Sample records for photometric titration procedure

  1. A Full Automatic Device for Sampling Small Solution Volumes in Photometric Titration Procedure Based on Multicommuted Flow System

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Sivanildo S.; Vieira, Gláucia P.; Reis, Boaventura F.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, an automatic device to deliver titrant solution into a titration chamber with the ability to determine the dispensed volume of solution, with good precision independent of both elapsed time and flow rate, is proposed. A glass tube maintained at the vertical position was employed as a container for the titrant solution. Electronic devices were coupled to the glass tube in order to control its filling with titrant solution, as well as the stepwise solution delivering into the titration chamber. The detection of the titration end point was performed employing a photometer designed using a green LED (?=545 nm) and a phototransistor. The titration flow system comprised three-way solenoid valves, which were assembled to allow that the steps comprising the solution container loading and the titration run were carried out automatically. The device for the solution volume determination was designed employing an infrared LED (?=930 nm) and a photodiode. When solution volume delivered from proposed device was within the range of 5 to 105 ?l, a linear relationship (R = 0.999) between the delivered volumes and the generated potential difference was achieved. The usefulness of the proposed device was proved performing photometric titration of hydrochloric acid solution with a standardized sodium hydroxide solution and using phenolphthalein as an external indicator. The achieved results presented relative standard deviation of 1.5%. PMID:18317510

  2. Automatic photometric titrations of calcium and magnesium in carbonate rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shapiro, L.; Brannock, W.W.

    1955-01-01

    Rapid nonsubjective methods have been developed for the determination of calcium and magnesium in carbonate rocks. From a single solution of the sample, calcium is titrated directly, and magnesium is titrated after a rapid removal of R2O3 and precipitation of calcium as the tungstate. A concentrated and a dilute solution of disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate are used as titrants. The concentrated solution is added almost to the end point, then the weak solution is added in an automatic titrator to determine the end point precisely.

  3. Determination of polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride using photometric colloidal titration with crystal violet as a color indicator.

    PubMed

    Masadome, Takashi; Miyanishi, Takaaki; Watanabe, Keita; Ueda, Hiroshi; Hattori, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    A solution of polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB-HCl) was titrated with a standard solution of potassium poly(vinyl sulfate) (PVSK) using crystal violet (CV) as an photometric indicator cation. The end point was detected by a sharp absorbance change due to an abrupt decrease in the concentration of CV. A linear relationship between the concentration of PHMB-HCl and the end-point volume of the titrant existed in the concentration range from 2 to 10 × 10(-6) eq mol L(-1). Back-titration was based on adding an excess amount of PVSK to a sample solution containing CV, which was titrated with a standard solution of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC). The calibration curve of the PHMB-HCl concentration to the end point volume of the titrant was also linear in the concentration range from 2 to 8 × 10(-6) eq mol L(-1). Both photometric titrations were applied to the determination of PHMB-HCl in a few contact-lens detergents. Back-titration showed a clear end point, but direct titration showed an unclear end point. The results of the back-titration of PHMB-HCl were compared with the content registered in its labels. PMID:21828919

  4. [Photometric micro-titration model of DPPH radicals scavenging activity and its application].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yun-tao; Wei, Wei; Ye, Li-qing; Li, Xiao-fen; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Hong-jiao; Yang, Lu; Yu, Jiao-jiao; Cha, Jia-wei

    2015-02-01

    In the present paper, the stoichiometric ratio (R) for the interreaction of DPPH radicals with the antoxidant was employed as a evaluation index for DPPH radicals scavenging activity of antioxidants. This evaluation index was related only with the stoichiometric relationship between DPPH radicals and the antioxidant, not the relationship with the initial DPPH amount and the volume of sample, which could offer a solution for the problem of poor comparability of EC50 under different conditions. A novel photometric micro-titration method was proposed for the determination of the stoichiometric ratio (R) for the interreaction of DPPH radicals with the antoxidant. The titration equation was established based on the absorbance difference (deltaA) of DPPH radicals in the titration process and the added amount of antoxidant. The stoichiometric ratio (R) for the reaction of DPPH radicals with the addition amount of antoxidant was determined by the titration equation obtained, while, the DPPH median elimination concentration (EC50) of antoxidant can be calculated by the stoichiometric ratio (R). The above photometric micro-titration model was verified using rutin as DPPH radicals scavenger. As experiment results, the stoichiometric ratio (R) of DPPH radicals to rutin was determined to be in the range of 1.817-1.846. The calculated value of EC50 was 1.196 x 10(-3), 2.392 x 10(-3), 4.819 x 10(-3) and 7.292 x 10(-3) mg x mL(-1) for 1.12 x 10(-7), 2.24 x 10(-7), 4.48 x 10(-7) and 6.72 x 10(-7) mol of the additon amount of DPPH radicals, respectively. The proposed method has better precision and reliability with smaller amount of sample than conventional method. While, the obtained stoichiometric ratio value (R) of rutin was employed to calculate the rutin median elimination concentration for DPPH EC50) according to the conditions as reported in the literatures, and the calculated results were consistent with that reported in the literatures. PMID:25970919

  5. AFREM test procedures concerning chlorides in concrete: Extraction and titration methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Chaussadent; G. Arliguie

    1999-01-01

    The article presents a part of a study carried out by the AFREM “Durability-Chloride penetration in concrete” group. It deals\\u000a with the extraction of “free” and total chlorides from concrete and their titration. The goal is to define test procedures\\u000a that will take into account the chemical behaviour of concrete components, in particular bound chlorides in calcium chloroaluminate.\\u000a The basic

  6. Photometric parameters Photometric evolution

    E-print Network

    Kruit, Piet van der

    Outline Photometric parameters Photometric evolution Population synthesis STRUCTURE OF GALAXIES 4. Photometric parameters and evolution Piet van der Kruit Kapteyn Astronomical Institute University of Groningen and evolution #12;Outline Photometric parameters Photometric evolution Population synthesis Outline Photometric

  7. Photochemical Titration of Imine Chelons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Fitzgerald; John L. Beck

    1970-01-01

    A photochemical titration for determination of the analytically useful imine chelons 1,10-phenanthroline and 2,4,6-tripyridyl-s-triazine has been developed. The titrant, iron(II), is photolytically generated from iron(III)-citrate; citrate buffers the solution permitting rapid reaction of iron(II) with the chelons. A single mercury vapor arc serves as source for both photolysis and the photometric end point (546 nm); 1 to 40 micromoles of

  8. ACIDBASE TITRATION NUMERICAL SIMULATOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorentz JÄNTSCHI; Delia GLIGOR; Mihaela Ligia

    2003-01-01

    The analytical methods of qualitative and quantitative determination of ions in solutions are very flexible to automation. The present work is focus on modeling the process of titration and presents a numerical simulation of acid-base titration. A PHP program to compute all iterations in titration process that solves a 3 rd rank equation to find value of pH for was

  9. An Environmental Friendly Procedure for Photometric Determination of Hypochlorite in Tap Water Employing a Miniaturized Multicommuted Flow Analysis Setup

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Sivanildo S.; Reis, Boaventura F.

    2011-01-01

    A photometric procedure for the determination of ClO? in tap water employing a miniaturized multicommuted flow analysis setup and an LED-based photometer is described. The analytical procedure was implemented using leucocrystal violet (LCV; 4,4?,4??-methylidynetris (N,N-dimethylaniline), C25H31N3) as a chromogenic reagent. Solenoid micropumps employed for solutions propelling were assembled together with the photometer in order to compose a compact unit of small dimensions. After control variables optimization, the system was applied for the determination of ClO? in samples of tap water, and aiming accuracy assessment samples were also analyzed using an independent method. Applying the paired t-test between results obtained using both methods, no significant difference at the 95% confidence level was observed. Other useful features include low reagent consumption, 2.4??g of LCV per determination, a linear response ranging from 0.02 up to 2.0?mg?L?1??ClO?, a relative standard deviation of 1.0% (n = 11) for samples containing 0.2?mg?L?1??ClO?, a detection limit of 6.0??g?L?1??ClO?, a sampling throughput of 84 determinations per hour, and a waste generation of 432??L per determination. PMID:21747732

  10. Titrated energy cardioversion of patients on digitalis.

    PubMed Central

    Hagemeijer, F; Van Houwe, E

    1975-01-01

    Elective cardioversion with titrated energy was carried out under diazepam anaesthesia (38 procedures) in 26 patients on digitalis who presented with supraventricular or ventricular arrhythmias. Low energy shocks were given to establish the absence of latent digitalis intoxication, not unmasked by previous carotid sinus massage, and to restore sinus rhythm with the lowest possible energy discharge. In the absence of digitalis overdosage, titrated energy cardioversion restored sinus rhythm, at least temporarily, without dangerous ventricular arrhythmias. In one patient this precaution was neglected: a shock of 200 Ws provoked ventricular tachycardia. We present experimental and clinical evidence for the safety and effectiveness of titrated energy cardioversion in patients on digitalis. Images PMID:1225345

  11. Acid Rain Analysis by Standard Addition Titration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ophardt, Charles E.

    1985-01-01

    The standard addition titration is a precise and rapid method for the determination of the acidity in rain or snow samples. The method requires use of a standard buret, a pH meter, and Gran's plot to determine the equivalence point. Experimental procedures used and typical results obtained are presented. (JN)

  12. Spectrophotometric Titration of a Mixture of Calcium and Magnesium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Robert; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes a spectrophotometric titration experiment which uses a manual titration spectrophotometer and manually operated buret, rather than special instrumentation. Identifies the equipment, materials, and procedures needed for the completion of the experiment. Recommends the use of this experiment in introductory quantitative analysis…

  13. Titration Curves: Fact and Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, John

    1997-01-01

    Discusses ways in which datalogging equipment can enable titration curves to be measured accurately and how computing power can be used to predict the shape of curves. Highlights include sources of error, use of spreadsheets to generate titration curves, titration of a weak acid with a strong alkali, dibasic acids, weak acid and weak base, and…

  14. Luminescence titrations of polyelectrolytes 

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Edwin Rene

    1986-01-01

    of polyelectrolyte has been added to the lumophore solution. The equivalent weight (EW) of the polyelectrolyte (Le. & grams polymer per mole of charged sites) can be determined if the concentration of the polyelectrolyte (% w/v) is known or its concentration... are to be obtained. The binding constant, K, of the lumophore to the polyelectrolyte determines the shape of the titration curves. An appropiate cationic probe is identified. The placement of ionic groups within the molecular structure of a polymer produces...

  15. Comparison of salt titration and potentiometric titration methods for the determination of Zero Point of Charge (ZPC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsutoshi Sakurai; Yohichi Ohdate; Kazutake Kyuma

    1988-01-01

    The salt titration (ST) method was evaluated as a method to determine ZPC in comparison with the potentiometric titration (PT) method for 26 soils with variable charge clays, i.e., Oxisols and Ultisols from Thailand and Andisols from Japan. In addition to the determination of ST-pH0 as the zero point of charge, a calculation procedure (STPT method) was adopted here in

  16. Titrating-Delay Matching-to-Sample in the Pigeon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Brian D.; Vaidya, Manish; Branch, Marc N.

    2010-01-01

    The titrating-delay matching-to-sample (TDMTS) procedure offers researchers an additional behavioral task thought to capture some important features of remembering. In this procedure, the delay between sample offset and comparison onset adjusts as a function of the subject's performance. Specifically, correct matches increase the delay and…

  17. Iodine losses during Winkler titrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, George P.; Stalcup, Marvel C.; Stanley, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment designed to measure iodine loss during the aliquot version of the Winkler titration for dissolved oxygen in seawater shows that 0.01-0.03 ml l -1 equivalent oxygen is lost at typical oceanic concentrations in the method presently used. A standardization technique, which mimics that employed during the titration of seawater samples, compensates for this iodine loss throughout the oceanic range. This result, contradicting an earlier report by GREEN and CARRITT (1966, Analyst, 91, 207-208), demonstrates that the whole-bottle method of oxygen titration is not to be preferred over the aliquot method.

  18. [Accelerated titration design].

    PubMed

    Minami, H

    2000-09-01

    To reduce the number of patients treated at low and biologically inactive doses in phase I trials of anticancer agents, attempts to decrease the number of patients per dose level and to conduct a larger dose escalation have been made. Among them, accelerated titration designs were proposed and evaluated by simulation; designs 2 and 4 were reported to be acceptable (J Natl Cancer Inst 89: 1138-1147, 1997). Both designs 2 and 4 included only one patient per cohort during the initial accelerated phase. Dosage steps for the accelerated phase were defined using the modified Fibonacci method for design 2 and 100% escalation for design 4, respectively. The accelerated phase continued until one patient experienced dose-limiting toxicity or two patients experienced grade 2 toxicities. Dose escalation was conducted based on the information from the first course in design 2 and from the first three courses in design 4. In the simulation, both designs successfully reduced the total number of patients and the number of undertreated patients without increasing the number of overtreated patients. However, the safety of design 4 was assured as long as all patients received three courses of chemotherapy, which is unusual in phase I studies in Japan. Decision-making on dose escalation based on the information on toxicity in three courses might be cumbersome. Therefore, in Japan, design 2 would be recommended among the proposed accelerated designs. The performance of the design should be investigated by applying it to actual phase I studies and by evaluating the number of undertreated and overtreated patients. PMID:11016010

  19. High frequency titration of amines in nonaqueous solutions

    E-print Network

    Witmer, William Byron

    1958-01-01

    -PROPYLAMINE. . . . . . . 1$ II TITRATION OF DI-n-PROFYLAMINE . ~ ~ ~ o 15 III TITRATION OF TRIETHYLAMINE. . . ~ ~ . ~ 17 TITRATION OF ETHANOLAMINE 19 V TITRATION OF PYRIDINE. . . . . o. . . 21 VI TITRATION OF ANILINE. ~ ~ i ~ 2) VII VIII TITRATION OF m...-BROMOANILINE. . . . . . 25 SUMMARY OF RESULTS. LIST OF FIGURES Page TITRATI05 OF n-PROPYLAMINE, . . . . . 14 TITRATION OF DI-n-PROPYLAMINE . . . . 16 TITRATION OF TRIETHYLAMINE. TITRATION OF ETHANOLAMINE TITRATION OF PYRIDINE . ~ 18 20 22 TITRATION OF ANILINE...

  20. Development of a method for estimating an accurate equivalence point in nickel titration of cyanide ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshihiro Suzuki; Akiharu Hioki; Masayasu Kurahashi

    2003-01-01

    In a nickel titration of cyanide ions using murexide as indicator, an accurate equivalence point was determined by a non-linear least-squares curve-fitting for a titration curve. This method was developed to establish a standard solution for cyanide ions. In a curve-fitting procedure, a theoretical titration curve was calculated, assuming that nickel ion formed only a 1:4 Ni2+:CN? complex with cyanide

  1. Titrating-Delay Matching-to-Sample in the Pigeon

    PubMed Central

    Kangas, Brian D; Vaidya, Manish; Branch, Marc N

    2010-01-01

    The titrating-delay matching-to-sample (TDMTS) procedure offers researchers an additional behavioral task thought to capture some important features of remembering. In this procedure, the delay between sample offset and comparison onset adjusts as a function of the subject's performance. Specifically, correct matches increase the delay and incorrect matches decrease the delay, and steady-state titrated delays serve as the primary dependent measure. The present series of experiments investigated the effects of several procedural variables on performance in TDMTS procedures in an effort to elucidate better its features to allow for more precision in future use. Experiment 1 reports results from a parametric analysis of fixed-ratio response requirements on the sample key that indicated improved remembering in the form of higher daily titrated delay values as the requirement was increased. Experiment 2 investigated the extent to which the initial delay value in each session affected session-wide delay values. Results indicated that regardless of value of the initial delay, the subjects' performances adjusted the delay values in the direction of the known baseline delay-value levels. Experiment 3 manipulated the step size by which delay values were adjusted and the results indicated that larger step sizes increased both session-to-session variability and within-session range of titrated delay values, although the average values remained approximately the same. These results suggest that the TDMTS task serves as a promising procedure to study what many refer to as memory. PMID:21279163

  2. High-sensitivity titration microcalorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikov, A. A.; Grigoryev, S. V.; Chuikin, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    A differential titration microcalorimeter for studying intermolecular interactions in solutions has been designed. To increase the speed of the instrument, the dynamic correction method has been used. It has been shown that electrical calibration of the microcalorimeter is consistent with its chemical calibration. The use of the instrument for measuring the integral heats of dilution of 1-propanol has been demonstrated.

  3. Polyelectrolyte Titration: Theory and Experiment

    E-print Network

    I. Borukhov; D. Andelman; R. Borrega; M. Cloitre; L. Leibler; H. Orland

    2000-05-18

    Titration of methacrylic acid / ethyl-acrylate copolymers is studied experimentally and theoretically. At low salt concentrations, this polyacid exhibits a plateau in the titration curve below the neutralization point. The plateau has been often attributed to a first-order phase transition associated with polymer conformational changes. We argue that the specific shape of titration curves of hydrophobic polyelectrolytes is due to electrostatics and does not necessarily require a conformation change of the polyelectrolyte chains. We calculate the free energy at the mean-field level and its first-order (one loop) correction using a loop expansion. The latter is dominated by Debye-Huckel--like charge-charge correlations as well as by correlations between dissociation sites along the polymer chain. We show that the one-loop corrections to the free energy lead to titration curves that agree with experiments. In particular, the model explains the decrease of the pH at the plateau when the polymer concentration is increased or when salt is added to the solution.

  4. ChemTeacher Resource: Acid Base Titration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Southern California

    2011-01-01

    Acid-Base titration applet that plots pH changes as student adds acid or base. Gives choice of indicators. Compares plots for titration of traditional solution and a buffered solution. Can alter starting concentrations.

  5. Titration of chaos with added noise.

    PubMed

    Poon, C S; Barahona, M

    2001-06-19

    Deterministic chaos has been implicated in numerous natural and man-made complex phenomena ranging from quantum to astronomical scales and in disciplines as diverse as meteorology, physiology, ecology, and economics. However, the lack of a definitive test of chaos vs. random noise in experimental time series has led to considerable controversy in many fields. Here we propose a numerical titration procedure as a simple "litmus test" for highly sensitive, specific, and robust detection of chaos in short noisy data without the need for intensive surrogate data testing. We show that the controlled addition of white or colored noise to a signal with a preexisting noise floor results in a titration index that: (i) faithfully tracks the onset of deterministic chaos in all standard bifurcation routes to chaos; and (ii) gives a relative measure of chaos intensity. Such reliable detection and quantification of chaos under severe conditions of relatively low signal-to-noise ratio is of great interest, as it may open potential practical ways of identifying, forecasting, and controlling complex behaviors in a wide variety of physical, biomedical, and socioeconomic systems. PMID:11416195

  6. An elevated temperature titration calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.; Zanonato, P.L.; Choppin, G.R. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (USA). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-06-01

    A variable-temperature (313 K to 353 K) titration calorimeter of high sensitivity has been constructed. The purpose of the calorimeter is to study temperature effects on the enthalpies of complex formation and of other reactions of metal cations such as hydrolysis and precipitation. Operation of the calorimetric system, including that final calculation of the heat released during titration, is automatic via computer control. Calibration tests of the calorimeter using 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol gave -(46.0 {plus minus} 0.3) kJ mol{sup {minus}1} and -(46.2 {plus minus} 0.2) kJ mol{sup {minus}1} for the enthalpy of protonation, at 318 K and at 343 K, respectively. For titrations of 2-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol, enthalpy of protonation values of -(28.4 {plus minus} 0.3) kJ mol{sup {minus}1} and -(29.3 {plus minus} 0.2) kJ mol{sup {minus}1} were obtained at 318 K and at 343 K, respectively. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Heparin assay and protamine titration.

    PubMed

    Anido, G; Freeman, D J

    1981-10-01

    By utilizing the fact that heparin and protamine sulfate directly neutralize each other, it is possible to quickly detect excess levels of protamine (anti-heparin activity) by back-titrating a plasma specimen with predetermined amounts of heparin. The approach suggested allows for the simultaneous definition of low levels of heparin, and incorporates an equally rapid and accurate measurement of high heparin concentrations. The methodology presented employs heparin assays using the "Protopath" technic. The concept appears to be applicable to other test systems currently designed to monitor heparin activity. PMID:7293964

  8. Evaluation of the 5 and 8 pH point titration methods for monitoring anaerobic digesters treating solid waste.

    PubMed

    Vannecke, T P W; Lampens, D R A; Ekama, G A; Volcke, E I P

    2015-04-01

    Simple titration methods certainly deserve consideration for on-site routine monitoring of volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration and alkalinity during anaerobic digestion (AD), because of their simplicity, speed and cost-effectiveness. In this study, the 5 and 8 pH point titration methods for measuring the VFA concentration and carbonate system alkalinity (H2CO3*-alkalinity) were assessed and compared. For this purpose, synthetic solutions with known H2CO3*-alkalinity and VFA concentration as well as samples from anaerobic digesters treating three different kind of solid wastes were analysed. The results of these two related titration methods were verified with photometric and high-pressure liquid chromatography measurements. It was shown that photometric measurements lead to overestimations of the VFA concentration in the case of coloured samples. In contrast, the 5 pH point titration method provides an accurate estimation of the VFA concentration, clearly corresponding with the true value. Concerning the H2CO3*-alkalinity, the most accurate and precise estimations, showing very similar results for repeated measurements, were obtained using the 8 pH point titration. Overall, it was concluded that the 5 pH point titration method is the preferred method for the practical monitoring of AD of solid wastes due to its robustness, cost efficiency and user-friendliness. PMID:25224566

  9. Field Test for Titratable Acidity in Milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. O. Jaynes; M. G. Pearsall; H. C. Holt

    1981-01-01

    A field test was developed to enable milk haulers to assess titratable acidity at pickup. The test involved adding a volume of milk to a set volume of standard base in calibrated screwcapped test tubes. Judgment was based on final color after adding phenolphthalein. No color change indicated titratable acidity above a chosen cutoff point, and the typical pink color

  10. Carboxylic Acid Unknowns and Titration 90 CARBOXYLIC ACID UNKNOWN

    E-print Network

    Jasperse, Craig P.

    Carboxylic Acid Unknowns and Titration 90 CARBOXYLIC ACID UNKNOWN A. Solubility Tests: Water, Na the formula weight. #12;Carboxylic Acid Unknowns and Titration 91 Note: Do your titration once, and check

  11. Quantitative determination of wine highly volatile sulfur compounds by using automated headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric detection. Critical study and optimization of a new procedure.

    PubMed

    López, Ricardo; Lapeña, Ana Cristina; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2007-03-01

    The quantitative determination of wine volatile sulfur compounds by automated headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with a carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (CAR-PDMS) fiber and subsequent gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric detection (GC-PFPD) has been evaluated. The direct extraction of the sulfur compounds in 5 ml of wine has been found to suffer from matrix effects and short linear ranges, problems which could not be solved by the use of different internal standards or by multiple headspace SPME. These problems were attributed to saturation of the fiber and to competitive effects between analytes, internal standards and other wine volatiles. Another problem was the oxidation of analytes during the procedure. The reduction in sample volume by a factor 50 (0.1 ml diluted with water or brine) brought about a reduction in the amount of sulfur compounds taken in the fiber by a factor just 3.3. Consequently, a new procedure has been proposed. In a sealed vial containing 4.9 ml of saturated NaCl brine, the air is thoroughly displaced with nitrogen, and the wine (0.1 ml) and the internal standards (0.02 ml) are further introduced with a syringe through the vial septum. This sample is extracted at 35 degrees C for 20 min. This procedure makes a satisfactory determination possible of hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, ethanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, diethyl sulfide and dimethyl disulfide. The linear dynamic ranges cover the normal ranges of occurrence of these analytes in wine with typical r2 between 0.9823 and 0.9980. Reproducibility in real samples ranges from 10 to 20% and repeatability is better than 10% in most cases. The method accuracy is satisfactory, with errors below 20% for hydrogen sulfide and mostly below 10% for the other compounds. The proposed method has been applied to the analysis of 34 Spanish wines. PMID:17207804

  12. Titrating and evaluating multi-drug regimens within subjects.

    PubMed

    Shih, Margaret; Gennings, Chris; Chinchilli, Vernon M; Carter, Walter H

    2003-07-30

    The dosing of combination therapies is commonly undertaken empirically by practising physicians, and a coherent algorithm to approach the problem of combination dosing is currently lacking. Current methods of evaluating multiple drug combinations in clinical trials fail to provide information regarding the location of more effective doses when the combination is not found to differ from the standard, even though the absence of a difference does not necessarily mean the new combination is ineffective. Moreover, in studies where the new combination is found more effective, often a large proportion of the study participants obtain no benefit from the trial. Even with early stopping rules, the time these subjects spend on inferior treatments can have lasting detrimental effects, leading to problems with patient enrolment and adherence to study protocol. This paper describes an evolutionary operation (EVOP) direct-search procedure to titrate combination doses within individual patients. The Nelder-Mead simplex direct-search algorithm is used to titrate combinations of drugs within individual subjects. Desirability functions are utilized to define the main response of interest and additional responses or constraints. Statistical methodology for determining whether the titrated treatment combination has resulted in an improvement in subject response and for evaluating for therapeutic synergism is developed. Inferences can then be made about the efficacy of the combination or about the individual drugs that comprise the combination. The advantages of this approach include affording every patient the potential to benefit from the combination under study and permitting the consideration of multiple endpoints simultaneously. PMID:12854092

  13. Potentiometric titrations using pencil and graphite sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Selig, W.S.

    1984-01-01

    The cost of various commercial indicating electrodes ranges from about $40 for pH electrodes to as much as $355 for a potassium ion-selective electrode. This cost can be reduced to less than $1.50, and in some cases to mere pennies by making sensors from graphite rods and pencils for use in potentiometric titrations. The same sensor can be used for many types of these titrations (acid/base, compleximetric, precipitation, and redox). 8 references, 2 tables.

  14. The ALHAMBRA Photometric System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio Villegas, T.; Alfaro, E. J.; Cabrera-Caño, J.; Moles, M.; Benítez, N.; Perea, J.; del Olmo, A.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; Husillos, C.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Broadhurst, T.; Castander, F. J.; Cepa, J.; Cerviño, M.; González Delgado, R. M.; Infante, L.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Martínez, V. J.; Prada, F.; Quintana, J. M.; Sánchez, S. F.

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents the characterization of the optical range of the ALHAMBRA photometric system, a 20 contiguous, equal-width, medium-band CCD system with wavelength coverage from 3500 Å to 9700 Å. The photometric description of the system is done by presenting the full response curve as a product of the filters, CCD, and atmospheric transmission curves, and using some first- and second-order moments of this response function. We also introduce the set of standard stars that defines the system, formed by 31 classic spectrophotometric standard stars which have been used in the calibration of other known photometric systems, and 288 stars, flux calibrated homogeneously, from the Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL). Based on the NGSL, we determine the transformation equations between Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz photometry and the ALHAMBRA photometric system, in order to establish some relations between both systems. Finally, we develop and discuss a strategy to calculate the photometric zero points of the different pointings in the ALHAMBRA project.

  15. Modeling potentiometric titration behavior of glauconite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Weiping; Smith, Edward H.

    1996-09-01

    Potentiometric titration behavior and the effects of dissolution on the titration experiment of a complex natural clay mineral, glauconite, were investigated and interpreted according to surface complexation theory. Considerable dissolution was detected in the time frame of the titration experiments, with the amount of individual cations released from glauconite a function of solution variables and dissolution kinetics. Dissolution effects can be accounted for in model simulations of titration behavior by considering hydrolysis of these cations. Proton surface charge can be calculated by subtracting supernatant titration curves from those of glauconite suspension. Surface complexation models were used to describe titration data. The nonelectrostatic model (NEM) and constant capacitance model (CCM) were implemented using single-site, single-site with dissolution correction, and multi-site with dissolution correction approaches. CCM typically produced better fits of experimental data than NEM based on a statistical fitting parameter. In general, model descriptions are good for background electrolyte concentration ? 0.01 M. In most instances, the correction for dissolution effects yielded a modest improvement in model simulation of experimental data over that obtained by a simple single-site model, but complexity of the model calculations increases greatly when the numerous additional chemical reactions are considered. Incorporation of ion exchange interactions produced no substantive improvement over the other approaches. Consistent with these results, speciation calculations indicate that the > XOH group dominates over other surface species in the pH range of interest, and surface protonation-deprotonation are the most influential reactions with respect to the surface chemistry of the mineral.

  16. Coulometric Titration of Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) with Spectrophotometric Endpoint Detection: An Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kathryn R.; Young, Vaneica Y.; Killian, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) is commonly used as an anticoagulant in blood-collection procedures. In this experiment for the instrumental analysis laboratory, students determine the quantity of EDTA in commercial collection tubes by coulometric titration with electrolytically generated Cu[superscript 2+]. The endpoint is detected…

  17. 40 CFR 60.648 - Optional procedure for measuring hydrogen sulfide in acid gas-Tutwiler Procedure. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Optional procedure for measuring hydrogen sulfide in acid gas-Tutwiler Procedure...648 Optional procedure for measuring hydrogen sulfide in acid gas—Tutwiler Procedure...principle, this method consists of titrating hydrogen sulfide in a gas sample directly...

  18. Virtual Titrator: A Student-Oriented Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, David; Johnson, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes a titrator system, constructed from a computer-interfaced pH-meter, that was designed to increase student involvement in the process. Combines automatic data collection with real-time graphical display and interactive controls to focus attention on the process rather than on bits of data. Improves understanding of concepts and…

  19. A Monte Carlo Study of Titrating Polyelectrolytes

    E-print Network

    Peterson, Carsten

    A Monte Carlo Study of Titrating Polyelectrolytes Magnus Ullner y and Bo J¨onsson z Physical, Sweden Journal of Chemical Physics 104, 3048­3057 (1996) Monte Carlo simulations have been used to study of the polymer more difficult and biases the conformations towards more extended structures. In the Monte Carlo

  20. A Monte Carlo Study of Titrating Polyelectrolytes

    E-print Network

    Peterson, Carsten

    A Monte Carlo Study of Titrating Polyelectrolytes Magnus Ullnery and Bo Jonssonz Physical Chemistry Journal of Chemical Physics 104, 3048-3057 (1996) Monte Carlo simulations have been used to study three di the conformations towards more extended structures. In the Monte Carlo simulations presented here, focus

  1. DETERMINATION OF ANTHRANILIC ACID BY POTENTIOMETRIC TITRATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana Moja; I. Badea

    Cerium (IV) sulfate solution in sulfuric acid was used for the determination of o-aminobenzoic acid in sulfuric acid solution by potentiometric titration. The optima working conditions were set up for the quantitative determination of o-aminobenzoic acid. The method is simple, rapid and reliable. The effects of the acidity of the reaction medium and of the titrant concentration have been investigated.

  2. Consensus photometric stereo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoaki Higo; Yasuyuki Matsushita; Katsushi Ikeuchi

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a photometric stereo method that works with a wide range of surface reflectances. Unlike previous approaches that assume simple parametric models such as Lambertian reflectance, the only assumption that we make is that the reflectance has three properties; monotonicity, visibility, and isotropy with respect to the cosine of light direction and surface orientation. In fact, these properties

  3. A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT METHODS: A CANDELS INVESTIGATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlen, Tomas; Ferguson, Henry C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Mobasher, Bahram [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Faber, Sandra M.; Barro, Guillermo; Guo, Yicheng [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Finkelstein, Steven L. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Finlator, Kristian [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Fontana, Adriano [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040, Monteporzio (Italy); Gruetzbauch, Ruth [Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Observatorio Astronomico de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-018 Lisboa (Portugal); Johnson, Seth [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Pforr, Janine; Dickinson, Mark E. [NOAO, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Salvato, Mara; Wuyts, Stijn [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Wiklind, Tommy [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Acquaviva, Viviana [Physics Department, CUNY NYC College of Technology, 300 Jay Street, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Huang, Jiasheng [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Huang, Kuang-Han [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Newman, Jeffrey A., E-mail: dahlen@stsci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); and others

    2013-10-01

    We present results from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) photometric redshift methods investigation. In this investigation, the results from 11 participants, each using a different combination of photometric redshift code, template spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and priors, are used to examine the properties of photometric redshifts applied to deep fields with broadband multi-wavelength coverage. The photometry used includes U-band through mid-infrared filters and was derived using the TFIT method. Comparing the results, we find that there is no particular code or set of template SEDs that results in significantly better photometric redshifts compared to others. However, we find that codes producing the lowest scatter and outlier fraction utilize a training sample to optimize photometric redshifts by adding zero-point offsets, template adjusting, or adding extra smoothing errors. These results therefore stress the importance of the training procedure. We find a strong dependence of the photometric redshift accuracy on the signal-to-noise ratio of the photometry. On the other hand, we find a weak dependence of the photometric redshift scatter with redshift and galaxy color. We find that most photometric redshift codes quote redshift errors (e.g., 68% confidence intervals) that are too small compared to that expected from the spectroscopic control sample. We find that all codes show a statistically significant bias in the photometric redshifts. However, the bias is in all cases smaller than the scatter; the latter therefore dominates the errors. Finally, we find that combining results from multiple codes significantly decreases the photometric redshift scatter and outlier fraction. We discuss different ways of combining data to produce accurate photometric redshifts and error estimates.

  4. An Olfactory Indicator for Acid-Base Titrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flair, Mark N.; Setzer, William N.

    1990-01-01

    The use of an olfactory acid-base indicator in titrations for visually impaired students is discussed. Potential olfactory indicators include eugenol, thymol, vanillin, and thiophenol. Titrations performed with each indicator with eugenol proved to be successful. (KR)

  5. Determination of carbonate carbon in geological materials by coulometric titration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engleman, E.E.; Jackson, L.L.; Norton, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    A coulometric titration is used for the determination of carbonate carbon in geological materials. Carbon dioxide is evolved from the sample by the addition of 2 M perchloric acid, with heating, and is determined by automated coulometric titration. The coulometric titration showed improved speed and precision with comparable accuracy to gravimetric and gasometric techniques. ?? 1985.

  6. Potentiometric titrations using pencil and graphite sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter S. Selig

    1984-01-01

    The cost of various commercial indicating electrodes ranges from about $40 for pH electrodes to as much as $355 for a potassium ion-selective electrode. This cost can be reduced to less than $1.50, and in some cases to mere pennies by making sensors from graphite rods and pencils for use in potentiometric titrations. The same sensor can be used for

  7. Combining automatic titration of total iron and sulfur in thermal battery materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, N. A.

    1986-05-01

    Optimal thermal battery performance requires careful control of the iron disulfide content in the catholyte mixture. Previously, the iron and sulfur content of battery materials was determined separately, each requiring a lengthy sample preparation and clean up procedure. A new method has been developed which allows both determinations to be made on the same sample following a simple dissolution procedure. Sample preparation requires oxidation and dissolution with nitric acid followed by dissolution in hydrochloric acid. Iron and sulfur are then determined on sample aliquots by automatic titration. The implementation of this combined procedure for the determination of iron and sulfur by automatic titration has resulted in a substantial reduction in the analysis time. Since sample aliquots are used for each determination, the need to repeat a sample for analysis is rare, improving both the analytical efficiency and sample throughput. Results obtained for sulfur show an improved precision.

  8. Soil water content by Karl Fischer titration

    SciTech Connect

    Prunty, L.; Zellis, M.K.; Bell, J.S. [North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND (United States). Dept. of Soil Science

    1997-12-31

    Specific analytical determination of water content is often desirable in contaminated soils. Karl Fischer (KF) titration is useful for this purpose, since it consumes only H{sub 2}O, even in the presence of other volatile substances. Although widely used for water content determination in industrial and food products, KF has been virtually ignored in soil and environmental science. Oven drying (OD), conversely, is considered the standard method of soil water determination, but is an indiscriminate determiner of all volatiles. The authors examined KF titration for soil water content determination. Two soil types were mixed with varying amounts of water and octane or toluene. The prepared samples containing water only, water and octane, and water and toluene were analyzed for volatile/moisture content using OD/KF analysis. Soil moisture values determined by the calibrated KF method (w{sub c}) compared favorably to those determined by OD (w{sub 0}) in terms of regression slope, intercept, correlation coefficient, and Student`s t. Regression slopes ranged from 0.980 to 1.009 while intercepts ranged from {minus}0.6 to 7.8 g kg{sup {minus}1}. Plots of the data show essentially a 1:1 correspondence of w{sub c} to w{sub o}.

  9. Potentiometric titration of chloride in plant tissue extracts using the chloride ion electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. LaCroix; D. R. Keeney; L. M. Walsh

    1970-01-01

    Use of the chloride specific ion electrode to determine chloride in plants was evaluted. Direct potentiometric determination of chloride by the electrode resulted in unreproducible and extremely high chloride values. However, use of this electrode to indicate the end point in titration of the tissue?extract mixture with AgNO3 gave results nearly identical to those obtained by the Mohr procedure. The

  10. Photometric Redshift Calibration for LSST

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Schmidt; J. Newman; J. Tyson; A. Connolly; D. Wittman; D. Matthews; V. Margoniner; A. Choi; I. Udaltsova

    2009-01-01

    The proper calibration of photometric redshifts is of the utmost importance for the LSST, as many cosmological measurements depend critically on knowledge of the underlying redshift distribution. We examine how the use of different photometric redshift estimators affect the prediction of the photoz distribution. The great depth of LSST imaging will enable measurements of galaxies over a significant portion of

  11. Automated titration method for use on blended asphalts

    DOEpatents

    Pauli, Adam T. (Cheyenne, WY); Robertson, Raymond E. (Laramie, WY); Branthaver, Jan F. (Chatham, IL); Schabron, John F. (Laramie, WY)

    2012-08-07

    A system for determining parameters and compatibility of a substance such as an asphalt or other petroleum substance uses titration to highly accurately determine one or more flocculation occurrences and is especially applicable to the determination or use of Heithaus parameters and optimal mixing of various asphalt stocks. In a preferred embodiment, automated titration in an oxygen gas exclusive system and further using spectrophotometric analysis (2-8) of solution turbidity is presented. A reversible titration technique enabling in-situ titration measurement of various solution concentrations is also presented.

  12. The acid-base titration of montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourg, I. C.; Sposito, G.; Bourg, A. C.

    2003-12-01

    Proton binding to clay minerals plays an important role in the chemical reactivity of soils (e.g., acidification, retention of nutrients or pollutants). If should also affect the performance of clay barriers for waste disposal. The surface acidity of clay minerals is commonly modelled empirically by assuming generic amphoteric surface sites (>SOH) on a flat surface, with fitted site densities and acidity constant. Current advances in experimental methods (notably spectroscopy) are rapidly improving our understanding of the structure and reactivity of the surface of clay minerals (arrangement of the particles, nature of the reactive surface sites, adsorption mechanisms). These developments are motivated by the difficulty of modelling the surface chemistry of mineral surfaces at the macro-scale (e.g., adsorption or titration) without a detailed (molecular-scale) picture of the mechanisms, and should be progressively incorporated into surface complexation models. In this view, we have combined recent estimates of montmorillonite surface properties (surface site density and structure, edge surface area, surface electrostatic potential) with surface site acidities obtained from the titration of alpha-Al2O3 and SiO2, and a novel method of accounting for the unknown initial net proton surface charge of the solid. The model predictions were compared to experimental titrations of SWy-1 montmorillonite and purified MX-80 bentonite in 0.1-0.5 mol/L NaClO4 and 0.005-0.5 mol/L NaNO3 background electrolytes, respectively. Most of the experimental data were appropriately described by the model after we adjusted a single parameter (silanol sites on the surface of montmorillonite were made to be slightly more acidic than those of silica). At low ionic strength and acidic pH the model underestimated the buffering capacity of the montmorillonite, perhaps due to clay swelling or to the interlayer adsorption of dissolved aluminum. The agreement between our model and the experimental data illustrates the complementarity of molecular and macro-scale descriptions of the clay reactivity.

  13. Isothermal titration calorimetry in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Ward, W H; Holdgate, G A

    2001-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) follows the heat change when a test compound binds to a target protein. It allows precise measurement of affinity. The method is direct, making interpretation facile, because there is no requirement for competing molecules. Titration in the presence of other ligands rapidly provides information on the mechanism of action of the test compound, identifying the intermolecular complexes that are relevant for structure-based design. Calorimetry allows measurement of stoichiometry and so evaluation of the proportion of the sample that is functional. ITC can characterize protein fragments and catalytically inactive mutant enzymes. It is the only technique which directly measures the enthalpy of binding (delta H degree). Interpretation of delta H degree and its temperature dependence (delta Cp) is usually qualitative, not quantitative. This is because of complicated contributions from linked equilibria and a single change in structure giving modification of several physicochemical properties. Measured delta H degree values allow characterization of proton movement linked to the association of protein and ligand, giving information on the ionization of groups involved in binding. Biochemical systems characteristically exhibit enthalpy-entropy compensation where increased bonding is offset by an entropic penalty, reducing the magnitude of change in affinity. This also causes a lack of correlation between the free energy of binding (delta G degree) and delta H degree. When characterizing structure-activity relationships (SAR), most groups involved in binding can be detected as contributing to delta H degree, but not to affinity. Large enthalpy changes may reflect a modified binding mode, or protein conformation changes. Thus, delta H degree values may highlight a potential discontinuity in SAR, so that experimental structural data are likely to be particularly valuable in molecular design. PMID:11774798

  14. 3-D Surface Visualization of pH Titration "Topos": Equivalence Point Cliffs, Dilution Ramps, and Buffer Plateaus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Garon C.; Hossain, Md Mainul; MacCarthy, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    3-D topographic surfaces ("topos") can be generated to visualize how pH behaves during titration and dilution procedures. The surfaces are constructed by plotting computed pH values above a composition grid with volume of base added in one direction and overall system dilution on the other. What emerge are surface features that…

  15. Microscale pH Titrations Using an Automatic Pipet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Edward B.; Kortz, Carrie L.; Taylor, Max A.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a microscale pH titration technique that utilizes an automatic pipet. A small aliquot (1-5 mL) of the analyte solution is titrated with repeated additions of titrant, and the pH is determined after each delivery. The equivalence point is determined graphically by either the second derivative method or a Gran plot. The pipet can be…

  16. Students' integration of multiple representations in a titration experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunze, Nicole M.

    A complete understanding of a chemical concept is dependent upon a student's ability to understand the microscopic or particulate nature of the phenomenon and integrate the microscopic, symbolic, and macroscopic representations of the phenomenon. Acid-base chemistry is a general chemistry topic requiring students to understand the topics of chemical reactions, solutions, and equilibrium presented earlier in the course. In this study, twenty-five student volunteers from a second semester general chemistry course completed two interviews. The first interview was completed prior to any classroom instruction on acids and bases. The second interview took place after classroom instruction, a prelab activity consisting of a titration calculation worksheet, a titration computer simulation, or a microscopic level animation of a titration, and two microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) titration experiments. During the interviews, participants were asked to define and describe acid-base concepts and in the second interview they also drew the microscopic representations of four stages in an acid-base titration. An analysis of the data showed that participants had integrated the three representations of an acid-base titration to varying degrees. While some participants showed complete understanding of acids, bases, titrations, and solution chemistry, other participants showed several alternative conceptions concerning strong acid and base dissociation, the formation of titration products, and the dissociation of soluble salts. Before instruction, participants' definitions of acid, base, and pH were brief and consisted of descriptive terms. After instruction, the definitions were more scientific and reflected the definitions presented during classroom instruction.

  17. Characterization of Petroleum Sulfonates by a Nonaqueous Titration Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim Voss; Clark Bricker; M. J. Michnick; G. P. Willhite

    1981-01-01

    A new method is described for the determination of the equivalent weight for petroleum sulfonates. The method is based on the direct acidimetric titration of the sulfonate in acetic acid\\/acetic anhydride solvent using a titrant of perchloric acid in dioxane. From the titration, the moles of perchloric acid required to react with the sulfonate is measured. The equivalent weight is

  18. Ionization properties of titratable groups in ribonuclease T 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Assen Koumanov; Normann Spitzner; Heinz Rüterjans; Andrey Karshikoff

    2001-01-01

    The experimental NMR data for the individual titratable groups in ribonuclease T1 presented in the preceding paper were analysed by means of a continuum dielectric model. The role of two factors, the alteration of hydrogen loci on the ionizable groups and the conformational flexibility, were analysed. It was suggested that the position of the titratable hydrogen is essential mainly for

  19. Astronomical Research Institute Photometric Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, Tyler R.; Sampson, Ryan; Holmes, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The Astronomical Research Institute (ARI) conducts astrometric and photometric studies of asteroids with a concentration on near-Earth objects (NEOs). A 0.76-m autoscope was used for photometric studies of seven asteroids of which two were main-belt targets and five were NEOs, including one potentially hazardous asteroid (PHA). These objects are: 3122 Florence, 3960 Chaliubieju, 5143 Heracles, (6455) 1992 HE, (36284) 2000 DM8, (62128) 2000 SO1, and 2010 LF86.

  20. Titration Microcalorimetry Study: Interaction of Drug and Ionic Microgel System

    E-print Network

    Tian, Y.

    Doxorubicin (DOX) and Pluronic-PAA interaction was investigated using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). DOX/polymer interaction is governed primarily by electrostatic interaction. The uptake of DOX results in the ...

  1. Microscope Titration and Extraction of DNA from Liver.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Lois T.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes a simple and inexpensive, one-period activity to extract DNA to make the study of DNA less abstract. A microscope titration is used to determine when cells are ready for DNA extraction. (PR)

  2. Self-Calibrating Photometric Stereo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boxin Shi; Yasuyuki Matsushita; Yichen Wei; Chao Xu; Ping Tan

    2010-01-01

    We present a self-calibrating photometric stereo method. From a set of images taken from a fixed viewpoint under different and unknown lighting conditions, our method au- tomatically determines a radiometric response function and resolves the generalized bas-relief ambiguity for estimating accurate surface normals and albedos. We show that color and intensity profiles, which are obtained from registered pixels across images,

  3. Lighting affects appearance Photometric Stereo: using this

    E-print Network

    Jacobs, David

    for environment map. Can be measured with calibration object. #12;6 Photometric stereo Given reflectance map: i1 Lighting affects appearance #12;2 Photometric Stereo: using this variability to reconstruct Shape useful in shape-from-shading and other photometric stereo. Bas-relief Ambiguity #12;9 Shadows Attached

  4. Potentiometric titration and equivalent weight of humic acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pommer, A.M.; Breger, I.A.

    1960-01-01

    The "acid nature" of humic acid has been controversial for many years. Some investigators claim that humic acid is a true weak acid, while others feel that its behaviour during potentiometric titration can be accounted for by colloidal adsorption of hydrogen ions. The acid character of humic acid has been reinvestigated using newly-derived relationships for the titration of weak acids with strong base. Re-interpreting the potentiometric titration data published by Thiele and Kettner in 1953, it was found that Merck humic acid behaves as a weak polyelectrolytic acid having an equivalent weight of 150, a pKa of 6.8 to 7.0, and a titration exponent of about 4.8. Interdretation of similar data pertaining to the titration of phenol-formaldehyde and pyrogallol-formaldehyde resins, considered to be analogs for humic acid by Thiele and Kettner, leads to the conclusion that it is not possible to differentiate between adsorption and acid-base reaction for these substances. ?? 1960.

  5. Toward Millimagnitude Photometric Calibration (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dose, E.

    2014-12-01

    (Abstract only) Asteroid roation, exoplanet transits, and similar measurements will increasingly call for photometric precisions better than about 10 millimagnitudes, often between nights and ideally between distant observers. The present work applies detailed spectral simulations to test popular photometric calibration practices, and to test new extensions of these practices. Using 107 synthetic spectra of stars of diverse colors, detailed atmospheric transmission spectra computed by solar-energy software, realistic spectra of popular astronomy gear, and the option of three sources of noise added at realistic millimagnitude levels, we find that certain adjustments to current calibration practices can help remove small systematic errors, especially for imperfect filters, high airmasses, and possibly passing thin cirrus clouds.

  6. Photometrics at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    McWilliams, J.Y.; Hill, R.A.; Hughes, R.L. (eds.)

    1990-07-01

    This report highlights Sandia National Laboratories' work in the following areas: photometrics and optical development; still and time-lapse photography; real-time motion photography; high-speed photography; image-motion photography; schlieren photography; ultra-high-speed photography; electronic imaging; shuttered video and high-speed video; infrared imaging radiometry; exoatmospheric photography and videography; microdensitometry and image analysis; and optical system design and development.

  7. Photometric Microlens Parallaxes with SIM

    E-print Network

    Andrew Gould; Samir Salim

    1999-02-08

    Astrometric measurements of microlensing events can in principle determine both the "parallax" \\tilde r_E and the "proper motion" \\mu of an individual event which (combined with the Einstein time scale t_E) in turn yield the mass, distance, and transverse velocity of the lens. We show, however, that the parallax measurements are generically several orders of magnitude less precise than the proper-motion measurements. Fortunately, astrometric measurements by the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) are simultaneously **photometric** measurements, and since SIM will be in solar orbit, these allow SIM to be used as a classical (photometric) parallax satellite. We show that SIM photometric parallaxes are of comparable precision to its astrometric proper-motion measurements. For I=15 bulge stars, complete solutions with about 5% accuracy in mass, distance, and transverse velocity can be obtained from about 5 hours of observation, 100 to 10,000 times shorter than would be required for a purely astrometric solution of similar precision. Thus, it should be possible to directly measure the mass functions of both the bulge and the inner disk (including both dark and luminous objects) with only a few hundred hours of SIM observations.

  8. Direct measurement of protein binding energetics by isothermal titration calorimetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Leavitt; Ernesto Freire

    2001-01-01

    Of all the techniques that are currently available to measure binding, isothermal titration calorimetry is the only one capable of measuring not only the magnitude of the binding affinity but also the magnitude of the two thermodynamic terms that define the binding affinity: the enthalpy (?H) and entropy (?S) changes. Recent advances in instrumentation have facilitated the development of experimental

  9. Titration of Isolated Cell Walls of Lemna minor L.

    PubMed

    Morvan, C; Demarty, M; Thellier, M

    1979-06-01

    A theoretical model has been built to bypass the equation of titration of the cell wall. This equation, which is an extension of the Henderson-Hasselbach equation, underlines the importance of the exchange constant, the ionic strength as well as the rate of neutralization. The model is restricted to the case when the ionization degree is equal to the neutralization degree. The shape of the titration curve is shown to be strongly dependent on the valency of the base used.Experimental results have shown that isolated cell walls bear at least two kinds of sites. The first sites which are titrated after a short time of equilibration are attributed to polyuronic acids (capacity: 0.3 milliequivalents per gram fresh cell walls). The second sites, are obtained after a long time of equilibration (capacity: 1.2 to 1.3 milliequivalents per gram, fresh cell walls). Titrations have been performed with different bases [KOH, NaOH, and Ca(OH)(2)] and under different ionic strengths.The results obtained with NaOH and KOH do not exhibit any difference of selectivity. Conversely, the sites have a much bigger affinity for the Ca(2+) ions than for the monovalent ones. The apparent pKa of the uronic acids was estimated to lie between 3.0 and 3.4; this is consistent with the values obtained with polyuronic acid solutions. PMID:16660868

  10. Titration of Isolated Cell Walls of Lemna minor L 1

    PubMed Central

    Morvan, Claudine; Demarty, Maurice; Thellier, Michel

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical model has been built to bypass the equation of titration of the cell wall. This equation, which is an extension of the Henderson-Hasselbach equation, underlines the importance of the exchange constant, the ionic strength as well as the rate of neutralization. The model is restricted to the case when the ionization degree is equal to the neutralization degree. The shape of the titration curve is shown to be strongly dependent on the valency of the base used. Experimental results have shown that isolated cell walls bear at least two kinds of sites. The first sites which are titrated after a short time of equilibration are attributed to polyuronic acids (capacity: 0.3 milliequivalents per gram fresh cell walls). The second sites, are obtained after a long time of equilibration (capacity: 1.2 to 1.3 milliequivalents per gram, fresh cell walls). Titrations have been performed with different bases [KOH, NaOH, and Ca(OH)2] and under different ionic strengths. The results obtained with NaOH and KOH do not exhibit any difference of selectivity. Conversely, the sites have a much bigger affinity for the Ca2+ ions than for the monovalent ones. The apparent pKa of the uronic acids was estimated to lie between 3.0 and 3.4; this is consistent with the values obtained with polyuronic acid solutions. PMID:16660868

  11. Characterisation of iron binding ligands in seawater by reverse titration.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Jeffrey A; Gledhill, Martha; Connelly, Douglas P; Achterberg, Eric P

    2013-03-01

    Here we demonstrate the use of reverse titration - competitive ligand exchange-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (RT-CLE-ACSV) for the analysis of iron (Fe) binding ligands in seawater. In contrast to the forward titration, which examines excess ligands in solution, RT-CLE-ACSV examines the existing Fe-ligand complexes by increasing the concentration of added (electroactive) ligand (1-nitroso-2-naphthol) and analysis of the proportion of Fe bound to the added ligand. The data manipulation allows the accurate characterisation of ligands at equal or lower concentrations than Fe in seawater, and disregards electrochemically inert dissolved Fe such as some colloidal phases. The method is thus superior to the forward titration in environments with high Fe and low ligand concentrations or high concentrations of inert Fe. We validated the technique using the siderophore ligand ferrioxamine B, and observed a stability constant [Formula: see text] of 0.74-4.37×10(21) mol(-1), in agreement with previous results. We also successfully analysed samples from coastal waters and a deep ocean hydrothermal plume. Samples from these environments could not be analysed with confidence using the forward titration, highlighting the effectiveness of the RT-CLE-ACSV technique in waters with high concentrations of inert Fe. PMID:23427800

  12. Photometric Redshifts in the Sloan Colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowards-Emmerd, D.; McKay, T. A.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, J. A.

    1999-05-01

    In the past few years, photometric redshifts have proven themselves to be a robust means of estimating redshifts. In the near future, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey will compile high-quality photometric data for 108 galaxies. Photometric redshifts will provide approximate distances to this enormous set of objects. In this poster, we describe results from a preliminary study of photometric redshift calibration on data in the SDSS colors. We present 5 color photometry for 2195 galaxies drawn from the Las Campanas Redshift Survey. Data was obtained on the Curtis Schmidt telescope at CTIO during Aug 97 and Feb/Mar 98 using filters nearly identical to the SDSS system. We also present photometric redshift predictions expressed as polynomial functions of galaxy colors and magnitudes derived from this training set. Finally, applications of photometric redshifts will be considered, including lensing studies, cosmology, and determination of fundamental astrophysical quantities. Support was provided by NSF grant #9703282.

  13. A photometric study of Enceladus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verbiscer, Anne J.; Veverka, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    We have supplemented Voyager imaging data from Enceladus (limited to phase angles of 13 deg-43 deg) with recent Earth-based CCD observations to obtain an improved determination of the Bond albedo, to construct an albedo map of the satellite, and to constrain parameters in Hapke's (1986) photometric equation. A major result is evidence of regional variations in the physical properties of Enceladus' surface. The average global photometric properties are described by single scattering albedo omega(sub 0) average = 0.998 +/- 0.001, macroscopic roughness parameter theta average = 6 +/- 1 deg, and Henyey-Greenstein asymmetry parameter g = -0.399 +/- 0.005. The value of theta average is smaller than the 14 deg found by fitting whole-disk data, which include all terrains on Enceladus. The opposition surge amplitude B(sub 0) = 0.21 +/- 0.07 and regolith compaction parameter h = 0.014 +/- 0.02 are loosely constrained by the scarcity of and uncertainty in near-opposition observations. From the solar phase curve we determine the geometric albedo of Enceladus p(sub v) = 0.99 +/- 0.06 and phase integral q = 0.92 +/- 0.05, which corresponds to a spherical albedo A = p(sub v)q = 0.91 +/- 0.1. Since the spectrum of Enceladus is fairly flat, we can approximate the Bond albedo A(sub B) with the spherical albedo. Our photometric analysis is summarized in terms of an albedo map which generally reproduces the satellite's observed lightcurve and indicates that normal reflectances range from 0.9 on the leading hemisphere to 1.4 on the trailing one. The albedo map also revels an albedo variation of 15% from longitudes 170 deg to 200 deg, corresponding to the boundary between the leading and trailing hemispheres.

  14. Photometric imaging near infrared spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, J. H.; Mccreight, C. R.; Witteborn, F. C.; Stafford, P.; Moss, N.; Jared, D.

    1985-01-01

    A description of the design and performance of an imaging spectrometer intended for operation in the seven to fourteen micrometer wavelength range is presented. It is based upon a sixteen by sixteen element Si:Bi hybrid array, a circular variable filter wheel, and a microcomputer data acquisition system. The spatial-spectral photometric performances have been evaluated in the laboratory as well as field tested at astronomical observatories. The performance characteristics of the system are presented as well as laboratory and astronomical images.

  15. A photometric study of the Orion OB 1 association. 2: Photometric analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, W. H., Jr.; Hesser, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The procedures adopted for analysis of photometric data in terms of color excesses, intrinsic color indexes, absolute visual magnitudes, and rotational-velocity effects are discussed in detail for Orion association B-, intermediate (I)-, and AF-type stars. The effects of the nebular environment and a comparison of various calibrations of Balmer-line and four-color indexes are considered for the determination of individual absolute magnitudes for B-type stars. When absolute magnitudes of stars in the region of the Orion Nebula are determined from the beta index, emission mechanisms appear to spuriously brighten them. A detailed comparison of absolute magnitudes derived from Balmer-line indexes and MK spectral-type calibrations is presented. The data are also examined with regard to the effects of polarization and infrared excesses. The results suggest a complex combination of intracluster and circumstellar origins for these processes.

  16. Sloan Digital Sky Survey Photometric Calibration Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Marriner, John; /Fermilab

    2012-06-29

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey calibration is revisited to obtain the most accurate photometric calibration. A small but significant error is found in the flat-fielding of the Photometric telescope used for calibration. Two SDSS star catalogs are compared and the average difference in magnitude as a function of right ascension and declination exhibits small systematic errors in relative calibration. The photometric transformation from the SDSS Photometric Telescope to the 2.5 m telescope is recomputed and compared to synthetic magnitudes computed from measured filter bandpasses.

  17. Development of a novel baculovirus titration method using the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Cheng, Tong; Ma, Ke; Xia, Dezhen; Wang, Yongmei; Liu, Jian; Du, Hailian; Shih, James Wai Kuo; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Qinjian; Xia, Ningshao

    2013-03-01

    The baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) is one of the most powerful methods for production of recombinant proteins for research or commercial purposes. Titration of viable virus in insect cell culture is often required when BEVS is used for basic research or bioprocessing. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay using monoclonal antibodies against the major capsid protein VP39 of both Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) and Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) was developed for baculovirus quantitation at 48h post-infection. The titer was determined by visualizing infected insect cells as blue spots and automated spot counting was achieved with ELISPOT hardware and software. Log-scale comparison of the results between the ELISPOT assay and a conventional end point dilution assay using a fluorescent marker showed a good correlation for both AcMNPV (R(2)=0.9980, p<0.05) and BmNPV (R(2)=0.9834, p<0.05). In conclusion, a novel, rapid and semi-automated procedure for titrating baculovirus was developed based on the specific immunostaining of infected cells followed by automated spot counting. PMID:23274754

  18. Propagation of error in fulvic acid titration data: a comparison of three analytical methods

    E-print Network

    Morel, François M. M.

