-print Network

    Japan, EU adamant about their proposals to host ITER, put off negotiations to next year; Joint construction plan involving Japan, U.S. South Korea also emerging NIHON KEIZAI, December 20, 2004 Japan are likely to enter a crucial stage early in the next year. In addition to Japan and the EU, the United

  13. RECENT EVENTS IN JAPAN We are shocked and saddened by the continuing devastating news in Japan. Thousands of people

    E-print Network

    Loudon, Catherine

    RECENT EVENTS IN JAPAN We are shocked and saddened by the continuing devastating news in Japan is monitoring the situation in Japan very carefully. Our primary focus at this point is to assist our students and faculty who are in Japan. We are currently working with experts in this field regarding concerns both here

  14. Materials Data on Ba(CuSe)2 (SG:139) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  15. PASJ: Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 60, 183190, 2008 April 25 c 2008. Astronomical Society of Japan.

    E-print Network

    Okabe, Nobuhiro

    PASJ: Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 60, 183­190, 2008 April 25 c 2008. Astronomical Society of Japan s 1 . WMC 1 and WMC 2 are associated with two 345 GHz continuum dust emis- sion sources, which are located 200 (3600 AU) east from the core of an ultracompact H II region traced by 8.4 GHz radio continuum

  16. Stepping-Stones: Teaching about Japan in Elementary Grades. Selected Lesson Plans from the "Japan Alumni."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Elgin, Comp.

    This document is a compilation of 30 lesson plans for teaching about Japan in elementary grades. Produced by "Japan Alumni," North American classroom teachers who became acquainted with Japanese society through a program of travel/study fellowships, the lessons are divided into the following categories: motivational activities, land and people,…

  17. Japan’s efforts in the global fight against money laundering and terrorist financing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koji Kishima

    2004-01-01

    Describes briefly the measures taken by Japan as part of the fight against terrorism; Japan was a founding member of the Financial Action Task Force. Outlines the provisions of the Law for Criminalisation of the Financing of Terrorism, passed in 2002, which criminalises terrorist financing even before commission of a criminal act, and also covers criminal acts outside Japanese jurisdiction.

  18. Opening mode of the Japan Sea inferred from the palaeomagnetism of the Japan Arc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yo-Ichiro Otofuji; Takaaki Matsuda; Susumu Nohda

    1985-01-01

    The western edge of the Pacific plate is marked by a chain of back arc basins stretching from the Aleutians, through Japan and the Philippines to New Zealand. Most of the basins lie behind volcanic island arcs far from continents and are the result of extension of the oceanic lithosphere1. But the Japan Sea is bounded on one side by

  19. A prospective earthquake forecast experiment for Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, Sayoko; Nanjo, Kazuyoshi; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Hirata, Naoshi

    2013-04-01

    One major focus of the current Japanese earthquake prediction research program (2009-2013) is to move toward creating testable earthquake forecast models. For this purpose we started an experiment of forecasting earthquake activity in Japan under the framework of the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) through an international collaboration. We established the CSEP Testing Centre, an infrastructure to encourage researchers to develop testable models for Japan, and to conduct verifiable prospective tests of their model performance. On 1 November in 2009, we started the 1st earthquake forecast testing experiment for the Japan area. We use the unified JMA catalogue compiled by the Japan Meteorological Agency as authorized catalogue. The experiment consists of 12 categories, with 4 testing classes with different time spans (1 day, 3 months, 1 year, and 3 years) and 3 testing regions called All Japan, Mainland, and Kanto. A total of 91 models were submitted to CSEP-Japan, and are evaluated with the CSEP official suite of tests about forecast performance. In this presentation, we show the results of the experiment of the 3-month testing class for 5 rounds. HIST-ETAS7pa, MARFS and RI10K models corresponding to the All Japan, Mainland and Kanto regions showed the best score based on the total log-likelihood. It is also clarified that time dependency of model parameters is no effective factor to pass the CSEP consistency tests for the 3-month testing class in all regions. Especially, spatial distribution in the All Japan region was too difficult to pass consistency test due to multiple events at a bin. Number of target events for a round in the Mainland region tended to be smaller than model's expectation during all rounds, which resulted in rejections of consistency test because of overestimation. In the Kanto region, pass ratios of consistency tests in each model showed more than 80%, which was associated with good balanced forecasting of event number and spatial distribution. Due to the multiple rounds of the experiment, we are now understanding the stability of models, robustness of model selection and earthquake predictability in each region beyond stochastic fluctuations of seismicity. We plan to use the results for design of 3 dimensional earthquake forecasting model in Kanto region, which is supported by the special project for reducing vulnerability for urban mega earthquake disasters from Ministy of Education, Culture, Sports and Technology of Japan.

  20. Q fever in Japan: an update review.

    PubMed

    Porter, Sarah Rebecca; Czaplicki, Guy; Mainil, Jacques; Horii, Yoichiro; Misawa, Naoaki; Saegerman, Claude

    2011-05-01

    As neglected zoonosis for many years, Q fever is now ubiquitous in Japan. Similarly to elsewhere in the world, domestic animals are considered to be important reservoirs of the causal agent, Coxiella burnetii, a resistant intracellular bacterium. Infected animals shed bacteria in milk, feces, urine, vaginal mucous and birth products. Inhalation of bacteria present in the environment is the main route of animal and human infection. Shedding of C. burnetii in milk by domestic ruminants has a very limited impact as raw milk is seldom ingested by the Japanese population. The clinical expression of Q fever in Japan is similar to its clinical expression elsewhere. However clinical cases in children are more frequently reported in this country. Moreover, C. burnetii is specified as one of the causative organisms of atypical pneumonia in the Japanese Respiratory Society Guideline for the management of community-acquired pneumonia. In Japan, C. burnetii isolates are associated with acute illness and are mainly of moderate to low virulence. Cats are considered a significant source of C. burnetii responsible for human outbreaks in association with the presence of infected parturient cats. Since its recognition as a reportable disease in 1999, 7-46 clinical cases of Q fever have been reported by year. The epidemiology of Q fever in Japan remains to be elucidated and the exact modes of transmission are still unproven. Important further research is necessary to improve knowledge of the disease itself, the endogenous hosts and reservoirs, and the epidemiological cycle of coxiellosis in Japan. PMID:21146331

  1. [Tuberculosis prevalence survey in Japan].

    PubMed

    Shimao, Tadao

    2009-11-01

    Chest X-ray examination had been used rather soon after the discovery of X-ray by Rontgen K in 1895 as it was possible to detect chest abnormality by simple radiography. After the discovery of radiophotography independently by Abreu M and Koga Y in 1936, it was applied as a method of mass screening for TB in Japan, and Imamura A made a special lecture on "The mass screening for TB" using radiophotography in 1940 in the Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for TB. From experiences of mass screening, it was found that there were many cases of TB who do not aware of their own disease, and to know the prevalence of TB, the screening of survey subjects by X-ray examination is indispensable. Noticing the importance of mass health examination by chest X-ray, Dr. Tanaka S, then director of information division, JATAHQ, edited a book entitled "How to carry out mass health examination for TB" in 1951, then he moved to the Ministry of Health and Welfare and engaged in the preparation of the first TB prevalence survey. Random sampling technique was already developed, and health center network covering the whole country was already completed in early 1950s. Using these background, the first TB prevalence survey was conducted in 1953. TB Prevalence Survey Committee was organized asking cooperation of experts in TB, epidemiology and statistics, and the survey in sampled area was carried out by a survey team headed by the director of health center in charge of the sampled area. The survey teams engaged in the survey with enthusiasm, and the rate of response to the survey was 99.3%. The result of this survey was published in the WHO Bulletin, 1955. After the survey in 1953, the following prevalence surveys were carried out in 1958, 1963, 1968 and 1973. Outline of these surveys was shown in Table 1, and the rate of examination was high in all, except the survey in 1973. In this year, TB prevalence survey was carried out in conjunction with the national nutritional survey and the national mental health survey, and unfortunately, there were some opponent groups against the national mental health survey, which affected the rate of response to the TB survey, too. In addition to the 5 prevalence surveys, one thirds of the survey population in 1953, 1958 and 1963 was surveyed in the next year to know the incidence of TB. Follow-up survey on active TB cases found in the 1953 and 1958 survey was carried out in 1964, and similar follow-up survey was carried out in 1968 for active TB cases found in 1953, 1958 and 1963 surveys. Moreover, survey subjects excluding active TB cases in 1968 were followed up until 1973, and the incidence of newly registered TB cases during this period was surveyed. Summarized results of TB prevalence surveys are reported. The first survey was carried out in 1953, and had been repeated every 5 years until 1973. As national TB control program (NTP) under new TB Control Law had been implemented since 1951, the results of 5 surveys clearly indicated the outcome of NTP of Japan. Age-specific prevalence of active TB in 5 surveys is shown in Fig. 1. Due to advances in chemotherapy, there was certain difference in the definition of active TB in 1953 and 1958, and chemotherapy was indicated more widely for those with TB pathology in lung in 1958. Comparing the age-specific prevalence of active TB in 1953 and 1958, the prevalence decreased in 1958 below 35 years of age, and increased above 35 years. The decline in the prevalence of active TB in age groups below 35 in spite of widening of definition of active TB in 1958 indicated the efficacy of TB control with mass screening and BCG vaccination and treatment for detected cases. As the definition of active TB had been unchanged since 1958 up to 1973, the decline in the prevalence of active TB seen in all age groups clearly indicated the achievements of NTP. Overall trend of prevalence of active TB, cavitary TB, bacillary TB and smear+PTB in 5 surveys is shown in Fig. 2 together with epidemiological figures obtained from vital registration, namely incidence of

  2. Low level waste solidification practice in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Sakata, S.; Kuribayashi, H.; Kono, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Both sea dumping and land isolation are planned to be accomplished for low level waste disposal in Japan. The conceptual design of land isolation facilities has been completed, and site selection will presently get underway. With respect to ocean dumping, safety surveys are being performed along the lines of the London Dumping Convention and the Revised Definitions and Recommendations of the IAEA, and the review of Japanese regulations and applicable criteria is being expedited. This paper discusses the present approach to waste solidification practices in Japan. It reports that the bitumen solidification process and the plastic solidification process are being increasingly used in Japan. Despite higher investment costs, both processes have advantages in operating cost, and are comparable to the cement solidification process in overall costs.

  3. Magic Lantern Slides Collection from Japan

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) has a collection of approximately 1,500 magic lantern slides in its Japan Collection, which it has digitized with the permission of the Japan Foundation. The magic lantern was the precursor to the modern slide projector, and was extremely popular in Europe and Asia in the 1800s, with people going from towns to villages doing public shows. The slides featured on the UHM website are those that were produced and distributed by KBS, a group that was the predecessor of the Japan Foundation. To view the collection, you can browse alphabetically by title, category (from alcohol to fan making to Western clothes), and by slides with recent comments made about them. Visitors to the website shouldn't leave the site without browsing under the "University" category. With few exceptions, all the buildings are Western in style, and reminiscent of many U.S. colleges with their columns, stone, and tendency to sprawl.

  4. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

    2013-04-01

    As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic magma.to make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite exceeding over 500,000 in number and the largest block is 108 ton in weight. Stoens of Hikone Castle came from Paleogene Koto Rhyolite. Edo (old Tokyo, biggest city, central Japan) castle ,Imperial Palace at present, Stones are late Quaternary andesite of Hakone Volcanic Products whose quarrying places are more than 100km far from Edo.They were transported by ships and manpower on land .

  5. Widespread use of neuraminidase inhibitors in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norio Sugaya

    Almost all patients with an influenza-like illness in Japan are now tested with rapid diagnostic tests, and when positive,\\u000a they are treated with a neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI). Japan may have had the lowest case fatality rate for symptomatic illness\\u000a (<0.001%, 198\\/20.7 million) in the H1N1\\/09 pandemic because of the universal implementation of early treatment with NAI. A\\u000a study of 1,000

  6. Lead poisoning in swans in Japan.

    PubMed

    Honda, K; Lee, D P; Tatsukawa, R

    1990-01-01

    We investigated the occurrence, source and exposure time of lead poisoning in whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus cygnus) and Bewick's swans (Cygnus columbianus bewickii) in Japan during the winters of 1984-1987. Concentrations of lead in various tissues and physiological evidence of lead shot in some birds indicated that lead shotgun pellets were the source of lead, and exposure occurred after the birds arrived in Japan. Mortality probably occurred within 30 days after exposure to, and retention of, lead shot in the gizzard. PMID:15092262

  7. Epidemiology of atopic dermatitis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satoshi; Esaki, Hitokazu; Furue, Masutaka

    2014-03-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic or chronically relapsing, severely pruritic and eczematous skin disease. AD is the second most frequently observed skin disease in dermatology clinics in Japan. Prevalence of childhood AD is 12-13% in mainland Japan; however, it is only half that (~6%) in children from Ishigaki Island, Okinawa. Here, we summarize the prevalence, incidence and spontaneous regression of AD and the relation of AD to other allergic diseases from previous reports. We also refer to our recent findings from a population cohort study on Ishigaki Island, Okinawa. PMID:24628069

  8. Recycling scheme for scrapped automobiles in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Masao [AI Tech Associates, Tokyo (Japan); Nakajima, Akira [Car Steel Co., Ltd., Gunnma (Japan); Taya, Sadao [Shinsei Co., Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Over 5 million cars are scrapped yearly in Japan. After dismantling scrapped automobiles, they are put into a shredder for differential recovery of ferrous and nonferrous metals. The residue, which is called shredder dust, runs over 1.2 million tons per year. This paper reports a entire sequence of scrapping cars in Japan with the following sections: (1) production and scrapped car management, (2) material composition, (3) dismantling, (4) shredder plant, (5) differential recovery of metals including specific gravity and newly developed color separation.

  9. Experimental DML over digital repositories in Japan

    E-print Network

    Namiki, Takao; Naruse, Shunsuke

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the authors show an overview of Virtual Digital Mathematics Library in Japan (DML-JP), contents of which consist of metadata harvested from institutional repositories in Japan and digital repositories in the world. DML-JP is, in a sense, a subject specific repository which collaborate with various digital repositories. Beyond portal website, DML-JP provides subject-specific metadata through OAI-ORE. By the schema it is enabled that digital repositories can load the rich metadata which were added by mathematicians.

  10. 76 FR 8774 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ...731-TA-386 (Third Review)] Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission...the antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  11. 76 FR 8773 - Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ...731-TA-1090 (Review)] Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION...antidumping duty order on superalloy degassed chromium from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  12. Earthquake Early Warning Starts Nationwide in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshiba, Mitsuyuki; Kamigaichi, Osamu; Saito, Makoto; Tsukada, Shin'ya; Hamada, Nobuo

    2008-02-01

    When an earthquake occurs, a certain amount of time elapses before destructive seismic energy hits nearby population centers. Though this time is measured on the order of seconds, depending on the proximity of the rupture to a given city or town, a new public safety program in Japan is taking advantage of the fact that seismic energy travels slower than electronic communication.

  13. Japan's Financial Crisis and Economic Stagnation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeo Hoshi; Anil K. Kashyap

    2004-01-01

    We survey the macroeconomic stagnation and financial problems in Japan. The financial sector assessment includes separate analyses of the commercial banks, the life insurance companies and the government's fiscal investment and loan program (FILP). We estimate that the Japanese taxpayer will have to pay at least another 100 trillion yen (20% of GDP) to cover financial system losses. We explain

  14. Reacting plasma project at IPP Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyahara, A.; Momota, H.; Hamada, Y.; Kawamura, K.; Akimune, H.

    1981-01-01

    Contributed papers of a seminar on burning plasma are collected. An overview of the reacting plasma project in Japan is given and more specific topics concerning plasma and fusion physics are addressed including burning plasma and requirements for design, plasma heating and diagnostics, tritium problems in plasma experiments, and a D(-) ion source using Si-semiconductors.

  15. 14MIB*ft* * * Kyoto Japan

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    £14MIB±*ft* * * » Kyoto Japan August 12-18, 1990 Volume II ! Commission II of Soil Science 14e OF SOIL CHEMICAL PROCESSES: AN OVERVIEW Donald L. Sparks* * Plant and Soil Sciences Department, University, 1989, 1990a,b). A major international symposium was held last year at the Soil Science Society

  16. Low level waste solidification practice in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Sakata; H. Kuribayashi; Y. Kono

    1981-01-01

    Both sea dumping and land isolation are planned to be accomplished for low level waste disposal in Japan. The conceptual design of land isolation facilities has been completed, and site selection will presently get underway. With respect to ocean dumping, safety surveys are being performed along the lines of the London Dumping Convention and the Revised Definitions and Recommendations of

  17. DEREGULATION OF TRANSGENIC PAPAYA FOR JAPAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transgenic SunUp and Rainbow papaya developed for Hawaii was commercialized in 1998 and virtually saved Hawaii’s papaya industry from further damage being caused by papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Since Japan makes up a significant part (about 35% in 1992) in Hawaii’s papaya export market, effort...

  18. The Structure of Corporate Ownership in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen D. Prowse

    1992-01-01

    The author examines the structure of corporate ownership in a sample of Japanese firms in the mid 1980s. Ownership is highly concentrated in Japan, with financial institutions by far the most important large shareholders. Ownership concentration in independent Japanese firms is positively related to the returns from exerting greater control over management. This is not the case in firms that

  19. Promotion of School Children's Invention in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakamoto, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    In the late 1980s an American newspaper reported that by one measure--the number of patents cited by successive inventors--Japan overtook the United States in the number of inventions produced during the 1970s. The reasons for this are not clear, but educational efforts promoting creative behaviors in school children are probably essential and…

  20. Parental Educational Investments and Aspirations in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kristen Schultz

    2010-01-01

    Previous models of parental educational investments focus on the composition of the sibship (number, gender, ordering, and spacing) and on the social and institutional context in which investment decisions are made. Social-institutional models predict that parents in Japan are likely to underinvest in girls because of their transient status in the…

  1. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. This photo shows the pressure core storage chambers, which contain hydrate-bearing sediment samples obtained from the Nankai Trough offshore Japa...

  2. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: Yoshihiro Konno (AIST) and David Mason (USGS). The AIST IPTC (right) is being prepared for movement to the left side of the refrig...

  3. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: Carlos Santamarina (Georgia Tech) and David Mason (USGS). A ball valve is in the process of being opened, which allows a core to b...

  4. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: Emile Bergeron (USGS), Kiyofumi Suzuki (JOGMEC), Marco Terzariol (Georgia Tech), William Waite (USGS), and Carlos Santamarina (Geo...

  5. The chemical disaster response system in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Tetsu; Ninomiya, Norifumi; Ohta, Muneo

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade, Japan has experienced the largest burden of chemical terrorism-related events in the world, including the: (1) 1994 Matsumoto sarin attack; (2) 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack; (3) 1998 Wakayama arsenic incident; (4) 1998 Niigata sodium-azide incident; and (5) 1998 Nagano cyanide incident. Two other intentional cyanide releases in Tokyo subway and railway station restrooms were thwarted in 1995. These events spurred Japan to improve the following components of its chemical disaster-response system: (1) scene demarcation; (2) emergency medical care; (3) mass decontamination; (4) personal protective equipment; (5) chemical detection; (6) information-sharing and coordination; and (7) education and training. Further advances occurred as result of potential chemical terrorist threats to the 2000 Kyushu-Okinawa G8 Summit, which Japan hosted. Today, Japan has an integrated system of chemical disaster response that involves local fire and police services, local emergency medical services (EMS), local hospitals, Japanese Self-Defense Forces, and the Japanese Poison Information Center. PMID:15141857

  6. Foreign Fishery Developments Japan's "Fugu" or

    E-print Network

    of these are caught in the Sea of Japan, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea (Table 1). Two of the most important species to fish for fugu in the Yellow Sea off the west coast of North Korea. Because the North Kor eans do

  7. ‘Iatrogenic’ Wernicke’s Encephalopathy in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisa Shikata; Tomohiko Mizutani; Yuji Kokubun; Toshiaki Takasu

    2000-01-01

    ‘Iatrogenic’ Wernicke’s encephalopathy has appeared to occur more frequently in Japan, probably induced by the change of our Japanese national health insurance policy in 1992. We report 4 nonalcoholic patients with such Wernicke’s encephalopathy, which occurred during the early postoperative oral food intake period following intravenous nutrition without vitamin supplements. We analyzed the medical records of 4 patients, 3 men

  8. USGS and Japan Scientists Discuss Arctic Data

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS oceanographer Ellyn Montgomery and Shigeto Nishino with the Japan Agency for Marine Earth Science & Technology (JAMSTEC) discuss measurements in a lab on Healy. Shigeto has spent three months on Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St. Laurent this summer using XCTD's to characterize the physical...

  9. Ultracold Neutrons in Canada and Japan

    E-print Network

    Martin, Jeff

    Ultracold Neutrons in Canada and Japan Jeff Martin The University of Winnipeg February 2009 Spallation Ultracold Neutron Source We propose to construct the world's highest density source of ultracold neutrons and use it to conduct fundamental and applied physics research using neutrons. Spokespeople: Y

  10. Ultracold Neutrons in Canada and Japan

    E-print Network

    Martin, Jeff

    Ultracold Neutrons in Canada and Japan Jeff Martin The University of Winnipeg February 2009 Spallation Ultracold Neutron Source We propose to construct the world's highest density source of ultracold neutrons and use it to conduct fundamental and applied physics research using neutrons. Spokespeople: J

  11. Ultracold Neutrons in Canada and Japan

    E-print Network

    Martin, Jeff

    Ultracold Neutrons in Canada and Japan Jeff Martin The University of Winnipeg February 2009, Tokyo, UNBC, Osaka, Kentucky) International Spallation Ultracold Neutron Source CANADA'S NATIONAL recherches Canada We propose to construct the world's highest density source of ultracold neutrons and use

  12. FUTURE MILITARY FORCE POSSIBILITIES Korea Australia Japan

    E-print Network

    FUTURE MILITARY FORCE POSSIBILITIES STUDY 2001­2021 Korea ­ Australia ­ Japan ­­­­­­­ A Strategic of Masters Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Future Military Force Possibilities Study, 2001-2021: Korea responsibility for her own defense. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 917 14. SUBJECT TERMS strategic planning "surprise free

  13. Hydrogen energy research programs in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Ohta; M. V. C. Sastri

    1979-01-01

    The paper reviews the hydrogen energy research programs carried out under the Sunshine Project in Japan. Work on both electrolytic and thermochemical processes for large-scale hydrogen production is discussed. New methods for hydrogen production, such as direct thermal decomposition of water and photo-electrolysis of water with semiconductor electrodes are outlined. Storage and transportation of hydrogen and hydrogen burners are emphasized.

  14. Groundwater Flow System of Unzen Volcano, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kazahaya; M. Yasuhara; A. Inamura; T. Sumii; H. Hoshizumi; T. Kohno; S. Ohsawa; Y. Yusa; K. Kitaoka; K. Yamaguchi

    2001-01-01

    Unzen volcano (peak 1486 m) is developed on the western part of Beppu-Shimabara Graben (20 km NS wide and 200 km EW long) located at Kyushu island, SW Japan. We have been studied groundwater system of the volcano using geochemical and hydrological technique in order to estimate flux of magmatic volatiles through the groundwater. We have collected over 150 sample

  15. Globalization and Educational Reform in Contemporary Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie; Zhang, Sheng Ping

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the notions of globalization as embodied in Japanese educational reforms. Modern institutional discourses of educational reform in Japan have shifted over time and all of these reform movements have been constructed by particular social and historical trajectories. Generally speaking, it has been taken for granted that the…

  16. Japan's Poetry Boxers Get Ready to Grumble

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that in Japan, a scholar of communications, in the hope of getting people to talk with one another, holds "boxing" competitions in which the blows are thrown verbally, in verse. In a crowded Yokohama hall, boxers file into a ring watched by cheering students and a panel of university professors. Nobody is predicting a winner,…

  17. With a Little Help from Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, John

    2009-01-01

    Over the last year, the author's students have become very interested in popular culture from Korea and Japan. In particular, the class liked the films of Hayao Miyazaki, an Oscar-winning director who is considered one of the foremost anime filmmakers. In this article, the author came to an idea while he and the first-grade class were discussing…

  18. Alternative Education in Japan: A Brief Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needle, Nat

    2000-01-01

    In Japan, not attending public school is stigmatized, and alternative education is in its infancy. Reviews free spaces, which are not schools, but places for traumatized students to recover; home schooling networks; government-approved independent alternative schools; alternative after-school programs; and innovative programs within the system.…

  19. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: Efthymios Papadopoulos (Georgia Tech), Yoshihiro Konno (AIST), and William Winters (USGS)....

