Communication via the statistics of photon-number squeezed light.
Paramanandam, Joshua; Parker, Michael A
2005-06-17
A method of communication employing the second order statistics of photon-number squeezed light is demonstrated. The technique encodes the information content in both nonstationary noise processes and in the average optical power, thereby creating two orthogonal channels and increasing the transmission capacity. Communication via the fragile quantum state has potential applications for privatized communication. PMID:16090471
Photon-number statistics of twin beams: Self-consistent measurement, reconstruction, and properties
Peřina, Jan Jr.; Haderka, Ondřej; Michálek, Václav
2014-12-04
A method for the determination of photon-number statistics of twin beams using the joint signal-idler photocount statistics obtained by an iCCD camera is described. It also provides absolute quantum detection efficiency of the camera. Using the measured photocount statistics, quasi-distributions of integrated intensities are obtained. They attain negative values occurring in characteristic strips an a consequence of pairing of photons in twin beams.
Maximum-likelihood estimation of photon-number distribution from homodyne statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banaszek, Konrad
1998-06-01
We present a method for reconstructing the photon-number distribution from the homodyne statistics based on maximization of the likelihood function derived from the exact statistical description of a homodyne experiment. This method incorporates in a natural way the physical constraints on the reconstructed quantities, and the compensation for the nonunit detection efficiency.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaidash, A. A.; Egorov, V. I.; Gleim, A. V.
2014-10-01
Quantum cryptography in theory allows distributing secure keys between two users so that any performed eavesdropping attempt would be immediately discovered. However, in practice an eavesdropper can obtain key information from multi-photon states when attenuated laser radiation is used as a source. In order to overcome this possibility, it is generally suggested to implement special cryptographic protocols, like decoy states or SARG04. We present an alternative method based on monitoring photon number statistics after detection. This method can therefore be used with any existing protocol.
Observation of grand-canonical number statistics in a photon Bose-Einstein condensate.
Schmitt, Julian; Damm, Tobias; Dung, David; Vewinger, Frank; Klaers, Jan; Weitz, Martin
2014-01-24
We report measurements of particle number correlations and fluctuations of a photon Bose-Einstein condensate in a dye microcavity using a Hanbury Brown-Twiss experiment. The photon gas is coupled to a reservoir of molecular excitations, which serve as both heat bath and particle reservoir to realize grand-canonical conditions. For large reservoirs, we observe strong number fluctuations of the order of the total particle number extending deep into the condensed phase. Our results demonstrate that Bose-Einstein condensation under grand-canonical ensemble conditions does not imply second-order coherence. PMID:24484122
Photon number statistics uncover the fluctuations in non-equilibrium lattice dynamics
Esposito, Martina; Titimbo, Kelvin; Zimmermann, Klaus; Giusti, Francesca; Randi, Francesco; Boschetto, Davide; Parmigiani, Fulvio; Floreanini, Roberto; Benatti, Fabio; Fausti, Daniele
2015-01-01
Fluctuations of the atomic positions are at the core of a large class of unusual material properties ranging from quantum para-electricity to high temperature superconductivity. Their measurement in solids is the subject of an intense scientific debate focused on seeking a methodology capable of establishing a direct link between the variance of the atomic displacements and experimentally measurable observables. Here we address this issue by means of non-equilibrium optical experiments performed in shot-noise-limited regime. The variance of the time-dependent atomic positions and momenta is directly mapped into the quantum fluctuations of the photon number of the scattered probing light. A fully quantum description of the non-linear interaction between photonic and phononic fields is benchmarked by unveiling the squeezing of thermal phonons in α-quartz. PMID:26690958
van Dam, Herman T; Seifert, Stefan; Schaart, Dennis R
2012-08-01
In the design and application of scintillation detectors based on silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), e.g. in positron emission tomography imaging, it is important to understand and quantify the non-proportionality of the SiPM response due to saturation, crosstalk and dark counts. A new type of SiPM, the so-called digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM), has recently been introduced. Here, we develop a model of the probability distribution of the number of fired microcells, i.e. the number of counted scintillation photons, in response to a given amount of energy deposited in a scintillator optically coupled to a dSiPM. Based on physical and functional principles, the model elucidates the statistical behavior of dSiPMs. The model takes into account the photon detection efficiency of the detector; the light yield, excess variance and time profile of the scintillator; and the crosstalk probability, dark count rate, integration time and the number of microcells of the dSiPM. Furthermore, relations for the expectation value and the variance of the number of fired cells are deduced. These relations are applied in the experimental validation of the model using a dSiPM coupled to a LSO:Ce,Ca scintillator. Finally, we propose an accurate method for the correction of energy spectra measured with dSiPM-based scintillation detectors. PMID:22796633
Starkov, V. N.; Semenov, A. A.; Gomonay, H. V.
2009-07-15
We demonstrate a practical possibility of loss compensation in measured photocounting statistics in the presence of dark counts and background radiation noise. It is shown that satisfactory results are obtained even in the case of low detection efficiency and large experimental errors.
Speckle statistics of entangled photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, Avraham; Agam, Oded; Spivak, Boris
2016-07-01
We consider the propagation of several entangled photons through an elastically scattering medium and study statistical properties of their speckle patterns. We find the spatial correlations of multiphoton speckles and their sensitivity to changes of system parameters. Our analysis covers both the directed-wave regime, where rays propagate almost ballistically while experiencing small-angle diffusion, and the real-space diffusive regime. We demonstrate that long-range correlations of the speckle patterns dominate experimental signatures for large-aperture photon detectors. We also show that speckle sensitivity depends strongly on the number of photons N in the incoming beam, increasing as √{N } in the directed-wave regime and as N in the diffusive regime.
Photon statistics in scintillation crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bora, Vaibhav Joga Singh
Scintillation based gamma-ray detectors are widely used in medical imaging, high-energy physics, astronomy and national security. Scintillation gamma-ray detectors are eld-tested, relatively inexpensive, and have good detection eciency. Semi-conductor detectors are gaining popularity because of their superior capability to resolve gamma-ray energies. However, they are relatively hard to manufacture and therefore, at this time, not available in as large formats and much more expensive than scintillation gamma-ray detectors. Scintillation gamma-ray detectors consist of: a scintillator, a material that emits optical (scintillation) photons when it interacts with ionization radiation, and an optical detector that detects the emitted scintillation photons and converts them into an electrical signal. Compared to semiconductor gamma-ray detectors, scintillation gamma-ray detectors have relatively poor capability to resolve gamma-ray energies. This is in large part attributed to the "statistical limit" on the number of scintillation photons. The origin of this statistical limit is the assumption that scintillation photons are either Poisson distributed or super-Poisson distributed. This statistical limit is often dened by the Fano factor. The Fano factor of an integer-valued random process is dened as the ratio of its variance to its mean. Therefore, a Poisson process has a Fano factor of one. The classical theory of light limits the Fano factor of the number of photons to a value greater than or equal to one (Poisson case). However, the quantum theory of light allows for Fano factors to be less than one. We used two methods to look at the correlations between two detectors looking at same scintillation pulse to estimate the Fano factor of the scintillation photons. The relationship between the Fano factor and the correlation between the integral of the two signals detected was analytically derived, and the Fano factor was estimated using the measurements for SrI2:Eu, YAP
Photon-number-resolved detection of photon-subtracted thermal light.
Zhai, Yanhua; Becerra, Francisco E; Glebov, Boris L; Wen, Jianming; Lita, Adriana E; Calkins, Brice; Gerrits, Thomas; Fan, Jingyun; Nam, Sae Woo; Migdall, Alan
2013-07-01
We examine the photon statistics of photon-subtracted thermal light using photon-number-resolved detection. We demonstrate experimentally that the photon number distribution transforms from a Bose-Einstein distribution to a Poisson distribution as the number of subtracted photons increases. We also show that second- and higher-order photon correlation functions can be directly determined from the photon-number-resolved detection measurements of a single optical beam. PMID:23811867
Statistical bias in material decomposition in low photon statistics region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajbhandary, Paurakh L.; Pelc, Norbert J.
2015-03-01
We show that in material decomposition, statistical bias exists in the low photon regime due to non-linearity including but not limited to the log operation and polychromatic measurements. As new scan methods divide the total number of photons into an increasing number of measurements (e.g., energy bins, projection paths) and as developers seek to reduce radiation dose, the number of photons per measurement will decrease and estimators should be robust against bias at low photon counts. We study bias as a function of total flux and spectral spread, which provides insight when parameters like material thicknesses, number of energy bins, and number of projection views change. We find that the bias increases with lower photon counts, wide spectrum, with more number of energy bins and more projection views. Our simulation, with ideal photon counting detectors, show biases up to 2.4 % in basis material images. We propose a bias correction method in projection space that uses a multi dimensional look up table. With the correction, the relative bias in CT images is within 0.5 ± 0.17%.
Characterization of photon statistics in a single-photon source via variable attenuation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shengli; Zou, Xubo; Li, Chuanfeng; Jin, Chenhui; Guo, Guangcan
2009-10-01
We propose a simple but effective scheme for characterizing photon-number statistics of a practical single-photon source. In this scheme, the variable attenuation method which frequently appears in decoy state quantum cryptography is utilized here to enhance the estimation of photon-number statistics. A much stricter bound for vacuum and single-photon proportions is obtained and this result, in turn, is shown to be applicable to the unconditional secure quantum cryptographic communication with single-photon devices.
Characterization of photon statistics in a single-photon source via variable attenuation
Zhang Shengli; Zou Xubo; Li Chuanfeng; Guo Guangcan; Jin Chenhui
2009-10-15
We propose a simple but effective scheme for characterizing photon-number statistics of a practical single-photon source. In this scheme, the variable attenuation method which frequently appears in decoy state quantum cryptography is utilized here to enhance the estimation of photon-number statistics. A much stricter bound for vacuum and single-photon proportions is obtained and this result, in turn, is shown to be applicable to the unconditional secure quantum cryptographic communication with single-photon devices.
Statistical signatures of photon localization
Chabanov; Stoytchev; Genack
2000-04-20
The realization that electron localization in disordered systems (Anderson localization) is ultimately a wave phenomenon has led to the suggestion that photons could be similarly localized by disorder. This conjecture attracted wide interest because the differences between photons and electrons--in their interactions, spin statistics, and methods of injection and detection--may open a new realm of optical and microwave phenomena, and allow a detailed study of the Anderson localization transition undisturbed by the Coulomb interaction. To date, claims of three-dimensional photon localization have been based on observations of the exponential decay of the electromagnetic wave as it propagates through the disordered medium. But these reports have come under close scrutiny because of the possibility that the decay observed may be due to residual absorption, and because absorption itself may suppress localization. Here we show that the extent of photon localization can be determined by a different approach--measurement of the relative size of fluctuations of certain transmission quantities. The variance of relative fluctuations accurately reflects the extent of localization, even in the presence of absorption. Using this approach, we demonstrate photon localization in both weakly and strongly scattering quasi-one-dimensional dielectric samples and in periodic metallic wire meshes containing metallic scatterers, while ruling it out in three-dimensional mixtures of aluminium spheres. PMID:10786786
Two-bit quantum random number generator based on photon-number-resolving detection.
Jian, Yi; Ren, Min; Wu, E; Wu, Guang; Zeng, Heping
2011-07-01
Here we present a new fast two-bit quantum random number generator based on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical phenomenon of photon statistics of coherent light source. Two-bit random numbers were generated according to the number of detected photons in each light pulse by a photon-number-resolving detector. Poissonian photon statistics of the coherent light source guaranteed the complete randomness of the bit sequences. Multi-bit true random numbers were generated for the first time based on the multi-photon events from a coherent light source. PMID:21806174
Photon statistics: math versus mysticism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kracklauer, A. F.
2013-10-01
Critical analysis is given for mystical aspects of the current understanding of interaction between charged particles: wave-particle duality and nonlocal entanglement. A possible statistical effect concerning distribution functions for coincidences between the output channels of beam splitters is described. If this effect is observed in beam splitter data, ten significant evidence for photon splitting, i.e. , against the notion that light is ultimately packaged in finite chunks, has been found. An argument is given for the invalidity of the meaning attached to tests of Bell inequalities. Additionally, a totally classical paradigm for the calculation of the customary expression for the "quantum" coincidence coefficient pertaining to the singlet state is described. If fully accounts for the results of experimental tests of Bell inequalities taken nowadays to prove the reality of entanglement and non-locality in quantum phenomena of, inter alia, light. Described. It fully accounts for the results of experimental tests of Bell inequalities take n nowadays to prove the reality of entanglement and non-locality in quantum phenomena of inter alia, light.
Fluctuations in particle number for a photon gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leff, Harvey S.
2015-04-01
The fluctuation-compressibility theorem of statistical mechanics states that fluctuations in particle number are proportional to the isothermal compressibility. Given that the compressibility of a photon gas does not exist, this seems to suggest that fluctuations in photon number similarly do not exist. However, it is shown here that the fluctuation-compressibility theorem does not hold for photons and, in fact, that fluctuations do exist.
Quantum random number generator using photon-number path entanglement.
Kwon, Osung; Cho, Young-Wook; Kim, Yoon-Ho
2009-03-20
We report a quantum random number generator based on the photon-number-path entangled state that is prepared by means of two-photon quantum interference at a beam splitter. The randomness in our scheme is truly quantum mechanical in origin since it results from the projection measurement of the entangled two-photon state. The generated bit sequences satisfy the standard randomness test. PMID:19305476
Statistics: It's in the Numbers!
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Deal, Mary M.; Deal, Walter F., III
2007-01-01
Mathematics and statistics play important roles in peoples' lives today. A day hardly passes that they are not bombarded with many different kinds of statistics. As consumers they see statistical information as they surf the web, watch television, listen to their satellite radios, or even read the nutrition facts panel on a cereal box in the…
Odd numbers of photons and teleportation
Enk, S.J. van
2003-02-01
Several teleportation protocols, namely those using entangled coherent states, entangled squeezed states, and the single-photon Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state, are all shown to be particular instances of a more general scheme that relies on the detection of an odd number of photons.
Photon-number-resolving superconducting nanowire detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mattioli, Francesco; Zhou, Zili; Gaggero, Alessandro; Gaudio, Rosalinda; Jahanmirinejad, Saeedeh; Sahin, Döndü; Marsili, Francesco; Leoni, Roberto; Fiore, Andrea
2015-10-01
In recent years, photon-number-resolving (PNR) detectors have attracted great interest, mainly because they can play a key role in diverse application fields. A PNR detector with a large dynamic range would represent an ideal photon detector, bringing the linear response of conventional analogue detectors down to the single-photon level. Several technologies, such as InGaAs single photon avalanche detectors (SPADs), arrays of silicon photomultipliers, InGaAs SPADs with self-differencing circuits and transition edge sensors have shown photon number resolving capability. Superconducting nanowires provide free-running single-photon sensitivity from visible to mid-infrared frequencies, low dark counts, excellent timing resolution (<60 ps) and short dead time (˜10 ns), at an easily accessible temperature (2-3 K), but they do not inherently resolve the photon number. In this framework, PNR detectors based on arrays of superconducting nanowires have been proposed. In this article we describe a number of methods and device configurations that have been pursued to obtain PNR capability using superconducting nanowire detectors.
Observing fermionic statistics with photons in arbitrary processes
Matthews, Jonathan C. F.; Poulios, Konstantinos; Meinecke, Jasmin D. A.; Politi, Alberto; Peruzzo, Alberto; Ismail, Nur; Wörhoff, Kerstin; Thompson, Mark G.; O'Brien, Jeremy L.
2013-01-01
Quantum mechanics defines two classes of particles-bosons and fermions-whose exchange statistics fundamentally dictate quantum dynamics. Here we develop a scheme that uses entanglement to directly observe the correlated detection statistics of any number of fermions in any physical process. This approach relies on sending each of the entangled particles through identical copies of the process and by controlling a single phase parameter in the entangled state, the correlated detection statistics can be continuously tuned between bosonic and fermionic statistics. We implement this scheme via two entangled photons shared across the polarisation modes of a single photonic chip to directly mimic the fermion, boson and intermediate behaviour of two-particles undergoing a continuous time quantum walk. The ability to simulate fermions with photons is likely to have applications for verifying boson scattering and for observing particle correlations in analogue simulation using any physical platform that can prepare the entangled state prescribed here. PMID:23531788
Photon statistics on the extreme entanglement
Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Chang-shui
2016-01-01
The effects of photon bunching and antibunching correspond to the classical and quantum features of the electromagnetic field, respectively. No direct evidence suggests whether these effects can be potentially related to quantum entanglement. Here we design a cavity quantum electrodynamics model with two atoms trapped in to demonstrate the connections between the steady-state photon statistics and the two-atom entanglement. It is found that within the weak dissipations and to some good approximation, the local maximal two-atom entanglements perfectly correspond to not only the quantum feature of the electromagnetic field—the optimal photon antibunching, but also the classical feature—the optimal photon bunching. We also analyze the influence of strong dissipations and pure dephasing. An intuitive physical understanding is also given finally. PMID:27053368
Photon statistics on the extreme entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Chang-Shui
2016-04-01
The effects of photon bunching and antibunching correspond to the classical and quantum features of the electromagnetic field, respectively. No direct evidence suggests whether these effects can be potentially related to quantum entanglement. Here we design a cavity quantum electrodynamics model with two atoms trapped in to demonstrate the connections between the steady-state photon statistics and the two-atom entanglement. It is found that within the weak dissipations and to some good approximation, the local maximal two-atom entanglements perfectly correspond to not only the quantum feature of the electromagnetic field—the optimal photon antibunching, but also the classical feature—the optimal photon bunching. We also analyze the influence of strong dissipations and pure dephasing. An intuitive physical understanding is also given finally.
Photon statistics on the extreme entanglement.
Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Chang-shui
2016-01-01
The effects of photon bunching and antibunching correspond to the classical and quantum features of the electromagnetic field, respectively. No direct evidence suggests whether these effects can be potentially related to quantum entanglement. Here we design a cavity quantum electrodynamics model with two atoms trapped in to demonstrate the connections between the steady-state photon statistics and the two-atom entanglement. It is found that within the weak dissipations and to some good approximation, the local maximal two-atom entanglements perfectly correspond to not only the quantum feature of the electromagnetic field-the optimal photon antibunching, but also the classical feature-the optimal photon bunching. We also analyze the influence of strong dissipations and pure dephasing. An intuitive physical understanding is also given finally. PMID:27053368
Discrete photon statistics from continuous microwave measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Virally, Stéphane; Simoneau, Jean Olivier; Lupien, Christian; Reulet, Bertrand
2016-04-01
Photocount statistics are an important tool for the characterization of electromagnetic fields, especially for fields with an irrelevant phase. In the microwave domain, continuous rather than discrete measurements are the norm. Using a different approach, we recover discrete photon statistics from the cumulants of a continuous distribution of field quadrature measurements. The use of cumulants allows the separation between the signal of interest and experimental noise. Using a parametric amplifier as the first stage of the amplification chain, we extract useful data from up to the sixth cumulant of the continuous distribution of a coherent field, hence recovering up to the third moment of the discrete statistics associated with a signal with much less than one average photon.
Efficient and robust quantum random number generation by photon number detection
Applegate, M. J.; Thomas, O.; Dynes, J. F.; Yuan, Z. L.; Shields, A. J.; Ritchie, D. A.
2015-08-17
We present an efficient and robust quantum random number generator based upon high-rate room temperature photon number detection. We employ an electric field-modulated silicon avalanche photodiode, a type of device particularly suited to high-rate photon number detection with excellent photon number resolution to detect, without an applied dead-time, up to 4 photons from the optical pulses emitted by a laser. By both measuring and modeling the response of the detector to the incident photons, we are able to determine the illumination conditions that achieve an optimal bit rate that we show is robust against variation in the photon flux. We extract random bits from the detected photon numbers with an efficiency of 99% corresponding to 1.97 bits per detected photon number yielding a bit rate of 143 Mbit/s, and verify that the extracted bits pass stringent statistical tests for randomness. Our scheme is highly scalable and has the potential of multi-Gbit/s bit rates.
Linking numbers, spin, and statistics of solitons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilczek, F.; Zee, A.
1983-01-01
The spin and statistics of solitons in the (2 + 1)- and (3 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear sigma models is considered. For the (2 + 1)-dimensional case, there is the possibility of fractional spin and exotic statistics; for 3 + 1 dimensions, the usual spin-statistics relation is demonstrated. The linking-number interpretation of the Hopf invariant and the use of suspension considerably simplify the analysis.
Quantum random number generator based on photonic emission in semiconductors.
Stipcević, M; Rogina, B Medved
2007-04-01
We report upon the realization of a novel fast nondeterministic random number generator whose randomness relies on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission in semiconductors and subsequent detection by the photoelectric effect. Timing information of detected photons is used to generate binary random digits-bits. The bit extraction method based on the restartable clock method theoretically eliminates both bias and autocorrelation while reaching efficiency of almost 0.5 bits per random event. A prototype has been built and statistically tested. PMID:17477690
Ideal photon number amplifier and duplicator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dariano, G. M.
1992-01-01
The photon number-amplification and number-duplication mechanism are analyzed in the ideal case. The search for unitary evolutions leads to consider also a number-deamplification mechanism, the symmetry between amplification and deamplification being broken by the integer-value nature of the number operator. Both transformations, amplification and duplication, need an auxiliary field which, in the case of amplification, turns out to be amplified in the inverse way. Input-output energy conservation is accounted for using a classical pump or through frequency-conversion of the fields. Ignoring one of the fields is equivalent to considering the amplifier as an open system involving entropy production. The Hamiltonians of the ideal devices are given and compared with those of realistic systems.
Photon-Statistics Excitation Spectroscopy of a Quantum-Dot Micropillar Laser.
Kazimierczuk, T; Schmutzler, J; Assmann, M; Schneider, C; Kamp, M; Höfling, S; Bayer, M
2015-07-10
We introduce photon-statistics excitation spectroscopy and exemplarily apply it to a quantum-dot micropillar laser. Both the intensity and the photon number statistics of the emission from the micropillar show a strong dependence on the photon statistics of the light used for excitation of the sample. The results under coherent and pseudothermal excitation reveal that a description of the laser properties in terms of mean input photon numbers is not sufficient. It is demonstrated that the micropillar acts as a superthermal light source when operated close to its threshold. Possible applications for important spectroscopic techniques are discussed. PMID:26207501
Interaction of Fixed Number of Photons with Retinal Rod Cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phan, Nam Mai; Cheng, Mei Fun; Bessarab, Dmitri A.; Krivitsky, Leonid A.
2014-05-01
New tools and approaches of quantum optics offer a unique opportunity to generate light pulses carrying a precise number of photons. Accurate control over the light pulses helps to improve the characterization of photoinduced processes. Here, we study interaction of a specialized light source which provides flashes containing just one photon, with retinal rod cells of Xenopus laevis toads. We provide unambiguous proof of the single-photon sensitivity of rod cells without relying on the statistical modeling. We determine their quantum efficiencies without the use of any precalibrated detectors and obtain the value of (29±4.7)%. Our approach provides the path for future studies and applications of quantum properties of light in phototransduction, vision, and photosynthesis.
Statistical fitting accuracy in photon correlation spectroscopy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shaumeyer, J. N.; Briggs, Matthew E.; Gammon, Robert W.
1993-01-01
Continuing our experimental investigation of the fitting accuracy associated with photon correlation spectroscopy, we collect 150 correlograms of light scattered at 90 deg from a thermostated sample of 91-nm-diameter, polystyrene latex spheres in water. The correlograms are taken with two correlators: one with linearly spaced channels and one with geometrically spaced channels. Decay rates are extracted from the single-exponential correlograms with both nonlinear least-squares fits and second-order cumulant fits. We make several statistical comparisons between the two fitting techniques and verify an earlier result that there is no sample-time dependence in the decay rate errors. We find, however, that the two fitting techniques give decay rates that differ by 1 percent.
Joint photon and wave statistics in nonlinear optical couplers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peřina, Jan; Křepelka, Jaromír
2014-09-01
Nonlinear optical couplers based on optical parametric processes and Raman-Brillouin scattering are discussed from the point of view of their nonclassical behaviour using joint photon-number and integrated-intensity probability distributions and derived quantum statistical quantities. Employing these tools quantum entanglement of modes and their nonclassical properties are demonstrated by means of conditional probability distributions and their Fano factors, difference-number probability distributions, quantum oscillations, squeezing of vacuum fluctuations and negative values of the joint wave probability quasidistributions in time evolution. Sub-Poissonian and sub-shot-noise properties are determined for initial coherent, chaotic and squeezed light.
Nonlinearity sensing via photon-statistics excitation spectroscopy
Assmann, Marc; Bayer, Manfred
2011-11-15
We propose photon-statistics excitation spectroscopy as an adequate tool to describe the optical response of a nonlinear system. To this end we suggest to use optical excitation with varying photon statistics as another spectroscopic degree of freedom to gather information about the system in question. The responses of several simple model systems to excitation beams with different photon statistics are discussed. Possible spectroscopic applications in terms of identifying lasing operation are pointed out.
Reconstruction of photon-number distribution using low-performance photon counters
Zambra, Guido; Paris, Matteo G. A.
2006-12-15
The output of a photodetector consists of a current pulse whose charge has the statistical distribution of the actual photon numbers convolved with a Bernoulli distribution. Photodetectors are characterized by a nonunit quantum efficiency, i.e., not all the photons lead to a charge, and by a finite resolution, i.e., a different number of detected photons leads to a discriminable values of the charge only up to a maximum value. We present a detailed comparison, based on Monte Carlo simulated experiments and real data, among the performances of detectors with different upper limits of counting capability. In our scheme the inversion of Bernoulli convolution is performed by maximum-likelihood methods assisted by measurements taken at different quantum efficiencies. We show that detectors that are only able to discriminate between zero, one and more than one detected photons are generally enough to provide a reliable reconstruction of the photon number distribution for single-peaked distributions, while detectors with higher resolution limits do not lead to further improvements. In addition, we demonstrate that, for semiclassical states, even on/off detectors are enough to provide a good reconstruction. Finally, we show that a reliable reconstruction of multipeaked distributions requires either higher quantum efficiency or higher resolution.
Photon number squeezed states in semiconductor lasers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Machida, Susumu; Richardson, Wayne H.
1992-01-01
Electromagnetic fields, with the noise on one quadrature component reduced to below the quantum mechanical zero-point fluctuation level and the noise on the other quadrature component enhanced to above it, are currently of great interest in quantum optics because of their potential applications to various precision measurements. Such squeezed states of light are usually produced by imposing nonlinear unitary evolution on coherent (or vacuum) states. On the other hand, squeezed states with reduced photon number noise and enhanced phase noise are generated directly by a constant current-driven semiconductor laser. This is the simplest scheme for the generation of nonclassical light, and so far it has yielded the largest quantum noise reduction. The mutual coupling between a lasing junction and an external electrical circuit provides opportunities for exploring the macroscopic and microscopic quantum effects in open systems.
Statistical Analysis of Random Number Generators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Accardi, Luigi; Gäbler, Markus
2011-01-01
In many applications, for example cryptography and Monte Carlo simulation, there is need for random numbers. Any procedure, algorithm or device which is intended to produce such is called a random number generator (RNG). What makes a good RNG? This paper gives an overview on empirical testing of the statistical properties of the sequences produced by RNGs and special software packages designed for that purpose. We also present the results of applying a particular test suite--TestU01-- to a family of RNGs currently being developed at the Centro Interdipartimentale Vito Volterra (CIVV), Roma, Italy.
Bias-free true random number generation using superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Yuhao; Zhang, Weijun; Zhou, Hui; You, Lixing; Lv, Chaolin; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wu, Junjie; Chen, Sijing; Ren, Min; Wang, Zhen; Xie, Xiaoming
2016-08-01
We demonstrate a bias-free true random number generator (TRNG) based on single photon detection using superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs). By comparing the photon detection signals of two consecutive laser pulses and extracting the random bits by the von Neumann correction method, we achieved a random number generation efficiency of 25% (a generation rate of 3.75 Mbit s‑1 at a system clock rate of 15 MHz). Using a multi-channel superconducting nanowire single photon detector system with controllable pulse signal amplitudes, we detected the single photons with photon number resolution and positional sensitivity, which could further increase the random number generation efficiency. In a three-channel SNSPD system, the random number bit generation efficiency was improved to 75%, corresponding to a generation rate of 7.5 Mbit s‑1 with a 10 MHz system clock rate. All of the generated random numbers successfully passed the statistical test suite.
Pushing the Photon Limit: Nanoantennas Increase Maximal Photon Stream and Total Photon Number
2016-01-01
Nanoantennas are well-known for their effective role in fluorescence enhancement, both in excitation and emission. Enhancements of 3–4 orders of magnitude have been reported. Yet in practice, the photon emission is limited by saturation due to the time that a molecule spends in singlet and especially triplet excited states. The maximal photon stream restricts the attainable enhancement. Furthermore, the total number of photons emitted is limited by photobleaching. The limited brightness and observation time are a drawback for applications, especially in biology. Here we challenge this photon limit, showing that nanoantennas can actually increase both saturation intensity and photostability. So far, this limit-shifting role of nanoantennas has hardly been explored. Specifically, we demonstrate that single light-harvesting complexes, under saturating excitation conditions, show over a 50-fold antenna-enhanced photon emission stream, with 10-fold more total photons, up to 108 detected photons, before photobleaching. This work shows yet another facet of the great potential of nanoantennas in the world of single-molecule biology. PMID:27082249
Chrzanowski, H. M.; Bernu, J.; Sparkes, B. M.; Hage, B.; Lam, P. K.; Symul, T.; Lund, A. P.; Ralph, T. C.
2011-11-15
The nonlinearity of a conditional photon-counting measurement can be used to ''de-Gaussify'' a Gaussian state of light. Here we present and experimentally demonstrate a technique for photon-number resolution using only homodyne detection. We then apply this technique to inform a conditional measurement, unambiguously reconstructing the statistics of the non-Gaussian one- and two-photon-subtracted squeezed vacuum states. Although our photon-number measurement relies on ensemble averages and cannot be used to prepare non-Gaussian states of light, its high efficiency, photon-number-resolving capabilities, and compatibility with the telecommunications band make it suitable for quantum-information tasks relying on the outcomes of mean values.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chrzanowski, H. M.; Bernu, J.; Sparkes, B. M.; Hage, B.; Lund, A. P.; Ralph, T. C.; Lam, P. K.; Symul, T.
2011-11-01
The nonlinearity of a conditional photon-counting measurement can be used to “de-Gaussify” a Gaussian state of light. Here we present and experimentally demonstrate a technique for photon-number resolution using only homodyne detection. We then apply this technique to inform a conditional measurement, unambiguously reconstructing the statistics of the non-Gaussian one- and two-photon-subtracted squeezed vacuum states. Although our photon-number measurement relies on ensemble averages and cannot be used to prepare non-Gaussian states of light, its high efficiency, photon-number-resolving capabilities, and compatibility with the telecommunications band make it suitable for quantum-information tasks relying on the outcomes of mean values.
Photon statistics of atomic fluorescence after {pi}-pulse excitation
Yoshimi, Kazuyoshi; Koshino, Kazuki
2010-09-15
The photon statistics of atomic fluorescence after {pi}-pulse excitation is investigated in a system in which the input and output ports are connected to an atom. Since spontaneous decay during input pulse excitation occurs, the output pulse generally contains a multiphoton component with a certain probability. We quantitatively evaluate the probability of the output pulse containing multiple photons and determine the conditions for ideal single-photon generation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weng, Qianchun; An, Zhenghua; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Pingping; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Zhu, Ziqiang; Lu, Wei
2015-03-01
Low-noise single-photon detectors that can resolve photon numbers are used to monitor the operation of quantum gates in linear-optical quantum computation. Exactly 0, 1 or 2 photons registered in a detector should be distinguished especially in long-distance quantum communication and quantum computation. Here we demonstrate a photon-number-resolving detector based on quantum dot coupled resonant tunneling diodes (QD-cRTD). Individual quantum-dots (QDs) coupled closely with adjacent quantum well (QW) of resonant tunneling diode operate as photon-gated switches- which turn on (off) the RTD tunneling current when they trap photon-generated holes (recombine with injected electrons). Proposed electron-injecting operation fills electrons into coupled QDs which turn ``photon-switches'' to ``OFF'' state and make the detector ready for multiple-photons detection. With proper decision regions defined, 1-photon and 2-photon states are resolved in 4.2 K with excellent propabilities of accuracy of 90% and 98% respectively. Further, by identifying step-like photon responses, the photon-number-resolving capability is sustained to 77 K, making the detector a promising candidate for advanced quantum information applications where photon-number-states should be accurately distinguished.
Weng, Qianchun; An, Zhenghua; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Pingping; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Zhu, Ziqiang; Lu, Wei
2015-01-01
Low-noise single-photon detectors that can resolve photon numbers are used to monitor the operation of quantum gates in linear-optical quantum computation. Exactly 0, 1 or 2 photons registered in a detector should be distinguished especially in long-distance quantum communication and quantum computation. Here we demonstrate a photon-number-resolving detector based on quantum dot coupled resonant tunneling diodes (QD-cRTD). Individual quantum-dots (QDs) coupled closely with adjacent quantum well (QW) of resonant tunneling diode operate as photon-gated switches- which turn on (off) the RTD tunneling current when they trap photon-generated holes (recombine with injected electrons). Proposed electron-injecting operation fills electrons into coupled QDs which turn “photon-switches” to “OFF” state and make the detector ready for multiple-photons detection. With proper decision regions defined, 1-photon and 2-photon states are resolved in 4.2 K with excellent propabilities of accuracy of 90% and 98% respectively. Further, by identifying step-like photon responses, the photon-number-resolving capability is sustained to 77 K, making the detector a promising candidate for advanced quantum information applications where photon-number-states should be accurately distinguished. PMID:25797442
Weng, Qianchun; An, Zhenghua; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Pingping; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Zhu, Ziqiang; Lu, Wei
2015-01-01
Low-noise single-photon detectors that can resolve photon numbers are used to monitor the operation of quantum gates in linear-optical quantum computation. Exactly 0, 1 or 2 photons registered in a detector should be distinguished especially in long-distance quantum communication and quantum computation. Here we demonstrate a photon-number-resolving detector based on quantum dot coupled resonant tunneling diodes (QD-cRTD). Individual quantum-dots (QDs) coupled closely with adjacent quantum well (QW) of resonant tunneling diode operate as photon-gated switches- which turn on (off) the RTD tunneling current when they trap photon-generated holes (recombine with injected electrons). Proposed electron-injecting operation fills electrons into coupled QDs which turn "photon-switches" to "OFF" state and make the detector ready for multiple-photons detection. With proper decision regions defined, 1-photon and 2-photon states are resolved in 4.2 K with excellent propabilities of accuracy of 90% and 98% respectively. Further, by identifying step-like photon responses, the photon-number-resolving capability is sustained to 77 K, making the detector a promising candidate for advanced quantum information applications where photon-number-states should be accurately distinguished. PMID:25797442
Homodyne measurement of the average photon number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Webb, J. G.; Ralph, T. C.; Huntington, E. H.
2006-03-01
We describe a scheme for measurement of the mean photon flux at an arbitrary optical sideband frequency using homodyne detection. Experimental implementation of the technique requires an acousto-optic modulator in addition to the homodyne detector, and does not require phase locking. The technique exhibits polarization and frequency and spatial mode selectivity, as well as much improved speed, resolution, and dynamic range when compared to linear photodetectors and avalanche photodiodes, with potential application to quantum-state tomography and information encoding using an optical frequency basis. Experimental data also support a quantum-mechanical description of vacuum noise.
Photon statistics of a two-mode squeezed vacuum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schrade, Guenter; Akulin, V. M.; Schleich, W. P.; Manko, Vladimir I.
1994-01-01
We investigate the general case of the photon distribution of a two-mode squeezed vacuum and show that the distribution of photons among the two modes depends on four parameters: two squeezing parameters, the relative phase between the two oscillators and their spatial orientation. The distribution of the total number of photons depends only on the two squeezing parameters. We derive analytical expressions and present pictures for both distributions.
Conditional preparation of states containing a definite number of photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Sullivan, Malcolm N.; Chan, Kam Wai Clifford; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan; Boyd, Robert W.
2008-02-01
A technique for conditionally creating single-mode or multimode photon-number states is analyzed using Bayesian theory. We consider the heralded N -photon states created from the photons produced by an unseeded optical parametric amplifier when the heralding detector is the time-multiplexed photon-number-resolving detector recently demonstrated by Fitch [Phys. Rev. A 68, 043814 (2003)] and simultaneously by Achilles [Opt. Lett. 28, 2387 (2003)]. We find that even with significant loss in the heralding detector, fields with sub-Poissonian photon-number distributions can be created. We also show that heralded multimode fields created using this technique are more robust against detector loss than are single-mode fields.
Conditional preparation of states containing a definite number of photons
O'Sullivan, Malcolm N.; Chan, Kam Wai Clifford; Boyd, Robert W.; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan
2008-02-15
A technique for conditionally creating single-mode or multimode photon-number states is analyzed using Bayesian theory. We consider the heralded N-photon states created from the photons produced by an unseeded optical parametric amplifier when the heralding detector is the time-multiplexed photon-number-resolving detector recently demonstrated by Fitch et al. [Phys. Rev. A 68, 043814 (2003)] and simultaneously by Achilles et al. [Opt. Lett. 28, 2387 (2003)]. We find that even with significant loss in the heralding detector, fields with sub-Poissonian photon-number distributions can be created. We also show that heralded multimode fields created using this technique are more robust against detector loss than are single-mode fields.
WHAT'S BEHIND THE NUMBERS? STATISTICAL SAMPLING
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Objective: The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL), USDA implemented the National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) to obtain nationally representative estimates of the critical nutrients in highly consumed U.S. foods. The NFNAP is based on a statistically based sample design to identify locatio...
Number Hunting: Statistics on the Net.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Raeder, Aggi
1996-01-01
Discusses how to find statistical data on the Internet, particularly with awareness of lag times associated with posted data and of the large quantity of university sources. Lists World Wide Web sites under the headings of metasites, agriculture, banking, business, crime, economics, education, energy, government, health, international, local…
Photon-statistics-based classical ghost imaging with one single detector.
Kuhn, Simone; Hartmann, Sébastien; Elsäßer, Wolfgang
2016-06-15
We demonstrate a novel ghost imaging (GI) scheme based on one single-photon-counting detector with subsequent photon statistics analysis. The key idea is that instead of measuring correlations between the object and reference beams such as in standard GI schemes, the light of the two beams is superimposed. The photon statistics analysis of this mixed light allows us to determine the photon number distribution as well as to calculate the central second-order correlation coefficient. The image information is obtained as a function of the spatial resolution of the reference beam. The performance of this photon-statistics-based GI system with one single detector (PS-GI) is investigated in terms of visibility and resolution. Finally, the knowledge of the complete photon statistics allows easy access to higher correlation coefficients such that we are able to perform here third- and fourth-order GI. The PS-GI concept can be seen as a complement to already existing GI technologies thus enabling a broader dissemination of GI as a superior metrology technique, paving the road for new applications in particular with advanced photon counting detectors. PMID:27304308
Apollo by the Numbers: A Statistical Reference
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orloff, Richard; Garber, Stephen (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
The purpose of this work is to provide researchers, students, and space enthusiasts with a comprehensive reference for facts about Project Apollo, America's effort to put humans in the Moon. Research for this work started in 1988, when the author discovered that, despite the number of excellent books that focused on the drama of events that highlighted Apollo, there were none that focused on the drama of the numbers. This book is separated into two parts. The first part contains narratives for the Apollo 1 fire and the 11 flown Apollo missions. Included after each narrative is a series of data tables, followed by a comprehensive timeline of events from just before liftoff to just after crew and spacecraft recovery. The second part contains more than 50 tables. These tables organize much of the data from the narratives in one place so they can be compared among all missions. The tables offer additional data as well. The reader can select a specific mission narrative or specific data table by consulting the Table of Contents.
Photon-number-resolving detector with 10 bits of resolution
Jiang, Leaf A.; Dauler, Eric A.; Chang, Joshua T
2007-06-15
A photon-number-resolving detector with single-photon resolution is described and demonstrated. It has 10 bits of resolution, does not require cryogenic cooling, and is sensitive to near ir wavelengths. This performance is achieved by flood illuminating a 32x32 element In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}AsP Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode array that has an integrated counter and digital readout circuit behind each pixel.
Photon-number-resolving detector with 10bits of resolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Leaf A.; Dauler, Eric A.; Chang, Joshua T.
2007-06-01
A photon-number-resolving detector with single-photon resolution is described and demonstrated. It has 10bits of resolution, does not require cryogenic cooling, and is sensitive to near ir wavelengths. This performance is achieved by flood illuminating a 32×32 element InxGa1-xAsP Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode array that has an integrated counter and digital readout circuit behind each pixel.
Photon number conserving models of H II bubbles during reionization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paranjape, Aseem; Choudhury, T. Roy; Padmanabhan, Hamsa
2016-08-01
Traditional excursion-set-based models of H II bubble growth during the epoch of reionization are known to violate photon number conservation, in the sense that the mass fraction in ionized bubbles in these models does not equal the ratio of the number of ionizing photons produced by sources and the number of hydrogen atoms in the intergalactic medium. E.g. for a Planck13 cosmology with electron scattering optical depth τ ≃ 0.066, the discrepancy is ˜15 per cent for x_{H II}=0.1 and ˜5 per cent for x_{H II}=0.5. We demonstrate that this problem arises from a fundamental conceptual shortcoming of the excursion-set approach (already recognized in the literature on this formalism) which only tracks average mass fractions instead of the exact, stochastic source counts. With this insight, we build an approximately photon number conserving Monte Carlo model of bubble growth based on partitioning regions of dark matter into haloes. Our model, which is formally valid for white noise initial conditions (ICs), shows dramatic improvements in photon number conservation, as well as substantial differences in the bubble size distribution, as compared to traditional models. We explore the trends obtained on applying our algorithm to more realistic ICs, finding that these improvements are robust to changes in the ICs. Since currently popular seminumerical schemes of bubble growth also violate photon number conservation, we argue that it will be worthwhile to pursue new, explicitly photon number conserving approaches. Along the way, we clarify some misconceptions regarding this problem that have appeared in the literature.
Photon Number Conserving Models of HII Bubbles during Reionization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paranjape, Aseem; Choudhury, T. Roy; Padmanabhan, Hamsa
2016-05-01
Traditional excursion set based models of HII bubble growth during the epoch of reionization are known to violate photon number conservation, in the sense that the mass fraction in ionized bubbles in these models does not equal the ratio of the number of ionizing photons produced by sources and the number of hydrogen atoms in the intergalactic medium. E.g., for a Planck13 cosmology with electron scattering optical depth τ ≃ 0.066, the discrepancy is ˜15 per cent for xHII = 0.1 and ˜5 per cent for xHII = 0.5. We demonstrate that this problem arises from a fundamental conceptual shortcoming of the excursion set approach (already recognised in the literature on this formalism) which only tracks average mass fractions instead of the exact, stochastic source counts. With this insight, we build an approximately photon number conserving Monte Carlo model of bubble growth based on partitioning regions of dark matter into halos. Our model, which is formally valid for white noise initial conditions (ICs), shows dramatic improvements in photon number conservation, as well as substantial differences in the bubble size distribution, as compared to traditional models. We explore the trends obtained on applying our algorithm to more realistic ICs, finding that these improvements are robust to changes in the ICs. Since currently popular semi-numerical schemes of bubble growth also violate photon number conservation, we argue that it will be worthwhile to pursue new, explicitly photon number conserving approaches. Along the way, we clarify some misconceptions regarding this problem that have appeared in the literature.
Ultrabroadband direct detection of nonclassical photon statistics at telecom wavelength.
Wakui, Kentaro; Eto, Yujiro; Benichi, Hugo; Izumi, Shuro; Yanagida, Tetsufumi; Ema, Kazuhiro; Numata, Takayuki; Fukuda, Daiji; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide
2014-01-01
Broadband light sources play essential roles in diverse fields, such as high-capacity optical communications, optical coherence tomography, optical spectroscopy, and spectrograph calibration. Although a nonclassical state from spontaneous parametric down-conversion may serve as a quantum counterpart, its detection and characterization have been a challenging task. Here we demonstrate the direct detection of photon numbers of an ultrabroadband (110 nm FWHM) squeezed state in the telecom band centred at 1535 nm wavelength, using a superconducting transition-edge sensor. The observed photon-number distributions violate Klyshko's criterion for the nonclassicality. From the observed photon-number distribution, we evaluate the second- and third-order correlation functions, and characterize a multimode structure, which implies that several tens of orthonormal modes of squeezing exist in the single optical pulse. Our results and techniques open up a new possibility to generate and characterize frequency-multiplexed nonclassical light sources for quantum info-communications technology. PMID:24694515
Ultrabroadband direct detection of nonclassical photon statistics at telecom wavelength
Wakui, Kentaro; Eto, Yujiro; Benichi, Hugo; Izumi, Shuro; Yanagida, Tetsufumi; Ema, Kazuhiro; Numata, Takayuki; Fukuda, Daiji; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide
2014-01-01
Broadband light sources play essential roles in diverse fields, such as high-capacity optical communications, optical coherence tomography, optical spectroscopy, and spectrograph calibration. Although a nonclassical state from spontaneous parametric down-conversion may serve as a quantum counterpart, its detection and characterization have been a challenging task. Here we demonstrate the direct detection of photon numbers of an ultrabroadband (110 nm FWHM) squeezed state in the telecom band centred at 1535 nm wavelength, using a superconducting transition-edge sensor. The observed photon-number distributions violate Klyshko's criterion for the nonclassicality. From the observed photon-number distribution, we evaluate the second- and third-order correlation functions, and characterize a multimode structure, which implies that several tens of orthonormal modes of squeezing exist in the single optical pulse. Our results and techniques open up a new possibility to generate and characterize frequency-multiplexed nonclassical light sources for quantum info-communications technology. PMID:24694515
Time-Correlated Photon Counting (TCPC) technique based on a photon-number-resolving photodetector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Baicheng; Miao, Quanlong; Wang, Shenyuan; Hui, Debin; Zhao, Tianqi; Liang, Kun; Yang, Ru; Han, Dejun
2016-05-01
In this report, we present Time-Correlated Photon Counting (TCPC) technique and its applications in time-correlated Raman spectroscopy. The main difference between TCPC and existing Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) is that the TCPC employs a photon-number-resolving photodetector (SiPM, silicon photomultiplier) and measures exact photon number rather than counting single photon by reducing pulse light intensity, thus high measurement speed and efficiency can be expected. A home-made Raman spectrometer has demonstrated an Instrument Response Function (IRF) ~100ps (FWHM) based on TCPC with a strip SiPM (1mm×0.05mm, containing 500 micro cells), fast and weak Raman signals was separated from slow and strong fluorescence background of bulk trinitrotoluene TNT sample. The original Raman spectrum of bulk TNT, measured by TCPC technique, is compared with the result obtained by a commercial Micro-Raman Spectrometer.
Accessing photon bunching with a photon number resolving multi-pixel detector.
Kalashnikov, Dmitry A; Tan, Si Hui; Chekhova, Maria V; Krivitsky, Leonid A
2011-05-01
In quantum optics and its applications, there is an urgent demand for photon-number resolving detectors. Recently, there appeared multi-pixel counters (MPPC) that are able to distinguish between 1,2,..10 photons. At the same time, strong coupling between different pixels (crosstalk) hinders their photon-number resolution. In this work, we suggest a method for `filtering out' the crosstalk effect in the measurement of intensity correlation functions. The developed approach can be expanded to the analysis of higher-order intensity correlations by using just a single MPPC. PMID:21643191
Fermi-Dirac statistics and the number theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kubasiak, Anna; Korbicz, Jaroslaw K.; Zakrzewski, Jakub; Lewenstein, Maciej
2005-11-01
We relate the Fermi-Dirac statistics of an ideal Fermi gas in a harmonic trap to partitions of given integers into distinct parts, studied in number theory. Using methods of quantum statistical physics we derive analytic expressions for cumulants of the probability distribution of the number of different partitions.
Sum-frequency generation from photon number squeezed light
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Ling-An; Du, Cong-Shi; Wu, Mei-Juan; Li, Shi-Qun
1994-01-01
We investigate the quantum fluctuations of the fields produced in sum-frequency (SF) generation from light initially in the photon number squeezed state. It is found that, to the fourth power term, the output SF light is sub-Poissonian whereas the quantum fluctuations of the input beams increase. Quantum anticorrelation also exists in SF generation.
Experimental Observation of Large Chern Numbers in Photonic Crystals.
Skirlo, Scott A; Lu, Ling; Igarashi, Yuichi; Yan, Qinghui; Joannopoulos, John; Soljačić, Marin
2015-12-18
Despite great interest in the quantum anomalous Hall phase and its analogs, all experimental studies in electronic and bosonic systems have been limited to a Chern number of one. Here, we perform microwave transmission measurements in the bulk and at the edge of ferrimagnetic photonic crystals. Band gaps with large Chern numbers of 2, 3, and 4 are present in the experimental results, which show excellent agreement with theory. We measure the mode profiles and Fourier transform them to produce dispersion relations of the edge modes, whose number and direction match our Chern number calculations. PMID:26722920
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorokhov, A. V.; Sinaiski, I. E.
2006-03-01
The Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) of two-level atom interacting with the photon mode in ideal cavity plays an essential role in modern quantum optics. In previous papers 1,2 an exact form of density matrix of the JCM with fixed atom position and photons dissipation was found. Here, taking into account the classical motion of the atom through the cavity, it is considered a case of nonideal cavity with zero temperature. We have obtained an exact expression for density matrix and calculated photon spectra and spectra of the mean number of photons in a cavity and and time dependencies of some values relevant for the one-atom maser theory.