    Propagation of error in fulvic acid titration data: a comparison of three analytical methods but little consideration has been given to the magnitude of error in the resulting titration data. Most of random instrumenterror into a titrationdata set is not uniform throughout a titration and the pattern

  19. Can Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Titrate Their Own Continuous Positive Airway Pressure?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael F. Fitzpatrick; Christi E. D. Alloway; Tracy M. Wakeford; Alistair W. MacLean; Peter W. Munt; Andrew G. Day

    Manual continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration in a tions (9) can improve the efficiency with which CPAP treat- sleep laboratory is costly and limits access for diagnostic studies. ment is delivered, as compared with conventional in-labora- Many factors affect CPAP compliance, but education and support, tory overnight CPAP titration. Given the high disease rather than in-laboratory CPAP titration, appear

  20. Potentiometric automatic titration (PAT) method to evaluate zero point of charge (ZPC) of variable charge soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsutoshi Sakurai; Yohichi Ohdate; Kazutake Kyuma

    1989-01-01

    A potentiometric titration technique using an automatic titrator (PAT method) was evaluated for the determination of the ZPC of two different kinds of variable charge soils. The titration mode of PAT was proposed as follows: pre-equilibration for 2 min with continuous stirring, soil: solution ratio of 1 : 10, and cut off time (interval of titrant addition to the system)

  1. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  2. Free Software Development. 3. Numerical Description of Weak Acid with Weak Base Titration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorentz JÄNTSCHI; Horea Iustin

    2002-01-01

    The analytical methods of qualitative and quantitative determination of ions in solutions are very flexible to automation. The present work is focus on modeling the process of titration and presents a numerical simulation of acid-base titration. A PHP program to compute all iterations in titration process that solves a 3 th rank equation to find value of pH for was

  3. Kids in a Candy Store: An Analogy for Back Titration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Last, Arthur M.

    1998-09-01

    A simple analogy for back titration is presented. A child is sent into a candy store with a known amount of money in order to purchase a candy bar and the cost of the bar is subsequently determined by counting the amount of change the child brings back. This is analogous to adding excess acid to a base and determining how much base was present by titrating the unreacted acid. The analogy is extended to illustrate what happens when an acidic or basic impurity is present in the system and is further developed to cover a situation in which the acid and unknown base react in a 2:1 ratio rather than a 1:1 ratio.

  4. Chromazurol S ion-selective electrode for chelatometric titration.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, M; Shin, M; Kambara, T

    1977-04-01

    A liquid membrane type Chromazurol S ion-selective electrode has been constructed and applied to chelatometric titrations. In aqueous medium, zephiramine (benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride) forms with the anion of Chromazurol S an ion-pair which is easily extracted into nitrobenzene. The extract is used as the liquid ion-exchanger for the Chromazurol S ion-selective electrode. The most suitable ion-pair concentration in the liquid ion-exchanger membrane is 10(-4)M. The linear Nernstian-response range of the Chromazurol S anion in aqueous solution is 10(-2)-10(-6)M. The electrode has been successfully applied to the chelatometric titration of Cu(II), Ni(II), Fe(III) and Pb(II) with EDTA. PMID:18962078

  5. An improved photometric analysis of SX Aurigae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert P. Linnell; Geraldine J. Peters; Ronald S. Polidan

    1988-01-01

    The photometric analysis reported leads to four principal conclusions: 1. The SX Aur system consists of two normal main-sequence stars. The components are very close to the inner Roche limiting surface. 2. The primary component is extremely close to contact with its inner Roche lobe, as well as can be judged from the photometric solution. It is indicated that mass

  6. A high sensitivity titration calorimeter using pyroelectric sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. K. Merabet; H. K. Yuen; W. A. Grote; K. L. Deppermann

    1994-01-01

    A new sensitive isothermal titration microcalorimeter using polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) as detector has been developed.\\u000a Heat pulses of less than 0.4 ?J can be detected and the baseline noise level (p-p) is 40 nW. The calorimeter is constructed with one reaction cell (0.7 ml) insulated by several radiation shields inside a\\u000a vacuum chamber. The performance of the instrument was examined

  7. Potentiometric titrations of rutile suspensions to 250 C

    SciTech Connect

    Machesky, M.L. [Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)] [Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Wesolowski, D.J.; Palmer, D.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical and Analytical Sciences Div.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical and Analytical Sciences Div.; Ichiro-Hayashi, Ken [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Mineralogy, Petrology and Economic Geology] [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Mineralogy, Petrology and Economic Geology

    1998-04-15

    A stirred hydrogen electrode concentration cell was used to conduct potentiometric titrations of rutile suspensions from 25 to 250 C in NaCl and tetramethylammonium chloride media (0.03 to 1.1 m). Hydrothermal pretreatment of the rutile improved titration reproducibility, decreased titration hysteresis, and facilitated determination of the point of zero net proton charge (pHznpc). These pHznpc values are 5.4, 5.1, 4.7, 4.4, 4.3 ({+-} 0.2 pH units), and 4.2 ({+-} 0.3 pH units) at 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 C, respectively. The difference between these pHznpc values and 1/2 pK{sub w} (the neutral pH of water) is rather constant between 25 and 250 C ({minus} 1.45 {+-} 0.2). This constancy is useful for predictive purposes and, more fundamentally, may reflect similarities between the hydration behavior of surface hydroxyl groups and water. A three-layer, 1pKa surface complexation model with three adjustable parameters (two capacitance values and one counterion binding constant) adequately described all titration data. The most apparent trend in these data for pH values greater than the pHznpc was the increase in proton release (negative surface charge) with increasing temperature. This reflects more efficient screening by Na{sup +} relative to Cl{sup {minus}}. Replacing Na{sup +} with the larger tetramethylammonium cation for some conditions resulted in decreased proton release due to the less efficient screening of negative surface charge by this larger cation.

  8. Quantitative estimation of benzylisoquinoline derivatives by coulometric titration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. K. Ziyatdinova; A. I. Samigullin; S. G. Abdullina; G. K. Budnikov

    2008-01-01

    A method for estimating papaverine HCl and drotaverine HCl by coulometric titration with biamperometric indication of the\\u000a end point was developed. The stoichiometric coefficients of the reactions of papaverine and drotaverine with electrogenerated\\u000a chlorine were determined. Microgram quantities of agents in substance and therapeutic forms were estimated with a relative\\u000a standard deviation (RSD) of 0.01–0.03.

  9. Automatic karl fischer titration of moisture in sunflower seed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Robertson; W. R. Windham

    1983-01-01

    An automatic Karl Fischer (KF) titrator of the motor-driven buret type was applied to the determination of moisture in sunflower\\u000a seed. A study of the effect of sample size on KF moisture analysis showed a significant decrease in moisture content with\\u000a increase in sample size from 1 to 5 g. In the moisture range of 5.5–10.5%, a sample size of

  10. New developments for the numerical analysis of spectrophotometric titrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raylene M. Dyson; Porn Jandanklang; Marcel Maeder; Caroline J. Mason; Andrew Whitson

    1999-01-01

    Spectrophotometric titrations are a valuable tool for the investigation of solution equilibria. Data acquisition and recent developments on methods for the analysis of the measurements are discussed in this contribution. Hard-modeling methods are based on non-linear least-squares fitting, and algorithms have been developed which can cope with the large amount of data and parameters of multiwavelength or multivariate measurements. Good

  11. Topiramate slow dose titration: improved efficacy and tolerability.

    PubMed

    Albsoul-Younes, Abla M; Salem, Hazem A; Ajlouni, Saleh F; Al-Safi, Saafan A

    2004-11-01

    Topiramate is an effective treatment for several types of seizures. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and tolerability of slow topiramate dose titration as add-on therapy in childhood epilepsy. This investigation is a prospective open-label, single-center, add-on study in 22 children with a diagnosis of refractory epilepsy. Topiramate (dose 0.5-2 mg/kg/day) was titrated at 2-week intervals up to the recommended dose of 6-12 mg/kg/day. Seizure frequency rate reduction was significant, declining from 23 +/- 5.1 seizures/week (mean +/- S.E.M.) at baseline phase to 3.5 +/- 1.2 seizures/week at the end of the 16-week stabilization phase (P < 0.001). After 16 weeks of stabilization, 19 patients (86%) had more than 50% seizure reduction. Seven patients (31%) were 100% seizure-free. Two patients (9%) manifested no improvement; only one patient (5%) did not tolerate the added drug and discontinued topiramate. One patient manifested severe side effects, whereas 21 patients experienced mild to moderate side effects mostly represented by somnolence, nervousness, and anorexia with or without weight loss. We conclude that slow dose titration improves efficacy and tolerability of topiramate as add-on therapy in the treatment in refractory epilepsy. PMID:15519117

  12. Big MACS: Accurate photometric calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, P. L.; von der Linden, A.; Applegate, D.; Allen, M.; Allen, S. W.; Burchat, P. R.; Burke, D. L.; Ebeling, H.; Capak, P.; Czoske, O.; Donovan, D.; Mantz, A.; Morris, R. G.

    2012-08-01

    Big MACS is a Python program that estimates an accurate photometric calibration from only an input catalog of stellar magnitudes and filter transmission functions. The user does not have to measure color terms which can be difficult to characterize. Supplied with filter transmission functions, Big MACS synthesizes an expected stellar locus for your data and then simultaneously solves for all unknown zeropoints when fitting to the instrumental locus. The code uses a spectroscopic model for the SDSS stellar locus in color-color space and filter functions to compute expected locus. The stellar locus model is corrected for Milky Way reddening. If SDSS or 2MASS photometry is available for stars in field, Big MACS can yield a highly accurate absolute calibration.

  13. Perspective photometric stereo beyond Lambert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanian, Maryam; Sharifi Boroujerdi, Ali; Breuß, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Photometric stereo is a technique for estimating the 3-D depth of a surface using multiple images taken under different illuminations from the same viewing angle. Most existing models make use of Lambertian reflection and an orthographic camera as underlying assumptions. However, real-world materials often exhibit non-Lambertian effects such as specular highlights and for many applications it is of interest to consider objects close to the camera. In our work, we aim at addressing these issues. Together with a perspective camera we employ a non-Lambertian reflectance model, namely the Blinn-Phong model which is capable to deal with specular reflection. Focusing on the effects of specular highlights, we perform a detailed study of one-dimensional test cases showing important aspects of our method.

  14. Photometric Studies of GEO Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Cowardin, Heather M.; Barker, Edwin; Abercromby, Kira J.; Foreman, Gary; Horstman, Matt

    2009-01-01

    The photometric signature of a debris object can be useful in determining what the physical characteristics of a piece of debris are. We report on optical observations in multiple filters of debris at geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Our sample is taken from GEO objects discovered in a survey with the University of Michigan's 0.6-m aperture Schmidt telescope MODEST (for Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope), and then followed up in real-time with the SMARTS (Small and Medium Aperture Research Telescope System) 0.9-m at CTIO for orbits and photometry. Our goal is to determine 6 parameter orbits and measure colors for all objects fainter than R = 15 th magnitude that are discovered in the MODEST survey. At this magnitude the distribution of observed angular rates changes significantly from that of brighter objects. There are two objectives: 1. Estimate the orbital distribution of objects selected on the basis of two observational criteria: brightness (magnitude) and angular rates. 2. Obtain magnitudes and colors in standard astronomical filters (BVRI) for comparison with reflectance spectra of likely spacecraft materials. What is the faint debris likely to be? In this paper we report on the photometric results. For a sample of 50 objects, more than 90 calibrated sequences of R-B-V-I-R magnitudes have been obtained with the CTIO 0.9-m. For objects that do not show large brightness variations, the colors are largely redder than solar in both B-R and R-I. The width of the color distribution may be intrinsic to the nature of the surfaces, but also could be that we are seeing irregularly shaped objects and measuring the colors at different times with just one telescope. For a smaller sample of objects we have observed with synchronized CCD cameras on the two telescopes. The CTIO 0.9-m observes in B, and MODEST in R. The CCD cameras are electronically linked together so that the start time and duration of observations are the same to better than 50 milliseconds. Thus the B-R color is a true measure of the surface of the debris piece facing the telescopes for that observation. Any change in color reflects a real change in the debris surface.

  15. A titration model for evaluating calcium hydroxide removal techniques

    PubMed Central

    PHILLIPS, Mark; McCLANAHAN, Scott; BOWLES, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Objective Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) has been used in endodontics as an intracanal medicament due to its antimicrobial effects and its ability to inactivate bacterial endotoxin. The inability to totally remove this intracanal medicament from the root canal system, however, may interfere with the setting of eugenol-based sealers or inhibit bonding of resin to dentin, thus presenting clinical challenges with endodontic treatment. This study used a chemical titration method to measure residual Ca(OH)2 left after different endodontic irrigation methods. Material and Methods Eighty-six human canine roots were prepared for obturation. Thirty teeth were filled with known but different amounts of Ca(OH)2 for 7 days, which were dissolved out and titrated to quantitate the residual Ca(OH)2 recovered from each root to produce a standard curve. Forty-eight of the remaining teeth were filled with equal amounts of Ca(OH)2 followed by gross Ca(OH)2 removal using hand files and randomized treatment of either: 1) Syringe irrigation; 2) Syringe irrigation with use of an apical file; 3) Syringe irrigation with added 30 s of passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), or 4) Syringe irrigation with apical file and PUI (n=12/group). Residual Ca(OH)2 was dissolved with glycerin and titrated to measure residual Ca(OH)2 left in the root. Results No method completely removed all residual Ca(OH)2. The addition of 30 s PUI with or without apical file use removed Ca(OH)2 significantly better than irrigation alone. Conclusions This technique allowed quantification of residual Ca(OH)2. The use of PUI (with or without apical file) resulted in significantly lower Ca(OH)2 residue compared to irrigation alone. PMID:25760272

  16. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery.

    PubMed

    Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Fernández, Constanza Estefany; Brandão, Ana Carolina Siqueira; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control) were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively) and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and < 0.005 mmols OH- to reach pH 5.5, respectively). Eight volunteers with a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH. PMID:25715032

  17. Photometric properties of Triton hazes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillier, J.; Veverka, J.

    1994-01-01

    Voyager imaging observations of Triton have been used to investigate the characteristics of the atmospheric hazes on Triton at three wavelengths: violet (0.41 micrometers), blue (0.48 micrometers), and green (0.56 micrometers). The globally averaged optical depth is wavelength dependent, varying from 0.034 in green to 0.063 in violet. These photometric results are dominated by the properties of localized discrete clouds rather than by those of the thinner, more widespread haze known to occur on Triton. The cloud particles are bright, with single-scattering albedos near unity at all three wavelengths, suggestive of a transparent icy condensate. The asymmetry parameter (+0.6) and the wavelength dependence of the optical depth both indicate cloud particles 0.2-0.4 micrometers in radius. The clouds are concentrated at 50-60 deg S latitude, where opacities up to three times the global average are observed. This is the same latitude region where most of the evidence for current surface activity is found, suggesting that the clouds may be related to the plumes or at least to some process connected with the sublimation of the south polar cap. The effects of possible temporal variations in the haze opacity are examined. Increases in the haze opacity tend to redden Triton. However, the degree of reddening is not sufficient to explain the full range of observed changed in Triton over the past decade; variations in the surface properties appear to be necessary.

  18. A novel approach for high precision rapid potentiometric titrations: Application to hydrazine assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, P.; Malathi, N.; Ananthanarayanan, R.; Praveen, K.; Murali, N.

    2011-11-01

    We propose a high precision rapid personal computer (PC) based potentiometric titration technique using a specially designed mini-cell to carry out redox titrations for assay of chemicals in quality control laboratories attached to industrial, R&D, and nuclear establishments. Using this technique a few microlitre of sample (50-100 ?l) in a total volume of ˜2 ml solution can be titrated and the waste generated after titration is extremely low comparing to that obtained from the conventional titration technique. The entire titration including online data acquisition followed by immediate offline analysis of data to get information about concentration of unknown sample is completed within a couple of minutes (about 2 min). This facility has been created using a new class of sensors, viz., pulsating sensors developed in-house. The basic concept in designing such instrument and the salient features of the titration device are presented in this paper. The performance of the titration facility was examined by conducting some of the high resolution redox titrations using dilute solutions--hydrazine against KIO3 in HCl medium, Fe(II) against Ce(IV) and uranium using Davies-Gray method. The precision of titrations using this innovative approach lies between 0.048% and 1.0% relative standard deviation in different redox titrations. With the evolution of this rapid PC based titrator it was possible to develop a simple but high precision potentiometric titration technique for quick determination of hydrazine in nuclear fuel dissolver solution in the context of reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel in fast breeder reactors.

  19. Photometric Redshifts of Galaxies in COSMOS

    E-print Network

    B. Mobasher; P. Capak; N. Z. Scoville; T. Dahlen; M. Salvato; H. Aussel; D. J. Thompson; R. Feldmann; L. Tasca; O. Lefevre; S. Lilly; C. M. Carollo; J. S. Kartaltepe; H. McCracken; J. Mould; A. Renzini; D. B. Sanders; P. L. Shopbell; Y. Taniguchi; M. Ajiki; Y. Shioya; T. Contini; M. Giavalisco; O. Ilbert; A. Iovino; V. Le Brun; V. Mainieri; M. Mignoli; M. Scodeggio

    2006-12-13

    We measure photometric redshifts and spectral types for galaxies in the COSMOS survey. We use template fitting technique combined with luminosity function priors and with the option to simultaneously estimate dust extinction (i.e. E(B-V)) for each galaxy.Our estimated redshifts are accurate to iCOSMOS, the accuracy and reliability is estimated for the photometric redshifts as a function of the magnitude limits of the sample, S/N ratios and the number of bands used. From the simulations we find that the ratio of derived 95% confidence interval in the redshift probability distribution to the estimated photometric redshift (D95) can be used to identify and exclude the catastrophic failures in the photometric redshift estimates. We compare the derived redshifts with high-reliability spectroscopic redshifts for a sample of 868 normal galaxies with z COSMOS sample (to i < 25 mag.).

  20. CALIFORNIA ENERGY Skylight Photometric and Thermal

    E-print Network

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION Skylight Photometric and Thermal Reports Construction and Calibration) Skylight Test Chamber Design Report: Skylight U-Factor Tests (product 5.3.2a) Summary of U-Value Test vs

  1. Titrating matching-to-sample performance in pigeons: effects of diazepam, morphine, and cholinergic agents.

    PubMed

    Wenger, G R; Hudzik, T J; Wright, D W

    1993-10-01

    Five adult, male White Carneau pigeons were trained to respond under a titrating matching-to-sample schedule of reinforcement. Under this titration schedule, each trial began with the presentation of a sample stimulus (red or green light) on the center key of a three-key pigeon chamber. Completion of 15 responses on the center key resulted in the termination of the stimulus presentation and the initiation of a delay period. The length of the delay changed as a function of the pigeon's performance. During the first five trials of each session, the delay was fixed at 3 s in length. On the sixth and all subsequent trials, the length of the delay was either increased, did not change, or decreased such that accuracy was maintained at approximately 80%. Following the delay, two of the three pigeon keys were transilluminated with different colored lights (red or green). A single response upon the key transilluminated with the same stimulus color as the sample stimulus resulted in the presentation of food. A response on the key transilluminated with the stimulus color that did not match the sample stimulus resulted in a time-out period. Using this procedure, the effects of two drugs of abuse, diazepam (0.03-3 mg/kg) and morphine (0.03-10 mg/kg), a muscarinic antagonist, scopolamine (0.003-0.3 mg/kg), the quaternary derivative of scopolamine, methylscopolamine (0.003-0.3 mg/kg), a cholinesterase inhibitor, physostigmine (0.003-0.1 mg/kg), and the quaternary derivative of physostigmine, neostigmine (0.003-0.1 mg/kg), were determined. Diazepam decreased matching accuracy such that a decrease in the mean delay value for the session was observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8265699

  2. Acetoclastic methanogenic activity measurement by a titration bioassay.

    PubMed

    Rozzi, Alberto; Castellazzi, Luca; Speece, Richard E

    2002-01-01

    A titration bioassay, designed to accurately determine the activity of acetoclastic methanogens, is described that also allows evaluation of inhibition due to potential toxicants on the active biomass. The instrument is made of a pH-stat connected to an anaerobic batch reactor. Acetate is blended and mixed with anaerobic sludge in the reactor where a 1:1 N2 and CO2 mixture is sparged at the beginning of each test. As the acetoclastic methanogens consume acetate, the pH increase, and the titration unit adds acetic acid and keeps the pH constant. The rate of titrant addition is directly proportional to the methanogenic activity. A very useful feature of the system is its potential to operate for long periods (days) at constant pH and substrate (acetate) concentration. The theoretical background and principle of operation are described as well as some of the practical problems encountered with the use of the instrument. Estimation of kinetic constants for an anaerobic culture according to the Michaelis-Menten model is presented. Examples of inhibition by inorganics (NaCl) and chlorinated solvents (chloroform) are also given. PMID:11745170

  3. Three-dimensional stereo by photometric ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, L.B.; Angelopoulou, E. [Computer Vision Laboratory, Department of Computer Science, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    1994-11-01

    We present a methodology for corresponding a dense set of points on an object surface from photometric values for three-dimensional stereo computation of depth. The methodology utilizes multiple stereo pairs of images, with each stereo pair being taken of the identical scene but under different illumination. With just two stereo pairs of images taken under two different illumination conditions, a stereo pair of ratio images can be produced, one for the ratio of left-hand images and one for the ratio of right-hand images. We demonstrate how the photometric ratios composing these images can be used for accurate correspondence of object points. Object points having the same photometric ratio with respect to two different illumination conditions constitute a well-defined equivalence class of physical constraints defined by local surface orientation relative to illumination conditions. We formally show that for diffuse reflection the photometric ratio is invariant to varying camera characteristics, surface albedo, and viewpoint and that therefore the same photometric ratio in both images of a stereo pair implies the same equivalence class of physical constraints. The correspondence of photometric ratios along epipolar lines in a stereo pair of images under different illumination conditions is a correspondence of equivalent physical constraints, and the determination of depth from stereo can be performed. Whereas illumination planning is required, our photometric-based stereo methodology does not require knowledge of illumination conditions in the actual computation of three-dimensional depth and is applicable to perspective views. This technique extends the stereo determination of three-dimensional depth to smooth featureless surfaces without the use of precisely calibrated lighting. We demonstrate experimental depth maps from a dense set of points on smooth objects of known ground-truth shape, determined to within 1% depth accuracy.

  4. Modified titrimetric determination of plutonium using photometric end-point detection

    SciTech Connect

    Baughman, W.J.; Dahlby, J.W.

    1980-04-01

    A method used at LASL for the accurate and precise assay of plutonium metal was modified for the measurement of plutonium in plutonium oxides, nitrate solutions, and in other samples containing large quantities of plutonium in oxidized states higher than +3. In this modified method, the plutonium oxide or other sample is dissolved using the sealed-reflux dissolution method or other appropriate methods. Weighed aliquots, containing approximately 100 mg of plutonium, of the dissolved sample or plutonium nitrate solution are fumed to dryness with an HC1O/sub 4/-H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ mixture. The dried residue is dissolved in dilute H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and the plutonium is reduced to plutonium (III) with zinc metal. The excess zinc metal is dissolved with HCl, and the solution is passed through a lead reductor column to ensure complete reduction of the plutonium to plutonium (III). The solution, with added ferroin indicator, is then titrated immediately with standardized ceric solution to a photometric end point. For the analysis of plutonium metal solutions, plutonium oxides, and nitrate solutions, the relative standard deviation are 0.06, 0.08, and 0.14%, respectively. Of the elements most likely to be found with the plutonium, only iron, neptunium, and uranium interfere. Small amounts of uranium and iron, which titrate quantitatively in the method, are determined by separate analytical methods, and suitable corrections are applied to the plutonium value. 4 tables, 4 figures.

  5. PHOTOMETRIC ORBITS OF EXTRASOLAR PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Robert A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)], E-mail: rbrown@stsci.edu

    2009-09-10

    We define and analyze the photometric orbit (PhO) of an extrasolar planet observed in reflected light. In our definition, the PhO is a Keplerian entity with six parameters: semimajor axis, eccentricity, mean anomaly at some particular time, argument of periastron, inclination angle, and effective radius, which is the square root of the geometric albedo times the planetary radius. Preliminarily, we assume a Lambertian phase function. We study in detail the case of short-period giant planets (SPGPs) and observational parameters relevant to the Kepler mission: 20 ppm photometry with normal errors, 6.5 hr cadence, and three-year duration. We define a relevant 'planetary population of interest' in terms of probability distributions of the PhO parameters. We perform Monte Carlo experiments to estimate the ability to detect planets and to recover PhO parameters from light curves. We calibrate the completeness of a periodogram search technique, and find structure caused by degeneracy. We recover full orbital solutions from synthetic Kepler data sets and estimate the median errors in recovered PhO parameters. We treat in depth a case of a Jupiter body-double. For the stated assumptions, we find that Kepler should obtain orbital solutions for many of the 100-760 SPGP that Jenkins and Doyle estimate Kepler will discover. Because most or all of these discoveries will be followed up by ground-based radial velocity observations, the estimates of inclination angle from the PhO may enable the calculation of true companion masses: Kepler photometry may break the 'msin i' degeneracy. PhO observations may be difficult. There is uncertainty about how low the albedos of SPGPs actually are, about their phase functions, and about a possible noise floor due to systematic errors from instrumental and stellar sources. Nevertheless, simple detection of SPGPs in reflected light should be robust in the regime of Kepler photometry, and estimates of all six orbital parameters may be feasible in at least a subset of cases.

  6. Difference image analysis: The interplay between the photometric scale factor and systematic photometric errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramich, D. M.; Bachelet, E.; Alsubai, K. A.; Mislis, D.; Parley, N.

    2015-05-01

    Context. Understanding the source of systematic errors in photometry is essential for their calibration. Aims: We investigate how photometry performed on difference images can be influenced by errors in the photometric scale factor. Methods: We explore the equations for difference image analysis (DIA), and we derive an expression describing how errors in the difference flux, the photometric scale factor and the reference flux are propagated to the object photometry. Results: We find that the error in the photometric scale factor is important, and while a few studies have shown that it can be at a significant level, it is currently neglected by the vast majority of photometric surveys employing DIA. Conclusions: Minimising the error in the photometric scale factor, or compensating for it in a post-calibration model, is crucial for reducing the systematic errors in DIA photometry.

  7. Impact of subsolar metallicities on photometric redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotulla, Ralf; Fritze, Uta

    2009-02-01

    With the advent of deep photometric surveys the use of photometric redshifts, obtained with a variety of techniques, has become more and more widespread. Giving access to galaxies with a wide range of luminosities out to high redshifts, these surveys include many faint galaxies with significantly subsolar metallicities. We use our chemically consistent (CC) galaxy evolutionary synthesis code GALEV to produce a large grid of template spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for galaxies of spectral types E and Sa through Sd - one accounting in a CC way for the increasing initial metallicities of successive stellar generations, the other one for exclusively solar metallicities - for comparison. We use our new photometric redshift code GAZELLE based on the comparison of observed and model SEDs. Comparing the photometric redshifts obtained using solar-metallicity templates when working on a catalogue of artificially created CC SEDs, typical for low-metallicity local late-type galaxies and for intrinsically low-luminosity, and hence low-metallicity, galaxies in the high-redshift universe, we find a significant bias resulting from this metallicity mismatch. This bias consists of a systematic underestimate of the photometric redshift by typically ?z ~ 0.1...0.2 until z ~ 1.2, depending on galaxy type, of distant, faint and low-metallicity galaxies if analysed with solar-metallicity templates.

  8. Calibrated griz magnitudes of Tycho stars: All-sky photometric calibration using bright stars

    E-print Network

    E. O. Ofek

    2008-09-25

    Photometric calibration to 5% accuracy is frequently needed at arbitrary celestial locations; however, existing all-sky astronomical catalogs do not reach this accuracy and time consuming photometric calibration procedures are required. I fit the Hipparcos B_T and V_T magnitudes along with the 2MASS J, H, and K magnitudes of Tycho-2 catalog-stars with stellar spectral templates. From the best fit spectral template derived for each star, I calculate the synthetic SDSS griz magnitudes and constructed an all-sky catalog of griz magnitudes for bright stars (V<12). Testing this method on SDSS photometric telescope observations, I find that the photometric accuracy for a single star is usually about 0.12, 0.12, 0.10 and 0.08 mag (1 sigma), for the g, r, i, and z-bands, respectively. However, by using ~10 such stars, the typical errors per calibrated field (systematic + statistical) can be reduced to about 0.04, 0.03, 0.02, and 0.02,mag, in the g, r, i, and z-bands, respectively. Therefore, in cases for which several calibration stars can be observed in the field of view of an instrument, accurate photometric calibration is possible.

  9. [Secretory IgA: quality control of the titration method].

    PubMed

    Rosaschino, F; Torre, R; Grisler, R

    In order to verify if the method for the titration of salivary secretory IgA (s-IgA) by the technical of radial immunodiffusion is trustworthy, have been carried out the precision tests in the series and among the series in two saliva samples with very different s-IgA concentrations, and precision and accuracy tests in the series and among the series using a solution with a known titre of IgA. The results of the first battery tests have shown a precision ranging from 93.04 to 95.43%. The results of the tests of the second battery have shown a precision ranging about 96% and an accuracy about 97%. The tested method is, therefore, sufficiently trustworthy. PMID:1670042

  10. The geological interpretation of photometric surface roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfenstein, Paul

    1988-01-01

    A computer-generated km-scale relief map, whose topographic facets on scales of less than a few m are assumed to have smooth particulate surfaces, is the basis of the present investigation of the relationship between photometrically-derived values of Hapke's (1984) roughness parameter theta and topographic scale. The addition of m-km scale-range relief to the otherwise smooth surface alters integral photometric behavior in a way that is consistent with Hapke's equation; the roughness characterized by theta is an integral property over all scales up to the resolution limit of the photometric data used in its determination. With sufficient phase angle coverage, theta can distinguish terrains with very different integral roughnesses.

  11. Photometric Scaling Relations for Bulges of Galaxies

    E-print Network

    C. D. Ravikumar; Sudhanshu Barway; Ajit Kembhavi; Bahram Mobasher; V. C. Kuriakose

    2005-09-14

    We study the photometric parameters of the bulges of galaxies of different Hubble types including ellipticals, lenticulars, early and late type spirals and early type dwarf galaxies. Analyzing the distributions of various photometric parameters, and two- and three-dimensional correlations between them, we find that there is a difference in the correlations exhibited by bright (M_K < -22) and faint bulges, irrespective of their Hubble type. Importantly, the bright bulges, which include typically E/S0 galaxies and bulges of early type spirals, are tightly distributed around a common photometric plane (PP), while their fainter counter parts, mainly bulges of late type spirals and dwarf galaxies show significant deviation from the planar distribution. We show that the specific entropy, determined from the bulge structural parameters, systematically increases as we move from late to early Hubble types. We interpret this as evidence for hierarchical merging and passive evolution scenarios for bright and faint bulges respectively.

  12. Patient self-monitoring of blood pressure and self-titration of medication in primary care: the TASMINH2 trial qualitative study of health professionals’ experiences

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Miren I; Greenfield, Sheila M; Bray, Emma P; Hobbs, FD Richard; Holder, Roger; Little, Paul; Mant, Jonathan; Williams, Bryan; McManus, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Background Self-monitoring with self-titration of antihypertensives leads to reduced blood pressure. Patients are keen on self-monitoring but little is known about healthcare professional views. Aim To explore health professionals‘ views and experiences of patient self-management, particularly with respect to future implementation into routine care. Design and setting Qualitative study embedded within a randomised controlled trial of healthcare professionals participating in the TASMINH2 trial of patient self-monitoring with self-titration of antihypertensives from 24 West Midlands general practices. Method Taped and transcribed semi-structured interviews with 13 GPs, two practice nurses and one healthcare assistant. Constant comparative method of analysis. Results Primary care professionals were positive about self-monitoring, but procedures for ensuring patients measured blood pressure correctly were haphazard. GPs interpreted home readings variably, with many not making adjustment for lower home blood pressure. Interviewees were satisfied with patient training and arrangements for blood pressure monitoring and self-titration of medication during the trial, but less sure about future implementation into routine care. There was evidence of a need for training of both patients and professionals for successful integration of self-management. Conclusion Health professionals wanted more patient involvement in hypertension care but needed a framework to work within. Consideration of how to train patients to measure blood pressure and how home readings become part of their care is required before self-monitoring and self-titration can be implemented widely. As home monitoring becomes more widespread, the development of patient self-management, including self-titration of medication, should follow but this may take time to achieve. PMID:23735408

  13. Using RNA sample titrations to assess microarray platform performance and normalization techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Fulmer-Smentek; Roderick V Jensen; Wendell D Jones; Paul K Wolber; Charles D Johnson; P Scott Pine; Cecilie Boysen; Xu Guo; Eugene Chudin; Yongming Andrew Sun; James C Willey; Jean Thierry-Mieg; Danielle Thierry-Mieg; Robert A Setterquist; Mike Wilson; Anne Bergstrom Lucas; Natalia Novoradovskaya; Adam Papallo; Yaron Turpaz; Shawn C Baker; Janet A Warrington; Leming Shi; Damir Herman; Richard Shippy

    2006-01-01

    We have assessed the utility of RNA titration samples for evaluating microarray platform performance and the impact of different normalization methods on the results obtained. As part of the MicroArray Quality Control project, we investigated the performance of five commercial microarray platforms using two independent RNA samples and two titration mixtures of these samples. Focusing on 12,091 genes common across

  14. From Titration Data to Buffer Capacities: A Computer Experiment for the Chemistry Lab or Lecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy W. Clark; Gary D. White; Judith M. Bonicamp; Exum D. Watts

    1995-01-01

    This paper, for chemistry teachers who have beginning students, computers, and spreadsheets, presents tables of titration data simulated using the program EQUIL. Instructors are invited to give students the titration data to enter into their spreadsheets, have them plot it in several ways, and produce an assortment of graphs. In the process, they will discover many things about pH,. the

  15. POTENTIOMETRIC TITRATION OF AN ACID MIXTURE Background Reading: Harris, 7th

    E-print Network

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    acids is titrated with standard base. Because the pH does not change abruptly enough at either from a derivative plot; that is, (pH)/(vol) vs. volume of base added. A mixture of two acids canPOTENTIOMETRIC TITRATION OF AN ACID MIXTURE Background Reading: Harris, 7th ed., Chapter 11. Skoog

  16. Binding of globular proteins to lipid membranes studied by isothermal titration calorimetry and fluorescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariana N Dimitrova; Hideo Matsumura; Nelly Terezova; Vassil Neytchev

    2002-01-01

    The interactions of bovine serum albumin, lysozyme and cytochrome c with phosphatidylcholine liposomes in liquid crystalline phase have been investigated using isothermal titration calorimetry in combination with steady state, and fluorescence measurements. Calorimetric titration studies of the binding of liposomes to the protein species indicate in all cases exothermic processes with single binding sites in the protein molecule. Distinct saturation

  17. Reddening Behaviors of Galaxies in the SDSS Photometric System

    E-print Network

    Sungsoo S. Kim; Myung Gyoon Lee

    2008-05-01

    We analyze the behaviors of reddening vectors in the SDSS photometric system for galaxies of different morphologies, ages, and redshifts. As seen in other photometric systems, the dependence of reddening on the spectral energy distribution (SED) and the nonlinearity of reddening are likewise non-negligible for the SDSS system if extinction is significant (~> 1 mag). These behaviors are most significant for the g filter, which has the largest bandwidth-to-central wavelength ratio among SDSS filters. The SDSS colors involving adjacent filters show greater SED-dependence and nonlinearity. A procedure for calculating the correct amount of extinction from an observed color excess is provided. The relative extinctions between (i.e., the extinction law for) SDSS filters given by Schlegel et al., which were calculated with an older version of filter response functions, would underestimate the amount of extinction in most cases by ~5 to 10 % (maximum ~20 %). We recommend A/A_{5500} values of 1.574, 1.191, 0.876, 0.671 & 0.486 for the u, g, r, i, & z filters, respectively, as a representative extinction law for the SDSS galaxies with a small extinction (i.e., for cases where the nonlinearity and SED-dependence of the reddening is not important). The dependence of reddening on redshift at low extinction is the largest for colors involving the g filter as well, which is due to the Balmer break.

  18. Error analysis of the photometric redshift tecnique

    E-print Network

    A. Fernandez-Soto; K. M. Lanzetta; H. -W. Chen; B. Levine; N. Yahata

    2001-11-12

    We present a calculation of the systematic component of the error budget in the photometric redshift technique. We make use of it to describe a simple technique that allows for the assignation of confidence limits to redshift measurements obtained through photometric methods. We show that our technique, through the calculation of a redshift probability function, gives complete information on the probable redshift of an object and its associated confidence intervals. This information can and must be used in the calculation of any observable quantity which makes use of the redshift.

  19. Photometric diversity of terrains on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillier, J.; Veverka, J.; Helfenstein, P.; Lee, P.

    1994-01-01

    Voyager disk-resolved images of Triton in the violet (0.41 micrometers) and green (0.56 micrometer wavelengths have been analyzed to derive the photometric characteristics of terrains on Triton. Similar conclusions are found using two distinct but related definitions of photometric units, one based on color ratio and albedo properties (A. S. McEwen, 1990), the other on albedo and brightness ratios at different phase angles (P. Lee et al., 1992). A significant diversity of photometric behavior, much broader than that discovered so far on any other icy satellite, occurs among Triton's terrains. Remarkably, differences in photometric behavior do not correlate well with geologic terrain boundaries defined on the basis of surface morphology. This suggests that in most cases photometric properties on Triton are controlled by thin deposits superposed on underlying geologic units. Single scattering albedos are 0.98 or higher and asymmetry factors range from -0.35 to -0.45 for most units. The most distinct scattering behavior is exhibited by the reddish northern units already identified as the Anomalously Scattering Region (ASR), which scatters light almost isotropically with g = -0.04. In part due to the effects of Triton's clouds and haze, it is difficult to constrain the value of bar-theta, Hapke's macroscopic roughness parameter, precisely for Triton or to map differences in bar-theta among the different photometric terrains. However, our study shows that Triton must be relatively smooth, with bar-theta less than 15-20 degs and suggests that a value of 14 degs is appropriate. The differences in photometric characteristics lead to significantly different phase angle behavior for the various terrains. For example, a terrain (e.g., the ASR) that appears dark relative to another at low phase angles will reverse its contrast (become relatively brighter) at larger phase angles. The photometric parameters have been used to calculate hemispherical albedos for the units and to infer likely surface temperatures. Based on these results, we determine that all but the most southerly regions (i.e., mostly south of the equator) of the reddish northern terrains are likely to have been covered with deposits of nitrogen frost at the time of the Voyager flyby, in agreement with the suggestion from the photometry that these units are overlain by a thin veneer of material.

  20. Macromolecular Competition Titration Method: Accessing Thermodynamics of the Unmodified Macromolecule–Ligand Interactions Through Spectroscopic Titrations of Fluorescent Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Bujalowski, Wlodzimierz; Jezewska, Maria J.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of thermodynamically rigorous binding isotherms provides fundamental information about the energetics of the ligand–macromolecule interactions and often an invaluable insight about the structure of the formed complexes. The Macromolecular Competition Titration (MCT) method enables one to quantitatively obtain interaction parameters of protein–nucleic acid interactions, which may not be available by other methods, particularly for the unmodified long polymer lattices and specific nucleic acid substrates, if the binding is not accompanied by adequate spectroscopic signal changes. The method can be applied using different fluorescent nucleic acids or fluorophores, although the etheno-derivatives of nucleic acid are especially suitable as they are relatively easy to prepare, have significant blue fluorescence, their excitation band lies far from the protein absorption spectrum, and the modification eliminates the possibility of base pairing with other nucleic acids. The MCT method is not limited to the specific size of the reference nucleic acid. Particularly, a simple analysis of the competition titration experiments is described in which the fluorescent, short fragment of nucleic acid, spanning the exact site-size of the protein–nucleic acid complex, and binding with only a 1:1 stoichiometry to the protein, is used as a reference macromolecule. Although the MCT method is predominantly discussed as applied to studying protein–nucleic acid interactions, it can generally be applied to any ligand–macromolecule system by monitoring the association reaction using the spectroscopic signal originating from the reference macromolecule in the presence of the competing macromolecule, whose interaction parameters with the ligand are to be determined. PMID:21195223

  1. Dose titration of BAF312 attenuates the initial heart rate reducing effect in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Legangneux, Eric; Gardin, Anne; Johns, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Aim Previous studies have shown transient decreases in heart rate (HR) following administration of sphingosine 1?phosphate (S1P) receptor modulators including BAF312. This study was conducted to determine whether dose titration of BAF312 reduces or eliminates these effects. Methods Fifty?six healthy subjects were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive BAF312 in one of two dose titration (DT) regimens (DT1 and DT2: 0.25–10?mg over 9–10?days), no titration (10?mg starting dose) or placebo. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed. Results Neither DT1 nor DT2 resulted in clinically significant bradycardia or atrioventricular conduction effects. Both titration regimens showed a favourable difference on each of days 1–12 vs. the non?titration regimen on day 1 for HR effects (P < 0.0001). On day 1, the geometric mean ratio of the fraction from the previous day in minimum daily HR between DT1 and non?titration was 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13, 1.23) and 1.14 (95% CI 1.09, 1.18) for DT2 (both P < 0.05) with significant differences noted through to day 12. Non?titration HRs showed considerable separation from placebo throughout the study. There was no statistically significant reduction in HR vs. placebo on day?1 in either titration regimen. On days 3–7 subjects in DT1 and DT2 experienced minor reductions in HR vs. placebo (approximately 5?beats?min?1; P ? 0.0001). From days 9–12, HRs in both titration regimens were comparable with placebo. Conclusion Both titration regimens effectively attenuated the initial bradyarrhythmia observed on day 1 of treatment with BAF312 10?mg. PMID:22845008

  2. Example-Based Photometric Stereo: Shape Reconstruction with General,

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Li

    Example-Based Photometric Stereo: Shape Reconstruction with General, Varying BRDFs Aaron Hertzmann lighting environments. Finally, almost no calibration is needed, making the approach exceptionally simple to apply. Index Terms--Photometric stereo, shape reconstruction, shape-from-shading, bidirectional

  3. An Empirical Photometric Function in Analysis of Clementine Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikodsky, Yu. I.; Kreslavsky, M. A.; Shkuratov, Yu. G.; Akimov, L. A.; Korokhin, V. V.

    1999-03-01

    It is shown that the empirical photometric function presented by Akimov L.A. (1988) give good results if applied to Clementine image data. It secures homogeneous photometric conditions and allows successful prognosis of the lunar surface composition.

  4. Recovery of Fingerprints using Photometric Stereo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. McGunnigle; M. J. Chantler

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of photometric stereo to enhance the recovery of both visible and plastic fingerpr ints. Examples are given that show the recovery of visible prints from rough surfaces and a plastic print from a patterned sur- face. This approach improves the quality of the print by reducing the effects of variations in the background surface. It provides

  5. Relations between some photometric temperature parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meylan, G.; Hauck, B.

    1981-11-01

    The relations between temperature parameters of various photometric systems are given. The photometries concerned are the following: UBVB1B2V1G (Geneva), UBV (Johnson), uvby-beta (Stromgren), UPXYZVS (Vilnius), UBVRIJKLMNH (Johnson), UVBGRI (Stebbins and Whitford). The effects due to the different luminosity classes and to blanketing (Am, Ap and population II dwarf stars) are taken into account.

  6. Ha Emission extraction using Narrowband Photometric Filters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary E. Walker

    2011-01-01

    Maria Mitchell Observatory has explored using Narrowband Photometric (<100A) filters to substitute for spectroscopic observations. The method is thought to have significant signal to noise advantages over spectroscopic observations for small telescopes. These small telescopes offer advantages for projects requiring intensive monitoring where telescope time is limited on larger telescopes. RR Tau, a suspected UXOR, was intensively observed by the

  7. Kohoutek, photometric photography experiment (S233)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, C. A.; Craven, P. D.

    1981-01-01

    The final results of the Skylab 4 experiment S233, Kohoutek photometric photography experiment, which undertook a series of visible light photographs suitable for photometry and for a photographic history of Comet Kohoutek are described. The experiment concept, the data reduction method, and the results obtained are discussed.

  8. Dynamical and photometric investigation of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1980-01-01

    The findings of dynamic and photometric investigations of comets are summarized, and include discussions of the comets Bennett 1970 II, Kohoutek 1973f, West 1976 VI, and periodic comets d'Arrest, Encke, and Swift Tuttle. The phenomena examined include striated and anomalous tails, tail composition and the dynamics of vaporizing dust particles, the evolution of dust jets, and split and dissipating comets.

  9. Simultaneous photometric invariance and shape recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cong Phuoc Huynh; Antonio Robles-Kelly

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we identify the constraints under which the generally ill-posed problem of the simultaneous recovery of surface shape and its photometric invariants can be ren- dered tractable. We examine the cases where a single or more images are acquired using different lighting directions with a known illuminant power spectrum. Given these con- ditions, we state the constraints upon

  10. Faint Photometric Standard Fields for HST

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brad Whitmore; Abi Saha; Peter Stetson; Stefano Casertano; Ralph Bohlin

    2000-01-01

    Some of the most important projects with the most expensive telescope ever built - HST - are hostage to the uncertainty in the absolute calibration of its photometric system. The standard practice in the past has been to calibrate faint objects observed with long exposures against bright stars observed with very short exposures. There is now good evidence that this

  11. Water Content Determination of Rubber Stoppers Utilized for Sealing Lyophilized Pharmaceutical Products: Assessment of Two Karl Fischer Titration Methods

    E-print Network

    Voth, Laura Marie

    2013-08-31

    methods for measurement of the water content of rubber stoppers: a gravimetric method and a Karl Fischer (KF) titration method with oven. A third less common test method is the Karl Fischer titration method with tetrahydrofuran (THF) extraction...

  12. Establishment of a national network of validated and qualified laboratories for neutralizing anti-vaccinia antibodies titration.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Bertrand; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Crance, Jean-Marc; Fleury, Hervé; Garin, Daniel; Gut, Jean-Pierre; Tissier, Marie-Hélène; Fuchs, Florence

    2005-12-01

    A Proficiency Testing Study (PTS) was organized in France by the French Health Products Safety Agency (Afssaps) aiming at assessing the performance of laboratories in performing a neutralizing anti-vaccinia antibodies titration method by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). The ultimate goal was to establish a national network of qualified and validated laboratories. Five laboratories were included in the PTS and four submitted their data. Three samples of human sera containing various immunoglobulin concentrations (a "high" serum: s-576, a "medium" serum: Ref-19584 and a "low" serum: s-483) were tested by PRNT as described in a procedure supplied by Afssaps and developed in each laboratory during preliminary assays. Data were sent to Afssaps which performed the statistical analysis. The overall performance of the four participating laboratories was satisfactory. This allowed the four participating laboratories to be validated and then to be qualified by the Ministry of Health. Finally a national network for anti-vaccinia immunoglobulins titration was established. PMID:16181788

  13. Photometric Color Conversions for Space Surveillance Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, J.

    In order to maximize sensitivity, optical space surveillance sensors use detectors that have good sensitivity over a wide region of the spectrum. For example, the CCD detectors for the Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR) Project, which are nearly identical to the detectors of the Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance System, have good sensitivity over the visible spectrum from 380 nanometers to beyond 1000 nanometers. However, photometric calibration of the intensities of objects (stars, satellites, asteroids, etc.) measured by these systems must be referenced to astronomical star catalogs that were measured over much narrower portions of the available spectrum. For example, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Photometric Database contains photometric measurements in five bandpasses that are each about 150 nanometers wide. This paper will present a method for converting between photometric systems with different bandpasses. The method uses the measured response functions of the detectors of interest along with a model of the spectral transmissivity of the atmosphere (Stone, 1996), and a catalog of stellar spectra (Pickles, 1998) to derive polynomial functions that allow for the conversion of brightness measurements from astronomical catalogs to the bandpass of the sensor. The method has been extensively tested using data from the Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research project in comparison with catalog measurements from the USNO B1.0 astrometric catalog, and the SDSS Photometric Database. Through OPAL (Optical Processing Architecture at Lincoln), this technique is being applied to ground-based and space-based sensors including the Space-Based Visible (SBV) system, the Space-Based Space Surveillance (SBSS) system, and the Space Surveillance Telescope (SST).

  14. A PHOTOMETRIC MODEL OF THE INCLINED F RING OF SATURN

    E-print Network

    Richardson Jr., James E.

    create a photometric model of the ring system with the F ring inclined to the main ring plane which reA PHOTOMETRIC MODEL OF THE INCLINED F RING OF SATURN A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty RESERVED #12;A PHOTOMETRIC MODEL OF THE INCLINED F RING OF SATURN Britt Rebecca Scharringhausen, Ph

  15. Uncalibrated Photometric Stereo for Unknown Isotropic Reflectances Yasuyuki Matsushita2

    E-print Network

    Bernstein, Phil

    Uncalibrated Photometric Stereo for Unknown Isotropic Reflectances Feng Lu1 Yasuyuki Matsushita2@microsoft.com, imarik@nii.ac.jp Abstract We propose an uncalibrated photometric stereo method that works with general are performed using both synthetic and real-world scenes. 1. Introduction Photometric stereo recovers

  16. Survey of the year 2008: applications of isothermal titration calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Falconer, Robert J; Penkova, Anita; Jelesarov, Ilian; Collins, Brett M

    2010-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a fast, accurate and label-free method for measuring the thermodynamics and binding affinities of molecular associations in solution. Because the method will measure any reaction that results in a heat change, it is applicable to many different fields of research from biomolecular science, to drug design and materials engineering, and can be used to measure binding events between essentially any type of biological or chemical ligand. ITC is the only method that can directly measure binding energetics including Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity changes. Not only binding thermodynamics but also catalytic reactions, conformational rearrangements, changes in protonation and molecular dissociations can be readily quantified by performing only a small number of ITC experiments. In this review, we highlight some of the particularly interesting reports from 2008 employing ITC, with a particular focus on protein interactions with other proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and drugs. As is tradition in these reviews we have not attempted a comprehensive analysis of all 500 papers using ITC, but emphasize those reports that particularly captured our interest and that included more thorough discussions we consider exemplify the power of the technique and might serve to inspire other users. PMID:20213668

  17. Enzyme kinetics determined by single-injection isothermal titration calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Transtrum, Mark K; Hansen, Lee D; Quinn, Colette

    2015-04-01

    The purposes of this paper are (a) to examine the effect of calorimeter time constant (?) on heat rate data from a single enzyme injection into substrate in an isothermal titration calorimeter (ITC), (b) to provide information that can be used to predict the optimum experimental conditions for determining the rate constant (k2), Michaelis constant (KM), and enthalpy change of the reaction (?RH), and (c) to describe methods for evaluating these parameters. We find that KM, k2 and ?RH can be accurately estimated without correcting for the calorimeter time constant, ?, if (k2E/KM), where E is the total active enzyme concentration, is between 0.1/? and 1/? and the reaction goes to at least 99% completion. If experimental conditions are outside this domain and no correction is made for ?, errors in the inferred parameters quickly become unreasonable. A method for fitting single-injection data to the Michaelis-Menten or Briggs-Haldane model to simultaneously evaluate KM, k2, ?RH, and ? is described and validated with experimental data. All four of these parameters can be accurately inferred provided the reaction time constant (k2E/KM) is larger than 1/? and the data include enzyme saturated conditions. PMID:25497059

  18. Titration of the gap junction protein Connexin43 reduces atherogenesis.

    PubMed

    Morel, S; Chanson, M; Nguyen, T D; Glass, A M; Richani Sarieddine, M Z; Meens, M J; Burnier, L; Kwak, B R; Taffet, S M

    2014-08-01

    Ubiquitous reduction of the gap junction protein Connexin43 (Cx43) in mice provides beneficial effects on progression and composition of atherosclerotic lesions. Cx43 is expressed in multiple atheroma-associated cells but its function in each cell type is not known. To examine specifically the role of Cx43 in immune cells, we have lethally irradiated low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice and reconstituted with Cx43+/+, Cx43+/- or Cx43-/- haematopoietic fetal liver cells. Progression of atherosclerosis was significantly lower in aortic roots of Cx43+/- chimeras compared with Cx43+/+ and Cx43-/- chimeras, and their plaques contained significantly less neutrophils. The relative proportion of circulating leukocytes was similar between the three groups. Interestingly, the chemoattraction of neutrophils, which did not express Cx43, was reduced in response to supernatant secreted by Cx43+/- macrophages in comparison with the ones of Cx43+/+ and Cx43-/- macrophages. Cx43+/- macrophages did not differ from Cx43+/+ and Cx43-/- macrophages in terms of M1/M2 polarisation but show modified gene expression for a variety chemokines and complement components. In conclusion, titration of Cx43 expression in bone marrow-derived macrophages reduces atherosclerotic plaque formation and chemoattraction of neutrophils to the lesions. PMID:24828015

  19. The titration of the active centers of cellobiohydrolase from Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitch, M L; Klyosov, A A; Melnick, M S

    1986-08-01

    A novel approach has been developed for the titration of enzyme active centers and for the determination of the molecular activity of enzymes. It is based on the simultaneous use of a nonspecific chromogenic substrate and a specific ligand (a substrate or an inhibitor), the latter being tightly bound with the enzyme's active center. The approach is demonstrated using the titration (that is, the determination of the molar concentration of the enzyme active centers) of purified cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I) (EC 3.2.1.91) of the fungus Trichoderma reesei. p-Nitrophenyl-beta-D-lactoside was used as a reference substrate (Km = 0.5 mM), and cellobiose and CM-cellulose as specific ligands. The molecular weight of CBH I as it was determined by the titration with cellobiose was 42,000 +/- 3,000. The inhibition constant by cellobiose was (6 +/- 1) X 10(-6) M. The value of the catalytic constant for the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-lactoside calculated from the titration data was equal to 0.063 s-1. CM-cellulose turned out to be more efficient titration agent for cellobiohydrolase than cellobiose, and might be used for the titration of the enzyme in concentrations of the latter of 0.008-0.02 mg/ml. The titration data showed that the inhibition constant of CM-cellulose toward CBH I was equal to (1.0 +/- 0.2) X 10(-7) M. PMID:3766948

  20. T. PAPADHIMITRI & P. FAVARO: UNCALIBRATED NEAR-LIGHT PHOTOMETRIC STEREO 1 Uncalibrated Near-Light Photometric Stereo

    E-print Network

    Sola, Rolf Haenni

    shading [14, 24, 32, 33] and calibrated photometric stereo [3, 10, 11, 16, 17, 19, 25] techniquesT. PAPADHIMITRI & P. FAVARO: UNCALIBRATED NEAR-LIGHT PHOTOMETRIC STEREO 1 Uncalibrated Near-Light Photometric Stereo Thoma Papadhimitri http://www.cvg.unibe.ch Paolo Favaro http://www.cvg.unibe.ch Universität

  1. Comparison of methods for accurate end-point detection of potentiometric titrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villela, R. L. A.; Borges, P. P.; Vysko?il, L.

    2015-01-01

    Detection of the end point in potentiometric titrations has wide application on experiments that demand very low measurement uncertainties mainly for certifying reference materials. Simulations of experimental coulometric titration data and consequential error analysis of the end-point values were conducted using a programming code. These simulations revealed that the Levenberg-Marquardt method is in general more accurate than the traditional second derivative technique used currently as end-point detection for potentiometric titrations. Performance of the methods will be compared and presented in this paper.

  2. Multispectral photometric stereo for acquiring high-fidelity surface normals.

    PubMed

    Nam, Giljoo; Kim, Min H

    2014-01-01

    Multispectral imaging and photometric stereo are common in 3D imaging but rarely have been combined. Reconstructing a 3D object's shape using photometric stereo is challenging owing to indirect illumination, specular reflection, and self-shadows, and removing interreflection in photometric stereo is problematic. A new multispectral photometric-stereo method removes interreflection on diffuse materials using multispectral-reflectance information and reconstructs 3D shapes with high accuracy. You can integrate this method into photometric-stereo systems by simply substituting the original camera with a multispectral camera. PMID:25216479

  3. A Spectroscopic and Photometric Study of Gravitational Microlensing Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Stephen R.

    2000-08-01

    Gravitational microlensing has generated a great deal of scientific interest over recent years. This has been largely due to the realization of its wide-reaching applications, such as the search for dark matter, the detection of planets, and the study of Galactic structure. A significant observational advance has been that most microlensing events can be identified in real-time while the source is still being lensed. More than 400 microlensing events have now been detected towards the Galactic bulge and Magellanic Clouds by the microlensing survey teams EROS, MACHO, OGLE, DUO, and MOA. The real-time detection of these events allows detailed follow-up observations with much denser sampling, both photometrically and spectroscopically. The research undertaken in this project on photometric studies of gravitational microlensing events has been performed as a member of the PLANET (Probing Lensing Anomalies NETwork) collaboration. This is a worldwide collaboration formed in the early part of 1995 to study microlensing anomalies - departures from an achromatic point source, point lens light curve - through rapidly-sampled, multi-band, photometry. PLANET has demonstrated that it can achieve 1% photometry under ideal circumstances, making PLANET observations sensitive to detection of Earth-mass planets which require characterization of 1%--2% deviations from a standard microlensing light curve. The photometric work in this project involved over 5 months using the 1.0 m telescope at Canopus Observatory in Australia, and 3 separate observing runs using the 0.9 m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile. Methods were developed to reduce the vast amount of photometric data using the image analysis software MIDAS and the photometry package DoPHOT. Modelling routines were then written to analyse a selection of the resulting light curves in order to detect any deviation from an achromatic point source - point lens light curve. The photometric results presented in this thesis are from observations of 34 microlensing events over three consecutive bulge seasons. These results are presented along with a discussion of the observations and the data reduction procedures. The colour-magnitude diagrams indicate that the microlensed sources are main sequence and red clump giant stars. Most of the events appear to exhibit standard Paczynski point source - point lens curves whilst a few deviate significantly from the standard model. Various microlensing models that include anomalous structure are fitted to a selection of the observed events resulting in the discovery of a possible binary source event. These fitted events are used to estimate the sensitivity to extra-solar planets and it is found that the sampling rate for these events was insufficient by about a factor of 7.5 for detecting a Jupiter-mass planet. This result assumes that deviations of 5% can be reliably detected. If microlensing is caused predominantly by bulge stars, as has been suggested by Kiraga and Paczynski, the lensed stars should have larger extinction than other observed stars since they would preferentially be located at the far side of the Galactic bulge. Hence, spectroscopy of Galactic microlensing events may be used as a tool for studying the kinematics and extinction effects in the Galactic bulge. The spectroscopic work in this project involved using Kurucz model spectra to create theoretical extinction effects for various spectral classes towards the Galactic centre. These extinction effects are then used to interpret spectroscopic data taken with the 3.6 m ESO telescope. These data consist of a sample of microlensed stars towards the Galactic bulge and are used to derive the extinction offsets of the lensed source with respect to the average population and a measurement of the fraction of bulge-bulge lensing is made. Hence, it is shown statistically that the microlensed sources are generally located on the far side of the Galactic bulge. Measurements of the radial velocities of these sources are used to determine the kinematic properti

  4. Circular dichroism-inhibitor titrations of arsanilazotyrosine-248 carboxypeptidase A.

    PubMed

    Johansen, J T; Klyosov, A A; Vallee, B L

    1976-01-27

    Coupling of carboxypeptidase with diazotized arsanilic acid specifically modifies a single tyrosyl residue. Yet, owing to the fact that the resultant azoTyr-248 can form an intramolecular chelate with zinc, two different circular dichroism probes result: azoTyr-248 itself and the azoTyr-248-Zn chelate. Both are environmentally sensitive and, characteristically, each can signal the same or different perturbations, as is apparent from circular dichroic spectra. This dual probe function greatly magnifies the scope of these chromophores in mapping the topography of the active center with respect to sites of interaction of inhibitors (or substrates). Titration of the azoenzyme with a series of synthetic, competitive inhibitors, e.g., L-benzylsuccinate, L-phenyllactate, and L-Phe, and with the pseudosubstrate, Gly-L-Tyr, in turn generates characteristic circular dichroic spectra. Their analysis yields a single binding constant for each of these agents, one molecule of each binding to the active center. Mixed inhibitions, as seen with beta-phenylpropionate and phenylacetate, resolved previously into competitive and noncompetitive components, are characterized by different spectral effects. Two molecules of these agents bind to the enzyme, consistent with both thermodynamic and enzymatic studies. The interactions leading to competitive and noncompetitive inhibition, respectively, can be recognized and assigned, based on the manner in which the extrema at 340 and 420 nm, reflecting azoTyr-248, and the negative 510-nm circular dichroism band, typical of its chelate with zinc, are affected and on the pH dependence of spectral and kinetic data. Certai4 noncompetitive inhibitors and modifiers induce yet other spectral features. Each probe is very sensitive to changes in its particular active center environment, though both can be relatively insensitive to inhibitors interacting at a distance from the active center. PMID:1247518

  5. A Photometric Search for Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, S. B.; Everett, M.; Davis, D. R.; Weidenschilling, S. J.; McGruder, C. H., III; Gelderman, R.