  20. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Front to back: Efthymios Papadopoulos (Georgia Tech), William Waite (USGS), and Yoshihiro Konno (AIST) analyze data from sensors inserted into hy...

  1. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: Junbong Jang (Georgia Tech), David Mason (USGS), Carlos Santamarina (Georgia Tech), and Emile Bergeron (USGS). A ball valve has ju...

  2. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. In this photo is Marco Terzariol (Georgia Tech) is preparing a Direct Shear Cell for testing a core section from the manipulator (background), st...

  3. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: Emile Bergeron (USGS) and Carlos Santamarina (Georgia Tech) watch the movement of a sediment pressure core on a video screen. An o...

  4. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Photograph of the international team studying gas hydrates in Japan. Front row, kneeling: Jun Yoneda (AIST). Front row, standing, left to right: Yoshihiro Konno (AIST), Jiro Nagao (AIST), Marco Terzariol (Georgia Tech), William Winters (USGS), Junbong Jang (Georgia Tech), Kiyofumi Suzuki (JOGMEC), S...

  5. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Front to back: Masato Kida (AIST), Yoshihiro Konno (AIST), William Waite (USGS), Jiro Nagao (AIST), and Yusuke Jin (AIST), analyze test results f...

  6. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: David Mason (USGS), Carlos Santamarina (Georgia Tech), and Yoshihiro Konno (AIST). Two ball valves are connected allowing a pressu...

  7. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. The cores and pressure vessels are very heavy to move around, so they are using an overhead hoist system with chains to move the devices. Left to...

  8. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Left to right: Emile Bergeron (USGS) and Carlos Santamarina (Georgia Tech) are preparing to use a cutter (center) to saw a pressure core into sho...

  9. Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. Standing, left to right: Jun Yoneda (AIST), Masato Kida (AIST), Marco Terzariol (Georgia Tech), Sheng Dai (Georgia Tech), Efthymios Papadopoulos ...

  10. PARTICULATE CONTROL HIGHLIGHTS: RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN JAPAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes results of visits to Japan to assess research and development of new particulate control technology, and to evaluate the applicability of the Aut-Ainer particulate control device to diesel engines. New technology observed includes hooding systems for coke ove...

  11. Vision systems for PCB manufacturing in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Hata

    1990-01-01

    Current vision systems in Japanese printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing lines are described. Vision systems have been introduced into almost every level of PCB manufacturing in Japan. They include mask pattern inspection machines, PCB pattern inspection machines, surface-mount device (SMD) mounters with visual positioning, mounted SMD visual inspection machines, soldering inspection machines, and assembled PCB visual inspection machines. Most of

  12. Foreign Fishery Developments Japan's Herring and Herring

    E-print Network

    Foreign Fishery Developments Japan's Herring and Herring Roe Supplies and Trade Table 1.-Japanese herring imports (excluding roe) by commodity and country, 1979-85, in metric tons. Herring imports (t,610.8 55,060.2 71,765.8 llncludes the imports of round roe herring. 'Totals may not agree because

  13. Living in Japan. Intercultural Exchange Series. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkinson, Annie

    The guide provides a brief introduction to the culture and language of Japan, and is designed for visitors, students, and business travelers. It offers practical information on various aspects of daily living, including: money; banks; food; restaurants; hotels; tipping; postal and telecommunications services; transportation; shopping; health and…

  14. Core Discussion Networks in Japan and America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boase, Jeffrey; Ikeda, Ken'ichi

    2012-01-01

    Arguments regarding the high prevalence of interpersonal collectivism in Japan typically hinge on the assumption that Japanese communication networks are more enduring, frequently contacted, and dominated by kin and work ties than networks in Western countries. However, this assumption has not been examined using nationally representative data.…

  15. Trends in chemical hazards in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahide Wakakura; Yoshiaki Iiduka

    1999-01-01

    In the past, the chemical industry in Japan has been the cause of a number of major industrial accidents. Subsequent to each accident, specific lessons have been learned. These lessons learned have been implemented in terms of safety education of the employees and\\/or safety measures of the equipment and facilities resulting in a rapid decrease of corresponding accident frequencies. In

  16. Kiyo Journals and Scholarly Communication in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamada, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    Kiyo are journals published by Japanese academic institutions. As a scholarly communication medium, they have inherent problems such as limited accessibility and lack of quality control. Despite these problems, they have evolved to comprise the majority of academic journals published in the humanities and social sciences in Japan because they fit…

  17. Suggestions for China's Logistics Parks Based on Japan's Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fuhua Wang

    2009-01-01

    Japan, as one of the most developed country in logistics field in the world, has developed its logistics parks earlier. This paper takes Japan's logistics park as the subject in research. By analyzing Japan's experiences of developing logistics parks, this paper tempts to find out problems in China's logistics parks and put forward suggestions for further development and construction .The

  18. JAPAN IN SYDNEY Professor sadler & modernism 192030s

    E-print Network

    Viglas, Anastasios

    #12;1 JAPAN IN SYDNEY Professor sadler & modernism 1920­30s CUraTed BY aJioKa ChiaKi and maria in conjunction with the exhibition Japan in Sydney: Professor Sadler & modernism, 1920-30s University art gallery: Japan in sydney: Professor sadler & modernism, 1920-30s by ajioka Chiaki and maria (Connie) Tornatore

  19. FrStudentenausderEuropischenUnion VULCANUS IN JAPAN

    E-print Network

    Sanderson, Yasmine

    FürStudentenausderEuropäischenUnion VULCANUS IN JAPAN WAS IST DAS? Das Programm besteht aus absolvieren: ·ein einwöchiges Seminar über Japan, · einen viermonatigen Japanisch - Intensivkurs, · ein achtmonatiges Praktikum in einem japanischen Unternehmen. Das Programm ,,VULCANUS IN JAPAN" gibt es seit 1997

  20. Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)

    E-print Network

    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Presentation at University College Dublin Time. Emma Sokell, School of Physics) 10:50 Questions and Answers #12;JSPS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAMMES TO JAPAN for excellent researchers to go to Japan to conduct academic collaboration with Japanese researchers. Please

  1. Japan has Joined the IPhO Shuji Hasegawa*

    E-print Network

    Hasegawa, Shuji

    Japan has Joined the IPhO Shuji Hasegawa* , Masatoshi Namiki* , and Kazuo Kitahara*§ the decision process toward participating in IPhO. At last, these three physics societies in Japan agreed in 2004 the three societies and financial support from the Japan Science and TechnologyAgency and the governor

  2. Japan, EU reach basic agreement over ITER The Yomiuri Shimbun

    E-print Network

    Japan, EU reach basic agreement over ITER The Yomiuri Shimbun The government and the European Union to the unsuccessful candidate country. Japan and France, the EU's candidate, have been bidding to host the facility bidder's country. The ITER project participants--Japan, China, the EU, Russia, South Korea and the United

  3. RICSK All Rights Reserved, Copyright 2013 Riken, Japan.

    E-print Network

    Fukai, Tomoki

    RICSK: HPCI 2013/7/30 RICSK All Rights Reserved, Copyright 2013 Riken, Japan. 1 2013/7/30 RICSK All Rights Reserved, Copyright 2013 Riken, Japan. 2 1. RICSK 30 2. RICSK 1 (:30) 3. RICSK1 RICS 2013/7/30 RICSK All Rights Reserved, Copyright 2013 Riken, Japan. 3 Simulation setting RICS Visio 3

  4. The AFS Volunteer Resources Study: Summary of Findings from Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naka, Chieko Nabetani; Hansel, Bettina

    The concept of volunteerism is not well known in Japan and the word itself, "borantia" is borrowed from English. However, voluntary programs do exist in Japan. This report attempts to describe the way in which volunteerism operates (or does not operate) in Japan by discussing the organization of Japanese society, its implications for volunteerism,…

  5. The surveillance and prediction of volcanic activities in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Suwa

    1980-01-01

    Japan is very rich in active volcanoes, so that the surveillance and prediction of volcanic activities are indespensable in order to protect human life and properties from catastrophic volcanic eruptions. The author intends here to review the volcanic activities in Japan and the history and status quo of the volcanological observation and research by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), universities,

  6. Iron distributions in the water column of the Japan Basin and Yamato Basin (Japan Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Satoshi; Kuma, Kenshi; Ishikawa, Satoko; Nishimura, Shotaroh; Nakayama, Yuta; Ushizaka, Satomi; Isoda, Yutaka; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Aramaki, Takafumi

    2010-12-01

    In the Japan and Yamato basins (Japan Sea), dissolved Fe ([D-Fe], <0.22 ?m fraction) was characterized by surface depletion, mid-depth maxima, then a slight decrease with depth in deep water and uniform concentration in bottom waters because of biological uptake in the surface water and release by microbial decomposition of sinking organic matter in mid-depth waters. Total Fe concentrations ([T-Fe]) in the surface water of the Japan Sea were 1-4 nM, a little higher than those in the surface waters of the nutrient-deficient subtropical western North Pacific and extremely higher than the nutrient-rich subarctic western North Pacific and the nutrient-deficient subtropical central North Pacific, resulting from high atmospheric Fe input to nutrient-depleted surface water of the Japan Sea. In the Japan Basin, the [T-Fe] in bottom water were lower than those in deep water, resulting from (1) the injection of new bottom water with the lower [T-Fe] into the Japan Basin bottom water, (2) the particulate Fe removal by particle scavenging during the bottom water circulation of the Japan Basin, or (3) the injection of deep water with the higher [T-Fe] into the Japan Basin deep water. On the other hand, the [T-Fe] in deep water of the Yamato Basin and the slope regions were variable with different [T-Fe] levels among stations and depths. We found a significant relationship between [T-Fe] and water transmittance in deep water, probably resulting from the iron supply into the deep water because of the lateral transport of resuspended sediment from the slope.

  7. Are strategy-performance relationships contingent on macroeconomic environments? Evidence from Japan’s textile industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asli M. Colpan

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the dynamic relationships between product and international diversification, keiretsu financing, and economic\\u000a performance of the listed firms in Japan’s textile industry. Panel data analysis shows that the performance effects of those\\u000a strategic factors are contingent on macroeconomic environments, rather than showing consistent relationships. The potentially\\u000a positive or negative effects of particular diversification strategies and keiretsu financing are

  8. Japan-US collaboration in Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arima, Akito

    2009-10-01

    I will mention some highlights from the history of Japan-US collaboration in Nuclear Physics. Although I have memories of my personal strong ties with many friends in US, I shall rather skip them, and focus on three major collaborative works which have made significant impacts on the developments of nuclear physics. The first one is the INS (Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo) - Berkeley collaboration. As well known, this led to the beginning of Rare Isotope (RI) beam experiments as a global trend and consequently the discovery of neutron halo by Tanihata et al. This Berkeley experiment was inspired by the Japanese Numatron project, which has remained only a plan. The second one would be RHIC. The RHIC is probably one of the most successful products of the INS- Berkeley project at least conceptually. Nagamiya has led US efforts over years, which has produced QGP finally, while he has moved back to Japan before this moment. The third point I would like to mention is the RIKEN Brookhaven Center. This has been supported by T.D. Lee strongly, and has contributed to the developments of spin physics, QGP experiments, Lattice QCD calculation. It also encouraged US young theoreticians by the supportive program with US universities. I now see many active physicists who were under this program. Now we have JUSTIPEN (Japan-US Theory Institute of Physics with Exotic Nuclei) program by DOE through the University of Tennessee. Since the summer of 2007, over fifty physicists including experimentalists have come to Japan for theoretical studies, and many workshops have been organized. Thanks also to its Japanese matching fund EFES(International Research Network on Exotic Femto Systems), a large number of Japanese physicists visited US, having many workshops and collaborations. At the era of RIBF completion and FRIB initialization, the Japan-US collaboration becomes of more significance, and I hope that this workshop and the joint meeting this week will accelerate the developments of this frontier field of physics.

  9. What is nuclear power in Japan?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshikazu

    2011-03-01

    The aggressive use of such non-fossil energy as the atomic energy with high power density and energy production efficiency is an indispensable choice aiming at the low-carbon society. There is a trial calculation that the carbon dioxide emission of 40000 ton can be suppressed by nuclear power generation by one ton of uranium. The basis of nuclear research after the Second World War in Japan was established by the researchers learnt in Argonne National Laboratory. In 2010, NPPs under operation are 54 units and the total electric generating power is 48.85GW. The amount of nuclear power generation per person of the people is 0.38kW in Japan, and it is near 0.34kW of the United States. However, the TMI accident and the Chernobyl disaster should have greatly stagnated the nuclear industry of Japan although it is not more serious than the United States. A lot of Japanese unconsciously associate a nuclear accident with the atomic bomb. According to the investigation which Science and Technology Agency carried out to the specialist in 1999, ``What will be the field where talent should be emphatically sent in the future?'' the rank of nuclear technology was the lowest in 32 fields. The influence of the nuclear industry stagnation was remarkable in the education. The subject related to the atomic energy of a university existed 19 in 1985 that was the previous year of the Chernobyl disaster decreased to 7 in 2003. In such a situation, we have to rely on the atomic energy because Japan depends for 96% of energy resources on import. The development of the fuel reprocessing and the fast breeder reactor has been continued in spite of a heavy failure. That is the only means left behind for Japan to be released from both fossil fuel and carbon dioxide.

  10. On the non-proliferation framework of Japan`s peaceful nuclear utilization program

    SciTech Connect

    Kano, Takashi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    The Conference of the States Party to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (hereinafter referred to as the NPT) convened in New York, from April 17 to May 12, 1995 and decided that the NPT shall continue in force indefinitely, after reviewing the operation and affirming some aspects of the NPT, while emphasizing the ``Decision on Strengthening the Review Process`` for the NPT and the ``Decision on Principles and Objectives for Nuclear Non-proliferation and Disarmament,`` also adopted by the Conference. In parallel, Japan made its basic non-proliferation policy clear in the ``Long-Term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy`` which was decided by the Atomic Energy Commission (chaired by Mikio Oomi, then Minister of the Science and Technology Agency of Japan) in June 1994. The Long-Term Program discusses various problems facing post-Cold-War international society and describes Japan`s policy for establishing international confidence concerning non-proliferation. This paper summarizes Japan`s non-proliferation policy as articulated in the Long-Term Program, and describes some results of an analysis comparing the Long-Term Program with the resolutions on the international non-proliferation frameworks adopted by the NPT conference.

  11. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, February 23, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-02-23

    ;Partial Contents: Advanced Materials (New Uses Bring New Life to Carbon Fiber); Aerospace (Preliminary Results of Microgravity Experiment by TR-1A, MHI Takes Seat on Corporate-Jet Project; Ground Facilities To Launch J-1 Rocket); Automotive Technologies (Japan: JEVA`s 4th Standardization of FY 1995 Reported, Integrated CAD/CAM/CAT System for Body Assembly Jigs); Nuclear Technologies (Monju Breeder-Reactor Accident Breeds Public Distrust); Science and Technology Policy (Japan: JSC Chairman on S&T Issues); Defense Industries (Japan: TRDI`s Organization, Duties Outlined, Japan: Defense Agency Officials Attend Defense Industry Conference, Japan: GSDF Official on Developing Military Technology).

  12. Regulatory differences and similarities: systems in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, A

    1976-05-01

    The historic steps that led up to the present federal drug regulations in the United States are outlined as a background to the development of the current drug regulatory system in Japan, consisting of the procedures for approval of new drugs, of double-brand naming, by which the same drug under different names can be sold as ethical or over-the-counter (OTC). The more recent provisions for re-evaluation of drugs, the mechanism for monitoring adverse reactions, and the dissemination of the collected information are described. The prescription habits of physicians, the influence of the health insurance systems on these, and the strikingly high level of drug consumption in Japan, as compared with those in other industrial countries, are discussed and illustrated graphically. PMID:1269210

  13. Revision of Siobla (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae) from Japan.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Akihiko; Wei, Meicai; Niu, Gengyun

    2013-01-01

    The Japanese species of the sawfly genus Siobla Cameron, 1877, are revised and keyed. The following nine species are recognized: S. apicalis Takeuchi, 1929, S. ferox (Smith, 1874), S. hirasana Takeuchi, 1929, S. jucunda (Mocsáry, 1909), S. metallica Takeuchi, 1929, S. sturmii (Klug, 1817), S. japonica, sp. nov., S. pulchra, sp. nov., and S. takeuchii, sp. nov.  Siobla pacifica (Smith, 1874) is synonymized with S. sturmii. Lectotypes are designated for Macrophya ferox Smith, 1874, Macrophya pacifica Smith, 1874, Encarsioneura jucunda Mocsáry, 1909, and Siobla grandis Matsumura, 1912. Previous records of S. ruficornis (Gimmerthal, 1834) and S. villosa Malaise, 1931, from Japan have been found erroneous. Siobla jucunda is newly recorded from Japan.  PMID:25113467

  14. Japan increases assistance to UNFPA / IPPF.

    PubMed

    1995-04-01

    The Government of Japan has announced it will provide US$71 million in aid to UNFPA and IPPF in fiscal year 1995--an increase of $3.9 million from the previous year. Also increased in 1995 will be assistance to nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) active at the grass-roots level. Yet another focus for Japanese aid has been the Global Issues Initiative on Population and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), which will make $3 billion available from 1994-2000. In this project, the Japanese Government is working closely with NGOs on issues such as reproductive health and women's empowerment. These budget allocations occurred at a time when Japan's spending power has been undermined by economic recession and a need for earthquake relief and reconstruction. PMID:12319262

  15. [Acute infectious diseases in occupied Japan].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Seiji; Sugita, Satoru; Moriyama, Takako; Marui, Eiji

    2007-06-01

    Japan's health statistics system, considered among the best in the world today, continually complies and organizes information about various infectious diseases. However, systematic surveillance was not conducted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare between World War II and the postwar period, creating a gap in health data. In contrast, the GHQ/SCAP/PHW. which was closely involved in health and medical reform during the Occupation, thoroughly investigated the health conditions of the Japanese people during this period. This article describes the trends in acute infectious diseases in Occupied Japan by using statistical records listed in the appendices of the "Weekly Bulletin", an official document of the GHQ/SCAP that is currently kept in the National Diet Library Modern Japanese Political History Materials Room. PMID:18175437

  16. History of nuclear technology development in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Kiyonobu

    2015-04-01

    Nuclear technology development in Japan has been carried out based on the Atomic Energy Basic Act brought into effect in 1955. The nuclear technology development is limited to peaceful purposes and made in a principle to assure their safety. Now, the technologies for research reactors radiation application and nuclear power plants are delivered to developing countries. First of all, safety measures of nuclear power plants (NPPs) will be enhanced based on lesson learned from TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident.

  17. Widespread use of neuraminidase inhibitors in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Norio

    2011-10-01

    Almost all patients with an influenza-like illness in Japan are now tested with rapid diagnostic tests, and when positive, they are treated with a neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI). Japan may have had the lowest case fatality rate for symptomatic illness (<0.001%, 198/20.7 million) in the H1N1/09 pandemic because of the universal implementation of early treatment with NAI. A study of 1,000 children hospitalized because of a H1N1/09 infection revealed that NAIs, primarily oseltamivir, had been used to treat 984 (98.4%) of the 1,000 patients. In 88.9% of the patients, treatment with NAIs was initiated within 48 h after the onset of illness. In addition to oseltamivir and zanamivir, the newly approved inhalant drug, laninamivir, and the newly approved intravenous drug, peramivir, were used in Japan during the 2010-2011 season. Neuropsychiatric disorders that were suspected of being adverse reactions to oseltamivir became a cause of concern in 2007. The Health, Labour and Welfare Ministry issued an emergency instruction to suspend the use of oseltamivir to treat patients between the ages of 10 and 19 years. However, according to the Vital Statistics data, the widespread use of oseltamivir has not caused an increase in deaths as a result of accidental falls or intentional jumps from buildings. Although oseltamivir is widely used in Japan, no outbreaks have been caused by oseltamivir-resistant viruses, and no serious illness caused by oseltamivir-resistant viruses has ever been reported. PMID:21850418

  18. Plasma lens and wake experiments in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, Atsushi

    1992-07-01

    Plasma lens and wake experiments performed and planned in Japan are reviewed. Overdense plasma lens experiments were conducted at the University of Tokyo on a 18 MeV linac. The change in energy distribution of linac beams caused by the plasma wakefield was measured at KEK on a 500 MeV linac. Laser wakefield acceleration experiments are planned at Osaka University using a 30TW Nd:glass laser.

  19. Gastric cancer treatment guidelines in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshifusa Nakajima

    2002-01-01

    .  \\u000a Recent developments in treatment modalities for gastric cancer have allowed the selection of a variety of treatments, and\\u000a this has resulted in some confusion in daily practice. The Japan Gastric Cancer Association issued the first edition of Gastric cancer treatment guidlelines in March, 2001 to provide a common basis of understanding of the extent of disease and selection of

  20. Thallium Contamination in Wild Ducks in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariko Mochizuki; Makoto Mori; Mayumi Akinaga; Kyoko Yugami; Chika Oya; Ryo Hondo

    Although thallium (Tl) is toxic to both humans and animals, there is little infor- mation on contamination in wildlife. In this study, Tl contents in wild ducks in Japan were determined. Contents of Tl in kidney and liver ranged from 0.42 to 119.61 and 0.10 to 33.94 mg\\/g dry weight, respectively. Significant cor- relations between Tl contents in kidney and

  1. Canine mdr1 Gene Mutation in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akiko KAWABATA; Yasuyuki MOMOI; Miho INOUE-MURAYAMA; Toshiroh IWASAKI

    2005-01-01

    Frequency of the 4-bp deletion mutant in canine mdr1 gene was examined in 193 dogs of eight breeds in Japan. The mutant allele was found in Collies, Australian Shepherds, and Shetland Sheepdogs, where its respective frequencies were 58.3%, 33.3%, and 1.2%. The MDR1 protein was detected on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from a MDR1\\/MDR1 dog, but not on PBMC

  2. Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Moriya; Tomiko Koyama; Junko Tanaka; Shunji Mishiro; Hiroshi Yoshizawa

    1999-01-01

    SummaryBlood screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies at Japanese Red Cross blood centers has indicated an age-dependent prevalence of HCV infection in the general population of Japan: the older the age, the higher the prevalence. The same pattern was corroborated by the sentinel study conducted in an HCV-endemic area. The high prevalence of HCV in the elderly is most

  3. Technology and e-finance in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motoshige Itoh

    An important feature of e-finance in Japan is the active entry of new firms in addition to e-services being offered by existing financial firms. This active entry reflects differences in the cost structure and corporate organisation between e-banks and traditional banks. The new entrants have resulted in the e-finance industry encompassing a wide variety of participants, from traditional financial companies

  4. Overview of Building Stock Management in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomonari Yashiro

    For the last six decades, construction activities in Japan have mainly focused on new building activities rather than work\\u000a on existing buildings and facilities. For several reasons, there has been a serious shortage of buildings and facilities with\\u000a sufficient quality and performance: destruction during World War II coupled with the huge demand for new construction by the\\u000a concentration of population

  5. Japan, Indonesia to investigate condom plant feasibility.

    PubMed

    1981-04-01

    The Japanese government has begun investigations on the possibility of constructing a condom manufacturing plant in Indonesia in response to a request by the Indonesian government. Indonesia, which hopes to reduce its birthrate as of 1971 by 1/2 by 1990, asked for Japanese assistance in building a condom plant based on the expectation that demand for this contraceptive method, although quite low at present, will increase rapidly in the near future with stepped-up motivation campaigns. As a 1st step in the investigation, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) sent a study team of family planning experts headed by Family Planning Federation of Japan Chairman Dr. Hidebumi Kubo and including JOICFP International Division Director MR. Tameyoshi Katagiri to Indonesia from March 15-24. During its visit, the JICA team held discussions with representatives of BKKBN (the National Family Planning Coordinating Board) including its Chairman and Minister of Health Dr. Suwardjono and reached agreement on the scope and schedule of work toward determining the feasibility of building and operating a condom plant in Indonesia. In defining the scope of work and the schedule, the JICA team and the BKKBN representatives decided on specific issues to be investigated in the feasibility study to be carried out by JICA and scheduled to be completed by the end of October of this year. To be included in the feasibility study are: estimation of future domestic demand for condoms, examination of the domestic supply of latex capacity, chemicals and packaging materials, and collection of information on infrastructure relating to water, energy, transportation, etc. Actual data collection for the study is expected to begin in late May or early June. Dr. Kubo and Mr. Katagiri, upon returning to Japan, reported great enthusiasm for the project in Indonesia and expressed the hope that the plant construction will be feasible so that the country's family planning program can be given a boost and the cooperative relationship between Indonesia and Japan deepened. PMID:12279241

  6. Admixtures and fibers for shotcrete in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Tazawa, Yujiro

    1995-12-31

    In recent years in Japan the following additives are increasingly being used for Shotcreting in tunnels: Accelerator for shotcreting based on calcium aluminate; dust control agent; and fiber. While dry mix shotcrete was predominantly used in Japan, accelerator of shotcrete based on inorganic salts contributed a great deal to the performance of shotcrete. However this type of accelerator is not so effective to wet mix which has been taking the place of dry mix in recent years. For wet mix shotcrete, accelerator for shotcrete based on Amorphous calcium aluminate is found to be quite effective in gaining sufficient early strength without aggravating long term strength. Practical performance in various cases is reported. A dust control agent for shotcreting is often used to improve working conditions in tunnels. This agent is reported to reduce a great deal of the dust generated in shotcreting operations. A variety of dust control agents are now available, of which constituents are cellulose epoxy , acrylic epoxy, polyvinyl alcohol etc. Use of fibers in shotcrete is also becoming popular in Japan to increase strength and toughness of the concrete. Not only steel fibers but also glass fibers are widely used. Recently more variety of materials such as PVA fiber acrylic and aramid fibers have been tested and some of them are being put into practical use, giving similar properties to shotcrete with steel fibers.