Statistical Evaluation of a Superconductive Physical Random Number Generator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sugiura, Tatsuro; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki
A physical random number generator, which generates truly random number trains by using the randomness of physical phenomena, is widely used in the field of cryptographic applications. We have developed an ultra high-speed superconductive physical random number generator that can generate random numbers at a frequency of more than 10GHz by utilizing the high-speed operation and high-sensitivity of superconductive integrated circuits. In this study, we have statistically evaluated the quality of the random number trains generated by the superconductive physical random number generator. The performances of the statistical tests were based on a test method provided by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). These statistical tests comprised several fundamental tests that were performed to evaluate the random number trains for their utilization in practical cryptographic applications. We have generated 230 random number trains consisting of 20, 000-bits by using the superconductive physical random number generator fabricated by the SRL 2.5kA/cm2 Nb standard process. The generated random number trains passed all the fundamental statistical tests. This result indicates that the superconductive random number generator can be sufficiently utilized in practical applications.
How random are random numbers generated using photons?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solis, Aldo; Angulo Martínez, Alí M.; Ramírez Alarcón, Roberto; Cruz Ramírez, Hector; U'Ren, Alfred B.; Hirsch, Jorge G.
2015-06-01
Randomness is fundamental in quantum theory, with many philosophical and practical implications. In this paper we discuss the concept of algorithmic randomness, which provides a quantitative method to assess the Borel normality of a given sequence of numbers, a necessary condition for it to be considered random. We use Borel normality as a tool to investigate the randomness of ten sequences of bits generated from the differences between detection times of photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric downconversion. These sequences are shown to fulfil the randomness criteria without difficulties. As deviations from Borel normality for photon-generated random number sequences have been reported in previous work, a strategy to understand these diverging findings is outlined.
High-speed quantum-random number generation by continuous measurement of arrival time of photons
Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Hua, Zhang; Liao, Qinghong; Yang, Hao
2015-07-15
We demonstrate a novel high speed and multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring arrival time of photons with a common starting point. To obtain the unbiased and post-processing free random bits, the measured photon arrival time is converted into the sum of integral multiple of a fixed period and a phase time. Theoretical and experimental results show that the phase time is an independent and uniform random variable. A random bit extraction method by encoding the phase time is proposed. An experimental setup has been built and the unbiased random bit generation rate could reach 128 Mb/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 8 bits per detected photon. The random numbers passed all tests in the statistical test suite.
High-speed quantum-random number generation by continuous measurement of arrival time of photons.
Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Hua, Zhang; Liao, Qinghong; Yang, Hao
2015-07-01
We demonstrate a novel high speed and multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring arrival time of photons with a common starting point. To obtain the unbiased and post-processing free random bits, the measured photon arrival time is converted into the sum of integral multiple of a fixed period and a phase time. Theoretical and experimental results show that the phase time is an independent and uniform random variable. A random bit extraction method by encoding the phase time is proposed. An experimental setup has been built and the unbiased random bit generation rate could reach 128 Mb/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 8 bits per detected photon. The random numbers passed all tests in the statistical test suite. PMID:26233362
Statistical error in particle simulations of low mach number flows
Hadjiconstantinou, N G; Garcia, A L
2000-11-13
We present predictions for the statistical error due to finite sampling in the presence of thermal fluctuations in molecular simulation algorithms. The expressions are derived using equilibrium statistical mechanics. The results show that the number of samples needed to adequately resolve the flowfield scales as the inverse square of the Mach number. Agreement of the theory with direct Monte Carlo simulations shows that the use of equilibrium theory is justified.
Calkins, Brice; Mennea, Paolo L; Lita, Adriana E; Metcalf, Benjamin J; Kolthammer, W Steven; Lamas-Linares, Antia; Spring, Justin B; Humphreys, Peter C; Mirin, Richard P; Gates, James C; Smith, Peter G R; Walmsley, Ian A; Gerrits, Thomas; Nam, Sae Woo
2013-09-23
The integrated optical circuit is a promising architecture for the realization of complex quantum optical states and information networks. One element that is required for many of these applications is a high-efficiency photon detector capable of photon-number discrimination. We present an integrated photonic system in the telecom band at 1550 nm based on UV-written silica-on-silicon waveguides and modified transition-edge sensors capable of number resolution and over 40 % efficiency. Exploiting the mode transmission failure of these devices, we multiplex three detectors in series to demonstrate a combined 79 % ± 2 % detection efficiency with a single pass, and 88 % ± 3 % at the operating wavelength of an on-chip terminal reflection grating. Furthermore, our optical measurements clearly demonstrate no significant unexplained loss in this system due to scattering or reflections. This waveguide and detector design therefore allows the placement of number-resolving single-photon detectors of predictable efficiency at arbitrary locations within a photonic circuit - a capability that offers great potential for many quantum optical applications. PMID:24104153
Single photon laser altimeter simulator and statistical signal processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vacek, Michael; Prochazka, Ivan
2013-05-01
Spaceborne altimeters are common instruments onboard the deep space rendezvous spacecrafts. They provide range and topographic measurements critical in spacecraft navigation. Simultaneously, the receiver part may be utilized for Earth-to-satellite link, one way time transfer, and precise optical radiometry. The main advantage of single photon counting approach is the ability of processing signals with very low signal-to-noise ratio eliminating the need of large telescopes and high power laser source. Extremely small, rugged and compact microchip lasers can be employed. The major limiting factor, on the other hand, is the acquisition time needed to gather sufficient volume of data in repetitive measurements in order to process and evaluate the data appropriately. Statistical signal processing is adopted to detect signals with average strength much lower than one photon per measurement. A comprehensive simulator design and range signal processing algorithm are presented to identify a mission specific altimeter configuration. Typical mission scenarios (celestial body surface landing and topographical mapping) are simulated and evaluated. The high interest and promising single photon altimeter applications are low-orbit (˜10 km) and low-radial velocity (several m/s) topographical mapping (asteroids, Phobos and Deimos) and landing altimetry (˜10 km) where range evaluation repetition rates of ˜100 Hz and 0.1 m precision may be achieved. Moon landing and asteroid Itokawa topographical mapping scenario simulations are discussed in more detail.
Photon number amplification/duplication through parametric conversion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dariano, G. M.; Macchiavello, C.; Paris, M.
1993-01-01
The performance of parametric conversion in achieving number amplification and duplication is analyzed. It is shown that the effective maximum gains G(sub *) remain well below their integer ideal values, even for large signals. Correspondingly, one has output Fano factors F(sub *) which are increasing functions of the input photon number. On the other hand, in the inverse (deamplifier/recombiner) operating mode quasi-ideal gains G(sub *) and small factors F(sub *) approximately equal to 10 percent are obtained. Output noise and non-ideal gains are ascribed to spontaneous parametric emission.
Dovrat, L; Bakstein, M; Istrati, D; Shaham, A; Eisenberg, H S
2012-01-30
Optical parametric down-conversion (PDC) is a central tool in quantum optics experiments. The number of collected down-converted modes greatly affects the quality of the produced photon state. We use Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) number-resolving detectors in order to observe the photon-number distribution of a PDC source, and show its dependence on the number of collected modes. Additionally, we show how the stimulated emission of photons and the partition of photons into several modes determine the overall photon number. We present a novel analytical model for the optical crosstalk effect in SiPM detectors, and use it to analyze the results. PMID:22330466
Observation of squeezed states with strong photon-number oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehmet, Moritz; Vahlbruch, Henning; Lastzka, Nico; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman
2010-01-01
Squeezed states of light constitute an important nonclassical resource in the field of high-precision measurements, for example, gravitational wave detection, as well as in the field of quantum information, for example, for teleportation, quantum cryptography, and distribution of entanglement in quantum computation networks. Strong squeezing in combination with high purity, high bandwidth, and high spatial mode quality is desirable in order to achieve significantly improved performances contrasting any classical protocols. Here we report on the observation of 11.5 dB of squeezing, together with relatively high state purity corresponding to a vacuum contribution of less than 5%, and a squeezing bandwidth of about 170 MHz. The analysis of our squeezed states reveals a significant production of higher-order pairs of quantum-correlated photons and the existence of strong photon-number oscillations.
Observation of squeezed states with strong photon-number oscillations
Mehmet, Moritz; Vahlbruch, Henning; Lastzka, Nico; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman
2010-01-15
Squeezed states of light constitute an important nonclassical resource in the field of high-precision measurements, for example, gravitational wave detection, as well as in the field of quantum information, for example, for teleportation, quantum cryptography, and distribution of entanglement in quantum computation networks. Strong squeezing in combination with high purity, high bandwidth, and high spatial mode quality is desirable in order to achieve significantly improved performances contrasting any classical protocols. Here we report on the observation of 11.5 dB of squeezing, together with relatively high state purity corresponding to a vacuum contribution of less than 5%, and a squeezing bandwidth of about 170 MHz. The analysis of our squeezed states reveals a significant production of higher-order pairs of quantum-correlated photons and the existence of strong photon-number oscillations.
Gerrits, Thomas; Lita, Adriana E.; Calkins, Brice; Tomlin, Nathan A.; Fox, Anna E.; Linares, Antia Lamas; Mirin, Richard P.; Nam, Sae Woo; Thomas-Peter, Nicholas; Metcalf, Benjamin J.; Spring, Justin B.; Langford, Nathan K.; Walmsley, Ian A.; Gates, James C.; Smith, Peter G. R.
2011-12-15
Integration is currently the only feasible route toward scalable photonic quantum processing devices that are sufficiently complex to be genuinely useful in computing, metrology, and simulation. Embedded on-chip detection will be critical to such devices. We demonstrate an integrated photon-number-resolving detector, operating in the telecom band at 1550 nm, employing an evanescently coupled design that allows it to be placed at arbitrary locations within a planar circuit. Up to five photons are resolved in the guided optical mode via absorption from the evanescent field into a tungsten transition-edge sensor. The detection efficiency is 7.2{+-}0.5 %. The polarization sensitivity of the detector is also demonstrated. Detailed modeling of device designs shows a clear and feasible route to reaching high detection efficiencies.
Near-IR photon number resolving detector design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogdanski, Jan; Huntington, Elanor H.
2013-05-01
Photon-Number-Resolving-Detection (PNRD) capability is crucial for many Quantum-Information (QI) applications, e.g. for Coherent-State-Quantum-Computing, Linear-Optics-Quantum-Computing. In Quantum-Key-Distribution and Quantum-Secret-Sharing over 1310/1550 nm fiber, two other important, defense and information security related, QI applications, it's crucial for the information transmission security to guarantee that the information carriers (photons) are single. Thus a PNRD can provide an additional security level against eavesdropping. Currently, there are at least a couple of promising PNRD technologies in the Near-Infrared, but all of them require cryogenic cooling. Thus a compact, portable PNRD, based on commercial Avalanche-Photo-Diodes (APDs), could be a very useful instrument for many QI experiments. For an APD-based PNRD, it is crucial to measure the APD-current in the beginning of the avalanche. Thus an efficient cancellation of the APD capacitive spikes is a necessary condition for the very weak APD current measurement. The detector's principle is based on two commercial, pair-matched InGaAs/InP APDs, connected in series. It leads to a great cancelation of the capacitive spikes caused by the narrow (300 ps), differential gate-pulses of maximum 4V amplitude assuming that both pulses are perfectly matched in regards to their phases, amplitudes, and shapes. The cancellation scheme could be used for other APD-technologies, e.g. Silicon, extending the detection spectrum from visible to NIR. The design distinguishes itself from other, APD-based, schemes by its scalability feature and its computer controlled cancellation of the capacitive spikes. Furthermore, both APDs could be equally used for the detection purpose, which opens a possibility for the odd-even photon number parity detection.
Single-Photon-Resolved Cross-Kerr Interaction for Autonomous Stabilization of Photon-Number States.
Holland, E T; Vlastakis, B; Heeres, R W; Reagor, M J; Vool, U; Leghtas, Z; Frunzio, L; Kirchmair, G; Devoret, M H; Mirrahimi, M; Schoelkopf, R J
2015-10-30
Quantum states can be stabilized in the presence of intrinsic and environmental losses by either applying an active feedback condition on an ancillary system or through reservoir engineering. Reservoir engineering maintains a desired quantum state through a combination of drives and designed entropy evacuation. We propose and implement a quantum-reservoir engineering protocol that stabilizes Fock states in a microwave cavity. This protocol is realized with a circuit quantum electrodynamics platform where a Josephson junction provides direct, nonlinear coupling between two superconducting waveguide cavities. The nonlinear coupling results in a single-photon-resolved cross-Kerr effect between the two cavities enabling a photon-number-dependent coupling to a lossy environment. The quantum state of the microwave cavity is discussed in terms of a net polarization and is analyzed by a measurement of its steady state Wigner function. PMID:26565448
On the Euclidean version of the photon number integral
Ruijsenaars, S.; Stodolsky, L.
2008-02-15
We reconsider the Euclidean version of the photon number integral introduced by Stodolsky [Acta Phys. Pol. B 33, 2659 (2002), e-print hep-th/02053131].This integral is well defined for any smooth non-self-intersecting curve in R{sup N}. Besides studying general features of this integral (including its conformal invariance), we evaluate it explicitly for the ellipse. The result is n{sub ellipse}=({xi}{sup -1}+{xi}){pi}{sup 2}, where {xi} is the ratio of the minor and major axes. This is in agreement with the previous result n{sub circle}=2{pi}{sup 2} and also with the conjecture that the minimum value of n for any plane curve occurs for the circle.
Cavity State Manipulation Using Photon-Number Selective Phase Gates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heeres, Reinier W.; Vlastakis, Brian; Holland, Eric; Krastanov, Stefan; Albert, Victor V.; Frunzio, Luigi; Jiang, Liang; Schoelkopf, Robert J.
2015-09-01
The large available Hilbert space and high coherence of cavity resonators make these systems an interesting resource for storing encoded quantum bits. To perform a quantum gate on this encoded information, however, complex nonlinear operations must be applied to the many levels of the oscillator simultaneously. In this work, we introduce the selective number-dependent arbitrary phase (snap) gate, which imparts a different phase to each Fock-state component using an off-resonantly coupled qubit. We show that the snap gate allows control over the quantum phases by correcting the unwanted phase evolution due to the Kerr effect. Furthermore, by combining the snap gate with oscillator displacements, we create a one-photon Fock state with high fidelity. Using just these two controls, one can construct arbitrary unitary operations, offering a scalable route to performing logical manipulations on oscillator-encoded qubits.
Gabelli, J; Reydellet, L-H; Fève, G; Berroir, J-M; Plaçais, B; Roche, P; Glattli, D C
2004-07-30
We present the first study of the statistics of GHz photons in quantum circuits, using Hanbury Brown and Twiss correlations. The super-Poissonian and Poissonian photon statistics of thermal and coherent sources, respectively, made of a resistor and a radio frequency generator, are measured down to the quantum regime at milli-Kelvin temperatures. As photon correlations are linked to the second and fourth moments of current fluctuations, this experiment, which is based on current cryogenic electronics, may become a standard for probing electron/photon statistics in quantum conductors. PMID:15323720
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Platnick, S.
1999-01-01
Photon transport in a multiple scattering medium is critically dependent on scattering statistics, in particular the average number of scatterings. A superposition technique is derived to accurately determine the average number of scatterings encountered by reflected and transmitted photons within arbitrary layers in plane-parallel, vertically inhomogeneous clouds. As expected, the resulting scattering number profiles are highly dependent on cloud particle absorption and solar/viewing geometry. The technique uses efficient adding and doubling radiative transfer procedures, avoiding traditional time-intensive Monte Carlo methods. Derived superposition formulae are applied to a variety of geometries and cloud models, and selected results are compared with Monte Carlo calculations. Cloud remote sensing techniques that use solar reflectance or transmittance measurements generally assume a homogeneous plane-parallel cloud structure. The scales over which this assumption is relevant, in both the vertical and horizontal, can be obtained from the superposition calculations. Though the emphasis is on photon transport in clouds, the derived technique is applicable to any scattering plane-parallel radiative transfer problem, including arbitrary combinations of cloud, aerosol, and gas layers in the atmosphere.
Quantum Statistical Testing of a Quantum Random Number Generator
Humble, Travis S
2014-01-01
The unobservable elements in a quantum technology, e.g., the quantum state, complicate system verification against promised behavior. Using model-based system engineering, we present methods for verifying the opera- tion of a prototypical quantum random number generator. We begin with the algorithmic design of the QRNG followed by the synthesis of its physical design requirements. We next discuss how quantum statistical testing can be used to verify device behavior as well as detect device bias. We conclude by highlighting how system design and verification methods must influence effort to certify future quantum technologies.
Statistical distributions of earthquake numbers: consequence of branching process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kagan, Yan Y.
2010-03-01
We discuss various statistical distributions of earthquake numbers. Previously, we derived several discrete distributions to describe earthquake numbers for the branching model of earthquake occurrence: these distributions are the Poisson, geometric, logarithmic and the negative binomial (NBD). The theoretical model is the `birth and immigration' population process. The first three distributions above can be considered special cases of the NBD. In particular, a point branching process along the magnitude (or log seismic moment) axis with independent events (immigrants) explains the magnitude/moment-frequency relation and the NBD of earthquake counts in large time/space windows, as well as the dependence of the NBD parameters on the magnitude threshold (magnitude of an earthquake catalogue completeness). We discuss applying these distributions, especially the NBD, to approximate event numbers in earthquake catalogues. There are many different representations of the NBD. Most can be traced either to the Pascal distribution or to the mixture of the Poisson distribution with the gamma law. We discuss advantages and drawbacks of both representations for statistical analysis of earthquake catalogues. We also consider applying the NBD to earthquake forecasts and describe the limits of the application for the given equations. In contrast to the one-parameter Poisson distribution so widely used to describe earthquake occurrence, the NBD has two parameters. The second parameter can be used to characterize clustering or overdispersion of a process. We determine the parameter values and their uncertainties for several local and global catalogues, and their subdivisions in various time intervals, magnitude thresholds, spatial windows, and tectonic categories. The theoretical model of how the clustering parameter depends on the corner (maximum) magnitude can be used to predict future earthquake number distribution in regions where very large earthquakes have not yet occurred.
Advanced Photon Source research: Volume 1, Number 1, April 1998
1998-04-01
The following articles are included in this publication: (1) The Advanced Photon Source: A Brief Overview; (2) MAD Analysis of FHIT at the Structural Biology Center; (3) Advances in High-Energy-Resolution X-ray Scattering at Beamline 3-ID; (4) X-ray Imaging and Microspectroscopy of the Mycorrhyizal Fungus-Plant Symbiosis; (5) Measurement and Control of Particle-beam Trajectories in the Advanced Photon Storage Ring; (6) Beam Acceleration and Storage at the Advanced Photon Source; and (7) Experimental Facilities Operations and Current Status.
The effect of center-of-mass motion on photon statistics
Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Shao-xiong; Yu, Chang-shui
2015-10-15
We analyze the photon statistics of a weakly driven cavity quantum electrodynamics system and discuss the effects of photon blockade and photon-induced tunneling by effectively utilizing instead of avoiding the center-of-mass motion of a two-level atom trapped in the cavity. With the resonant interaction between atom, photon and phonon, it is shown that the bunching and anti-bunching of photons can occur with properly driving frequency. Our study shows the influence of the imperfect cooling of atom on the blockade and provides an attempt to take advantage of the center-of-mass motion.
Statistics for Geography Teachers: Topics in Geography, Number 2.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Council for Geographic Education.
This publication is designed to provide geography teachers with useful statistical information. It presents tables, maps, graphs, diagrams, and explanations of statistical data in 24 areas. The areas in which statistics are given are conversions, measurement, astronomy, time, daylight, twilight, latitude and longitude as distance, the relationship…
SUBMILLIMETER NUMBER COUNTS FROM STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF BLAST MAPS
Patanchon, Guillaume; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Scott, Douglas; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff; Rex, Marie; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Olmi, Luca
2009-12-20
We describe the application of a statistical method to estimate submillimeter galaxy number counts from confusion-limited observations by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST). Our method is based on a maximum likelihood fit to the pixel histogram, sometimes called 'P(D)', an approach which has been used before to probe faint counts, the difference being that here we advocate its use even for sources with relatively high signal-to-noise ratios. This method has an advantage over standard techniques of source extraction in providing an unbiased estimate of the counts from the bright end down to flux densities well below the confusion limit. We specifically analyze BLAST observations of a roughly 10 deg{sup 2} map centered on the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey South field. We provide estimates of number counts at the three BLAST wavelengths 250, 350, and 500 mum; instead of counting sources in flux bins we estimate the counts at several flux density nodes connected with power laws. We observe a generally very steep slope for the counts of about -3.7 at 250 mum, and -4.5 at 350 and 500 mum, over the range approx0.02-0.5 Jy, breaking to a shallower slope below about 0.015 Jy at all three wavelengths. We also describe how to estimate the uncertainties and correlations in this method so that the results can be used for model-fitting. This method should be well suited for analysis of data from the Herschel satellite.
Li, Dong; Chen, Bin; Ran, Wei Yu; Wang, Guo Xiang; Wu, Wen Juan
2015-01-01
The voxel-based Monte Carlo method (VMC) is now a gold standard in the simulation of light propagation in turbid media. For complex tissue structures, however, the computational cost will be higher when small voxels are used to improve smoothness of tissue interface and a large number of photons are used to obtain accurate results. To reduce computational cost, criteria were proposed to determine the voxel size and photon number in 3-dimensional VMC simulations with acceptable accuracy and computation time. The selection of the voxel size can be expressed as a function of tissue geometry and optical properties. The photon number should be at least 5 times the total voxel number. These criteria are further applied in developing a photon ray splitting scheme of local grid refinement technique to reduce computational cost of a nonuniform tissue structure with significantly varying optical properties. In the proposed technique, a nonuniform refined grid system is used, where fine grids are used for the tissue with high absorption and complex geometry, and coarse grids are used for the other part. In this technique, the total photon number is selected based on the voxel size of the coarse grid. Furthermore, the photon-splitting scheme is developed to satisfy the statistical accuracy requirement for the dense grid area. Result shows that local grid refinement technique photon ray splitting scheme can accelerate the computation by 7.6 times (reduce time consumption from 17.5 to 2.3 h) in the simulation of laser light energy deposition in skin tissue that contains port wine stain lesions. PMID:26417866
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Dong; Chen, Bin; Ran, Wei Yu; Wang, Guo Xiang; Wu, Wen Juan
2015-09-01
The voxel-based Monte Carlo method (VMC) is now a gold standard in the simulation of light propagation in turbid media. For complex tissue structures, however, the computational cost will be higher when small voxels are used to improve smoothness of tissue interface and a large number of photons are used to obtain accurate results. To reduce computational cost, criteria were proposed to determine the voxel size and photon number in 3-dimensional VMC simulations with acceptable accuracy and computation time. The selection of the voxel size can be expressed as a function of tissue geometry and optical properties. The photon number should be at least 5 times the total voxel number. These criteria are further applied in developing a photon ray splitting scheme of local grid refinement technique to reduce computational cost of a nonuniform tissue structure with significantly varying optical properties. In the proposed technique, a nonuniform refined grid system is used, where fine grids are used for the tissue with high absorption and complex geometry, and coarse grids are used for the other part. In this technique, the total photon number is selected based on the voxel size of the coarse grid. Furthermore, the photon-splitting scheme is developed to satisfy the statistical accuracy requirement for the dense grid area. Result shows that local grid refinement technique photon ray splitting scheme can accelerate the computation by 7.6 times (reduce time consumption from 17.5 to 2.3 h) in the simulation of laser light energy deposition in skin tissue that contains port wine stain lesions.
High-Order Photonic W-states for Random Number Generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graefe, Markus; Heilmann, Rene; Perez-Leija, Armando; Keil, Robert; Dreisow, Felix; Heinrich, Matthias; Nolte, Stefan; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Szameit, Alexander
2014-05-01
Multipartite entanglement plays a key role in a number of counter-intuitive phenomena in quantum me- chances. A particular type of multipartite entangled states are the so called W-states which are in generalized form a coherent superposition of N single qubit states exhibiting equal probability amplitudes. The entanglement carried by these quantum entities has the remarkable property of being intrinsically robust to decoherence in one of the qubits. In our work, we experimentally realize high order W-states by forcing single photons to exist in a uniform coherent superposition of N (up to 16) spatial optical modes within a multi-port integrated system. Interestingly, in the generated W-states, a single photon will emerge from any of the N output ports with exactly the same probability. Based on that fact we have additionally developed a scheme for the generation of genuine random bits on chip, without the need of any post-processig. The authenticity of the random numbers is validated by applying the fifteen statistical tests suggested by National Institute of Standard Technology.
Effective Atomic Numbers of Lanthanides with Gamma Radiation for Photon Energy Absorption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shantappa, Anil; Hanagodimath, S. M.
Effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption, ZPEA,eff have been calculated for photon from 1 keV to 20 MeV for selected oxides of lanthanides, such as Lanthanum oxide, Cerium oxide, Samarium oxide, Europium oxide, Dysprosium oxide, Thulium oxide, Ytterbium oxide. The ZPEA,eff values then compared with ZPI,eff for photon interaction. The ZPEA,eff values have been found to change with energy and composition of selected lanthanides. Oxides of lanthanides are considered as better shielding materials to the exposure of gamma radiation. The values of effective atomic number for photon energy absorption help in the calculation of absorbed dose.
Reconstruction of photon number conditioned states using phase randomized homodyne measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chrzanowski, H. M.; Assad, S. M.; Bernu, J.; Hage, B.; Lund, A. P.; Ralph, T. C.; Lam, P. K.; Symul, T.
2013-05-01
We experimentally demonstrate the reconstruction of a photon number conditioned state without using a photon number discriminating detector. By using only phase randomized homodyne measurements, we reconstruct up to the three photon subtracted squeezed vacuum state. The reconstructed Wigner functions of these states show regions of pronounced negativity, signifying the non-classical nature of the reconstructed states. The techniques presented allow for complete characterization of the role of a conditional measurement on an ensemble of states, and might prove useful in systems where photon counting still proves technically challenging.
Multi-bit quantum random number generation by measuring positions of arrival photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Liao, Qinghong; Zhou, Nanrun
2014-10-01
We report upon the realization of a novel multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring the arrival positions of photon emitted from a LED using MCP-based WSA photon counting imaging detector. A spatial encoding method is proposed to extract multi-bits random number from the position coordinates of each detected photon. The randomness of bits sequence relies on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission and subsequent photoelectric conversion. A prototype has been built and the random bit generation rate could reach 8 Mbit/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 16 bits per detected photon. FPGA implementation of Huffman coding is proposed to reduce the bias of raw extracted random bits. The random numbers passed all tests for physical random number generator.
Multi-bit quantum random number generation by measuring positions of arrival photons.
Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Liao, Qinghong; Zhou, Nanrun
2014-10-01
We report upon the realization of a novel multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring the arrival positions of photon emitted from a LED using MCP-based WSA photon counting imaging detector. A spatial encoding method is proposed to extract multi-bits random number from the position coordinates of each detected photon. The randomness of bits sequence relies on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission and subsequent photoelectric conversion. A prototype has been built and the random bit generation rate could reach 8 Mbit/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 16 bits per detected photon. FPGA implementation of Huffman coding is proposed to reduce the bias of raw extracted random bits. The random numbers passed all tests for physical random number generator. PMID:25362380
Multi-bit quantum random number generation by measuring positions of arrival photons
Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Liao, Qinghong; Zhou, Nanrun
2014-10-15
We report upon the realization of a novel multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring the arrival positions of photon emitted from a LED using MCP-based WSA photon counting imaging detector. A spatial encoding method is proposed to extract multi-bits random number from the position coordinates of each detected photon. The randomness of bits sequence relies on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission and subsequent photoelectric conversion. A prototype has been built and the random bit generation rate could reach 8 Mbit/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 16 bits per detected photon. FPGA implementation of Huffman coding is proposed to reduce the bias of raw extracted random bits. The random numbers passed all tests for physical random number generator.
Inexpensive electronics and software for photon statistics and correlation spectroscopy
Gamari, Benjamin D.; Zhang, Dianwen; Buckman, Richard E.; Milas, Peker; Denker, John S.; Chen, Hui; Li, Hongmin; Goldner, Lori S.
2016-01-01
Single-molecule-sensitive microscopy and spectroscopy are transforming biophysics and materials science laboratories. Techniques such as fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and single-molecule sensitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) are now commonly available in research laboratories but are as yet infrequently available in teaching laboratories. We describe inexpensive electronics and open-source software that bridges this gap, making state-of-the-art research capabilities accessible to undergraduates interested in biophysics. We include a discussion of the intensity correlation function relevant to FCS and how it can be determined from photon arrival times. We demonstrate the system with a measurement of the hydrodynamic radius of a protein using FCS that is suitable for the undergraduate teaching laboratory. The FPGA-based electronics, which are easy to construct, are suitable for more advanced measurements as well, and several applications are described. As implemented, the system has 8 ns timing resolution, can control up to four laser sources, and can collect information from as many as four photon-counting detectors. PMID:26924846
Inexpensive electronics and software for photon statistics and correlation spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gamari, Benjamin D.; Zhang, Dianwen; Buckman, Richard E.; Milas, Peker; Denker, John S.; Chen, Hui; Li, Hongmin; Goldner, Lori S.
2014-07-01
Single-molecule-sensitive microscopy and spectroscopy are transforming biophysics and materials science laboratories. Techniques such as fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and single-molecule sensitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) are now commonly available in research laboratories but are as yet infrequently available in teaching laboratories. We describe inexpensive electronics and open-source software that bridges this gap, making state-of-the-art research capabilities accessible to undergraduates interested in biophysics. We include a discussion of the intensity correlation function relevant to FCS and how it can be determined from photon arrival times. We demonstrate the system with a measurement of the hydrodynamic radius of a protein using FCS that is suitable for the undergraduate teaching laboratory. The FPGA-based electronics, which are easy to construct, are suitable for more advanced measurements as well, and several applications are described. As implemented, the system has 8 ns timing resolution, can control up to four laser sources, and can collect information from as many as four photon-counting detectors.
Miao, Qiang; Zheng, Yujun
2016-01-01
In this paper, the nature of the multi-order resonance and coherent destruction of tunneling (CDT) for two-level system driven cross avoided crossing is investigated by employing the emitted photons 〈N〉 and the Mandel's Q parameter based on the photon counting statistics. An asymmetric feature of CDT is shown in the spectrum of Mandel's Q parameter. Also, the CDT can be employed to suppress the spontaneous decay and prolong waiting time noticeably. The photon emission pattern is of monotonicity in strong relaxation, and homogeneity in pure dephasing regime, respectively. PMID:27353375
Miao, Qiang; Zheng, Yujun
2016-01-01
In this paper, the nature of the multi-order resonance and coherent destruction of tunneling (CDT) for two-level system driven cross avoided crossing is investigated by employing the emitted photons 〈N〉 and the Mandel’s Q parameter based on the photon counting statistics. An asymmetric feature of CDT is shown in the spectrum of Mandel’s Q parameter. Also, the CDT can be employed to suppress the spontaneous decay and prolong waiting time noticeably. The photon emission pattern is of monotonicity in strong relaxation, and homogeneity in pure dephasing regime, respectively. PMID:27353375
USA by Numbers: A Statistical Portrait of the United States.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weber, Susan, Ed.
This book presents demographic data about a variety of U.S. public policies, social problems, and environmental issues. The issues and problems that the statistics illustrate (such as overflowing garbage dumps, homelessness, child poverty, and smog and water pollution) are connected with, and the consequences of, the expanding U.S. population. The…
Canadian Statistical Review. Volume 53, Number 7, July 1978.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
von Zur-Muehlen, Max
1978-01-01
Information on Canadian social and economic trends is presented in this statistical review. Advance information on national income and expenditure accounts for the first quarter of 1978 is provided. Characteristics of full-time university teachers from 1956-57 to 1977-78 are detailed in tables that recount such developments as the nearly six-fold…
Development of a high-frequency electronic integrator for photon-number resolving detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meier, Kristina; Wayne, Michael; Kwiat, Paul
2016-05-01
Efficient photon-number-resolving single-photon detectors are a critical resource for optical quantum information processing, e.g., for realizing deterministic single-photon production. Previously, we have developed Visible Light Photon Counters (VLPCs) that can detect single photons with high quantum efficiency. The detector configuration allows photons to initiate multiple electron avalanches simultaneously, creating a signal with a charge proportional to the number of photons detected. One current obstacle is the extraction of the total charge of each pulse at frequencies ranging from 200 MHz to 20 GHz. The charge of each pulse is proportional to the area under the input signal and so we are currently developing an electronic integrator that, with appropriate signal amplification, will produce an output signal of pulses with heights equal to the integral of the VLPC pulse, thereby fully realizing the photon-number resolving capabilities of these detectors. Finally, we are also studying the use of optical annealing to reduce the detector's dark counts.
Practical photon number detection with electric field-modulated silicon avalanche photodiodes.
Thomas, O; Yuan, Z L; Shields, A J
2012-01-01
Low-noise single-photon detection is a prerequisite for quantum information processing using photonic qubits. In particular, detectors that are able to accurately resolve the number of photons in an incident light pulse will find application in functions such as quantum teleportation and linear optics quantum computing. More generally, such a detector will allow the advantages of quantum light detection to be extended to stronger optical signals, permitting optical measurements limited only by fluctuations in the photon number of the source. Here we demonstrate a practical high-speed device, which allows the signals arising from multiple photon-induced avalanches to be precisely discriminated. We use a type of silicon avalanche photodiode in which the lateral electric field profile is strongly modulated in order to realize a spatially multiplexed detector. Clearly discerned multiphoton signals are obtained by applying sub-nanosecond voltage gates in order to restrict the detector current. PMID:22273682
Lin Song; Wen Qiaoyan; Gao Fei; Zhu Fuchen
2009-05-15
A collective photon-number-splitting attack strategy is proposed, which combines photon-number-splitting attack with an unambiguous set discrimination of quantum state. Verified by this attack strategy, it is shown that a two-way quantum secure direct communication protocol with qubits is insecure in real circumstance. Finally, we present a possible improved version of this kind of quantum secure direct communication protocol.
Statistical method for resolving the photon-photoelectron-counting inversion problem
Wu Jinlong; Li Tiejun; Peng, Xiang; Guo Hong
2011-02-01
A statistical inversion method is proposed for the photon-photoelectron-counting statistics in quantum key distribution experiment. With the statistical viewpoint, this problem is equivalent to the parameter estimation for an infinite binomial mixture model. The coarse-graining idea and Bayesian methods are applied to deal with this ill-posed problem, which is a good simple example to show the successful application of the statistical methods to the inverse problem. Numerical results show the applicability of the proposed strategy. The coarse-graining idea for the infinite mixture models should be general to be used in the future.
Measurement of the atom number distribution in an optical tweezer using single-photon counting
Fuhrmanek, A.; Sortais, Y. R. P.; Grangier, P.; Browaeys, A.
2010-08-15
We demonstrate in this paper a method to reconstruct the atom number distribution of a cloud containing a few tens of cold atoms. The atoms are first loaded from a magneto-optical trap into a microscopic optical dipole trap and then released in a resonant light probe where they undergo a Brownian motion and scatter photons. We count the number of photon events detected on an image intensifier. Using the response of our detection system to a single atom as a calibration, we extract the atom number distribution when the trap is loaded with more than one atom. The atom number distribution is found to be compatible with a Poisson distribution.
Statistics of scattered photons from a driven three-level emitter in 1D open space
Roy, Dibyendu; Bondyopadhaya, Nilanjan
2014-01-07
We derive the statistics of scattered photons from a Λ- or ladder-type three-level emitter (3LE) embedded in a 1D open waveguide. The weak probe photons in the waveguide are coupled to one of the two allowed transitions of the 3LE, and the other transition is driven by a control beam. This system shows electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) which is accompanied with the Autler-Townes splitting (ATS) at a strong driving by the control beam, and some of these effects have been observed recently. We show that the nature of second-order coherence of the transmitted probe photons near two-photon resonance changes from bunching to antibunching to constant as strength of the control beam is ramped up from zero to a higher value where the ATS appears.
Konovalov, Aleksandr B; Vlasov, V V; Kalintsev, A G; Lyubimov, Vladimir V; Kravtsenyuk, Olga V
2006-11-30
The inverse problem of diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is reduced by the method of photon average trajectories (PAT) to the solution of the integral equation integrated along the conditional mean statistical photon trajectory. The PAT bending near the flat boundary of a scattering medium is estimated analytically. These estimates are used to determine the analytic statistical characteristics of photon trajectories for the flat layer geometry. The inverse DOT problem is solved by using the multiplicative algebraic algorithm modified to improve the convergence of the iteration reconstruction process. The numerical experiment shows that the modified PAT method permits the reconstruction of near-surface optical inhomogeneities virtually without distortions. (special issue devoted to multiple radiation scattering in random media)
Spontaneously generated coherence in a Rb atom via photon counting statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Zhuo; Peng, Yonggang; Sun, Zhen-Dong; Zheng, Yujun
2016-01-01
We study the spontaneously generated coherence (SGC) in a Rb atom by employing photon counting statistics based on the four-level Y-type model driven by a probe field and two coherent control fields. A transparency channel induced by coherent population trapping (CPT) and ultra-narrow probe absorption peaks in the presence of SGC are found.
Niwa, Kazuki
2016-01-01
Quantum yield (QY), which is defined as the probability of photon production by a single bio/chemiluminescence reaction, is an important factor to characterize luminescence light intensity emitted diffusively from the reaction solution mixture. Here, methods to measure number of photons to determine QY according to the techniques of national radiometry standards are described. As an example, experiments using firefly bioluminescence reactions are introduced. PMID:27424895
Absolute calibration of photon-number-resolving detectors with an analog output using twin beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peřina, Jan; Haderka, Ondřej; Allevi, Alessia; Bondani, Maria
2014-01-01
A method for absolute calibration of a photon-number resolving detector producing analog signals as the output is developed using a twin beam. The method gives both analog-to-digital conversion parameters and quantum detection efficiency for the photon fields. Characteristics of the used twin beam are also obtained. A simplified variant of the method applicable to fields with high signal to noise ratios and suitable for more intense twin beams is suggested.
Absolute calibration of photon-number-resolving detectors with an analog output using twin beams
Peřina, Jan; Haderka, Ondřej; Allevi, Alessia; Bondani, Maria
2014-01-27
A method for absolute calibration of a photon-number resolving detector producing analog signals as the output is developed using a twin beam. The method gives both analog-to-digital conversion parameters and quantum detection efficiency for the photon fields. Characteristics of the used twin beam are also obtained. A simplified variant of the method applicable to fields with high signal to noise ratios and suitable for more intense twin beams is suggested.
Effective atomic numbers for low-energy total photon interactions in human tissues.
Yang, N C; Leichner, P K; Hawkins, W G
1987-01-01
A new method is introduced in which the total photon interaction cross sections per electron of human tissues are used to define effective atomic numbers for blood, bone, brain, fat, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, ovary, pancreas, spleen, and water. These effective atomic numbers are equal within 4% from 10 to 200 keV in each soft tissue, whereas for bones of different chemical compositions the variation ranges from 2.86% to 5.03%. This effective atomic number definition is less energy dependent than a previous definition based on the total photon interaction cross section per atom averaged over all elements in the tissue, from which the computed effective atomic numbers varied by as much as 50% (in bone) as a function of photon energy over the energy range from 10 to 200 keV. PMID:3683305
Statistical evaluation of PACSTAT random number generation capabilities
Piepel, G.F.; Toland, M.R.; Harty, H.; Budden, M.J.; Bartley, C.L.
1988-05-01
This report summarizes the work performed in verifying the general purpose Monte Carlo driver-program PACSTAT. The main objective of the work was to verify the performance of PACSTAT's random number generation capabilities. Secondary objectives were to document (using controlled configuration management procedures) changes made in PACSTAT at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and to assure that PACSTAT input and output files satisfy quality assurance traceability constraints. Upon receipt of the PRIME version of the PACSTAT code from the Basalt Waste Isolation Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory staff converted the code to run on Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) VAXs. The modifications to PACSTAT were implemented using the WITNESS configuration management system, with the modifications themselves intended to make the code as portable as possible. Certain modifications were made to make the PACSTAT input and output files conform to quality assurance traceability constraints. 10 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.
Theoretical modeling of single-molecule fluorescence with complicated photon statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osad'ko, I. S.; Naumov, A. V.; Eremchev, I. Yu.; Vainer, Yu. G.; Kador, L.
2012-11-01
The use of techniques for analyzing the fluorescence photon statistics of a single molecule for modeling single-emitter dynamics is demonstrated. The photon distribution function measured in the fluorescence of a single tetra-tert-butylterrylene molecule embedded in polyisobutylene is used to devise a theoretical model for single emitters with complicated fluorescence photon statistics. Our analysis was carried out with the theoretical approach developed by Osad'ko and co-workers [J. Chem. Phys.JCPSA60021-960610.1063/1.3055287 130, 064904 (2009); J. Phys. Chem. C10.1021/jp1014093 114, 10349 (2010)] for photon distribution functions. Although the experimental data were obtained at cryogenic temperature where narrow zero-phonon lines are present, the method is based on a purely statistical approach and does not require spectrally resolved data. It can also be applied to the analysis of broad fluorescence bands as measured at room temperature. Therefore, the method has prospects for revealing the quantum dynamics of single biological objects and other single quantum emitters in ambient conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jino, Heo; Chang-Ho, Hong; Dong-Hoon, Lee; Hyung-Jin, Yang
2016-02-01
We propose an arbitrary controlled-unitary (CU) gate and a bidirectional transfer scheme of quantum information (BTQI) for unknown photons. The proposed CU gate utilizes quantum non-demolition photon-number-resolving measurement based on the weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities (XKNLs) and two quantum bus beams; the proposed CU gate consists of consecutive operations of a controlled-path gate and a gathering-path gate. It is almost deterministic and is feasible with current technology when a strong amplitude of the coherent state and weak XKNLs are employed. Compared with the existing optical multi-qubit or controlled gates, which utilize XKNLs and homodyne detectors, the proposed CU gate can increase experimental realization feasibility and enhance robustness against decoherence. According to the CU gate, we present a BTQI scheme in which the two unknown states of photons between two parties (Alice and Bob) are mutually swapped by transferring only a single photon. Consequently, by using the proposed CU gate, it is possible to experimentally implement the BTQI scheme with a certain probability of success.
Muir, Ryan D.; Kissick, David J.; Simpson, Garth J.
2012-01-01
Data from photomultiplier tubes are typically analyzed using either counting or averaging techniques, which are most accurate in the dim and bright signal limits, respectively. A statistical means of adjoining these two techniques is presented by recovering the Poisson parameter from averaged data and relating it to the statistics of binomial counting from Kissick et al. [Anal. Chem. 82, 10129 (2010)]. The point at which binomial photon counting and averaging have equal signal to noise ratios is derived. Adjoining these two techniques generates signal to noise ratios at 87% to approaching 100% of theoretical maximum across the full dynamic range of the photomultiplier tube used. The technique is demonstrated in a second harmonic generation microscope. PMID:22535131
Muir, Ryan D; Kissick, David J; Simpson, Garth J
2012-04-23
Data from photomultiplier tubes are typically analyzed using either counting or averaging techniques, which are most accurate in the dim and bright signal limits, respectively. A statistical means of adjoining these two techniques is presented by recovering the Poisson parameter from averaged data and relating it to the statistics of binomial counting from Kissick et al. [Anal. Chem. 82, 10129 (2010)]. The point at which binomial photon counting and averaging have equal signal to noise ratios is derived. Adjoining these two techniques generates signal to noise ratios at 87% to approaching 100% of theoretical maximum across the full dynamic range of the photomultiplier tube used. The technique is demonstrated in a second harmonic generation microscope. PMID:22535131
Noise-free high-efficiency photon-number-resolving detectors
Rosenberg, Danna; Lita, Adriana E.; Miller, Aaron J.; Nam, Sae Woo
2005-06-15
High-efficiency optical detectors that can determine the number of photons in a pulse of monochromatic light have applications in a variety of physics studies, including post-selection-based entanglement protocols for linear optics quantum computing and experiments that simultaneously close the detection and communication loopholes of Bell's inequalities. Here we report on our demonstration of fiber-coupled, noise-free, photon-number-resolving transition-edge sensors with 88% efficiency at 1550 nm. The efficiency of these sensors could be made even higher at any wavelength in the visible and near-infrared spectrum without resulting in a higher dark-count rate or degraded photon-number resolution.
Statistical Handbook on Aging Americans. 1994 Edition. Statistical Handbook Series Number 5.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schick, Frank L., Ed.; Schick, Renee, Ed.
This statistical handbook contains 378 tables and charts illustrating the changes in the United States' aging population based on data collected during the 1990 census and several other surveys. The tables and charts are organized by topic as follows: demographics (age and sex distribution, life expectancy, race and ethnicity, geographic…
Generation of photon-number squeezed states with a fiber-optic symmetric interferometer.
Hosaka, Aruto; Hirosawa, Kenichi; Sawada, Ryota; Kannari, Fumihiko
2015-07-27
We numerically and experimentally demonstrate photon-number squeezed state generation with a symmetric fiber interferometer in an 800-nm wavelength and compared with an asymmetric fiber interferometer, although photon-number squeezed pulses have been generated only with asymmetric interferometers. Even though we obtain -1.0dB squeezing with an asymmetric fiber interferometer, since perfect spectral phase and intensity matching between displacement and signal pulses are achieved with a symmetric fiber interferometer, we obtain better squeezing of -3.1dB. We also numerically calculate and clarify this scheme's usefulness at a 1.55-μm wavelength. PMID:26367549
Cavity Nonlinear Optics at Low Photon Numbers from Collective Atomic Motion
Gupta, Subhadeep; Moore, Kevin L.; Murch, Kater W.; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M.
2007-11-23
We report on Kerr nonlinearity and dispersive optical bistability of a Fabry-Perot optical resonator due to the displacement of ultracold atoms trapped within. In the driven resonator, such collective motion is induced by optical forces acting upon up to 10{sup 5} {sup 87}Rb atoms prepared in the lowest band of a one-dimensional intracavity optical lattice. The longevity of atomic motional coherence allows for strongly nonlinear optics at extremely low cavity photon numbers, as demonstrated by the observation of both branches of optical bistability at photon numbers below unity.
There's plenty of light at the bottom: statistics of photon penetration depth in random media.
Martelli, Fabrizio; Binzoni, Tiziano; Pifferi, Antonio; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Farina, Andrea; Torricelli, Alessandro
2016-01-01
We propose a comprehensive statistical approach describing the penetration depth of light in random media. The presented theory exploits the concept of probability density function f(z|ρ, t) for the maximum depth reached by the photons that are eventually re-emitted from the surface of the medium at distance ρ and time t. Analytical formulas for f, for the mean maximum depth 〈zmax〉 and for the mean average depth reached by the detected photons at the surface of a diffusive slab are derived within the framework of the diffusion approximation to the radiative transfer equation, both in the time domain and the continuous wave domain. Validation of the theory by means of comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations is also presented. The results are of interest for many research fields such as biomedical optics, advanced microscopy and disordered photonics. PMID:27256988
Statistical x-ray computed tomography imaging from photon-starved measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Zhiqian; Zhang, Ruoqiao; Thibault, Jean-Baptiste; Sauer, Ken; Bouman, Charles
2013-03-01
Dose reduction in clinical X-ray computed tomography (CT) causes low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in photonsparse situations. Statistical iterative reconstruction algorithms have the advantage of retaining image quality while reducing input dosage, but they meet their limits of practicality when significant portions of the sinogram near photon starvation. The corruption of electronic noise leads to measured photon counts taking on negative values, posing a problem for the log() operation in preprocessing of data. In this paper, we propose two categories of projection correction methods: an adaptive denoising filter and Bayesian inference. The denoising filter is easy to implement and preserves local statistics, but it introduces correlation between channels and may affect image resolution. Bayesian inference is a point-wise estimation based on measurements and prior information. Both approaches help improve diagnostic image quality at dramatically reduced dosage.
Photon-statistics excitation spectroscopy of a single two-level system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strauß, Max; Placke, Marlon; Kreinberg, Sören; Schneider, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven; Wolters, Janik; Reitzenstein, Stephan
2016-06-01
We investigate the influence of the photon statistics on the excitation dynamics of a single two-level system. A single semiconductor quantum dot represents the two-level system and is resonantly excited either with coherent laser light, or excited with chaotic light, with photon statistics corresponding to that of thermal radiation. Experimentally, we observe a reduced absorption cross section under chaotic excitation in the steady state. In the transient regime, the Rabi oscillations observable under coherent excitation disappear under chaotic excitation. Likewise, in the emission spectrum, the well-known Mollow triplet, which we observe under coherent drive, disappears under chaotic excitation. Our observations are fully consistent with theoretical predictions based on the semiclassical Bloch equation approach.
Acin, Antonio; Gisin, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio
2004-01-01
We propose a class of quantum cryptography protocols that are robust against photon-number-splitting attacks (PNS) in a weak coherent-pulse implementation. We give a quite exhaustive analysis of several eavesdropping attacks on these schemes. The honest parties (Alice and Bob) use present-day technology, in particular an attenuated laser as an approximation of a single-photon source. The idea of the protocols is to exploit the nonorthogonality of quantum states to decrease the information accessible to Eve due to the multiphoton pulses produced by the imperfect source. The distance at which the key distribution becomes insecure due to the PNS attack is significantly increased compared to the existing schemes. We also show that strong-pulse implementations, where a strong pulse is included as a reference, allow for key distribution robust against photon-number-splitting attacks.
The Number of Accumulated Photons and the Quality of Stimulated Emission Depletion Lifetime Images
Syed, Aleem; Lesoine, Michael D; Bhattacharjee, Ujjal; Petrich, Jacob W; Smith, Emily A
2014-03-03
Time binning is used to increase the number of photon counts in the peak channel of stimulated emission depletion (STED) fluorescence lifetime decay curves to determine how it affects the resulting lifetime image. The fluorescence lifetime of the fluorophore, Alexa Fluor 594 phalloidin, bound to F-actin is probed in cultured S2 cells at a spatial resolution of ~40 nm. This corresponds to a tenfold smaller probe volume compared to confocal imaging, and a reduced number of photons contributing to the signal. Pixel-by-pixel fluorescence lifetime measurements and error analysis show that an average of 40 ± 30 photon counts in the peak channel with a signal-to-noise ratio of 20 is enough to calculate a reliable fluorescence lifetime from a single exponential fluorescence decay. No heterogeneity in the actin cytoskeleton in different regions of the cultured cells was measured in the 40- to 400-nm spatial regime.