    2000-10-01

    We describe a new program for the photometric detection of extrasolar planets using the 1.3 m telescope on Kitt Peak, which will be operated by a consortium of universities headed by Western Kentucky Univ. and including South Carolina State Univ., Planetary Science Institute, Boston Univ., and UC-Berkeley (SSL). This approach will complement the existing, highly successful, spectroscopic searches. The theory of photometric transit detection has been discussed by a number of authors (e.g. Borucki & Summers 1984; Howell & Merline 1995; Howell et al. 1996) and shown to be well within the capabilities of both photomultiplier and CCD observations. The first photometric transit detection was recently accomplished for the spectroscopically discovered planet orbiting HD209458 (Henry et al. 2000). The detection of extrasolar planet transits requires high photometric precision rather than accuracy. The necessary photometric precision to detect Jupiter-, Neptune-, and Earth-sized planets in orbit around F-M dwarfs is 1%, 0.1% and 0.00001%, respectively. The required precision to observe transits by Jupiter-sized extrasolar planets is easily obtained with modern CCD detectors and the differential ensemble photometric techniques pioneered by Howell et al. (1988). The use of such a technique for ultra-high precision photometry has been described in numerous papers (Charbonneau et al. 2000, Howell 2000, plus many others). Everett and Howell recently used the Kitt Peak NOAO 0.9 m telescope with the wide-field MOSAIC camera to search for extrasolar planet transits. During this run, they achieved a photometric precision of 0.024% for this dataset. With the 1.3 m telescope, we expect to reach a photometric precision of ~ 0.01% (10-4 mag). Our consortium has recently begun to refurbish and automate the 1.3 m telescope, which will be known as the Remote-Controlled Telescope (RCT). The primary instrument will be a CCD camera with a SITe 2048 x 2048 CCD having pixel well depths of 363,000 electrons, read noise of 5 electrons, and quantum efficiency of 80% between 4000 and 7000 Angstroms. The camera will be able to image a 20 x 20 arcmin field of view with 0.6 arcsec/pixel to provide well-sampled PSFs. About 40% of the time on the RCT will be devoted to the search for extrasolar planets. Search observations are expected to begin in mid-2001. References: Borucki & Summers 1984, Icarus 58:121; Charbonneau et al. 2000, ApJ 529:L45; Henry et al. 2000, ApJ 529:L41; Howell 2000, Handbook of CCD Astronomy, Cambridge Univ. Press; Howell et al. 1996, AJ 112:1302; Howell & Merline 1995, Exp. Ast. 6:163; Howell et al. 1988, AJ 95:247.

  6. Application of photometric models to asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowell, Edward; Hapke, Bruce; Domingue, Deborah; Lumme, Kari; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Harris, Alan W.

    1989-01-01

    The way an asteroid or other atmosphereless solar system body varies in brightness in response to changing illumination and viewing geometry depends in a very complicated way on the physical and optical properties of its surface and on its overall shape. This paper summarizes the formulation and application of recent photometric models by Hapke (1981, 1984, 1986) and by Lumme and Bowell (1981). In both models, the brightness of a rough and porous surface is parameterized in terms of the optical properties of individual particles, by shadowing between particles, and by the way in which light is scattered among collections of particles. Both models succeed in their goal of fitting the observed photometric behavior of a wide variety of bodies, but neither has led to a very complete understanding of the properties of asteroid regoliths, primarily because, in most cases, the parameters in the present models cannot be adequately constrained by observations of integral brightness alone over a restricted range of phase angles.

  7. Photometric reverberation mapping of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramolla, M.; Pozo, F.; Westhues, C.; Haas, M.; Chini, R.; Steenbrugge, K.; Lemke, R.; Murphy, M.

    2014-12-01

    Photometric reverberation mapping is a novel method used to determine the size and geometry of the broad line region (BLR) in active galactic nuclei (AGN) as well as their host galaxy free luminosities. Establishing a tight luminosity - BLR-size relation may allow type-1 AGN to be used as cosmological distance probes. However, the quality of the results is most sensible to dense time sampling and continuity of the photometric lightcurves. This demands an observatory, with optimal environmental conditions, like the "Universitätssternwarte Bochum", located in the Atacama Desert in Chile. The massive amount of observations are controlled robotically, adapting observational schedules of the telescopes to the weather conditions. Here we present one of the first promising results of our studies.

  8. Photometric redshifts and k-corrections for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Mill, Ana Laura; Duplancic, Fernanda; García Lambas, Diego; Sodré, Laerte, Jr.

    2011-05-01

    We present a catalogue of galaxy photometric redshifts and k-corrections for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7), available on the World Wide Web. The photometric redshifts were estimated with an artificial neural network using five ugriz bands, concentration indices and Petrosian radii in the g and r bands. We have explored our redshift estimates with different training sets, thus concluding that the best choice for improving redshift accuracy comprises the main galaxy sample (MGS), the luminous red galaxies and the galaxies of active galactic nuclei covering the redshift range 0 < z? 0.3. For the MGS, the photometric redshift estimates agree with the spectroscopic values within rms = 0.0227. The distribution of photometric redshifts derived in the range 0 < zphot? 0.6 agrees well with the model predictions. k-corrections were derived by calibration of the K-CORRECT_V4.2 code results for the MGS with the reference-frame (z= 0.1) (g-r) colours. We adopt a linear dependence of k-corrections on redshift and (g-r) colours that provide suitable distributions of luminosity and colours for galaxies up to redshift zphot= 0.6 comparable to the results in the literature. Thus, our k-correction estimate procedure is a powerful, low computational time algorithm capable of reproducing suitable results that can be used for testing galaxy properties at intermediate redshifts using the large SDSS data base.

  9. Photometric Redshifts of Galaxies in COSMOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Mobasher; P. Capak; N. Z. Scoville; T. Dahlen; M. Salvato; H. Aussel; D. J. Thompson; R. Feldmann; L. Tasca; O. Le Fevre; S. Lilly; C. M. Carollo; J. S. Kartaltepe; H. McCracken; J. Mould; A. Renzini; D. B. Sanders; P. L. Shopbell; Y. Taniguchi; M. Ajiki; Y. Shioya; T. Contini; M. Giavalisco; O. Ilbert; A. Iovino; V. Le Brun; V. Mainieri; M. Mignoli; M. Scodeggio

    2007-01-01

    We present photometric redshifts for the COSMOS survey derived from a new code, optimized to yield accurate and reliable redshifts and spectral types of galaxies down to faint magnitudes and redshifts out to z~1.2. The technique uses chi2 template fitting, combined with luminosity function priors and with the option to estimate the internal extinction [or E(B-V)]. The median most probable

  10. Photometric determination of trace uranium(VI), phosphorus(V), arsenic(V), and vanadium(V) in saturated aqueous solutions of poorly soluble compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Gur’ev; A. A. Kalugin; R. V. Abrazheev; O. V. Nipruk; O. A. Egorova

    2000-01-01

    A procedure for extraction-photometric determination of uranium(VI) was developed and procedures for the determination of\\u000a phosphorus(V), arsenic(V), and vanadium(V) were modernized. The solubility of some poorly soluble uranium compounds in aqueous\\u000a solutions was determined.

  11. Improving LSST Photometric Calibration with Gaia Data

    E-print Network

    Axelrod, Tim

    2014-01-01

    We consider the possibility that the Gaia mission can supply data which will improve the photometric calibration of LSST. After outlining the LSST calibra- tion process and the information that will be available from Gaia, we explore two options for using Gaia data. The first is to use Gaia G-band photometry of selected stars, in conjunction with knowledge of the stellar parameters Teff, log g, and AV, and in some cases Z, to create photometric standards in the LSST u, g, r, i, z, and y bands. The accuracies of the resulting standard magnitudes are found to be insufficient to satisfy LSST requirements when generated from main sequence (MS) stars, but generally adequate from DA white dwarfs (WD). The second option is combine the LSST bandpasses into a synthetic Gaia G band, which is a close approximation to the real Gaia G band. This allows synthetic Gaia G photometry to be directly compared with actual Gaia G photometry at a level of accuracy which is useful for both verifying and improving LSST photometric c...

  12. Improving LSST Photometric Calibration with Gaia Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axelrod, Tim; Miller, Calder

    2014-12-01

    We consider the possibility that the Gaia mission can supply data which will improve the photometric calibration of LSST. After outlining the LSST calibration process and the information that will be available from Gaia, we explore two options for using Gaia data. The first is to use Gaia G-band photometry of selected stars, in conjunction with knowledge of the stellar parameters Teff, log g, and AV, and in some cases Z, to create photometric standards in the LSST u, g, r, i, z, and y bands. We consider both main sequence (MS) stars and DA white dwarfs (WD). The accuracies of the resulting standard magnitudes from MS stars are found to be insufficient to satisfy LSST requirements using Gaia data alone, but with the potential to do so when supplemented with ground-based spectroscopy. The accuracies of the WD derived standards are generally adequate, but also require ground-based spectroscopy. The second option is combine the LSST bandpasses into a synthetic Gaia G band, which is a close approximation to the real Gaia G band. This allows synthetic Gaia G photometry to be directly compared with actual Gaia G photometry at a level of accuracy which is useful for both verifying and improving LSST photometric calibration.

  13. A Blind Test of Hapke's Photometric Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfenstein, P.; Shepard, M. K.

    2003-01-01

    Hapke's bidirectional reflectance equation is a versatile analytical tool for predicting (i.e. forward modeling) the photometric behavior of a particulate surface from the observed optical and structural properties of its constituents. Remote sensing applications of Hapke s model, however, generally seek to predict the optical and structural properties of particulate soil constituents from the observed photometric behavior of a planetary surface (i.e. inverse-modeling). Our confidence in the latter approach can be established only if we ruthlessly test and optimize it. Here, we summarize preliminary results from a blind-test of the Hapke model using laboratory measurements obtained with the Bloomsburg University Goniometer (B.U.G.). The first author selected eleven well-characterized powder samples and measured the spectrophotometric behavior of each. A subset of twenty undisclosed examples of the photometric measurement sets were sent to the second author who fit the data using the Hapke model and attempted to interpret their optical and mechanical properties from photometry alone.

  14. Calibration in temperature of photometric parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauck, B.

    In calibrating photometric parameters in temperature, it is very easy to use a Planck distribution to show that a color index is a temperature parameter, but it is more difficult to calibrate such a color index in terms of temperature because only a few effective temperature values are determined. A pioneering work is that of Kuiper (1938), who derived a temperature scale according to spectral type (from A0 to M2 for dwarfs and from G0 to M8 for giants) and a Becker index. The first study giving a relation between effective temperature and a photoelectric color index is that of Popper (1959) in which Popper derives a relation between effective temperature and B-V for the A and F stars and for G8 to K5 (dwarf and giant) stars. Popper has shown the relation between temperature parameters of two photometric systems, R-I from the six-color system of Stebbins and Whitford, and B-V. The intent of the present work is to define a set of stars which can be used to determine a calibration of a photometric parameter in terms of effective temperature.

  15. Photometric Defocus Observations of Transiting Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinse, Tobias C.; Han, Wonyong; Yoon, Joh-Na; Lee, Chung-Uk; Kim, Yong-Gi; Kim, Chun-Hwey

    2015-03-01

    We have carried out photometric follow-up observations of bright transiting extrasolar planets using the CbNUOJ 0.6 m telescope. We have tested the possibility of obtaining high photometric precision by applying the telescope defocus technique, allowing the use of several hundred seconds in exposure time for a single measurement. We demonstrate that this technique is capable of obtaining a root-mean-square scatter of sub-millimagnitude order over several hours for a V ~10 host star, typical for transiting planets detected from ground-based survey facilities. We compared our results with transit observations from a telescope operated in in-focus mode. High photometric precision was obtained due to the collection of a larger amount of photons, resulting in a higher signal compared to other random and systematic noise sources. Accurate telescope tracking is likely to further contribute to lowering systematic noise by exposing the same pixels on the CCD. Furthermore, a longer exposure time helps reduce the effect of scintillation noise which otherwise has a significant effect for small-aperture telescopes operated in in-focus mode. Finally we present the results of modelling four light-curves in which a root-mean-square scatter of 0.70 to 2.3 milli-magnitudes was achieved.

  16. Photometric defocus observations of transiting extrasolar planets

    E-print Network

    Hinse, Tobias C; Yoon, Jo-Na; Lee, Chung-Uk; Kim, Yong-Gi; Kim, Chun-Hwey

    2015-01-01

    We have carried out photometric follow-up observations of bright transiting extrasolar planets using the CbNUOJ 0.6m telescope. We have tested the possibility of obtaining high photometric precision by applying the telescope defocus technique allowing the use of several hundred seconds in exposure time for a single measurement. We demonstrate that this technique is capable of obtaining a root-mean-square scatter of order sub-millimagnitude over several hours for a V $\\sim$ 10 host star typical for transiting planets detected from ground-based survey facilities. We compare our results with transit observations with the telescope operated in in-focus mode. High photometric precision is obtained due to the collection of a larger amount of photons resulting in a higher signal compared to other random and systematic noise sources. Accurate telescope tracking is likely to further contribute to lowering systematic noise by probing the same pixels on the CCD. Furthermore, a longer exposure time helps reducing the eff...

  17. Can Selforganizing Maps Accurately Predict Photometric Redshifts?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, Michael J.; Klose, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We present an unsupervised machine-learning approach that can be employed for estimating photometric redshifts. The proposed method is based on a vector quantization called the self-organizing-map (SOM) approach. A variety of photometrically derived input values were utilized from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's main galaxy sample, luminous red galaxy, and quasar samples, along with the PHAT0 data set from the Photo-z Accuracy Testing project. Regression results obtained with this new approach were evaluated in terms of root-mean-square error (RMSE) to estimate the accuracy of the photometric redshift estimates. The results demonstrate competitive RMSE and outlier percentages when compared with several other popular approaches, such as artificial neural networks and Gaussian process regression. SOM RMSE results (using delta(z) = z(sub phot) - z(sub spec)) are 0.023 for the main galaxy sample, 0.027 for the luminous red galaxy sample, 0.418 for quasars, and 0.022 for PHAT0 synthetic data. The results demonstrate that there are nonunique solutions for estimating SOM RMSEs. Further research is needed in order to find more robust estimation techniques using SOMs, but the results herein are a positive indication of their capabilities when compared with other well-known methods

  18. An isoperibol calorimeter for the investigation of biochemical kinetics and isothermal titration calorimetry

    E-print Network

    Amadi, Ovid Charles

    2007-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry is a technique used to measure the enthalpy change associated with a molecular binding interaction. From these data, the binding constant for the reaction can be determined. In the scope ...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 425 - Potassium Ferricyanide Titration Method

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...not titrated under the conditions of the determination (Charlot, “Ann. chim, anal,”, 1945, 27, 153; Booth; “J. Soc. Leather Trades' Chemists,” 1956, 40, 238). Apparatus Burrette, 10 ml. Reagents 1. Preparation of...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 425 - Potassium Ferricyanide Titration Method

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...not titrated under the conditions of the determination (Charlot, “Ann. chim, anal,”, 1945, 27, 153; Booth; “J. Soc. Leather Trades' Chemists,” 1956, 40, 238). Apparatus Burrette, 10 ml. Reagents 1. Preparation of...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 425 - Potassium Ferricyanide Titration Method

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...not titrated under the conditions of the determination (Charlot, “Ann. chim, anal,”, 1945, 27, 153; Booth; “J. Soc. Leather Trades' Chemists,” 1956, 40, 238). Apparatus Burrette, 10 ml. Reagents 1. Preparation of...

  2. Simple home-made sensors for potentiometric titrations. [Nitroform CH(NO/sub 2/)/sub 3/

    SciTech Connect

    Selig, W.

    1982-04-01

    A sensor for potentiometric titrations was prepared by coating a spectroscopic graphite rod with a solution of poly(vinyl chloride) and dioctyphthalate in tetrahydrofuran. The reference electrode was an Ag/AgCl single-junction electrode. The sensor was used in precipitation, acid-base, compleximetric, and redox titrations. Preparation of the coated-graphite sensor is simple and rapid. Moreover, it is quite inexpensive. A limitation is its applicability in aqueous media only, because organic solvents will dissolve the membrane. Various uncoated types of graphite have also been investigated as sensors, particularly in two applications of interest in the analysis of propellants: the titration of nitroform and perchlorate. Obviously, these sensors can be used also in nonaqueous, or partially nonaqueous media. These sensors may also find use in the potentiometric titration of fluoride vs La(III) or Th(IV).

  3. Expenditures Associated with Dose Titration At Initiation of Therapy in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Fabian; Kong, Meg C.; Sheehan, David V.; Balkrishnan, Rajesh

    2010-01-01

    Objective. Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are considered cost-effective medications for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), significant dosage adjustments are often necessary when treatment is initiated. Our study was conducted to examine whether dose titration for SSRIs at initiation of therapy was associated with a greater use of health care resources and higher costs. Study Design. A retrospective database analysis was conducted. Methods. A nationally representative cohort of individuals with MDD was identified in a large managed care claims database between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2006. A study-specific titration algorithm was used to identify patients who underwent dose titration, compared with those who did not, within the first eight weeks of initiating SSRI therapy. We calculated propensity scores and identified a 1:1 matched cohort of titration versus non-titration patients. We used univariate and multivariate statistical tests to compare the mean number of therapeutic days, health care service utilization, and expenditures between the two groups during the first eight weeks (56 days) of treatment and six months (180 days) after treatment began. Results. Over the first eight weeks, the titration cohort had a 32% decrease in the adjusted mean number of therapeutic days (38 vs. 56, respectively; P < 0.001), a 50% increase in depression-related outpatient visits (1.8 vs. 1.2; P < 0.001), a 38% increase in depression-related outpatient costs ($137 vs. $81; P ? 0.001), an increase in antidepressant pharmacy costs ($139 vs. $61; P < 0.001), and a 64% increase in psychiatric visits (0.69 vs. 0.42; P = 0.001), compared with the matched non-titration cohort. These differences were consistent among individual SSRI groups as well as during the six-month period. Conclusion. Patients undergoing dose titration of SSRIs at the beginning of therapy consumed more medical resources and spent more days receiving a subtherapeutic dose than a comparable control group without dose titration. Differences in the utilization of resources were consistent with increased patient monitoring in the titration group; however, the added benefit of titration could not be assessed with this database. PMID:20844695

  4. Pulsating potentiometric titration technique for assay of dissolved oxygen in water at trace level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Sahoo; R. Ananthanarayanan; N. Malathi; M. P. Rajiniganth; N. Murali; P. Swaminathan

    2010-01-01

    A simple but high performance potentiometric titration technique using pulsating sensors has been developed for assay of dissolved oxygen (DO) in water samples down to 10.0?gL?1 levels. The technique involves Winkler titration chemistry, commonly used for determination of dissolved oxygen in water at mgL?1 levels, with modification in methodology for accurate detection of end point even at 10.0?gL?1 levels DO

  5. Unusual properties of crocodilian ovomacroglobulin shown in its methylamine treatment and sulfhydryl titration

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, H.; Osada, T.; Ikai, A.

    1986-02-01

    The inhibitory activity of chicken and crocodilian ovomacroglobulins against trypsin was measured before and after their incubation with methylamine. The result for crocodilian ovomacroglobulin showed that methylamine treatment destroyed half of its activity, in unique contrast to human alpha 2-macroglobulin and chicken ovomacroglobulin for which methylamine either destroys the inhibitory activity of the former completely or does not affect that of the latter at all. Free sulfhydryl groups of chicken and crocodilian ovomacroglobulins were titrated with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) before and after incubation with trypsin. Prior to the incubation with trypsin the chicken and crocodilian proteins respectively had 0 and 1 titratable sulfhydryl per molecule of Mr 720,000. After treatment with trypsin the crocodilian protein had 3.5-4 titratable sulfhydryls, whereas there were no titratable sulfhydryls in the chicken protein. After denaturation of the crocodilian protein in sodium dodecyl sulfate at 100 degrees C the number of titratable sulfhydryls was 4. Chicken ovomacroglobulin again did not have an appreciable number of titratable sulfhydryls under similar denaturing conditions. Incubation of crocodilian protein with (14C)methylamine showed an incorporation of at least 2 mol of methylamine per molecule. The result indicated the presence of three intramolecular thiol ester bonds in crocodilian ovomacroglobulin with differential stability against external perturbations.

  6. Rapid Titration of Measles and Other Viruses: Optimization with Determination of Replication Cycle Length

    PubMed Central

    Grigorov, Boyan; Rabilloud, Jessica; Lawrence, Philip; Gerlier, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Background Measles virus (MV) is a member of the Paramyxoviridae family and an important human pathogen causing strong immunosuppression in affected individuals and a considerable number of deaths worldwide. Currently, measles is a re-emerging disease in developed countries. MV is usually quantified in infectious units as determined by limiting dilution and counting of plaque forming unit either directly (PFU method) or indirectly from random distribution in microwells (TCID50 method). Both methods are time-consuming (up to several days), cumbersome and, in the case of the PFU assay, possibly operator dependent. Methods/Findings A rapid, optimized, accurate, and reliable technique for titration of measles virus was developed based on the detection of virus infected cells by flow cytometry, single round of infection and titer calculation according to the Poisson's law. The kinetics follow up of the number of infected cells after infection with serial dilutions of a virus allowed estimation of the duration of the replication cycle, and consequently, the optimal infection time. The assay was set up to quantify measles virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) using antibody labeling of viral glycoprotein, virus encoded fluorescent reporter protein and an inducible fluorescent-reporter cell line, respectively. Conclusion Overall, performing the assay takes only 24–30 hours for MV strains, 12 hours for VSV, and 52 hours for HIV-1. The step-by-step procedure we have set up can be, in principle, applicable to accurately quantify any virus including lentiviral vectors, provided that a virus encoded gene product can be detected by flow cytometry. PMID:21915289

  7. Calcium-buffering effects of gluconate and nucleotides, as determined by a novel fluorimetric titration method.

    PubMed

    Woehler, Andrew; Lin, Kun-Han; Neher, Erwin

    2014-11-15

    Significantly more Ca(2+) influx is required for eliciting release of neurotransmitter during whole cell patch clamp recording in the Calyx of Held, when gluconate with 3 mm free ATP is used as pipette filling solution, as compared to a methanesulfonate-based solution with excess Mg(2+). This reduction in efficiency of Ca(2+) in eliciting release is due to low-affinity Ca(2+) binding of both gluconate and ATP(2-) anions. To study these effects we developed a simple fluorimeteric titration procedure, which reports the dissociation constant, KD, of a given Ca(2+) indicator dye, multiplied by 1 plus the sum of Ca(2+) binding ratios of any anions, which act as low-affinity Ca(2+) ligands. For solutions without Ca(2+) binding anions we find KD values for Fura2FF ranging from 11.5 ± 1.7 to 15.6 ± 7.47 ?m depending on the dominant anion used. For Fura6F and KCl-based solutions we find KD = 17.8 ± 1.3 ?m. For solutions with gluconate as the main anion and for solutions that contain nucleotides, such as ATP and GTP, we find much higher values for the product. Assuming that the KD of the indicator dye is equal to that of KCl-based solutions we calculate the summed Ca(2+) binding ratios and find a value of 3.55 for a solution containing 100 mm potassium gluconate and 4 mm ATP. Gluconate contributes a value of 1.75 to this number, while the contribution of ATP depends strongly on the presence of Mg(2+) and varies from 0.8 (with excess Mg(2+)) to 13.8 (in the presence of 3 mm free ATP). Methanesulfonate has negligible Ca(2+) binding capacity. These results explain the reduced efficiency of Ca(2+) influx in the presence of gluconate or nucleotides, as these anions are expected to intercept Ca(2+) ions at short distance. PMID:25194050

  8. Atmospheric Emissions Photometric Imaging (AEPI) experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mende, S. B.

    1988-01-01

    Space plasma physics will be studied on the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS 1) NASA mission during the Atmospheric Emissions Photometric Imaging (AEPI) experiment. The basic scientific objective of the AEPI is the investigation of the upper atmosphere-ionosphere and the space shuttle environment. The experiment areas of the AEPI include: (1) the investigation of ionospheric transport processes by observing Mg(+) ions; (2) studies of optical properties of artificially induced electron beams; (3) measurement of electron cross sections for selected atmospheric species; (4) studies of natural airglow; and (5) studies of natural auroras. On ATLAS 1, optical emissions generated by the shuttle (shuttle ram glow) will also be investigated.

  9. Photometric functions for photoclinometry and other applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcewen, Alfred S.

    1991-01-01

    The simpler Minnaert and lunar-Lambert functions, which are needed to reduce the number of unknown parameters in photoclinometry, are presently given least-squares fits to the brightness profiles across a disk, or 'limb darkening', described by Hapke's photometric function. The variation of limb darkening with single-scattering albedo and the particle-phase function's asymmetry factor are reduced of eliminated when the Hapke parameters are in the range representative of most planetary surfaces, thereby simplifying the problem of photoclinometry across terrains with variable surface materials.

  10. A photometric study of Saturn's F Ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Showalter, Mark R.; Pollack, James B.; Ockert, Maureen E.; Doyle, Laurance R.; Dalton, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    The Saturn F Ring's radially integrated brightness has been measured over a wide range of phase angles from Voyager images; in order to model the resultant phase curve, the ring population has been divided into a dust regime and one of larger bodies, and while single scattering properties of small particles are modeled by semiempirical nonspherical/randomly oriented particles, those of large bodies are based on the photometric behavior of satellites. It is suggested that the dust in the envelope arises from micrometeoroid impacts into the large core particles, and then migrates inward.

  11. A photometricity and extinction monitor at the Apache Point Observatory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Hogg; Douglas P. Finkbeiner; David J. Schlegel; James E. Gunn

    2001-01-01

    An unsupervised software ``robot'' that automatically and robustly reduces\\u000aand analyzes CCD observations of photometric standard stars is described. The\\u000arobot measures extinction coefficients and other photometric parameters in real\\u000atime and, more carefully, on the next day. It also reduces and analyzes data\\u000afrom an all-sky $10 \\\\mu m$ camera to detect clouds; photometric data taken\\u000aduring cloudy periods

  12. Ascorbic Acid as a Standard for Iodometric Titrations. An Analytical Experiment for General Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Cesar R.; Simoni, Jose A.; Collins, Carol H.; Volpe, Pedro L. O.

    1999-10-01

    Ascorbic acid is suggested as the weighable compound for the standardization of iodine solutions in an analytical experiment in general chemistry. The experiment involves an iodometric titration in which iodine reacts with ascorbic acid, oxidizing it to dehydroascorbic acid. The redox titration endpoint is determined by the first iodine excess that is complexed with starch, giving a deep blue-violet color. The results of the titration of iodine solution using ascorbic acid as a calibration standard were compared with the results acquired by the classic method using a standardized solution of sodium thiosulfate. The standardization of the iodine solution using ascorbic acid was accurate and precise, with the advantages of saving time and avoiding mistakes due to solution preparation. The colorless ascorbic acid solution gives a very clear and sharp titration end point with starch. It was shown by thermogravimetric analysis that ascorbic acid can be dried at 393 K for 2 h without decomposition. This experiment allows general chemistry students to perform an iodometric titration during a single laboratory period, determining with precision the content of vitamin C in pharmaceutical formulations.

  13. Photoelectric Standards of the Strömvil Photometric System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straižys, V.; Kazlauskas, A.; Boyle, R. P.; Philip, A. G. D.; Sperauskas, J.

    2000-12-01

    In order to calibrate the Strömvil Photometric System, proposed by V. Straižys et al., Baltic Astronomy, 5, 83, 1996, the first run of the photoelectric observations was carried out by using a new two-channel photometer. The observations were done in February-April, 2000 with the 60" telescope of Steward Observatory on Mt. Lemmon. About 200 stars (mostly with well defined distances from the Hipparcos mission and knowm effective temperatures) of various spectral and luminosity classes were observed with the purpose to test the classification possibilities and to calibrate the new system. Another part of our observations included more than 100 stars in the standard areas for CCD photometry, proposed by A. G. D. Philip et al., Baltic Astronomy, 5, 445, 1996. They include open clusters M67 and M37, globular clusters M3 and M92 and some other fields, where CCD observations in the Strömvil photometric system have been obtained earlier. Note: ITPA -- Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Vilnius, Lithuania, ISO -- Institute for Space Observations, Schenectady, N.Y.

  14. Methods for the determination of cyclopropenoid fatty acids. II. A stepwise hydrogen bromide titration method for cyclopropenid and epoxy derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Harris; F. C. Magne; E. L. Skau

    1963-01-01

    A rapid titration method is described for the quantitative determination of both cyclopropenoid and epoxy fatty acid derivatives\\u000a in mixtures. It was found that epoxy compounds can be titrated selectively with Durbetaki reagent at 3C without interference\\u000a from cyclopropenoid derivatives. Cyclopropenoid derivatives can be titrated much more rapidly to a much sharper end point\\u000a a 55C that at room temperature.

  15. Potentiometric titration of thallium(I) with sodium tetraphenylborate, using ion-selective electrodes.

    PubMed

    Selig, W

    1980-11-01

    Thallium(I) has been determined by potentiometric titration with sodium tetraphenylborate. The titrations were monitored with a double-junction reference electrode and various liquid-membrane and solid-state ion-selective electrodes. The largest end-point breaks were obtained with the liquid-membrane fluoroborate and nitrate electrodes. The cyanide electrode yielded the largest break of the solid-state electrodes tested. Although the magnitude of the end-point break for the cyanide electrode is considerably less than for the above-mentioned liquid-membrane electrodes, routine use of this electrode is preferred because no conditioning is required for the solid-state electrodes. Precision was satisfactory for all electrodes investigated. Thallium(I) can be titrated with tetraphenylborate at any pH from 1.3 to at least 10.2. Other cations that can be precipitated with tetraphenylborate interfere. PMID:18962822

  16. Ion-ion correlation and charge reversal at titrating solid interfaces

    E-print Network

    Christophe Labbez; Bo Jonsson; Michal Skarba; Michal Borkovec

    2008-12-01

    Confronting grand canonical titration Monte Carlo simulations (MC) with recently published titration and charge reversal (CR) experiments on silica surfaces by Dove et al. and van der Heyden it et al, we show that ion-ion correlations quantitatively explain why divalent counterions strongly promote surface charge which, in turn, eventually causes a charge reversal (CR). Titration and CR results from simulations and experiments are in excellent agreement without any fitting parameters. This is the first unambiguous evidence that ion-ion correlations are instrumental in the creation of highly charged surfaces and responsible for their CR. Finally, we show that charge correlations result in "anomalous" charge regulation in strongly coupled conditions in qualitative desagreement with its classical treatment.

  17. SHARDS: an optical spectro-photometric survey of distant galaxies

    E-print Network

    Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo G; Barro, Guillermo; Villar, Victor; Cardiel, Nicolas; Ferreras, Ignacio; Rodriguez-Espinosa, Jose Miguel; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Balcells, Marc; Cenarro, Javier; Cepa, Jordi; Charlot, Stephane; Cimatti, Andrea; Conselice, Christopher J; Daddi, Emmanuele; Donley, Jennifer; Elbaz, David; Espino, Nestor; Gallego, Jesus; Gobat, R; Gonzalez-Martin, Omaira; Guzman, Rafael; Hernan-Caballero, Antonio; Muñoz-Tuñon, Casiana; Renzini, Alvio; Zaurin, Javier Rodriguez; Tresse, Laurence; Trujillo, Ignacio; Zamorano, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    (Abridged) We present the Survey for High-z Absorption Red and Dead Sources (SHARDS), an ESO/GTC Large Program carried out with GTC/OSIRIS. SHARDS is an ultra-deep optical spectro-photometric survey of the GOODS-N field (130 arcmin^2) at wavelengths 500 to 950 nm and using 24 contiguous medium-band filters (spectral resolution R 50). The data reach 26.5 mag (>3-sigma level) with sub-arcsec seeing in all bands. SHARDS main goal is obtaining accurate physical properties of interm- and high-z galaxies using well-sampled optical SEDs with sufficient spectral resolution to measure absorption and emission features. Among the different populations of high-z galaxies, SHARDS principal targets are massive quiescent galaxies at z>1. In this paper, we outline the observational strategy and include a detailed discussion of the special reduction and calibration procedures applied to the GTC/OSIRIS data. We present science demonstration results about the detection and study of emission-line galaxies (star-forming and AGN) ...

  18. IMPA Minicourse Summer 2005 Photometric Calibration of Digital

    E-print Network

    Goesele, Michael

    D or 0D Isotropic BRDF - 3D Assume gloss model Photometric Calibration of Digital Cameras for Image of Digital Cameras for Image-Based Techniques Michael Goesele Digitizing Real World Objects by 3D geometryIMPA Minicourse ­ Summer 2005 Photometric Calibration of Digital Cameras for Image-Based Techniques

  19. IMPA Minicourse Summer 2005 Photometric Calibration of Digital

    E-print Network

    Goesele, Michael

    IMPA Minicourse ­ Summer 2005 Photometric Calibration of Digital Cameras for Image-Based Techniques Calibration of Digital Cameras for Image-Based Techniques Michael Goesele About Myself ... got Ph.D. in July-intensive rendering · Artifical appearance Photometric Calibration of Digital Cameras for Image-Based Techniques

  20. Object Reconstruction with Photometric Stereo Otavio Schipper Luiz Velho

    E-print Network

    Object Reconstruction with Photometric Stereo Otavio Schipper Luiz Velho Instituto Nacional de. Abstract Photometric Stereo is a method for recovering a patch of surface from image data. The method that is able to calibrate the lighting directions of the sources, find the best fit normal and albedo at each

  1. Ring-light Photometric Stereo Zhenglong Zhou Ping Tan

    E-print Network

    Tan, Ping

    Ring-light Photometric Stereo Zhenglong Zhou Ping Tan Department of Electrical & Computer photometric stereo. While most of previous methods rely on various assumptions on scene properties, we exploit of equal intensity and multiple view geometry. Compared to previous methods, our algorithm deals with more

  2. Survey of the year 2004: literature on applications of isothermal titration calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Ababou, Abdessamad; Ladbury, John E

    2006-01-01

    The market for commercially available isothermal titration calorimeters continues to grow as new applications and methodologies are developed. Concomitantly the number of users (and abusers) increases dramatically, resulting in a steady increase in the number of publications in which isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) plays a role. In the present review, we will focus on areas where ITC is making a significant contribution and will highlight some interesting applications of the technique. This overview of papers published in 2004 also discusses current issues of interest in the development of ITC as a tool of choice in the determination of the thermodynamics of molecular recognition and interaction. PMID:16220545

  3. Denitrifying activity measurements using an anoxic titration (pHstat) bioassay.

    PubMed

    Foxon, K M; Brouckaert, C J; Rozzi, A

    2002-01-01

    An anoxic titrimetric test was investigated for measuring denitrifying activity in an activated sludge system. The method measures the amount of acid that is required to maintain the pH set-point value in a batch denitrification experiment. An iterative algorithm was implemented to extract nitrate uptake rate (NUR) data from titration data, since the accumulation and depletion (stripping) of reaction by-products HCO3- and CO2 affects the direct calculation of denitrifying activity from titration data. This method was performed using an automatic pH-stat acid dosing system, and the data were analysed using the simulation software package, AQUASIM. PMID:12448471

  4. Ha Emission extraction using Narrowband Photometric Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Gary E.

    2011-05-01

    Maria Mitchell Observatory has explored using Narrowband Photometric (<100A) filters to substitute for spectroscopic observations. The method is thought to have significant signal to noise advantages over spectroscopic observations for small telescopes. These small telescopes offer advantages for projects requiring intensive monitoring where telescope time is limited on larger telescopes. RR Tau, a suspected UXOR, was intensively observed by the MMO 0.6 M RC in Nantucket, Mass and the .29M W28 AAVSOnet telescope from Cloudcroft, New Mexico during the 2010 Winter & Spring season. Observations were made in Ha with 45A and 100A narrowband filters as well as the continuum at 6450 A with 50A and 100A filters. Ha emission was extracted with an error of 8% and compared to the change in the continuum. RR Tau exhibited a 30% change in emission while the continuum change by over a factor of 5.

  5. Photometric structure of polar-ring galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnikov, V. P.

    2004-03-01

    The results of B, V, R surface photometry of three polar-ring galaxies (PRGs) - A 0017+2212, UGC 1198, UGC 4385 - are presented. The data were acquired at the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It was shown that all three galaxies are peculiar late-type spirals in the state of ongoing interaction or merging. We discuss available photometric properties of the PRGs with spiral hosts and consider the Tully-Fisher relation for different types of PRGs. In agreement with Iodice et al. (\\cite{Iodice03}), we have shown that true PRGs demonstrate ˜1/3 larger maximum rotation velocities than spiral galaxies of the same luminosity. Peculiar objects with forming polar structures satisfy, on average, the Tully-Fisher relation for disk galaxies but with large scatter.

  6. Scintillation Reduction Method for Photometric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, P.; Sandler, D.

    1998-10-01

    We explore the reduction of scintillation via differencing signals from binary stars. Theory has been extended to include temporal and angular separation effects simultaneously. For meter-class telescopes, scintillation for a 2" binary is reduced by greater than a factor of 3. Aperture averaging for differential scintillation had a D^-1.4+/-0.1 dependence for exposure times <=0.25 s versus D^-1.1+/-0.1 for absolute scintillation. For 1.5 m diameter telescopes, the influence of binary separation on differential scintillation for theta<5^'' went as theta^0.6 for instantaneous scintillation and rose slightly with exposure time. If the deconvolution problem can be solved, differencing signals from binary stars offers the potential for increased photometric accuracy.

  7. Photometric Variability of Magnetic White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrie, K. A.; Burleigh, M. R.; Brinkworth, C. S.; Marsh, T. R.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Baker, D. E. A.; Cossins, P.; Littlejohns, O. M.; Scott, A. E.; Steele, P. R.

    2013-01-01

    We present our survey results searching for photometric variability and rotation periods of 77 magnetic white dwarfs (MWDs). The sample consists of 24 bright (V < 16), isolated MWDs and 53 MWDs (r' < 18.5) discovered spectroscopically by SDSS. Observations were taken with the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope, La Palma. We determine well-defined periods for 12 stars (16% of the sample) and variability but with poorly constrained periods in a further 13 targets (17%). A period of 7.72 days is found for LHS 5064, the second longest measured for an isolated MWD. Where periods of variability have been determined, the magnetic field strength, temperature, mass and age of the white dwarf have been compared to determine whether any physically interesting correlations emerge.

  8. Monitoring Symbiotic Stars for Photometric Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, Caitlin; Lutz, Julie H.

    2015-01-01

    Seven new symbiotic star systems, discovered by spectroscopic follow-up of candidates from the IPHAS survey, have been photometrically observed for evidence of variability on the order of weeks to months. The IPHAS survey identified a number of symbiotic stars through analysis of their red colors and H-alpha emission, however, none of their other properties or behaviors were studied. The seven targets were monitored during the summers of 2013 and 2014 at the University of Washington's Manastash Ridge Observatory, each along with a unique set of five comparison stars using the H-alpha and Sloan r' and i' filters. The data from 2013 demonstrated variation of several targets by a few tenths of a magnitude in the H-alpha filter and large variations of almost one magnitude in the Sloan r' and i' filters. The 2014 observing season is ongoing, and the results will be presented in the accompanying poster.

  9. Standard Stars for the BYU ? Photometric System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joner, Michael D.; Hintz, E. G.

    2013-01-01

    We present our list of primary standard stars for the BYU ? photometric system. This system is similar to the ? photometric system that is frequently used in conjunction with the intermediate band uvby system. Both systems use the difference between magnitudes measured in a wide (15-20-nm) and narrow (3-nm) bandpass centered on one of the strong Balmer lines of hydrogen to establish a temperature sensitive color index. Line indices formed in this manner are independent of atmospheric extinction and interstellar reddening. The present list of standard stars for the BYU system was established using spectroscopic observations that fully cover the region between H-? and H- ?. Color indices were established using synthetic photometry reductions to convolve ideal filter profiles with the observed spectra. Typical numbers of observations per star is in excess of 20 with some stars having been observed more than 60 times over five years. The typical error per observation for the standards is on the order of 1-3 mmag. Complete information for each star is provided in the tables for this presentation. In addition to the standard field stars, we present ? and ? observations of individual stars that are members of selected open clusters. These include the Hyades, Pleiades, Coma, and NGC 752 clusters. These stars fit the same main sequence plot as has been found for the standard field stars in the ?-? plane. Stars that exhibit varying degrees of hydrogen emission are easily noticed in an ?-? plot. We have found that candidates for emission line objects, high mass x-ray binaries, and young stellar objects are readily identified in our color-color plots. We acknowledge continued support from the BYU College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences as well as partial support from NSF Grant AST #0618209. We also thank the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory for continued allocation of robotic observing time for spectroscopy on the 1.2-m telescope.

  10. Simultaneous Estimation of Photometric Redshifts and SED Parameters: Improved Techniques and a Realistic Error Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquaviva, Viviana; Raichoor, Anand; Gawiser, Eric

    2015-05-01

    We seek to improve the accuracy of joint galaxy photometric redshift estimation and spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. By simulating different sources of uncorrected systematic errors, we demonstrate that if the uncertainties in the photometric redshifts are estimated correctly, so are those on the other SED fitting parameters, such as stellar mass, stellar age, and dust reddening. Furthermore, we find that if the redshift uncertainties are over(under)-estimated, the uncertainties in SED parameters tend to be over(under)-estimated by similar amounts. These results hold even in the presence of severe systematics and provide, for the first time, a mechanism to validate the uncertainties on these parameters via comparison with spectroscopic redshifts. We propose a new technique (annealing) to re-calibrate the joint uncertainties in the photo-z and SED fitting parameters without compromising the performance of the SED fitting + photo-z estimation. This procedure provides a consistent estimation of the multi-dimensional probability distribution function in SED fitting + z parameter space, including all correlations. While the performance of joint SED fitting and photo-z estimation might be hindered by template incompleteness, we demonstrate that the latter is “flagged” by a large fraction of outliers in redshift, and that significant improvements can be achieved by using flexible stellar populations synthesis models and more realistic star formation histories. In all cases, we find that the median stellar age is better recovered than the time elapsed from the onset of star formation. Finally, we show that using a photometric redshift code such as EAZY to obtain redshift probability distributions that are then used as priors for SED fitting codes leads to only a modest bias in the SED fitting parameters and is thus a viable alternative to the simultaneous estimation of SED parameters and photometric redshifts.

  11. Comparison of the Zeta Potential with the Diffuse Layer Potential from Charge Titration

    E-print Network

    Attard, Phil

    that no counterion binding occurs. For the metal oxides analyzed (titanium dioxide, aluminum oxide, and silicon) theory is used to compare charge titration and zeta potential data for several colloids. It is found dioxide) the two measurements can only be reconciled by postulating counterion binding or surface charge

  12. Polyelectrolyte Titration: Theory and Experiment Itamar Borukhov,*, David Andelman,,| Regis Borrega, Michel Cloitre, Ludwik Leibler, and

    E-print Network

    Andelman, David

    transition associated with polymer conformational changes. We argue that the specific shape of titration-Hu¨ckel-like charge-charge correlations as well as by correlations between dissociation sites along the polymer chain with experiments. In particular, the model explains the decrease of the pH at the plateau when the polymer

  13. Titration of high dose sedation is effective in severe tetanus: a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pan Chun; Huang Ying-Zi; Yang Yi; Qiu Hai-Bo

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tetanus is a fatal infectious disease. It could cause typical signs like pain, headache, stiffness, and spasms of facial muscles as well as trunk and skeletal muscles. The symptoms are risus sardonicus, trismus and opisthotonus. How to control the spasticity and rigidity of muscles is still a problem. Our object is to raise the feasibility of titration of high

  14. Titrating steroids on exhaled nitric oxide in children with asthma: a randomized controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. H. Pijnenburg; W. C. J. Hop; Jongste de J. C; E. M. Bakker

    2005-01-01

    RATIONALE: Corticosteroids are the antiinflammatory treatment of choice in asthma. Treatment guidelines are mainly symptom-driven but symptoms are not closely related to airway inflammation. The fraction of nitric oxide in exhaled air (FENO) is a marker of airway inflammation in asthma. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether titrating steroids on FENO improved asthma management in children. METHODS: Eighty-five children with atopic asthma,

  15. Exact Analysis of Competition Ligand Binding by Displacement Isothermal Titration Calorimetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bent W. Sigurskjold

    2000-01-01

    A rigorous method for the least-squares nonlinear regression analysis of displacement isothermal titration calorimetric data is presented. The method can fit the binding isotherm of a ligand which is competitively inhibited in its binding by another bound ligand to a molecule with n identical and independent binding sites. There are no other assumptions for the method and no approximations. Analysis

  16. Avian influenza virus isolation, propagation and titration in embryonated chicken eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) virus is usually isolated, propagated, and titrated in embryonated chickens eggs (ECE). Most any sample type can be accommodated for culture with appropriate processing. Isolation may also be accomplished in cell culture particularly if mammalian lineage isolates are suspected, ...

  17. Impairment and Deportment Responses to Different Methylphenidate Doses in Children With ADHD: The MTA Titration Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LAURENCE L. GREENHILL; JAMES M. SWANSON; BENEDETTO VITIELLO; MARK DAVIES; WALTER CLEVENGER; MIN WU; L. EUGENE ARNOLD; HOWARD B. ABIKOFF; OSCAR G. BUKSTEIN; C. KEITH CONNERS; GLEN R. ELLIOTT; LILY HECHTMAN; STEPHEN P. HINSHAW; BETSY HOZA; PETER S. JENSEN; HELENA C. KRAEMER; JOHN S. MARCH; JEFFREY H. NEWCORN; JOANNE B. SEVERE; KAREN WELLS; TIMOTHY WIGAL

    2001-01-01

    ObjectiveResults of the NIMH Collaborative Multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA) were analyzed to determine whether a double-blind, placebo-controlled methylphenidate (MPH) titration trial identified the best MPH dose for each child with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

  18. Subsite binding energies of an exo-polygalacturonase using isothermal titration calorimetry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermodynamic parameters for binding of a series of galacturonic acid oligomers to an exo-polygalacturonase, RPG16 from Rhizopus oryzae, were determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. Binding of oligomers varying in chain length from two to five galacturonic acid residues is an exothermic proc...

  19. The Simulation of an Oxidation-Reduction Titration Curve with Computer Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, Richard V., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Although the simulation of an oxidation/reduction titration curve is an important exercise in an undergraduate course in quantitative analysis, that exercise is frequently simplified to accommodate computational limitations. With the use of readily available computer algebra systems, however, such curves for complicated systems can be generated…

  20. Performing Titration Analyses for Water Quality. Module 17. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on performing titration analysis for water quality. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) naming each part of…

  1. The titration curve of insulin in the presence of various bivalent metal ions

    PubMed Central

    Graae, John

    1968-01-01

    1. Titration curves of insulin in the presence and absence of various metal ions are reported. 2. The difference in base consumption with and without the metal ions is compared with calculated curves. 3. These experiments suggest that in dilute solutions Zn2+ and Cu2+ ions are bound to ?-amino groups. PMID:5637362

  2. RAINBOW TROUT COMPLEMENT FIXATION USED FOR TITRATION OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST SEVERAL PATHOGENS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RAINBOW TROUT COMPLEMENT FIXATION USED FOR TITRATION OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST SEVERAL PATHOGENS M pathogens. In contrast, there is very little information con- cerning complement fixation. However, the existence of complement in the serum of the eel (Anguilla anguilla) and the tench, ( Tinca tinca

  3. Limiting Solubilities and lonization Constants of Sparingly Soluble Compounds: Determination from Aqueous Potentiometric Titration Data Only

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriaan P. IJzerman

    1988-01-01

    A new method is described for the concomitant determination of limiting solubilities and ionization constants of sparingly soluble compounds, i.e., drugs. Aqueous potentiometric titration data were recorded both before and after precipitation of the compound and subjected to computer-assisted analysis. Limiting solubilities and ionization constants were obtained for nucleoside transport inhibitors, viz., dilazep, soluflazine, and hexobendine. The method was validated

  4. DNA heats up: Energetics of genome ejection from phage revealed by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    E-print Network

    1 DNA heats up: Energetics of genome ejection from phage revealed by isothermal titration-stranded DNA into bacteria upon receptor binding in an essentially spontaneous way. This downhill thermodynamic process from the intact virion toward the empty viral capsid plus released DNA is made possible

  5. AMPEROMETRIC TITRATION OF VANADIUM AND URANIUM WITH TITANIUM(III) SALTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. A. Gallai; N. M. Sheina

    1961-01-01

    An amperometric method was develeped for the titration of vanadium(IV) ; with titanrum(III) in pure salts and in the prescence of chromium, manganese, and ; titanium. Conditions were found for- the amperometric determination of uranium ; using titanrrun(III) in the presence of titanum(IV) up to the U: Ti ratio 1:100. ; (auth);

  6. Non-euclidean simplex optimization. [Application to potentiometric titration of Pu

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1977-01-01

    Geometric optimization techniques useful for studying chemical equilibrium traditionally rely upon principles of euclidean geometry, but such algorithms may also be based upon principles of a non-euclidean geometry. The sequential simplex method is adapted to the hyperbolic plane, and application of optimization to problems such as the potentiometric titration of plutonium is suggested.

  7. Comprehensive Formulation of Titration Curves for Complex AcidBase Systems and Its Analytical Implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agustin G. Asuero; Tadeusz Micha?owski

    2011-01-01

    This article provides extensive and exhaustive mathematical description of titration curves related to acid-base systems with mixtures of mono- and polyprotic acids and their salts and bases involved. The related curves are presented in compact forms facilitating further operations made for particular needs. Some derivative properties of the curves, such as buffer capacity and inflection points, are also discussed. The

  8. Charge Density Quantification of Polyelectrolyte Polysaccharides by Conductometric Titration: An Analytical Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farris, Stefano; Mora, Luigi; Capretti, Giorgio; Piergiovanni, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    An easy analytical method for determination of the charge density of polyelectrolytes, including polysaccharides and other biopolymers, is presented. The basic principles of conductometric titration, which is used in the pulp and paper industry as well as in colloid and interface science, were adapted to quantify the charge densities of a…

  9. Thermodynamics of cationic lipid-DNA complex formation as studied by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    PubMed Central

    Pozharski, Edwin; MacDonald, Robert C

    2002-01-01

    The detailed analysis of the cationic lipid-DNA complex formation by means of isothermal titration calorimetry is presented. Most experiments were done using 1,2-dioleyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (EDOPC), but basic titrations were also done using DOTAP, DOTAP:DOPC, and DOTAP:DOPE mixtures. Complex formation was endothermic with less than 1 kcal absorbed per mole of lipid or DNA charge. This enthalpy change was attributed to DNA-DNA mutual repulsion within the lamellar complex. The exception was DOTAP:DOPE-containing lipoplex for which the enthalpy of formation was exothermic, presumably because of DOPE amine group protonation. Experimental conditions, namely, direction and titration increment as well as concentration of titrant, which dictate the structure of resulting lipoplex (whether lamellar complex or DNA-coated vesicle), were found to affect the apparent thermodynamics of complex formation. The structure, in turn, influences the biological properties of the lipoplex. If the titration of lipid into DNA was carried out in large increments, the DeltaH was larger than when the injection increments were smaller, a finding that is consistent with increased vesicle disruption under large increments and which is expected theoretically. Cationic lipid-DNA binding was weak in high ionic strength solutions, however, the effective binding constant is within micromolar range because of macromolecular nature of the interaction. PMID:12080142

  10. Single-experiment displacement assay for quantifying high-affinity binding by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Krainer, Georg; Keller, Sandro

    2015-04-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is the gold standard for dissecting the thermodynamics of a biomolecular binding process within a single experiment. However, reliable determination of the dissociation constant (KD) from a single titration is typically limited to the range 100 ?M>KD>1 nM. Interactions characterized by a lower KD can be assessed indirectly by so-called competition or displacement assays, provided that a suitable competitive ligand is available whose KD falls within the directly accessible window. However, this protocol is limited by the fact that it necessitates at least two titrations to characterize one high-affinity inhibitor, resulting in considerable consumption of both sample material and time. Here, we introduce a fast and efficient ITC displacement assay that allows for the simultaneous characterization of both a high-affinity ligand and a moderate-affinity ligand competing for the same binding site on a receptor within a single experiment. The protocol is based on a titration of the high-affinity ligand into a solution containing the moderate-affinity ligand bound to the receptor present in excess. The resulting biphasic binding isotherm enables accurate and precise determination of KD values and binding enthalpies (?H) of both ligands. We discuss the theoretical background underlying the approach, demonstrate its practical application to metal ion chelation, explore its potential and limitations with the aid of simulations and statistical analyses, and elaborate on potential applications to protein-inhibitor interactions. PMID:25461813

  11. Anal. Chem. 1982, 54, 2117-2120 2117 validity of the ASV titration method. We are confident that

    E-print Network

    Zare, Richard N.

    Anal. Chem. 1982, 54, 2117-2120 2117 validity of the ASV titration method. We are confident,the validity of the assumptions has not been demonstrated for any pure ligand nor for natural water organics-titration method to yield an accurate p' value. In gen- eral, the validity of these assumptions can be tested

  12. A mechanistic description of Ni and Zn sorption on Na-montmorillonite Part I: Titration and sorption measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bart Baeyens; Michael H. Bradbury

    1997-01-01

    In this paper experimental investigations into the acid\\/base titration characteristics of Na-montmorillonite and the sorption behaviour of Ni and Zn under a wide variety of conditions are presented. From these measurements the dominant sorption mechanisms could be deduced. In the following paper (Bradbury and Baeyens, 1997) the titration and sorption data are analysed to determine the parameters in cation exchange

  13. The Quantitative Resolution of a Mixture of Group II Metal Ions by Thermometric Titration with EDTA. An Analytical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert L.; Popham, Ronald E.

    1983-01-01

    Presents an experiment in thermometric titration used in an analytic chemistry-chemical instrumentation course, consisting of two titrations, one a mixture of calcium and magnesium, the other of calcium, magnesium, and barium ions. Provides equipment and solutions list/specifications, graphs, and discussion of results. (JM)

  14. Acid-base titrations for polyacids: Significance of the pK sub a and parameters in the Kern equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meites, L.

    1978-01-01

    A new method is suggested for calculating the dissociation constants of polyvalent acids, especially polymeric acids. In qualitative form the most significant characteristics of the titration curves are demonstrated and identified which are obtained when titrating the solutions of such acids with a standard base potentiometrically.

  15. Measuring galaxy environments in large-scale photometric surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etherington, James; Thomas, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The properties of galaxies in the local Universe have been shown to depend upon their environment. Future large-scale photometric surveys such as Dark Energy Survey (DES) and Euclid will be vital to gain insight into the evolution of galaxy properties and the role of environment. Large samples come at the cost of redshift precision and this affects the measurement of environment. We study this by measuring environments using Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic and photometric redshifts and also simulated photometric redshifts with a range of uncertainties. We consider the Nth nearest neighbour and fixed aperture methods and evaluate the impact of the aperture parameters and the redshift uncertainty. We find that photometric environments have a smaller dynamic range than spectroscopic measurements because uncertain redshifts scatter galaxies from dense environments into less dense environments. At the expected redshift uncertainty of DES, 0.1, there is Spearman rank correlation coefficient of 0.4 between the measurements using the optimal parameters. We examine the galaxy red fraction as a function of mass and environment using photometric redshifts and find that the bivariate dependence is still present in the SDSS photometric measurements. We show that photometric samples with a redshift uncertainty of 0.1 must be approximately 6-16 times larger than spectroscopic samples to detect environment correlations with equivalent fractional errors.

  16. Protofit: A program for determining surface protonation constants from titration data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Benjamin F.; Fein, Jeremy B.

    2006-11-01

    Determining the surface protonation behavior of natural adsorbents is essential to understand how they interact with their environments. ProtoFit is a tool for analysis of acid-base titration data and optimization of surface protonation models. The program offers a number of useful features including: (1) enables visualization of adsorbent buffering behavior; (2) uses an optimization approach independent of starting titration conditions or initial surface charge; (3) does not require an initial surface charge to be defined or to be treated as an optimizable parameter; (4) includes an error analysis intrinsically as part of the computational methods; and (5) generates simulated titration curves for comparison with observation. ProtoFit will typically be run through ProtoFit-GUI, a graphical user interface providing user-friendly control of model optimization, simulation, and data visualization. ProtoFit calculates an adsorbent proton buffering value as a function of pH from raw titration data (including pH and volume of acid or base added). The data is reduced to a form where the protons required to change the pH of the solution are subtracted out, leaving protons exchanged between solution and surface per unit mass of adsorbent as a function of pH. The buffering intensity function Qads* is calculated as the instantaneous slope of this reduced titration curve. Parameters for a surface complexation model are obtained by minimizing the sum of squares between the modeled (i.e. simulated) buffering intensity curve and the experimental data. The variance in the slope estimate, intrinsically produced as part of the Qads* calculation, can be used to weight the sum of squares calculation between the measured buffering intensity and a simulated curve. Effects of analytical error on data visualization and model optimization are discussed. Examples are provided of using ProtoFit for data visualization, model optimization, and model evaluation.

  17. Direct Sensing of Total Acidity by Chronopotentiometric Flash Titrations at Polymer Membrane Ion-Selective Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Gemene, Kebede L.; Bakker, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Polymer membrane ion-selective electrodes containing lipophilic ionophores are traditionally interrogated by zero current potentiometry, which, ideally, gives information on the sample activity of ionic species. It is shown here that a discrete cathodic current pulse across an H+-selective polymeric membrane doped with the ionophore ETH 5294 may be used for the chronopotentiometric detection of pH in well buffered samples. However, a reduction in the buffer capacity leads to large deviations from the expected Nernstian response slope. This is explained by the local depletion of hydrogen ions at the sample-membrane interface as a result of the galvanostatically imposed ion flux in direction of the membrane. This depletion is found to be a function of the total acidity of the sample and can be directly monitored chronopotentiometrically in a flash titration experiment. The subsequent application of a baseline potential pulse reverses the extraction process of the current pulse, allowing one to interrogate the sample with minimal perturbation. In one protocol, total acidity is found to be proportional to the magnitude of applied current at the flash titration endpoint. More conveniently, the square root of the flash titration endpoint time observed at a fixed applied current is a linear function of the total acid concentration. This suggests that it is possible to perform rapid localized pH titrations at ion-selective electrodes without the need for volumetric titrimetry. The technique is explored here for acetic acid, MES and citric acid with promising results. Polymeric membrane electrodes on the basis of poly(vinyl chloride) plasticized with o-nitrophenyloctylether in a 1:2 mass ratio may be used for the detection of acids of up to ca. 1 mM concentration, with flash titration times on the order of a few seconds. Possible limitations of the technique are discussed, including variations of the acid diffusion coefficients and influence of electrical migration. PMID:18370399

  18. Voyager photometry of Triton - Haze and surface photometric properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillier, J.; Helfenstein, P.; Verbiscer, A.; Veverka, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Voyager whole-disk observations of Triton at 0.41, 0.48, and 0.56 micron filter wavelengths are analyzed using a model which combines an improved version of Hapke's photometric equation with a thin atmospheric haze layer in the appropriate spherical geometry. The model is shown to describe accurately the phase curves over a range of phase angles and to agree with disk-resolved brightness scans along the photometric equator and mirror meridian. According to the model, the photometric parameters of Triton's regolith are reasonably typical of icy satellites, except for the extremely high (close to unity) single-scattering albedo.