  7. Municipal solid waste management in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Shinichi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Environment Preservation Center] [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Environment Preservation Center

    1996-12-31

    Basic measures taken in recent years to control waste management in Japan include: (1) Pollution prevention, (2) reuse and recycling, and (3) waste incineration with air pollution control. It is generally agreed that it is appropriate to follow the assigned priority of these options. Municipal solid waste (MSW) is the responsibility of the citizen, the local government and the business sector. The principal strategy to manage MSW is to prevent the discharge of waste and, where waste must be discharged, to recycle as much as possible to reduce the quantity. However, even if effort is made to minimize the amount of waste, a large proportion still requires treatment in view of the activities of modern society. Once waste is generated, it must be incinerated and/or buried in landfills if it cannot be recycled. Incineration plays an important role in Japan where landfill sites are difficult to secure. With these circumstances in mind, the author outlines the origin of MSW in Japan and the recycling process and the present status of thermal recycling with pollution control. Ash regulation and its treatment methods are also discussed.

  8. Can GRACE detect winter snows in Japan?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heki, Kosuke

    2010-05-01

    Current spatial resolution of the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites is 300-400 km, and so its hydrological applications have been limited to continents and large islands. The Japanese Islands have width slightly smaller than this spatial resolution, but are known to show large amplitude seasonal changes in surface masses due mainly to winter snow. Such loads are responsible for seasonal crustal deformation observed with GEONET, a dense array of GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers in Japan (Heki, 2001). There is also a dense network of surface meteorological sensors for, e.g. snow depths, atmospheric pressures, etc. Heki (2004) showed that combined effects of surface loads, i.e. snow (predominant), atmosphere, soil moisture, dam impoundment, can explain seasonal crustal deformation observed by GPS to a large extent. The total weight of the winter snow in the Japanese Islands in its peak season may reach ~50 Gt. This is comparable to the annual loss of mountain glaciers in the Asian high mountains (Matsuo & Heki, 2010), and is above the detection level of GRACE. In this study, I use GRACE Level-2 Release-4 data from CSR, Univ. Texas, up to 2009 November, and evaluated seasonal changes in surface loads in and around the Japanese Islands. After applying a 350 km Gaussian filter and a de-striping filter, the peak-to-peak change of the water depth becomes ~4 cm in northern Japan. The maximum value is achieved in February-March. The region of large winter load spans from Hokkaido, Japan, to northeastern Honshu, which roughly coincides with the region of deep snow in Japan. Next I compiled snow depth data from surface meteorological observations, and converted them to loads using time-dependent snow density due to compaction. By applying the same spatial filter as the GRACE data, its spatial pattern becomes similar to the GRACE results. The present study suggests that GRACE is capable of detecting seasonal mass changes in an island arc not wider than a few hundreds of kilometers. References: Heki, K., Seasonal modulation of interseismic strain buildup in Northeastern Japan driven by snow loads, Science, 293, 89-92, 2001. Heki, K., Dense GPS array as a new sensor of seasonal changes of surface loads, AGU Monograph, 150, 177-196, 2004. Matsuo, K. and K. Heki, Time-variable ice loss in Asian high mountains from satellite gravimetry, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2009.11.053, 2010.

  9. Progressive self-learning photomask defect classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynn, Eric C.; Chen, Shih-Ying; Hsu, Tyng-Hao; Hung, Chang-Cheng; Lin, Chin-Hsiang

    2002-07-01

    Following mask inspection, mask-defect classification is a process of reviewing and classifying each captured defect according to prior-defined printability rules. With the current hardware configuration in manufacturing environments, this review and classification process is a mandatory manual task. For cases with a relatively small number of captured defects, defect classification itself does not put too much burden to operators or engineers. With a moderate increase of defects, it would however, become a time-consuming process and prolong the total mask-making cycle time. Should too many nuisance defects be caught under a given detection sensitivity, engineers would generally loosed the detection sensitivity in order to reduce the number of nuisance defects. By doing that however, there exists potential threat of missing real defects. The present study describes a 'progressive self-learning' (PSL) algorithm for defect classification to relieve loading from operators or engineers and further accelerate defect review/classification process. Basically, the PSL algorithm involves with image extraction, digitization, alignment and matching. One key concept of this PSL algorithm is that there is not any pre-stored defect library in the first place of a particular run. In turn, a defect library is 'progressively' built during the initial stage of defect review and classification at each run. The merit of this design can be realized by its flexibility. An additional benefit is that all defect images are stored and suitable for network transfer. The C language is adopted to implement the present algorithm to avoid the porting issue, so as not bound to a particular machine. Assessment of the PSL algorithm is examined in terms of efficiency and the accurate rate.

  10. FBIS report. Science and technology. Japan: Japan begins promotion of CALS development, February 21, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-02-21

    ;JAPAN: Japan Begins Promotion of CALS Development (TRIGGER, Sep 95); Introduction Table of Contents; First Special Symposium on CALS; CALS` Impact on the Japanese Economy; CALS and the Automobile Industry; CALS Developments and Small and Medium Businesses From Now On; Panel Discussion: Upheaval Because of CALS. Company Management; This is CALS; International CALS Organization Established; CALS and STEP; and CALS and EDI; CALS and SGML; Nissan Motor Co.--Compliance with International STEP and EDI Standards; Tokyo Electric Power--CALS Demonstration Project Model; Fuji Heavy Industries--International Joint Development Based on CALS-type Methods; Nippon Steel--Collaborative Engineering Office Pursuing the New Engineering Office; Toyko Engineering--Utilizing `Hardware System Integration` in a Virtual Enterprise; Fujitsu--Accumulating Knowhow for Electronic Commerce; Deciding a CALS Business Strategy Centered on SGML; IBM Japan--Promoting Worldwide Business Process Reengineering; and CALS Survey-Confidence in an Industrial Revolution, Enthusiasm About Introduction of CALS.

  11. High-resolution seismic imaging in the Japan Trench axis area off Miyagi, northeastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Kodaira, Shuichi; Miura, Seiichi; Regalla, Christine; Takahashi, Narumi

    2013-05-01

    obtained high-resolution seismic data reveal the detailed structure of the Japan Trench axis off Miyagi, Japan, in the region of large shallow slip during the 11 March 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake. Correlation of seismic images with previous drilling results identifies a possible basal chert-rich layer and hemipelagic/pelagic mudstones overlying igneous Pacific crust. Mapping of acoustic basement depicts the subduction of horst-and-graben topography. The basement and basal chert are subducted beneath a seismically chaotic frontal prism, but the majority of overlying hemipelagic mudstones is offscraped and imbricated at the trench axis as a result of plate boundary compression. A possible décollement is imaged as a seaward dipping reflection at landward part of the trench graben and was likely generated by loading and failure of underthrust sediments. Collectively, these analyses provide a structural framework for understanding sedimentary inputs and the localization of shallow plate boundary slip at the Japan Trench.

  12. 2009 US-Japan Workshop on Advanced Simulation Methods in Plasma Physics Plasma Particle Simulation with Adaptive Mesh Refinement Technique

    E-print Network

    Ito, Atsushi

    2009 US-Japan Workshop on Advanced Simulation Methods in Plasma Physics Plasma Particle Simulation-5292, Japan 2 Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501, Japan 3 Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011, Japan 4 Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara 229-8510, Japan 5 Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, Kawaguchi 332

  13. The Exponential Phase of HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Japan

    E-print Network

    Inaba, Hisashi

    The Exponential Phase of HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Japan Hisashi INABA Institute of Population Problems 2-2, 1-Chome, Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-45, Japan F--K"$K$*$1$k#H#I#V!?#A#I#D#S$N;X?t4X incidence in Japan has been growing exponentially. Using our calculation method, we conclude that the number

  14. Presence of avian pneumovirus subtypes A and B in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mase, Masaji; Yamaguchi, Shigeo; Tsukamoto, Kenji; Imada, Tadao; Imai, Kunitoshi; Nakamura, Kikuyasu

    2003-01-01

    Four avian pneumovirus (APV) isolates from chickens clinically diagnosed with swollen head syndrome were genetically characterized as to the subtypes of the virus in Japan. The results of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions based on subtype-specific primers and direct sequence analysis of G genes indicated subtypes A and B but not C or D of APV were present in Japan. Several routes or sources are conceivable for APV to invade into Japan. PMID:12887210

  15. Connections and activities of interest between the State of Ohio and Japan Prepared by the Institute for Japanese Studies at The Ohio State University, http://japan.osu.edu japan@osu.edu

    E-print Network

    Jones, Michelle

    Connections and activities of interest between the State of Ohio and Japan Prepared by the Institute for Japanese Studies at The Ohio State University, http://japan.osu.edu japan@osu.edu Page 1 Upcoming Events and Activities related to Japan: http://consumer.discoverohio.com/ "Natural Insights

  16. New expectations: Pediatric cochlear implantation in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Janette

    2013-01-01

    Funding for cochlear implants The Japanese health-care system provides universal health coverage for the entire 127 million population of Japan. This includes all aspects of cochlear implantation, from diagnosis to implantation to mapping and habilitation aftercare. Japan has the third largest developed economy; however, the uptake rate for cochlear implants is lower than that of countries with similar economic status. Japan has an uptake rate of approximately 1% of potentially suitable subjects of all ages, compared with 5.6% in the USA. Cochlear implant provision for children In Japan, about 55% of cochlear implant recipients are children of less than 18 years of age. This represents an increase of 20% in the last 10 years, with a relative increase in the numbers of children receiving implants compared with the numbers of adults. However, only 3–4% of children under the age of 3 years are being implanted at less than 18 months of age. This is in accordance with the Japanese ENT Academy's guidelines, which currently puts the minimum age limit for implants in children at 18 months. Neonatal screening For hearing loss was first piloted nationally in Japan in 2000. Funding for screening subsequently stopped in 2005, though the national treasury provided a further 2 years' funding. Since 2007 local government organizations have been given responsibility to support these screening programs, but there remains considerable variation in funding between different prefectures. In one prefecture, Okayama, 95% of babies were screened and followed up for 2 years. However, the support system for children who need further diagnostic testing after screening remains insufficient. Referral When diagnosed, children with hearing loss are referred for counselling, hearing aids and habilitation. The responsibility for these is divided between the Ministry of Health and Welfare (including surgery, device programming, and therapy) and the Ministry of Education. Schools for the deaf and preschool hearing impaired education centers have had most of the responsibility for early intervention, educational choices and referral for cochlear implantation. In the past 98% of schools for children with hearing loss have used communication methods relying mostly on visual cues. In recent years, however, there has been a shift toward ‘inclusive’ mainstream education. Between 2008 and 2011 the number of children with cochlear implants in special needs schools increased to 16%. It is now estimated that 67% of children with cochlear implants may now be in mainstream schools. There is still the need for support services for these implanted children attending mainstream schools, with adequate provision of resources. Conclusion Cochlear Implantation has had a significant role in changing the medical management and education of children in Japan with hearing loss. Much remains to be done, though the situation has greatly improved in recent years and continues to do so. PMID:23453147

  17. Nationwide tsunami hazard assessment project in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, K.; Fujiwara, H.; Nakamura, H.; Osada, M.; Ohsumi, T.; Morikawa, N.; Kawai, S.; Aoi, S.; Yamamoto, N.; Matsuyama, H.; Toyama, N.; Kito, T.; Murashima, Y.; Murata, Y.; Inoue, T.; Saito, R.; Akiyama, S.; Korenaga, M.; Abe, Y.; Hashimoto, N.

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, we began a project of nationwide Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) in Japan to support various measures (Fujiwara et al., 2013, JpGU; Hirata et al., 2014, AOGS). The most important strategy in the nationwide PTHA is predominance of aleatory uncertainty in the assessment but use of epistemic uncertainty is limited to the minimum, because the number of all possible combinations among epistemic uncertainties diverges quickly when the number of epistemic uncertainties in the assessment increases ; we consider only a type of earthquake occurrence probability distribution as epistemic uncertainty. We briefly show outlines of the nationwide PTHA as follows; (i) we consider all possible earthquakes in the future, including those that the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion (HERP) of Japanese Government, already assessed. (ii) We construct a set of simplified earthquake fault models, called "Characterized Earthquake Fault Models (CEFMs)", for all of the earthquakes by following prescribed rules (Toyama et al., 2014, JpGU; Korenaga et al., 2014, JpGU). (iii) For all of initial water surface distributions caused by a number of the CEFMs, we calculate tsunamis by solving a nonlinear long wave equation, using FDM, including runup calculation, over a nesting grid system with a minimum grid size of 50 meters. (iv) Finally, we integrate information about the tsunamis calculated from the numerous CEFMs to get nationwide tsunami hazard assessments. One of the most popular representations of the integrated information is a tsunami hazard curve for coastal tsunami heights, incorporating uncertainties inherent in tsunami simulation and earthquake fault slip heterogeneity (Abe et al., 2014, JpGU). We will show a?PTHA along the eastern coast of Honshu, Japan, based on approximately 1,800 tsunami sources located within the subduction zone along the Japan Trench, as a prototype of the nationwide PTHA. This study is supported by part of the research project on research on evaluation of hazard and risk of natural disasters, under the direction of the HERP of Japanese Government.

  18. An analysis of remanufacturing practices in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsutaka Matsumoto; Yasushi Umeda

    2011-01-01

    Purpose  This study presents case studies of selected remanufacturing operations in Japan. It investigates Japanese companies' motives\\u000a and incentives for remanufacturing, clarifies the requirements and obstacles facing remanufacturers, itemizes what measures\\u000a companies take to address them, and discusses the influence of Japanese laws related to remanufacturing.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This study involves case studies of four product areas: photocopiers, single-use cameras, auto parts, and

  19. The 1998 World Solar Rallye: Akita, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shacklock, Andy; Duke, Mike; Burgess, Nigel

    In early August 1998, 81 solar/electric vehicles participated in a three day endurance race in Japan. The objective was to complete as many laps of the 31 km circuit as possible. Some of the cars used state-of-the-art motors, batteries, chassis, solar cells and tyres to produce vehicles which could travel at speeds of 70-80 km/h on about 1 kW of input power. With only 20 kg of battery, some solar cars were travelling around 450 km a day. This paper tells the story of the race and the technological developments behind the successful vehicles.

  20. Disaster relief activities of the Japan self-defense force following the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yasumasa

    2014-06-01

    Cooperation between civilian and military forces, including the Japan Self-Defense Force (JSDF), enabled wide-ranging disaster relief after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Nevertheless, many preventable fatalities occurred, particularly related to an inability to treat chronic disease, indicating the need to plan for the provision of long-term medical aid after natural disasters in stricken areas and evacuation shelters. To assist in this effort, this report (1) provides an overview of the consequences of the medical response to the Great East Japan Earthquake, the largest natural disaster ever to hit Japan, focusing on the role and actions of the JSDF; (2) discusses the lessons learned regarding the provision of medical aid and management by the JSDF after this disaster, looking at the special challenges of meeting the needs of a rapidly aging population in a disaster situation; and (3) provides recommendations for the development of strategies for the long-term medical aid and support after natural disasters, especially with regard to the demographics of the Japanese population. PMID:24901381

  1. A Short History of Audiovisual Education in Japan. AVE in Japan No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japan Audio-Visual Education Association, Tokyo.

    This brief history of audiovisual education in Japan covers (1) the utilization of slides, films, and radio prior to 1945; (2) film education activities after World War II; (3) the establishment and objectives of the Audiovisual Education Division of the Ministry of Education; (4) educational film production from 1945-1954; (5) the use of films in…

  2. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in Japan: Results from the World Mental Health Japan Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Norito; Tsuchiya, Masao; Umeda, Maki; Koenen, Karestan C.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to report the prevalence of trauma exposure and PTSD, conditional risk of PTSD associated with each trauma exposure in the community population in Japan. An interview survey was conducted of a random sample of adult residents in 11 communities of Japan. Among 4134 respondents (response rate, 55%), data from those who completed the part 2 interview (n = 1682) were analyzed with a weight for this subsample. Lifetime experiences of 27 trauma events and PTSD were assessed using the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. Sixty percent of the part 2 sample reported exposure to at least one lifetime traumatic event. Lifetime and 12-month PTSD prevalences were 1.3% and 0.7%, respectively. Percentage of all months lived with PTSD in the population was predominantly accounted for by physical/sexual assaults and having a child with serious illness, and unexpected death of loved one. Ten percent of respondents reported “private events”, for which respondents did not have to describe the content, which accounted for 19% of months with PTSD. The lower prevalence of PTSD in Japan seems attributable to lower conditional risks of PTSD following these events, as well as different distributions of the events. The greater impact of events that occurred to loved ones rather than to oneself and “private events” on PTSD in Japan warrants further research of cross-cultural assessment of trauma exposure and cultural heterogeneity in the trauma-PTSD relationship. PMID:24572682

  3. Japan’s Rhetoric of Crisis: Prospects for Change after 3.11

    E-print Network

    Samuels, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    For some Japanese political entrepreneurs, the March 2011 catastrophe in Tohoku (3.11) was a warning for Japan to “put it in gear” and head in a new direction—away from nuclear power or toward a muscular military. For ...

  4. Siting Process for HLW Repository in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, S.; Kitayama, K.; Umeki, H.; Naito, M.

    2002-02-27

    In the year 2000, the geological disposal program for high-level radioactive waste in Japan moved from the phase of generic research and development (R&D) into the phase of implementation. Following legislation entitled the ''Specified Radioactive Waste Final Disposal Act'', the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) was established as the implementing organization. The assigned activities of NUMO include selection of the repository site, demonstration of disposal technology at the site, developing relevant licensing applications and construction, operation and closure of the repository. As the first milestone of siting process, NUMO announced to the public an overall procedure for selection of preliminary investigation areas for potential candidate sites on October 29, 2001. The procedure specifies that NUMO will solicit volunteer municipalities for preliminary investigation areas with publishing four documents as an information package. These documents are tentatively entitled ''Instructions for Application'', ''Siting Factors for the Preliminary Investigation Areas'', a ''Repository Concepts'' as well as an ''Site Investigation Community Outreach Scheme''.

  5. Hybrid electric vehicles in Europe and Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Wyczalek, F.A. [FW Lilly Inc., Bloomfield Hills, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again reexamined the battery powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Consequently, by 1995, vehicle manufacturers turned their attention to hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). This redirection of EV effort is highlighted by the focus on experimental hybrid EV displayed at the 1995 Frankfurt Motor Show and the Tokyo Motor Show in Japan. In Europe the 56th IAA in Frankfurt included twelve or more EV designed for personnel transportation, and among them, two featured hybrid-electric (HEV) systems: the Peugeot turboelectric HEV, and the Opel Ermscher Selectra HEV. In Japan, at the 31st Tokyo Motor Show, among the twenty or more EV on display, seven were hybrid HEV by: Daihatsu, Mitsubishi, Toyota: and, the Suburu, Suzuki, and the Kia KEV4 parallel type HEV. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the key features of these hybrid propulsion systems. Among the conclusions, two issues are evident: one, the focus is on series-type hybrid systems, with the exception of the parallel Suburu and Suzuki HEV, and, two, the major manufacturers are turning to the hybrid concept in their search for solutions to two key EV Issues: limited driving range; and, heating and air conditioning, associated with the low energy density characteristic of batteries.

  6. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uhara, Hisashi; Takata, Minoru; Saida, Toshiaki

    2009-12-01

    Similar to the practice in Western countries, intraoperative lymphatic mapping and selected lymphadenectomy (SLNB) have been validated and are widely performed for the staging of melanoma in Japan. Recent studies have shown that approximately 90% (73/81) of university hospitals and several cancer hospitals routinely perform SLNB, and half of all melanoma patients receive this examination. SLNB is performed according to a variation of the standard procedure described by Morton and Cochran. The most frequently used tracers are Tc(99m)-tin colloid or Tc(99m)-phytate for scintigraphy and patent blue violet or indigo carmine as a blue dye. Some institutions use indocyanine green, which is fluorescent and can be used to visualize sentinel lymph node(s) (SLNs) under an infrared camera. The recent detection rate of SLNs has increased to more than 95% with the method using blue dye, lymphoscintigraphy, and a handheld gamma probe. In a multicenter study, the rates of metastasis in SLN were as follows: pTis, 0% (0/36); pT1, 10.7% (6/56); pT2, 21.0% (13/63); pT3, 34.0% (35/103); and pT4, 62.4% (63/101). The metastasis rate was also significantly related to ulceration of the primary tumor. Here, we discuss data from Japanese patients and the present status of SLNB in Japan. PMID:19967483

  7. Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hiroaki; Gyo, Kiyofumi; Hato, Naohito; Yoshida, Tadao; Shimono, Mariko; Teranishi, Masaaki; Sone, Michihiko; Fukunaga, Yukari; Kobashi, Gen; Takahashi, Kunihiko; Matsui, Shigeyuki; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion An epidemiological survey of hospitals and private clinics in Japan regarding idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) revealed that the incidence of SSNHL was 60.9 per 100 000 population. There were more females than males in the younger generation. Objective The incidence of SSNHL varies largely by country. Because the Japanese criteria for diagnosing SSNHL have changed in accordance with those widely used in other parts of the world, a clinicoepidemiological study was undertaken using the new criteria. Methods Ehime, Aichi, and Iwate Prefectures were selected from the western, central, and northeastern regions of Japan, respectively. The subjects for this study were patients who suffered SSNHL between April 1, 2012 and March 31, 2013. Questionnaires were mailed to all hospitals and private clinics in which ENT doctors were working. Initial and final audiograms were requested for 10% of the patients. Results In all, 78 of 90 hospitals (87%) and 303 of 407 private clinics (74%) responded. It was reported that 1663 patients visited hospitals and 3090 patients visited only private clinics. It was estimated that 6205 SSNHL patients visited hospitals or private clinics in 1 year from a population of 10 145 000. Also, 23% of patients suffered acute low-tone SNHL (female to male ratio; 3:1 in definite cases). PMID:25315915

  8. [Current status of migraine chronification in Japan].