Grußmayer, Kristin S; Steiner, Florian; Lupton, John M; Herten, Dirk-Peter; Vogelsang, Jan
2015-12-01
Blinking of the photoluminescence (PL) emitted from individual conjugated polymer chains is one of the central observations made by single-molecule spectroscopy (SMS). Important information, for example regarding excitation energy transfer, can be extracted by evaluating dynamic quenching. However, the nature of trap states, which are responsible for PL quenching, often remains obscured. We present a detailed investigation of the photon statistics of single poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) chains obtained by SMS. The photon statistics provide a measure of the number and brightness of independently emitting areas on a single chain. These observables can be followed during blinking. A decrease in PL intensity is shown to be correlated with either 1) a decrease in the average brightness of the emitting sites; or 2) a decrease in the number of emitting regions. We attribute these phenomena to the formation of 1) shallow charge traps, which can weakly affect all emitting areas of a single chain at once; and 2) deep traps, which have a strong effect on small regions within the single chains. PMID:26490757
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miftasani, Fitria; Machnikowski, Paweł
2016-02-01
We present a theoretical analysis of the intensity correlation functions for the spontaneous emission from a planar ensemble of self-assembled quantum dots. Using the quantum jump approach, we numerically simulate the evolution of the system and construct photon-photon delay time statistics that approximates the second-order correlation functions of the field. The form of this correlation function in the case of collective emission from a highly homogeneous ensemble qualitatively differs from that characterizing an ensemble of independent emitters (inhomogeneous ensemble of uncoupled dots). The signatures of collective emission are observed also in the case of an inhomogeneous but sufficiently strongly coupled ensemble. Different forms of the correlation functions are observed in the intensity autocorrelations and in cross correlations between various spectral ranges, revealing the quantum state projection associated with the detection event and the subsequent interaction-induced redistribution of occupations. The predicted effect of collective dynamics on the correlation functions appears under various excitation conditions. Thus, we show that the second-order correlation function of the emitted field provides a sensitive test of cooperative effects.
Photon-number superselection and the entangled coherent-state representation
Sanders, Barry C.; Bartlett, Stephen D.; Rudolph, Terry; Knight, Peter L.
2003-10-01
We introduce the entangled coherent-state representation, which provides a powerful technique for efficiently and elegantly describing and analyzing quantum optics sources and detectors while respecting the photon-number superselection rule that is satisfied by all known quantum optics experiments. We apply the entangled coherent-state representation to elucidate and resolve the long-standing puzzles of the coherence of a laser output field, interference between two number states, and dichotomous interpretations of quantum teleportation of coherent states.
Extremal states for photon number and quadratures as gauges for nonclassicality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hradil, Z.; Řeháček, J.; de la Hoz, P.; Leuchs, G.; Sánchez-Soto, L. L.
2015-04-01
Rotated quadratures carry the phase-dependent information of the electromagnetic field, so they are somehow conjugate to the photon number. We analyze this noncanonical pair, finding an exact uncertainty relation, as well as a couple of weaker inequalities obtained by relaxing some restrictions of the problem. We also find the intelligent states saturating that relation and complete their characterization by considering extra constraints on the second-order moments of the variables involved. Using these moments, we construct performance measures tailored to diagnose photon-added and Schrödinger-cat-like states, among others.
Generation of a Superposition of Odd Photon Number States for Quantum Information Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neergaard-Nielsen, J. S.; Nielsen, B. Melholt; Hettich, C.; Mølmer, K.; Polzik, E. S.
2006-08-01
We report on the experimental observation of quantum-network-compatible light described by a nonpositive Wigner function. The state is generated by photon subtraction from a squeezed vacuum state produced by a continuous wave optical parametric amplifier. Ideally, the state is a coherent superposition of odd photon number states, closely resembling a superposition of weak coherent states |α⟩-|-α⟩. In the limit of low squeezing the state is basically a single photon state. Light is generated with about 10 000 and more events per second in a nearly perfect spatial mode with a Fourier-limited frequency bandwidth which matches well atomic quantum memory requirements. The generated state of light is an excellent input state for testing quantum memories, quantum repeaters, and linear optics quantum computers.
Gerrits, Thomas; Glancy, Scott; Clement, Tracy S.; Calkins, Brice; Lita, Adriana E.; Nam, Sae Woo; Mirin, Richard P.; Knill, Emanuel; Miller, Aaron J.; Migdall, Alan L.
2010-09-15
We have created heralded coherent-state superpositions (CSSs) by subtracting up to three photons from a pulse of squeezed vacuum light. To produce such CSSs at a sufficient rate, we used our high-efficiency photon-number-resolving transition edge sensor to detect the subtracted photons. This experiment is enabled by and utilizes the full photon-number-resolving capabilities of this detector. The CSS produced by three-photon subtraction had a mean-photon number of 2.75{sub -0.24}{sup +0.06} and a fidelity of 0.59{sub -0.14}{sup +0.04} with an ideal CSS. This confirms that subtracting more photons results in higher-amplitude CSSs.
Practical quantum metrology with large precision gains in the low-photon-number regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knott, P. A.; Proctor, T. J.; Hayes, A. J.; Cooling, J. P.; Dunningham, J. A.
2016-03-01
Quantum metrology exploits quantum correlations to make precise measurements with limited particle numbers. By utilizing inter- and intramode correlations in an optical interferometer, we find a state that combines entanglement and squeezing to give a sevenfold enhancement in the quantum Fisher information (QFI)—a metric related to the precision—over the shot-noise limit, for low photon numbers. Motivated by practicality we then look at the squeezed cat state, which has recently been made experimentally, and shows further precision gains over the shot-noise limit and a threefold improvement in the QFI over the optimal Gaussian state. We present a conceptually simple measurement scheme that saturates the QFI, and we demonstrate a robustness to loss for small photon numbers. The squeezed cat state can therefore give a significant precision enhancement in optical quantum metrology in practical and realistic conditions.
Photonic analog-to-digital converter based on the robust symmetrical number system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Ying; Chi, Hao; Zheng, Shilie; Jin, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Xianmin
2012-11-01
A novel approach to realizing photonic analog-to-digital conversion with Gray-code-like property is proposed and demonstrated. Instead of using Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZMs) with different half-wave voltages, an array of MZMs with identical half-wave voltages are applied to realize quantization and encoding, which greatly simplifies the implementation. Multiple comparators with preset thresholds are applied at the output of each MZM to improve the number of bits. Through properly setting the bias voltages of the MZMs, a photonic analog to digital converter (ADC) based on the robust symmetrical number system (RSNS) coding method is realized. As an example, a 3-channel structure with maximum quantization level of 17 (corresponding to 4.09 bits) is investigated in detail. We show that the differential encoding technique can be applied in the proposed structure, which increases the equivalent number of bits of the ADC system.
Comparing Data Sets: Implicit Summaries of the Statistical Properties of Number Sets
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morris, Bradley J.; Masnick, Amy M.
2015-01-01
Comparing datasets, that is, sets of numbers in context, is a critical skill in higher order cognition. Although much is known about how people compare single numbers, little is known about how number sets are represented and compared. We investigated how subjects compared datasets that varied in their statistical properties, including ratio of…
Characteristics of Noise and Photon Statistics of Fiber Components in Electro-Optical Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Cheng
This thesis presents a comprehensive study of the role of the fiber replicator in electro-optical systems. In the all fiber optical diagnostic system for the National Ignition Facility's DANTE data acquisition system running at 1550nm, the 8x fiber replicator was used to increase the SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) of single-shot, electrical pulse measurements. In the system, Mach-Zehnder modulators were used to convert the electrical signals into optical signals. The fiber replicator was used to create identical copies of the optical signals. A High SNR was achieved through the averaging of these duplicated signals. Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) were built to amplify the optical signals after the fiber replicator. The EDFAs applied in the DANTEEO system should have high gain, low noise, low background signals and high pulse-shape fidelity. In this thesis, we discussed the effect of different configurations and the type of Er-doped fibers on the gain and noise performance of EDFAs. We also used a simplified model for dynamic gain in EDFAs to explore the effect of the EDFA on the shape of the amplified pulse. Based on this model, the calculated pulse-shape distortions were found to be dependent on the EDFA configuration and the optical gain. We also investigated the photon statistics with the fiber replicator in a photon entanglement system. The entangled photons were created through the up-conversion and down-conversion of a Q-switch laser beam running at 1053nm. The different behavior between entangled photon and non-entangled single photons in the system with the fiber replicator are discussed.
Construction of photon-added spin coherent states and their statistical properties
Berrada, K.
2015-07-15
In the present work, we construct and investigate some properties of the photon-added spin coherent states (PA-SCSs). The Klauder’s minimal set of conditions required to obtain coherent states are discussed. We give the analytical form for the positive weight function in the resolution of unity. Finally, we examine the statistical properties of the PA-SCSs in terms of different parameters using the Mandel’s Q-parameter. All these quantities are expressed in terms of hypergeometric and Meijer G-functions, and so, the PA-SCSs are a new field of application for these functions.
Photon-number entangled states generated in Kerr media with optical parametric pumping
Kowalewska-Kudlaszyk, A.; Leonski, W.; Perina, Jan Jr.
2011-05-15
Two nonlinear Kerr oscillators mutually coupled by parametric pumping are studied as a source of states entangled in photon numbers. Temporal evolution of entanglement quantified by negativity shows the effects of sudden death and birth of entanglement. Entanglement is preserved even in asymptotic states under certain conditions. The role of reservoirs at finite temperature in entanglement evolution is elucidated. Relation between generation of entangled states and violation of Cauchy-Schwartz inequality for oscillator intensities is found.
Attacks exploiting deviation of mean photon number in quantum key distribution and coin tossing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sajeed, Shihan; Radchenko, Igor; Kaiser, Sarah; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Pappa, Anna; Monat, Laurent; Legré, Matthieu; Makarov, Vadim
2015-03-01
The security of quantum communication using a weak coherent source requires an accurate knowledge of the source's mean photon number. Finite calibration precision or an active manipulation by an attacker may cause the actual emitted photon number to deviate from the known value. We model effects of this deviation on the security of three quantum communication protocols: the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol without decoy states, Scarani-Acín-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) QKD protocol, and a coin-tossing protocol. For QKD we model both a strong attack using technology possible in principle and a realistic attack bounded by today's technology. To maintain the mean photon number in two-way systems, such as plug-and-play and relativistic quantum cryptography schemes, bright pulse energy incoming from the communication channel must be monitored. Implementation of a monitoring detector has largely been ignored so far, except for ID Quantique's commercial QKD system Clavis2. We scrutinize this implementation for security problems and show that designing a hack-proof pulse-energy-measuring detector is far from trivial. Indeed, the first implementation has three serious flaws confirmed experimentally, each of which may be exploited in a cleverly constructed Trojan-horse attack. We discuss requirements for a loophole-free implementation of the monitoring detector.
Dynamics of dispersive photon-number QND measurements in a micromaser
Kozlovskii, A. V.
2007-04-15
A numerical analysis of dispersive quantum nondemolition measurement of the photon number of a microwave cavity field is presented. Simulations show that a key property of the dispersive atom-field interaction used in Ramsey interferometry is the extremely high sensitivity of the dynamics of atomic and field states to basic parameters of the system. When a monokinetic atomic beam is sent through a microwave cavity, a qualitative change in the field state can be caused by an uncontrollably small deviation of parameters (such as atom path length through the cavity, atom velocity, cavity mode frequency detuning, or atom-field coupling constants). The resulting cavity field can be either in a Fock state or in a super-Poissonian state (characterized by a large photon-number variance). When the atoms have a random velocity spread, the field is squeezed to a Fock state for arbitrary values of the system's parameters. However, this makes detection of Ramsey fringes impossible, because the probability of detecting an atom in the upper or lower electronic state becomes a random quantity almost uniformly distributed over the interval between zero and unity, irrespective of the cavity photon number.
Crovelli, R.A.
1997-01-01
The National Park Service needs to establish in all of the national parks how large the parking lots should be in order to enjoy and presence our natural resources, for example, in the Delicate Arch in the Arches National Park. Probabilistic and statistical relationships were developed between the number of vehicles (N) at one time in the Wolfe Ranch parking lot and the number of visitors (X) at Delicate Arch 1.5 miles away in the Arches National Park, southeastern Utah. The value of N is determined such that 30 or more visitors are at the arch only 10% of the time.
Non-Statistical Oligopeptide Fragmentation by IR Photons with λ=16-18 μm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jungclas, Hartmut; Komarov, Viacheslav V.; Popova, Anna M.; Schmidt, Lothar
2015-12-01
In this article we analyse the vibration excitation and following dissociation of protonated oligopeptide molecules induced by IR photons with λ=16-18 μm. The analysis is based on our previous works in which we considered a specific non-statistical dissociation process in organic molecules containing substructures consisting of chained identical diatomic dipoles such as (CH2)n. Such dipole chains can serve as IR antennas for external radiation in the IR frequency range. The acquired vibration energy accumulated in IR antennas can be large enough to dissociate molecules within a femtosecond time interval by a non-statistical process, which is driven by a radiationless low-energy transport mechanism inside the peptide molecules. We point out in this article that the suggested IR-induced dissociation mechanism can be applied to obtain sequence information of protonated oligopeptides.
Xu Bingjie; Peng Xiang; Guo Hong
2010-10-15
A passive scheme with a beam splitter and a photon-number-resolving (PNR) detector is proposed to verify the photon statistics of an untrusted source in a plug-and-play quantum-key-distribution system by applying a three-intensity decoy-state protocol. The practical issues due to statistical fluctuation and detection noise are analyzed. The simulation results show that the scheme can work efficiently when the total number of optical pulses sent from Alice to Bob is above 10{sup 8}, and the dark count rate of the PNR detector is below 0.5 counts/pulse, which is realizable with current techniques. Furthermore, we propose a practical realization of the PNR detector with a variable optical attenuator combined with a threshold detector.
Weidinger, Thomas; Buzug, Thorsten M; Flohr, Thomas; Kappler, Steffen; Stierstorfer, Karl
2016-01-01
This work proposes a dedicated statistical algorithm to perform a direct reconstruction of material-decomposed images from data acquired with photon-counting detectors (PCDs) in computed tomography. It is based on local approximations (surrogates) of the negative logarithmic Poisson probability function. Exploiting the convexity of this function allows for parallel updates of all image pixels. Parallel updates can compensate for the rather slow convergence that is intrinsic to statistical algorithms. We investigate the accuracy of the algorithm for ideal photon-counting detectors. Complementarily, we apply the algorithm to simulation data of a realistic PCD with its spectral resolution limited by K-escape, charge sharing, and pulse-pileup. For data from both an ideal and realistic PCD, the proposed algorithm is able to correct beam-hardening artifacts and quantitatively determine the material fractions of the chosen basis materials. Via regularization we were able to achieve a reduction of image noise for the realistic PCD that is up to 90% lower compared to material images form a linear, image-based material decomposition using FBP images. Additionally, we find a dependence of the algorithms convergence speed on the threshold selection within the PCD. PMID:27195003
Weidinger, Thomas; Buzug, Thorsten M.; Flohr, Thomas; Kappler, Steffen; Stierstorfer, Karl
2016-01-01
This work proposes a dedicated statistical algorithm to perform a direct reconstruction of material-decomposed images from data acquired with photon-counting detectors (PCDs) in computed tomography. It is based on local approximations (surrogates) of the negative logarithmic Poisson probability function. Exploiting the convexity of this function allows for parallel updates of all image pixels. Parallel updates can compensate for the rather slow convergence that is intrinsic to statistical algorithms. We investigate the accuracy of the algorithm for ideal photon-counting detectors. Complementarily, we apply the algorithm to simulation data of a realistic PCD with its spectral resolution limited by K-escape, charge sharing, and pulse-pileup. For data from both an ideal and realistic PCD, the proposed algorithm is able to correct beam-hardening artifacts and quantitatively determine the material fractions of the chosen basis materials. Via regularization we were able to achieve a reduction of image noise for the realistic PCD that is up to 90% lower compared to material images form a linear, image-based material decomposition using FBP images. Additionally, we find a dependence of the algorithms convergence speed on the threshold selection within the PCD. PMID:27195003
Photon statistics of pulse-pumped four-wave mixing in fiber with weak signal injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nan-Nan, Liu; Yu-Hong, Liu; Jia-Min, Li; Xiao-Ying, Li
2016-07-01
We study the photon statistics of pulse-pumped four-wave mixing in fibers with weak coherent signal injection by measuring the intensity correlation functions of individual signal and idler fields. The experimental results show that the intensity correlation function of individual signal (idler) field decreases with the intensity of signal injection. After applying narrow band filter in signal (idler) band, the value of decreases from 1.9 ± 0.02 (1.9 ± 0.02) to 1.03 ± 0.02 (1.05 ± 0.02) when the intensity of signal injection varies from 0 to 120 photons/pulse. The results indicate that the photon statistics changes from Bose–Einstein distribution to Poisson distribution. We calculate the intensity correlation functions by using the multi-mode theory of four-wave mixing in fibers. The theoretical curves well fit the experimental results. Our investigation will be useful for mitigating the crosstalk between quantum and classical channels in a dense wavelength division multiplexing network. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11527808), the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2014CB340103), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120032110055), the Natural Science Foundation of Tianjin, China (Grant No. 14JCQNJC02300), the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University, China, and the Program of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities, China (Grant No. B07014).
Unified position-dependent photon-number quantization in layered structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Partanen, Mikko; Häyrynen, Teppo; Oksanen, Jani; Tulkki, Jukka
2014-12-01
We have recently developed a position-dependent quantization scheme for describing the ladder and effective photon-number operators associated with the electric field to analyze quantum optical energy transfer in lossy and dispersive dielectrics [Phys. Rev. A 89, 033831 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.033831]. While having a simple connection to the thermal balance of the system, these operators only described the electric field and its coupling to lossy dielectric bodies. Here we extend this field quantization scheme to include the magnetic field and thus to enable description of the total electromagnetic field and discuss conceptual measurement schemes to verify the predictions. In addition to conveniently describing the formation of thermal balance, the generalized approach allows modeling of the electromagnetic pressure and Casimir forces. We apply the formalism to study the local steady-state field temperature distributions and electromagnetic force density in cavities with cavity walls at different temperatures. The calculated local electric and magnetic field temperatures exhibit oscillations that depend on the position as well as the photon energy. However, the effective photon number and field temperature associated with the total electromagnetic field is always position independent in lossless media. Furthermore, we show that the direction of the electromagnetic force varies as a function of frequency, position, and material thickness.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richardson, W. H.; Yamamoto, Y.
1991-01-01
The photon-number fluctuation of the external field from a semiconductor laser - which was reduced to below the standard quantum limit - is shown to be correlated with the measured junction-voltage noise. The spectral density of the sum of the photon-number fluctuation and junction-voltage fluctuation falls below the squeezed photon-number fluctuation. This confirms the theoretical predictions that this correlation, which originates in the dipole interaction between the internal field and electron-hole pairs, extends into the quantum regime.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richardson, Chris; Sabottke, Carl; Yurtsever, Ulvi; Lamas, Antia; Dowling, Jonathan; Anisimov, Petr
2012-02-01
We develop an improvement to the weak laser pulse BB84 scheme for quantum key distribution, which utilizes entanglement to improve the security of the scheme and enhance its resilience to the photon number splitting attack. This protocol relies on the non-commutation of photon phase and number to detect an eavesdropper performing quantum non-demolition measurement on number. The potential advantages and disadvantages of this scheme are compared to the coherent decoy state solution. Most entanglement based quantum key distribution schemes rely on violations of Bell's inequalities to ensure security. However, this is not the strategy that our entanglement enhanced (EE) BB84 employs here. Instead, we detect Eve by introducing an entangled quantum state into the system that is sensitive to Eve's QND measurements. This allows for a recovery of an approximately linear dependence on transmittivity for the key rate. EE BB84 shares this advantage with coherent decoy state protocols as well as schemes that utilize strong phase reference pulses to eliminate Eve's ability to send Bob vacuum signals.
Nie, You-Qi; Zhang, Jun Pan, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Zhen; Ma, Xiongfeng
2014-02-03
We present a practical high-speed quantum random number generator, where the timing of single-photon detection relative to an external time reference is measured as the raw data. The bias of the raw data can be substantially reduced compared with the previous realizations. The raw random bit rate of our generator can reach 109 Mbps. We develop a model for the generator and evaluate the min-entropy of the raw data. Toeplitz matrix hashing is applied for randomness extraction, after which the final random bits are able to pass the standard randomness tests.
Proposal for reversing the weak measurement with arbitrary maximum photon number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Xiaodong; Al-Amri, M.; Zhu, Shiyao; Zubairy, M. Suhail
2016-05-01
We present a proposal for reversing the weak (partial-collapse) quantum measurement on a cavity field with arbitrary maximum photon number. We start by putting forth a protocol to realize quantum phase gates between the cavity field and an ancilla qubit. Afterward, adopting these phase gates and some other quantum gates, we can determine the reversal of the cavity state just by observing the ancilla qubit. Compared to previous proposals, our proposal does not need any other weak measurement and can save reversal time, which is significantly important in quantum informatics and quantum computation.
Discrimination of optical coherent states using a photon number resolving detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wittmann, Christoffer; Andersen, Ulrik L.; Leuchs, Gerd
2010-02-01
The discrimination of non-orthogonal quantum states with reduced or without errors is a fundamental task in quantum measurement theory. In this work, we investigate a quantum measurement strategy capable of discriminating two coherent states probabilistically with significantly smaller error probabilities than can be obtained using non-probabilistic state discrimination. We find that appropriate postselection of the measurement data of a photon number resolving detector can be used to discriminate two coherent states with small error probability. We compare our new receiver to an optimal intermediate measurement between minimum error discrimination and unambiguous state discrimination.
Kissick, David J; Muir, Ryan D; Simpson, Garth J
2010-12-15
An experimentally simple photon counting method is demonstrated providing 7 orders of magnitude in linear dynamic range (LDR) for a single photomultiplier tube (PMT) detector. In conventional photon/electron counting methods, the linear range is dictated by the agreement between the binomially distributed measurement of counted events and the underlying Poisson distribution of photons/electrons. By explicitly considering the log-normal probability distribution in voltage transients as a function of the number of photons present and the Poisson distribution of photons, observed counts for a given threshold can be related to the mean number of photons well beyond the conventional limit. Analytical expressions are derived relating counts and photons that extend the linear range to an average of ∼11 photons arriving simultaneously with a single threshold. These expressions can be evaluated numerically for multiple thresholds extending the linear range to the saturation point of the PMT. The peak voltage distributions are experimentally shown to follow a Poisson weighted sum of log-normal distributions that can all be derived from the single photoelectron voltage peak-height distribution. The LDR that results from this method is compared to conventional single photon counting (SPC) and to signal averaging by analog to digital conversion (ADC). PMID:21114249
Improved Statistical Analysis for Array CGH-Based DNA Copy Number Aberrations
Jiang, Hongmei; Zhu, Zhong-Zheng; Yu, Yue; Lin, Simon; Hou, Lifang
2011-01-01
Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) allows measuring DNA copy number at the whole genome scale. In cancer studies, one may be interested in identifying DNA copy number aberrations (CNAs) associated with certain clinicopathological characteristics such as cancer metastasis. We proposed to define test regions based on copy number pattern profiles across multiple samples, using either smoothed log2-ratio or discrete data of copy number gain/loss calls. Association test performed on the refined test regions instead of the probes has improved power due to reduced number of tests. We also compared three types of measurement of copy number levels, normalized log2-ratio, smoothed log2-ratio, and copy number gain or loss calls in statistical hypothesis testing. The relative strengths and weaknesses of the proposed method were demonstrated using both simulation studies and real data analysis of a liver cancer study. PMID:22084565
Universal optimal estimation of the polarization of light with arbitrary photon statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lu; Chan, Kam Wai Clifford; Verma, Pramode K.
2016-03-01
A universal and optimal method for the polarimetry of light with arbitrary photon statistics is presented. The method is based on the continuous maximum-likelihood positive operator-valued measure (ML-POVM) for pure polarization states over the surface of the Bloch sphere. The success probability and the mean fidelity are used as the figures of merit to show its performance. The POVM is found to attain the collective bound of polarization estimation with respect to the mean fidelity. As demonstrations, explicit results for the N photon Fock state, the phase-randomized coherent state (Poisson distribution), and the thermal light are obtained. It is found that the estimation performances for the Fock state and the Poisson distribution are almost identical, while that for the thermal light is much worse. This suggests that thermal light leaks less information to an eavesdropper and hence could potentially provide more security in polarization-encoded quantum communication protocols than a single-mode laser beam as customarily considered. Finally, comparisons against an optimal adaptive measurement with classical communications are made to show the better and more stable performance of the continuous ML-POVM.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maghrebi, Mohammad F.; Jaffe, Robert L.; Kardar, Mehran
2014-07-01
We study the implications of quantum fluctuations of a dispersive medium, under steady rotation, either in or out of thermal equilibrium with its environment. A rotating object exhibits a quantum instability by dissipating its mechanical motion via spontaneous emission of photons, as well as internal heat generation. Universal relations are derived for the radiated energy and angular momentum as trace formulas involving the object's scattering matrix. We also compute the quantum noise by deriving the full statistics of the radiated photons out of thermal and/or dynamic equilibrium. The (entanglement) entropy generation is quantified and the total entropy is shown to be always increasing. Furthermore, we derive a Fokker-Planck equation governing the stochastic angular motion resulting from the fluctuating backreaction frictional torque. As a result, we find a quantum limit on the uncertainty of the object's angular velocity in steady rotation. Finally, we show in some detail that a rotating object drags nearby objects, making them spin parallel to its axis of rotation. A scalar toy model is introduced to simplify the technicalities and ease the conceptual complexities and then a detailed discussion of quantum electrodynamics is presented.
Some Prospects for the Future Elderly Population. Statistical Reports on Older Americans, Number 3.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fowles, Donald G.
This publication brings together a large number of facts and statistics about the country's growing population of older adults. Data indicate that regardless of their economic situation, the elderly population will not only be growing rapidly in the future but will be changing rapidly as well. The trend toward early retirement coupled with longer…
Choi, Jiyoung; Kang, Dong-Goo; Kang, Sunghoon; Sung, Younghun; Ye, Jong Chul
2013-09-15
Purpose: Material decomposition using multienergy photon counting x-ray detectors (PCXD) has been an active research area over the past few years. Even with some success, the problem of optimal energy selection and three material decomposition including malignant tissue is still on going research topic, and more systematic studies are required. This paper aims to address this in a unified statistical framework in a mammographic environment.Methods: A unified statistical framework for energy level optimization and decomposition of three materials is proposed. In particular, an energy level optimization algorithm is derived using the theory of the minimum variance unbiased estimator, and an iterative algorithm is proposed for material composition as well as system parameter estimation under the unified statistical estimation framework. To verify the performance of the proposed algorithm, the authors performed simulation studies as well as real experiments using physical breast phantom and ex vivo breast specimen. Quantitative comparisons using various performance measures were conducted, and qualitative performance evaluations for ex vivo breast specimen were also performed by comparing the ground-truth malignant tissue areas identified by radiologists.Results: Both simulation and real experiments confirmed that the optimized energy bins by the proposed method allow better material decomposition quality. Moreover, for the specimen thickness estimation errors up to 2 mm, the proposed method provides good reconstruction results in both simulation and real ex vivo breast phantom experiments compared to existing methods.Conclusions: The proposed statistical framework of PCXD has been successfully applied for the energy optimization and decomposition of three material in a mammographic environment. Experimental results using the physical breast phantom and ex vivo specimen support the practicality of the proposed algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Xing-Yu; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Guo, Guang-Can; Wang, Qin
2016-06-01
In this paper, we carry out statistical fluctuation analysis for the new proposed measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with heralded single-photon sources and further compare its performance with the mostly often used light sources, i.e., the weak coherent source. Due to a significantly lower probability for events with two photons present on the same side of the beam splitter in former than in latter, it gives drastically reduced quantum bit error rate in the X basis and can thus show splendid behavior in real-life implementations even when taking statistical fluctuations into account.
Effective atomic numbers and electron densities of bioactive glasses for photon interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shantappa, Anil; Hanagodimath, S. M.
2015-08-01
This work was carried out to study the nature of mass attenuation coefficient of bioactive glasses for gamma rays. Bioactive glasses are a group of synthetic silica-based bioactive materials with unique bone bonding properties. In the present study, we have calculated the effective atomic number, electron density for photon interaction of some selected bioactive glasses viz., SiO2-Na2O, SiO2-Na2O-CaO and SiO2-Na2O-P2O5 in the energy range 1 keV to 100 MeV. We have also computed the single valued effective atomic number by using XMuDat program. It is observed that variation in effective atomic number (ZPI, eff) depends also upon the weight fractions of selected bioactive glasses and range of atomic numbers of the elements. The results shown here on effective atomic number, electron density will be more useful in the medical dosimetry for the calculation of absorbed dose and dose rate.
Effective atomic numbers and electron densities of bioactive glasses for photon interaction
Shantappa, Anil; Hanagodimath, S. M.
2015-08-28
This work was carried out to study the nature of mass attenuation coefficient of bioactive glasses for gamma rays. Bioactive glasses are a group of synthetic silica-based bioactive materials with unique bone bonding properties. In the present study, we have calculated the effective atomic number, electron density for photon interaction of some selected bioactive glasses viz., SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}O, SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}O-CaO and SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} in the energy range 1 keV to 100 MeV. We have also computed the single valued effective atomic number by using XMuDat program. It is observed that variation in effective atomic number (Z{sub PI,} {sub eff}) depends also upon the weight fractions of selected bioactive glasses and range of atomic numbers of the elements. The results shown here on effective atomic number, electron density will be more useful in the medical dosimetry for the calculation of absorbed dose and dose rate.
Source of statistical noises in the Monte Carlo sampling techniques for coherently scattered photons
Muhammad, Wazir; Lee, Sang Hoon
2013-01-01
Detailed comparisons of the predictions of the Relativistic Form Factors (RFFs) and Modified Form Factors (MFFs) and their advantages and shortcomings in calculating elastic scattering cross sections can be found in the literature. However, the issues related to their implementation in the Monte Carlo (MC) sampling for coherently scattered photons is still under discussion. Secondly, the linear interpolation technique (LIT) is a popular method to draw the integrated values of squared RFFs/MFFs (i.e. ) over squared momentum transfer (). In the current study, the role/issues of RFFs/MFFs and LIT in the MC sampling for the coherent scattering were analyzed. The results showed that the relative probability density curves sampled on the basis of MFFs are unable to reveal any extra scientific information as both the RFFs and MFFs produced the same MC sampled curves. Furthermore, no relationship was established between the multiple small peaks and irregular step shapes (i.e. statistical noise) in the PDFs and either RFFs or MFFs. In fact, the noise in the PDFs appeared due to the use of LIT. The density of the noise depends upon the interval length between two consecutive points in the input data table of and has no scientific background. The probability density function curves became smoother as the interval lengths were decreased. In conclusion, these statistical noises can be efficiently removed by introducing more data points in the data tables. PMID:22984278
Development of a Statistical Model for Seasonal Prediction of North Atlantic Hurricane Numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis, K.; Zeng, X.
2014-12-01
Tropical cyclones cause more financial distress to insurance companies than any other natural disaster. From 1970-2002, it is estimated that hurricanes caused 44 billion dollars in damage, greater than 2.5 times the the next costliest catastrophe. Theses damages do not go without effect. A string of major catastrophes from 1991-1994 caused nine property firms to bankrupt and caused serious financial strain on others. The public was not only affected by the loss of life and property, but the increase in tax dollars for disaster relief. Providing better seasonal predictions of North Atlantic hurricane activity farther in advance will help alleviate some of the financial strains these major catastrophes put on the nation. A statistical model was first developed by Bill Gray's team to predict the total number of hurricanes over the North Atlantic in 1984, followed by other statistical methods, dynamic modeling, and hybrid methods in recent years. However, all these methods showed little to no skill with forecasts made by June 1 in recent years. In contrast to the relatively small year-to-year change in seasonal hurricane numbers pre-1980, there has been much greater interannual changes since, especially since the year 2000. For instance, while there were very high hurricane numbers in 2005 and 2010, 2013 was one of the lowest in history. Recognizing these interdecadal changes in the dispersion of hurricane numbers, we have developed a new statistical model to more realistically predict (by June 1 each year) the seasonal hurricane number over the North Atlantic. It is based on the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI) conditioned by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index, the zonal wind stress and sea surface temperature over the Atlantic. It provides both the deterministic number and the range of hurricane numbers. The details of the model and its performance from 1950-2014 in comparison with other methods will be presented in our presentation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrenko, A.; Ofek, N.; Vlastakis, B.; Sun, L.; Leghtas, Z.; Heeres, R.; Sliwa, K. M.; Mirrahimi, M.; Jiang, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.
2015-03-01
Realizing a working quantum computer requires overcoming the many challenges that come with coupling large numbers of qubits to perform logical operations. These include improving coherence times, achieving high gate fidelities, and correcting for the inevitable errors that will occur throughout the duration of an algorithm. While impressive progress has been made in all of these areas, the difficulty of combining these ingredients to demonstrate an error-protected logical qubit, comprised of many physical qubits, still remains formidable. With its large Hilbert space, superior coherence properties, and single dominant error channel (single photon loss), a superconducting 3D resonator acting as a resource for a quantum memory offers a hardware-efficient alternative to multi-qubit codes [Leghtas et.al. PRL 2013]. Here we build upon recent work on cat-state encoding [Vlastakis et.al. Science 2013] and photon-parity jumps [Sun et.al. 2014] by exploring the effects of sequential measurements on a cavity state. Employing a transmon qubit dispersively coupled to two superconducting resonators in a cQED architecture, we explore further the application of parity measurements to characterizing such a hybrid qubit/cat state architecture. In so doing, we demonstrate the promise of integrating cat states as central constituents of future quantum codes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arvizo, Mylene R.; Calusdian, James; Hollinger, Kenneth B.; Pace, Phillip E.
2011-08-01
A photonic analog-to-digital converter (ADC) preprocessing architecture based on the robust symmetrical number system (RSNS) is presented. The RSNS preprocessing architecture is a modular scheme in which a modulus number of comparators are used at the output of each Mach-Zehnder modulator channel. The number of comparators with a logic 1 in each channel represents the integer values within each RSNS modulus sequence. When considered together, the integers within each sequence change one at a time at the next code position, resulting in an integer Gray code property. The RSNS ADC has the feature that the maximum nonlinearity is less than a least significant bit (LSB). Although the observed dynamic range (greatest length of combined sequences that contain no ambiguities) of the RSNS ADC is less than the optimum symmetrical number system ADC, the integer Gray code properties make it attractive for error control. A prototype is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept and to show the important RSNS property that the largest nonlinearity is always less than a LSB. Also discussed are practical considerations related to multi-gigahertz implementations.
Kobayashi, M; Inaba, H
2000-01-01
Ultraweak photon emission phenomena in the visible to near-IR region, originating from biological organisms, are known. This biophoton emission is generated during metabolic processes and constitutes physiological information. We investigated a technique for characterizing the optical radiation field based on photon statistics and correlation analysis to extract information on regulation processes in biochemical reactions and their interactions. We developed the system based on the time-interval measurement of photoelectrons in a photon-counting region and employed data processing with a nonstationary optical field with correction for the correlative properties of the photomultiplier dark current. We analyzed biophoton emission from cellular slime mold (Dictyosterium discoideum) and observed the characteristic variation of this organism's super-Poisson statistics during the developmental process. PMID:18337887
Photon-number splitting of squeezed light by a single qubit in circuit QED
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moon, Kyungsun
2013-10-01
We theoretically propose an efficient way to generate and detect squeezed light by a single qubit in circuit QED. By tuning the qubit energy splitting close to the fundamental frequency of the first harmonic mode (FHM) in a transmission line resonator and placing the qubit at the nodal point of the third harmonic mode, one can generate the resonantly enhanced squeezing of the FHM upon pumping with the second harmonic mode. In order to investigate the photon number splitting for the squeezed FHM, we have numerically calculated the qubit absorption spectrum, which exhibits regularly spaced peaks at frequencies separated by twice the effective dispersive shift. It is also shown that adding a small pump field for the FHM makes additional peaks develop in between the dominant ones as well.
Generating arbitrary photon-number entangled states for continuous-variable quantum informatics.
Lee, Su-Yong; Park, Jiyong; Lee, Hai-Woong; Nha, Hyunchul
2012-06-18
We propose two experimental schemes that can produce an arbitrary photon-number entangled state (PNES) in a finite dimension. This class of entangled states naturally includes non-Gaussian continuous-variable (CV) states that may provide some practical advantages over the Gaussian counterparts (two-mode squeezed states). We particularly compare the entanglement characteristics of the Gaussian and the non-Gaussian states in view of the degree of entanglement and the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlation, and further discuss their applications to the CV teleportation and the nonlocality test. The experimental imperfection due to the on-off photodetectors with nonideal efficiency is also considered in our analysis to show the feasibility of our schemes within existing technologies. PMID:22714485
From the Law of Large Numbers to Large Deviation Theory in Statistical Physics: An Introduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cecconi, Fabio; Cencini, Massimo; Puglisi, Andrea; Vergni, Davide; Vulpiani, Angelo
This contribution aims at introducing the topics of this book. We start with a brief historical excursion on the developments from the law of large numbers to the central limit theorem and large deviations theory. The same topics are then presented using the language of probability theory. Finally, some applications of large deviations theory in physics are briefly discussed through examples taken from statistical mechanics, dynamical and disordered systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berlanga, Antonio; Besada, Juan A.; Herrero, Jesús García; Molina, José M.; Portillo, Javier I.; Casar, José R.
2004-12-01
The design of statistical classification systems for optical character recognition (OCR) is a cumbersome task. This paper proposes a method using evolutionary strategies (ES) to evolve and upgrade the set of parameters in an OCR system. This OCR is applied to identify the tail number of aircrafts moving on the airport. The proposed approach is discussed and some results are obtained using a benchmark data set. This research demonstrates the successful application of ES to a difficult, noisy, and real-world problem.
Real-time quantum feedback prepares and stabilizes photon number states.
Sayrin, Clément; Dotsenko, Igor; Zhou, Xingxing; Peaudecerf, Bruno; Rybarczyk, Théo; Gleyzes, Sébastien; Rouchon, Pierre; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Amini, Hadis; Brune, Michel; Raimond, Jean-Michel; Haroche, Serge
2011-09-01
Feedback loops are central to most classical control procedures. A controller compares the signal measured by a sensor (system output) with the target value or set-point. It then adjusts an actuator (system input) to stabilize the signal around the target value. Generalizing this scheme to stabilize a micro-system's quantum state relies on quantum feedback, which must overcome a fundamental difficulty: the sensor measurements cause a random back-action on the system. An optimal compromise uses weak measurements, providing partial information with minimal perturbation. The controller should include the effect of this perturbation in the computation of the actuator's operation, which brings the incrementally perturbed state closer to the target. Although some aspects of this scenario have been experimentally demonstrated for the control of quantum or classical micro-system variables, continuous feedback loop operations that permanently stabilize quantum systems around a target state have not yet been realized. Here we have implemented such a real-time stabilizing quantum feedback scheme following a method inspired by ref. 13. It prepares on demand photon number states (Fock states) of a microwave field in a superconducting cavity, and subsequently reverses the effects of decoherence-induced field quantum jumps. The sensor is a beam of atoms crossing the cavity, which repeatedly performs weak quantum non-demolition measurements of the photon number. The controller is implemented in a real-time computer commanding the actuator, which injects adjusted small classical fields into the cavity between measurements. The microwave field is a quantum oscillator usable as a quantum memory or as a quantum bus swapping information between atoms. Our experiment demonstrates that active control can generate non-classical states of this oscillator and combat their decoherence, and is a significant step towards the implementation of complex quantum information operations. PMID
Photocount statistics of ultra-weak photon emission from germinating mung bean.
Rafieiolhosseini, Neda; Poplová, Michaela; Sasanpour, Pezhman; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem; Alhossaini, Mahsa Rafiee; Cifra, Michal
2016-09-01
Ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) is an endogenous bioluminescence phenomenon present in all biological samples with an active oxidative metabolism, even without an external pre-illumination. To verify the potential of UPE for non-invasive monitoring of metabolism and growth in germinating plants, the aim of this study was to investigate the UPE from a model system - germinating mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata) - and analyze the statistical properties of UPE during the growth in two different conditions of imbibition (pure water and 1% sucrose). We found that in all days and in both conditions, photocount distributions of UPE time series follow the negative binomial distribution whose parameters changed during the growth due to the increasing ratio of signal-to-detector dark count. Correspondingly for both groups, the mean values of UPE increased during the seedlings growth, while the values of Fano factor show a decreasing trend towards 1 during the 6day period. While our results do not show any significant difference in hypocotyl length and weight gain between the two groups of mung seedlings, there is an indication of a tiny suppressing effect of sucrose on UPE intensity. We believe that UPE can be exploited for a sensitive non-invasive analysis of oxidative metabolism during the plant development and growth with potential applications in agricultural research. PMID:27341637
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skatter, Sondre; Fritsch, Sebastian; Schlomka, Jens-Peter
2016-05-01
The performance limits were explored for an X-ray Diffraction based explosives detection system for baggage scanning. This XDi system offers 4D imaging that comprises three spatial dimensions with voxel sizes in the order of ~(0.5cm)3, and one spectral dimension for material discrimination. Because only a very small number of photons are observed for an individual voxel, material discrimination cannot work reliably at the voxel level. Therefore, an initial 3D reconstruction is performed, which allows the identification of objects of interest. Combining all the measured photons that scattered within an object, more reliable spectra are determined on the object-level. As a case study we looked at two liquid materials, one threat and one innocuous, with very similar spectral characteristics, but with 15% difference in electron density. Simulations showed that Poisson statistics alone reduce the material discrimination performance to undesirable levels when the photon counts drop to 250. When additional, uncontrolled variation sources are considered, the photon count plays a less dominant role in detection performance, but limits the performance also for photon counts of 500 and higher. Experimental data confirmed the presence of such non-Poisson variation sources also in the XDi prototype system, which suggests that the present system can still be improved without necessarily increasing the photon flux, but by better controlling and accounting for these variation sources. When the classification algorithm was allowed to use spectral differences in the experimental data, the discrimination between the two materials improved significantly, proving the potential of X-ray diffraction also for liquid materials.
Global and local statistics in turbulent convection at low Prandtl numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scheel, Janet D.; Schumacher, Jörg
2016-09-01
Statistical properties of turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection at low Prandtl numbers (Pr), which are typical for liquid metals such as mercury, gallium or liquid sodium, are investigated in high-resolution three-dimensional spectral element simulations in a closed cylindrical cell with an aspect ratio of one and are compared to previous turbulent convection simulations in air. We compare the scaling of global momentum and heat transfer. The scaling exponents are found to be in agreement with experiments. Mean profiles of the root-mean-square velocity as well as the thermal and kinetic energy dissipation rates have growing amplitudes with decreasing Prandtl number which underlies a more vigorous bulk turbulence in the low-Pr regime. The skin-friction coefficient displays a Reynolds-number dependence that is close to that of an isothermal, intermittently turbulent velocity boundary layer. The thermal boundary layer thicknesses are larger as Pr decreases and conversely the velocity boundary layer thicknesses become smaller. We investigate the scaling exponents and find a slight decrease in exponent magnitude for the thermal boundary layer thickness as Pr decreases, but find the opposite case for the velocity boundary layer thickness scaling. A growing area fraction of turbulent patches close to the heating and cooling plates can be detected by exceeding a locally defined shear Reynolds number threshold. This area fraction is larger for lower Pr at the same Ra. Our analysis of the kurtosis of the locally defined shear Reynolds number demonstrates that the intermittency in the boundary layer is significantly increased for the lower Prandtl number and for sufficiently high Rayleigh number compared to convection in air. This complements our previous findings of enhanced bulk intermittency in low-Prandtl-number convection.
Photon Number-Phase Uncertainty Relation in the Evolution of the Field in a Kerr-Like Medium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fan, An-Fu; Sun, Nian-Chun
1996-01-01
A model of a single-mode field, initially prepared in a coherent state, coupled to a two-level atom surrounded by a nonlinear Kerr-like medium contained inside a very good quality cavity is considered. We derive the photon number-phase uncertainty relation in the evolution of the field for a weak and strong nonlinear coupling respectively, within the Hermitian phase operator formalism of Pegg and Barnett, and discuss the effects of nonlinear coupling of the Kerr-like medium on photon number-phase uncertainty relation of the field.
There’s plenty of light at the bottom: statistics of photon penetration depth in random media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martelli, Fabrizio; Binzoni, Tiziano; Pifferi, Antonio; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Farina, Andrea; Torricelli, Alessandro
2016-06-01
We propose a comprehensive statistical approach describing the penetration depth of light in random media. The presented theory exploits the concept of probability density function f(z|ρ, t) for the maximum depth reached by the photons that are eventually re-emitted from the surface of the medium at distance ρ and time t. Analytical formulas for f, for the mean maximum depth
There’s plenty of light at the bottom: statistics of photon penetration depth in random media
Martelli, Fabrizio; Binzoni, Tiziano; Pifferi, Antonio; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Farina, Andrea; Torricelli, Alessandro
2016-01-01
We propose a comprehensive statistical approach describing the penetration depth of light in random media. The presented theory exploits the concept of probability density function f(z|ρ, t) for the maximum depth reached by the photons that are eventually re-emitted from the surface of the medium at distance ρ and time t. Analytical formulas for f, for the mean maximum depth 〈zmax〉 and for the mean average depth reached by the detected photons at the surface of a diffusive slab are derived within the framework of the diffusion approximation to the radiative transfer equation, both in the time domain and the continuous wave domain. Validation of the theory by means of comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations is also presented. The results are of interest for many research fields such as biomedical optics, advanced microscopy and disordered photonics. PMID:27256988
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zechlin, Hannes-S.; Cuoco, Alessandro; Donato, Fiorenza; Fornengo, Nicolao; Vittino, Andrea
2016-08-01
The source-count distribution as a function of their flux, {dN}/{dS}, is one of the main quantities characterizing gamma-ray source populations. We employ statistical properties of the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) photon counts map to measure the composition of the extragalactic gamma-ray sky at high latitudes (| b| ≥slant 30°) between 1 and 10 GeV. We present a new method, generalizing the use of standard pixel-count statistics, to decompose the total observed gamma-ray emission into (a) point-source contributions, (b) the Galactic foreground contribution, and (c) a truly diffuse isotropic background contribution. Using the 6 yr Fermi-LAT data set (P7REP), we show that the {dN}/{dS} distribution in the regime of so far undetected point sources can be consistently described with a power law with an index between 1.9 and 2.0. We measure {dN}/{dS} down to an integral flux of ∼ 2× {10}-11 {{cm}}-2 {{{s}}}-1, improving beyond the 3FGL catalog detection limit by about one order of magnitude. The overall {dN}/{dS} distribution is consistent with a broken power law, with a break at {2.1}-1.3+1.0× {10}-8 {{cm}}-2 {{{s}}}-1. The power-law index {n}1={3.1}-0.5+0.7 for bright sources above the break hardens to {n}2=1.97+/- 0.03 for fainter sources below the break. A possible second break of the {dN}/{dS} distribution is constrained to be at fluxes below 6.4× {10}-11 {{cm}}-2 {{{s}}}-1 at 95% confidence level. The high-latitude gamma-ray sky between 1 and 10 GeV is shown to be composed of ∼25% point sources, ∼69.3% diffuse Galactic foreground emission, and ∼6% isotropic diffuse background.
Statistics of the cosmic Mach number from numerical simulations of a cold dark matter universe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Suto, Yasushi; Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.
1992-01-01
Results are presented of an analysis of the cosmic Mach number, M, the ratio of the streaming velocity, v, to the random velocity dispersion, sigma, of galaxies in a given patch of the universe, which was performed on the basis of hydrodynamical simulations of the cold dark matter scenario. Galaxy formation is modeled by application of detailed physical processes rather than by the ad hoc assumption of 'bias' between dark matter and galaxy fluctuations. The correlation between M and sigma is found to be very weak for both components. No evidence is found for a physical 'velocity bias' in the quantities which appear in the definition of M. Standard cold-dark-matter-dominated universes are in conflict, at a statistically significant level, with the available observation, in that they predict a Mach number considerably lower than is observed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buschmann, M. H.; Keirsbulck, L.; Fourrié, G.; Labraga, L.; Gad-el-Hak, M.
2011-12-01
We report high-resolution LDA and HWA measurements of the streamwise velocity component of a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer (ZPG TBL) over a range of momentum thickness Reynolds number from 1,170 to 3,720. The primary objective of this work is to investigate the near-wall behavior and the scaling of high-order statistics. In particular, we are interested in certain Kármán number dependencies. The obtained data are in excellent agreement with most recent DNS-results, which allows direct comparison of detailed results such as peak value and position of streamwise stress, wall-values of skewness and flatness factors, and turbulence dissipation rate. The experimental data clearly reveal the failure of classical scaling. An alternative mixed scaling based on uτ3/2ue1/2 removes these discrepancies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alamino, R. C.; Saad, D.
2008-06-01
Using methods of statistical physics, we study the average number and kernel size of general sparse random matrices over Galois fields GF(q) , with a given connectivity profile, in the thermodynamical limit of large matrices. We introduce a mapping of GF(q) matrices onto spin systems using the representation of the cyclic group of order q as the q th complex roots of unity. This representation facilitates the derivation of the average kernel size of random matrices using the replica approach, under the replica-symmetric ansatz, resulting in saddle point equations for general connectivity distributions. Numerical solutions are then obtained for particular cases by population dynamics. Similar techniques also allow us to obtain an expression for the exact and average numbers of random matrices for any general connectivity profile. We present numerical results for particular distributions.