  19. Fitting theoretical photometric functions to asteroid phase curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domingue, Deborah; Hapke, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    The ways in which variations in the parameters of Hapke's (1981, 1984, 1986) theoretical photometric function for fitting photometric phase data of asteroids can affect the shape of the theoretical curve are considered. It is noted that, between phase angles of 2 and 25 deg, the opposition effect parameters, the roughness parameter, and the single-particle phase function parameter have similar effects on the shape and the photometric curve and are difficult to separate on the basis of disk-integrated data alone. The uniqueness of asteroid surface properties deduced from phase curve observations over a limited phase-angle range is judged to remain questionable.

  20. Safety and tolerability of different titration rates of retigabine (ezogabine) in patients with partial-onset seizures.

    PubMed

    Biton, Victor; Gil-Nagel, Antonio; Brodie, Martin J; Derossett, Sarah E; Nohria, Virinder

    2013-11-01

    Retigabine (RTG; international nonproprietary name)/ezogabine (EZG; US adopted name) is an antiepileptic drug (AED) that prolongs neuronal voltage-gated potassium-channel KCNQ2-5 (Kv 7.2-7.5) opening. This double-blind study evaluated different RTG/EZG dose-titration rates. Patients (N=73) with partial-onset seizures receiving concomitant AEDs were randomized to one of three titration groups, all of which were initiated at RTG/EZG 300mg/day divided into three equal doses. Fast-, medium-, and slow-titration groups received dose increments of 150mg/day every 2, 4, and 7 days, respectively, achieving the target dose of 1200mg/day after 13, 25, and 43 days, respectively. Safety assessments were performed throughout. Discontinuation rates due to treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were numerically higher in the fast- (10/23) and medium- (7/22) titration groups than in the slow-titration group (3/23) but statistical significance was achieved only for the high-titration group compared with the low-titration group (p=0.024). Stratified analysis, with concomitant AEDs divided into enzyme inducers (carbamazepine, phenytoin, oxcarbazepine) or noninducers, showed that the risk of discontinuation due primarily to TEAEs was significantly higher in the fast- (p=0.010) but not in the medium-titration group (p=0.078) when compared with the slow-titration group. Overall, the slow-titration rate appeared to be best tolerated and was used in further efficacy and safety studies with RTG/EZG. PMID:24094693

  1. Photometric Monitoring of Quasars with Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unwin, Stephen C.; Wehrle, A. E.; Wiita, P. J.; Revalski, M.; Silano, D.; Sprague, D.; Di Lorenzo, P.

    2013-01-01

    We have observed the photometric variability of four flat-spectrum radio quasars, and one radio galaxy (Cyg A) with Kepler, since mid-2010. Kepler’s ability to observe uninterrupted for very extended durations provides a unique opportunity to obtain very long time sequences on active galactic nuclei, something that is hard to do even with dedicated ground-based telescope networks. It allows us to examine these light curves for variability on timescales from hours to weeks, and to probe the physical processes involved in accretion around the central black hole and the organization of some of that energy into jets that ultimately power double-lobed radio sources. Kepler was designed to detect exoplanet transits of stars, and the data analysis pipeline is highly optimized for that purpose. We cannot use the standard analysis tools for the quasi-random variability in quasars, so we re-analysed the raw data, and overcame some of the challenges in calibrating these light curves. We briefly discuss some of the issues in producing calibrated light curves for long timescales. For each quasar we computed power spectra, and found power-law slopes of around -2 for most. Although sensitive to quasi-periodic variations, we did not find any convincing evidence for periodicity in any of our targets. This research was carried out, in part, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Copyright 2012. California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  2. AR Ser: photometric observations of a Blazhko star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnardeau, Michel; Hambsch, Franz-Josef

    2015-02-01

    Photometric observations in 2010-2014 of the RR Lyrae star AR Serpentis are presented and analysed. Two Blazhko modulations of comparable amplitude are detected, with the periods 89 and 108 days, and with evidence for irregularities.

  3. Photometric and Astrometric Calibration of the JWST Instrument Complement

    E-print Network

    Rosa I. Diaz-Miller

    2006-09-27

    In preparation for James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), a set of cross calibration programs with HST and Spitzer for suitable primary photometric standards and astrometric fields were developed. NICMOS/HST and IRAC/Spitzer photometry observations of new solar analog standards in NGC 6791 and Melotte 66 were executed. These new photometric standards will provide ~ 5% photometric precision at V~19 from the near-IR to the mid-IR wavelength range for efficient on-orbit calibration and measuring of photometric stability of the JWST complement. For the astrometric calibration, a field in the LMC has been selected. This field falls within the JWST continuous viewing zone, within 5 degrees from the ecliptic poles, and has the stellar density necessary to achieve accuracies better than 1 mas with HST/ACS. These independent observations will play a key role in meeting the mission requirements and will allow a fast commissioning of the observatory.

  4. Photometric astrometry applied to asteroids 6, 15, 43, and 624

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalowski, Tadeusz

    A new version of photometric astrometry is presented. This method made it possible to obtain the sense of rotation, sidereal period and pole orientation of the following asteroids: 6 Hebe, 15 Eunomia, 43 Ariadne and 624 Hektor.

  5. 10.1117/2.1201102.003507 Photometric design of

    E-print Network

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    photometric performance.2 Warm white light has CCT values smaller that 3500K, which makes it highly desirable and the optimization of the nanophosphor quantum-dots. Of all the colors forming white light, red is the most criti

  6. Measuring galaxy environments in large scale photometric surveys

    E-print Network

    Etherington, James

    2015-01-01

    The properties of galaxies in the local universe have been shown to depend upon their environment. Future large scale photometric surveys such as DES and Euclid will be vital to gain insight into the evolution of galaxy properties and the role of environment. Large samples come at the cost of redshift precision and this affects the measurement of environment. We study this by measuring environments using SDSS spectroscopic and photometric redshifts and also simulated photometric redshifts with a range of uncertainties. We consider the Nth nearest neighbour and fixed aperture methods and evaluate the impact of the aperture parameters and the redshift uncertainty. We find that photometric environments have a smaller dynamic range than spectroscopic measurements because uncertain redshifts scatter galaxies from dense environments into less dense environments. At the expected redshift uncertainty of DES, 0.1, there is Spearman rank correlation coefficient of 0.4 between the measurements using the optimal paramete...

  7. Photometric study of an eclipsing binary in Praesepe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanti Priya, Devarapalli; Sriram, Kandulapati; Vivekananda Rao, Pasagada

    2013-04-01

    We present CCD photometric observations of an eclipsing binary in the direction of the open cluster Praesepe using the 2 m telescope at IUCAA Girawali Observatory, India. Though the system was classified as an eclipsing binary by Pepper et al., detailed investigations have been lacking. The photometric solutions using the Wilson-Devinney code suggest that it is a W-type W UMa system and, interestingly, the system parameters are similar to another contact binary system SW Lac.

  8. SuperNova Acceleration Probe (SNAP): Investigating Photometric Redshift Optimization

    E-print Network

    Tomas Dahlen; Bahram Mobasher; Stephanie Jouvel; Jean-Paul Kneib; Olivier Ilbert; Stephane Arnouts; Gary Bernstein; Jason Rhodes

    2007-10-29

    The aim of this paper is to investigate ways to optimize the accuracy of photometric redshifts for a SNAP like mission. We focus on how the accuracy of the photometric redshifts depends on the magnitude limit and signal-to-noise ratio, wave-length coverage, number of filters and their shapes and observed galaxy type. We use simulated galaxy catalogs constructed to reproduce observed galaxy luminosity functions from GOODS, and derive photometric redshifts using a template fitting method. By using a catalog that resembles real data, we can estimate the expected number density of galaxies for which photometric redshifts can be derived. We find that the accuracy of photometric redshifts is strongly dependent on the signal-to-noise (S/N) (i.e., S/N>10 is needed for accurate photometric redshifts). The accuracy of the photometric redshifts is also dependent on galaxy type, with smaller scatter for earlier type galaxies. Comparing results using different filter sets, we find that including the U-band is important for decreasing the fraction of outliers, i.e., ``catastrophic failures''. Using broad overlapping filters with resolution ~4gives better photometric redshifts compared to narrower filters (resolution >~5) with the same integration time. We find that filters with square response curves result in a slightly higher scatter, mainly due to a higher fraction of outliers at faint magnitudes. We also compare a 9-filter set to a 17-filter set, where we assume that the available exposure time per filter in the latter set is half that of the first set. We find that the 9-filter set gives more accurate redshifts for a larger number of objects and reaches higher redshift, while the 17-filter set is gives better results at bright magnitudes.

  9. Photometric observations of Rosetta target asteroid 2867 Steins

    E-print Network

    Paul R. Weissman; Stephen C. Lowry; Young-Jun Choi

    2007-02-13

    Asteroid 2867 Steins is one of two flyby targets of ESAs international Rosetta mission, launched in March, 2004. We obtained photometric observations of Steins on April 14-16, 2004 at Table Mountain Observatory, California, in order to characterize the asteroid physically, information that is crucial for planning the Steins flyby. This study includes the first detailed analysis of the physical properties of Steins from time-series R-filter data along with V- and I-filter photometric measurements.

  10. The Unusual Photometric Variability of the PMS Star GM Cep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semkov, E. H.; Ibryamov, S. I.; Peneva, S. P.; Milanov, T. R.; Stoyanov, K. A.; Stateva, I. K.; Kjurkchieva, D. P.; Dimitrov, D. P.; Radeva, V. S.

    2015-03-01

    Results from UBVRI photometric observations of the pre-main sequence star GM Cep obtained in the period 2011 April-2014 August are reported in the paper. Presented data are a continuation of our photometric monitoring of the star started in 2008. GM Cep is located in the field of the young open cluster Trumpler 37 and over the past years it has been an object of intense photometric and spectral studies. The star shows a strong photometric variability interpreted as a possible outburst from EXor type in previous studies. Our photometric data for a period of over six years show a large amplitude variability (?V ~ 2.3 mag) and several deep minimums in brightness are observed. The analysis of the collected multicolour photometric data show the typical of UX Ori variables a colour reversal during the minimums in brightness. The observed decreases in brightness have a different shape, and evidences of periodicity are not detected. At the same time, high amplitude rapid variations in brightness typical for the classical T Tauri stars also present on the light curve of GM Cep. The spectrum of GM Cep shows the typical of classical T Tauri stars wide H? emission line and absorption lines of some metals. We calculate the outer radius of the H? emitting region as 10.4 ± 0.5 R? and the accretion rate as 1.8 × 10- 7 M? yr- 1.

  11. The unusual photometric variability of the PMS star GM Cep

    E-print Network

    Semkov, E; Peneva, S; Milanov, T; Stoyanov, K; Stateva, I; Kjurkchieva, D; Dimitrov, D; Radeva, V

    2015-01-01

    Results from UBVRI photometric observations of the pre-main sequence star GM Cep obtained in the period April 2011 - August 2014 are reported in the paper. Presented data are a continuation of our photometric monitoring of the star started in 2008. GM Cep is located in the field of the young open cluster Trumpler 37 and over the past years it has been an object of intense photometric and spectral studies. The star shows a strong photometric variability interpreted as a possible outburst from EXor type in previous studies. Our photometric data for a period of over six years show a large amplitude variability (Delta V ~ 2.3 mag.) and several deep minimums in brightness are observed. The analysis of the collected multicolor photometric data shows the typical of UX Ori variables a color reversal during the minimums in brightness. The observed decreases in brightness have a different shape, and evidences of periodicity are not detected. At the same time, high amplitude rapid variations in brightness typical for th...

  12. Entropic Effects and Slow Kinetics Revealed in Titrations of D2O-H2O Solutions with Different D/H Ratios

    E-print Network

    Jacob, Eshel Ben

    Entropic Effects and Slow Kinetics Revealed in Titrations of D2O-H2O Solutions with Different D for H2O, which cause a larger entropic cost for solvating molecules in D2O. Here we used isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to investigate the enthalpy of titration of D2O-H2O solutions with different D

  13. Volumetric determination of uranium titanous sulfate as reductant before oxidimetric titration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wahlberg, J.S.; Skinner, D.L.; Rader, L.F., Jr.

    1957-01-01

    Need for a more rapid volumetric method for the routine determination of uranium in uranium-rich materials has led to the development of a method that uses titanous sulfate as a reductant before oxidimetric titration. Separation of the hydrogen sulfide group is not necessary. Interfering elements precipitated by cupferron are removed by automatic filtrations made simultaneously rather than by the longer chloroform extraction method. Uranium is reduced from VI to IV by addition of an excess of titanous sulfate solution, cupric ion serving as an indicator by forming red metallic copper when reduction is complete. The copper is reoxidized by addition of mercuric perchlorate. The reduced uranium is then determined by addition of excess ferric sulfate and titration with ceric sulfate. The method has proved to be rapid, accurate, and economical.

  14. Indirect determination of fluoride by EDTA back-titration of lanthanum.

    PubMed

    Murase, K; Nakagawa, G; Kodama, K; Shiraishi, N

    1977-01-01

    Semimicro to macro amounts of fluoride ion (0.4-100 mg) are determined rapidly and accurately by precipitation with an excess of lanthanum at pH 2.5-2.8 by digestion on a water-bath, cooling to room temperature, addition of excess of EDTA and back-titration of the excess with zinc solution to the Xylenol Orange end-point at ph 5.8-5..9. Large amounts of chloride, acetate and perchlorate, and small amounts of sulphate and silicate do not interfere, but phosphate does. This method is much superior to the usual thorium nitrate titration method and can be applied after preliminary separation of fluorine by steam distillation or pyrolysis. PMID:18962019

  15. Spectrophotometric extractive titrations-IV Determination of zinc in germanium dioxide and germanium chloride.

    PubMed

    Galík, A

    1967-07-01

    A simple and selective determination of zinc in germanium chloride and germanium dioxide is described. The sample is dissolved in sodium potassium tartrate solution and zinc is titrated spectrophotometrically at 532 mug( with a dithizone solution in carbon tetrachloride without discarding the organic phase. Interfering ions such as Bi(III), Cu(II), Cd(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Sn(II), Fe(II), Fe(III), Mn(II) and T1(I) are masked with bis(2-hydroxyethyl)dithiocarbamate. The detection limit is 3-23 x 10(-5)% of zinc and this may be lowered by taking a larger sample and by performing the analysis in a closed system. A simplified technique, consisting of the simultaneous titration of the sample and blank, is described. PMID:18960156

  16. Water determination in composite PEO-based polymer electrolytes by volumetric Karl Fischer titration method.

    PubMed

    Scaccia, Silvera

    2005-10-15

    The determination of water in composite poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based polymer electrolytes by volumetric Karl Fischer (KF) titration is described. The measurements have been carried out on specimens (up to 10 g) of polymer electrolytes (as single components, their mixture and thin film) in a dry-room (relative humidity, RH, <0.2% at 20 degrees C). The use of a dry-room allowed to obtain a baseline drift (defined as the titration rate necessary to keep dry the cell) as low as 0.5 microg H(2)O min(-1). Working range is 0.001-0.5 wt.% H(2)O and precision, expressed as relative standard deviation of seven replicates, is 5 at 0.5 wt.% level. Comparison of the gathered results with those obtained by oven methods are provided. Uptake water from surrounding environment can be detected at a level as low as 0.001 wt.%. PMID:18970224

  17. Titration Curves: A Useful Instrument for Assessing the Buffer Systems of Acidic Mining Waters (10 pp)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Totsche; Andrew Fyson; Margarete Kalin; Christian Steinberg

    2006-01-01

    Background, Aims and Scope   The acidification of mine waters is generally caused by metal sulfide oxidation, related to mining activities. These waters\\u000a are characterized by low pH and high acidity due to strong buffering systems. The standard acidity parameter, the Base Neutralization\\u000a Capacity (BNC) is determined by endpoint titration, and reflects a cumulative parameter of both hydrogen ions and all

  18. Comparison of ozone determinations by ultraviolet photometry and gas-phase titration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demore, W. B.; Patapoff, M.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of ozone determinations based on ultraviolet absorption photometry and gas-phase titration (GPT) shows good agreement between the two methods. Together with other results, these findings indicate that three candidate reference methods for ozone, UV photometry, IR photometry, and GPT are in substantial agreement. However, the GPT method is not recommended for routine use by air pollution agencies for calibration of ozone monitors because of susceptibility to experimental error.

  19. Rapid semi-micro potentiometric titration of Ir(IV) with hydrazine sulphate

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtig, J.; ALves, J.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1994-07-01

    A rapid potentiometric titration of Ir(IV) with hydrazine sulphate is described. 1.0 mg, 0.25 mg and 0.10 mg are determined with precision of 0.5%, 0.8% and 3.0%, respectively. Most of the common ions do not interfere as well as Rh(III). Some determinations of Ir(IV) in ores made with good precision and compared with a spectrophotometric method.

  20. Determination of Hydrogen Fluoride and Uranium (VI) in Crude Uranium Hexafluoride by Hydrolysis and Potentiometric Titration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haruka SHINOHARA; Kimie IZAWA; Shigeo TSUJIMURA; Kenji MOTOJIMA

    1967-01-01

    A simple method for determining HF and U(VI) in a hydrolyzed solution of UF6 by alkalimetry is described.About 1 g of UF6 was taken in a polytrifluoromonochloroethylene tube, and hydrolyzed with about 50 ml of water in a closed polyethylene bottle. Using a glass electrode, HF in the hydrolyzed solution was titrated potentiometrically with an alkali solution, after the U(VI)

  1. A Geochemical Reaction Model for Titration of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater at the Oak Ridge Reservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Parker, J. C.; Gu, B.; Luo, W.; Brooks, S. C.; Spalding, B. P.; Jardine, P. M.; Watson, D. B.

    2007-12-01

    This study investigates geochemical reactions during titration of contaminated soil and groundwater at the Oak Ridge Reservation in eastern Tennessee. The soils and groundwater exhibits low pH and high concentrations of aluminum, calcium, magnesium, manganese, various trace metals such as nickel and cobalt, and radionuclides such as uranium and technetium. The mobility of many of the contaminant species diminishes with increasing pH. However, base additions to increase pH are strongly buffered by various precipitation/dissolution and adsorption/desorption reactions. The ability to predict acid-base behavior and associated geochemical effects is thus critical to evaluate remediation performance of pH manipulation strategies. This study was undertaken to develop a practical but generally applicable geochemical model to predict aqueous and solid-phase speciation during soil and groundwater titration. To model titration in the presence of aquifer solids, an approach proposed by Spalding and Spalding (2001) was utilized, which treats aquifer solids as a polyprotic acid. Previous studies have shown that Fe and Al-oxyhydroxides strongly sorb dissolved Ni, U and Tc species. In this study, since the total Fe concentration is much smaller than that of Al, only ion exchange reactions associated with Al hydroxides are considered. An equilibrium reaction model that includes aqueous complexation, precipitation, ion exchange, and soil buffering reactions was developed and implemented in the code HydroGeoChem 5.0 (HGC5). Comparison of model results with experimental titration curves for contaminated groundwater alone and for soil- water systems indicated close agreement. This study is expected to facilitate field-scale modeling of geochemical processes under conditions with highly variable pH to develop practical methods to control contaminant mobility at geochemically complex sites.

  2. Closed loop odorant injection control utilizing a feedforward and titrator control system

    SciTech Connect

    Bosse, P.H.; Smith, G.A.

    1982-08-01

    Precise measurement of downstream odorant concentration and quick response during flow changes characterize this new concept in odorant control. Incorporating a closed-loop automatic odorant-injection system, this design employs an indicating process controller and an odorant analyzer (Titrator) to provide feedback control. A feedforward control system handles short-term responses to flow changes. Assembled from high-quality, off-the-shelf components, the unit is easy to calibrate and maintain.

  3. Water determination in composite PEO-based polymer electrolytes by volumetric Karl Fischer titration method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvera Scaccia

    2005-01-01

    The determination of water in composite poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based polymer electrolytes by volumetric Karl Fischer (KF) titration is described. The measurements have been carried out on specimens (up to 10g) of polymer electrolytes (as single components, their mixture and thin film) in a dry-room (relative humidity, RH, <0.2% at 20°C). The use of a dry-room allowed to obtain a baseline

  4. EPR monitored redox titration of the cofactors of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nar1.

    PubMed

    Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; van der Weel, Laura; Hagen, Wilfred R

    2014-01-01

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) monitored redox titrations are a powerful method to determine the midpoint potential of cofactors in proteins and to identify and quantify the cofactors in their detectable redox state. The technique is complementary to direct electrochemistry (voltammetry) approaches, as it does not offer information on electron transfer rates, but does establish the identity and redox state of the cofactors in the protein under study. The technique is widely applicable to any protein containing an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) detectable cofactor. A typical titration requires 2 ml protein with a cofactor concentration in the range of 1-100 µM. The protein is titrated with a chemical reductant (sodium dithionite) or oxidant (potassium ferricyanide) in order to poise the sample at a certain potential. A platinum wire and a Ag/AgCl reference electrode are connected to a voltmeter to measure the potential of the protein solution A set of 13 different redox mediators is used to equilibrate between the redox cofactors of the protein and the electrodes. Samples are drawn at different potentials and the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectra, characteristic for the different redox cofactors in the protein, are measured. The plot of the signal intensity versus the sample potential is analyzed using the Nernst equation in order to determine the midpoint potential of the cofactor. PMID:25490157

  5. Chaotic dynamics of resting ventilatory flow in humans assessed through noise titration

    E-print Network

    Marc Wysocki; Marie-Noelle Fiamma; Christian Straus; Chi-Sang Poon; Thomas Similowski

    2006-06-12

    The mammalian ventilatory behavior exhibits nonlinear dynamics as reflected by certain nonlinearity or complexity indicators (e.g. correlation dimension, approximate entropy, Lyapunov exponents...) but this is not sufficient to determine its possible chaotic nature. To address this, we applied the noise titration technique, previously shown to discern and quantify chaos in short and noisy time series, to ventilatory flow recordings obtained in quietly breathing normal humans. Nine subjects (8 men and 1 woman, 24-42 yrs) were studied during 15-minute epochs of ventilatory steady-state (10.1 +/- 3.0 breaths/minute, tidal volume 0.63 +/- 0.2L). Noise titration applied to the unfiltered signals subsampled at 5 Hz detected nonlinearity in all cases (noise limit 20.2 +/- 12.5%). Noise limit values were weakly correlated to the correlation dimension and the largest Lyapunov exponent of the signals. This study shows that the noise titration approach evidences a chaotic dimension to the behavior of ventilatory flow over time in normal humans during tidal breathing.

  6. Coulometric titrations of bases in propylene carbonate using hydrogenpalladium and deuteriumpalladium generator electrodes.

    PubMed

    Mihajlovi?, R P; Jaksi?, L N; Vajgand, V V

    1992-12-01

    The application of hydrogen and deuterium ions obtained by anodic oxidation of hydrogen and deuterium dissolved in palladium, for the coulometric determination of bases (both individual and in mixtures) in propylene carbonate, is described. The current-potential curves at a palladium anode for supporting electrolyte indicator, titrated bases, hydrogen dissolved in palladium and deuterium dissolved in palladium showed that hydrogen and deuterium are oxidized at much less positive potentials than the oxidation potentials of other substances present in the solution. The generated H(+) and D(+) ions were used for the titration of bases (pyridine, quinoline, triethylamine, n-butylaniline, 2,2'-dipiridyl and aminopyrine) with visual and potentiometric detection. The oxidation of hydrogen and deuterium proceeded with 100% current efficiency. Two-component mixtures of bases (aliphatic + aromatic amine) were titrated successfully by using two indicators, Eosin and Crystal Violet. The relative error of the determination with respect to each individual base determination, was less than 2.5% for quantities of bases ranging from 1 to 3 mg. PMID:18965575

  7. Calorimetry, activity, and micro-FTIR analysis of CO chemisorption, titration, and oxidation on supported Pt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sermon, Paul A.; Self, Valerie A.; Vong, Mariana S. W.; Wurie, Alpha T.

    1990-01-01

    The value of in situ analysis on CO chemisorption, titration and oxidation over supported Pt catalysts using calorimetry, catalytic and micro-FTIR methods is illustrated using silica- and titania-supported samples. Isothermal CO-O and O2-CO titrations have not been widely used on metal surfaces and may be complicated if some oxide supports are reduced by CO titrant. However, they can illuminate the kinetics of CO oxidation on metal/oxide catalysts since during such titrations all O and CO coverages are scanned as a function of time. There are clear advantages in following the rates of the catalyzed CO oxidation via calorimetry and gc-ms simultaneously. At lower temperatures the evidence they provide is complementary. CO oxidation and its catalysis of CO oxidation have been extensively studied with hysteresis and oscillations apparent, and the present results suggest the benefits of a combined approach. Silica support porosity may be important in defining activity-temperature hysteresis. FTIR microspectroscopy reveals the chemical heterogeneity of the catalytic surfaces used; it is interesting that the evidence with regard to the dominant CO surface species and their reactivities with regard to surface oxygen for present oxide-supported Pt are different from those seen on graphite-supported Pt.

  8. Protein-salt binding data from potentiometric titrations of lysozyme in aqueous solutions containing KCl

    SciTech Connect

    Engmann, J.; Blanch, H.W.; Prausnitz, J.M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.

    1997-03-01

    An existing method for potentiometric titrations of proteins was improved, tested and applied to titrations of the enzyme hen-egg-white lysozyme in aqueous solutions containing KCl at ionic strengths from 0.1 M to 2.0 M at 25 C. Information about the protein`s net charge dependence on pH and ionic strength were obtained and salt binding numbers for the system were calculated using a linkage concept. For the pH range 2.5--11.5, the net charge slightly but distinctly increases with increasing ionic strength between 0.1 M and 2.0 M. The differences are most distinct in the pH region below 5. Above pH 11.35, the net charge decreases with increasing ionic strength. Preliminary calculation of binding numbers from titration curves at 0.1 M and 1.0 M showed selective association of chloride anions and expulsion of potassium ions at low pH. Ion-binding numbers from this work will be used to evaluate thermodynamic properties and to correlate crystallization or precipitation phase-equilibrium data in terms of a model based on the integral-equation theory of fluids which is currently under development.

  9. Titration of biologically active amyloid–? seeds in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Rodrigo; Bravo-Alegria, Javiera; Duran-Aniotz, Claudia; Soto, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Experimental evidence in animal models suggests that misfolded Amyloid-? (A?) spreads in disease following a prion-like mechanism. Several properties characteristics of infectious prions have been shown for the induction of A? aggregates. However, a detailed titration of A? misfolding transmissibility and estimation of the minimum concentration of biologically active A? seeds able to accelerate pathological changes has not yet been performed. In this study, brain extracts from old tg2576 animals were serially diluted and intra-cerebrally injected into young subjects from the same transgenic line. Animals were sacrificed several months after treatment and brain slices were analyzed for amyloid pathology. We observed that administration of misfolded A? was able to significantly accelerate amyloid deposition in young mice, even when the original sample was diluted a million times. The titration curve obtained in this experiment was compared to the natural A? load spontaneously accumulated by these mice overtime. Our findings suggest that administration of the largest dose of A? seeds led to an acceleration of pathology equivalent to over a year. These results show that active A? seeds present in the brain can seed amyloidosis in a titratable manner, similarly as observed for infectious prions. PMID:25879692

  10. Effect of Surface Site Interactions on Potentiometric Titration of Hematite (?-Fe2O3) Crystal Faces

    SciTech Connect

    Chatman, Shawn ME; Zarzycki, Piotr P.; Preocanin, Tajana; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2013-02-01

    Time dependent potentiometric pH titrations were used to study the effect of atomic scale surface structure on the protonation behavior of the structurally well defined hematite/aqueous electrolyte interfaces. Our recently proposed thermodynamic model [1,23] was applied to measured acidimetric and alkalimetric titration hysteresis loops, collected from highly organized (001), (012), and (113) crystal face terminations using pH equilibration times ranging from 15 to 30 mins. Hysteresis loop areas indicate that (001) faces equilibrate faster than the (012) and (113) faces, consistent with the different expected ensembles of singly, doubly, and triply coordinated surface sites on each face. Strongly non-linear hysteretic pH-potential relationships were found, with slopes exceeding Nernstian, collectively indicating that protonation and deprotonation is much more complex than embodied in present day surface complexation models. The asymmetrical shape of the acidimetric and alkalimetric titration branches were used to illustrate a proposed steric "leaky screen" repulsion/trapping interaction mechanism that stems from high affinity singly-coordinated sites electrostatically and sterically screening lower affinity doubly and triply coordinated sites. Our data indicate that site interaction is the dominant phenomenon defining surface potential accumulation behavior on single crystal faces of metal oxide minerals.

  11. Procedural Attachment

    E-print Network

    Steels, Luc

    1979-08-01

    A frame-based reasoning system is extended to deal with procedural attachment. Arguments are given why procedural attachment is needed in a symbolic reasoner. The notion of an infinitary concept is introduced. Conventions ...

  12. A photometric model for asteroid (21) Lutetia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasselmann, P.; Leyrat, C.; Fornasier, S.; Barucci, M.; Lazzaro, D.

    2014-07-01

    (21) Lutetia has been successfully observed (July 10, 2010) by the ESA Rosetta spacecraft during its journey toward the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (Sierks et al. 2011, Coradini et al. 2011). All the available data show intriguing characteristics with a complex surface composition interpretation (Barucci et al. 2012). The quite high mean density estimation (3.4±0.3, Pätzold et al. 2011) together with the unmatching density derived from the most probable surface compositions raise a hypothesis of (21) Lutetia having a metal core (Weiss et al 2012). The surface geology of (21) Lutetia is also highly complex with significant interactions between ancient and more recent structures (Thomas et al; 2012). The large craters and lineaments show that the object was heavily battered in the past, probably losing almost all of its crust in the process (Massironi et al 2012). If (21) Lutetia is a partially differentiated asteroid with an impact-stripped crust, a complete study of variegations might help in elucidating this event. Regions or strips of different albedo might indicate heavier- or lighter-battered surface histories. Albedo variations have been detected by Leyrat et al. (2012) in the visible wavelengths. In this work, we present a deeper analysis of the Lutetia photometric properties. For such analysis, a full set of pipelines was developed in the Python 2.7.6 language. Images obtained by the OSIRIS cameras, NAC and WAC, were used alongside the shape model provided by L. Jorda to derive for each facet the luminance angles and the correct I/F. The pipeline takes image pixels and matches with facets on different observational conditions. Facets are iteratively fitted by a phase function and a disk function. Several phase functions were tested as Akimov (1976), Kaasalainen (Kaasalainen et al. 2003), Schroder (Schroder et al; 2013) and polynomial and were implemented; for disk function, McEwen (1991), Akimov and Minnaert (1941) were used. The method can be also applicable for any body with resolved images and precise shape model. As a result, all phase and topological effects are removed and equigonal albedo maps (Shkuratov et al. 2011) were retrieved showing (21) Lutetia real variegations. Images close to the opposition surge, off linear regime, were handled with the Akimov or Kaasalainen functions. The obtained results will be presented and discussed, in particular maps with a distribution of opposition surge properties, such as angular width and amplitude of the surge. The opposition parameters give additional information about the grain-size distribution and grain transparency, and were only retrieved for facets with I/F of phase angles lower than 3 degrees.

  13. Optical Photometric Observations of GEO Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Rodriquez-Cowardin, Heather M.; Barker, Edwin S.; Abercromby, Kira J.; Kelecy, Thomas M.; Horstman, Matt

    2010-01-01

    We report on a continuing program of optical photometric measurements of faint orbital debris at geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). These observations can be compared with laboratory studies of actual spacecraft materials in an effort to determine what the faint debris at GEO may be. We have optical observations from Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile of two samples of debris: 1. GEO objects discovered in a survey with the University of Michigan's 0.6-m aperture Curtis-Schmidt telescope MODEST (for Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope), and then followed up in real-time with the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9-m for orbits and photometry. Our goal is to determine 6 parameter orbits and measure colors for all objects fainter than R = 15 t11 magnitude that are discovered in the MODEST survey. 2. A smaller sample of high area to mass ratio (AMR) objects discovered independently, and acquired using predictions from orbits derived from independent tracking data collected days prior to the observations. Our optical observations in standard astronomical BVRI filters are done with either telescope, and with the telescope tracking the debris object at the object's angular rate. Observations in different filters are obtained sequentially. We have obtained 71 calibrated sequences of R-B-V-I-R magnitudes. A total of 66 of these sequences have 3 or more good measurements in all filters (not contaminated by star streaks or in Earth's shadow). Most of these sequences show brightness variations, but a small subset has observed brightness variations consistent with that expected from observational errors alone. The majority of these stable objects are redder than a solar color in both B-R and R-I. There is no dependence on color with brightness. For a smaller sample of objects we have observed with synchronized CCD cameras on the two telescopes. The CTIO 0.9-m observes in B, and MODEST in R. The CCD cameras are electronically linked together so that the start time and duration of observations are the same to better than 50 milliseconds. Thus, the B-R color is a true measure of the surface of the debris piece facing the telescopes for that observation. Any change in color reflects a real change in the debris surface. We will compare our observations with models and laboratory measurements of selected surfaces.

  14. Photometric calibrations for 21st century science

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, Stephen; /Fermilab; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; /Johns Hopkins U.; Deustua, Susana E.; /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Smith, J.Allyn; /Austin Peay State U.; Adelman, Saul; /Citadel Military Coll.; Allam, Sahar S.; /Fermilab; Baptista, Brian; /Indiana U.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Clem, James L.; /Louisiana State U.; Conley, Alex; /Colorado U.; Edelstein, Jerry; /UC, Berkeley, Space Sci. Dept. /NOAO, Tucson

    2009-02-01

    The answers to fundamental science questions in astrophysics, ranging from the history of the expansion of the universe to the sizes of nearby stars, hinge on our ability to make precise measurements of diverse astronomical objects. As our knowledge of the underlying physics of objects improves along with advances in detectors and instrumentation, the limits on our capability to extract science from measurements is set, not by our lack of understanding of the nature of these objects, but rather by the most mundane of all issues: the precision with which we can calibrate observations in physical units. In principle, photometric calibration is a solved problem - laboratory reference standards such as blackbody furnaces achieve precisions well in excess of those needed for astrophysics. In practice, however, transferring the calibration from these laboratory standards to astronomical objects of interest is far from trivial - the transfer must reach outside the atmosphere, extend over 4{pi} steradians of sky, cover a wide range of wavelengths, and span an enormous dynamic range in intensity. Virtually all spectrophotometric observations today are calibrated against one or more stellar reference sources, such as Vega, which are themselves tied back to laboratory standards in a variety of ways. This system's accuracy is not uniform. Selected regions of the electromagnetic spectrum are calibrated extremely well, but discontinuities of a few percent still exist, e.g., between the optical and infrared. Independently, model stellar atmospheres are used to calibrate the spectra of selected white dwarf stars, e.g. the HST system, but the ultimate accuracy of this system should be verified against laboratory sources. Our traditional standard star systems, while sufficient until now, need to be improved and extended in order to serve future astrophysics experiments. This white paper calls for a program to improve upon and expand the current networks of spectrophotometrically calibrated stars to provide precise calibration with an accuracy of equal to and better than 1% in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared portions of the spectrum, with excellent sky coverage and large dynamic range.

  15. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of human transferrin N-terminal half-molecule: titration and hydrogen-deuterium exchange

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Valcour; R. C. Woodworth

    1987-01-01

    The binding of Ga(III) to the proteolytically derived N-terminal half-molecule of human transferrin (HTF\\/2N) was studied by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The pH-dependent titration curves of the histidinyl C(2) proton chemical shifts were altered upon formation of the GaIIIHTF\\/2N(CâOâ) ternary complex. Two high-pK'a histidines failed to titrate when the metal and synergistic anion formed a complex with the protein.

  16. Effects of photometric geometry on spectral reflectance measurements. [celestial bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veverka, J.; Gradie, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Progress is reported in obtaining valuable results needed for the full interpretation of the spectral reflectance curves of solar system objects. The degree to which photometric geometry affects spectral reflectance curves was demonstrated. Various forms of photometric functions were compared and a function adequate for describing the scattering properties of low and moderately reflecting materials was developed and applied in a study of the phase coefficients of various materials, as well as in a study of how the shape of a body affects the spectral reflectance properties. The adequacy of the photometric function for Mars-like analogs was studied. The goniometer system is being converted to a computer driven mode. As soon as computer controls are integrated in the goniometer, the phase dependence 0.95 micron feature in meteorite spectra is scheduled to begin.

  17. Photometric Analysis in the Kepler Science Operations Center Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Twicken, Joseph D.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Wu, Hayley; Jenkins, Jon M.; Girouard, Forrest; Klaus, Todd C.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the Photometric Analysis (PA) software component and its context in the Kepler Science Operations Center (SOC) pipeline. The primary tasks of this module are to compute the photometric flux and photocenters (centroids) for over 160,000 long cadence (thirty minute) and 512 short cadence (one minute) stellar targets from the calibrated pixels in their respective apertures. We discuss the science algorithms for long and short cadence PA: cosmic ray cleaning; background estimation and removal; aperture photometry; and flux-weighted centroiding. We discuss the end-to-end propagation of uncertainties for the science algorithms. Finally, we present examples of photometric apertures, raw flux light curves, and centroid time series from Kepler flight data. PA light curves, centroid time series, and barycentric timestamp corrections are exported to the Multi-mission Archive at Space Telescope [Science Institute] (MAST) and are made available to the general public in accordance with the NASA/Kepler data release policy.

  18. Multi-image photometric solutions for the Galilean satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcewen, A. S.; Soderblom, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    A method for determining the limb darkening planet, acquired in the same wavelength range (lambda), within a few degrees of the same phase angle (alpha), but acquired at different illumination and viewing conditions. The two images are first geometrically registered in simple cylindrical format. A limb darkening factor is computed for each pixel pair and output as a digital image. Systematic trends with photometric coordinates across this image indicate either a calibration error or inappropriateness of the particular photometric function. This method can be used for any photometric function with a single limb darkening factor, such as the Minnaert function or the function which combines the Lommel-Seeliger and Lambert functions. By solving for many pairs of images, the limb darkening factor as a function of alpha and lambda may be determined. The two image limb darkening solutions determined for 1 Voyager image pair on Ganymede, 16 image pairs on Callisto, 44 pairs on Europa, and 19 pairs on Io are discussed.

  19. Values of the photometric parameters of Mars and their interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, W. R.; Meador, W. E.; Wood, G. P.

    1974-01-01

    Photometric data for the Martian disk obtained by Thorpe from television-camera pictures taken by Mariner 9 were used to derive values for the parameters in the photometric function. The photometric function can be applied to Mars and to the design of cameras for photography of Mars. Values of the parameters are for one wavelength only, 0.56 micros and are average or effective values for the Martian disk. The values derived were interpreted to provide semi-quantitative information on the soil. The results do not disagree with other indications that the effective mean diameter of the surface particles is about 400 micros. Another result is that the mean intercenter spacing of adjacent particles may be about 4/3 of the mean diameter.

  20. Spectral reflectance and photometric properties of selected rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, R.D.

    1971-01-01

    Studies of the spectral reflectance and photometric properties of selected rocks at the USGS Mill Creek, Oklahoma, remote sensing test site demonstrate that discrimination of rock types is possible through reflection measurements, but that the discrimination is complicated by surface conditions, such as weathering and lichen growth. Comparisons between fresh-broken, weathered, and lichen-covered granite show that whereas both degree of weathering and amount of lichen cover change the reflectance quality of the granite, lichen cover also considerably changes the photometric properties of the granite. Measurements of the spectral reflectance normal to the surface of both limestone and dolomite show limestone to be more reflective than dolomite in the wavelength range from 380 to 1550 nanometers. The reflectance difference decreases at view angles greater than 40?? owing to the difference in the photometric properties of dolomite and limestone. ?? 1971.

  1. First photometric study of W UMa binary star LU Lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, W.-P.; Qian, S.-B.; Zhao, E.-G.; Jiang, L.-Q.

    2014-08-01

    LU Lac is a neglected W UMa binary star in photometric investigations. In this paper, we present BVRI CCD photometric light curves obtained on one night in 2012. The first photometric solutions of this system are computed by using the Wilson-Devinney code. It is shown that LU Lac is a marginal contact W-type system with a degree of contact factor of f=8.9%, a mass ratio of q=2.085 and a high inclination of i=82°.20. From the first analyses of orbital period changes, we found the period variation of the system includes an oscillation (A3=0.0125 days and T3=51.92 years). The cyclic change may be attributed to the light-travel time effect through the presence of a third body.

  2. Photometric Calibration of Consumer Video Cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suggs, Robert; Swift, Wesley, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Equipment and techniques have been developed to implement a method of photometric calibration of consumer video cameras for imaging of objects that are sufficiently narrow or sufficiently distant to be optically equivalent to point or line sources. Heretofore, it has been difficult to calibrate consumer video cameras, especially in cases of image saturation, because they exhibit nonlinear responses with dynamic ranges much smaller than those of scientific-grade video cameras. The present method not only takes this difficulty in stride but also makes it possible to extend effective dynamic ranges to several powers of ten beyond saturation levels. The method will likely be primarily useful in astronomical photometry. There are also potential commercial applications in medical and industrial imaging of point or line sources in the presence of saturation.This development was prompted by the need to measure brightnesses of debris in amateur video images of the breakup of the Space Shuttle Columbia. The purpose of these measurements is to use the brightness values to estimate relative masses of debris objects. In most of the images, the brightness of the main body of Columbia was found to exceed the dynamic ranges of the cameras. A similar problem arose a few years ago in the analysis of video images of Leonid meteors. The present method is a refined version of the calibration method developed to solve the Leonid calibration problem. In this method, one performs an endto- end calibration of the entire imaging system, including not only the imaging optics and imaging photodetector array but also analog tape recording and playback equipment (if used) and any frame grabber or other analog-to-digital converter (if used). To automatically incorporate the effects of nonlinearity and any other distortions into the calibration, the calibration images are processed in precisely the same manner as are the images of meteors, space-shuttle debris, or other objects that one seeks to analyze. The light source used to generate the calibration images is an artificial variable star comprising a Newtonian collimator illuminated by a light source modulated by a rotating variable neutral- density filter. This source acts as a point source, the brightness of which varies at a known rate. A video camera to be calibrated is aimed at this source. Fixed neutral-density filters are inserted in or removed from the light path as needed to make the video image of the source appear to fluctuate between dark and saturated bright. The resulting video-image data are analyzed by use of custom software that determines the integrated signal in each video frame and determines the system response curve (measured output signal versus input brightness). These determinations constitute the calibration, which is thereafter used in automatic, frame-by-frame processing of the data from the video images to be analyzed.

  3. CALIBRATING PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTIONS WITH CROSS-CORRELATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, A. E., E-mail: schulz@ias.ed [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The next generation of proposed galaxy surveys will increase the number of galaxies with photometric redshift identifications by two orders of magnitude, drastically expanding both the redshift range and detection threshold from the current state of the art. Obtaining spectra for a fair subsample of these new data could be cumbersome and expensive. However, adequate calibration of the true redshift distribution of galaxies is vital to tapping the potential of these surveys to illuminate the processes of galaxy evolution and to constrain the underlying cosmology and growth of structure. We examine here an alternative to direct spectroscopic follow-up: calibration of the redshift distribution of photometric galaxies via cross-correlation with an overlapping spectroscopic survey whose members trace the same density field. We review the theory, develop a pipeline to implement the method, apply it to mock data from N-body simulations, and examine the properties of this redshift distribution estimator. We demonstrate that the method is generally effective, but the estimator is weakened by two main factors. One is that the correlation function of the spectroscopic sample must be measured in many bins along the line of sight, which renders the measurement noisy and interferes with high-quality reconstruction of the photometric redshift distribution. Also, the method is not able to disentangle the photometric redshift distribution from redshift dependence in the bias of the photometric sample. We establish the impact of these factors using our mock catalogs. We conclude that it may still be necessary to spectroscopically follow up a fair subsample of the photometric survey data. Nonetheless, it is significant that the method has been successfully implemented on mock data, and with further refinement it may appreciably decrease the number of spectra that will be needed to calibrate future surveys.

  4. CosmoPhotoz: Photometric redshift estimation using generalized linear models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Rafael S.; Elliott, Jonathan; Krone-Martins, Alberto; Ishida, Emille E. O.; Hilbe, Joseph; Cameron, Ewan

    2014-08-01

    CosmoPhotoz determines photometric redshifts from galaxies utilizing their magnitudes. The method uses generalized linear models which reproduce the physical aspects of the output distribution. The code can adopt gamma or inverse gaussian families, either from a frequentist or a Bayesian perspective. A set of publicly available libraries and a web application are available. This software allows users to apply a set of GLMs to their own photometric catalogs and generates publication quality plots with no involvement from the user. The code additionally provides a Shiny application providing a simple user interface.

  5. Photometric measurements of solar irradiance variations due to sunspots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, G. A.; Herzog, A. D.; Laico, D. E.; Lawrence, J. K.; Templer, M. S.

    1989-01-01

    A photometric telescope constructed to obtain photometric sunspot areas and deficits on a daily basis is described. Data from this Cartesian full disk telescope (CFDT) are analyzed with attention given to the period between June 4 and June 17, 1985 because of the availability of overlapping sunspot area and irradiance deficit data from high-resolution digital spectroheliograms made with the San Fernando Observatory 28 cm vacuum solar telescope and spectroheliograph. The CFDT sunspot deficits suggest a substantial irradiance contribution from faculae and active region plage.

  6. Probing oppositely charged surfactant and copolymer interactions by isothermal titration microcalorimetry

    E-print Network

    J. Courtois; J. -F. Berret

    2011-07-26

    The complexation between charged-neutral block copolymers and oppositely charged surfactants was investigated by light scattering experiments and by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The copolymer was poly(sodium acrylate)-b-poly(acrylamide) and the surfactant dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB). In a previous report, we had shown that the copolymers and the surfactants co-assembled spontaneously into colloidal complexes. Depending of the charge ratio Z = [DTA+]/[COO-], the complexes were either single surfactant micelles decorated by copolymers, or core-shell hierarchical structures. ITC was performed in order to investigate the thermodynamics of the complex formation. Titrations of copolymers by surfactants and of surfactants by copolymers revealed that the electrostatic co-assembly was an endothermic reaction, suggesting a process dominated by the entropy of the counterions. Here we found that the thermodynamic quantities associated with the reaction depended on the mixing order. When surfactants were added stepwise to copolymers, the titration was associated with the formation of single micelles decorated by a unique polymer. Above a critical charge ratio, the micelles rearranged themselves into 100 nm colloidal complexes in a collective process which displayed the following features : i) the process was very slow as compared to the timescale of Brownian diffusion, ii) the thermodynamic signature was a endothermic peak and iii) the stoichiometry between the positive and negative charges was modified from n = 0.48 (single micelles) to 0.75 (core-shell complexes). The amount of polyelectrolytes needed for the complex formation exceeded the number required to compensate the net micellar charge, confirming the evidence of overcharging in the complex formation.

  7. Non-damaging laser therapy of the macula: Titration algorithm and tissue response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanker, Daniel; Lavinsky, Daniel; Dalal, Roopa; Huie, Philip

    2014-02-01

    Retinal photocoagulation typically results in permanent scarring and scotomata, which limit its applicability to the macula, preclude treatments in the fovea, and restrict the retreatments. Non-damaging approaches to laser therapy have been tested in the past, but the lack of reliable titration and slow treatment paradigms limited their clinical use. We developed and tested a titration algorithm for sub-visible and non-damaging treatments of the retina with pulses sufficiently short to be used with pattern laser scanning. The algorithm based on Arrhenius model of tissue damage optimizes the power and duration for every energy level, relative to the threshold of lesion visibility established during titration (and defined as 100%). Experiments with pigmented rabbits established that lesions in the 50-75% energy range were invisible ophthalmoscopically, but detectable with Fluorescein Angiography and OCT, while at 30% energy there was only very minor damage to the RPE, which recovered within a few days. Patients with Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) and Central Serous Retinopathy (CSR) have been treated over the edematous areas at 30% energy, using 200?m spots with 0.25 diameter spacing. No signs of laser damage have been detected with any imaging modality. In CSR patients, subretinal fluid resolved within 45 days. In DME patients the edema decreased by approximately 150?m over 60 days. After 3-4 months some patients presented with recurrence of edema, and they responded well to retreatment with the same parameters, without any clinically visible damage. This pilot data indicates a possibility of effective and repeatable macular laser therapy below the tissue damage threshold.

  8. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Titration of Polyoxocations in Aqueous Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Rustad, James R.

    2005-09-01

    The aqueous complex ion Al30O8(OH)56(H2O)26 18+(Al30) has a variety of bridging and terminal amphoteric surface functional groups which deprotonate over a pH range of 4–7. Their relative degree of protonation is calculated here from a series of molecular dynamics simulations in what appear to be the first molecular dynamics simulations of an acidometric titration. In these simulations, a model M30O8(OH)56(H2O)26 18+ ion is embedded in aqueous solution and titrated with hydroxide ions in the presence of a charge-compensating background of perchlorate ions. Comparison with titration of a model M13O4(OH)24(H2O)12 7+ reveals that the M30 ion is more acidic than the M13 ion due to the presence of acidic nH2O functional groups. The higher acidities of the functional groups on the M30 ion appear to result from enhanced hydration. Metal–oxygen bond lengths are calculated for the ion in solution, an isolated ion in the gas phase, and in its crystalline hydrate sulfate salt. Gas-phase and crystalline bond lengths do not correlate well with those calculated in solution. The acidities do not relate in any simple way to the number of metals coordinating the surface functional group or the M-O bond length. Moreover, the calculated acidity in solution does not correlate with proton affinities calculated for the isolated ion in the absence of solvent. It is concluded that the search for simple indicators of structure–reactivity relationships at the level of individual reactive sites faces major limitations, unless specific information on the hydration states of the functional groups is available.

  9. Automated high-pressure titration system with in situ infrared spectroscopic detection

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Christopher J., E-mail: chris.thompson@pnnl.gov; Martin, Paul F.; Chen, Jeffrey; Schaef, Herbert T.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Loring, John S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Benezeth, Pascale [Géosciences Environnement Toulouse (GET), CNRS-Université de Toulouse, 31400 Toulouse (France)] [Géosciences Environnement Toulouse (GET), CNRS-Université de Toulouse, 31400 Toulouse (France)

    2014-04-15

    A fully automated titration system with infrared detection was developed for investigating interfacial chemistry at high pressures. The apparatus consists of a high-pressure fluid generation and delivery system coupled to a high-pressure cell with infrared optics. A manifold of electronically actuated valves is used to direct pressurized fluids into the cell. Precise reagent additions to the pressurized cell are made with calibrated tubing loops that are filled with reagent and placed in-line with the cell and a syringe pump. The cell's infrared optics facilitate both transmission and attenuated total reflection (ATR) measurements to monitor bulk-fluid composition and solid-surface phenomena such as adsorption, desorption, complexation, dissolution, and precipitation. Switching between the two measurement modes is accomplished with moveable mirrors that direct the light path of a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer into the cell along transmission or ATR light paths. The versatility of the high-pressure IR titration system was demonstrated with three case studies. First, we titrated water into supercritical CO{sub 2} (scCO{sub 2}) to generate an infrared calibration curve and determine the solubility of water in CO{sub 2} at 50?°C and 90 bar. Next, we characterized the partitioning of water between a montmorillonite clay and scCO{sub 2} at 50?°C and 90 bar. Transmission-mode spectra were used to quantify changes in the clay's sorbed water concentration as a function of scCO{sub 2} hydration, and ATR measurements provided insights into competitive residency of water and CO{sub 2} on the clay surface and in the interlayer. Finally, we demonstrated how time-dependent studies can be conducted with the system by monitoring the carbonation reaction of forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) in water-bearing scCO{sub 2} at 50?°C and 90 bar. Immediately after water dissolved in the scCO{sub 2}, a thin film of adsorbed water formed on the mineral surface, and the film thickness increased with time as the forsterite began to dissolve. However, after approximately 2.5 h, the trend reversed, and a carbonate precipitate began to form on the forsterite surface, exposing dramatic chemical changes in the thin-water film. Collectively, these applications illustrate how the high-pressure IR titration system can provide molecular-level information about the interactions between variably wet scCO{sub 2} and minerals relevant to underground storage of CO{sub 2} (geologic carbon sequestration). The apparatus could also be utilized to study high-pressure interfacial chemistry in other areas such as catalysis, polymerization, food processing, and oil and gas recovery.

  10. Automated High-Pressure Titration System with In Situ Infrared Spectroscopic Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Christopher J.; Martin, Paul F.; Chen, Jeffrey; Benezeth, Pascale; Schaef, Herbert T.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Loring, John S.

    2014-04-17

    A fully automated titration system with infrared detection was developed for investigating interfacial chemistry at high pressures. The apparatus consists of a high-pressure fluid generation and delivery system coupled to a high-pressure cell with infrared optics. A manifold of electronically actuated valves is used to direct pressurized fluids into the cell. Precise reagent additions to the pressurized cell are made with calibrated tubing loops that are filled with reagent and placed in-line with the cell and a syringe pump. The cell’s infrared optics facilitate both transmission and attenuated total reflection (ATR) measurements to monitor bulk-fluid composition and solid-surface phenomena such as adsorption, desorption, complexation, dissolution, and precipitation. Switching between the two measurement modes is accomplished with moveable mirrors that direct radiation from a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer into the cell along transmission or ATR light paths. The versatility of the high-pressure IR titration system is demonstrated with three case studies. First, we titrated water into supercritical CO2 (scCO2) to generate an infrared calibration curve and determine the solubility of water in CO2 at 50 °C and 90 bar. Next, we characterized the partitioning of water between a montmorillonite clay and scCO2 at 50 °C and 90 bar. Transmission-mode spectra were used to quantify changes in the clay’s sorbed water concentration as a function of scCO2 hydration, and ATR measurements provided insights into competitive residency of water and CO2 on the clay surface and in the interlayer. Finally, we demonstrated how time-dependent studies can be conducted with the system by monitoring the carbonation reaction of forsterite (Mg2SiO4) in water-bearing scCO2 at 50 °C and 90 bar. Immediately after water dissolved in the scCO2, a thin film of adsorbed water formed on the mineral surface, and the film thickness increased with time as the forsterite began to dissolve. However, after approximately 2.5 hours, the trend reversed, and a carbonate precipitate began to form on the forsterite surface, exposing dramatic chemical changes in the thin-water film. Collectively, these applications illustrate how the high-pressure IR titration system can provide molecular-level information about the interactions between variably wet scCO2 and minerals relevant to underground storage of CO2 (geologic carbon sequestration). The apparatus could also be utilized to study high-pressure interfacial chemistry in other areas such as catalysis, polymerization, food processing, and oil and gas recovery.

  11. Automated high-pressure titration system with in situ infrared spectroscopic detection.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Christopher J; Martin, Paul F; Chen, Jeffrey; Benezeth, Pascale; Schaef, Herbert T; Rosso, Kevin M; Felmy, Andrew R; Loring, John S

    2014-04-01

    A fully automated titration system with infrared detection was developed for investigating interfacial chemistry at high pressures. The apparatus consists of a high-pressure fluid generation and delivery system coupled to a high-pressure cell with infrared optics. A manifold of electronically actuated valves is used to direct pressurized fluids into the cell. Precise reagent additions to the pressurized cell are made with calibrated tubing loops that are filled with reagent and placed in-line with the cell and a syringe pump. The cell's infrared optics facilitate both transmission and attenuated total reflection (ATR) measurements to monitor bulk-fluid composition and solid-surface phenomena such as adsorption, desorption, complexation, dissolution, and precipitation. Switching between the two measurement modes is accomplished with moveable mirrors that direct the light path of a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer into the cell along transmission or ATR light paths. The versatility of the high-pressure IR titration system was demonstrated with three case studies. First, we titrated water into supercritical CO2 (scCO2) to generate an infrared calibration curve and determine the solubility of water in CO2 at 50?°C and 90 bar. Next, we characterized the partitioning of water between a montmorillonite clay and scCO2 at 50?°C and 90 bar. Transmission-mode spectra were used to quantify changes in the clay's sorbed water concentration as a function of scCO2 hydration, and ATR measurements provided insights into competitive residency of water and CO2 on the clay surface and in the interlayer. Finally, we demonstrated how time-dependent studies can be conducted with the system by monitoring the carbonation reaction of forsterite (Mg2SiO4) in water-bearing scCO2 at 50?°C and 90 bar. Immediately after water dissolved in the scCO2, a thin film of adsorbed water formed on the mineral surface, and the film thickness increased with time as the forsterite began to dissolve. However, after approximately 2.5 h, the trend reversed, and a carbonate precipitate began to form on the forsterite surface, exposing dramatic chemical changes in the thin-water film. Collectively, these applications illustrate how the high-pressure IR titration system can provide molecular-level information about the interactions between variably wet scCO2 and minerals relevant to underground storage of CO2 (geologic carbon sequestration). The apparatus could also be utilized to study high-pressure interfacial chemistry in other areas such as catalysis, polymerization, food processing, and oil and gas recovery. PMID:24784630

  12. The effects of solubility, ionization, and polarity on end points in high frequency titrations 

    E-print Network

    White, James Decker

    1951-01-01

    milliliters of 2-acetone-l-benzene, l. Addition of 5 milliliters of 9-bensene 1-methanol' 2. Addition of 3 millilitera of 1-bensene- 1-methanol' 3, Addition of 2 milliliters of 1-bensens- 2-methanoli 4 ~ Addition of' 3 milliliters of methanol, VI...- 2-methanol' Titration of 10 millV itsrs of 0. 1039 N 43 lauric acid by 0 38~6 H HaOCH3 in methanol, g3 VIII. Variations in loedinH caused by add1tlon of titz'ant solvents to 50 milliliters of l-acetone-l-benzene. 1 ~ Addition of 5 m111111tsrs...

  13. Inclusion complex of benzocaine and ?-cyclodextrin: 1H NMR and isothermal titration calorimetry studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mic, Mihaela; P?rn?u, Adrian; Bogdan, Mircea; Turcu, Ioan

    2013-11-01

    The supramolecular structure of the inclusion complex of ?-cyclodextrin with benzocaine in aqueous solution has been investigated by 1H NMR spectroscopy and isothermal titration nanocalorimetry (ITC). Analysis of 1H NMR data by continuous variation method indicates that the benzocaine: ?-cyclodextrin inclusion complex occurs and has a 1:1 stoichiometry. Rotating frame NOE spectroscopy (ROESY) was used to ascertain the solution geometry of the host-guest complex which indicates that the benzocaine molecule was included with the aromatic ring into the cyclodextrin cavity. Although the affinity of benzocaine for cyclodextrin is relatively high, the association constant cannot be measured using ITC due to the low solubility of benzocaine in water.

  14. Automated high-pressure titration system with in situ infrared spectroscopic detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Christopher J.; Martin, Paul F.; Chen, Jeffrey; Benezeth, Pascale; Schaef, Herbert T.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Loring, John S.