    PubMed

    Kowa, Hisanori

    2013-01-01

    Chronification of migraine headache is one of the major issues to resolve urgently. The prevalence of chronic migraine is close to 2?, and the chronification occurs in approximately 2.5? of episodic cases annually.The pathophysiology of transformation from episodic to chronic migraine is still unclear. It is considered that there are several risk factors for migraine chronification; 1) non-modifiable: age, low education/socioeconomic status, and head injury, 2) modifiable: attack frequency, obesity, medication overuse, stressful life events, caffeine overuse, snoring, and other pain syndrome, 3) currently putative: allodynia, proinflammatory states, prothrombotic states, and specific genes.There were a few clinical reports concerning to the migraine transformation from abroad, but few data from Japan. The prevalence of chronic daily headache in our headache clinic in Japan was 20-30?. The medication overuse headache was the most prevalent form in the highest attack frequency (>15 days/month) grope. Discontinuation of overused medication and administration of prophylactic medication were effective, and 40? of followed cases kept out of MOH at two years later. PMID:24291937

  9. Current status of robotic surgery in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The da Vinci S surgical system (Intuitive Surgical) was approved as a medical device in 2009 by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Robotic surgery has since been used in gastrointestinal, thoracic, gynecological, and urological surgeries. In April 2012, robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) was first approved for insurance coverage. Since then, RALP has been increasingly used, with more than 3,000 RALP procedures performed by March 2013. By July 2014, 183 institutions in Japan had installed the da Vinci surgical system. Other types of robotic surgeries are not widespread because they are not covered by public health insurance. Clinical trials using robotic partial nephrectomy and robotic gastrectomy for renal and gastric cancers, respectively, have recently begun as advanced medical treatments to evaluate health insurance coverage. These procedures must be evaluated for efficacy and safety before being covered by public health insurance. Other types of robotic surgery are being evaluated in clinical studies. There are several challenges in robotic surgery, including accreditation, training, efficacy, and cost. The largest issue is the cost-benefit balance. In this review, the current situation and a prospective view of robotic surgery in Japan are discussed. PMID:25763120

  10. Kampo medicine for palliative care in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okumi, Hirokuni; Koyama, Atsuko

    2014-01-01

    Kampo medicines are currently manufactured under strict quality controls. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan has approved 148 Kampo formulas. There is increasing evidence for the efficacy of Kampo medicines, and some are used clinically for palliative care in Japan. The specific aim of this review is to evaluate the clinical use of Kampo medicines in palliative care in the treatment of cancer. The conclusions are as follows: Juzentaihoto inhibits the progression of liver tumors in a dose-dependent manner and contributes to long-term survival. Hochuekkito has clinical effects on cachexia for genitourinary cancer and improves the QOL and immunological status of weak patients, such as postoperative patients. Daikenchuto increases intestinal motility and decreases the postoperative symptoms of patients with total gastrectomy with jejunal pouch interposition, suppresses postoperative inflammation following surgery for colorectal cancer, and controls radiation-induced enteritis. Rikkunshito contributes to the amelioration of anorectic conditions in cancer cachexia-anorexia syndrome. Goshajinkigan and Shakuyakukanzoto reduce the neurotoxicity of patients with colorectal cancer who undergo oxaliplatin and FOLFOX (5-fluorouracil/folinic acid plus oxaliplatin) therapy. Hangeshashinto has the effect of preventing and alleviating diarrhea induced by CPT-11(irinotecan) and combination therapy with S-1/CPT-11. O'rengedokuto significantly improves mucositis caused by anticancer agents. PMID:24447861

  11. Database and Related Activities in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Kato, Masatoshi; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Kato, Takako; Ding, Xiaobin; Morita, Shigeru [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu, 509-5292 (Japan); Kitajima, Masashi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Koike, Fumihiro [School of Medicine, Kitasato University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-0373 (Japan); Nakamura, Nobuyuki [Institute for Laser Science, The University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo, 182-8585 (Japan); Sakamoto, Naoki [Department of Physics, Nara Women's University, Nara 630-8506 (Japan); Sasaki, Akira [KansaiPhoton Science Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kizugawa, Kyoto, 619-0215 (Japan); Skobelev, Igor [Joint Institute for High Temperatures of RAS, Izhorskaya 13/19, 125412 (Russian Federation); Tsuchida, Hidetsugu [Quantum Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Ulantsev, Artemiy [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 65, Leninsky av., Moscow, 119296 (Russian Federation); Watanabe, Tetsuya [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Yamamoto, Norimasa [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2011-05-11

    We have constructed and made available atomic and molecular (AM) numerical databases on collision processes such as electron-impact excitation and ionization, recombination and charge transfer of atoms and molecules relevant for plasma physics, fusion research, astrophysics, applied-science plasma, and other related areas. The retrievable data is freely accessible via the internet. We also work on atomic data evaluation and constructing collisional-radiative models for spectroscopic plasma diagnostics. Recently we have worked on Fe ions and W ions theoretically and experimentally. The atomic data and collisional-radiative models for these ions are examined and applied to laboratory plasmas. A visible M1 transition of W{sup 26+} ion is identified at 389.41 nm by EBIT experiments and theoretical calculations. We have small non-retrievable databases in addition to our main database. Recently we evaluated photo-absorption cross sections for 9 atoms and 23 molecules and we present them as a new database. We established a new association ''Forum of Atomic and Molecular Data and Their Applications'' to exchange information among AM data producers, data providers and data users in Japan and we hope this will help to encourage AM data activities in Japan.

  12. Premature mortality in Japan due to ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawahda, Amin; Yamashita, Ken; Ohara, Toshimasa; Kurokawa, Junichi; Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi; Chen, Fang; Akimoto, Hajime

    2013-12-01

    In Japan, all 47 prefectures conduct routine air quality monitoring at 1145 stations throughout the country to assess environmental effects. This study aims to provide a better understanding of possible estimations of premature mortality in Japan caused by exposure to monitored and modeled concentrations of tropospheric ozone during the period from January to December, 2005. The spatial distribution and temporal variation of ozone concentrations were modeled using the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system coupled with the Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (CMAQ/REAS). Premature mortality caused by exposure to ozone was calculated assuming a relative risk (RR) value of 1.003 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.001-1.004] for concentrations above 35 ppb according to the SOMO35 index (annual Sum of daily maximum 8-h Ozone Means Over 35 ppb) recommended by WHO (2008). Based on CMAQ/REAS simulations, the estimated all-cause premature mortality in 2005 is about 13,000 (95% CI: 4320-17,300) cases. This value is 2.5 times greater than the estimated premature mortality based on monitored ozone concentrations, which is 5220 (95% CI: 1740-6960) cases.

  13. Patents on solid electrolyte fuel cells: Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-03-01

    The purpose of the current investigation is to help the promotion and development of solid electrolyte fuel cells (SOFC) in Japan, which is now in the stage of elemental study, by investigating the trend and technological level of the Japanese technology in the SOFC field. As regards research and development for SOFC in Japan, studies and development have been carried on by the Electrotechnical Laboratory, the National Chemical Laboratory for Industry, and private industries led by the mentioned laboratories. Since the Electrotechnical Laboratory succeeded in 1.2 kW power generation with a cylinder type multi-cell structure system, the development activities have become very brisk. In America, Westinghouse Electric Corp. developed, in 1986, a cylinder type multi-cell 5 kW power generating system and has been performing field tests using a 3 kW system since October, 1987. In Europe, research and development have been carried on by Brown Boveri and Cie (BBC), Dornie, etc. SOFC has been very much expected for the application also to electric power generation.

  14. EU bids to force Japan's hand in nuclear haggle Europe is bidding to force Japan's hand in negotiations on a revolutionary nuclear

    E-print Network

    EU bids to force Japan's hand in nuclear haggle 25/11/2004 Europe is bidding to force Japan's hand in negotiations on a revolutionary nuclear energy project, by pledging to go it alone unless Japan gives over the choice of site, whether Japan or France. "The Commission will try to reach a positive

  15. 76 FR 798 - Ball Bearings From Japan and the United Kingdom

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ...Second Review) (Fourth Remand)] Ball Bearings From Japan and the United Kingdom AGENCY...of the antidumping duty order on ball bearings from Japan. For further information...Commission's determinations in Certain Bearings and Parts Thereof from Japan and...

  16. 65 FR 42667 - Revocation of Antidumping Duty Orders on Certain Bearings From Hungary, Japan, Romania, Sweden...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-07-11

    ...Certain Bearings From Hungary, Japan, Romania, Sweden, France, Germany, Italy...certain bearings from Hungary, Japan, Romania, Sweden, France, Germany, Italy...certain bearings from Hungary, Japan, Romania, Sweden, France, Germany,...

  17. Tokugawa Japan and Industrial Revolution Britain: Two Misunderstood Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Lucien

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a truer picture than economic historians have previously had of the economies of Tokugawa Japan, and Britain during the Industrial Revolution. Though substantially different, both societies were prosperous compared to most of the rest of the world. Japan's economic success began in the Tokugawa period…

  18. Application of gas insulated transformers to underground substations in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Tsukao; Y. Oue; Y. Hasegawa

    2002-01-01

    Concentration of population and business activities result in high electricity demand in urban areas in Japan. Underground or indoor substations are required to comply with the increasing demand for electricity. Electric utility companies in Japan studied this situation and came to conclude that underground or indoor substations applying gas insulated transformers (GIT) together with gas insulated switchgears (GIS) would be

  19. Corporate Social Responsibility, Corporate Governance and Auditing in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryuuichiro KURIHAMA

    2005-01-01

    This paper clarifies the issues and future challenges that Japanese corporations are facing through discussion of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Japan. And it also clarifies the relationship between CSR, corporate governance, and auditing in Japan while it examines the concept of auditing as corporate auditing. In recent years, we see a growing trend toward discussion of CSR. However, CSR

  20. An Overview of Electric and Advanced Propulsion Activities in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimiya Komurasaki; Yoshihiro Arakawa; Haruki Takegahara

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of electric propulsion technology development and related studies in Japan. Ion engine systems (IES) onboard the Engineering Test Satellite VI (ETS-VI) and the Communications and Broadcasting Engineering Test Satellite (COMETS), and a quasisteady MPD thruster onboard the Space Flyer Unit (SFU) were successfully demonstrated. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is to

  1. Dietary Supplement Use in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shoichiro Ikuyama; Emiko Imamura

    2009-01-01

    Dietary supplements are the most popular class of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in Japan. In the present review, we describe several characteristics of dietary supplement users in patients with RA in Japan, based on our recent survey. Sixty percent of RA patients used supplements. Prevalence was higher in female than in male patients, and users were younger than non-users,

  2. A Geo-Pathological Study on Malignant Melanoma in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Mori

    1971-01-01

    Two hundred and twelve autopsied cases of malignant melanoma observed in Japan were studied as to incidence, primary sites, and mode of metastases, mainly from the point of view of geographic pathology. The overall incidence among all autopsy cases was 0.16%. Malignant melanoma in Japan seems to have some specific features such as: (1) a relatively low incidence of cutaneous

  3. High-level manpower movement and Japan's foreign aid.

    PubMed

    Furuya, K

    1992-01-01

    "Japan's technical assistance programs to Asian countries are summarized. Movements of high-level manpower accompanying direct foreign investments by private enterprise are also reviewed. Proposals for increased human resources development include education and training of foreigners in Japan as well as the training of Japanese aid experts and the development of networks for information exchange." PMID:12285771

  4. Characterizing Inter-domain Rerouting after Japan Earthquake

    E-print Network

    Chang, Rocky Kow-Chuen

    tsunami along parts of the country's coastline. Nuclear power plant and Japan's largest electric utility operators reported service disruptions and performance degradations in the communications with either Japan BGP RIBs and up- dates collected by RIPE [3] and Route Views [4] in a particular period of time

  5. Bunko: Private Mini-Libraries for Children in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Satoru

    "Bunko" are local mini-libraries for children in Japan, operated voluntarily by individuals or groups of parents, intended to nurture children's reading interest by offering them an inviting reading environment. In 1993, there were an estimated 4,000 bunko in Japan, with approximately 32,000 adult bunko members (90% female). Bunko members…

  6. GPM Arrives in JAPAn National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    at the Tangashema Space Center in Japan, efforts by the NASA and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency team now focus Goddard's mission to explore, discover, and understand our dynamic uni- verse. Goddard View is published vapor above the frigid south polar region of Jupiter's moon Europa, providing the first strong evidence

  7. Tectonic erosion along the Japan and Peru convergent margins

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Tectonic erosion along the Japan and Peru convergent margins R. VON HUENE U.S. Geological Survey, M the Japan and Peru Trenches indicate rates of erosion comparable to well-known rates of accretion. Proposed of abundant sediment. Subduction of the oblique-trending Nazca Ridge off Peru pro- duced many similar

  8. Tora no Maki III. Lessons for Teaching about Contemporary Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for the Social Studies, Washington, DC.

    The elements of Japan, including history, geography, economics, civics, and cultural studies, are in this collection of original lesson plans. The lessons are meant to provide original content about Japan to augment and supplement an existing unit of study and evoke a spirit of inquiry and introspection. The 24 lessons are as follows: (1) "Family…

  9. Keys for growth in Japan's mature mobile market

    E-print Network

    Oto, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to identify key factors that will produce further growth for NTT DoCoMo in Japan's mature mobile market. Since the early 1990s, the mobile phone market in Japan has grown rapidly, and ...

  10. R & D on Offshore Wind Power Generation System in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhito Oishi; Yukinari Fukumoto

    2009-01-01

    Offshore wind energy has been widely exploited in Europe. Having a long coastline, the offshore wind energy will be the one of the important solutions for the increase of renewable energy in Japan. However, due to the difference in wind and marine condition between Japan and Europe, the safety, the environmental impact and the economical feasibility of the offshore wind

  11. Prime-ministerial power in Japan: a re-examination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kensuke Takayasu

    2005-01-01

    Prime ministers in Japan have often been regarded as ‘weak’ and ‘reactive’. Constitutional and legal constraints on them have been emphasized as one of the significant reasons for this assessment. Administrative reforms in Japan, particularly in the late 1990s, sought to enhance the cabinet and co-ordination mechanisms in government and increase the formal power resources available to the prime minister.

  12. INTELLECTUALS, SOCIAL CHANGE AND FOREIGN POLICY IN INTERWAR JAPAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marius B. JANSEN

    1995-01-01

    The pages that follow discuss the place and role of intellectuals in inter-war Japan with particular reference to their relevance to the development of Japanese foreign policy. The Background The Meiji generation devoted its efforts to the acquisition, adaptation, and diffusion of learning considered essential to the development of Japan's modern nation state. An early and often uncritical enthusiasm for

  13. The Japan chance in globalization of international business

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Baláž

    2000-01-01

    The serious economic problems that Japan is facing in last five years are different from those having faced in the past. They are based on least three factors. The first reason of it are the structural problems: most of them previously acted been positively factors in post-war performance of Japan's economy (structure of the industry, export promotion, tax system, interest

  14. Analysis of freak wave measurements in the Sea of Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuhito Mori; Paul C Liu; Takashi Yasuda

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a set of available freak wave measurements gathered from several periods of continuous wave recordings made in the Sea of Japan during 1986–1990 by the Ship Research Institute of Japan. The analysis provides an ideal opportunity to catch a glimpse of the statistics of freak waves in the ocean. The results show that a

  15. Australia, Japan and the OECD: GDP Rankings and Revealed Preference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Dowrick; John Quiggin

    1993-01-01

    Data on volumes and prices of consumption and investment are used to compare Australian real GDP for 1990 with the other OECD countries. Australian consumption patterns, including leisure, and price structure are very different from most other countries and especially from those of Japan. The Australian bundle of consumption, investment and leisure is revealed preferred to that of Japan and

  16. Recent progress in national policy against influenza in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masato Tashiro

    2001-01-01

    Fundamental policies against influenza in Japan have been severely cut back since the obligatory annual immunization program to all school children was withdrawn in 1994. After that, the number of vaccines was extremely reduced in Japan and the manufacturing facilities were also cut down accordingly.In 1997, the Ministry of Health recognized the impact of influenza pandemics as a matter of

  17. East Asia Institute March 31, 2011 UTSA Cares about Japan

    E-print Network

    Dodla, Ramana

    East Asia Institute March 31, 2011 UTSA Cares about Japan Donation Drive for the Japan Tsunami currently studying Communications at UTSA. "I am very glad that our campus has organized a fundraiser helping out started off small. Gradually, more and more people offered Donation drive at UTSA to help

  18. Social Security Reform in Japan in the 21st Century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiaki Tachibanaki

    The paper examined and discussed several problems of pension programs in Japan which are caused by aging trend in the age-population structure. In particular, it examined several policy reforms in the public pension programs, and the role of firms in welfare provisions. The paper presented two major reforms in social security in Japan. The first one is to switch the

  19. Continuity and Change in Disaster Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitagawa, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to describe post-war continuity and change in disaster education in Japan. Preparedness for natural disasters has been a continuous agenda in Japan for geographical and meteorological reasons, and disaster education has been practised in both formal and informal settings. Post-war disaster management and education have taken a…

  20. The Independent Living Movement in Asia: Solidarity from Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Reiko; Okuhira, Masako

    2008-01-01

    Independent living movements of disabled people are emerging in Asian countries, supported by independent living centres (ILCs) in Japan. A study was conducted in Japan to explore the impact of the training program offered by Japanese ILCs to disabled people from other Asian countries. A sample of 35 people was selected by a snowballing method.…

  1. Caught in the Middle East: Japan's diplomacy in transition

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshitsu, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Japan's increasing dependence on Persian Gulf oil has caused its U.S.-centered foreign policy to shift. Drawing on personal interviews with senior Japanese officials, the author discusses Japan's changing diplomacy in regard to such problems as the Iran-Iraq war, Soviet aggression, and the Palestinian struggle for autonomy.

  2. Japan in the Classroom: Elementary and Secondary Activities, Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Lynn; And Others

    This activity book is designed to present information and insights on Japanese culture and society. Because few teachers can devote entire units to the study of Japan, the activities focus on teaching about Japan within the context of larger social science units. Some of the lessons can be taught within the context of the humanities and fine arts,…

  3. The UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshop Programme...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albone, Eric; Okano, Toru

    2012-01-01

    The authors have been running UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshops at universities in Britain and Japan since 2001: for the past three years in England with Cambridge University and, last year, also with Kyoto University and Kyoto University of Education. For many years they have worked jointly with colleagues in a group of Super Science High…

  4. Japan: Super-Aging Society Preparing for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muramatsu, Naoko; Akiyama, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    Japan has the highest proportion of older adults in the world. Aging is not only an immediate personal issue but also a salient factor in crucial public policies, such as pensions, health, and long-term care. The Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear power plant disaster of March 2011 has highlighted current and emerging issues of a…

  5. Few Women Reach the Top in Japan's Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2007-01-01

    Japan's higher-education system is the second largest in the world, after the United States, but it fares much worse than the United States when it comes to gender equity. Just 7 percent of Japan's 750-odd colleges and universities are run by women, compared with 23 percent of those in the United States. While four out of the eight members of the…

  6. In Search of Mutual Understanding: A Classroom Approach to Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Social Studies Development Center.

    An activity book is designed to address problems and oversights in classroom coverage of Japan discovered by the Japan/United States Textbook Study Project. Activities which focus on Japanese religion, language, and geography address two important questions: what immediate application does the textbook study have for classroom teachers and how can…

  7. Paleomagnetic evidence for the clockwise rotation of Southwest Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yo-Ichiro Otofuji; Takaaki Matsuda

    1983-01-01

    Over 500 oriented samples of felsic rocks of Cretaceous to Middle Miocene age were collected along the Go River in the central part of Southwest Japan, in an attempt to detect the process of tectonic rotation of Southwest Japan from the paleomagnetic view point. Thermal demagnetization was successful in isolating characteristic directions from the remanent magnetization of samples. Reliability of

  8. Words of Tohkaku Wada: medical heritage in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, M.; Inoue, K.; Kajii, E.

    2001-01-01

    The origins of Japan's medical ideas, which are deeply rooted in its religion, culture and history, are not widely understood in medical societies of other countries. We have taken up the task of summarising this tradition here so that some insight can be gained into the unique issues that characterise the practice of medicine in Japan. We borrow from the sayings of Tohkaku Wada, a medical philosopher of late eighteenth-century Japan, for a look at Japanese medical tradition. Wada's medical thought was very much reflective of the Buddhism, Zen, and swordsmanship that informed eighteenth-century philosophy in Japan. His central concepts were "chu" and "sei", that is, complete and selfless dedication to the patient and the practice of medicine. This paper explores Wada's thought, explaining it mainly from the standpoint of Japanese traditional culture. Key Words: Tohkaku Wada • ethics • philosophy • Buddhism • Zen • Japan PMID:11233381

  9. Overview of DRAGON-Japan in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.; Mukai, S.; Sugimoto, N.; Hatakeyama, S.; Schafer, J. S.; Eck, T. F.; Nishizawa, T.; Takemura, T.; Takamura, T.; Teruyuki, N.; Nakajima, T. Y.; Takami, A.; Kaneyasu, N.; Goto, M.; Hiraki, T.; Iguchi, N.; Kenny, P.; Kouzai, K.; Kuji, M.; Muramatsu, K.; Nakata, M.; Okada, Y.; Sadanaga, Y.; Sorokin, M.; Tohno, S.; Toyazaki, Y.; Kim, J.; Li, Z.

    2012-12-01

    The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) is an on-going project since early 1990s. The 400 sun/sky radiometers are sparsely deployed and provide us with the information of aerosol properties over the world. In summer of 2011, the first DRAGON field campaign was made in Washington, D.C./Baltimore metropolitan area, where about 40 AERONET Cimel instruments were set according to small square grid boxes. Thus it has been shown that the detail scale observations are useful to investigate the local influence of aerosols and validation of high resolution satellite product such as newly developed 3 km x 3 km aerosol product from MODIS. The second DRAGON project is done in East Asia because this region emits huge amount of anthropogenic gases and aerosols. The emission influences not only local atmosphere near the origin but also out of Asian continent by long range transportation. The aim of DRAGON-Japan is as follows: 1: retrieval of optical properties of trans-boundary aerosols, 2: detection of aerosols over megacity, 3: investigation of the influence to local aerosols by inbound aerosols from continent. During the DRAGON-Asia (March-May, 2012), AERONET instruments were set sparsely from Fukue Island (in the East China Sea) to Osaka (in the middle of Japan) as well as 2ch-LIDAR system. As for megacity region, dense sun/sky radiometer network was made by using nine instruments at Mt. Rokko (840 m/asl.), Mt. Ikoma (640 m/asl.), Kobe, North-Osaka, South-Osaka, Central-Osaka, East-Osaka (simply named by Osaka in AERONET web), Nara, and Kyoto. The following results on AOT (Aerosol optical thickness at a wavelength of 500 nm: AERONET Level 1.5) have been driven from the measurements : 1: Fukue Island provides the highest value as 0.56, 2: in respect of urban cities; 0.42 at Fukuoka, 0.42~0.47 over Osaka area, and 0.39 at Kyoto or Nara, 3: in the remote place; 0.33~0.35 at Nishiharima, Noto or Shirahama, 4: the difference between AOT values at mountain (ex. Mt. Rokko, Mt. Ikoma) and those at sea level takes the value of about 0.1. It is drawn from the above facts that the influence of inbound aerosols to total one is really high in western part of Japan.

  10. PASJ: Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 60, 183--190, 2008 April 25 # 2008. Astronomical Society of Japan.