Super- and sub-Poissonian photon statistics for single molecule spectroscopy.
He, Yong; Barkai, Eli
2005-05-01
We investigate the distribution of the number of photons emitted by a single molecule undergoing a spectral diffusion process and interacting with a continuous wave laser field. The spectral diffusion is modeled based on a stochastic approach, in the spirit of the Anderson-Kubo line shape theory. Using a generating function formalism we solve the generalized optical Bloch equations and obtain an exact analytical formula for the line shape and Mandel's Q parameter. The line shape exhibits well-known behaviors, including motional narrowing when the stochastic modulation is fast and power broadening. The Mandel parameter, describing the line shape fluctuations, exhibits a transition from a quantum sub-Poissonian behavior in the fast modulation limit to a classical super-Poissonian behavior found in the slow modulation limit. Our result is applicable for weak and strong laser fields, namely, for arbitrary Rabi frequency. We show how to choose the Rabi frequency in such a way so that the quantum sub-Poissonian nature of the emission process becomes strongest. A lower bound on Q is found and simple limiting behaviors are investigated. A nontrivial behavior is obtained in the intermediate modulation limit, when the time scales for spectral diffusion and the lifetime of the excited state become similar. A comparison is made between our results and previous ones derived, based on the semiclassical generalized Wiener-Khintchine formula. PMID:15918743
A statistical model estimating the number of African-American physicians in the United States.
King, G.; Bendel, R.
1995-01-01
Using mark-recaptured methodology and network sampling procedures, a statistical model was developed to estimate the number of African-American physicians in the United States. A sample (stratified by geographic region, medical specialty and an age surrogate) was selected from the National Medical Association's Masterfile of Black Physicians (NMAMBP). Respondents were asked to list the names of five black physicians who resided or practiced in their immediate geographic area. Data also were collected about citizenry as well as other demographic and professional information. The NMAMBP was used mathematically as a "marked" group that could then be "recaptured," allowing mark-recapture methodology to be used as the nucleus of the statistical estimation procedure. The results revealed that in 1991, the total number of US African-American physicians (black US citizens) was estimated to be 16,282 with a conservative standard error of 764 and an approximate 95% confidence interval, yielding a range of 14,754 to 17,810 physicians. This estimate is from 17% to about 32% lower than the 21,538 black doctors reported by the 1990 Bureau of the Census and has important implications for attempts to reform the health-care system and policies designed to produce more African-American physicians. PMID:7752278
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yue; Xiang, Ping; Xie, Xiaopeng; Huang, Yang
2016-06-01
This paper presents a new modeling and simulation method to predict the important statistical performance of single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detectors, including photon detection efficiency (PDE), dark count rate (DCR) and afterpulsing probability (AP). Three local electric field models are derived for the PDE, DCR and AP calculations, which show analytical dependence of key parameters such as avalanche triggering probability, impact ionization rate and electric field distributions that can be directly obtained from Geiger mode Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulation. The model calculation results are proven to be in good agreement with the reported experimental data in the open literature, suggesting that the proposed modeling and simulation method is very suitable for the prediction of SPAD statistical performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grazioso, Fabio; Grosshans, Frédéric
2013-11-01
We propose a family of sifting-less quantum-key-distribution protocols which use reverse reconciliation, and are based on weak coherent pulses (WCPs) polarized along m different directions. When m=4, the physical part of the protocol is identical to most experimental implementations of BB84 [Bennett and Brassard, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing (IEEE, New York, 1984)] and SARG04 [Scarani, Acín, Ribordy, and Gisin, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.92.057901 92, 057901 (2004); Acín, Gisin, and Scarani, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.69.012309 69, 012309 (2004)] protocols and they differ only in classical communications and data processing. We compute their total key rate as a function of the channel transmission T, using general information theoretical arguments, and we show that they have a higher key rate than the more standard protocols, both for fixed and optimized average photon number of the WCPs. When no decoy-state protocols (DSPs) [Hwang, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.91.057901 91, 057901 (2003); Lo, Ma, and Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.94.230504 94, 230504 (2005); Wang, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.72.012322 72, 012322 (2005)] are applied, the scaling of the key rate with transmission is improved from T2 for BB84 to T1+(1)/(m-2). If a DSP is applied, we show how the key rates scale linearly with T, with an improvement of the prefactor by 75.96% for m=4. High values of m allow one to asymptotically approach the key rate obtained with ideal single-photon pulses. The fact that the key rates of these sifting-less protocols are higher compared to those of the aforementioned more standard protocols show that the latter are not optimal, since they do not extract all the available secret keys from the experimental correlations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Descartes, R.; Rota, G.-C.; Euler, L.; Bernoulli, J. D.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig
2011-03-01
Quantum-statistics Dichotomy: Fermi-Dirac(FDQS) Versus Bose-Einstein(BEQS), respectively with contact-repulsion/non-condensation(FDCR) versus attraction/ condensationBEC are manifestly-demonstrated by Taylor-expansion ONLY of their denominator exponential, identified BOTH as Descartes analytic-geometry conic-sections, FDQS as Elllipse (homotopy to rectangle FDQS distribution-function), VIA Maxwell-Boltzmann classical-statistics(MBCS) to Parabola MORPHISM, VS. BEQS to Hyperbola, Archimedes' HYPERBOLICITY INEVITABILITY, and as well generating-functions[Abramowitz-Stegun, Handbook Math.-Functions--p. 804!!!], respectively of Euler-numbers/functions, (via Riemann zeta-function(domination of quantum-statistics: [Pathria, Statistical-Mechanics; Huang, Statistical-Mechanics]) VS. Bernoulli-numbers/ functions. Much can be learned about statistical-physics from Euler-numbers/functions via Riemann zeta-function(s) VS. Bernoulli-numbers/functions [Conway-Guy, Book of Numbers] and about Euler-numbers/functions, via Riemann zeta-function(s) MORPHISM, VS. Bernoulli-numbers/ functions, visa versa!!! Ex.: Riemann-hypothesis PHYSICS proof PARTLY as BEQS BEC/BEA!!!
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morrill-Winter, Caleb; Klewicki, Joseph; Marusic, Ivan
2014-11-01
A defining characteristic of boundary layers is the presence of vorticity. Within the 2-D turbulent boundary layer the only component of vorticity to have a non-negligible mean value is the spanwise component, ωz. In the present experiments, a compact four element (``Foss-style'') hotwire probe was used to acquire well-resolved ωz fluctuations over the range, 3 , 000 <=δ+ = δuτ / ν <= 20 , 000 for 36 grit sandpaper roughness. Over the entire Reynolds number range good spatial resolution was maintained by utilizing the low speed, large scale attributes of the HRNBLWT at the University of Melbourne. The present talk addresses the statistical structure of ωz above a rough wall including comparisons with its smooth wall counterpart. The observed low Reynolds number smooth wall self-similarity between the mean and the rms profiles of ωz is clarified for the rough-wall case. The rough wall ωz behavior is described in a context consistent with the mean momentum equation. The support of the Australian Research Council is gratefully acknowledged.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ridolfo, A.; di Stefano, O.; Fina, N.; Saija, R.; Savasta, S.
2010-12-01
We study theoretically the quantum optical properties of hybrid molecules composed of an individual quantum dot and a metallic nanoparticle. We calculate the resonance fluorescence of this composite system. Its incoherent part, arising from nonlinear quantum processes, is enhanced by more than 2 orders of magnitude as compared to that of the dot alone. The coupling between the two systems gives rise to a Fano interference effect which strongly influences the quantum statistical properties of the scattered photons: a small frequency shift of the incident light field may cause changes in the intensity correlation function of the scattered field of orders of magnitude. The system opens a good perspective for applications in active metamaterials and ultracompact single-photon devices.
Liu Weitao; Sun Shihai; Liang Linmei; Yuan Jianmin
2011-04-15
Any imperfections in a practical quantum key distribution (QKD) system may be exploited by an eavesdropper to collect information about the key without being discovered. We propose a modified photon-number-splitting attack scheme against QKD systems based on weak laser pulses taking advantage of possible multiphoton pulses. Proof-of-principle experiments are demonstrated. The results show that the eavesdropper can get information about the key generated between the legitimate parties without being detected. Since the equivalent attenuation introduced by the eavesdropper for pulses of different average photon numbers are different, the decoy-state method is effective in fighting against this kind of attack. This has also been proven in our experiments.
Reynolds Number Effects on Boundary Layer Streamwise Velocity Statistics and Length Scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Metzger, M.; Atzet, I.; Klewicki, J.
2003-11-01
Well-resolved streamwise velocity data were recently obtained in a turbulent boundary layer at R_θ ≈ 5 × 10^6. Hot-wire anemometry experiments were performed on the salt playa of Utah's western desert under conditions of near-neutral thermal stability, as verified by the Monin-Obukhov length. A distinction of the present data is the use of 20 simultaneously sampled hot-wires to cover a wall normal distance (inner normalized) spanning 5≤ y^+ ≤ 10^4. Because of inherent temporal variations in the atmosphere, simultaneous data are needed to clarify trends in the statistical profiles. The present atmospheric results are compared with wind tunnel data acquired in the range 2500 ≤ R_θ ≤ 1.5×10^4. In all cases, the inner normalized wire length is less than 10. The inner normalized mean profile at high R_θ exhibit a logarithmic region with an inverse slope less than the typical value of κ=0.41, observed at lower R_θ. Evidence for a secondary peak in the inner normalized rms profile is observed near y^+=550 at R_θ ≈ 5 × 10^6. The variation of intermediate length and time scales (Taylor microscales) as a function of Reynolds number and distance from the wall is also presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sokolov, Andrii
2016-03-01
We determine the optimal parameters for a simple and efficient scheme of dispersive readout of a qubit. Depending on the qubit state (ground or excited), the resonance of a cavity is shifted either to the red or to the blue side. Qubit state is inferred by detecting the photon number transmitted through the cavity. It turns out that this kind of detection provides better measurement fidelity than the detection of the presence or absence of photons only. We show that radiating the cavity on either of the frequencies it shifts to results in a suboptimal measurement. The optimal frequency of the probe photons is determined, as well as the optimal ratio of the shift to the resonator leakage. It is shown that to maximize the fidelity of a long-lasting measurement, it is sufficient to use the parameters optimizing the signal-to-noise ratio in the photon count. One can reach 99% fidelity for a single-shot measurement in various physical realizations of the scheme.
Study of the effects of photon statistics on Thomson scattering data
Hart, G.W.; Levinton, F.M.; McNeill, D.H.
1985-12-01
A computer code has been developed which simulates the counting statistics of a Thomson scattering measurement. The scattered and background signals in each of the wavelength channels are assumed to obey Poisson statistics, and the spectral data are fitted to a Gaussian curve using a nonlinear least-squares fitting algorithm. This method should be applicable to Thomson scattering measurements in which the signal-to-noise ratio is low due to low signal or high background. Thomson scattering data from the S-1 Spheromak have been compared to this simulation, and they have been found to be in good agreement. This code has proved to be useful assessing the effects of counting statistics relative to shot-to-shot variability in producing the observed spread in the data. It was also useful for designing improvements for the S-1 Thomson scattering system, and this method would be applicable to any measurements affected by counting statistics. 5 refs., 1 fig.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coughlin, Mary Ann; Pagano, Marian
This monograph covers the theory, application, and interpretation of both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques in institutional research. Each chapter opens with a hypothetical case study, which is used to illustrate the application of one or more statistical procedures to typical research questions. Chapter 2 covers the comparison…
Sauer, Ursula G; Spielmann, Horst; Rusche, Brigitte
2003-01-01
In 2003, the European Commission has published its third statistical report on the numbers of laboratory animals used in the European Union, in which the data of 1999 are analysed. For the first time, with the exception of Germany, the data presented were raised on the basis of a new registration scheme. The significance of these data is limited due to deficiencies of the tables used, restricted comparability with previously raised data, and lacking relevance to the current situation. Despite this imperfect basis, the European Commission concludes in its report that there has been a significant reduction in the number of laboratory animals used in the EU compared to the previous statistics. This statement must be regarded critically as several national statistics of the last years verify that the number of laboratory animals used has in fact increased. According to the comments of various national authorities included in the report, particularly genetic engineering is responsible for the increase in animal numbers. PMID:12764546
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Sun, Shi-Hai; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei
2012-09-01
Any imperfections in a practical quantum key distribution (QKD) system may be exploited by an eavesdropper (Eve) to collect information about the key without being discovered. For example, without the decoy-state method, Eve can perform the photon-number-splitting (PNS) attack and get full information without introducing any perturbation, since weak laser pulses are widely used in practical systems instead of single-photon sources. However, the decoy-state method against PNS attack itself may introduce another loophole while closing the loophole of multiphoton pulses. In this paper, a fatal loophole of practical decoy-state plug-and-play QKD systems has been exploited and a wavelength-selected photon-number-splitting (WSPNS) attack scheme against plug-and-play QKD systems with the decoy-state method is proposed. Theoretical analysis shows that the eavesdropper can get full information about the key generated between the legitimate parties just like the PNS attack was performed in plug-and-play QKD systems without the decoy-state method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hannequin, Pascal Paul
2015-06-01
Noise reduction in photon-counting images remains challenging, especially at low count levels. We have developed an original procedure which associates two complementary filters using a Wiener-derived approach. This approach combines two statistically adaptive filters into a dual-weighted (DW) filter. The first one, a statistically weighted adaptive (SWA) filter, replaces the central pixel of a sliding window with a statistically weighted sum of its neighbors. The second one, a statistical and heuristic noise extraction (extended) (SHINE-Ext) filter, performs a discrete cosine transformation (DCT) using sliding blocks. Each block is reconstructed using its significant components which are selected using tests derived from multiple linear regression (MLR). The two filters are weighted according to Wiener theory. This approach has been validated using a numerical phantom and a real planar Jaszczak phantom. It has also been illustrated using planar bone scintigraphy and myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. Performances of filters have been tested using mean normalized absolute error (MNAE) between the filtered images and the reference noiseless or high-count images. Results show that the proposed filters quantitatively decrease the MNAE in the images and then increase the signal-to-noise Ratio (SNR). This allows one to work with lower count images. The SHINE-Ext filter is well suited to high-size images and low-variance areas. DW filtering is efficient for low-size images and in high-variance areas. The relative proportion of eliminated noise generally decreases when count level increases. In practice, SHINE filtering alone is recommended when pixel spacing is less than one-quarter of the effective resolution of the system and/or the size of the objects of interest. It can also be used when the practical interest of high frequencies is low. In any case, DW filtering will be preferable. The proposed filters have been applied to nuclear
Hannequin, Pascal Paul
2015-06-01
Noise reduction in photon-counting images remains challenging, especially at low count levels. We have developed an original procedure which associates two complementary filters using a Wiener-derived approach. This approach combines two statistically adaptive filters into a dual-weighted (DW) filter. The first one, a statistically weighted adaptive (SWA) filter, replaces the central pixel of a sliding window with a statistically weighted sum of its neighbors. The second one, a statistical and heuristic noise extraction (extended) (SHINE-Ext) filter, performs a discrete cosine transformation (DCT) using sliding blocks. Each block is reconstructed using its significant components which are selected using tests derived from multiple linear regression (MLR). The two filters are weighted according to Wiener theory. This approach has been validated using a numerical phantom and a real planar Jaszczak phantom. It has also been illustrated using planar bone scintigraphy and myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. Performances of filters have been tested using mean normalized absolute error (MNAE) between the filtered images and the reference noiseless or high-count images.Results show that the proposed filters quantitatively decrease the MNAE in the images and then increase the signal-to-noise Ratio (SNR). This allows one to work with lower count images. The SHINE-Ext filter is well suited to high-size images and low-variance areas. DW filtering is efficient for low-size images and in high-variance areas. The relative proportion of eliminated noise generally decreases when count level increases. In practice, SHINE filtering alone is recommended when pixel spacing is less than one-quarter of the effective resolution of the system and/or the size of the objects of interest. It can also be used when the practical interest of high frequencies is low. In any case, DW filtering will be preferable.The proposed filters have been applied to nuclear
Nonclassical light from a large number of independent single-photon emitters
Lachman, Lukáš; Slodička, Lukáš; Filip, Radim
2016-01-01
Nonclassical quantum effects gradually reach domains of physics of large systems previously considered as purely classical. We derive a hierarchy of operational criteria suitable for a reliable detection of nonclassicality of light from an arbitrarily large ensemble of independent single-photon emitters. We show, that such large ensemble can always emit nonclassical light without any phase reference and under realistic experimental conditions including incoherent background noise. The nonclassical light from the large ensemble of the emitters can be witnessed much better than light coming from a single or a few emitters. PMID:26813774
Nonclassical light from a large number of independent single-photon emitters.
Lachman, Lukáš; Slodička, Lukáš; Filip, Radim
2016-01-01
Nonclassical quantum effects gradually reach domains of physics of large systems previously considered as purely classical. We derive a hierarchy of operational criteria suitable for a reliable detection of nonclassicality of light from an arbitrarily large ensemble of independent single-photon emitters. We show, that such large ensemble can always emit nonclassical light without any phase reference and under realistic experimental conditions including incoherent background noise. The nonclassical light from the large ensemble of the emitters can be witnessed much better than light coming from a single or a few emitters. PMID:26813774
Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Lipatnikov, Andrei N.
2013-04-01
The effects of global Lewis number Le on the statistics of fluid velocity components conditional in unburned reactants and fully burned products in the context of Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes simulations have been analysed using a Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) database of statistically planar turbulent premixed flames with a low Damköhler number and Lewis number ranging from 0.34 to 1.2. The conditional velocity statistics extracted from DNS data have been analysed with respect to the well-known Bray-Moss-Libby (BML) expressions which were derived based on bi-modal probability density function of reaction progress variable for high Damköhler number flames. It has been shown that the Lewis number substantially affects the mean velocity and the velocity fluctuation correlation conditional in products, with the effect being particularly pronounced for low Le. As far as the mean velocity and the velocity fluctuation correlation conditional in reactants are concerned, the BML expressions agree reasonably well with the DNS data reported in the present work. Based on a priori analysis of present and previously reported DNS data, the BML expressions have been empirically modified here in order to account for Lewis number effects, and the non-bimodal distribution of reaction progress variable. Moreover, it has been demonstrated for the first time that surface averaged velocity components and Reynolds stresses conditional in unburned reactants can be modelled without invoking expressions involving the Lewis number, as these surface averaged conditional quantities remain approximately equal to their conditionally averaged counterparts in the unburned mixture.
Burke, D.L.
1982-10-01
Studies of photon-photon collisions are reviewed with particular emphasis on new results reported to this conference. These include results on light meson spectroscopy and deep inelastic e..gamma.. scattering. Considerable work has now been accumulated on resonance production by ..gamma gamma.. collisions. Preliminary high statistics studies of the photon structure function F/sub 2//sup ..gamma../(x,Q/sup 2/) are given and comments are made on the problems that remain to be solved.
Abdalla, M. Sebawe Khalil, E.M. Obada, A.S.-F.
2007-11-15
A Hamiltonian model that includes two-photon interaction with a two-level atom and a degenerate parametric amplifier is considered. By invoking a canonical transformation an exact solution of the wave function in the Schroedinger picture is obtained. The result presented in this context is employed to discuss the purity, the entropy squeezing, and the variance squeezing, in addition to the normal squeezing. It has been shown that the existence of the second harmonic generation leads to reduction in the squeezing amount for all quadrature variances and we found that as the value of the coupling parameter {lambda}{sub 2} increases the squeezing phenomenon gets more apparent. Further we have also considered the Q-function as an example of the quasi-probability distribution.
Generic two-qubit photonic gates implemented by number-resolving photodetection
Uskov, Dmitry B.; Smith, A. Matthew; Kaplan, Lev
2010-01-15
We combine numerical optimization techniques [Uskov et al., Phys. Rev. A 79, 042326 (2009)] with symmetries of the Weyl chamber to obtain optimal implementations of generic linear-optical Knill-Laflamme-Milburn-type two-qubit entangling gates. We find that while any two-qubit controlled-U gate, including controlled-NOT (CNOT) and controlled-sign gates, can be implemented using only two ancilla resources with a success probability S>0.05, a generic SU(4) operation requires three unentangled ancilla photons, with success S>0.0063. Specifically, we obtain a maximal success probability close to 0.0072 for the B gate. We show that single-shot implementation of a generic SU(4) gate offers more than an order of magnitude increase in the success probability and a two-fold reduction in overhead ancilla resources compared to standard triple-CNOT and double-B gate decompositions.
Harder, G; Silberhorn, Ch; Rehacek, J; Hradil, Z; Motka, L; Stoklasa, B; Sánchez-Soto, L L
2016-04-01
We report the experimental point-by-point sampling of the Wigner function for nonclassical states created in an ultrafast pulsed type-II parametric down-conversion source. We use a loss-tolerant time-multiplexed detector based on a fiber-optical setup and a pair of photon-number-resolving avalanche photodiodes. By capitalizing on an expedient data-pattern tomography, we assess the properties of the light states with outstanding accuracy. The method allows us to reliably infer the squeezing of genuine two-mode states without any phase reference. PMID:27081977
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harder, G.; Silberhorn, Ch.; Rehacek, J.; Hradil, Z.; Motka, L.; Stoklasa, B.; Sánchez-Soto, L. L.
2016-04-01
We report the experimental point-by-point sampling of the Wigner function for nonclassical states created in an ultrafast pulsed type-II parametric down-conversion source. We use a loss-tolerant time-multiplexed detector based on a fiber-optical setup and a pair of photon-number-resolving avalanche photodiodes. By capitalizing on an expedient data-pattern tomography, we assess the properties of the light states with outstanding accuracy. The method allows us to reliably infer the squeezing of genuine two-mode states without any phase reference.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharjee, A.; Sinha, A. K.
1988-07-01
Albedo measurements for backscattered gamma rays from semi-infinite scatterers have suitable applications in the design of gamma ray shields particularly in nuclear reactor and accelerator shields and in many other nuclear installations. The insertion of lead slabs into stratified combination with other shielding materials has been found to increase the shielding property appreciably. The stratified slabs of alternating heterogeneous layers have been found in this investigation to have a virtual homogeneous property with a definite effective atomic number. The purpose of the present investigation is to find out the extent to which the shielding property increases in binary configuration with lead and to investigate into the dependence of the saturation thickness of the shielding media on the effective atomic number of each configuration. The indigeneously designed Uniform Sensitivity Photon Counter used in this investigation has an edge over all previous methods of experimental measurements that it is independent of response correction. The number albedo values as well as angular distribution of backscattered photons for iron, aluminium and concrete stratified with lead slabs at 662 keV energy have been reported here.
Zendehnam, Akbar; Hosseinpour, Maryam; Mirzaei, Mahmood; Hedayati, Kambiz
2014-02-20
In this study, a Gaussian amp function related to the Gaussian family is employed to approximate the output intensity profile of various arrangements of air holes in photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) with a fixed number of air rings (N=4). It is shown that d/Λ=0.5 can be the best minimum value of air-filling fraction for all of the studied PCFs when λ=1.35 μm, whereas, for λ=1.55 and 1.65 μm, d/Λ=0.6 is suitable for achieving the maximum output intensity with very low confinement loss. PMID:24663304
Strength in Numbers: A Multidisciplinary, Project-Based Course in Introductory Statistics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dierker, Lisa; Kaparakis, Emmanuel; Rose, Jennifer; Selya, Arielle; Beveridge, David
2012-01-01
This paper describes a multi-disciplinary, project-based course. The course is aimed at providing greater curricular access to applied statistics for students across both divisional and departmental boundaries and includes lecture and laboratory components as well as intensive individualized instructor and peer support. Learning materials and…
Equipartitions and a distribution for numbers: A statistical model for Benford's law.
Iafrate, Joseph R; Miller, Steven J; Strauch, Frederick W
2015-06-01
A statistical model for the fragmentation of a conserved quantity is analyzed, using the principle of maximum entropy and the theory of partitions. Upper and lower bounds for the restricted partitioning problem are derived and applied to the distribution of fragments. The resulting power law directly leads to Benford's law for the first digits of the parts. PMID:26172692
Static Numbers to Dynamic Statistics: Designing a Policy-Friendly Social Policy Indicator Framework
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ahn, Sang-Hoon; Choi, Young Jun; Kim, Young-Mi
2012-01-01
In line with the economic crisis and rapid socio-demographic changes, the interest in "social" and "well-being" indicators has been revived. Social indicator movements of the 1960s resulted in the establishment of social indicator statistical frameworks; that legacy has remained intact in many national governments and international organisations.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Trupin, Laura; Rice, Dorothy P.; Max, Wendy
This statistical abstract presents data on the sources of payment for medical care for people with disabilities in different age groups. All estimates come from the National Medical Expenditures Survey, a nationally representative survey of the civilian non-institutionalized population of the U.S. conducted in 1987. Six categories of payment…
Statistical Tests of the Apple IIe Random Number Generator Yield Suggestions from Generator Seeding.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gleason, John M.
1988-01-01
Discusses flaws in the Apple IIe Applesoft random number generator, RND, and reports results of frequency and serial correlation tests of the generator. Suggestions of seeds that yield sequences of numbers which pass fundamental screening tests for randomness are presented. (Author/LRW)
16Stimator: statistical estimation of ribosomal gene copy numbers from draft genome assemblies.
Perisin, Matthew; Vetter, Madlen; Gilbert, Jack A; Bergelson, Joy
2016-04-01
The 16S rRNA gene (16S) is an accepted marker of bacterial taxonomic diversity, even though differences in copy number obscure the relationship between amplicon and organismal abundances. Ancestral state reconstruction methods can predict 16S copy numbers through comparisons with closely related reference genomes; however, the database of closed genomes is limited. Here, we extend the reference database of 16S copy numbers to de novo assembled draft genomes by developing 16Stimator, a method to estimate 16S copy numbers when these repetitive regions collapse during assembly. Using a read depth approach, we estimate 16S copy numbers for 12 endophytic isolates from Arabidopsis thaliana and confirm estimates by qPCR. We further apply this approach to draft genomes deposited in NCBI and demonstrate accurate copy number estimation regardless of sequencing platform, with an overall median deviation of 14%. The expanded database of isolates with 16S copy number estimates increases the power of phylogenetic correction methods for determining organismal abundances from 16S amplicon surveys. PMID:26359911
Global and local statistics in turbulent convection at low Prandtl numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scheel, Janet; Schumacher, Joerg
2015-11-01
Very high resolution direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent Rayleigh-Benard Convection (RBC) for low Prandtl numbers which are typical for liquid metals such as mercury/gallium (0.021) or sodium (0.005) will be presented. The scaling of global momentum and heat transport is determined and compared to experimental and theoretical results. We also present mean profiles of root-mean-square velocity and vorticity as well as the thermal and kinetic energy dissipation rates. The velocity boundary layer is found to be much thinner than the thermal boundary layer, and the consequences of this for the heat transport as well as the nature of turbulence in RBC will also be discussed. Finally we investigate the skin friction coefficient and shear Reynolds numbers for these systems. Results will also be compared and contrasted with results from DNS for Prandtl numbers of 0.7 and 6.0 and similar Rayleigh numbers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aeineh, N.; Tavassoly, M. K.
2015-08-01
In this paper, we investigate the higher-order nonclassical properties of a particular class of generalized coherent states namely the deformed photon-added nonlinear coherent states (DPACS) A†m |α, f, m>. To achieve this purpose we pay attention to higher-orders of squeezing (both Hillery- and Hong-Mandel-types), sub-Poissonian statistics and anti-bunching of the mentioned states with a well-known nonlinearity function. It is shown that for enough large values of field intensity (|α|2) for a fixed N (the order of squeezing) by increasing m (the order of excitation) the degree of squeezing evaluated by Hillery and Hong-Mandel approaches increases, while for a chosen fixed value of m, by increasing N for Hillery (Hong-Mandel) type of squeezing the strength of squeezing decreases (increases). Similarly, the degree of higher-order sub-Poissonian statistics (with fixed K) becomes lower when m increases, while (with fixed m) it gets greater values when the order of sub-Poissonian K increases. At last, higher-order anti-bunching of the DPACS is evaluated, by which we established that its (always) negative values increase with increasing m, α and l (the order of anti-bunching) individually, i.e. the degree of anti-bunching increases.
Number of minerals of various chemical elements: Statistics 2012 (a new approach to an old problem)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krivovichev, V. G.; Charykova, M. V.
2014-12-01
A list of all mineral species (4809) approved by IMA to 2012 inclusive has been compiled. The crystal chemical formulae of these minerals has been reviewed; each mineral species is marked by a set of the n-component chemical system (where n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10). The leading chemical elements by number of mineral species in the Earth's crust are as follows (number of mineral species is in parentheses): oxygen (3929), hydrogen (2700), silicon (1420), calcium (1130), sulfur (978), aluminum (959), iron (920), sodium (850), copper (588), phosphorus (559), magnesium (547), and arsenic (536). The taxonomy of mineral species is discussed. The important advantage of the proposed systematics is the possibility to range mineral species in strict order, in which each of them would have a unique position. A simple way of ordering minerals opens up possibilities for computer indexing of thermodynamic information. Within each system, minerals are arranged in order of the number of atoms of the first element and, within the group of compounds with the same number of atoms of the first element, in order of the number of atoms of the second element, and so on.
Getting the numbers right: statistical mischief and racial profiling in heart failure research.
Kahn, Jonathan
2003-01-01
The claim that blacks die from heart failure at a rate twice that of whites is informing efforts to develop and market the drug BiDil, which is currently undergoing clinical trials to be approved by the FDA as the first drug ever specified to treat African Americans--and only African Americans--for heart failure. The drug and its companion statistic have since come to play prominent roles in debates about so-called "racial profiling" in medicine and the legitimacy of using social categories of race in biomedical research. Nonetheless, this statistic is wrong. The most current data available place the black:white mortality ratio for heart failure at approximately 1.1:1. The article tells the story of attempts to get to the source of the supposed 2:1 mortality ratio and explores some of the implications of the acceptance of these erroneous data, both for the allocation of resources to combat disease and for our broader understanding of the nature and meaning of race. PMID:14593217
Reynolds number influence on statistical behaviors of turbulence in a circular free jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mi, J.; Xu, M.; Zhou, T.
2013-07-01
The present paper examines the effect of Reynolds number on turbulence properties in the transition region of a circular jet issuing from a smoothly contracting nozzle. Hot-wire measurements were performed for this investigation through varying the jet-exit Reynolds number Red (≡ Ujd/ν, where Uj, d, and ν are the jet-exit mean velocity, nozzle diameter, and kinematic viscosity) approximately from Red ≈ 4 × 103 to Red ≈ 2 × 104. Results reveal that the rates of the mean flow decay and spread vary with Reynolds number for Red < 104 and tend to become Reynolds-number independent at Red ≥ 104. Even more importantly, the small-scale turbulence properties, e.g., the mean rate of dissipation of kinetic energy (ɛ), the Kolmogorov and Taylor microscales, are found to vary in different forms over the Red ranges of Red > 104 and Red < 104. Namely, the critical Reynolds number appears to occur at Red,cr ≈ 104 across which the jet turbulence behaves distinctly. Two turbulence regimes are therefore identified: (i) developing or partially developed turbulence at Red < Red,cr and (ii) fully developed turbulence at Red ≥ Red,cr. It is suggested that the energy dissipation rate (DR) can be expressed as \\varepsilon ˜ ν U_c^2 /R^2 in regime (i) and \\varepsilon ˜ U_c^3 /R in regime (ii), where Uc and R are the centerline (or maximum) mean velocity and half-radius at which the mean velocity is 0.5Uc. In addition, the critical Reynolds number appears to vary from flow to flow.
Ye Jinwu; Zhang Cunlin
2011-08-15
Recently, strong-coupling regimes of superconducting qubits or quantum dots inside a microwave circuit cavity and BEC atoms inside an optical cavity were achieved experimentally. The strong-coupling regimes in these systems were described by the Dicke model. Here, we solve the Dicke model by a 1/N expansion. In the normal state, we find a {radical}(N) behavior of the collective Rabi splitting. In the superradiant phase, we identify an important Berry phase term that has dramatic effects on both the ground state and the excitation spectra of the strongly interacting system. The single photon excitation spectrum has a low-energy quantum phase diffusion mode in imaginary time with a large spectral weight and also a high-energy optical mode with a low spectral weight. The photons are in a number squeezed state that may have wide applications in high sensitive measurements and quantum-information processing. Comparisons with exact diagonalization studies are made. Possible experimental schemes to realize the superradiant phase are briefly discussed.
Niederberger, Armand; Scarani, Valerio; Gisin, Nicolas
2005-04-01
In practical quantum cryptography, the source sometimes produces multiphoton pulses, thus enabling the eavesdropper Eve to perform the powerful photon-number-splitting (PNS) attack. Recently, it was shown by Curty and Luetkenhaus [Phys. Rev. A 69, 042321 (2004)] that the PNS attack is not always the optimal attack when two photons are present: if errors are present in the correlations Alice-Bob and if Eve cannot modify Bob's detection efficiency, Eve gains a larger amount of information using another attack based on a 2{yields}3 cloning machine. In this work, we extend this analysis to all distances Alice-Bob. We identify a new incoherent 2{yields}3 cloning attack which performs better than those described before. Using it, we confirm that, in the presence of errors, Eve's better strategy uses 2{yields}3 cloning attacks instead of the PNS. However, this improvement is very small for the implementations of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol. Thus, the existence of these new attacks is conceptually interesting but basically does not change the value of the security parameters of BB84. The main results are valid both for Poissonian and sub-Poissonian sources.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niederberger, Armand; Scarani, Valerio; Gisin, Nicolas
2005-04-01
In practical quantum cryptography, the source sometimes produces multiphoton pulses, thus enabling the eavesdropper Eve to perform the powerful photon-number-splitting (PNS) attack. Recently, it was shown by Curty and Lütkenhaus [Phys. Rev. A 69, 042321 (2004)] that the PNS attack is not always the optimal attack when two photons are present: if errors are present in the correlations Alice-Bob and if Eve cannot modify Bob’s detection efficiency, Eve gains a larger amount of information using another attack based on a 2→3 cloning machine. In this work, we extend this analysis to all distances Alice-Bob. We identify a new incoherent 2→3 cloning attack which performs better than those described before. Using it, we confirm that, in the presence of errors, Eve’s better strategy uses 2→3 cloning attacks instead of the PNS. However, this improvement is very small for the implementations of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol. Thus, the existence of these new attacks is conceptually interesting but basically does not change the value of the security parameters of BB84. The main results are valid both for Poissonian and sub-Poissonian sources.
A Statistical Analysis for Estimating Fish Number Density with the Use of a Multibeam Echosounder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schroth-Miller, Madeline L.
Fish number density can be estimated from the normalized second moment of acoustic backscatter intensity [Denbigh et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 90, 457-469 (1991)]. This method assumes that the distribution of fish scattering amplitudes is known and that the fish are randomly distributed following a Poisson volume distribution within regions of constant density. It is most useful at low fish densities, relative to the resolution of the acoustic device being used, since the estimators quickly become noisy as the number of fish per resolution cell increases. New models that include noise contributions are considered. The methods were applied to an acoustic assessment of juvenile Atlantic Bluefin Tuna, Thunnus thynnus. The data were collected using a 400 kHz multibeam echo sounder during the summer months of 2009 in Cape Cod, MA. Due to the high resolution of the multibeam system used, the large size (approx. 1.5 m) of the tuna, and the spacing of the fish in the school, we expect there to be low fish densities relative to the resolution of the multibeam system. Results of the fish number density based on the normalized second moment of acoustic intensity are compared to fish packing density estimated using aerial imagery that was collected simultaneously.
Number needed to sacrifice: statistical taboo or decision-making tool?
Trewby, Peter
2013-01-01
The percentage that benefit from medical preventive measures is small but all are exposed to the risk of side effects so most of those harmed would never benefit from their use. There is no expression or acronym to describe the ratio of harm to benefit nor discussion of what level of harm is acceptable for what benefit. Here we describe the harm to benefit ratio (HBR) expressed as number harmed (H) for 100 to benefit (B) and calculated for commonly used medical interventions. For post TIA carotid endarterectomy the HBR is 25 (25 postoperative strokes or deaths are caused for 100 to be stroke free at 5 years); warfarin in atrial fibrillation in patients aged under 65 results in 400 intracerebral haemorrhages for every 100 saved from a thromboembolic event; fibrinolytic treatment for stroke causes 44 symptomatic intracranial haemorrhages for every 100 that have minimal disability at 3 months; aspirin in high risk patients causes 33 major bleeds for every 100 occlusive vascular events prevented; routine inpatient thromboprophylaxis causes 133 additional bleeds for every 100 pulmonary emboli prevented; breast cancer screening causes 1000 unnecessary cancer treatments for 100 cancer deaths to be prevented. Conclusion: The HBR or number needed to sacrifice is larger than most imagine. Its wider use would allow us better to recognise the number harmed, allow better informed consent, compare different preventive strategies and understand the risks as well as benefits of preventive treatments. PMID:23560221
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meerson, Baruch
2015-05-01
Suppose that a point-like steady source at x = 0 injects particles into a half-infinite line. The particles diffuse and die. At long times a non-equilibrium steady state sets in, and we assume that it involves many particles. If the particles are non-interacting, their total number N in the steady state is Poisson-distributed with mean \\bar{N} predicted from a deterministic reaction-diffusion equation. Here we determine the most likely density history of this driven system conditional on observing a given N. We also consider two prototypical examples of interacting diffusing particles: (i) a family of mortal diffusive lattice gases with constant diffusivity (as illustrated by the simple symmetric exclusion process with mortal particles), and (ii) random walkers that can annihilate in pairs. In both examples we calculate the variances of the (non-Poissonian) stationary distributions of N.
Piepel, Gregory F.; Matzke, Brett D.; Sego, Landon H.; Amidan, Brett G.
2013-04-27
This report discusses the methodology, formulas, and inputs needed to make characterization and clearance decisions for Bacillus anthracis-contaminated and uncontaminated (or decontaminated) areas using a statistical sampling approach. Specifically, the report includes the methods and formulas for calculating the • number of samples required to achieve a specified confidence in characterization and clearance decisions • confidence in making characterization and clearance decisions for a specified number of samples for two common statistically based environmental sampling approaches. In particular, the report addresses an issue raised by the Government Accountability Office by providing methods and formulas to calculate the confidence that a decision area is uncontaminated (or successfully decontaminated) if all samples collected according to a statistical sampling approach have negative results. Key to addressing this topic is the probability that an individual sample result is a false negative, which is commonly referred to as the false negative rate (FNR). The two statistical sampling approaches currently discussed in this report are 1) hotspot sampling to detect small isolated contaminated locations during the characterization phase, and 2) combined judgment and random (CJR) sampling during the clearance phase. Typically if contamination is widely distributed in a decision area, it will be detectable via judgment sampling during the characterization phrase. Hotspot sampling is appropriate for characterization situations where contamination is not widely distributed and may not be detected by judgment sampling. CJR sampling is appropriate during the clearance phase when it is desired to augment judgment samples with statistical (random) samples. The hotspot and CJR statistical sampling approaches are discussed in the report for four situations: 1. qualitative data (detect and non-detect) when the FNR = 0 or when using statistical sampling methods that account
Uses and misuses of statistics: the case of strontium ranelate and the number needed to treat.
Pedrazzoni, M; Giusti, A; Pioli, G
2011-09-01
In the last 15 years, several pharmacological agents for the prevention of fractures have been developed and commercialized. Most of them showed to be effective in reducing fracture risk. The enhanced availability of drugs to prevent fractures has generated a fierce competition among pharmaceutical companies to conquer a share of the potential market, often with claims of superiority of a drug over another without direct comparisons. The definitive way to compare different treatments would require randomized head to head trials. These trials are expensive, need large samples and are unlikely to be ever performed. Therefore, it has become a common practice to compare pharmacological agents through observational studies on administrative databases or by the indirect comparison of the results of individual randomised-controlled trials (RCT) and their meta-analyses. These studies may produce evidence of clinical value, complementary to that given by RCT. However, without a proper and complete analysis, they may result in a biased picture of effectiveness and be completely misleading. In this article, we critically disclose how such competition may produce biased and misleading picture of evidence, by reviewing the significance of the number needed to treat, absolute risk reduction and relative risk reduction in relation to vertebral fractures prevention with available drugs. PMID:22080647
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olson, Kyle David
be found for any spectral distribution is also presented. The analytical results of some simple distributions are found and shown to be inaccurately approximated with a uniform spectral distribution highlighting the importance of the finding. Two microcavities are then presented to exemplify enhanced or inhibited photon statistics effects on the cavity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Xunxun; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Wenke; Zhu, Ming
2013-10-01
Statistics of the number of students in the classroom is very important for class surveillance. It can help teacher count the number of students and help students choose class for self-study. While as a canonical pattern recognition problem, it's very difficult due to various appearances of students and other outliers such as bags and books. We want to find a good solution to this problem. A novel method for texture feature extraction is now proposed based on that difference of Frequency spectrum image belongs to different seat image. Regarding frequency spectrum image as the texture image, the texture characteristics which can represent those differences are extracted using texture analysis's method. At the same time, we combine the Local binary patterns feature with the texture characteristics to describe the texture of seats. Experiments on a real classroom dataset demonstrate that the accuracy of the proposed method reaches 91.3%.
Bina, Matteo; Allevi, Alessia; Bondani, Maria; Olivares, Stefano
2016-01-01
Phase estimation represents a crucial challenge in many fields of Physics, ranging from Quantum Metrology to Quantum Information Processing. This task is usually pursued by means of interferometric schemes, in which the choice of the input states and of the detection apparatus is aimed at minimizing the uncertainty in the estimation of the relative phase between the inputs. State discrimination protocols in communication channels with coherent states also require the monitoring of the optical phase. Therefore, the problem of phase estimation is relevant to face the issue of coherent states discrimination. Here we consider a quasi-optimal Kennedy-like receiver, based on the interference of two coherent signals, to be discriminated, with a reference local oscillator. By means of the Bayesian processing of a small amount of data drawn from the outputs of the shot-by-shot discrimination protocol, we demonstrate the achievement of the minimum uncertainty in phase estimation, also in the presence of uniform phase noise. Moreover, we show that the use of photon-number resolving detectors in the receiver improves the phase-estimation strategy, especially with respect to the usually employed on/off detectors. From the experimental point of view, this comparison is realized by employing hybrid photodetectors. PMID:27189140
Bina, Matteo; Allevi, Alessia; Bondani, Maria; Olivares, Stefano
2016-01-01
Phase estimation represents a crucial challenge in many fields of Physics, ranging from Quantum Metrology to Quantum Information Processing. This task is usually pursued by means of interferometric schemes, in which the choice of the input states and of the detection apparatus is aimed at minimizing the uncertainty in the estimation of the relative phase between the inputs. State discrimination protocols in communication channels with coherent states also require the monitoring of the optical phase. Therefore, the problem of phase estimation is relevant to face the issue of coherent states discrimination. Here we consider a quasi-optimal Kennedy-like receiver, based on the interference of two coherent signals, to be discriminated, with a reference local oscillator. By means of the Bayesian processing of a small amount of data drawn from the outputs of the shot-by-shot discrimination protocol, we demonstrate the achievement of the minimum uncertainty in phase estimation, also in the presence of uniform phase noise. Moreover, we show that the use of photon-number resolving detectors in the receiver improves the phase-estimation strategy, especially with respect to the usually employed on/off detectors. From the experimental point of view, this comparison is realized by employing hybrid photodetectors. PMID:27189140
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bina, Matteo; Allevi, Alessia; Bondani, Maria; Olivares, Stefano
2016-05-01
Phase estimation represents a crucial challenge in many fields of Physics, ranging from Quantum Metrology to Quantum Information Processing. This task is usually pursued by means of interferometric schemes, in which the choice of the input states and of the detection apparatus is aimed at minimizing the uncertainty in the estimation of the relative phase between the inputs. State discrimination protocols in communication channels with coherent states also require the monitoring of the optical phase. Therefore, the problem of phase estimation is relevant to face the issue of coherent states discrimination. Here we consider a quasi-optimal Kennedy-like receiver, based on the interference of two coherent signals, to be discriminated, with a reference local oscillator. By means of the Bayesian processing of a small amount of data drawn from the outputs of the shot-by-shot discrimination protocol, we demonstrate the achievement of the minimum uncertainty in phase estimation, also in the presence of uniform phase noise. Moreover, we show that the use of photon-number resolving detectors in the receiver improves the phase-estimation strategy, especially with respect to the usually employed on/off detectors. From the experimental point of view, this comparison is realized by employing hybrid photodetectors.
Fortini, Annalisa; Merlin, Mattia; Soffritti, Chiara; Garagnani, Gian L
2016-01-01
The restoration of obliterated serial numbers is a problem of common occurrence in the forensic field. Among several restoration techniques, chemical etching is the most frequently used. The present research is aimed at studying the restoration of serial numbers, stamped on 40NiCrMo4 steel plates, by means of chemical etching. Microstructural characterization was firstly carried out to study the plastically deformed regions surrounding the marks. The obliteration was performed by controlled removals of material at increasing depths of erasure, and five etching reagents were considered to analyze their sensitivity and effectiveness. Experimental results revealed that Fry's reagent was the most sensitive, able to restore erased marks up to 60 μm under the depth of the imprint. The reagent comprising 25 mL HNO3 and 75 mL H2 O provided good results, recovering the major numbers of characters. A descriptive statistical analysis was conducted to study the operator's influence on the recovered marks' identification. PMID:26250339
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Pik-Yin
Methods of statistical mechanics are applied to two important NP-complete combinatorial optimization problems. The first is the chromatic number problem which seeks the minimal number of colors necessary to color a graph such that no two sites connected by an edge have the same color. The second is partitioning of a graph into q equal subgraphs so as to minimize inter-subgraph connections. Both models are mapped into a frustrated Potts model which is related to the q-state Potts spin glass. For the first problem, we obtain very good agreement with numerical simulations and theoretical bounds using the annealed approximation. The quenched model is also discussed. For the second problem we obtain analytic and numerical results by evaluating the ground state energy of the q = 3 and 4 Potts spin glass using Parisi's replica symmetry breaking. We also performed some numerical simulations to test the theoretical result and obtained very good agreement. In the second part of the thesis, we simulate the Ising spin-glass model on a random lattice with a finite (average) coordination number and also on the Bethe lattice with various different boundary conditions. In particular, we calculate the overlap function P(q) for two independent samples. For the random lattice, the results are consistent with a spin-glass transition above which P(q) converges to a Dirac delta -function for large N (number of sites) and below which P(q) has in addition a long tail similar to previous results obtained for the infinite ranged model. For the Bethe lattice, we obtain results in the interior by discarding the two outer shells of the Cayley tree when calculating the thermal averages. For fixed (uncorrelated) boundary conditions, P(q) seems to converge to a delta -function even below the spin-glass transition whereas for a "closed" lattice (correlated boundary conditions) P(q) has a long tail similar to its behavior in the random lattice case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gounhalli, Shivraj G.; Shantappa, Anil; Hanagodimath, S. M.
2013-04-01
Effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption ZPEA,eff, photon interaction ZPI,eff and for electron density Nel, have been calculated by a direct method in the photon-energy region from 1 keV to 20 MeV for narcotic drugs, such as Heroin (H), Cocaine (CO), Caffeine (CA), Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Cannabinol (CBD), Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV). The ZPEA,eff, ZPI,eff and Nel values have been found to change with energy and composition of the narcotic drugs. The energy dependence ZPEA,eff, ZPI,eff and Nel is shown graphically. The maximum difference between the values of ZPEA,eff, and ZPI,eff occurs at 30 keV and the significant difference of 2 to 33% for the energy region 5-100 keV for all drugs. The reason for these differences is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Longjie; Min, Lequan
2014-06-01
Recently, a stream encryption scheme using d-bit segment sequences has been proposed. This scheme may generate key avalanche effect. The randomness tests of d-bit segment pseudorandom number generator will be important for implementing such a scheme. Firstly this paper extends Beker and Piper's binary pseudorandom sequence statistical test suite to d-bit segment sequences case. Secondly, a novel 3-dimensional polynomial discrete chaotic map (3DPDCM) is proposed. The calculated Lyapunov exponents of the 3DPCDM are 0.213, 0.125 and - 3.228. Using the 3DPDCM constructs a 6-dimensional generalized synchronization chaotic system. Based on this system, a 8-bit segment chaotic pseudorandom number generator (CPRNG) is introduced. Using the generalized test suite tests 100 key streams generated via the 8-bit PRNG with different initial conditions and perturbed system parameters. The tested results are similar to those of the key streams generated via RC4 PRNG. As an application, using the key streams generated via the CPRNG and the RC4 PRNG encrypts an RGB image Landscape. The results have shown that the encrypted RGB images have significant avalanche effects. This research suggests that the requirements for PRNGs are not as strict as those under the traditional avalanche criteria. Suitable designed chaos-based d-bit string PRNGs may be qualified candidates for the stream encryption scheme with avalanche effect.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kronberg, D. A.; Molotkov, S. N.
2009-10-01
A new family of two-parameter quantum key distribution protocols is discussed where eavesdropping is detected by using two parameters: bit error rate Q and photon count rate q in control time slots. When a single-photon source is used and mutually orthogonal states are prepared in each basis, the protocol’s maximum tolerable error rate for secure key distribution is the highest, reaching a theoretical upper limit of 50%. When the signal states emitted by the source of attenuated laser light include multiphoton coherent states, the protocol also guarantees secure key distribution over the longest distance as compared to other quantum cryptography systems, up to the channel length for which the channel losses are sufficiently high that all five-photon pulses can be blocked by an eavesdropper.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maslov, V. P.; Maslova, T. V.