    2014-04-01

    A fully automated titration system with infrared detection was developed for investigating interfacial chemistry at high pressures. The apparatus consists of a high-pressure fluid generation and delivery system coupled to a high-pressure cell with infrared optics. A manifold of electronically actuated valves is used to direct pressurized fluids into the cell. Precise reagent additions to the pressurized cell are made with calibrated tubing loops that are filled with reagent and placed in-line with the cell and a syringe pump. The cell's infrared optics facilitate both transmission and attenuated total reflection (ATR) measurements to monitor bulk-fluid composition and solid-surface phenomena such as adsorption, desorption, complexation, dissolution, and precipitation. Switching between the two measurement modes is accomplished with moveable mirrors that direct the light path of a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer into the cell along transmission or ATR light paths. The versatility of the high-pressure IR titration system was demonstrated with three case studies. First, we titrated water into supercritical CO2 (scCO2) to generate an infrared calibration curve and determine the solubility of water in CO2 at 50 °C and 90 bar. Next, we characterized the partitioning of water between a montmorillonite clay and scCO2 at 50 °C and 90 bar. Transmission-mode spectra were used to quantify changes in the clay's sorbed water concentration as a function of scCO2 hydration, and ATR measurements provided insights into competitive residency of water and CO2 on the clay surface and in the interlayer. Finally, we demonstrated how time-dependent studies can be conducted with the system by monitoring the carbonation reaction of forsterite (Mg2SiO4) in water-bearing scCO2 at 50 °C and 90 bar. Immediately after water dissolved in the scCO2, a thin film of adsorbed water formed on the mineral surface, and the film thickness increased with time as the forsterite began to dissolve. However, after approximately 2.5 h, the trend reversed, and a carbonate precipitate began to form on the forsterite surface, exposing dramatic chemical changes in the thin-water film. Collectively, these applications illustrate how the high-pressure IR titration system can provide molecular-level information about the interactions between variably wet scCO2 and minerals relevant to underground storage of CO2 (geologic carbon sequestration). The apparatus could also be utilized to study high-pressure interfacial chemistry in other areas such as catalysis, polymerization, food processing, and oil and gas recovery.

  15. Titration of aspartate-85 in bacteriorhodopsin: what it says about chromophore isomerization and proton release.

    PubMed Central

    Balashov, S P; Imasheva, E S; Govindjee, R; Ebrey, T G

    1996-01-01

    Titration of Asp-85, the proton acceptor and part of the counterion in bacteriorhodopsin, over a wide pH range (2-11) leads us to the following conclusions: 1) Asp-85 has a complex titration curve with two values of pKa; in addition to a main transition with pKa = 2.6 it shows a second inflection point at high pH (pKa = 9.7 in 150-mM KCl). This complex titration behavior of Asp-85 is explained by interaction of Asp-85 with an ionizable residue X'. As follows from the fit of the titration curve of Asp-85, deprotonation of X' increases the proton affinity of Asp-85 by shifting its pKa from 2.6 to 7.5. Conversely, protonation of Asp-85 decreases the pKa of X' by 4.9 units, from 9.7 to 4.8. The interaction between Asp-85 and X' has important implications for the mechanism of proton transfer. In the photocycle after the formation of M intermediate (and protonation of Asp-85) the group X' should release a proton. This deprotonated state of X' would stabilize the protonated state of Asp-85.2) Thermal isomerization of the chromophore (dark adaptation) occurs on transient protonation of Asp-85 and formation of the blue membrane. The latter conclusion is based on the observation that the rate constant of dark adaptation is directly proportional to the fraction of blue membrane (in which Asp-85 is protonated) between pH 2 and 11. The rate constant of isomerization is at least 10(4) times faster in the blue membrane than in the purple membrane. The protonated state of Asp-85 probably is important for the catalysis not only of all-trans <=> 13-cis thermal isomerization during dark adaptation but also of the reisomerization of the chromophore from 13-cis to all-trans configuration during N-->O-->bR transition in the photocycle. This would explain why Asp-85 stays protonated in the N and O intermediates. PMID:8770224

  16. Matched Pairs Procedures Two Sample Procedures General Guidelines t Procedures

    E-print Network

    Watkins, Joseph C.

    Matched Pairs Procedures Two Sample Procedures General Guidelines Topic 20 t Procedures Two Sample Procedures 1 / 15 #12;Matched Pairs Procedures Two Sample Procedures General Guidelines Outline Matched Pairs Procedures Vitamin C Reduction Two Sample Procedures Mosquito Life Span General Guidelines Tests

  17. Accelerated, Spleen-Based Titration of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Infectivity in Transgenic Mice Expressing Human Prion Protein with Sensitivity Comparable to That of Survival Time Bioassay

    PubMed Central

    Halliez, Sophie; Reine, Fabienne; Herzog, Laetitia; Jaumain, Emilie; Haïk, Stéphane; Rezaei, Human; Vilotte, Jean-Luc; Laude, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The dietary exposure of the human population to the prions responsible for the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epizooty has led to the emergence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). This fatal, untreatable neurodegenerative disorder is a growing public health concern because the prevalence of the infection seems much greater than the disease incidence and because secondary transmission of vCJD by blood transfusion or use of blood products has occurred. A current limitation in variant CJD risk assessment is the lack of quantitative information on the infectivity of contaminated tissues. To address this limitation, we tested the potential of a transgenic mouse line overexpressing human prion protein (PrP), which was previously reported to propagate vCJD prions. Endpoint titration of vCJD infectivity in different tissues was evaluated by two different methods: (i) the “classical” bioassay, based on the appearance of clinical symptoms and the detection of pathological prion protein in tissues of the inoculated mouse, and (ii) a shortened bioassay based on the detection of the protein in the mouse spleen at defined time points. The two methods proved equally sensitive in quantifying infectivity, even after very-low-dose inoculation of infected material, but the time schedule was shortened from ?2.5 years to ?1 year with the spleen bioassay. Compared to the “gold-standard” RIII model routinely used for endpoint titration of vCJD/BSE prions, either method improved the sensitivity by >2 orders of magnitude and allowed reevaluating the infectious titer of spleen from a vCJD individual at disease end stage to >1,000-fold-higher values. IMPORTANCE Here, we provide key reevaluation of the infectious titer of variant CJD brain and spleen tissues. The highly sensitive, accelerated spleen-based assay should thus constitute a key advance for variant CJD epidemiological and risk assessment purposes and should greatly facilitate future titration studies, including, for example, those aimed at validating decontamination procedures. The overlooked notion that the lymphoid tissue exhibits a higher capacity than the brain to replicate prions even after low-dose infection raises new questions about the molecular and/or cellular determinant(s) involved, a key issue regarding potent silent carriers of variant CJD in the lymphoid tissue. PMID:24850746

  18. A sounding rocket spectroheliometer for photometric studies at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths. [Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.; Chambers, R. M.; Dentremont, A. M.; Lanham, N. W.; Reeves, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    Construction and mode of operation are described for a sounding rocket spectroheliometer used to establish the sensitivity of the EUV spectroheliometer on the Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM). The sounding rocket instrument was calibrated immediately before and after two flights and the calibration was transferred when the rocket and ATM instruments simultaneously measured the average intensity emitted by a quiet area of the solar disk. Descriptions are presented for the payload assembly and flight sequence, the optical system (telescope, spectrometer, and pointing reference camera), the vacuum pumping system, and the instrument electronics. Results obtained from the two flights in August and December 1973 are discussed, which included unambiguous determinations of the absolute intensity emitted by a region of the quiet solar disk over the wavelength range from 1350 to 300 A on two separate occasions and the establishment of photometric accuracy to that of laboratory calibration procedures.

  19. 21 CFR 862.2160 - Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862.2160...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical... § 862.2160 Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a)...

  20. 21 CFR 862.2160 - Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862.2160...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical... § 862.2160 Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a)...

  1. EXPLORING THE VARIABLE SKY WITH LINEAR. I. PHOTOMETRIC RECALIBRATION WITH THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    E-print Network

    Sesar, Branimir

    We describe photometric recalibration of data obtained by the asteroid survey LINEAR. Although LINEAR was designed for astrometric discovery of moving objects, the data set described here contains over 5 billion photometric ...

  2. Photometric NO/sub x/ analyzer helps surpass EPA standards

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.H.

    1983-10-01

    A photometric analyzer helped Monsanto Company of Pensacola, Florida reduce stack emissions to a point where an observer could not tell the difference between a shutdown and normal plant operation. Oxides of nitrogen output levels have been kept within 200 ppm at typical production rates, well within EPA limits.

  3. Calibration of the LSST instrumental and atmospheric photometric passbands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Burke; T. Axelrod; Aurélien Barrau; Sylvain Baumont; Stéphane Blondin; Charles Claver; Alexia Gorecki; Zeljko Ivezic; Lynne Jones; Victor Krabbendam; Ming Liang; Abhijit Saha; Allyn Smith; R. Christopher Smith; Christopher W. Stubbs; Christophe Vescovi

    2010-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will continuously image the entire sky visible from Cerro Pachon in northern Chile every 3-4 nights throughout the year. The LSST will provide data for a broad range of science investigations that require better than 1% photometric precision across the sky (repeatability and uniformity) and a similar accuracy of measured broadband color. The fast

  4. Calibration of LSST Instrumental and Atmospheric Photometric Passbands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Burke; T. Axelrod; Aurelien Barrau; Sylvain Baumont; Stephane Blondin; Chuck Claver; Alexia Gorecki; Zeljko Ivezic; Lynne Jones; Victor Krabbendam; Ming Liang; Abhijit Saha; Allyn Smith; R. Chris Smith; Christopher W. Stubbs

    2011-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will continuously image the entire sky visible from Cerro Pachon in northern Chile every 3-4 nights throughout the year. The LSST will provide data for a broad range of science investigations that require better than 1% photometric precision across the sky (repeatability and uniformity) and a similar accuracy of measured broadband color. The fast

  5. Probable swirls detected as photometric anomalies in Oceanus Procellarum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. Shkuratov; V. Kaydash; S. Gerasimenko; N. Opanasenko; Yu. Velikodsky; V. Korokhin; G. Videen; C. Pieters

    2010-01-01

    Images of the lunar nearside obtained by telescopes of Maidanak Observatory (Uzbekistan) and Simeiz Observatory (Crimea, Ukraine) equipped with Canon CMOS cameras and Sony CCD LineScan camera were used to study photometric properties of the lunar nearside in several spectral bands. A wide range of lunar phase angles was covered, and the method of phase ratios to assess the steepness

  6. PROTOTYPE CORRELATION MASK FLAME PHOTOMETRIC DETECTOR FOR MEASURING SULFUR DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prototype flame photometric detector system (FPD) to measure gaseous sulfur compounds was fabricated using a previously developed correlation mask optical system and a new flame housing. Also, a new burner for the FPD system was optimized to view the excited molecular sulfur em...

  7. Photometric CCD observations of four Pre-cataclysmic binary candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinojosa, R.; Vogt, N.; Colque, Juan Pablo

    We present preliminary results of differential photometric observations of Abell 65, HZ 9, GD 1401 and BPM 46460, obtained between September and December 2006 with the 42 cm telescope of the Cerro Armazones Observatory which belongs to the Universidad Catolica del Norte, Antofagasta. All four stars are close red dwarf/white dwarf binaries which could have formed be recent common envelope events. In two of the four cases we detected (or confirmed) significant variability. In one of them, the central star of a planetary nebula Abell 65, we confirmed the rather strong photometric variability with a period very near to 24 hours (Bond and Livio, 1990). In the white dwarf binary HZ9 we detected, for the first time, photometric variations with a period near 0.58 days which corresponds to the known orbital period (Lanning and Pesch, 1981; Stauffer, 1987). The amplitude of this variation is 0.08 mag, it probably refers to reflection of the white dwarf radiation on the surface of the red companion. - These observations are part of a larger on-going project which pretends to identify and to study pre-cataclysmic binaries by means of photometric and spectroscopic methods and to improve, this way, the hitherto poor statistics on the properties of these interesting stars.

  8. Photometric Detection of Extrasolar Planets by the Transit Method

    E-print Network

    Deeg, Hans-Jörg

    Photometric Detection of Extrasolar Planets by the Transit Method Hans­J¨org Deeg Instituto de of extrasolar planets is based on the detection of stellar brightness variations, which result from the transit. Pertubations in the times of eclipses of extrasolar planets may be used to determine on the prescence

  9. Comparison of VNIIOFI and CSIRO Photometric and Radiometric Quantities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J L Gardner; R Stoliarevskaya; W J Brown; M N Pavlovich

    1992-01-01

    Soviet and Australian photometric and radiometric standards have been intercompared. Luminous intensity and luminous flux values were compared using lamps, and illuminance, irradiance and spectral responsivity using detectors. Agreement at the 1% level or better was found for these values as determined by the two national laboratories.

  10. A Photometric and Energy Assessment of a Novel Lighting System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doug Crawford; Carl Gould; Michael Packer; Francis Rubinstein; Michael Siminovitch

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a photometric and energy analysis that was conducted on a new light guide and sulfur lamp system recently installed at both the US Department of Energy's Forrestal building and the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum. This system couples high lumen output, high efficiency sulfur lamps to hollow light guides lined with a

  11. Satellite-Mounted Light Sources as Photometric Calibration Standards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin Albert; Kristie Foster; James Battat; Grace Dupuis; Kyle Fransham; Kristin Koopmans; Michael Jarrett

    2009-01-01

    A significant and growing portion of systematic error on a number of fundamental parameters in astrophysics and cosmology is due to uncertainties from absolute photometric and flux standards. A path toward achieving major reduction in such uncertainties may be provided by satellite-mounted light sources, resulting in improvement in the ability to precisely characterize atmospheric extinction, and thus helping to usher

  12. pi-SIFT: A photometric and Scale Invariant Feature Transform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae-han Park; Kyung-wook Park; Seung-ho Baeg; Moon-Hong Baeg

    2008-01-01

    For many years, various local descriptors that are insensitive to geometric changes such as viewpoint, rotation, and scale changes, have been attracting attention due to their promising performance. However, most existing local descriptors including the SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) are based on luminance information rather than color information thereby resulting in instability to photometric variations such as shadows, highlights,

  13. Photometric study of two beta Cephei pulsators in eclipsing systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Drobek; A. Pigulski; R. R. Shobbrook; A. Narwid

    2010-01-01

    We present results of a photometric study of the young southern open cluster Stock 14. This cluster is known to contain two eclipsing systems with presumed beta Cephei components, HD 101794 and HD 101838. We confirm variability due to pulsations and eclipses in both targets and announce the discovery of other variable stars in the observed field.

  14. Correlating Photometric Variability and Chromospheric Activity in Kepler Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastien, Fabienne A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua; Chaplin, William; Huber, Daniel

    2013-02-01

    The panoply of photometric variability due to the magnetic activity of Sun-like stars, as revealed by missions like it Kepler, has significantly impacted our understanding of stars, calling for a thorough characterization of this behavior, an important noise source in planet detection. Our work, based on previous WIYN/Hydra observations of it Kepler stars, reveals that many stars that appear ``inactive'' by traditional measures may be highly variable in radial-velocity and/or exhibit complex photometric variations. Our preliminary results, along with recent modeling efforts, suggest promising and testable observational predictors of this behavior. We propose to measure the magnetic activity of 280 stars in the it Kepler field, including asteroseismic targets with precisely determined parameters, via their Ca II H&K emission, over a relatively long time-baseline, in order to link activity and its degree of variation to photometric variability. We will also use these data to test and refine models that seek to predict photometric and radial-velocity variations of potential planet-hosting stars. This analysis will inform theories of the causes of stellar activity and improve the efficiency of planet detection.

  15. The ALHAMBRA survey: Accurate photometric merger fractions from PDF analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Sanjuan, C.; Cenarro, A. J..; Varela, J.; Viironen, K.; ALHAMBRA Team

    2015-05-01

    The estimation of the merger fraction in photometric surveys is limited by the large uncertainty in the photometric redshift compared with the velocity difference in kinematical close pairs (less than 500 km s^{-1}). Several efforts have conducted to deal with this limitation and we present the latest improvements. Our new method (i) provides a robust estimation of the merger fraction by using full probability distribution functions (PDFs) instead of Gaussian distributions, as in previous work; (ii) takes into account the dependence of the luminosity on redshift in both the selection of the samples and the definition of major/minor mergers; and (iii) deals with partial PDFs to define ``red" (E/S0 templates) and ``blue" (spiral/starburst templates) samples without apply any colour selection. We highlight our new method with the estimation of the merger fraction at z < 1 in the ALHAMBRA photometric survey. We find that our merger fractions and rates nicely agree with those from previous spectroscopic work. This new method will be capital for current and future large photometric surveys such as DES, SHARDS, J-PAS, or LSST.

  16. Dopant titrating ion mobility spectrometry for trace exhaled nitric oxide detection.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liying; Hua, Lei; Li, Enyou; Wang, Weiguo; Zhou, Qinghua; Wang, Xin; Wang, Changsong; Li, Jinghua; Li, Haiyang

    2015-03-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is a promising non-invasive tool for the analysis of exhaled gas and exhaled nitric oxide (NO), a biomarker for diagnosis of respiratory diseases. However, the high moisture in exhaled gas always brings about extra overlapping ion peaks and results in poor identification ability. In this paper, p-benzoquinone (PBQ) was introduced into IMS to eliminate the interference of overlapping ion peaks and realize the selective identification of NO. The overlapping ions caused by moisture were titrated by PBQ and then converted to hydrated PBQ anions (C6H4[Formula: see text](H2O)n). The NO concentration could be determined by quantifying gas phase hydrated nitrite anions (N[Formula: see text](H2O)n), product ions of NO. Under optimized conditions, a limit of detection (LOD) of about 1.4?ppbv and a linear range of 10-200?ppbv were obtained for NO even in 100% relative humidity (RH) purified air. Furthermore, this established method was applied to measure hourly the exhaled NO of eight healthy volunteers, and real-time monitoring the exhaled NO of an esophageal carcinoma patient during radical surgery. These results revealed the potential of the current dopant titrating IMS method in the measurement of exhaled NO for medical disease diagnosis. PMID:25557839

  17. Interaction of gymnemic acid with cyclodextrins analyzed by isothermal titration calorimetry, NMR and dynamic light scattering.

    PubMed

    Izutani, Yusuke; Kanaori, Kenji; Imoto, Toshiaki; Oda, Masayuki

    2005-12-01

    The physiological phenomenon that the antisweet taste effect of gymnemic acid (GA) is diminished by application of gamma-cyclodextrin (gamma-CD) to the mouth was evaluated at the molecular level using isothermal titration calorimetry, NMR and dynamic light scattering. These analyses showed that GA specifically binds to gamma-CD. Thermodynamic analysis using isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that the association constant of GA and gamma-CD is 10(5)-10(6) m(-1) with favorable enthalpy and entropy changes. The heat capacity change was negative and large, despite the change in accessible surface area upon binding being small. These thermodynamics indicate that the binding is dominated by hydrophobic interactions, which is in agreement with inclusion complex formation of gamma-CD. In addition, NMR measurements showed that in solution the spectra of GA are broad and sharpened by the addition of gamma-CD, indicating that unbound GA is in a water-soluble aggregate that is dispersed when it forms a complex with gamma-CD. Dynamic light scattering showed that the average diameter of unbound GA is > 30 nm and that of GA and gamma-CD complex is 2.2 nm, similar to unbound gamma-CD, supporting the aggregate property of GA and the inclusion complexation of GA by gamma-CD. PMID:16302978

  18. PHOTOMETRIC SUPERNOVA COSMOLOGY WITH BEAMS AND SDSS-II

    SciTech Connect

    Hlozek, Renee [Oxford Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Kunz, Martin [Department de physique theorique, Universite de Geneve, 30, quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneve 4 (Switzerland); Bassett, Bruce; Smith, Mat; Newling, James [African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 68 Melrose Road, Muizenberg 7945 (South Africa); Varughese, Melvin [Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town, 7700 (South Africa); Kessler, Rick; Frieman, Joshua [The Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, The University of Chicago, 933 East 56th Street, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bernstein, Joseph P.; Kuhlmann, Steve; Marriner, John [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Campbell, Heather; Lampeitl, Hubert; Nichol, Robert C. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building Burnaby Road Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Dilday, Ben [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Falck, Bridget; Riess, Adam G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sako, Masao [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 203 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Schneider, Donald P., E-mail: rhlozek@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2012-06-20

    Supernova (SN) cosmology without spectroscopic confirmation is an exciting new frontier, which we address here with the Bayesian Estimation Applied to Multiple Species (BEAMS) algorithm and the full three years of data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II Supernova Survey (SDSS-II SN). BEAMS is a Bayesian framework for using data from multiple species in statistical inference when one has the probability that each data point belongs to a given species, corresponding in this context to different types of SNe with their probabilities derived from their multi-band light curves. We run the BEAMS algorithm on both Gaussian and more realistic SNANA simulations with of order 10{sup 4} SNe, testing the algorithm against various pitfalls one might expect in the new and somewhat uncharted territory of photometric SN cosmology. We compare the performance of BEAMS to that of both mock spectroscopic surveys and photometric samples that have been cut using typical selection criteria. The latter typically either are biased due to contamination or have significantly larger contours in the cosmological parameters due to small data sets. We then apply BEAMS to the 792 SDSS-II photometric SNe with host spectroscopic redshifts. In this case, BEAMS reduces the area of the {Omega}{sub m}, {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} contours by a factor of three relative to the case where only spectroscopically confirmed data are used (297 SNe). In the case of flatness, the constraints obtained on the matter density applying BEAMS to the photometric SDSS-II data are {Omega}{sup BEAMS}{sub m} = 0.194 {+-} 0.07. This illustrates the potential power of BEAMS for future large photometric SN surveys such as Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  19. Flame photometric determination of strontium in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skougstad, Marvin W.

    1957-01-01

    Preliminary search of reported methods of Sr analysis revealed several investigations which have been made for the determination of Sr with the flame photometer, both at relatively low concentrations (0 to 50 ppm Sr) and at higher concentrations. Generally the procedures described involved measurement of Sr emission at either 460.7 mu or at 681 mu. There is disagreement among those reporting methods for Sr as to the preference of the one wavelength over the other. The 681 line (or band) seems to be preferred because of its greater reproducibility and relative freedom from interference. The 460.7 mu line, however, lies in the region of greater sensitivity of the photomultiplier tube, and hence for this reason is preferred by some. This is an advantage, of course, when determining Sr at very low concentrations. This investigation is concerned with determining the optimum conditions for the determination of Sr at low concentration levels in water samples. Early experimental work indicated a greater sensitivity for the 460.7 mu (hereafter designated as 461 mu) Sr line. Therefore, most of the subsequent work was based on a study of the effects of various other materials and conditions on the emission of Sr at this wavelength.

  20. Determination of the size, mass, and density of ``exomoons'' from photometric transit timing variations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Simon; K. Szatmáry; Gy. M. Szabó

    2007-01-01

    Aims:Precise photometric measurements of the upcoming space missions allow the size, mass, and density of satellites of exoplanets to be determined. Here we present such an analysis using the photometric transit timing variation (TTV_p). Methods: We examined the light curve effects of both the transiting planet and its satellite. We define the photometric central time of the transit that is

  1. Fixed Asset Procedure ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE

    E-print Network

    Rainforth, Emma C.

    and a useful life of more than three years; donations with an estimated or appraised market value of $5, design fees, material and supplies, construction costs. Acquisition/Addition of Fixed Assets The college and account code criteria. #12;Fixed Asset Procedure 2 ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE 6/6/2011 The Purchasing

  2. THE PHOTOMETRIC CLASSIFICATION SERVER FOR Pan-STARRS1

    SciTech Connect

    Saglia, R. P.; Bender, R.; Seitz, S.; Senger, R.; Snigula, J.; Phleps, S.; Wilman, D. [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse, Postfach 1312, 85741 Garching (Germany); Tonry, J. L.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Heasley, J. N.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Morgan, J. S. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Greisel, N. [University Observatory Munich, Ludwig-Maximilians Universitaet, Scheinerstrasse 1, 81679 Munich (Germany); Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Klement, R. J.; Rix, H.-W.; Smith, K. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Green, P. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); and others

    2012-02-20

    The Pan-STARRS1 survey is obtaining multi-epoch imaging in five bands (g{sub P1} r{sub P1} i{sub P1} z{sub P1} y{sub P1}) over the entire sky north of declination -30 deg. We describe here the implementation of the Photometric Classification Server (PCS) for Pan-STARRS1. PCS will allow the automatic classification of objects into star/galaxy/quasar classes based on colors and the measurement of photometric redshifts for extragalactic objects, and will constrain stellar parameters for stellar objects, working at the catalog level. We present tests of the system based on high signal-to-noise photometry derived from the Medium-Deep Fields of Pan-STARRS1, using available spectroscopic surveys as training and/or verification sets. We show that the Pan-STARRS1 photometry delivers classifications and photometric redshifts as good as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometry to the same magnitude limits. In particular, our preliminary results, based on this relatively limited data set down to the SDSS spectroscopic limits, and therefore potentially improvable, show that stars are correctly classified as such in 85% of cases, galaxies in 97%, and QSOs in 84%. False positives are less than 1% for galaxies, Almost-Equal-To 19% for stars, and Almost-Equal-To 28% for QSOs. Moreover, photometric redshifts for 1000 luminous red galaxies up to redshift 0.5 are determined to 2.4% precision (defined as 1.48 Multiplication-Sign Median|z{sub phot} - z{sub spec}|/(1 + z)) with just 0.4% catastrophic outliers and small (-0.5%) residual bias. For bluer galaxies up to the same redshift, the residual bias (on average -0.5%) trend, percentage of catastrophic failures (1.2%), and precision (4.2%) are higher, but still interestingly small for many science applications. Good photometric redshifts (to 5%) can be obtained for at most 60% of the QSOs of the sample. PCS will create a value-added catalog with classifications and photometric redshifts for eventually many millions of sources.

  3. Slow versus standard up-titration of paroxetine for the treatment of depression in cancer patients: a pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Amodeo; Lorys Castelli; Paolo Leombruni; Daniela Cipriani; Alessia Biancofiore; Riccardo Torta

    Objectives  This study aimed to compare the tolerability and efficacy of two different titrations of paroxetine (slow and standard) in\\u000a a population of cancer patients with depression.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This randomized open trial included 30 cancer patients with depression (major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, or\\u000a adjustment disorder with depressed mood) and aimed to compare the safety of slow up-titration (arm A) versus standard

  4. The wavelength dependence and an interpretation of the photometric parameters of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, W. R.; Meador, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    The photometric function developed by Meador and Weaver has been used with photometric data from the bright desert areas of Mars to determine the wavelength dependence of the three photometric parameters of that function and to provide some predictions about the physical properties of the surface. Knowledge of the parameters permits the brightness of these areas of Mars to be determined for scattering geometry over the wavelength range of 0.45 to 0.70 micrometer. The changes in the photometric parameters with wavelength are shown to be consistent with qualitative theoretical predictions, and the predictions of surface properties are shown to be consistent with conditions that might exist in these regions of Mars. The photometric function is shown to have good potential as a diagnostic tool for the determination of surface properties, and the consistency of the behavior of the photometric parameters is shown to be good support for the validity of the photometric function.

  5. Survey of the year 2005: literature on applications of isothermal titration calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Ababou, Adessamad; Ladbury, John E

    2007-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) can provide a full thermodynamic characterization of an interaction. Its usage does not suffer from constraints of molecular size, shape or chemical constitution. Neither is there any need for chemical modification or attachment to solid support. This ease of use has made it an invaluable instrumental resource and led to its appearance in many laboratories. Despite this, the value of the thermodynamic parameterization has, only quite recently, become widely appreciated. Although our understanding of the correlation between thermodynamic data and structural details continues to be somewhat naïve, a large number of publications have begun to improve the situation. In this overview of the literature for 2005, we have attempted to highlight works of interest and novelty. Furthermore, we draw attention to those works which we feel have provided a route to better analysis and increased our ability to understand the meaning of thermodynamic change on binding. PMID:17006876

  6. Thermodynamic signature of secondary nano-emulsion formation by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Fotticchia, Iolanda; Fotticchia, Teresa; Mattia, Carlo Andrea; Netti, Paolo Antonio; Vecchione, Raffaele; Giancola, Concetta

    2014-12-01

    The stabilization of oil in water nano-emulsions by means of a polymer coating is extremely important; it prolongs the shelf life of the product and makes it suitable for a variety of applications ranging from nutraceutics to cosmetics and pharmaceutics. To date, an effective methodology to assess the best formulations in terms of thermodynamic stability has yet to be designed. Here, we perform a complete physicochemical characterization based on isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) compared to conventional dynamic light scattering (DLS) to identify polymer concentration domains that are thermodynamically stable and to define the degree of stability through thermodynamic functions depending upon any relevant parameter affecting the stability itself, such as type of polymer coating, droplet distance, etc. For instance, the method was proven by measuring the energetics in the case of two different biopolymers, chitosan and poly-L-lysine, and for different concentrations of the emulsion coated with poly-L-lysine. PMID:25396753

  7. Binding of chrysoidine to catalase: spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry and molecular docking studies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bingjun; Hao, Fang; Li, Jiarong; Chen, Dongliang; Liu, Rutao

    2013-11-01

    Chrysoidine is an industrial azo dye and the presence of chrysoidine in water and food has become an environmental concern due to its negative effects on human beings. In this work, the interactions between chrysoidine and bovine liver catalase (BLC) were explored. Obvious loss in catalytic activity was observed after incubation of BLC with chrysoidine, and the inhibition effect of BLC was found to be of the non-competitive type. No profound conformational change of BLC occurs in the presence of chrysoidine as revealed by UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy studies. Isothermal titration calorimetry results indicate that catalase has two sets of binding sites for chrysoidine. Further, molecular docking simulations show that chrysoidine is located within the bottleneck in the main channel of the substrate to the active site of BLC, which explain the activity inhibition of BLC by chrysoidine. PMID:24001681

  8. Substrate binding properties of potato tuber ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Cakir, Bilal; Tuncel, Aytug; Green, Abigail R; Koper, Kaan; Hwang, Seon-Kap; Okita, Thomas W; Kang, ChulHee

    2015-06-01

    Substrate binding properties of the large (LS) and small (SS) subunits of potato tuber ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase were investigated by using isothermal titration calorimetry. Our results clearly show that the wild type heterotetramer (S(WT)L(WT)) possesses two distinct types of ATP binding sites, whereas the homotetrameric LS and SS variant forms only exhibited properties of one of the two binding sites. The wild type enzyme also exhibited significantly increased affinity to this substrate compared to the homotetrameric enzyme forms. No stable binding was evident for the second substrate, glucose-1-phosphate, in the presence or absence of ATP?S suggesting that interaction of glucose-1-phosphate is dependent on hydrolysis of ATP and supports the Theorell-Chance bi bi reaction mechanism. PMID:25953126

  9. DNA heats up : Energetics of genome ejection from phage revealed by isothermal titration calorimetry

    E-print Network

    Jeembaeva, Meerim; Castelnovo, Martin; Evilevitch, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Most bacteriophages are known to inject their double-stranded DNA into bacteria upon receptor binding in an essentially spontaneous way. This downhill thermodynamic process from the intact virion toward the empty viral capsid plus released DNA is made possible by the energy stored during active packaging of the genome into the capsid. Only indirect measurements of this energy have been available until now using either single-molecule or osmotic suppression techniques. In this paper, we describe for the first time the use of isothermal titration calorimetry to directly measure the heat released (or equivalently the enthalpy) during DNA ejection from phage lambda, triggered in solution by a solubilized receptor. Quantitative analyses of the results lead to the identification of thermodynamic determinants associated with DNA ejection. The values obtained were found to be consistent with those previously predicted by analytical models and numerical simulations. Moreover, the results confirm the role of DNA hydrat...

  10. Measuring anaerobic sludge digestion and growth by a simple alkalimetric titration

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, S.R.; Morgan, J.M.; Sawyer, C.L.

    1983-05-01

    Organic acids produced in the anaerobic digestion of waste-water sludges tend continuously to depress pH below a point where the acids can be converted to methane. As a result, a large buffering capacity is required to maintain pH between 6.7 and 7.4, which allows efficient operation. Present tests to measure this buffer capacity are inadequate. The present research proposes a simple but adequate test that will provide plant operators with accurate information on anaerobic digester efficiency, as well as considerable long-range insight into digester operation - it would seem that an alkalimetric titration to pH 5.75 can be used routinely to monitor laboratory and actual anaerobic digester performance with a high degree of confidence. The simplicity of the test should encourage many operators to pay more attention to digester performance and, therefore, result in improved waste water treatment efficiency. (Refs. 7).

  11. DNA heats up : Energetics of genome ejection from phage revealed by isothermal titration calorimetry

    E-print Network

    Meerim Jeembaeva; B. Jönsson; Martin Castelnovo; Alex Evilevitch

    2010-01-06

    Most bacteriophages are known to inject their double-stranded DNA into bacteria upon receptor binding in an essentially spontaneous way. This downhill thermodynamic process from the intact virion toward the empty viral capsid plus released DNA is made possible by the energy stored during active packaging of the genome into the capsid. Only indirect measurements of this energy have been available until now using either single-molecule or osmotic suppression techniques. In this paper, we describe for the first time the use of isothermal titration calorimetry to directly measure the heat released (or equivalently the enthalpy) during DNA ejection from phage lambda, triggered in solution by a solubilized receptor. Quantitative analyses of the results lead to the identification of thermodynamic determinants associated with DNA ejection. The values obtained were found to be consistent with those previously predicted by analytical models and numerical simulations. Moreover, the results confirm the role of DNA hydration in the energetics of genome confinement in viral capsids.

  12. Titration without Mixing or Dilution:? Sequential Injection of Chemical Sensing Membranes.

    PubMed

    Holman, D A; Christian, G D; Ruzicka, J

    1997-05-01

    A novel, miniaturized titration was developed using beads 35 ?m in diameter as semisolid aqueous titrant retained in a nonaqueous sample stream. Agarose beads with internally bound pH indicator served as a pH sensing membrane material swollen with aqueous NaOH titrant. The indicator monitored the remaining titrant within the agarose beads during perfusion with H(2)SO(4) in 1-butanol samples. Irreversible reaction of 2 mg bead layers was made possible by automated packing and disposal in a flow cell. This strategy substituted membrane advantages for the burdens of mixing and unnecessary dilution under laminar flow conditions. The agarose environment was conditioned with NaCl to tolerate dissolved salt in the sample. Transmittance measurements were made via fiber optics through FEP PTFE optical windows. A simple inverse relationship held between endpoint volume and acid concentration so that calibration curves were linear, R(2) = 0.9980. PMID:21639300

  13. Probing the binding of (+)-catechin to bovine serum albumin by isothermal titration calorimetry and spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangrong; Hao, Yongbing

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the interaction between (+)-catechin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), in combination with fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Thermodynamic investigations reveal that the electrostatic interaction and hydrophobic interaction are the major binding forces in the binding of (+)-catechin to BSA. The binding of (+)-catechin to BSA is synergistically driven by enthalpy and entropy. Fluorescence experiments suggest that (+)-catechin can quench the fluorescence of BSA through a static quenching mechanism. The obtained binding constants and the equilibrium fraction of unbound (+)-catechin show that (+)-catechin can be stored and transported from the circulatory system to reach its target organ. Binding site I is found to be the primary binding site for (+)-catechin. Additionally, as shown by the UV-vis absorption, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and FT-IR, (+)-catechin may induce conformational and microenvironmental changes of BSA.

  14. Photometric study of the pulsating, eclipsing binary OO DRA

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. B.; Deng, L. C.; Tian, J. F.; Wang, K.; Yan, Z. Z.; Luo, C. Q. [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Sun, J. J.; Liu, Q. L.; Xin, H. Q.; Zhou, Q. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Luo, Z. Q. [Department of Physics, China West Normal University, Nanchong 637002 (China)

    2014-12-01

    We present a comprehensive photometric study of the pulsating, eclipsing binary OO Dra. Simultaneous B- and V-band photometry of the star was carried out on 14 nights. A revised orbital period and a new ephemeris were derived from the data. The first photometric solution of the binary system and the physical parameters of the component stars are determined. They reveal that OO Dra could be a detached system with a less-massive secondary component nearly filling its Roche lobe. By subtracting the eclipsing light changes from the data, we obtained the intrinsic pulsating light curves of the hotter, massive primary component. A frequency analysis of the residual light yields two confident pulsation modes in both B- and V-band data with the dominant frequency detected at 41.865 c/d. A brief discussion concerning the evolutionary status and the pulsation nature of the binary system is finally given.

  15. A Sparse Gaussian Process Framework for Photometric Redshift Estimation

    E-print Network

    Almosallam, Ibrahim A; Jarvis, Matt J; Roberts, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Accurate photometric redshift are a lynchpin for many future experiments to pin down the cosmological model and for studies of galaxy evolution. In this study, a novel sparse regression framework for photometric redshift estimation is presented. Data from a simulated survey was used to train and test the proposed models. We show that approaches which include careful data preparation and model design offer a significant improvement in comparison with several competing machine learning algorithms. Standard implementation of most regression algorithms has as the objective the minimization of the sum of squared errors. For redshift inference, however, this induces a bias in the posterior mean of the output distribution, which can be problematic. In this paper we optimize to directly target minimizing $\\Delta z = (z_\\textrm{s} - z_\\textrm{p})/(1+z_\\textrm{s})$ and address the bias problem via a distribution-based weighting scheme, incorporated as part of the optimization objective. The results are compared with ot...

  16. Photometric Study of the Pulsating, Eclipsing Binary OO Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. B.; Deng, L. C.; Tian, J. F.; Wang, K.; Sun, J. J.; Liu, Q. L.; Xin, H. Q.; Zhou, Q.; Yan, Z. Z.; Luo, Z. Q.; Luo, C. Q.

    2014-12-01

    We present a comprehensive photometric study of the pulsating, eclipsing binary OO Dra. Simultaneous B- and V-band photometry of the star was carried out on 14 nights. A revised orbital period and a new ephemeris were derived from the data. The first photometric solution of the binary system and the physical parameters of the component stars are determined. They reveal that OO Dra could be a detached system with a less-massive secondary component nearly filling its Roche lobe. By subtracting the eclipsing light changes from the data, we obtained the intrinsic pulsating light curves of the hotter, massive primary component. A frequency analysis of the residual light yields two confident pulsation modes in both B- and V-band data with the dominant frequency detected at 41.865 c/d. A brief discussion concerning the evolutionary status and the pulsation nature of the binary system is finally given.

  17. The Ten-Year Photometric Evolution of SN 1987A

    E-print Network

    Nicholas B. Suntzeff

    1997-07-29

    Ten years of photometric observations of SN 1987A are reviewed. The optical and near-infrared colors are now declining at less than 1 magnitude per 1000 days, which is consistent with both the infrared ``freeze-out'' and the possible energy sources powering the nebula. The ``uvoir'' bolometric luminosity at ten years is estimated to be log10(L) 36.1-36.4 ergs/s. The most recent photometric measurements are given in Table 1. A deep color-magnitude diagram shows that the young stars are concentrated within a projected distance of 25" (6pc) in a field out to 3' from the supernova. It is likely that Stars 2 and 3 which project to within 0.7pc of the supernova are associated with Sk -69 202.

  18. Measuring photometric redshifts using galaxy images and Deep Neural Networks

    E-print Network

    Hoyle, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new method to estimate the photometric redshift of galaxies by using the full galaxy image in each measured band. This method draws from the latest techniques and advances in machine learning, in particular Deep Neural Networks. We pass the entire multi-band galaxy image into the machine learning architecture to obtain a redshift estimate that is competitive with the best existing standard machine learning techniques. The standard techniques estimate redshifts using post-processed features, such as magnitudes and colours, which are extracted from the galaxy images and are deemed to be salient by the user. This new method removes the user from the photometric redshift estimation pipeline. However we do note that Deep Neural Networks require many orders of magnitude more computing resources than standard machine learning architectures.

  19. Photometric properties of resolved and unresolved magnetic elements

    E-print Network

    Serena Criscuoli; Mark Rast

    2008-12-09

    We investigate the photometric signature of magnetic flux tubes in the solar photosphere. We developed two dimensional, static numerical models of isolated and clustered magnetic flux tubes. We investigated the emergent intensity profiles at different lines-of-sight for various spatial resolutions and opacity models. We found that both geometric and photometric properties of bright magnetic features are determined not only by the physical properties of the tube and its surroundings, but also by the particularities of the observations, including the line/continuum formation height, the spatial resolution and the image analyses techniques applied. We show that some observational results presented in the literature can be interpreted by considering bright magnetic features to be clusters of smaller elements, rather than a monolithic flux tube.

  20. Photometric Reverberation Mapping with a Small Aperture Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Carol E.; Rivera, Noah I.; Thackeray-Lacko, Beverly; Powers, Randy M.; Stuckey, Harrison; Watson, Rene; Hood, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    We present photometric observations of a sample of bright, broad-line AGN in order to monitor variability and verify their black hole masses using the photometric reverberation mapping technique. Observations were taken, primarily remotely, using the 20-inch telescope at the Murillo Family Observatory, a campus-based observatory located on the outskirts of the Southern California metro area, in both monitored and automated mode nightly in BVRI over a period of 2-5 months. We will show the viability of such a technique for small-aperture telescopes in bright-sky locations and discuss the possibilities of extending this program in the future. We also note that undergraduate students (both from 4-year and community colleges) have been and will continue to be instrumental in the success of similar research programs at CSUSB.

  1. Reliability of pulse oximetry in titrating supplemental oxygen therapy in ventilator-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Jubran, A; Tobin, M J

    1990-06-01

    Pulse oximetry is widely used in the critical care setting, but few studies have examined its usefulness in clinical decision making. One area where pulse oximetry might be useful is in the titration of fractional inspired O2 concentration (FIO2) in ventilator-dependent patients. Unfortunately, documented guidelines for this use do not exist, and in a survey of directors of intensive care units, we found that they employed a wide range of target O2 saturation (SpO2) values. Consequently, we undertook a study to determine if SpO2 could be reliably substituted for measurements of arterial O2 tension (PaO2) when adjusting FIO2 in ventilator-dependent patients. We examined a number of SpO2 target values in 54 critically ill patients aiming for a PaO2 of greater than or equal to 60 mm Hg, while minimizing the risk of O2 toxicity. In white patients, we found that a SpO2 target of 92 percent was reliable in predicting a satisfactory level of oxygenation. However, in black patients, such a SpO2 reading was commonly associated with significant hypoxemia (PaO2 as low as 49 mm Hg), and a higher SpO2 target, 95 percent, was required. In addition, inaccurate oximetry readings (ie, greater than 4 percent difference between SpO2 and direct SaO2 measurements) were more common in black (27 percent) than in white patients (11 percent, p less than 0.05). In conclusion, a SpO2 target of 92 percent was reliable when titrating supplemental O2 in white patients receiving mechanical ventilation; however, in black patients, such a SpO2 reading was commonly associated with significant hypoxemia, and a higher SpO2 target, 95 percent, was required to ensure a satisfactory level of oxygenation. PMID:2347228

  2. Prescribed targets for titration of vasopressors in septic shock: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    St-Arnaud, Charles; Éthier, Jean-François; Hamielec, Cindy; Bersten, Andrew; Guyatt, Gordon; Meade, Maureen; Zhou, Qi; Leclair, Marc-André; Patel, Alpesh

    2013-01-01

    Background Without robust clinical evidence to guide titration of vasopressors in septic shock, it is unclear how dosing of these potent medications occurs. We sought to measure the proportion of vasopressor prescriptions for septic shock that were missing explicit targets and to describe the targets that we identified. Methods We conducted a multicentre, retrospective cohort study involving 9 intensive care units (ICUs) located at 3 academic hospitals in Canada and Australia. We reviewed charts of consecutive patients aged 18 years or older who were admitted to the ICU for a presumptive diagnosis of sepsis. Other inclusion criteria were hypotension (systolic arterial pressure ? 90 mm Hg or mean arterial pressure [MAP] ? 65 mm Hg) and continuous infusion of vasopressors for at least 1 hour within the initial 48 hours of ICU stay, the period of observation for this study. Results We included data from 369 patient charts. At least 1 target was specified in 99% of charts. The most common targets were MAP measurements (73%). The median initial MAP target was 65 (range 55–90) mm Hg. In multivariable regression models, hospital site and older age of the patient, but not comorbidities of the patient, were associated with MAP targets. In 40% of patients, the treating team modified the initial target at least once. Interpretation This study suggests that an explicit blood pressure target accompanies nearly every vasopressor prescription and that patient characteristics have little influence on its value. Identification of a titration strategy that will maximize benefit and minimize harm constitutes a research priority. PMID:25077114

  3. In vitro retention of a new thermoplastic titratable mandibular advancement device.

    PubMed

    Braem, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Oral appliance (OA) therapy with a mandibular advancement device (OAm) is a non-invasive, alternative approach to maintaining upper airway patency. The main requirement for an OAm to be effective is the adequate retention on the teeth while the patient is asleep. We evaluated the retentive forces of a new low-cost, customizable, titratable, thermoplastic OAm (BluePro (®); BlueSom, France). Dental impressions and casts were made for one patient with complete upper and lower dental arches including the third molars and class II bite proportions. A setup based on Frasaco ANA-4 models was also used. Two protrusive positions of the mandible were investigated: 3 mm and 8 mm, representing respectively 25% and 65% of the maximal protrusion. The forces required to remove the BluePro (®) device from the carriers were recorded continuously over 730 cycles (=365 days, twice a day) to simulate 1 year of clinical use. At 8 mm protrusion the BluePro (®) device showed retentive forces of ~27N. There was a slight but non-significant decrease in retentive forces in the tests on the epoxified carriers which was not found on the ANA-4 carriers. There were no significant differences between the carriers as a function of protrusion. The BluePro (®) device tested in the present study possesses sufficient retention forces to resist initial jaw opening forces and full mouth opening forces estimated to be ~20N. It could therefore broaden the indications for use of thermoplastic OAms. It could provide a temporary OAm while a custom-made OAm is being manufactured or repaired. Patients could be provided with a low-cost try-out device capable of reliable titration, providing an indication of effectiveness and of patient acceptance of an OAm, although the effect of device shape and size on therapeutic outcome is not yet known. Finally it could provide an affordable OAm solution in resource-restricted healthcare settings. PMID:25901281

  4. Heparin and Protamine Titration Does Not Improve Haemostasis after Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Radulovic, Vladimir; Laffin, Anna; Hansson, Kenny M.; Backlund, Erika; Baghaei, Fariba; Jeppsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Background Bleeding complications are common in cardiac surgery. Perioperative handling of heparin and protamine may influence the haemostasis. We hypothesized that heparin and protamine dosing based on individual titration curves would improve haemostasis in comparison to standard dosing. Subjects and Methods Sixty patients scheduled for first time elective coronary artery bypass grafting or valve surgery were included in a prospective randomized study. The patients were randomized to heparin and protamine dosing with Hepcon HMS Plus device or to standard weight and activated clotting time (ACT) based dosing. Blood samples were collected before and 10 minutes, 2 hours and 4 hours after cardiopulmonary bypass. Primary endpoint was endogenous thrombin potential in plasma 2 hours after surgery as assessed by calibrated automated thrombography. Secondary endpoints included total heparin and protamine doses, whole blood clot formation (thromboelastometry) and post-operative bleeding volume and transfusions. Heparin effect was assessed by measuring anti-Xa activity. Results Endogenous thrombin potential and clot formation deteriorated in both groups after surgery without statistically significant intergroup difference. There were no significant differences between the groups in total heparin and protamine doses, heparin effect, or postoperative bleeding and transfusions at any time point. Significant inverse correlations between anti-Xa activity and endogenous thrombin potential were observed 10 min (r = -0.43, p = 0.001), 2 hours (r = -0.66, p<0.001) and 4 hours after surgery (r = -0.58, p<0.001). Conclusion In conclusion, the results suggest that perioperative heparin and protamine dosing based on individual titration curves does not improve haemostasis after cardiac surgery. Postoperative thrombin generation capacity correlates to residual heparin effect. Trial Registration www.isrctn.com ISRCTN14201041. PMID:26134993

  5. Photometric recording of transmembrane potential in outer hair cells

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Takashi; Oghalai, John S; Saggau, Peter; Rabbitt, Richard D; Brownell, William E

    2008-01-01

    Cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs) are polarized epithelial cells that have mechanoelectrical transduction channels within their apical stereocilia and produce electromotile force along their lateral wall. Phase shifts, or time delays, in the transmembrane voltage occurring at different axial locations along the cell may contribute to our understanding of how these cells operate at auditory frequencies. We developed a method to optically measure the phase of the OHC transmembrane potential using the voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) di-8-ANEPPS. The exit aperture of a fibre-optic light source was driven in two dimensions so that a 24 ?m spot of excitation light could be positioned along the length of the OHC. We used the whole-cell patch-clamp technique in the current-clamp mode to stimulate the OHC at the base. The photometric response and the voltage response were monitored with a photodetector and patch-clamp amplifier, respectively. The photometric response was used to measure the regional changes in the membrane potential in response to maintained (dc) and sinusoidal (ac) current stimuli applied at the base of the cell. We used a neutral density filter to lower the excitation light intensity and reduce phototoxicity. A sensitive detector and lock-in amplifier were used to measure the small ac VSD signal. This permitted measurements of the ac photometric response below the noise floor of the static fluorescence. The amplitude and phase components of the photometric response were recorded for stimuli up to 800 Hz. VSD data at 400–800 Hz show the presence of a small phase delay between the stimulus voltage at the base of the cell and the local membrane potential measured along the lateral wall. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that OHCs exhibit inhomogeneous membrane potentials that vary with position in analogy with the voltage in nerve axons. PMID:16705263

  6. Photometric survey of binary near-Earth asteroids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Pravec; P. Scheirich; P. Kusnirák; L. Šarounová; S. Mottola; G. Hahn; P. Brown; G. Esquerdo; N. Kaiser; Z. Krzeminski; D. P. Pray; B. D. Warner; A. W. Harris; M. C. Nolan; E. S. Howell; L. A. M. Benner; J.-L. Margot; A. Galád; W. Holliday; M. D. Hicks; Yu. N. Krugly; D. Tholen; R. Whiteley; F. Marchis; D. R. DeGraff; A. Grauer; S. Larson; F. P. Velichko; W. R. Cooney; R. Stephens; J. Zhu; K. Kirsch; R. Dyvig; L. Snyder; V. Reddy; S. Moore; Š. Gajdoš; J. Világi; G. Masi; D. Higgins; G. Funkhouser; B. Knight; S. Slivan; R. Behrend; M. Grenon; G. Burki; R. Roy; C. Demeautis; D. Matter; N. Waelchli; Y. Revaz; A. Klotz; M. Rieugné; P. Thierry; V. Cotrez; L. Brunetto; G. Kober

    2006-01-01

    Photometric data on 17 binary near-Earth asteroids (15 of them are certain detections, two are probables) were analysed and characteristic properties of the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) binary population were inferred. We have found that binary systems with a secondary-to-primary mean diameter ratio Ds\\/Dp?0.18 concentrate among NEAs smaller than 2 km in diameter; the abundance of such binaries decreases significantly among

  7. Photometric properties of magnetic elements: resolved and unresolved features

    E-print Network

    Serena Criscuoli

    2007-12-19

    We investigate, by numerical simulations, the photometric signature of magnetic flux tubes in the solar photosphere. We show that the observed contrast profiles are determined not only by the physical properties of the tube and its surroundings, but also by the peculiarities of the observations, including the line/continuum formation height and the spatial and spectral resolution. The aim is to understand these contributions well enough so that multi-wavelength observations can begin to disentangle them.

  8. Photometric calibration of the EUV spectroheliometer on ATM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, E. M.; Timothy, J. G.; Withbroe, G. L.; Huber, M. C. E.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes the derivation of the preflight photometric calibration of the UV spectrometer on Skylab. The calibration of the orbiting instrument through cross-comparison with two rocket instruments is discussed in assessing the observed changes in response to quiet solar regions during the mission. Formulas are presented for the determination of the instrument sensitivity, and an uncertainty of plus or minus 35% is assigned over most of the 296-1340-A wavelength range.

  9. Microdensitometer errors: Their effect on photometric data reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozyan, E. P.; Opal, C. B.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of densitometers used for photometric data reduction of high dynamic range electrographic plate material is analyzed. Densitometer repeatability is tested by comparing two scans of one plate. Internal densitometer errors are examined by constructing histograms of digitized densities and finding inoperative bits and differential nonlinearity in the analog to digital converter. Such problems appear common to the four densitometers used in this investigation and introduce systematic algorithm dependent errors in the results. Strategies to improve densitometer performance are suggested.

  10. Photometric analysis of Galactic Stellar Clusters in VVV Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauro, F.; Moni Bidin, C.; Cohen, R. E.; Geisler, D.; Villanova, S.; Chené, A. N.

    2014-10-01

    We show the preliminary results of the study of the structure of the Horizontal Branch of Liller 1 and some results from the Calcium Triplet method using Ks magnitude applied to several Galactic Globular clusters using data from the VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea Survey (Minniti et al. 2010) and obtained with GeMS/GSAOI. The data are extracted with the new automatic VVV-SkZ_pipeline photometric pipeline (Mauro et al. 2013).

  11. Cosmos Photometric Redshifts with 30Bands for 2-deg2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Ilbert; P. Capak; M. Salvato; H. Aussel; H. J. McCracken; D. B. Sanders; N. Scoville; J. Kartaltepe; S. Arnouts; E. Le Floc'h; B. Mobasher; Y. Taniguchi; F. Lamareille; A. Leauthaud; S. Sasaki; D. Thompson; M. Zamojski; G. Zamorani; S. Bardelli; M. Bolzonella; A. Bongiorno; M. Brusa; K. I. Caputi; C. M. Carollo; T. Contini; R. Cook; G. Coppa; O. Cucciati; S. de la Torre; L. de Ravel; P. Franzetti; B. Garilli; G. Hasinger; A. Iovino; P. Kampczyk; J.-P. Kneib; C. Knobel; K. Kovac; J. F. Le Borgne; V. Le Brun; O. Le Fèvre; S. Lilly; D. Looper; C. Maier; V. Mainieri; Y. Mellier; M. Mignoli; T. Murayama; R. Pellò; Y. Peng; E. Pérez-Montero; A. Renzini; E. Ricciardelli; D. Schiminovich; M. Scodeggio; Y. Shioya; J. Silverman; J. Surace; M. Tanaka; L. Tasca; L. Tresse; D. Vergani; E. Zucca

    2009-01-01

    We present accurate photometric redshifts (photo-z) in the 2-deg2 COSMOS field. The redshifts are computed with 30 broad, intermediate, and narrowbands covering the UV (Galaxy Evolution Explorer), visible near-IR (NIR; Subaru, Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, and National Optical Astronomy Observatory), and mid-IR (Spitzer\\/IRAC). A chi2 template-fitting method (Le Phare) was used and calibrated with large spectroscopic samples

  12. PhotoRApToR: PHOTOmetric Research APplication TO Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brescia, Massimo

    2014-08-01

    PhotoRApToR (PHOTOmetric Research APplication TO Redshifts) solves regression and classification problems and is specialized for photo-z estimation. PhotoRApToR offers data table manipulation capabilities and 2D and 3D graphics tools for data visualization; it also provides a statistical report for both classification and regression experiments. The code is written in Java; the machine learning model is in C++ to increase the core execution speed.

  13. Preliminary Photometric Results for the 2003 Eclipse of Ee Cep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mikolajewski; C. Galan; K. Gazeas; P. Niarchos; S. Zola; M. Kurpinska-Winiarska; M. Winiarski; A. Majewska; M. Siwak; M. Drahus; W. Waniak; A. Pigulski; G. Michalska; Z. Kolaczkowski; T. Tomov; M. Gromadzki; D. Graczyk; J. Osiwala; A. Majcher; M. Hajduk; M. Cikala; A. Zajczyk; D. Kolev; D. Dimitrov; E. Semkov; B. Bilkina; A. Dapergolas; L. Bellas-Velidis; B. Csak; B. Gere; P. Nemeth; G. Apostolovska

    2005-01-01

    We report multicolour photometric observations of the 2003 eclipse of the long-period (5.6 yr) eclipsing binary EE Cep. Measurements were obtained with ten telescopes at eight observatories in four countries. In most cases, UBV(RI)C broad band filters have been used. The light curve shape shows that the obscuring body is an almost dark disk around a low-luminosity central object. However,

  14. Photometric and CCD direct image observation of comet Encke

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccrosky, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Attempted detection of periodic variations in brightness of the comet Encke is described. Viewing problems due to the position, faintness, and rate of motion of the comet are discussed. The failure of attempts to perform photoelectric photometry and CCD imaging is described. Photometric observations of the prototype Earth crosser, (1862) Apollo, are described and a photoelectric light curve of observations made during a four-hour period is presented.

  15. The photometric method of extrasolar planet detection revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Alan; Doyle, Laurance R.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the geometry concerning the photometric method of extrasolar planet detection, i.e., the detection of dimunition of a parent star's brightness during a planetary transit. Under the assumption that planetary orbital inclinations can be defined by a Gaussian with a sigma of 10 deg centered on the parent star's equatorial plane, Monte Carlo simulations suggest that for a given star observed at an inclination of exactly 90 deg, the probability of at least one Earth-sized or larger planet being suitably placed for transits is approximately 4%. This probability drops to 3% for a star observed at an inclination of 80 deg, and is still approximately 0.5% for a star observed at an inclination of 60 deg. If one can select 100 stars with a pre-determined inclination equal or greater than 80 deg, the probability of at least one planet being suitably configured for transits is 95%. The majority of transit events are due to planets in small-a orbits similar to the Earth and Venus; thus, the photometric method in principle is the method best suited for the detection of Earthlike planets. The photometric method also allows for testing whether or not planets can exist within binary systems. This can ge done by selecting binary systems observed at high orbital inclinations, both eclipsing binaries and wider visual binaries. For a 'real-world' example, we look at the alpha Centauri system (i = 79.2 deg). If we assume that the equatorial planes of both components coincide with the system's orbital plane, Monte Carlo simulations suggest that the probability of at least one planet (of either component) being suitably configured for transits is approximately 8%. In conclusion, we present a non-exhaustive list of solar-type stars, both single and within binary systems, which exhibit a high equatorial inclination. These objects may be considered as preliminary candidates for planetary searches via the photometric method.

  16. Photometric properties and origin of bulges in SB0 galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguerri, J. A. L.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Corsini, E. M.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.

    2005-04-01

    We have derived the photometric parameters for the structural components of a sample of fourteen SB0 galaxies by applying a parametric photometric decomposition to their observed I-band surface brightness distribution. We find that SB0 bulges are similar to bulges of the early-type unbarred spirals, i.e. they have nearly exponential surface brightness profiles (< n>=1.48±0.16) and their effective radii are strongly coupled to the scale lengths of their surrounding discs (< r_e/h>=0.20±0.01). The photometric analysis alone does not allow us to differentiate SB0 bulges from unbarred S0 ones. However, three sample bulges have disc properties typical of pseudobulges. The bulges of NGC 1308 and NGC 4340 rotate faster than bulges of unbarred galaxies and models of isotropic oblate spheroids with equal ellipticity. The bulge of IC 874 has a velocity dispersion lower than expected from the Faber-Jackson correlation and the fundamental plane of the elliptical galaxies and S0 bulges. The remaining sample bulges are classical bulges, and are kinematically similar to lower-luminosity ellipticals. In particular, they follow the Faber-Jackson correlation, lie on the fundamental plane and those for which stellar kinematics are available rotate as fast as the bulges of unbarred galaxies.