    E-print Network

    Okabe, Nobuhiro

    PASJ: Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 60, 183--190, 2008 April 25 c # 2008. Astronomical Society of Japan s #1 . WMC 1 and WMC 2 are associated with two 345GHz continuum dust emis­ sion sources, which are located 2 00 (3600 AU) east from the core of an ultracompact H II region traced by 8.4 GHz radio continuum

  11. Paleomagnetic evidence for the Miocene counter-clockwise rotation of Northeast Japan-rifting process of the Japan arc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yo-Ichiro Otofuji; Takaaki Matsuda; Susumu Nohda

    1985-01-01

    Paleomagnetic results have been obtained from more than 700 oriented samples in igneous rocks of Cretaceous to Miocene age from Northeast Japan. The remanent magnetizations of welded tuffs with age between 32 Ma and 21 Ma old from 17 widely distributed sampling sites in Northeast Japan are fairly well grouped with a mean of D = -41.2°, I = 56.5°,

  12. Vergleichende Ethnographische Studien zu Bildungssystemen: USA, Japan, Deutschland (Comparative Ethnographic Studies on Educational Systems: United States, Japan, Germany).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeder, Peter Martin

    2001-01-01

    Reviews three qualitative case studies on the educational systems of Japan, the United States, and Germany, conducted as a component of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). States that the studies provide a basis for understanding the differences in mathematics and science achievement among Japan, Germany, and the United…

  13. Surveys of postpartum depression in Miyagi, Japan, after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Nishigori, Hidekazu; Sugawara, Junichi; Obara, Taku; Nishigori, Toshie; Sato, Kineko; Sugiyama, Takashi; Okamura, Kunihiro; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2014-12-01

    This study explores the correlation between the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the incidence of postpartum depression in Miyagi prefecture, Japan. The design used was a cross-sectional study with self-administered questionnaires, 6-9 months after the disaster. The results showed the prevalence of postnatal women with Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score of ?9 to be 21.3 %. Multivariate analysis showed that exposure to tsunami (odds ratio, 1.80; 95 % confidence interval, 1.16-2.78) was significantly and independently associated with an EPDS score of ?9. Postnatal women and their children should be treated as a vulnerable population, and a protective framework must be established to prepare for future devastating disasters. PMID:25204487

  14. Thallium contamination in wild ducks in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Mariko; Mori, Makoto; Akinaga, Mayumi; Yugami, Kyoko; Oya, Chika; Hondo, Ryo; Ueda, Fukiko

    2005-07-01

    Although thallium (Tl) is toxic to both humans and animals, there is little information on contamination in wildlife. In this study, Tl contents in wild ducks in Japan were determined. Contents of Tl in kidney and liver ranged from 0.42 to 119.61 and 0.10 to 33.94 microg/g dry weight, respectively. Significant correlations between Tl contents in kidney and liver were observed for all dabbling ducks except mallard (Anas platyrhynchos); similar correlations were not observed in diving ducks. Variation in Tl content was observed between sampling locations with the highest mean Tl content in the Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope) collected in Ibaraki Prefecture. PMID:16244083

  15. Storage-Ring Mass Spectrometry in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzaki, Fumi; Yamaguchi, Takayuki

    Atomic masses are a fundamental ground-state property of nuclei, reflecting a wide variety of structures and dynamics among nucleons. High-precision mass values of short-lived, in particular neutron-rich, nuclei are a key issue toward full understanding of astrophysical nucleosynthesis, as well as nuclear shell evolution far from stability. Beyond the precision mass measurements performed at worldwide ion-trap facilities, a new method of storage-ring mass spectrometry is now being developed at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory in Japan. Combined with the highest intensities of intermediate-energy radioactive ion beams currently available through in-flight separation of uranium fission products, the present method will enable us to measure the masses of extremely neutron-rich, rare species located on the r-process pathway, with a tiny yield (as low as ~1?counts/day).

  16. Ultracold Neutrons in Canada and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jeffery

    2009-10-01

    When neutrons are taken out of atomic nuclei and cooled down, they have weird properties: they bounce off walls, they can be stored in magnetic bottles, and they form quantized energy levels in Earth's gravitational field. Once they've been trapped using such methods, their properties can be studied very carefully to search for deviations from expectations based on the standard model of particle physics. If a deviation is found, it would signify new physics beyond the standard model. We are building a new source of ultracold neutrons in Canada (at TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC) with the help of collaborators from Japan (Masuda, et al). The source is projected to provide the highest density of ultracold neutrons ever produced in the world, and we'll use the neutrons to push some very interesting physics experiments to unprecedented levels of precision, as I'll describe.

  17. Japan’s growing silver market – An attractive business opportunity for foreign companies?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian Kohlbacher; Pascal Gudorf; Cornelius Herstatt

    \\u000a Japan is often considered a lead market for silver products as it is the country that has experienced the most dramatic demographic change. It has been labelled the most advanced\\u000a in terms of product development and innovation, with – at least according to the stereotypical view – very affluent, free-spending,\\u000a and demanding customers. The deeply rooted changes in the structure

  18. Japan’s waste management policies for dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideto Yoshida; Kazuaki Takahashi; Nobuo Takeda; Shin-ichi Sakai

    2009-01-01

    We summarize the measures taken by the Japanese government to prevent the emission of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls\\u000a (PCBs) into the environment. Because incineration is the main method of waste management in Japan, reducing the amount of\\u000a dioxins emitted from waste incinerators is an essential aspect of proper waste treatment. Intensive measures to prevent the\\u000a formation of dioxins at the

  19. Advances in cancer epidemiology in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hideo

    2014-02-15

    Epidemiologists in Japan have been performing calculations to estimate nationwide cancer incidence rates as well as 5-year survival rates using population-based cancer registry data. There have been remarkable changes in cancer incidence and/or mortality in cancers of the lung, liver and stomach, which were thought to be attributed to the changing impact of exposure to cigarette smoking, chronic hepatitis C virus infection and Helicobacter pylori infection, respectively. In systematic reviews providing evidence in risk/protective factors for cancer sites using case-control and cohort studies of the Japanese population, there were associations between cancer sites (esophagus, stomach, colo-rectum, liver, pancreas, lung and breast) and various lifestyle factors. In the past 10 years, a hospital-based case-control study at Aichi Cancer Center provided valuable evidence of gene-environment interaction on the development of cancer [i.e., the effects of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) polymorphism and heavy alcohol drinking on esophageal cancer, ALDH2 polymorphism and smoking on lung cancer, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism and heavy alcohol drinking on pancreatic cancer]. The database with stored DNA was also used and identified seven loci containing significant but low-penetrance polymorphisms associated with the development of breast cancer. These findings together with established risk factors are likely to be useful to predict personalized breast cancer risk in East Asian women. In 2005, the Japan Multi-Institution Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study was launched to elucidate gene-environment interactions as well as to confirm preclinical diagnostic biomarkers of cancer. J-MICC, which has recruited 92,000 healthy individuals by the end of 2012, will follow the individuals until 2025. PMID:24105756

  20. Current state of family planning in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, M

    1989-07-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of the 19th National Survey on Family Planning, conducted in June 1988, covering 3400 married women under 50 years of age. The survey was carried out by the Population Problems Research Council of the Mainichi Newspapers in cooperation with the Japan Federation of Family Planning, the Japan Family Planning Association, and the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning. The ideal number of children a couple wishes to have began to go down with the occurrence of the global oil crisis in 1973. Since 1979, 2 children have ranked 1st in preference. Younger and urban mothers had a stronger preference for 2 children than older or rural mothers. More than half, or 56.3% of the respondents, are currently practicing contraception. These rates are not as high as those of European or American women. 39.1% of the contraceptors began practicing contraception after the birth of their 2nd child. In 1986, the number of abortions was .52 million, less than half the number of abortions at their peak in 1955. 30% of the respondents have had at least 1 abortion. Findings suggest that under the current situation, where sufficient information and knowledge of contraception is present, many married women are against abortion in cases of contraceptive failure, while they are sympathetic to abortions due to straitened circumstances. Many people no longer seem to have as strong feeling of obligation towards the aging as before. They expect more support from the government. 74.6% of the mothers thought that schools needed to provide sex education, including contraceptive methods. Only 6.4% responded negatively. More than 70% feel that sex education should start in junior high school. A slightly higher percentage of younger mothers have breastfed their children than did older mothers. PMID:12282144

  1. Multipurpose soft contact lens care in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Toshida, Hiroshi; Kadota, Yoshiaki; Suto, Chikako; Ohta, Toshihiko; Murakami, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To assess the use of multipurpose lens care products via an online survey conducted among soft contact lens (SCL) wearers in Japan. Methods The subjects were 1000 men and women aged 15–44 years who reported that they cleaned their SCL by using multipurpose solution at least twice a week. Via the internet, they were asked questions about SCL care, the use of a rubbing step when cleaning SCL, cleaning and replacing lens cases, and recommended SCL care methods. Results Of the 1000 SCL wearers enrolled, 94.3% performed lens care every day lenses were worn, 64.2% reported rubbing the lenses every time, 57.9% rubbed the lenses for at least 10 seconds per side, and 64.7% reported they rubbed the lenses on both sides. Further, 61.2% reported that they had been given an explanation of SCL cleaning at an eye clinic or contact lens store. Only 49.8% of subjects reported that they cleaned the lens case every time and 61.7% replaced the case within 3 months. Only 19.5% had been given an explanation about lens case care. Half of the subjects reported they had been given no recommendation to use specific SCL care products or could not remember whether or not they had. The most common reason for the recommendation was good compatibility with their type of lens. Conclusion More education is needed in Japan regarding methods of SCL care to ensure correct lens cleaning with inclusion of a rubbing step, as well as sufficient cleaning and replacement of the lens case. Of particular interest is the finding that many subjects were not given an explanation about proper SCL care and lens case cleaning and replacement at the time of lens purchase or prescription. PMID:22291454

  2. [2006 Epidemiological survey of dermatomycoses in Japan].

    PubMed

    Sei, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    An epidemiological survey of dermatomycoses and the causative fungus flora of dermatomycoses in Japan for 2006 was made on a total number of 63,029 outpatients who visited 16 dermatological clinics throughout Japan. The results were as follows. 1) Dermatophytosis was the most prevalent cutaneus fungal infection (7,582 cases) seen in these clinics, followed by candidiasis (842 cases) and then Malassezia infections (283 cases). 2) Among dermatophytoses, tinea pedis was the most frequent (4,779 cases : male 2,358, female 2,241), then in decreasing order, tinea unguium (2,582 cases : male 1,376, female 1,206), tinea corporis (564 cases : male 341, female 223), tinea cruris (309 cases : male 254, female 57), tinea manuum (145 cases : male 92, female 53), and tinea capitis including kerion (17 cases : male 12, female 5). 3) Tinea pedis and tinea unguium are seen to increase in the summer season, among the aged population. When compared to the last survey 2002 by clinical form, t. unguium patients increased 459 cases. 4) As the causative dermatophyte species, Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated among all dermatophyte infections except tinea capitis. Microsporum canis was slightly increased. M.gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum are small number. T.tonsurans was increased up to 37 cases. 5) Cutaneous candidiasis was seen in 842 cases (305 male, 537 female). Intertrigo (298 cases) was the most frequent clinical form, followed by erosion interdigitalis (136 cases), oral candidiasis (135 cases), onychia et paronychia (108 cases), genital and diaper candidiasis in total (88 cases). 6) Tinea versicolor was seen in 175 cases. Malassezia folliculitis were collected 108 cases, 63 cases are reported from one clinic. PMID:23149353

  3. Abyssal water mass exchange between the Japan and Yamato Basins in the Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senjyu, Tomoharu; Aramaki, Takafumi; Tanaka, Shinichi S.; Zhang, Jin; Isoda, Yutaka; Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Hibino, Sho; Nakano, Toshiya

    2013-10-01

    Bottom water exchange between the Japan and Yamato Basins in the abyssal Japan Sea is investigated based on data from two research cruises in June 2010 and June 2011. Distributions of water properties and velocity profiles from CTD/LADCP observations revealed a two-layer water mass exchange in a rotating system. The cold Japan Basin Bottom Water (JBBW) with high dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations flowed into the Yamato Basin along the northern boundary of the channel connecting the basins, while the warmer, lower-DO Yamato Basin Bottom Water (YBBW) extended over the JBBW along the southern periphery of the channel. A benthic front between the JBBW and YBBW was observed in both cruises, though the front shifted to the northeast in 2011 compared with its 2010 location. Further, the bottom flows in the channel were not unidirectional in 2011, though consistent southwestward flows were observed in 2010. The JBBW transport into the Yamato Basin was also larger in 2010 than in 2011. Analysis of historical hydrographic data showed that the benthic front exists mostly in the narrowest region of the channel, though it fluctuates temporarily to the northeast or southwest. The fluctuation of the benthic front appears to be associated with the JBBW transport because the observations in June 2010 and June 2011 were carried out during periods of southwestward extension of cold water and northeast protrusion of warm water, respectively. A relationship between benthic front displacements and mesoscale warm eddy migrations is suggested.

  4. The bumpy road to socialise nature: sex education in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fu, Huiyan

    2011-09-01

    This study was prompted by an empirical puzzle: why is sex education in schools so underdeveloped in Japan compared to many other industrialised societies? On the one hand, formal pedagogy under state policy is conservative, emphasising reproductive and prophylactic purposes rather than a comprehensive understanding of sexuality. On the other hand, however, Japan has a highly visible sexual environment where a variety of commercial sex activities are tolerated and even encouraged. The aim of the paper is to provide an integrated picture of these apparently contradictory trends by examining the nexus of political, economic and sociocultural factors that affect sex education in contemporary Japan. PMID:21787254

  5. JTEC panel on nuclear power in Japan. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, K.F.; Behnke, W.B.; Cousin, S.B.; Evans, E.A.; Olander, D.R.

    1990-10-01

    The report examines the status and direction of nuclear power-related research and development in Japan in six areas: the nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear materials, instrumentation and control technology, CAD/CAM, nuclear safety research, and nuclear plant construction. Overall findings suggest that the nuclear power industry in Japan is at an advanced state of development; in particular, Japan is now technologically self-sufficient. Long-term goals of the Japanese program include closure of the complete fuel cycle and pursuit of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor as the future base system.

  6. Japan's declining fertility: "1.53 shock".

    PubMed

    Yanagishita, M

    1992-04-01

    In 1990, the Japanese were upset over the low 1989 total fertility rate (TFR) of 1.57 and continued to be so when they learned that the 1990 rate was even lower (1.53). This meant an annual population growth rate of only 0.33% with population decline beginning after 2010. In the early 1990s, Japan began to feel the demographic effects of such low fertility: a shortage of young workers and rising costs of health care for the elderly. Further, this shortage resulted in increasing business closings between 1988-1990 (1-6%). In 1990, the government began a survey to monitor the beliefs of the population on demographic concerns. The survey revealed that people wanted 2.2 children. Ideal family size was 2.6 which remained the same since 1977. Almost 40% found the falling TFR to be undesirable, especially because the population was aging. Moreover 65% of them though the government should undertake efforts to increase births. The major suggestions included reducing economic costs of raising a child (53%), a more favorable environment to have children such as affordable housing (29%), and developing child care facilities and child care leave (13%). 38% of 25-29 year old women were still unmarried, yet only 2% intended to never marry. Women in their late 20s and early 30s were critical of the 3 generation household with women doing all the housework. Women were more likely to be against premarital and extramarital sex than men. 25-33%, especially women 45 years old, felt the abortion law should be restricted. The 1990 abortion rate was 37.4/100 births. 7% relied on sterilization, yet 25-30% felt it to be an acceptable means of contraception. 75% of those that used a contraceptive used the condom. The government continued to ban oral contraceptives (OCs) claiming they would spread AIDS. Men were more in favor of OCs than women. 48% of those who found the falling population undesirable favored a pronatalist policy over importing foreign laborers. 41% wanted Japan to still help developing countries with family planning. PMID:12285109

  7. Interdecadal variation of TC frequency in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ki-Seon; Cha, Yu-Mi; Kang, Sung-Dae; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2014-07-01

    This study analyzed the climate regime shift using statistical change-point analysis on the time-series tropical cyclone (TC) frequency that affected Japan in July to September. The result showed that there was a significant change in 1995, and since then, it showed a trend of rapidly decreasing frequency. To determine the reason for this, differences between 1995 to 2012 (9512) period and 1978 to 1994 (7894) period were analyzed. First, regarding TC genesis, TCs during the 9512 period showed a characteristic of genesis from the southeast quadrant of the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific and TCs during the 7894 period showed their genesis from the northwest quadrant. Regarding a TC track, TCs in the 7894 period had a strong trend of moving from the far east sea of the Philippines via the East China Sea to the mid-latitude region in East Asia while TCs in the 9512 period showed a trend of moving from the Philippines toward the southern part of China westward. Thus, TC intensity in the 7894 period, which can absorb sufficient energy from the sea as they moved a long distance over the sea, was stronger than that of 9512. Large-scale environments were analyzed to determine the cause of such difference in TC activity occurred between two periods. During the 9512 period, anomalous cold and dry anticyclones were developed strongly in the East Asia continent. As a result, Korea and Japan were affected by the anomalous northerlies thereby preventing TCs in this period from moving toward the mid-latitude region in East Asia. Instead, anomalous easterlies (anomalous trade wind) were developed in the tropical western Pacific so that a high passage frequency from the Philippines to the south China region along the anomalous steering flows was revealed. The characteristics of the anomalous cold and dry anticyclone developed in the East Asia continent were also confirmed by the analysis of air temperature, relative humidity, and sensible heat net flux showing that most regions in East Asia had negative values.

  8. [Counterfeit medicines--Japan and the world].

    PubMed

    Sato, Daisaku

    2014-01-01

    Circulating counterfeit medicines in the market is a public health threat. Counterfeit medicines become common problem, not only in developing countries, but also in industrialised countries, as internet has made them more accessible. In Japan, the recent survey on the medicines purchased through on-line pharmacy (targeting Japanese consumers) showed that the majority of erectile dysfunction (ED) medicines imported by individuals in Japan were counterfeit version. The survey of Japanese consumers, who privately imported medicines through on-line pharmacy, indicated that 16% of these consumers experienced adverse events associated with these products. Not only that it is just fake brand, but fake medicines may even cause health hazard. The counterfeit version of Avastin recently detected in the United States became a serious threat for those who desperately need these medicines for life-threatening disease. The Japanese regulatory authorities have provided risk information of counterfeit medicines to general public, as well as monitored on-line pharmacies and conducted enforcement action where necessary. However, more resources of compliance activity should be allocated to respond to the situation of growing threats of counterfeit medicines. Purchasing medicines from abroad through unauthorised channel is the major source of counterfeit medicines. It is essential to prevent circulation of counterfeit medicines through international collaboration of various regulatory authorities. To address these problems, the World Health Organization (WHO) has launched a new Member States Mechanism (MSM) to build network of the authorities. Also, INTERPOL (ICPO) initiated globally concerted enforcement actions (Operation Pangea) against pharmaceutical crime as well as built partnership with pharmaceutical industry to create Pharmaceutical Crime Programme. It is also necessary to prevent consumers encountering counterfeit medicines and to prevent health hazard. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) has been actively involved in prevention and educational activities such as public awareness campaign. MHLW started anti-counterfeit medicines and new psychoactive substance project from February 2013, which centrally collects information about counterfeit medicines, in particular, and provides the risk information more effectively to the public. Japanese Government will work together with international community and contribute to combating counterfeiting through public and private partnership. PMID:24492225

  9. Curriculum Vitae: Keikichi Hirose Born: December 3, 1949 at Kamakura, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan

    E-print Network

    Yamamoto, Hirosuke

    Curriculum Vitae: Keikichi Hirose Born: December 3, 1949 at Kamakura, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, The Acoustical Society of Japan Chief Editor, Journal of Signal Processing, Japan Senior Member, the Institute Processing Society of Japan Member, the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence Member, Automatic

  10. Earth Planets Space, 53, 861871, 2001 Dehydration of serpentinized slab mantle: Seismic evidence from southwest Japan

    E-print Network

    Seno, Tetsuzo

    from southwest Japan Tetsuzo Seno1 , Dapeng Zhao2 , Yoji Kobayashi3 , and Masao Nakamura1 1Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan 2Department of Earth Sciences, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-0826, Japan 3Faculty of Earth Sciences, Tsukuba University, Tsukuba 305-0006, Japan

  11. Japan and Asianisation of Tuesday 10 July 2012: 09:00-13:30

    E-print Network

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Workshop Japan and Asianisation of the Gulf Tuesday 10 July 2012: 09:00-13:30 Venue: School Ltd, formerly Japan External Trade Organization, Dubai: Japan's economic relations with the Gulf context 10:50-11:00 Yukiko Miyagi, Durham University: Japan's soft power in the Gulf 11:00-11:30 Q&A 11

  12. SWEDEN-JAPAN FOUNDATION 2014-01-21 GREV TUREGATAN 14, 114 46 STOCKHOLM

    E-print Network

    Johannesson, Henrik

    SWEDEN-JAPAN FOUNDATION 2014-01-21 GREV TUREGATAN 14, 114 46 STOCKHOLM TEL +46-8-6116873, FAX +46-8-6117344 Org nr 802008-0639 www.swejap.a.se, info@swejap.a.se SWEDEN-JAPAN FOUNDATION STIPENDIER Sweden-Japan Foundation utlyser stipendier för studier, forskning samt examensarbete och praktik på högskolenivå i Japan

  13. Tips on Studying Abroad at Waseda University (Undergraduate Exchange) in Japan

    E-print Network

    Li, Mo

    Tips on Studying Abroad at Waseda University (Undergraduate Exchange) in Japan Want to know what it scoop on their host institution and host country. · I chose this program because I was born in Japan going to graduate school in Japan, but before making a decision, I wanted to experience life in Japan

  14. Japan ready to pay 895 million dollars more to host ITER project: report

    E-print Network

    Japan ready to pay 895 million dollars more to host ITER project: report 26 May 2004 Japan the deadlock between Japan and the European Union over the venue of the International Thermonuclear in the 10-billion-dollar project are the European Union, Japan, China, Russia, South Korea and the United

  15. Older Workers in the European Community, Japan, and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Elizabeth; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Older Workers in the European Community: Pervasive Discrimination, Little Awareness" (Drury); "Aging Workers in Japan: From Reverence to Redundance" (Takada); and "Canada's Labor Market: Older Workers Need Not Apply" (David). (JOW)

  16. Words of Tohkaku Wada: medical heritage in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, M; Inoue, K; Kajii, E

    2001-02-01

    The origins of Japan's medical ideas, which are deeply rooted in its religion, culture and history, are not widely understood in medical societies of other countries. We have taken up the task of summarising this tradition here so that some insight can be gained into the unique issues that characterise the practice of medicine in Japan. We borrow from the sayings of Tohkaku Wada, a medical philosopher of late eighteenth-century Japan, for a look at Japanese medical tradition. Wada's medical thought was very much reflective of the Buddhism, Zen, and swordsmanship that informed eighteenth-century philosophy in Japan. His central concepts were "chu" and "sei", that is, complete and selfless dedication to the patient and the practice of medicine. This paper explores Wada's thought, explaining it mainly from the standpoint of Japanese traditional culture. PMID:11233381

  17. IAEA THEORY SUMMARY 1998 IAEA Meeting, Yokohama, Japan

    E-print Network

    IAEA THEORY SUMMARY 1998 IAEA Meeting, Yokohama, Japan Oct. 17--24, 1998 Princeton University, future objectives areas depicted 2. of is fascinating science critical development of fusion power. basic

  18. Democratization and the development of Japan's uneven welfare state

    E-print Network

    Shimabukuro, Yumiko T

    2012-01-01

    Comparative data reveal that Japan consistently has had one of the highest poverty rates among advanced industrialized nations, yet its government taxes the poor more heavily and gives them less in public cash transfers ...

  19. ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT: VISITS IN JAPAN, NOVEMBER 1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a particulate control technology assessment visit to Japan by a team of U.S. investigators. The visit included discussions with personnel from universities, industries, and other major installations involved with particulate control. Significant resear...

  20. ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT: VISITS IN JAPAN, NOVEMBER 1977 - APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a particulate control technology assessment visit to Japan by a team of U.S. investigators. The visit included discussions with personnel from universities, industries, and other major installations involved with particulate control. Significant resear...

  1. Family nursing practice and education: what is happening in Japan?

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Michiko

    2008-11-01

    Significant developments in family nursing in Japan are described and analyzed beginning with the political and health care legislation in the country that stimulated a need for family nursing and the early adoption of family nursing theories and models by visionary leaders in nursing education. In 1994, Japan was the first country in the world to establish a national family nursing association, the Japanese Association for Research in Family Nursing, that provided the necessary infrastructure and leadership for family nursing in Japan to flourish. The strengths and challenges of family nursing in Japan are identified and a call is made for innovations in nursing curricula as well as global networking of family nurses around the world. PMID:19139158

  2. Atlas of Japan (East) Sea hydrographic properties in summer, 1999

    E-print Network

    Talley, Lynne D.

    to the Okhotsk Sea by two even shallower straits ­ Soya (La Perouse) between Hokkaido and Sakhalin, and Tatar, between Sakhalin and the continent. In June through August, 1999, a hydrographic survey of the Japan (East

  3. JTEC panel report on nuclear power in Japan. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, K.F.; Behnke, W.B.; Cousin, S.B.; Evans, E.A.; Olander, D.R.

    1990-10-01

    The report examines the status and direction of nuclear power-related research and development in Japan in six areas: the nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear materials, instrumentation and control technology, CAD/CAM, nuclear safety research, and nuclear plant construction. The report is based on a review of literature and one week trip to Japan in January 1990 during which the members of the Panel visited numerous Japanese laboratories and other nuclear facilities. The overall findings of the Panel suggest that the nuclear power industry in Japan is at an advanced state of development; in particular, Japan is now technologically self-sufficient. Long-term goals of the Japanese program include closure of the complete fuel cycle and pursuit of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor as the future base system.

