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Sample records for photon number statistics

  1. Photon-number statistics of twin beams: Self-consistent measurement, reconstruction, and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Peřina, Jan Jr.; Haderka, Ondřej; Michálek, Václav

    2014-12-04

    A method for the determination of photon-number statistics of twin beams using the joint signal-idler photocount statistics obtained by an iCCD camera is described. It also provides absolute quantum detection efficiency of the camera. Using the measured photocount statistics, quasi-distributions of integrated intensities are obtained. They attain negative values occurring in characteristic strips an a consequence of pairing of photons in twin beams.

  2. Direct measurement of photon number statistics at telecom wavelengths using a charge integration photon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide

    2007-06-01

    In optical quantum information technology, a photon number resolving detector (PNRD) is the basic device for developing photonic quantum computers. The demands for the PNRD are high quantum efficiency and wide dynamic range. We have developed a charge integration photon detector (CIPD) with a quantum efficiency of 80% at telecom wavelengths. The repetition rate of the CIPD is as low as 40 Hz at present, but it can be applied for measurement of short pulses. We report the capability of the CIPD for multiphoton counting over 10 photons, its responsivity to the short pulses, and its high linearity using a binary intensity modulated short pulse (2 ns) train and simultaneous irradiation of two kinds of pulses.

  3. Photon number statistics uncover the fluctuations in non-equilibrium lattice dynamics.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Martina; Titimbo, Kelvin; Zimmermann, Klaus; Giusti, Francesca; Randi, Francesco; Boschetto, Davide; Parmigiani, Fulvio; Floreanini, Roberto; Benatti, Fabio; Fausti, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Fluctuations of the atomic positions are at the core of a large class of unusual material properties ranging from quantum para-electricity to high temperature superconductivity. Their measurement in solids is the subject of an intense scientific debate focused on seeking a methodology capable of establishing a direct link between the variance of the atomic displacements and experimentally measurable observables. Here we address this issue by means of non-equilibrium optical experiments performed in shot-noise-limited regime. The variance of the time-dependent atomic positions and momenta is directly mapped into the quantum fluctuations of the photon number of the scattered probing light. A fully quantum description of the non-linear interaction between photonic and phononic fields is benchmarked by unveiling the squeezing of thermal phonons in α-quartz. PMID:26690958

  4. Photon number statistics uncover the fluctuations in non-equilibrium lattice dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Martina; Titimbo, Kelvin; Zimmermann, Klaus; Giusti, Francesca; Randi, Francesco; Boschetto, Davide; Parmigiani, Fulvio; Floreanini, Roberto; Benatti, Fabio; Fausti, Daniele

    2015-12-01

    Fluctuations of the atomic positions are at the core of a large class of unusual material properties ranging from quantum para-electricity to high temperature superconductivity. Their measurement in solids is the subject of an intense scientific debate focused on seeking a methodology capable of establishing a direct link between the variance of the atomic displacements and experimentally measurable observables. Here we address this issue by means of non-equilibrium optical experiments performed in shot-noise-limited regime. The variance of the time-dependent atomic positions and momenta is directly mapped into the quantum fluctuations of the photon number of the scattered probing light. A fully quantum description of the non-linear interaction between photonic and phononic fields is benchmarked by unveiling the squeezing of thermal phonons in α-quartz.

  5. Photon number statistics uncover the fluctuations in non-equilibrium lattice dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Martina; Titimbo, Kelvin; Zimmermann, Klaus; Giusti, Francesca; Randi, Francesco; Boschetto, Davide; Parmigiani, Fulvio; Floreanini, Roberto; Benatti, Fabio; Fausti, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Fluctuations of the atomic positions are at the core of a large class of unusual material properties ranging from quantum para-electricity to high temperature superconductivity. Their measurement in solids is the subject of an intense scientific debate focused on seeking a methodology capable of establishing a direct link between the variance of the atomic displacements and experimentally measurable observables. Here we address this issue by means of non-equilibrium optical experiments performed in shot-noise-limited regime. The variance of the time-dependent atomic positions and momenta is directly mapped into the quantum fluctuations of the photon number of the scattered probing light. A fully quantum description of the non-linear interaction between photonic and phononic fields is benchmarked by unveiling the squeezing of thermal phonons in α-quartz. PMID:26690958

  6. The statistical distribution of the number of counted scintillation photons in digital silicon photomultipliers: model and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dam, Herman T.; Seifert, Stefan; Schaart, Dennis R.

    2012-08-01

    In the design and application of scintillation detectors based on silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), e.g. in positron emission tomography imaging, it is important to understand and quantify the non-proportionality of the SiPM response due to saturation, crosstalk and dark counts. A new type of SiPM, the so-called digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM), has recently been introduced. Here, we develop a model of the probability distribution of the number of fired microcells, i.e. the number of counted scintillation photons, in response to a given amount of energy deposited in a scintillator optically coupled to a dSiPM. Based on physical and functional principles, the model elucidates the statistical behavior of dSiPMs. The model takes into account the photon detection efficiency of the detector; the light yield, excess variance and time profile of the scintillator; and the crosstalk probability, dark count rate, integration time and the number of microcells of the dSiPM. Furthermore, relations for the expectation value and the variance of the number of fired cells are deduced. These relations are applied in the experimental validation of the model using a dSiPM coupled to a LSO:Ce,Ca scintillator. Finally, we propose an accurate method for the correction of energy spectra measured with dSiPM-based scintillation detectors.

  7. Numerical reconstruction of photon-number statistics from photocounting statistics: Regularization of an ill-posed problem

    SciTech Connect

    Starkov, V. N.; Semenov, A. A.; Gomonay, H. V.

    2009-07-15

    We demonstrate a practical possibility of loss compensation in measured photocounting statistics in the presence of dark counts and background radiation noise. It is shown that satisfactory results are obtained even in the case of low detection efficiency and large experimental errors.

  8. Generalized binomial distribution in photon statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyin, Aleksey

    2015-01-01

    The photon-number distribution between two parts of a given volume is found for an arbitrary photon statistics. This problem is related to the interaction of a light beam with a macroscopic device, for example a diaphragm, that separates the photon flux into two parts with known probabilities. To solve this problem, a Generalized Binomial Distribution (GBD) is derived that is applicable to an arbitrary photon statistics satisfying probability convolution equations. It is shown that if photons obey Poisson statistics then the GBD is reduced to the ordinary binomial distribution, whereas in the case of Bose- Einstein statistics the GBD is reduced to the Polya distribution. In this case, the photon spatial distribution depends on the phase-space volume occupied by the photons. This result involves a photon bunching effect, or collective behavior of photons that sharply differs from the behavior of classical particles. It is shown that the photon bunching effect looks similar to the quantum interference effect.

  9. Photon-number statistics from resonance fluorescence of a two-level atom near a plasmonic nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastukhov, Vladimir M.; Vladimirova, Yulia V.; Zadkov, Victor N.

    2014-12-01

    The photon-number statistics from resonance fluorescence of a two-level atom near a metal nanosphere driven by a laser field with finite bandwidth is studied theoretically. Our analysis shows that all interesting physics here takes place in a small area around the nanosphere where the near field and the atom-nanosphere coupling essentially affect the radiative properties of the atom. Computer modeling estimates this area roughly as r ?2 a (r is the distance from the center of the nanosphere to the atom), with a being the radius of the nanosphere. At the larger distances, the influence of the nanoparticle vanishes and the atom tends to behave similarly to that in free space. It is shown that the distribution function p (n ,T ) of the emission probability of n photons in a given time interval T in steady-state resonance fluorescence drastically depends on the atom location around the nanosphere for r ?2 a , featuring a characteristic twist in the ridgelike dependence and a convergence time of up to 9 ? s, two orders of magnitude slower than for the atom in free space. At large distances, the distribution converges to a Gaussian one, as for the atom in free space. The typical convergence time scale at large distances r >2 a tends to the convergence time of the atom in free space. There are also two areas symmetrical around the nanosphere in which ? ? and the convergence time goes to zero. This behavior is determined by the interplay of the radiative and nonradiative decay rates of the atom due to the coupling with the metal nanosphere and by the near-field intensity. Additional parameters are the normalized laser frequency detuning from the atomic resonance and the bandwidth of the incoming laser field.

  10. Characterization of photon statistics in a single-photon source via variable attenuation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Shengli; Zou Xubo; Li Chuanfeng; Guo Guangcan; Jin Chenhui

    2009-10-15

    We propose a simple but effective scheme for characterizing photon-number statistics of a practical single-photon source. In this scheme, the variable attenuation method which frequently appears in decoy state quantum cryptography is utilized here to enhance the estimation of photon-number statistics. A much stricter bound for vacuum and single-photon proportions is obtained and this result, in turn, is shown to be applicable to the unconditional secure quantum cryptographic communication with single-photon devices.

  11. Photon Counts Statistics in Leukocyte Cell Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wijk, Eduard; van der Greef, Jan; van Wijk, Roeland

    2011-12-01

    In the present experiment ultra-weak photon emission/ chemiluminescence from isolated neutrophils was recorded. It is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the "respiratory burst" process which can be activated by PMA (Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate). Commonly, the reaction is demonstrated utilizing the enhancer luminol. However, with the use of highly sensitive photomultiplier equipment it is also recorded without enhancer. In that case, it can be hypothesized that photon count statistics may assist in understanding the underlying metabolic activity and cooperation of these cells. To study this hypothesis leukocytes were stimulated with PMA and increased photon signals were recorded in the quasi stable period utilizing Fano factor analysis at different window sizes. The Fano factor is defined by the variance over the mean of the number of photon within the observation time. The analysis demonstrated that the Fano factor of true signal and not of the surrogate signals obtained by random shuffling increases when the window size increased. It is concluded that photon count statistics, in particular Fano factor analysis, provides information regarding leukocyte interactions. It opens the perspective to utilize this analytical procedure in (in vivo) inflammation research. However, this needs further validation.

  12. Photon statistics: math versus mysticism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kracklauer, A. F.

    2013-10-01

    Critical analysis is given for mystical aspects of the current understanding of interaction between charged particles: wave-particle duality and nonlocal entanglement. A possible statistical effect concerning distribution functions for coincidences between the output channels of beam splitters is described. If this effect is observed in beam splitter data, ten significant evidence for photon splitting, i.e. , against the notion that light is ultimately packaged in finite chunks, has been found. An argument is given for the invalidity of the meaning attached to tests of Bell inequalities. Additionally, a totally classical paradigm for the calculation of the customary expression for the "quantum" coincidence coefficient pertaining to the singlet state is described. If fully accounts for the results of experimental tests of Bell inequalities taken nowadays to prove the reality of entanglement and non-locality in quantum phenomena of, inter alia, light. Described. It fully accounts for the results of experimental tests of Bell inequalities take n nowadays to prove the reality of entanglement and non-locality in quantum phenomena of inter alia, light.

  13. Statistics: It's in the Numbers!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Mary M.; Deal, Walter F., III

    2007-01-01

    Mathematics and statistics play important roles in peoples' lives today. A day hardly passes that they are not bombarded with many different kinds of statistics. As consumers they see statistical information as they surf the web, watch television, listen to their satellite radios, or even read the nutrition facts panel on a cereal box in the

  14. Odd numbers of photons and teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Enk, S.J. van

    2003-02-01

    Several teleportation protocols, namely those using entangled coherent states, entangled squeezed states, and the single-photon Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state, are all shown to be particular instances of a more general scheme that relies on the detection of an odd number of photons.

  15. Counting statistics of collective photon transmissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogl, M.; Schaller, G.; Brandes, T.

    2011-10-01

    We theoretically study cooperative effects in the steady-state transmission of photons through a medium of N radiators. Using methods from quantum transport, we find a cross-over in scaling from N to N2 in the current and to even higher powers of N in the higher cumulants of the photon counting statistics as a function of the tunable source occupation. The effect should be observable for atoms confined within a nano-cell with a pumped optical cavity as photon source.

  16. Photon-number-resolving superconducting nanowire detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, Francesco; Zhou, Zili; Gaggero, Alessandro; Gaudio, Rosalinda; Jahanmirinejad, Saeedeh; Sahin, Dnd; Marsili, Francesco; Leoni, Roberto; Fiore, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, photon-number-resolving (PNR) detectors have attracted great interest, mainly because they can play a key role in diverse application fields. A PNR detector with a large dynamic range would represent an ideal photon detector, bringing the linear response of conventional analogue detectors down to the single-photon level. Several technologies, such as InGaAs single photon avalanche detectors (SPADs), arrays of silicon photomultipliers, InGaAs SPADs with self-differencing circuits and transition edge sensors have shown photon number resolving capability. Superconducting nanowires provide free-running single-photon sensitivity from visible to mid-infrared frequencies, low dark counts, excellent timing resolution (<60 ps) and short dead time (10 ns), at an easily accessible temperature (2-3 K), but they do not inherently resolve the photon number. In this framework, PNR detectors based on arrays of superconducting nanowires have been proposed. In this article we describe a number of methods and device configurations that have been pursued to obtain PNR capability using superconducting nanowire detectors.

  17. Observing fermionic statistics with photons in arbitrary processes

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Jonathan C. F.; Poulios, Konstantinos; Meinecke, Jasmin D. A.; Politi, Alberto; Peruzzo, Alberto; Ismail, Nur; Wrhoff, Kerstin; Thompson, Mark G.; O'Brien, Jeremy L.

    2013-01-01

    Quantum mechanics defines two classes of particles-bosons and fermions-whose exchange statistics fundamentally dictate quantum dynamics. Here we develop a scheme that uses entanglement to directly observe the correlated detection statistics of any number of fermions in any physical process. This approach relies on sending each of the entangled particles through identical copies of the process and by controlling a single phase parameter in the entangled state, the correlated detection statistics can be continuously tuned between bosonic and fermionic statistics. We implement this scheme via two entangled photons shared across the polarisation modes of a single photonic chip to directly mimic the fermion, boson and intermediate behaviour of two-particles undergoing a continuous time quantum walk. The ability to simulate fermions with photons is likely to have applications for verifying boson scattering and for observing particle correlations in analogue simulation using any physical platform that can prepare the entangled state prescribed here. PMID:23531788

  18. Efficient and robust quantum random number generation by photon number detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applegate, M. J.; Thomas, O.; Dynes, J. F.; Yuan, Z. L.; Ritchie, D. A.; Shields, A. J.

    2015-08-01

    We present an efficient and robust quantum random number generator based upon high-rate room temperature photon number detection. We employ an electric field-modulated silicon avalanche photodiode, a type of device particularly suited to high-rate photon number detection with excellent photon number resolution to detect, without an applied dead-time, up to 4 photons from the optical pulses emitted by a laser. By both measuring and modeling the response of the detector to the incident photons, we are able to determine the illumination conditions that achieve an optimal bit rate that we show is robust against variation in the photon flux. We extract random bits from the detected photon numbers with an efficiency of 99% corresponding to 1.97 bits per detected photon number yielding a bit rate of 143 Mbit/s, and verify that the extracted bits pass stringent statistical tests for randomness. Our scheme is highly scalable and has the potential of multi-Gbit/s bit rates.

  19. Counting statistics of collective photon transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Vogl, M. Schaller, G. Brandes, T.

    2011-10-15

    We theoretically study cooperative effects in the steady-state transmission of photons through a medium of N radiators. Using methods from quantum transport, we find a cross-over in scaling from N to N{sup 2} in the current and to even higher powers of N in the higher cumulants of the photon counting statistics as a function of the tunable source occupation. The effect should be observable for atoms confined within a nano-cell with a pumped optical cavity as photon source. - Highlights: > Super-radiance transfers to super-transmittance in steady-state transport. > Higher cumulants are much more sensitive indicators for collective behavior than the first cumulant. > Effects should be measurable by pumped-cavity experiment.

  20. Linking numbers, spin, and statistics of solitons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilczek, F.; Zee, A.

    1983-01-01

    The spin and statistics of solitons in the (2 + 1)- and (3 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear sigma models is considered. For the (2 + 1)-dimensional case, there is the possibility of fractional spin and exotic statistics; for 3 + 1 dimensions, the usual spin-statistics relation is demonstrated. The linking-number interpretation of the Hopf invariant and the use of suspension considerably simplify the analysis.

  1. Photon-number squeezing by two-photon absorption in an organic polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ispasoiu, R. G.; Goodson, T.

    2000-05-01

    We report the generation of photon-number squeezed light by two-photon absorption in a thin film of the organic polymeric dye R-478 with intense femtosecond laser pulses at 800 nm. Photon-number noise measurements of the transmitted laser beam were carried out simultaneously with the measurement of the sample's nonlinear transmission. A two-photon absorption coefficient ( ?) of 7 cm/GW was estimated for the organic polymer thin film. At the highest incident peak irradiance used we observed a reduction of the photon-number noise of 0.1 dB (4.6%) below the standard quantum limit. By considering the detection losses we inferred 7.7% squeezing at the sample output. The experimental results were compared with the predictions of a theoretical model relating the Fano factor to the nonlinear transmission. The analysis of the experimental results indicates that sub-Poissonian photon statistics occurs when the linear optical losses in the sample are overcome by the quantum noise reduction effect of multi-photon absorption.

  2. Ideal photon number amplifier and duplicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dariano, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    The photon number-amplification and number-duplication mechanism are analyzed in the ideal case. The search for unitary evolutions leads to consider also a number-deamplification mechanism, the symmetry between amplification and deamplification being broken by the integer-value nature of the number operator. Both transformations, amplification and duplication, need an auxiliary field which, in the case of amplification, turns out to be amplified in the inverse way. Input-output energy conservation is accounted for using a classical pump or through frequency-conversion of the fields. Ignoring one of the fields is equivalent to considering the amplifier as an open system involving entropy production. The Hamiltonians of the ideal devices are given and compared with those of realistic systems.

  3. Interaction of Fixed Number of Photons with Retinal Rod Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Nam Mai; Cheng, Mei Fun; Bessarab, Dmitri A.; Krivitsky, Leonid A.

    2014-05-01

    New tools and approaches of quantum optics offer a unique opportunity to generate light pulses carrying a precise number of photons. Accurate control over the light pulses helps to improve the characterization of photoinduced processes. Here, we study interaction of a specialized light source which provides flashes containing just one photon, with retinal rod cells of Xenopus laevis toads. We provide unambiguous proof of the single-photon sensitivity of rod cells without relying on the statistical modeling. We determine their quantum efficiencies without the use of any precalibrated detectors and obtain the value of (294.7)%. Our approach provides the path for future studies and applications of quantum properties of light in phototransduction, vision, and photosynthesis.

  4. Highly nonclassical photon statistics in parametric down-conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Waks, Edo; Diamanti, Eleni; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Sanders, Barry C.

    2006-03-15

    We use photon counters to obtain the joint photon-counting statistics from twin-beam nondegenerate parametric down-conversion, and we demonstrate directly, and with no auxiliary assumptions, that these twin beams are nonclassical.

  5. Statistical fitting accuracy in photon correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaumeyer, J. N.; Briggs, Matthew E.; Gammon, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    Continuing our experimental investigation of the fitting accuracy associated with photon correlation spectroscopy, we collect 150 correlograms of light scattered at 90 deg from a thermostated sample of 91-nm-diameter, polystyrene latex spheres in water. The correlograms are taken with two correlators: one with linearly spaced channels and one with geometrically spaced channels. Decay rates are extracted from the single-exponential correlograms with both nonlinear least-squares fits and second-order cumulant fits. We make several statistical comparisons between the two fitting techniques and verify an earlier result that there is no sample-time dependence in the decay rate errors. We find, however, that the two fitting techniques give decay rates that differ by 1 percent.

  6. Nonlinearity sensing via photon-statistics excitation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Assmann, Marc; Bayer, Manfred

    2011-11-15

    We propose photon-statistics excitation spectroscopy as an adequate tool to describe the optical response of a nonlinear system. To this end we suggest to use optical excitation with varying photon statistics as another spectroscopic degree of freedom to gather information about the system in question. The responses of several simple model systems to excitation beams with different photon statistics are discussed. Possible spectroscopic applications in terms of identifying lasing operation are pointed out.

  7. Photon number squeezed states in semiconductor lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Machida, Susumu; Richardson, Wayne H.

    1992-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields, with the noise on one quadrature component reduced to below the quantum mechanical zero-point fluctuation level and the noise on the other quadrature component enhanced to above it, are currently of great interest in quantum optics because of their potential applications to various precision measurements. Such squeezed states of light are usually produced by imposing nonlinear unitary evolution on coherent (or vacuum) states. On the other hand, squeezed states with reduced photon number noise and enhanced phase noise are generated directly by a constant current-driven semiconductor laser. This is the simplest scheme for the generation of nonclassical light, and so far it has yielded the largest quantum noise reduction. The mutual coupling between a lasing junction and an external electrical circuit provides opportunities for exploring the macroscopic and microscopic quantum effects in open systems.

  8. Imaging with a small number of photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Peter A.; Aspden, Reuben S.; Bell, Jessica E. C.; Boyd, Robert W.; Padgett, Miles J.

    2015-01-01

    Low-light-level imaging techniques have application in many diverse fields, ranging from biological sciences to security. A high-quality digital camera based on a multi-megapixel array will typically record an image by collecting of order 105 photons per pixel, but by how much could this photon flux be reduced? In this work we demonstrate a single-photon imaging system based on a time-gated intensified camera from which the image of an object can be inferred from very few detected photons. We show that a ghost-imaging configuration, where the image is obtained from photons that have never interacted with the object, is a useful approach for obtaining images with high signal-to-noise ratios. The use of heralded single photons ensures that the background counts can be virtually eliminated from the recorded images. By applying principles of image compression and associated image reconstruction, we obtain high-quality images of objects from raw data formed from an average of fewer than one detected photon per image pixel.

  9. Imaging with a small number of photons

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Peter A.; Aspden, Reuben S.; Bell, Jessica E. C.; Boyd, Robert W.; Padgett, Miles J.

    2015-01-01

    Low-light-level imaging techniques have application in many diverse fields, ranging from biological sciences to security. A high-quality digital camera based on a multi-megapixel array will typically record an image by collecting of order 105 photons per pixel, but by how much could this photon flux be reduced? In this work we demonstrate a single-photon imaging system based on a time-gated intensified camera from which the image of an object can be inferred from very few detected photons. We show that a ghost-imaging configuration, where the image is obtained from photons that have never interacted with the object, is a useful approach for obtaining images with high signal-to-noise ratios. The use of heralded single photons ensures that the background counts can be virtually eliminated from the recorded images. By applying principles of image compression and associated image reconstruction, we obtain high-quality images of objects from raw data formed from an average of fewer than one detected photon per image pixel. PMID:25557090

  10. Photon-number discrimination without a photon counter and its application to reconstructing non-Gaussian states

    SciTech Connect

    Chrzanowski, H. M.; Bernu, J.; Sparkes, B. M.; Hage, B.; Lam, P. K.; Symul, T.; Lund, A. P.; Ralph, T. C.

    2011-11-15

    The nonlinearity of a conditional photon-counting measurement can be used to ''de-Gaussify'' a Gaussian state of light. Here we present and experimentally demonstrate a technique for photon-number resolution using only homodyne detection. We then apply this technique to inform a conditional measurement, unambiguously reconstructing the statistics of the non-Gaussian one- and two-photon-subtracted squeezed vacuum states. Although our photon-number measurement relies on ensemble averages and cannot be used to prepare non-Gaussian states of light, its high efficiency, photon-number-resolving capabilities, and compatibility with the telecommunications band make it suitable for quantum-information tasks relying on the outcomes of mean values.

  11. Photon statistics of atomic fluorescence after {pi}-pulse excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimi, Kazuyoshi; Koshino, Kazuki

    2010-09-15

    The photon statistics of atomic fluorescence after {pi}-pulse excitation is investigated in a system in which the input and output ports are connected to an atom. Since spontaneous decay during input pulse excitation occurs, the output pulse generally contains a multiphoton component with a certain probability. We quantitatively evaluate the probability of the output pulse containing multiple photons and determine the conditions for ideal single-photon generation.

  12. Quantum dot single-photon switches of resonant tunneling current for discriminating-photon-number detection

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Qianchun; An, Zhenghua; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Pingping; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Zhu, Ziqiang; Lu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Low-noise single-photon detectors that can resolve photon numbers are used to monitor the operation of quantum gates in linear-optical quantum computation. Exactly 0, 1 or 2 photons registered in a detector should be distinguished especially in long-distance quantum communication and quantum computation. Here we demonstrate a photon-number-resolving detector based on quantum dot coupled resonant tunneling diodes (QD-cRTD). Individual quantum-dots (QDs) coupled closely with adjacent quantum well (QW) of resonant tunneling diode operate as photon-gated switches- which turn on (off) the RTD tunneling current when they trap photon-generated holes (recombine with injected electrons). Proposed electron-injecting operation fills electrons into coupled QDs which turn photon-switches to OFF state and make the detector ready for multiple-photons detection. With proper decision regions defined, 1-photon and 2-photon states are resolved in 4.2?K with excellent propabilities of accuracy of 90% and 98% respectively. Further, by identifying step-like photon responses, the photon-number-resolving capability is sustained to 77?K, making the detector a promising candidate for advanced quantum information applications where photon-number-states should be accurately distinguished. PMID:25797442

  13. Quantum dot single-photon switches of resonant tunneling current for discriminating-photon-number detection.

    PubMed

    Weng, Qianchun; An, Zhenghua; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Pingping; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Zhu, Ziqiang; Lu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Low-noise single-photon detectors that can resolve photon numbers are used to monitor the operation of quantum gates in linear-optical quantum computation. Exactly 0, 1 or 2 photons registered in a detector should be distinguished especially in long-distance quantum communication and quantum computation. Here we demonstrate a photon-number-resolving detector based on quantum dot coupled resonant tunneling diodes (QD-cRTD). Individual quantum-dots (QDs) coupled closely with adjacent quantum well (QW) of resonant tunneling diode operate as photon-gated switches- which turn on (off) the RTD tunneling current when they trap photon-generated holes (recombine with injected electrons). Proposed electron-injecting operation fills electrons into coupled QDs which turn "photon-switches" to "OFF" state and make the detector ready for multiple-photons detection. With proper decision regions defined, 1-photon and 2-photon states are resolved in 4.2 K with excellent propabilities of accuracy of 90% and 98% respectively. Further, by identifying step-like photon responses, the photon-number-resolving capability is sustained to 77 K, making the detector a promising candidate for advanced quantum information applications where photon-number-states should be accurately distinguished. PMID:25797442

  14. Homodyne measurement of the average photon number

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, J. G.; Huntington, E. H.; Ralph, T. C.

    2006-03-15

    We describe a scheme for measurement of the mean photon flux at an arbitrary optical sideband frequency using homodyne detection. Experimental implementation of the technique requires an acousto-optic modulator in addition to the homodyne detector, and does not require phase locking. The technique exhibits polarization and frequency and spatial mode selectivity, as well as much improved speed, resolution, and dynamic range when compared to linear photodetectors and avalanche photodiodes, with potential application to quantum-state tomography and information encoding using an optical frequency basis. Experimental data also support a quantum-mechanical description of vacuum noise.

  15. Photon statistics of a two-mode squeezed vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrade, Guenter; Akulin, V. M.; Schleich, W. P.; Manko, Vladimir I.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the general case of the photon distribution of a two-mode squeezed vacuum and show that the distribution of photons among the two modes depends on four parameters: two squeezing parameters, the relative phase between the two oscillators and their spatial orientation. The distribution of the total number of photons depends only on the two squeezing parameters. We derive analytical expressions and present pictures for both distributions.

  16. Photon-number-resolved heralded-photon source for improved quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Takeno, Yuishi; Yabushita, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2007-07-01

    We have suppressed multiphoton probability of a heralded-photon source, which is vital for quantum key distribution with a higher secure key generation rate. It is accomplished by utilizing a practical photon-number-resolving detector for triggering resulting in an important step for improved practical quantum key distribution. Heralded-photon source and a practical photon-number-resolving detector capable of real-time processed multiphoton rejection are stably operable at room temperature and enable us to generate a secure key at a distance as long as an ideal single photon source is used.

  17. Conditional preparation of states containing a definite number of photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, Malcolm N.; Chan, Kam Wai Clifford; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan; Boyd, Robert W.

    2008-02-01

    A technique for conditionally creating single-mode or multimode photon-number states is analyzed using Bayesian theory. We consider the heralded N -photon states created from the photons produced by an unseeded optical parametric amplifier when the heralding detector is the time-multiplexed photon-number-resolving detector recently demonstrated by Fitch [Phys. Rev. A 68, 043814 (2003)] and simultaneously by Achilles [Opt. Lett. 28, 2387 (2003)]. We find that even with significant loss in the heralding detector, fields with sub-Poissonian photon-number distributions can be created. We also show that heralded multimode fields created using this technique are more robust against detector loss than are single-mode fields.

  18. Calculation of Photon-Count Number Distributions via Master Equations

    PubMed Central

    Palo, Kaupo; Mets, lo; Loorits, Vello; Kask, Peet

    2006-01-01

    Fitting of photon-count number histograms is a way of analysis of fluorescence intensity fluctuations, a successor to fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. First versions of the theory for calculating photon-count number distributions have assumed constant emission intensity by a molecule during a counting time interval. For a long time a question has remained unanswered: to what extent is this assumption violated in experiments? Here we present a theory of photon-count number distributions that takes account of intensity fluctuations during a counting time interval. Theoretical count-number distributions are calculated via a numerical solution of Master equations (ME), which is a set of differential equations describing diffusion, singlet-triplet transitions, and photon emission. Detector afterpulsing and dead-time corrections are also included. The ME-theory is tested by fitting a series of photon-count number histograms corresponding to different lengths of the counting time interval. Compared to the first version of fluorescence intensity multiple distribution analysis theory introduced in 2000, the fit quality is significantly improved. It is discussed how a theory of photon-count number distributions, which assumes constant emission intensity during a counting time interval, may also yield a good fit quality. We argue that the spatial brightness distribution used in calculations of the fit curve is not the true spatial brightness distribution. Instead, a number of dynamic processes, which cause fluorescence intensity fluctuations, are indirectly taken into account via the profile adjustment parameters. PMID:16387771

  19. Number Hunting: Statistics on the Net.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raeder, Aggi

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how to find statistical data on the Internet, particularly with awareness of lag times associated with posted data and of the large quantity of university sources. Lists World Wide Web sites under the headings of metasites, agriculture, banking, business, crime, economics, education, energy, government, health, international, local

  20. Optical bistability and nonclassical photon counting statistics with few atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Ullrich; Ginzel, Christian; Schenzle, Axel

    1993-10-01

    The behavior of a collection of atoms that are strongly coupled to a resonant cavity is numerically studied. Atoms and mode are coupled to individual heat baths. The mode is coupled to a classical driving field. The system exhibits interesting properties like optical bistability and nonclassical photon counting statistics.

  1. Photon-number-resolving detector with 10 bits of resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Leaf A.; Dauler, Eric A.; Chang, Joshua T

    2007-06-15

    A photon-number-resolving detector with single-photon resolution is described and demonstrated. It has 10 bits of resolution, does not require cryogenic cooling, and is sensitive to near ir wavelengths. This performance is achieved by flood illuminating a 32x32 element In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}AsP Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode array that has an integrated counter and digital readout circuit behind each pixel.

  2. Counting statistics of photons produced by electronic shot noise.

    PubMed

    Beenakker, C W; Schomerus, H

    2001-01-22

    A theory is presented for the photodetection statistics of radiation produced by current fluctuations in a phase-coherent conductor. Deviations are found from the Poisson statistics that would result from a classical current. For detection in a narrow frequency interval delta omega, the photocount distribution has the negative-binomial form of blackbody radiation if e delta omega is less than the mean current I in the conductor. When electronic localization sets in, I drops below e delta omega and a different type of super-Poissonian photon statistics results. PMID:11177916

  3. Apollo by the Numbers: A Statistical Reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orloff, Richard; Garber, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to provide researchers, students, and space enthusiasts with a comprehensive reference for facts about Project Apollo, America's effort to put humans in the Moon. Research for this work started in 1988, when the author discovered that, despite the number of excellent books that focused on the drama of events that highlighted Apollo, there were none that focused on the drama of the numbers. This book is separated into two parts. The first part contains narratives for the Apollo 1 fire and the 11 flown Apollo missions. Included after each narrative is a series of data tables, followed by a comprehensive timeline of events from just before liftoff to just after crew and spacecraft recovery. The second part contains more than 50 tables. These tables organize much of the data from the narratives in one place so they can be compared among all missions. The tables offer additional data as well. The reader can select a specific mission narrative or specific data table by consulting the Table of Contents.

  4. Ultrabroadband direct detection of nonclassical photon statistics at telecom wavelength

    PubMed Central

    Wakui, Kentaro; Eto, Yujiro; Benichi, Hugo; Izumi, Shuro; Yanagida, Tetsufumi; Ema, Kazuhiro; Numata, Takayuki; Fukuda, Daiji; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide

    2014-01-01

    Broadband light sources play essential roles in diverse fields, such as high-capacity optical communications, optical coherence tomography, optical spectroscopy, and spectrograph calibration. Although a nonclassical state from spontaneous parametric down-conversion may serve as a quantum counterpart, its detection and characterization have been a challenging task. Here we demonstrate the direct detection of photon numbers of an ultrabroadband (110 nm FWHM) squeezed state in the telecom band centred at 1535 nm wavelength, using a superconducting transition-edge sensor. The observed photon-number distributions violate Klyshko's criterion for the nonclassicality. From the observed photon-number distribution, we evaluate the second- and third-order correlation functions, and characterize a multimode structure, which implies that several tens of orthonormal modes of squeezing exist in the single optical pulse. Our results and techniques open up a new possibility to generate and characterize frequency-multiplexed nonclassical light sources for quantum info-communications technology. PMID:24694515

  5. Sum-frequency generation from photon number squeezed light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Ling-An; Du, Cong-Shi; Wu, Mei-Juan; Li, Shi-Qun

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the quantum fluctuations of the fields produced in sum-frequency (SF) generation from light initially in the photon number squeezed state. It is found that, to the fourth power term, the output SF light is sub-Poissonian whereas the quantum fluctuations of the input beams increase. Quantum anticorrelation also exists in SF generation.

  6. Statistical analysis of the temporal single-photon response of superconducting nanowire single photon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yu-Hao; Chao-Lin, L; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Zhang, Lu; Wu, Jun-Jie; Chen, Si-Jing; You, Li-Xing; Wang, Zhen

    2015-06-01

    A new method to study the transient detection efficiency (DE) and pulse amplitude of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPD) during the current recovery process is proposed statistically analyzing the single photon response under photon illumination with a high repetition rate. The transient DE results match well with the DEs deduced from the static current dependence of DE combined with the waveform of a single-photon detection event. This proves that static measurement results can be used to analyze the transient current recovery process after a detection event. The results are relevant for understanding the current recovery process of SNSPDs after a detection event and for determining the counting rate of SNSPDs. Project supported by the Strategic Priority Research Program (B) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB04010200), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CBA00202), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61401441).

  7. Experimental Observation of Large Chern Numbers in Photonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skirlo, Scott A.; Lu, Ling; Igarashi, Yuichi; Yan, Qinghui; Joannopoulos, John; Solja?i?, Marin

    2015-12-01

    Despite great interest in the quantum anomalous Hall phase and its analogs, all experimental studies in electronic and bosonic systems have been limited to a Chern number of one. Here, we perform microwave transmission measurements in the bulk and at the edge of ferrimagnetic photonic crystals. Band gaps with large Chern numbers of 2, 3, and 4 are present in the experimental results, which show excellent agreement with theory. We measure the mode profiles and Fourier transform them to produce dispersion relations of the edge modes, whose number and direction match our Chern number calculations.

  8. Experimental Observation of Large Chern Numbers in Photonic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Skirlo, Scott A; Lu, Ling; Igarashi, Yuichi; Yan, Qinghui; Joannopoulos, John; Solja?i?, Marin

    2015-12-18

    Despite great interest in the quantum anomalous Hall phase and its analogs, all experimental studies in electronic and bosonic systems have been limited to a Chern number of one. Here, we perform microwave transmission measurements in the bulk and at the edge of ferrimagnetic photonic crystals. Band gaps with large Chern numbers of 2, 3, and 4 are present in the experimental results, which show excellent agreement with theory. We measure the mode profiles and Fourier transform them to produce dispersion relations of the edge modes, whose number and direction match our Chern number calculations. PMID:26722920

  9. The numbers game: evaluation of statistics by obstetrics & gynecology.

    PubMed

    Pitkin, Roy M; Scott, James R; Burmeister, Leon F

    2014-02-01

    Statistical analysis has become integral to the planning, conduct, and reporting of modern medical research. Attention to the statistical aspects of manuscripts submitted to Obstetrics & Gynecology goes back approximately 40 years and the process used in their evaluation has evolved over that time. For the past 20 years, submissions with any type of statistics and being seriously considered for acceptance have routinely been reviewed by a Statistical Editor who judges the work on a number of statistical and design characteristics. Findings of the statistical design review (which has been done by one Statistical Editor over the entire 20-year period) are integrated into the editorial decision about acceptance. The statistical review generally leads to rejection of approximately 16-25% of manuscripts and in a larger proportion, it identifies less serious problems, the correction of which improves the final product. PMID:24402593

  10. Time-resolved statistics of nonclassical light in Josephson photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dambach, Simon; Kubala, Björn; Gramich, Vera; Ankerhold, Joachim

    2015-08-01

    The interplay of the tunneling transfer of charges and the emission and absorption of light can be investigated in a setup, where a voltage-biased Josephson junction is connected in series with a microwave cavity. We focus here on the emission processes of photons and analyze the underlying time-dependent statistics using the second-order correlation function g(2 )(τ ) and the waiting-time distribution w (τ ) . Both observables highlight the crossover from a coherent light source to a single-photon source. Due to the nonlinearity of the Josephson junction, tunneling Cooper pairs can create a great variety of nonclassical states of light even at weak driving. Analytical results for the weak driving as well as the classical regime are complemented by a numerical treatment for the full nonlinear case. We also address the question of possible relations between g(2 )(τ ) and w (τ ) as well as the specific information which is provided by each of them.

  11. How random are random numbers generated using photons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solis, Aldo; Angulo Martnez, Al M.; Ramrez Alarcn, Roberto; Cruz Ramrez, Hector; U'Ren, Alfred B.; Hirsch, Jorge G.

    2015-06-01

    Randomness is fundamental in quantum theory, with many philosophical and practical implications. In this paper we discuss the concept of algorithmic randomness, which provides a quantitative method to assess the Borel normality of a given sequence of numbers, a necessary condition for it to be considered random. We use Borel normality as a tool to investigate the randomness of ten sequences of bits generated from the differences between detection times of photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric downconversion. These sequences are shown to fulfil the randomness criteria without difficulties. As deviations from Borel normality for photon-generated random number sequences have been reported in previous work, a strategy to understand these diverging findings is outlined.

  12. High-speed quantum-random number generation by continuous measurement of arrival time of photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Hua, Zhang; Liao, Qinghong; Yang, Hao

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate a novel high speed and multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring arrival time of photons with a common starting point. To obtain the unbiased and post-processing free random bits, the measured photon arrival time is converted into the sum of integral multiple of a fixed period and a phase time. Theoretical and experimental results show that the phase time is an independent and uniform random variable. A random bit extraction method by encoding the phase time is proposed. An experimental setup has been built and the unbiased random bit generation rate could reach 128 Mb/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 8 bits per detected photon. The random numbers passed all tests in the statistical test suite.