  17. The uBVI Photometric System. II. Standard Stars

    E-print Network

    Michael H. Siegel; Howard E. Bond

    2005-03-03

    Paper I of this series described the design of a CCD-based photometric system that is optimized for ground-based measurements of the size of the Balmer discontinuity in stellar spectra. This "uBVI" system combines the Thuan-Gunn u filter with the standard Johnson-Kron-Cousins BVI filters, and it can be used to discover luminous yellow supergiants in extragalactic systems and post-asymptotic-giant-branch stars in globular clusters and galactic halos. In the present paper we use uBVI observations obtained on 54 nights with 0.9-m telescopes at Kitt Peak and Cerro Tololo to construct a catalog of standardized u magnitudes for standard stars taken from the 1992 catalog of Landolt. We describe the selection of our 14 Landolt fields, and give details of the photometric reductions, including red-leak and extinction corrections, transformation of all of the observations onto a common magnitude system, and establishment of the photometric zero point. We present a catalog of u magnitudes of 103 stars suitable for use as standards. We show that data obtained with other telescopes can be transformed to our standard system with better than 1% accuracy.

  18. The extinction law from photometric data: linear regression methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascenso, J.; Lombardi, M.; Lada, C. J.; Alves, J.

    2012-04-01

    Context. The properties of dust grains, in particular their size distribution, are expected to differ from the interstellar medium to the high-density regions within molecular clouds. Since the extinction at near-infrared wavelengths is caused by dust, the extinction law in cores should depart from that found in low-density environments if the dust grains have different properties. Aims: We explore methods to measure the near-infrared extinction law produced by dense material in molecular cloud cores from photometric data. Methods: Using controlled sets of synthetic and semi-synthetic data, we test several methods for linear regression applied to the specific problem of deriving the extinction law from photometric data. We cover the parameter space appropriate to this type of observations. Results: We find that many of the common linear-regression methods produce biased results when applied to the extinction law from photometric colors. We propose and validate a new method, LinES, as the most reliable for this effect. We explore the use of this method to detect whether or not the extinction law of a given reddened population has a break at some value of extinction. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (ESO programmes 069.C-0426 and 074.C-0728).

  19. Calibration of LSST Instrumental and Atmospheric Photometric Passbands

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, David L.; /SLAC; Axelrod, T.; /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ.; Barrau, Aurelien; Baumont, Sylvain; /LPSC, Grenoble; Blondin, Stephane; /Marseille, CPPM; Claver, Chuck; /NOAO, Tucson; Gorecki, Alexia; /LPSC, Grenoble; Ivezic, Zeljko; Jones, Lynne; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Krabbendam, Victor; Liang, Ming; Saha, Abhijit; /NOAO, Tucson; Smith, Allyn; /Austin Peay State U.; Smith, R.Chris; /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.; Stubbs, Christopher W.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2011-07-06

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will continuously image the entire sky visible from Cerro Pachon in northern Chile every 3-4 nights throughout the year. The LSST will provide data for a broad range of science investigations that require better than 1% photometric precision across the sky (repeatability and uniformity) and a similar accuracy of measured broadband color. The fast and persistent cadence of the LSST survey will significantly improve the temporal sampling rate with which celestial events and motions are tracked. To achieve these goals, and to optimally utilize the observing calendar, it will be necessary to obtain excellent photometric calibration of data taken over a wide range of observing conditions - even those not normally considered 'photometric'. To achieve this it will be necessary to routinely and accurately measure the full optical passband that includes the atmosphere as well as the instrumental telescope and camera system. The LSST mountain facility will include a new monochromatic dome illumination projector system to measure the detailed wavelength dependence of the instrumental passband for each channel in the system. The facility will also include an auxiliary spectroscopic telescope dedicated to measurement of atmospheric transparency at all locations in the sky during LSST observing. In this paper, we describe these systems and present laboratory and observational data that illustrate their performance.

  20. Photometric and polarimetric mapping of water turbidity and water depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halajian, J.; Hallock, H.

    1973-01-01

    A Digital Photometric Mapper (DPM) was used in the Fall of 1971 in an airborne survey of New York and Boston area waters to acquire photometric, spectral and polarimetric data. The object of this study is to analyze these data with quantitative computer processing techniques to assess the potential of the DPM in the measurement and regional mapping of water turbidity and depth. These techniques have been developed and an operational potential has been demonstrated. More emphasis is placed at this time on the methodology of data acquisition, analysis and display than on the quantity of data. The results illustrate the type, quantity and format of information that could be generated operationally with the DPM-type sensor characterized by high photometric stability and fast, accurate digital output. The prototype, single-channel DPM is suggested as a unique research tool for a number of new applications. For the operational mapping of water turbidity and depth, the merits of a multichannel DPM coupled with a laser system are stressed.

  1. ArborZ: Photometric Redshifts Using Boosted Decision Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerdes, David W.; Sypniewski, Adam J.; McKay, Timothy A.; Hao, Jiangang; Weis, Matthew R.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Busha, Michael T.

    2010-06-01

    Precision photometric redshifts will be essential for extracting cosmological parameters from the next generation of wide-area imaging surveys. In this paper, we introduce a photometric redshift algorithm, ArborZ, based on the machine-learning technique of boosted decision trees. We study the algorithm using galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and from mock catalogs intended to simulate both the SDSS and the upcoming Dark Energy Survey. We show that it improves upon the performance of existing algorithms. Moreover, the method naturally leads to the reconstruction of a full probability density function (PDF) for the photometric redshift of each galaxy, not merely a single "best estimate" and error, and also provides a photo-z quality figure of merit for each galaxy that can be used to reject outliers. We show that the stacked PDFs yield a more accurate reconstruction of the redshift distribution N(z). We discuss limitations of the current algorithm and ideas for future work.

  2. Photometric Redshift Determination with the BATC Multicolor System

    E-print Network

    Lifang Xia; Xu Zhou; Jun Ma; Hong Wu; Wei-Hsin Sun; Zhaoji Jiang; Suijian Xue; Jiansheng Chen; Wenping Chen

    2002-09-23

    In this paper, we present the methodology of photometric redshift determination with the BATC 15-color system by using hyperz program. Both simulated galaxies and real galaxies with known redshifts were used to estimate the accuracy of redshifts inferred from the multicolor photometry. From the test with simulated galaxies, the uncertainty in the inferred redshifts is about $0.02\\sim0.03$ for a given range of photometric uncertainty of $0.05 \\sim 0.10$. The results with the 27 real galaxies are in good agreement with the simulated ones. The advantage of using BATC intermediate-band system to derive redshift is clear through the comparison with the UBVRI broad-band system. The accuracy in redshift determination with BATC system is mainly affected by the selection of filters and the photometric uncertainties in the observation. When we take the limiting magnitudes of the 15 filters into account, we find that redshift can be determined with good accuracy for galaxies with redshifts less than 0.5, using only filters with central wavelengths shorter than 6000 A.

  3. Second order global analysis: the evaluation of series of spectrophotometric titrations for improved determination of equilibrium constants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raylene M. Dyson; Susan Kaderli; Geoffrey A. Lawrance; Marcel Maeder

    1997-01-01

    In spectrophotometric titrations, linear or near-linear dependence of concentration profiles and the existence of minor species cause difficulties in the evaluation of the data. In the first case calculated absorption spectra and in the second case the corresponding equilibrium constants are not or only poorly defined. The result is the inability to reliably fit a reasonable model to the data.

  4. Isothermal titration calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry as complementary tools to investigate the energetics of biomolecular recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilian Jelesarov; Hans Rudolf Bosshard

    1999-01-01

    The principles of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are reviewed together with the basic thermodynamic formalism on which the two techniques are based. Although ITC is particularly suitable to follow the energetics of an association reaction between biomolecules, the combination of ITC and DSC provides a more comprehensive description of the thermodynamics of an associating system.

  5. Kinetic properties of two Rhizopus exo-polygalacturonase enzymes hydrolyzing galacturonic acid oligomers using isothermal titration calorimetry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The kinetic characteristics of two Rhizopus oryzae exo-polygalacturonases acting on galacturonic acid oligomers (GalpA) were determined using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). RPG15 hydrolyzing (GalpA)2 demonstrated a Km of 55 uM and kcat of 10.3 s^-1^ while RPG16 was shown to have greater af...

  6. MODIFICATION OF THE IODIMETRIC TITRATION METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF BROMIDE AND ITS APPLICATION TO MIXED DOMESTIC - INDUSTRIAL WASTE EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The iodimetric titration method for the determination of bromide involves the observation of various color changes, making the method unsuitable for use with samples that are highly colored. A modification is described, which extends the usefulness of the method to highly colored...

  7. Origin of two time-scale regimes in potentiometric titration of metal oxides. A replica kinetic Monte Carlo study

    SciTech Connect

    Zarzycki, Piotr P.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2009-06-16

    Replica Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations were used to study the characteristic time scales of potentiometric titration of the metal oxides and (oxy)hydroxides. The effect of surface heterogeneity and surface transformation on the titration kinetics were also examined. Two characteristic relaxation times are often observed experimentally, with the trailing slower part attributed to surface non-uniformity, porosity, polymerization, amorphization, and other dynamic surface processes induced by unbalanced surface charge. However, our simulations show that these two characteristic relaxation times are intrinsic to the proton binding reaction for energetically homogeneous surfaces, and therefore surface heterogeneity or transformation do not necessarily need to be invoked. However, all such second-order surface processes are found to intensify the separation and distinction of the two kinetic regimes. The effect of surface energetic-topographic non-uniformity, as well dynamic surface transformation, interface roughening/smoothing were described in a statistical fashion. Furthermore, our simulations show that a shift in the point-of-zero charge is expected from increased titration speed and the pH-dependence of the titration measurement error is in excellent agreement with experimental studies.

  8. Isothermal Titration Calorimetric Study of RNase-A Kinetics (cCMP ? 3'CMP) Involving EndProduct Inhibition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shawn D. Spencer; Robert B. Raffa

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and progress curve analysis was used to measure the enzyme kinetic parameters (KM and kcat) of the hydrolysis of cCMP by RNase-A, a reaction that includes end-product competitive inhibition by 3'-CMP.

  9. Use of chicken cell line LSCC-H32 for titration of animal viruses and exogenous chicken interferon.

    PubMed Central

    Roth, S; Kaaden, O R

    1985-01-01

    The chicken embryo cell line LSCC-H32 was tested for the propagation and titration of several animal viruses of the families Toga-, Reo-, Rhabdo-, Herpeto-, Orthomyxo-, Paramyxo-, and Poxviridae and compared with secondary chicken embryo cells. The LSCC-H32 cells were demonstrated to be as susceptible for most of the tested viruses as were secondary chicken embryo cells. Both produced comparably sized virus plaques. The titers of Sindbis and Semliki Forest viruses in LSCC-H32 cells were 5- to 40-fold higher than in secondary chicken embryo cells or BHK-21 cells, respectively. Furthermore, exogenous chicken standard interferon was titrated in the LSCC-H32 cells, and a 50% plaque titer reduction of the challenging vesicular stomatitis virus was achieved by 0.12 IU of a standard chicken interferon preparation. Endogenous chicken interferon could not be induced by treatment of the cells with polyinosinic acid-polycytidylic acid. Due to its high plating efficiency and metabolic activities, the LSCC-H32 cell line provides a useful cell system for the titration and large-scale production of the tested animal viruses and for the titration of exogenous chicken interferon. PMID:2581511

  10. A simple and rapid Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) titration assay based on antibiotic resistance of infected cells: evaluation of the HAV neutralization potency of human immune globulin preparations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krishnamurthy Konduru; Maria Luisa Virata-Theimer; Mei-ying W Yu; Gerardo G Kaplan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis A virus (HAV), the causative agent of acute hepatitis in humans, is an atypical Picornaviridae that grows poorly in cell culture. HAV titrations are laborious and time-consuming because the virus in general does not cause cytopathic effect and is detected by immunochemical or molecular probes. Simple HAV titration assays could be developed using currently available viral construct containing

  11. Photometric Calibration of the LASCO-C2 Coronagraph over 14 Years (1996 - 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardès, B.; Lamy, P.; Llebaria, A.

    2013-04-01

    We present a photometric calibration of the SOHO/LASCO-C2 coronagraph based on the analysis of all stars down to magnitude V=8 that transited its field of view during the past 14 years of operation (1996 - 2009), extending the previous work of Llebaria, Lamy, and Danjard ( Icarus 182, 281, 2006). The pre-processing of the images incorporates the most recent determination of the evolution of the LASCO-C2 performances. The automatic procedure then analyzes some 260 000 images to detect, locate, and measure those stars. Aperture photometry is performed using four different aperture sizes, and the zero points (ZPs) of the photometric transformations between the LASCO-C2 magnitudes for its orange filter and the standard V magnitudes are determined after introducing a correction for the color of the stars. A new statistical method ("bootstrap") is introduced to assess the confidence intervals of the mean yearly value of the ZPs. The correction for finite aperture required to derive the calibration coefficient for the surface photometry of extended sources is based on the reconstructed image of bright saturated stars and a robust model for the growth curve. The global temporal evolution of the sensitivity of LASCO-C2 is compatible with a continuous decrease at a rate of ? 0.56 % per year. However, it is better described by two separate linear variations with a discontinuity at the time of the loss of SOHO. After the resumption of normal operations in 1999, the linear decrease of the sensitivity amounts to ? 0.35 % per year.

  12. A PHOTOMETRIC AND SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF DWARF AND GIANT GALAXIES IN THE COMA CLUSTER. I. WIDE-AREA PHOTOMETRIC SURVEY: OBSERVATION AND DATA ANALYSIS1

    E-print Network

    Iye, Masanori

    A PHOTOMETRIC AND SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF DWARF AND GIANT GALAXIES IN THE COMA CLUSTER. I. WIDE photometric and spectroscopic survey of wide areas in the Coma cluster, aiming to investigate the properties. Subject headings: galaxies: clusters: general -- galaxies: clusters: individual (Coma) -- galaxies

  13. Whipple Procedure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Dr. Alan O. Whipple of New York Memorial Hospital (now called Memorial Sloan-Kettering). Since that time, there have been many modifications and improvements of the procedure. There is a detailed account of the operative mortality rates and long-term survival rates in the ...

  14. Hiring Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittock-Sargent, Monica

    Developed over a 2-year period, this manual is a guide for school district officials in developing fair and consistent hiring procedures. Section 1 is a brief compilation of the federal laws and regulations governing hiring practices in the public elementary and secondary schools. It includes legislation relating to civil rights, fair employment…

  15. Special Procedures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Advanced heart disease may require special procedures to open an artery and improve blood flow. These operations are usually done to ease severe ... tip, which is repeatedly inflated and deflated to open and stretch the artery, improving blood flow. Often, a tiny tube called a stent is ...

  16. AMDTreat 5.0+ with PHREEQC titration module to compute caustic chemical quantity, effluent quality, and sludge volume

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, Charles; Means, Brent P; Arthur, Willam; McKenzie, Robert M; Parkhurst, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline chemicals are commonly added to discharges from coal mines to increase pH and decrease concentrations of acidity and dissolved aluminum, iron, manganese, and associated metals. The annual cost of chemical treatment depends on the type and quantities of chemicals added and sludge produced. The AMDTreat computer program, initially developed in 2003, is widely used to compute such costs on the basis of the user-specified flow rate and water quality data for the untreated AMD. Although AMDTreat can use results of empirical titration of net-acidic or net-alkaline effluent with caustic chemicals to accurately estimate costs for treatment, such empirical data are rarely available. A titration simulation module using the geochemical program PHREEQC has been incorporated with AMDTreat 5.0+ to improve the capability of AMDTreat to estimate: (1) the quantity and cost of caustic chemicals to attain a target pH, (2) the chemical composition of the treated effluent, and (3) the volume of sludge produced by the treatment. The simulated titration results for selected caustic chemicals (NaOH, CaO, Ca(OH)2, Na2CO3, or NH3) without aeration or with pre-aeration can be compared with or used in place of empirical titration data to estimate chemical quantities, treated effluent composition, sludge volume (precipitated metals plus unreacted chemical), and associated treatment costs. This paper describes the development, evaluation, and potential utilization of the PHREEQC titration module with the new AMDTreat 5.0+ computer program available at http://www.amd.osmre.gov/.

  17. Measurement of atmospheric OH by titration of near-IR fluorescent dyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betterton, Eric A.; Gast, Karl

    1994-01-01

    Recent research has shown that certain polymethine dyes can be detected at ultratrace levels (greater than or equal to 6x10(exp -14) M) in solution by fluorimetry. These detection limits are possible because of the inherent sensitivity of fluorescence techniques, because the dyes fluoresce in the near infrared region where background interference is negligible, and because powerful infrared diode lasers are now available to improve the signal to noise ratio. Other work has shown that the hydroxyl radical destroys the ability of polymethine dyes to fluoresce. These observations form the basis for a new hydroxyl radical detector that is essentially a fluorometric titrator. Theoretically, the detector should show an acceptable sensitivity and response time. Assuming that the atmospheric HO concentration is about 10(exp -11) moles m(exp -3) (i.e. 10(exp 6) molecules cm(exp -3)), then 10 L of air 'titrated' with 20 mL of 10(exp -11) M dye solution (an easily detected concentration) should result in a drop in the fluorescent signal of 50 percent - a readily detectable change. At a flow rate of 3 L min(exp -1) the sampling time would be 3 minutes. The biggest potential problem is selectivity: other oxidants may also cause the fluorescence signal to be lost. The chemistry of polymethine dyes has not been studied in detail and so no quantitative data are available. However, a survey of the literature suggests that in general HO should react up to six orders of magnitude faster than HO2 and other radicals such as RO2 and RO. It should also react much more rapidly than H2O2 and O3. Thus it may be possible to discriminate kinetically against potential interfering substances. It was shown in the laboratory that 10(exp -4) M H2O2 has little effect on the absorption spectrum of the dye IR125 over a period of hours but that the band at 780 nm is slowly lost in water over a period of days even under argon in the dark. By contrast, DMSO solutions of IR125 are stable.

  18. COSMOLOGY WITH PHOTOMETRIC SURVEYS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Gong Yan; Cooray, Asantha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Chen Xuelei [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 (China)

    2010-02-01

    We discuss the extent to which photometric measurements alone can be used to identify Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) and to determine the redshift and other parameters of interest for cosmological studies. We fit the light curve data of the type expected from a survey such as the one planned with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and also remove the contamination from the core-collapse SNe to SNIa samples. We generate 1000 SNIa mock flux data for each of the LSST filters based on existing design parameters, then use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to fit the redshift, apparent magnitude, stretch factor, and the phase of the SNIa. We find that the model fitting works adequately well when the true SNe redshift is below 0.5, while at z < 0.2 the accuracy of the photometric data is almost comparable with spectroscopic measurements of the same sample. We discuss the contamination of Type Ib/c (SNIb/c) and Type II supernova (SNII) on the SNIa data set. We find that it is easy to distinguish the SNII through the large chi{sup 2} mismatch when fitting to photometric data with Ia light curves. This is not the case for SNIb/c. We implement a statistical method based on the Bayesian estimation in order to statistically reduce the contamination from SNIb/c for cosmological parameter measurements from the whole SNe sample. The proposed statistical method also evaluates the fraction of the SNIa in the total SNe data set, which provides a valuable guide to establish the degree of contamination.

  19. Probable swirls detected as photometric anomalies in Oceanus Procellarum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkuratov, Yu.; Kaydash, V.; Gerasimenko, S.; Opanasenko, N.; Velikodsky, Yu.; Korokhin, V.; Videen, G.; Pieters, C.

    2010-07-01

    Images of the lunar nearside obtained by telescopes of Maidanak Observatory (Uzbekistan) and Simeiz Observatory (Crimea, Ukraine) equipped with Canon CMOS cameras and Sony CCD LineScan camera were used to study photometric properties of the lunar nearside in several spectral bands. A wide range of lunar phase angles was covered, and the method of phase ratios to assess the steepness of the phase function at different phase angles is applied. We found several areas with photometric anomalies in the south-west portion of the lunar disk that we refer to as Oceanus Procellarum anomalies. The areas being unique on the lunar nearside do not obey the inverse correlation between albedo and phase-curve slope, demonstrating high phase-curve slopes at intermediate albedo. Low-Sun images acquired with Lunar Orbiter IV and Apollo-16 cameras do not reveal anomalous topography of the regions, at least for scales larger than several tens of meters. The areas also do not have any thermal inertia, radar (70 and 3.8 cm), magnetic, or chemical/mineral peculiarities. On the other hand they exhibit a polarimetric signature that we interpret to be due to the presence of a porous regolith upper layer consisting of dust particles. The anomalies may be interpreted as regions of very fresh shallow regolith disturbances caused by impacts of meteoroid swarms consisting of rather small impactors. This origin is similar to one of the hypotheses for the origin of lunar swirls like the Reiner-? formation. The photometric difference between the shallow and pervasive (Reiner-? class) swirls is that the latter appear to have a significant amount of immature soils in the upper surface layers.

  20. Determination of thermodynamic potentials and the aggregation number for micelles with the mass-action model by isothermal titration calorimetry: A case study on bile salts.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Niels Erik; Westh, Peter; Holm, René

    2015-09-01

    The aggregation number (n), thermodynamic potentials (?G, ?H, ?S) and critical micelle concentration (CMC) for 6 natural bile salts were determined on the basis of both original and previously published isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) data. Different procedures to estimate parameters of micelles with ITC were compared to a mass-action model (MAM) of reaction type: n?S?Mn. This analysis can provide guidelines for future ITC studies of systems behaving in accordance with this model such as micelles and proteins that undergo self-association to oligomers. Micelles with small aggregation numbers, as those of bile salts, are interesting because such small aggregates cannot be characterized as a separate macroscopic phase and the widely applied pseudo-phase model (PPM) is inaccurate. In the present work it was demonstrated that the aggregation number of micelles was constant at low concentrations enabling determination of the thermodynamic potentials by the MAM. A correlation between the aggregation number and the heat capacity was found, which implies that the dehydrated surface area of bile salts increases with the aggregation number. This is in accordance with Tanford's principles of opposing forces where neighbouring molecules in the aggregate are better able to shield from the surrounding hydrophilic environment when the aggregation number increases. PMID:25978555

  1. Modified spectrophotometer for multi-dimensional circular dichroism/fluorescence data acquisition in titration experiments: application to the pH and guanidine-HCI induced unfolding of apomyoglobin.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, G; Ionescu, R; Eftink, M R

    1995-08-01

    In a previous paper (Ramsay and Eftink, Biophys. J. 66:516-523) we reported the development of a modified spectrophotometer that can make nearly simultaneous circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence measurements. This arrangement allows multiple data sets to be collected during a single experiment, resulting in a saving of time and material, and improved correlation between the different types of measurements. The usefulness of the instrument was shown by thermal melting experiments on several different protein systems. This CD/fluorometer spectrophotometer has been further modified by interfacing with a syringe pump and a pH meter. This arrangement allows ligand, pH, and chemical denaturation titration experiments to be performed while monitoring changes in the sample's CD, absorbance, fluorescence, and light scattering properties. Our data acquisition program also has an ability to check whether the signals have approached equilibrium before the data is recorded. For performing pH titrations we have developed a procedure which uses the signal from a pH meter in a feedback circuit in order to collect data at evenly spaced pH intervals. We demonstrate the use of this instrument with studies of the unfolding of sperm whale apomyoglobin, as induced by acid pH and by the addition of guanidine-HCI. PMID:8527683

  2. Completeness in Photometric and Spectroscopic Searches for Clusters

    E-print Network

    Martin White; C. S. Kochanek

    2002-04-02

    We investigate, using simulated galaxy catalogues, the completeness of searches for massive clusters of galaxies in redshift surveys or imaging surveys with photometric redshift estimates, i.e. what fraction of clusters (M>10^14/h Msun) are found in such surveys. We demonstrate that the matched filter method provides an efficient and reliable means of identifying massive clusters even when the redshift estimates are crude. In true redshift surveys the method works extremely well. We demonstrate that it is possible to construct catalogues with high completeness, low contamination and both varying little with redshift.

  3. PHOTOMETRICALLY TRIGGERED KECK SPECTROSCOPY OF FERMI BL LACERTAE OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Michael S.; Romani, Roger W. [Department of Physics/KIPAC, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Li, Weidong [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We report on Keck spectra of 10 Fermi blazars. J0622+3326, previously unobserved, is shown to be a flat-spectrum radio quasar at redshift z = 1.062. The others are known BL Lac type objects that have resisted previous attempts to secure redshifts. Using a photometric monitoring campaign with the 0.76 m Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope at Lick Observatory, we identified epochs when the relativistic jet emission was fainter than usual, thus triggering the Keck spectroscopy. This strategy gives improved sensitivity to stars and ionized gas in the host galaxy, thereby providing improved redshift constraints for seven of these sources.

  4. Kinematic and Photometric Evidence for a Bar in NGC 2683

    E-print Network

    de Naray, Rachel Kuzio; McGaugh, Stacy S

    2009-01-01

    We present optical long-slit and SparsePak Integral Field Unit emission line spectroscopy along with optical broadband and near IR images of the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 2683. We find a multi-valued, figure-of-eight velocity structure in the inner 45 arcsec of the long-slit spectrum and twisted isovelocity contours in the velocity field. We also find, regardless of wavelength, that the galaxy isophotes are boxy. We argue that taken together, these kinematic and photometric features are evidence for the presence of a bar in NGC 2683. We use our data to constrain the orientation and strength of the bar.

  5. KINEMATIC AND PHOTOMETRIC EVIDENCE FOR A BAR IN NGC 2683

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzio de Naray, Rachel [Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States); Zagursky, Matthew J.; McGaugh, Stacy S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States)], E-mail: kuzio@uci.edu, E-mail: mzagursk@umd.edu, E-mail: ssm@astro.umd.edu

    2009-10-15

    We present optical long-slit and SparsePak Integral Field Unit emission line spectroscopy along with optical broadband and near-IR images of the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 2683. We find a multi-valued, figure-of-eight velocity structure in the inner 45'' of the long-slit spectrum and twisted isovelocity contours in the velocity field. We also find, regardless of wavelength, that the galaxy isophotes are boxy. We argue that taken together, these kinematic and photometric features are evidence for the presence of a bar in NGC 2683. We use our data to constrain the orientation and strength of the bar.

  6. A photometric investigation of Comet P/Encke

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    A photometric investigation of Comet P/Encke was undertaken using the 2.2 m telescope and the 0.6 m telescope. The two primary scientific objectives were: (1) measurement of the production rates of OH, CN, C3, and C2 as a function of heliocentric distance; and (2) determination of the comet's rotational period by searching for periodic brightness variations in the inner coma. Synoptic observation in the Canary Islands; Cambridge, Massachusetts; Flagstaff, Arizona; and Mauna Kea were planned for the study of the comet's rotation.

  7. A photometric function for diffuse reflection by particulate materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, W. E.; Weaver, W. R.

    1975-01-01

    A photometric function is proposed to describe the diffuse reflection of radiation by particulate materials. Both multiple scattering and the dominant effects of particle shadowing are included and the function is verified by comparisons with the photometries of laboratory surfaces. Brightness measurements of planetary and other diffusely scattering surfaces can be used to calculate the brightness for geometries other than those used in the measurements and for which the Minnaert function does not apply. The measurements also can be directly related to such surface characteristics as particle size, single-particle albedo, and compactness.

  8. Real time swallowing measurement system by using photometric stereo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujino, Masahiro; Kato, Kunihito; Mura, Emi; Nagai, Hajime

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a measurement system to evaluate the swallowing by estimating the movement of the thyroid cartilage. We developed a measurement system based on the vision sensor in order to achieve the noncontact and non-invasive sensor. The movement of the subject's thyroid cartilage is tracked by the three dimensional information of the surface of the skin measured by the photometric stereo. We constructed a camera system that uses near-IR light sources and three camera sensors. We conformed the effectiveness of the proposed system by experiments.

  9. Photometric Properties of PHOBOS Surface Materials From Viking Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonelli, Damon P.; Wisz, Michael; Switala, Andrew; Adinolfi, Daniel; Veverka, Joseph; Thomas, Peter C.; Helfenstein, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Clear-filter Viking images, and an accurate numerical model of the shape of Phobos, have been used to determine this satellite's photometric properties. A global-average Hapke function derived from disk-resolved data confirms previous indications that Phobos has a strong opposition surge. Photometrically corrected images were mosaicked into an albedo map; most of the resulting normal reflectances are in the range 0.06-0.10, and the brightest region on Phobos is the northeast rim of the crater Stickney, the portion of that rim with the highest concentration of grooves. Globally, there are three albedo classes, reasonably separated geographically: (1) Bright material is to the east and south of Stickney, corresponding approximately to the locations on Phobos having the highest, “bluest” visible/near-IR ratio (Murchieet al. 1991). (2) The darkest material is to Stickney's west, correlating with material having an intermediate visible/NIR ratio (Murchieet al.'s “bluish gray” unit). (3) Intermediate-albedo material dominates the anti-Stickney hemisphere, corresponding to material with a lower visible/NIR ratio (Murchieet al.'s “reddish gray” unit). A search for variations in phase behavior across Phobos' surface shows few such effects overall, limited to isolated areas: (1) Stickney's floor darkens with increasing phase faster than average Phobos. This crater floor is both slightly more backscattering and significantly rougher than the global average; the latter effect may be related to the slumping hinted at in low-resolution images of Stickney. (2) We confirm that in many cases, the contrast between the bright rims of small craters and grooves and their surroundings drops noticeably with increasing phase (phase angles in use = 10°-50°). However, these bright rims, overall, display a diversity of photometric behavior and are the most heterogeneous areas on Phobos in terms of regolith properties. (3) We confirm that dark deposits in the floors of smaller craters darken faster with increasing phase than their surroundings (cf., Goguenet al. 1978) and find that these deposits are more backscattering than average Phobos. Isolated regions with unusual phase behavior occur on Phobos but not on Deimos (Thomaset al. 1996). The variable photometric properties of Phobos' isolated craters and grooves, and the association of global albedo features with Stickney, reinforce interpretations that Phobos' regolith is emplaced and modified by discrete cratering events and is not mixed horizontally by extensive downslope creep as is apparently the case on Deimos.

  10. A Calibration Method for Wide Field Multicolor Photometric System

    E-print Network

    Xu Zhou; Jian-sheng Chen; Wen Xu; Mei Zhang

    1999-03-07

    The purpose of this paper is to present a method to self-calibrate the spectral energy distribution (SED) of objects in a survey based on the fitting of an SED library to the observed multi-color photometry. We adopt for illustrative purposes the Vilnius (Strizyz and Sviderskiene 1972) and Gunn & Stryker (1983) SED libraries. The self-calibration technique can improve the quality of observations which are not taken under perfectly photometric conditions. The more passbands used for the photometry, the better the results. This technique has been applied to the BATC 15-passband CCD survey.

  11. ACS Photometric Cross-Calibration using Stellar Flux Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlin, Ralph

    2012-10-01

    Purposes: ---- a} Verify and refine the WFC photometric calibrations, repeatability measure,and change in sensitivity over time with visits to the 3 primary WD standardstars. Single bright stars are a more precise and straightforward approach thantrying to use the multitude of stars in 47 Tuc.b} Continue to investigate the 1-2% discrepancy between the ACS and STIS fluxcalibrations {ACS ISR 2007-06, ACS ISR 2012-01} for different stellar effectivetemperature. The goal is to measure any filter bandpass shifts in ACS or ruleout the possibility of shifts as the primary contributors to the ACS/STISdiscrepancy for cool stars.

  12. Kernel PCA for Type Ia supernovae photometric classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, E. E. O.; de Souza, R. S.

    2013-03-01

    The problem of supernova photometric identification will be extremely important for large surveys in the next decade. In this work, we propose the use of kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) combined with k = 1 nearest neighbour algorithm (1NN) as a framework for supernovae (SNe) photometric classification. The method does not rely on information about redshift or local environmental variables, so it is less sensitive to bias than its template fitting counterparts. The classification is entirely based on information within the spectroscopic confirmed sample and each new light curve is classified one at a time. This allows us to update the principal component (PC) parameter space if a new spectroscopic light curve is available while also avoids the need of re-determining it for each individual new classification. We applied the method to different instances of the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge (SNPCC) data set. Our method provides good purity results in all data sample analysed, when signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) ? 5. Therefore, we can state that if a sample as the post-SNPCC was available today, we would be able to classify ?15 per cent of the initial data set with purity ?90 per cent (D7+SNR3). Results from the original SNPCC sample, reported as a function of redshift, show that our method provides high purity (up to ?97 per cent), especially in the range of 0.2 ? z < 0.4, when compared to results from the SNPCC, while maintaining a moderate figure of merit (?0.25). This makes our algorithm ideal for a first approach to an unlabelled data set or to be used as a complement in increasing the training sample for other algorithms. We also present results for SNe photometric classification using only pre-maximum epochs, obtaining 63 per cent purity and 77 per cent successful classification rates (SNR ? 5). In a tougher scenario, considering only SNe with MLCS2k2 fit probability >0.1, we demonstrate that KPCA+1NN is able to improve the classification results up to >95 per cent (SNR ? 3) purity without the need of redshift information. Results are sensitive to the information contained in each light curve, as a consequence, higher quality data points lead to higher successful classification rates. The method is flexible enough to be applied to other astrophysical transients, as long as a training and a test sample are provided.

  13. Single-strand DNA translation initiation step analyzed by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Damian, Luminita, E-mail: luminitadamian@microcal.eu.com [CNRS, IPBS (Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale), 205 route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse (France) [CNRS, IPBS (Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale), 205 route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, IPBS, F-31077 Toulouse (France); IUB, School of Engineering and Science, D-28727 Bremen (Germany); Marty-Detraves, Claire, E-mail: claire.detraves@free.fr [CNRS, IPBS (Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale), 205 route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse (France) [CNRS, IPBS (Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale), 205 route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, IPBS, F-31077 Toulouse (France); Winterhalter, Mathias [IUB, School of Engineering and Science, D-28727 Bremen (Germany)] [IUB, School of Engineering and Science, D-28727 Bremen (Germany); Fournier, Didier, E-mail: Didier.Fournier@ipbs.fr [CNRS, IPBS (Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale), 205 route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse (France) [CNRS, IPBS (Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale), 205 route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, IPBS, F-31077 Toulouse (France); Paquereau, Laurent, E-mail: Laurent.Paquereau@ipbs.fr [CNRS, IPBS (Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale), 205 route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse (France) [CNRS, IPBS (Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale), 205 route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, IPBS, F-31077 Toulouse (France)

    2009-07-31

    Is single-strand DNA translatable? Since the 60s, the question still remains whether or not DNA could be directly translated into protein. Some discrepancies in the results were reported about functional translation of single-strand DNA but all results converged on a similar behavior of RNA and ssDNA in the initiation step. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry method was used to determine thermodynamic constants of interaction between single-strand DNA and S30 extract of Escherichia coli. Our results showed that the binding was not affected by the nature of the template tested and the dissociation constants were in the same range when ssDNA (K{sub d} = 3.62 {+-} 2.1 x 10{sup -8} M) or the RNA corresponding sequence (K{sub d} = 2.7 {+-} 0.82 x 10{sup -8} M) bearing SD/ATG sequences were used. The binding specificity was confirmed by antibiotic interferences which block the initiation complex formation. These results suggest that the limiting step in translation of ssDNA is the elongation process.

  14. Rapid baculovirus titration assay based on viable cell side scatter (SSC).

    PubMed

    Qi, Jing; Liu, Tao; Pan, Junjie; Miao, Peng; Zhang, Chun

    2015-06-16

    The baculovirus expression system is one of the most powerful tools for the production of recombinant proteins on both laboratory and industrial scales. Multiplicity of infection (MOI) is the crucial parameter for efficient protein expression. To obtain an optimal MOI, it is important to determine titer of virus stock before protein production. Herein, we established a label-free, simple and rapid method for virus titration based on viable cell side scatter (SSC). Generally, the SSC of cells infected with a series of virus dilutions was measured by a flow cytometer at 48h post-infection, and the probability of infected cells at a given dilution was estimated. For each well with the infection probabilities between 0.20 and 0.80, the range of dilutions was chosen, and virus titer was determined with a statistical method. Log-scale comparison of the results between the SSC based method and a standard plaque assay showed a good correlation (R(2)=0.9853), suggesting the fine accuracy of this proposed method. PMID:26002477

  15. Prediction of uranium and technetium sorption during titration of contaminated acidic groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fan [ORNL; Parker, Jack C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Watson, David B [ORNL; Jardine, Philip M [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates uranium and technetium sorption onto aluminum and iron hydroxides during titration of acidic groundwater. The contaminated groundwater exhibits oxic conditions with high concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, U, Tc, and various metal cations. More than 90% of U and Tc was removed from the aqueous phase as Al and Fe precipitated above pH 5.5, but was partially resolublized at higher pH values. An equilibrium hydrolysis and precipitation reaction model adequately described variations in aqueous concentrations of metal cations. An anion exchange reaction model was incorporated to simulate sulfate, U and Tc sorption onto variably charged (pH-dependent) Al and Fe hydroxides. Modeling results indicate that competitive sorption/desorption on mixed mineral phases needs to be considered to adequately predict U and Tc mobility. The model could be useful for future studies of the speciation of U, Tc and co-existing ions during pre- and post-groundwater treatment practices.

  16. Volumetric determination of uranium using titanous sulfate as reductant before oxidimetric titration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wahlberg, James S.; Skinner, Dwight L.; Rader, Lewis F.

    1956-01-01

    A new method for determining uranium in samples containing 0.05 percent or more U3O8, using titanous sulfate as reducing agent, is much shorter, faster, and has fewer interferences than conventional methods using reductor columns. The sample is dissolved with sulfuric, nitric, perchloric, and hydrofluoric acids. Elements that would otherwise form insoluble fluorides are kept in solution by complexing the fluoride ion with boric acid. A precipitation is made with cupferron to remove interfering elements. The solution is filtered to remove the precipitated cupferrates instead of extracting them with chloroform as is usually done. Filtration is preferred to extraction because any niobium that may be in solution forms an insoluble cupferrate that may be removed by filtering but is very difficult to extract with chloroform. Excess cupferron is destroyed by oxidizing with nitric and perchloric acids, and evaporating to dense fumes of sulfuric acid. The uranium is reduced to U(IV) by the addition of titanous sulfate, with cupric sulfate used as an indicator of the completeness of the reduction. Metallic copper is formed when all the uranium is reduced. The reduced copper is then reoxidized by the addition of mercuric perchlorate, an excess of ferric sulfate added, and the solution titrated immediately with standard ceric sulfate with ferroin as an indicator. Precision of the method compared favorable with methods in common use, both for uranium ores and for most types of uranium-rich materials.

  17. A Universal Method for Fishing Target Proteins from Mixtures of Biomolecules using Isothermal Titration Calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X.; Sun, Q; Kini, R; Sivaraman, J

    2008-01-01

    The most challenging tasks in biology include the identification of (1) the orphan receptor for a ligand, (2) the ligand for an orphan receptor protein, and (3) the target protein(s) for a given drug or a lead compound that are critical for the pharmacological or side effects. At present, several approaches are available, including cell- or animal-based assays, affinity labeling, solid-phase binding assays, surface plasmon resonance, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Most of these techniques are not easy to apply when the target protein is unknown and the compound is not amenable to labeling, chemical modification, or immobilization. Here we demonstrate a new universal method for fishing orphan target proteins from a complex mixture of biomolecules using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) as a tracking tool. We took snake venom, a crude mixture of several hundred proteins/peptides, as a model to demonstrate our proposed ITC method in tracking the isolation and purification of two distinct target proteins, a major component and a minor component. Identities of fished out target proteins were confirmed by amino acid sequencing and inhibition assays. This method has the potential to make a significant advancement in the area of identifying orphan target proteins and inhibitor screening in drug discovery and characterization.

  18. Real-Time Monitoring of Membrane-Protein Reconstitution by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Phase diagrams offer a wealth of thermodynamic information on aqueous mixtures of bilayer-forming lipids and micelle-forming detergents, providing a straightforward means of monitoring and adjusting the supramolecular state of such systems. However, equilibrium phase diagrams are of very limited use for the reconstitution of membrane proteins because of the occurrence of irreversible, unproductive processes such as aggregation and precipitation that compete with productive reconstitution. Here, we exemplify this by dissecting the effects of the K+ channel KcsA on the process of bilayer self-assembly in a mixture of Escherichia coli polar lipid extract and the nonionic detergent octyl-?-d-glucopyranoside. Even at starting concentrations in the low micromolar range, KcsA has a tremendous impact on the supramolecular organization of the system, shifting the critical lipid/detergent ratios at the onset and completion of vesicle formation by more than 2-fold. Thus, equilibrium phase diagrams obtained for protein-free lipid/detergent mixtures would be misleading when used to guide the reconstitution process. To address this issue, we demonstrate that, even under such nonequilibrium conditions, high-sensitivity isothermal titration calorimetry can be exploited to monitor the progress of membrane-protein reconstitution in real time, in a noninvasive manner, and at high resolution to yield functional proteoliposomes with a narrow size distribution for further downstream applications. PMID:24354292

  19. Interaction of oridonin with human serum albumin by isothermal titration calorimetry and spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangrong; Yang, Zhenhua

    2015-05-01

    Oridonin has been traditionally and widely used for treatment of various human diseases due to its uniquely biological, pharmacological and physiological functions. In this study, the interaction between oridonin and human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), in combination with fluorescence spectroscopy and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. We found that the hydrogen bond and van der Waals force are the major binding forces in the binding of oridonin to HSA. The binding of oridonin to HSA is driven by favorable enthalpy and unfavorable entropy. Oridonin can quench the fluorescence of HSA through a static quenching mechanism. The binding constant between oridonin and HSA is moderate and the equilibrium fraction of unbound oridonin f(u) > 60%. Binding site I is found to be the primary binding site for oridonin. Additionally, oridonin may induce conformational changes of HSA and affect its biological function as the carrier protein. The results of the current study suggest that oridonin can be stored and transported from the circulatory system to reach its target organ to provide its therapeutic effects. But its side-effect in the clinics cannot be overlook. The study provides an accurate and full basic data for clarifying the binding mechanism of oridonin with HSA and is helpful for understanding its effect on protein function during the blood transportation process and its biological activity in vivo. PMID:25816984

  20. Inducible and titratable silencing of Caenorhabditis elegans neurons in vivo with histamine-gated chloride channels

    PubMed Central

    Pokala, Navin; Liu, Qiang; Gordus, Andrew; Bargmann, Cornelia I.

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in neuroscience has been facilitated by tools for neuronal activation and inactivation that are orthogonal to endogenous signaling systems. We describe here a chemical-genetic approach for inducible silencing of Caenorhabditis elegans neurons in intact animals, using the histamine-gated chloride channel HisCl1 from Drosophila and exogenous histamine. Administering histamine to freely moving C. elegans that express HisCl1 transgenes in neurons leads to rapid and potent inhibition of neural activity within minutes, as assessed by behavior, functional calcium imaging, and electrophysiology of neurons expressing HisCl1. C. elegans does not use histamine as an endogenous neurotransmitter, and exogenous histamine has little apparent effect on wild-type C. elegans behavior. HisCl1-histamine silencing of sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons leads to behavioral effects matching their known functions. In addition, the HisCl1-histamine system can be used to titrate the level of neural activity, revealing quantitative relationships between neural activity and behavioral output. We use these methods to dissect escape circuits, define interneurons that regulate locomotion speed (AVA, AIB) and escape-related omega turns (AIB), and demonstrate graded control of reversal length by AVA interneurons and DA/VA motor neurons. The histamine-HisCl1 system is effective, robust, compatible with standard behavioral assays, and easily combined with optogenetic tools, properties that should make it a useful addition to C. elegans neurotechnology. PMID:24550306

  1. Titration of subcutaneously administered eprinomectin against mature and immature nematodes in cattle.

    PubMed

    Shoop, W; Michael, B; Egerton, J; Mrozik, H; Fisher, M

    2001-12-01

    Eprinomectin has been approved for use as a topically applied endectocide for beef and dairy cattle. To determine if eprinomectin has utility as an injectable anthelmintic, it was titrated at 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg s.c. against adult (Trial 1) and at 0.05, 0.1, 0.14, and 0.2 mg/kg s.c. against immature (Trial 2) stages of lung and gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle. In Trial 1, every dose of subcutaneously delivered eprinomectin showed maximal or near-maximal (> or = 99%) efficacy against Haemonchus placei, Ostertagia ostertagi, Trichostrongylus axei, T colubriformis, Cooperia punctata, Nematodirus helvetianus, Oesophagostomum radiatum, and Dictyocaulus viviparus. Adult C. oncophora was the only exception. However, even against this species, the lowest dose of 0.05 mg/kg showed 93% efficacy, and the efficacious dose necessary to kill 95% (ED95) of adults was 0.056 mg/kg. In Trial 2, every dose of subcutaneously delivered eprinomectin showed maximal or near-maximal (> or = 99%) efficacy against the immature stages of all of the above species of endoparasites. As a result, ED95 values could not be calculated. Consequently, the exquisite potency against endoparasites through parenteral administration suggests that eprinomectin may also have potential utility as an injectable product for cattle. PMID:11780839

  2. A universal method for fishing target proteins from mixtures of biomolecules using isothermal titration calorimetry

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xingding; Sun, Qingxiang; Kini, R. Manjunatha; Sivaraman, J.

    2008-01-01

    The most challenging tasks in biology include the identification of (1) the orphan receptor for a ligand, (2) the ligand for an orphan receptor protein, and (3) the target protein(s) for a given drug or a lead compound that are critical for the pharmacological or side effects. At present, several approaches are available, including cell- or animal-based assays, affinity labeling, solid-phase binding assays, surface plasmon resonance, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Most of these techniques are not easy to apply when the target protein is unknown and the compound is not amenable to labeling, chemical modification, or immobilization. Here we demonstrate a new universal method for fishing orphan target proteins from a complex mixture of biomolecules using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) as a tracking tool. We took snake venom, a crude mixture of several hundred proteins/peptides, as a model to demonstrate our proposed ITC method in tracking the isolation and purification of two distinct target proteins, a major component and a minor component. Identities of fished out target proteins were confirmed by amino acid sequencing and inhibition assays. This method has the potential to make a significant advancement in the area of identifying orphan target proteins and inhibitor screening in drug discovery and characterization. PMID:18621915

  3. pH titration monitored by quantum cascade laser-based vibrational circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Rüther, Anja; Pfeifer, Marcel; Lórenz-Fonfría, Víctor A; Lüdeke, Steffen

    2014-04-10

    Vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of aqueous solutions of proline were recorded in the course of titrations from basic to acidic pH using a spectrometer equipped with a quantum cascade laser (QCL) as an infrared light source in the spectral range from 1320 to 1220 cm(-1). The pH-dependent spectra were analyzed by singular value decomposition and global fitting of a two-pK Henderson-Hasselbalch model. The analysis delivered relative fractions of the three different protonation species. Their agreement with the relative fractions obtained from performing the same analysis on pH-dependent Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and QCL-IR spectra validates the quantitative results from QCL-VCD. Global fitting of the pH-dependent VCD spectra of L-proline allowed for extraction of pure spectra corresponding to anionic, zwitterionic, and cationic L-proline. From a static experiment, only pure spectra of the zwitterion would be accessible in a straightforward way. A comparison to VCD spectra calculated for all three species led to assignment of vibrational modes that are characteristic for the respective protonation states. The study demonstrates the applicability of QCL-VCD both for quantitative evaluation and for qualitative interpretation of dynamic processes in aqueous solutions. PMID:24655319

  4. Thermodynamic Profiling of Peptide Membrane Interactions by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry: A Search for Pores and Micelles

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, J.R.; Andresen, T.L.

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are known to interact strongly with negatively charged lipid membranes, initially by peripheral insertion of the peptide into the bilayer, which for some antimicrobial peptides will be followed by pore formation, and successive solubilization of the membranes resulting in mixed peptide-lipid micelles. We have investigated the mode of action of the antimicrobial peptide mastoparan-X using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The results show that mastoparan-X induces a range of structural transitions of POPC/POPG (3:1) lipid membranes at different peptide/lipid ratios. It has been established that ITC can be used as a fast method for localizing membrane transitions and when combined with DLS and cryo-TEM can elucidate structural changes, including the threshold for pore formation and micellation. Cryo-TEM was employed to confirm the structural changes associated with the thermodynamic transitions found by ITC. The pore-formation process has furthermore been investigated in detail and the thermodynamic parameters of pore formation have been characterized using a system-specific temperature where the enthalpy of peptide partitioning becomes zero (Tzero). This allows for an exclusive study of the pore-formation process. The use of ITC to find Tzero allows for characterization of the thermodynamic parameters of secondary processes on lipid membranes. PMID:21723819

  5. Spectroscopic Needs for Calibration of LSST Photometric Redshifts

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Samuel J; Abate, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    This white paper summarizes the conclusions of the Snowmass White Paper "Spectroscopic Needs for Imaging Dark Energy Experiments" (arXiv:1309.5384) which are relevant to the calibration of LSST photometric redshifts; i.e., the accurate characterization of biases and uncertainties in photo-z's. Any significant miscalibration will lead to systematic errors in photo-z's, impacting nearly all extragalactic science with LSST. As existing deep redshift samples have failed to yield highly-secure redshifts for a systematic 20%-60% of their targets, it is a strong possibility that future deep spectroscopic samples will not solve the calibration problem on their own. The best options in this scenario are provided by cross-correlation methods that utilize clustering with objects from spectroscopic surveys (which need not be fully representative) to trace the redshift distribution of the full sample. For spectroscopy, the eBOSS survey would enable a basic calibration of LSST photometric redshifts, while the expected LSST...

  6. A Photometric Metallicity Estimate of the Virgo Stellar Overdensity

    E-print Network

    An, Deokkeun; Beers, Timothy C; Pinsonneault, Marc H; Terndrup, Donald M; Delahaye, Franck; Lee, Young Sun; Masseron, Thomas; Yanny, Brian

    2009-01-01

    We determine photometric metal abundance estimates for individual main-sequence stars in the Virgo Overdensity (VOD), which covers almost 1000 deg^2 on the sky, based on a calibration of the metallicity sensitivity of stellar isochrones in the gri filter passbands using field stars with well-determined spectroscopic metal abundances. Despite the low precision of the method for individual stars, we derive [Fe/H] = -2.0 +/-0.1 (internal) +/-0.5 (systematic) for the metal abundance of the VOD from photometric measurements of 0.7 million stars in the Northern Galactic hemisphere with heliocentric distances from ~10 kpc to ~20 kpc. The metallicity of the VOD is indistinguishable, within Delta [Fe/H] < 0.2, from that of field halo stars covering the same distance range. This initial application suggests that the SDSS gri passbands can be used to probe the properties of main-sequence stars beyond ~10 kpc, complementing studies of nearby stars from more metallicity-sensitive color indices that involve the u passba...

  7. A laboratory measurement of CCD photometric and dimensional stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, Andrew; Hudson, Hugh S.; Booth, Corwin H.

    1990-01-01

    The sun exhibits periodic and quasi-periodic variability in its total luminosity, which provides information about its internal structure and dynamics. Variability ranges from a few minutes to many-year time scales, with amplitudes as small as a few ppm in the milliHz band. Extension of this analysis to a large sample of outer stars would be interesting: a panoramic detector such as a CCD could record many stars at once. To meet this objective, a ppm time-series differential precision is required. Laboratory CCD photometric measurements presented here are promising for such an instrument. Normalizing the response from a portion of the CCD area removes most of the individual-frame variability. When a trend attributed to a thermal transient in the CCD dewar is removed, the individual-frame photometric precision is about 0.0001, limited by photoelectron counting statistics. The time-series power spectrum is flat within the desired frequency domain. Analysis of the dimensional stability of the CCD within the same data set indicates better than ppm performance, when first-order bulk motion and magnification changes are removed.

  8. Photometric properties of lunar terrains derived from Hapke's equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfenstein, Paul; Veverka, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    Hapke's bidirectional reflectance equations provide the most rigorous available description of photometric behavior in terms of physically meaningful parameters. The primary objective of this study was to derive Hapke parameters for the lunar surface from both disk-integrated and disk-resolved photometric data. Hapke's equation was fit to the disk-integrated phase curves and disk-resolved data for dark, average, and bright terrain classes using an iterative, nonlinear least squares algorithm described by Helfenstein. Parameters were initially determined from the disk-integrated data, and the result was applied as a first guess to the iterative solution of parameters for individual terrain classes. Plots are presented of the disk-resolved data normalized to corresponding brightnesses predicted from the disk-integrated solution under the same illumination and viewing geometries. Systematic trends in disk-resolved parameters can be identified. Values for single scattering albedo (w) of the dominantly anorthositic average and bright terrains are significantly larger than the value for the basaltic dark terrains (mare). Values for surge brightness parameters, particle phase function, and average topographic slope angle are also discussed.

  9. A Photometrically and Morphologically Variable Infrared Nebula in L483

    E-print Network

    Michael Connelley; Klaus Hodapp; Gary Fuller

    2008-11-07

    We present narrow and broad K-band observations of the Class 0/I source IRAS 18148-0440 that span 17 years. The infrared nebula associated with this protostar in the L483 dark cloud is both morphologically and photometrically variable on a time scale of only a few months. This nebula appears to be an infrared analogue to other well-known optically visible variable nebulae associated with young stars, such as Hubble's Variable Nebula. Along with Cepheus A, this is one of the first large variable nebulae to be found that is only visible in the infrared. The variability of this nebula is most likely due to changing illumination of the cloud rather than any motion of the structure in the nebula. Both morphological and photometric changes are observed on a time scale only a few times longer than the light crossing time of the nebula, suggesting very rapid intrinsic changes in the illumination of the nebula. Our narrow-band observations also found that H_2 knots are found nearly twice as far to the east of the source as to its west, and that H_2 emission extends farther east of the source than the previously known CO outflow.

  10. Far-ultraviolet photometric characteristics of Tethys and Dione

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, E. M.; Hendrix, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    The icy moons of Saturn orbiting inside the E-ring experience weathering processes: E-ring grains as well as cold plasma ions, neutrals and energetic particles impact their surfaces. The Cassini UVIS instrument (UltraViolet Imaging Spectrograph), operating in the FUV wavelengths (118 - 190nm) probes the uppermost layers of the regolith and is uniquely suited to studying these exogenic processes, leading to a better understanding of the surfaces' evolution and the saturnian environment. We present an analysis of ultraviolet disk-integrated phase curves of Tethys and Dione. We display phase curves for the leading and trailing hemispheres as well as for the Saturn and anti-Saturn ones. As expected, we find that the leading hemisphere is brighter than the trailing and at large phase angles, it seems that we directly observe these E-ring grains in forward scattering. Our data set covers a wide range of phase angles, from 6.8 to 163.9 degrees for Tethys. Our analysis is completed by using a Hapke model to retrieve the photometric parameters of these surfaces, such as the single scattering parameters, the opposition effect parameters (where possible) and information on the roughness. The photometric behavior of Dione is compared and contrasted with that of Tethys, and implications for the exogenic processes affecting the surfaces are discussed.

  11. Near-infrared camera for solar research: a photometric application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Marcos; Joven-Alvarez, Enrique; Collados, Manuel; Bonet, Jose A.; Vazquez, Manuel; Diaz, Jose J.; Fuentes, F. Javier; Escalera, Victor G.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Garcia-Herrero, Jose L.

    1998-09-01

    We report here the main characteristics of a near IR camera devoted to astrophysical solar research, which has been developed by the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC). The system is now being used for photometric and spectroscopic applications, and it will also be used for spectropolarimetry in the near future. The first application is described below in detail. The IACs IR camera is based on a Rockwell 256 X 256 HgCdTe NICMOS3 array, sensitive from 1 to 2.5 microns. The necessary cooling system is a LN2- cryostat, designed and built by IR labs under out requirements. The main electronics are the standard VME- based, FPGA programmable MCE-3 system, also developed by IR labs. We have implemented different readout schemes to improve sped, reduce noise and avoid seeing effects, taking into account each specific application. Data are transferred via fiber optics to a control unit, which re-send them to the main data acquisition system. Several acquisition modes to select the best images have been implemented, and a real- time data processing is available, the entire camera has been characterized and calibrated, and the main radiometric parameters given. Preliminary test in spectroscopic observations have been made in the German Towers at the Observatorio del Teide in Tenerife, Spain, and a series of photometric measurements performed in the Swedish Solar Telescope, at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma, Spain. As examples, some scientific results are also presented.

  12. A Method For Eclipsing Component Identification In Large Photometric Datasets

    E-print Network

    Jonathan Devor; David Charbonneau

    2005-10-04

    We describe an automated method for assigning the most likely physical parameters to the components of an eclipsing binary (EB), using only its photometric light curve and combined color. In traditional methods (e.g. WD and EBOP) one attempts to optimize a multi-parameter model over many iterations, so as to minimize the chi-squared value. We suggest an alternative method, where one selects pairs of coeval stars from a set of theoretical stellar models, and compares their simulated light curves and combined colors with the observations. This approach greatly reduces the EB parameter-space over which one needs to search, and allows one to determine the components' masses, radii and absolute magnitudes, without spectroscopic data. We have implemented this method in an automated program using published theoretical isochrones and limb-darkening coefficients. Since it is easy to automate, this method lends itself to systematic analyses of datasets consisting of photometric time series of large numbers of stars, such as those produced by OGLE, MACHO, TrES, HAT, and many others surveys.

  13. A Photometric Metallicity Estimate of the Virgo Stellar Overdensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Deokkeun; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Beers, Timothy C.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Terndrup, Donald M.; Delahaye, Franck; Lee, Young Sun; Masseron, Thomas; Yanny, Brian

    2009-12-01

    We determine photometric metal abundance estimates for individual main-sequence stars in the Virgo Overdensity (VOD), which covers almost 1000 °^2 on the sky, based on a calibration of the metallicity sensitivity of stellar isochrones in the gri filter passbands using field stars with well-determined spectroscopic metal abundances. Despite the low precision of the method for individual stars, we derive [Fe/H] = -2.0 ± 0.1(internal) ± 0.5(systematic) for the metal abundance of the VOD from photometric measurements of 0.7 million stars in the northern Galactic hemisphere with heliocentric distances from ~10 kpc to ~20 kpc. The metallicity of the VOD is indistinguishable, within ?[Fe/H] <= 0.2, from that of field halo stars covering the same distance range. This initial application suggests that the Sloan Digital Sky Survey gri passbands can be used to probe the properties of main-sequence stars beyond ~10 kpc, complementing studies of nearby stars from more metallicity-sensitive color indices that involve the u passband.

  14. Multi-parameter estimating photometric redshifts with artificial neural networks

    E-print Network

    Lili Li; Yanxia Zhang; Yongheng Zhao; Dawei Yang

    2007-04-17

    We calculate photometric redshifts from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 2 Galaxy Sample using artificial neural networks (ANNs). Different input patterns based on various parameters (e.g. magnitude, color index, flux information) are explored and their performances for redshift prediction are compared. For ANN technique, any parameter may be easily incorporated as input, but our results indicate that using dereddening magnitude produces photometric redshift accuracies often better than the Petrosian magnitude or model magnitude. Similarly, the model magnitude is also superior to Petrosian magnitude. In addition, ANNs also show better performance when the more effective parameters increase in the training set. Finally, the method is tested on a sample of 79, 346 galaxies from the SDSS DR2. When using 19 parameters based on the dereddening magnitude, the rms error in redshift estimation is sigma(z)=0.020184. The ANN is highly competitive tool when compared with traditional template-fitting methods where a large and representative training set is available.