  4. Secondary residential demand trends in contemporary Japan and North Asia

    E-print Network

    Lam, Michael M

    2009-01-01

    This research paper attempts to address the opportunity and challenges for Vacation Residential Development in North Asia, with specific geographic focus on Japan first through an analysis of national and regional consumption, ...

  5. First record of a Cretaceous cheilostome bryozoan from Hokkaido, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew N. Ostrovsky; Reishi Takashima; Matthew H. Dick; Andrei V. Grischenko; Hiroshi Nishi; Shunsuke F. Mawatari

    2006-01-01

    A small collection of recrystallised, encrusting colonies of a single species from the Mikasa Formation (lower Middle Cenomanian), represents the first record of cheilostome (malacostegan or anascan) bryozoans from Hokkaido, Japan.

  6. Application of lean enterprise concept to construction firms in Japan

    E-print Network

    Taguchi, Hiroshi, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    Construction firms in Japan are struggling with the change in construction industry environment and need a new business model to meet the change. On the other hand, Japanese manufacturing companies, especially automobile ...

  7. India-Japan Science & Technology Collaboration: Past, Present and Future

    E-print Network

    Ejiri, Shinji

    care, agriculture, hydrocarbon fuels, nano-scienceandnano-technology : India-Japan Science & Technology Collaboration: Past, Present and Future () Dr. Thadathil and technology (S&T). A bilateral S&T Agreement between the two countries was signed in November 1985

  8. Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic cestode that causes taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. The parasite is traditionally found in developing countries where undercooked pork is consumed under poor sanitary conditions and/or as part of traditional food cultures. However, the recent increase in international tourism and immigration is spreading the disease into non-endemic developed countries such as the United States. Although there has been concern that the number of cysticercosis cases is increasing in Japan, the current situation is not clear. This is largely because taeniasis and cysticercosis are not notifiable conditions in Japan and because there have been no comprehensive reviews of T. solium infections in Japan conducted in the last 15 years. Herein, we provide an overview of the status of T. solium infection in Japan over the past 35 years and point out the potential risks to Japanese society. PMID:22248435

  9. continued on Page 3 CSU/Japan Partnership Explores

    E-print Network

    continued on Page 3 CSU/Japan Partnership Explores Promising New Cancer Therapy DNA damage responses to carbon ion therapy, including DNA repair pathways and Courtesy of NIRS This schematic shows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Faculty Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Ergonomics

  10. Q fever pneumonia in children in Japan.

    PubMed Central

    To, H; Kako, N; Zhang, G Q; Otsuka, H; Ogawa, M; Ochiai, O; Nguyen, S V; Yamaguchi, T; Fukushi, H; Nagaoka, N; Akiyama, M; Amano, K; Hirai, K

    1996-01-01

    The prevalence of Q fever pneumonia among children with atypical pneumonia from whom only an acute-phase serum sample was available was traced by using an indirect immunofluorescence (IF) test, nested PCR, and isolation. Twenty (34.5%) of 58 sera were found to have both polyvalent and immunoglobulin M antibodies to the phase II antigen of Coxiella burnetii by the IF test. Q fever pneumonia was present in 23 (39.7%) of 58 patients as determined by both the nested PCR and isolation and in 20 patients as determined by the IF test. The sensitivities for nested PCR and isolation were 100%, and that for the IF test was 87%. Our results indicate that nested PCR was faster and more sensitive than isolation and the IF test in the diagnosis of acute Q fever when a single acute-phase serum was available. These findings suggest that C. burnetii is an important cause of atypical pneumonia in children in Japan. PMID:8904431

  11. Monitoring of railway bridges in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Makoto; Komon, Kazuki; Narumoto, Asao; Sugidate, Masao; Mori, Takeshi; Miki, Chitoshi

    2000-06-01

    In Japan, some monitoring systems have been introduced to evaluate conditions of the railway structures. In this work, we introduce the monitoring systems of railway bridges. Here, for example, we show the abstraction of fatigue damage monitoring system. The crack propagation properties of a side notched SUS304 thin sheet, which is affixed to a fatigue test specimen, is studied to develop a fatigue damage monitoring sensor. When cyclic loads are applied to the fatigue specimen, the side notched thin sheet behaves as a displacement controlled condition. The stress intensity factor (Delta) K is expressed by the following equation; (Delta) K equals (Delta) (sigma) (root)GL/2 where GL is the gauge length of the thin sheet. The thin sheet is fatigue pre-cracked, stress- relieved and affixed to a specimen. The results of fatigue crack propagation tests show that the crack propagation rate is dependent on stress range and gauge length, but not on crack length. Under sufficient mean stress conditions, the fatigue crack propagation rate is well expressed by a power low of (Delta) K even at such a low stress range as 20 MPa. Fatigue damage accumulated during a monitoring period can be estimated from crack propagation during the period. The sensitivity of the sensor is controlled through the gauge length of the sensor.

  12. Immigrants' experiences of maternity care in Japan.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Yukari; Horiuchi, Shigeko; Porter, Sarah E

    2013-08-01

    Language and cultural differences can negatively impact immigrant women's birth experience. However, little is known about their experiences in Japan's highly homogenous culture. This cross-sectional study used survey data from a purposive sampling of immigrant women from 16 hospitals in several Japanese prefectures. Meeting the criteria and recruited to this study were 804 participants consisting of 236 immigrant women: Chinese (n = 83), Brazilian (n = 62), Filipino (n = 43), South Korean (n = 29) and from variety of English speaking nations (n = 19) and 568 Japanese women. The questionnaire was prepared in six languages: Japanese (kana syllables), Chinese, English, Korean, Portuguese, and Tagalog (Filipino). Associations among quality of maternity care, Japanese literacy level, loneliness and care satisfaction were explored using analysis of variance and multiple linear regression. The valid and reliable instruments used were Quality of Care for Pregnancy, Delivery and Postpartum Questionnaire, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine Japanese version, the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale-Japanese version and Care satisfaction. Care was evaluated across prenatal, labor and delivery and post-partum periods. Immigrant women scored higher than Japanese women for both positive and negative aspects. When loneliness was strongly felt, care satisfaction was lower. Some competence of Japanese literacy was more likely to obstruct positive communication with healthcare providers, and was associated with loneliness. Immigrant women rated overall care as satisfactory. Japanese literacy decreased communication with healthcare providers, and was associated with loneliness presumably because some literacy unreasonably increased health care providers' expectations of a higher level of communication. PMID:23609237

  13. Japan's big trading companies find themselves underemployed

    SciTech Connect

    Coeyman, M.

    1992-12-02

    Japan's sogoshosha - its large trading companies - are fighting their way through an identity crisis. Originally established to help connect Japanese products and companies with offshore customers and a global market, the sogoshosha suddenly find that they are no longer in demand. The trading companies were originally intermediaries, says Yasunori Masuda, v.p. of Mitsui's chemical dividion (New York). But now we are less intermediaries and more organizers of joint ventures. Mitsubishi has a position in Saudi Arabia in methanol, ethylene glycol, and polyethylene (PE), currently being expanded. More recently the company teamed up with Pequiven, Venezuela's state-owned petrochemicals firm, on a 2,000-m.t./day methanol plant to be completed by the end of 1993 at Jose. Sone says Mitsubishi plans to market the methanol in the US Mitsubishi is also working on a feasibility study for a chlor-alkali/ethylene dichloride venture with Pequiven. Mitsubishi has jointed with five Japanese trading companies - Itochu, Marubeni, Mitsui, Sumitomo, and Nissho Iwai - to build a 450,000-m.t./year ethylene plant in China.

  14. A new balloon base in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuke, H.; Akita, D.; Iijima, I.; Izutsu, N.; Kato, Y.; Kawada, J.; Matsuzaka, Y.; Mizuta, E.; Namiki, M.; Nonaka, N.; Ohta, S.; Saito, Y.; Seo, M.; Takada, A.; Tamura, K.; Toriumi, M.; Yamada, K.; Yamagami, T.; Yoshida, T.

    2010-02-01

    Since 1971, numerous balloons have been launched from the Japanese balloon base, the Sanriku Balloon Center (SBC). Through these years, balloon technologies have been developed continuously and many scientific achievements have resulted. Recently, however, because of the limited area of the launching pad of the SBC, we have been faced with the difficulty of safely launching large balloons. To solve this issue, we decided to move the balloon base from the SBC to the Taiki Aerospace Research Field (TARF) in northern Japan. The TARF had an existing huge hanger and a paved launch pad capable of being utilised for balloon operations. To evolve the TARF into a new balloon base, new balloon facilities have been constructed at the TARF and equipment was transferred from the SBC to the TARF during July 2007 and March 2008. The SBC was closed in September 2007, and the new base became operational in May 2008. The new base at the TARF is designed to launch larger balloons with greater safety and to perform balloon operations more effectively than ever before. In the summer of 2008, we carried out the first series of the balloon campaign at the TARF, and succeeded in two engineering flights of stratospheric balloons. By the success of these flights, we have verified that the whole system of the new balloon base is well established.

  15. Introduction of clean coal technology in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Takashi Kiga [Japan Coal Energy Center (JCOAL), Tokyo (Japan). R and D Department

    2008-01-15

    Coal is an abundant resource, found throughout the world, and inexpensive and constant in price. For this reason, coal is expected to play a role as one of the energy supply sources in the world. The most critical issues to promote utilization of coal are to decrease the environmental load. In this report, the history, outline and recent developments of the clean coal technology in Japan, mainly the thermal power generation technology are discussed. As recent topics, here outlined first is the technology against global warming such as the improvement of steam condition for steam turbines, improvement of power generation efficiency by introducing combined generation, carbon neutral combined combustion of biomass, and carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology. Also introduced are outlines of Japanese superiority in application technology against NOx and SO{sub 2} which create acid rain, development status of the technical improvement in the handling method for coal which is a rather difficult solid-state resource, and utilization of coal ash.

  16. Magnetic fusion energy studies in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, M.; Tsuji-Iio, S.; Komori, A.; Kawahata, K.; Kaneko, O.; Inoue, T.; Kamada, Y.

    2007-07-01

    The primary facility for magnetic fusion energy (MFE) research in Japan is JT-60, in which DD plasma is heated up to an electron temperature of Te>10 keV with neutral beam injection (NBI) and radio frequency (RF) powers. It is noted that a normalized ?N of 2.3 was maintained for 22 s. The JT-60 team has discovered internal transport barrier (ITB) in high-beta-poloidal discharges as an additional improved confinement mechanism like a previously known edge transport barrier (ETB). The operation forming the ITB has remarkably improved the plasma confinement. The second major MFE facility is a large helical device (LHD) at National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS). The world's largest superconducting coil system of LHD generates helical magnetic field of 3 T where the stored magnetic energy reaches 1 GJ. A quasi-stationary plasma with an electron density of 4×10 18 m -3 at a temperature of about 1 keV was sustained for 54 min with the help of ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) and electron cyclotron range of frequency (ECRF). The maximum electron density so far achieved is 5×10 20 m -3 with Te˜1 keV. We report MFE programs related to International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER).

  17. Gender Differences in Spousal Caregiving in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Mikiko; Kutsumi, Masami; Mikami, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Background Gender differences in spousal caregivers and their relationship to care experiences, social demographics, and caregivers’ depression were examined. Methods A stratified random sample of 2,020 users of public long-term care insurance in a city of Osaka prefecture, Japan, participated in this study. Responses from 308 spouses (56.2% wives, 43.8% husbands) were analyzed. Variables relating to care experiences, social demographics, and caregivers’ depression were compared by conducting simultaneous analyses of multiple populations. Results Wives caring for husbands had higher depression scores than husbands caring for wives. Wives tended to adopt “emotional support seeking” and “willing commitment” as coping strategies for their caregiving experience. Husband caregivers used more home-care services; however, increased service use had no effect on husbands’ depression. The availability of secondary caregivers reduced depression for caregivers, regardless of gender. Conclusions The effects on depression differed related to the caregiver's gender. Husbands relied more on family or home-care services when caring for their wives, whereas wives provided higher levels of care, positively accepted their role, and did not seek to share caregiving, but sought emotional support. PMID:19176486

  18. Ebola virus disease: preparedness in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ashino, Yugo; Chagan-Yasutan, Haorile; Egawa, Shinichi; Hattori, Toshio

    2015-02-01

    The current outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) is due to a lack of resources, untrained medical personnel, and the specific contact-mediated type of infection of this virus. In Japan's history, education and mass vaccination of the native Ainu people successfully eradicated epidemics of smallpox. Even though a zoonotic virus is hard to control, appropriate precautions and personal protection, as well as anti-symptomatic treatment, will control the outbreak of EVD. Ebola virus utilizes the antibody-dependent enhancement of infection to seed the cells of various organs. The pathogenesis of EVD is due to the cytokine storm of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the lack of antiviral interferon-?2. Matricellular proteins of galectin-9 and osteopontin might also be involved in the edema and abnormality of the coagulation system in EVD. Anti-fibrinolytic treatment will be effective. In the era of globalization, interviews of travelers with fever within 3 weeks of departure from the affected areas will be necessary. Not only the hospitals designated for specific biohazards but every hospital should be aware of the biology of biohazards and establish measures to protect both patients and the community. PMID:25399765

  19. [Epidemiology of musculoskeletal diseases in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Noriko

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the prevalence of musculoskeletal disease, such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, using Japanese population-based cohort data from the Research on Osteoarthritis/Osteoporosis Against Disability (ROAD) study. This study, established in 2005, comprised data from 3,040 participants. In men and women, aged ?40 years, we determine the prevalences of osteoporosis in the L2-4 vertebrae(men, 3.4%; women, 19.2%), femoral neck (men, 12.4%; women, 26.5%), and knee (Kellgren-Lawrence grade ?2; men, 42.6%; women, 62.4%). The prevalence of lumbar spondylosis, diagnosed as Kellgren-Lawrence grade ?2, was 81.5% in men and 65.5% in women. In addition, based on data from the Longitudinal Cohorts of Motor System Organ (LOCOMO) study, initiated in 2008 to integrate information from cohorts in eight communities across Japan, we examined the prevalences of knee and lumbar pain. The prevalence of knee pain was 32.7% (men, 27.9%; women, 35.1%) and that of lumbar pain was 37.7% (men, 34.2%; women, 39.4%). PMID:25509792

  20. Determinants of the Japan premium: actions speak louder than words

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe Peek; Eric S. Rosengren

    2001-01-01

    Since August 1995, Japanese banks have had to pay a premium on Eurodollar and Euroyen interbank loans relative to their U.S. and U.K. competitors. This so-called “Japan premium” provides a market indicator of investor anxiety about the ability of Japanese banks to repay loans. We examine the determinants of the Japan premium and find that government announcements not associated with

  1. An epidemiological study of food poisoning in Korea and Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Won-Chang Lee; Takeo Sakai; Myeong-Jin Lee; Masaaki Hamakawa; Song-Mog Lee; In-Mo Lee

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to make a comparative epidemiological observation on outbreaks of food poisoning between Korea and Japan, during the period from 1971 to 1990. The mean morbidity rate by fiscal year from 1971 to 1990 was 3.0 per 100000 population in Korea, and 29.2 in Japan. The mean mortality rate, in Korea was 2.48%, and in

  2. Winter marine atmospheric conditions over the Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, C. E.; Beardsley, R. C.; Dashko, N. A.; Friehe, C. A.; Kheilf, D.; Cho, K.; Limeburner, R.; Varlamov, S. M.

    2004-12-01

    Four basic types of synoptic-scale conditions describe the atmospheric structure and variability observed over the Japan Sea during the 1999/2000 winter season: (1) flow of cold Asian air from the northwest, (2) an outbreak of very cold Siberian air from the north and northeast, (3) passage of a weak cyclone over the southern Japan Sea with a cold air outbreak on the backside of the low, and (4) passage of a moderate cyclone along the northwestern side of the Japan Sea. In winter, the Russian coastal mountains and a surface-air temperature inversion typically block cold surface continental air from the Japan Sea. Instead, the adiabatic warming of coastal mountain lee-side air results in small air-sea temperature differences. Occasional outbreaks of very cold Siberian air eliminate the continental surface-based inversion and stability, allowing very cold air to push out over the Japan Sea for 1-3 days. During these outbreaks, the 0°C surface air isotherm extends well southward of 40°N, the surface heat losses in the center of the Japan Sea can exceed 600 W m-2, and sheet clouds cover most of the Japan Sea, with individual roll clouds extending from near the Russian coast to Honshu. During December through February, 1991-2002, these strong cold-air outbreak conditions occur 39% of the time and contribute 43% of the net heat loss from the Japan Sea. The average number of strong cold-air events per winter (November-March) season is 13 (ranging from 5 to 19); the 1999/2000 winter season covered in our measurements was normal.

  3. Reproductive Character Displacement in Lymantria monacha from Northern Japan?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Gries; Paul W. Schaefer; Regine Gries; Jan Liška; Tadao Gotoh

    2001-01-01

    Our objective was to test the hypothesis that the pheromone blend and\\/or diel periodicity of pheromonal communication differ in populations of the nun moth, Lymantria monacha(Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), from eastern Asia (northern Honshu, Japan) and Central Europe (Bohemia, Czech Republic). Coupled gas chromatographic–electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of pheromone gland extract of female L. monachafrom Japan confirmed the presence of compounds previously

  4. Communist China's foreign trade and its implication for Japan 

    E-print Network

    Hsieh, Leh-An

    1972-01-01

    COMMUNIST CHINA'S FOREIGN TRADE AND ITS IMPLICATION FOR JAPAN A Thesis by LEH-AN HSIEH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August lg72... Major Subject: Economics COMMUNIST CHINA'S FOREIGI'J TRADE AND ITS IMPLICATION FOR JAPAN A Thesis LEH-AN HSIEH Approved as to style and content by: Head of Department Member / Member Member (Member) ABSTRACT Communist China's Foreign Trade...

  5. Japan Sea Thermohaline Structure and Circulation. Part III: Autocorrelation Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter C. Chu; Wang Guihua; Yuchun Chen

    2002-01-01

    The autocorrelation functions of temperature and salinity in the three basins (Ulleung, Japan, and Yamato Basins) of the Japan\\/East Sea are computed using the U.S. Navy's Master Oceanographic Observational Dataset for 1930-97. After quality control the dataset consists of 93 810 temperature and 50 349 salinity profiles. The decorrelation scales of both temperature and salinity were obtained through fitting the

  6. Owed Justice: Thai Women Trafficked into Debt Bondage in Japan

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In September, Human Rights Watch posted five new reports on their Website. Owed Justice: Thai Women Trafficked into Debt Bondage in Japan deals with the violation of women's rights as it examines the trafficking of Thai women who are delivered under false pretenses into atrocious labor conditions in Japan where they are often forced to work for years to pay off the "debt" of their transport.

  7. Japan: super-aging society preparing for the future.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Naoko; Akiyama, Hiroko

    2011-08-01

    Japan has the highest proportion of older adults in the world. Aging is not only an immediate personal issue but also a salient factor in crucial public policies, such as pensions, health, and long-term care. The Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear power plant disaster of March 2011 has highlighted current and emerging issues of a "super-aging" society, especially the need for community-based support systems. PMID:21804114

  8. Ka-band Earth-space propagation research in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Karasawa; Y. Maekawa

    1997-01-01

    Earth-space propagation studies in Japan were originally concerned with measuring atmospheric absorption and rain attenuation by means of a suntracker and a radiometer, following which a number of long-term experiments were performed using various experimental and commercial satellites. The first experiments involving Ka-band Earth-space propagation measurements in Japan were carried out in 1977 using the Engineering Test Satellite Type II,

  9. Association of automobile passenger transportation and economic growth in Japan

    E-print Network

    Horie, Teruhiko

    1969-01-01

    . Vehicle passenger-miles increased year after year, except during the Depres- sion. The automobile usage contributed greatly to this development. Japan traditionally favors the intra-urban mass transit system and inter-urban rail system. Automobile... passenger-miles continued to increase in Japan, but at a slowez rate. Both rail and vehicle passenger-miles went up during the period of increasing automobile ownership. The increase in per capita automobile is correlated to the growth of per capita real...

  10. Midterm Summary of Japan-US Fusion Cooperation Program TITAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeo Muroga; Dai-Kai Sze; Mikhail Sokolov; Yutai Katoh; Roger E Stoller

    2011-01-01

    Japan-US cooperation program TITAN (Tritium, Irradiation and Thermofluid for America and Nippon) started in April 2007 as 6-year project. This is the summary report at the midterm of the project. Historical overview of the Japan-US cooperation programs and direction of the TITAN project in its second half are presented in addition to the technical highlights. Blankets are component systems whose

  11. Heterogeneity of Hepatitis B Virus Genotype D in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kojiro Michitaka; Norio Horiike; Tran Nhu Duong; Michiyasu Yagura; Hideharu Harada; Takao Shibayama; Ayano Inui; Tomoo Fujisawa; Kana Matsuura; Yoichi Hiasa; Morikazu Onji

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes B and C are predominant in Japan. Previously, we reported that approximately 9% of HBV carriers in the Ehime area of western Japan were infected with genotype D (HBV\\/D) and their sequences closely related. Recently, serum samples from 3 patients with chronic HBV\\/D infections living in Tokyo and the surrounding area became available for

  12. Japan takes no-compromise stand at Beijing.

    PubMed

    1995-10-01

    Japan credits itself with being the first government to develop a comprehensive initiative on women in development. Japan's government indicated that its commitment of $600 million yearly to development assistance would be expanded. The goal of the development effort is the empowerment of women through education, participation in the labor force, and inclusion in decision making. Japan's initiative was outlined by the Minister of Women's Affairs in the official statement prepared for the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, the Nongovernmental Organization (NGO) Forum, and the prior development initiatives. Japan indicated a commitment to grassroots level activities that protect women's human rights in a thoughtful and effective manner. Strong actions will be taken in Japanese funded programs to eliminate women as victims of prostitution, sexual crimes, and sexual exploitation. Japan's program initiatives are founded on the principles of full development of the potential of women, protection of universal human rights and health, and a partnership between nongovernmental organizations and government. The goal of equity for women was a reaffirmation of its commitment to the Program of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development. Japan is credited with supporting about 20% of the world's official development assistance and $2.5 million for the Beijing conference and NGO Forum. PMID:12290488

  13. Environmental and food contamination with PCB's in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, K

    1975-09-01

    In Japan "yusho", i.e., poisoning caused by ingestion of rice oil contaminated with PCB's, broke out in October 1968, and produced more than 1200 officially certified cases. Nevertheless, it was only regarded as a kind of food poisoning and its connection with environmental and biological contamination was only imperfectly taken into consideration. Finally, in the autumn of 1970, two study groups, from the Ehime University and the Kyoto City Hygienic Institute, reported on the PCB contamination of salt water and fresh water fishes in Japan. Subsequently many reports about PCB's as an environmental contaminant have been published by several study groups throughout Japan, and nowadays the PCB polluted state of Japan has become rather clearly recognized. This report will present information on environmental, food and human contamination with PCB's in Japan especially also in some typically contaminated local areas, in addition to summarizing some overall aspects of the PCB problem in Japan (e.g., the production, shipment and use of PCB's). PMID:808853

  14. Japan's Renuciation of War Clause, Article 9: A case study of Japan's journey towards 'a normal nation'

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, Lakisha Chevon

    2008-03-10

    Japan has struggled with the decision to either revise or to reinterpret the renunciation of war clause, Chapter 2, Article 9, in the Japanese Constitution. This debate is significant because the outcome of this decision will have a direct impact...