  13. High-speed quantum-random number generation by continuous measurement of arrival time of photons.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Hua, Zhang; Liao, Qinghong; Yang, Hao

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate a novel high speed and multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring arrival time of photons with a common starting point. To obtain the unbiased and post-processing free random bits, the measured photon arrival time is converted into the sum of integral multiple of a fixed period and a phase time. Theoretical and experimental results show that the phase time is an independent and uniform random variable. A random bit extraction method by encoding the phase time is proposed. An experimental setup has been built and the unbiased random bit generation rate could reach 128 Mb/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 8 bits per detected photon. The random numbers passed all tests in the statistical test suite. PMID:26233362

  14. Enhancing the photon number resolving capability of multi-pixel photon counter by waveform integral of the avalanche pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guoqing; Zhu, Changjun; Liu, Lina

    2015-02-01

    In this work it is shown the benefit of using waveform integration of the avalanche pulses of MPPC for enhancing the photon number resolving capability of Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC). Up to 47 photon equivalent peaks can be distinguished in the Photon-Number-Resolving (PNR) spectrum with a repetition frequency of 80 MHz, which is the largest reported number obtained at room temperature as far as we know.

  15. Single photon laser altimeter simulator and statistical signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacek, Michael; Prochazka, Ivan

    2013-05-01

    Spaceborne altimeters are common instruments onboard the deep space rendezvous spacecrafts. They provide range and topographic measurements critical in spacecraft navigation. Simultaneously, the receiver part may be utilized for Earth-to-satellite link, one way time transfer, and precise optical radiometry. The main advantage of single photon counting approach is the ability of processing signals with very low signal-to-noise ratio eliminating the need of large telescopes and high power laser source. Extremely small, rugged and compact microchip lasers can be employed. The major limiting factor, on the other hand, is the acquisition time needed to gather sufficient volume of data in repetitive measurements in order to process and evaluate the data appropriately. Statistical signal processing is adopted to detect signals with average strength much lower than one photon per measurement. A comprehensive simulator design and range signal processing algorithm are presented to identify a mission specific altimeter configuration. Typical mission scenarios (celestial body surface landing and topographical mapping) are simulated and evaluated. The high interest and promising single photon altimeter applications are low-orbit (˜10 km) and low-radial velocity (several m/s) topographical mapping (asteroids, Phobos and Deimos) and landing altimetry (˜10 km) where range evaluation repetition rates of ˜100 Hz and 0.1 m precision may be achieved. Moon landing and asteroid Itokawa topographical mapping scenario simulations are discussed in more detail.

  16. Photon number amplification/duplication through parametric conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dariano, G. M.; Macchiavello, C.; Paris, M.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of parametric conversion in achieving number amplification and duplication is analyzed. It is shown that the effective maximum gains G(sub *) remain well below their integer ideal values, even for large signals. Correspondingly, one has output Fano factors F(sub *) which are increasing functions of the input photon number. On the other hand, in the inverse (deamplifier/recombiner) operating mode quasi-ideal gains G(sub *) and small factors F(sub *) approximately equal to 10 percent are obtained. Output noise and non-ideal gains are ascribed to spontaneous parametric emission.

  17. Observation of squeezed states with strong photon-number oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Mehmet, Moritz; Vahlbruch, Henning; Lastzka, Nico; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman

    2010-01-15

    Squeezed states of light constitute an important nonclassical resource in the field of high-precision measurements, for example, gravitational wave detection, as well as in the field of quantum information, for example, for teleportation, quantum cryptography, and distribution of entanglement in quantum computation networks. Strong squeezing in combination with high purity, high bandwidth, and high spatial mode quality is desirable in order to achieve significantly improved performances contrasting any classical protocols. Here we report on the observation of 11.5 dB of squeezing, together with relatively high state purity corresponding to a vacuum contribution of less than 5%, and a squeezing bandwidth of about 170 MHz. The analysis of our squeezed states reveals a significant production of higher-order pairs of quantum-correlated photons and the existence of strong photon-number oscillations.

  18. On-chip, photon-number-resolving, telecommunication-band detectors for scalable photonic information processing

    SciTech Connect

    Gerrits, Thomas; Lita, Adriana E.; Calkins, Brice; Tomlin, Nathan A.; Fox, Anna E.; Linares, Antia Lamas; Mirin, Richard P.; Nam, Sae Woo; Thomas-Peter, Nicholas; Metcalf, Benjamin J.; Spring, Justin B.; Langford, Nathan K.; Walmsley, Ian A.; Gates, James C.; Smith, Peter G. R.

    2011-12-15

    Integration is currently the only feasible route toward scalable photonic quantum processing devices that are sufficiently complex to be genuinely useful in computing, metrology, and simulation. Embedded on-chip detection will be critical to such devices. We demonstrate an integrated photon-number-resolving detector, operating in the telecom band at 1550 nm, employing an evanescently coupled design that allows it to be placed at arbitrary locations within a planar circuit. Up to five photons are resolved in the guided optical mode via absorption from the evanescent field into a tungsten transition-edge sensor. The detection efficiency is 7.2{+-}0.5 %. The polarization sensitivity of the detector is also demonstrated. Detailed modeling of device designs shows a clear and feasible route to reaching high detection efficiencies.

  19. Double galaxy redshifts and the statistics of small numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, William I.; Haynes, Martha P.; Terzian, Yervant

    1989-01-01

    Tifft (1980, 1982) claimed that observations of double galaxies reveal a 72 km/s periodicity. Sharp showed that the 'periodicities' in the observations are completely consistent with the statistics of small numbers. Here it is shown that Tifft's statistical procedure would ascribe a periodicity to small sets of Gaussian random noise. Satisfying the null hypothesis that the observations are not samples drawn from a normal population would require the acquisition of at least an order of magnitude more data.

  20. On the Euclidean version of the photon number integral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruijsenaars, S.; Stodolsky, L.

    2008-02-01

    We reconsider the Euclidean version of the photon number integral introduced by Stodolsky [Acta Phys. Pol. B 33, 2659 (2002), e-print hep-th/02053131].This integral is well defined for any smooth non-self-intersecting curve in RN. Besides studying general features of this integral (including its conformal invariance), we evaluate it explicitly for the ellipse. The result is nellipse=(?-1+?)?2, where ? is the ratio of the minor and major axes. This is in agreement with the previous result ncircle=2?2 and also with the conjecture that the minimum value of n for any plane curve occurs for the circle.

  1. A brief history of numbers and statistics with cytometric applications.

    PubMed

    Watson, J V

    2001-02-15

    A brief history of numbers and statistics traces the development of numbers from prehistory to completion of our current system of numeration with the introduction of the decimal fraction by Viete, Stevin, Burgi, and Galileo at the turn of the 16th century. This was followed by the development of what we now know as probability theory by Pascal, Fermat, and Huygens in the mid-17th century which arose in connection with questions in gambling with dice and can be regarded as the origin of statistics. The three main probability distributions on which statistics depend were introduced and/or formalized between the mid-17th and early 19th centuries: the binomial distribution by Pascal; the normal distribution by de Moivre, Gauss, and Laplace, and the Poisson distribution by Poisson. The formal discipline of statistics commenced with the works of Pearson, Yule, and Gosset at the turn of the 19th century when the first statistical tests were introduced. Elementary descriptions of the statistical tests most likely to be used in conjunction with cytometric data are given and it is shown how these can be applied to the analysis of difficult immunofluorescence distributions when there is overlap between the labeled and unlabeled cell populations. PMID:11241502

  2. Generation of optical 'Schrdinger cats' from photon number states.

    PubMed

    Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Jeong, Hyunseok; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe

    2007-08-16

    Schrdinger's cat is a Gedankenexperiment in quantum physics, in which an atomic decay triggers the death of the cat. Because quantum physics allow atoms to remain in superpositions of states, the classical cat would then be simultaneously dead and alive. By analogy, a 'cat' state of freely propagating light can be defined as a quantum superposition of well separated quasi-classical states-it is a classical light wave that simultaneously possesses two opposite phases. Such states play an important role in fundamental tests of quantum theory and in many quantum information processing tasks, including quantum computation, quantum teleportation and precision measurements. Recently, optical Schrdinger 'kittens' were prepared; however, they are too small for most of the aforementioned applications and increasing their size is experimentally challenging. Here we demonstrate, theoretically and experimentally, a protocol that allows the generation of arbitrarily large squeezed Schrdinger cat states, using homodyne detection and photon number states as resources. We implemented this protocol with light pulses containing two photons, producing a squeezed Schrdinger cat state with a negative Wigner function. This state clearly exhibits several quantum phase-space interference fringes between the 'dead' and 'alive' components, and is large enough to become useful for quantum information processing and experimental tests of quantum theory. PMID:17700695

  3. On the correspondence between fermionic number and statistics of solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abanov, Alexander G.; Wiegmann, Paul B.

    2001-10-01

    Solitons of a nonlinear field interacting with fermions often acquire a fermionic number or an electric charge if fermions carry a charge. We establish a correspondence between charge and statistics (or spin) of solitons showing how the same mechanism (chiral anomaly) gives solitons statistical and rotational properties of fermions. These properties are encoded in a geometrical phase, i.e., an imaginary part of a euclidian action for a nonlinear ?-model. In the most interesting cases the geometrical phase is non-perturbative and has a form of an integer-valued theta-term.

  4. Single-Photon-Resolved Cross-Kerr Interaction for Autonomous Stabilization of Photon-Number States.

    PubMed

    Holland, E T; Vlastakis, B; Heeres, R W; Reagor, M J; Vool, U; Leghtas, Z; Frunzio, L; Kirchmair, G; Devoret, M H; Mirrahimi, M; Schoelkopf, R J

    2015-10-30

    Quantum states can be stabilized in the presence of intrinsic and environmental losses by either applying an active feedback condition on an ancillary system or through reservoir engineering. Reservoir engineering maintains a desired quantum state through a combination of drives and designed entropy evacuation. We propose and implement a quantum-reservoir engineering protocol that stabilizes Fock states in a microwave cavity. This protocol is realized with a circuit quantum electrodynamics platform where a Josephson junction provides direct, nonlinear coupling between two superconducting waveguide cavities. The nonlinear coupling results in a single-photon-resolved cross-Kerr effect between the two cavities enabling a photon-number-dependent coupling to a lossy environment. The quantum state of the microwave cavity is discussed in terms of a net polarization and is analyzed by a measurement of its steady state Wigner function. PMID:26565448

  5. Single-Photon-Resolved Cross-Kerr Interaction for Autonomous Stabilization of Photon-Number States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, E. T.; Vlastakis, B.; Heeres, R. W.; Reagor, M. J.; Vool, U.; Leghtas, Z.; Frunzio, L.; Kirchmair, G.; Devoret, M. H.; Mirrahimi, M.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2015-10-01

    Quantum states can be stabilized in the presence of intrinsic and environmental losses by either applying an active feedback condition on an ancillary system or through reservoir engineering. Reservoir engineering maintains a desired quantum state through a combination of drives and designed entropy evacuation. We propose and implement a quantum-reservoir engineering protocol that stabilizes Fock states in a microwave cavity. This protocol is realized with a circuit quantum electrodynamics platform where a Josephson junction provides direct, nonlinear coupling between two superconducting waveguide cavities. The nonlinear coupling results in a single-photon-resolved cross-Kerr effect between the two cavities enabling a photon-number-dependent coupling to a lossy environment. The quantum state of the microwave cavity is discussed in terms of a net polarization and is analyzed by a measurement of its steady state Wigner function.

  6. Cavity State Manipulation Using Photon-Number Selective Phase Gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeres, Reinier W.; Vlastakis, Brian; Holland, Eric; Krastanov, Stefan; Albert, Victor V.; Frunzio, Luigi; Jiang, Liang; Schoelkopf, Robert J.

    2015-09-01

    The large available Hilbert space and high coherence of cavity resonators make these systems an interesting resource for storing encoded quantum bits. To perform a quantum gate on this encoded information, however, complex nonlinear operations must be applied to the many levels of the oscillator simultaneously. In this work, we introduce the selective number-dependent arbitrary phase (snap) gate, which imparts a different phase to each Fock-state component using an off-resonantly coupled qubit. We show that the snap gate allows control over the quantum phases by correcting the unwanted phase evolution due to the Kerr effect. Furthermore, by combining the snap gate with oscillator displacements, we create a one-photon Fock state with high fidelity. Using just these two controls, one can construct arbitrary unitary operations, offering a scalable route to performing logical manipulations on oscillator-encoded qubits.

  7. On the Euclidean version of the photon number integral

    SciTech Connect

    Ruijsenaars, S.; Stodolsky, L.

    2008-02-15

    We reconsider the Euclidean version of the photon number integral introduced by Stodolsky [Acta Phys. Pol. B 33, 2659 (2002), e-print hep-th/02053131].This integral is well defined for any smooth non-self-intersecting curve in R{sup N}. Besides studying general features of this integral (including its conformal invariance), we evaluate it explicitly for the ellipse. The result is n{sub ellipse}=({xi}{sup -1}+{xi}){pi}{sup 2}, where {xi} is the ratio of the minor and major axes. This is in agreement with the previous result n{sub circle}=2{pi}{sup 2} and also with the conjecture that the minimum value of n for any plane curve occurs for the circle.

  8. Cavity State Manipulation Using Photon-Number Selective Phase Gates.

    PubMed

    Heeres, Reinier W; Vlastakis, Brian; Holland, Eric; Krastanov, Stefan; Albert, Victor V; Frunzio, Luigi; Jiang, Liang; Schoelkopf, Robert J

    2015-09-25

    The large available Hilbert space and high coherence of cavity resonators make these systems an interesting resource for storing encoded quantum bits. To perform a quantum gate on this encoded information, however, complex nonlinear operations must be applied to the many levels of the oscillator simultaneously. In this work, we introduce the selective number-dependent arbitrary phase (snap) gate, which imparts a different phase to each Fock-state component using an off-resonantly coupled qubit. We show that the snap gate allows control over the quantum phases by correcting the unwanted phase evolution due to the Kerr effect. Furthermore, by combining the snap gate with oscillator displacements, we create a one-photon Fock state with high fidelity. Using just these two controls, one can construct arbitrary unitary operations, offering a scalable route to performing logical manipulations on oscillator-encoded qubits. PMID:26451578

  9. Resolution and sensitivity of a Fabry-Perot interferometer with a photon-number-resolving detector

    SciTech Connect

    Wildfeuer, Christoph F.; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Pearlman, Aaron J.; Chen, Jun; Fan, Jingyun; Migdall, Alan

    2009-10-15

    With photon-number resolving detectors, we show compression of interference fringes with increasing photon numbers for a Fabry-Perot interferometer. This feature provides a higher precision in determining the position of the interference maxima compared to a classical detection strategy. We also theoretically show supersensitivity if N-photon states are sent into the interferometer and a photon-number resolving measurement is performed.

  10. Bits from photons: oversampled image acquisition using binary Poisson statistics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng; Lu, Yue M; Sbaiz, Luciano; Vetterli, Martin

    2012-04-01

    We study a new image sensor that is reminiscent of a traditional photographic film. Each pixel in the sensor has a binary response, giving only a 1-bit quantized measurement of the local light intensity. To analyze its performance, we formulate the oversampled binary sensing scheme as a parameter estimation problem based on quantized Poisson statistics. We show that, with a single-photon quantization threshold and large oversampling factors, the Cramr-Rao lower bound (CRLB) of the estimation variance approaches that of an ideal unquantized sensor, i.e., as if there were no quantization in the sensor measurements. Furthermore, the CRLB is shown to be asymptotically achievable by the maximum-likelihood estimator (MLE). By showing that the log-likelihood function of our problem is concave, we guarantee the global optimality of iterative algorithms in finding the MLE. Numerical results on both synthetic data and images taken by a prototype sensor verify our theoretical analysis and demonstrate the effectiveness of our image reconstruction algorithm. They also suggest the potential application of the oversampled binary sensing scheme in high dynamic range photography. PMID:22180507

  11. Hanbury Brown-Twiss correlations to probe the population statistics of GHz photons emitted by conductors.

    PubMed

    Gabelli, J; Reydellet, L-H; Fve, G; Berroir, J-M; Plaais, B; Roche, P; Glattli, D C

    2004-07-30

    We present the first study of the statistics of GHz photons in quantum circuits, using Hanbury Brown and Twiss correlations. The super-Poissonian and Poissonian photon statistics of thermal and coherent sources, respectively, made of a resistor and a radio frequency generator, are measured down to the quantum regime at milli-Kelvin temperatures. As photon correlations are linked to the second and fourth moments of current fluctuations, this experiment, which is based on current cryogenic electronics, may become a standard for probing electron/photon statistics in quantum conductors. PMID:15323720

  12. Physics and application of photon number resolving detectors based on superconducting parallel nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsili, F.; Bitauld, D.; Gaggero, A.; Jahanmirinejad, S.; Leoni, R.; Mattioli, F.; Fiore, A.

    2009-04-01

    The parallel nanowire detector (PND) is a photon number resolving (PNR) detector that uses spatial multiplexing on a subwavelength scale to provide a single electrical output proportional to the photon number. The basic structure of the PND is the parallel connection of several NbN superconducting nanowires (≈100 nm wide, a few nm thick), folded in a meander pattern. PNDs were fabricated on 3-4 nm thick NbN films grown on MgO (TS = 400 °C) substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering in an Ar/N2 gas mixture. The device performance was characterized in terms of speed and sensitivity. PNDs showed a counting rate of 80 MHz and a pulse duration as low as 660 ps full-width at half-maximum (FWHM). Building the histograms of the photoresponse peak, no multiplication noise buildup is observable. Electrical and optical equivalent models of the device were developed in order to study its working principle, define design guidelines and develop an algorithm to estimate the photon number statistics of an unknown light. In particular, the modeling provides novel insight into the physical limit to the detection efficiency and to the reset time of these detectors. The PND significantly outperforms existing PNR detectors in terms of simplicity, sensitivity, speed and multiplication noise.

  13. A Superposition Technique for Deriving Photon Scattering Statistics in Plane-Parallel Cloudy Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platnick, S.

    1999-01-01

    Photon transport in a multiple scattering medium is critically dependent on scattering statistics, in particular the average number of scatterings. A superposition technique is derived to accurately determine the average number of scatterings encountered by reflected and transmitted photons within arbitrary layers in plane-parallel, vertically inhomogeneous clouds. As expected, the resulting scattering number profiles are highly dependent on cloud particle absorption and solar/viewing geometry. The technique uses efficient adding and doubling radiative transfer procedures, avoiding traditional time-intensive Monte Carlo methods. Derived superposition formulae are applied to a variety of geometries and cloud models, and selected results are compared with Monte Carlo calculations. Cloud remote sensing techniques that use solar reflectance or transmittance measurements generally assume a homogeneous plane-parallel cloud structure. The scales over which this assumption is relevant, in both the vertical and horizontal, can be obtained from the superposition calculations. Though the emphasis is on photon transport in clouds, the derived technique is applicable to any scattering plane-parallel radiative transfer problem, including arbitrary combinations of cloud, aerosol, and gas layers in the atmosphere.

  14. A photon counting detector model based on increment matrices to simulate statistically correct detector signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faby, Sebastian; Maier, Joscha; Simons, David; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Lell, Michael; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2015-03-01

    We present a novel increment matrix concept to simulate the correlations in an energy-selective photon counting detector. Correlations between the energy bins of neighboring detector pixels are introduced by scattered and fluorescence photons, together with the broadening of the induced charge clouds as they travel towards the electrodes, leading to charge sharing. It is important to generate statistically correct detector signals for the different energy bins to be able to realistically assess the detector's performance in various tasks, e.g. material decomposition. Our increment matrix concept describes the counter increases in neighboring pixels on a single event level. Advantages of our model are the fact that much less random numbers are required than simulating single photons and that the increment matrices together with their probabilities have to be generated only once and can be stored for later use. The different occurring increment matrix sets and the corresponding probabilities are simulated using an analytic model of the photon-matter-interactions based on the photoelectric effect and Compton scattering, and the charge cloud drift, featuring thermal diffusion and Coulomb expansion of the charge cloud. The results obtained with this model are evaluated in terms of the spectral response for different detector geometries and the resulting energy bin sensitivity. Comparisons to published measured data and a parameterized detector model show both a good qualitative and quantitative agreement. We also studied the resulting covariance of reconstructed energy bin images.

  15. Quantum Statistical Testing of a Quantum Random Number Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S

    2014-01-01

    The unobservable elements in a quantum technology, e.g., the quantum state, complicate system verification against promised behavior. Using model-based system engineering, we present methods for verifying the opera- tion of a prototypical quantum random number generator. We begin with the algorithmic design of the QRNG followed by the synthesis of its physical design requirements. We next discuss how quantum statistical testing can be used to verify device behavior as well as detect device bias. We conclude by highlighting how system design and verification methods must influence effort to certify future quantum technologies.

  16. Particle number counting statistics in ideal Bose gases.

    PubMed

    Weiss, C; Wilkens, M

    1997-11-10

    We discuss the exact particle number counting statistics of degenerate ideal Bose gases in the microcanonical, canonical, and grand-canonical ensemble, respectively, for various trapping potentials. We then invoke the Maxwell's Demon ensemble [Navez et el., Phys. Rev. Lett. (1997)] and show that for large total number of particles the root-mean-square fluctuation of the condensate occupation scales n0 / [T=Tc] r N s with scaling exponents r = 3=2, s = 1=2 for the3D harmonic oscillator trapping potential, and r = 1,s= 2=3 for the 3D box. We derive an explicit expression for r and s in terms of spatial dimension D and spectral index sigma of the single-particle energy spectrum. Our predictions also apply to systems where Bose-Einstein condensation does not occur. We point out that the condensate fluctuations in the microcanonical and canonical ensemble respect the principle of thermodynamic equivalence. PMID:19373413

  17. Statistical distributions of earthquake numbers: consequence of branching process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, Yan Y.

    2010-03-01

    We discuss various statistical distributions of earthquake numbers. Previously, we derived several discrete distributions to describe earthquake numbers for the branching model of earthquake occurrence: these distributions are the Poisson, geometric, logarithmic and the negative binomial (NBD). The theoretical model is the `birth and immigration' population process. The first three distributions above can be considered special cases of the NBD. In particular, a point branching process along the magnitude (or log seismic moment) axis with independent events (immigrants) explains the magnitude/moment-frequency relation and the NBD of earthquake counts in large time/space windows, as well as the dependence of the NBD parameters on the magnitude threshold (magnitude of an earthquake catalogue completeness). We discuss applying these distributions, especially the NBD, to approximate event numbers in earthquake catalogues. There are many different representations of the NBD. Most can be traced either to the Pascal distribution or to the mixture of the Poisson distribution with the gamma law. We discuss advantages and drawbacks of both representations for statistical analysis of earthquake catalogues. We also consider applying the NBD to earthquake forecasts and describe the limits of the application for the given equations. In contrast to the one-parameter Poisson distribution so widely used to describe earthquake occurrence, the NBD has two parameters. The second parameter can be used to characterize clustering or overdispersion of a process. We determine the parameter values and their uncertainties for several local and global catalogues, and their subdivisions in various time intervals, magnitude thresholds, spatial windows, and tectonic categories. The theoretical model of how the clustering parameter depends on the corner (maximum) magnitude can be used to predict future earthquake number distribution in regions where very large earthquakes have not yet occurred.

  18. Advanced Photon Source research: Volume 1, Number 1, April 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The following articles are included in this publication: (1) The Advanced Photon Source: A Brief Overview; (2) MAD Analysis of FHIT at the Structural Biology Center; (3) Advances in High-Energy-Resolution X-ray Scattering at Beamline 3-ID; (4) X-ray Imaging and Microspectroscopy of the Mycorrhyizal Fungus-Plant Symbiosis; (5) Measurement and Control of Particle-beam Trajectories in the Advanced Photon Storage Ring; (6) Beam Acceleration and Storage at the Advanced Photon Source; and (7) Experimental Facilities Operations and Current Status.

  19. The effect of center-of-mass motion on photon statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Shao-xiong; Yu, Chang-shui

    2015-10-15

    We analyze the photon statistics of a weakly driven cavity quantum electrodynamics system and discuss the effects of photon blockade and photon-induced tunneling by effectively utilizing instead of avoiding the center-of-mass motion of a two-level atom trapped in the cavity. With the resonant interaction between atom, photon and phonon, it is shown that the bunching and anti-bunching of photons can occur with properly driving frequency. Our study shows the influence of the imperfect cooling of atom on the blockade and provides an attempt to take advantage of the center-of-mass motion.

  20. Statistics for Geography Teachers: Topics in Geography, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for Geographic Education.

    This publication is designed to provide geography teachers with useful statistical information. It presents tables, maps, graphs, diagrams, and explanations of statistical data in 24 areas. The areas in which statistics are given are conversions, measurement, astronomy, time, daylight, twilight, latitude and longitude as distance, the relationship

  1. Selection of voxel size and photon number in voxel-based Monte Carlo method: criteria and applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Chen, Bin; Ran, Wei Yu; Wang, Guo Xiang; Wu, Wen Juan

    2015-09-01

    The voxel-based Monte Carlo method (VMC) is now a gold standard in the simulation of light propagation in turbid media. For complex tissue structures, however, the computational cost will be higher when small voxels are used to improve smoothness of tissue interface and a large number of photons are used to obtain accurate results. To reduce computational cost, criteria were proposed to determine the voxel size and photon number in 3-dimensional VMC simulations with acceptable accuracy and computation time. The selection of the voxel size can be expressed as a function of tissue geometry and optical properties. The photon number should be at least 5 times the total voxel number. These criteria are further applied in developing a photon ray splitting scheme of local grid refinement technique to reduce computational cost of a nonuniform tissue structure with significantly varying optical properties. In the proposed technique, a nonuniform refined grid system is used, where fine grids are used for the tissue with high absorption and complex geometry, and coarse grids are used for the other part. In this technique, the total photon number is selected based on the voxel size of the coarse grid. Furthermore, the photon-splitting scheme is developed to satisfy the statistical accuracy requirement for the dense grid area. Result shows that local grid refinement technique photon ray splitting scheme can accelerate the computation by 7.6 times (reduce time consumption from 17.5 to 2.3 h) in the simulation of laser light energy deposition in skin tissue that contains port wine stain lesions. PMID:26417866

  2. Selection of voxel size and photon number in voxel-based Monte Carlo method: criteria and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong; Chen, Bin; Ran, Wei Yu; Wang, Guo Xiang; Wu, Wen Juan

    2015-09-01

    The voxel-based Monte Carlo method (VMC) is now a gold standard in the simulation of light propagation in turbid media. For complex tissue structures, however, the computational cost will be higher when small voxels are used to improve smoothness of tissue interface and a large number of photons are used to obtain accurate results. To reduce computational cost, criteria were proposed to determine the voxel size and photon number in 3-dimensional VMC simulations with acceptable accuracy and computation time. The selection of the voxel size can be expressed as a function of tissue geometry and optical properties. The photon number should be at least 5 times the total voxel number. These criteria are further applied in developing a photon ray splitting scheme of local grid refinement technique to reduce computational cost of a nonuniform tissue structure with significantly varying optical properties. In the proposed technique, a nonuniform refined grid system is used, where fine grids are used for the tissue with high absorption and complex geometry, and coarse grids are used for the other part. In this technique, the total photon number is selected based on the voxel size of the coarse grid. Furthermore, the photon-splitting scheme is developed to satisfy the statistical accuracy requirement for the dense grid area. Result shows that local grid refinement technique photon ray splitting scheme can accelerate the computation by 7.6 times (reduce time consumption from 17.5 to 2.3 h) in the simulation of laser light energy deposition in skin tissue that contains port wine stain lesions.

  3. SUBMILLIMETER NUMBER COUNTS FROM STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF BLAST MAPS

    SciTech Connect

    Patanchon, Guillaume; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Scott, Douglas; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff; Rex, Marie; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Olmi, Luca

    2009-12-20

    We describe the application of a statistical method to estimate submillimeter galaxy number counts from confusion-limited observations by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST). Our method is based on a maximum likelihood fit to the pixel histogram, sometimes called 'P(D)', an approach which has been used before to probe faint counts, the difference being that here we advocate its use even for sources with relatively high signal-to-noise ratios. This method has an advantage over standard techniques of source extraction in providing an unbiased estimate of the counts from the bright end down to flux densities well below the confusion limit. We specifically analyze BLAST observations of a roughly 10 deg{sup 2} map centered on the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey South field. We provide estimates of number counts at the three BLAST wavelengths 250, 350, and 500 mum; instead of counting sources in flux bins we estimate the counts at several flux density nodes connected with power laws. We observe a generally very steep slope for the counts of about -3.7 at 250 mum, and -4.5 at 350 and 500 mum, over the range approx0.02-0.5 Jy, breaking to a shallower slope below about 0.015 Jy at all three wavelengths. We also describe how to estimate the uncertainties and correlations in this method so that the results can be used for model-fitting. This method should be well suited for analysis of data from the Herschel satellite.

  4. Unified single-photon and single-electron counting statistics: From cavity QED to electron transport

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Neill; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Nori, Franco

    2010-12-15

    A key ingredient of cavity QED is the coupling between the discrete energy levels of an atom and photons in a single-mode cavity. The addition of periodic ultrashort laser pulses allows one to use such a system as a source of single photons--a vital ingredient in quantum information and optical computing schemes. Here we analyze and time-adjust the photon-counting statistics of such a single-photon source and show that the photon statistics can be described by a simple transport-like nonequilibrium model. We then show that there is a one-to-one correspondence of this model to that of nonequilibrium transport of electrons through a double quantum dot nanostructure, unifying the fields of photon-counting statistics and electron-transport statistics. This correspondence empowers us to adapt several tools previously used for detecting quantum behavior in electron-transport systems (e.g., super-Poissonian shot noise and an extension of the Leggett-Garg inequality) to single-photon-source experiments.

  5. Effective Atomic Numbers of Lanthanides with Gamma Radiation for Photon Energy Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shantappa, Anil; Hanagodimath, S. M.

    Effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption, ZPEA,eff have been calculated for photon from 1 keV to 20 MeV for selected oxides of lanthanides, such as Lanthanum oxide, Cerium oxide, Samarium oxide, Europium oxide, Dysprosium oxide, Thulium oxide, Ytterbium oxide. The ZPEA,eff values then compared with ZPI,eff for photon interaction. The ZPEA,eff values have been found to change with energy and composition of selected lanthanides. Oxides of lanthanides are considered as better shielding materials to the exposure of gamma radiation. The values of effective atomic number for photon energy absorption help in the calculation of absorbed dose.

  6. Multi-bit quantum random number generation by measuring positions of arrival photons.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Liao, Qinghong; Zhou, Nanrun

    2014-10-01

    We report upon the realization of a novel multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring the arrival positions of photon emitted from a LED using MCP-based WSA photon counting imaging detector. A spatial encoding method is proposed to extract multi-bits random number from the position coordinates of each detected photon. The randomness of bits sequence relies on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission and subsequent photoelectric conversion. A prototype has been built and the random bit generation rate could reach 8 Mbit/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 16 bits per detected photon. FPGA implementation of Huffman coding is proposed to reduce the bias of raw extracted random bits. The random numbers passed all tests for physical random number generator. PMID:25362380

  7. Multi-bit quantum random number generation by measuring positions of arrival photons

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Liao, Qinghong; Zhou, Nanrun

    2014-10-15

    We report upon the realization of a novel multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring the arrival positions of photon emitted from a LED using MCP-based WSA photon counting imaging detector. A spatial encoding method is proposed to extract multi-bits random number from the position coordinates of each detected photon. The randomness of bits sequence relies on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission and subsequent photoelectric conversion. A prototype has been built and the random bit generation rate could reach 8 Mbit/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 16 bits per detected photon. FPGA implementation of Huffman coding is proposed to reduce the bias of raw extracted random bits. The random numbers passed all tests for physical random number generator.

  8. Extracting conformational information from single molecule photon statistics.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yonggang; Yang, Chuanlu; Zheng, Yujun

    2016-02-14

    In this paper, we describe the approach of resonant trajectories of photon emission (Traj〈N〉 and TrajQ) in the conformational coordinate X and external field frequency ωL space to extract the conformational information of single molecule. The Smoluchowski equation is employed to describe the conformational dynamics of the single molecule in complex environments. This approach is applied to single Thioflavin T (ThT) molecule, and our results are in excellent agreement with the results of ab initio simulations. PMID:26874487

  9. Disability and Employment. Disability Statistics Abstract Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPlante, Mitchell P.; Kennedy, Jae; Kaye, H. Stephen; Wenger, Barbara L.

    This statistical abstract summarizes recent data on the relationship between disability and employment. The statistics come from the Current Population Survey, the Census Bureau's Survey of Income and Program Participation, a poll of 1,000 Americans with disabilities, and administrative data on recipients of Social Security Disability Insurance…

  10. Inexpensive electronics and software for photon statistics and correlation spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gamari, Benjamin D.; Zhang, Dianwen; Buckman, Richard E.; Milas, Peker; Denker, John S.; Chen, Hui; Li, Hongmin; Goldner, Lori S.

    2016-01-01

    Single-molecule-sensitive microscopy and spectroscopy are transforming biophysics and materials science laboratories. Techniques such as fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and single-molecule sensitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) are now commonly available in research laboratories but are as yet infrequently available in teaching laboratories. We describe inexpensive electronics and open-source software that bridges this gap, making state-of-the-art research capabilities accessible to undergraduates interested in biophysics. We include a discussion of the intensity correlation function relevant to FCS and how it can be determined from photon arrival times. We demonstrate the system with a measurement of the hydrodynamic radius of a protein using FCS that is suitable for the undergraduate teaching laboratory. The FPGA-based electronics, which are easy to construct, are suitable for more advanced measurements as well, and several applications are described. As implemented, the system has 8 ns timing resolution, can control up to four laser sources, and can collect information from as many as four photon-counting detectors. PMID:26924846

  11. Crunching Numbers: What Cancer Screening Statistics Really Tell Us

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer screening studies have shown that more screening does not necessarily translate into fewer cancer deaths. This article explains how to interpret the statistics used to describe the results of screening studies.

  12. Photon statistics, film preparation and characterization in fluorescent microthermal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Barton, D.L.

    1995-08-01

    Fluorescent microthermal imaging (FMI) involves coating a sample surface with a thin inorganic-based film that, upon exposure to uv light, emits temperature-dependent fluorescence. FMI offers the ability to create thermal maps of integrated circuits with a thermal resolution theoretically limited to 1 m{degree}C and a spatial resolution diffraction-limited to 0.3 {mu}m. Even though FMI has been in use for more than a decade, many factors that can affect the thermal image quality have not been studied well. This paper presents recent results showing the limitations from photon shot noise and the improvement in signal-to-noise ratio from signal averaging. Three important factors in film preparation and characterization are presented that have a significant impact on thermal quality and sensitivity of FMI: uv bleaching, film dilution, and film curing. It is shown how proper film preparation and data collection method can dramatically improve the quality of FMI thermal images.

  13. Measurement of Photon Statistics with Live Photoreceptor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Nigel; Cheng, Mei Fun; Bessarab, Dmitri; Jones, C. Michael; Krivitsky, Leonid A.

    2012-09-01

    We analyzed the electrophysiological response of an isolated rod photoreceptor of Xenopus laevis under stimulation by coherent and pseudothermal light sources. Using the suction-electrode technique for single cell recordings and a fiber optics setup for light delivery allowed measurements of the major statistical characteristics of the rod response. The results indicate differences in average responses of rod cells to coherent and pseudothermal light of the same intensity and also differences in signal-to-noise ratios and second-order intensity correlation functions. These findings should be relevant for interdisciplinary studies seeking applications of quantum optics in biology.

  14. Canadian Statistical Review. Volume 53, Number 7, July 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Zur-Muehlen, Max

    1978-01-01

    Information on Canadian social and economic trends is presented in this statistical review. Advance information on national income and expenditure accounts for the first quarter of 1978 is provided. Characteristics of full-time university teachers from 1956-57 to 1977-78 are detailed in tables that recount such developments as the nearly six-fold

  15. USA by Numbers: A Statistical Portrait of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Susan, Ed.

    This book presents demographic data about a variety of U.S. public policies, social problems, and environmental issues. The issues and problems that the statistics illustrate (such as overflowing garbage dumps, homelessness, child poverty, and smog and water pollution) are connected with, and the consequences of, the expanding U.S. population. The…

  16. Practical photon number detection with electric field-modulated silicon avalanche photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, O; Yuan, Z L; Shields, A J

    2012-01-01

    Low-noise single-photon detection is a prerequisite for quantum information processing using photonic qubits. In particular, detectors that are able to accurately resolve the number of photons in an incident light pulse will find application in functions such as quantum teleportation and linear optics quantum computing. More generally, such a detector will allow the advantages of quantum light detection to be extended to stronger optical signals, permitting optical measurements limited only by fluctuations in the photon number of the source. Here we demonstrate a practical high-speed device, which allows the signals arising from multiple photon-induced avalanches to be precisely discriminated. We use a type of silicon avalanche photodiode in which the lateral electric field profile is strongly modulated in order to realize a spatially multiplexed detector. Clearly discerned multiphoton signals are obtained by applying sub-nanosecond voltage gates in order to restrict the detector current. PMID:22273682

  17. Eavesdropping on secure deterministic communication with qubits through photon-number-splitting attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Song; Wen Qiaoyan; Gao Fei; Zhu Fuchen

    2009-05-15

    A collective photon-number-splitting attack strategy is proposed, which combines photon-number-splitting attack with an unambiguous set discrimination of quantum state. Verified by this attack strategy, it is shown that a two-way quantum secure direct communication protocol with qubits is insecure in real circumstance. Finally, we present a possible improved version of this kind of quantum secure direct communication protocol.

  18. Derivation of linear attenuation coefficients from CT numbers for low-energy photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yoichi

    1999-09-01

    One can estimate photon attenuation properties from the CT number. In a standard method one assumes that the linear attenuation coefficient is proportional to electron density and ignores its nonlinear dependence on atomic number. When the photon energy is lower than about 50 keV, such as for brachytherapy applications, however, photoelectric absorption and Rayleigh scattering become important. Hence the atomic number must be explicitly considered in estimating the linear attenuation coefficient. In this study we propose a method to more accurately estimate the linear attenuation coefficient of low-energy photons from CT numbers. We formulate an equation that relates the CT number to the electron density and the effective atomic number. We use a CT calibration phantom to determine unknown coefficients in the equation. The equation with a given CT number is then solved for the effective atomic number, which in turn is used to calculate the linear attenuation coefficient for low-energy photons. We use the CT phantom to test the new method. The method significantly improves the standard method in estimating the attenuation coefficient at low photon energies (20 keVle Ele40 keV) for materials with high atomic numbers.

  19. Modified nonclassical coherent state: Squeezing, antibunching, sub-Poissonian photon statistics, realization scheme with the {chi}{sup (2)}-nonlinearity, and generation of a macroscopic entangled state

    SciTech Connect

    Podoshvedov, S. A.

    2007-04-15

    The nonlinear {chi}{sup (2)} Mach-Zehnder interferometer is proposed as a device for conditional generation of a modified coherent nonclassical state. We show that the generated macroscopic state exhibits nonclassical effects, such as squeezing, photon antibunching, and sub-Poissonian statistics. The modified coherent state generates a macroscopic entangled state. The scheme works without the photon number resolving detection but requires high-efficiency photodetectors. We explain the mechanism of generation of the modified coherent non-classical state.

  20. Nonclassical character of statistical mixtures of the single-photon and vacuum optical states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lvovsky, A. I.; Shapiro, J. H.