2013-07-01
We introduce several new notions in mathematical statistics that bridge the gap between this discipline and statistical physics. The analogy between them is useful both for mathematics and for physics. What is more, this new mathematical statistics is adequate for the study of computer networks and self-teaching systems. The role of the web in sociological and economic research is ascertained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Zetong; Lai, Zhenhua; Zhang, Xi; Yin, Jihao; DiMarzio, Charles A.
2015-03-01
Melanin is regarded as the most enigmatic pigments/biopolymers found in most organisms. We have shown previously that melanin goes through a step-wise multi-photon absorption process after the fluorescence has been activated with high laser intensity. No melanin step-wise multi-photon activation fluorescence (SMPAF) can be obtained without the activation process. The step-wise multi-photon activation fluorescence has been observed to require less laser power than what would be expected from a non-linear optical process. In this paper, we examined the power dependence of the activation process of melanin SMPAF at 830nm and 920nm wavelengths. We have conducted research using varying the laser power to activate the melanin in a point-scanning mode for multi-photon microscopy. We recorded the fluorescence signals and position. A sequence of experiments indicates the relationship of activation to power, energy and time so that we can optimize the power level. Also we explored regional analysis of melanin to study the spatial relationship in SMPAF and define three types of regions which exhibit differences in the activation process.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schoenborn, Charlotte A.
This report is based on data from the 1988 National Health Interview Survey on Alcohol (NHIS-Alcohol), part of the ongoing National Health Interview Survey conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics. Interviews for the NHIS are conducted in person by staff of the United States Bureau of the Census. Information is collected on each…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Taffel, Selma
This report presents and interprets birth statistics for the United States with particular emphasis on changes that took place during the period 1970-73. Data for the report were based on information entered on birth certificates collected from all states. The majority of the document comprises graphs and tables of data, but there are four short…
Gilbert, R.O.; Kinnison, R.R.
1981-08-01
The commonly used procedure for estimating the Extreme Value distribution of a sequence of measurements implicitly assumes the samples are from a stationary random process. This ignores the well known systematic and cyclic trends that typically occur. Ignoring these trends tends to overestimate the magnitude of the extremes and their associated statistics. This chapter has presented a procedure for including such trends within the parameter estimation algorithm. The result is a better estimate of extreme values.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Li; Rogers, W. Leslie; Huh, Sam S.; Clinthorne, Neal
2008-12-01
In radionuclide treatment, tumor cells are primarily destroyed by charged particles emitted by the compound while associated higher energy photons are used to image the tumor in order to determine radiation dose and monitor shrinkage. However, the higher energy photons are difficult to image with conventional collimated Anger cameras, since a tradeoff exists between resolution and sensitivity, and the collimator septal penetration and scattering is increased due to the high energy photons. This research compares imaging performance of the conventional Anger camera to a Compton imaging system that can have improved spatial resolution and sensitivity for high energy photons because this tradeoff is decoupled, and the effect of Doppler broadening at higher gamma energies is decreased. System performance is analyzed by the modified uniform Cramer-Rao bound (M-UCRB) algorithms based on the developed system modeling. The bound shows that the effect of Doppler broadening is the limiting factor for Compton camera performance for imaging 364.4 keV photons emitted from 131I. According to the bound, the Compton camera outperforms the collimated system for an equal number of detected events when the desired spatial resolution for a 26 cm diameter uniform disk object is better than 12 mm FWHM. For a 3D cylindrical phantom, the lower bound on variance for the collimated camera is greater than for the Compton imaginer over the resolution range from 0.5 to 2 cm FWHM. Furthermore, the detection sensitivity of the proposed Compton imaging system is about 15-20 times higher than that of the collimated Anger camera.
Ma, Shen; Ye, Han; Yu, Zhong-Yuan; Zhang, Wen; Peng, Yi-Wei; Cheng, Xiang; Liu, Yu-Min
2016-01-01
We propose a new scheme based on quantum dot-bimodal cavity coupling system to realize all-optical switch and logic gates in low-photon-number regime. Suppression of mode transmission due to the destructive interference effect is theoretically demonstrated by driving the cavity with two orthogonally polarized pulsed lasers at certain pulse delay. The transmitted mode can be selected by designing laser pulse sequence. The optical switch with high on-off ratio emerges when considering one driving laser as the control. Moreover, the AND/OR logic gates based on photon polarization are achieved by cascading the coupling system. Both proposed optical switch and logic gates work well in ultra-low energy magnitude. Our work may enable various applications of all-optical computing and quantum information processing. PMID:26750557
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sousa, Felipe L. N.; Mojica-Sánchez, Lizeth C.; Gavazza, Sávia; Florencio, Lourdinha; Vaz, Elaine C. R.; Santa-Cruz, Petrus A.
2016-04-01
This work presents ‘intelligent papers’ obtained by functional inks printed on cellulose-sheets by DoD inkjet technology and their performance as a photonic device for UV-radiation dosimetry. The dosimeter operation is based on the photodegradation of the active part of a photonic ink, btfa (4,4,4-trifluoro-1-phenyl-1,3-butanedione) ligands in Eu(III) complex, as a function of the UV dose (Jcm‑2), and the one-way device is read by the luminescence quenching of (5D0 → 7F2) Eu3+ transition after UV exposure of the printed paper. The printed dosimeter presented an exponential behavior, measured here up to 10 Jcm‑2 for UV-A, UV-B and UV-C, and it was shown that the number of jetted layers could fit the dosimeter sensitivity.
Ma, Shen; Ye, Han; Yu, Zhong-Yuan; Zhang, Wen; Peng, Yi-Wei; Cheng, Xiang; Liu, Yu-Min
2016-01-01
We propose a new scheme based on quantum dot-bimodal cavity coupling system to realize all-optical switch and logic gates in low-photon-number regime. Suppression of mode transmission due to the destructive interference effect is theoretically demonstrated by driving the cavity with two orthogonally polarized pulsed lasers at certain pulse delay. The transmitted mode can be selected by designing laser pulse sequence. The optical switch with high on-off ratio emerges when considering one driving laser as the control. Moreover, the AND/OR logic gates based on photon polarization are achieved by cascading the coupling system. Both proposed optical switch and logic gates work well in ultra-low energy magnitude. Our work may enable various applications of all-optical computing and quantum information processing. PMID:26750557
Van Wijk, Eduard P A; Wijk, Roeland Van; Bajpai, Rajendra P; van der Greef, Jan
2010-06-01
Photon signals emitted spontaneously from dorsal and palm sides of both hands were recorded using 6000 time windows of size T=50 ms in 50 healthy human subjects. These photon signals demonstrated universal behaviour by variance and mean. The data sets for larger time windows up to T=50s were obtained by merging the data recorded with T=50 ms. The behaviour of Fano factor regarding different window sizes was investigated. The Fano factor hovered around one in signals up to T=3s and increased slowly with the increase in window size. This indicated super-Poissonian distribution of photo counts. The Fano factor curve F(T) obtained by averaging all subjects and locations had a characteristic shape. Data suggest that the shape is essentially a combination of a smaller sub-population of individuals with sub-Poissonian and a larger sub-population with predominantly super-Poissonian photo count distribution. Averaging the data obtained by randomly shuffling observed data sets was flat and did not show any structure with T. The same applied both to the observed background data sets and the data sets obtained by randomly shuffling background in 50 measurements. The Fano factor was also flat in 50 measurements documented both by a standard LED as well as its shuffled data sets. The structure in the shape F(T) is characteristic of human signals. It may contain valuable information about metabolic processes and may have diagnostic relevance. PMID:20417114
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurudirek, Murat
2011-12-01
The effective atomic numbers (ZPEAeff), which are used to describe the composite materials in terms of equivalent elements, have been estimated in some solutions for photon energy absorption in the energy region 0.2-1.5 MeV. Since the mass energy absorption (μen/ρ) and mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ) remain more or less the same for any given material in the photon energy region 0.2-1.5 MeV where Compton scattering is the main dominant photon interaction process, semi-empirical relations including both μen/ρ and μ/ρ have been constituted as a function of energy. These parameters were then used to obtain ZPEAeff with the help of a Z-wise interpolation procedure. The results were compared with the experimental as well as other theoretical estimations wherever possible. Consequently, the present method is found to be readily applicable to the given solutions in order to estimate accurate values of ZPEAeff for which it is not possible to directly obtain experimentally using the conventional gamma spectrometry system.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coast Community Coll. District, Costa Mesa, CA.
This instructor's manual for workplace trainers contains the materials required to conduct a course in pre-statistical process control. The course consists of six lessons for workers and two lessons for supervisors that discuss the following: concepts taught in the six lessons; workers' progress in the individual lessons; and strategies for…
Skin Conditions of Youths 12-17, United States. Vital and Health Statistics; Series 11, Number 157.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roberts, Jean; Ludford, Jacqueline
This report of the National Center for Health Statistics presents national estimates of the prevalence of facial acne and other skin lesions among noninstitutionalized youths aged 12-17 years by age, race, sex, geographic region, population size of place of residence, family income, education of parent, overall health, indications of stress,…
Quantum random number generator
Pooser, Raphael C.
2016-05-10
A quantum random number generator (QRNG) and a photon generator for a QRNG are provided. The photon generator may be operated in a spontaneous mode below a lasing threshold to emit photons. Photons emitted from the photon generator may have at least one random characteristic, which may be monitored by the QRNG to generate a random number. In one embodiment, the photon generator may include a photon emitter and an amplifier coupled to the photon emitter. The amplifier may enable the photon generator to be used in the QRNG without introducing significant bias in the random number and may enable multiplexing of multiple random numbers. The amplifier may also desensitize the photon generator to fluctuations in power supplied thereto while operating in the spontaneous mode. In one embodiment, the photon emitter and amplifier may be a tapered diode amplifier.
Spectral overlap in direct measurements of displaced single-photon states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laiho, K.; Avenhaus, M.; Cassemiro, K. N.; Silberhorn, C.
2011-10-01
Many sophisticated quantum states of light display non-classical, characteristic oscillations in their photon statistics altering with respect to the applied displacement. In order to detect these oscillations the mode matching between the studied state and the displacement field plays a crucial role. Only recently the developments in the photon counting techniques have allowed the direct measurements of the photon-number distributions of quantum states. We investigate the properties of displaced single photons by applying time-multiplexed detection of photon statistics and quantify the value of the mode overlap.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomita, Toshihiro; Miyaji, Kousuke
2016-04-01
The dependence of random telegraph noise (RTN) amplitude distribution on the number of traps and trap depth position is investigated using three-dimensional Monte Carlo device simulation including random dopant fluctuation (RDF) in a 30 nm NAND multi level flash memory. The ΔV th tail distribution becomes broad at fixed double traps, indicating that the number of traps greatly affects the worst RTN characteristics. It is also found that for both fixed single and fixed double traps, the ΔV th distribution in the lowest cell threshold voltage (V th) state shows the broadest distribution among all cell V th states. This is because the drain current flows at the channel surface in the lowest cell V th state, while at a high cell V th, it flows at the deeper position owing to the fringing coupling between the control gate (CG) and the channel. In this work, the ΔV th distribution with the number of traps following the Poisson distribution is also considered to cope with the variations in trap number. As a result, it is found that the number of traps is an important factor for understanding RTN characteristics. In addition, considering trap position in the tunnel oxide thickness direction is also an important factor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurudirek, Murat; Onaran, Tayfur
2015-07-01
Effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and electron densities (Ne) of some essential biomolecules have been calculated for total electron interaction, total proton interaction and total alpha particle interaction using an interpolation method in the energy region 10 keV-1 GeV. Also, the spectrum weighted Zeff for multi-energetic photons has been calculated using Auto-Zeff program. Biomolecules consist of fatty acids, amino acids, carbohydrates and basic nucleotides of DNA and RNA. Variations of Zeff and Ne with kinetic energy of ionizing charged particles and effective photon energies of heterogeneous sources have been studied for the given materials. Significant variations in Zeff and Ne have been observed through the entire energy region for electron, proton and alpha particle interactions. Non-uniform variation has been observed for protons and alpha particles in low and intermediate energy regions, respectively. The maximum values of Zeff have found to be in higher energies for total electron interaction whereas maximum values have found to be in relatively low energies for total proton and total alpha particle interactions. When it comes to the multi-energetic photon sources, it has to be noted that the highest Zeff values were found at low energy region where photoelectric absorption is the pre-dominant interaction process. The lowest values of Zeff have been shown in biomolecules such as stearic acid, leucine, mannitol and thymine, which have highest H content in their groups. Variation in Ne seems to be more or less the same with the variation in Zeff for the given materials as expected.
Volkán-Kacsó, Sándor
2014-06-14
A theoretical method is proposed for the calculation of the photon counting probability distribution during a bin time. Two-state fluorescence and steady excitation are assumed. A key feature is a kinetic scheme that allows for an extensive class of stochastic waiting time distribution functions, including power laws, expanded as a sum of weighted decaying exponentials. The solution is analytic in certain conditions, and an exact and simple expression is found for the integral contribution of “bright” and “dark” states. As an application for power law kinetics, theoretical results are compared with experimental intensity histograms from a number of blinking CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. The histograms are consistent with distributions of intensity states around a “bright” and a “dark” maximum. A gap of states is also revealed in the more-or-less flat inter-peak region. The slope and to some extent the flatness of the inter-peak feature are found to be sensitive to the power-law exponents. Possible models consistent with these findings are discussed, such as the combination of multiple charging and fluctuating non-radiative channels or the multiple recombination center model. A fitting of the latter to experiment provides constraints on the interaction parameter between the recombination centers. Further extensions and applications of the photon counting theory are also discussed.
Experimental realization of a two-photon Raman laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, William J.
1999-11-01
a function of the potassium atomic beam number density. Polarization instabilities were observed in the output light of the two-photon Raman laser. These instabilities were present for all experimental parameters we used and were a function of the magnetic field strength in the gain medium. These instabilities may be due to competition between various polarization pathways for the two-photon Raman process in potassium. An operating two-photon Raman laser opens the door to the study of the noise properties and photon statistics of a two-photon device.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dimmock, A. P.; Balikhin, M. A.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.; Walker, S. N.; Bale, S. D.; Hobara, Y.
2012-02-01
The cross-shock electrostatic potential at the front of collision-less shocks plays a key role in the distribution of energy at the shock front. Multipoint measurements such as those provided by the Cluster II mission provide an ideal framework for the study of the cross-shock potential because of their ability to distinguish between temporal and spacial variations at the shock front. We present a statistical study of the cross-shock potential calculated for around 50 crossings of the terrestrial bow shock. The statistical dependency of the normalized (with resect to upstream ion kinetic energy) cross-shock potential (ΦK) on the upstream Alfvén Mach number is in good agreement with analytical results that predict decrease of Φk with increasing Mach number.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kallies, J.; Özlük, A.; Peter, M.; Snyder, C.
Let
Noncommutative q -photon-added coherent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dey, Sanjib; Hussin, Véronique
2016-05-01
We construct the photon-added coherent states of a noncommutative harmonic oscillator associated to a q -deformed oscillator algebra. Various nonclassical properties of the corresponding system are explored, first, by studying two different types of higher-order quadrature squeezing, namely, the Hillery type and the Hong-Mandel type, and second, by testing the sub-Poissonian nature of photon statistics in higher order with the help of the correlation function and the Mandel parameter. Also, we compare the behavior of different types of quadrature and photon number squeezing of our system with those of the ordinary harmonic oscillator by considering the same set of parameters.
Zhang, Han; Zhao, Yang-Yu; Song, Jing; Zhu, Qi-Ying; Yang, Hua; Zheng, Mei-Ling; Xuan, Zhao-Ling; Wei, Yuan; Chen, Yang; Yuan, Peng-Bo; Yu, Yang; Li, Da-Wei; Liang, Jun-Bin; Fan, Ling; Chen, Chong-Jian; Qiao, Jie
2015-01-01
Analyses of cell-free fetal DNA (cff-DNA) from maternal plasma using massively parallel sequencing enable the noninvasive detection of feto-placental chromosome aneuploidy; this technique has been widely used in clinics worldwide. Noninvasive prenatal tests (NIPT) based on cff-DNA have achieved very high accuracy; however, they suffer from maternal copy-number variations (CNV) that may cause false positives and false negatives. In this study, we developed an algorithm to exclude the effect of maternal CNV and refined the Z-score that is used to determine fetal aneuploidy. The simulation results showed that the algorithm is robust against variations of fetal concentration and maternal CNV size. We also introduced a method based on the discrepancy between feto-placental concentrations to help reduce the false-positive ratio. A total of 6615 pregnant women were enrolled in a prospective study to validate the accuracy of our method. All 106 fetuses with T21, 20 with T18, and three with T13 were tested using our method, with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 99.97%. In the results, two cases with maternal duplications in chromosome 21, which were falsely predicted as T21 by the previous NIPT method, were correctly classified as normal by our algorithm, which demonstrated the effectiveness of our approach. PMID:26534864
Zhang, Han; Zhao, Yang-Yu; Song, Jing; Zhu, Qi-Ying; Yang, Hua; Zheng, Mei-Ling; Xuan, Zhao-Ling; Wei, Yuan; Chen, Yang; Yuan, Peng-Bo; Yu, Yang; Li, Da-Wei; Liang, Jun-Bin; Fan, Ling; Chen, Chong-Jian; Qiao, Jie
2015-01-01
Analyses of cell-free fetal DNA (cff-DNA) from maternal plasma using massively parallel sequencing enable the noninvasive detection of feto-placental chromosome aneuploidy; this technique has been widely used in clinics worldwide. Noninvasive prenatal tests (NIPT) based on cff-DNA have achieved very high accuracy; however, they suffer from maternal copy-number variations (CNV) that may cause false positives and false negatives. In this study, we developed an algorithm to exclude the effect of maternal CNV and refined the Z-score that is used to determine fetal aneuploidy. The simulation results showed that the algorithm is robust against variations of fetal concentration and maternal CNV size. We also introduced a method based on the discrepancy between feto-placental concentrations to help reduce the false-positive ratio. A total of 6615 pregnant women were enrolled in a prospective study to validate the accuracy of our method. All 106 fetuses with T21, 20 with T18, and three with T13 were tested using our method, with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 99.97%. In the results, two cases with maternal duplications in chromosome 21, which were falsely predicted as T21 by the previous NIPT method, were correctly classified as normal by our algorithm, which demonstrated the effectiveness of our approach. PMID:26534864
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwon, Jaesung; Huh, Kang Y.
2014-09-01
DNS is performed to analyse the effects of Lewis number (Le), density ratio and gravity in stagnating turbulent premixed flames. The results show good agreement with those of Lee and Huh (Combustion and Flame, Vol. 159, 2012, pp. 1576-1591) with respect to the turbulent burning velocity, ST, in terms of turbulent diffusivity, flamelet thickness, mean curvature and displacement speed at the leading edge. In all four stagnating flames studied, a mean tangential strain rate resulting in a mean flamelet thickness smaller than the unstretched laminar flame thickness leads to an increase in ST. A flame cusp of positive curvature involves a superadiabatic burned gas temperature due to diffusive-thermal instability for an Le less than unity. Wrinkling tends to be suppressed at a larger density ratio, not enhanced by hydrodynamic instability, in the stagnating flow configuration. Turbulence is produced, resulting in highly anisotropic turbulence with heavier unburned gas accelerating through a flame brush by Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Results are also provided on brush thickness, flame surface density and conditional velocities in burned and unburned gas and on flame surfaces to represent the internal brush structures for all four test flames.
Sauer, U G; Kolar, R
2000-01-01
In 1999, the European Commission presented its second report on the numbers of laboratory animals used in the European Union (EU). The plausibility of the data and the usefulness of the format of the registration tables remain questionable, for reasons previously discussed in connection with the Commission` s first statistical report. In addition, it is impossible to derive sound information on trends in animal use in the EU and its Member States from the second statistical report. The European Commission and the Member States have agreed on new tables to be used for future statistics on the use of experimental animals in the EU. These new tables have been significantly extended and improved. Several categories of little relevance have been revised, and ambiguous expressions have been clarified. However, several problems either persist or have been newly created. Moreover, some important data (i.e. categories for pain and distress, as well as for several specific purposes of use; the origin of some animal species; types of institutions; and the use of genetically engineered animals) are still not required. Nevertheless, these are highly relevant to animal welfare and must be regarded as indispensable for a well-aimed application of the statistics to set priorities concerning the Three Rs. PMID:25406108
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batic, Matej; Begalli, Marcia; Han, Min Cheol; Hauf, Steffen; Hoff, Gabriela; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Kim, Han Sung; Grazia Pia, Maria; Saracco, Paolo; Weidenspointner, Georg
2014-06-01
A systematic review of methods and data for the Monte Carlo simulation of photon interactions is in progress: it concerns a wide set of theoretical modeling approaches and data libraries available for this purpose. Models and data libraries are assessed quantitatively with respect to an extensive collection of experimental measurements documented in the literature to determine their accuracy; this evaluation exploits rigorous statistical analysis methods. The computational performance of the associated modeling algorithms is evaluated as well. An overview of the assessment of photon interaction models and results of the experimental validation are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huntington, Andrew Sumika
The goal of this research was to develop technology for building a vertical-geometry photon number amplifier (vertical PNA) that operates at a wavelength in the low-absorption window for optical fibers near 1.55 mum. An optical amplifier of this design would provide electrically-tappable low-noise polarization-independent optical amplification of laser pulses and serve as a stepping stone toward development of a tunable amplifying wavelength converter. The vertical PNA design consists of a multiple active region (MAR) VCSEL integrated with an avalanche photodiode of the separate absorption, charge, and multiplication layer design (SACM APD): the VCSEL is intended to operate continuous wave (CW), modulated by the APD. Both components were selected for their high gain: in excess of 10 electrons out per photon in for the APD, and slightly more than 1 photon out per electron in for the MAR VCSEL under ideal circumstances. In working toward the vertical PNA, significant technical challenges were addressed: (1) Development of a long-wavelength MAR VCSEL capable of high-temperature CW operation. Although this goal was never achieved, efforts directed to this end resulted in an investigation of basic material science issues that are vital to future improvements of the device. Better DBR and active region designs were developed, the overall thermal impedance of the structure was reduced significantly, a rudimentary optical aperture compatible with InP-based materials was tested, and loss estimates for the device were put on solid ground. (2) Development of a low-noise SACM APD capable of modulating the MAR VCSEL at high speed. Here the vital relationships between growth conditions, material quality, and APD performance were established. Other achievements include demonstration of highly uniform arrays of these devices, extremely low-noise operation, and the largest area long-wavelength APDs ever reported. (3) Successful demonstration of the epitaxial integration of these
Dhar, S.
1989-02-01
In electronic-structure calculations for finite systems using the local-spin-density (LSD) approximation, it is assumed that the eigenvalues of the Kohn-Sham equation should obey Fermi-Dirac (FD) statistics. In order to comply with this assumption for some of the transition-metal atoms, a nonintegral occupation number is used which also minimizes the total energy. It is shown here that for finite systems it is not necessary that the eigenvalues of the Kohn-Sham equation obey FD statistics. It is also shown that the Kohn-Sham exchange potential used in all LSD models is correct only for integer occupation number. With a noninteger occupation number the LSD exchange potential will be smaller than that given by the Kohn-Sham potential. Ab initio self-consistent spin-polarized calculations have been performed numerically for the total energy of an iron atom. It is found that the ground state belongs to the 3d/sup 6/4s/sup 2/ configuration. The ionization potentials of all the Fe/sup n//sup +/ ions are reported and are in agreement with experiment.
Quantum Random Number Generation Using a Quanta Image Sensor.
Amri, Emna; Felk, Yacine; Stucki, Damien; Ma, Jiaju; Fossum, Eric R
2016-01-01
A new quantum random number generation method is proposed. The method is based on the randomness of the photon emission process and the single photon counting capability of the Quanta Image Sensor (QIS). It has the potential to generate high-quality random numbers with remarkable data output rate. In this paper, the principle of photon statistics and theory of entropy are discussed. Sample data were collected with QIS jot device, and its randomness quality was analyzed. The randomness assessment method and results are discussed. PMID:27367698
Quantum Random Number Generation Using a Quanta Image Sensor
Amri, Emna; Felk, Yacine; Stucki, Damien; Ma, Jiaju; Fossum, Eric R.
2016-01-01
A new quantum random number generation method is proposed. The method is based on the randomness of the photon emission process and the single photon counting capability of the Quanta Image Sensor (QIS). It has the potential to generate high-quality random numbers with remarkable data output rate. In this paper, the principle of photon statistics and theory of entropy are discussed. Sample data were collected with QIS jot device, and its randomness quality was analyzed. The randomness assessment method and results are discussed. PMID:27367698
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siegel, Z.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig
2011-03-01
RANDOMNESS of Numbers cognitive-semantics DEFINITION VIA Cognition QUERY: WHAT???, NOT HOW?) VS. computer-``science" mindLESS number-crunching (Harrel-Sipser-...) algorithmics Goldreich "PSEUDO-randomness"[Not.AMS(02)] mea-culpa is ONLY via MAXWELL-BOLTZMANN CLASSICAL-STATISTICS(NOT FDQS!!!) "hot-plasma" REPULSION VERSUS Newcomb(1881)-Weyl(1914;1916)-Benford(1938) "NeWBe" logarithmic-law digit-CLUMPING/ CLUSTERING NON-Randomness simple Siegel[AMS Joint.Mtg.(02)-Abs. # 973-60-124] algebraic-inversion to THE QUANTUM and ONLY BEQS preferentially SEQUENTIALLY lower-DIGITS CLUMPING/CLUSTERING with d = 0 BEC, is ONLY VIA Siegel-Baez FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS (SON OF TRIZ)/"Category-Semantics"(C-S), latter intersection/union of Lawvere(1964)-Siegel(1964)] category-theory (matrix: MORPHISMS V FUNCTORS) "+" cognitive-semantics'' (matrix: ANTONYMS V SYNONYMS) yields Siegel-Baez FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS/C-S tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics: MBCS RANDOMNESS TRUTH/EMET!!!
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oszetzky, Dániel; Nagy, Attila; Czitrovszky, Aladár
2006-10-01
We have developed our pervious experimental setup using correlated photon pairs (to the calibration of photo detectors) to realize a controllable photon source. For the generation of such photon pairs we use the non-linear process of parametric down conversion. When a photon of the pump beam is incident to a nonlinear crystal with phase matching condition, a pair of photons (signal and idler) is created at the same time with certain probability. We detect the photons in the signal beam with a single photon counting module (SPCM), while delaying those in the idler beam. Recently we have developed a fast electronic unit to control an optical shutter (a Pockels cell) placed to the optical output of the idler beam. When we detect a signal photon with the controlling electronic unit we are also able to open or close the fast optical shutter. Thus we can control which idler photons can propagate through the Pockels cell. So with this photon source we are able to program the number of photons in a certain time window. This controllable photon source that is able to generate a known number of photons with specified wavelength, direction, and polarization could be useful for applications in high-accuracy optical characterisation of photometric devices at the ultra-low intensities. This light source can also serve as a standard in testing of optical image intensifiers, night vision devices, and in the accurate measurement of spectral distribution of transmission and absorption in optical materials.
Bright integrated photon-pair source for practical passive decoy-state quantum key distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krapick, S.; Stefszky, M. S.; Jachura, M.; Brecht, B.; Avenhaus, M.; Silberhorn, C.
2014-01-01
We report on a bright, nondegenerate type-I parametric down-conversion source, which is well suited for passive decoy-state quantum key distribution. We show the photon-number-resolved analysis over a broad range of pump powers and we prove heralded higher-order n-photon states up to n =4. The inferred photon click statistics exhibit excellent agreements to the theoretical predictions. From our measurement results we conclude that our source meets the requirements to avert photon-number-splitting attacks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mueller, M. D.; Hasenfratz, David; Saukh, Olga; Fierz, Martin; Hueglin, Christoph
2016-02-01
Highly resolved pollution maps are a valuable resource for many issues related to air quality including exposure modelling and urban planning. We present an approach for their generation based on data from a mobile sensor network and statistical modelling. An extensive record of particle number concentrations (PNCs) spanning more than 1.5 years was compiled by the tram-based OpenSense mobile sensor network in the City of Zurich. The sensor network consists of 10 sensor nodes installed on the roof of trams operating on different services according to their regular operation schedules. We developed a statistical modelling approach based on Generalized Additive models (GAMs) utilizing the PNC data obtained along the tram tracks as well as georeferenced information as predictor variables. Our approach includes a variable selection algorithm to ensure that individual models rely on the optimal set of predictor variables. Our models have high temporal and spatial resolutions of 30 min and 10 m by 10 m, respectively, and allow the spatial prediction of PNC in the municipal area of Zurich. We applied our approach to PNC data from two dedicated time periods: July-Sept. 2013 and Dec. 2013-Feb. 2014. The models strongly rely on traffic related predictor variables (vehicle counts) and, due to the hilly topography of Zurich, on elevation. We assessed the model performance by leave-one-out cross-validation and by comparing PNC predictions to measurements at fixed reference sites and to PNC measurements obtained by pedestrians. Model predictions reproduce well the main features of the PNC field in environment types similar to those passed by individual trams. Model performance is worse at elevated background locations probably due to the weak coverage of similar spots by the tram network. We end the paper by outlining a route finding algorithm which utilizes the highly resolved PNC maps providing the exposure minimal route for cyclists.
... cancer statistics across the world. U.S. Cancer Mortality Trends The best indicator of progress against cancer is ... the number of cancer survivors has increased. These trends show that progress is being made against the ...
Characterization of photons generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bashkansky, Mark; Vurgaftman, Igor; Reintjes, J.
2014-05-01
Low-photon-number sources can exhibit non-classical, counterintuitive behavior that can be exploited in the developing field of quantum technology. Single photons play a special role in this arena since they represent the ultimate lowphoton- number source. They are considered an important element in various applications such as quantum key distribution, optical quantum information processing, quantum computing, intensity measurement standards, and others yet to be discovered in this developing field. True deterministic sources of single photons on demand are currently an area of intensive research, but have not been demonstrated in a practical setting. As a result, researchers commonly default to the well-established workhorse: spontaneous parametric down-conversion generating entangled signal-idler pairs. Since this source is thermal-statistical in nature, it is common to use a detected idler photon to herald the production of a signal photon. The need exists to determine the quality of the single photons generated in the heralded signal beam. Quite often, the literature reports a "heralded second-order coherence function" of the signal photons conditioned on the idler photons using readily available single-photon detectors. In this work, we examine the applicability of this technique to single-photon characterization and the consequences of the fact that the most commonly used single-photon detectors are not photon-number resolving. Our results show that this method using non-photonresolving detectors can only be used to characterize the signal-idler correlations rather than the nature of the signalphoton state alone.
Park, Eun Sug; Symanski, Elaine; Han, Daikwon; Spiegelman, Clifford
2015-06-01
.5 speciation data from 1995-1997. The Houston data included respiratory mortality data and 24-hour PM2.5 speciation data sampled every six days from a region near the Houston Ship Channel in years 2002-2005. We also developed a Bayesian spatial multivariate receptor modeling approach that, while simultaneously dealing with the unknown number of sources and identifiability conditions, incorporated spatial correlations in the multipollutant data collected from multiple sites into the estimation of source profiles and contributions based on the discrete process convolution model for multivariate spatial processes. This new modeling approach was applied to 24-hour ambient air concentrations of 17 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured at nine monitoring sites in Harris County, Texas, during years 2000 to 2005. Simulation results indicated that our methods were accurate in identifying the true model and estimated parameters were close to the true values. The results from our methods agreed in general with previous studies on the source apportionment of the Phoenix data in terms of estimated source profiles and contributions. However, we had a greater number of statistically insignificant findings, which was likely a natural consequence of incorporating uncertainty in the estimated source contributions into the health-effects parameter estimation. For the Houston data, a model with five sources (that seemed to be Sulfate-Rich Secondary Aerosol, Motor Vehicles, Industrial Combustion, Soil/Crustal Matter, and Sea Salt) showed the highest posterior model probability among the candidate models considered when fitted simultaneously to the PM2.5 and mortality data. There was a statistically significant positive association between respiratory mortality and same-day PM2.5 concentrations attributed to one of the sources (probably industrial combustion). The Bayesian spatial multivariate receptor modeling approach applied to the VOC data led to a highest posterior model probability for a
Lind, Mads V; Savolainen, Otto I; Ross, Alastair B
2016-08-01
Data quality is critical for epidemiology, and as scientific understanding expands, the range of data available for epidemiological studies and the types of tools used for measurement have also expanded. It is essential for the epidemiologist to have a grasp of the issues involved with different measurement tools. One tool that is increasingly being used for measuring biomarkers in epidemiological cohorts is mass spectrometry (MS), because of the high specificity and sensitivity of MS-based methods and the expanding range of biomarkers that can be measured. Further, the ability of MS to quantify many biomarkers simultaneously is advantageously compared to single biomarker methods. However, as with all methods used to measure biomarkers, there are a number of pitfalls to consider which may have an impact on results when used in epidemiology. In this review we discuss the use of MS for biomarker analyses, focusing on metabolites and their application and potential issues related to large-scale epidemiology studies, the use of MS "omics" approaches for biomarker discovery and how MS-based results can be used for increasing biological knowledge gained from epidemiological studies. Better understanding of the possibilities and possible problems related to MS-based measurements will help the epidemiologist in their discussions with analytical chemists and lead to the use of the most appropriate statistical tools for these data. PMID:27230258
Brodsky, S.J.
1988-07-01
Highlights of the VIIIth International Workshop on Photon-Photon Collisions are reviewed. New experimental and theoretical results were reported in virtually every area of ..gamma gamma.. physics, particularly in exotic resonance production and tests of quantum chromodynamics where asymptotic freedom and factorization theorems provide predictions for both inclusive and exclusive ..gamma gamma.. reactions at high momentum transfer. 73 refs., 12 figs.
Bias-free true random-number generator.
Wei, Wei; Guo, Hong
2009-06-15
We propose what we believe to be a new approach to nondeterministic random-number generation. The randomness originated from the uncorrelated nature of consecutive laser pulses with Poissonian photon statistics and that of photon number detections is used to generate random bit, and the von Neumann correction method is used to extract the final random bit. This method is proved to be bias free in randomness generation, provided that the single photon detections are mutually independent. Further, it has the advantage in fast random bit generation, since no postprocessing is needed. A true random-number generator based on this method is realized, and its randomness is tested and guaranteed using three statistical test batteries. PMID:19529733
Indirect measurement of three-photon correlation in nonclassical light sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ann, Byoung-moo; Song, Younghoon; Kim, Junki; Yang, Daeho; An, Kyungwon
2016-06-01
We observe the three-photon correlation in nonclassical light sources by using an indirect measurement scheme based on the dead-time effect of photon-counting detectors. We first develop a general theory which enables us to extract the three-photon correlation from the two-photon correlation of an arbitrary light source measured with detectors with finite dead times. We then confirm the validity of our measurement scheme in experiments done with a cavity-QED microlaser operating with a large intracavity mean photon number exhibiting both sub- and super-Poissonian photon statistics. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical expectation. Our measurement scheme provides an alternative approach for N -photon correlation measurement employing (N -1 ) detectors and thus a reduced measurement time for a given signal-to-noise ratio, compared to the usual scheme requiring N detectors.
Single-photon scattering in an optomechanical Jaynes-Cummings model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ng, K. H.; Law, C. K.
2016-04-01
We investigate an optomechanical system which realizes the Jaynes-Cummings (JC) model known in cavity QED. Such a system consists of a single photon and an optomechanical cavity with two optical cavity modes and one mechanical mode. Under the resonance condition when the mechanical frequency is close to the frequency difference between the optical modes, the photon and phonons can be strongly coupled. We present an analytic solution of single-photon scattering and show that the spectrum of the scattered photon exhibits excitation-number-dependent Rabi splitting of the JC model. In addition, we examine the response of the mechanical mode to a sequence of single photons, with one photon in the cavity at a time. We show that sequential photon scattering can efficiently excite the mechanical mode and generate sub-Poisson phonon statistics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Snyder, Thomas D.; Dillow, Sally A.
2012-01-01
The 2011 edition of the "Digest of Education Statistics" is the 47th in a series of publications initiated in 1962. The "Digest" has been issued annually except for combined editions for the years 1977-78, 1983-84, and 1985-86. Its primary purpose is to provide a compilation of statistical information covering the broad field…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Snyder, Thomas D.; Dillow, Sally A.
2013-01-01
The 2012 edition of the "Digest of Education Statistics" is the 48th in a series of publications initiated in 1962. The "Digest" has been issued annually except for combined editions for the years 1977-78, 1983-84, and 1985-86. Its primary purpose is to provide a compilation of statistical information covering the broad field…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hermann, Claudine
Statistical Physics bridges the properties of a macroscopic system and the microscopic behavior of its constituting particles, otherwise impossible due to the giant magnitude of Avogadro's number. Numerous systems of today's key technologies - such as semiconductors or lasers - are macroscopic quantum objects; only statistical physics allows for understanding their fundamentals. Therefore, this graduate text also focuses on particular applications such as the properties of electrons in solids with applications, and radiation thermodynamics and the greenhouse effect.
An Introductory Overview of Statistical Methods for Discrete Time Series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, X.-L.; California-Harvard AstroStat Collaboration
2004-08-01
A number of statistical problems encounted in astrophysics are concerned with discrete time series, such as photon counts with variation in source intensity over time. This talk provides an introductory overview of the current state-of-the-art methods in statistics, including Bayesian methods aided by Markov chain Monte Carlo, for modeling and analyzing such data. These methods have also been successfully applied in other fields, such as economics.
Photon scattering from strongly driven atomic ensembles
Jin Luling; Evers, Joerg; Macovei, Mihai
2011-10-15
The second-order correlation function for light emitted from a strongly and near-resonantly driven dilute cloud of atoms is discussed. Because of the strong driving, the fluorescence spectrum separates into distinct peaks, for which the spectral properties can be defined individually. It is shown that the second-order correlations for various combinations of photons from different spectral lines exhibit bunching together with super-Poissonian or sub-Poissonian photon statistics, tunable by the choice of the detector positions. Additionally, a Cauchy-Schwarz inequality is violated for photons emitted from particular spectral bands. The emitted light intensity is proportional to the square of the number of particles, and thus can potentially be intense. Three different averaging procedures to model ensemble disorder are compared.
Brodsky, S.J.
1985-01-01
The study of photon-photon collisions has progressed enormously, stimulated by new data and new calculational tools for QCD. In the future we can expect precise determinations of ..cap alpha../sub s/ and ..lambda../sup ms/ from the ..gamma..*..gamma.. ..-->.. ..pi../sup 0/ form factor and the photon structure function, as well as detailed checks of QCD, determination of the shape of the hadron distribution amplitudes from ..gamma gamma.. ..-->.. H anti H, reconstruction of sigma/sub ..gamma gamma../ from exclusive channels at low W/sub ..gamma gamma../, definitive studies of high p/sub T/ hadron and jet production, and studies of threshold production of charmed systems. Photon-photon collisions, along with radiative decays of the psi and UPSILON, are ideal for the study of multiquark and gluonic resonances. We have emphasized the potential for resonance formation near threshold in virtually every hadronic exclusive channel, including heavy quark states c anti c c anti c, c anti c u anti u, etc. At higher energies SLC, LEP, ...) parity-violating electroweak effects and Higgs production due to equivalent Z/sup 0/ and W/sup + -/ beams from e ..-->.. eZ/sup 0/ and e ..-->.. nu W will become important. 44 references.
Chow, Tze-Show
1988-04-22
A photon calorimeter is provided that comprises a laminar substrate that is uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition. A plasma-sprayed coating, that is generally uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition within the proximity of planes that are parallel to the surfaces of the substrate, is applied to either one or both sides of the laminar substrate. The plasma-sprayed coatings may be very efficiently spectrally tailored in atomic number. Thermocouple measuring junctions, are positioned within the plasma-sprayed coatings. The calorimeter is rugged, inexpensive, and equilibrates in temperature very rapidly. 4 figs.
Chow, Tze-Show
1989-01-01
A photon calorimeter (20, 40) is provided that comprises a laminar substrate (10, 22, 42) that is uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition. A plasma-sprayed coating (28, 48, 52), that is generally uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition within the proximity of planes that are parallel to the surfaces of the substrate, is applied to either one or both sides of the laminar substrate. The plasma-sprayed coatings may be very efficiently spectrally tailored in atomic number. Thermocouple measuring junctions (30, 50, 54) are positioned within the plasma-sprayed coatings. The calorimeter is rugged, inexpensive, and equilibrates in temperature very rapidly.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pleis, J. R.; Ward, B. W.; Lucas, J. W.
2010-01-01
Objectives: This report presents health statistics from the 2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for the civilian noninstitutionalized adult population, classified by sex, age, race and ethnicity, education, family income, poverty status, health insurance coverage, marital status, and place and region of residence. Estimates are presented…
Random number generation from spontaneous Raman scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collins, M. J.; Clark, A. S.; Xiong, C.; Mägi, E.; Steel, M. J.; Eggleton, B. J.
2015-10-01
We investigate the generation of random numbers via the quantum process of spontaneous Raman scattering. Spontaneous Raman photons are produced by illuminating a highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass ( As 2 S 3 ) fiber with a CW laser at a power well below the stimulated Raman threshold. Single Raman photons are collected and separated into two discrete wavelength detuning bins of equal scattering probability. The sequence of photon detection clicks is converted into a random bit stream. Postprocessing is applied to remove detector bias, resulting in a final bit rate of ˜650 kb/s. The collected random bit-sequences pass the NIST statistical test suite for one hundred 1 Mb samples, with the significance level set to α = 0.01 . The fiber is stable, robust and the high nonlinearity (compared to silica) allows for a short fiber length and low pump power favourable for real world application.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Professions Education and Manpower Training.
This publication is a compilation of statistics on supply and education of health manpower in medicine and osteopathy, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, veterinary medicine, nursing, public health, and eight selected allied health occupations. The material is organized by occupations and the following information is presented for each…
Photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect in photon-phonon interactions.
Li, Enbang; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Fang, Kejie; Fan, Shanhui
2014-01-01
The Aharonov-Bohm effect is one of the most intriguing phenomena in both classical and quantum physics, and associates with a number of important and fundamental issues in quantum mechanics. The Aharonov-Bohm effects of charged particles have been experimentally demonstrated and found applications in various fields. Recently, attention has also focused on the Aharonov-Bohm effect for neutral particles, such as photons. Here we propose to utilize the photon-phonon interactions to demonstrate that photonic Aharonov-Bohm effects do exist for photons. By introducing nonreciprocal phases for photons, we observe experimentally a gauge potential for photons in the visible range based on the photon-phonon interactions in acousto-optic crystals, and demonstrate the photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect. The results presented here point to new possibilities to control and manipulate photons by designing an effective gauge potential. PMID:24476790
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vuckovic, Jelena
2009-05-01
Quantum dots in photonic crystals are interesting both as a testbed for fundamental cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) experiments, as well as a platform for quantum and classical information processing. Quantum dot-photonic crystal cavity QED has been probed both in photoluminescence and coherently, by resonant light scattering from such a system [1]. In the latter case, both intensity and photon statistics of the reflected beam have been analyzed as a function of wavelength, leading to observation of effects such as photon blockade and photon induced tunneling - for the first time in solid state [2]. The system has also been employed to achieve a controlled phase and amplitude modulation between two modes of light at the single photon level [3] - nonlinearity observed so far only in atomic physics systems. These demonstrations lie at the core of a number of proposals for quantum information processing, and could also be employed to build novel devices, such as optical switches controlled at a single photon level. [4pt] [1] Dirk Englund, Andrei Faraon, Ilya Fushman, Nick Stoltz, Pierre Petroff, and Jelena Vuckovic, ``Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot," Nature ,ol. 450, No. 7171, pp. 857-861, December 2007[0pt] [2] Andrei Faraon, Ilya Fushman, Dirk Englund, Nick Stoltz, Pierre Petroff, and Jelena Vuckovic, ``Coherent generation of nonclassical light on a chip via photon-induced tunneling and blockade," Nature Physics ,ol. 4, pp. 859 - 863 (2008)[0pt] [3] Ilya Fushman, Dirk Englund, Andrei Faraon, Nick Stoltz, Pierre Petroff, and Jelena Vuckovic, ``Controlled phase shift with a single quantum dot," Science ,ol. 320, number 5877, pp. 769-772 ( 2008)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Journal of At-Risk Issues, 2001
2001-01-01
Presents data on dropout rates and number and distribution of adolescents/young adults who were dropouts, noting background characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity, age, recency of immigration, and region) for October 1998. Data are provided on status dropout rate, number status dropouts, total population age 16-24 years, percent of all dropouts, and…
Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Sato, Eiichi; Oda, Yasuyuki; Nakamura, Ryuji; Oikawa, Hirobumi; Yabuushi, Tomonori; Ariga, Hisanori; Ehara, Shigeru
2015-09-01
To measure X-ray spectra with high count rates, we developed a detector consisting of a Lu2(SiO4)O [LSO] crystal with a decay time of 40 ns and a multipixel photon counter (MPPC). The photocurrents flowing through the MPPC are converted into voltages and amplified by a high-speed current-voltage amplifier, and event pulses from the amplifier are sent to a multichannel analyzer to measure spectra. We used three MPPCs of 100, 400 and 1600 pixels/mm(2), and the MPPCs were driven under pre-Geiger mode at a temperature of 20 °C. At a tube voltage of 100 kV and a tube current of 5.0 μA, the maximum count rate was 12.8 kilo-counts per second. The event-pulse widths were 200 ns, and the energy resolution was 53% at 59.5 keV using a 100-pixel MPPC. PMID:26046520
Three-Dimensional Photon Counting Imaging with Axially Distributed Sensing.
Cho, Myungjin; Javidi, Bahram
2016-01-01
In this paper, we review three-dimensional (3D) photon counting imaging with axially distributed sensing. Under severely photon-starved conditions, we have proposed various imaging and algorithmic approaches to reconstruct a scene in 3D, which are not possible by using conventional imaging system due to lack of sufficient number of photons. In this paper, we present an overview of optical sensing and imaging system along with dedicated algorithms for reconstructing 3D scenes by photon counting axially distributed sensing, which may be implemented by moving a single image sensor along its optical axis. To visualize the 3D image, statistical estimation methods and computational reconstruction of axially distributed sensing is applied. PMID:27483262
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomson, David; Zilkie, Aaron; Bowers, John E.; Komljenovic, Tin; Reed, Graham T.; Vivien, Laurent; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Cassan, Eric; Virot, Léopold; Fédéli, Jean-Marc; Hartmann, Jean-Michel; Schmid, Jens H.; Xu, Dan-Xia; Boeuf, Frédéric; O’Brien, Peter; Mashanovich, Goran Z.; Nedeljkovic, M.
2016-07-01
Silicon photonics research can be dated back to the 1980s. However, the previous decade has witnessed an explosive growth in the field. Silicon photonics is a disruptive technology that is poised to revolutionize a number of application areas, for example, data centers, high-performance computing and sensing. The key driving force behind silicon photonics is the ability to use CMOS-like fabrication resulting in high-volume production at low cost. This is a key enabling factor for bringing photonics to a range of technology areas where the costs of implementation using traditional photonic elements such as those used for the telecommunications industry would be prohibitive. Silicon does however have a number of shortcomings as a photonic material. In its basic form it is not an ideal material in which to produce light sources, optical modulators or photodetectors for example. A wealth of research effort from both academia and industry in recent years has fueled the demonstration of multiple solutions to these and other problems, and as time progresses new approaches are increasingly being conceived. It is clear that silicon photonics has a bright future. However, with a growing number of approaches available, what will the silicon photonic integrated circuit of the future look like? This roadmap on silicon photonics delves into the different technology and application areas of the field giving an insight into the state-of-the-art as well as current and future challenges faced by researchers worldwide. Contributions authored by experts from both industry and academia provide an overview and outlook for the silicon waveguide platform, optical sources, optical modulators, photodetectors, integration approaches, packaging, applications of silicon photonics and approaches required to satisfy applications at mid-infrared wavelengths. Advances in science and technology required to meet challenges faced by the field in each of these areas are also addressed together with
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurudirek, Murat
2013-02-01
A previously proposed procedure has been applied to some water equivalent phantoms namely PMMA, Polystyrene, Solid Water (WT1), RW3 and ABS for the first time to compute effective photon energy (Eeff), effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and electron densities (neeff) for different MV X-ray beams and Co-60 gamma beam which are heterogeneous in energy. For the purpose of the present investigation, effective atomic cross-sections of the given materials have been determined first to obtain effective photon energies which were further used for calculation of Zeff and neeff. Similar procedure was adopted for Co-60 γ-rays to check the validity of the present method. Results were found to be quite satisfactory. When it comes to the water equivalence, the Eeff results showed that the RW3 and ABS phantoms are more effective for 6 MV beam whereas RW3 and Polystyrene are more effective for 15 MV and Co-60 beams, respectively. The ABS and WT1 phantoms have better water equivalences than the others according to the Zeff and neeff results, respectively.
Balasubramonian, Rajeev; Dwarkadas, Sandhya; Albonesi, David
2009-02-10
In a processor having multiple clusters which operate in parallel, the number of clusters in use can be varied dynamically. At the start of each program phase, the configuration option for an interval is run to determine the optimal configuration, which is used until the next phase change is detected. The optimum instruction interval is determined by starting with a minimum interval and doubling it until a low stability factor is reached.
Gabor,D.
2008-07-29
Direct photons are ideal tools to investigate kinematical and thermodynamical conditions of heavy ion collisions since they are emitted from all stages of the collision and once produced they leave the interaction region without further modification by the medium. The PHENIX experiment at RHIC has measured direct photon production in p+p and Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV over a wide transverse momentum (p{sub T}) range. The p+p measurements allow a fundamental test of QCD, and serve as a baseline when we try to disentangle more complex mechanisms producing high p{sub T} direct photons in Au+Au. As for thermal photons in Au+Au we overcome the difficulties due to the large background from hadronic decays by measuring 'almost real' virtual photons which appear as low invariant mass e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs: a significant excess of direct photons is measured above the above next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. Additional insights on the origin of direct photons can be gained with the study of the azimuthal anisotropy which benefits from the increased statistics and reaction plane resolution achieved in RHIC Year-7 data.