  15. Evidence-based guidelines for treatment of uterine body neoplasm in Japan: Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology (JSGO) 2009 edition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoru Nagase; Hidetaka Katabuchi; Masamichi Hiura; Noriaki Sakuragi; Yoichi Aoki; Junzo Kigawa; Tsuyoshi Saito; Toru Hachisuga; Kiyoshi Ito; Takashi Uno; Noriyuki Katsumata; Shinichi Komiyama; Nobuyuki Susumu; Makoto Emoto; Hiroaki Kobayashi; Hirohito Metoki; Ikuo Konishi; Kazunori Ochiai; Mikio Mikami; Toru Sugiyama; Makio Mukai; Satoru Sagae; Hiroshi Hoshiai; Daisuke Aoki; Masahide Ohmichi; Hiroyuki Yoshikawa; Tsuyoshi Iwasaka; Yasuhiro Udagawa; Nobuo Yaegashi

    2010-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is one of the most common gynecologic malignancies in Japan and its incidence has increased recently.\\u000a Although surgery is the cornerstone of the management of patients with endometrial cancer, there is significant variation\\u000a in Japan with regard to the type of hysterectomy employed. Additionally, it remains controversial whether full nodal staging\\u000a is required in all patients. Furthermore, adjuvant

  16. The 1991 Japan Solar Energy Society. Japan Wind Energy Association Joint Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-09-01

    Thie paper summarizes the lectures presented at the research presentation conference held by the Japan Solar Energy Society and the Japan Wind Energy Association. The contents include a lecture relating to photovoltaic cells intended for efficiency improvement; a lecture relating to a light power generation system including the field test reports, improvements on peripheral devices and output characteristics; a lecture relating to optical chemistry; a lecture relating to heat pumps utilizing solar heat and well water; a lecture relating air conditioning utilizing photovoltaic cells; a lecture relating to heat systems utilizing solar heat directly; a lecture relating to heat collection; a lecture relating to cold heat for cooling using earth tubes; a lecture relating to direct utilization of ground water heat and solar heat; a lecture relating to underground heat storage; a lecture relating to accumulation of cold heat and hot heat; a lecture relating to insolation on the amount of insolation and spectroscopy; a lecture relating to light collection intended of energy saving; a lecture relating to improving materials including light collecting plates and thin films; a lecture relating to development and characteristics of solar cars; and a lecture relating to wind energy.

  17. [1997 Epidemiological survey of dermatophytoses in Japan].

    PubMed

    Kasai, T

    2001-01-01

    An epidemiological investigation on dermatophytoses in Japan for the year 1997 was carried out with the following results. The number of dermatomycoses patients visiting the fourteen cooperating institutes that year was 8,284. New outpatients with this condition accounted for 13.3% of all new outpatients in these institutes. Dermatophytoses patients numbered 7,314 and were composed of: tinea pedis 4,901 (63.8%), tinea unguium 1,592 (20.7%), tinea corporis 557 (7.2%), tinea cruris 395 (5.1%), tinea manuum 215 (2.8%), tinea capitis 12, kerion celsi 3, tinea barbae 1 and granuloma trichophyticum 1. Of these, 117 were children under 15 years of age. Species and incidences of the 2,273 strains isolated from the patients with dermatophytoses were as follows: Trichophyton (T.) rubrum 1,628 (71.6%), T. mentagrophytes 617 (27.2%), Epidermophyton floccosum 9 (0.4%), Microsporum (M.) canis 2, M. gypseum 2, T. glabrum 1, and 15 undetermined strains. Candidiasis was found in 714 individuals: intertrigo 302, erosio interdigitalis 108, erythema infantum 85, oral candidiasis 51, paronychia et onychia 51, genital candidiasis 50, onychomycosis 15 and other atypical forms of candidiasis 39. Patients with tinea versicolor numbered 242 and those with malassezia folliculitis 15. There were nine cases of deep dermal mycoses. The results of superficial dermatophytoses for the year 1997 differed from those of 1991-92 in the following points: tinea corporis and tinea cruris were lower in number, while tinea unguium had increased in ratio and number continuously. M. canis infection tended to decrease. In the age distribution of tinea, in every clinical form the peak of distribution curve gradually shifted to a more elderly age group. PMID:11173330

  18. Trade, Foreign Investment, and Competitiveness. The Japan Business Study Program. Based on a Seminar Series entitled "Japan Business Study Program 1989" (Austin, Texas, October 12-27, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuo, Hirofumi, Ed.

    Seven articles are presented addressing topics related to United States-Japan trade, foreign investment, and U.S. competitiveness in the global market. The first article, "Super 301 and the Changing Japan-American Relationship" by Glenn Davis describes recent U.S.-Japan trade frictions, epitomized by Super 301, and explains the influence of the…

  19. 78 FR 73884 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Sematech, INC. D...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ...circumstances. Specifically, Entegris, Inc., Bellerica, MA; Integrated Device Technology, Inc., San Jose, CA; Bruker Nano GmbH, Santa Barbara, CA; Rion, Kukubunji, JAPAN, Adeka Corporation, Hamburg, GERMANY; SUSS Microtec Photomask...

  20. Nature of the Moho in Japan and Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Takaya; Levin, Vadim; Nikulin, Alex; Iidaka, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    The Kamchatka peninsula and the islands of Japan are located along the eastern margin of the Asian continent. The natures of the Moho in these areas have been studied for decades, with a variety of geophysical methods, including active and passive seismic methods, gravity and other techniques. The Moho and the upper mantle structures in the NE Japan and SE Japan Arcs have been investigated well both from active and passive seismic source studies. The Moho depth in the NE Japan is ranging from 30 to 40 km. Almost parallel to the present volcanic front, there exists a belt of deep Moho (34-36 km) with a lower Pn velocity (7.5-7.7 km/s). Amplitude analysis of the PmP phase indicates that the Moho beneath the NE Japan Arc is not a simple velocity contrast, but rather a gradual transition. Toward the backarc side, remarkable crustal thinning is recognized. Actually, the Moho depth decreases from 35 km beneath the central part of NE Japan to 18 km beneath the Sea of Japan. This thinning is evident in the upper crust, while the lower crust remains constant in thickness. This may be explained by the continuous magmatic underplating beneath the rifted crust or deformation under a simple shear mode, allowing the lower crustal thickness to remain unchanged. The Moho in the SW Japan Arc is also at a depth of 30-40 km. The Pn velocity is 7.7-7.8 km/s, slightly higher than that in the NE Japan, although this value was mostly sampled in the eastern half of the SW Japan Arc where the recent volcanic activity has been less effective. Fluids expelled from the subducted oceanic lithosphere (the PHS plate) play an important role in controlling the structure of the mantle wedge. As these fluids leak into the mantle wedge they induce serpentinization there, transforming original mantle materials to those of lower velocity and higher Vp/Vs. The crustal thinning of the SW Japan Arc is characterized by notable decrease in upper crustal thickness, which is similar to the case of the NE Japan Arc. The Moho and uppermost mantle structures beneath the southern part of the Kamchatka have a lot of similarities to those beneath the NE Japan Arc. Earlier DSS investigations and converted wave analyses show that Moho is situated at a depth of 38-40 km along the east coast of Kamchatka, that is beneath the volcanic front, but decreases to about 32 km near the west coast. Moho depth values based on modern receiver function methodology are also ranging from 31 to over 38 km. Moho is a fairly simple boundary under the western coast of Kamchatka, while in the Central Kamchatka Depression and especially along the eastern coast it is likely gradational. Uppermost mantle material beneath the Moho is complex, with additional impedance contrasts that are likely anisotropic in their properties being present under the entire Kamchatka peninsula. The dominant anisotorpy-inducing fabric varies from site to site along the west coast, but is almost universally trench-normal along the east coast. The seismic velocities beneath Kamchatka are very low (7.4-7.8 km/s for P-wave and 4.1-4.2 km/s for S wave). Also, gradual structural change is recognized around the Moho beneath the active volcanoes. These features are quite similar to those in NE Japan Arc.

  1. Japan Studies through the Lenses of Different Disciplines: First Yearbook of the Japan Studies Association. [Papers from the Japan Studies Association Annual Conference (San Diego, California, 1995)].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speaker, Richard B., Jr., Ed.; Kawada, Louise Myers, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This yearbook presents new perspectives and materials on Japan that are engaging, relatively jargon-free, and shaped so that their usefulness in a college classroom is readily apparent. The yearbook represents an example of the potential for genuine scholarship that lies within interdisciplinary studies. Articles are divided among five thematic…

  2. Effects of market liberalisation on smoking in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Honjo, K.; Kawachi, I.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To document the effect of the liberalisation of the Japanese tobacco market on Japanese smoking rates and on Japanese tobacco industry practices.?DATA SOURCE—Asahi Shimbun (major daily newspaper) from 1980 to 1996.?STUDY SELECTION—Review of media coverage on the effects of market liberalisation following the imposition of the USA's section 301 trade sanction.?DATA SYNTHESIS—The opening of Japan's tobacco market to foreign cigarette companies stalled a decline in smoking prevalence. Smoking rates among young women increased significantly, and also appear to be on the rise among adolescents. Aggressive marketing and promotional activities by US and Japanese tobacco companies in response to trade liberalisation appear responsible for these adverse trends. Steep increases in sales through vending machines were also possible contributors to the rising smoking prevalence among adolescents. On the positive side, market liberalisation indirectly promoted smoking control efforts in Japan, by causing an anti-smoking movement to coalesce.?CONCLUSION—Market liberalisation in Japan played a significant role in increasing smoking prevalence among young women and adolescents while helping to transform the issue of smoking in Japan from a matter of individual choice to a public health problem.???Keywords: Japan; market liberalisation PMID:10841856

  3. Groundwater Flow System of Unzen Volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazahaya, K.; Yasuhara, M.; Inamura, A.; Sumii, T.; Hoshizumi, H.; Kohno, T.; Ohsawa, S.; Yusa, Y.; Kitaoka, K.; Yamaguchi, K.

    2001-12-01

    Unzen volcano (peak 1486 m) is developed on the western part of Beppu-Shimabara Graben (20 km NS wide and 200 km EW long) located at Kyushu island, SW Japan. We have been studied groundwater system of the volcano using geochemical and hydrological technique in order to estimate flux of magmatic volatiles through the groundwater. We have collected over 150 sample waters from springs, rivers, and wells, and they are analyzed for major chemistry and stable isotope ratios. Over 50 pore waters were extracted from 100-1200m-deep drilled cores at the eastern flank of the volcano by a centrifugal separator. The results are summarized as follows: 1) Flow rates of springs and rivers indicate that most of the groundwater recharged at Unzen volcano flew down the slope directed to the east, which is restricted by graben structure. 2) All the groundwaters and spring waters collected inside the graben area are isotopically homogeneous, i. e., -48~-45 permil for hydrogen isotope ratio, indicating that the groundwater is well mixed during flowing. 3) In spite of the isotopic homogeneity, the groundwaters are chemically different from each other. In particular, bicarbonate concentration ranged from 20 to 180 mg/l, and it is inconsistent with the isotopic results. There are some active faults parallel to the graben, and bicarbonate anomalies are found close to the faults. Therefore, the chemical variation is likely to be made due to the addition of deep-seated CO2 ascending through the faults. 4) Linear relation between 1/DIC and carbon isotope ratio of DIC indicates that the DIC in groundwater is explained by simple mixing with two source, magmatic and organic matters. Combining the flow rate data, DIC concentrations and carbon isotope ratios, we estimated the magmatic CO2 flux as 30 t/d through the fault system. 5) Pore waters at 100-300m deep have similar isotopic composition to the present shallow groundwater and river waters, suggesting that those pore waters occupy a part of the shallowest aquifer. On the other hand, pore waters collected from the drilled core at greater than 500m show isotopic discontinuity in the vertical variation, indicating that stagnant aquifers formed at deeper levels.

  4. PNC/DOE Remote Monitoring Project at Japan`s Joyo Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.; Hashimoto, Yu [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Senzaki, Masao; Shigeto, Toshinori [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Sonnier, C. [Jupiter Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dupree, S.; Ystesund, K.; Hale, W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-07-25

    The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan and the US Department of Energy (DOE) are cooperating on the development of a remote monitoring system for nuclear nonproliferation efforts. This cooperation is part of a broader safeguards agreement between PNC and DOE. A remote monitoring system is being installed in a spent fuel storage area at PNC`s experimental reactor facility Joyo in Oarai. The system has been designed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and is closely related to those used in other SNL remote monitoring projects. The Joyo project will particularly study the unique aspects of remote monitoring in contribution to nuclear nonproliferation. The project will also test and evaluate the fundamental design and implementation of the remote monitoring system in its application to regional and international safeguards efficiency. This paper will present a short history of the cooperation, the details of the monitoring system and a general schedule of activities.

  5. Black brant from Alaska staging and wintering in Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derksen, Dirk V.; Bollinger, K.S.; Ward, David H.; Sedinger, J.S.; Miyabayashi, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) nest in colonies in arctic Canada, Alaska, and Russia (Derksen and Ward 1993, Sedinger et al. 1993). Virtually the entire population stages in fall at Izembek Lagoon near the tip of the Alaska Peninsula (Bellrose 1976) before southward migration (Dau 1992) to winter habitats in British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California, and Baja California (Subcommittee on Black Brant 1992). A small number of black brant winter in Japan, Korea, and China (Owen 1980). In Japan 3,000–5,000 brant of unknown origin stop over in fall, and a declining population (<1,000) of birds winter here, primarily in the northern islands (Brazil 1991, Miyabayashi et al. 1994). Here, we report sightings of brant in Japan that were marked in Alaska and propose a migration route based on historical and recent observations and weather patterns.

  6. Southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk, north of Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An oblique view of the southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk, north of Japan, (45.0N,144.0E) as photographed from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit by one of the Skylab 4 crewmen. Most of the land area is Hokkaido Island, Japan. The southern tip of Sakhalin Island (Soviet Union) is in the northwest corner. This photograph was taken to aid in the study of the formation of sea ice. Observations in the Sea of Okhotsk are of interest because the ice has a morphology similar to that of the Bering Sea.

  7. [Community-based prevention of drug abuse in Japan].

    PubMed

    Shimane, Takuya

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this article is to review community-based drug abuse prevention and relapse prevention in Japan. Japan has a highly efficient system for the primary prevention of drug abuse; this system includes drug abuse education programs in schools and anti-drug abuse campaigns in communities. On the other hand, relapse prevention activities, such as counseling service at mental health welfare centers, self-help groups for drug addicts, and relapse prevention programs at outpatient clinics, are limited because of zero tolerance policies. Therefore, more relapse prevention activities are required in Japanese communities. PMID:20715489

  8. JUSTIPEN: Japan US Theory Institute for Physics with Exotic Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Papenbrock, Thomas

    2014-05-16

    The grant “JUSTIPEN: Japan US Theory Institute for Physics with Exotic Nuclei ” (DOE DE?FG02?06ER41407) ran from 02/01/2006 thru 12/31/2013. JUSTIPEN is a venue for international collaboration between U.S.?based and Japanese scientists who share an interest in theory of rare isotopes. Since its inception JUSTIPEN has supported many visitors, fostered collaborations between physicists in the U.S. and Japan, and enabled them to deepen our understanding of exotic nuclei and their role in cosmos.

  9. Seafloor Geodesy for Approaching Great Earthquakes Around Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, M.; Sato, M.; Ishikawa, T.; Watanabe, S. I.; Yokota, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Seafloor geodesy has been developed as an application of space geodetic technique for the purpose of investigating geodynamic phenomena having their major information in offshore regions. One of such targets is the occurrence of disastrous earthquakes in plate subduction areas. Japan, among others, has repeatedly experienced offshore megathrust earthquakes because of its tectonic location, where multiple plates interact with each other. Most recently, an earthquake of M9.0 occurred off the Pacific coast of east Japan in 2011 with a subsequent huge tsunami, which totally devastated coastal areas and claimed nearly 20,000 lives including those still missing. We, the group of Japan Coast Guard (JCG), have developed a seafloor geodetic technique combining the GPS positioning and underwater acoustic ranging, which is able to measure the position of the seafloor reference point consisting of multiple acoustic transponders with a precision of a few centimeters. We have deployed our seafloor reference points over two regions on the Pacific side of Japan; one is the region along the Japan trench off the eastern coast where the huge 2011 event occurred and another is the region along the Nankai Trough off the southern coast where earthquakes of around M8 have repeated every 100-150 years. With these measurements, we have so far successfully obtained important results providing exclusive information for elucidating the plate boundary behavior causing huge earthquakes. In particular, in the region off east Japan, we have revealed different phases of seafloor movements during the period between several years before and after the 2011 event. They include linear intraplate movements with several centimeters per year before the event, which were the first significant offshore geodetic signals detected around Japan, as well as the coseismic displacements of unprecedentedly huge amount over 20 m close to the epicenter and subsequent postseismic movements with various characteristics depending on the area. These seafloor data contribute to the understandings of physical processes relevant to the event beneath the seafloor in this region, which are unable to be clarified only by the terrestrial data. The presentation summarizes efforts in the field of seafloor geodesy in Japan with a focus on the results obtained by the JCG group.

  10. 70 FR 22688 - Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Czech Republic, Japan, Mexico...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2005-05-02

    ...From Czech Republic, Japan, Mexico, Romania, and South Africa AGENCY: United States...from Czech Republic, Japan, Mexico, Romania, and South Africa...from Czech Republic, Japan, Mexico, Romania, and South Africa would be likely...

  11. 70 FR 49680 - Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from Czech Republic, Japan, Mexico...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2005-08-24

    ...from Czech Republic, Japan, Mexico, Romania, and South Africa AGENCY: United States...from Czech Republic, Japan, Mexico, Romania, and South Africa...from Czech Republic, Japan, Mexico, Romania, and South Africa would be likely...

  12. 77 FR 55231 - Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2012-02; Compliance With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ...COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0069] Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim...Regulatory Commission (NRC). ACTION: Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate interim...Commission) is issuing the Final Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate...

  13. 77 FR 55230 - Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2012-01; Compliance With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ...COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0068] Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim...Regulatory Commission (NRC). ACTION: Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate interim...Commission) is issuing the Final Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate...

  14. Short Communication P-wave velocity structure beneath Asama Volcano, Japan, inferred from active source

    E-print Network

    Aoki, Yosuke

    -8502, Japan i Sakurajima Volcano Research Center, Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, 1722-19 Sakurajima-Yokoyama-cho, Kagoshima, Kagoshima 891-1419, Japan j Department of Geophysics

  15. 76 FR 18251 - Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan Andromania

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ...line, and pressure pipe from Japan and Romania...line, and pressure pipe from Japan and Romania would be likely to lead to continuation...standard, line, and pressure pipe from Romania (65 FR 48963). Following...

  16. 76 FR 60083 - Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ...Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania Determinations On the basis of the record...line, and pressure pipe from Japan and Romania would be likely to lead to continuation...standard, line, and pressure pipe from...

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea...Vegetables § 319.56-27 Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  18. 2010/9/9 17:35-18:25RSA Conference Japan 20101 SECURITY DECODED

    E-print Network

    Sumii, Eijiro

    2010/9/9 17:35-18:25RSA Conference Japan 20101 SECURITY DECODED ID: WH004 #12;2010/9/9 17:35-18:25RSA Conference Japan 20102 ­ ­ #12;2010/9/9 17:35-18:25RSA Conference Japan 20103 PC 17 20054 400 200512 ATM2 20085 15 20096 255 #12;2010/9/9 17:35-18:25RSA Conference Japan 20104

  19. What Should Japan Be Doing about S. invicta?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter was written by a research entomologist from the USDA-ARS, Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology in Gainesville, FL and a Japanese myrmecologist from Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan. The purpose of this chapter is to outline what the Japanese should do to ...

  20. Development of Education in Japan, 1974-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Tokyo (Japan).

    Organization and recent trends in education in Japan are discussed. Part one of the report describes administration, structure, and curriculum. The central education authority is the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture. Matters of policy and finances are administered by boards of education on prefectural and municipal levels. Elementary and…

  1. Memoirs of a Trip into the Placement Culture of Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherall, Robert K.

    1991-01-01

    Presents observations of a U.S. college placement officer who participated in a careers conference in Japan. Describes changing desires of Japanese college students; hospitable treatment U.S. students received; their sightseeing experiences; the placement office at Waseda University; and the conference experience. (ABL)

  2. Intensive Language and Culture Orientation Program for Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setliff, Rebecca J.; Taft, Lori A.

    The Language and Culture Institute of the University of Pittsburgh has developed a 13-week program of pre-assignment training for engineers given corporate assignments in Japan. The Institute offers the corporations three components in this intensive seminar: program administration, language training, and culture training. The program…

  3. A new species of Lyria (Gastropoda: Volutidae) from Southern Japan.

    PubMed

    Bail, Patrice; Chino, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    A new endemic species of Volutidae, Lyria (Lyria) ogasawarana sp. nov. is described from Chichijima Island, Ogasawara Islands, Japan. This new species is similar to the other Pacific Lyria: L. (Lyria) cassidula cassidula (Reeve, 1849), L. (Lyria) deliciosa (Montrousier, 1859), L. (Lyria) pattersonia (Perry, 1811) and L. (Lyria) insignata (Iredale, 1940). PMID:25781775

  4. Permian (Capitanian) gastropods from the Akasaka Limestone (Gifu Prefecture, Japan)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Nützel; Keiji Nakazawa

    2012-01-01

    A gastropod fauna from the Permian (Capitanian) Akasaka Limestone from Japan is described. It is one of the most diverse known Permian gastropod faunas and consists of at least 74 species level taxa. Forty taxa have been identified to species level; the remainder are treated in open nomenclature because of insufficient preservation. In addition, three types of neritimorph opercula are

  5. The Rise of Modern Japan. Teacher's Manual [and] Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menton, Linda K.; Lush, Noren W.; Tamura, Eileen H.; Gusukuma, Chance I.

    This textbook highlights key aspects of Japan's history and culture from the Tokugawa era (1600-1868) to the present. The textbook includes role plays, primary documents, first-person accounts, diary entries, excerpts from literary works, songs, poems, maps and timelines, charts and graphs, and political cartoons. It also includes a glossary that…

  6. Neritic squid resources and cuttlefish resources in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yutaka Natsukari; Masatoki Tashiro

    1991-01-01

    Knowledge concerning biology of two loliginids and three sepiids which are found in the Japanese waters was reviewed including unpublished information of the authors.The swordtip squid, Photololigo edulis, is one of the most important resources for the coastal fisheries of Kyushu and the prefectures facing the southwest Japan Sea. This species is the only species of genus Photololigo found along

  7. Nuclear Catastrophe, Disaster-Related Environmental Injustice, and Fukushima, Japan

    E-print Network

    Shrader-Frechette, Kristin

    Nuclear Catastrophe, Disaster-Related Environmental Injustice, and Fukushima, Japan: Prima the 2011 Japanese Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear disaster (FD) as a preliminary case study-- despite the limits Fukushima-Daiichi (FD) nuclear accident to explain disaster-related environmental injustice (DREI

  8. Comparing marginal commodity tax reforms in Japan and Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kunio Urakawa; Takashi Oshio

    2010-01-01

    We examine the impact of the marginal commodity tax reforms in Japan and Korea, using data from the official household surveys of the two countries. Based on the estimations of two demand systems (linear expenditure system (LES) and almost ideal demand system(AIDS)), we compare the marginal costs of taxing major commodity groups, examine distributive gains from tax reforms based on

  9. Surveillance, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcome of Liver Cancer in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common type of cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. HCC is most common in Asia, but its prevalence is rapidly increasing in Western countries; consequently, HCC is a global medical issue that urgently needs to be addressed. Japan is the only developed country that has experienced both hepatitis B-related and hepatitis C-related HCC and has a long history of innovation when it comes to new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, such as computed tomography angiography, anatomical resection, ablation, and transarterial chemoembolization. Among these innovations, a nationwide surveillance program was well established by the 1980s, and such a long-term national program does not exist anywhere else in the world. Summary More than 60% of the initially detected HCCs in Japan are Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage 0 or A, which can undergo curative therapies such as resection, ablation, or transplantation. The recent 5-year survival rate of HCC patients in Japan was 43% and the median survival time was 50 months. In addition, both incidence and mortality rates are drastically declining as a result of the successful surveillance program, careful diagnostic flow, and extensive repeated treatments. Key Message Japan's successful model in the surveillance, diagnosis, and treatment of HCC should be adopted as widely as possible to improve the survival of HCC patients worldwide. PMID:26020028

  10. Earthquake-resistant design features of immersed tunnels in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Kiyomiya

    1995-01-01

    The main external force in the structural design of immersed tunnels in Japan is earthquake load, because of the vigorous earthquake activity in this region of the world. Many immersed tunnels have been constructed in soft ground at port areas, where the response of both the soft ground and the immersed tunnels are amplified during earthquakes. To estimate sectional force

  11. Seismo-turbidites in the Japan Trench inner slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usami, K.; Ikehara, K.; Kanamatsu, T.; McHugh, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Japan Trench is a part of the Pacific-North America plate boundary, and is a seismically active region where the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake occurred. We collected 24 piston cores from small basins of the Japan Trench inner slope (37.5-40 N, 143.5-144.16 E, 4000-6000 m in water depth) during the cruise NT13-19 with R/V Natsushima, to investigate recurrence intervals of earthquakes in this area, based on the analysis of the turbidite record. Many fine-grained turbidites are observed in the cores. High sedimentation rates in this area preserve the turbidites well. Turbidites are more frequently intercalated in the cores recovered from the southern part of the area. On the other hand, several turbidite layers can be correlated widely in the northern part of the area, assisted by tephrostratigraphy and matching of paleomagnetic secular variations. Moreover, some of these turbidites are considered to be correlative to the reported onshore tsunami deposits along the Sanriku-Sendai coast. We will report the occurrence, characteristics and correlation of seismo-turbidites in the Japan Trench inner slope. The evidence suggests that the Japan Trench area is an ideal site for application of turbidite paleoseismology.