    2002-03-01

    We demonstrate, theoretically and experimentally, that statistical mixtures of the vacuum state \\|0> and the single-photon Fock state \\|1> are nonclassical according to the Vogel criterion [W. Vogel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1849 (2000)], regardless of the vacuum fraction. The ensembles are synthesized via conditional measurements on biphotons generated by means of parametric down conversion, and their quadrature statistics are measured using balanced homodyne detection. A comparative review of various quantum state nonclassicality criteria is presented.

  1. Statistics of scattered photons from a driven three-level emitter in 1D open space

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Dibyendu; Bondyopadhaya, Nilanjan

    2014-01-07

    We derive the statistics of scattered photons from a Λ- or ladder-type three-level emitter (3LE) embedded in a 1D open waveguide. The weak probe photons in the waveguide are coupled to one of the two allowed transitions of the 3LE, and the other transition is driven by a control beam. This system shows electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) which is accompanied with the Autler-Townes splitting (ATS) at a strong driving by the control beam, and some of these effects have been observed recently. We show that the nature of second-order coherence of the transmitted probe photons near two-photon resonance changes from bunching to antibunching to constant as strength of the control beam is ramped up from zero to a higher value where the ATS appears.

  2. Photon statistics and polarization correlations at telecommunications wavelengths from a warm atomic ensemble.

    PubMed

    Willis, R T; Becerra, F E; Orozco, L A; Rolston, S L

    2011-07-18

    We present measurements of the polarization correlation and photon statistics of photon pairs that emerge from a laser-pumped warm rubidium vapor cell. The photon pairs occur at 780 nm and 1367 nm and are polarization entangled. We measure the autocorrelation of each of the generated fields as well as the cross-correlation function, and observe a strong violation of the two-beam Cauchy-Schwartz inequality. We evaluate the performance of the system as source of heralded single photons at a telecommunication wavelength. We measure the heralded autocorrelation and see that coincidences are suppressed by a factor of ≈ 20 from a Poissonian source at a generation rate of 1500 s(-1), a heralding efficiency of 10%, and a narrow spectral width. PMID:21934825

  3. Spontaneously generated coherence in a Rb atom via photon counting statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhuo; Peng, Yonggang; Sun, Zhen-Dong; Zheng, Yujun

    2016-01-01

    We study the spontaneously generated coherence (SGC) in a Rb atom by employing photon counting statistics based on the four-level Y-type model driven by a probe field and two coherent control fields. A transparency channel induced by coherent population trapping (CPT) and ultra-narrow probe absorption peaks in the presence of SGC are found.

  4. Temperature measurement and phonon number statistics of a nanoelectromechanical resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, O. P. de S; deOliveira, M. C.; Milburn, G. J.

    2015-09-01

    Measuring thermodynamic quantities can be easy or not, depending on the system that is being studied. For a macroscopic object, measuring temperatures can be as simple as measuring how much a column of mercury rises when in contact with the object. At the small scale of quantum electromechanical systems, such simple methods are not available and invariably detection processes disturb the system state. Here we propose a method for measuring the temperature on a suspended semiconductor membrane clamped at both ends. In this method, the membrane is mediating a capacitive coupling between two transmission line resonators (TLR). The first TLR has a strong dispersion, that is, its decaying rate is larger than its drive, and its role is to pump in a pulsed way the interaction between the membrane and the second TLR. By averaging the pulsed measurements of the quadrature of the second TLR we show how the temperature of the membrane can be determined. Moreover the statistical description of the state of the membrane, which is directly accessed in this approach is significantly improved by the addition of a Josephson junction coupled to the second TLR.

  5. Absolute calibration of photon-number-resolving detectors with an analog output using twin beams

    SciTech Connect

    Pe?ina, Jan; Haderka, Ond?ej; Allevi, Alessia; Bondani, Maria

    2014-01-27

    A method for absolute calibration of a photon-number resolving detector producing analog signals as the output is developed using a twin beam. The method gives both analog-to-digital conversion parameters and quantum detection efficiency for the photon fields. Characteristics of the used twin beam are also obtained. A simplified variant of the method applicable to fields with high signal to noise ratios and suitable for more intense twin beams is suggested.

  6. Photon time-interval statistics applied to the analysis of laser heterodyne signal with photon counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lisheng; Zhang, Heyong; Guo, Jin; Zhao, Shuai; Wang, Tingfeng

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we report a mathematical derivation of probability density function (PDF) of time-interval between two successive photoelectrons of the laser heterodyne signal, and give a confirmation of the theoretical result by both numerical simulation and an experiment. The PDF curve of the beat signal displays a series of fluctuations, the period and amplitude of which are respectively determined by the beat frequency and the mixing efficiency. The beat frequency is derived from the frequency of fluctuations accordingly when the PDF curve is measured. This frequency measurement method still works while the traditional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm hardly derives the correct peak value of the beat frequency in the condition that we detect 80 MHz beat signal with 8 Mcps (counts per-second) photons count rate, and this indicates an advantage of the PDF method.

  7. Statistical evaluation of PACSTAT random number generation capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, G.F.; Toland, M.R.; Harty, H.; Budden, M.J.; Bartley, C.L.

    1988-05-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in verifying the general purpose Monte Carlo driver-program PACSTAT. The main objective of the work was to verify the performance of PACSTAT's random number generation capabilities. Secondary objectives were to document (using controlled configuration management procedures) changes made in PACSTAT at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and to assure that PACSTAT input and output files satisfy quality assurance traceability constraints. Upon receipt of the PRIME version of the PACSTAT code from the Basalt Waste Isolation Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory staff converted the code to run on Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) VAXs. The modifications to PACSTAT were implemented using the WITNESS configuration management system, with the modifications themselves intended to make the code as portable as possible. Certain modifications were made to make the PACSTAT input and output files conform to quality assurance traceability constraints. 10 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Statistical strength of experiments to reject local realism with photon pairs and inefficient detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yanbao; Knill, Emanuel; Glancy, Scott

    2010-03-15

    Because of the fundamental importance of Bell's theorem, a loophole-free demonstration of a violation of local realism (LR) is highly desirable. Here, we study violations of LR involving photon pairs. We quantify the experimental evidence against LR by using measures of statistical strength related to the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence, as suggested by van Dam et al.[W. van Dam, R. D. Gill, and P. D. Grunwald, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 51, 2812 (2005)]. Specifically, we analyze a test of LR with entangled states created from two independent polarized photons passing through a polarizing beam splitter. We numerically study the detection efficiency required to achieve a specified statistical strength for the rejection of LR depending on whether photon counters or detectors are used. Based on our results, we find that a test of LR free of the detection loophole requires photon counters with efficiencies of at least 89.71%, or photon detectors with efficiencies of at least 91.11%. For comparison, we also perform this analysis with ideal unbalanced Bell states, which are known to allow rejection of LR with detector efficiencies above 2/3.

  9. The statistical strength of experiments to reject local realism with photon pairs and inefficient detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanbao; Knill, Emanuel; Glancy, Scott

    2010-03-01

    Because of the fundamental importance of Bell's theorem, a loophole-free demonstration of a violation of local realism (LR) is highly desirable. Here, we study violations of LR involving photon pairs. We quantify the experimental evidence against LR by using measures of statistical strength related to the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence, as suggested by W. van Dam, P. Grunwald and R. Gill [IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 51, 2812 (2005)]. Specifically, we analyze a test of LR with entangled states created from two independent polarized photons passing through a polarizing beam splitter. We numerically study the detection efficiency required to achieve a specified statistical strength for the rejection of LR depending on whether photon counters or detectors are used. Based on our results, we find that a test of LR free of the detection loophole requires photon counters with efficiency at least 89.71%, or photon detectors with efficiency at least 91.11%. For comparison, we also perform this analysis with ideal unbalanced Bell states, which are known to allow rejection of LR with detector efficiencies above 2/3.

  10. Statistical strength of experiments to reject local realism with photon pairs and inefficient detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanbao; Knill, Emanuel; Glancy, Scott

    2010-03-01

    Because of the fundamental importance of Bells theorem, a loophole-free demonstration of a violation of local realism (LR) is highly desirable. Here, we study violations of LR involving photon pairs. We quantify the experimental evidence against LR by using measures of statistical strength related to the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence, as suggested by van Dam [W. van Dam, R. D. Gill, and P. D. Grunwald, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 51, 2812 (2005)]. Specifically, we analyze a test of LR with entangled states created from two independent polarized photons passing through a polarizing beam splitter. We numerically study the detection efficiency required to achieve a specified statistical strength for the rejection of LR depending on whether photon counters or detectors are used. Based on our results, we find that a test of LR free of the detection loophole requires photon counters with efficiencies of at least 89.71%, or photon detectors with efficiencies of at least 91.11%. For comparison, we also perform this analysis with ideal unbalanced Bell states, which are known to allow rejection of LR with detector efficiencies above 2/3.

  11. Bidirectional transfer of quantum information for unknown photons via cross-Kerr nonlinearity and photon-number-resolving measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jino, Heo; Chang-Ho, Hong; Dong-Hoon, Lee; Hyung-Jin, Yang

    2016-02-01

    We propose an arbitrary controlled-unitary (CU) gate and a bidirectional transfer scheme of quantum information (BTQI) for unknown photons. The proposed CU gate utilizes quantum non-demolition photon-number-resolving measurement based on the weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities (XKNLs) and two quantum bus beams; the proposed CU gate consists of consecutive operations of a controlled-path gate and a gathering-path gate. It is almost deterministic and is feasible with current technology when a strong amplitude of the coherent state and weak XKNLs are employed. Compared with the existing optical multi-qubit or controlled gates, which utilize XKNLs and homodyne detectors, the proposed CU gate can increase experimental realization feasibility and enhance robustness against decoherence. According to the CU gate, we present a BTQI scheme in which the two unknown states of photons between two parties (Alice and Bob) are mutually swapped by transferring only a single photon. Consequently, by using the proposed CU gate, it is possible to experimentally implement the BTQI scheme with a certain probability of success.

  12. Statistical connection of binomial photon counting and photon averaging in high dynamic range beam-scanning microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Ryan D.; Kissick, David J.; Simpson, Garth J.

    2012-01-01

    Data from photomultiplier tubes are typically analyzed using either counting or averaging techniques, which are most accurate in the dim and bright signal limits, respectively. A statistical means of adjoining these two techniques is presented by recovering the Poisson parameter from averaged data and relating it to the statistics of binomial counting from Kissick et al. [Anal. Chem. 82, 10129 (2010)]. The point at which binomial photon counting and averaging have equal signal to noise ratios is derived. Adjoining these two techniques generates signal to noise ratios at 87% to approaching 100% of theoretical maximum across the full dynamic range of the photomultiplier tube used. The technique is demonstrated in a second harmonic generation microscope. PMID:22535131

  13. Statistical connection of binomial photon counting and photon averaging in high dynamic range beam-scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Muir, Ryan D; Kissick, David J; Simpson, Garth J

    2012-04-23

    Data from photomultiplier tubes are typically analyzed using either counting or averaging techniques, which are most accurate in the dim and bright signal limits, respectively. A statistical means of adjoining these two techniques is presented by recovering the Poisson parameter from averaged data and relating it to the statistics of binomial counting from Kissick et al. [Anal. Chem. 82, 10129 (2010)]. The point at which binomial photon counting and averaging have equal signal to noise ratios is derived. Adjoining these two techniques generates signal to noise ratios at 87% to approaching 100% of theoretical maximum across the full dynamic range of the photomultiplier tube used. The technique is demonstrated in a second harmonic generation microscope. PMID:22535131

  14. Statistical Handbook on Aging Americans. 1994 Edition. Statistical Handbook Series Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schick, Frank L., Ed.; Schick, Renee, Ed.

    This statistical handbook contains 378 tables and charts illustrating the changes in the United States' aging population based on data collected during the 1990 census and several other surveys. The tables and charts are organized by topic as follows: demographics (age and sex distribution, life expectancy, race and ethnicity, geographic…

  15. Statistical Handbook on Aging Americans. 1994 Edition. Statistical Handbook Series Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schick, Frank L., Ed.; Schick, Renee, Ed.

    This statistical handbook contains 378 tables and charts illustrating the changes in the United States' aging population based on data collected during the 1990 census and several other surveys. The tables and charts are organized by topic as follows: demographics (age and sex distribution, life expectancy, race and ethnicity, geographic

  16. Cavity Nonlinear Optics at Low Photon Numbers from Collective Atomic Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Subhadeep; Moore, Kevin L.; Murch, Kater W.; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M.

    2007-11-23

    We report on Kerr nonlinearity and dispersive optical bistability of a Fabry-Perot optical resonator due to the displacement of ultracold atoms trapped within. In the driven resonator, such collective motion is induced by optical forces acting upon up to 10{sup 5} {sup 87}Rb atoms prepared in the lowest band of a one-dimensional intracavity optical lattice. The longevity of atomic motional coherence allows for strongly nonlinear optics at extremely low cavity photon numbers, as demonstrated by the observation of both branches of optical bistability at photon numbers below unity.

  17. Temporal Dynamics and Nonclassical Photon Statistics of Quadratically Coupled Optomechanical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Shailendra Kumar; Muniandy, S. V.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum optomechanical system serves as an interface for coupling between photons and phonons due to mechanical oscillations. We used the Heisenberg-Langevin approach under Markovian white noise approximation to study a quadratically coupled optomechanical system which contains a thin dielectric membrane quadratically coupled to the cavity field. A decorrelation method is employed to solve for a larger number of coupled equations. Transient mean numbers of cavity photons and phonons that provide dynamical behaviour are computed for different coupling regime. We have also obtained the two-boson second-order correlation functions for the cavity field, membrane oscillator and their cross correlations that provide nonclassical properties governed by quadratic optomechanical system.

  18. Distinguishing dark matter from unresolved point sources in the Inner Galaxy with photon statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Samuel K.; Lisanti, Mariangela; Safdi, Benjamin R.

    2015-05-01

    Data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope suggests that there is an extended excess of GeV gamma-ray photons in the Inner Galaxy. Identifying potential astrophysical sources that contribute to this excess is an important step in verifying whether the signal originates from annihilating dark matter. In this paper, we focus on the potential contribution of unresolved point sources, such as millisecond pulsars (MSPs). We propose that the statistics of the photonsin particular, the flux probability density function (PDF) of the photon counts below the point-source detection thresholdcan potentially distinguish between the dark-matter and point-source interpretations. We calculate the flux PDF via the method of generating functions for these two models of the excess. Working in the framework of Bayesian model comparison, we then demonstrate that the flux PDF can potentially provide evidence for an unresolved MSP-like point-source population.

  19. Eigenvalue decomposition method for photon statistics of frequency-filtered fields and its application to quantum dot emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamide, Kenji; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2015-09-01

    A simple calculation method for photon statistics of frequency-filtered fields is proposed. This method, based on eigenvalue decompositions of superoperators, allows us to study effects on the photon statistics of spectral filtering by various types of filters, such as Gaussian and rectangular filters as well as Lorentzian filters, which is not possible by conventional approaches. As an example, this method is applied to a simulation of quantum dot single-photon emitters, where we found that the efficient choice of the filter types to have pure single photons depends on the excitation conditions, i.e., incoherent or coherent (and resonant) excitations.

  20. Photon-number parity oscillations in the resonant Jaynes-Cummings model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birrittella, Richard; Cheng, Kezi; Gerry, Christopher C.

    2015-11-01

    We study the time evolution of photon number parity operator for a single-mode quantized cavity field interacting with a two-level atom as described by the resonant Jaynes-Cummings model. With the field prepared in a coherent state and the atom prepared in its excited state, we find that the photon number parity undergoes oscillations at the Rabi frequency but only during the period between the collapse and revival of the Rabi oscillations of the atomic inversion. We explain this in terms of the global parity of the Jaynes-Cummings model. The phenomenon is related to the interference of the counter-rotating components of the field in phase space, which in turn gives rise to occurrence of highly oscillatory photon number probability distributions near half the revival time of the atomic inversion noted by Buek et al. (Phys. Rev. A 45, 1992, p. 8190). Detection of the photon number oscillations would amount to a detection of this interference effect.

  1. Photon-photon correlation statistics in the collective emission from ensembles of self-assembled quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miftasani, Fitria; Machnikowski, Paweł

    2016-02-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the intensity correlation functions for the spontaneous emission from a planar ensemble of self-assembled quantum dots. Using the quantum jump approach, we numerically simulate the evolution of the system and construct photon-photon delay time statistics that approximates the second-order correlation functions of the field. The form of this correlation function in the case of collective emission from a highly homogeneous ensemble qualitatively differs from that characterizing an ensemble of independent emitters (inhomogeneous ensemble of uncoupled dots). The signatures of collective emission are observed also in the case of an inhomogeneous but sufficiently strongly coupled ensemble. Different forms of the correlation functions are observed in the intensity autocorrelations and in cross correlations between various spectral ranges, revealing the quantum state projection associated with the detection event and the subsequent interaction-induced redistribution of occupations. The predicted effect of collective dynamics on the correlation functions appears under various excitation conditions. Thus, we show that the second-order correlation function of the emitted field provides a sensitive test of cooperative effects.

  2. Photon-number superselection and the entangled coherent-state representation

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Barry C.; Bartlett, Stephen D.; Rudolph, Terry; Knight, Peter L.

    2003-10-01

    We introduce the entangled coherent-state representation, which provides a powerful technique for efficiently and elegantly describing and analyzing quantum optics sources and detectors while respecting the photon-number superselection rule that is satisfied by all known quantum optics experiments. We apply the entangled coherent-state representation to elucidate and resolve the long-standing puzzles of the coherence of a laser output field, interference between two number states, and dichotomous interpretations of quantum teleportation of coherent states.

  3. Extremal states for photon number and quadratures as gauges for nonclassicality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hradil, Z.; ?eh?ek, J.; de la Hoz, P.; Leuchs, G.; Snchez-Soto, L. L.

    2015-04-01

    Rotated quadratures carry the phase-dependent information of the electromagnetic field, so they are somehow conjugate to the photon number. We analyze this noncanonical pair, finding an exact uncertainty relation, as well as a couple of weaker inequalities obtained by relaxing some restrictions of the problem. We also find the intelligent states saturating that relation and complete their characterization by considering extra constraints on the second-order moments of the variables involved. Using these moments, we construct performance measures tailored to diagnose photon-added and Schrdinger-cat-like states, among others.

  4. Direct measurement of heralded single-photon statistics from a parametric down-conversion source

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeckel, David; Koch, Lars; Benson, Oliver

    2011-01-15

    We present a full triple-coincidence analysis of photon-pair states generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. By increasing the coherence time of the source with the help of an intracavity setup, our measurements are not spoiled by detection time jitter. Signal-idler, but also thermal signal-signal, correlations are clearly resolved in this regime. Via introduction of an artificial coincidence window, we discuss in detail the transition to the previously studied cases where typically no single-arm correlation is observed. We investigate the heralded antibunching characteristics to show that in our system further studies of continuously generated photon states, possibly higher-photon-number entangled states, can be performed with respect to their (non)applicability in quantum information tasks.

  5. Effective atomic numbers and mass attenuation coefficients of some thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds for total photon interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Shivaramu; Amutha, R.; Ramprasath, V.

    1999-05-01

    Effective atomic numbers for total gamma-ray interaction with some selected thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds such as barium acetate, barium sulfate, calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, calcium sulfate dihydrate, cadmium sulfate (anhydrous), cadmium sulfate, strontium sulfate, and lithium fluoride have been calculated in the 1-keV to 20-MeV energy region. Experimental mass attenuation coefficients and effective atomic numbers for these compounds at selected photon energies of 26.3, 33.2, 59.54, and 661.6 keV have been obtained from good geometry transmission measurements and compared with theoretical values. The effect of absorption edge on effective atomic numbers and its variation with energy, and nonvalidity of the Bragg`s mixture rule at incident photon energies closer to the absorption edges of constituent elements of compounds are discussed.

  6. Comparing different approaches for generating random numbers device-independently using a photon pair source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprara Vivoli, V.; Sekatski, P.; Bancal, J.-D.; Lim, C. C. W.; Martin, A.; Thew, R. T.; Zbinden, H.; Gisin, N.; Sangouard, N.

    2015-02-01

    What is the most efficient way to generate random numbers device-independently using a photon pair source based on spontaneous parametric down conversion? We consider this question by comparing two implementations of a detection-loophole-free Bell test. In particular, we study in detail a scenario where a source is used to herald path-entangled states, i.e. entanglement between two spatial modes sharing a single photon and where non-locality is revealed using photon counting preceded by small displacement operations. We start by giving a theoretical description of such a measurement. We then show how to optimize the Bell-CHSH violation through a non-perturbative calculation, taking the main experimental imperfections into account. We finally bound the amount of randomness that can be extracted and compare it to the one obtained with the conventional scenario using photon pairs entangled e.g. in polarization and analyzed through photon counting. While the former requires higher overall detection efficiencies, it is far more efficient in terms of the entropy per experimental run and under reasonable assumptions, it provides higher random bit rates.

  7. Comparing Data Sets: Implicit Summaries of the Statistical Properties of Number Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Bradley J.; Masnick, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    Comparing datasets, that is, sets of numbers in context, is a critical skill in higher order cognition. Although much is known about how people compare single numbers, little is known about how number sets are represented and compared. We investigated how subjects compared datasets that varied in their statistical properties, including ratio of

  8. Comparing Data Sets: Implicit Summaries of the Statistical Properties of Number Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Bradley J.; Masnick, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    Comparing datasets, that is, sets of numbers in context, is a critical skill in higher order cognition. Although much is known about how people compare single numbers, little is known about how number sets are represented and compared. We investigated how subjects compared datasets that varied in their statistical properties, including ratio of…

  9. Discrimination of binary coherent states using a homodyne detector and a photon number resolving detector

    SciTech Connect

    Wittmann, Christoffer; Sych, Denis; Leuchs, Gerd; Takeoka, Masahiro

    2010-06-15

    We investigate quantum measurement strategies capable of discriminating two coherent states probabilistically with significantly smaller error probabilities than can be obtained using nonprobabilistic state discrimination. We apply a postselection strategy to the measurement data of a homodyne detector as well as a photon number resolving detector in order to lower the error probability. We compare the two different receivers with an optimal intermediate measurement scheme where the error rate is minimized for a fixed rate of inconclusive results. The photon number resolving (PNR) receiver is experimentally demonstrated and compared to an experimental realization of a homodyne receiver with postselection. In the comparison, it becomes clear that the performance of the PNR receiver surpasses the performance of the homodyne receiver, which we prove to be optimal within any Gaussian operations and conditional dynamics.

  10. Direct measurement of sub-wavelength interference using thermal light and photon-number-resolved detection

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Yanhua E-mail: jfan@nist.gov; Fan, Jingyun E-mail: jfan@nist.gov; Migdall, Alan; Becerra, Francisco E.

    2014-09-08

    We examine thermal light diffracted through a double slit using photon-number-resolved detection to directly measure high-order spatial correlations, and we see sinusoidal modulations of those correlations. The fringe width can, in principal, be made arbitrarily small, and we have experimentally obtained fringe widths as small as 30 nm with 800 nm wavelength light. This extreme sub-wavelength resolution, along with this direct detection technique, offers potential for high precision measurement applications.

  11. Photon-number entangled states generated in Kerr media with optical parametric pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalewska-Kudlaszyk, A.; Leonski, W.; Perina, Jan Jr.

    2011-05-15

    Two nonlinear Kerr oscillators mutually coupled by parametric pumping are studied as a source of states entangled in photon numbers. Temporal evolution of entanglement quantified by negativity shows the effects of sudden death and birth of entanglement. Entanglement is preserved even in asymptotic states under certain conditions. The role of reservoirs at finite temperature in entanglement evolution is elucidated. Relation between generation of entangled states and violation of Cauchy-Schwartz inequality for oscillator intensities is found.

  12. Construction of photon-added spin coherent states and their statistical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrada, K.

    2015-07-01

    In the present work, we construct and investigate some properties of the photon-added spin coherent states (PA-SCSs). The Klauder's minimal set of conditions required to obtain coherent states are discussed. We give the analytical form for the positive weight function in the resolution of unity. Finally, we examine the statistical properties of the PA-SCSs in terms of different parameters using the Mandel's Q-parameter. All these quantities are expressed in terms of hypergeometric and Meijer G-functions, and so, the PA-SCSs are a new field of application for these functions.

  13. Attacks exploiting deviation of mean photon number in quantum key distribution and coin tossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Radchenko, Igor; Kaiser, Sarah; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Pappa, Anna; Monat, Laurent; Legré, Matthieu; Makarov, Vadim

    2015-03-01

    The security of quantum communication using a weak coherent source requires an accurate knowledge of the source's mean photon number. Finite calibration precision or an active manipulation by an attacker may cause the actual emitted photon number to deviate from the known value. We model effects of this deviation on the security of three quantum communication protocols: the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol without decoy states, Scarani-Acín-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) QKD protocol, and a coin-tossing protocol. For QKD we model both a strong attack using technology possible in principle and a realistic attack bounded by today's technology. To maintain the mean photon number in two-way systems, such as plug-and-play and relativistic quantum cryptography schemes, bright pulse energy incoming from the communication channel must be monitored. Implementation of a monitoring detector has largely been ignored so far, except for ID Quantique's commercial QKD system Clavis2. We scrutinize this implementation for security problems and show that designing a hack-proof pulse-energy-measuring detector is far from trivial. Indeed, the first implementation has three serious flaws confirmed experimentally, each of which may be exploited in a cleverly constructed Trojan-horse attack. We discuss requirements for a loophole-free implementation of the monitoring detector.

  14. Probabilistic and statistical relationships between number of vehicles and number of visitors at a geologic site in a National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crovelli, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The National Park Service needs to establish in all of the national parks how large the parking lots should be in order to enjoy and presence our natural resources, for example, in the Delicate Arch in the Arches National Park. Probabilistic and statistical relationships were developed between the number of vehicles (N) at one time in the Wolfe Ranch parking lot and the number of visitors (X) at Delicate Arch 1.5 miles away in the Arches National Park, southeastern Utah. The value of N is determined such that 30 or more visitors are at the arch only 10% of the time.

  15. Non-Statistical Oligopeptide Fragmentation by IR Photons with λ=16-18 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungclas, Hartmut; Komarov, Viacheslav V.; Popova, Anna M.; Schmidt, Lothar

    2015-12-01

    In this article we analyse the vibration excitation and following dissociation of protonated oligopeptide molecules induced by IR photons with λ=16-18 μm. The analysis is based on our previous works in which we considered a specific non-statistical dissociation process in organic molecules containing substructures consisting of chained identical diatomic dipoles such as (CH2)n. Such dipole chains can serve as IR antennas for external radiation in the IR frequency range. The acquired vibration energy accumulated in IR antennas can be large enough to dissociate molecules within a femtosecond time interval by a non-statistical process, which is driven by a radiationless low-energy transport mechanism inside the peptide molecules. We point out in this article that the suggested IR-induced dissociation mechanism can be applied to obtain sequence information of protonated oligopeptides.

  16. Effect of statistical fluctuation in Monte Carlo based photon beam dose calculation on gamma index evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang Graves, Yan; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B.

    2013-03-01

    The ?-index test has been commonly adopted to quantify the degree of agreement between a reference dose distribution and an evaluation dose distribution. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation has been widely used for the radiotherapy dose calculation for both clinical and research purposes. The goal of this work is to investigate both theoretically and experimentally the impact of the MC statistical fluctuation on the ?-index test when the fluctuation exists in the reference, the evaluation, or both dose distributions. To the first order approximation, we theoretically demonstrated in a simplified model that the statistical fluctuation tends to overestimate ?-index values when existing in the reference dose distribution and underestimate ?-index values when existing in the evaluation dose distribution given the original ?-index is relatively large for the statistical fluctuation. Our numerical experiments using realistic clinical photon radiation therapy cases have shown that (1) when performing a ?-index test between an MC reference dose and a non-MC evaluation dose, the average ?-index is overestimated and the gamma passing rate decreases with the increase of the statistical noise level in the reference dose; (2) when performing a ?-index test between a non-MC reference dose and an MC evaluation dose, the average ?-index is underestimated when they are within the clinically relevant range and the gamma passing rate increases with the increase of the statistical noise level in the evaluation dose; (3) when performing a ?-index test between an MC reference dose and an MC evaluation dose, the gamma passing rate is overestimated due to the statistical noise in the evaluation dose and underestimated due to the statistical noise in the reference dose. We conclude that the ?-index test should be used with caution when comparing dose distributions computed with MC simulation.

  17. Security and gain improvement of a practical quantum key distribution using a gated single-photon source and probabilistic photon-number resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Hideki; Wang, Haibo; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2005-07-01

    We propose a high security quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme utilizing one mode of spontaneous parametric downconversion gated by a photon number resolving detector. This photon number measurement is possible by using single-photon detectors operating at room temperature and optical fibers. By post selection, the multiphoton probability in this scheme can be reduced to lower than that of a scheme using an attenuated coherent light resulting in improvement of security. Furthermore, if distillation protocol (error correction and privacy amplification) is performed, the gain will be increased. Hence a QKD system with higher security and bit rate than the laser-based QKD system can be attained using present available technologies.

  18. Unified position-dependent photon-number quantization in layered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partanen, Mikko; Hyrynen, Teppo; Oksanen, Jani; Tulkki, Jukka

    2014-12-01

    We have recently developed a position-dependent quantization scheme for describing the ladder and effective photon-number operators associated with the electric field to analyze quantum optical energy transfer in lossy and dispersive dielectrics [Phys. Rev. A 89, 033831 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.033831]. While having a simple connection to the thermal balance of the system, these operators only described the electric field and its coupling to lossy dielectric bodies. Here we extend this field quantization scheme to include the magnetic field and thus to enable description of the total electromagnetic field and discuss conceptual measurement schemes to verify the predictions. In addition to conveniently describing the formation of thermal balance, the generalized approach allows modeling of the electromagnetic pressure and Casimir forces. We apply the formalism to study the local steady-state field temperature distributions and electromagnetic force density in cavities with cavity walls at different temperatures. The calculated local electric and magnetic field temperatures exhibit oscillations that depend on the position as well as the photon energy. However, the effective photon number and field temperature associated with the total electromagnetic field is always position independent in lossless media. Furthermore, we show that the direction of the electromagnetic force varies as a function of frequency, position, and material thickness.

  19. Statistical tools for transgene copy number estimation based on real-time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Joshua S; Burris, Jason; Stewart, Nathan R; Mentewab, Ayalew; Stewart, C Neal

    2007-01-01

    Background As compared with traditional transgene copy number detection technologies such as Southern blot analysis, real-time PCR provides a fast, inexpensive and high-throughput alternative. However, the real-time PCR based transgene copy number estimation tends to be ambiguous and subjective stemming from the lack of proper statistical analysis and data quality control to render a reliable estimation of copy number with a prediction value. Despite the recent progresses in statistical analysis of real-time PCR, few publications have integrated these advancements in real-time PCR based transgene copy number determination. Results Three experimental designs and four data quality control integrated statistical models are presented. For the first method, external calibration curves are established for the transgene based on serially-diluted templates. The Ct number from a control transgenic event and putative transgenic event are compared to derive the transgene copy number or zygosity estimation. Simple linear regression and two group T-test procedures were combined to model the data from this design. For the second experimental design, standard curves were generated for both an internal reference gene and the transgene, and the copy number of transgene was compared with that of internal reference gene. Multiple regression models and ANOVA models can be employed to analyze the data and perform quality control for this approach. In the third experimental design, transgene copy number is compared with reference gene without a standard curve, but rather, is based directly on fluorescence data. Two different multiple regression models were proposed to analyze the data based on two different approaches of amplification efficiency integration. Our results highlight the importance of proper statistical treatment and quality control integration in real-time PCR-based transgene copy number determination. Conclusion These statistical methods allow the real-time PCR-based transgene copy number estimation to be more reliable and precise with a proper statistical estimation. Proper confidence intervals are necessary for unambiguous prediction of trangene copy number. The four different statistical methods are compared for their advantages and disadvantages. Moreover, the statistical methods can also be applied for other real-time PCR-based quantification assays including transfection efficiency analysis and pathogen quantification. PMID:18047729

  20. Quantum correlation between the junction-voltage fluctuation and the photon-number fluctuation in a semiconductor laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, W. H.; Yamamoto, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The photon-number fluctuation of the external field from a semiconductor laser - which was reduced to below the standard quantum limit - is shown to be correlated with the measured junction-voltage noise. The spectral density of the sum of the photon-number fluctuation and junction-voltage fluctuation falls below the squeezed photon-number fluctuation. This confirms the theoretical predictions that this correlation, which originates in the dipole interaction between the internal field and electron-hole pairs, extends into the quantum regime.

  1. Quantum feedback by discrete quantum nondemolition measurements: Towards on-demand generation of photon-number states

    SciTech Connect

    Dotsenko, I.; Haroche, S.; Mirrahimi, M.; Brune, M.; Raimond, J.-M.; Rouchon, P.

    2009-07-15

    We propose a quantum feedback scheme for the preparation and protection of photon-number states of light trapped in a high-Q microwave cavity. A quantum nondemolition measurement of the cavity field provides information on the photon-number distribution. The feedback loop is closed by injecting into the cavity a coherent pulse adjusted to increase the probability of the target photon number. The efficiency and reliability of the closed-loop state stabilization is assessed by quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We show that, in realistic experimental conditions, the Fock states are efficiently produced and protected against decoherence.

  2. Statistical Power to Detect the Correct Number of Classes in Latent Profile Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Coxe, Stefany; Cham, Heining

    2012-01-01

    Little research has examined factors influencing statistical power to detect the correct number of latent classes using latent profile analysis (LPA). This simulation study examined power related to inter-class distance between latent classes given true number of classes, sample size, and number of indicators. Seven model selection methods were evaluated. None had adequate power to select the correct number of classes with a small (Cohens d = .2) or medium (d = .5) degree of separation. With a very large degree of separation (d = 1.5), the Lo-Mendell-Rubin test (LMR), adjusted LMR, bootstrap likelihood-ratio test, BIC, and sample-size adjusted BIC were good at selecting the correct number of classes. However, with a large degree of separation (d = .8), power depended on number of indicators and sample size. The AIC and entropy poorly selected the correct number of classes, regardless of degree of separation, number of indicators, or sample size. PMID:24489457

  3. Practical and fast quantum random number generation based on photon arrival time relative to external reference

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, You-Qi; Zhang, Jun Pan, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Zhen; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2014-02-03

    We present a practical high-speed quantum random number generator, where the timing of single-photon detection relative to an external time reference is measured as the raw data. The bias of the raw data can be substantially reduced compared with the previous realizations. The raw random bit rate of our generator can reach 109 Mbps. We develop a model for the generator and evaluate the min-entropy of the raw data. Toeplitz matrix hashing is applied for randomness extraction, after which the final random bits are able to pass the standard randomness tests.

  4. Nonequilibrium quantum fluctuations of a dispersive medium: Spontaneous emission, photon statistics, entropy generation, and stochastic motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghrebi, Mohammad F.; Jaffe, Robert L.; Kardar, Mehran

    2014-07-01

    We study the implications of quantum fluctuations of a dispersive medium, under steady rotation, either in or out of thermal equilibrium with its environment. A rotating object exhibits a quantum instability by dissipating its mechanical motion via spontaneous emission of photons, as well as internal heat generation. Universal relations are derived for the radiated energy and angular momentum as trace formulas involving the object's scattering matrix. We also compute the quantum noise by deriving the full statistics of the radiated photons out of thermal and/or dynamic equilibrium. The (entanglement) entropy generation is quantified and the total entropy is shown to be always increasing. Furthermore, we derive a Fokker-Planck equation governing the stochastic angular motion resulting from the fluctuating backreaction frictional torque. As a result, we find a quantum limit on the uncertainty of the object's angular velocity in steady rotation. Finally, we show in some detail that a rotating object drags nearby objects, making them spin parallel to its axis of rotation. A scalar toy model is introduced to simplify the technicalities and ease the conceptual complexities and then a detailed discussion of quantum electrodynamics is presented.

  5. Turbulence statistics in fully developed channel flow at low Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, John; Moin, Parviz; Moser, Robert

    1987-04-01

    A direct numerical simulation of a turbulent channel flow is performed. The unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically at a Reynolds number of 3300, based on the mean centerline velocity and channel half-width, with about 4 million grid points. All essential turbulence scales are resolved on the computational grid and no subgrid model is used. A large number of turbulence statistics are computed and compared with the existing experimental data at comparable Reynolds numbers. Agreements as well as discrepancies are discussed in detail. Particular attention is given to the behavior of turbulence correlations near the wall. A number of statistical correlations which are complementary to the existing experimental data are reported for the first time.

  6. A unified statistical framework for material decomposition using multienergy photon counting x-ray detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jiyoung; Kang, Dong-Goo; Kang, Sunghoon; Sung, Younghun; Ye, Jong Chul

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: Material decomposition using multienergy photon counting x-ray detectors (PCXD) has been an active research area over the past few years. Even with some success, the problem of optimal energy selection and three material decomposition including malignant tissue is still on going research topic, and more systematic studies are required. This paper aims to address this in a unified statistical framework in a mammographic environment.Methods: A unified statistical framework for energy level optimization and decomposition of three materials is proposed. In particular, an energy level optimization algorithm is derived using the theory of the minimum variance unbiased estimator, and an iterative algorithm is proposed for material composition as well as system parameter estimation under the unified statistical estimation framework. To verify the performance of the proposed algorithm, the authors performed simulation studies as well as real experiments using physical breast phantom and ex vivo breast specimen. Quantitative comparisons using various performance measures were conducted, and qualitative performance evaluations for ex vivo breast specimen were also performed by comparing the ground-truth malignant tissue areas identified by radiologists.Results: Both simulation and real experiments confirmed that the optimized energy bins by the proposed method allow better material decomposition quality. Moreover, for the specimen thickness estimation errors up to 2 mm, the proposed method provides good reconstruction results in both simulation and real ex vivo breast phantom experiments compared to existing methods.Conclusions: The proposed statistical framework of PCXD has been successfully applied for the energy optimization and decomposition of three material in a mammographic environment. Experimental results using the physical breast phantom and ex vivo specimen support the practicality of the proposed algorithm.

  7. How Many Americans Have a Disability? Disability Statistics Abstract Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPlante, Mitchell P.

    This statistical abstract focuses on how many Americans have a disability. It begins by defining "disability" according to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Data are presented from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) that provide the number of Americans with disabilities most consistent with the ADA definition. Graphs are provided…

  8. The statistical fluctuation analysis for the measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with heralded single-photon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xing-Yu; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Guo, Guang-Can; Wang, Qin

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we carry out statistical fluctuation analysis for the new proposed measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with heralded single-photon sources and further compare its performance with the mostly often used light sources, i.e., the weak coherent source. Due to a significantly lower probability for events with two photons present on the same side of the beam splitter in former than in latter, it gives drastically reduced quantum bit error rate in the X basis and can thus show splendid behavior in real-life implementations even when taking statistical fluctuations into account.

  9. Effective atomic numbers and electron densities of bioactive glasses for photon interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shantappa, Anil; Hanagodimath, S. M.

    2015-08-01

    This work was carried out to study the nature of mass attenuation coefficient of bioactive glasses for gamma rays. Bioactive glasses are a group of synthetic silica-based bioactive materials with unique bone bonding properties. In the present study, we have calculated the effective atomic number, electron density for photon interaction of some selected bioactive glasses viz., SiO2-Na2O, SiO2-Na2O-CaO and SiO2-Na2O-P2O5 in the energy range 1 keV to 100 MeV. We have also computed the single valued effective atomic number by using XMuDat program. It is observed that variation in effective atomic number (ZPI, eff) depends also upon the weight fractions of selected bioactive glasses and range of atomic numbers of the elements. The results shown here on effective atomic number, electron density will be more useful in the medical dosimetry for the calculation of absorbed dose and dose rate.