Evans, Joshua D. Yu, Yaduo; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Whiting, Bruce R.; O’Sullivan, Joseph A.; Politte, David G.; Klahr, Paul H.
2013-12-15
Purpose: Accurate patient-specific photon cross-section information is needed to support more accurate model-based dose calculation for low energy photon-emitting modalities in medicine such as brachytherapy and kilovoltage x-ray imaging procedures. A postprocessing dual-energy CT (pDECT) technique for noninvasivein vivo estimation of photon linear attenuation coefficients has been experimentally implemented on a commercial CT scanner and its accuracy assessed in idealized phantom geometries. Methods: Eight test materials of known composition and density were used to compare pDECT-estimated linear attenuation coefficients to NIST reference values over an energy range from 10 keV to 1 MeV. As statistical image reconstruction (SIR) has been shown to reconstruct images with less random and systematic error than conventional filtered backprojection (FBP), the pDECT technique was implemented with both an in-house polyenergetic SIR algorithm, alternating minimization (AM), as well as a conventional FBP reconstruction algorithm. Improvement from increased spectral separation was also investigated by filtering the high-energy beam with an additional 0.5 mm of tin. The law of propagated uncertainty was employed to assess the sensitivity of the pDECT process to errors in reconstructed images. Results: Mean pDECT-estimated linear attenuation coefficients for the eight test materials agreed within 1% of NIST reference values for energies from 1 MeV down to 30 keV, with mean errors rising to between 3% and 6% at 10 keV, indicating that the method is unbiased when measurement and calibration phantom geometries are matched. Reconstruction with FBP and AM algorithms conferred similar mean pDECT accuracy. However, single-voxel pDECT estimates reconstructed on a 1 × 1 × 3 mm{sup 3} grid are shown to be highly sensitive to reconstructed image uncertainty; in some cases pDECT attenuation coefficient estimates exhibited standard deviations on the order of 20% around the mean
Evans, Joshua D.; Whiting, Bruce R.; O’Sullivan, Joseph A.; Politte, David G.; Klahr, Paul H.; Yu, Yaduo; Williamson, Jeffrey F.
2013-01-01
Purpose: Accurate patient-specific photon cross-section information is needed to support more accurate model-based dose calculation for low energy photon-emitting modalities in medicine such as brachytherapy and kilovoltage x-ray imaging procedures. A postprocessing dual-energy CT (pDECT) technique for noninvasive in vivo estimation of photon linear attenuation coefficients has been experimentally implemented on a commercial CT scanner and its accuracy assessed in idealized phantom geometries. Methods: Eight test materials of known composition and density were used to compare pDECT-estimated linear attenuation coefficients to NIST reference values over an energy range from 10 keV to 1 MeV. As statistical image reconstruction (SIR) has been shown to reconstruct images with less random and systematic error than conventional filtered backprojection (FBP), the pDECT technique was implemented with both an in-house polyenergetic SIR algorithm, alternating minimization (AM), as well as a conventional FBP reconstruction algorithm. Improvement from increased spectral separation was also investigated by filtering the high-energy beam with an additional 0.5 mm of tin. The law of propagated uncertainty was employed to assess the sensitivity of the pDECT process to errors in reconstructed images. Results: Mean pDECT-estimated linear attenuation coefficients for the eight test materials agreed within 1% of NIST reference values for energies from 1 MeV down to 30 keV, with mean errors rising to between 3% and 6% at 10 keV, indicating that the method is unbiased when measurement and calibration phantom geometries are matched. Reconstruction with FBP and AM algorithms conferred similar mean pDECT accuracy. However, single-voxel pDECT estimates reconstructed on a 1 × 1 × 3 mm3 grid are shown to be highly sensitive to reconstructed image uncertainty; in some cases pDECT attenuation coefficient estimates exhibited standard deviations on the order of 20% around the mean
Two-Photon Jaynes-Cummings Model Governed by Milburn Equation with Phase Damping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Chang-Yong; Li, Shao-Hua; Liu, Zong-Liang
2006-04-01
In this paper, we find an analytic solution of the master equation of a non-resonant two-photon Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) with phase damping with the help of the super-operator technique. We study the influence of phase damping on non-classical effects in the JCM, such as oscillations of the photon-number distribution, revivals of the atomic inversion, and sub-Possion photon statistics. It is demonstrated that the phase damping suppresses the revivals of the atomic inversion and non-classical effects of the cavity field in the JCM.
Phase locking and quantum statistics in a parametrically driven nonlinear resonator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hovsepyan, G. H.; Shahinyan, A. R.; Chew, Lock Yue; Kryuchkyan, G. Yu.
2016-04-01
We discuss phase-locking phenomenon at low-level of quanta and quantum statistics for parametrically driven nonlinear Kerr resonator (PDNR). Oscillatory mode of PDNR is created in the process of a degenerate down-conversion of photons under interaction with a train of external Gaussian pulses. We calculate the distribution of photon-number states, the second-order correlation function of photons, the Wigner functions of cavity mode showing two-fold symmetry in phase space, and we analyze formation of phase-locked states in the regular as well as the quantum chaotic regime of the PDNR.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milan, D. J.; Heritage, G. L.
2007-12-01
Water flow level in river channels is moderated by the interaction with the roughness of the surface over which it flows. The interaction is highly complex and remains poorly understood despite its economic and social importance in flood level forecasting. The empirical and semi-rational nature of approaches used to estimate hydraulic roughness makes them very difficult to apply and much of the hydraulic resistance has been attributed to grain roughness using various forms of the Colebrook-White equation where the grain diameter is modified by a multiplier to account for the non-uniform nature of gravel-bed surfaces. Fundamental to the accuracy of the particle size approaches is the sampling of river-bed gravels where sample size, operator bias, particle shape and surface heterogeneity can greatly affect the result. Despite these problems a standard surface sample of the intermediate axis of 100 clasts remains the accepted method for grain-size characterisation amongst scientists and engineers concerned with channel hydraulics. Surface roughness has also been measured using a random field of spatial elevation data. The success of this approach has been tempered by the lack of high-resolution topographic data covering all roughness scales, however, improved data-point resolution is now achievable using terrestrial laser scanning technology. The aim here is to reliably quantify the population grain-size distribution of a natural gravel surface using random field terrestrial laser scanner x,y,z data and by direct comparison to demonstrate the errors inherent in the conventional particle-size approach. Application of the random field approach, using a terrestrial laser scanner, across a gravel bar surface on the River South Tyne at Lambley, UK, generated an effective sample of 120,000 clasts yielding a D84 for use in the Colebrook White equation of 0.110m. Monte Carlo sampling within the 12000 measured clasts from the bar surface generated 560 simulated grid-by-number
Schmitt, Julian; Damm, Tobias; Dung, David; Wahl, Christian; Vewinger, Frank; Klaers, Jan; Weitz, Martin
2016-01-22
We examine the phase evolution of a Bose-Einstein condensate of photons generated in a dye microcavity by temporal interference with a phase reference. The photoexcitable dye molecules constitute a reservoir of variable size for the condensate particles, allowing for grand canonical statistics with photon bunching, as in a lamp-type source. We directly observe phase jumps of the condensate associated with the large statistical number fluctuations and find a separation of correlation time scales. For large systems, our data reveal phase coherence and a spontaneously broken symmetry, despite the statistical fluctuations. PMID:26849597
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmitt, Julian; Damm, Tobias; Dung, David; Wahl, Christian; Vewinger, Frank; Klaers, Jan; Weitz, Martin
2016-01-01
We examine the phase evolution of a Bose-Einstein condensate of photons generated in a dye microcavity by temporal interference with a phase reference. The photoexcitable dye molecules constitute a reservoir of variable size for the condensate particles, allowing for grand canonical statistics with photon bunching, as in a lamp-type source. We directly observe phase jumps of the condensate associated with the large statistical number fluctuations and find a separation of correlation time scales. For large systems, our data reveal phase coherence and a spontaneously broken symmetry, despite the statistical fluctuations.
Mocanu, L. M.; Crawford, T. M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crites, A. T.; Vieira, J. D.; Aird, K. A.; Aravena, M.; Austermann, J. E.; Everett, W. B.; Halverson, N. W.; Béthermin, M.; Chapman, S.; Cho, H.-M.; De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; George, E. M.; and others
2013-12-10
We present a point-source catalog from 771 deg{sup 2} of the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich survey at 95, 150, and 220 GHz. We detect 1545 sources above 4.5σ significance in at least one band. Based on their relative brightness between survey bands, we classify the sources into two populations, one dominated by synchrotron emission from active galactic nuclei, and one dominated by thermal emission from dust-enshrouded star-forming galaxies. We find 1238 synchrotron and 307 dusty sources. We cross-match all sources against external catalogs and find 189 unidentified synchrotron sources and 189 unidentified dusty sources. The dusty sources without counterparts are good candidates for high-redshift, strongly lensed submillimeter galaxies. We derive number counts for each population from 1 Jy down to roughly 11, 4, and 11 mJy at 95, 150, and 220 GHz. We compare these counts with galaxy population models and find that none of the models we consider for either population provide a good fit to the measured counts in all three bands. The disparities imply that these measurements will be an important input to the next generation of millimeter-wave extragalactic source population models.
Accidental cloning of a single-photon qubit in two-channel continuous-variable quantum teleportation
Ide, Toshiki; Hofmann, Holger F.
2007-06-15
The information encoded in the polarization of a single photon can be transferred to a remote location by two-channel continuous-variable quantum teleportation. However, the finite entanglement used in the teleportation causes random changes in photon number. If more than one photon appears in the output, the continuous-variable teleportation accidentally produces clones of the original input photon. In this paper, we derive the polarization statistics of the N-photon output components and show that they can be decomposed into an optimal cloning term and completely unpolarized noise. We find that the accidental cloning of the input photon is nearly optimal at experimentally feasible squeezing levels, indicating that the loss of polarization information is partially compensated by the availability of clones.
Photoelectron anticorrelations and sub-Poisson statistics in scintillation detectors.
Bousselham, Abdelkader; Barrett, Harrison H; Bora, Vaibhav; Shah, Kanai
2010-08-01
The performance of scintillation detectors for x rays and gamma rays is limited fundamentally by the statistics of the scintillation light and the resulting photoelectrons. This paper presents a new experimental approach to studying these statistics by observing correlations in the signals from two photodetectors. It is shown that the Fano factors (ratios of variance to mean), both for the number the photoelectrons produced on the photocathode of the photomultiplier and for the underlying number of scintillation photons, can be deduced from these correlations. For LaBr(3)(Ce) and 662 keV gamma rays, the photopeak signals obtained by photomultipliers on opposite faces of a thin sample are negatively correlated, and the Fano factor for the photoelectrons is significantly less than one. The inferred Fano factor for the optical photons is very small, indistinguishable from zero within experimental error. PMID:20725609
Photoelectron anticorrelations and sub-Poisson statistics in scintillation detectors
Bousselham, Abdelkader; Barrett, Harrison H.; Bora, Vaibhav; Shah, Kanai
2010-01-01
The performance of scintillation detectors for x rays and gamma rays is limited fundamentally by the statistics of the scintillation light and the resulting photoelectrons. This paper presents a new experimental approach to studying these statistics by observing correlations in the signals from two photodetectors. It is shown that the Fano factors (ratios of variance to mean), both for the number the photoelectrons produced on the photocathode of the photomultiplier and for the underlying number of scintillation photons, can be deduced from these correlations. For LaBr3(Ce) and 662 keV gamma rays, the photopeak signals obtained by photomultipliers on opposite faces of a thin sample are negatively correlated, and the Fano factor for the photoelectrons is significantly less than one. The inferred Fano factor for the optical photons is very small, indistinguishable from zero within experimental error. PMID:20725609
Velchik, M.G.
1987-01-01
Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the detection and treatment of osteoporosis. This paper is a review of the merits and limitations of the various noninvasive modalities currently available for the measurement of bone mineral density with special emphasis placed upon the nuclear medicine techniques of single-photon and dual-photon absorptiometry. The clinicians should come away with an understanding of the relative advantages and disadvantages of photon absorptiometry and its optimal clinical application. 49 references.
Lifetime statistics of quantum chaos studied by a multiscale analysis
Di Falco, A.; Krauss, T. F.; Fratalocchi, A.
2012-04-30
In a series of pump and probe experiments, we study the lifetime statistics of a quantum chaotic resonator when the number of open channels is greater than one. Our design embeds a stadium billiard into a two dimensional photonic crystal realized on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. We calculate resonances through a multiscale procedure that combines energy landscape analysis and wavelet transforms. Experimental data is found to follow the universal predictions arising from random matrix theory with an excellent level of agreement.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sullivan, Sharon G.; Barr, Catherine; Grabois, Andrew
2002-01-01
Includes six articles that report on prices of U.S. and foreign published materials; book title output and average prices; book sales statistics; book exports and imports; book outlets in the U.S. and Canada; and review media statistics. (LRW)
The photon gas formulation of thermal radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ried, R. C., Jr.
1975-01-01
A statistical consideration of the energy, the linear momentum, and the angular momentum of the photons that make up a thermal radiation field was presented. A general nonequilibrium statistical thermodynamics approach toward a macroscopic description of thermal radiation transport was developed and then applied to the restricted equilibrium statistical thermostatics derivation of the energy, linear momentum, and intrinsic angular momentum equations for an isotropic photon gas. A brief treatment of a nonisotropic photon gas, as an example of the results produced by the nonequilibrium statistical thermodynamics approach, was given. The relativistic variation of temperature and the invariance of entropy were illustrated.
Detector noise statistics in the non-linear regime
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shopbell, P. L.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.
1992-01-01
The statistical behavior of an idealized linear detector in the presence of threshold and saturation levels is examined. It is assumed that the noise is governed by the statistical fluctuations in the number of photons emitted by the source during an exposure. Since physical detectors cannot have infinite dynamic range, our model illustrates that all devices have non-linear regimes, particularly at high count rates. The primary effect is a decrease in the statistical variance about the mean signal due to a portion of the expected noise distribution being removed via clipping. Higher order statistical moments are also examined, in particular, skewness and kurtosis. In principle, the expected distortion in the detector noise characteristics can be calibrated using flatfield observations with count rates matched to the observations. For this purpose, some basic statistical methods that utilize Fourier analysis techniques are described.
Gronberg, J
2002-10-07
A photon collider interaction region has the possibility of expanding the physics reach of a future TeV scale electron-positron collider. A survey of ongoing efforts to design the required lasers and optics to create a photon collider is presented in this paper.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrews, David L.
2009-08-01
In recent years it has become evident that the primary concept of the photon has multiple interpretations, with widely differing secondary connotations. Despite the all-pervasive nature of this concept in science, some of the ancillary properties with which the photon is attributed in certain areas of application sit uneasily alongside those invoked in other areas. Certainly the range of applications extends far beyond what was envisaged in the original conception, now entering subjects extending from elementary particle physics and cosmology through to spectroscopy, statistical mechanics and photochemistry. Addressing this diverse context invites the question: What is there, that it is possible to assert as incontrovertibly true about the photon? Which properties are non-controversial, if others are the subject of debate? This paper describes an attempt to answer these questions, establishing as far as possible an irreducible core of what can rightly be asserted about the photon, and setting aside some of what often is, but should never be so asserted. Some of the more bewildering difficulties and differences of interpretation owe their origin to careless descriptions, highlighting a need to guard semantic precision; although simplifications are frequently and naturally expedient for didactic purposes, they carry the risk of becoming indelible. Focusing on such issues, the aim is to identify how much or how little about the photon can be regarded as truly non-controversial.
Szymanski, R; Sosnowski, S; Maślanka, Ł
2016-03-28
Theoretical analysis and computer simulations (Monte Carlo and numerical integration of differential equations) show that the statistical effect of a small number of reacting molecules depends on a way the molecules are distributed among the small volume nano-reactors (droplets in this study). A simple reversible association A + B = C was chosen as a model reaction, enabling to observe both thermodynamic (apparent equilibrium constant) and kinetic effects of a small number of reactant molecules. When substrates are distributed uniformly among droplets, all containing the same equal number of substrate molecules, the apparent equilibrium constant of the association is higher than the chemical one (observed in a macroscopic-large volume system). The average rate of the association, being initially independent of the numbers of molecules, becomes (at higher conversions) higher than that in a macroscopic system: the lower the number of substrate molecules in a droplet, the higher is the rate. This results in the correspondingly higher apparent equilibrium constant. A quite opposite behavior is observed when reactant molecules are distributed randomly among droplets: the apparent association rate and equilibrium constants are lower than those observed in large volume systems, being the lower, the lower is the average number of reacting molecules in a droplet. The random distribution of reactant molecules corresponds to ideal (equal sizes of droplets) dispersing of a reaction mixture. Our simulations have shown that when the equilibrated large volume system is dispersed, the resulting droplet system is already at equilibrium and no changes of proportions of droplets differing in reactant compositions can be observed upon prolongation of the reaction time. PMID:27036432
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szymanski, R.; Sosnowski, S.; Maślanka, Ł.
2016-03-01
Theoretical analysis and computer simulations (Monte Carlo and numerical integration of differential equations) show that the statistical effect of a small number of reacting molecules depends on a way the molecules are distributed among the small volume nano-reactors (droplets in this study). A simple reversible association A + B = C was chosen as a model reaction, enabling to observe both thermodynamic (apparent equilibrium constant) and kinetic effects of a small number of reactant molecules. When substrates are distributed uniformly among droplets, all containing the same equal number of substrate molecules, the apparent equilibrium constant of the association is higher than the chemical one (observed in a macroscopic—large volume system). The average rate of the association, being initially independent of the numbers of molecules, becomes (at higher conversions) higher than that in a macroscopic system: the lower the number of substrate molecules in a droplet, the higher is the rate. This results in the correspondingly higher apparent equilibrium constant. A quite opposite behavior is observed when reactant molecules are distributed randomly among droplets: the apparent association rate and equilibrium constants are lower than those observed in large volume systems, being the lower, the lower is the average number of reacting molecules in a droplet. The random distribution of reactant molecules corresponds to ideal (equal sizes of droplets) dispersing of a reaction mixture. Our simulations have shown that when the equilibrated large volume system is dispersed, the resulting droplet system is already at equilibrium and no changes of proportions of droplets differing in reactant compositions can be observed upon prolongation of the reaction time.
Breakdown of Bose-Einstein Distribution in Photonic Crystals
Lo, Ping-Yuan; Xiong, Heng-Na; Zhang, Wei-Min
2015-01-01
In the last two decades, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of nano-photonics in photonic crystals. Previous theoretical investigations of photon dynamics were carried out at zero temperature. Here, we investigate micro/nano cavity photonics in photonic crystals at finite temperature. Due to photonic-band-gap-induced localized long-lived photon dynamics, we discover that cavity photons in photonic crystals do not obey Bose-Einstein statistical distribution. Within the photonic band gap and in the vicinity of the band edge, cavity photons combine the long-lived non-Markovain dynamics with thermal fluctuations together to form photon states that memorize the initial cavity state information. As a result, Bose-Einstein distribution is completely broken down in these regimes, even if the thermal energy is larger or much larger than the cavity detuning energy. In this investigation, a crossover phenomenon from equilibrium to nonequilibrium steady states is also revealed. PMID:25822135
Measuring the two-photon decay width of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at a photon-photon collider
Ohgaki, T.; Takahashi, T.; Watanabe, I.
1997-08-01
The feasibility of a measurement of the partial decay width of the intermediate-mass Higgs boson into two photons at a photon-photon collider is studied by a simulation. The QCD radiative correction for quark pair background processes is taken into account for the realistic background estimation. It is found that the two-photon decay width can be measured with the statistical error of 7.6{percent} with about one year of experiment. The impact of the measurement of the two-photon decay width to look for the new physics beyond is demonstrated. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Synthetic Landau levels for photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan
2016-06-01
Synthetic photonic materials are an emerging platform for exploring the interface between microscopic quantum dynamics and macroscopic material properties. Photons experiencing a Lorentz force develop handedness, providing opportunities to study quantum Hall physics and topological quantum science. Here we present an experimental realization of a magnetic field for continuum photons. We trap optical photons in a multimode ring resonator to make a two-dimensional gas of massive bosons, and then employ a non-planar geometry to induce an image rotation on each round-trip. This results in photonic Coriolis/Lorentz and centrifugal forces and so realizes the Fock–Darwin Hamiltonian for photons in a magnetic field and harmonic trap. Using spatial- and energy-resolved spectroscopy, we track the resulting photonic eigenstates as radial trapping is reduced, finally observing a photonic Landau level at degeneracy. To circumvent the challenge of trap instability at the centrifugal limit, we constrain the photons to move on a cone. Spectroscopic probes demonstrate flat space (zero curvature) away from the cone tip. At the cone tip, we observe that spatial curvature increases the local density of states, and we measure fractional state number excess consistent with the Wen–Zee theory, providing an experimental test of this theory of electrons in both a magnetic field and curved space. This work opens the door to exploration of the interplay of geometry and topology, and in conjunction with Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency, enables studies of photonic fractional quantum Hall fluids and direct detection of anyons.
Synthetic Landau levels for photons.
Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan
2016-06-30
Synthetic photonic materials are an emerging platform for exploring the interface between microscopic quantum dynamics and macroscopic material properties. Photons experiencing a Lorentz force develop handedness, providing opportunities to study quantum Hall physics and topological quantum science. Here we present an experimental realization of a magnetic field for continuum photons. We trap optical photons in a multimode ring resonator to make a two-dimensional gas of massive bosons, and then employ a non-planar geometry to induce an image rotation on each round-trip. This results in photonic Coriolis/Lorentz and centrifugal forces and so realizes the Fock–Darwin Hamiltonian for photons in a magnetic field and harmonic trap. Using spatial- and energy-resolved spectroscopy, we track the resulting photonic eigenstates as radial trapping is reduced, finally observing a photonic Landau level at degeneracy. To circumvent the challenge of trap instability at the centrifugal limit, we constrain the photons to move on a cone. Spectroscopic probes demonstrate flat space (zero curvature) away from the cone tip. At the cone tip, we observe that spatial curvature increases the local density of states, and we measure fractional state number excess consistent with the Wen–Zee theory, providing an experimental test of this theory of electrons in both a magnetic field and curved space. This work opens the door to exploration of the interplay of geometry and topology, and in conjunction with Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency, enables studies of photonic fractional quantum Hall fluids and direct detection of anyons. PMID:27281214
Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni
2002-01-01
A photon generator includes an electron gun for emitting an electron beam, a laser for emitting a laser beam, and an interaction ring wherein the laser beam repetitively collides with the electron beam for emitting a high energy photon beam therefrom in the exemplary form of x-rays. The interaction ring is a closed loop, sized and configured for circulating the electron beam with a period substantially equal to the period of the laser beam pulses for effecting repetitive collisions.
Cosmic statistics of statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szapudi, István; Colombi, Stéphane; Bernardeau, Francis
1999-12-01
The errors on statistics measured in finite galaxy catalogues are exhaustively investigated. The theory of errors on factorial moments by Szapudi & Colombi is applied to cumulants via a series expansion method. All results are subsequently extended to the weakly non-linear regime. Together with previous investigations this yields an analytic theory of the errors for moments and connected moments of counts in cells from highly non-linear to weakly non-linear scales. For non-linear functions of unbiased estimators, such as the cumulants, the phenomenon of cosmic bias is identified and computed. Since it is subdued by the cosmic errors in the range of applicability of the theory, correction for it is inconsequential. In addition, the method of Colombi, Szapudi & Szalay concerning sampling effects is generalized, adapting the theory for inhomogeneous galaxy catalogues. While previous work focused on the variance only, the present article calculates the cross-correlations between moments and connected moments as well for a statistically complete description. The final analytic formulae representing the full theory are explicit but somewhat complicated. Therefore we have made available a fortran program capable of calculating the described quantities numerically (for further details e-mail SC at colombi@iap.fr). An important special case is the evaluation of the errors on the two-point correlation function, for which this should be more accurate than any method put forward previously. This tool will be immensely useful in the future for assessing the precision of measurements from existing catalogues, as well as aiding the design of new galaxy surveys. To illustrate the applicability of the results and to explore the numerical aspects of the theory qualitatively and quantitatively, the errors and cross-correlations are predicted under a wide range of assumptions for the future Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The principal results concerning the cumulants ξ, Q3 and Q4 is that
Quantum Interference Induced Photon Blockade in a Coupled Single Quantum Dot-Cavity System
Tang, Jing; Geng, Weidong; Xu, Xiulai
2015-01-01
We propose an experimental scheme to implement a strong photon blockade with a single quantum dot coupled to a nanocavity. The photon blockade effect can be tremendously enhanced by driving the cavity and the quantum dot simultaneously with two classical laser fields. This enhancement of photon blockade is ascribed to the quantum interference effect to avoid two-photon excitation of the cavity field. Comparing with Jaynes-Cummings model, the second-order correlation function at zero time delay g(2)(0) in our scheme can be reduced by two orders of magnitude and the system sustains a large intracavity photon number. A red (blue) cavity-light detuning asymmetry for photon quantum statistics with bunching or antibunching characteristics is also observed. The photon blockade effect has a controllable flexibility by tuning the relative phase between the two pumping laser fields and the Rabi coupling strength between the quantum dot and the pumping field. Moreover, the photon blockade scheme based on quantum interference mechanism does not require a strong coupling strength between the cavity and the quantum dot, even with the pure dephasing of the system. This simple proposal provides an effective way for potential applications in solid state quantum computation and quantum information processing. PMID:25783560
Quantum Anatomy of the Classical Interference of n-Photon States in a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramírez-Cruz, N.; Bastarrachea-Magnani, M. A.; Velázquez, V.
2016-03-01
In this work we present the theory for the quantum interference of states with an arbitrary number of photons in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We express the mathematical description of the interference in an algebraic way. We show the interference pattern of an average of a n photons input state corresponds to the classical interference pattern, which tells us the last comes from a quantum interference statistical average. Then, we propose to use this scheme to study the statistical transition from quantum to classical interference.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Törnkvist, O.
2003-06-01
In this talk, I present a recent calculation of one-loop vacuum polarization in a de-Sitter inflationary background. This provides possibly the first example of an analytical result from a calculation by hand of radiative corrections in an out-of-equilibrium situation. The model considered is massless, minimally coupled scalar QED. Gauge invariance remains manifest, but as a result of the photon coupling to the scalar, the conformal invariance of electromagnetism is broken. An effective photon field equation is obtained which, to leading order in the number of inflationary e-folds, is consistent with the existence of a dynamically generated photon mass. This work has been done in collaboration with Tomislav Prokopec at Heidelberg University and Richard Woodard at the University of Florida.
Likelihood functions for the analysis of single-molecule binned photon sequences
Gopich, Irina V.
2011-01-01
We consider the analysis of a class of experiments in which the number of photons in consecutive time intervals is recorded. Sequence of photon counts or, alternatively, of FRET efficiencies can be studied using likelihood-based methods. For a kinetic model of the conformational dynamics and state-dependent Poisson photon statistics, the formalism to calculate the exact likelihood that this model describes such sequences of photons or FRET efficiencies is developed. Explicit analytic expressions for the likelihood function for a two-state kinetic model are provided. The important special case when conformational dynamics are so slow that at most a single transition occurs in a time bin is considered. By making a series of approximations, we eventually recover the likelihood function used in hidden Markov models. In this way, not only is insight gained into the range of validity of this procedure, but also an improved likelihood function can be obtained. PMID:22711967
Generation of photon-added coherent states via photon-subtracted generalised coherent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mojaveri, Bashir; Dehghani, Alireza
2014-10-01
Based on previous work [A. Dehghani, B. Mojaveri, J. Phys. A 45, 095304 (2012)], we introduce photon-subtracted generalised coherent states (PSGCSs) |z,m⟩r: = am|z⟩r, where m is a nonnegative integer and |z⟩r denote the generalised coherent states (GCSs). We have shown that the states |z,m⟩r are eigenstates of a non-Hermitian operator f(n̂,m)â, where f(n̂,m) is a nonlinear function of the number operator N̂ . Also, the states | z, - m ⟩ r can be considered as another set of eigenstates for negative values of m. They span the truncated Fock space without the first m lowest-lying basis states: | 0 ⟩ , | 1 ⟩ , | 2 ⟩ ,...,| m - 1 ⟩ which are reminiscent of the so-called photon-added coherent states. The resolution of the identity property, which is the most important property of coherent states, is realised for |z,m⟩r as well as for |z, - m⟩r. Some nonclassical features such as sub-Poissonian statistics and quadrature squeezing of the states |z, ± m⟩r are compared. We show that the annihilation operator diminishes the mean number of photons of the initial state |z⟩r. Finally we show that |z,m⟩r can be produced through a simple theoretical scheme.
Photonic module: An on-demand resource for photonic entanglement
Devitt, Simon J.; Greentree, Andrew D.; Hollenberg, Lloyd C. L.; Ionicioiu, Radu; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Munro, William J.
2007-11-15
Photonic entanglement has a wide range of applications in quantum computation and communication. Here we introduce a device: the photonic module, which allows for the rapid, deterministic preparation of a large class of entangled photon states. The module is an application independent, ''plug and play'' device, with sufficient flexibility to prepare entanglement for all major quantum computation and communication applications in a completely deterministic fashion without number-discriminated photon detection. We present two alternative constructions for the module, one using free-space components and one in a photonic band-gap structure. The natural operation of the module is to generate states within the stabilizer formalism and we present an analysis on the cavity requirements to experimentally realize this device.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quan, Frederic
2012-02-01
Photonics, the broad merger of electronics with the optical sciences, encompasses such a wide swath of technology that its impact is almost universal in our everyday lives. This is a broad overview of some aspects of the industry and their contribution to the ‘green’ or environmental movement. The rationale for energy conservation is briefly discussed and the impact of photonics on our everyday lives and certain industries is described. Some opinions from industry are presented along with market estimates. References are provided to some of the most recent research in these areas.
MCNP: Photon benchmark problems
Whalen, D.J.; Hollowell, D.E.; Hendricks, J.S.
1991-09-01
The recent widespread, markedly increased use of radiation transport codes has produced greater user and institutional demand for assurance that such codes give correct results. Responding to these pressing requirements for code validation, the general purpose Monte Carlo transport code MCNP has been tested on six different photon problem families. MCNP was used to simulate these six sets numerically. Results for each were compared to the set's analytical or experimental data. MCNP successfully predicted the analytical or experimental results of all six families within the statistical uncertainty inherent in the Monte Carlo method. From this we conclude that MCNP can accurately model a broad spectrum of photon transport problems. 8 refs., 30 figs., 5 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vigneron, Jean Pol; Simonis, Priscilla
2012-10-01
Photonic structures appeared in nature several hundred millions years ago. In the living world, color is used for communication and this important function strongly impacts the individual chances of survival as well as the chances to reproduce. This has a statistical influence on species populations. Therefore, because they are involved in evolution, natural color-generating structures are - from some point of view - highly optimized. In this short review, a survey is presented of the development of natural photonic crystal-type structures occurring in insects, spiders, birds, fishes and other marine animals, in plants and more, from the standpoint of light-waves propagation. One-, two-, and three-dimensional structures will be reviewed with selected examples.
Spindel, Jennifer; Begum, Hasina; Akdemir, Deniz; Virk, Parminder; Collard, Bertrand; Redoña, Edilberto; Atlin, Gary; Jannink, Jean-Luc; McCouch, Susan R.
2015-01-01
Genomic Selection (GS) is a new breeding method in which genome-wide markers are used to predict the breeding value of individuals in a breeding population. GS has been shown to improve breeding efficiency in dairy cattle and several crop plant species, and here we evaluate for the first time its efficacy for breeding inbred lines of rice. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in conjunction with five-fold GS cross-validation on a population of 363 elite breeding lines from the International Rice Research Institute's (IRRI) irrigated rice breeding program and herein report the GS results. The population was genotyped with 73,147 markers using genotyping-by-sequencing. The training population, statistical method used to build the GS model, number of markers, and trait were varied to determine their effect on prediction accuracy. For all three traits, genomic prediction models outperformed prediction based on pedigree records alone. Prediction accuracies ranged from 0.31 and 0.34 for grain yield and plant height to 0.63 for flowering time. Analyses using subsets of the full marker set suggest that using one marker every 0.2 cM is sufficient for genomic selection in this collection of rice breeding materials. RR-BLUP was the best performing statistical method for grain yield where no large effect QTL were detected by GWAS, while for flowering time, where a single very large effect QTL was detected, the non-GS multiple linear regression method outperformed GS models. For plant height, in which four mid-sized QTL were identified by GWAS, random forest produced the most consistently accurate GS models. Our results suggest that GS, informed by GWAS interpretations of genetic architecture and population structure, could become an effective tool for increasing the efficiency of rice breeding as the costs of genotyping continue to decline. PMID:25689273
A Photon Interference Detector with Continuous Display.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gilmore, R. S.
1978-01-01
Describes an apparatus which attempts to give a direct visual impression of the random detection of individual photons coupled with the recognition of the classical intensity distribution as a result of fairly high proton statistics. (Author/GA)
Shi, Runhua; McLarty, Jerry W
2009-10-01
In this article, we introduced basic concepts of statistics, type of distributions, and descriptive statistics. A few examples were also provided. The basic concepts presented herein are only a fraction of the concepts related to descriptive statistics. Also, there are many commonly used distributions not presented herein, such as Poisson distributions for rare events and exponential distributions, F distributions, and logistic distributions. More information can be found in many statistics books and publications. PMID:19891281
Deconstructing Statistical Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Snell, Joel
2014-01-01
Using a very complex statistical analysis and research method for the sake of enhancing the prestige of an article or making a new product or service legitimate needs to be monitored and questioned for accuracy. 1) The more complicated the statistical analysis, and research the fewer the number of learned readers can understand it. This adds a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric
2008-01-01
As a branch of knowledge, Statistics is ubiquitous and its applications can be found in (almost) every field of human endeavour. In this article, the authors track down the possible source of the link between the "Siren song" and applications of Statistics. Answers to their previous five questions and five new questions on Statistics are presented.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Callamaras, Peter
1983-01-01
This buyer's guide to seven major types of statistics software packages for microcomputers reviews Edu-Ware Statistics 3.0; Financial Planning; Speed Stat; Statistics with DAISY; Human Systems Dynamics package of Stats Plus, ANOVA II, and REGRESS II; Maxistat; and Moore-Barnes' MBC Test Construction and MBC Correlation. (MBR)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meyer, Donald L.
Bayesian statistical methodology and its possible uses in the behavioral sciences are discussed in relation to the solution of problems in both the use and teaching of fundamental statistical methods, including confidence intervals, significance tests, and sampling. The Bayesian model explains these statistical methods and offers a consistent…
Photon Molecules in Atomic Gases Trapped Near Photonic Crystal Waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Douglas, James S.; Caneva, Tommaso; Chang, Darrick E.
2016-07-01
Realizing systems that support robust, controlled interactions between individual photons is an exciting frontier of nonlinear optics. To this end, one approach that has emerged recently is to leverage atomic interactions to create strong and spatially nonlocal interactions between photons. In particular, effective photonic interactions have been successfully created via interactions between atoms excited to Rydberg levels. Here, we investigate an alternative approach, in which atomic interactions arise via their common coupling to photonic crystal waveguides. This technique takes advantage of the ability to separately tailor the strength and range of interactions via the dispersion engineering of the structure itself, which can lead to qualitatively new types of phenomena. For example, much of the work on photon-photon interactions relies on the linear optical effect of electromagnetically induced transparency, in combination with the use of interactions to shift optical pulses into or out of the associated transparency window. Here, we identify a large new class of "correlated transparency windows," in which photonic states of a certain number and shape selectively propagate through the system. Through this technique, we show that molecular bound states of photon pairs can be created.
Single-Photon-Sensitive HgCdTe Avalanche Photodiode Detector
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huntington, Andrew
2013-01-01
The purpose of this program was to develop single-photon-sensitive short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) and mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) avalanche photodiode (APD) receivers based on linear-mode HgCdTe APDs, for application by NASA in light detection and ranging (lidar) sensors. Linear-mode photon-counting APDs are desired for lidar because they have a shorter pixel dead time than Geiger APDs, and can detect sequential pulse returns from multiple objects that are closely spaced in range. Linear-mode APDs can also measure photon number, which Geiger APDs cannot, adding an extra dimension to lidar scene data for multi-photon returns. High-gain APDs with low multiplication noise are required for efficient linear-mode detection of single photons because of APD gain statistics -- a low-excess-noise APD will generate detectible current pulses from single photon input at a much higher rate of occurrence than will a noisy APD operated at the same average gain. MWIR and LWIR electron-avalanche HgCdTe APDs have been shown to operate in linear mode at high average avalanche gain (M > 1000) without excess multiplication noise (F = 1), and are therefore very good candidates for linear-mode photon counting. However, detectors fashioned from these narrow-bandgap alloys require aggressive cooling to control thermal dark current. Wider-bandgap SWIR HgCdTe APDs were investigated in this program as a strategy to reduce detector cooling requirements.
2013-01-01
A statistical approach was investigated to estimate the concentration of compounds lacking authentic standards/surrogates (CLASS). As a means to assess the reliability of this approach, the response factor (RF) of CLASS is derived by predictive equations based on a linear regression (LR) analysis between the actual RF (by external calibration) of 18 reference volatile organic compounds (VOCs) consisting of six original functional groups and their physicochemical parameters ((1) carbon number (CN), (2) molecular weight (MW), and (3) boiling point (BP)). If the experimental bias is estimated in terms of percent difference (PD) between the actual and projected RF, the least bias for 18 VOCs is found from CN (17.9 ± 19.0%). In contrast, the PD values against MW and BP are 40.6% and 81.5%, respectively. Predictive equations were hence derived via an LR analysis between the actual RF and CN for 29 groups: (1) one group consisting of all 18 reference VOCs, (2) three out of six original functional groups, and (3) 25 groups formed randomly from the six functional groups. The applicability of this method was tested by fitting these 29 equations into each of the six original functional groups. According to this approach, the mean PD for 18 compounds dropped as low as 5.60 ± 5.63%. This approach can thus be used as a practical tool to assess the quantitative data for CLASS. PMID:23766682
Femtosecond Photon-Counting Receiver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krainak, Michael A.; Rambo, Timothy M.; Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Numata, Kenji
2016-01-01
An optical correlation receiver is described that provides ultra-precise distance and/or time-pulse-width measurements even for weak (single photons) and short (femtosecond) optical signals. A new type of optical correlation receiver uses a fourth-order (intensity) interferometer to provide micron distance measurements even for weak (single photons) and short (femtosecond) optical signals. The optical correlator uses a low-noise-integrating detector that can resolve photon number. The correlation (range as a function of path delay) is calculated from the variance of the photon number of the difference of the optical signals on the two detectors. Our preliminary proof-of principle data (using a short-pulse diode laser transmitter) demonstrates tens of microns precision.
Femtosecond Photon-Counting Receiver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krainak, Michael A.; Rambo, Timothy M.; Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Numata, Kenji
2016-01-01
An optical correlation receiver is described that provides ultra-precise distance and/or time/pulse-width measurements even for weak (single photons) and short (femtosecond) optical signals. A new type of optical correlation receiver uses a fourth-order (intensity) interferometer to provide micron distance measurements even for weak (single photons) and short (femtosecond) optical signals. The optical correlator uses a low-noise-integrating detector that can resolve photon number. The correlation (range as a function of path delay) is calculated from the variance of the photon number of the difference of the optical signals on the two detectors. Our preliminary proof-of principle data (using a short-pulse diode laser transmitter) demonstrates tens of microns precision.
Photon Collider Physics with Real Photon Beams
Gronberg, J; Asztalos, S
2005-11-03
Photon-photon interactions have been an important probe into fundamental particle physics. Until recently, the only way to produce photon-photon collisions was parasitically in the collision of charged particles. Recent advances in short-pulse laser technology have made it possible to consider producing high intensity, tightly focused beams of real photons through Compton scattering. A linear e{sup +}e{sup -} collider could thus be transformed into a photon-photon collider with the addition of high power lasers. In this paper they show that it is possible to make a competitive photon-photon collider experiment using the currently mothballed Stanford Linear Collider. This would produce photon-photon collisions in the GeV energy range which would allow the discovery and study of exotic heavy mesons with spin states of zero and two.
Topological photonic crystal with ideal Weyl points
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Luyang; Jian, Shao-Kai; Yao, Hong
Weyl points in three-dimensional photonic crystals behave as monopoles of Berry flux in momentum space. Here, based on symmetry analysis, we show that a minimal number of symmetry-related Weyl points can be realized in time-reversal invariant photonic crystals. We propose to realize these ``ideal'' Weyl points in modified double-gyroid photonic crystals, which is confirmed by our first-principle photonic band-structure calculations. Photonic crystals with ideal Weyl points are qualitatively advantageous in applications such as angular and frequency selectivity, broadband invisibility cloaking, and broadband 3D-imaging.
Topological photonic crystal with equifrequency Weyl points
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Luyang; Jian, Shao-Kai; Yao, Hong
2016-06-01
Weyl points in three-dimensional photonic crystals behave as monopoles of Berry flux in momentum space. Here, based on general symmetry analysis, we show that a minimal number of four symmetry-related (consequently equifrequency) Weyl points can be realized in time-reversal invariant photonic crystals. We further propose an experimentally feasible way to modify double-gyroid photonic crystals to realize four equifrequency Weyl points, which is explicitly confirmed by our first-principle photonic band-structure calculations. Remarkably, photonic crystals with equifrequency Weyl points are qualitatively advantageous in applications including angular selectivity, frequency selectivity, invisibility cloaking, and three-dimensional imaging.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chough, Young-Tak
2014-05-01
We propose a feedback scheme to control the photon statistics in a micromaser/laser cavity, using the system output as the control signal, which generates a highly nonclassical field whose Mandel-Q parameter is even lower than -0.9 and mean photon number much greater than unity. We demonstrate that the so-obtained system constitutes a continuous-wave (CW) quasi-Fock state source, the emission of which exhibits a sub-Poissonian photocount distribution as well as the photon anti-bunching property.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Telnov, Valery
2001-10-01
High energy photon colliders ( γγ, γe) based on backward Compton scattering of laser light is a very natural addition to e +e - linear colliders. In this report, we consider this option for the TESLA project. Recent study has shown that the horizontal emittance in the TESLA damping ring can be further decreased by a factor of four. In this case, the γγ luminosity in the high energy part of spectrum can reach about (1/3) Le +e -. Typical cross-sections of interesting processes in γγ collisions are higher than those in e +e - collisions by about one order of magnitude, so the number of events in γγ collisions will be more than that in e +e - collisions. Photon colliders can, certainly, give additional information and they are the best for the study of many phenomena. The main question is now the technical feasibility. The key new element in photon colliders is a very powerful laser system. An external optical cavity is a promising approach for the TESLA project. A free electron laser is another option. However, a more straightforward solution is "an optical storage ring (optical trap)" with a diode pumped solid state laser injector which is today technically feasible. This paper briefly reviews the status of a photon collider based on the linear collider TESLA, its possible parameters and existing problems.
Photon blockade in the ultrastrong coupling regime.
Ridolfo, A; Leib, M; Savasta, S; Hartmann, M J
2012-11-01
We explore photon coincidence counting statistics in the ultrastrong coupling regime, where the atom-cavity coupling rate becomes comparable to the cavity resonance frequency. In this regime, usual normal order correlation functions fail to describe the output photon statistics. By expressing the electric-field operator in the cavity-emitter dressed basis, we are able to propose correlation functions that are valid for arbitrary degrees of light-matter interaction. Our results show that the standard photon blockade scenario is significantly modified for ultrastrong coupling. We observe parametric processes even for two-level emitters and temporal oscillations of intensity correlation functions at a frequency given by the ultrastrong photon emitter coupling. These effects can be traced back to the presence of two-photon cascade decays induced by counterrotating interaction terms. PMID:23215383
Kogalovskii, M.R.
1995-03-01
This paper presents a review of problems related to statistical database systems, which are wide-spread in various fields of activity. Statistical databases (SDB) are referred to as databases that consist of data and are used for statistical analysis. Topics under consideration are: SDB peculiarities, properties of data models adequate for SDB requirements, metadata functions, null-value problems, SDB compromise protection problems, stored data compression techniques, and statistical data representation means. Also examined is whether the present Database Management Systems (DBMS) satisfy the SDB requirements. Some actual research directions in SDB systems are considered.
Smith, Alwyn
1969-01-01
This paper is based on an analysis of questionnaires sent to the health ministries of Member States of WHO asking for information about the extent, nature, and scope of morbidity statistical information. It is clear that most countries collect some statistics of morbidity and many countries collect extensive data. However, few countries relate their collection to the needs of health administrators for information, and many countries collect statistics principally for publication in annual volumes which may appear anything up to 3 years after the year to which they refer. The desiderata of morbidity statistics may be summarized as reliability, representativeness, and relevance to current health problems. PMID:5306722
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gondarenko, Alexander A.
In 1958 the first integrated circuit was demonstrated to combine transistors, resistors, and capacitors [36]. To this date fabrication technology has been driven by the growing demand for monolithically constructed, densely packed electronic components. The exponentially shrinking device size decreased the feature dimensions from 10 microns to 32 nm and grew transistor count from 2,300 to over 2,000,000,000 in Intel's 4004 and Intel Kentsfield XE microprocessors. The benefits of micro- and nano-fabrication was not limited to just computer chips. MEMs, spintronic, microfluidics, and integrated photonics were all made possible by the ever expanding ability to form complex geometries, on a wide variety of materials, on a micron and submicron scale. This dissertation is part of an effort to design and fabricate novel integrated photonic devices compatible with standard electron beam and photo lithography and utilize a readily available material base. We aim to create devices with a decreased footprint on a chip and operate in the infrared, visible, and UV spectra. We present two general sections, the first is a theoretical effort to find the fundamental design geometries for a variety of optical problems. The second section is an experimental demonstration of techniques and devices for novel optical phenomena in an integrated package. In the theoretical section we develop and apply computational evolutionary algorithms to explore problems of light confinement, coupling, and guiding in two and three dimensional device geometries. Our general aim is to find a global limit to optimal device geometry and performance given a set of constrains. Experimentally, we demonstrate an efficient design and a fabrication process for a short development cycle of photonic devices. For the design part of the workflow, we develop a computational approach to explore device geometries with minimum initial assumptions for a variety of photonic problems. For the fabrication part of the
Generalized quantum interference of correlated photon pairs
Kim, Heonoh; Lee, Sang Min; Moon, Han Seb
2015-01-01
Superposition and indistinguishablility between probability amplitudes have played an essential role in observing quantum interference effects of correlated photons. The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and interferences of the path-entangled photon number state are of special interest in the field of quantum information technologies. However, a fully generalized two-photon quantum interferometric scheme accounting for the Hong-Ou-Mandel scheme and path-entangled photon number states has not yet been proposed. Here we report the experimental demonstrations of the generalized two-photon interferometry with both the interferometric properties of the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect and the fully unfolded version of the path-entangled photon number state using photon-pair sources, which are independently generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Our experimental scheme explains two-photon interference fringes revealing single- and two-photon coherence properties in a single interferometer setup. Using the proposed interferometric measurement, it is possible to directly estimate the joint spectral intensity of a photon pair source. PMID:25951143
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric
2008-01-01
In this article, the authors focus on hypothesis testing--that peculiarly statistical way of deciding things. Statistical methods for testing hypotheses were developed in the 1920s and 1930s by some of the most famous statisticians, in particular Ronald Fisher, Jerzy Neyman and Egon Pearson, who laid the foundations of almost all modern methods of…
Muñoz, C. Sánchez; del Valle, E.; Tudela, A. González; Müller, K.; Lichtmannecker, S.; Kaniber, M.; Tejedor, C.; Finley, J.J.; Laussy, F.P.