  12. Aeromagnetic surveys in the seas around Japan in 1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utashiro, S.; Oshima, S.; Kaneko, T.

    1984-07-01

    Aeromagnetic surveys in the seas around Japan were carried out in 1979 to 1980 by a YS-11 aircraft of the Maritime Safety Agency of Japan using a new type of airborne magnetometer system. The new type of airborne magnetometer system consists of a ring-core type three-component fluxgate magnetometer, an inertial sensing system, a fish-eye camera to measure the true north, an 8-bit microcomputer and a proton magnetometer. The VLF/OMEGA system is used to fix the position of the aircraft. Tracks extended to about 600 nautical miles off the coast of the Japanese islands in the Sea of Japan and the North-West Pacific Ocean. Average spacing between tracks was about 80 miles. The flights were carried out at an altitude of 9500 feet. From the survey results, magnetic charts of the seven geomagnetic elements for 1980 over the sea around Japan were compiled by the method of least squares using a polynomial. Also, the contour charts of secular variation in 1980 were compiled.

  13. Science AFP Japan ready to pay 895 million

    E-print Network

    Science ­ AFP Japan ready to pay 895 million dollars more to host ITER project: report Wed May 26 construction of the world's first prototype nuclear fusion reactor happens on home soil, it was reported. Government ministers, including Chief Cabinet Secretary Hiroyuki Hosoda and Science and Technology Minister

  14. English Loanwords in the 1990's in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakagawa, Akira

    A sociolinguistic analysis of English loan words in use in the 1990s in the discourse of young Japanese people is presented. The study drew data from a 1993 survey of undergraduate students at two Osaka (Japan) higher education institutions, one for men and one for women, which asked what loanwords students used and heard often. The report first…

  15. Testing Vocabulary Levels in Japan: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucky, John Paul

    2002-01-01

    Although calls for educational reform have been raised in many nations, just how accountable are schools, teachers, or students themselves in Japan for their own language teaching or learning? While the use of course evaluations has come into vogue, many colleges do not assess English majors' linguistic ability in a professional manner, for…

  16. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Feral Raccoons, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Ken; Murakami, Shin; Kiso, Maki; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; Sashika, Mariko; Ito, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Kazuo; Yokoyama, Mayumi; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Although raccoons (Procyon lotor) are susceptible to influenza viruses, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection in these animals has not been reported. We performed a serosurvey of apparently healthy feral raccoons in Japan and found specific antibodies to subtype H5N1 viruses. Feral raccoons may pose a risk to farms and public health. PMID:21470469

  17. Relationship between hot springs and geothermal fields in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hemendra R. Acharya

    1989-01-01

    Hot springs usually are situated in the volcanic belt of a convergent zone and are utilized as indicators of geothermal potential in an area. Characteristics of hot springs in Japan have been examined in order to understand the relationship between hot springs and geothermal fields. The characteristics examined include locations of hot springs, their temperature, density of distribution, flow rate,

  18. Oil and territory in Putin's relations with China and Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leszek Buszynski

    2006-01-01

    Russia's President Vladimir Putin has centralized decision making in Moscow and has reduced the role of domestic actors. He has demonstrated his own personal management of foreign policy in relation to China and Japan. He has used negotiations over oil and territory to place Russia in a more favourable position between them. In relation to oil, he has overruled the

  19. Interprofessional collaboration in a rehabilitation hospital in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariko Koyama

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe characteristics of interprofessional collaboration and make recommendations about how it could be enhanced. The study explored characteristics of collaboration, facilitators and barriers to collaboration and perceptions of collaboration among health care professionals in a rehabilitation hospital in Japan. Case study methodology and four methods of data collection were used: document review, observation

  20. Toward Reform of Local Bond System in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takero Doi; Tomoko Hayashi

    2005-01-01

    Outstanding of local government bonds in Japan has increased rapidly after the 1990s, and now reached the highest level. It is important to reduce and manage not only the outstanding amount of national government bonds but also local government bonds. We can find that the change of the management system of local government bonds in advanced countries because of decentralization

  1. Sexual Minority Issues and Human Rights Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofuji, Keiko

    2007-01-01

    The "Dowa" (Human Rights) education program has become an effective method of changing concept and situations of "Burakumin," a group of people that has been discriminated against in Japan. One educational strategy was to speak out their personal stories, which has become a trigger to some sexual minority teachers to come out, as well as others to…

  2. Tips on Studying Abroad at Tokyo Tech in Japan

    E-print Network

    Li, Mo

    Tips on Studying Abroad at Tokyo Tech in Japan Want to know what it's like to study abroad? Want to know what your peers think? Your fellow Georgia Tech students who have previously gone on this exchange to twenty hours studying at Tokyo Tech. Some classes especially the language classes require more time

  3. Revision of the genus Buchneria (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata) from Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Masato

    2012-01-01

    Buchneria dofleini (Buchner, 1924), type species of Buchneria Harmer, 1957,was first described from material collected in 1904-1905 from Sagami Bay, Japan, but the type specimens had not been reexamined since the original description. In this study, I examined specimens of Buchneria from historical collections and material recently collected near Akkeshi, Hokkaido, Japan. Three Buchneria species were detected, two from Sagami Bay that Ortmann (1890) had placed in Escharoides, and one from Akkeshi that Androsova (1958) had described as Porella variabilis. I concluded that Buchneria dofleini is a junior synonym of Escharoides teres Ortmann, 1890; selected a lectotype for Escharoides teres among Ortmann's syntypes; and established the new combination Buchneria teres (Ortmann, 1890), which becomes the type species of Buchneria. I also established the new combination Buchneria rhomboidalis (Ortmann, 1890) and selected a lectotype among Ortmann's syntypes. Porella variabilis is transferred to Buchneria establishing the new combination Buchneria variabilis (Androsova, 1958). Here the three new combinations are redescribed and a key to the Japanese Buchneria species is provided. Finally, I transferred Buchneria to Bryocryptellidae on the basis of ovicell and orifice morphology. Therefore, Buchneria now includes a total of three species; Buchneria sinuata Harmer, 1957, a species from Indonesia that has hitherto been placed in this genus, is almost certainly not congeneric with other Buchneria. As far as is now known, Buchneria is endemic to northern Japan and the northern Sea of Japan. PMID:23372410

  4. Telecommunications Policy in Japan: Lessons for the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Robert G.

    This paper reviews recent changes in Japanese telecommunications policy, assesses those changes, and evaluates the differences in the policy making and policy implementation processes in Japan and the United States. From this analysis, five lessons are derived for U.S. telecommunications policy: (1) the telecommunications sector is strategically…

  5. Sexuality Education in Junior High Schools in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, N.; Shinohara, H.; Tashiro, M.; Suzuki, S.; Hirose, H.; Ikeya, H.; Ushitora, K.; Komiya, A.; Watanabe, M.; Motegi, T.; Morioka, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to determine via responses to three questionnaire surveys how sexuality education programs are conducted at junior high schools in Japan. Study 1 examined the practice of sexuality education in schools, Study 2 investigated junior high school students' (age 12-13 and 14-15 years) knowledge of sexuality, and Study 3 examined…

  6. Organic carbon stock in forest soils in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhito Morisada; Kenji Ono; Hidesato Kanomata

    2004-01-01

    An accurate estimate of the organic carbon stock in the soil in a country allows the global estimate to be refined. This study estimated the organic carbon stock in forest soil in Japan using available data.Forest soil was classified into 15 soil units, and the extent of each soil unit was determined using digital soil and land use data. A

  7. Statistical Learning Theory Machine Learning Summer School, Kyoto, Japan

    E-print Network

    Rakhlin, Alexander "Sasha"

    Statistical Learning Theory Machine Learning Summer School, Kyoto, Japan Alexander (Sasha) Rakhlin University of Pennsylvania, The Wharton School Penn Research in Machine Learning (PRiML) August 27-28, 2012 1 the topic of a new article. 6 / 130 #12;Why Machine Learning? Impossible to hard-code all the knowledge

  8. A new species of Megoura (Hemiptera, Aphididae) from Japan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wonhoon; Kanbe, Takashi; Akimoto, Shin–ichi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Megoura, M. lathyricola sp. n., was collected from Lathyrus japonicus subsp. japonicus (Leguminosae) in seashore areas of northern and southern Japan. This species is described and illustrated, and a revised key to the identification of the world species of Megoura is presented. PMID:25061353

  9. Oligochaetes in Lake Towada, Japan, an oligotrophic caldera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akifumi Ohtaka

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-nine oligochaete taxa were recorded from the oligotrophic caldera Lake Towada, northern Japan. All the taxa were found at littoral bottoms shallower than 20 m, and 79% (23 taxa) occurred there exclusively. The profundal bottoms deeper than 40 m were inhabited by three tubificids (Rhyacodrilus komarovi, Tubifex tubifex and Tubificidae gen. sp.) and one lumbriculid (Lumbriculus variegatus). Among them, R.

  10. Magnetotelluric pulses generated by volcanic lightning at Sakurajima volcano, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koki Aizawa; Akihiko Yokoo; Wataru Kanda; Yasuo Ogawa; Masato Iguchi

    2010-01-01

    Continuous magnetotelluric (MT) measurements were conducted at Sakurajima volcano, Japan, revealing syn-eruption electric pulses (and sometimes accompanying geomagnetic pulses). Movies of the eruptions, recorded with timing provided by a GPS clock, show a large number of volcanic lightning flashes. Some MT pulses occurred simultaneously with lightning flashes. Pulses were observed more than 10 seconds after the onset of the eruption,

  11. On computer education in Japan Yoko ONO and Yumi ASAHI

    E-print Network

    Spagnolo, Filippo

    285 On computer education in Japan Yoko ONO and Yumi ASAHI Department of Management Science, Tokyo@ess.rikkyo.ne.jp Abstract: In recent years, the number of university classes using computers has increased with the widespread availability of computers. In Japanese universities as well, computer and intramural information

  12. Idealized English Teachers: The Implicit Influence of Race in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Damian J.; Ross, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    English as a Foreign Language (EFL) education within the context of Japan is firmly underpinned by sociohistorical constructions of racial difference and racial hierarchies that have considerable influence on contemporary student and institutional attitudes. Embracing these sociohistorical foundations, this article adopts experimental procedures…

  13. Revision of the genus Buchneria (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata) from Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Masato

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Buchneria dofleini (Buchner, 1924), type species of Buchneria Harmer, 1957,was first described from material collected in 1904–1905 from Sagami Bay, Japan, but the type specimens had not been reexamined since the original description. In this study, I examined specimens of Buchneria from historical collections and material recently collected near Akkeshi, Hokkaido, Japan. Three Buchneria species were detected, two from Sagami Bay that Ortmann (1890) had placed in Escharoides, and one from Akkeshi that Androsova (1958) had described as Porella variabilis. I concluded that Buchneria dofleini is a junior synonym of Escharoides teres Ortmann, 1890; selected a lectotype for Escharoides teres among Ortmann’s syntypes; and established the new combination Buchneria teres (Ortmann, 1890), which becomes the type species of Buchneria. I also established the new combination Buchneria rhomboidalis (Ortmann, 1890) and selected a lectotype among Ortmann’s syntypes. Porella variabilis is transferred to Buchneria establishing the new combination Buchneria variabilis (Androsova, 1958). Here the three new combinations are redescribed and a key to the Japanese Buchneria species is provided. Finally, I transferred Buchneria to Bryocryptellidae on the basis of ovicell and orifice morphology. Therefore, Buchneria now includes a total of three species; Buchneria sinuata Harmer, 1957, a species from Indonesia that has hitherto been placed in this genus, is almost certainly not congeneric with other Buchneria. As far as is now known, Buchneria is endemic to northern Japan and the northern Sea of Japan. PMID:23372410

  14. Cities and growth: Theory and evidence from France and Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Eaton; Zvi Eckstein

    1997-01-01

    The relative populations of the top 40 urban areas of France and Japan remained very constant during these countries' periods of industrialization and urbanization, and are described quite well by the ‘rank-size rule.’ Moreover, projection of their future distributions based on past growth indicates that their size-distributions in steady state will not differ essentially from what they have been historically.

  15. A pathological study of Minamata disease in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Takeuchi; N. Morikawa; H. Matsumoto; Y. Shiraishi

    1962-01-01

    The pathological features and experimental results of Minamata disease are summarized. This disease is an unusual neurological disorder resulting from eating a large amount of fish and shellfish of Minamata bay in Japan. Minamata disease is a toxic encephalopathy characterized by cerebellar atrophy of granule-cell type, preferential injury of both calcarine regions and degenerative disturbances, to a lesser degree, of

  16. Tune in Japan: Approaching Culture through Television. A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ASIA Society, New York, NY.

    This book is designed to accompany a videotape comprised of numerous television and video clips, many from actual Japanese broadcasts, to help teach about Japan. The video and book are divided into three thematic segments. Included in each part of the guide are a background essay on the featured theme, an annotated script that includes additional…

  17. Renewable Energy Opportunities at the Kanto Installations, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy E. Solana; Jacob A. Horner; Bryan J. Russo; Willy J. Gorrissen; Angela R. Kora; Mark R. Weimar; James R. Hand; Alice C. Orrell; Jennifer L. Williamson

    2010-01-01

    This document provides an overview of renewable resource development potential at the U.S. Army installations in the Kanto region in Japan, which includes Camp Zama, Yokohama North Dock, Sagamihara Family Housing Area (SFHA), Sagami General Depot, and Akasaka Press Center. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also on ground source heat pumps for

  18. Current Trends in Health Insurance Systems: OECD Countries vs. Japan.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Toshiyuki; Izawa, Masahiro; Okada, Yoshikazu

    2015-04-15

    Over the past few decades, the longest extension in life expectancy in the world has been observed in Japan. However, the sophistication of medical care and the expansion of the aging society, leads to continuous increase in health-care costs. Medical expenses as a part of gross domestic product (GDP) in Japan are exceeding the current Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) average, challenging the universally, equally provided low cost health care existing in the past. A universal health insurance system is becoming a common system currently in developed countries, currently a similar system is being introduced in the United States. Medical care in Japan is under a social insurance system, but the injection of public funds for medical costs becomes very expensive for the Japanese society. In spite of some urgently decided measures to cover the high cost of advanced medical treatment, declining birthrate and aging population and the tendency to reduce hospital and outpatients' visits numbers and shorten hospital stays, medical expenses of Japan continue to be increasing. PMID:25797778

  19. Tora no Maki II. Lessons for Teaching about Contemporary Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for the Social Studies, Washington, DC.

    "Tora no Maki" or "Scroll of the Tiger" is a teacher's guide designed to aid in teaching appropriate standards for social studies content and skills, using a contemporary focus on Japan's culture and economy. Topics of the 22 lessons include: group culture, school population, economics, geography, the Internet, family values, Japanese gardens,…

  20. JapanU.S. Symposium on International Standardization

    E-print Network

    , Information Technology Laboratory, NIST, "Smart Grid and Cyber Security" - Hirofumi Sakane, Research Center - Magdalena Navarro, Senior International Program Manager, OIAA, Director's Office, NIST, "NIST-AIST Research. Takatsuji (AIST, Japan) S1-1 Information Security - Annabelle Lee (via video), Computer Security Division

  1. Distribution of the incidence of anencephaly in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoko Imaizumi

    1976-01-01

    Distributions of the incidence of anencephaly in Japan were obtained using nationwide data on fetal and postnatal deaths of individuals with anencephaly during 1969–71. Higher incidences of anencephaly occurred in the urbanized and industrialized areas and lower values in the comparatively sparsely populated highlands. Population size and variance of incidence show a negative association. The distribution of the incidence seems

  2. Development Education and Japan. Development Education Paper No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muro, Osamu

    Unique economic, social, and cultural conditions explain why Japan, as one of the leading industrialized nations, has no organization which specializes in or is concerned with development education. Contributing factors are: (1) economic success is so recent (late 1960's) that people are involved internally enjoying hard won affluence; (2)…

  3. Science on a Sphere- Japan Earthquake and Tsunami Wave Heights

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    3 animations provide a visual of the March 11, 2011 Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. Predicted Tsunami wave heights from the Center for Tsunami Research, Real-Time Earthquake dataset of hourly images from Feb. 19, 2011 to March 24, 2011. A third video merges these two datasets.

  4. How Shifting Plates Caused the Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    New York Times

    This page features USGS visualizations including a slide show of the sudden movement of the Pacific tectonic plate under the North American plate caused a massive earthquake and a tsunami. It also contains maps of the magnitude of shaking and predicted tsunami wave heights from the March 11, 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan.

  5. Scientific performance of Japan's science and technology basic plans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masayuki Kondo

    2007-01-01

    The importance of science and technology (S&T) is well recognized in Japan. Thus, the Science and Technology Basic Law was enacted in 1995, and two S&T Basic Plans based on this law were made and executed from 1996 to 2005 with spending totaling 39 trillion yen (about 31 billion US dollars). A comprehensive review of the First and Second Plans

  6. Nutritional Risk Factors in Calcium Stone Disease in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masanori Iguchi; Kiyonori Kataoka; Kenjiro Kohri; Sunao Yachiku; Takashi Kurita

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the nutritional environment affecting calcium stone disease in Japan. The following results were obtained. Renal stone disease in the late 1970s increased by about three times than that of the 1940s. Fats and oils, animal protein and calcium intake increased remarkably after the second World War and milk plus milk products, meat

  7. Use of Text Messaging by Deaf Adolescents in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okuyama, Yoshiko; Iwai, Mariko

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses a survey study that drew on seventy-five high school students at a residential deaf school in Japan. The aim of the survey was to examine the various ways in which deaf adolescents use text messaging and to determine whether they use the technology differently from the hearing high school students surveyed in our previously…

  8. 20 Easy International Recipes 1. Yakisoba Chicken (Japan)

    E-print Network

    Roy, Subrata

    20 Easy International Recipes 1. Yakisoba Chicken (Japan) Ingredients 1/2 teaspoon sesame oil 1 breast halves - cut into 1 inch cubes 1/2 cup soy sauce 1 onion, sliced lengthwise into eighths 1 and drained 6 Servings Directions 1. In a large skillet combine sesame oil, canola oil and chili paste. Stir

  9. Approaching Multilingualism in Japan and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clankie, Shawn M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper considers how multilingualism is approached in both Japan and the United States by considering the position and roles of the government, schools, and public. There exists the perception in countries where monolingualism is considered the norm that bilingualism, and certainly multilingualism, are problematic. Multilingualism in a…

  10. SO2 ABATEMENT FOR COAL-FIRED BOILERS IN JAPAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a compilation of information on the current status of SO2 abatement technologies for coal-fired boilers in Japan, where strict ambient air quality standards for SO2 and NOx mandate the use of various air pollution control technologies. It focuses on flue gas desulfu...

  11. SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION AND NOX CONTROL IN JAPAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the travels of a four-member study team in Japan during March 1980 to assess NOx flue gas treatment (FGT) technology and related areas. Overall goals of the study were to obtain new information on current issues concerning application of FGT technology and to...

  12. [A Booklet of Teaching Activities about Japan.] Draft Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadd, Pauline, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to assist elementary teachers in developing global understanding among their students, this publication contains a collection of activities for teaching about Japan. Material is divided into sections on the Japanese people and way of life, arts, natural features, economy, and transportation and communication. The 25 lessons include…

  13. Restructuring the Social Security System in Japan: An Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Miyajima

    1997-01-01

    Japan's social security system has been highly evaluated by the standards of European and North American countries, so far as its economic or fiscal performance is concerned. However, we are forced today to restructure our social security system in response to a far more rapid aging of our population and a far deeper decline in our economic growth than has

  14. Deep scientific dives in the Japan and Kuril Trenches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Paul Cadet; Kazuo Kobayashi; Serge Lallemand; Laurent Jolivet; Jean Aubouin; Jacques Boulègue; Jacques Dubois; Hiroshi Hotta; Teruaki Ishii; Kenji Konishi; Nobuaki Niitsuma; Hideki Shimamura

    1987-01-01

    In the summer of 1985, during the French-Japanese Kaiko program, ten dives to depths of 6000 m in the Japan and Kuril Trenches were made in the newly launched submersible ``Nautile''. The sites of the dives were selected on the basis of surface geophysical surveys made during the preceding summer involving Seabeam mapping, geomagnetic and gravimetric measurements, and single-channel seismic

  15. Better off Jobless? Scarring Effects of Contingent Employment in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Wei-hsin

    2012-01-01

    Previous research fails to address whether contingent employment benefits individuals' careers more than the alternative they often face: being without a job. Using work history data from Japan, this study shows that accepting a contingent job delays individuals' transition to standard employment more than remaining jobless. Moreover, having a…

  16. URBAN LOGISTICS BY RAIL AND WATERWAYS IN FRANCE AND JAPAN

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 URBAN LOGISTICS BY RAIL AND WATERWAYS IN FRANCE AND JAPAN Main author: Diana Diziain, Greater-Est, France KEYWORDS: rail, waterways, intermodal logistics, urban freight, city logistics ABSTRACT for the "mile before last" have been implemented in recent years. In the global supply chain, rail, shipping

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyl pollution from shipbuilding in Nagasaki Bay, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Maruyama; M. Sahrul; S. Tanabe; R. Tatsukawa

    1983-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) pollution from shipbuilding in Nagasaki Bay, Japan, was determined by measurement of PCB concentrations in sediment, in water, and in biological samples. PCBs were detected in all samples; much higher concentrations, more than 10 micrograms\\/g, were found in three sediment samples located near the shipyard drains. In general, PCB concentrations in sediments and organisms tended to increase

  18. Nitrate levels in fresh vegetables and berries from central Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masayuki Morohashi; Nami Enya; Kazuyuki Suzuki; Takashi Asada; Kuniaki Kawata

    2010-01-01

    Nitrate concentrations in 326 recent vegetables and berries sold in Niigata, located in central Japan, were investigated. Maximum nitrate concentrations of 6600 mg kg were detected in samples of komatsuna (Brassica campestris var. perviridis) and mizuna (B. campestris L.). Mean concentrations ranged from 4 mg kg(blueberry) to 3500 mg kg (mizuna). Concentrations in spinach ranged from 10 to 6000 mg

  19. Environmental Education from a Kindergarten to a University student, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, I.

    2013-12-01

    Importance of the environmental and disaster prevention education on the basis of science is increasing since the disaster by the Tohoku-Earthquake and Tsunami at the 11th March 2011, in Japan. Effective enforcement of the environmental education from a kindergarten to a University student is very important educational tool for protecting future earth's environment. This research reports the present situation and the practice example of environmental education of Japan. Particularly, I report practice of the environmental education in a class of Shimane University. In addition, I explain the actual situation of the environmental education for student from kindergarten to junior high school in Shimane Prefecture. I point out that 'Consciousness (In)', 'knowledge (About)', and 'action (For)' are important three factors based on my practice of the environmental education (e.g. UNESCO-Finland, 1974). That is 'consciousness (In)' means education in (or through) the environment. 'knowledge (About)' means education about environment. 'Action (FOR)' means education for environment. According to the present condition of the environmental education of a Japan, I arranged and redefined such three factors. That is three factors consist of two axis that are 'me' and 'others'. And National exists between them. condition of the environmental education of a Japan, I arranged and redefined such three factors. That is three factors consist of two axis that are 'me' and 'others'. And National exists between them.

  20. Second Language Acquisition Research in Japan. JALT Applied Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Peter, Ed.; Sawyer, Mark, Ed.; Ross, Steven, Ed.

    This collection of papers includes the following: "Second Language Acquisition Research in Japan: Theoretical Issues" (Peter Robinson, Mark Sawyer, and Steven Ross); (2) "Focus on Form: Implicit and Explicit Form Focused Instruction Incorporated into a Communicative Task" (Hitoshi Muranoi); (3) "A Task that Works for Negotiation of Meaning"…