  10. Absolute Number Calibration of Photoelectrons of Photomultiplier Tubes Using the Nature of Statistical Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajino, F.; Yamaoka, Tomotaka; Kajino, Fumiyoshi; Tada, Itsuhiro; Hayashi, Seiichi

    2003-07-01

    To obtain precise number of photo electrons emitted from the photo electric surface of photomultiplier tubes in short time simply and effectively is very important for experiments which use many photomultiplier tubes. The number of photo electrons can be estimated from a formula which is made based on a statistical distribution. We have examined the precision of this formula by simulations and experiments. As a result, we found that the formula can be used very precisely after some corrections which depends mainly on the emission number of secondary electrons from the first and second dyno des of the photomultipliers.

  11. Experimental measurements of velocity and density statistics in Rayleigh-Taylor instability at High Atwood numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, Devesh; Akula, Bhanesh; Finn, Tom

    2013-11-01

    Velocity statistics are measured in a Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layer at Atwood number 0.6 using the multilayer gas tunnel facility at Texas A&M University, which is capable of achieving mixing Reynolds numbers around 30000. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and hot wire anemometry are used to measure the instantaneous velocities inside the mixing layer. The techniques are validated for small Atwood number and plane mixing layer experiments. The velocity statistics obtained including us ,vs , u ' v ' ̲ , ρ ' v ' ̲ and ρ '2 ̲ are presented and their variation across the mixing layer is also discussed. The probability density functions of the velocities, densities and their spectra are also presented.

  12. Pion number fluctuations and correlations in a statistical system with fixed isospin

    SciTech Connect

    Begun, V. V.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Mogilevsky, O. A.

    2010-08-15

    The statistical system of pions with zero total isospin is studied. The suppression effects for the average yields due to isospin conservation are the same for {pi}{sup 0}, {pi}{sup +}, and {pi}{sup -}. However, a behavior of the corresponding particle number fluctuations are different. For neutral pions there is the enhancement of the fluctuations, whereas for charged pions the isospin conservation suppresses fluctuations. The correlations between the numbers of charged and neutral pions are observed for finite systems. This causes a maximum of the total pion number fluctuations for small systems. The thermodynamic limit values for the scaled variances of neutral and charged pions are calculated. The enhancements of the fluctuations due to Bose statistics are found and discussed.

  13. Utilizing photon number parity measurements to demonstrate quantum computation with cat-states in a cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, A.; Ofek, N.; Vlastakis, B.; Sun, L.; Leghtas, Z.; Heeres, R.; Sliwa, K. M.; Mirrahimi, M.; Jiang, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2015-03-01

    Realizing a working quantum computer requires overcoming the many challenges that come with coupling large numbers of qubits to perform logical operations. These include improving coherence times, achieving high gate fidelities, and correcting for the inevitable errors that will occur throughout the duration of an algorithm. While impressive progress has been made in all of these areas, the difficulty of combining these ingredients to demonstrate an error-protected logical qubit, comprised of many physical qubits, still remains formidable. With its large Hilbert space, superior coherence properties, and single dominant error channel (single photon loss), a superconducting 3D resonator acting as a resource for a quantum memory offers a hardware-efficient alternative to multi-qubit codes [Leghtas et.al. PRL 2013]. Here we build upon recent work on cat-state encoding [Vlastakis et.al. Science 2013] and photon-parity jumps [Sun et.al. 2014] by exploring the effects of sequential measurements on a cavity state. Employing a transmon qubit dispersively coupled to two superconducting resonators in a cQED architecture, we explore further the application of parity measurements to characterizing such a hybrid qubit/cat state architecture. In so doing, we demonstrate the promise of integrating cat states as central constituents of future quantum codes.

  14. Statistical properties of online avatar numbers in a massive multiplayer online role-playing game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Ren, Fei; Gu, Gao-Feng; Tan, Qun-Zhao; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2010-02-01

    Massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) have been very popular in the past few years. The profit of an MMORPG company is proportional to how many users registered, and the instant number of online avatars is a key factor to assess how popular an MMORPG is. We use the online-offline logs on an MMORPG server to reconstruct the instant number of online avatars per second and investigate its statistical properties. We find that the online avatar number exhibits one-day periodic behavior and clear intraday pattern, the fluctuation distribution of the online avatar numbers has a leptokurtic non-Gaussian shape with power-law tails, and the increments of online avatar numbers after removing the intraday pattern are uncorrelated and the associated absolute values have long-term correlation. In addition, both time series exhibit multifractal nature.

  15. Development of a Statistical Model for Seasonal Prediction of North Atlantic Hurricane Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, K.; Zeng, X.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical cyclones cause more financial distress to insurance companies than any other natural disaster. From 1970-2002, it is estimated that hurricanes caused 44 billion dollars in damage, greater than 2.5 times the the next costliest catastrophe. Theses damages do not go without effect. A string of major catastrophes from 1991-1994 caused nine property firms to bankrupt and caused serious financial strain on others. The public was not only affected by the loss of life and property, but the increase in tax dollars for disaster relief. Providing better seasonal predictions of North Atlantic hurricane activity farther in advance will help alleviate some of the financial strains these major catastrophes put on the nation. A statistical model was first developed by Bill Gray's team to predict the total number of hurricanes over the North Atlantic in 1984, followed by other statistical methods, dynamic modeling, and hybrid methods in recent years. However, all these methods showed little to no skill with forecasts made by June 1 in recent years. In contrast to the relatively small year-to-year change in seasonal hurricane numbers pre-1980, there has been much greater interannual changes since, especially since the year 2000. For instance, while there were very high hurricane numbers in 2005 and 2010, 2013 was one of the lowest in history. Recognizing these interdecadal changes in the dispersion of hurricane numbers, we have developed a new statistical model to more realistically predict (by June 1 each year) the seasonal hurricane number over the North Atlantic. It is based on the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI) conditioned by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index, the zonal wind stress and sea surface temperature over the Atlantic. It provides both the deterministic number and the range of hurricane numbers. The details of the model and its performance from 1950-2014 in comparison with other methods will be presented in our presentation.

  16. Temperature-Independent Casimir-Polder Forces Despite Large Thermal Photon Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingsen, Simen A.; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi; Scheel, Stefan

    2010-06-04

    We demonstrate that Casimir-Polder potentials can be entirely independent of temperature even when allowing for the relevant thermal photon numbers to become large. This statement holds for potentials that are due to low-energy transitions of a molecule placed near a plane metal surface whose plasma frequency is much larger than any atomic resonance frequencies. For a molecule in an energy eigenstate, the temperature independence is a consequence of strong cancellations between nonresonant potential components and those due to evanescent waves. For a molecule with a single dominant transition in a thermal state, upward and downward transitions combine to form a temperature-independent potential. The results are contrasted with the case of an atom whose potential exhibits a regime of linear temperature dependence. Contact with the Casimir force between a weakly dielectric and a metallic plate is made.

  17. Generating arbitrary photon-number entangled states for continuous-variable quantum informatics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Yong; Park, Jiyong; Lee, Hai-Woong; Nha, Hyunchul

    2012-06-18

    We propose two experimental schemes that can produce an arbitrary photon-number entangled state (PNES) in a finite dimension. This class of entangled states naturally includes non-Gaussian continuous-variable (CV) states that may provide some practical advantages over the Gaussian counterparts (two-mode squeezed states). We particularly compare the entanglement characteristics of the Gaussian and the non-Gaussian states in view of the degree of entanglement and the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlation, and further discuss their applications to the CV teleportation and the nonlocality test. The experimental imperfection due to the on-off photodetectors with nonideal efficiency is also considered in our analysis to show the feasibility of our schemes within existing technologies. PMID:22714485

  18. Heterodyne and adaptive phase measurements on states of fixed mean photon number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, D.; Wiseman, H. M.; Zhang, Zhong-Xi

    1999-09-01

    The standard technique for measuring the phase of a single-mode field is heterodyne detection. Such a measurement may have an uncertainty far above the intrinsic quantum phase uncertainty of the state. Recently it has been shown [H. M. Wiseman and R. B. Killip, Phys. Rev. A 57, 2169 (1998)] that an adaptive technique introduces far less excess noise. Here we quantify this difference by an exact numerical calculation of the minimum measured phase variance for the various schemes, optimized over states with a fixed mean photon number. We also analytically derive the asymptotics for these variances. For the case of heterodyne detection our results disagree with the power law claimed by D'Ariano and Paris [Phys. Rev. A 49, 3022 (1994)].

  19. Real-time quantum feedback prepares and stabilizes photon number states.

    PubMed

    Sayrin, Clment; Dotsenko, Igor; Zhou, Xingxing; Peaudecerf, Bruno; Rybarczyk, Tho; Gleyzes, Sbastien; Rouchon, Pierre; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Amini, Hadis; Brune, Michel; Raimond, Jean-Michel; Haroche, Serge

    2011-09-01

    Feedback loops are central to most classical control procedures. A controller compares the signal measured by a sensor (system output) with the target value or set-point. It then adjusts an actuator (system input) to stabilize the signal around the target value. Generalizing this scheme to stabilize a micro-system's quantum state relies on quantum feedback, which must overcome a fundamental difficulty: the sensor measurements cause a random back-action on the system. An optimal compromise uses weak measurements, providing partial information with minimal perturbation. The controller should include the effect of this perturbation in the computation of the actuator's operation, which brings the incrementally perturbed state closer to the target. Although some aspects of this scenario have been experimentally demonstrated for the control of quantum or classical micro-system variables, continuous feedback loop operations that permanently stabilize quantum systems around a target state have not yet been realized. Here we have implemented such a real-time stabilizing quantum feedback scheme following a method inspired by ref. 13. It prepares on demand photon number states (Fock states) of a microwave field in a superconducting cavity, and subsequently reverses the effects of decoherence-induced field quantum jumps. The sensor is a beam of atoms crossing the cavity, which repeatedly performs weak quantum non-demolition measurements of the photon number. The controller is implemented in a real-time computer commanding the actuator, which injects adjusted small classical fields into the cavity between measurements. The microwave field is a quantum oscillator usable as a quantum memory or as a quantum bus swapping information between atoms. Our experiment demonstrates that active control can generate non-classical states of this oscillator and combat their decoherence, and is a significant step towards the implementation of complex quantum information operations. PMID:21886159

  20. One-point statistics for turbulent wall-bounded flows at Reynolds numbers up to ?+ ? 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillero, Juan A.; Jimnez, Javier; Moser, Robert D.

    2013-10-01

    One-point statistics are presented for new direct simulations of the zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer in the range Re? = 2780-6680, matching channels and pipes at ?+ ? 1000-2000. For tripped boundary layers, it is found that the eddy-turnover length is a better criterion than the Reynolds number for the recovery of the largest flow scales after an artificial inflow. Beyond that limit, the integral parameters, mean velocities, Reynolds stresses, and pressure fluctuations of the new simulations agree very well with the available numerical and experimental data, but show clear differences with internal flows when expressed in wall units at the same wall distance and Reynolds number. Those differences are largest in the outer layer, independent of the Reynolds number, and apply to the three velocity components. The logarithmic increase with the Reynolds number of the maximum of the streamwise velocity and pressure fluctuations is confirmed to apply to experimental and numerical internal and external flows. The new simulations also extend to a wider range of Reynolds numbers, and to more than a decade in wall distance, the evidence for logarithmic intensity profiles of the spanwise velocity and of the pressure intensities. Streamwise velocity fluctuations appear to require higher Reynolds numbers to develop a clear logarithmic profile, but it is argued that the comparison of the available near-wall data with fluctuation profiles experimentally obtained by other groups at higher Reynolds numbers can only be explained by assuming the existence of a mesolayer for the fluctuations. The statistics of the new simulation are available in our website.

  1. Statistical Study on Personal Reduction Coefficients of Sunspot Numbers Since 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Il-Hyun; Bong, Su-Chan; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Lee, Jaejin; Kim, Rok-Soon; Park, Young-Deuk; Kim, Yeon-Han

    2014-12-01

    Using sunspot number data from 270 historical stations for the period 1981-2013, we investigate their personal reduction coefficients ($) statistically. Chang & Oh (2012) perform a simulation showing that the k varies with the solar cycle. We try to verify their results using observational data. For this, a weighted mean and weighted standard deviation of monthly sunspot number are used to estimate the error from observed data. We find that the observed error (noise) is much smaller than that used in the simulation. Thus no distinct k-variation with the solar cycle is observed contrary to the simulation. In addition, the probability distribution of k is determined to be non-Gaussian with a fat-tail on the right side. This result implies that the relative sunspot number after 1981 might be overestimated since the mean value of k is less than that of the Gaussian distribution.

  2. Majorana zero modes choose Euler numbers as revealed by full counting statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong E.; Levchenko, Alex; Lutchyn, Roman M.

    2015-11-01

    We study transport properties of a quantum dot coupled to a Majorana zero mode and two normal leads. We investigate the full counting statistics of charge tunneling events and obtain complete information on current fluctuations through the dot. Using the Keldysh path-integral approach, we compute the cumulant generating function of the current. We first consider a spinless case and find that for the symmetric dot-lead couplings, the zero-frequency cumulants are independent of the microscopic parameters and exhibit a universal pattern described by Euler numbers. We then consider the spinful system and investigate the effect of both weak and strong Coulomb interactions. We show that cases with and without Majorana coupling exhibit qualitatively different full counting statistics of charge tunneling events despite the fact that differential linear conductance might have zero-bias features in both cases.

  3. Photon Number-Phase Uncertainty Relation in the Evolution of the Field in a Kerr-Like Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, An-Fu; Sun, Nian-Chun

    1996-01-01

    A model of a single-mode field, initially prepared in a coherent state, coupled to a two-level atom surrounded by a nonlinear Kerr-like medium contained inside a very good quality cavity is considered. We derive the photon number-phase uncertainty relation in the evolution of the field for a weak and strong nonlinear coupling respectively, within the Hermitian phase operator formalism of Pegg and Barnett, and discuss the effects of nonlinear coupling of the Kerr-like medium on photon number-phase uncertainty relation of the field.

  4. Typical kernel size and number of sparse random matrices over Galois fields: A statistical physics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alamino, R. C.; Saad, D.

    2008-06-01

    Using methods of statistical physics, we study the average number and kernel size of general sparse random matrices over Galois fields GF(q) , with a given connectivity profile, in the thermodynamical limit of large matrices. We introduce a mapping of GF(q) matrices onto spin systems using the representation of the cyclic group of order q as the q th complex roots of unity. This representation facilitates the derivation of the average kernel size of random matrices using the replica approach, under the replica-symmetric ansatz, resulting in saddle point equations for general connectivity distributions. Numerical solutions are then obtained for particular cases by population dynamics. Similar techniques also allow us to obtain an expression for the exact and average numbers of random matrices for any general connectivity profile. We present numerical results for particular distributions.

  5. Statistics of the cosmic Mach number from numerical simulations of a cold dark matter universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suto, Yasushi; Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of an analysis of the cosmic Mach number, M, the ratio of the streaming velocity, v, to the random velocity dispersion, sigma, of galaxies in a given patch of the universe, which was performed on the basis of hydrodynamical simulations of the cold dark matter scenario. Galaxy formation is modeled by application of detailed physical processes rather than by the ad hoc assumption of 'bias' between dark matter and galaxy fluctuations. The correlation between M and sigma is found to be very weak for both components. No evidence is found for a physical 'velocity bias' in the quantities which appear in the definition of M. Standard cold-dark-matter-dominated universes are in conflict, at a statistically significant level, with the available observation, in that they predict a Mach number considerably lower than is observed.

  6. Reynolds number dependency of near-wall statistics of zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschmann, M. H.; Keirsbulck, L.; Fourri, G.; Labraga, L.; Gad-el-Hak, M.

    2011-12-01

    We report high-resolution LDA and HWA measurements of the streamwise velocity component of a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer (ZPG TBL) over a range of momentum thickness Reynolds number from 1,170 to 3,720. The primary objective of this work is to investigate the near-wall behavior and the scaling of high-order statistics. In particular, we are interested in certain Krmn number dependencies. The obtained data are in excellent agreement with most recent DNS-results, which allows direct comparison of detailed results such as peak value and position of streamwise stress, wall-values of skewness and flatness factors, and turbulence dissipation rate. The experimental data clearly reveal the failure of classical scaling. An alternative mixed scaling based on u?3/2ue1/2 removes these discrepancies.

  7. Two-point statistics for turbulent boundary layers and channels at Reynolds numbers up to ?+ ? 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillero, Juan A.; Jimnez, Javier; Moser, Robert D.

    2014-10-01

    Two-point statistics are presented for a new direct simulation of the zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer in the range Re? = 2780-6680, and compared with channels in the same range of Reynolds numbers, ?+ ? 1000-2000. Three-dimensional spatial correlations are investigated in very long domains to educe the average structure of the velocity and pressure fluctuations. The streamwise velocity component is found to be coherent over longer distances in channels than in boundary layers, especially in the direction of the flow. For weakly correlated structures, the maximum streamwise length is \\cal{O}(7? ) for boundary layers and \\cal{O}(18? ) for channels, attained at the logarithmic and outer regions, respectively. The corresponding lengths for the spanwise and wall-normal velocities and for the pressure are shorter, \\cal{O}(?-2?). The correlations are shown to be inclined to the wall at angles that depend on the distance from the wall, on the variable being considered, and on the correlation level used to define them. All these features change little between the two types of flows. Most the above features are also approximately independent of the Reynolds number, except for the pressure, and for the streamwise velocity structures in the channel. Further insight into the flow is provided by correlations conditioned on the intensity of the perturbations at the reference point, or on their sign. The statistics of the new simulation are available in our website.

  8. Inductive equation of motion approach for a semiconductor QD-QED: coherence induced control of photon statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Kabuss, Julia; Carmele, A.; Richter, M.; Chow, Weng W.; Knorr, A.

    2011-01-10

    This paper presents an inductive method for the microscopic description of quantum dot (QD) QED. Our description reproduces known effects up to an arbitrary accuracy, and is extendable to typical semiconductor effects, like many electron- and phonon-interactions. As an application, this method is used to theoretically examine quantum coherence phenomena and their impact on photon statistics for a ?-type semiconductor QD strongly coupled to a single mode cavity and simultaneously excited with an external laser.

  9. Belief In Numbers: When and why women disbelieve tailored breast cancer risk statistics

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Laura D.; Ubel, Peter A.; McClure, Jennifer; Green, Sarah M.; Alford, Sharon Hensley; Holtzman, Lisa; Exe, Nicole; Fagerlin, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine when and why women disbelieve tailored information about their risk of developing breast cancer. Methods 690 women participated in an online program to learn about medications that can reduce the risk of breast cancer. The program presented tailored information about each womans personal breast cancer risk. Half of women were told how their risk numbers were calculated, whereas the rest were not. Later, they were asked whether they believed that the program was personalized, and whether they believed their risk numbers. If a woman did not believe her risk numbers, she was asked to explain why. Results Beliefs that the program was personalized were enhanced by explaining the risk calculation methods in more detail. Nonetheless, nearly 20% of women did not believe their personalized risk numbers. The most common reason for rejecting the risk estimate was a belief that it did not fully account for personal and family history. Conclusions The benefits of tailored risk statistics may be attenuated by a tendency for people to be skeptical that these risk estimates apply to them personally. Practice Implications Decision aids may provide risk information that is not accepted by patients, but addressing the patients personal circumstances may lead to greater acceptance. PMID:23623330

  10. Evolution Law of the Negative Binomial State in Laser Channel and its Photon-Number Decay Formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da, Cheng; Chen, Qian-Fan; Fan, Hong-Yi

    2014-12-01

    For the first time we examine how a negative binomial state (NBS), whose density operator is evolves in a laser channel. By using a newly derived generating function formula about Laguerre polynomial we obtain the evolution law of NBS, which turns out to be an infinite operator-sum of photon-added negative binomial state with a new negative-binomial parameter, and the photon number of NBS decays with e -2( ?- g) t , where g and ? represent the cavity gain and loss respectively. The technique of integration (summation) within an ordered product of operators is used in our discussions.

  11. Photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiruma, Teruo

    1993-04-01

    After developing various kinds of photodetectors such as phototubes, photomultiplier tubes, image pick up tubes, solid state photodetectors and a variety of light sources, we also started to develop integrated systems utilizing new detectors or imaging devices. These led us to the technology for a single photon counting imaging and detection of picosecond and femtosecond phenomena. Through those experiences, we gained the understanding that photon is a paste of substances, and yet we know so little about photon. By developing various technology for many fields such as analytical chemistry, high energy physics, medicine, biology, brain science, astronomy, etc., we are beginning to understand that the mind and life are based on the same matter, that is substance. Since humankind has so little knowledge about the substance concerning the mind and life, this makes some confusion on these subjects at this moment. If we explore photonics more deeply, many problems we now have in the world could be solved. By creating new knowledge and technology, I believe we will be able to solve the problems of illness, aging, energy, environment, human capability, and finally, the essential healthiness of the six billion human beings in the world.

  12. Atmospheric particle number size distribution in central Europe: Statistical relations to air masses and meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birmili, Wolfram; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Heintzenberg, Jost; Lehmann, Katrin

    2001-12-01

    Atmospheric particle number size distributions determined over 1.5 years at a central European site were statistically analyzed in terms of their relation to time of day, season, meteorology, and synoptic-scale air masses. All size distributions were decomposed into lognormal particle modes corresponding to the accumulation, Aitken, aged nucleation, and nucleation modes. The concentration of nucleation mode particles (<30 nm) behaved in a strongly diurnal fashion as a result of both anthropogenic source influence and secondary new particle formation events. The concentrations of Aitken and accumulation mode particles (>30 nm) lacked such diurnal behavior, and proved to be indicative of different synoptic-scale air mass types. Over 70% of the time, air masses of Atlantic origin and maritime character prevailed, showing obvious signs of anthropogenic influence most of the time (accumulation mode: 500 cm-3; Aitken mode: 2300 cm-3). During a limited period of time (10%), however, continentally aged air with significantly enhanced concentrations of aerosol was observed (accumulation mode: 1200 cm-3; Aitken mode: 3300 cm-3). These air masses were advected from source regions in Russia, and eastern, southeastern, and central Europe, mainly under anticyclonic and high-pressure influence. The analysis provides a refined picture of the behavior of the particle number size distribution and provides parameterizations that are representative for a variety of air masses in Europe and thus suitable for future climate modeling applications.

  13. Coherence holography and photon-correlation holography: marriage between holography and statistical optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Mitsuo; Wang, Wei; Naik, Dinesh N.

    2011-10-01

    We review two techniques of unconventional holography, coherence holography and photon-correlation holography, which we recently proposed and experimentally demonstrated. We will emphasize the importance of noticing mathematical analogies in optics and physical phenomena, which give insights into the methodology for developing new techniques.

  14. Proof-of-principle experiment of a modified photon-number-splitting attack against quantum key distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Weitao; Sun Shihai; Liang Linmei; Yuan Jianmin

    2011-04-15

    Any imperfections in a practical quantum key distribution (QKD) system may be exploited by an eavesdropper to collect information about the key without being discovered. We propose a modified photon-number-splitting attack scheme against QKD systems based on weak laser pulses taking advantage of possible multiphoton pulses. Proof-of-principle experiments are demonstrated. The results show that the eavesdropper can get information about the key generated between the legitimate parties without being detected. Since the equivalent attenuation introduced by the eavesdropper for pulses of different average photon numbers are different, the decoy-state method is effective in fighting against this kind of attack. This has also been proven in our experiments.

  15. Statistical characterization of multi-conductor cables using large numbers of measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, Matthew B.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding and characterizing the electrical properties of multi-conductor shielded and unshielded cables is an important endeavor for many diverse applications, including airlines, land based communications, nuclear weapons, and any piece of hardware containing multi-conductor cabling. Determining the per unit length capacitance and inductance based on the geometry of the conductors, number of conductors, and characteristics of the shield can prove quite difficult. Relating the inductance and capacitance to shielding effectiveness can be even more difficult. An exceedingly large number of measurements were taken to characterize eight multi-conductor cables, of which four were 3-conductor cables and four were 18-conductor cables. Each set of four cables contained a shielded cable and an unshielded cable with the inner conductors twisted together and a shielded cable and an unshielded cable with the inner conductors not twisted together (or straight). Male LJT connectors were attached on either end of the cable and each cable had a finished length of 22.5 inches. The measurements performed were self and mutual inductance, self and mutual capacitance, and effective height. For the 18 conductor case there ended up being an 18 by 18 element matrix for inductance (with the self inductance terms lying on the diagonal) and an 18 by 18 matrix for capacitance. The effective height of each cable was measured over a frequency range from 220 MHz to 18 GHz in a Mode-Stirred Chamber. The effective height of each conductor of each cable was measured individually and all shorted together, producing 19 frequency responses for each 18 conductor cable. Shielding effectiveness was calculated using the effective heights from the shielded and unshielded cables. The results of these measurements and the statistical analysis of the data will be presented. There will also be a brief presentation of comparison with numerical models.

  16. Statistical tests for a correlation between decadal variation in June precipitation in China and sunspot number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing-Song; Zhao, Liang

    2012-12-01

    Six different statistical methods (i.e., correlation, difference, prominent period, variance contribution, scale-averaged spectrum, and cross spectrum) are used to test for regional differences in the relationship between the 11 year sunspot cycle and June precipitation in China during the 20th century. In the Huaihe River basin (HRB) of central China, located at the marginal region of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM), there exists a reliable positive-correlation relationship between the 11 year sunspot cycle and June precipitation; whereas, possible negative and very weak positive correlations in the south of the middle-lower Yangtze River Region and the HeTao Basin (HTB), located in the interior of the EASM and the westerlies, respectively. The reasons for these regional differences are investigated, revealing that the marginal region of EASM may be more sensitive to solar forcing than is its interior, which results in the HRB becoming the most susceptible (strongest correlation) region. That is to say, in June during the high sunspot number (SSN) years, the influence of the EASM is significantly greater and more to the north than that in June during the low SSN years, causing the HRB to be mainly influenced by the EASM (westerlies) in June during the high (low) SSN years. The northward expansion of the June EASM probably resulted from enhancement of the low-level southwesterly monsoon flow over the northern tropical Indian Ocean, combined with an expansion of the western Pacific subtropical high at times of high SSN.

  17. Influences of Exciton Diffusion and Exciton-Exciton Annihilation on Photon Emission Statistics of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xuedan; Roslyak, Oleskiy; Duque, Juan G.; Pang, Xiaoying; Doorn, Stephen K.; Piryatinski, Andrei; Dunlap, David H.; Htoon, Han

    2015-07-01

    Pump-dependent photoluminescence imaging and second-order photon correlation studies have been performed on individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) at room temperature. These studies enable the extraction of both the exciton diffusion constant and the Auger recombination coefficient. A linear correlation between these parameters is attributed to the effect of environmental disorder in setting the exciton mean free path and capture-limited Auger recombination at this length scale. A suppression of photon antibunching is attributed to the creation of multiple spatially nonoverlapping excitons in SWCNTs, whose diffusion length is shorter than the laser spot size. We conclude that complete antibunching at room temperature requires an enhancement of the exciton-exciton annihilation rate that may become realizable in SWCNTs allowing for strong exciton localization.

  18. Influences of Exciton Diffusion and Exciton-Exciton Annihilation on Photon Emission Statistics of Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xuedan; Roslyak, Oleskiy; Duque, Juan G; Pang, Xiaoying; Doorn, Stephen K; Piryatinski, Andrei; Dunlap, David H; Htoon, Han

    2015-07-01

    Pump-dependent photoluminescence imaging and second-order photon correlation studies have been performed on individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) at room temperature. These studies enable the extraction of both the exciton diffusion constant and the Auger recombination coefficient. A linear correlation between these parameters is attributed to the effect of environmental disorder in setting the exciton mean free path and capture-limited Auger recombination at this length scale. A suppression of photon antibunching is attributed to the creation of multiple spatially nonoverlapping excitons in SWCNTs, whose diffusion length is shorter than the laser spot size. We conclude that complete antibunching at room temperature requires an enhancement of the exciton-exciton annihilation rate that may become realizable in SWCNTs allowing for strong exciton localization. PMID:26182119

  19. Photon antibunching effect and statistical properties of single-mode emission in free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Sibilia, C.; Bertolotti, M.; Perinova, V.; Perina, J.; Luks, A.

    1983-07-01

    It is shown that the field emitted by a free-electron laser oscillating on a single mode in the no-gain regime can exhibit antibunching. The quantum-statistical properties of field are also discussed.

  20. Study of the effects of photon statistics on Thomson scattering data

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, G.W.; Levinton, F.M.; McNeill, D.H.

    1985-12-01

    A computer code has been developed which simulates the counting statistics of a Thomson scattering measurement. The scattered and background signals in each of the wavelength channels are assumed to obey Poisson statistics, and the spectral data are fitted to a Gaussian curve using a nonlinear least-squares fitting algorithm. This method should be applicable to Thomson scattering measurements in which the signal-to-noise ratio is low due to low signal or high background. Thomson scattering data from the S-1 Spheromak have been compared to this simulation, and they have been found to be in good agreement. This code has proved to be useful assessing the effects of counting statistics relative to shot-to-shot variability in producing the observed spread in the data. It was also useful for designing improvements for the S-1 Thomson scattering system, and this method would be applicable to any measurements affected by counting statistics. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Statistical measurements of quantum emitters coupled to Anderson-localized modes in disordered photonic-crystal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Alisa; Maibom, Sebastian; Sapienza, Luca; Thyrrestrup, Henri; Garca, Pedro D; Lodahl, Peter

    2014-12-15

    We present a statistical study of the Purcell enhancement of the light emission from quantum dots coupled to Anderson-localized cavities formed in disordered photonic-crystal waveguides. We measure the time-resolved light emission from both single quantum emitters coupled to Anderson-localized cavities and directly from the cavities that are fed by multiple quantum dots. Strongly inhibited and enhanced decay rates are observed relative to the rate of spontaneous emission in a homogeneous medium. From a statistical analysis, we report an average Purcell factor of 4.5 0.4 without applying any spectral tuning. By spectrally tuning individual quantum dots into resonance with Anderson-localized modes, a maximum Purcell factor of 23.8 1.5 is recorded, which is at the onset of the strong-coupling regime. Our data quantify the potential of Anderson-localized cavities for controlling and enhancing the light-matter interaction strength in a photonic-crystal waveguide, which is of relevance for cavity quantum-electrodynamics experiments, efficient energy harvesting and random lasing. PMID:25607048

  2. Case Study Applications of Statistics in Institutional Research. Resources in Institutional Research, Number Ten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Mary Ann; Pagano, Marian

    This monograph covers the theory, application, and interpretation of both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques in institutional research. Each chapter opens with a hypothetical case study, which is used to illustrate the application of one or more statistical procedures to typical research questions. Chapter 2 covers the comparison

  3. Nonclassical light from a large number of independent single-photon emitters

    PubMed Central

    Lachman, Lukáš; Slodička, Lukáš; Filip, Radim

    2016-01-01

    Nonclassical quantum effects gradually reach domains of physics of large systems previously considered as purely classical. We derive a hierarchy of operational criteria suitable for a reliable detection of nonclassicality of light from an arbitrarily large ensemble of independent single-photon emitters. We show, that such large ensemble can always emit nonclassical light without any phase reference and under realistic experimental conditions including incoherent background noise. The nonclassical light from the large ensemble of the emitters can be witnessed much better than light coming from a single or a few emitters. PMID:26813774

  4. Nonclassical light from a large number of independent single-photon emitters.

    PubMed

    Lachman, Luk; Slodi?ka, Luk; Filip, Radim

    2016-01-01

    Nonclassical quantum effects gradually reach domains of physics of large systems previously considered as purely classical. We derive a hierarchy of operational criteria suitable for a reliable detection of nonclassicality of light from an arbitrarily large ensemble of independent single-photon emitters. We show, that such large ensemble can always emit nonclassical light without any phase reference and under realistic experimental conditions including incoherent background noise. The nonclassical light from the large ensemble of the emitters can be witnessed much better than light coming from a single or a few emitters. PMID:26813774

  5. Nonclassical light from a large number of independent single-photon emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachman, Luk; Slodi?ka, Luk; Filip, Radim

    2016-01-01

    Nonclassical quantum effects gradually reach domains of physics of large systems previously considered as purely classical. We derive a hierarchy of operational criteria suitable for a reliable detection of nonclassicality of light from an arbitrarily large ensemble of independent single-photon emitters. We show, that such large ensemble can always emit nonclassical light without any phase reference and under realistic experimental conditions including incoherent background noise. The nonclassical light from the large ensemble of the emitters can be witnessed much better than light coming from a single or a few emitters.

  6. Dual adaptive statistical approach for quantitative noise reduction in photon-counting medical imaging: application to nuclear medicine images.

    PubMed

    Hannequin, Pascal Paul

    2015-06-01

    Noise reduction in photon-counting images remains challenging, especially at low count levels. We have developed an original procedure which associates two complementary filters using a Wiener-derived approach. This approach combines two statistically adaptive filters into a dual-weighted (DW) filter. The first one, a statistically weighted adaptive (SWA) filter, replaces the central pixel of a sliding window with a statistically weighted sum of its neighbors. The second one, a statistical and heuristic noise extraction (extended) (SHINE-Ext) filter, performs a discrete cosine transformation (DCT) using sliding blocks. Each block is reconstructed using its significant components which are selected using tests derived from multiple linear regression (MLR). The two filters are weighted according to Wiener theory. This approach has been validated using a numerical phantom and a real planar Jaszczak phantom. It has also been illustrated using planar bone scintigraphy and myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. Performances of filters have been tested using mean normalized absolute error (MNAE) between the filtered images and the reference noiseless or high-count images.Results show that the proposed filters quantitatively decrease the MNAE in the images and then increase the signal-to-noise Ratio (SNR). This allows one to work with lower count images. The SHINE-Ext filter is well suited to high-size images and low-variance areas. DW filtering is efficient for low-size images and in high-variance areas. The relative proportion of eliminated noise generally decreases when count level increases. In practice, SHINE filtering alone is recommended when pixel spacing is less than one-quarter of the effective resolution of the system and/or the size of the objects of interest. It can also be used when the practical interest of high frequencies is low. In any case, DW filtering will be preferable.The proposed filters have been applied to nuclear medicine images but can also be used for any other kind of photon-counting images, such as x-ray and fluorescence images. PMID:26009552

  7. Dual adaptive statistical approach for quantitative noise reduction in photon-counting medical imaging: application to nuclear medicine images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannequin, Pascal Paul

    2015-06-01

    Noise reduction in photon-counting images remains challenging, especially at low count levels. We have developed an original procedure which associates two complementary filters using a Wiener-derived approach. This approach combines two statistically adaptive filters into a dual-weighted (DW) filter. The first one, a statistically weighted adaptive (SWA) filter, replaces the central pixel of a sliding window with a statistically weighted sum of its neighbors. The second one, a statistical and heuristic noise extraction (extended) (SHINE-Ext) filter, performs a discrete cosine transformation (DCT) using sliding blocks. Each block is reconstructed using its significant components which are selected using tests derived from multiple linear regression (MLR). The two filters are weighted according to Wiener theory. This approach has been validated using a numerical phantom and a real planar Jaszczak phantom. It has also been illustrated using planar bone scintigraphy and myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. Performances of filters have been tested using mean normalized absolute error (MNAE) between the filtered images and the reference noiseless or high-count images. Results show that the proposed filters quantitatively decrease the MNAE in the images and then increase the signal-to-noise Ratio (SNR). This allows one to work with lower count images. The SHINE-Ext filter is well suited to high-size images and low-variance areas. DW filtering is efficient for low-size images and in high-variance areas. The relative proportion of eliminated noise generally decreases when count level increases. In practice, SHINE filtering alone is recommended when pixel spacing is less than one-quarter of the effective resolution of the system and/or the size of the objects of interest. It can also be used when the practical interest of high frequencies is low. In any case, DW filtering will be preferable. The proposed filters have been applied to nuclear medicine images but can also be used for any other kind of photon-counting images, such as x-ray and fluorescence images.

  8. Statistics

    Cancer.gov

    Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.

  9. Photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    Studies of photon-photon collisions are reviewed with particular emphasis on new results reported to this conference. These include results on light meson spectroscopy and deep inelastic e..gamma.. scattering. Considerable work has now been accumulated on resonance production by ..gamma gamma.. collisions. Preliminary high statistics studies of the photon structure function F/sub 2//sup ..gamma../(x,Q/sup 2/) are given and comments are made on the problems that remain to be solved.

  10. Calculation and analysis of the number of return photons from sodium laser beacon excited by the long pulse laser with circular polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang-Yuan; Qian, Xian-Mei; Li, Yu-Jie; Rao, Rui-Zhong

    2014-12-01

    The number of return photons from sodium laser beacon (SLB) greatly suffers down-pumping, recoil, and geomagnetic field when the long pulse laser with circular polarization interacts with sodium atoms in the mesosphere. Considering recoil and down-pumping effects on the number of return photons from SLB, the spontaneous radiation rates are obtained by numerical computations and fittings. Furthermore, combining with the geomagnetic field effects, a new expression is achieved for calculating the number of return photons. By using this expression and considering the stochastic distribution of laser intensity in the mesosphere under different turbulence models for atmosphere, the number of return photons excited by the narrow-band single mode laser and that by the narrow-band three-mode laser are respectively calculated. The results show that the narrow-band three-mode laser with a specific spectrum structure has a higher spontaneous radiation rate and more return photons than a narrow-band single mode laser. Of note, the effect of the atmospheric turbulence on the number of return photons is remarkable. Calculation results indicate that the number of return photons under the HV5/7 model for atmospheric turbulence is much higher than that under the Greenwood and ModHV models.

  11. Photon-number squeezing in a free-running quantum-well laser operating at 980 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlfl, F.; Ispasoiu, R. G.; Ryan, J. F.; Fox, A. M.

    2002-04-01

    We present intensity noise investigations of a free-running InGaAs quantum-well laser diode operating at 980 nm at room temperature. The laser had a threshold current of 17 mA. Photon-number squeezing was achieved for drive currents of 48 mA when the laser was operating on two dominant longitudinal modes. The degree of squeezing obtained was 9%, which was in reasonable agreement with the current-to-current efficiency of 11%. No squeezing was observed at 35 K.

  12. Optimum values of air-filling fraction for photonic crystal fibers with different configurations and fixed number of air rings.

    PubMed

    Zendehnam, Akbar; Hosseinpour, Maryam; Mirzaei, Mahmood; Hedayati, Kambiz

    2014-02-20

    In this study, a Gaussian amp function related to the Gaussian family is employed to approximate the output intensity profile of various arrangements of air holes in photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) with a fixed number of air rings (N=4). It is shown that d/Λ=0.5 can be the best minimum value of air-filling fraction for all of the studied PCFs when λ=1.35  μm, whereas, for λ=1.55 and 1.65 μm, d/Λ=0.6 is suitable for achieving the maximum output intensity with very low confinement loss. PMID:24663304

  13. Who Pays for the Medical Care of People with Disabilities? Disability Statistics Abstract, Number 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trupin, Laura; Rice, Dorothy P.; Max, Wendy

    This statistical abstract presents data on the sources of payment for medical care for people with disabilities in different age groups. All estimates come from the National Medical Expenditures Survey, a nationally representative survey of the civilian non-institutionalized population of the U.S. conducted in 1987. Six categories of payment…

  14. Static Numbers to Dynamic Statistics: Designing a Policy-Friendly Social Policy Indicator Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Sang-Hoon; Choi, Young Jun; Kim, Young-Mi

    2012-01-01

    In line with the economic crisis and rapid socio-demographic changes, the interest in "social" and "well-being" indicators has been revived. Social indicator movements of the 1960s resulted in the establishment of social indicator statistical frameworks; that legacy has remained intact in many national governments and international organisations.