2014-01-01
Controlling the ouput of a light emitter is one of the basic tasks of photonics, with landmarks such as the laser and single-photon sources. The development of quantum applications makes it increasingly important to diversify the available quantum sources. Here, we propose a cavity QED scheme to realize emitters that release their energy in groups, or “bundles” of N photons, for integer N. Close to 100% of two-photon emission and 90% of three-photon emission is shown to be within reach of state of the art samples. The emission can be tuned with system parameters so that the device behaves as a laser or as a N-photon gun. The theoretical formalism to characterize such emitters is developed, with the bundle statistics arising as an extension of the fundamental correlation functions of quantum optics. These emitters will be useful for quantum information processing and for medical applications. PMID:25013456
Muñoz, C Sánchez; Del Valle, E; Tudela, A González; Müller, K; Lichtmannecker, S; Kaniber, M; Tejedor, C; Finley, J J; Laussy, F P
2014-07-01
Controlling the ouput of a light emitter is one of the basic tasks of photonics, with landmarks such as the laser and single-photon sources. The development of quantum applications makes it increasingly important to diversify the available quantum sources. Here, we propose a cavity QED scheme to realize emitters that release their energy in groups, or "bundles" of N photons, for integer N. Close to 100% of two-photon emission and 90% of three-photon emission is shown to be within reach of state of the art samples. The emission can be tuned with system parameters so that the device behaves as a laser or as a N-photon gun. The theoretical formalism to characterize such emitters is developed, with the bundle statistics arising as an extension of the fundamental correlation functions of quantum optics. These emitters will be useful for quantum information processing and for medical applications. PMID:25013456
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Swafford, Jane; McGinty, Robert
1978-01-01
A concrete approach to prime numbers is presented using rectangles and triangles to construct a building for each number so that each story represents a pair of factors and the triangular-shaped roof represents the number. (MP)
Heifetz, Alexander; Kong, Soon-Cheol; Sahakian, Alan V.; Taflove, Allen; Backman, Vadim
2009-01-01
This paper reviews the substantial body of literature emerging since 2004 concerning photonic nanojets. The photonic nanojet is a narrow, high-intensity, non-evanescent light beam that can propagate over a distance longer than the wavelength λ after emerging from the shadow-side surface of an illuminated lossless dielectric microcylinder or microsphere of diameter larger than λ. The nanojet’s minimum beamwidth can be smaller than the classical diffraction limit, in fact as small as ~λ/3 for microspheres. It is a nonresonant phenomenon appearing for a wide range of diameters of the microcylinder or microsphere if the refractive index contrast relative to the background is less than about 2:1. Importantly, inserting within a nanojet a nanoparticle of diameter dν perturbs the far-field backscattered power of the illuminated microsphere by an amount that varies as dν3 for a fixed λ. This perturbation is much slower than the dν6 dependence of Rayleigh scattering for the same nanoparticle, if isolated. This leads to a situation where, for example, the measured far-field backscattered power of a 3-μm diameter microsphere could double if a 30-nm diameter nanoparticle were inserted into the nanojet emerging from the microsphere, despite the nanoparticle having only 1/10,000th the cross-section area of the microsphere. In effect, the nanojet serves to project the presence of the nanoparticle to the far field. These properties combine to afford potentially important applications of photonic nanojets for detecting and manipulating nanoscale objects, subdiffraction-resolution nanopatterning and nanolithography, low-loss waveguiding, and ultrahigh-density optical storage. PMID:19946614
Optics of photonic quasicrystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vardeny, Z. Valy; Nahata, Ajay; Agrawal, Amit
2013-03-01
The physics of periodic systems are of fundamental importance and result in various phenomena that govern wave transport and interference. However, deviations from periodicity may result in higher complexity and give rise to a number of surprising effects. One such deviation can be found in the field of optics in the realization of photonic quasicrystals, a class of structures made from building blocks that are arranged using well-designed patterns but lack translational symmetry. Nevertheless, these structures, which lie between periodic and disordered structures, still show sharp diffraction patterns that confirm the existence of wave interference resulting from their long-range order. In this Review, we discuss the beautiful physics unravelled in photonic quasicrystals of one, two and three dimensions, and describe how they can influence optical transmission and reflectivity, photoluminescence, light transport, plasmonics and laser action.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
A, Karimi; M, K. Tavassoly
2016-04-01
In this paper, after a brief review on the entangled squeezed states, we produce a new class of the continuous-variable-type entangled states, namely, deformed photon-added entangled squeezed states. These states are obtained via the iterated action of the f-deformed creation operator A = f (n)a † on the entangled squeezed states. In the continuation, by studying the criteria such as the degree of entanglement, quantum polarization as well as sub-Poissonian photon statistics, the two-mode correlation function, one-mode and two-mode squeezing, we investigate the nonclassical behaviors of the introduced states in detail by choosing a particular f-deformation function. It is revealed that the above-mentioned physical properties can be affected and so may be tuned by justifying the excitation number, after choosing a nonlinearity function. Finally, to generate the introduced states, we propose a theoretical scheme using the nonlinear Jaynes–Cummings model.
Di-photon and photon + b/c production cross sections at Ecm = 1.96- TeV
Gajjar, Anant; /Liverpool U.
2005-05-01
Measurements of the di-photon cross section have been made in the central region and are found to be in good agreement with NLO QCD predictions. The cross section of events containing a photon and additional heavy flavor jet have also been measured, as well as the ratio of photon + b to photon + c. The statistically limited sample shows good agreement with Leading Order predictions.
Signal acquisition via polarization modulation in single photon sources.
McDonnell, Mark D; Flitney, Adrian P
2009-12-01
A simple model system is introduced for demonstrating how a single photon source might be used to transduce classical analog information. The theoretical scheme results in measurements of analog source samples that are (i) quantized in the sense of analog-to-digital conversion and (ii) corrupted by random noise that is solely due to the quantum uncertainty in detecting the polarization state of each photon. This noise is unavoidable if more than 1 bit per sample is to be transmitted and we show how it may be exploited in a manner inspired by suprathreshold stochastic resonance. The system is analyzed information theoretically, as it can be modeled as a noisy optical communication channel, although unlike classical Poisson channels, the detector's photon statistics are binomial. Previous results on binomial channels are adapted to demonstrate numerically that the classical information capacity, and thus the accuracy of the transduction, increases logarithmically with the square root of the number of photons, N. Although the capacity is shown to be reduced when an additional detector nonideality is present, the logarithmic increase with N remains. PMID:20365102
Signal acquisition via polarization modulation in single photon sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McDonnell, Mark D.; Flitney, Adrian P.
2009-12-01
A simple model system is introduced for demonstrating how a single photon source might be used to transduce classical analog information. The theoretical scheme results in measurements of analog source samples that are (i) quantized in the sense of analog-to-digital conversion and (ii) corrupted by random noise that is solely due to the quantum uncertainty in detecting the polarization state of each photon. This noise is unavoidable if more than 1 bit per sample is to be transmitted and we show how it may be exploited in a manner inspired by suprathreshold stochastic resonance. The system is analyzed information theoretically, as it can be modeled as a noisy optical communication channel, although unlike classical Poisson channels, the detector’s photon statistics are binomial. Previous results on binomial channels are adapted to demonstrate numerically that the classical information capacity, and thus the accuracy of the transduction, increases logarithmically with the square root of the number of photons, N . Although the capacity is shown to be reduced when an additional detector nonideality is present, the logarithmic increase with N remains.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Feiveson, Alan H.; Foy, Millennia; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James
2014-01-01
Do you have elevated p-values? Is the data analysis process getting you down? Do you experience anxiety when you need to respond to criticism of statistical methods in your manuscript? You may be suffering from Insufficient Statistical Support Syndrome (ISSS). For symptomatic relief of ISSS, come for a free consultation with JSC biostatisticians at our help desk during the poster sessions at the HRP Investigators Workshop. Get answers to common questions about sample size, missing data, multiple testing, when to trust the results of your analyses and more. Side effects may include sudden loss of statistics anxiety, improved interpretation of your data, and increased confidence in your results.
Integrated spatial multiplexing of heralded single-photon sources
Collins, M.J.; Xiong, C.; Rey, I.H.; Vo, T.D.; He, J.; Shahnia, S.; Reardon, C.; Krauss, T.F.; Steel, M.J.; Clark, A.S.; Eggleton, B.J.
2013-01-01
The non-deterministic nature of photon sources is a key limitation for single-photon quantum processors. Spatial multiplexing overcomes this by enhancing the heralded single-photon yield without enhancing the output noise. Here the intrinsic statistical limit of an individual source is surpassed by spatially multiplexing two monolithic silicon-based correlated photon pair sources in the telecommunications band, demonstrating a 62.4% increase in the heralded single-photon output without an increase in unwanted multipair generation. We further demonstrate the scalability of this scheme by multiplexing photons generated in two waveguides pumped via an integrated coupler with a 63.1% increase in the heralded photon rate. This demonstration paves the way for a scalable architecture for multiplexing many photon sources in a compact integrated platform and achieving efficient two-photon interference, required at the core of optical quantum computing and quantum communication protocols. PMID:24107840
Statistics Anxiety and Business Statistics: The International Student
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bell, James A.
2008-01-01
Does the international student suffer from statistics anxiety? To investigate this, the Statistics Anxiety Rating Scale (STARS) was administered to sixty-six beginning statistics students, including twelve international students and fifty-four domestic students. Due to the small number of international students, nonparametric methods were used to…
The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute works to provide information on cancer statistics in an effort to reduce the burden of cancer among the U.S. population.
Winters, Ryan; Winters, Andrew; Amedee, Ronald G.
2010-01-01
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education sets forth a number of required educational topics that must be addressed in residency and fellowship programs. We sought to provide a primer on some of the important basic statistical concepts to consider when examining the medical literature. It is not essential to understand the exact workings and methodology of every statistical test encountered, but it is necessary to understand selected concepts such as parametric and nonparametric tests, correlation, and numerical versus categorical data. This working knowledge will allow you to spot obvious irregularities in statistical analyses that you encounter. PMID:21603381
Zheng Weikang; Akerlof, Carl W.; McKay, Timothy A.; Pandey, Shashi B.; Zhang Binbin; Zhang Bing; Sakamoto, Takanori
2012-09-01
Launched on 2008 June 11, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has provided a rare opportunity to study high-energy photon emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although the majority of such events (27) have been identified by the Fermi-LAT Collaboration, four were uncovered by using more sensitive statistical techniques. In this paper, we continue our earlier work by finding three more GRBs associated with high-energy photon emission, GRB 110709A, 111117A, and 120107A. To systematize our matched filter approach, a pipeline has been developed to identify these objects in nearly real time. GRB 120107A is the first product of this analysis procedure. Despite the reduced threshold for identification, the number of GRB events has not increased significantly. This relative dearth of events with low photon number prompted a study of the apparent photon number distribution. We find an extremely good fit to a simple power law with an exponent of -1.8 {+-} 0.3 for the differential distribution. As might be expected, there is a substantial correlation between the number of lower energy photons detected by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and the number observed by LAT. Thus, high-energy photon emission is associated with some but not all of the brighter GBM events. Deeper studies of the properties of the small population of high-energy emitting bursts may eventually yield a better understanding of these entire phenomena.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, WeiKang; Akerlof, Carl W.; Pandey, Shashi B.; McKay, Timothy A.; Zhang, BinBin; Zhang, Bing; Sakamoto, Takanori
2012-09-01
Launched on 2008 June 11, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has provided a rare opportunity to study high-energy photon emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although the majority of such events (27) have been identified by the Fermi-LAT Collaboration, four were uncovered by using more sensitive statistical techniques. In this paper, we continue our earlier work by finding three more GRBs associated with high-energy photon emission, GRB 110709A, 111117A, and 120107A. To systematize our matched filter approach, a pipeline has been developed to identify these objects in nearly real time. GRB 120107A is the first product of this analysis procedure. Despite the reduced threshold for identification, the number of GRB events has not increased significantly. This relative dearth of events with low photon number prompted a study of the apparent photon number distribution. We find an extremely good fit to a simple power law with an exponent of -1.8 ± 0.3 for the differential distribution. As might be expected, there is a substantial correlation between the number of lower energy photons detected by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and the number observed by LAT. Thus, high-energy photon emission is associated with some but not all of the brighter GBM events. Deeper studies of the properties of the small population of high-energy emitting bursts may eventually yield a better understanding of these entire phenomena.
Tevatron direct photon results.
Kuhlmann, S.
1999-09-21
Tevatron direct photon results since DIS98 are reviewed. Two new CDF measurements are discussed, the Run Ib inclusive photon cross section and the photon + Muon cross section. Comparisons with the latest NLO QCD calculations are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stein, Jürgen; Kreuels, Achim; Kong, Yong; Lentering, Ralf; Ruhnau, Kai; Scherwinski, Falko; Wolf, Andreas
2015-05-01
Scintillation detectors with light readout are used for gamma, x-ray and particle detection. Where applicable, photon counting is principally superior to charge integration with regard to accuracy. Most scintillation detectors, however, generate a large number of photons per microsecond for a typical scintillation pulse resulting in significant amounts of pileup. This precludes the separation, and thus direct counting of single photoelectron charges. The algorithm developed and presented in this paper quantifies the coarseness of fast digitized current tracks to construct a photon count dependent, however, electron gain independent charge calculation function. Underlying photoelectrons are interpreted as noise components and retrieved by a modified statistical variance calculation. This method is verified for modeled scintillation pulses and scintillation detector data. It provides a new means for PMT gain stabilization in digital multi-channel analyzers by pulse current analysis.
Photonic Molecule Lasers Revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gagnon, Denis; Dumont, Joey; Déziel, Jean-Luc; Dubé, Louis J.
2014-05-01
Photonic molecules (PMs) formed by coupling two or more optical resonators are ideal candidates for the fabrication of integrated microlasers, photonic molecule lasers. Whereas most calculations on PM lasers have been based on cold-cavity (passive) modes, i.e. quasi-bound states, a recently formulated steady-state ab initio laser theory (SALT) offers the possibility to take into account the spectral properties of the underlying gain transition, its position and linewidth, as well as incorporating an arbitrary pump profile. We will combine two theoretical approaches to characterize the lasing properties of PM lasers: for two-dimensional systems, the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory will obtain the resonant modes of the coupled molecules in an active medium described by SALT. Not only is then the theoretical description more complete, the use of an active medium provides additional parameters to control, engineer and harness the lasing properties of PM lasers for ultra-low threshold and directional single-mode emission. We will extend our recent study and present new results for a number of promising geometries. The authors acknowledge financial support from NSERC (Canada) and the CERC in Photonic Innovations of Y. Messaddeq.
Resonance formation in photon-photon collisions
Gidal, G.
1988-08-01
Recent experimental progress on resonance formation in photon-photon collisions is reviewed with particular emphasis on the pseudoscalar and tensor nonents and on the ..gamma gamma..* production of spin-one resonances. 37 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.
Physics at high energy photon photon colliders
Chanowitz, M.S.
1994-06-01
I review the physic prospects for high energy photon photon colliders, emphasizing results presented at the LBL Gamma Gamma Collider Workshop. Advantages and difficulties are reported for studies of QCD, the electroweak gauge sector, supersymmetry, and electroweak symmetry breaking.
Spectrally dependent fluctuations of thermal photon sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olson, K.; Talghader, J.
2016-07-01
Many current quantum optical systems, such as microcavities, interact with thermal light through a small number of widely separated modes. Previous theories for photon number fluctuations of thermal light have been primarily limited to special cases that are appropriate for large volumes or distances, such as single modes, many modes, or modes of uniform spectral distribution. Herein, a theory for the general case of spectrally dependent photon number fluctuations is developed for thermal light. The error in variance of prior art is quantitatively derived for an example cavity in the case where photon counting noise dominates. A method to reduce the spectral impact of this variance is described.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shin, Philip
Number relativity 1.Every equation of the relativity is just the way to understand through to solve one question of the math problem. We just add the hypothesis into the number. 2. Sequence of number is the machine physics for software(computer) as the number order is program equation as calculator. 3. When zero is denominator, it is not existing as it is doing something by nothing. So nothing means time as we put zero denominator into time. My personal physics imagine.
Lithography system using quantum entangled photons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Colin (Inventor); Dowling, Jonathan (Inventor); della Rossa, Giovanni (Inventor)
2002-01-01
A system of etching using quantum entangled particles to get shorter interference fringes. An interferometer is used to obtain an interference fringe. N entangled photons are input to the interferometer. This reduces the distance between interference fringes by n, where again n is the number of entangled photons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goodman, J. W.
This book is based on the thesis that some training in the area of statistical optics should be included as a standard part of any advanced optics curriculum. Random variables are discussed, taking into account definitions of probability and random variables, distribution functions and density functions, an extension to two or more random variables, statistical averages, transformations of random variables, sums of real random variables, Gaussian random variables, complex-valued random variables, and random phasor sums. Other subjects examined are related to random processes, some first-order properties of light waves, the coherence of optical waves, some problems involving high-order coherence, effects of partial coherence on imaging systems, imaging in the presence of randomly inhomogeneous media, and fundamental limits in photoelectric detection of light. Attention is given to deterministic versus statistical phenomena and models, the Fourier transform, and the fourth-order moment of the spectrum of a detected speckle image.
Efficient procedures for the optimization of defects in photonic crystal structures.
Hafner, Christian; Xudong, Cui; Smajic, Jasmin; Vahldieck, Ruediger
2007-04-01
Seven different stochastic binary optimizers--based on the concepts of genetic algorithms and evolutionary strategies--are developed, applied to determine defect locations in several photonic crystal structures that serve as test cases, and compared by extensive statistical analysis. In addition to the stochastic optimizers, a quasi-deterministic optimizer based on an algorithm inspired by hill-climbing algorithms was implemented. The test cases include the prominent 90 degrees photonic crystal waveguide bend and a photonic crystal power divider. The analysis of the results shows that many different photonic crystal structures with high transmission may be found for any operating frequency. All of the eight optimizers outperform standard codes-because they maintain an incomplete fitness table-and find the global optima with a high probability even when the number of fitness evaluations is much smaller than the number of potential solutions contained in the discrete search space. Based on the incomplete fitness table, an algorithm to estimate bit-fitness values is presented. The bit-fitness values are then used to improve the performance of some algorithms. The four best algorithms-an extended microgenetic algorithm, two mutation-based algorithms, and the quasi-deterministic algorithm inspired by hill-climbing algorithms-are considered to be of high value for the optimization of defects in photonic crystals and for similar binary optimization problems. PMID:17361306
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rich, Andrew
2008-01-01
The leftist number system consists of numbers with decimal digits arranged in strings to the left, instead of to the right. This system fails to be a field only because it contains zerodivisors. The same construction with prime base yields the p-adic numbers.
How a Single Photon Can Act as Many Photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dmochowski, Greg; Hallaji, Matin; Feizpour, Amir; Sinclair, Josiah; Steinberg, Aephraim
2015-05-01
We experimentally show how a single, post-selected photon may induce a non-linear cross-phase shift that is five times larger than the nominal single photon effect. Using a weak cross-Kerr interaction, we deterministically couple two coherent state optical fields and exploit weak-value amplification (WVA) to increase the effect that one field (the ``signal'') has on the other (the ``probe''). Due to the (weak) entangling interaction, appropriate preparation and post-selection of the signal field leads to interference of different possible probe states and an anomalously large cross-phase shift. This amplification only occurs for particular pre- and post-selections of the signal field; larger amplification arises when the final state is nearly orthogonal to the initially prepared state and, therefore, occurs less frequently. A laser-cooled cloud of 85Rb atoms is used to mediate the cross-Kerr interaction; the signal field imprints a phase shift on the probe laser, which grows linearly with the photon number in the signal pulse. That is, the probe effectively measures the photon number in the signal beam. The signal field is prepared in a given superposition of two polarizations, one of which interacts with the probe field more strongly than the other. After the interaction, detection of an individual signal photon (using a single photon detector) which is nearly orthogonally polarized causes the probe to acquire an additional single-photon phase shift that is amplified by the degree of orthogonality. We demonstrate an amplification factor of five.
Topological Photonics for Continuous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silveirinha, Mario
Photonic crystals have revolutionized light-based technologies during the last three decades. Notably, it was recently discovered that the light propagation in photonic crystals may depend on some topological characteristics determined by the manner how the light states are mutually entangled. The usual topological classification of photonic crystals explores the fact that these structures are periodic. The periodicity is essential to ensure that the underlying wave vector space is a closed surface with no boundary. In this talk, we prove that it is possible calculate Chern invariants for a wide class of continuous bianisotropic electromagnetic media with no intrinsic periodicity. The nontrivial topology of the relevant continuous materials is linked with the emergence of edge states. Moreover, we will demonstrate that continuous photonic media with the time-reversal symmetry can be topologically characterized by a Z2 integer. This novel classification extends for the first time the theory of electronic topological insulators to a wide range of photonic platforms, and is expected to have an impact in the design of novel photonic systems that enable a topologically protected transport of optical energy. This work is supported in part by Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia Grant Number PTDC/EEI-TEL/4543/2014.
Nonperturbative atom-photon interactions in an optical cavity
Carmichael, H.J.; Tian, L.; Ren, W.
1994-12-31
One of the principal developments in cavity quantum electrodynamics in the last few years has been the extension of the ideas originally applied to systems of Rydberg atoms in microwave cavities to optical frequencies. As a corollary of this, more attention is being paid to quantum fluctuations and photon statistics. Another development, still in its infancy, is a move toward experiments using slowed or trapped atoms, or velocity selected beams; these methods are needed to enter the nonperturbative (strong dipole coupling) regime for one atom where there are experiments on subtle quantum-statistical effects go carry out. In this chapter we solve a number of theoretical problems related to these themes. Although the focus of the work is on optical systems, most of what we do is also relevant at microwave frequencies. We emphasize quantum fluctuations and photon statistics, and we try always to separate the quantum physics from those aspects of the physics that are understandable in classical terms. On the whole we only pay attention to the nonperturbative regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics where the dipole coupling strength is larger than the dissipation rates. 59 refs., 14 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cohen, Graeme L.
2009-03-01
Let tau(n) denote the number of positive divisors of a natural number n>1 and let sigma(n) denote their sum. Then n is superharmonic if sigma(n)mid n^ktau(n) for some positive integer k . We deduce numerous properties of superharmonic numbers and show in particular that the set of all superharmonic numbers is the first nontrivial example that has been given of an infinite set that contains all perfect numbers but for which it is difficult to determine whether there is an odd member.
Entangled-photon compressive ghost imaging
Zerom, Petros; Chan, Kam Wai Clifford; Howell, John C.; Boyd, Robert W.
2011-12-15
We have experimentally demonstrated high-resolution compressive ghost imaging at the single-photon level using entangled photons produced by a spontaneous parametric down-conversion source and using single-pixel detectors. For a given mean-squared error, the number of photons needed to reconstruct a two-dimensional image is found to be much smaller than that in quantum ghost imaging experiments employing a raster scan. This procedure not only shortens the data acquisition time, but also suggests a more economical use of photons for low-light-level and quantum image formation.
Exclusive photon-photon processes
Brodsky, S.J.
1997-07-01
Exclusive gamma gamma right arrow hadron pairs are among the most fundamental processes in QCD, providing a detailed examination of Compton scattering in the crossed channel. In the high momentum transfer domain (s, t, large, Theta cm for t/s fixed), these processes can be computed from first principles in QCD, yielding important information on the nature of the QCD coupling data and the form of hadron distribution amplitudes. Similarly, the transition form factors gamma star gamma, gamma star gamma right arrow pi(o), Eta (0), Eta`, Eta(c)... provide rigorous tests of QCD and definitive determinations of the meson distribution amplitudes Phi H(x,Q). We show that the assumption of a frozen coupling at low momentum transfers can explain the observed scaling of two-photon exclusive processes.
Large numbers hypothesis. II - Electromagnetic radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, P. J.
1983-01-01
This paper develops the theory of electromagnetic radiation in the units covariant formalism incorporating Dirac's large numbers hypothesis (LNH). A direct field-to-particle technique is used to obtain the photon propagation equation which explicitly involves the photon replication rate. This replication rate is fixed uniquely by requiring that the form of a free-photon distribution function be preserved, as required by the 2.7 K cosmic radiation. One finds that with this particular photon replication rate the units covariant formalism developed in Paper I actually predicts that the ratio of photon number to proton number in the universe varies as t to the 1/4, precisely in accord with LNH. The cosmological red-shift law is also derived and it is shown to differ considerably from the standard form of (nu)(R) - const.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chicot, Katie; Holmes, Hilary
2012-01-01
The use, and misuse, of statistics is commonplace, yet in the printed format data representations can be either over simplified, supposedly for impact, or so complex as to lead to boredom, supposedly for completeness and accuracy. In this article the link to the video clip shows how dynamic visual representations can enliven and enhance the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Catley, Alan
2007-01-01
Following the announcement last year that there will be no more math coursework assessment at General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), teachers will in the future be able to devote more time to preparing learners for formal examinations. One of the key things that the author has learned when teaching statistics is that it makes for far…
Hollebeek, R.
1985-12-01
The MAC and ASP searches for events with a single photon and no other observed particles are reviewed. New results on the number of neutrino generations and limits on selection, photino, squark and gluino masses from the ASP experiment are presented.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Brett V.
Over recent years, there has been an explosion in the collection of state and local level child and youth indicator data by federal statistical agencies and in the dissemination of those data through agency Web sites. This paper reviews these resources and provides information needed to access the data. Data sources are presented in five topical…
Photon-Photon Interactions via Rydberg Blockade
Gorshkov, Alexey V.; Otterbach, Johannes; Fleischhauer, Michael; Pohl, Thomas; Lukin, Mikhail D.
2011-09-23
We develop the theory of light propagation under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency in systems involving strongly interacting Rydberg states. Taking into account the quantum nature and the spatial propagation of light, we analyze interactions involving few-photon pulses. We show that this system can be used for the generation of nonclassical states of light including trains of single photons with an avoided volume between them, for implementing photon-photon gates, as well as for studying many-body phenomena with strongly correlated photons.
Merging photonics with nanoelectronics (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liehr, Michael
2016-02-01
The recently established American Institute for Manufacturing Photonics (AIM Photonics) is a manufacturing consortium headquartered in New York, with funding from the US Department of Defense (DoD), New York State, and industrial partners to advance the state of the art in the design, manufacture, testing, assembly, and packaging of integrated photonic devices. Dr. Michael Liehr, CEO of AIM Photonics, will describe the technical goals, operational framework, near-term milestones, and opportunities for the broader photonics community. The Institute intends to organize a currently fragmented domestic capability in integrated photonics. AIM Photonics will develop and demonstrate innovative manufacturing technologies for a number of key application sectors for integrated photonics devices. The Institute will furthermore specifically focus on establishing and building out an infrastructure in key areas required to accelerate the further adoption of integrated photonics. Specifically, we will enhance the available hardware development capability to include Si-based Multi-Project Wafer runs, InP-based Photonic Integrated Circuits, first and second level packaging, test and assembly.
Nonclassical properties and teleportation in the two-mode photon-added displaced squeezed states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoai, Nguyen Thi Xuan; Duc, Truong Minh
2016-01-01
In this paper, we study the nonclassical properties and find out the effect of photon addition on these properties as well as the process of teleportation in the two-mode photon-added displaced squeezed (TMPADS) states. We derive the analytic expressions of the Wigner function, the photon number distribution and the intermode photon antibunching for these states. We show that photon addition operation not only makes the Wigner function become negative but also leads to increase the degree of antibunching. The peak of the photon number distribution becomes flatter and shifts to the greater number of photons by adding photons to both modes simultaneously. Furthermore, it is proved that the degree of intermodal entanglement becomes bigger and bigger through increasing the number of photons added to both modes. As expected, when using these states as an entanglement resource to teleport a state, the average fidelity of teleportation process is also improved by increasing the number of added photons.
General displaced SU(1, 1) number states: Revisited
Dehghani, A. E-mail: a-dehghani@tabrizu.ac.ir
2014-04-15
The most general displaced number states, based on the bosonic and an irreducible representation of the Lie algebra symmetry of su(1, 1) and associated with the Calogero-Sutherland model are introduced. Here, we utilize the Barut-Girardello displacement operator instead of the Klauder-Perelomov counterpart, to construct new kind of the displaced number states which can be classified in nonlinear coherent states regime, too, with special nonlinearity functions. They depend on two parameters, and can be converted into the well-known Barut-Girardello coherent and number states, respectively, depending on which of the parameters equal to zero. A discussion of the statistical properties of these states is included. Significant are their squeezing properties and anti-bunching effects which can be raised by increasing the energy quantum number. Depending on the particular choice of the parameters of the above scenario, we are able to determine the status of compliance with flexible statistics. Major parts of the issue is spent on something that these states, in fact, should be considered as new kind of photon-added coherent states, too. Which can be reproduced through an iterated action of a creation operator on new nonlinear Barut-Girardello coherent states. Where the latter carry, also, outstanding statistical features.
Exciton-photon correlations in bosonic condensates of exciton-polaritons
Kavokin, Alexey V.; Sheremet, Alexandra S.; Shelykh, Ivan A.; Lagoudakis, Pavlos G.; Rubo, Yuri G.
2015-01-01
Exciton-polaritons are mixed light-matter quasiparticles. We have developed a statistical model describing stochastic exciton-photon transitions within a condensate of exciton polaritons. We show that the exciton-photon correlator depends on the rate of incoherent exciton-photon transformations in the condensate. We discuss implications of this effect for the quantum statistics of photons emitted by polariton lasers. PMID:26153979
Exciton-photon correlations in bosonic condensates of exciton-polaritons.
Kavokin, Alexey V; Sheremet, Alexandra S; Shelykh, Ivan A; Lagoudakis, Pavlos G; Rubo, Yuri G
2015-01-01
Exciton-polaritons are mixed light-matter quasiparticles. We have developed a statistical model describing stochastic exciton-photon transitions within a condensate of exciton polaritons. We show that the exciton-photon correlator depends on the rate of incoherent exciton-photon transformations in the condensate. We discuss implications of this effect for the quantum statistics of photons emitted by polariton lasers. PMID:26153979
Light scattering from ultracold atoms in optical lattices as an optical probe of quantum statistics
Mekhov, Igor B.; Maschler, Christoph; Ritsch, Helmut
2007-11-15
We study off-resonant collective light scattering from ultracold atoms trapped in an optical lattice. Scattering from different atomic quantum states creates different quantum states of the scattered light, which can be distinguished by measurements of the spatial intensity distribution, quadrature variances, photon statistics, or spectral measurements. In particular, angle-resolved intensity measurements reflect global statistics of atoms (total number of radiating atoms) as well as local statistical quantities (single-site statistics even without optical access to a single site) and pair correlations between different sites. As a striking example we consider scattering from transversally illuminated atoms into an optical cavity mode. For the Mott-insulator state, similar to classical diffraction, the number of photons scattered into a cavity is zero due to destructive interference, while for the superfluid state it is nonzero and proportional to the number of atoms. Moreover, we demonstrate that light scattering into a standing-wave cavity has a nontrivial angle dependence, including the appearance of narrow features at angles, where classical diffraction predicts zero. The measurement procedure corresponds to the quantum nondemolition measurement of various atomic variables by observing light.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McMurdo, George
1996-01-01
The expansion of the commercial Internet has encouraged the interpretation of the Internet and its uses as a potential marketing medium. Examines statistical and demographic information about the Internet including number of Internet hosts and World Wide Web servers, and estimates of Internet users; and raises questions about definitions and…
Quantum Overloading Cryptography Using Single-Photon Nonlocality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Yong-Gang; Cai, Qing-Yu; Shi, Ting-Yun
2007-08-01
Using the single-photon nonlocality, we propose a quantum novel overloading cryptography scheme, in which a single photon carries two bits information in one-way quantum channel. Two commutative modes of the single photon, the polarization mode and the spatial mode, are used to encode secret information. Strict time windows are set to detect the impersonation attack. The spatial mode which denotes the existence of photons is noncommutative with the phase of the photon, so that our scheme is secure against photon-number-splitting attack. Our protocol may be secure against individual attack.
Photon kinetic modeling of laser pulse propagation in underdense plasma
Reitsma, A. J. W.; Trines, R. M. G. M.; Bingham, R.; Cairns, R. A.; Mendonca, J. T.; Jaroszynski, D. A.
2006-11-15
This paper discusses photon kinetic theory, which is a description of the electromagnetic field in terms of classical particles in coordinate and wave number phase space. Photon kinetic theory is applied to the interaction of laser pulses with underdense plasma and the transfer of energy and momentum between the laser pulse and the plasma is described in photon kinetic terms. A comparison is made between a one-dimensional full wave and a photon kinetic code for the same laser and plasma parameters. This shows that the photon kinetic simulations accurately reproduce the pulse envelope evolution for photon frequencies down to the plasma frequency.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Herrera, Terese A.
2004-01-01
This article features Number Time, a site developed by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) for young mathematics learners, located at www.bbc.co.uk/schools/numbertime. The site uses interactive animation to help children in pre-K through grade 2 understand and practice number basics. Users will find online games, videos that tell number…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goodman, Joseph W.
2000-07-01
The Wiley Classics Library consists of selected books that have become recognized classics in their respective fields. With these new unabridged and inexpensive editions, Wiley hopes to extend the life of these important works by making them available to future generations of mathematicians and scientists. Currently available in the Series: T. W. Anderson The Statistical Analysis of Time Series T. S. Arthanari & Yadolah Dodge Mathematical Programming in Statistics Emil Artin Geometric Algebra Norman T. J. Bailey The Elements of Stochastic Processes with Applications to the Natural Sciences Robert G. Bartle The Elements of Integration and Lebesgue Measure George E. P. Box & Norman R. Draper Evolutionary Operation: A Statistical Method for Process Improvement George E. P. Box & George C. Tiao Bayesian Inference in Statistical Analysis R. W. Carter Finite Groups of Lie Type: Conjugacy Classes and Complex Characters R. W. Carter Simple Groups of Lie Type William G. Cochran & Gertrude M. Cox Experimental Designs, Second Edition Richard Courant Differential and Integral Calculus, Volume I RIchard Courant Differential and Integral Calculus, Volume II Richard Courant & D. Hilbert Methods of Mathematical Physics, Volume I Richard Courant & D. Hilbert Methods of Mathematical Physics, Volume II D. R. Cox Planning of Experiments Harold S. M. Coxeter Introduction to Geometry, Second Edition Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Representation Theory of Finite Groups and Associative Algebras Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Methods of Representation Theory with Applications to Finite Groups and Orders, Volume I Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Methods of Representation Theory with Applications to Finite Groups and Orders, Volume II Cuthbert Daniel Fitting Equations to Data: Computer Analysis of Multifactor Data, Second Edition Bruno de Finetti Theory of Probability, Volume I Bruno de Finetti Theory of Probability, Volume 2 W. Edwards Deming Sample Design in Business Research
Computational Modeling of Photonic Crystal Microcavity Single-Photon Emitters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saulnier, Nicole A.
Conventional cryptography is based on algorithms that are mathematically complex and difficult to solve, such as factoring large numbers. The advent of a quantum computer would render these schemes useless. As scientists work to develop a quantum computer, cryptographers are developing new schemes for unconditionally secure cryptography. Quantum key distribution has emerged as one of the potential replacements of classical cryptography. It relics on the fact that measurement of a quantum bit changes the state of the bit and undetected eavesdropping is impossible. Single polarized photons can be used as the quantum bits, such that a quantum system would in some ways mirror the classical communication scheme. The quantum key distribution system would include components that create, transmit and detect single polarized photons. The focus of this work is on the development of an efficient single-photon source. This source is comprised of a single quantum dot inside of a photonic crystal microcavity. To better understand the physics behind the device, a computational model is developed. The model uses Finite-Difference Time-Domain methods to analyze the electromagnetic field distribution in photonic crystal microcavities. It uses an 8-band k · p perturbation theory to compute the energy band structure of the epitaxially grown quantum dots. We discuss a method that combines the results of these two calculations for determining the spontaneous emission lifetime of a quantum dot in bulk material or in a microcavity. The computational models developed in this thesis are used to identify and characterize microcavities for potential use in a single-photon source. The computational tools developed are also used to investigate novel photonic crystal microcavities that incorporate 1D distributed Bragg reflectors for vertical confinement. It is found that the spontaneous emission enhancement in the quasi-3D cavities can be significantly greater than in traditional suspended slab
Mean and variance of single photon counting with deadtime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Daniel F.; Fessler, Jeffrey A.
2000-07-01
The statistics of photon counting by systems affected by deadtime are potentially important for statistical image reconstruction methods. We present a new way of analysing the moments of the counting process for a counter system affected by various models of deadtime related to PET and SPECT imaging. We derive simple and exact expressions for the first and second moments of the number of recorded events under various models. From our mean expression for a SPECT deadtime model, we derive a simple estimator for the actual intensity of the underlying Poisson process; simulations show that our estimator is unbiased even for extremely high count rates. From this analysis, we study the suitability of the Poisson statistical model assumed in most statistical image reconstruction algorithms. For systems containing `modules' with several detector elements, where each element can cause deadtime losses for the entire module, such as block PET detectors or Anger cameras, the Poisson statistical model appears to be adequate even in the presence of deadtime losses.
Sub-Poissonian statistics of Rydberg-interacting dark-state polaritons.
Hofmann, C S; Günter, G; Schempp, H; Robert-de-Saint-Vincent, M; Gärttner, M; Evers, J; Whitlock, S; Weidemüller, M
2013-05-17
We observe individual dark-state polaritons as they propagate through an ultracold atomic gas involving Rydberg states coupled via an electromagnetically induced transparency resonance. Strong long-range interactions between Rydberg excitations give rise to a blockade between polaritons, resulting in large optical nonlinearities and modified polariton number statistics. By combining optical imaging and high-fidelity detection of the Rydberg polaritons we investigate both aspects of this coupled atom-light system. We map out the full nonlinear optical response as a function of atomic density and follow the temporal evolution of polaritons through the atomic cloud. In the blockade regime, the statistical fluctuations of the polariton number drop well below the quantum noise limit. The low level of fluctuations indicates that photon correlations modified by the strong interactions have a significant backaction on the Rydberg atom statistics. PMID:25167407
One-atom maser theory: photon losses and spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorokhov, A. V.; Sinaiski, I. E.
2005-06-01
The Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) of two-level atom interacting with the photon mode in ideal cavity plays an essential role in modern quantum optics. In previous papers an exact form of density matrix of the JCM with photons dissipation was found. In this article it is considered a partial case of cavity with zero temperature and obtained an exact expression for photon spectra and spectra of the mean number of photons in a cavity.
Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.
2016-03-01
This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.
Habs, D.; Guenther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.
2012-07-09
With the planned new {gamma}-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 10{sup 13}{gamma}/s and a band width of {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -3}, a new era of {gamma} beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HI{gamma}S facility at Duke University (USA) with 10{sup 8}{gamma}/s and {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 3 Dot-Operator 10{sup -2}. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for {gamma} beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused {gamma} beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the {gamma} beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for {gamma} beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for {gamma} beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the {gamma}-beam facility, the {gamma}-beam optics and {gamma} detectors. We can trade {gamma} intensity for band width, going down to {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -6} and address individual nuclear levels. The term 'nuclear photonics' stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with {gamma}-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, {gamma} beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to {mu}m resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of
1986-01-01
Official population data for the USSR are presented for 1985 and 1986. Part 1 (pp. 65-72) contains data on capitals of union republics and cities with over one million inhabitants, including population estimates for 1986 and vital statistics for 1985. Part 2 (p. 72) presents population estimates by sex and union republic, 1986. Part 3 (pp. 73-6) presents data on population growth, including birth, death, and natural increase rates, 1984-1985; seasonal distribution of births and deaths; birth order; age-specific birth rates in urban and rural areas and by union republic; marriages; age at marriage; and divorces. PMID:12178831
Quantum phase transition of light in a one-dimensional photon-hopping-controllable resonator array
Wu Chunwang; Gao Ming; Deng Zhijiao; Dai Hongyi; Chen Pingxing; Li Chengzu
2011-10-15
We give a concrete experimental scheme for engineering the insulator-superfluid transition of light in a one-dimensional (1D) array of coupled superconducting stripline resonators. In our proposed architecture, the on-site interaction and the photon-hopping rate can be tuned independently by adjusting the transition frequencies of the charge qubits inside the resonators and at the resonator junctions, respectively, which permits us to systematically study the quantum phase transition of light in a complete parameter space. By combining the techniques of photon-number-dependent qubit transition and fast readout of the qubit state using a separate low-Q resonator mode, the statistical property of the excitations in each resonator can be obtained with a high efficiency. An analysis of the various decoherence sources and disorders shows that our scheme can serve as a guide to upcoming experiments involving a small number of coupled resonators.
Quantum Computing using Photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elhalawany, Ahmed; Leuenberger, Michael
2013-03-01
In this work, we propose a theoretical model of two-quantum bit gates for quantum computation using the polarization states of two photons in a microcavity. By letting the two photons interact non-resonantly with four quantum dots inside the cavity, we obtain an effective photon-photon interaction which we exploit for the implementation of an universal XOR gate. The two-photon Hamiltonian is written in terms of the photons' total angular momentum operators and their states are written using the Schwinger representation of the total angular momentum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morozov, Oleg G.; Kuznetsov, Artem A.; Morozov, Gennady A.; Nureev, Ilnur I.; Sakhabutdinov, Airat Z.; Faskhutdinov, Lenar M.; Artemev, Vadim I.
2016-03-01
Aspects of the paper relate to a wear monitoring system for smart photonic carbon brush. There are many applications in which regular inspection is not feasible because of a number of factors including, for example, time, labor, cost and disruptions due to down time. Thus, there is a need for a system that can monitor the wear of a component while the component is in operation or without having to remove the component from its operational position. We propose a new smart photonic method for characterization of carbon brush wear. It is based on the usage of advantages of the multiplicative response of FBG and LPFG sensors and its double-frequency probing. Additional measuring parameters are the wear rate, the brush temperature, the engine rotation speed, the hangs control, and rotor speed. Sensor is embedded in brush. Firstly the change of sensor length is used to measure wear value and its central wavelength shift for temperature ones. The results of modeling and experiments are presented.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sezin, Fatin
2009-01-01
It is instructive and interesting to find hidden numbers by using different positional numeration systems. Most of the present guessing techniques use the binary system expressed as less-than, greater-than or present-absent type information. This article describes how, by employing four cards having integers 1-64 written in different colours, one…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thelin, John R.
2013-01-01
What topic would you choose if you had the luxury of writing forever? In this article, John Thelin provides his response: He would opt to write about the history of higher education in a way that relies on quantitative data. "Numbers, please!" is his research request in taking on a longitudinal study of colleges and universities over…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kathotia, Vinay
2009-01-01
This article reports on work undertaken by schools as part of Qualifications and Curriculum Authority's (QCA's) "Engaging mathematics for all learners" project. The goal was to use in the classroom, materials and approaches from a Royal Institution (Ri) Year 10 master-class, "Number Sense", which was inspired by examples from Michael Blastland and…
Candidate Assembly Statistical Evaluation
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1998-07-15
The Savannah River Site (SRS) receives aluminum clad spent Material Test Reactor (MTR) fuel from all over the world for storage and eventual reprocessing. There are hundreds of different kinds of MTR fuels and these fuels will continue to be received at SRS for approximately ten more years. SRS''s current criticality evaluation methodology requires the modeling of all MTR fuels utilizing Monte Carlo codes, which is extremely time consuming and resource intensive. Now that amore » significant number of MTR calculations have been conducted it is feasible to consider building statistical models that will provide reasonable estimations of MTR behavior. These statistical models can be incorporated into a standardized model homogenization spreadsheet package to provide analysts with a means of performing routine MTR fuel analyses with a minimal commitment of time and resources. This became the purpose for development of the Candidate Assembly Statistical Evaluation (CASE) program at SRS.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maccone, C.
In this paper is provided the statistical generalization of the Fermi paradox. The statistics of habitable planets may be based on a set of ten (and possibly more) astrobiological requirements first pointed out by Stephen H. Dole in his book Habitable planets for man (1964). The statistical generalization of the original and by now too simplistic Dole equation is provided by replacing a product of ten positive numbers by the product of ten positive random variables. This is denoted the SEH, an acronym standing for “Statistical Equation for Habitables”. The proof in this paper is based on the Central Limit Theorem (CLT) of Statistics, stating that the sum of any number of independent random variables, each of which may be ARBITRARILY distributed, approaches a Gaussian (i.e. normal) random variable (Lyapunov form of the CLT). It is then shown that: 1. The new random variable NHab, yielding the number of habitables (i.e. habitable planets) in the Galaxy, follows the log- normal distribution. By construction, the mean value of this log-normal distribution is the total number of habitable planets as given by the statistical Dole equation. 2. The ten (or more) astrobiological factors are now positive random variables. The probability distribution of each random variable may be arbitrary. The CLT in the so-called Lyapunov or Lindeberg forms (that both do not assume the factors to be identically distributed) allows for that. In other words, the CLT "translates" into the SEH by allowing an arbitrary probability distribution for each factor. This is both astrobiologically realistic and useful for any further investigations. 3. By applying the SEH it is shown that the (average) distance between any two nearby habitable planets in the Galaxy may be shown to be inversely proportional to the cubic root of NHab. This distance is denoted by new random variable D. The relevant probability density function is derived, which was named the "Maccone distribution" by Paul Davies in
High energy photon-photon collisions
Brodsky, S.J.; Zerwas, P.M.
1994-07-01
The collisions of high energy photons produced at a electron-positron collider provide a comprehensive laboratory for testing QCD, electroweak interactions and extensions of the standard model. The luminosity and energy of the colliding photons produced by back-scattering laser beams is expected to be comparable to that of the primary e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collisions. In this overview, we shall focus on tests of electroweak theory in photon-photon annihilation, particularly {gamma}{gamma} {yields} W{sup +}W{sup {minus}}, {gamma}{gamma} {yields} Higgs bosons, and higher-order loop processes, such as {gamma}{gamma} {yields} {gamma}{gamma}, Z{gamma} and ZZ. Since each photon can be resolved into a W{sup +}W{sup minus} pair, high energy photon-photon collisions can also provide a remarkably background-free laboratory for studying WW collisions and annihilation. We also review high energy {gamma}{gamma} tests of quantum chromodynamics, such as the scaling of the photon structure function, t{bar t} production, mini-jet processes, and diffractive reactions.
SOCR: Statistics Online Computational Resource
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dinov, Ivo D.
2006-01-01
The need for hands-on computer laboratory experience in undergraduate and graduate statistics education has been firmly established in the past decade. As a result a number of attempts have been undertaken to develop novel approaches for problem-driven statistical thinking, data analysis and result interpretation. In this paper we describe an…
Representational Versatility in Learning Statistics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Graham, Alan T.; Thomas, Michael O. J.
2005-01-01
Statistical data can be represented in a number of qualitatively different ways, the choice depending on the following three conditions: the concepts to be investigated; the nature of the data; and the purpose for which they were collected. This paper begins by setting out frameworks that describe the nature of statistical thinking in schools, and…
Statistics Anxiety among Postgraduate Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Koh, Denise; Zawi, Mohd Khairi
2014-01-01
Most postgraduate programmes, that have research components, require students to take at least one course of research statistics. Not all postgraduate programmes are science based, there are a significant number of postgraduate students who are from the social sciences that will be taking statistics courses, as they try to complete their…
Efficient photon management with nanostructures for photovoltaics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hua, Bo; Lin, Qingfeng; Zhang, Qianpeng; Fan, Zhiyong
2013-07-01
Efficient photon management schemes are crucial for improving the energy conversion efficiency of photovoltaic devices; they can lead potentially to reduced material usage and cost for these devices. In this review, photon trapping mechanisms are discussed briefly in the beginning, followed by a summary of recent progress on a number of major categories of nanostructures with intriguing photon management properties. Specifically, nanostructures including nanowires, nanopillars, nanopyramids, nanocones, nanospikes, and so forth, have been reviewed comprehensively with materials including Si, Ge, CdS, CIGS, ZnO, etc. It is found that these materials with diverse configurations have tunable photon management properties, namely, optical reflectance, transmittance and absorption. Investigations on these nanostructures have not only shed light on the fundamental interplay between photons and materials at the nanometer scale, but also suggested a potential pathway for a new generation of photovoltaic devices.
Teleporting photonic qudits using multimode quantum scissors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goyal, Sandeep K.; Konrad, Thomas
2013-12-01
Teleportation plays an important role in the communication of quantum information between the nodes of a quantum network and is viewed as an essential ingredient for long-distance Quantum Cryptography. We describe a method to teleport the quantum information carried by a photon in a superposition of a number d of light modes (a ``qudit'') by the help of d additional photons based on transcription. A qudit encoded into a single excitation of d light modes (in our case Laguerre-Gauss modes which carry orbital angular momentum) is transcribed to d single-rail photonic qubits, which are spatially separated. Each single-rail qubit consists of a superposition of vacuum and a single photon in each one of the modes. After successful teleportation of each of the d single-rail qubits by means of ``quantum scissors'' they are converted back into a qudit carried by a single photon which completes the teleportation scheme.
Teleporting photonic qudits using multimode quantum scissors.
Goyal, Sandeep K; Konrad, Thomas
2013-01-01
Teleportation plays an important role in the communication of quantum information between the nodes of a quantum network and is viewed as an essential ingredient for long-distance Quantum Cryptography. We describe a method to teleport the quantum information carried by a photon in a superposition of a number d of light modes (a "qudit") by the help of d additional photons based on transcription. A qudit encoded into a single excitation of d light modes (in our case Laguerre-Gauss modes which carry orbital angular momentum) is transcribed to d single-rail photonic qubits, which are spatially separated. Each single-rail qubit consists of a superposition of vacuum and a single photon in each one of the modes. After successful teleportation of each of the d single-rail qubits by means of "quantum scissors" they are converted back into a qudit carried by a single photon which completes the teleportation scheme. PMID:24352610
Photonic crystal and photonic wire device structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De La Rue, Richard; Sorel, Marc; Johnson, Nigel; Rahman, Faiz; Ironside, Charles; Cronin, Lee; Watson, Ian; Martin, Robert; Jin, Chongjun; Pottier, Pierre; Chong, Harold; Gnan, Marco; Jugessur, Aju; Camargo, Edilson; Erwin, Grant; Md Zain, Ahmad; Ntakis, Iraklis; Hobbs, Lois; Zhang, Hua; Armenise, Mario; Ciminelli, Caterina; Coquillat, Dominique
2005-09-01
Photonic devices that exploit photonic crystal (PhC) principles in a planar environment continue to provide a fertile field of research. 2D PhC based channel waveguides can provide both strong confinement and controlled dispersion behaviour. In conjunction with, for instance, various electro-optic, thermo-optic and other effects, a range of device functionality is accessible in very compact PhC channel-guide devices that offer the potential for high-density integration. Low enough propagation losses are now being obtained with photonic crystal channel-guide structures that their use in real applications has become plausible. Photonic wires (PhWs) can also provide strong confinement and low propagation losses. Bragg-gratings imposed on photonic wires can provide dispersion and frequency selection in device structures that are intrinsically simpler than 2D PhC channel guides--and can compete with them under realistic conditions.
Photonic Design for Photovoltaics
Kosten, E.; Callahan, D.; Horowitz, K.; Pala, R.; Atwater, H.
2014-08-28
We describe photonic design approaches for silicon photovoltaics including i) trapezoidal broadband light trapping structures ii) broadband light trapping with photonic crystal superlattices iii) III-V/Si nanowire arrays designed for broadband light trapping.
Fleming, James G.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Bur, James A.
2004-07-27
A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.