  15. Photometric analysis of the overcontact binary CW Cas

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J. J.; Qian, S. B.; He, J. J.; Li, L. J.; Zhao, E. G., E-mail: wjjbxw@ynao.ac.cn [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 110, 650011 Kunming (China)

    2014-11-01

    New CCD photometric observations of overcontact binary CW Cas were carried out in 2004 and 2011. In particular, the light curve obtained in 2004 shows a remarkable O'Connell effect. Compared with light curves in different observing seasons, variations were found. These variations can be explained by dark spot activities on the surface of at least one component. Using the Wilson-Devinney code with a spot model, we find that the photometric solutions confirm CW Cas is a shallow W-subtype overcontact binary with a spotted massive component. Our new determined times of minimum light together with the others published in the literature were analyzed to find a change of orbital period. From the O – C curves, the period of the system shows a cyclic period change (P {sub 3} = 69.9 yr, A {sub 3} = 0.03196 days) superposed on the linear increase. The cyclic variation, if explained as the light-travel time effect, reveals the presence of a tertiary companion.

  16. Combination of isothermal titration calorimetry and time-resolved luminescence for high affinity antibody-ligand interaction thermodynamics and kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Aweda, Tolulope A.; Meares, Claude F.

    2011-01-01

    For experiments using synthetic ligands as probes for biological experiments, it is useful to determine the specificity and affinity of the ligands for their receptors. As ligands with higher affinities are developed (KA >108 M?1; KD <10?8 M), a new challenge arises: to measure these values accurately. Isothermal titration calorimetry measures heat produced or consumed during ligand binding, and also provides the equilibrium binding constant. However, as normally practiced, its range is limited. Displacement titration, where a competing weaker ligand is used to lower the apparent affinity of the stronger ligand, can be used to determine the binding affinity as well as the complete thermodynamic data for ligand-antibody complexes with very high affinity. These equilibrium data have been combined with kinetic measurements to yield the rate constants as well. We describe this methodology, using as an example antibody 2D12.5, which captures yttrium S-2-(4-aminobenzyl)-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecanetetraacetate. PMID:21964396

  17. Theoretical considerations and a simple method for measuring alkalinity and acidity in low-pH waters by gran titration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, J.L.; Johnsson, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Titrations for alkalinity and acidity using the technique described by Gran (1952, Determination of the equivalence point in potentiometric titrations, Part II: The Analyst, v. 77, p. 661-671) have been employed in the analysis of low-pH natural waters. This report includes a synopsis of the theory and calculations associated with Gran's technique and presents a simple and inexpensive method for performing alkalinity and acidity determinations. However, potential sources of error introduced by the chemical character of some waters may limit the utility of Gran's technique. Therefore, the cost- and time-efficient method for performing alkalinity and acidity determinations described in this report is useful for exploring the suitability of Gran's technique in studies of water chemistry.

  18. Low-dose, titratable interferon alfa in decompensated liver disease caused by chronic infection with hepatitis B virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Perrillo; Carlo Tamburro; Fredric Regenstein; Luis Balart; Henry Bodenheimer; Marcelo Silva; Eugene Schiff; Carol Bodicky; Barbara Miller; Cheryl Denham; Carmel Brodeur; Kathy Roach; Janice Albrecht

    1995-01-01

    Background & Aims: Interferon therapy has been associated with a number of severe side effects when administered to patients with decompensated cirrhosis caused by chronic hepatitis B. The safety and potential efficacy of a low-dose, titratable regimen of interferon alfa-2b in patients with decompensated liver disease caused by chronic hepatitis B virus infection were studied. Methods: Twenty-six patients were treated

  19. Geochemical modeling of reactions and partitioning of trace metals and radionuclides during titration of contaminated acidic sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fan [ORNL; Parker, Jack C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Jardine, Philip M [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated sorption of uranium and technetium onto aluminum and iron hydroxides during titration of a contaminated groundwater using both Na hydroxide and carbonate as titrants. The contaminated groundwater has a low pH of 3.8 and high concentrations of NO3-, SO42-, Al, Ca, Mg, Mn, trace metals such as Ni and Co, and radionuclides such as U and Tc. During titration, most Al and Fe were precipitated out at pH above ~4.5. U as well as Tc was found to be removed from aqueous phase at pH below ~5.5, but to some extent released at higher pH values. An earlier geochemical equilibrium reaction path model that considered aqueous complexation and precipitation/dissolution reactions predicted mineral precipitation and adequately described concentration variations of Al, Fe and some other metal cations, but failed to predict sulfate, U and Tc concentrations during titration. Previous studies have shown that Fe- and Al-oxyhydroxides strongly sorb dissolved sulfate, U and Tc species. Therefore, an anion exchange model was developed for the sorption of sulfate, U and Tc onto Al and Fe hydroxides. With the additional consideration of the anion exchange reactions, concentration profiles of sulfate, U and Tc were more accurately predicted. Results of this study indicate that consideration of complex reactions such as sorption/desorption on mixed mineral phases, in addition to hydrolysis and precipitation, could improve the prediction of various contaminants during pre- and post-groundwater treatment practices.

  20. Developing a Physiotherapy-Specific Preliminary Clinical Decision-Making Tool for Oxygen Titration: A Modified Delphi Study

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Michelle; Bertin, Kendra; Henry, Renee; Singh, Deepti; Timmins, Nolla; Brooks, Dina; Mathur, Sunita

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To develop and evaluate a preliminary clinical decision-making tool (CDMT) to assist physiotherapists in titrating oxygen for acutely ill adults in Ontario. Methods: A panel of 14 experienced cardiorespiratory physiotherapists was recruited. Factors relating to oxygen titration were identified using a modified Delphi technique. Four rounds of questionnaires were conducted, during which the goals were to (1) generate factors, (2) reduce factors and debate contentious factors, (3) finalize factors and develop the preliminary CDMT, and (4) evaluate the usability of the tool in a clinical context. Results: The panel reached consensus on a total of 89 factors, which were compiled to create the preliminary CDMT. The global tool reached consensus for sensibility, receiving a mean score of 6/7 on a 7-point Likert-type scale (1=unacceptable; 7=excellent). Five of the nine individual components of evaluation of the tool achieved scores ?6.0; the remaining four had mean scores between 5.4 and 5.9. Conclusion: This study produced a preliminary CDMT for oxygen titration, which the panel agreed was highly comprehensible and globally sensible. Further research is necessary to evaluate the sensibility and applicability of the tool in a clinical setting. PMID:25125782

  1. PROCEDURAL LEARNING 1 Running head: Procedural learning

    E-print Network

    Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    PROCEDURAL LEARNING 1 Running head: Procedural learning Structuring Information Interfaces University Please address communications to: Jeffrey M. Zacks Washington University Psychology Department St). Structuring information interfaces for procedural learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 9, 88

  2. New procedure for determination of [Cu-O] +p charge and oxygen content in high T c copper oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazzal, A. I.; Lee, V. Y.; Engler, E. M.; Jacowitz, R. D.; Tokura, Y.; Torrance, J. B.

    1988-06-01

    The properties of High T c Superconductors are critically dependent on the degree of oxidation, i.e., on the average [Cu-O] +p charge (or formal oxidation state Cu +2+p of copper). This fact makes it important to accurately characterize High T c copper oxide samples in term of this key parameter. We describe here a simple and reliable procedure for determining the effective copper oxidation level and, as a result, the oxygen content. Using a modification of standard iodometric titration techniques, our procedure involves the ratio of the results of two titrations: one to determine the copper concentration in the sample and the second to measure the degree of oxidation beyond Cu +. Using this ratio, numerous errors and difficulties are minimized. In addition, the exact stoichiometry of the sample need not be known. Experimental results on YBa 2Cu 3O y are discussed which demonstrate the accuracy, reproducibility and reliability of our procedure.

  3. Heat or insulation: behavioral titration of mouse preference for warmth or access to a nest.

    PubMed

    Gaskill, Brianna N; Gordon, Christopher J; Pajor, Edmond A; Lucas, Jeffrey R; Davis, Jerry K; Garner, Joseph P

    2012-01-01

    In laboratories, mice are housed at 20-24°C, which is below their lower critical temperature (?30°C). This increased thermal stress has the potential to alter scientific outcomes. Nesting material should allow for improved behavioral thermoregulation and thus alleviate this thermal stress. Nesting behavior should change with temperature and material, and the choice between nesting or thermotaxis (movement in response to temperature) should also depend on the balance of these factors, such that mice titrate nesting material against temperature. Naïve CD-1, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice (36 male and 36 female/strain in groups of 3) were housed in a set of 2 connected cages, each maintained at a different temperature using a water bath. One cage in each set was 20°C (Nesting cage; NC) while the other was one of 6 temperatures (Temperature cage; TC: 20, 23, 26, 29, 32, or 35°C). The NC contained one of 6 nesting provisions (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10g), changed daily. Food intake and nest scores were measured in both cages. As the difference in temperature between paired cages increased, feed consumption in NC increased. Nesting provision altered differences in nest scores between the 2 paired temperatures. Nest scores in NC increased with increasing provision. In addition, temperature pairings altered the difference in nest scores with the smallest difference between locations at 26°C and 29°C. Mice transferred material from NC to TC but the likelihood of transfer decreased with increasing provision. Overall, mice of different strains and sexes prefer temperatures between 26-29°C and the shift from thermotaxis to nest building is seen between 6 and 10 g of material. Our results suggest that under normal laboratory temperatures, mice should be provided with no less than 6 grams of nesting material, but up to 10 grams may be needed to alleviate thermal distress under typical temperatures. PMID:22479340

  4. A Bovine Model of Respiratory Chlamydia psittaci Infection: Challenge Dose Titration

    PubMed Central

    Reinhold, Petra; Ostermann, Carola; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth; Berndt, Angela; Vogel, Anette; Lambertz, Jacqueline; Rothe, Michael; Rüttger, Anke; Schubert, Evelyn; Sachse, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to establish and evaluate a bovine respiratory model of experimentally induced acute C. psittaci infection. Calves are natural hosts and pathogenesis may resemble the situation in humans. Intrabronchial inoculation of C. psittaci strain DC15 was performed in calves aged 2–3 months via bronchoscope at four different challenge doses from 106 to 109 inclusion-forming units (ifu) per animal. Control groups received either UV-inactivated C. psittaci or cell culture medium. While 106 ifu/calf resulted in a mild respiratory infection only, the doses of 107 and 108 induced fever, tachypnea, dry cough, and tachycardia that became apparent 2–3 days post inoculation (dpi) and lasted for about one week. In calves exposed to 109 ifu C. psittaci, the respiratory disease was accompanied by severe systemic illness (apathy, tremor, markedly reduced appetite). At the time point of most pronounced clinical signs (3 dpi) the extent of lung lesions was below 10% of pulmonary tissue in calves inoculated with 106 and 107 ifu, about 15% in calves inoculated with 108 and more than 30% in calves inoculated with 109 ifu C. psittaci. Beside clinical signs and pathologic lesions, the bacterial load of lung tissue and markers of pulmonary inflammation (i.e., cell counts, concentration of proteins and eicosanoids in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid) were positively associated with ifu of viable C. psittaci. While any effect of endotoxin has been ruled out, all effects could be attributed to infection by the replicating bacteria. In conclusion, the calf represents a suitable model of respiratory chlamydial infection. Dose titration revealed that both clinically latent and clinically manifest infection can be reproduced experimentally by either 106 or 108 ifu/calf of C. psittaci DC15 while doses above 108 ifu C. psittaci cannot be recommended for further studies for ethical reasons. This defined model of different clinical expressions of chlamydial infection allows studying host-pathogen interactions. PMID:22299031

  5. The Appalachian State University Dark Sky Observatory automatic photometric telescope project: a status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, W. C.

    1994-12-01

    A 16-inch Automatic Photometric Telescope (APT) has been further developed for Appalachian State University's Dark Sky Observatory (DSO). The instrument is a refurbished fork-mounted Cassegrain housed in a 2.5 meter ObservaDome facility with an attached warm room for the computers. The telescope drive consists of a DC-motor optical-encoder system manufactured by DFM Engineering. These drive units are controlled by a DFM circuit card installed in a 486DX computer running the DFM TCS-386 Telescope Control System software. Telescope control commands are received through a serial port connection from a second computer which supervises all APT/facility functions and controls data acquisition. Telescope command and data acquisition software now under development will be used in conjunction with DFM hardware and software to upgrade other telescopes at the DSO site. The APT is running in a tended mode and undergoing CCD photometry testing procedures to determine the most effective use of the instrument and methods of data storage and transmission. It is expected to be fully automatic by late 1995.

  6. PREDICTING THE YIELDS OF PHOTOMETRIC SURVEYS FOR TRANSITING EXTRASOLAR PLANETS Thomas G. Beatty1

    E-print Network

    Gaudi, B. Scott

    PREDICTING THE YIELDS OF PHOTOMETRIC SURVEYS FOR TRANSITING EXTRASOLAR PLANETS Thomas G. Beatty1: photometric Online material: color figures 1. INTRODUCTION There are four ways by which extrasolar planets have been detected. The first method to unambiguously detect an extrasolar planet was pulsar timing

  7. A Uniform Set of Optical\\/NIR Photometric Zero Points to be Used with CHORIZOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Maíz-Apellániz

    2007-01-01

    I have recently combined HST STIS spectrophotometry with existing photometric data to analyze the calibration of three standard optical photometry systems: TYCHO-2 BTVT, Strömgren uvby, and Johnson UBV. In this contribution I summarize those results, present new ones for 2MASS JHK_s, and combine them with recent literature results to generate a uniform set of zero points for six photometric systems,

  8. Calibrating Photometric Stereo by Holistic Reflectance Symmetry Analysis Zhe Wu Ping Tan

    E-print Network

    Tan, Ping

    Calibrating Photometric Stereo by Holistic Reflectance Symmetry Analysis Zhe Wu Ping Tan National photometric stereo algorithm recovers the shape of a smooth surface up to the generalized bas-relief (GBR a simple algorithm of auto-calibration from separable homogeneous specular reflection of real im- ages

  9. PHOTOMETRIC ACCURACY OF DECONVOLVED SIMULATED ASTRONOMICAL IMAGES Stephen R. McNeil

    E-print Network

    Masci, Frank

    PHOTOMETRIC ACCURACY OF DECONVOLVED SIMULATED ASTRONOMICAL IMAGES Stephen R. McNeil Department ABSTRACT A study of the photometric accuracy of deconvolved astronomical images was undertaken by processing two simulated images with several well-known algorithms. The simulations consisted of an image

  10. Indirect Photometric and Fluorometric Detection in High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: A Tutorial Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoxuan Shen; Sterling A. Tomellini

    2007-01-01

    A review of indirect photometric and fluorometric detection in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is presented. A functional definition of indirect detection, somewhat broader and simpler than what was often used to characterize these techniques, was employed for this review. Emphasis was placed on distinguishing different approaches to indirect photometric and fluorometric detection in HPLC based on the interactions which occur

  11. Photometric SN Ia Candidates from the Three-Year SDSS-II SN Survey Data

    E-print Network

    Sako, Masao; Connolly, Brian; Dilday, Benjamin; Campbell, Heather; Frieman, Joshua; Gladney, Larry; Kessler, Richard; Lampeitl, Hubert; Marriner, John; Miquel, Ramon; Nichol, Robert; Schneider, Donald; Smith, Mathew; Sollerman, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the three-year SDSS-II Superernova (SN) Survey data and identify a sample of 1070 photometric SN Ia candidates based on their multi-band light curve data. This sample consists of SN candidates with no spectroscopic confirmation, with a subset of 210 candidates having spectroscopic redshifts of their host galaxies measured, while the remaining 860 candidates are purely photometric in their identification. We describe a method for estimating the efficiency and purity of photometric SN Ia classification when spectroscopic confirmation of only a limited sample is available, and demonstrate that SN Ia candidates from SDSS-II can be identified photometrically with ~91% efficiency and with a contamination of ~6%. Although this is the largest uniform sample of SN candidates to date for studying photometric identification, we find that a larger spectroscopic sample of contaminating sources is required to obtain a better characterization of the background events. A Hubble diagram using SN candidates with no ...

  12. Spectroscopic Needs for Training of LSST Photometric Redshifts

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alexandra; Schmidt, Samuel J

    2014-01-01

    This white paper summarizes those conclusions of the Snowmass White Paper "Spectroscopic Needs for Imaging Dark Energy Experiments" (arXiv:1309.5384) which are relevant to the training of LSST photometric redshifts; i.e., the use of spectroscopic redshifts to improve algorithms and reduce photo-z errors. The larger and more complete the available training set is, the smaller the RMS error in photo-z estimates should be, increasing LSST's constraining power. Among the better US-based options for this work are the proposed MANIFEST fiber feed for the Giant Magellan Telescope or (with lower survey speed) the WFOS spectrograph on the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). Due to its larger field of view and higher multiplexing, the PFS spectrograph on Subaru would be able to obtain a baseline training sample faster than TMT; comparable performance could be achieved with a highly-multiplexed spectrograph on Gemini with at least a 20 arcmin diameter field of view.

  13. Photometric studies of ? Scuti stars. I. IP Virginis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joner, Michael D.; Hintz, Eric G.; Collier, Matthew W.

    1998-01-01

    We report 15 new times of maximum light for the ? Scuti star IP Virginis (formerly known as SA 106?1024). An analysis of all times of maximum light indicates that IP Vir has been decreasing in period at a constant rate of ? days day?1. Evidence is also presented that IP Vir is a double?mode variable with a period ratio of . This period ratio predicts a [Fe/H] value of ?0.3. From photometric (uvby?) observations, we find a foreground reddening of .008 mag and a metallicity of [Fe/H] = +0.05. It is shown that [Fe/H] = ?0.3 is most likely the correct value. Intrinsic ? and c1?values, plotted in a model atmosphere grid, indicate a mean effective temperature, K, and a mean surface gravity, . All of these physical parameters support Landolt's initial conclusion that IP Vir is an ordinary ? Sct star.

  14. Analysis of surface parametrizations for modern photometric stereo modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecca, Roberto; Rodolà, Emanuele; Cremers, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Tridimensional shape recovery based on Photometric Stereo (PS) recently received a strong improvement due to new mathematical models based on partial differential irradiance equation ratios.1 This modern approach to PS faces more realistic physical effects among which light attenuation and radial light propagation from a point light source. Since the approximation of the surface is performed with single step method, accurate reconstruction is prevented by sensitiveness to noise. In this paper we analyse a well-known parametrization2 of the tridimensional surface extending it on any auxiliary convex projection functions. Experiments on synthetic data show preliminary results where more accurate reconstruction can be achieved using more suitable parametrization specially in case of noisy input images.

  15. Photometric observations of local rocket-atmosphere interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, R. G. H.; Murtagh, D. P.; Witt, G.; Stegman, J.

    1983-06-01

    Photometric measurements from rocket flights which recorded a strong foreign luminance in the altitude region between 90 and 130 km are reported. From one Nike-Orion rocket the luminance appeared on both up-leg and down-leg; from a series of Petrel rockets the luminance was apparent only on the down-leg. The data suggest that the luminance may be distributed mainly in the wake region along the rocket trajectory. The luminance is believed to be due to a local interaction between the rocket and the atmosphere although the precise nature of the interaction is unknown. It was measured at wavelengths ranging from 275 nm to 1.61 microns and may be caused by a combination of reactions.

  16. The moon in Heiligenschein. [photometric function for use in mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wildey, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis of 25 photometric digital images of the moon has been carried out to obtain a single image in a new mapping parameter, the Heiligenschein exponent. The data necessarily represent a range of lunar phases, but all are within 10 hours of full moon. The new parameter characterizes the rate at which lunar features brighten as their local phase angles approach zero. Although considerable contrast is present in this parameter, there is only a small corelation with normal albedo. In particular, the large albedo difference between maria and highlands is not simply reflected in Heiligenschein differences, which are larger within each category of terrain than the difference between the Heiligenschein averages of each. A correlation with age may be present in both the maria and the highlands, but its determination will require separation into distinct geochemical provinces.

  17. Automatic satellite tracking system for the NASA Satellite Photometric Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mucklow, Glenn H.

    1980-01-01

    The development of an Automatic TV Tracking System for NASA's mobile 61 cm aperture Satellite Photometric Observatory is described. The analysis techniques used to match the FOV and resolutions to changing seeing conditions are covered in details. Theoretical reasons for such matching of general interest are discussed. It is shown that the energy density in a satellite image is 11 times greater during good seeing conditions than during typical seeing conditions. The Z7987 image tube is shown to be able to detect 16th magnitude objects under ideal seeing conditions using only 8 percent of the light collected by the main telescope. Experimental results show that the SPO equipped with a Z7987 camera can track a satellite at any orbital velocity with less than 0.14 mr accuracy using the DBA Series 606 TV Tracker. The manual system used prior to the installation of the Automatic TV Tracking System could maintain track at 1.1 mr accuracy for comparison.

  18. A Probabilistic Approach to Classifying Supernovae UsingPhotometric Information

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsova, Natalia V.; Connolly, Brian M.

    2006-12-14

    This paper presents a novel method for determining the probability that a supernova candidate belongs to a known supernova type (such as Ia, Ibc, IIL, etc.), using its photometric information alone. It is validated with Monte Carlo, and both space- and ground-based data. We examine the application of the method to well-sampled as well as poorly sampled supernova light curves and investigate to what extent the best currently available supernova models can be used for typing supernova candidates. Central to the method is the assumption that a supernova candidate belongs to a group of objects that can be modeled; we therefore discuss possible ways of removing anomalous or less well understood events from the sample. This method is particularly advantageous for analyses where the purity of the supernova sample is of the essence, or for those where it is important to know the number of the supernova candidates of a certain type (e.g., in supernova rate studies).

  19. The photometric properties of the HST astrometer Fine Guidance Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucciarelli, B.; Holfeltz, S. T.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Taff, L. G.; Vener-Saavedra, P. C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the photometric calibration of the F583W filter in the astrometer Fine Guidance Sensor on the Hubble Space Telescope. Dozens of observations of the 9.58 mag Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) transfer mode reference star Upgren 69 (in the cluster NGC 188) have been utilized to verify the consistency and demonstrate the temporal stability of the photomultipliers. The measurements which provided the material for a transformation from the FGS instrumental system to the Johnson V magnitude consisted of the extensive position mode observations performed during the Optical Field Angle Distortion calibration. A total of 588 measurements of 92 stars in the galactic cluster M35 were performed. Johnson V band photometry with a precision (i.e., random errors) of plus or minus 0.05 mag is available with an accuracy (i.e., systematic errors) of 0.05 mag over 2 yr.

  20. Insights Into Galaxy Evolution From Photometric Redshifts Across Many Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotulla, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    I present results from a compiled sample spanning a range of public deep-fields, including the GOODS, COSMOS, UKIDSS-UDS and MUSYC fields. Photometric redshifts for these fields were obtained using a homogenous approach using the GAZELLE photo-z code; stellar masses and star formation rates have been estimated by comparison to GALEV evolutionary synthesis models, spanning a wide range of galaxy evolution scenarios. The derived redshift distributions show generally good agreement with predictions from semi-analytical models, based on simulations of cosmological structure formation. Mass-functions of these fields reveal a population of very massive, yet actively star-forming galaxies, in numbers exceeding predictions of current semi-analytical models and hence hinting at an as yet insufficiently understood formation channel producing this kind of galaxy.

  1. GAz: a genetic algorithm for photometric redshift estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Robert; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Seeburn, Navin

    2015-05-01

    We present a new approach to the problem of estimating the redshift of galaxies from photometric data. The approach uses a genetic algorithm combined with non-linear regression to model the 2SLAQ LRG data set with SDSS DR7 photometry. The genetic algorithm explores the very large space of high order polynomials while only requiring optimization of a small number of terms. We find a ?rms = 0.0408 ± 0.0006 for redshifts in the range 0.4 < z < 0.7. These results are competitive with the current state-of-the-art but can be presented simply as a polynomial which does not require the user to run any code. We demonstrate that the method generalizes well to other data sets and redshift ranges by testing it on SDSS DR11 and on simulated data. For other data sets or applications the code has been made available at https://github.com/rbrthogan/GAz.

  2. Proposal of photometric reverberation mapping with BOOTES-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Wei-Min; Wang, Chuan-Jun; Fan, Yu-Feng; Bai, Jin-Ming; Xin, Yu-Xin; Castro-Tirado, Alberto Javier; Guziy, Sergiy

    2014-12-01

    Reverberation mapping(RM) is a powerful technique to measure the mass of black holes in the active galactic nuclei(AGN). Yet the classical RM programs, which uses spectroscopy to monitor emission lines from the broad line region(BLR), are generally limited only for very supermassive black holes with large 2m-calss telescopes. In recent years, a breakthrough is remarkably achieved with photometric RM technique, which opens the door to efficiently measure the BLR size and host-subtracted AGN luminosity even with small telescopes. Considering the availability of other BOOTES telescopes around the world, we could further consider to propose international collaborations as one of the long-term monitoring programs for small telescopes.

  3. CP stars: Photometric calibrations of luminosity using Hipparcos data

    E-print Network

    F. Figueras; X. Luri; A. E. Gomez; J. Torra; C. Jordi; M. O. Mennessier; A. Domingo; E. Masana; S. Grenier; F. Blasi

    1998-05-04

    The application of the Stromgren photometric luminosity calibrations to different types of CP stars is reexamined in the light of the new Hipparcos data. A first attempt is made to use the LM statistical parallax method (Luri et al., 1996) -- based on the maximum likelihood principle -- to obtain a calibration of the absolute magnitude as a function of two Stromgren colour indices, thus reflecting effective temperature and evolution. Its application to a sample of Si stars and to a sample of normal main sequence stars in the same spectral range allows us to compare the calibrations obtained and to discuss the position of Si stars in the HR diagram. Additionally, a sample of bonafide, spectroscopically selected Am stars together with normal main sequence stars are used to derive a new absolute magnitude calibration for late A-type main sequence stars, taking into account the effects of evolution, metallicity and stellar rotation.

  4. Photometric Separation of Stellar Properties Using SDSS Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Lenz, D.D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Newberg, H.J. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Kirk Road and Pine Street, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)] [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Kirk Road and Pine Street, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Rosner, R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Richards, G.T. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Stoughton, C. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Kirk Road and Pine Street, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)] [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Kirk Road and Pine Street, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Using synthetic photometry of Kurucz model spectra, we explore the colors of stars as a function of temperature, metallicity, and surface gravity with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) filters, {ital u}{prime}{ital g}{prime}{ital r}{prime}{ital i}{prime}{ital z}{prime}. The synthetic colors show qualitative agreement with the few published observations in these filters. We find that the locus of synthetic stars is basically two-dimensional for 4500 {lt} {ital T} {lt} 8000 K, which precludes simultaneous color separation of the three basic stellar characteristics we consider. Colors including {ital u}{prime} contain the most information about normal stellar properties; measurements in this filter are also important for selecting white dwarfs. We identify two different subsets of the locus in which the loci separate by either metallicity or surface gravity. For 0.5 {lt} {ital g}{prime} {minus} {ital r}{prime} {lt} 0.8 (corresponding roughly to G stars), the locus separates by metallicity; for photometric error of a few percent, we estimate metallicity to within {approximately}0.5 dex in this range. In the range {minus}0.15 {lt} {ital g}{prime} {minus} {ital r}{prime} {lt} 0.00 (corresponding roughly to A stars), the locus shows separation by surface gravity. In both cases, we show that it is advantageous to use more than two colors when determining stellar properties by color. Strategic observations in SDSS filters are required to resolve the source of a {approximately}5{percent} discrepancy between synthetic colors of Gunn-Stryker stars, Kurucz models, and external determinations of the metallicities and surface gravities. The synthetic star colors can be used to investigate the properties of any normal star and to construct analytic expressions for the photometric prediction of stellar properties in special cases. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1998.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  5. Flame photometric detector for thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Minoru; Tsuruta, Kyoko; Arao, Shinsuke

    2002-10-11

    A new flame photometric detector for thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was studied to determine sulfur and phosphorus containing compounds in materials with a high boiling point. The detector was integrated with a flame ionization detector into the Iatroscan TLC-flame ionization detection analyzer. The principle of the detector is based on the photometric detection of flame emission of heteroatom in a hydrogen-air flame. The emission spectra of sulfur and phosphorus were measured using dibenzothiophene (DT) and phosphoric acid as source materials. Interference filters of 394 and 526 nm were chosen for spectral isolation of the sulfur and phosphorus emissions. The effects of variation in air flow-rate and scan speed as related to both sulfur and phosphorus compounds were studied in order to define optimum detection conditions. The best result for the detection of DT as a sulfur compound was obtained under combined hydrogen and air flow-rates of 160 and 500 ml/min, respectively, with a scan speed of 30 s/rod. The response to DT was linear in the range of 0.25-4 microg. On the other hand, the most suitable conditions for detecting phosphatidylcholine (PC) as a phosphorus compound were combined hydrogen and air flow-rates of 160 and 1500 ml/min, respectively, with a scan speed of 40 s/rod. The response to PC was linear in the range of 0.25-16 microg. Application of the instrument with selective detection of sulfur and phosphorus compounds was demonstrated using heavy oils and human serum lipids. PMID:12437173

  6. Photometric Type Ia supernova surveys in narrow-band filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, Henrique S.; Abramo, L. Raul; Sako, Masao; Benítez, Narciso; Calvão, Maurício O.; Ederoclite, Alessandro; Marín-Franch, Antonio; Molino, Alberto; Reis, Ribamar R. R.; Siffert, Beatriz B.; Sodré, Laerte.

    2014-11-01

    We study the characteristics of a narrow-band Type Ia supernova (SN) survey through simulations based on the upcoming Javalambre Physics of the accelerating Universe Astrophysical Survey. This unique survey has the capabilities of obtaining distances, redshifts and the SN type from a single experiment thereby circumventing the challenges faced by the resource-intensive spectroscopic follow-up observations. We analyse the flux measurements signal-to-noise ratio and bias, the SN typing performance, the ability to recover light-curve parameters given by the SALT2 model, the photometric redshift precision from Type Ia SN light curves and the effects of systematic errors on the data. We show that such a survey is not only feasible but may yield large Type Ia SN samples (up to 250 SNe at z < 0.5 per month of search) with low core-collapse contamination (˜1.5 per cent), good precision on the SALT2 parameters (average ? _{m_B}=0.063, ? _{x_1}=0.47 and ?c = 0.040) and on the distance modulus (average ?? = 0.16, assuming an intrinsic scatter ?int = 0.14), with identified systematic uncertainties ?sys ? 0.10?stat. Moreover, the filters are narrow enough to detect most spectral features and obtain excellent photometric redshift precision of ?z = 0.005, apart from ˜2 per cent of outliers. We also present a few strategies for optimizing the survey's outcome. Together with the detailed host galaxy information, narrow-band surveys can be very valuable for the study of SN rates, spectral feature relations, intrinsic colour variations and correlations between SN and host galaxy properties, all of which are important information for SN cosmological applications.

  7. Ion chromatography of cations using indirect photometric of fluorometric detection

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Copper(II) and cerium(III) were compared as mobile phase counter-ions with a strong cation exchange column for indirect photometric chromatography (IPC). Sample ion retention time was found to be dependent upon both counter-ion size and charge, as well as mobile phase ionic strength. Detection limits of all sample ions were found to be highly dependent on the molar absorptivity of the counter-ion at the wavelength of detection. At 254nm, a cerium(III) mobile phase provided detection limits at least 100 times lower than did a copper(II) mobile phase. The detection limit of sodium was about 4 ppb, corresponding to 3.5 pmoles, using a Ce(III) mobile phase. Cerium(III) was used as a mobile phase counter-ion with a strong cation exchange column using indirect fluorescence detection. Separation of the alkali metal ions along with the ammonium ion was achieved with baseline resolution. The detection limit of sodium was 3 ppb, corresponding to 2.6 pmoles. Separation and quantitation of sodium, ammonium, and potassium ions in diluted urine was straightforward. In contrast, using indirect UV detection, interference from the sample matrix was a problem. IPC using a cerium(III) mobile phase was used to determine sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium ions in milk and infant formulas. Separation was complete within 17 minutes. No interference from the sample matrix was noted. Good agreement between the IPC results and atomic absorption spectroscopy was found. Several complexes of chromium(III) were studied as mobile phase candidates for indirect photometric chromatography. A complex of tris(bipyridine)chromium(III) possessed the required spectral properties of an IPC counterion, but proved to be somewhat labile in either water or methanol but not acetonitrile.

  8. Miniature photometric stereo system for textile surface structure reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorpas, Dimitris; Kampouris, Christos; Malassiotis, Sotiris

    2013-04-01

    In this work a miniature photometric stereo system is presented, targeting the three-dimensional structural reconstruction of various fabric types. This is a supportive module to a robot system, attempting to solve the well known "laundry problem". The miniature device has been designed for mounting onto the robot gripper. It is composed of a low-cost off-the-shelf camera, operating in macro mode, and eight light emitting diodes. The synchronization between image acquisition and lighting direction is controlled by an Arduino Nano board and software triggering. The ambient light has been addressed by a cylindrical enclosure. The direction of illumination is recovered by locating the reflection or the brightest point on a mirror sphere, while a flatfielding process compensates for the non-uniform illumination. For the evaluation of this prototype, the classical photometric stereo methodology has been used. The preliminary results on a large number of textiles are very promising for the successful integration of the miniature module to the robot system. The required interaction with the robot is implemented through the estimation of the Brenner's focus measure. This metric successfully assesses the focus quality with reduced time requirements in comparison to other well accepted focus metrics. Besides the targeting application, the small size of the developed system makes it a very promising candidate for applications with space restrictions, like the quality control in industrial production lines or object recognition based on structural information and in applications where easiness in operation and light-weight are required, like those in the Biomedical field, and especially in dermatology.

  9. Improving the identification of high-z Herschel sources with position priors and optical/NIR and FIR/mm photometric redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-González, P. G.; Egami, E.; Rex, M.; Rawle, T. D.; Kneib, J.-P.; Richard, J.; Johansson, D.; Altieri, B.; Blain, A. W.; Bock, J. J.; Boone, F.; Bridge, C. R.; Chung, S. M.; Clément, B.; Clowe, D.; Combes, F.; Cuby, J.-G.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Dowell, C. D.; Espino-Briones, N.; Fadda, D.; Fiedler, A. K.; Gonzalez, A.; Horellou, C.; Ilbert, O.; Ivison, R. J.; Jauzac, M.; Lutz, D.; Pelló, R.; Pereira, M. J.; Rieke, G. H.; Rodighiero, G.; Schaerer, D.; Smith, G. P.; Valtchanov, I.; Walth, G. L.; van der Werf, P.; Werner, M. W.; Zemcov, M.

    2010-07-01

    We present preliminary results about the detection of high redshift (U)LIRGs in the Bullet cluster field by the PACS and SPIRE instruments within the Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS) Program. We describe in detail a photometric procedure designed to recover robust fluxes and deblend faint Herschel sources near the confusion noise. The method is based on the use of the positions of Spitzer/MIPS 24 ?m sources as priors. Our catalogs are able to reliably (5?) recover galaxies with fluxes above 6 and 10 mJy in the PACS 100 and 160 ?m channels, respectively, and 12 to 18 mJy in the SPIRE bands. We also obtain spectral energy distributions covering the optical through the far-infrared/millimeter spectral ranges of all the Herschel detected sources, and analyze them to obtain independent estimations of the photometric redshift based on either stellar population or dust emission models. We exemplify the potential of the combined use of Spitzer position priors plus independent optical and IR photometric redshifts to robustly assign optical/NIR counterparts to the sources detected by Herschel and other (sub-)mm instruments. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  10. A Phase II Dose Titration Study of Thalidomide for Cancer-Associated Anorexia

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mellar; Lasheen, Wael; Walsh, Declan; Mahmoud, Fade; Bicanovsky, Leslie; Lagman, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Context Sixty-five percent of people with advanced cancer suffer from loss of appetite. Several inflammatory cytokines appear to cause appetite loss in animal models. Thalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug that has been associated with improved appetite in those with HIV infections, and in cancer. Objectives We completed a two-stage Phase II dose titration study of thalidomide, the primary purpose of which was to assess appetite response to thalidomide in cancer-associated anorexia. Methods Individuals older than 18 years of age with active cancer, loss of appetite by numerical rating scale (NRS), life expectancy of at least four weeks, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0–3 were entered into the study. Pre-treatment screening included medical history, neurologic examination, and symptoms by NRS and categorical scale. Patients received 50 mg of thalidomide by mouth at bedtime for two weeks. Individuals who did not respond were dose escalated to 100 mg at night for two weeks. Assessment of appetite, early satiety, fatigue, insomnia, night sweats, pain, and quality of life occurred at two-week intervals. Toxicity also was assessed. The primary outcome was appetite response defined as a two-point reduction in the NRS, or one-point improvement in the categorical scale. Results Thirty-five patients entered the study; 33 completed 14 days of therapy and were analyzed for efficacy and toxicity. Sixty-four percent who completed at least two weeks of thalidomide had improved appetite. The categorical scale scores for appetite, insomnia and quality of life improved significantly. The 95% confidence intervals did not overlap. Five participants dropped out because of toxicity: two before two weeks and three later. Conclusion Thalidomide reduced multiple symptoms commonly associated with cancer-related anorexia and improved quality of life. Our findings confirmed and validated a previously published single arm trial. A recent randomized trial demonstrated greater benefits when thalidomide is used combined with other agents to treat cancer-associated anorexia and cachexia. Thalidomide helped cancer-associated anorexia in a majority of patients. It also improved insomnia and quality of life in advanced cancer. PMID:21640548

  11. A method for titration of inhibiting antibodies to bacterial immunoglobulin A1 proteases in human serum and secretions.

    PubMed

    Reinholdt, J

    1996-05-10

    Bacterial IgA1 proteases specifically cleave IgA1, including S-IgA1, molecules into Fab alpha and Fc alpha fragments. Hereby these enzymes interfere with the protective functions of antibodies belonging to this isotype. Antibodies inhibiting IgA1 proteases have been detected in humans, but the titration of such antibodies is a matter of methodological concern. Because human serum and secretions contain IgA1 substrate, it is impossible to provide uniform substrate conditions for samples of IgA1 protease incubated with inhibitors differing in their origin and state of dilution. This study demonstrates that such variations in substrate are not prohibitive for a reliable titration of inhibiting antibodies. This was evident from experiments demonstrating that the variations do not interfere with the quantification of residual IgA1 protease activity provided the activity is measured in terms of the proportion of IgA1 substrate cleaved during incubation. Proportions of cleaved IgA1 were measured by exploiting the differential reactivity of cleaved and intact IgA1 molecules in an ELISA using anti-Fc alpha and enzyme-conjugated anti-light chain antibodies for catching and development, respectively. A protocol for the titration of IgA1 protease-inhibiting antibodies based on this ELISA is described. By application of the protocol to chromatographic fractions of saliva, IgA1 protease-inhibiting activity was found to co-purify with salivary S-IgA. PMID:8642199

  12. Neuropsychological and psychiatric impact of add-on titration of pregabalin versus levetiracetam: a comparative short-term study.

    PubMed

    Ciesielski, Anne-Sophie; Samson, Séverine; Steinhoff, Bernhard J

    2006-11-01

    Cognitive and behavioral impairments are common in patients with epilepsy. Multiple factors may contribute to these difficulties; among them is antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment. We examined the short-term impact of two new add-on AEDs, pregabalin (PGB) and levetiracetam (LEV), on cognition and psychiatric states in 20 adult patients with medically refractory partial epilepsy, before and shortly after add-on titration. According to an open, prospective comparative trial, add-on PGB was titrated to 300 mg and add-on LEV to 1000 mg in 10 patients each. Patients were assessed before (T1) and 2 weeks after (T2) addition of the AED. During the trial, seizure frequency did not change significantly in either group. With PGB, patients manifested partly significant impairments in episodic memory of verbal and visual information. Psychiatric states were unchanged. With LEV treatment, we saw improvements in visual short-term memory performance and psychiatric states (i.e., interpersonal sensibility, depression, and anxiety). The comparison between PGB and LEV revealed a trend toward higher anxiety scores and higher variability in hostility scores with PGB that was significantly different from the trend with LEV. No significant differences were apparent in all other neuropsychological and psychiatric parameters investigated. This short-term study suggests that add-on LEV has a favorable neuropsychological and psychiatric impact. The negative neuropsychological effects of PGB may reflect temporary effects under titration. Still, the results did not confirm the promising effects on psychiatric comorbidity that have been emphasized by other reports. PMID:16949344

  13. Isothermal titration calorimetry study of a bistable supramolecular system: reversible complexation of cryptand[2.2.2] with potassium ions.

    PubMed

    del Rosso, Maria G; Ciesielski, Artur; Colella, Silvia; Harrowfield, Jack M; Samorì, Paolo

    2014-09-15

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is used to investigate the thermodynamics of the complexation of potassium ions by 1,10-diaza-4,7,13,16,21,24-hexaoxabicyclo[8.8.8]hexacosane (cryptand[2.2.2]) in aqueous solution. By changing the pH of the solution it was possible to trigger the reversible complexation/decomplexation of the cryptand in consecutive in situ experiments and to assess for the first time the use of ITC to monitor the thermodynamics of a bistable system. PMID:24986754

  14. Potentiometric titrations of Bacillus subtilis cells to low pH and a comparison of modeling approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fein, Jeremy B.; Boily, Jean-François; Yee, Nathan; Gorman-Lewis, Drew; Turner, Benjamin F.

    2005-03-01

    To provide constraints on the speciation of bacterial surface functional groups, we have conducted potentiometric titrations using the gram-positive aerobic species Bacillus subtilis, covering the pH range 2.1 to 9.8. Titration experiments were conducted using an auto-titrator assembly, with the bacteria suspended in fixed ionic strength (0.01 to 0.3 M) NaClO 4 solutions. We observed significant adsorption of protons over the entire pH range of this study, including to the lowest pH values examined, indicating that proton saturation of the cell wall did not occur under any of the conditions of the experiments. Ionic strength, over the range studied here, did not have a significant effect on the observed buffering behavior relative to experimental uncertainty. Electrophoretic mobility measurements indicate that the cell wall is negatively charged, even under the lowest pH conditions studied. These experimental results necessitate a definition of the zero proton condition such that the total proton concentration at the pH of suspension is offset to account for the negative bacterial surface charge that tends towards neutrality at pH <2. The buffering intensity of the bacterial suspensions reveals a wide spread of apparent pKa values. This spread was modeled using three significantly different approaches: a Non-Electrostatic Model, a Constant Capacitance Model, and a Langmuir-Freundlich Model. The approaches differ in the manner in which they treat the surface electric field effects, and in whether they treat the proton-active sites as discrete functional groups or as continuous distributions of related sites. Each type of model tested, however, provides an excellent fit to the experimental data, indicating that titration data alone are insufficient for characterizing the molecular-scale reactions that occur on the bacterial surface. Spectroscopic data on the molecular-scale properties of the bacterial surface are required to differentiate between the underlying mechanisms of proton adsorption inherent in these models. The applicability and underlying conceptual foundation of each model is discussed in the context of our current knowledge of the structure of bacterial cell walls.

  15. Steps toward a classifier for the Virtual Observatory. I. Classifying the SDSS photometric archive

    E-print Network

    R. D'Abrusco; A. Staiano; G. Longo; M. Paolillo; E. De Filippis

    2007-06-29

    Modern photometric multiband digital surveys produce large amounts of data that, in order to be effectively exploited, need automatic tools capable to extract from photometric data an objective classification. We present here a new method for classifying objects in large multi-parametric photometric data bases, consisting of a combination of a clustering algorithm and a cluster agglomeration tool. The generalization capabilities and the potentialities of this approach are tested against the complexity of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey archive, for which an example of application is reported.

  16. An interpretation of photometric parameters of bright desert regions of Mars and their dependence on wave length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, W. R.; Meador, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    Photometric data from the bright desert areas of Mars were used to determine the dependence of the three photometric parameters of the photometric function on wavelength and to provide qualitative predictions about the physical properties of the surface. Knowledge of the parameters allowed the brightness of these areas of Mars to be determined for any scattering geometry in the wavelength range of 0.45 to 0.70 micron. The changes that occur in the photometric parameters due to changes in wavelength were shown to be consistent with their physical interpretations, and the predictions of surface properties were shown to be consistent with conditions expected to exist in these regions of Mars. The photometric function was shown to have potential as a diagnostic tool for the qualitative determination of surface properties, and the consistency of the behavior of the photometric parameters was considered to be support for the validity of the photometric function.

  17. The SDSS Coadd: A Galaxy Photometric Redshift Catalog

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, Ribamar R.R.; /Fermilab /Rio de Janeiro Federal U.; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; /Fermilab /Inst. Geo. Astron., Havana /Sao Paulo U.; Annis, James; /Fermilab; Dodelson, Scott; /Fermilab /Chicago U. /Chicago U., KICP; Hao, Jiangang; /Fermilab; Johnston, David; /Fermilab; Kubo, Jeffrey; /Fermilab; Lin, Huan; /Fermilab; Seo, Hee-Jong; /UC, Berkeley; Simet, Melanie; /Chicago U.

    2011-11-01

    We present and describe a catalog of galaxy photometric redshifts (photo-z's) for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Coadd Data. We use the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technique to calculate photo-z's and the Nearest Neighbor Error (NNE) method to estimate photo-z errors for {approx} 13 million objects classified as galaxies in the coadd with r < 24.5. The photo-z and photo-z error estimators are trained and validated on a sample of {approx} 89, 000 galaxies that have SDSS photometry and spectroscopic redshifts measured by the SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7), the Canadian Network for Observational Cosmology Field Galaxy Survey (CNOC2), the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe Data Release 3(DEEP2 DR3), the SDSS-III's Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), the Visible imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph - Very Large Telescope Deep Survey (VVDS) and the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. For the best ANN methods we have tried, we find that 68% of the galaxies in the validation set have a photo-z error smaller than {sigma}{sub 68} = 0.036. After presenting our results and quality tests, we provide a short guide for users accessing the public data.

  18. A photometric and spectroscopic study of BG Canis Minoris.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Martino, D.; Mouchet, M.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.; Vio, R.; Rosen, S. R.; Mukai, K.; Augusteijn, T.; Garlick, M. A.

    1995-06-01

    The photometric and spectroscopic analysis presented here has revealed new observational features in the Intermediate Polar BG CMi. We have found a strong variability of the dominant light pulsations, rotational (913s) and orbital (3.23hr), on a timescale of years. Variations in the amplitude of the spin pulsation with epoch generally appear to be anti-correlated with that of the orbital modulation with the former decreasing while the latter increases. We do not find stable periodic signals at other frequencies as well as no indication of periodicity at the 847s X-ray period. UV and optical orbital continuum modulations reveal two components at different temperatures. The hot contribution is identified with the bulge (the heated face of the hot-spot) and the cool one with the hot-spot itself eclipsed by the secondary star. Orbital phase resolved spectroscopy reveals a rotational disturbance in the HeII emission line, indicating a partial eclipse of circulating material around the white dwarf, possibly in the form of a ring. From the orbital motion of the white dwarf, we also infer that BG CMi is a moderate inclination system (i~55^o^-75^o^).

  19. Photometric observation of Venus from Akatsuki Ultraviolet Imager (UVI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, M.; Imamura, T.; Yamazaki, A.; Watanabe, S.

    2011-12-01

    We have conducted photometric observations of Venus at 5 wavelength (283nm, 365nm, 0.90 micron, 2.02 micron, 10 micron) using 4 cameras onboard Akatsuki (Planet-C) in March 2011. During this period the spacecraft passed through the space between the Sun and Venus, and the distance from the spacecraft to Venus was about 13 million kilometers with the angular diameter of Venus as seen from the spacecraft being 0.05 degree. Because the spacecraft was exposed to a solar radiation stronger than that in the original plan due to the new cruising orbit after the failure of the Venus orbit insertion in December 2010, the attitude control of the spacecraft was severely limited by thermal constraints, and thus the cameras cannot be directed to Venus for a long time. Nevertheless, we could take Venus images roughly once a day during two weeks. In this paper we report initial results from the two wavelength channels by the Ultraviolet Imager (UVI). The 365 nm brightness is subject to an unknown absorber at the cloud top, while the 283 nm brightness is sensitive to sulfur dioxide. The brightnesses at these wavelengths both show short-timescale fluctuations with a time scale of several days superposed on a smooth trend associated with the change in the phase angle during this period.

  20. Photometric properties of facular features over the activity cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermolli, I.; Criscuoli, S.; Centrone, M.; Giorgi, F.; Penza, V.

    2007-04-01

    Aims:We have analyzed the contrast of facular features identified in a large dataset of PSPT full-disk photometric images and SoHO/MDI magnetograms, obtained from 1998 to 2005. The aim of this work is to contribute to the improvement of semi-empirical atmospheric models and of irradiance studies and to understand the reasons for the controversial results of facular contrast already presented in the literature. Methods: We used different identification methods to analyze their effects upon the results obtained. We also analyzed the effects of the limited information content in the analyzed images. Results: We show that selection effects associated with the identification method may produce significant differences in the results. The facular contrast is not only a function of both selection methods and the heliocentric angle, but also of feature size, activity level, and content of the analyzed images. Comparisons of the results obtained with computations of the most recent semi-empirical atmospheric models of facular features show that these models reproduce limb-angle corrected contrast measurements with an offset up to ?1% from the disk center to ? = 0.3.

  1. Cross-matching Engine for Incremental Photometric Sky Survey

    E-print Network

    Nádvorník, Ing Ji?í

    2015-01-01

    For light curve generation, a pre-planned photometry survey is needed nowadays, where all of the exposure coordinates have to be given and don't change during the survey. This thesis shows it is not required and we can data-mine these light curves from astronomical data that was never meant for this purpose. With this approach, we can recycle all of the photometric surveys in the world and generate light curves of observed objects for them. This thesis is addressing mostly the catalog generation process, which is needed for creating the light curves. In practice, it focuses on one of the most important problems in astroinformatics which is clustering data volumes on Big Data scale where most of the traditional techniques stagger. We consider a wide variety of possible solutions from the view of performance, scalability, distributability, etc. We defined criteria for time and memory complexity which we evaluated for all of the tested solutions. Furthermore, we created quality standards which we also take into ...

  2. Getting leverage on inflation with a large photometric redshift survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basse, Tobias; Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2015-06-01

    We assess the potential of a future large-volume photometric redshift survey to constrain observational inflationary parameters using three large-scale structure observables: the angular shear and galaxy power spectra, and the cluster mass function measured through weak lensing. When used in combination with Planck-like CMB measurements, we find that the spectral index ns can be constrained to a 1 ? precision of up to 0.0025. The sensitivity to the running of the spectral index can potentially improve to 0.0017, roughly a factor of five better than the present 1? constraint from Planck and auxiliary CMB data, allowing us to test the assumptions of the slow-roll scenario with unprecedented accuracy. Interestingly, neither CMB+shear nor CMB+galaxy nor CMB+clusters alone can achieve this level of sensitivity; it is the combined power of all three probes that conspires to break the different parameter degeneracies inherent in each type of observations. We make our forecast software publicly available via download or upon request from the authors.

  3. A Photometric and Energy Assessment of a Novel Lighting System

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Doug; Gould, Carl; Packer, Michael; Rubinstein, Francis; Siminovitch, Michael

    1995-06-01

    This paper describes the results of a photometric and energy analysis that was conducted on a new light guide and sulfur lamp system recently installed at both the US Department of Energy's Forrestal building and the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum. This system couples high lumen output, high efficiency sulfur lamps to hollow light guides lined with a reflective prismatic film. At the Forrestal building the system lights a large roadway and plaza area that lies beneath a section of the building. It has been designed to completely replace the grid of 280 mercury vapor lamps formerly used to illuminate the space. At the National Air and Space Museum a similar system illuminates Gallery 114, which houses the large rocket displays from the US Space program. This paper outlines the unique operational and design characteristics of this highly efficient distribution system and details the results of field studies that characterize the significant energy savings and increased illumination levels that have been achieved. The projected savings in maintenance costs, due to longer lamp life and a reduction of the total number of lamps, is also presented.

  4. COSMOS Photometric Redshifts with 30-bands for 2-deg2

    E-print Network

    O. Ilbert; P. Capak; M. Salvato; H. Aussel; H. J. McCracken; D. B. Sanders; N. Scoville; J. Kartaltepe; S. Arnouts; E. Le Floc'h; B. Mobasher; Y. Taniguchi; F. Lamareille; A. Leauthaud; S. Sasaki; D. Thompson; M. Zamojski; G. Zamorani; S. Bardelli; M. Bolzonella; A. Bongiorno; M. Brusa; K. I. Caputi; C. M. Carollo; T. Contini; R. Cook; G. Coppa; O. Cucciati; S. de la Torre; L. de Ravel; P. Franzetti; B. Garilli; G. Hasinger; A. Iovino; P. Kampczyk; J. -P. Kneib; C. Knobel; K. Kovac; J. F. Le Borgne; V. Le Brun; O. Le Fevre; S. Lilly; D. Looper; C. Maier; V. Mainieri; Y. Mellier; M. Mignoli; T. Murayama; R. Pello; Y. Peng; E. Perez-Montero; A. Renzini; E. Ricciardelli; D. Schiminovich; M. Scodeggio; Y. Shioya; J. Silverman; J. Surace; M. Tanaka; L. Tasca; L. Tresse; D. Vergani; E. Zucca

    2008-09-11

    We present accurate photometric redshifts in the 2-deg2 COSMOS field. The redshifts are computed with 30 broad, intermediate, and narrow bands covering the UV (GALEX), Visible-NIR (Subaru, CFHT, UKIRT and NOAO) and mid-IR (Spitzer/IRAC). A chi2 template-fitting method (Le Phare) was used and calibrated with large spectroscopic samples from VLT-VIMOS and Keck-DEIMOS. We develop and implement a new method which accounts for the contributions from emission lines (OII, Hbeta, Halpha and Ly) to the spectral energy distributions (SEDs). The treatment of emission lines improves the photo-z accuracy by a factor of 2.5. Comparison of the derived photo-z with 4148 spectroscopic redshifts (i.e. Delta z = zs - zp) indicates a dispersion of sigma_{Delta z/(1+zs)}=0.007 at iCOSMOS, CFHTLS and COMBO-17 survey fields. At fainter magnitudes iCOSMOS catalog includes approximately 607,617 objects. The COSMOS-30 photo-z enable the full exploitation of this survey for studies of galaxy and large scale structure evolution at high redshift.

  5. Dynamical and photometric investigation of cometary type 2 tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1975-01-01

    The absolute calibration of the photometric profile of the antitail of Comet Kohoutek 1973 XII on plates taken with the Curtis Schmidt telescope of the University of Michigan at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory is described in detail. The formula for the determination of the air mass, and the correction for atmospheric absorption and for the loss of light due to vignetting are included. The calibration stars were used to derive the coefficients converting the relative intensity scale to the absolute surface-brightness units. The extensive results of the study of the orbital evolution of vaporizing dust particles are listed in a tabular form. Gradual evaporation from the surface of a particle results typically in its expulsion from the solar system. The properties of the particle and the elements of its orbit at expulsion are given as functions of the particle's properties and orbit before appreciable evaporation commenced. Also given are circumstances at an encounter of an expelled particle with the earth as a function of the particle's properties. A few specific cases are represented graphically.

  6. Photometric and polarimetric properties of the Bruderheim chondritic meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, W. G.; Veverka, J.; Noland, M.; Hilgeman, T.

    1973-01-01

    Photometric and polarimetric laboratory measurements were made as a function of phase angle in the U(0.36 microns), G(0.54 microns) and R(0.67 microns) bands for 0, 30 and 60 deg incident illumination on four particle size ranges of Bruderheim, an L6 olivine-hypersthene chondritic meteorite. The four particle size ranges were: 0.25-4.76 mm coated with less than 74 microns powder, 74-250 microns, and less than 37 microns. In addition, normal reflectance measurements were made in the spectral range from 0.31 to 1.1 microns. Comparison with astronomical data reveals that none of the asteroids in the main belt for which adequate observations exist can be matched with Bruderheim, which is representative of the most common meteoritic material encountered by the Earth. However, it appears from the polarization and photometry data that the surface of the Apollo asteroid Icarus is consistent with an ordinary chondrite composition. This suggests the possibility that this material, although common in Earth-crossing orbits, is rare as a surface constituent in the main asteroid belt.

  7. Atmospheric emissions photometric imaging experiment /AEPT/ for Spacelab 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandie, W. G.; Mende, S. B.; Swenson, G. R.; Polites, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    The atmospheric emissions photometric imaging experiment (AEPI) to be flown on Spacelab 1 is designed to study faint natural and artificial atmospheric emission phenomena. Optical emissions are imaged in the region 2150 A to 7320 A using a television system consisting of two optical channels, one wide-angle and one telephoto. The detection system is an image-enhanced SEC vidicon. A third optical channel images onto the photocathode of a microchannel plate photomultiplier tube that has 100 discrete anodes. Photons are counted for each discrete anode, providing a direct measure of the luminosity of an object viewed by the TV telephoto lens, albeit with low spatial resolution. The AEPI detector is mounted on a two-axis gimbal comprised of a Modified Apollo Telescope Mount Star Tracker (MAST), which provides experiment pointing over a 40-deg x 80-deg range, exclusive of restrictions due to the proximity of other experiments. The pointing stability is 1 arcmin with respect to the spacecraft coordinate system for an exposure of 1 second. The tracking capability is 3.5 deg/s with a stability of 1 arcmin. The detector and pointing system are located on the Spacelab pallet. The experiment is controlled by stored programs resident in the Dedicated Experiment Processor located in the Spacelab module.

  8. Lunar photometric modelling with SMART-1/AMIE imaging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkman, O.; Muinonen, K.; Videen, G.; Josset, J.-L.; Souchon, A.

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the light-scattering properties of the lunar mare areas. A large photometric dataset was extracted from images taken by the AMIE camera on board the SMART-1 spacecraft. Inter-particle shadowing effects in the regolith are modelled using ray-tracing simulations, and then a phase function is fit to the data using Bayesian techniques and Markov chain Monte Carlo. Additionally, the data are fit with phase functions computed from radiative-transfer coherent-backscatter (RT-CB) simulations. The results indicate that the lunar photometry, including both the opposition effect and azimuthal effects, can be explained well with a combination of inter-particle shadowing and coherent backscattering. Our results produce loose constraints on the mare physical properties. The RT-CB results indicate that the scattering volume element is optically thick. In both the Bayesian analysis and the RT-CB fit, models with lower packing density and/or higher surface roughness always produce better fits to the data than densely packed, smoother ones.

  9. CCD Photometric Study and Period Investigation of AH Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Fu-Yuan; Xiao, Ting-Yu; Yu, Yun-Xia

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we present new CCD photometric observations of AH Tauri in the R band observed in 2006 at the Yunnan Observatory. Two new times of light minima were derived from these observations. We modeled the light curves using the 2003 version of the Wilson–Devinney program. The results show that the variations of the light curves can be expained by a cool spot on the primary star. The fill-out factor is about 6.6%, indicating that AH Tauri is a shallow-contact system. The mass ratio was determined to be about 0.505. In addition, the orbital period variations of AH Tauri were investigated based on all of the photoelectric and CCD light minimum times, including our two new data. It was found that the orbital period exhibits a possible periodic variation with a period of {P}{mod}=54.62\\(+/- 0.20) years and a secular period decrease of {dP}/{dt}=-(1.823+/- 0.215)× {10}-7 {days} {{yr}}-1. Since AH Tauri is an overcontact solar-like system, we discuss three mechanisms of the mass transfer, the light-time effect of the third body, and magnetic activity responsible for the orbital period changes.