  15. Equipartitions and a distribution for numbers: A statistical model for Benford's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafrate, Joseph R.; Miller, Steven J.; Strauch, Frederick W.

    2015-06-01

    A statistical model for the fragmentation of a conserved quantity is analyzed, using the principle of maximum entropy and the theory of partitions. Upper and lower bounds for the restricted partitioning problem are derived and applied to the distribution of fragments. The resulting power law directly leads to Benford's law for the first digits of the parts.

  16. Static Numbers to Dynamic Statistics: Designing a Policy-Friendly Social Policy Indicator Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Sang-Hoon; Choi, Young Jun; Kim, Young-Mi

    2012-01-01

    In line with the economic crisis and rapid socio-demographic changes, the interest in "social" and "well-being" indicators has been revived. Social indicator movements of the 1960s resulted in the establishment of social indicator statistical frameworks; that legacy has remained intact in many national governments and international organisations.…

  17. Need for Assistance in the Activities of Daily Living. Disability Statistics Abstract, Number 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Jae; LaPlante, Mitchell P.; Kaye, H. Stephen

    This abstract summarizes recent statistics on those needing assistance in Activities of Daily Living (ADLs), along with participation rates for various proposed benefit programs, based on an analysis of the 1990-91 Survey of Income and Program Participation. Analysis indicates: (1) an estimated 1.9 percent of the population has difficulty

  18. Equipartitions and a distribution for numbers: A statistical model for Benford's law.

    PubMed

    Iafrate, Joseph R; Miller, Steven J; Strauch, Frederick W

    2015-06-01

    A statistical model for the fragmentation of a conserved quantity is analyzed, using the principle of maximum entropy and the theory of partitions. Upper and lower bounds for the restricted partitioning problem are derived and applied to the distribution of fragments. The resulting power law directly leads to Benford's law for the first digits of the parts. PMID:26172692

  19. Facts and Figures: A Compendium of Statistics on Ontario Universities. Spring 1993. Volume 1, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    The purpose of this compendium is to provide consistent and accurate statistical and graphic information on the Ontario (Canada) university system. There are four sections which provide: (1) financial data including revenues and expenses with expendable revenue by source, operating revenue by fund, and expenses by object class; (2) student data

  20. Vocational Rehabilitation in the United States. Disability Statistics Abstract Number 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, H. Stephen

    This abstract summarizes 1995 statistics from the Rehabilitation Services Administration concerning vocational rehabilitation (VR)in the United States. It notes that $2 billion in federal grants, matched by $645 million in state and local funds, provided VR services to 1.3 million individuals, of which 75.2 percent were classified as having severe

  1. Common pitfalls in statistical analysis: Absolute risk reduction, relative risk reduction, and number needed to treat

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Priya; Pramesh, C. S.; Aggarwal, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    In the previous article in this series on common pitfalls in statistical analysis, we looked at the difference between risk and odds. Risk, which refers to the probability of occurrence of an event or outcome, can be defined in absolute or relative terms. Understanding what these measures represent is essential for the accurate interpretation of study results.

  2. Disability Statistics in the Developing World: A Reflection on the Meanings in Our Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujiura, Glenn T.; Park, Hye J.; Rutkowski-Kmitta, Violet

    2005-01-01

    Background: The imbalance between the sheer size of the developing world and what little is known about the lives and life circumstances of persons with disabilities living there should command our attention. Method: International development initiatives routinely give great priority to the collection of statistical indicators yet even the most

  3. Manufacturing Numbers: How Inaccurate Statistics Conceal U.S. Industrial Decline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishel, Lawrence

    Contrary to a major statistical series calculated by the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Gross Product Originating (GPO) series, the United States has experienced a definite erosion of its industrial base between 1973 and 1985, with manufacturing dropping at least 2.8 percent and perhaps as much as 4.5 percent in its share of national…

  4. Statistical Tests of the Apple IIe Random Number Generator Yield Suggestions from Generator Seeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, John M.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses flaws in the Apple IIe Applesoft random number generator, RND, and reports results of frequency and serial correlation tests of the generator. Suggestions of seeds that yield sequences of numbers which pass fundamental screening tests for randomness are presented. (Author/LRW)

  5. Statistical Estimation of Some Irrational Numbers Using an Extension of Buffon's Needle Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velasco, S.; Roman, F. L.; Gonzalez, A.; White, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    In the nineteenth century many people tried to seek a value for the most famous irrational number, [pi], by means of an experiment known as Buffon's needle, consisting of throwing randomly a needle onto a surface ruled with straight parallel lines. Here we propose to extend this experiment in order to evaluate other irrational numbers, such as

  6. 16Stimator: statistical estimation of ribosomal gene copy numbers from draft genome assemblies.

    PubMed

    Perisin, Matthew; Vetter, Madlen; Gilbert, Jack A; Bergelson, Joy

    2016-04-01

    The 16S rRNA gene (16S) is an accepted marker of bacterial taxonomic diversity, even though differences in copy number obscure the relationship between amplicon and organismal abundances. Ancestral state reconstruction methods can predict 16S copy numbers through comparisons with closely related reference genomes; however, the database of closed genomes is limited. Here, we extend the reference database of 16S copy numbers to de novo assembled draft genomes by developing 16Stimator, a method to estimate 16S copy numbers when these repetitive regions collapse during assembly. Using a read depth approach, we estimate 16S copy numbers for 12 endophytic isolates from Arabidopsis thaliana and confirm estimates by qPCR. We further apply this approach to draft genomes deposited in NCBI and demonstrate accurate copy number estimation regardless of sequencing platform, with an overall median deviation of 14%. The expanded database of isolates with 16S copy number estimates increases the power of phylogenetic correction methods for determining organismal abundances from 16S amplicon surveys. PMID:26359911

  7. Estimating multilevel logistic regression models when the number of clusters is low: a comparison of different statistical software procedures.

    PubMed

    Austin, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    Multilevel logistic regression models are increasingly being used to analyze clustered data in medical, public health, epidemiological, and educational research. Procedures for estimating the parameters of such models are available in many statistical software packages. There is currently little evidence on the minimum number of clusters necessary to reliably fit multilevel regression models. We conducted a Monte Carlo study to compare the performance of different statistical software procedures for estimating multilevel logistic regression models when the number of clusters was low. We examined procedures available in BUGS, HLM, R, SAS, and Stata. We found that there were qualitative differences in the performance of different software procedures for estimating multilevel logistic models when the number of clusters was low. Among the likelihood-based procedures, estimation methods based on adaptive Gauss-Hermite approximations to the likelihood (glmer in R and xtlogit in Stata) or adaptive Gaussian quadrature (Proc NLMIXED in SAS) tended to have superior performance for estimating variance components when the number of clusters was small, compared to software procedures based on penalized quasi-likelihood. However, only Bayesian estimation with BUGS allowed for accurate estimation of variance components when there were fewer than 10 clusters. For all statistical software procedures, estimation of variance components tended to be poor when there were only five subjects per cluster, regardless of the number of clusters. PMID:20949128

  8. Photon-number-splitting versus cloning attacks in practical implementations of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol for quantum cryptography

    SciTech Connect

    Niederberger, Armand; Scarani, Valerio; Gisin, Nicolas

    2005-04-01

    In practical quantum cryptography, the source sometimes produces multiphoton pulses, thus enabling the eavesdropper Eve to perform the powerful photon-number-splitting (PNS) attack. Recently, it was shown by Curty and Luetkenhaus [Phys. Rev. A 69, 042321 (2004)] that the PNS attack is not always the optimal attack when two photons are present: if errors are present in the correlations Alice-Bob and if Eve cannot modify Bob's detection efficiency, Eve gains a larger amount of information using another attack based on a 2{yields}3 cloning machine. In this work, we extend this analysis to all distances Alice-Bob. We identify a new incoherent 2{yields}3 cloning attack which performs better than those described before. Using it, we confirm that, in the presence of errors, Eve's better strategy uses 2{yields}3 cloning attacks instead of the PNS. However, this improvement is very small for the implementations of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol. Thus, the existence of these new attacks is conceptually interesting but basically does not change the value of the security parameters of BB84. The main results are valid both for Poissonian and sub-Poissonian sources.

  9. Number needed to sacrifice: statistical taboo or decision-making tool?

    PubMed Central

    Trewby, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The percentage that benefit from medical preventive measures is small but all are exposed to the risk of side effects so most of those harmed would never benefit from their use. There is no expression or acronym to describe the ratio of harm to benefit nor discussion of what level of harm is acceptable for what benefit. Here we describe the harm to benefit ratio (HBR) expressed as number harmed (H) for 100 to benefit (B) and calculated for commonly used medical interventions. For post TIA carotid endarterectomy the HBR is 25 (25 postoperative strokes or deaths are caused for 100 to be stroke free at 5 years); warfarin in atrial fibrillation in patients aged under 65 results in 400 intracerebral haemorrhages for every 100 saved from a thromboembolic event; fibrinolytic treatment for stroke causes 44 symptomatic intracranial haemorrhages for every 100 that have minimal disability at 3 months; aspirin in high risk patients causes 33 major bleeds for every 100 occlusive vascular events prevented; routine inpatient thromboprophylaxis causes 133 additional bleeds for every 100 pulmonary emboli prevented; breast cancer screening causes 1000 unnecessary cancer treatments for 100 cancer deaths to be prevented. Conclusion: The HBR or number needed to sacrifice is larger than most imagine. Its wider use would allow us better to recognise the number harmed, allow better informed consent, compare different preventive strategies and understand the risks as well as benefits of preventive treatments. PMID:23560221

  10. A Statistical Analysis for Estimating Fish Number Density with the Use of a Multibeam Echosounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroth-Miller, Madeline L.

    Fish number density can be estimated from the normalized second moment of acoustic backscatter intensity [Denbigh et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 90, 457-469 (1991)]. This method assumes that the distribution of fish scattering amplitudes is known and that the fish are randomly distributed following a Poisson volume distribution within regions of constant density. It is most useful at low fish densities, relative to the resolution of the acoustic device being used, since the estimators quickly become noisy as the number of fish per resolution cell increases. New models that include noise contributions are considered. The methods were applied to an acoustic assessment of juvenile Atlantic Bluefin Tuna, Thunnus thynnus. The data were collected using a 400 kHz multibeam echo sounder during the summer months of 2009 in Cape Cod, MA. Due to the high resolution of the multibeam system used, the large size (approx. 1.5 m) of the tuna, and the spacing of the fish in the school, we expect there to be low fish densities relative to the resolution of the multibeam system. Results of the fish number density based on the normalized second moment of acoustic intensity are compared to fish packing density estimated using aerial imagery that was collected simultaneously.

  11. The transport character of quantum state in one-dimensional coupled-cavity arrays: effect of the number of photons and entanglement degree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shao-Qiang; Zhang, Guo-Feng

    2015-12-01

    The transport properties of the photons injected into one-dimensional coupled-cavity arrays (CCAs) are studied. It is found that the number of photons cannot change the evolution cycle of the system and the time points at which W states and NOON state are obtained with a relatively higher probability. Transport dynamics in the CCAs exhibits that entanglement-enhanced state transmission is more effective phenomenon, and we show that for a quantum state with the maximum concurrence, it can be transmitted completely without considering the case of photon loss.

  12. Calculating Confidence, Uncertainty, and Numbers of Samples When Using Statistical Sampling Approaches to Characterize and Clear Contaminated Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Matzke, Brett D.; Sego, Landon H.; Amidan, Brett G.

    2013-04-27

    This report discusses the methodology, formulas, and inputs needed to make characterization and clearance decisions for Bacillus anthracis-contaminated and uncontaminated (or decontaminated) areas using a statistical sampling approach. Specifically, the report includes the methods and formulas for calculating the • number of samples required to achieve a specified confidence in characterization and clearance decisions • confidence in making characterization and clearance decisions for a specified number of samples for two common statistically based environmental sampling approaches. In particular, the report addresses an issue raised by the Government Accountability Office by providing methods and formulas to calculate the confidence that a decision area is uncontaminated (or successfully decontaminated) if all samples collected according to a statistical sampling approach have negative results. Key to addressing this topic is the probability that an individual sample result is a false negative, which is commonly referred to as the false negative rate (FNR). The two statistical sampling approaches currently discussed in this report are 1) hotspot sampling to detect small isolated contaminated locations during the characterization phase, and 2) combined judgment and random (CJR) sampling during the clearance phase. Typically if contamination is widely distributed in a decision area, it will be detectable via judgment sampling during the characterization phrase. Hotspot sampling is appropriate for characterization situations where contamination is not widely distributed and may not be detected by judgment sampling. CJR sampling is appropriate during the clearance phase when it is desired to augment judgment samples with statistical (random) samples. The hotspot and CJR statistical sampling approaches are discussed in the report for four situations: 1. qualitative data (detect and non-detect) when the FNR = 0 or when using statistical sampling methods that account for FNR > 0 2. qualitative data when the FNR > 0 but statistical sampling methods are used that assume the FNR = 0 3. quantitative data (e.g., contaminant concentrations expressed as CFU/cm2) when the FNR = 0 or when using statistical sampling methods that account for FNR > 0 4. quantitative data when the FNR > 0 but statistical sampling methods are used that assume the FNR = 0. For Situation 2, the hotspot sampling approach provides for stating with Z% confidence that a hotspot of specified shape and size with detectable contamination will be found. Also for Situation 2, the CJR approach provides for stating with X% confidence that at least Y% of the decision area does not contain detectable contamination. Forms of these statements for the other three situations are discussed in Section 2.2. Statistical methods that account for FNR > 0 currently only exist for the hotspot sampling approach with qualitative data (or quantitative data converted to qualitative data). This report documents the current status of methods and formulas for the hotspot and CJR sampling approaches. Limitations of these methods are identified. Extensions of the methods that are applicable when FNR = 0 to account for FNR > 0, or to address other limitations, will be documented in future revisions of this report if future funding supports the development of such extensions. For quantitative data, this report also presents statistical methods and formulas for 1. quantifying the uncertainty in measured sample results 2. estimating the true surface concentration corresponding to a surface sample 3. quantifying the uncertainty of the estimate of the true surface concentration. All of the methods and formulas discussed in the report were applied to example situations to illustrate application of the methods and interpretation of the results.

  13. Effective atomic numbers for materials of medical interest at low photon energy using the Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Lama, L. S.; Soares, L. D. H.; Antoniassi, M.; Poletti, M. E.

    2015-06-01

    The Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio (R/C) has been used as a reliable quantitative method for materials analysis, especially biological ones Unlike the conventional transmission method, which is sensitive to linear attenuation coefficients, the R/C ratio is more useful for situations where the ? variations are small and the atomic number variations become more significant. In the present study, gamma rays from an 241Am source with an energy of 59.54 keV were used to determine the effective atomic numbers for several materials considering the conventional total cross-section based method (ZeffATTEN) and also the intensity ratio between elastic (Rayleigh) and inelastic (Compton) scattered photons (ZeffR/C). Common liquid and solid compounds used as phantoms for investigation of radiation interaction effects on biological tissues were analyzed. This work aimed to use the R/C method in choosing the most suitable phantom to simulate biological tissues, considering two different experimental conditions: attenuation and scattering. The Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio was shown to be a complementary approach to assist in the selection of appropriate tissue substitute materials.

  14. A new multitest correction (SGoF) that increases its statistical power when increasing the number of tests

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-Rodrguez, Antonio; de Ua-Alvarez, Jacobo; Roln-Alvarez, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    Background The detection of true significant cases under multiple testing is becoming a fundamental issue when analyzing high-dimensional biological data. Unfortunately, known multitest adjustments reduce their statistical power as the number of tests increase. We propose a new multitest adjustment, based on a sequential goodness of fit metatest (SGoF), which increases its statistical power with the number of tests. The method is compared with Bonferroni and FDR-based alternatives by simulating a multitest context via two different kinds of tests: 1) one-sample t-test, and 2) homogeneity G-test. Results It is shown that SGoF behaves especially well with small sample sizes when 1) the alternative hypothesis is weakly to moderately deviated from the null model, 2) there are widespread effects through the family of tests, and 3) the number of tests is large. Conclusion Therefore, SGoF should become an important tool for multitest adjustment when working with high-dimensional biological data. PMID:19586526

  15. Application of statistical mechanics to combinatorial optimization problems: the chromatic number problem and q-partitioning of a graph

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, P.Y.; Goldschmidt, Y.Y.

    1987-08-01

    Methods of statistical mechanics are applied to two important NP-complete combinatorial optimization problems. The first is the chromatic number problem, which seeks the minimal number of colors necessary to color a graph such that no two sites connected by an edge have the same color. The second is partitioning of a graph into q equal subgraphs so as to minimize intersubgraph connections. Both models are mapped into a frustrated Potts model, which is related to the q-state Potts spin glass. For the first problem, the authors obtain very good agreement with numerical simulations and theoretical bounds using the annealed approximation. The quenched model is also discussed. For the second problem they obtain analytic and numerical results by evaluating the groundstate energy of the q = 3 and 4 Potts spin glass using Parisi's replica symmetry breaking. They also perform some numerical simulations to test the theoretical result and obtain very good agreement.

  16. Three-dimensional photon counting microscopy using Bayesian estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, M.

    2014-09-01

    We present three-dimensional photon counting microscopy using Bayesian estimation. To record the light intensity information of objects in photon-starved conditions, photon counting imaging can be used. In conventional photon counting imaging, maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) or Bayesian estimation with uniform statistical parameters has been used for 3D visualization. Since MLE does not use the prior information of the estimated target, its visual quality is not enough to recognize 3D microorganisms when low number of photons is used. In addition, because Bayesian estimation with uniform statistical parameters uses fixed statistical parameters over the whole image, the estimated image seems to be image with boost-up light intensity. On the other hand, our proposed method uses the nonuniform statistical parameters for prior information of microorganisms to estimate 3D profile of them. Therefore, this method may enhance the visual quality of 3D microscopy results with low number of photons.

  17. An all-statistics, high-speed algorithm for the analysis of copy number variation in genomes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Hao; Lee, Hsing-Chung; Ling, Qingdong; Chen, Hsiao-Rong; Ko, Yi-An; Tsou, Tsong-Shan; Wang, Sun-Chong; Wu, Li-Ching; Lee, H C

    2011-07-01

    Detection of copy number variation (CNV) in DNA has recently become an important method for understanding the pathogenesis of cancer. While existing algorithms for extracting CNV from microarray data have worked reasonably well, the trend towards ever larger sample sizes and higher resolution microarrays has vastly increased the challenges they face. Here, we present Segmentation analysis of DNA (SAD), a clustering algorithm constructed with a strategy in which all operational decisions are based on simple and rigorous applications of statistical principles, measurement theory and precise mathematical relations. Compared with existing packages, SAD is simpler in formulation, more user friendly, much faster and less thirsty for memory, offers higher accuracy and supplies quantitative statistics for its predictions. Unique among such algorithms, SAD's running time scales linearly with array size; on a typical modern notebook, it completes high-quality CNV analyses for a 250 thousand-probe array in ?1?s and a 1.8 million-probe array in ?8?s. PMID:21576227

  18. Adequate statistical methods to reduce the number of animals used in behavioural experiments: the analysis of the behavioural transitions.

    PubMed

    Puopolo, Maria; Pesciolini, Aldina Venerosi; Chiarotti, Flavia; Ricceri, Laura

    2004-06-01

    In ethological and behavioural toxicological studies, elaborate behavioural patterns shown by the animals under well-established experimental paradigms or naturalistic conditions are routinely observed and split into single behavioural items. Subsequently, these items are analysed in terms of their frequencies and/or durations. Behavioural observations are usually videotaped and scored by dedicated softwares, which collect the sequences of behavioural items together with frequencies and durations. So far, the Cox proportional hazards model, a method originally developed for the analysis of time-to-event data, has been employed for the analysis of the time-structure of behaviour, but its usefulness has been limited because of difficulties in including random effects in the model. Recent developments in mixed models for the analysis of time-to-event data may overcome this limitation and improve the analysis of behavioural patterns. Data from social interactions in mice on the effects of exposure to chlorpyrifos, a widely used organophosphorous pesticide, are presented to illustrate the use of these new statistical methods. Our results suggest that the study of behavioural sequences may highlight the role of the investigated conditions (treatments, genetic condition, social status) in setting behavioural organisations. In addition, the refinement of statistical methods by time-structured analysis provides more detailed information from an experimental data set, thus contributing to the reduction of the number of animals used in this field of the life sciences. PMID:23577469

  19. Dependence of spectral shape of bremsstrahlung spectra on atomic number of target materials in the photon energy range of 5-30 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Tajinder; Kahlon, K. S.; Dhaliwal, A. S.

    2012-02-01

    Dependence of spectral shape of total bremsstrahlung spectra i.e. the sum of ordinary bremsstrahlung (OB) and polarization bremsstrahlung (PB), on the atomic number ( Z) of target materials (Al, Ti, Sn and Pb), produced by continuous beta particles of 90Sr and 204Tl, has been investigated in the photon energy region of 5-30 keV. It has been found that the spectral shape of total bremsstrahlung spectra, in terms of S ( k, Z) i.e. the number of photons of energy k per moc2 per beta disintegration, is not linearly dependent on the atomic number ( Z) of the target material and rather it is proportional to Zn. At lower photon energies, the index values ' n' of Z-dependence are much higher than unity, which is due to the larger contribution of PB into OB. The decrease in ' n' values with increase of photon energy is due to the decrease in contribution of PB into OB. It is clear that the index ' n' values obtained from the modified Elwert factor (relativistic) Bethe-Heitler theory, which include the contribution PB into OB, are in agreement with the experimentally measured results using X-PIPS Si(Li) detector. Hence the contribution of PB into the formation of a spectral shape of total bremsstrahlung spectra plays a vital role.

  20. Studies on effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption and electron density of some narcotic drugs in the energy range 1 keV-20 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gounhalli, Shivraj G.; Shantappa, Anil; Hanagodimath, S. M.

    2013-04-01

    Effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption ZPEA,eff, photon interaction ZPI,eff and for electron density Nel, have been calculated by a direct method in the photon-energy region from 1 keV to 20 MeV for narcotic drugs, such as Heroin (H), Cocaine (CO), Caffeine (CA), Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Cannabinol (CBD), Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV). The ZPEA,eff, ZPI,eff and Nel values have been found to change with energy and composition of the narcotic drugs. The energy dependence ZPEA,eff, ZPI,eff and Nel is shown graphically. The maximum difference between the values of ZPEA,eff, and ZPI,eff occurs at 30 keV and the significant difference of 2 to 33% for the energy region 5-100 keV for all drugs. The reason for these differences is discussed.

  1. Polymer-Induced Drag Reduction: Budgets for Reynolds Stresses, Enstrophy and Higher Order Statistics up to Friction Reynolds Number 590.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housiadas, Kostas; Beris, Antony

    2002-11-01

    We present a wide post-processing of our results obtained from direct numerical simulations of turbulent viscoelastic channel flow modeled by the FENE-P and the Giesekus model. The flow parameters are the friction Reynolds number, Re_0, the friction Weissenberg number, We_0, the molecular extensibility, L, for the FENE-P model, or the anisotropic mobility parameter, , for Giesekus and the ratio of the solvent to the total viscosity, . We have performed four main series of runs to investigate: (a) the effect of the elasticity by varying the We_0 from 0 to 125, (b) the effect of inertia by varying Re_0 from 125 to 590, (c) the effect of the chain molecular weight by varying L from 10 to 30 and (d) the effect of the molecular concentration of the polymer by varying from 0.9 to 0.99. We present the following statistic results: (i) energy budgets for the Reynolds stresses (ii) energy budgets for the enstrophy (offering a new grouping of terms), (iii) quadrant analysis for the Reynolds stresses and (iv) the energy spectrum.

  2. A new approach to mathematical statistics involving the number of degrees of freedom, temperature, and symplectically conjugate quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslov, V. P.; Maslova, T. V.

    2013-07-01

    We introduce several new notions in mathematical statistics that bridge the gap between this discipline and statistical physics. The analogy between them is useful both for mathematics and for physics. What is more, this new mathematical statistics is adequate for the study of computer networks and self-teaching systems. The role of the web in sociological and economic research is ascertained.

  3. Statistical analysis on activation and photo-bleaching of step-wise multi-photon activation fluorescence of melanin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Zetong; Lai, Zhenhua; Zhang, Xi; Yin, Jihao; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2015-03-01

    Melanin is regarded as the most enigmatic pigments/biopolymers found in most organisms. We have shown previously that melanin goes through a step-wise multi-photon absorption process after the fluorescence has been activated with high laser intensity. No melanin step-wise multi-photon activation fluorescence (SMPAF) can be obtained without the activation process. The step-wise multi-photon activation fluorescence has been observed to require less laser power than what would be expected from a non-linear optical process. In this paper, we examined the power dependence of the activation process of melanin SMPAF at 830nm and 920nm wavelengths. We have conducted research using varying the laser power to activate the melanin in a point-scanning mode for multi-photon microscopy. We recorded the fluorescence signals and position. A sequence of experiments indicates the relationship of activation to power, energy and time so that we can optimize the power level. Also we explored regional analysis of melanin to study the spatial relationship in SMPAF and define three types of regions which exhibit differences in the activation process.

  4. Statistical Analysis of Photonic Crystal Spectra for the Independent Determination of the Size and Refractive Index of Cells.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Justin William; Pyayt, Anna

    2015-07-01

    Photonic crystal flow cytometry is a very attractive platform due to its great sensitivity in combination with a very compact design. Previous studies have demonstrated the possibility to use spectral processing for the measurement of a wide range of parameters, from simple object counting to independent analysis of the buffer solution and immersed microscale objects. Here we propose to go to the next level and simultaneously determine the shape and the refractive index of the cells. PMID:26073041

  5. Statistical performance evaluation and comparison of a Compton medical imaging system and a collimated Anger camera for higher energy photon imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Li; Rogers, W. Leslie; Huh, Sam S.; Clinthorne, Neal

    2008-12-01

    In radionuclide treatment, tumor cells are primarily destroyed by charged particles emitted by the compound while associated higher energy photons are used to image the tumor in order to determine radiation dose and monitor shrinkage. However, the higher energy photons are difficult to image with conventional collimated Anger cameras, since a tradeoff exists between resolution and sensitivity, and the collimator septal penetration and scattering is increased due to the high energy photons. This research compares imaging performance of the conventional Anger camera to a Compton imaging system that can have improved spatial resolution and sensitivity for high energy photons because this tradeoff is decoupled, and the effect of Doppler broadening at higher gamma energies is decreased. System performance is analyzed by the modified uniform Cramer-Rao bound (M-UCRB) algorithms based on the developed system modeling. The bound shows that the effect of Doppler broadening is the limiting factor for Compton camera performance for imaging 364.4 keV photons emitted from 131I. According to the bound, the Compton camera outperforms the collimated system for an equal number of detected events when the desired spatial resolution for a 26 cm diameter uniform disk object is better than 12 mm FWHM. For a 3D cylindrical phantom, the lower bound on variance for the collimated camera is greater than for the Compton imaginer over the resolution range from 0.5 to 2 cm FWHM. Furthermore, the detection sensitivity of the proposed Compton imaging system is about 15-20 times higher than that of the collimated Anger camera.

  6. Low-photon-number optical switch and AND/OR logic gates based on quantum dot-bimodal cavity coupling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shen; Ye, Han; Yu, Zhong-Yuan; Zhang, Wen; Peng, Yi-Wei; Cheng, Xiang; Liu, Yu-Min

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new scheme based on quantum dot-bimodal cavity coupling system to realize all-optical switch and logic gates in low-photon-number regime. Suppression of mode transmission due to the destructive interference effect is theoretically demonstrated by driving the cavity with two orthogonally polarized pulsed lasers at certain pulse delay. The transmitted mode can be selected by designing laser pulse sequence. The optical switch with high on-off ratio emerges when considering one driving laser as the control. Moreover, the AND/OR logic gates based on photon polarization are achieved by cascading the coupling system. Both proposed optical switch and logic gates work well in ultra-low energy magnitude. Our work may enable various applications of all-optical computing and quantum information processing.

  7. Low-photon-number optical switch and AND/OR logic gates based on quantum dot-bimodal cavity coupling system.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shen; Ye, Han; Yu, Zhong-Yuan; Zhang, Wen; Peng, Yi-Wei; Cheng, Xiang; Liu, Yu-Min

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new scheme based on quantum dot-bimodal cavity coupling system to realize all-optical switch and logic gates in low-photon-number regime. Suppression of mode transmission due to the destructive interference effect is theoretically demonstrated by driving the cavity with two orthogonally polarized pulsed lasers at certain pulse delay. The transmitted mode can be selected by designing laser pulse sequence. The optical switch with high on-off ratio emerges when considering one driving laser as the control. Moreover, the AND/OR logic gates based on photon polarization are achieved by cascading the coupling system. Both proposed optical switch and logic gates work well in ultra-low energy magnitude. Our work may enable various applications of all-optical computing and quantum information processing. PMID:26750557

  8. Low-photon-number optical switch and AND/OR logic gates based on quantum dot-bimodal cavity coupling system

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Shen; Ye, Han; Yu, Zhong-Yuan; Zhang, Wen; Peng, Yi-Wei; Cheng, Xiang; Liu, Yu-Min

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new scheme based on quantum dot-bimodal cavity coupling system to realize all-optical switch and logic gates in low-photon-number regime. Suppression of mode transmission due to the destructive interference effect is theoretically demonstrated by driving the cavity with two orthogonally polarized pulsed lasers at certain pulse delay. The transmitted mode can be selected by designing laser pulse sequence. The optical switch with high on-off ratio emerges when considering one driving laser as the control. Moreover, the AND/OR logic gates based on photon polarization are achieved by cascading the coupling system. Both proposed optical switch and logic gates work well in ultra-low energy magnitude. Our work may enable various applications of all-optical computing and quantum information processing. PMID:26750557

  9. Energy dependence of effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption and photon interaction: studies of some biological molecules in the energy range 1 keV-20 MeV.

    PubMed

    Manohara, S R; Hanagodimath, S M; Gerward, L

    2008-01-01

    Effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption, Z(PEA,eff), and for photon interaction, Z(PI,eff), have been calculated by a direct method in the photon-energy region from 1 keV to 20 MeV for biological molecules, such as fatty acids (lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic, and arachidic acids), nucleotide bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil, and thymine), and carbohydrates (glucose, sucrose, raffinose, and starch). The Z(PEA,eff) and Z(PI,eff) values have been found to change with energy and composition of the biological molecules. The energy dependence of the mass attenuation coefficient, Z(PEA,eff), and the mass energy-absorption coefficient, Z(PI,eff), is shown graphically and in tabular form. Significant differences of 17%-38% between Z(PI,eff) and Z(PEA,eff) occur in the energy region 5-100 keV. The reasons for these differences, and for using Z(PEA,eff) rather than Z(PI,eff) in calculations of the absorbed dose, are discussed. PMID:18293593

  10. Determination of Particle Size and Number Density of Opaque Colloidal Mixtures Using Diffuse Photon Density Waves and Two-Wavelength Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Jun; Murata, Hiroshi; Okamura, Yasuyuki

    2007-05-01

    A diffuse photon density wave (DPDW) propagates as a spherical energy wave in highly scattering media, such as opaque colloidal mixtures. The advantage of using DPDW is that the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the opaque colloidal mixtures can be measured without dilution and calibration. We propose a method for the estimation of the mean particle size and number density of the opaque colloidal mixtures using the relationship between estimated values and optical properties. In this study, we first determined the mean particle size and number density of colloidal silica, a single-particle dispersive medium, to confirm the validity of the method and evaluated the accuracy of the measurement. Then, we determined the mean particle size and number density of casein micelles and fat globules in milk, which is regarded as a typical opaque colloidal mixture, using two light sources with different wavelengths.

  11. Skin Conditions of Youths 12-17, United States. Vital and Health Statistics; Series 11, Number 157.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jean; Ludford, Jacqueline

    This report of the National Center for Health Statistics presents national estimates of the prevalence of facial acne and other skin lesions among noninstitutionalized youths aged 12-17 years by age, race, sex, geographic region, population size of place of residence, family income, education of parent, overall health, indications of stress,…

  12. Determination of confidence limits for experiments with low numbers of counts. [Poisson-distributed photon counts from astrophysical sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Ralph P.; Burrows, David N.; Nousek, John A.

    1991-01-01

    Two different methods, classical and Bayesian, for determining confidence intervals involving Poisson-distributed data are compared. Particular consideration is given to cases where the number of counts observed is small and is comparable to the mean number of background counts. Reasons for preferring the Bayesian over the classical method are given. Tables of confidence limits calculated by the Bayesian method are provided for quick reference.

  13. Calculation of effective atomic number and electron density of essential biomolecules for electron, proton, alpha particle and multi-energetic photon interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurudirek, Murat; Onaran, Tayfur

    2015-07-01

    Effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and electron densities (Ne) of some essential biomolecules have been calculated for total electron interaction, total proton interaction and total alpha particle interaction using an interpolation method in the energy region 10 keV-1 GeV. Also, the spectrum weighted Zeff for multi-energetic photons has been calculated using Auto-Zeff program. Biomolecules consist of fatty acids, amino acids, carbohydrates and basic nucleotides of DNA and RNA. Variations of Zeff and Ne with kinetic energy of ionizing charged particles and effective photon energies of heterogeneous sources have been studied for the given materials. Significant variations in Zeff and Ne have been observed through the entire energy region for electron, proton and alpha particle interactions. Non-uniform variation has been observed for protons and alpha particles in low and intermediate energy regions, respectively. The maximum values of Zeff have found to be in higher energies for total electron interaction whereas maximum values have found to be in relatively low energies for total proton and total alpha particle interactions. When it comes to the multi-energetic photon sources, it has to be noted that the highest Zeff values were found at low energy region where photoelectric absorption is the pre-dominant interaction process. The lowest values of Zeff have been shown in biomolecules such as stearic acid, leucine, mannitol and thymine, which have highest H content in their groups. Variation in Ne seems to be more or less the same with the variation in Zeff for the given materials as expected.

  14. Two-state theory of binned photon statistics for a large class of waiting time distributions and its application to quantum dot blinking

    SciTech Connect

    Volkán-Kacsó, Sándor

    2014-06-14

    A theoretical method is proposed for the calculation of the photon counting probability distribution during a bin time. Two-state fluorescence and steady excitation are assumed. A key feature is a kinetic scheme that allows for an extensive class of stochastic waiting time distribution functions, including power laws, expanded as a sum of weighted decaying exponentials. The solution is analytic in certain conditions, and an exact and simple expression is found for the integral contribution of “bright” and “dark” states. As an application for power law kinetics, theoretical results are compared with experimental intensity histograms from a number of blinking CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. The histograms are consistent with distributions of intensity states around a “bright” and a “dark” maximum. A gap of states is also revealed in the more-or-less flat inter-peak region. The slope and to some extent the flatness of the inter-peak feature are found to be sensitive to the power-law exponents. Possible models consistent with these findings are discussed, such as the combination of multiple charging and fluctuating non-radiative channels or the multiple recombination center model. A fitting of the latter to experiment provides constraints on the interaction parameter between the recombination centers. Further extensions and applications of the photon counting theory are also discussed.

  15. Statistical Studies on Protein Polymorphism in Natural Populations. III. Distribution of Allele Frequencies and the Number of Alleles per Locus

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Ranajit; Fuerst, Paul A.; Nei, Masatoshi

    1980-01-01

    With the aim of understanding the mechanism of maintenance of protein polymorphism, we have studied the properties of allele frequency distribution and the number of alleles per locus, using gene-frequency data from a wide range of organisms (mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, Drosophila and non-Drosophila invertebrates) in which 20 or more loci with at least 100 genes were sampled. The observed distribution of allele frequencies was U-shaped in all of the 138 populations (mostly species or subspecies) examined and generally agreed with the theoretical distribution expected under the mutation-drift hypothesis, though there was a significant excess of rare alleles (gene frequency, 0 ? 0.05) in about a quarter of the populations. The agreement between the mutation-drift theory and observed data was quite satisfactory for the numbers of polymorphic (gene frequency, 0.05 ? 0.95) and monomorphic (0.95 ? 1.0) alleles.The observed pattern of allele-frequency distribution was incompatible with the prediction from the overdominance hypothesis. The observed correlations of the numbers of rare alleles, polymorphic alleles and monomorphic alleles with heterozygosity were of the order of magnitude that was expected under the mutation-drift hypothesis. Our results did not support the view that intracistronic recombination is an important source of genetic variation. The total number of alleles per locus was positively correlated with molecular weight in most of the species examined, and the magnitude of the correlation was consistent with the theoretical prediction from mutation-drift hypothesis. The correlation between molecular weight and the number of alleles was generally higher than the correlation between molecular weight and heterozygosity, as expected. PMID:17249018

  16. Study of surface plasmon statistics by optical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oszetzky, Dniel; Kro, Norbert; Nagy, Attila; Czitrovszky, Aladr

    2008-08-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental studies indicated that at certain conditions surface plasmon oscillations (SPOs) may show non-classical properties. In this study we present the results of our measurements on spatial distribution and photon statistics of the light emitted by surface plasmon oscillations. Both visible and near infrared lasers have been used for generation of surface plasmons. The experiments were performed in the Kretschmann geometry using both gold and silver layers at several laser pumping powers. We used different type of photo detectors in the photon counting regime to measure the statistical properties of the light generated by surface plasmons. The photon statistics have been measured by different methods. Time interval statistics, photon-number distribution and correlation function of the generated light were determined and compared to those of the exciting laser. Correlations between statistical properties of the light emitted by decaying surface plasmons and the exciting laser source have been studied.

  17. Book Trade Research and Statistics. Prices of U.S. and Foreign Published Materials; Book Title Output and Average Prices: 2001 Final and 2002 Preliminary Figures; Book Sales Statistics, 2002: AAP Preliminary Estimates; U.S. Book Exports and Imports:2002; Number of Book Outlets in the United States and Canada; Review Media Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Sharon G.; Grabois, Andrew; Greco, Albert N.

    2003-01-01

    Includes six reports related to book trade statistics, including prices of U.S. and foreign materials; book title output and average prices; book sales statistics; book exports and imports; book outlets in the U.S. and Canada; and numbers of books and other media reviewed by major reviewing publications. (LRW)

  18. On Asymptotic Properties of a Number Theoretic Function Arising out of a Spin Chain Modelin Statistical Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallies, J.; zlk, A.; Peter, M.; Snyder, C.