Hagerstrom, Aaron Morgan; Murphy, Thomas Edward; Roy, Rajarshi
2015-01-01
Many physical processes, including the intensity fluctuations of a chaotic laser, the detection of single photons, and the Brownian motion of a microscopic particle in a fluid are unpredictable, at least on long timescales. This unpredictability can be due to a variety of physical mechanisms, but it is quantified by an entropy rate. This rate, which describes how quickly a system produces new and random information, is fundamentally important in statistical mechanics and practically important for random number generation. We experimentally study entropy generation and the emergence of deterministic chaotic dynamics from discrete noise in a system that applies feedback to a weak optical signal at the single-photon level. We show that the dynamics transition from shot noise to chaos as the photon rate increases and that the entropy rate can reflect either the deterministic or noisy aspects of the system depending on the sampling rate and resolution. PMID:26175023
Extraction of a single photon from an optical pulse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenblum, Serge; Bechler, Orel; Shomroni, Itay; Lovsky, Yulia; Guendelman, Gabriel; Dayan, Barak
2016-01-01
Removing a single photon from a pulse is one of the most elementary operations that can be performed on light, having both fundamental significance and practical applications in quantum communication and computation. So far, photon subtraction, in which the removed photon is detected and therefore irreversibly lost, has been implemented in a probabilistic manner with inherently low success rates using low-reflectivity beam splitters. Here we demonstrate a scheme for the deterministic extraction of a single photon from an incoming pulse. The removed photon is diverted to a different mode, enabling its use for other purposes, such as a photon number-splitting attack on quantum key distribution protocols. Our implementation makes use of single-photon Raman interaction (SPRINT) with a single atom near a nanofibre-coupled microresonator. The single-photon extraction probability in our current realization is limited mostly by linear loss, yet probabilities close to unity should be attainable with realistic experimental parameters.
A photonic thermalization gap in disordered lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondakci, H. Esat; Abouraddy, Ayman F.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.
2015-11-01
The formation of gaps--forbidden ranges in the values of a physical parameter--is common to a variety of physical systems: from energy bandgaps of electrons in periodic lattices and their analogues in photonic, phononic and plasmonic systems to pseudo-energy gaps in aperiodic quasicrystals. Here, we predict a thermalization gap for light propagating in finite disordered structures characterized by disorder-immune chiral symmetry--the appearance of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors in skew-symmetric pairs. In these systems, the span of sub-thermal photon statistics is inaccessible to input coherent light, which--once the steady state is reached--always emerges with super-thermal statistics no matter how small the disorder level. We formulate an independent constraint of the input field for the chiral symmetry to be activated and the gap to be observed. This unique feature enables a new form of photon-statistics interferometry: the deterministic tuning of photon statistics via controlled excitation symmetry breaking realized by sculpting the amplitude or phase of the input coherent field.
Photonics: how to get familiar with it
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Senderáková, Dagmar; Mesaros, Vladimir; Strba, Anton
2010-12-01
Year 2010 brought the 50th anniversary of laser. Our century seems to be called the photon-century. Light in our lives plays both pervasive and primordial role. To describe the new role of today "interdisciplinary optics" a new term - photonics appeared. The term was coined in 1967 by Pierre Aigrain, a French scientist, who defined photonics as the science of the harnessing of light. Photonics encompasses the generation of light, the detection of light, the management of light through guidance, manipulation, and amplification, and most importantly, its utilisation for the benefit of mankind. Number of photonics applications proves its importance. On one side, there is a demand for skilled people with photonics training. On the other side, nearly everyone is affected by science in a way and it would be useful to have at least a basic understanding of scientific principles. However, it is not a brand-new idea, an effort to popularise new scientific achievements has still been present. The contribution is based on experience of popularising photonics to high school students and attracting undergraduate University students for basis of optics via photonics. The aim of it is to share and exchange experience.
Dow Corning photonics: the silicon advantage in automotive photonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clapp, Terry V.; Paquet, Rene; Norris, Ann; Pettersen, Babette
2005-02-01
The Automotive Market offers several opportunities for Dow Corning to leverage the power of silicon-based materials. Dow Corning Photonics Solutions has a number of developments that may be attractive for the emergent photonics needs in automobiles, building on 40 years of experience as a leading Automotive supplier with a strong foundation of expertise and an extensive product offering- from encapsulents and highly reliable resins, adhesives, insulating materials and other products, ensuring that the advantage of silicones are already well-embedded in Automotive systems, modules and components. The recent development of LED encapsulants of exceptional clarity and stability has extended the potential for Dow Corning"s strength in Photonics to be deployed "in-car". Demonstration of board-level and back-plane solutions utilising siloxane waveguide technology offers new opportunities for systems designers to integrate optical components at low cost on diverse substrates. Coupled with work on simple waveguide technology for sensors and data communications applications this suite of materials and technology offerings is very potent in this sector. The harsh environment under hood and the very extreme thermal range that materials must sustain in vehicles due to both their engine and the climate is an applications specification that defines the siloxane advantage. For these passive optics applications the siloxanes very high clarity at the data-communications wavelengths coupled with extraordinary stability offers significant design advantage. The future development of Head-Up-Displays for instrumentation and data display will offer yet more opportunities to the siloxanes in Automotive Photonics.
Multi-photon entanglement in high dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malik, Mehul; Erhard, Manuel; Huber, Marcus; Krenn, Mario; Fickler, Robert; Zeilinger, Anton
2016-04-01
Forming the backbone of quantum technologies today, entanglement has been demonstrated in physical systems as diverse as photons, ions and superconducting circuits. Although steadily pushing the boundary of the number of particles entangled, these experiments have remained in a two-dimensional space for each particle. Here we show the experimental generation of the first multi-photon entangled state where both the number of particles and dimensions are greater than two. Two photons in our state reside in a three-dimensional space, whereas the third lives in two dimensions. This asymmetric entanglement structure only appears in multiparticle entangled states with d > 2. Our method relies on combining two pairs of photons, high-dimensionally entangled in their orbital angular momentum. In addition, we show how this state enables a new type of ‘layered’ quantum communication protocol. Entangled states such as these serve as a manifestation of the complex dance of correlations that can exist within quantum mechanics.
The Statistical Drake Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maccone, Claudio
2010-12-01
We provide the statistical generalization of the Drake equation. From a simple product of seven positive numbers, the Drake equation is now turned into the product of seven positive random variables. We call this "the Statistical Drake Equation". The mathematical consequences of this transformation are then derived. The proof of our results is based on the Central Limit Theorem (CLT) of Statistics. In loose terms, the CLT states that the sum of any number of independent random variables, each of which may be ARBITRARILY distributed, approaches a Gaussian (i.e. normal) random variable. This is called the Lyapunov Form of the CLT, or the Lindeberg Form of the CLT, depending on the mathematical constraints assumed on the third moments of the various probability distributions. In conclusion, we show that: The new random variable N, yielding the number of communicating civilizations in the Galaxy, follows the LOGNORMAL distribution. Then, as a consequence, the mean value of this lognormal distribution is the ordinary N in the Drake equation. The standard deviation, mode, and all the moments of this lognormal N are also found. The seven factors in the ordinary Drake equation now become seven positive random variables. The probability distribution of each random variable may be ARBITRARY. The CLT in the so-called Lyapunov or Lindeberg forms (that both do not assume the factors to be identically distributed) allows for that. In other words, the CLT "translates" into our statistical Drake equation by allowing an arbitrary probability distribution for each factor. This is both physically realistic and practically very useful, of course. An application of our statistical Drake equation then follows. The (average) DISTANCE between any two neighboring and communicating civilizations in the Galaxy may be shown to be inversely proportional to the cubic root of N. Then, in our approach, this distance becomes a new random variable. We derive the relevant probability density
Heavy flavor production from photons and hadrons
Heusch, C.A.
1982-01-01
The present state of the production and observation of hadrons containing heavy quarks or antiquarks as valence constituents, in reactions initiated by real and (space-like) virtual photon or by hadron beams is discussed. Heavy flavor production in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, which is well covered in a number of recent review papers is not discussed, and similarly, neutrino production is omitted due to the different (flavor-changing) mechanisms that are involved in those reactions. Heavy flavors from spacelike photons, heavy flavors from real photons, and heavy flavors from hadron-hadron collisions are discussed. (WHK)
Single-photon non-linear optics with a quantum dot in a waveguide.
Javadi, A; Söllner, I; Arcari, M; Hansen, S Lindskov; Midolo, L; Mahmoodian, S; Kiršanskė, G; Pregnolato, T; Lee, E H; Song, J D; Stobbe, S; Lodahl, P
2015-01-01
Strong non-linear interactions between photons enable logic operations for both classical and quantum-information technology. Unfortunately, non-linear interactions are usually feeble and therefore all-optical logic gates tend to be inefficient. A quantum emitter deterministically coupled to a propagating mode fundamentally changes the situation, since each photon inevitably interacts with the emitter, and highly correlated many-photon states may be created. Here we show that a single quantum dot in a photonic-crystal waveguide can be used as a giant non-linearity sensitive at the single-photon level. The non-linear response is revealed from the intensity and quantum statistics of the scattered photons, and contains contributions from an entangled photon-photon bound state. The quantum non-linearity will find immediate applications for deterministic Bell-state measurements and single-photon transistors and paves the way to scalable waveguide-based photonic quantum-computing architectures. PMID:26492951
Photonic realization of the quantum Rabi model.
Crespi, A; Longhi, S; Osellame, R
2012-04-20
We realize a photonic analog simulator of the quantum Rabi model, based on light transport in femtosecond-laser-written waveguide superlattices, which provides an experimentally accessible test bed to explore the physics of light-matter interaction in the deep strong coupling regime. Our optical setting enables us to visualize dynamical regimes not yet accessible in cavity or circuit quantum electrodynamics, such as the bouncing of photon number wave packets in parity chains of Hilbert space. PMID:22680717
Dai, Wu-Sheng Xie, Mi
2013-05-15
In this paper, we give a general discussion on the calculation of the statistical distribution from a given operator relation of creation, annihilation, and number operators. Our result shows that as long as the relation between the number operator and the creation and annihilation operators can be expressed as a{sup †}b=Λ(N) or N=Λ{sup −1}(a{sup †}b), where N, a{sup †}, and b denote the number, creation, and annihilation operators, i.e., N is a function of quadratic product of the creation and annihilation operators, the corresponding statistical distribution is the Gentile distribution, a statistical distribution in which the maximum occupation number is an arbitrary integer. As examples, we discuss the statistical distributions corresponding to various operator relations. In particular, besides the Bose–Einstein and Fermi–Dirac cases, we discuss the statistical distributions for various schemes of intermediate statistics, especially various q-deformation schemes. Our result shows that the statistical distributions corresponding to various q-deformation schemes are various Gentile distributions with different maximum occupation numbers which are determined by the deformation parameter q. This result shows that the results given in much literature on the q-deformation distribution are inaccurate or incomplete. -- Highlights: ► A general discussion on calculating statistical distribution from relations of creation, annihilation, and number operators. ► A systemic study on the statistical distributions corresponding to various q-deformation schemes. ► Arguing that many results of q-deformation distributions in literature are inaccurate or incomplete.
Collective two-particle resonances induced by photon entanglement
Richter, Marten; Mukamel, Shaul
2011-06-15
An assembly of noninteracting atoms may become correlated upon interaction with entangled photons, and certain elements of their joint density matrix can then show collective resonances. We explore experimental signatures of these resonances in the nonlinear response of a pair of two-level atoms. We find that these resonances are canceled out in stimulated signals such as pump-probe and two-photon absorption due to the destructive interference of two-photon-absorption and emission pathways in the joint two-particle space. However, they may be observed in photon statistics (Hanbury-Brown-Twiss) measurements through the attenuation of two-time intensity correlations.
Ultrabright source of entangled photon pairs.
Dousse, Adrien; Suffczyński, Jan; Beveratos, Alexios; Krebs, Olivier; Lemaître, Aristide; Sagnes, Isabelle; Bloch, Jacqueline; Voisin, Paul; Senellart, Pascale
2010-07-01
A source of triggered entangled photon pairs is a key component in quantum information science; it is needed to implement functions such as linear quantum computation, entanglement swapping and quantum teleportation. Generation of polarization entangled photon pairs can be obtained through parametric conversion in nonlinear optical media or by making use of the radiative decay of two electron-hole pairs trapped in a semiconductor quantum dot. Today, these sources operate at a very low rate, below 0.01 photon pairs per excitation pulse, which strongly limits their applications. For systems based on parametric conversion, this low rate is intrinsically due to the Poissonian statistics of the source. Conversely, a quantum dot can emit a single pair of entangled photons with a probability near unity but suffers from a naturally very low extraction efficiency. Here we show that this drawback can be overcome by coupling an optical cavity in the form of a 'photonic molecule' to a single quantum dot. Two coupled identical pillars-the photonic molecule-were etched in a semiconductor planar microcavity, using an optical lithography method that ensures a deterministic coupling to the biexciton and exciton energy states of a pre-selected quantum dot. The Purcell effect ensures that most entangled photon pairs are emitted into two cavity modes, while improving the indistinguishability of the two optical recombination paths. A polarization entangled photon pair rate of 0.12 per excitation pulse (with a concurrence of 0.34) is collected in the first lens. Our results open the way towards the fabrication of solid state triggered sources of entangled photon pairs, with an overall (creation and collection) efficiency of 80%. PMID:20613838
The Photon Underproduction Crisis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kollmeier, Juna A.; Weinberg, David H.; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Haardt, Francesco; Katz, Neal; Davé, Romeel; Fardal, Mark; Madau, Piero; Danforth, Charles; Ford, Amanda B.; Peeples, Molly S.; McEwen, Joseph
2014-07-01
We examine the statistics of the low-redshift Lyα forest from smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations in light of recent improvements in the estimated evolution of the cosmic ultraviolet background (UVB) and recent observations from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS). We find that the value of the metagalactic photoionization rate (ΓHI) required by our simulations to match the observed properties of the low-redshift Lyα forest is a factor of five larger than the value predicted by state-of-the art models for the evolution of this quantity. This mismatch in ΓHI results in the mean flux decrement of the Lyα forest being overpredicted by at least a factor of two (a 10σ discrepancy with observations) and a column density distribution of Lyα forest absorbers systematically and significantly elevated compared to observations over nearly two decades in column density. We examine potential resolutions to this mismatch and find that either conventional sources of ionizing photons (galaxies and quasars) must contribute considerably more than current observational estimates or our theoretical understanding of the low-redshift universe is in need of substantial revision.
THE PHOTON UNDERPRODUCTION CRISIS
Kollmeier, Juna A.; Weinberg, David H.; McEwen, Joseph; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Danforth, Charles; Haardt, Francesco; Katz, Neal; Fardal, Mark; Davé, Romeel; Madau, Piero; Ford, Amanda B.; Peeples, Molly S.
2014-07-10
We examine the statistics of the low-redshift Lyα forest from smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations in light of recent improvements in the estimated evolution of the cosmic ultraviolet background (UVB) and recent observations from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS). We find that the value of the metagalactic photoionization rate (Γ{sub HI}) required by our simulations to match the observed properties of the low-redshift Lyα forest is a factor of five larger than the value predicted by state-of-the art models for the evolution of this quantity. This mismatch in Γ{sub HI} results in the mean flux decrement of the Lyα forest being overpredicted by at least a factor of two (a 10σ discrepancy with observations) and a column density distribution of Lyα forest absorbers systematically and significantly elevated compared to observations over nearly two decades in column density. We examine potential resolutions to this mismatch and find that either conventional sources of ionizing photons (galaxies and quasars) must contribute considerably more than current observational estimates or our theoretical understanding of the low-redshift universe is in need of substantial revision.
Statistical simulation of multiple Compton backscattering process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Potylitsyn, A. P.; Kolchuzhkin, A. M.
2014-09-01
A number of laboratories are currently developing monochromatic sources of X-rays and gamma quanta based on the Compton backscattering (CBS) of laser photons by relativistic electrons. Modern technologies are capable of providing a concentration of electrons and photons in the interaction point such that each primary electron can emit several hard photons. In contrast to the well-known nonlinear CBS process, in which an initial electron "absorbs" a few laser photons and emits a single hard one, the above-mentioned process can be called a multiple CBS process and is characterized by a mean number of emitted photons. The present paper is devoted to simulating the parameters of a beam of back scattered quanta based on the Monte Carlo technique. It is shown that, even in the case of strong collimation of a resulting photon beam, the radiation monochromaticity may deteriorate because of the contribution coming from the multiple photon emission, which is something that must be considered while designing new CBS sources.
Scalable spatial superresolution using entangled photons.
Rozema, Lee A; Bateman, James D; Mahler, Dylan H; Okamoto, Ryo; Feizpour, Amir; Hayat, Alex; Steinberg, Aephraim M
2014-06-01
N00N states-maximally path-entangled states of N photons-exhibit spatial interference patterns sharper than any classical interference pattern. This is known as superresolution. However, even given perfectly efficient number-resolving detectors, the detection efficiency of all previous measurements of such interference would decrease exponentially with the number of photons in the N00N state, often leading to the conclusion that N00N states are unsuitable for spatial measurements. A technique known as the "optical centroid measurement" has been proposed to solve this and has been experimentally verified for photon pairs; here we present the first extension beyond two photons, measuring the superresolution fringes of two-, three-, and four-photon N00N states. Moreover, we compare the N00N-state interference to the corresponding classical superresolution interference. Although both provide the same increase in spatial frequency, the visibility of the classical fringes decreases exponentially with the number of detected photons. Our work represents an essential step forward for quantum-enhanced measurements, overcoming what was believed to be a fundamental challenge to quantum metrology. PMID:24949765
Thermodynamics of cellular statistical inference
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lang, Alex; Fisher, Charles; Mehta, Pankaj
2014-03-01
Successful organisms must be capable of accurately sensing the surrounding environment in order to locate nutrients and evade toxins or predators. However, single cell organisms face a multitude of limitations on their accuracy of sensing. Berg and Purcell first examined the canonical example of statistical limitations to cellular learning of a diffusing chemical and established a fundamental limit to statistical accuracy. Recent work has shown that the Berg and Purcell learning limit can be exceeded using Maximum Likelihood Estimation. Here, we recast the cellular sensing problem as a statistical inference problem and discuss the relationship between the efficiency of an estimator and its thermodynamic properties. We explicitly model a single non-equilibrium receptor and examine the constraints on statistical inference imposed by noisy biochemical networks. Our work shows that cells must balance sample number, specificity, and energy consumption when performing statistical inference. These tradeoffs place significant constraints on the practical implementation of statistical estimators in a cell.
Means and method for calibrating a photon detector utilizing electron-photon coincidence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srivastava, S. K. (Inventor)
1984-01-01
An arrangement for calibrating a photon detector particularly applicable for the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet regions is based on electron photon coincidence utilizing crossed electron beam atom beam collisions. Atoms are excited by electrons which lose a known amount of energy and scatter with a known remaining energy, while the excited atoms emit photons of known radiation. Electrons of the known remaining energy are separated from other electrons and are counted. Photons emitted in a direction related to the particular direction of scattered electrons are detected to serve as a standard. Each of the electrons is used to initiate the measurements of a time interval which terminates with the arrival of a photon exciting the photon detector. Only the number of time intervals related to the coincidence correlation and of electrons scattered in the particular direction with the known remaining energy and photons of a particular radiation level emitted due to the collisions of such scattered electrons are counted. The detector calibration is related to the number of counted electrons and photons.
Investigating the Randomness of Numbers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pendleton, Kenn L.
2009-01-01
The use of random numbers is pervasive in today's world. Random numbers have practical applications in such far-flung arenas as computer simulations, cryptography, gambling, the legal system, statistical sampling, and even the war on terrorism. Evaluating the randomness of extremely large samples is a complex, intricate process. However, the…
Photonic Doppler Velocimetry Multiplexing Techniques: Evaluation of Photonic Techniques
Edward Daykin
2012-05-24
This poster reports progress related to photonic technologies. Specifically, the authors developed diagnostic system architecture for a Multiplexed Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (MPDV) that incorporates frequency and time-division multiplexing into existing PDV methodology to provide increased channel count. Current MPDV design increases number of data records per digitizer channel 8x, and also operates as a laser-safe (Class 3a) system. Further, they applied heterodyne interferometry to allow for direction-of-travel determination and enable high-velocity measurements (>10 km/s) via optical downshifting. They also leveraged commercially available, inexpensive and robust components originally developed for telecom applications. Proposed MPDV architectures employ only commercially available, fiber-coupled hardware.
Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Statistics
2014 Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Statistics Cosmetic Procedure Trends 2014 Plastic Surgery Statistics Report Please credit the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PLASTIC SURGEONS when citing statistical data or using ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leaf, Donald C., Comp.; Neely, Linda, Comp.
This edition focuses on statistical data supplied by Michigan public libraries, public library cooperatives, and those public libraries which serve as regional or subregional outlets for blind and physically handicapped services. Since statistics in Michigan academic libraries are typically collected in odd-numbered years, they are not included…
Single-photon emitting diode in silicon carbide.
Lohrmann, A; Iwamoto, N; Bodrog, Z; Castelletto, S; Ohshima, T; Karle, T J; Gali, A; Prawer, S; McCallum, J C; Johnson, B C
2015-01-01
Electrically driven single-photon emitting devices have immediate applications in quantum cryptography, quantum computation and single-photon metrology. Mature device fabrication protocols and the recent observations of single defect systems with quantum functionalities make silicon carbide an ideal material to build such devices. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of bright single-photon emitting diodes. The electrically driven emitters display fully polarized output, superior photon statistics (with a count rate of >300 kHz) and stability in both continuous and pulsed modes, all at room temperature. The atomic origin of the single-photon source is proposed. These results provide a foundation for the large scale integration of single-photon sources into a broad range of applications, such as quantum cryptography or linear optics quantum computing. PMID:26205309
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muñoz, C. Sánchez; Del Valle, E.; Tudela, A. González; Müller, K.; Lichtmannecker, S.; Kaniber, M.; Tejedor, C.; Finley, J. J.; Laussy, F. P.
2014-07-01
Controlling the output of a light emitter is one of the basic tasks in photonics, with landmarks such as the development of the laser and single-photon sources. The ever growing range of quantum applications is making it increasingly important to diversify the available quantum sources. Here, we propose a cavity quantum electrodynamics scheme to realize emitters that release their energy in groups (or `bundles') of N photons (where N is an integer). Close to 100% of two-photon emission and 90% of three-photon emission is shown to be within reach of state-of-the-art samples. The emission can be tuned with the system parameters so that the device behaves as a laser or as an N-photon gun. Here, we develop the theoretical formalism to characterize such emitters, with the bundle statistics arising as an extension of the fundamental correlation functions of quantum optics. These emitters will be useful for quantum information processing and for medical applications.
New method to study the photon strength function using the beta-decay of unstable nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liddick, Sean
2015-10-01
The photon strength function is a fundamental property of the atomic nucleus that can be linked with many different areas of nuclear science. In particular, a knowledge of the photon strength function can be applied in statistical-model reaction calculations to constrain neutron capture rates useful for nuclear astrophysics and other applications. A new method has been developed which takes advantage of beta-decay to populate high-energy states in a daughter nucleus. This preparation is combined with a total absorption spectrometer to record the subsequent gamma-ray cascade and the overall technique is the so-called beta-Oslo method. The technique is applicable to very low production rates (~1 pps) and, thus, can be used to look at trends across a wide range of neutron and proton numbers. A description of the technique, and preliminary results on neutron-rich nuclei near Z = 28 and N = 40 will be presented.
Spectral X-Ray Diffraction using a 6 Megapixel Photon Counting Array Detector
Muir, Ryan D.; Pogranichniy, Nicholas R.; Muir, J. Lewis; Sullivan, Shane Z.; Battaile, Kevin P.; Mulichak, Anne M.; Toth, Scott J.; Keefe, Lisa J.; Simpson, Garth J.
2016-01-01
Pixel-array array detectors allow single-photon counting to be performed on a massively parallel scale, with several million counting circuits and detectors in the array. Because the number of photoelectrons produced at the detector surface depends on the photon energy, these detectors offer the possibility of spectral imaging. In this work, a statistical model of the instrument response is used to calibrate the detector on a per-pixel basis. In turn, the calibrated sensor was used to perform separation of dual-energy diffraction measurements into two monochromatic images. Targeting applications include multi-wavelength diffraction to aid in protein structure determination and X-ray diffraction imaging. PMID:27041789
Requirements for a loophole-free photonic Bell test using imperfect setting generators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kofler, Johannes; Giustina, Marissa; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Mitchell, Morgan W.
2016-03-01
Experimental violations of Bell inequalities are in general vulnerable to so-called loopholes. In this work, we analyze the characteristics of a loophole-free Bell test with photons, closing simultaneously the locality, freedom-of-choice, fair-sampling (i.e., detection), coincidence-time, and memory loopholes. We pay special attention to the effect of excess predictability in the setting choices due to nonideal random-number generators. We discuss necessary adaptations of the Clauser-Horne and Eberhard inequality when using such imperfect devices and—using Hoeffding's inequality and Doob's optional stopping theorem—the statistical analysis in such Bell tests.
Multiple photon emission in heavy particle decays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Asakimori, K.; Burnett, T. H.; Cherry, M. L.; Christl, M. J.; Dake, S.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.
1994-01-01
Cosmic ray interactions, at energies above 1 TeV/nucleon, in emulsion chambers flown on high altitude balloons have yielded two events showing apparent decays of a heavy particle into one charged particle and four photons. The photons converted into electron pairs very close to the decay vertex. Attempts to explain this decay topology with known particle decays are presented. Unless both events represent a b yields u transition, which is statistically unlikely, then other known decay modes for charmed or bottom particles do not account satisfactorily for these observations. This could indicate, possibly, a new decay channel.
Linear-optic heralded photon source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferreira da Silva, Thiago; Amaral, Gustavo C.; Temporão, Guilherme P.; von der Weid, Jean Pierre
2015-09-01
We present a heralded photon source based only on linear optics and weak coherent states. By time-tuning a Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer fed with frequency-displaced coherent states, the output photons can be synchronously heralded following sub-Poisson statistics, which is indicated by the second-order correlation function [ g2(0 )=0.556 ]. The absence of phase-matching restrictions makes the source widely tunable, with 100-nm spectral tunability on the telecom bands. The technique presents yield comparable to state-of-the-art spontaneous parametric down-conversion-based sources, with high coherence and fiber-optic quantum communication compatibility.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Xiang-Yao; Zhang, Bai-Jun; Yang, Jing-Hai; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Ba, Nuo; Wu, Yi-Heng; Wang, Qing-Cai
2011-07-01
In this paper, we present a new kind of function photonic crystals (PCs), whose refractive index is a function of space position. Conventional PCs structure grows from two materials, A and B, with different dielectric constants εA and εB. Based on Fermat principle, we give the motion equations of light in one-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional function photonic crystals. For one-dimensional function photonic crystals, we give the dispersion relation, band gap structure and transmissivity, and compare them with conventional photonic crystals, and we find the following: (1) For the vertical and non-vertical incidence light of function photonic crystals, there are band gap structures, and for only the vertical incidence light, the conventional PCs have band gap structures. (2) By choosing various refractive index distribution functions n( z), we can obtain more wider or more narrower band gap structure than conventional photonic crystals.
Photonic Aharonov–Bohm effect in photon–phonon interactions
Li, Enbang; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Fang, Kejie; Fan, Shanhui
2014-01-01
The Aharonov–Bohm effect is one of the most intriguing phenomena in both classical and quantum physics, and associates with a number of important and fundamental issues in quantum mechanics. The Aharonov–Bohm effects of charged particles have been experimentally demonstrated and found applications in various fields. Recently, attention has also focused on the Aharonov–Bohm effect for neutral particles, such as photons. Here we propose to utilize the photon–phonon interactions to demonstrate that photonic Aharonov–Bohm effects do exist for photons. By introducing nonreciprocal phases for photons, we observe experimentally a gauge potential for photons in the visible range based on the photon–phonon interactions in acousto-optic crystals, and demonstrate the photonic Aharonov–Bohm effect. The results presented here point to new possibilities to control and manipulate photons by designing an effective gauge potential. PMID:24476790
Qudit-Teleportation for photons with linear optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goyal, Sandeep K.; Boukama-Dzoussi, Patricia E.; Ghosh, Sibasish; Roux, Filippus S.; Konrad, Thomas
2014-04-01
Quantum Teleportation, the transfer of the state of one quantum system to another without direct interaction between both systems, is an important way to transmit information encoded in quantum states and to generate quantum correlations (entanglement) between remote quantum systems. So far, for photons, only superpositions of two distinguishable states (one ``qubit'') could be teleported. Here we show how to teleport a ``qudit'', i.e. a superposition of an arbitrary number d of distinguishable states present in the orbital angular momentum of a single photon using d beam splitters and d additional entangled photons. The same entanglement resource might also be employed to collectively teleport the state of d/2 photons at the cost of one additional entangled photon per qubit. This is superior to existing schemes for photonic qubits, which require an additional pair of entangled photons per qubit.
Qudit-Teleportation for photons with linear optics
Goyal, Sandeep K.; Boukama-Dzoussi, Patricia E.; Ghosh, Sibasish; Roux, Filippus S.; Konrad, Thomas
2014-01-01
Quantum Teleportation, the transfer of the state of one quantum system to another without direct interaction between both systems, is an important way to transmit information encoded in quantum states and to generate quantum correlations (entanglement) between remote quantum systems. So far, for photons, only superpositions of two distinguishable states (one “qubit”) could be teleported. Here we show how to teleport a “qudit”, i.e. a superposition of an arbitrary number d of distinguishable states present in the orbital angular momentum of a single photon using d beam splitters and d additional entangled photons. The same entanglement resource might also be employed to collectively teleport the state of d/2 photons at the cost of one additional entangled photon per qubit. This is superior to existing schemes for photonic qubits, which require an additional pair of entangled photons per qubit. PMID:24686274
Qudit-teleportation for photons with linear optics.
Goyal, Sandeep K; Boukama-Dzoussi, Patricia E; Ghosh, Sibasish; Roux, Filippus S; Konrad, Thomas
2014-01-01
Quantum Teleportation, the transfer of the state of one quantum system to another without direct interaction between both systems, is an important way to transmit information encoded in quantum states and to generate quantum correlations (entanglement) between remote quantum systems. So far, for photons, only superpositions of two distinguishable states (one "qubit") could be teleported. Here we show how to teleport a "qudit", i.e. a superposition of an arbitrary number d of distinguishable states present in the orbital angular momentum of a single photon using d beam splitters and d additional entangled photons. The same entanglement resource might also be employed to collectively teleport the state of d/2 photons at the cost of one additional entangled photon per qubit. This is superior to existing schemes for photonic qubits, which require an additional pair of entangled photons per qubit. PMID:24686274
Superdense teleportation using hyperentangled photons
Graham, Trent M.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Wei, Tzu-Chieh; Junge, Marius; Kwiat, Paul G
2015-01-01
Transmitting quantum information between two remote parties is a requirement for many quantum applications; however, direct transmission of states is often impossible because of noise and loss in the communication channel. Entanglement-enhanced state communication can be used to avoid this issue, but current techniques require extensive experimental resources to transmit large quantum states deterministically. To reduce these resource requirements, we use photon pairs hyperentangled in polarization and orbital angular momentum to implement superdense teleportation, which can communicate a specific class of single-photon ququarts. We achieve an average fidelity of 87.0(1)%, almost twice the classical limit of 44% with reduced experimental resources than traditional techniques. We conclude by discussing the information content of this constrained set of states and demonstrate that this set has an exponentially larger state space volume than the lower-dimensional general states with the same number of state parameters. PMID:26018201
Superdense teleportation using hyperentangled photons.
Graham, Trent M; Bernstein, Herbert J; Wei, Tzu-Chieh; Junge, Marius; Kwiat, Paul G
2015-01-01
Transmitting quantum information between two remote parties is a requirement for many quantum applications; however, direct transmission of states is often impossible because of noise and loss in the communication channel. Entanglement-enhanced state communication can be used to avoid this issue, but current techniques require extensive experimental resources to transmit large quantum states deterministically. To reduce these resource requirements, we use photon pairs hyperentangled in polarization and orbital angular momentum to implement superdense teleportation, which can communicate a specific class of single-photon ququarts. We achieve an average fidelity of 87.0(1)%, almost twice the classical limit of 44% with reduced experimental resources than traditional techniques. We conclude by discussing the information content of this constrained set of states and demonstrate that this set has an exponentially larger state space volume than the lower-dimensional general states with the same number of state parameters. PMID:26018201
Photonically Engineered Incandescent Emitter
Gee, James M.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Fleming, James G.; Moreno, James B.
2005-03-22
A photonically engineered incandescence is disclosed. The emitter materials and photonic crystal structure can be chosen to modify or suppress thermal radiation above a cutoff wavelength, causing the emitter to selectively emit in the visible and near-infrared portions of the spectrum. An efficient incandescent lamp is enabled thereby. A method for fabricating a three-dimensional photonic crystal of a structural material, suitable for the incandescent emitter, is also disclosed.
Photonically engineered incandescent emitter
Gee, James M.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Fleming, James G.; Moreno, James B.
2003-08-26
A photonically engineered incandescence is disclosed. The emitter materials and photonic crystal structure can be chosen to modify or suppress thermal radiation above a cutoff wavelength, causing the emitter to selectively emit in the visible and near-infrared portions of the spectrum. An efficient incandescent lamp is enabled thereby. A method for fabricating a three-dimensional photonic crystal of a structural material, suitable for the incandescent emitter, is also disclosed.
Statistical properties of multiphoton time-dependent three-boson coupled oscillators
Abdalla, M. Sebawe; Perina, Jan; Krepelka, Jaromir
2006-06-15
We investigate the quantum statistics of three time-dependent coupled oscillators in the presence of multiphoton processes. The system is connected with the two-atom multiphoton Tavis-Cummings model. The solution of the Heisenberg equations of the motion is obtained in a compact form. We assume that the modes are initially prepared in coherent states, and we discuss nonclassical phenomena (squeezing and sub-Poissonian behavior). Further, we examine the joint quasi-distribution functions as well as photon-number distribution and its factorial moments. The system has shown that the nonclassical effect is apparent in compound modes (1,3) and (2,3). Moreover, the superstructure phenomenon is observed when the photon transition is increased.
Bayesian reconstruction of photon interaction sequences for high-resolution PET detectors
Pratx, Guillem
2013-01-01
Realizing the full potential of high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) systems involves accurately positioning events in which the annihilation photon deposits all its energy across multiple detector elements. Reconstructing the complete sequence of interactions of each photon provides a reliable way to select the earliest interaction because it ensures that all the interactions are consistent with one another. Bayesian estimation forms a natural framework to maximize the consistency of the sequence with the measurements while taking into account the physics of γ-ray transport. An inherently statistical method, it accounts for the uncertainty in the measured energy and position of each interaction. An algorithm based on maximum a posteriori (MAP) was evaluated for computer simulations. For a high-resolution PET system based on cadmium zinc telluride detectors, 93.8% of the recorded coincidences involved at least one photon multiple-interactions event (PMIE). The MAP estimate of the first interaction was accurate for 85.2% of the single photons. This represents a two-fold reduction in the number of mispositioned events compared to minimum pair distance, a simpler yet efficient positioning method. The point-spread function of the system presented lower tails and higher peak value when MAP was used. This translated into improved image quality, which we quantified by studying contrast and spatial resolution gains. PMID:19652293
Albano Farias, L.; Stephany, J.
2010-12-15
We analyze the statistics of observables in continuous-variable (CV) quantum teleportation in the formalism of the characteristic function. We derive expressions for average values of output-state observables, in particular, cumulants which are additive in terms of the input state and the resource of teleportation. Working with a general class of teleportation resources, the squeezed-bell-like states, which may be optimized in a free parameter for better teleportation performance, we discuss the relation between resources optimal for fidelity and those optimal for different observable averages. We obtain the values of the free parameter of the squeezed-bell-like states which optimize the central momenta and cumulants up to fourth order. For the cumulants the distortion between in and out states due to teleportation depends only on the resource. We obtain optimal parameters {Delta}{sub (2)}{sup opt} and {Delta}{sub (4)}{sup opt} for the second- and fourth-order cumulants, which do not depend on the squeezing of the resource. The second-order central momenta, which are equal to the second-order cumulants, and the photon number average are also optimized by the resource with {Delta}{sub (2)}{sup opt}. We show that the optimal fidelity resource, which has been found previously to depend on the characteristics of input, approaches for high squeezing to the resource that optimizes the second-order momenta. A similar behavior is obtained for the resource that optimizes the photon statistics, which is treated here using the sum of the squared differences in photon probabilities of input versus output states as the distortion measure. This is interpreted naturally to mean that the distortions associated with second-order momenta dominate the behavior of the output state for large squeezing of the resource. Optimal fidelity resources and optimal photon statistics resources are compared, and it is shown that for mixtures of Fock states both resources are equivalent.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merritt, Scott; Krainak, Michael
2016-01-01
Integrated photonics generally is the integration of multiple lithographically defined photonic and electronic components and devices (e.g. lasers, detectors, waveguides passive structures, modulators, electronic control and optical interconnects) on a single platform with nanometer-scale feature sizes. The development of photonic integrated circuits permits size, weight, power and cost reductions for spacecraft microprocessors, optical communication, processor buses, advanced data processing, and integrated optic science instrument optical systems, subsystems and components. This is particularly critical for small spacecraft platforms. We will give an overview of some NASA applications for integrated photonics.
Who Needs Statistics? | Poster
You may know the feeling. You have collected a lot of new data on an important experiment. Now you are faced with multiple groups of data, a sea of numbers, and a deadline for submitting your paper to a peer-reviewed journal. And you are not sure which data are relevant, or even the best way to present them. The statisticians at Data Management Services (DMS) know how to help. This small group of experts provides a wide array of statistical and mathematical consulting services to the scientific community at NCI at Frederick and NCI-Bethesda.
SOCR: Statistics Online Computational Resource
Dinov, Ivo D.
2011-01-01
The need for hands-on computer laboratory experience in undergraduate and graduate statistics education has been firmly established in the past decade. As a result a number of attempts have been undertaken to develop novel approaches for problem-driven statistical thinking, data analysis and result interpretation. In this paper we describe an integrated educational web-based framework for: interactive distribution modeling, virtual online probability experimentation, statistical data analysis, visualization and integration. Following years of experience in statistical teaching at all college levels using established licensed statistical software packages, like STATA, S-PLUS, R, SPSS, SAS, Systat, etc., we have attempted to engineer a new statistics education environment, the Statistics Online Computational Resource (SOCR). This resource performs many of the standard types of statistical analysis, much like other classical tools. In addition, it is designed in a plug-in object-oriented architecture and is completely platform independent, web-based, interactive, extensible and secure. Over the past 4 years we have tested, fine-tuned and reanalyzed the SOCR framework in many of our undergraduate and graduate probability and statistics courses and have evidence that SOCR resources build student’s intuition and enhance their learning. PMID:21451741
Quantum interference in heterogeneous superconducting-photonic circuits on a silicon chip
Schuck, C.; Guo, X.; Fan, L.; Ma, X.; Poot, M.; Tang, H. X.
2016-01-01
Quantum information processing holds great promise for communicating and computing data efficiently. However, scaling current photonic implementation approaches to larger system size remains an outstanding challenge for realizing disruptive quantum technology. Two main ingredients of quantum information processors are quantum interference and single-photon detectors. Here we develop a hybrid superconducting-photonic circuit system to show how these elements can be combined in a scalable fashion on a silicon chip. We demonstrate the suitability of this approach for integrated quantum optics by interfering and detecting photon pairs directly on the chip with waveguide-coupled single-photon detectors. Using a directional coupler implemented with silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides, we observe 97% interference visibility when measuring photon statistics with two monolithically integrated superconducting single-photon detectors. The photonic circuit and detector fabrication processes are compatible with standard semiconductor thin-film technology, making it possible to implement more complex and larger scale quantum photonic circuits on silicon chips. PMID:26792424
Single-photon non-linear optics with a quantum dot in a waveguide
Javadi, A.; Söllner, I.; Arcari, M.; Hansen, S. Lindskov; Midolo, L.; Mahmoodian, S.; Kiršanskė, G; Pregnolato, T.; Lee, E. H.; Song, J. D.; Stobbe, S.; Lodahl, P.
2015-01-01
Strong non-linear interactions between photons enable logic operations for both classical and quantum-information technology. Unfortunately, non-linear interactions are usually feeble and therefore all-optical logic gates tend to be inefficient. A quantum emitter deterministically coupled to a propagating mode fundamentally changes the situation, since each photon inevitably interacts with the emitter, and highly correlated many-photon states may be created. Here we show that a single quantum dot in a photonic-crystal waveguide can be used as a giant non-linearity sensitive at the single-photon level. The non-linear response is revealed from the intensity and quantum statistics of the scattered photons, and contains contributions from an entangled photon–photon bound state. The quantum non-linearity will find immediate applications for deterministic Bell-state measurements and single-photon transistors and paves the way to scalable waveguide-based photonic quantum-computing architectures. PMID:26492951
Quantum interference in heterogeneous superconducting-photonic circuits on a silicon chip
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schuck, C.; Guo, X.; Fan, L.; Ma, X.; Poot, M.; Tang, H. X.
2016-01-01
Quantum information processing holds great promise for communicating and computing data efficiently. However, scaling current photonic implementation approaches to larger system size remains an outstanding challenge for realizing disruptive quantum technology. Two main ingredients of quantum information processors are quantum interference and single-photon detectors. Here we develop a hybrid superconducting-photonic circuit system to show how these elements can be combined in a scalable fashion on a silicon chip. We demonstrate the suitability of this approach for integrated quantum optics by interfering and detecting photon pairs directly on the chip with waveguide-coupled single-photon detectors. Using a directional coupler implemented with silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides, we observe 97% interference visibility when measuring photon statistics with two monolithically integrated superconducting single-photon detectors. The photonic circuit and detector fabrication processes are compatible with standard semiconductor thin-film technology, making it possible to implement more complex and larger scale quantum photonic circuits on silicon chips.
Quantum interference in heterogeneous superconducting-photonic circuits on a silicon chip.
Schuck, C; Guo, X; Fan, L; Ma, X; Poot, M; Tang, H X
2016-01-01
Quantum information processing holds great promise for communicating and computing data efficiently. However, scaling current photonic implementation approaches to larger system size remains an outstanding challenge for realizing disruptive quantum technology. Two main ingredients of quantum information processors are quantum interference and single-photon detectors. Here we develop a hybrid superconducting-photonic circuit system to show how these elements can be combined in a scalable fashion on a silicon chip. We demonstrate the suitability of this approach for integrated quantum optics by interfering and detecting photon pairs directly on the chip with waveguide-coupled single-photon detectors. Using a directional coupler implemented with silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides, we observe 97% interference visibility when measuring photon statistics with two monolithically integrated superconducting single-photon detectors. The photonic circuit and detector fabrication processes are compatible with standard semiconductor thin-film technology, making it possible to implement more complex and larger scale quantum photonic circuits on silicon chips. PMID:26792424
Evaluation of bremsstrahlung contribution to photon transport in coupled photon-electron problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández, Jorge E.; Scot, Viviana; Di Giulio, Eugenio; Salvat, Francesc
2015-11-01
The most accurate description of the radiation field in x-ray spectrometry requires the modeling of coupled photon-electron transport. Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect actually produce electrons as secondary particles which contribute to the photon field through conversion mechanisms like bremsstrahlung (which produces a continuous photon energy spectrum) and inner-shell impact ionization (ISII) (which gives characteristic lines). The solution of the coupled problem is time consuming because the electrons interact continuously and therefore, the number of electron collisions to be considered is always very high. This complex problem is frequently simplified by neglecting the contributions of the secondary electrons. Recent works (Fernández et al., 2013; Fernández et al., 2014) have shown the possibility to include a separately computed coupled photon-electron contribution like ISII in a photon calculation for improving such a crude approximation while preserving the speed of the pure photon transport model. By means of a similar approach and the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE (coupled photon-electron Monte Carlo), the bremsstrahlung contribution is characterized in this work. The angular distribution of the photons due to bremsstrahlung can be safely considered as isotropic, with the point of emission located at the same place of the photon collision. A new photon kernel describing the bremsstrahlung contribution is introduced: it can be included in photon transport codes (deterministic or Monte Carlo) with a minimal effort. A data library to describe the energy dependence of the bremsstrahlung emission has been generated for all elements Z=1-92 in the energy range 1-150 keV. The bremsstrahlung energy distribution for an arbitrary energy is obtained by interpolating in the database. A comparison between a PENELOPE direct simulation and the interpolated distribution using the data base shows an almost perfect agreement. The use of the data base increases
QED corrections to Planck's radiation law and photon thermodynamics
Partovi, M.H. )
1994-07-15
Leading corrections to Planck's radiation formula and other photon thermodynamic functions arising from the pair-mediated photon-photon interaction are calculated. This interaction is found to be attractive and to cause a small increase in occupation number for all modes and a corresponding correction to the equation of state. The results are valid for the range of temperatures well below [ital T][sub [ital e
45 CFR 160.536 - Statistical sampling.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Statistical sampling. 160.536 Section 160.536... REQUIREMENTS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Hearings § 160.536 Statistical sampling. (a) In... statistical sampling study as evidence of the number of violations under § 160.406 of this part, or...
45 CFR 160.536 - Statistical sampling.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Statistical sampling. 160.536 Section 160.536... REQUIREMENTS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Hearings § 160.536 Statistical sampling. (a) In... statistical sampling study as evidence of the number of violations under § 160.406 of this part, or...
42 CFR 1003.133 - Statistical sampling.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Statistical sampling. 1003.133 Section 1003.133... AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.133 Statistical sampling. (a) In meeting... statistical sampling study as evidence of the number and amount of claims and/or requests for payment...
45 CFR 160.536 - Statistical sampling.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Statistical sampling. 160.536 Section 160.536... REQUIREMENTS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Hearings § 160.536 Statistical sampling. (a) In... statistical sampling study as evidence of the number of violations under § 160.406 of this part, or...
45 CFR 160.536 - Statistical sampling.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Statistical sampling. 160.536 Section 160.536... REQUIREMENTS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Hearings § 160.536 Statistical sampling. (a) In... statistical sampling study as evidence of the number of violations under § 160.406 of this part, or...
42 CFR 1003.133 - Statistical sampling.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statistical sampling. 1003.133 Section 1003.133... AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.133 Statistical sampling. (a) In meeting... statistical sampling study as evidence of the number and amount of claims and/or requests for payment...
42 CFR 1003.133 - Statistical sampling.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Statistical sampling. 1003.133 Section 1003.133... AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.133 Statistical sampling. (a) In meeting... statistical sampling study as evidence of the number and amount of claims and/or requests for payment...
45 CFR 160.536 - Statistical sampling.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statistical sampling. 160.536 Section 160.536... REQUIREMENTS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Hearings § 160.536 Statistical sampling. (a) In... statistical sampling study as evidence of the number of violations under § 160.406 of this part, or...
Undergraduate experiments on statistical optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scholz, Ruediger; Friege, Gunnar; Weber, Kim-Alessandro
2016-09-01
Since the pioneering experiments of Forrester et al (1955 Phys. Rev. 99 1691) and Hanbury Brown and Twiss (1956 Nature 177 27; Nature 178 1046), along with the introduction of the laser in the 1960s, the systematic analysis of random fluctuations of optical fields has developed to become an indispensible part of physical optics for gaining insight into features of the fields. In 1985 Joseph W Goodman prefaced his textbook on statistical optics with a strong commitment to the ‘tools of probability and statistics’ (Goodman 2000 Statistical Optics (New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc.)) in the education of advanced optics. Since then a wide range of novel undergraduate optical counting experiments and corresponding pedagogical approaches have been introduced to underpin the rapid growth of the interest in coherence and photon statistics. We propose low cost experimental steps that are a fair way off ‘real’ quantum optics, but that give deep insight into random optical fluctuation phenomena: (1) the introduction of statistical methods into undergraduate university optical lab work, and (2) the connection between the photoelectrical signal and the characteristics of the light source. We describe three experiments and theoretical approaches which may be used to pave the way for a well balanced growth of knowledge, providing students with an opportunity to enhance their abilities to adapt the ‘tools of probability and statistics’.
Experimental generation of single photons via active multiplexing
Ma Xiaosong; Zotter, Stefan; Kofler, Johannes; Jennewein, Thomas; Zeilinger, Anton
2011-04-15
An on-demand single-photon source is a fundamental building block in quantum science and technology. We experimentally demonstrate the proof of concept for a scheme to generate on-demand single photons via actively multiplexing several heralded photons probabilistically produced from pulsed spontaneous parametric down-conversions (SPDCs). By utilizing a four-photon-pair source, an active feed-forward technique, and an ultrafast single-photon router, we show a fourfold enhancement of the output photon rate. Simultaneously, we maintain the quality of the output single-photon states, confirmed by correlation measurements. We also experimentally verify, via Hong-Ou-Mandel interference, that the router does not affect the indistinguishability of the single photons. Furthermore, we give numerical simulations, which indicate that photons based on multiplexing of four SPDC sources can outperform the heralding based on highly advanced photon-number-resolving detectors. Our results show a route for on-demand single-photon generation and the practical realization of scalable linear optical quantum-information processing.
Topological preparation of Laughlin and Pfaffian states of photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grusdt, Fabian; Letscher, Fabian; Hafezi, Mohammad; Fleischhauer, Michael
2014-05-01
We present a new scheme for the preparation of highly correlated Laughlin and Pfaffian states of photons. In contrast to other proposals we do not start from an N-photon Fock state, but adiabatically introduce photons one by one. As a consequence our scheme only requires a time T ~ N to grow an N-photon Laughlin state. We consider a realistic setup of two-dimensional cavity arrays subject to an effective magnetic field. Moreover we assume strong on-site interactions for photons. Our scheme makes use of the quantization of the Hall current, which is topologically protected, and the ability to manipulate the magnetic flux locally in photonic systems [Hafezi, arXiv:1310.7946]. By adiabatically introducing flux quanta in the center of an N-photon Laughlin state, quasihole excitations can be created. Replenishing the resulting hole with a new photon allows to create an incompressible N + 1 photon Laughlin state. Photon-losses lead to an increasing number of hole-type excitations at the edge of the Laughlin liquid and thus limit the achievable system-sizes. We present numerical simulations for small systems of interacting photons and for an effective model of non-interacting composite fermions, demonstrating the feasibility of our scheme. F.G. thanks his graduate school ``Material Science in MAINZ'' for financial support.