  10. SIMULTANEOUS PHOTOMETRIC AND POLARIMETRIC OBSERVATIONS OF ASTEROID 3 JUNO

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, S. [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Yoshida, F. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Shinokawa, K.; Mukai, T. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kobe University Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Kawabata, K. S. [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)], E-mail: shigeru@nro.nao.ac.jp

    2009-09-15

    Simultaneous photometric and polarimetric observations of asteroid 3 Juno have been carried out with a low-resolution spectropolarimeter HBS at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory from 2000 August 4 to 8. The amplitude of the light curve was 0.14 mag with almost the same brightness maxima and 0.10 mag different minima. Polarimetric data showed one maximum and minimum in the absolute values of polarization degree |P{sub r} |, and the difference attained 0.149% in the V band. The minimum of |P{sub r} | appeared around the second minimum of the light curve, which means that a bright area exists on the surface of 3 Juno. We found that the values of |P{sub r} | tend to increase 0.1%-0.2% with wavelength, and this result is consistent with the general tendency of S-type asteroids. In addition, we might find that the increase rate of |P{sub r} | is steeper in wavelengths longer than 7000 A. From the variation of polarization degree with the rotation of 3 Juno, we estimated the albedo of the bright area with a simple model and obtained a range of 0.19-0.41.

  11. Surface Brightness Fluctuations Using the Washington Photometric System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wing, D. L.

    1992-05-01

    Preliminary results of a surface brightness fluctuation analysis using CCD images obtained in the Washington (CMT_1T_2) photometric system will be presented. The Washington system was designed to provide efficient and accurate measurements of abundances and temperatures for G and K giants. These are expected to be the dominant source of brightness fluctuations in ellipticals and spiral bulges. Deep CCD images of NGC 1379 (E0), NGC 6861 (S0), and NGC 6868 (E2), obtained at CTIO as part of another research project, have been used as the data for this investigation. Images were taken using C (lambda_ {eff} = 3910 Angstroms), M (lambda_ {eff} = 5080 Angstroms), and T_1 (lambda_ {eff} = 6330 Angstroms) filters. Preliminary results for NGC 6861 with the T_1 images show significant obscuration extending out to about 1 arcmin ( ~ 10 kpc using H_o = 75 km\\ s(-1) Mpc(-1) ) from the galaxy center, which effectively prevents any useful brightness fluctuation information being obtained from this galaxy. Neither NGC 1379 nor NGC 6868 shows any indications of dust, however, and the analysis is proceeding for these two remaining galaxies. Both show a relatively smooth surface brightness distribution which is necessary for this type of analysis. Distance estimates will be presented for both NGC 1379 and NGC 6868 based on the T_1 and M images, and possibly on the C images. In addition, a discussion of the dust distribution in the inner 1 arcmin of NGC 6861 will be given.

  12. Long term photometric and period study of AU Serpentis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürol, Birol

    2005-08-01

    In the present study, the activity of the eclipsing binary AU Ser is examined by analyzing the photometric data covering the period from 1969 till 2003. The orbital-period changes and light-curve variations of the binary system are studied. 4 new times of minima are obtained from our data. A period study covering almost 60,000 cycles based on the visual, photoelectric and CCD times of minima confirms the light-time effect of the system with a period of 94.15 year. With the assumption of a coplanar orbit of the third-body we find a mass of m3 = 0.53 M?. Including our data a total of six light curves are formed from the observations published in the literature that are completely covered in B and V. The differences between the two maxima in each light curve appear to be cyclic over a time-scale over 30 years. Based on a spot model, the light curves are analyzed with the Wilson-Devinney code. Using the spectroscopic mass ratio obtained by Hrivnak [Hrivnak, B.J., 1993. in: Leung, K.-C., Nha, I.S., Eds., New Frontiers in Binary Star Research, ASP Conference Series 38, p. 269] the masses and radii for the components are deduced as 0.895 M?, 0.635 M?, 1.10 R?, 0.94 R? for the primary and secondary, respectively.

  13. Predicting the Yields of Photometric Surveys for Transiting Planets

    E-print Network

    Thomas G. Beatty

    2008-07-01

    Observing extrasolar planetary transits is one of the only ways that we may infer the masses and radii of planets outside the Solar System. As such, the detections made by photometric transit surveys are one of the only foreseeable ways that the areas of planetary interiors, system dynamics, migration, and formation will acquire more data. Predicting the yields of these surveys therefore serves as a useful statistical tool. Predictions allows us to check the efficiency of transit surveys (``are we detecting all that we should?'') and to test our understanding of the relevant astrophysics (``what parameters affect predictions?''). Furthermore, just the raw numbers of how many planets will be detected by a survey can be interesting in its own right. Here, we look at two different approaches to modeling predictions (forward and backward), and examine three different transit surveys (TrES, XO, and Kepler). In all cases, making predictions provides valuable insight into both extrasolar planets and the surveys themselves, but this must be tempered by an appreciation of the uncertainties in the statistical cut-offs used by the transit surveys.

  14. Adaptations to hypercapnic conditions in the nutria (Myocastor coypus)--in vivo and in vitro CO2 titration curves.

    PubMed

    Bar-Ilan, A; Marder, J

    1983-01-01

    Arterial blood acid-base status of unanesthetized, unrestrained nutria was studied during exposure to 5, 10 and 14.5% CO2 for 6 hr. Control values, pH = 7.426 +/- 0.037, PaCo2 = 36.5 +/- 3.1 mmHg and [HCO-3] = 24.3 +/- 2.5 mM/1 (n = 24), are within the normal range reported for other mammals. Values after 6 hr of exposure to 10% CO2 were: pH = 7.355 +/- 0.043, PaCO2 = 71.0 +/- 3.6 mmHg and [HCO-3] = 38.0 +/- 4.1 mM/l (n = 5). Arterial blood buffer slopes, obtained from the in vitro titration curve, did not show any pattern of adaptation to hypercapnia. Whole body buffer slopes, calculated from the in vivo CO2 titration curve, showed significantly higher values for the nutria than for the rat, dog and man, under comparable conditions [beta(delta HCO-3/delta pH)] = 57.0 slykes for nutria, 32.6 for rat and 11.8 for man. delta H+/delta PaCO2 = 0.38. mM/l/mmHg for nutria, 0.55 for rat and 0.76 for man. The results suggest that the nutria possesses an efficient metabolic mechanism for regulation of pH level during exposure to hypercapnic conditions. PMID:6137314

  15. Photometric Observations of Soils and Rocks at the Mars Exploration Rover Landing Sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Johnson; R. E. Arvidson; J. F. Bell III; W. H. Farrand; E. A. Guinness; M. J. Johnson; K. E. Herkenhoff; M. T. Lemmon; R. V. Morris; F. P. Seelos; J. Soderblom; L. A. Soderblom; S. W. Squyres; M. J. Wolff

    2005-01-01

    The MER Pancams have acquired multispectral reflectance observations of rocks and soils at different incidence, emission, and phase angles that will be used for photometric modeling of surface materials.

  16. The photometrical system and positional accuracy of the CCD camera ST7 of Lisnyki Observational Station

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Kleshchonok; M. T. Pogoreltsev; V. M. Andruk; I. V. Lukyanyk

    2005-01-01

    The results of testing of CCD ST7 camera are reported. Determinations of photometrical system and positional accuracy were made by processing of open cluster Stock 1 observations at the AZT-8 telescope of the Lisnyki Observational Station.

  17. Color-redshift Relations and Photometric Redshift Estimations of Quasars in Large Sky Surveys

    E-print Network

    Xue-Bing Wu; Wei Zhang; Xu Zhou

    2003-07-24

    With a recently constructed composite quasar spectrum and the \\chi^2 minimization technique, we demonstrated a general method to estimate the photometric redshifts of a large sample of quasars by deriving the theoretical color-redshift relations and comparing the theoretical colors with the observed ones. We estimated the photometric redshifts from the 5-band SDSS photometric data of 18678 quasars in the first major data release of SDSS and compare them with the spectroscopic redshifts. The redshift difference is smaller than 0.1 for 47% of quasars and 0.2 for 68 % of them. Based on the calculation of the theoretical color-color diagrams of stars, galaxies and quasars in both the SDSS and BATC photometric systems, we expected that with the BATC system of 15 intermediate filters we would be able to select candidates of high redshift quasars more efficiently than in the SDSS, provided the BATC survey could detect objects with magnitude fainter than 21.

  18. Photometric and Spectroscopic Behavior of V407 Cygni during 2010-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugarov, S.; Esipov, V. F.; Kolotilov, E. A.; Komissarova, G. V.; Shenavrin, V. I.; Tarasova, T. N.; Tatarnikov, A. M.; Tatarnikova, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    We present the results of new UBVRIJHKLM photometric and spectroscopic observations of the recurrent symbiotic Nova V407 Cyg obtained during its nebular stage. Different types of the brightness variability are analyzed.

  19. Estimating iron and aluminum content of acid mine discharge from a north-central Pennsylvania coal field by use of acidity titration curves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ott, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    Determination of acidity provides a value that denotes the quantitative capacity of the sample water to neutralize a strong base to a particular pH. However, much additional information can be obtained from this determination if a titration curve is constructed from recorded data of titrant increments and their corresponding pH values. The curve can be used to identify buffer capabilities, the acidity with respect to any pH value within the curve limit, and, in the case of acid mine drainage from north-central Pennsylvania, the identification and estimation of the concentration of dissolved ferrous iron, ferric iron, and aluminum. Through use of titration curves, a relationship was observed for the acid mine drainage between: (1) the titratable acidity (as milligrams per liter calcium carbonate) to pH 4.0 and the concentration of dissolved ferric iron; and (2) the titratable acidity (as milligrams per liter calcium carbonate) from pH 4.0 to 5.0 and the concentration of dissolved aluminum. The presence of dissolved ferrous iron can be detected by the buffering effect exhibited in the area between pH 5.5 to 7.5. The concentration of ferrous iron is estimated by difference between the concentrations of ferric iron in an oxidized and unoxidized sample. Interferences in any of the titrations from manganese, magnesium, and aluminate, appear to be negligible within the pH range of interest.

  20. The Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS). II. Optical Imaging and Photometric Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Hisanori; Kosugi, George; Akiyama, Masayuki; Takata, Tadafumi; Sekiguchi, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Ichi; Iwata, Ikuru; Kajisawa, Masaru; Yasuda, Naoki; Doi, Mamoru; Ouchi, Masami; Simpson, Chris; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Toru; Furusawa, Junko; Morokuma, Tomoki; Ishida, Catherine M.; Aoki, Kentaro; Fuse, Tetsuharu; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Iye, Masanori; Karoji, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Naoto; Kodama, Tadayuki; Komiyama, Yutaka; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Mizumoto, Yoshihiko; Nakata, Fumiaki; Noumaru, Jun'ichi; Ogasawara, Ryusuke; Okamura, Sadanori; Saito, Tomoki; Sasaki, Toshiyuki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Michitoshi

    2008-05-01

    We present multi-wave band optical imaging data obtained from observations of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS). The survey field, centered at R.A.=02h18m00s, decl.=-05deg00'00'', has been the focus of a wide range of multiwavelength observing programs spanning from X-ray to radio wavelengths. A large part of the optical imaging observations are carried out with Suprime-Cam on Subaru Telescope at Mauna Kea in the course of Subaru Telescope ``Observatory Projects.'' This paper describes our optical observations, data reduction and analysis procedures employed, and the characteristics of the data products. A total area of 1.22 deg2 is covered in five contiguous subfields, each of which corresponds to a single Suprime-Cam field of view (~34'×27'), in five broadband filters, B, V, Rc, i', and z', to the depths of B=28.4, V=27.8, Rc=27.7, i'=27.7, and z'=26.6, respectively (AB, 3 ?, ?=2''). The data are reduced and compiled into five multi-wave band photometric catalogs, separately for each Suprime-Cam pointing. The i'-band catalogs contain about 900,000 objects, making the SXDS catalogs one of the largest multi-wave band catalogs in corresponding depth and area coverage. The SXDS catalogs can be used for an extensive range of astronomical applications such as the number density of the Galactic halo stars to the large-scale structures at the distant universe. The number counts of galaxies are derived and compared with those of existing deep extragalactic surveys. The optical data, the source catalogs, and configuration files used to create the catalogs are publicly available via the SXDS Web page (http://www.naoj.org/Science/SubaruProject/SXDS/index.html). Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  1. A Hand-held Photometric Stereo Camera for 3-D Modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoaki Higo; Yasuyuki Matsushita; Neel Joshi; Katsushi Ikeuchi

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a simple yet practical 3-D model- ing method for recovering surface shape and reflectance from a set of images. We attach a point light source to a hand-held camera to add a photometric constraint to the multi-view stereo problem. Using the photometric con- straint, we simultaneously solve for shape, surface normal, and reflectance. Unlike prior approaches, we

  2. Photometric Recovery of Ortho-Images Derived from Apollo 15 Metric Camera Imagery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taemin Kim; Ara V. Nefian; Michael J. Broxton

    2009-01-01

    The topographical and photometric reconstruction of the moon from Apollo metric data has gained attention to support manned\\u000a mission planning since the NASA has been working on return to the moon in 2004. This paper focuses on photometric recovery\\u000a of the moon surface from Apollo orbital imagery. The statistical behavior of photons generates the scene radiance which follows\\u000a a continuous

  3. Study of the Effects of Photometric Geometry on Spectral Reflectance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfenstein, Paul

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate how the spectrophotometric properties of planetary surface materials depend on photometric geometry by refining and applying radiative transfer theory to data obtained from spacecraft and telescope observations of planetary surfaces, studies of laboratory analogs, and computer simulations. The goal is to perfect the physical interpretation of photometric parameters in the context of planetary surface geological properties and processes. The purpose of this report is to document the research achievements associated with this study.

  4. Designing Future Dark Energy Space Missions: II. Photometric Redshift of Space Weak Lensing Optimized Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Jouvel; J. P. Kneib; G. Bernstein; O. Ilbert; P. Jelinsky; B. Milliard; A. Ealet; C. Schimd; T. Dahlen; S. Arnouts

    2010-01-01

    Accurate weak-lensing analysis requires not only accurate measurement of\\u000agalaxy shapes but also precise and unbiased measurement of galaxy redshifts.\\u000aThe photometric redshift technique appears as the only possibility to determine\\u000athe redshift of the background galaxies used in the weak-lensing analysis.\\u000aUsing the photometric redshift quality, simple shape measurement requirements,\\u000aand a proper sky model, we explore what could

  5. The Velocity Field in the Neighbourhood of Clusters of Galaxies: a Study Based on Photometric Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelato, H.; Sodré, L., Jr.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Proust, D.

    2009-05-01

    We present a preliminary study of the velocity field in the neighbourhood of the Abell 1942 cluster of galaxies (z ? 0.22), for which both photometric and spectroscopic redshifts are available. Besides characterizing the dynamical stage of this particular cluster, the aim of this work is to search for efficient tools capable to provide reliable representations of the infall velocity fields for samples of clusters of galaxies, based solely on photometric redshifts.

  6. The OPD photometric survey of open clusters I. Techniques, program details and first results of robust determination of the fundamental parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caetano, T. C.; Dias, W. S.; Lépine, J. R. D.; Monteiro, H. S.; Moitinho, A.; Hickel, G. R.; Oliveira, A. F.

    2015-07-01

    Open clusters are considered valuable objects for the investigation of galactic structure and dynamics since their distances, ages and velocities can be determined with good precision. According to the New Catalog of Optically Visible Open Clusters and Candidates (Dias et al., 2002) about 10% of the optically revealed open clusters remain unstudied. However, previous analysis (Moitinho, 2010) has indicated that not considering this unstudied population introduces significant biases in the study of the structure and evolution of the Milky Way. In addition, a systematic revision of the data contained in the catalog, collected from the literature, is needed, due to its inhomogeneity. In this first paper of a series, we present the observational strategy, data reduction and analysis procedures of a UBRVI photometric survey of southern open star clusters carried out at Pico dos Dias Observatory (Brazil). The aim of the program is to contribute to an unbiased, homogenous collection of cluster fundamental parameters. We show that the implementation of a sequence of systematic procedures considerably improves the quality of the results. To illustrate the methods we present the first results based on one night of observations. The parameters, reddening, distance, age and metallicity, were obtained by fitting theoretical isochrones to cluster color-color and multidimensional color-magnitude diagrams, applying a cross-entropy optimization algorithm developed by our group, which takes into account UBVRI photometric data weighted using a membership-likelihood estimation.

  7. Contract and Procedure

    E-print Network

    Drahozal, Christopher R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines both the theoretical underpinnings and empirical picture of procedural contracts. Procedural contracts may be understood as contracts in which parties regulate not merely their commercial relations but also the procedures...

  8. Periodontal Treatments and Procedures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Procedures Non-Surgical Periodontal Treatments Gum Graft Surgery Laser Treatment for Gum Disease Regenerative Procedures Dental Crown Lengthening ... dental implants. Non-Surgical Treatments Gum Graft Surgery Laser Treatment Regenerative Procedures Dental Crown Lengthening Dental Implants Pocket ...

  9. Photometric type Ia supernova candidates from the three-year SDSS-II SN survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Sako, Masao; /Pennsylvania U.; Bassett, Bruce; /South African Astron. Observ. /Cape Town U., Dept. Math.; Connolly, Brian; /Pennsylvania U.; Dilday, Benjamin; /Las Cumbres Observ. /UC, Santa Barbara /Rutgers U., Piscataway; Cambell, Heather; /Portsmouth U., ICG; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Chicago U. /Chicago U., KICP /Fermilab; Gladney, Larry; /Pennsylvania U.; Kessler, Richard; /Chicago U. /Chicago U., KICP; Lampeitl, Hubert; /Portsmouth U., ICG; Marriner, John; /Fermilab; Miquel, Ramon; /Barcelona, IFAE /ICREA, Barcelona /Portsmouth U., ICG

    2011-07-01

    We analyze the three-year Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova (SN) Survey data and identify a sample of 1070 photometric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) candidates based on their multiband light curve data. This sample consists of SN candidates with no spectroscopic confirmation, with a subset of 210 candidates having spectroscopic redshifts of their host galaxies measured while the remaining 860 candidates are purely photometric in their identification. We describe a method for estimating the efficiency and purity of photometric SN Ia classification when spectroscopic confirmation of only a limited sample is available, and demonstrate that SN Ia candidates from SDSS-II can be identified photometrically with {approx}91% efficiency and with a contamination of {approx}6%. Although this is the largest uniform sample of SN candidates to date for studying photometric identification, we find that a larger spectroscopic sample of contaminating sources is required to obtain a better characterization of the background events. A Hubble diagram using SN candidates with no spectroscopic confirmation, but with host galaxy spectroscopic redshifts, yields a distance modulus dispersion that is only {approx}20%-40% larger than that of the spectroscopically confirmed SN Ia sample alone with no significant bias. A Hubble diagram with purely photometric classification and redshift-distance measurements, however, exhibits biases that require further investigation for precision cosmology.

  10. PHOTOMETRIC TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA CANDIDATES FROM THE THREE-YEAR SDSS-II SN SURVEY DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Sako, Masao; Connolly, Brian; Gladney, Larry [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Bassett, Bruce [South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory 7935 (South Africa); Dilday, Benjamin [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Cambell, Heather; Lampeitl, Hubert; Nichol, Robert C. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Frieman, Joshua A.; Kessler, Richard [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Marriner, John [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Miquel, Ramon [Institut de Fisica d'Altes Energies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Barcelona (Spain); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Smith, Mathew [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa); Sollerman, Jesper, E-mail: masao@sas.upenn.edu [Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, Albaova SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-09-10

    We analyze the three-year Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova (SN) Survey data and identify a sample of 1070 photometric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) candidates based on their multiband light curve data. This sample consists of SN candidates with no spectroscopic confirmation, with a subset of 210 candidates having spectroscopic redshifts of their host galaxies measured while the remaining 860 candidates are purely photometric in their identification. We describe a method for estimating the efficiency and purity of photometric SN Ia classification when spectroscopic confirmation of only a limited sample is available, and demonstrate that SN Ia candidates from SDSS-II can be identified photometrically with {approx}91% efficiency and with a contamination of {approx}6%. Although this is the largest uniform sample of SN candidates to date for studying photometric identification, we find that a larger spectroscopic sample of contaminating sources is required to obtain a better characterization of the background events. A Hubble diagram using SN candidates with no spectroscopic confirmation, but with host galaxy spectroscopic redshifts, yields a distance modulus dispersion that is only {approx}20%-40% larger than that of the spectroscopically confirmed SN Ia sample alone with no significant bias. A Hubble diagram with purely photometric classification and redshift-distance measurements, however, exhibits biases that require further investigation for precision cosmology.

  11. The photometric functions of Phobos and Deimos. II - Surface photometry of Deimos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noland, M.; Veverka, J.

    1977-01-01

    Mariner 9 television pictures of Deimos are used to study the uniformity of a certain photometric scattering parameter over the surface of the satellite. It is shown that the photometric data considered satisfy the reciprocity principle and that the Hapke-Irvine scattering law is adequate for describing the surface. Phase functions for Deimos are obtained from scans along the photometric equator, and the photometric behavior of the brightest and darkest areas on the satellite's disk is examined. The results indicate that the surface of Deimos is covered uniformly by a dark and texturally complex material whose photometric behavior is well-represented by the Hapke-Irvine law, that the intrinsic phase coefficient of this material is about 0.017 mag/deg over the phase-angle range from 20 to 80 deg, and that slightly brighter material is present near some craters. Since enhanced brightening was not observed at the specular point of the photometric equator in any of the pictures studied, it is concluded that large exposures of solid rock are absent from the Mars-facing side of Deimos.

  12. An Improved Technique for Increasing the Accuracy of Photometrically Determined Redshifts for ___Blended___ Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Ashley Marie; /Marietta Coll. /SLAC

    2012-08-24

    The redshift of a galaxy can be determined by one of two methods; photometric or spectroscopic. Photometric is a term for any redshift determination made using the magnitudes of light in different filters. Spectroscopic redshifts are determined by measuring the absorption spectra of the object then determining the difference in wavelength between the 'standard' absorption lines and the measured ones, making it the most accurate of the two methods. The data for this research was collected from SDSS DR8 and then separated into blended and non-blended galaxy sets; the definition of 'blended' is discussed in the Introduction section. The current SDSS photometric redshift determination method does not discriminate between blended and non-blended data when it determines the photometric redshift of a given galaxy. The focus of this research was to utilize machine learning techniques to determine if a considerably more accurate photometric redshift determination method could be found, for the case of the blended and non-blended data being treated separately. The results show a reduction of 0.00496 in the RMS error of photometric redshift determinations for blended galaxies and a more significant reduction of 0.00827 for non-blended galaxies, illustrated in Table 2.

  13. A photometric study of the hot exoplanet WASP-19b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lendl, M.; Gillon, M.; Queloz, D.; Alonso, R.; Fumel, A.; Jehin, E.; Naef, D.

    2013-04-01

    Context. The sample of hot Jupiters that have been studied in great detail is still growing. In particular, when the planet transits its host star, it is possible to measure the planetary radius and the planet mass (with radial velocity data). For the study of planetary atmospheres, it is essential to obtain transit and occultation measurements at multiple wavelengths. Aims: We aim to characterize the transiting hot Jupiter WASP-19b by deriving accurate and precise planetary parameters from a dedicated observing campaign of transits and occultations. Methods: We have obtained a total of 14 transit lightcurves in the r'-Gunn, I-Cousins, z'-Gunn, and I + z' filters and 10 occultation lightcurves in z'-Gunn using EulerCam on the Euler-Swiss telescope and TRAPPIST. We also obtained one lightcurve through the narrow-band NB1190 filter of HAWK-I on the VLT measuring an occultation at 1.19 ?m. We performed a global MCMC analysis of all new data, together with some archive data in order to refine the planetary parameters and to measure the occultation depths in z'-band and at 1.19 ?m. Results: We measure a planetary radius of Rp = 1.376 ± 0.046 RJ, a planetary mass of Mp = 1.165 ± 0.068 MJ, and find a very low eccentricity of e = 0.0077-0.0032+0.0068, compatible with a circular orbit. We have detected the z'-band occultation at 3? significance and measure it to be ?Focc,z' = 352 ± 116 ppm, more than a factor of 2 smaller than previously published. The occultation at 1.19 ?m is only marginally constrained at ?Focc,NB1190 = 1711-726+745 ppm. Conclusions: We show that the detection of occultations in the visible range is within reach, even for 1 m class telescopes if a considerable number of individual events are observed. Our results suggest an oxygen-dominated atmosphere of WASP-19b, making the planet an interesting test case for oxygen-rich planets without temperature inversion. Based on photometric observations made with HAWK-I on the ESO VLT/UT4 (Prog. ID 084.C-0532), EulerCam on the Euler-Swiss telescope and the Belgian TRAPPIST telescope, as well as archive data from the Faulkes South Telescope, CORALIE on the Euler-Swiss telescope, HARPS on the ESO 3.6 m telescope (Prog. ID 084-C-0185), and HAWK-I (Prog. ID 083.C-0377(A)).The photometric time series data in this work are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/552/A2

  14. PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS FOR QUASARS IN MULTI-BAND SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Brescia, M.; Mercurio, A. [INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte, via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Cavuoti, S.; Longo, G. [Department of Physics, University Federico II, via Cinthia 6, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); D'Abrusco, R., E-mail: brescia@oacn.inaf.it [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The Multi Layer Perceptron with Quasi Newton Algorithm (MLPQNA) is a machine learning method that can be used to cope with regression and classification problems on complex and massive data sets. In this paper, we give a formal description of the method and present the results of its application to the evaluation of photometric redshifts for quasars. The data set used for the experiment was obtained by merging four different surveys (Sloan Digital Sky Survey, GALEX, UKIDSS, and WISE), thus covering a wide range of wavelengths from the UV to the mid-infrared. The method is able (1) to achieve a very high accuracy, (2) to drastically reduce the number of outliers and catastrophic objects, and (3) to discriminate among parameters (or features) on the basis of their significance, so that the number of features used for training and analysis can be optimized in order to reduce both the computational demands and the effects of degeneracy. The best experiment, which makes use of a selected combination of parameters drawn from the four surveys, leads, in terms of {Delta}z{sub norm} (i.e., (z{sub spec} - z{sub phot})/(1 + z{sub spec})), to an average of {Delta}z{sub norm} = 0.004, a standard deviation of {sigma} = 0.069, and a median absolute deviation, MAD = 0.02, over the whole redshift range (i.e., z{sub spec} {<=} 3.6), defined by the four-survey cross-matched spectroscopic sample. The fraction of catastrophic outliers, i.e., of objects with photo-z deviating more than 2{sigma} from the spectroscopic value, is <3%, leading to {sigma} = 0.035 after their removal, over the same redshift range. The method is made available to the community through the DAMEWARE Web application.

  15. A photometric search for transients in galaxy clusters

    E-print Network

    D. J. Sand; D. Zaritsky; S. Herbert-Fort; S. Sivanandam; D. Clowe

    2008-02-21

    We have begun a program to search for supernovae and other transients in the fields of galaxy clusters with the 2.3m Bok Telescope on Kitt Peak. We present our automated photometric methods for data reduction, efficiency characterization, and initial spectroscopy. With this program, we aim to ultimately identify $\\sim$25-35 cluster SN Ia ($\\sim$10 of which will be intracluster, hostless events) and constrain the SN Ia rate associated with old, passive stellar populations. With these measurements we will constrain the relative contribution of hostless and hosted SN Ia to the metal enrichment of the intracluster medium. In the current work, we have identified a central excess of transient events within $1.25 r_{200}$ in our cluster fields after statistically subtracting out the 'background' transient rate taken from an off-cluster CCD chip. Based on the published rate of SN Ia for cluster populations we estimate that $\\sim$20 percent of the excess cluster transients are due to cluster SN Ia, a comparable fraction to core collapse (CC) supernovae and the remaining are likely to be active galactic nuclei. Interestingly, we have identified three intracluster SN candidates, all of which lay beyond $R>r_{200}$. These events, if truly associated with the cluster, indicate a large deficit of intracluster (IC) SN at smaller radii, and may be associated with the IC stars of infalling groups or indicate that the intracluster light (ICL) in the cluster outskirts is actively forming stars which contribute CC SN or prompt SN Ia.

  16. Photometric Study Of 28978 Ixion At Small Phase Angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousselot, Philippe; Petit, J.

    2010-10-01

    Discovered in 2001, the Kuiper Belt Object 28978 Ixion belongs to the dynamical class of Plutinos. Because of its brightness (R magnitude about 19.5) it has been extensively studied, its diameter and albedo being estimated by Spitzer to be about 570 km and 15% (Stansberry et al., 2008). Absorption feature of cristalline water ice has been detected (Merlin et al., 2010) and negative linear polarisation has been measured (Boehnhardt et al., 2004). So far no lightcurve nor phase curve at very small phase angle has been published, the only information being that the lightcurve amplitude was inferior to 0.15 magnitude (Ortiz et al., 2003). We present new photometric observations obtained with the 3.5-m telescope NTT at the European Southern Observatory with broad band filters (B, V, R and I). These observations permit to derive a rotation period of 15.9+/-0.5 hr (if a single-peaked lightcurve is assumed) with a peak to peak amplitude of 0.06+/-0.03 magnitude. The phase curve does not reveal any bright opposition surge even for very small phase angle (?=0.02 deg). When our data are combined with the one of Boehnhardt et al. (up to ?=1.34 deg) a linear fit provides a slope of 0.201+/-0.014 mag/deg. References : Boehnhardt H., Bagnulo S., Muinonen K. et al., 2004, A&A 415, L21-L25 Merlin F., Barucci M.A., de Bergh C. et al., 2010, Icarus 208, 945-954 Ortiz J.L., Gutiérrez P.J., Casanova V., Sota A., 2003, A&A 407, 1149-1155 Stansberry J., Grundy W., Brown M. et al., 2008, The Solar System Beyond Neptune, Univ. of Arizona Press, pp161-179

  17. A Photometric Method for Discovering Extremely Metal Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Adam

    2015-01-01

    I present a new non-parametric machine-learning method for predicting stellar metallicity ([Fe/H]) based on photometric colors from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The method is trained using a large sample of ~150k stars with SDSS spectra and atmospheric parameter estimates (Teff, log g, and [Fe/H]) from the SEGUE Stellar Parameters Pipeline (SSPP). For bright stars (g < 18 mag) with 4500 K < Teff < 7000 K and log g > 2, corresponding to the stars for which the SSPP estimates are most reliable, the method is capable of predicting [Fe/H] with a typical scatter of ~0.16 dex. This scatter is smaller than the typical uncertainty associated with [Fe/H] measurements from a low-resolution spectrum. The method is suitable for the discovery of extremely metal poor (EMP) stars ([Fe/H] < -3), as high purity (P > 50%), but low efficiency (E ~ 10%), samples of EMP star candidates can be generated from the sources with the lowest predicted [Fe/H]. To improve the efficiency of EMP star discovery, an alternative machine-learning model is constructed where the number of non-EMP stars is down-sampled in the training set, and a new regression model is fit. This alternate model improves the efficiency of EMP candidate selection by a factor of ~2. To test the efficacy of the model, I have obtained low-resolution spectra of 56 candidate EMP stars. I measure [Fe/H] for these stars using the well calibrated Ca II K line method, and compare our spectroscopic measurements to those from the machine learning model. Once applied to wide-field surveys, such as SDSS, Pan-STARRS, and LSST, the model will identify thousands of previously unknown EMP stars.

  18. Predicting the Yields of Photometric Surveys for Transiting Extrasolar Planets

    E-print Network

    Thomas G. Beatty; B. Scott Gaudi

    2008-06-27

    We develop a method for predicting the yield of transiting planets from a photometric survey given the parameters of the survey (nights observed, bandpass, exposure time, telescope aperture, locations of the target fields, observational conditions, and detector characteristics), as well as the underlying planet properties (frequency, period and radius distributions). Using our updated understanding of transit surveys provided by the experiences of the survey teams, we account for those factors that have proven to have the greatest effect on the survey yields. Specifically, we include the effects of the surveys' window functions, adopt revised estimates of the giant planet frequency, account for the number and distribution of main-sequence stars in the survey fields, and include the effects of Galactic structure and interstellar extinction. We approximate the detectability of a planetary transit using a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) formulation. We argue that our choice of detection criterion is the most uncertain input to our predictions, and has the largest effect on the resulting planet yield. Thus drawing robust inferences about the frequency of planets from transit surveys will require that the survey teams impose and report objective, systematic, and quantifiable detection criteria. Nevertheless, with reasonable choices for the minimum S/N, we calculate yields that are generally lower, more accurate, and more realistic than previous predictions. As examples, we apply our method to the Trans-Atlantic Exoplanet Survey, the XO survey, and the {\\it Kepler} mission. We discuss red noise and its possible effects on planetary detections. We conclude with estimates of the expected detection rates for future wide-angle synoptic surveys.

  19. Teaching Physician Guidelines for Surgical Procedures Minor Surgical Procedures

    E-print Network

    Goldman, Steven A.

    Teaching Physician Guidelines for Surgical Procedures Minor Surgical Procedures: § Procedures, the teaching physician must be present for the entire procedure § Teaching physician or resident may document the teaching physician's presence for the entire procedure High Risk and Complex Surgical Procedures

  20. Randomized Clinical Trial of an Intravenous Hydromorphone Titration Protocol versus Usual Care for Management of Acute Pain in Older Emergency Department Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Andrew K.; Bijur, Polly E.; Davitt, Michelle; Gallagher, E. John

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Opioid titration is an effective strategy for treating pain. However, titration is generally impractical in the busy emergency department (ED) setting. Our objective was to test a rapid, 2-step, hydromorphone titration protocol against usual care in older patients presenting to the ED with acute severe pain. Methods This was a prospective, randomized clinical trial of patients 65 years of age and older presenting to an adult, urban, academic ED with acute severe pain. The study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01429285). Patients randomized to the hydromorphone titration protocol initially received 0.5 mg intravenous (IV) hydromorphone. Patients randomized to usual care received any dose of any IV opioid. At 15 minutes, patients in both groups were asked, “Do you want more pain medication?” Patients in the hydromorphone titration group who answered “yes” received a second dose of 0.5 mg IV hydromorphone. Patients in the usual care group who answered “yes” had their treating attending notified, who then could administer any (or no) additional medication. The primary efficacy outcome was satisfactory analgesia defined a priori as the patient declining additional analgesia at least once when asked at 15 or 60 minutes after administration of initial opioid. Dose was calculated in morphine equivalent units (MEU: 1 mg hydromorphone = 7 mg morphine). Need for naloxone to reverse adverse opioid effects was the primary safety outcome. Results 83.0% of 153 patients in hydromorphone titration group achieved satisfactory analgesia compared to 82.5% of 166 patients in the usual care group (p=0.91). Patients in the hydromorphone titration group received lower mean initial doses of opioids at baseline than patients in UC (3.5 MEU vs. 4.7 MEU respectively, p=<0.001) and lower total opioids through 60 minutes (5.3 MEU vs. 6.0 MEU, p=0.03). No patient needed naloxone. Conclusions Low-dose titration of IV hydromorphone in increments of 0.5 mg provides comparable analgesia to usual care with less opioid over 60 minutes. PMID:23846749

  1. Cetylpyridinium tetrachlorozincate as standard for tenside titration. Analytical methods with 1,3-dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DBH) in respect to environmental and economical concern, part 19.

    PubMed

    Hilp, M; Zembatova, S

    2004-08-01

    The determination of the cationic active disinfectants benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, cetrimide, and cetylpyridinium chloride according to PH. EUR. 2002 resp. supplement 4.3/2003 can be improved using the DBH-method. By application of column extraction the iodide determination can be performed in the organic layer by visual indication. However, titration in aqueous solution with sodium dodecyl sulphate as titrant and methyl orange resp. bromophenol blue as indicator can be performed more simple. Cetylpyridinium tetrachlorozincate is recommended as a standard for tenside titration. PMID:15378850

  2. Reduction procedures for accurate analysis of MSX surveillance experiment data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaposchkin, E. Mike; Lane, Mark T.; Abbot, Rick I.

    1994-01-01

    Technical challenges of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) science instruments require careful characterization and calibration of these sensors for analysis of surveillance experiment data. Procedures for reduction of Resident Space Object (RSO) detections will be presented which include refinement and calibration of the metric and radiometric (and photometric) data and calculation of a precise MSX ephemeris. Examples will be given which support the reduction, and these are taken from ground-test data similar in characteristics to the MSX sensors and from the IRAS satellite RSO detections. Examples to demonstrate the calculation of a precise ephemeris will be provided from satellites in similar orbits which are equipped with S-band transponders.

  3. TPZ: photometric redshift PDFs and ancillary information by using prediction trees and random forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco Kind, Matias; Brunner, Robert J.

    2013-06-01

    With the growth of large photometric surveys, accurately estimating photometric redshifts, preferably as a probability density function (PDF), and fully understanding the implicit systematic uncertainties in this process, has become increasingly important. In this paper, we present a new, publicly available, parallel, machine learning algorithm that generates photometric redshift PDFs by using prediction trees and random forest techniques, which we have named TPZ.1 This new algorithm incorporates measurement errors into the calculation while also dealing efficiently with missing values in the data. In addition, our implementation of this algorithm provides supplementary information regarding the data being analysed, including unbiased estimates of the accuracy of the technique without resorting to a validation data set, identification of poor photometric redshift areas within the parameter space occupied by the spectroscopic training data, a quantification of the relative importance of the variables used to construct the PDF, and a robust identification of outliers. This extra information can be used to optimally target new spectroscopic observations and to improve the overall efficacy of the redshift estimation. We have tested TPZ on galaxy samples drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) main galaxy sample and from the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe-2 (DEEP2) survey, obtaining excellent results in each case. We also have tested our implementation by participating in the PHAT1 project, which is a blind photometric redshift contest, finding that TPZ performs comparable to if not better than other empirical photometric redshift algorithms. Finally, we discuss the various parameters that control the operation of TPZ, the specific limitations of this approach and an application of photometric redshift PDFs.

  4. Io: Comparison of photometric scans produced by the Minnaert and Hapke functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonelli, Damon P.; Veverka, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    Experience has shown that the empirical Minnaert function is a very useful approximation to real photometric behavior near opposition (phase angle = 0), but that in general it cannot accurately model photometric scans across the face of even a homogeneous planet at higher phase angles. Given recent work on fitting the rigorous Hapke function to Voyager data for Io, we can test to what degree the Minnaert function breaks down in the case of Ionian materials by comparing photometric scans produced by the two approaches. At phase angles 2, 20, 30, 60, and 90 deg, we have computed scans of the reflectance along the photometric equator and mirror meridian that would be expected for a homogeneous planet whose surface obeys Hapke's law. The values used for the Hapke parameters omega(0), h, g, and bar-theta were derived for Io by Simonelli and Veverka in both the Voyager narrow angle camera violet filter and orange filter. Each calculated Hapke scan is compared with the corresponding scan predicted by Minnaert's law for various values of the Minnaert limb-darkening parameter k. For a Minnaert scan at a particular k, the value of the reflectance parameter B(0) is arbitrarily chosen so that the Minnaert and Hapke scans coincide at the so-called specular point (the point where the photometric equator and mirror meridian intersect). The violet filter photometric scans that result from this process are shown. Results indicate that the empirical Minnaert function, while not a perfect model of real photometric behavior, does provide a very useful parameterization of limb darkening at phase angles out to 90 deg, and is especially useful near opposition.

  5. A DETAILED STUDY OF PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS FOR GOODS-SOUTH GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlen, Tomas; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Mobasher, Bahram [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Dickinson, Mark [NOAO, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Giavalisco, Mauro; Guo, Yicheng; Salimbeni, Sara [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Lee, Kyoung-Soo [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Departments of Physics and Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Lee, Seong-Kook; Riess, Adam G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Nonino, Mario, E-mail: dahlen@stsci.ed [INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy)

    2010-11-20

    We use the deepest and the most comprehensive photometric data currently available for GOODS-South (GOODS-S) galaxies to measure their photometric redshifts. The photometry includes VLT/VIMOS (U band), HST/ACS (F435W, F606W, F775W, and F850LP bands), VLT/ISAAC (J, H, and K{sub s} bands), and four Spitzer/IRAC channels (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 {mu}m). The catalog is selected in the z band (F850LP) and photometry in each band is carried out using the recently completed TFIT algorithm, which performs point-spread function (PSF) matched photometry uniformly across different instruments and filters, despite large variations in PSFs and pixel scales. Photometric redshifts are derived using the GOODZ code, which is based on the template fitting method using priors. The code also implements 'training' of the template spectral energy distribution (SED) set, using available spectroscopic redshifts in order to minimize systematic differences between the templates and the SEDs of the observed galaxies. Our final catalog covers an area of 153 arcmin{sup 2} and includes photometric redshifts for a total of 32,505 objects. The scatter between our estimated photometric and spectroscopic redshifts is {sigma} = 0.040 with 3.7% outliers to the full z-band depth of our catalog, decreasing to {sigma} = 0.039 and 2.1% outliers at a magnitude limit m{sub z} < 24.5. This is consistent with the best results previously published for GOODS-S galaxies, however, the present catalog is the deepest yet available and provides photometric redshifts for significantly more objects to deeper flux limits and higher redshifts than earlier works. Furthermore, we show that the photometric redshifts estimated here for galaxies selected as dropouts are consistent with those expected based on the Lyman break technique.

  6. Photometric redshifts in the Hubble Deep Fields: evolution of extinction and the star-formation rate

    E-print Network

    Michael Rowan-Robinson

    2003-07-30

    Photometric redshifts are studied with a template approach using data from HDF-N and -S . The problem of aliasing in photometric redshift estimates is investigated in some detail and found not to be a significant problem if at least four photometric bands are available. The performance of the approach presented here appears to exceed that of others in the literature. With reasonable restrictions, it is possible to determine the dust extinction as well as the photometric redshift, provided five or more photometric bands are available. An important result is that evolution of with redshift is seen, with higher values than locally at z = 0.5-1.5, and lower values at z > 2. This is consistent with current models for the star formation history of the universe. Deconvolving the uv-to-ir seds into an old star and young star component allows determination of M_* and \\dot{M}_* for each galaxy, as well as z_{phot} and A_V, provided that infrared photometric bands are available. The expected trend of b = M_*/\\dot{M}_* t_0 increasing to the past is seen. However there is a great deal of scatter in the relation between b and sed type, showing that the recent star-formation history is not very well correlated with the long-term history of a galaxy. The 2800 A luminosity function and star-formation rate are calculated for a large sample of HDF-N (2490) and HDF-S (28719) galaxies, using photometric redshifts, for the redshift range 0.2-5. The star-formation rates agree reasonably well with those from a variety of other uv, $H_{\\alpha}$, infrared and submillimetre estimates, and with star-formation histories used to model optical, infrared and submillimetre source-counts.

  7. Analysis of the Galvanostatic Intermittent Titration Technique (GITT) as applied to a lithium-Ion porous electrode.

    SciTech Connect

    Dees, D. W.; Kawauchi, S.; Abraham, D. P.; Prakash, J.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Toyota Central R& D Labs Inc.; Illinois Inst. of Tech.

    2009-04-01

    Galvanostatic Intermittent Titration Technique (GITT) experiments were conducted to determine the lithium diffusion coefficient of LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2}, used as the active material in a lithium-ion battery porous composite positive electrode. An electrochemical model, based on concentrated solution porous electrode theory, was developed to analyze the GITT experimental results and compare to the original GITT analytical theory. The GITT experimental studies on the oxide active material were conducted between 3.5 and 4.5 V vs. lithium, with the maximum lithium diffusion coefficient value being 10{sup -10} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} at 3.85 V. The lithium diffusion coefficient values obtained from this study agree favorably with the values obtained from an earlier electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study.

  8. Protein sequences and redox titrations indicate that the electron acceptors in reaction centers from heliobacteria are similar to Photosystem I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trost, J. T.; Brune, D. C.; Blankenship, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Photosynthetic reaction centers isolated from Heliobacillus mobilis exhibit a single major protein on SDS-PAGE of 47 000 Mr. Attempts to sequence the reaction center polypeptide indicated that the N-terminus is blocked. After enzymatic and chemical cleavage, four peptide fragments were sequenced from the Heliobacillus mobilis apoprotein. Only one of these sequences showed significant specific similarity to any of the protein and deduced protein sequences in the GenBank data base. This fragment is identical with 56% of the residues, including both cysteines, found in highly conserved region that is proposed to bind iron-sulfur center Fx in the Photosystem I reaction center peptide that is the psaB gene product. The similarity to the psaA gene product in this region is 48%. Redox titrations of laser-flash-induced photobleaching with millisecond decay kinetics on isolated reaction centers from Heliobacterium gestii indicate a midpoint potential of -414 mV with n = 2 titration behavior. In membranes, the behavior is intermediate between n = 1 and n = 2, and the apparent midpoint potential is -444 mV. This is compared to the behavior in Photosystem I, where the intermediate electron acceptor A1, thought to be a phylloquinone molecule, has been proposed to undergo a double reduction at low redox potentials in the presence of viologen redox mediators. These results strongly suggest that the acceptor side electron transfer system in reaction centers from heliobacteria is indeed analogous to that found in Photosystem I. The sequence similarities indicate that the divergence of the heliobacteria from the Photosystem I line occurred before the gene duplication and subsequent divergence that lead to the heterodimeric protein core of the Photosystem I reaction center.

  9. Galaxy cluster searches based on photometric redshifts in the four CFHTLS Wide fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durret, F.; Adami, C.; Cappi, A.; Maurogordato, S.; Márquez, I.; Ilbert, O.; Coupon, J.; Arnouts, S.; Benoist, C.; Blaizot, J.; Edorh, T. M.; Garilli, B.; Guennou, L.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Mazure, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Mellier, Y.; Mezrag, C.; Slezak, E.; Tresse, L.; Ulmer, M. P.

    2011-11-01

    Context. Cosmological parameters can be constrained by counting clusters of galaxies as a function of mass and redshift and by considering regions of the sky sampled as deeply and as homogeneously as possible. Aims: Several methods for detecting clusters in large imaging surveys have been developed, among which the one used here, which is based on detecting structures. This method was first applied to the Canada France Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) Deep 1 field by Mazure et al. (2007, A&A, 467, 49), then to all the Deep and Wide CFHTLS fields available in the T0004 data release by Adami et al. (2010, A&A, 509, A81). The validity of the cluster detection rate was estimated by applying the same procedure to galaxies from the Millennium simulation. Here we use the same method to analyse the full CFHTLS Wide survey, based on the T0006 data release. Methods: Our method is based on the photometric redshifts computed with Le Phare for all the galaxies detected in the Wide fields, limited to magnitudes z' ? 22.5. We constructed galaxy density maps in photometric redshift bins of 0.1 based on an adaptive kernel technique, detected structures with SExtractor at various detection levels, and built cluster catalogues by applying a minimal spanning tree algorithm. Results: In a total area of 154 deg2, we have detected 4061 candidate clusters at 3? or above (6802 at 2? and above), in the redshift range 0.1 ? z ? 1.15, with estimated mean masses between 1.3 × 1014 and 12.6 × 1014 M?. This catalogue of candidate clusters will be available at the CDS. We compare our detections with those made in various CFHTLS analyses with other methods. By stacking a subsample of clusters, we show that this subsample has typical cluster characteristics (colour - magnitude relation, galaxy luminosity function). We also confirm that the cluster-cluster correlation function is comparable to the one obtained for other cluster surveys and analyse large-scale filamentary galaxy distributions. Conclusions: We have increased the number of known optical high-redshift cluster candidates by a large factor, an important step towards obtaining reliable cluster counts to measure cosmological parameters. The clusters that we detect behave as expected if they are located at the intersection of filaments by which they are fed. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the CFHT Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of the NRC and CNRS.The catalog of candidate clusters is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/535/A65

  10. Photometric Observations of 6000 Stars in the Cygnus Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, W.; Caldwell, D.; Koch, D.; Jenkins, J.; Ninkov, Z.

    1999-01-01

    A small photometer to detect transits by extrasolar planets has been assembled and is being tested at Lick Observatory on Mt. Hamilton, California. The Vulcan photometer is constructed from a 30 cm focal length, F/2.5 AeroEktar reconnaissance lens and Photometrics PXL16800 CCD camera. A spectral filter is used to confine the pass band from 480 to 763 mn. It simultaneously monitors 6000 stars brighter than 12th magnitude within a single star field in the galactic plane. When the data are folded and phased to discover low amplitude transits, the relative precision of one-hour samples is about 1 part per thousand (10 x l0(exp -3)) for many of the brighter stars. This precision is sufficient to find jovian-size planets orbiting solar-like stars, which have signal amplitudes from 5 to 30 x l0(exp -3) depending on the inflation of the planet and the size of the star. Based on the frequency of giant inner-planets discovered by Doppler-velocity method, one or two planets should be detectable in a rich star field. The goal of the observations is to obtain the sizes of giant extrasolar planets in short-period orbits and to combine these with masses determined from Doppler velocity measurements to determine the densities of these planets. A further goal is to compare the measured planetary diameters with those predicted from theoretical models. From August 10 through September 30 of 1998, a forty nine square degree field in the Cygnus constellation centered at RA and DEC of 19 hr 47 min, +36 deg 55 min was observed. Useful data were obtained on twenty-nine nights. Nearly fifty stars showed some evidence of transits with periods between 0.3 and 8 days. Most had amplitudes too large to be associated with planetary transits. However, several stars showed low amplitude transits. The data for several transits of each of these two stars have been folded and been folded into 30 minute periods. Only Cygl433 shows any evidence of a flattened bottom that is expected when a small object transits a much larger primary. However when high-resolution spectra were obtained for both stars, the stars were found to be double-lined binaries so similar in size as to have indistinguishable transit depths. The low amplitude of the transits is explained if the stellar orbital planes are tipped approximately 5 degrees from the line of sight causing both binaries to show grazing transits. The two absorption lines, due to the H(sub beta) feature in each star, are apparent and indicate the presence of a binary system with similar components.

  11. SOMz: photometric redshift PDFs with self-organizing maps and random atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco Kind, Matias; Brunner, Robert J.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we explore the applicability of the unsupervised machine learning technique of self-organizing maps (SOM) to estimate galaxy photometric redshift probability density functions (PDFs). This technique takes a spectroscopic training set, and maps the photometric attributes, but not the redshifts, to a two-dimensional surface by using a process of competitive learning where neurons compete to more closely resemble the training data multidimensional space. The key feature of a SOM is that it retains the topology of the input set, revealing correlations between the attributes that are not easily identified. We test three different 2D topological mapping: rectangular, hexagonal and spherical, by using data from the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe 2 survey. We also explore different implementations and boundary conditions on the map and also introduce the idea of a random atlas, where a large number of different maps are created and their individual predictions are aggregated to produce a more robust photometric redshift PDF. We also introduced a new metric, the I-score, which efficiently incorporates different metrics, making it easier to compare different results (from different parameters or different photometric redshift codes). We find that by using a spherical topology mapping we obtain a better representation of the underlying multidimensional topology, which provides more accurate results that are comparable to other, state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms. Our results illustrate that unsupervised approaches have great potential for many astronomical problems, and in particular for the computation of photometric redshifts.

  12. The Effect of Dust on Photometric Redshift Measurement; A Self-consistent Technique

    E-print Network

    Bahram Mobasher; Paola Mazzei

    2000-08-01

    A new method is developed for estimating photometric redshifts to galaxies, using realistic template SEDs, extending over four decades in wavelength (i.e. from 0.05 micron to 1 mm). The template SEDs are constructed for four different spectral types of galaxies (elliptical, spiral, irregular and starburst), satisfying the following characteristics: a). they are normalised to produce the observed colours of galaxies at z ~ 0; b). incorporate the chemo-photometric spectral evolution of galaxies of different types, in agreement with the observations; c). allow treatment of dust contribution and its evolution with redshift, consistent with the spectral evolution model; d). include absorption and re-emission of radiation by dust and hence, realistic estimates of the far-infrared radiation; e). include correction for inter-galactic absorption by Lyman continuum and Lyman forest. Using these template SEDs, the photometric redshifts are estimated to an accuracy of ~ 0.11. The effect on the estimated photometric redshifts, due to assumptions in the evolutionary population synthesis models, are investigated and discussed. The simultaneous and self-consistent modelling of both the photometric and chemical evolution of galaxies and the effect of dust, makes this technique particularly useful for high redshift galaxies. Moreover, since the template SEDs (at different redshifts) cover the range from UV to far-infrared and sub-mm wavelengths, one could consistently use the optimised SEDs to estimate the contribution from individual galaxies to these wavelengths, where no observational data are available.

  13. Quantitative titration of nucleic acids by enzymatic amplification reactions run to saturation.

    PubMed Central

    Pannetier, C; Delassus, S; Darche, S; Saucier, C; Kourilsky, P

    1993-01-01

    In vitro enzymatic amplification of nucleic acids by PCR or other techniques is a very sensitive method to detect rare DNA segments. We present here a protocol that allows the rapid, sensitive and precise quantification of DNA molecules using PCR amplification run to saturation. The DNA (or cDNA) to be assayed is co-amplified with known amounts of an internal standard DNA. We show that the latter must be almost identical to the assayed DNA, otherwise quantification at the plateau is unreliable. The read-out of the amplification involves one or two additional oligonucleotides. Using fluorescent oligonucleotides as primers in run-off reactions together with an automated DNA sequencer, we could measure the level of expression of several genes, like the murine MHC class I H-2Kd or a specific T cell receptor beta chain transcript in the course of an immunization. mRNA levels were normalized by measuring in a similar manner the number of transcripts encoding the housekeeping gene HPRT. Finally, our procedure might allow the rapid analysis of a large number of samples at the same time, as illustrated by the simultaneous analysis of the mRNAs encoding the CD4 and CD8 murine T cell markers. PMID:8441670

  14. Quantitative titration of nucleic acids by enzymatic amplification reactions run to saturation.

    PubMed

    Pannetier, C; Delassus, S; Darche, S; Saucier, C; Kourilsky, P

    1993-02-11

    In vitro enzymatic amplification of nucleic acids by PCR or other techniques is a very sensitive method to detect rare DNA segments. We present here a protocol that allows the rapid, sensitive and precise quantification of DNA molecules using PCR amplification run to saturation. The DNA (or cDNA) to be assayed is co-amplified with known amounts of an internal standard DNA. We show that the latter must be almost identical to the assayed DNA, otherwise quantification at the plateau is unreliable. The read-out of the amplification involves one or two additional oligonucleotides. Using fluorescent oligonucleotides as primers in run-off reactions together with an automated DNA sequencer, we could measure the level of expression of several genes, like the murine MHC class I H-2Kd or a specific T cell receptor beta chain transcript in the course of an immunization. mRNA levels were normalized by measuring in a similar manner the number of transcripts encoding the housekeeping gene HPRT. Finally, our procedure might allow the rapid analysis of a large number of samples at the same time, as illustrated by the simultaneous analysis of the mRNAs encoding the CD4 and CD8 murine T cell markers. PMID:8441670

  15. Titration of vasodilator therapy in chronic heart failure according to plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentration: Randomized comparison of the hemodynamic and neuroendocrine effects of tailored versus empirical therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Murdoch; Theresa A. McDonagh; John Byrne; Lynda Blue; Rosemary Farmer; James J. Morton; Henry J. Dargie

    1999-01-01

    Background Most patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) receive the same dose of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors because there is currently no measure of treatment efficacy. We sought to determine whether titration of vasodilator therapy according to plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentration may be of value in the individual optimization of vasodilator therapy in CHF. Methods and Results Twenty

  16. Titration of poly(dA-dT) . poly(dA-dT) in solution at variable NaCl concentration.

    PubMed

    Airoldi, Marta; Boicelli, C Andrea; Cadoni, Fabio; Gennaro, Giuseppe; Giomini, Marcello; Giuliani, Anna M; Giustini, Mauro

    2004-10-01

    CD and uv absorption data showed that high molecular weight poly(dA-dT) . poly(dA-dT), at 298 K, undergoes an acid-induced transition from B-double helix to random coil in NaCl solutions of different concentrations, ranging from 0.005 to 0.600M. Similarly, titration of the polynucleotide with a strong base causes duplex-to-single strands transition. The base- and acid-induced transitions were both reversible by back-titration (with an acid or, respectively, with a base): the apparent pKa were the same in both directions. However, the number of protons per titratable site (adenine N1) required to reach half-denaturation was in great excess over the stoichiometric value; to a much larger extent, the same effect was observed also for the deprotonation of the N3H sites of thymine. Moreover, in the basic denaturation experiments, at low salt concentrations ([NaCl]< or =0.300M) less acid than calculated was needed to back-titrate the base excess to half-denaturation. Both effects could be qualitatively justified on the basis of the counterion condensation theory of polyelectrolytes and considering the energy barrier created by the negatively charged phosphodiester groups to the penetration of the OH- ions inside the double helix and the screening effect of the Na+ ions on such charges, in the deprotonation experiments. PMID:15356866

  17. A comparison of the use of BrimA versus soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio as a maturity standard for navel oranges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maturity and time of harvest for California navel oranges is primarily determined by the ratio of the soluble solids concentration (SSC) to titratable acidity (TA). This standard has been used in the industry for decades but its usefulness and relationship to flavor have often been questioned. In re...

  18. High-precision reflectivity measurements: improvements in the calibration procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jupe, Marco; Grossmann, Florian; Starke, Kai; Ristau, Detlev

    2003-05-01

    The development of high quality optical components is heavily depending on precise characterization procedures. The reflectance and transmittance of laser components are the most important parameters for advanced laser applications. In the industrial fabrication of optical coatings, quality management is generally insured by spectral photometric methods according to ISO/DIS 15386 on a medium level of accuracy. Especially for high reflecting mirrors, a severe discrepancy in the determination of the absolute reflectivity can be found for spectral photometric procedures. In the first part of the CHOCLAB project, a method for measuring reflectance and transmittance with an enhanced precision was developed, which is described in ISO/WD 13697. In the second part of the CHOCLAB project, the evaluation and optimization for the presented method is scheduled. Within this framework international Round-Robin experiment is currently in progress. During this Round-Robin experiment, distinct deviations could be observed between the results of high precision measurement facilities of different partners. Based on the extended experiments, the inhomogeneity of the sample reflectivity was identified as one important origin for the deviation. Consequently, this inhomogeneity is also influencing the calibration procedure. Therefore, a method was developed that allows the calibration of the chopper blade using always the same position on the reference mirror. During the investigations, the homogeneity of several samples was characterized by a surface mapping procedure for 1064 nm. The measurement facility was extended to the additional wavelength 532 nm and a similar set-up was assembled at 10.6 ?m. The high precision reflectivity procedure at the mentioned wavelengths is demonstrated for exemplary measurements.

  19. Computerized procedures system

    DOEpatents

    Lipner, Melvin H. (Monroeville, PA); Mundy, Roger A. (North Huntingdon, PA); Franusich, Michael D. (Upper St. Clair, PA)

    2010-10-12

    An online data driven computerized procedures system that guides an operator through a complex process facility's operating procedures. The system monitors plant data, processes the data and then, based upon this processing, presents the status of the current procedure step and/or substep to the operator. The system supports multiple users and a single procedure definition supports several interface formats that can be tailored to the individual user. Layered security controls access privileges and revisions are version controlled. The procedures run on a server that is platform independent of the user workstations that the server interfaces with and the user interface supports diverse procedural views.

  20. A uniform set of optical/NIR photometric zero points to be used with CHORIZOS

    E-print Network

    Apell'aniz, J M

    2006-01-01

    I have recently combined HST/STIS spectrophotometry with existing photometric data to analyze the calibration of three standard optical photometry systems: Tycho-2 B_TV_T, Stromgren uvby, and Johnson UBV (Maiz Apellaniz 2005, Maiz Apellaniz 2006). In this contribution I summarize those results and I combine them with recent literature results to generate a uniform set of zero points for six photometric systems, the above mentioned plus Cousins RI, 2MASS JHK_s, and SDSS ugriz. With the exception of the latter system, the zero points use the new Vega spectrum presented at this meeting by Ralph Bohlin. I also discuss the implementation of these results in CHORIZOS, a Bayesian photometric code that compares multi-filter observational data with spectral energy distributions to solve the inverse problem of finding the models which are compatible with the observations.