    Let Let N be a positive integer and define ?(N) as the number of matrices, C, which are products of A and B, where both A and B must occur, such that the trace, Tr(C)=N. It has been conjectured that see [10]. In this note we consider the summatory function and show that

  19. Statistical Approach to Decreasing the Error Rate of Noninvasive Prenatal Aneuploid Detection caused by Maternal Copy Number Variation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Han; Zhao, Yang-Yu; Song, Jing; Zhu, Qi-Ying; Yang, Hua; Zheng, Mei-Ling; Xuan, Zhao-Ling; Wei, Yuan; Chen, Yang; Yuan, Peng-Bo; Yu, Yang; Li, Da-Wei; Liang, Jun-Bin; Fan, Ling; Chen, Chong-Jian; Qiao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of cell-free fetal DNA (cff-DNA) from maternal plasma using massively parallel sequencing enable the noninvasive detection of feto-placental chromosome aneuploidy; this technique has been widely used in clinics worldwide. Noninvasive prenatal tests (NIPT) based on cff-DNA have achieved very high accuracy; however, they suffer from maternal copy-number variations (CNV) that may cause false positives and false negatives. In this study, we developed an algorithm to exclude the effect of maternal CNV and refined the Z-score that is used to determine fetal aneuploidy. The simulation results showed that the algorithm is robust against variations of fetal concentration and maternal CNV size. We also introduced a method based on the discrepancy between feto-placental concentrations to help reduce the false-positive ratio. A total of 6615 pregnant women were enrolled in a prospective study to validate the accuracy of our method. All 106 fetuses with T21, 20 with T18, and three with T13 were tested using our method, with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 99.97%. In the results, two cases with maternal duplications in chromosome 21, which were falsely predicted as T21 by the previous NIPT method, were correctly classified as normal by our algorithm, which demonstrated the effectiveness of our approach. PMID:26534864

  20. Implication of nonintegral occupation number and Fermi-Dirac statistics in the local-spin-density approximation applied to finite systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dhar, S.

    1989-02-01

    In electronic-structure calculations for finite systems using the local-spin-density (LSD) approximation, it is assumed that the eigenvalues of the Kohn-Sham equation should obey Fermi-Dirac (FD) statistics. In order to comply with this assumption for some of the transition-metal atoms, a nonintegral occupation number is used which also minimizes the total energy. It is shown here that for finite systems it is not necessary that the eigenvalues of the Kohn-Sham equation obey FD statistics. It is also shown that the Kohn-Sham exchange potential used in all LSD models is correct only for integer occupation number. With a noninteger occupation number the LSD exchange potential will be smaller than that given by the Kohn-Sham potential. Ab initio self-consistent spin-polarized calculations have been performed numerically for the total energy of an iron atom. It is found that the ground state belongs to the 3d/sup 6/4s/sup 2/ configuration. The ionization potentials of all the Fe/sup n//sup +/ ions are reported and are in agreement with experiment.

  1. Information content per photon versus image fidelity in three-dimensional photon-counting integral imaging.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Majeed M; Narravula, Srikanth; Pepin, Matthew; Javidi, Bahram

    2012-10-01

    Photon-counting integral imaging has been introduced recently, and its applications in three-dimensional (3D) object sensing, visualization, recognition, and classification under photon-starved conditions have been demonstrated. This paper sheds light on the underlying information-theoretic foundation behind the ability of photon-counting integral imaging in performing complex tasks with far fewer photons than conventional imaging systems. A metric for photon-information content is formulated in the context of 3D photon-counting imaging, and its properties are investigated. It is shown that there is an inherent trade-off between imaging fidelity, measured by the entropy-normalized mutual information associated with a given imaging system, and the amount of information in each photon used in the imaging process, as represented by the photon-number-normalized mutual information. The dependence of this trade-off on photon statistics, correlation in the 3D image, and the signal-to-noise ratio of the photon-detection system is also investigated. PMID:23201651

  2. Health Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... them all the time in the news - the number of people who were in the hospital last year, the ... all types of health statistics. Health statistics are numbers about some ... of diseases in groups of people. This can help in figuring out who is ...

  3. Photon statistics in enhanced fluorescence from a single CdSe/ZnS quantum dot in the vicinity of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuo, Sadahiro; Naiki, Hiroyuki; Machida, Shinjiro; Itaya, Akira

    2009-11-01

    Single-photon emission behavior in the enhanced fluorescence from single colloidal quantum dots (QDs) near silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was investigated using a single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy technique. It was found that the degree of fluorescence enhancement from single QDs with AgNPs increased with decrease in the lifetime and the probability of single-photon emission, that is, highly enhanced fluorescence with a shortened lifetime exhibited a low probability of single-photon emission. The present results yield new insights into fundamentals of QD-metal nanostructure interactions, and are also important to understand the mechanism of the fluorescence enhancement by localized surface plasmon of metal nanostructures.

  4. Photon position measure

    SciTech Connect

    Hawton, Margaret

    2010-07-15

    The positive operator valued measure (POVM) for a photon counting array detector is derived and found to equal photon flux density integrated over pixel area and measurement time. Since photon flux density equals number density multiplied by the speed of light, this justifies theoretically the observation that a photon counting array provides a coarse-grained measurement of photon position. The POVM obtained here can be written as a set of projectors onto a basis of localized states, consistent with the description of photon position in a recent quantum imaging proposal [Tsang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 253601 (2009)]. The wave function that describes a photon counting experiment is the projection of the photon state vector onto this localized basis. Collapse is to the electromagnetic vacuum and not to a localized state, thus violating the textbook rules of quantum mechanics but compatible with the theory of generalized observables and the nonlocalizability of an incoming photon.

  5. Equivalence between fractional exclusion statistics and self-consistent mean-field theory in interacting-particle systems in any number of dimensions.

    PubMed

    Anghel, D V; Nemnes, G A; Gulminelli, F

    2013-10-01

    We describe a mean field interacting particle system in any number of dimensions and in a generic external potential as an ideal gas with fractional exclusion statistics (FES). We define the FES quasiparticle energies, we calculate the FES parameters of the system and we deduce the equations for the equilibrium particle populations. The FES gas is "ideal," in the sense that the quasiparticle energies do not depend on the other quasiparticle levels' populations and the sum of the quasiparticle energies is equal to the total energy of the system. We prove that the FES formalism is equivalent to the semiclassical or Thomas Fermi limit of the self-consistent mean-field theory and the FES quasiparticle populations may be calculated from the Landau quasiparticle populations by making the correspondence between the FES and the Landau quasiparticle energies. The FES provides a natural semiclassical ideal gas description of the interacting particle gas. PMID:24229158

  6. RANDOMNESS of Numbers DEFINITION(QUERY:WHAT? V HOW?) ONLY Via MAXWELL-BOLTZMANN CLASSICAL-Statistics(MBCS) Hot-Plasma VS. Digits-Clumping Log-Law NON-Randomness Inversion ONLY BOSE-EINSTEIN QUANTUM-Statistics(BEQS) .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Z.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    RANDOMNESS of Numbers cognitive-semantics DEFINITION VIA Cognition QUERY: WHAT???, NOT HOW?) VS. computer-``science" mindLESS number-crunching (Harrel-Sipser-...) algorithmics Goldreich "PSEUDO-randomness"[Not.AMS(02)] mea-culpa is ONLY via MAXWELL-BOLTZMANN CLASSICAL-STATISTICS(NOT FDQS!!!) "hot-plasma" REPULSION VERSUS Newcomb(1881)-Weyl(1914;1916)-Benford(1938) "NeWBe" logarithmic-law digit-CLUMPING/ CLUSTERING NON-Randomness simple Siegel[AMS Joint.Mtg.(02)-Abs. # 973-60-124] algebraic-inversion to THE QUANTUM and ONLY BEQS preferentially SEQUENTIALLY lower-DIGITS CLUMPING/CLUSTERING with d = 0 BEC, is ONLY VIA Siegel-Baez FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS (SON OF TRIZ)/"Category-Semantics"(C-S), latter intersection/union of Lawvere(1964)-Siegel(1964)] category-theory (matrix: MORPHISMS V FUNCTORS) "+" cognitive-semantics'' (matrix: ANTONYMS V SYNONYMS) yields Siegel-Baez FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS/C-S tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics: MBCS RANDOMNESS TRUTH/EMET!!!

  7. Statistical modelling of particle number concentration in Zurich at high spatio-temporal resolution utilizing data from a mobile sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, M. D.; Hasenfratz, David; Saukh, Olga; Fierz, Martin; Hueglin, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    Highly resolved pollution maps are a valuable resource for many issues related to air quality including exposure modelling and urban planning. We present an approach for their generation based on data from a mobile sensor network and statistical modelling. An extensive record of particle number concentrations (PNCs) spanning more than 1.5 years was compiled by the tram-based OpenSense mobile sensor network in the City of Zurich. The sensor network consists of 10 sensor nodes installed on the roof of trams operating on different services according to their regular operation schedules. We developed a statistical modelling approach based on Generalized Additive models (GAMs) utilizing the PNC data obtained along the tram tracks as well as georeferenced information as predictor variables. Our approach includes a variable selection algorithm to ensure that individual models rely on the optimal set of predictor variables. Our models have high temporal and spatial resolutions of 30 min and 10 m by 10 m, respectively, and allow the spatial prediction of PNC in the municipal area of Zurich. We applied our approach to PNC data from two dedicated time periods: July-Sept. 2013 and Dec. 2013-Feb. 2014. The models strongly rely on traffic related predictor variables (vehicle counts) and, due to the hilly topography of Zurich, on elevation. We assessed the model performance by leave-one-out cross-validation and by comparing PNC predictions to measurements at fixed reference sites and to PNC measurements obtained by pedestrians. Model predictions reproduce well the main features of the PNC field in environment types similar to those passed by individual trams. Model performance is worse at elevated background locations probably due to the weak coverage of similar spots by the tram network. We end the paper by outlining a route finding algorithm which utilizes the highly resolved PNC maps providing the exposure minimal route for cyclists.

  8. Photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1988-07-01

    Highlights of the VIIIth International Workshop on Photon-Photon Collisions are reviewed. New experimental and theoretical results were reported in virtually every area of ..gamma gamma.. physics, particularly in exotic resonance production and tests of quantum chromodynamics where asymptotic freedom and factorization theorems provide predictions for both inclusive and exclusive ..gamma gamma.. reactions at high momentum transfer. 73 refs., 12 figs.

  9. Statistically background-free, phase-preserving parametric up-conversion with faint light.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y-H; Thomay, Tim; Solomon, Glenn S; Migdall, Alan L; Polyakov, Sergey V

    2015-07-13

    We demonstrate up-conversion with no statistically significant background photons and a dynamic range of 15 decades. Near-infrared 920 nm photons were converted into the visible at 577 nm using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides pumped by a 1550 nm laser. In addition to achieving statistically noiseless frequency up-conversion, we report a high degree of phase preservation (with fringe visibilities ? 0.97) at the single-photon level using an up-converting Mach-Zehnder interferometer. This background-free process opens a path to single-photon detection with no intrinsic dark count. Combined with a demonstrated photon-number preserving property of an up-converter, this work demonstrates the feasibility of noiseless frequency up-conversion of entangled photon pairs. PMID:26191926

  10. Part 2. Development of Enhanced Statistical Methods for Assessing Health Effects Associated with an Unknown Number of Major Sources of Multiple Air Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Sug; Symanski, Elaine; Han, Daikwon; Spiegelman, Clifford

    2015-06-01

    A major difficulty with assessing source-specific health effects is that source-specific exposures cannot be measured directly; rather, they need to be estimated by a source-apportionment method such as multivariate receptor modeling. The uncertainty in source apportionment (uncertainty in source-specific exposure estimates and model uncertainty due to the unknown number of sources and identifiability conditions) has been largely ignored in previous studies. Also, spatial dependence of multipollutant data collected from multiple monitoring sites has not yet been incorporated into multivariate receptor modeling. The objectives of this project are (1) to develop a multipollutant approach that incorporates both sources of uncertainty in source-apportionment into the assessment of source-specific health effects and (2) to develop enhanced multivariate receptor models that can account for spatial correlations in the multipollutant data collected from multiple sites. We employed a Bayesian hierarchical modeling framework consisting of multivariate receptor models, health-effects models, and a hierarchical model on latent source contributions. For the health model, we focused on the time-series design in this project. Each combination of number of sources and identifiability conditions (additional constraints on model parameters) defines a different model. We built a set of plausible models with extensive exploratory data analyses and with information from previous studies, and then computed posterior model probability to estimate model uncertainty. Parameter estimation and model uncertainty estimation were implemented simultaneously by Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC*) methods. We validated the methods using simulated data. We illustrated the methods using PM2.5 (particulate matter ? 2.5 ?m in aerodynamic diameter) speciation data and mortality data from Phoenix, Arizona, and Houston, Texas. The Phoenix data included counts of cardiovascular deaths and daily PM2.5 speciation data from 1995-1997. The Houston data included respiratory mortality data and 24-hour PM2.5 speciation data sampled every six days from a region near the Houston Ship Channel in years 2002-2005. We also developed a Bayesian spatial multivariate receptor modeling approach that, while simultaneously dealing with the unknown number of sources and identifiability conditions, incorporated spatial correlations in the multipollutant data collected from multiple sites into the estimation of source profiles and contributions based on the discrete process convolution model for multivariate spatial processes. This new modeling approach was applied to 24-hour ambient air concentrations of 17 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured at nine monitoring sites in Harris County, Texas, during years 2000 to 2005. Simulation results indicated that our methods were accurate in identifying the true model and estimated parameters were close to the true values. The results from our methods agreed in general with previous studies on the source apportionment of the Phoenix data in terms of estimated source profiles and contributions. However, we had a greater number of statistically insignificant findings, which was likely a natural consequence of incorporating uncertainty in the estimated source contributions into the health-effects parameter estimation. For the Houston data, a model with five sources (that seemed to be Sulfate-Rich Secondary Aerosol, Motor Vehicles, Industrial Combustion, Soil/Crustal Matter, and Sea Salt) showed the highest posterior model probability among the candidate models considered when fitted simultaneously to the PM2.5 and mortality data. There was a statistically significant positive association between respiratory mortality and same-day PM2.5 concentrations attributed to one of the sources (probably industrial combustion). The Bayesian spatial multivariate receptor modeling approach applied to the VOC data led to a highest posterior model probability for a model with five sources (that seemed to be refinery, petrochemical production, gasoline evaporation, natural gas, and vehicular exhaust) among several candidate models, with the number of sources varying between three and seven and with different identifiability conditions. Our multipollutant approach assessing source-specific health effects is more advantageous than a single-pollutant approach in that it can estimate total health effects from multiple pollutants and can also identify emission sources that are responsible for adverse health effects. Our Bayesian approach can incorporate not only uncertainty in the estimated source contributions, but also model uncertainty that has not been addressed in previous studies on assessing source-specific health effects. The new Bayesian spatial multivariate receptor modeling approach enables predictions of source contributions at unmonitored sites, minimizing exposure misclassification and providing improved exposure estimates along with their uncertainty estimates, as well as accounting for uncertainty in the number of sources and identifiability conditions. PMID:26333239

  11. Digest of Education Statistics, 2012. NCES 2014-015 [Appendix A: Guide to Sources; Appendix B: Definitions; Appendix C: Index of Table Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Thomas D.; Dillow, Sally A.

    2013-01-01

    The 2012 edition of the "Digest of Education Statistics" is the 48th in a series of publications initiated in 1962. The "Digest" has been issued annually except for combined editions for the years 1977-78, 1983-84, and 1985-86. Its primary purpose is to provide a compilation of statistical information covering the broad field

  12. Digest of Education Statistics, 2011. NCES 2012-001 [Appendix A: Guide to Sources; Appendix B: Definitions; Appendix C: Index of Table Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Thomas D.; Dillow, Sally A.

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 edition of the "Digest of Education Statistics" is the 47th in a series of publications initiated in 1962. The "Digest" has been issued annually except for combined editions for the years 1977-78, 1983-84, and 1985-86. Its primary purpose is to provide a compilation of statistical information covering the broad field

  13. Synthetic Estimation of State Health Characteristics Based on the Health Interview Survey. Vital and Health Statistics. Series 2. Data Evaluation and Methods Research. Number 75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Paul S.; French, Dwight K.

    Synthetic estimation is a statistical technique that estimates small-area statistics by combining national estimates of the relevant characteristics with estimates of other known characteristics of the small geographic area. The advantages of the synthetic estimation approach to local estimation are its intuitive appeal, its simplicity, and its

  14. Statistical Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, Claudine

    Statistical Physics bridges the properties of a macroscopic system and the microscopic behavior of its constituting particles, otherwise impossible due to the giant magnitude of Avogadro's number. Numerous systems of today's key technologies - such as semiconductors or lasers - are macroscopic quantum objects; only statistical physics allows for understanding their fundamentals. Therefore, this graduate text also focuses on particular applications such as the properties of electrons in solids with applications, and radiation thermodynamics and the greenhouse effect.

  15. Photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The study of photon-photon collisions has progressed enormously, stimulated by new data and new calculational tools for QCD. In the future we can expect precise determinations of ..cap alpha../sub s/ and ..lambda../sup ms/ from the ..gamma..*..gamma.. ..-->.. ..pi../sup 0/ form factor and the photon structure function, as well as detailed checks of QCD, determination of the shape of the hadron distribution amplitudes from ..gamma gamma.. ..-->.. H anti H, reconstruction of sigma/sub ..gamma gamma../ from exclusive channels at low W/sub ..gamma gamma../, definitive studies of high p/sub T/ hadron and jet production, and studies of threshold production of charmed systems. Photon-photon collisions, along with radiative decays of the psi and UPSILON, are ideal for the study of multiquark and gluonic resonances. We have emphasized the potential for resonance formation near threshold in virtually every hadronic exclusive channel, including heavy quark states c anti c c anti c, c anti c u anti u, etc. At higher energies SLC, LEP, ...) parity-violating electroweak effects and Higgs production due to equivalent Z/sup 0/ and W/sup + -/ beams from e ..-->.. eZ/sup 0/ and e ..-->.. nu W will become important. 44 references.

  16. Photon Calorimeter

    DOEpatents

    Chow, Tze-Show

    1989-01-01

    A photon calorimeter (20, 40) is provided that comprises a laminar substrate (10, 22, 42) that is uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition. A plasma-sprayed coating (28, 48, 52), that is generally uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition within the proximity of planes that are parallel to the surfaces of the substrate, is applied to either one or both sides of the laminar substrate. The plasma-sprayed coatings may be very efficiently spectrally tailored in atomic number. Thermocouple measuring junctions (30, 50, 54) are positioned within the plasma-sprayed coatings. The calorimeter is rugged, inexpensive, and equilibrates in temperature very rapidly.

  17. Photon calorimeter

    DOEpatents

    Chow, Tze-Show

    1988-04-22

    A photon calorimeter is provided that comprises a laminar substrate that is uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition. A plasma-sprayed coating, that is generally uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition within the proximity of planes that are parallel to the surfaces of the substrate, is applied to either one or both sides of the laminar substrate. The plasma-sprayed coatings may be very efficiently spectrally tailored in atomic number. Thermocouple measuring junctions, are positioned within the plasma-sprayed coatings. The calorimeter is rugged, inexpensive, and equilibrates in temperature very rapidly. 4 figs.

  18. The photon counting histogram in fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y; Mller, J D; So, P T; Gratton, E

    1999-01-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is generally used to obtain information about the number of fluorescent particles in a small volume and the diffusion coefficient from the autocorrelation function of the fluorescence signal. Here we demonstrate that photon counting histogram (PCH) analysis constitutes a novel tool for extracting quantities from fluorescence fluctuation data, i.e., the measured photon counts per molecule and the average number of molecules within the observation volume. The photon counting histogram of fluorescence fluctuation experiments, in which few molecules are present in the excitation volume, exhibits a super-Poissonian behavior. The additional broadening of the PCH compared to a Poisson distribution is due to fluorescence intensity fluctuations. For diffusing particles these intensity fluctuations are caused by an inhomogeneous excitation profile and the fluctuations in the number of particles in the observation volume. The quantitative relationship between the detected photon counts and the fluorescence intensity reaching the detector is given by Mandel's formula. Based on this equation and considering the fluorescence intensity distribution in the two-photon excitation volume, a theoretical expression for the PCH as a function of the number of molecules in the excitation volume is derived. For a single molecular species two parameters are sufficient to characterize the histogram completely, namely the average number of molecules within the observation volume and the detected photon counts per molecule per sampling time epsilon. The PCH for multiple molecular species, on the other hand, is generated by successively convoluting the photon counting distribution of each species with the others. The influence of the excitation profile upon the photon counting statistics for two relevant point spread functions (PSFs), the three-dimensional Gaussian PSF conventionally employed in confocal detection and the square of the Gaussian-Lorentzian PSF for two photon excitation, is explicitly treated. Measured photon counting distributions obtained with a two-photon excitation source agree, within experimental error with the theoretical PCHs calculated for the square of a Gaussian-Lorentzian beam profile. We demonstrate and discuss the influence of the average number of particles within the observation volume and the detected photon counts per molecule per sampling interval upon the super-Poissonian character of the photon counting distribution. PMID:10388780

  19. Random number generation from spontaneous Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, M. J.; Clark, A. S.; Xiong, C.; Mgi, E.; Steel, M. J.; Eggleton, B. J.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the generation of random numbers via the quantum process of spontaneous Raman scattering. Spontaneous Raman photons are produced by illuminating a highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass ( As 2 S 3 ) fiber with a CW laser at a power well below the stimulated Raman threshold. Single Raman photons are collected and separated into two discrete wavelength detuning bins of equal scattering probability. The sequence of photon detection clicks is converted into a random bit stream. Postprocessing is applied to remove detector bias, resulting in a final bit rate of 650 kb/s. The collected random bit-sequences pass the NIST statistical test suite for one hundred 1 Mb samples, with the significance level set to ? = 0.01 . The fiber is stable, robust and the high nonlinearity (compared to silica) allows for a short fiber length and low pump power favourable for real world application.

  20. Photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect in photon-phonon interactions.

    PubMed

    Li, Enbang; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Fang, Kejie; Fan, Shanhui

    2014-01-01

    The Aharonov-Bohm effect is one of the most intriguing phenomena in both classical and quantum physics, and associates with a number of important and fundamental issues in quantum mechanics. The Aharonov-Bohm effects of charged particles have been experimentally demonstrated and found applications in various fields. Recently, attention has also focused on the Aharonov-Bohm effect for neutral particles, such as photons. Here we propose to utilize the photon-phonon interactions to demonstrate that photonic Aharonov-Bohm effects do exist for photons. By introducing nonreciprocal phases for photons, we observe experimentally a gauge potential for photons in the visible range based on the photon-phonon interactions in acousto-optic crystals, and demonstrate the photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect. The results presented here point to new possibilities to control and manipulate photons by designing an effective gauge potential. PMID:24476790

  1. Health Manpower Source Book. Manpower Supply and Educational Statistics for Selected Health Occupations: 1968. Public Health Service Publication Number 263, Section 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Professions Education and Manpower Training.

    This publication is a compilation of statistics on supply and education of health manpower in medicine and osteopathy, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, veterinary medicine, nursing, public health, and eight selected allied health occupations. The material is organized by occupations and the following information is presented for each

  2. Measurement of X-ray spectra using a Lu2(SiO4)O-multipixel-photon detector with changes in the pixel number.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Sato, Eiichi; Oda, Yasuyuki; Nakamura, Ryuji; Oikawa, Hirobumi; Yabuushi, Tomonori; Ariga, Hisanori; Ehara, Shigeru

    2015-09-01

    To measure X-ray spectra with high count rates, we developed a detector consisting of a Lu2(SiO4)O [LSO] crystal with a decay time of 40 ns and a multipixel photon counter (MPPC). The photocurrents flowing through the MPPC are converted into voltages and amplified by a high-speed current-voltage amplifier, and event pulses from the amplifier are sent to a multichannel analyzer to measure spectra. We used three MPPCs of 100, 400 and 1600 pixels/mm(2), and the MPPCs were driven under pre-Geiger mode at a temperature of 20 °C. At a tube voltage of 100 kV and a tube current of 5.0 μA, the maximum count rate was 12.8 kilo-counts per second. The event-pulse widths were 200 ns, and the energy resolution was 53% at 59.5 keV using a 100-pixel MPPC. PMID:26046520

  3. Energy-resolved detection of single infrared photons with ? = 8 ?m using a superconducting microbolometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasik, Boris S.; Pereverzev, Sergey V.; Soibel, Alexander; Santavicca, Daniel F.; Prober, Daniel E.; Olaya, David; Gershenson, Michael E.

    2012-07-01

    We report on the detection of single photons with ? = 8 ?m using a superconducting hot-electron microbolometer. The sensing element is a titanium transition-edge sensor with a volume 0.1 ?m3 fabricated on a silicon substrate. Poisson photon counting statistics including simultaneous detection of 3 photons was observed. The width of the photon-number peaks was 0.11 eV, 70% of the photon energy, at 50-100 mK. This achieved energy resolution is one of the best figures reported so far for superconducting devices. Such devices can be suitable for single-photon calorimetric spectroscopy throughout the mid-infrared and even the far-infrared.

  4. Direct Photons at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Gabor,D.

    2008-07-29

    Direct photons are ideal tools to investigate kinematical and thermodynamical conditions of heavy ion collisions since they are emitted from all stages of the collision and once produced they leave the interaction region without further modification by the medium. The PHENIX experiment at RHIC has measured direct photon production in p+p and Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV over a wide transverse momentum (p{sub T}) range. The p+p measurements allow a fundamental test of QCD, and serve as a baseline when we try to disentangle more complex mechanisms producing high p{sub T} direct photons in Au+Au. As for thermal photons in Au+Au we overcome the difficulties due to the large background from hadronic decays by measuring 'almost real' virtual photons which appear as low invariant mass e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs: a significant excess of direct photons is measured above the above next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. Additional insights on the origin of direct photons can be gained with the study of the azimuthal anisotropy which benefits from the increased statistics and reaction plane resolution achieved in RHIC Year-7 data.

  5. Multi-cluster processor operating only select number of clusters during each phase based on program statistic monitored at predetermined intervals

    DOEpatents

    Balasubramonian, Rajeev; Dwarkadas, Sandhya; Albonesi, David

    2009-02-10

    In a processor having multiple clusters which operate in parallel, the number of clusters in use can be varied dynamically. At the start of each program phase, the configuration option for an interval is run to determine the optimal configuration, which is used until the next phase change is detected. The optimum instruction interval is determined by starting with a minimum interval and doubling it until a low stability factor is reached.

  6. Prospects for in vivo estimation of photon linear attenuation coefficients using postprocessing dual-energy CT imaging on a commercial scanner: Comparison of analytic and polyenergetic statistical reconstruction algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Joshua D. Yu, Yaduo; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Whiting, Bruce R.; O’Sullivan, Joseph A.; Politte, David G.; Klahr, Paul H.

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Accurate patient-specific photon cross-section information is needed to support more accurate model-based dose calculation for low energy photon-emitting modalities in medicine such as brachytherapy and kilovoltage x-ray imaging procedures. A postprocessing dual-energy CT (pDECT) technique for noninvasivein vivo estimation of photon linear attenuation coefficients has been experimentally implemented on a commercial CT scanner and its accuracy assessed in idealized phantom geometries. Methods: Eight test materials of known composition and density were used to compare pDECT-estimated linear attenuation coefficients to NIST reference values over an energy range from 10 keV to 1 MeV. As statistical image reconstruction (SIR) has been shown to reconstruct images with less random and systematic error than conventional filtered backprojection (FBP), the pDECT technique was implemented with both an in-house polyenergetic SIR algorithm, alternating minimization (AM), as well as a conventional FBP reconstruction algorithm. Improvement from increased spectral separation was also investigated by filtering the high-energy beam with an additional 0.5 mm of tin. The law of propagated uncertainty was employed to assess the sensitivity of the pDECT process to errors in reconstructed images. Results: Mean pDECT-estimated linear attenuation coefficients for the eight test materials agreed within 1% of NIST reference values for energies from 1 MeV down to 30 keV, with mean errors rising to between 3% and 6% at 10 keV, indicating that the method is unbiased when measurement and calibration phantom geometries are matched. Reconstruction with FBP and AM algorithms conferred similar mean pDECT accuracy. However, single-voxel pDECT estimates reconstructed on a 1 × 1 × 3 mm{sup 3} grid are shown to be highly sensitive to reconstructed image uncertainty; in some cases pDECT attenuation coefficient estimates exhibited standard deviations on the order of 20% around the mean. Reconstruction with the statistical AM algorithm led to standard deviations roughly 40% to 60% less than FBP reconstruction. Additional tin filtration of the high energy beam exhibits similar pDECT estimation accuracy as the unfiltered beam, even when scanning with only 25% of the dose. Using the law of propagated uncertainty, low Z materials are found to be more sensitive to image reconstruction errors than high Z materials. Furthermore, it is estimated that reconstructed CT image uncertainty must be limited to less than 0.25% to achieve a target linear-attenuation coefficient estimation uncertainty of 3% at 28 keV. Conclusions: That pDECT supports mean linear attenuation coefficient measurement accuracies of 1% of reference values for energies greater than 30 keV is encouraging. However, the sensitivity of the pDECT measurements to noise and systematic errors in reconstructed CT images warrants further investigation in more complex phantom geometries. The investigated statistical reconstruction algorithm, AM, reduced random measurement uncertainty relative to FBP owing to improved noise performance. These early results also support efforts to increase DE spectral separation, which can further reduce the pDECT sensitivity to measurement uncertainty.

  7. Prospects for in vivo estimation of photon linear attenuation coefficients using postprocessing dual-energy CT imaging on a commercial scanner: Comparison of analytic and polyenergetic statistical reconstruction algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Joshua D. Yu, Yaduo; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Whiting, Bruce R.; OSullivan, Joseph A.; Politte, David G.; Klahr, Paul H.

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Accurate patient-specific photon cross-section information is needed to support more accurate model-based dose calculation for low energy photon-emitting modalities in medicine such as brachytherapy and kilovoltage x-ray imaging procedures. A postprocessing dual-energy CT (pDECT) technique for noninvasivein vivo estimation of photon linear attenuation coefficients has been experimentally implemented on a commercial CT scanner and its accuracy assessed in idealized phantom geometries. Methods: Eight test materials of known composition and density were used to compare pDECT-estimated linear attenuation coefficients to NIST reference values over an energy range from 10 keV to 1 MeV. As statistical image reconstruction (SIR) has been shown to reconstruct images with less random and systematic error than conventional filtered backprojection (FBP), the pDECT technique was implemented with both an in-house polyenergetic SIR algorithm, alternating minimization (AM), as well as a conventional FBP reconstruction algorithm. Improvement from increased spectral separation was also investigated by filtering the high-energy beam with an additional 0.5 mm of tin. The law of propagated uncertainty was employed to assess the sensitivity of the pDECT process to errors in reconstructed images. Results: Mean pDECT-estimated linear attenuation coefficients for the eight test materials agreed within 1% of NIST reference values for energies from 1 MeV down to 30 keV, with mean errors rising to between 3% and 6% at 10 keV, indicating that the method is unbiased when measurement and calibration phantom geometries are matched. Reconstruction with FBP and AM algorithms conferred similar mean pDECT accuracy. However, single-voxel pDECT estimates reconstructed on a 1 1 3 mm{sup 3} grid are shown to be highly sensitive to reconstructed image uncertainty; in some cases pDECT attenuation coefficient estimates exhibited standard deviations on the order of 20% around the mean. Reconstruction with the statistical AM algorithm led to standard deviations roughly 40% to 60% less than FBP reconstruction. Additional tin filtration of the high energy beam exhibits similar pDECT estimation accuracy as the unfiltered beam, even when scanning with only 25% of the dose. Using the law of propagated uncertainty, low Z materials are found to be more sensitive to image reconstruction errors than high Z materials. Furthermore, it is estimated that reconstructed CT image uncertainty must be limited to less than 0.25% to achieve a target linear-attenuation coefficient estimation uncertainty of 3% at 28 keV. Conclusions: That pDECT supports mean linear attenuation coefficient measurement accuracies of 1% of reference values for energies greater than 30 keV is encouraging. However, the sensitivity of the pDECT measurements to noise and systematic errors in reconstructed CT images warrants further investigation in more complex phantom geometries. The investigated statistical reconstruction algorithm, AM, reduced random measurement uncertainty relative to FBP owing to improved noise performance. These early results also support efforts to increase DE spectral separation, which can further reduce the pDECT sensitivity to measurement uncertainty.

  8. Nonclassical properties and decoherence of fields in photon-added squeezing-enhanced thermal states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Meng, Xiang-Guo; Li, Heng-Mei; Yuan, Hong-Chun

    2014-04-01

    We put forward the photon-added squeezing-enhanced thermal states (PASETS) theoretically by adding photon to the squeezed enhancing thermal states (SETS) repeatedly. Based on the normally ordered density operator of PASETS, we investigate the nonclassical behavior of the PASETS by evaluating, both analytically and numerically, Mandel's Q-parameter, photon-number distribution (PND), and Wigner function (WF). It is found that smaller squeezing parameter r and thermal photon number nc can lead to more chance of the appearance of sub-Poissonian statistics. And it is shown that the PND of PASETS exhibit more remarkable oscillations than that of SETS in stronger squeezing case. The WF exhibit partial negativity in phase space and the squeezing parameter r can result in both squeezing and rotating effect. By investigating the fidelity between PASETS and SETS shows that the fidelity tender to steady values in the high value of squeezing parameter or thermal photon number. In addition, the decoherence effect on the PASETS is examined by the time-evolution of the analytical WF in thermal channel. The results show that the PASETS shall lose nonclassicality and non-Gaussianity and reduce to classical states with Gaussian distribution after sufficient time interaction with the thermal noise. And larger photon-added number or thermal photon number shall render shorter decoherence time.

  9. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking and Phase Coherence of a Photon Bose-Einstein Condensate Coupled to a Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Julian; Damm, Tobias; Dung, David; Wahl, Christian; Vewinger, Frank; Klaers, Jan; Weitz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We examine the phase evolution of a Bose-Einstein condensate of photons generated in a dye microcavity by temporal interference with a phase reference. The photoexcitable dye molecules constitute a reservoir of variable size for the condensate particles, allowing for grand canonical statistics with photon bunching, as in a lamp-type source. We directly observe phase jumps of the condensate associated with the large statistical number fluctuations and find a separation of correlation time scales. For large systems, our data reveal phase coherence and a spontaneously broken symmetry, despite the statistical fluctuations.

  10. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking and Phase Coherence of a Photon Bose-Einstein Condensate Coupled to a Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Julian; Damm, Tobias; Dung, David; Wahl, Christian; Vewinger, Frank; Klaers, Jan; Weitz, Martin

    2016-01-22

    We examine the phase evolution of a Bose-Einstein condensate of photons generated in a dye microcavity by temporal interference with a phase reference. The photoexcitable dye molecules constitute a reservoir of variable size for the condensate particles, allowing for grand canonical statistics with photon bunching, as in a lamp-type source. We directly observe phase jumps of the condensate associated with the large statistical number fluctuations and find a separation of correlation time scales. For large systems, our data reveal phase coherence and a spontaneously broken symmetry, despite the statistical fluctuations. PMID:26849597

  11. A critical evaluation of grid-by-number sediment sampling using laser scanner derived clast population statistics across a gravel bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milan, D. J.; Heritage, G. L.

    2007-12-01

    Water flow level in river channels is moderated by the interaction with the roughness of the surface over which it flows. The interaction is highly complex and remains poorly understood despite its economic and social importance in flood level forecasting. The empirical and semi-rational nature of approaches used to estimate hydraulic roughness makes them very difficult to apply and much of the hydraulic resistance has been attributed to grain roughness using various forms of the Colebrook-White equation where the grain diameter is modified by a multiplier to account for the non-uniform nature of gravel-bed surfaces. Fundamental to the accuracy of the particle size approaches is the sampling of river-bed gravels where sample size, operator bias, particle shape and surface heterogeneity can greatly affect the result. Despite these problems a standard surface sample of the intermediate axis of 100 clasts remains the accepted method for grain-size characterisation amongst scientists and engineers concerned with channel hydraulics. Surface roughness has also been measured using a random field of spatial elevation data. The success of this approach has been tempered by the lack of high-resolution topographic data covering all roughness scales, however, improved data-point resolution is now achievable using terrestrial laser scanning technology. The aim here is to reliably quantify the population grain-size distribution of a natural gravel surface using random field terrestrial laser scanner x,y,z data and by direct comparison to demonstrate the errors inherent in the conventional particle-size approach. Application of the random field approach, using a terrestrial laser scanner, across a gravel bar surface on the River South Tyne at Lambley, UK, generated an effective sample of 120,000 clasts yielding a D84 for use in the Colebrook White equation of 0.110m. Monte Carlo sampling within the 12000 measured clasts from the bar surface generated 560 simulated grid-by-number D84 estimates. Grain-size D84 values ranged from 0.100m to 0.195m with a median value of 0.130m. This represents an average 18% and a maximum 77% over-estimation of the grain-size value in the flow resistance equation. Such potential errors, inherent with the conventional grid-by-number sampling technique, impact significantly on flood level estimation options.

  12. Extragalactic millimeter-wave point-source catalog, number counts and statistics from 771 deg{sup 2} of the SPT-SZ survey

    SciTech Connect

    Mocanu, L. M.; Crawford, T. M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crites, A. T.; Vieira, J. D.; Aird, K. A.; Aravena, M.; Austermann, J. E.; Everett, W. B.; Halverson, N. W.; Béthermin, M.; Chapman, S.; Cho, H.-M.; De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; George, E. M.; and others

    2013-12-10

    We present a point-source catalog from 771 deg{sup 2} of the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich survey at 95, 150, and 220 GHz. We detect 1545 sources above 4.5σ significance in at least one band. Based on their relative brightness between survey bands, we classify the sources into two populations, one dominated by synchrotron emission from active galactic nuclei, and one dominated by thermal emission from dust-enshrouded star-forming galaxies. We find 1238 synchrotron and 307 dusty sources. We cross-match all sources against external catalogs and find 189 unidentified synchrotron sources and 189 unidentified dusty sources. The dusty sources without counterparts are good candidates for high-redshift, strongly lensed submillimeter galaxies. We derive number counts for each population from 1 Jy down to roughly 11, 4, and 11 mJy at 95, 150, and 220 GHz. We compare these counts with galaxy population models and find that none of the models we consider for either population provide a good fit to the measured counts in all three bands. The disparities imply that these measurements will be an important input to the next generation of millimeter-wave extragalactic source population models.

  13. Accidental cloning of a single-photon qubit in two-channel continuous-variable quantum teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Ide, Toshiki; Hofmann, Holger F.

    2007-06-15

    The information encoded in the polarization of a single photon can be transferred to a remote location by two-channel continuous-variable quantum teleportation. However, the finite entanglement used in the teleportation causes random changes in photon number. If more than one photon appears in the output, the continuous-variable teleportation accidentally produces clones of the original input photon. In this paper, we derive the polarization statistics of the N-photon output components and show that they can be decomposed into an optimal cloning term and completely unpolarized noise. We find that the accidental cloning of the input photon is nearly optimal at experimentally feasible squeezing levels, indicating that the loss of polarization information is partially compensated by the availability of clones.

  14. Photon absorptiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Velchik, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the detection and treatment of osteoporosis. This paper is a review of the merits and limitations of the various noninvasive modalities currently available for the measurement of bone mineral density with special emphasis placed upon the nuclear medicine techniques of single-photon and dual-photon absorptiometry. The clinicians should come away with an understanding of the relative advantages and disadvantages of photon absorptiometry and its optimal clinical application. 49 references.

  15. Book Trade Research and Statistics. Prices of U.S. and Foreign Published Materials; Book Title Output and Average Prices: 2000 Final and 2001 Preliminary Figures; Book Sales Statistics, 2001: AAP Preliminary Estimates; U.S. Book Exports and Imports: 2001; Number of Book Outlets in the United States and Canada; Review Media Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Sharon G.; Barr, Catherine; Grabois, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Includes six articles that report on prices of U.S. and foreign published materials; book title output and average prices; book sales statistics; book exports and imports; book outlets in the U.S. and Canada; and review media statistics. (LRW)

  16. Lifetime statistics of quantum chaos studied by a multiscale analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Di Falco, A.; Krauss, T. F.; Fratalocchi, A.

    2012-04-30

    In a series of pump and probe experiments, we study the lifetime statistics of a quantum chaotic resonator when the number of open channels is greater than one. Our design embeds a stadium billiard into a two dimensional photonic crystal realized on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. We calculate resonances through a multiscale procedure that combines energy landscape analysis and wavelet transforms. Experimental data is found to follow the universal predictions arising from random matrix theory with an excellent level of agreement.

  17. The photon gas formulation of thermal radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ried, R. C., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A statistical consideration of the energy, the linear momentum, and the angular momentum of the photons that make up a thermal radiation field was presented. A general nonequilibrium statistical thermodynamics approach toward a macroscopic description of thermal radiation transport was developed and then applied to the restricted equilibrium statistical thermostatics derivation of the energy, linear momentum, and intrinsic angular momentum equations for an isotropic photon gas. A brief treatment of a nonisotropic photon gas, as an example of the results produced by the nonequilibrium statistical thermodynamics approach, was given. The relativistic variation of temperature and the invariance of entropy were illustrated.

  18. Folding Photons

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, B. A.; van de Lagemaat, J.

    2012-05-01

    Scientists have shown that wrinkles and folds can be used to maximize the absorption of low-energy photons by efficiently redirecting them into a thin absorbing film. This inexpensive technique for structuring photonic substrates could be used to increase the efficiency of many organic photovoltaic cells.

  19. Detector noise statistics in the non-linear regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shopbell, P. L.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    1992-01-01

    The statistical behavior of an idealized linear detector in the presence of threshold and saturation levels is examined. It is assumed that the noise is governed by the statistical fluctuations in the number of photons emitted by the source during an exposure. Since physical detectors cannot have infinite dynamic range, our model illustrates that all devices have non-linear regimes, particularly at high count rates. The primary effect is a decrease in the statistical variance about the mean signal due to a portion of the expected noise distribution being removed via clipping. Higher order statistical moments are also examined, in particular, skewness and kurtosis. In principle, the expected distortion in the detector noise characteristics can be calibrated using flatfield observations with count rates matched to the observations. For this purpose, some basic statistical methods that utilize Fourier analysis techniques are described.

  20. On the Doppler effect for photons in rotating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    The analysis of the Doppler effect for photons in rotating systems, studied using the Mssbauer effect, confirms the general conclusions of a previous paper dedicated to experiments with photons emitted/absorbed by atoms/nuclei in inertial flight. The wave theory of light is so deeply rooted that it continues to be applied to describe phenomena in which the fundamental entities at work are discrete (photons). The fact that the wave theory of light can describe one aspect of these phenomena should not overshadow two issues: the corpuscular theory of light, first applied to the Doppler effect for photons by Schrdinger in 1922, is by far more complete since it describes all of the features of the studied phenomena; the wave theory can only be used when the number of photons at work is statistically significant. This disregarding of basic methodological criteria may appear to be a minor fault. However, the historical development of quantum physics shows that the predominance of the wave theory of radiation, beyond its natural application domain, has hampered the reorientation toward the photon description of the underlying phenomena.

  1. NON-Shor Factorization Via BEQS BEC: Watkins Number-Theory ``Pure''-Mathematics U With Statistical-Physics; Benford Log-Law Inversion to ONLY BEQS digit d=0 BEC!!!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, M.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    Weiss-Page-Holthaus[Physica A,341,586(04); http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0403295] number-FACTORIZATION VIA BEQS BEC VS.(?) Shor-algorithm, strongly-supporting Watkins' [www.secamlocal.ex.ac.uk/people/staff/mrwatkin/] Intersection of number-theory "pure"-maths WITH (Statistical)-Physics, as Siegel[AMS Joint.Mtg.(02)-Abs.973-60-124] Benford logarithmic-law algebraic-INVERSION to ONLY BEQS with d=0 digit P (d = 0) > = oogapFULBEC ! ! ! SiegelRiemann - hypothesisproofviaRayleigh [ Phil . Trans . CLXI (1870) ] - Polya [ Math . Ann . (21) ] - [ Random - WalksElectric - Nets . , MAA (81) ] - nderson [ PRL (58) ] - localization - Siegel [ Symp . Fractals , MRSFallMtg . (89) - 5 - papers ! ! ! ] FUZZYICS = CATEGORYICS : [ LOCALITY ]- MORPHISM / CROSSOVER / AUTMATHCAT / DIM - CAT / ANTONYM- > (GLOBALITY) FUNCTOR / SYNONYM / concomitancetonoise = / Fluct . - Dissip . theorem / FUNCTOR / SYNONYM / equivalence / proportionalityto = > generalized - susceptibilitypower - spectrum [ FLAT / FUNCTIONLESS / WHITE ]- MORPHISM / CROSSOVER / AUTMATHCAT / DIM - CAT / ANTONYM- > HYPERBOLICITY/ZIPF-law INEVITABILITY) intersection with ONLY BEQS BEC).

  2. Two-photon and three-photon blockades in driven nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranowicz, Adam; Paprzycka, Ma?gorzata; Liu, Yu-xi; Bajer, Ji?; Nori, Franco

    2013-02-01

    Photon blockade, in analogy to Coulomb's or phonon blockades, is a phenomenon when a single photon in a nonlinear cavity blocks the transmission of a second photon. This effect can occur in Kerr-type systems driven by a laser due to strong nonlinear photon-photon interactions. We predict the occurrence of higher-order photon blockades where the transmission of more than two photons is effectively blocked by single- and two-photon states. This photon blockade can be achieved by tuning the frequency of the laser driving field to be equal to the sum of the Kerr nonlinearity and the cavity resonance frequency. We refer to this phenomenon as two-photon blockade or two-photon state truncation via nonlinear scissors, and can also be interpreted as photon-induced tunneling. We also show that, for a driving-field frequency fulfilling another resonance condition and for higher strengths of the driving field, even a three-photon blockade can occur but less clearly than in the case of single- and two-photon blockades. We demonstrate how various photon blockades can be identified by analyzing photon-number correlations, coherence and entropic properties, Wigner functions, and spectra of squeezing. We show that two- and three-photon blockades can, in principle, be observed in various cavity and circuit quantum electrodynamical systems for which the standard single-photon blockade was observed without the need of using higher-order driving interactions or Kerr media exhibiting higher-order nonlinear susceptibility.

  3. Breakdown of Bose-Einstein Distribution in Photonic Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Ping-Yuan; Xiong, Heng-Na; Zhang, Wei-Min

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of nano-photonics in photonic crystals. Previous theoretical investigations of photon dynamics were carried out at zero temperature. Here, we investigate micro/nano cavity photonics in photonic crystals at finite temperature. Due to photonic-band-gap-induced localized long-lived photon dynamics, we discover that cavity photons in photonic crystals do not obey Bose-Einstein statistical distribution. Within the photonic band gap and in the vicinity of the band edge, cavity photons combine the long-lived non-Markovain dynamics with thermal fluctuations together to form photon states that memorize the initial cavity state information. As a result, Bose-Einstein distribution is completely broken down in these regimes, even if the thermal energy is larger or much larger than the cavity detuning energy. In this investigation, a crossover phenomenon from equilibrium to nonequilibrium steady states is also revealed. PMID:25822135

  4. Photon generator

    DOEpatents

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni (Shoreham, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A photon generator includes an electron gun for emitting an electron beam, a laser for emitting a laser beam, and an interaction ring wherein the laser beam repetitively collides with the electron beam for emitting a high energy photon beam therefrom in the exemplary form of x-rays. The interaction ring is a closed loop, sized and configured for circulating the electron beam with a period substantially equal to the period of the laser beam pulses for effecting repetitive collisions.

  5. Quantum interference induced photon blockade in a coupled single quantum dot-cavity system.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing; Geng, Weidong; Xu, Xiulai

    2015-01-01

    We propose an experimental scheme to implement a strong photon blockade with a single quantum dot coupled to a nanocavity. The photon blockade effect can be tremendously enhanced by driving the cavity and the quantum dot simultaneously with two classical laser fields. This enhancement of photon blockade is ascribed to the quantum interference effect to avoid two-photon excitation of the cavity field. Comparing with Jaynes-Cummings model, the second-order correlation function at zero time delay g((2))(0) in our scheme can be reduced by two orders of magnitude and the system sustains a large intracavity photon number. A red (blue) cavity-light detuning asymmetry for photon quantum statistics with bunching or antibunching characteristics is also observed. The photon blockade effect has a controllable flexibility by tuning the relative phase between the two pumping laser fields and the Rabi coupling strength between the quantum dot and the pumping field. Moreover, the photon blockade scheme based on quantum interference mechanism does not require a strong coupling strength between the cavity and the quantum dot, even with the pure dephasing of the system. This simple proposal provides an effective way for potential applications in solid state quantum computation and quantum information processing. PMID:25783560

  6. Quantum Interference Induced Photon Blockade in a Coupled Single Quantum Dot-Cavity System

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jing; Geng, Weidong; Xu, Xiulai

    2015-01-01

    We propose an experimental scheme to implement a strong photon blockade with a single quantum dot coupled to a nanocavity. The photon blockade effect can be tremendously enhanced by driving the cavity and the quantum dot simultaneously with two classical laser fields. This enhancement of photon blockade is ascribed to the quantum interference effect to avoid two-photon excitation of the cavity field. Comparing with Jaynes-Cummings model, the second-order correlation function at zero time delay g(2)(0) in our scheme can be reduced by two orders of magnitude and the system sustains a large intracavity photon number. A red (blue) cavity-light detuning asymmetry for photon quantum statistics with bunching or antibunching characteristics is also observed. The photon blockade effect has a controllable flexibility by tuning the relative phase between the two pumping laser fields and the Rabi coupling strength between the quantum dot and the pumping field. Moreover, the photon blockade scheme based on quantum interference mechanism does not require a strong coupling strength between the cavity and the quantum dot, even with the pure dephasing of the system. This simple proposal provides an effective way for potential applications in solid state quantum computation and quantum information processing. PMID:25783560

  7. Quantum Interference Induced Photon Blockade in a Coupled Single Quantum Dot-Cavity System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jing; Geng, Weidong; Xu, Xiulai

    2015-03-01

    We propose an experimental scheme to implement a strong photon blockade with a single quantum dot coupled to a nanocavity. The photon blockade effect can be tremendously enhanced by driving the cavity and the quantum dot simultaneously with two classical laser fields. This enhancement of photon blockade is ascribed to the quantum interference effect to avoid two-photon excitation of the cavity field. Comparing with Jaynes-Cummings model, the second-order correlation function at zero time delay g(2)(0) in our scheme can be reduced by two orders of magnitude and the system sustains a large intracavity photon number. A red (blue) cavity-light detuning asymmetry for photon quantum statistics with bunching or antibunching characteristics is also observed. The photon blockade effect has a controllable flexibility by tuning the relative phase between the two pumping laser fields and the Rabi coupling strength between the quantum dot and the pumping field. Moreover, the photon blockade scheme based on quantum interference mechanism does not require a strong coupling strength between the cavity and the quantum dot, even with the pure dephasing of the system. This simple proposal provides an effective way for potential applications in solid state quantum computation and quantum information processing.

  8. Semiconductor photonic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forchel, A.; Bayer, M.; Reithmaier, J. P.; Reinecke, T. L.; Kulakovskii, V. D.

    2000-05-01

    We have fabricated semiconductor photonic molecules based on microcavities with three-dimensional optical confinement. By connecting two or more microcavities by a semiconductor bridge structure, interaction between the optical modes of the individual microcavities can be observed. In the optical spectra the interaction leads to a splitting of the photonic ground state into an energetically favored and an energetically unfavored branch in analogy to the ground state of simple chemical molecules. By increasing the number of connected cavities, additional optical modes develop in the energy range of the fundamental and higher order modes of the individual structures. For systems with more than 10 connected microcavities, we observe a transition to a one-dimensional photonic crystal-like behavior.

  9. Nonclassicality and decoherence of photon-subtracted squeezed states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Asoka; Agarwal, Girish S.

    2007-03-01

    Single-photon subtracted squeezed vacuum states are equivalent to Schrodinger kitten states and show non-Gaussian nature in phase space. Such states are useful in entanglement distillation, loophole-free test of Bell's inequality, and quantum computing. We discuss nonclassical properties of these states in terms of the sub-Poissonian statistics and the negativity of the Wigner function. We derive a compact expression for the Wigner function from which we find the region of phase space where Wigner function is negative. We find an upper bound on the squeezing parameter for the state to exhibit sub-Poissonian statistics. We then study the effect of decoherence on the single-photon subtracted squeezed states. We present results for two different models of decoherence, viz. amplitude decay model and the phase diffusion model. In each case we give analytical results for the time evolution of the state. We discuss the loss of nonclassicality as a result of decoherence. We show through the study of their phase-space properties how these states decay to vacuum due to the decay of photons. We show that phase damping leads to very slow decoherence than the photon-number decay and the state remains nonclassical at long times.

  10. Nonclassicality and decoherence of photon-subtracted squeezed states

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Asoka; Agarwal, G. S.

    2007-03-15

    We discuss nonclassical properties of single-photon subtracted squeezed vacuum states in terms of the sub-Poissonian statistics and the negativity of the Wigner function. We derive a compact expression for the Wigner function from which we find the region of phase space where Wigner function is negative. We find an upper bound on the squeezing parameter for the state to exhibit sub-Poissonian statistics. We then study the effect of decoherence on the single-photon subtracted squeezed states. We present results for two different models of decoherence, viz. amplitude decay model and the phase diffusion model. In each case we give analytical results for the time evolution of the state. We discuss the loss of nonclassicality as a result of decoherence. We show through the study of their phase-space properties how these states decay to vacuum due to the decay of photons. We show that phase damping leads to very slow decoherence, slower than the photon-number decay.

  11. Vesicle Photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Scott, E. A.; Roke, Sylvie; Hubbell, J. A.; Psaltis, D.

    2013-04-03

    Thin membranes, under appropriate boundary conditions, can self-assemble into vesicles, nanoscale bubbles that encapsulate and hence protect or transport molecular payloads. In this paper, we review the types and applications of light fields interacting with vesicles. By encapsulating light-emitting molecules (e.g. dyes, fluorescent proteins, or quantum dots), vesicles can act as particles and imaging agents. Vesicle imaging can take place also under second harmonic generation from vesicle membrane, as well as employing mass spectrometry. Light fields can also be employed to transport vesicles using optical tweezers (photon momentum) or directly pertrurbe the stability of vesicles and hence trigger the delivery of the encapsulated payload (photon energy).

  12. Green photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Frederic

    2012-02-01

    Photonics, the broad merger of electronics with the optical sciences, encompasses such a wide swath of technology that its impact is almost universal in our everyday lives. This is a broad overview of some aspects of the industry and their contribution to the ‘green’ or environmental movement. The rationale for energy conservation is briefly discussed and the impact of photonics on our everyday lives and certain industries is described. Some opinions from industry are presented along with market estimates. References are provided to some of the most recent research in these areas.

  13. Photonic module: An on-demand resource for photonic entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Devitt, Simon J.; Greentree, Andrew D.; Hollenberg, Lloyd C. L.; Ionicioiu, Radu; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Munro, William J.

    2007-11-15

    Photonic entanglement has a wide range of applications in quantum computation and communication. Here we introduce a device: the photonic module, which allows for the rapid, deterministic preparation of a large class of entangled photon states. The module is an application independent, ''plug and play'' device, with sufficient flexibility to prepare entanglement for all major quantum computation and communication applications in a completely deterministic fashion without number-discriminated photon detection. We present two alternative constructions for the module, one using free-space components and one in a photonic band-gap structure. The natural operation of the module is to generate states within the stabilizer formalism and we present an analysis on the cavity requirements to experimentally realize this device.

  14. Photonic Bandgaps in Photonic Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.; Chang, Hongrok; Gates, Amanda L.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Gregory, Don A.; Witherow, William K.; Paley, Mark S.; Frazier, Donald O.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This talk will focus on photonic bandgaps that arise due to nearly free photon and tight-binding effects in coupled microparticle and ring-resonator systems. The Mie formulation for homogeneous spheres is generalized to handle core/shell systems and multiple concentric layers in a manner that exploits an analogy with stratified planar systems, thereby allowing concentric multi-layered structures to be treated as photonic bandgap (PBG) materials. Representative results from a Mie code employing this analogy demonstrate that photonic bands arising from nearly free photon effects are easily observed in the backscattering, asymmetry parameter, and albedo for periodic quarter-wave concentric layers, though are not readily apparent in extinction spectra. Rather, the periodicity simply alters the scattering profile, enhancing the ratio of backscattering to forward scattering inside the bandgap, in direct analogy with planar quarter-wave multilayers. PBGs arising from tight-binding may also be observed when the layers (or rings) are designed such that the coupling between them is weak. We demonstrate that for a structure consisting of N coupled micro-resonators, the morphology dependent resonances split into N higher-Q modes, in direct analogy with other types of oscillators, and that this splitting ultimately results in PBGs which can lead to enhanced nonlinear optical effects.

  15. Natural photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigneron, Jean Pol; Simonis, Priscilla

    2012-10-01

    Photonic structures appeared in nature several hundred millions years ago. In the living world, color is used for communication and this important function strongly impacts the individual chances of survival as well as the chances to reproduce. This has a statistical influence on species populations. Therefore, because they are involved in evolution, natural color-generating structures are - from some point of view - highly optimized. In this short review, a survey is presented of the development of natural photonic crystal-type structures occurring in insects, spiders, birds, fishes and other marine animals, in plants and more, from the standpoint of light-waves propagation. One-, two-, and three-dimensional structures will be reviewed with selected examples.

  16. MCNP: Photon benchmark problems

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, D.J.; Hollowell, D.E.; Hendricks, J.S.

    1991-09-01

    The recent widespread, markedly increased use of radiation transport codes has produced greater user and institutional demand for assurance that such codes give correct results. Responding to these pressing requirements for code validation, the general purpose Monte Carlo transport code MCNP has been tested on six different photon problem families. MCNP was used to simulate these six sets numerically. Results for each were compared to the set's analytical or experimental data. MCNP successfully predicted the analytical or experimental results of all six families within the statistical uncertainty inherent in the Monte Carlo method. From this we conclude that MCNP can accurately model a broad spectrum of photon transport problems. 8 refs., 30 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. A Photon Interference Detector with Continuous Display.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an apparatus which attempts to give a direct visual impression of the random detection of individual photons coupled with the recognition of the classical intensity distribution as a result of fairly high proton statistics. (Author/GA)

  18. Genomic Selection and Association Mapping in Rice (Oryza sativa): Effect of Trait Genetic Architecture, Training Population Composition, Marker Number and Statistical Model on Accuracy of Rice Genomic Selection in Elite, Tropical Rice Breeding Lines

    PubMed Central

    Spindel, Jennifer; Begum, Hasina; Akdemir, Deniz; Virk, Parminder; Collard, Bertrand; Redoña, Edilberto; Atlin, Gary; Jannink, Jean-Luc; McCouch, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic Selection (GS) is a new breeding method in which genome-wide markers are used to predict the breeding value of individuals in a breeding population. GS has been shown to improve breeding efficiency in dairy cattle and several crop plant species, and here we evaluate for the first time its efficacy for breeding inbred lines of rice. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in conjunction with five-fold GS cross-validation on a population of 363 elite breeding lines from the International Rice Research Institute's (IRRI) irrigated rice breeding program and herein report the GS results. The population was genotyped with 73,147 markers using genotyping-by-sequencing. The training population, statistical method used to build the GS model, number of markers, and trait were varied to determine their effect on prediction accuracy. For all three traits, genomic prediction models outperformed prediction based on pedigree records alone. Prediction accuracies ranged from 0.31 and 0.34 for grain yield and plant height to 0.63 for flowering time. Analyses using subsets of the full marker set suggest that using one marker every 0.2 cM is sufficient for genomic selection in this collection of rice breeding materials. RR-BLUP was the best performing statistical method for grain yield where no large effect QTL were detected by GWAS, while for flowering time, where a single very large effect QTL was detected, the non-GS multiple linear regression method outperformed GS models. For plant height, in which four mid-sized QTL were identified by GWAS, random forest produced the most consistently accurate GS models. Our results suggest that GS, informed by GWAS interpretations of genetic architecture and population structure, could become an effective tool for increasing the efficiency of rice breeding as the costs of genotyping continue to decline. PMID:25689273

  19. Genomic selection and association mapping in rice (Oryza sativa): effect of trait genetic architecture, training population composition, marker number and statistical model on accuracy of rice genomic selection in elite, tropical rice breeding lines.

    PubMed

    Spindel, Jennifer; Begum, Hasina; Akdemir, Deniz; Virk, Parminder; Collard, Bertrand; Redoña, Edilberto; Atlin, Gary; Jannink, Jean-Luc; McCouch, Susan R

    2015-02-01

    Genomic Selection (GS) is a new breeding method in which genome-wide markers are used to predict the breeding value of individuals in a breeding population. GS has been shown to improve breeding efficiency in dairy cattle and several crop plant species, and here we evaluate for the first time its efficacy for breeding inbred lines of rice. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in conjunction with five-fold GS cross-validation on a population of 363 elite breeding lines from the International Rice Research Institute's (IRRI) irrigated rice breeding program and herein report the GS results. The population was genotyped with 73,147 markers using genotyping-by-sequencing. The training population, statistical method used to build the GS model, number of markers, and trait were varied to determine their effect on prediction accuracy. For all three traits, genomic prediction models outperformed prediction based on pedigree records alone. Prediction accuracies ranged from 0.31 and 0.34 for grain yield and plant height to 0.63 for flowering time. Analyses using subsets of the full marker set suggest that using one marker every 0.2 cM is sufficient for genomic selection in this collection of rice breeding materials. RR-BLUP was the best performing statistical method for grain yield where no large effect QTL were detected by GWAS, while for flowering time, where a single very large effect QTL was detected, the non-GS multiple linear regression method outperformed GS models. For plant height, in which four mid-sized QTL were identified by GWAS, random forest produced the most consistently accurate GS models. Our results suggest that GS, informed by GWAS interpretations of genetic architecture and population structure, could become an effective tool for increasing the efficiency of rice breeding as the costs of genotyping continue to decline. PMID:25689273

  20. Deconstructing Statistical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Using a very complex statistical analysis and research method for the sake of enhancing the prestige of an article or making a new product or service legitimate needs to be monitored and questioned for accuracy. 1) The more complicated the statistical analysis, and research the fewer the number of learned readers can understand it. This adds a…

  1. Deconstructing Statistical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Using a very complex statistical analysis and research method for the sake of enhancing the prestige of an article or making a new product or service legitimate needs to be monitored and questioned for accuracy. 1) The more complicated the statistical analysis, and research the fewer the number of learned readers can understand it. This adds a

  2. Statistical Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callamaras, Peter

    1983-01-01

    This buyer's guide to seven major types of statistics software packages for microcomputers reviews Edu-Ware Statistics 3.0; Financial Planning; Speed Stat; Statistics with DAISY; Human Systems Dynamics package of Stats Plus, ANOVA II, and REGRESS II; Maxistat; and Moore-Barnes' MBC Test Construction and MBC Correlation. (MBR)

  3. Cancer Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer Statistics Cancer Statistics Cancer has a major impact on society in the United States and across the world. ... makers, health professionals, and researchers to understand the impact of ... poses to the society at large. Statistical trends are also important for ...

  4. Statistical Diversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric

    2008-01-01

    As a branch of knowledge, Statistics is ubiquitous and its applications can be found in (almost) every field of human endeavour. In this article, the authors track down the possible source of the link between the "Siren song" and applications of Statistics. Answers to their previous five questions and five new questions on Statistics are presented.

  5. Photons in a ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mck, Wolfgang

    2015-12-01

    The electromagnetic field inside a spherical cavity of large radius R is considered in the presence of stationary charge and current densities. R provides infra-red regularisation while maintaining gauge invariance. The quantum ground state of physical photons forming the magnetic field is found to be a coherent state with a definite mean occupation number. The electric field, which is determined by the Gauss law constraint, is maintained by a minimum uncertainty coherent state, according to the projection operator approach to the quantisation of constrained systems. The mean occupation number of this state is proportional to the square of the total charge. The results confirm formulae obtained previously from a calculation with a finite photon mass for infra-red regularisation.

  6. Spectral X-Ray Diffraction using a 6 Megapixel Photon Counting Array Detector

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Ryan D.; Pogranichniy, Nicholas R.; Muir, J. Lewis; Sullivan, Shane Z.; Battaile, Kevin P.; Mulichak, Anne M.; Toth, Scott J.; Keefe, Lisa J.; Simpson, Garth J.

    2016-01-01

    Pixel-array array detectors allow single-photon counting to be performed on a massively parallel scale, with several million counting circuits and detectors in the array. Because the number of photoelectrons produced at the detector surface depends on the photon energy, these detectors offer the possibility of spectral imaging. In this work, a statistical model of the instrument response is used to calibrate the detector on a per-pixel basis. In turn, the calibrated sensor was used to perform separation of dual-energy diffraction measurements into two monochromatic images. Targeting applications include multi-wavelength diffraction to aid in protein structure determination and X-ray diffraction imaging.

  7. Spectral x-ray diffraction using a 6 megapixel photon counting array detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muir, Ryan D.; Pogranichniy, Nicholas R.; Muir, J. Lewis; Sullivan, Shane Z.; Battaile, Kevin P.; Mulichak, Anne M.; Toth, Scott J.; Keefe, Lisa J.; Simpson, Garth J.

    2015-03-01

    Pixel-array array detectors allow single-photon counting to be performed on a massively parallel scale, with several million counting circuits and detectors in the array. Because the number of photoelectrons produced at the detector surface depends on the photon energy, these detectors offer the possibility of spectral imaging. In this work, a statistical model of the instrument response is used to calibrate the detector on a per-pixel basis. In turn, the calibrated sensor was used to perform separation of dual-energy diffraction measurements into two monochromatic images. Targeting applications include multi-wavelength diffraction to aid in protein structure determination and X-ray diffraction imaging.

  8. Single-Photon-Sensitive HgCdTe Avalanche Photodiode Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntington, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to develop single-photon-sensitive short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) and mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) avalanche photodiode (APD) receivers based on linear-mode HgCdTe APDs, for application by NASA in light detection and ranging (lidar) sensors. Linear-mode photon-counting APDs are desired for lidar because they have a shorter pixel dead time than Geiger APDs, and can detect sequential pulse returns from multiple objects that are closely spaced in range. Linear-mode APDs can also measure photon number, which Geiger APDs cannot, adding an extra dimension to lidar scene data for multi-photon returns. High-gain APDs with low multiplication noise are required for efficient linear-mode detection of single photons because of APD gain statistics -- a low-excess-noise APD will generate detectible current pulses from single photon input at a much higher rate of occurrence than will a noisy APD operated at the same average gain. MWIR and LWIR electron-avalanche HgCdTe APDs have been shown to operate in linear mode at high average avalanche gain (M > 1000) without excess multiplication noise (F = 1), and are therefore very good candidates for linear-mode photon counting. However, detectors fashioned from these narrow-bandgap alloys require aggressive cooling to control thermal dark current. Wider-bandgap SWIR HgCdTe APDs were investigated in this program as a strategy to reduce detector cooling requirements.

  9. A Statistical Estimation Approach for Quantitative Concentrations of Compounds Lacking Authentic Standards/Surrogates Based on Linear Correlations between Directly Measured Detector Responses and Carbon Number of Different Functional Groups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A statistical approach was investigated to estimate the concentration of compounds lacking authentic standards/surrogates (CLASS). As a means to assess the reliability of this approach, the response factor (RF) of CLASS is derived by predictive equations based on a linear regression (LR) analysis between the actual RF (by external calibration) of 18 reference volatile organic compounds (VOCs) consisting of six original functional groups and their physicochemical parameters ((1) carbon number (CN), (2) molecular weight (MW), and (3) boiling point (BP)). If the experimental bias is estimated in terms of percent difference (PD) between the actual and projected RF, the least bias for 18 VOCs is found from CN (17.9 ± 19.0%). In contrast, the PD values against MW and BP are 40.6% and 81.5%, respectively. Predictive equations were hence derived via an LR analysis between the actual RF and CN for 29 groups: (1) one group consisting of all 18 reference VOCs, (2) three out of six original functional groups, and (3) 25 groups formed randomly from the six functional groups. The applicability of this method was tested by fitting these 29 equations into each of the six original functional groups. According to this approach, the mean PD for 18 compounds dropped as low as 5.60 ± 5.63%. This approach can thus be used as a practical tool to assess the quantitative data for CLASS. PMID:23766682

  10. Vesicle Photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasdekis, A. E.; Scott, E. A.; Roke, S.; Hubbell, J. A.; Psaltis, D.

    2013-07-01

    Amphiphiles, under appropriate conditions, can self-assemble into nanoscale thin membrane vessels (vesicles) that encapsulate and hence protect and transport molecular payloads. Vesicles assemble naturally within cells but can also be artificially synthesized. In this article, we review the mechanisms and applications of light-field interactions with vesicles. By being associated with light-emitting entities (e.g., dyes, fluorescent proteins, or quantum dots), vesicles can act as imaging agents in addition to cargo carriers. Vesicles can also be optically probed on the basis of their nonlinear response, typically from the vesicle membrane. Light fields can be employed to transport vesicles by using optical tweezers (photon momentum) or can directly perturb the stability of vesicles and hence trigger the delivery of the encapsulated payload (photon energy). We conclude with emerging vesicle applications in biology and photochemical microreactors.

  11. Microalgae photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floume, Timmy; Coquil, Thomas; Sylvestre, Julien

    2011-05-01

    Due to their metabolic flexibility and fast growth rate, microscopic aquatic phototrophs like algae have a potential to become industrial photochemical converters. Algae photosynthesis could enable the large scale production of clean and renewable liquid fuels and chemicals with major environmental, economic and societal benefits. Capital and operational costs are the main issues to address through optical, process and biochemical engineering improvements. In this perspective, a variety of photonic approaches have been proposed - we introduce them here and describe their potential, limitations and compatibility with separate biotechnology and engineering progresses. We show that only sunlight-based approaches are economically realistic. One of photonics' main goals in the algae field is to dilute light to overcome photosaturation effects that impact upon cultures exposed to full sunlight. Among other approaches, we introduce a widely-compatible broadband spectral adaptation technique called AlgoSun® that uses luminescence to optimize sunlight spectrum in view of the bioconverter's requirements.

  12. Photon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Va`vra, J.

    1995-10-01

    J. Seguinot and T. Ypsilantis have recently described the theory and history of Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. In this paper, I will expand on these excellent review papers, by covering the various photon detector designs in greater detail, and by including discussion of mistakes made, and detector problems encountered, along the way. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photo-electrons. For gaseous devices, this requires the correct choice of gas gain in order to prevent breakdown and wire aging, together with the use of low noise electronics having the maximum possible amplification. In addition, the detector must be constructed of materials which resist corrosion due to photosensitive materials such as, the detector enclosure must be tightly sealed in order to prevent oxygen leaks, etc. The most critical step is the selection of the photocathode material. Typically, a choice must be made between a solid (CsI) or gaseous photocathode (TMAE, TEA). A conservative approach favors a gaseous photocathode, since it is continuously being replaced by flushing, and permits the photon detectors to be easily serviced (the air sensitive photocathode can be removed at any time). In addition, it can be argued that we now know how to handle TMAE, which, as is generally accepted, is the best photocathode material available as far as quantum efficiency is concerned. However, it is a very fragile molecule, and therefore its use may result in relatively fast wire aging. A possible alternative is TEA, which, in the early days, was rejected because it requires expensive CaF{sub 2} windows, which could be contaminated easily in the region of 8.3 eV and thus lose their UV transmission.

  13. Photon doses in NPL standard neutron fields.

    PubMed

    Roberts, N J; Horwood, N A; McKay, C J

    2014-10-01

    Standard neutron fields are invariably accompanied by a photon component due to the neutron-generating reactions and secondary neutron interactions in the surrounding environment. A set of energy-compensated Geiger-Mller (GM) tubes and electronic personal dosemeters (EPDs) have been used to measure the photon dose rates in a number of standard radionuclide and accelerator-based neutron fields. The GM tubes were first characterised in standard radioisotope and X-ray photon fields and then modelled using MCNP to determine their photon dose response as a function of energy. Values for the photon-to-neutron dose equivalent ratios are presented and compared with other published values. PMID:24126485

  14. MEASURING TEMPORAL PHOTON BUNCHING IN BLACKBODY RADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, P. K.; Poh, H. S.; Kurtsiefer, C.; Yeo, G. H.; Chan, A. H. E-mail: phyck@nus.edu.sg

    2014-07-01

    Light from thermal blackbody radiators such as stars exhibits photon bunching behavior at sufficiently short timescales. However, with available detector bandwidths, this bunching signal is difficult to observe directly. We present an experimental technique to increase the photon bunching signal in blackbody radiation via spectral filtering of the light source. Our measurements reveal strong temporal photon bunching from blackbody radiation, including the Sun. This technique allows for an absolute measurement of the photon bunching signature g {sup (2)}(0), and thereby a direct statement on the statistical nature of a light source. Such filtering techniques may help revive the interest in intensity interferometry as a tool in astronomy.

  15. Photonic homeostatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Timon C.; Li, Fan-Hui

    2010-11-01

    Photonic homeostatics is a discipline to study the establishment, maintenance, decay, upgrading and representation of function-specific homoestasis (FSH) by using photonics. FSH is a negative-feedback response of a biosystem to maintain the function-specific fluctuations inside the biosystem so that the function is perfectly performed. A stress may increase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) activities above FSH-specific SIRT1 activity to induce a function far from its FSH. On the one hand, low level laser irradiation or monochromatic light (LLL) can not modulate a function in its FSH or a stress in its stress-specific homeostasis (StSH), but modulate a function far from its FSH or a stress far from its StSH. On the other hand, the biophotons from a biosystem with its function in its FSH should be less than the one from the biosystem with its function far from its FSH. The non-resonant interaction of low intensity laser irradiation or monochromatic light (LIL) and a kind of membrane protein can be amplified by all the membrane proteins if the function is far from its FSH. This amplification might hold for biophoton emission of the membrane protein so that the photonic spectroscopy can be used to represent the function far from its FSH, which is called photonomics.

  16. Photon collider at TESLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telnov, Valery

    2001-10-01

    High energy photon colliders ( ??, ?e) based on backward Compton scattering of laser light is a very natural addition to e +e - linear colliders. In this report, we consider this option for the TESLA project. Recent study has shown that the horizontal emittance in the TESLA damping ring can be further decreased by a factor of four. In this case, the ?? luminosity in the high energy part of spectrum can reach about (1/3) Le +e -. Typical cross-sections of interesting processes in ?? collisions are higher than those in e +e - collisions by about one order of magnitude, so the number of events in ?? collisions will be more than that in e +e - collisions. Photon colliders can, certainly, give additional information and they are the best for the study of many phenomena. The main question is now the technical feasibility. The key new element in photon colliders is a very powerful laser system. An external optical cavity is a promising approach for the TESLA project. A free electron laser is another option. However, a more straightforward solution is "an optical storage ring (optical trap)" with a diode pumped solid state laser injector which is today technically feasible. This paper briefly reviews the status of a photon collider based on the linear collider TESLA, its possible parameters and existing problems.

  17. Photon sieve telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Geoff; Tullson, Drew

    2006-06-01

    In designing next-generation, ultra-large (>20m) apertures for space, many current concepts involve compactable, curved membrane reflectors. Here we present the idea of using a flat diffractive element that requires no out-of-plane deformation and so is much simpler to deploy. The primary is a photon sieve - a diffractive element consisting of a large number of precisely positioned holes distributed according to an underlying Fresnel Zone Plate (FZP) geometry. The advantage of the photon sieve over the FZP is that all the regions are connected, so the membrane substrate under simple tension can avoid buckling. Also, the hole distribution can be varied to generate any conic or apodization for specialized telescope requirements such as exo-solar planet detection. We have designed and tested numerous photon sieves as telescope primaries. Some of these have over 10 million holes in a 0.1 m diameter aperture and all of them give diffraction limited imaging. While photon sieves are diffractive elements and thus suffer from dispersion, we will present two successful solutions to this problem.

  18. On Realization of a Cavity-QED Laser Emitting a Highly Sub-Poissonian, Anti-Bunched Beam of Photons in a CW Fashion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chough, Young-Tak

    2014-05-01

    We propose a feedback scheme to control the photon statistics in a micromaser/laser cavity, using the system output as the control signal, which generates a highly nonclassical field whose Mandel-Q parameter is even lower than -0.9 and mean photon number much greater than unity. We demonstrate that the so-obtained system constitutes a continuous-wave (CW) quasi-Fock state source, the emission of which exhibits a sub-Poissonian photocount distribution as well as the photon anti-bunching property.

  19. Generalized quantum interference of correlated photon pairs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heonoh; Lee, Sang Min; Moon, Han Seb

    2015-01-01

    Superposition and indistinguishablility between probability amplitudes have played an essential role in observing quantum interference effects of correlated photons. The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and interferences of the path-entangled photon number state are of special interest in the field of quantum information technologies. However, a fully generalized two-photon quantum interferometric scheme accounting for the Hong-Ou-Mandel scheme and path-entangled photon number states has not yet been proposed. Here we report the experimental demonstrations of the generalized two-photon interferometry with both the interferometric properties of the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect and the fully unfolded version of the path-entangled photon number state using photon-pair sources, which are independently generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Our experimental scheme explains two-photon interference fringes revealing single- and two-photon coherence properties in a single interferometer setup. Using the proposed interferometric measurement, it is possible to directly estimate the joint spectral intensity of a photon pair source. PMID:25951143

  20. Two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    So, P T; Dong, C Y; Masters, B R; Berland, K M

    2000-01-01

    Two-photon fluorescence microscopy is one of the most important recent inventions in biological imaging. This technology enables noninvasive study of biological specimens in three dimensions with submicrometer resolution. Two-photon excitation of fluorophores results from the simultaneous absorption of two photons. This excitation process has a number of unique advantages, such as reduced specimen photodamage and enhanced penetration depth. It also produces higher-contrast images and is a novel method to trigger localized photochemical reactions. Two-photon microscopy continues to find an increasing number of applications in biology and medicine. PMID:11701518

  1. Emitters of N-photon bundles

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, C. Sánchez; del Valle, E.; Tudela, A. González; Müller, K.; Lichtmannecker, S.; Kaniber, M.; Tejedor, C.; Finley, J.J.; Laussy, F.P.

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the ouput of a light emitter is one of the basic tasks of photonics, with landmarks such as the laser and single-photon sources. The development of quantum applications makes it increasingly important to diversify the available quantum sources. Here, we propose a cavity QED scheme to realize emitters that release their energy in groups, or “bundles” of N photons, for integer N. Close to 100% of two-photon emission and 90% of three-photon emission is shown to be within reach of state of the art samples. The emission can be tuned with system parameters so that the device behaves as a laser or as a N-photon gun. The theoretical formalism to characterize such emitters is developed, with the bundle statistics arising as an extension of the fundamental correlation functions of quantum optics. These emitters will be useful for quantum information processing and for medical applications. PMID:25013456

  2. Emitters of N-photon bundles.

    PubMed

    Muoz, C Snchez; Del Valle, E; Tudela, A Gonzlez; Mller, K; Lichtmannecker, S; Kaniber, M; Tejedor, C; Finley, J J; Laussy, F P

    2014-07-01

    Controlling the ouput of a light emitter is one of the basic tasks of photonics, with landmarks such as the laser and single-photon sources. The development of quantum applications makes it increasingly important to diversify the available quantum sources. Here, we propose a cavity QED scheme to realize emitters that release their energy in groups, or "bundles" of N photons, for integer N. Close to 100% of two-photon emission and 90% of three-photon emission is shown to be within reach of state of the art samples. The emission can be tuned with system parameters so that the device behaves as a laser or as a N-photon gun. The theoretical formalism to characterize such emitters is developed, with the bundle statistics arising as an extension of the fundamental correlation functions of quantum optics. These emitters will be useful for quantum information processing and for medical applications. PMID:25013456

  3. The 'Pile-up Effect' in Photon Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, A.; Zontone, F.; Gruebel, G.; Als-Nielsen, J.

    2004-05-12

    We quantify the pile-up of X-ray photons in a single-photon-counting detector with finite dead-time when subject to an intense synchrotron beam of non-Poisson distributed photons. The pile-up leads to a non-linearity between the registered count-rate and the true photon-rate when a single-channel analyzer is employed and we show that the phenomenon can be described by use of a simple statistical model.

  4. Single photon detection and timing - Experiments and techniques.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poultney, S. K.

    1972-01-01

    Single photon detection and timing means essentially the detection and timing of a single photoelectron released by light from a photosensitive surface of a photomultiplier, channel multiplier, avalanche multiplier photodiode, or other photodevice. Necessary photodevice gain and detection circuits, mechanisms and statistics of photodevice gain, photodevice and background noise and their reduction, and practical photodevice techniques and photon detection performance tests are discussed. Fast timing with single photons, and single photon detection with moderate timing requirements are considered.

  5. Statistical Diversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The term "data snooping" refers to the practice of choosing which statistical analyses to apply to a set of data after having first looked at those data. Data snooping contradicts a fundamental precept of applied statistics, that the scheme of analysis is to be planned in advance. In this column, the authors shall elucidate the statistical…

  6. Computer simulation of laser photon fluctuations: Single-cavity laser results

    SciTech Connect

    Marcuse, D.

    1984-10-01

    In this second paper of a series the author presents statistical results obtained from computer simulated experiments in single-cavity semiconductor lasers and show that the probability distribution for realistic lasers are much broader than the Poisson distribution. When the gain saturation parameter is properly chosen, the computer simulated probability distributions agree very well with published experimental results. The following is a summary of the results: Only the longitudinal laser mode at the center of the gain peak shows a probability distribution whose peak coincides with the average photon number. The modes to either side of the central mode have noise-like character with probability maxima at zero photon number. The photon probability distribution narrows with increasing power output, increasing cavity mirror reflectivity and decreasing cavity length. For the photon probability distribution to approach the Poisson limit, the cavity mirrors must have reflectivity near unity and the cavity losses must be very low. Two modes symmetrically located at either side of the gain peak have a probability distribution that is constant from zero photon number to a cutoff value, because the modes compete for power and fluctuate widely. Pulsed single-cavity lasers do not turn on consistently in the same longitudinal mode even if they are biased above threshold. The performance of coupled-cavity (C/sup 3/) and distributed feedback lasers (to be discussed in a subsequent paper) is much better than that of single-cavity lasers.

  7. Di-photon and photon + b/c production cross sections at Ecm = 1.96- TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Gajjar, Anant; /Liverpool U.

    2005-05-01

    Measurements of the di-photon cross section have been made in the central region and are found to be in good agreement with NLO QCD predictions. The cross section of events containing a photon and additional heavy flavor jet have also been measured, as well as the ratio of photon + b to photon + c. The statistically limited sample shows good agreement with Leading Order predictions.

  8. Number Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, David

    1997-01-01

    Presents three number games for mathematics classrooms designed to improve the learning of number concepts. Game topics include determining products, arranging mathematical signs, and factoring. (ASK)

  9. Statistics Clinic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Foy, Millennia; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James

    2014-01-01

    Do you have elevated p-values? Is the data analysis process getting you down? Do you experience anxiety when you need to respond to criticism of statistical methods in your manuscript? You may be suffering from Insufficient Statistical Support Syndrome (ISSS). For symptomatic relief of ISSS, come for a free consultation with JSC biostatisticians at our help desk during the poster sessions at the HRP Investigators Workshop. Get answers to common questions about sample size, missing data, multiple testing, when to trust the results of your analyses and more. Side effects may include sudden loss of statistics anxiety, improved interpretation of your data, and increased confidence in your results.

  10. Statistics Anxiety and Business Statistics: The International Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Does the international student suffer from statistics anxiety? To investigate this, the Statistics Anxiety Rating Scale (STARS) was administered to sixty-six beginning statistics students, including twelve international students and fifty-four domestic students. Due to the small number of international students, nonparametric methods were used to…

  11. Statistics Anxiety and Business Statistics: The International Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Does the international student suffer from statistics anxiety? To investigate this, the Statistics Anxiety Rating Scale (STARS) was administered to sixty-six beginning statistics students, including twelve international students and fifty-four domestic students. Due to the small number of international students, nonparametric methods were used to

  12. SEER Statistics

    Cancer.gov

    The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute works to provide information on cancer statistics in an effort to reduce the burden of cancer among the U.S. population.

  13. Quick Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... population, or about 25 million Americans, has experienced tinnitus lasting at least five minutes in the past ... by NIDCD Epidemiology and Statistics Program staff: (1) tinnitus prevalence was obtained from the 2008 National Health ...

  14. Statistics: A Brief Overview

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Ryan; Winters, Andrew; Amedee, Ronald G.

    2010-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education sets forth a number of required educational topics that must be addressed in residency and fellowship programs. We sought to provide a primer on some of the important basic statistical concepts to consider when examining the medical literature. It is not essential to understand the exact workings and methodology of every statistical test encountered, but it is necessary to understand selected concepts such as parametric and nonparametric tests, correlation, and numerical versus categorical data. This working knowledge will allow you to spot obvious irregularities in statistical analyses that you encounter. PMID:21603381

  15. Photonic Molecule Lasers Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Denis; Dumont, Joey; Déziel, Jean-Luc; Dubé, Louis J.

    2014-05-01

    Photonic molecules (PMs) formed by coupling two or more optical resonators are ideal candidates for the fabrication of integrated microlasers, photonic molecule lasers. Whereas most calculations on PM lasers have been based on cold-cavity (passive) modes, i.e. quasi-bound states, a recently formulated steady-state ab initio laser theory (SALT) offers the possibility to take into account the spectral properties of the underlying gain transition, its position and linewidth, as well as incorporating an arbitrary pump profile. We will combine two theoretical approaches to characterize the lasing properties of PM lasers: for two-dimensional systems, the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory will obtain the resonant modes of the coupled molecules in an active medium described by SALT. Not only is then the theoretical description more complete, the use of an active medium provides additional parameters to control, engineer and harness the lasing properties of PM lasers for ultra-low threshold and directional single-mode emission. We will extend our recent study and present new results for a number of promising geometries. The authors acknowledge financial support from NSERC (Canada) and the CERC in Photonic Innovations of Y. Messaddeq.

  16. Resonance formation in photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Gidal, G.

    1988-08-01

    Recent experimental progress on resonance formation in photon-photon collisions is reviewed with particular emphasis on the pseudoscalar and tensor nonents and on the ..gamma gamma..* production of spin-one resonances. 37 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Physics at high energy photon photon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1994-06-01

    I review the physic prospects for high energy photon photon colliders, emphasizing results presented at the LBL Gamma Gamma Collider Workshop. Advantages and difficulties are reported for studies of QCD, the electroweak gauge sector, supersymmetry, and electroweak symmetry breaking.

  18. Statistical phylogeography.

    PubMed

    Knowles, L Lacey; Maddison, Wayne P

    2002-12-01

    While studies of phylogeography and speciation in the past have largely focused on the documentation or detection of significant patterns of population genetic structure, the emerging field of statistical phylogeography aims to infer the history and processes underlying that structure, and to provide objective, rather than ad hoc explanations. Methods for parameter estimation are now commonly used to make inferences about demographic past. Although these approaches are well developed statistically, they typically pay little attention to geographical history. In contrast, methods that seek to reconstruct phylogeographic history are able to consider many alternative geographical scenarios, but are primarily nonstatistical, making inferences about particular biological processes without explicit reference to stochastically derived expectations. We advocate the merging of these two traditions so that statistical phylogeographic methods can provide an accurate representation of the past, consider a diverse array of processes, and yet yield a statistical estimate of that history. We discuss various conceptual issues associated with statistical phylogeographic inferences, considering especially the stochasticity of population genetic processes and assessing the confidence of phylogeographic conclusions. To this end, we present some empirical examples that utilize a statistical phylogeographic approach, and then by contrasting results from a coalescent-based approach to those from Templeton's nested cladistic analysis (NCA), we illustrate the importance of assessing error. Because NCA does not assess error in its inferences about historical processes or contemporary gene flow, we performed a small-scale study using simulated data to examine how our conclusions might be affected by such unconsidered errors. NCA did not identify the processes used to simulate the data, confusing among deterministic processes and the stochastic sorting of gene lineages. There is as yet insufficient justification of NCA's ability to accurately infer or distinguish among alternative processes. We close with a discussion of some unresolved problems of current statistical phylogeographic methods to propose areas in need of future development. PMID:12453245

  19. Injury Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for scientific studies. Amusement Rides March 09, 2015 Estimated Number of Injuries and Reported Deaths Associated with Inflatable Amusements, 2003–2013 July 10, 2009 Estimated Number of Injuries and Reported Deaths Associated with ...

  20. Lithography system using quantum entangled photons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Colin (Inventor); Dowling, Jonathan (Inventor); della Rossa, Giovanni (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A system of etching using quantum entangled particles to get shorter interference fringes. An interferometer is used to obtain an interference fringe. N entangled photons are input to the interferometer. This reduces the distance between interference fringes by n, where again n is the number of entangled photons.

  1. Leftist Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The leftist number system consists of numbers with decimal digits arranged in strings to the left, instead of to the right. This system fails to be a field only because it contains zerodivisors. The same construction with prime base yields the p-adic numbers.

  2. Nonperturbative atom-photon interactions in an optical cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, H.J.; Tian, L.; Ren, W.

    1994-12-31

    One of the principal developments in cavity quantum electrodynamics in the last few years has been the extension of the ideas originally applied to systems of Rydberg atoms in microwave cavities to optical frequencies. As a corollary of this, more attention is being paid to quantum fluctuations and photon statistics. Another development, still in its infancy, is a move toward experiments using slowed or trapped atoms, or velocity selected beams; these methods are needed to enter the nonperturbative (strong dipole coupling) regime for one atom where there are experiments on subtle quantum-statistical effects go carry out. In this chapter we solve a number of theoretical problems related to these themes. Although the focus of the work is on optical systems, most of what we do is also relevant at microwave frequencies. We emphasize quantum fluctuations and photon statistics, and we try always to separate the quantum physics from those aspects of the physics that are understandable in classical terms. On the whole we only pay attention to the nonperturbative regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics where the dipole coupling strength is larger than the dissipation rates. 59 refs., 14 figs.

  3. Entangled-photon compressive ghost imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Zerom, Petros; Chan, Kam Wai Clifford; Howell, John C.; Boyd, Robert W.

    2011-12-15

    We have experimentally demonstrated high-resolution compressive ghost imaging at the single-photon level using entangled photons produced by a spontaneous parametric down-conversion source and using single-pixel detectors. For a given mean-squared error, the number of photons needed to reconstruct a two-dimensional image is found to be much smaller than that in quantum ghost imaging experiments employing a raster scan. This procedure not only shortens the data acquisition time, but also suggests a more economical use of photons for low-light-level and quantum image formation.

  4. Single photon searches at PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Hollebeek, R.

    1985-12-01

    The MAC and ASP searches for events with a single photon and no other observed particles are reviewed. New results on the number of neutrino generations and limits on selection, photino, squark and gluino masses from the ASP experiment are presented.

  5. Large numbers hypothesis. II - Electromagnetic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper develops the theory of electromagnetic radiation in the units covariant formalism incorporating Dirac's large numbers hypothesis (LNH). A direct field-to-particle technique is used to obtain the photon propagation equation which explicitly involves the photon replication rate. This replication rate is fixed uniquely by requiring that the form of a free-photon distribution function be preserved, as required by the 2.7 K cosmic radiation. One finds that with this particular photon replication rate the units covariant formalism developed in Paper I actually predicts that the ratio of photon number to proton number in the universe varies as t to the 1/4, precisely in accord with LNH. The cosmological red-shift law is also derived and it is shown to differ considerably from the standard form of (nu)(R) - const.

  6. Observation of eight-photon entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xing-Can; Wang, Tian-Xiong; Xu, Ping; Lu, He; Pan, Ge-Sheng; Bao, Xiao-Hui; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Lu, Chao-Yang; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2012-04-01

    The creation of increasingly large multipartite entangled states is not only a fundamental scientific endeavour in itself, but is also the enabling technology for quantum information. Tremendous experimental effort has been devoted to generating multiparticle entanglement with a growing number of qubits. So far, up to six spatially separated single photons have been entangled based on parametric downconversion. Multiple degrees of freedom of a single photon have been exploited to generate forms of hyper-entangled states. Here, using new ultra-bright sources of entangled photon pairs, an eight-photon interferometer and post-selection detection, we demonstrate for the first time the creation of an eight-photon Schrdinger cat state with genuine multipartite entanglement. The ability to control eight individual photons represents a step towards optical quantum computation, and will enable new experiments on, for example, quantum simulation, topological error correction and testing entanglement dynamics under decoherence.

  7. Statistical Fun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catley, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Following the announcement last year that there will be no more math coursework assessment at General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), teachers will in the future be able to devote more time to preparing learners for formal examinations. One of the key things that the author has learned when teaching statistics is that it makes for far

  8. Educational Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Douglas A.

    The 30 papers in the area of educational statistics that were presented at the 1972 AERA Conference are reviewed. The papers are categorized into five broad areas of interest: (1) theory of univariate analysis, (2) nonparametric methods, (3) regression-prediction theory, (4) multivariable methods, and (5) factor analysis. A list of the papers

  9. Statistics Revelations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicot, Katie; Holmes, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    The use, and misuse, of statistics is commonplace, yet in the printed format data representations can be either over simplified, supposedly for impact, or so complex as to lead to boredom, supposedly for completeness and accuracy. In this article the link to the video clip shows how dynamic visual representations can enliven and enhance the

  10. General displaced SU(1, 1) number states: Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Dehghani, A. E-mail: a-dehghani@tabrizu.ac.ir

    2014-04-15

    The most general displaced number states, based on the bosonic and an irreducible representation of the Lie algebra symmetry of su(1, 1) and associated with the Calogero-Sutherland model are introduced. Here, we utilize the Barut-Girardello displacement operator instead of the Klauder-Perelomov counterpart, to construct new kind of the displaced number states which can be classified in nonlinear coherent states regime, too, with special nonlinearity functions. They depend on two parameters, and can be converted into the well-known Barut-Girardello coherent and number states, respectively, depending on which of the parameters equal to zero. A discussion of the statistical properties of these states is included. Significant are their squeezing properties and anti-bunching effects which can be raised by increasing the energy quantum number. Depending on the particular choice of the parameters of the above scenario, we are able to determine the status of compliance with flexible statistics. Major parts of the issue is spent on something that these states, in fact, should be considered as new kind of photon-added coherent states, too. Which can be reproduced through an iterated action of a creation operator on new nonlinear Barut-Girardello coherent states. Where the latter carry, also, outstanding statistical features.

  11. General displaced SU(1, 1) number states: Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani, A.

    2014-04-01

    The most general displaced number states, based on the bosonic and an irreducible representation of the Lie algebra symmetry of su(1, 1) and associated with the Calogero-Sutherland model are introduced. Here, we utilize the Barut-Girardello displacement operator instead of the Klauder-Perelomov counterpart, to construct new kind of the displaced number states which can be classified in nonlinear coherent states regime, too, with special nonlinearity functions. They depend on two parameters, and can be converted into the well-known Barut-Girardello coherent and number states, respectively, depending on which of the parameters equal to zero. A discussion of the statistical properties of these states is included. Significant are their squeezing properties and anti-bunching effects which can be raised by increasing the energy quantum number. Depending on the particular choice of the parameters of the above scenario, we are able to determine the status of compliance with flexible statistics. Major parts of the issue is spent on something that these states, in fact, should be considered as new kind of photon-added coherent states, too. Which can be reproduced through an iterated action of a creation operator on new nonlinear Barut-Girardello coherent states. Where the latter carry, also, outstanding statistical features.

  12. Exciton-photon correlations in bosonic condensates of exciton-polaritons.

    PubMed

    Kavokin, Alexey V; Sheremet, Alexandra S; Shelykh, Ivan A; Lagoudakis, Pavlos G; Rubo, Yuri G

    2015-01-01

    Exciton-polaritons are mixed light-matter quasiparticles. We have developed a statistical model describing stochastic exciton-photon transitions within a condensate of exciton polaritons. We show that the exciton-photon correlator depends on the rate of incoherent exciton-photon transformations in the condensate. We discuss implications of this effect for the quantum statistics of photons emitted by polariton lasers. PMID:26153979

  13. Exciton-photon correlations in bosonic condensates of exciton-polaritons

    PubMed Central

    Kavokin, Alexey V.; Sheremet, Alexandra S.; Shelykh, Ivan A.; Lagoudakis, Pavlos G.; Rubo, Yuri G.

    2015-01-01

    Exciton-polaritons are mixed light-matter quasiparticles. We have developed a statistical model describing stochastic exciton-photon transitions within a condensate of exciton polaritons. We show that the exciton-photon correlator depends on the rate of incoherent exciton-photon transformations in the condensate. We discuss implications of this effect for the quantum statistics of photons emitted by polariton lasers. PMID:26153979

  14. Conventional statistics and useful statistics.

    PubMed

    Rahlfs, V W

    1995-02-01

    Differences between conventional statistical methods and more useful, modern methods are demonstrated using a statistical analysis of data from therapeutic research in rheumatology. The conventional methods, t-test and graphs of mean values and the boxplot, detect almost no differences between treatment groups. A more recent procedure for analysing group differences is the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. The associated graphs are based on the cumulative distribution function of the two treatment groups and the synthetic Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC). Special differences, namely baseline dependencies, can be visualized in this way. PMID:7710451

  15. Hybrid approach to mean-variance and photon transfer measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquot, Blake C.; Bolla, Brett M.; Maguire, Sean

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a hybrid technique for measuring conversion gain that blends spatial and temporal information, allowing users to calculate an accurate conversion gain with little knowledge of sensor defects. It blends a single pixel method with multiple pixel methods. We present measured data from a visible CMOS image sensor using two multiple pixel methods and the hybrid method. Additionally, we provide arguments for validity of the hybrid method. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this technique. Conversion gain (e-/DN) directly relates measured digital numbers (DN) to input-referred electrons (e-) for an image sensor. Conversion gain can be directly measured by considering the sensor under varying illumination states in coordination with Poisson statistics. Typically, there are two approaches: measure a single pixel over time or measure a group of pixels at one point in time after correcting for gain non-uniformity. The plotted statistics from these measurements are called either mean-variance or photon-transfer curves. The measurement of a single pixel is relatively straightforward and requires collection of many consecutive frames to get meaningful statistics not dominated by thermal noise. The data volume for an accurate single-pixel measurement can become unwieldy in terms of number of frames required. This is especially true for large format image sensors. In contrast, the measurement of a group of pixels requires fewer consecutive frames, but needs non-uniformity adjustments to correctly calculate statistics.

  16. The Net by Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurdo, George

    1996-01-01

    The expansion of the commercial Internet has encouraged the interpretation of the Internet and its uses as a potential marketing medium. Examines statistical and demographic information about the Internet including number of Internet hosts and World Wide Web servers, and estimates of Internet users; and raises questions about definitions and

  17. The Net by Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurdo, George

    1996-01-01

    The expansion of the commercial Internet has encouraged the interpretation of the Internet and its uses as a potential marketing medium. Examines statistical and demographic information about the Internet including number of Internet hosts and World Wide Web servers, and estimates of Internet users; and raises questions about definitions and…

  18. Library Research and Statistics. Research on Libraries and Librarianship in 2002; Number of Libraries in the United States and Canada; Highlights of NCES Surveys; Library Acquisition Expenditures, 2001-2002: U.S. Public, Academic, Special, and Government Libraries; LJ Budget Report: A Precarious Holding Pattern; Price Indexes for Public and Academic Libraries; Library Buildings 2002: The Building Buck Doesn't Stop Here.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mary Jo; Oder, Norman; Halstead, Kent; Fox, Bette-Lee

    2003-01-01

    Includes seven reports that discuss research on libraries and librarianship, including academic, public, and school libraries; awards and grants; number of libraries in the United States and Canada; National Center for Education Statistics results; library expenditures for public, academic, special, and government libraries; library budgets; price

  19. Supernova brightening from chameleon-photon mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Burrage, C.

    2008-02-15

    Measurements of standard candles and measurements of standard rulers give an inconsistent picture of the history of the universe. This discrepancy can be explained if photon number is not conserved as computations of the luminosity distance must be modified. I show that photon number is not conserved when photons mix with chameleons in the presence of a magnetic field. The strong magnetic fields in a supernova mean that the probability of a photon converting into a chameleon in the interior of the supernova is high, this results in a large flux of chameleons at the surface of the supernova. Chameleons and photons also mix as a result of the intergalactic magnetic field. These two effects combined cause the image of the supernova to be brightened resulting in a model which fits both observations of standard candles and observations of standard rulers.

  20. Popper's experiment with randomly paired photons in thermal state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Tao; Simon, Jason; Chen, Hui; French, Robert; Shih, Yanhua

    2015-01-01

    We realized Popper's thought experiment via the photon number fluctuation correlation measurement of random paired photons in thermal state. The experiment produces the same results as that of Kim and Shih in 1998 with entangled photon pairs, which agreed with Popper's prediction. Although the observation cannot be considered as a violation of the uncertainty relation as Popper believed, this experiment reveals a concern about nonlocal interference of a random photon pair, which involves the superposition of multi-photon amplitudes, and multi-photon detection events at a distance.

  1. Using single photons to improve fiber optic communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Armando N.; Silva, Nuno A.; Almeida, Álvaro J.; Muga, Nelson J.

    2014-08-01

    We show how to generate, encode, transmit and detect single photons. By using single photons we can address two of the more challenging problems that communication engineers face nowadays: capacity and security. Indeed, by decreasing the number of photons used to encode each bit, we can efficiently explore the full capacity to carry information of optical fibers, and we can guarantee privacy at the physical layer. We present results for single and entangled photon generation. We encode information in the photons polarization and after transmission we retrieve that information. We discuss the impact of fiber birefringence on the photons polarization.

  2. Photon-Photon Collisions -- Past and Future

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2005-12-02

    I give a brief review of the history of photon-photon physics and a survey of its potential at future electron-positron colliders. Exclusive hadron production processes in photon-photon and electron-photon collisions provide important tests of QCD at the amplitude level, particularly as measures of hadron distribution amplitudes. There are also important high energy {gamma}{gamma} and e{gamma} tests of quantum chromodynamics, including the production of jets in photon-photon collisions, deeply virtual Compton scattering on a photon target, and leading-twist single-spin asymmetries for a photon polarized normal to a production plane. Since photons couple directly to all fundamental fields carrying the electromagnetic current including leptons, quarks, W's and supersymmetric particles, high energy {gamma}{gamma} collisions will provide a comprehensive laboratory for Higgs production and exploring virtually every aspect of the Standard Model and its extensions. High energy back-scattered laser beams will thus greatly extend the range of physics of the International Linear Collider.

  3. Singular statistics.

    PubMed

    Bogomolny, E; Gerland, U; Schmit, C

    2001-03-01

    We consider the statistical distribution of zeros of random meromorphic functions whose poles are independent random variables. It is demonstrated that correlation functions of these zeros can be computed analytically, and explicit calculations are performed for the two-point correlation function. This problem naturally appears in, e.g., rank-1 perturbation of an integrable Hamiltonian and, in particular, when a delta-function potential is added to an integrable billiard. PMID:11308740

  4. Bose-Einstein condensation of ideal photons in a one-dimensional barrel cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ze

    2016-02-01

    Our experimental scheme is based on a barrel optical microresonator filled with a dye solution. The barrel mirror provides a confining potential, a chemical potential, and an effective mass for a photon, making the system formally equivalent to a one-dimensional gas of harmonically trapped, number-conserving, and massive bosons. Within the framework of quantum statistical mechanics, we propose an exact analytical solution to the problem of Bose-Einstein condensation in harmonically trapped, one-dimensional, and ideal photons. It is found that the photon number of vapor is characterized by an analytical function, which involves a q -digamma function in mathematics. The numerical calculation of the analytical solution gives many interesting results. In the thermodynamic limit, the analytical expressions of the critical temperature and the condensate fraction are derived. We find that the spectral radiance of a one-dimensional barrel cavity has a sharp peak at the frequency of the cavity cutoff when the photon number exceeds the critical value determined by a temperature.

  5. Protecting sing-photon multi-mode W state from photon loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Yu-Bo; Ou-Yang, Yang; Zhou, Lan; Wang, Lei

    2014-07-01

    Single-photon entanglement is of major importance in current quantum communications. However, it is sensitive to photon loss. In this paper, we discuss the protection of single-photon multi-mode W state with noiseless linear amplification. It is shown that the amplification factor is only decided with the transmission coefficient of the variable fiber beam splitters, and it does not change with the number of the spatial mode. This protocol may be useful in current quantum information processing.

  6. Nuclear photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Habs, D.; Guenther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-09

    With the planned new {gamma}-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 10{sup 13}{gamma}/s and a band width of {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -3}, a new era of {gamma} beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HI{gamma}S facility at Duke University (USA) with 10{sup 8}{gamma}/s and {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 3 Dot-Operator 10{sup -2}. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for {gamma} beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused {gamma} beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the {gamma} beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for {gamma} beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for {gamma} beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the {gamma}-beam facility, the {gamma}-beam optics and {gamma} detectors. We can trade {gamma} intensity for band width, going down to {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -6} and address individual nuclear levels. The term 'nuclear photonics' stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with {gamma}-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, {gamma} beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to {mu}m resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of applications. We find many new applications in biomedicine, green energy, radioactive waste management or homeland security. Also more brilliant secondary beams of neutrons and positrons can be produced.

  7. CRIPPLED CHILDREN'S PROGRAM STATISTICS, 1963. CHILDREN'S BUREAU STATISTICAL SERIES 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Bureau (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    STATISTICS (FURNISHED BY 53 REPORTING STATES AND TERRITORIES) ON 1963 PROGRAMS FOR PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED CHILDREN IN THE UNITED STATES ARE PRESENTED. TABLES REPORT TYPE OF SERVICE AND TOTAL NUMBER OF CHILDREN INVOLVED, NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF EACH PHYSICAL HANDICAP, AND NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF CHILDREN IN EACH STATE WHO RECEIVED

  8. UK photonics in defence and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gracie, C.; Tooley, I.; Wilson, A.

    2008-10-01

    The UK is globally recognised as strong in Photonics. However its Photonics sector is fragmented and the size and sectors of interest have not previously been established. The UK government has instigated the formation of the Photonics Knowledge Transfer Network (PKTN) to bring the Photonics community together. The UK features in Defence & Security; Communications; Measurement; Medical Technology; Lighting; Solar Energy; Information Technology and Flat Panels. This expertise is scattered through out the UK in geographic areas each with a breadth of Photonic interests. The PKTN has mapped the UK capability in all Photonics sectors. This paper will present the capability of the Companies, Research Institutions and Infrastructure making up the Defence & Security Photonics scene in the UK. Large Defence companies in the UK are well known throughout the world. However, there are a large number of SMEs, which may not be as well known in the supply chain. These are being actively encouraged by the UK MoD to engage with the Defence & Security Market and shall be discussed here. The presentation will reference a number of organisations which help to fund and network the community, such as the Defence Technology Centres. In addition the Roadmap for Defence & Security in the UK, produced for the UK Photonics Strategy (July 2006) by the Scottish Optoelectronics Association will be described and the plans in taking it forward under the PKTN will be revealed.

  9. Lyapunov exponents for one-dimensional aperiodic photonic bandgap structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissel, Glen J.

    2011-10-01

    Existing in the "gray area" between perfectly periodic and purely randomized photonic bandgap structures are the socalled aperoidic structures whose layers are chosen according to some deterministic rule. We consider here a onedimensional photonic bandgap structure, a quarter-wave stack, with the layer thickness of one of the bilayers subject to being either thin or thick according to five deterministic sequence rules and binary random selection. To produce these aperiodic structures we examine the following sequences: Fibonacci, Thue-Morse, Period doubling, Rudin-Shapiro, as well as the triadic Cantor sequence. We model these structures numerically with a long chain (approximately 5,000,000) of transfer matrices, and then use the reliable algorithm of Wolf to calculate the (upper) Lyapunov exponent for the long product of matrices. The Lyapunov exponent is the statistically well-behaved variable used to characterize the Anderson localization effect (exponential confinement) when the layers are randomized, so its calculation allows us to more precisely compare the purely randomized structure with its aperiodic counterparts. It is found that the aperiodic photonic systems show much fine structure in their Lyapunov exponents as a function of frequency, and, in a number of cases, the exponents are quite obviously fractal.

  10. Quantum phase transition of light in a one-dimensional photon-hopping-controllable resonator array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chun-Wang; Gao, Ming; Deng, Zhi-Jiao; Dai, Hong-Yi; Chen, Ping-Xing; Li, Cheng-Zu

    2011-10-01

    We give a concrete experimental scheme for engineering the insulator-superfluid transition of light in a one-dimensional (1D) array of coupled superconducting stripline resonators. In our proposed architecture, the on-site interaction and the photon-hopping rate can be tuned independently by adjusting the transition frequencies of the charge qubits inside the resonators and at the resonator junctions, respectively, which permits us to systematically study the quantum phase transition of light in a complete parameter space. By combining the techniques of photon-number-dependent qubit transition and fast readout of the qubit state using a separate low-Q resonator mode, the statistical property of the excitations in each resonator can be obtained with a high efficiency. An analysis of the various decoherence sources and disorders shows that our scheme can serve as a guide to upcoming experiments involving a small number of coupled resonators.

  11. Photonic seeker development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duthie, J. G.; Ashley, P. R.; Upatnieks, J.; Liu, H. K.

    1982-06-01

    Experiments have been performed which indicate a means to extend significantly the number of matched filters which can be simultaneously addressed in the photonic correlator. Results indicate that a total of 200 independent images of the target can be interrogated in parallel. This corresponds to an effective computation of over 10 to the 13th power complex multiplications per second. The suggested method is mechanically simple, optically easy to implement, requires little power and can be fabricated into a compact unit. Improvement in the signal to noise of a photonic correlator can be achieved by using an achromatic transform system and a thermal light source. At this time, however, the throughput of such a system is not sufficient to make a practical device. Whereas, efforts should continue to develop techniques to correlate using thermal light sources, the principal thrust for making a field operational system should, at this time, be concentrated on the use of laser diode sources together with the use of phase screens to extend the memory of these systems.

  12. Quantum statistical theory of the ring laser

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.

    1981-02-01

    A unified quantum treatment is presented for bidirectional two-mode ring lasers using the approach of Haken and co-workers. Equations of motion for the reduced density matrix of the field have been derived and used to study the fluctuation properties of the radiation field in different kinds of active media. The steady-state photon number distribution for an inhomogeneously broadened gas ring laser is derived. It is shown that for equal losses the relative fluctuations and normalized cross correlation of the photon numbers approach values 1/3 and -1/3, respectively, for large excitations. For unequal losses the laser may emit typical single-mode laser radiation in the direction of the favored mode and typical equilibrium blackbody radiation in the direction of the weaker mode. Our results generally agree with the predictions of earlier treatments when the losses are equal. However, for unequal losses we predict different behavior for large excitations. Effects of detuning, spatial, and temporal variation of atomic inversion on the fluctuation properties have been investigated in the coherent-state diagonal representation of the density matrix, and steady-state intensity distributions have been derived for various kinds of active atoms. It is shown that for inhomogeneously broadened solid-state ring lasers spatial inhomogeneities may couple the modes strongly and the statistical properties of such lasers, characterized by a double-peaked intensity distribution and large relative-intensity fluctuations, may be similar to those of a homogeneously broadened ring laser. Curves are presented to illustrate the behavior.

  13. Figurate Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Cloman

    1974-01-01

    Details of an investigation into polygonal numbers are given. From a study of the tabled series, patterns are discovered both within and between the various polygonal series. From a study of these results and the corresponding figures, formulas are developed. (LS)

  14. Numbers Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kathotia, Vinay

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on work undertaken by schools as part of Qualifications and Curriculum Authority's (QCA's) "Engaging mathematics for all learners" project. The goal was to use in the classroom, materials and approaches from a Royal Institution (Ri) Year 10 master-class, "Number Sense", which was inspired by examples from Michael Blastland and

  15. Numbers Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kathotia, Vinay

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on work undertaken by schools as part of Qualifications and Curriculum Authority's (QCA's) "Engaging mathematics for all learners" project. The goal was to use in the classroom, materials and approaches from a Royal Institution (Ri) Year 10 master-class, "Number Sense", which was inspired by examples from Michael Blastland and…

  16. Numbers, Please!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin, John R.

    2013-01-01

    What topic would you choose if you had the luxury of writing forever? In this article, John Thelin provides his response: He would opt to write about the history of higher education in a way that relies on quantitative data. "Numbers, please!" is his research request in taking on a longitudinal study of colleges and universities over…

  17. Number Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sezin, Fatin

    2009-01-01

    It is instructive and interesting to find hidden numbers by using different positional numeration systems. Most of the present guessing techniques use the binary system expressed as less-than, greater-than or present-absent type information. This article describes how, by employing four cards having integers 1-64 written in different colours, one…

  18. Numbers, Please!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin, John R.

    2013-01-01

    What topic would you choose if you had the luxury of writing forever? In this article, John Thelin provides his response: He would opt to write about the history of higher education in a way that relies on quantitative data. "Numbers, please!" is his research request in taking on a longitudinal study of colleges and universities over

  19. Quantum target detection using entangled photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usha Devi, A. R.; Rajagopal, A. K.

    2009-06-01

    We investigate performances of pure continuous variable states in discriminating thermal and identity channels by comparing their M -copy error-probability bounds. This offers us a simplified mathematical analysis for quantum target detection with slightly modified features: the objectif it is presentperfectly reflects the signal beam irradiating it, while thermal noise photons are returned to the receiver in its absence. This model facilitates us to obtain analytic results on error-probability bounds, i.e., the quantum Chernoff bound and the lower bound constructed from the Bhattacharya bound on M -copy discrimination error probabilities of some important quantum states, like photon number states, N -photon maximally entangled (N00N) states, coherent states and the entangled photons obtained from spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC). Comparing the M -copy error-bounds, we identify that path-entangled states indeed offer enhanced sensitivity than the photon number state system, when average signal photon number is small compared to the thermal noise level. However, in the high signal-to-noise scenario, N00N states fail to be advantageous than the photon number states. Entangled SPDC photon pairs too outperform conventional coherent state system in the low signal-to-noise case. On the other hand, conventional coherent state system surpasses the performance sensitivity offered by entangled photon pair, when the signal intensity is much above that of thermal noise. We find an analogous performance regime in the lossy target detection (where the target is modeled as a weakly reflecting object) in a high signal-to-noise scenario.

  20. Investigation of the Photon Strength Function in 130 Te

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaak, J.; Beller, J.; Fiori, E.; Glorius, J.; Krti?ka, M.; Lher, B.; Pietralla, N.; Romig, C.; Rusev, G.; Savran, D.; Scheck, M.; Silva, J.; Sonnabend, K.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Weller, H. R.; Zweidinger, M.

    2016-01-01

    The dipole strength distribution of 130Te was investigated with the method of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence using continuous-energy bremsstrahlung at the Darmstadt High Intensity Photon Setup and quasi-monoenergetic photons at the High Intensity ?-Ray Source. The average decay properties were determined between 5.50 and 8.15 MeV and compared to simulations within the statistical model.

  1. High energy photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.; Zerwas, P.M.

    1994-07-01

    The collisions of high energy photons produced at a electron-positron collider provide a comprehensive laboratory for testing QCD, electroweak interactions and extensions of the standard model. The luminosity and energy of the colliding photons produced by back-scattering laser beams is expected to be comparable to that of the primary e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collisions. In this overview, we shall focus on tests of electroweak theory in photon-photon annihilation, particularly {gamma}{gamma} {yields} W{sup +}W{sup {minus}}, {gamma}{gamma} {yields} Higgs bosons, and higher-order loop processes, such as {gamma}{gamma} {yields} {gamma}{gamma}, Z{gamma} and ZZ. Since each photon can be resolved into a W{sup +}W{sup minus} pair, high energy photon-photon collisions can also provide a remarkably background-free laboratory for studying WW collisions and annihilation. We also review high energy {gamma}{gamma} tests of quantum chromodynamics, such as the scaling of the photon structure function, t{bar t} production, mini-jet processes, and diffractive reactions.

  2. Candidate Assembly Statistical Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-15

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) receives aluminum clad spent Material Test Reactor (MTR) fuel from all over the world for storage and eventual reprocessing. There are hundreds of different kinds of MTR fuels and these fuels will continue to be received at SRS for approximately ten more years. SRS''s current criticality evaluation methodology requires the modeling of all MTR fuels utilizing Monte Carlo codes, which is extremely time consuming and resource intensive. Now that a significant number of MTR calculations have been conducted it is feasible to consider building statistical models that will provide reasonable estimations of MTR behavior. These statistical models can be incorporated into a standardized model homogenization spreadsheet package to provide analysts with a means of performing routine MTR fuel analyses with a minimal commitment of time and resources. This became the purpose for development of the Candidate Assembly Statistical Evaluation (CASE) program at SRS.

  3. Candidate Assembly Statistical Evaluation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-07-15

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) receives aluminum clad spent Material Test Reactor (MTR) fuel from all over the world for storage and eventual reprocessing. There are hundreds of different kinds of MTR fuels and these fuels will continue to be received at SRS for approximately ten more years. SRS''s current criticality evaluation methodology requires the modeling of all MTR fuels utilizing Monte Carlo codes, which is extremely time consuming and resource intensive. Now that amore » significant number of MTR calculations have been conducted it is feasible to consider building statistical models that will provide reasonable estimations of MTR behavior. These statistical models can be incorporated into a standardized model homogenization spreadsheet package to provide analysts with a means of performing routine MTR fuel analyses with a minimal commitment of time and resources. This became the purpose for development of the Candidate Assembly Statistical Evaluation (CASE) program at SRS.« less

  4. Modal photon densities

    SciTech Connect

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1982-06-21

    The short wavelength laser code XRASER uses line raidation fields whose dimensions are photons/mode. In this document, we discuss modal photon densities and provide formulas relating these units to units more familiar to the LLNL community.

  5. Photonic crystal light source

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Bur, James A.

    2004-07-27

    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  6. Photon structure function - theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1984-12-01

    The theoretical status of the photon structure function is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the hadronic mixing problem and the ability of perturbative QCD to make definitive predictions for the photon structure function. 11 references.

  7. Photonic crystal lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, John D.; Lee, Po-Tsung; Cao, Jiang-Rong; Kuang, W.; Kim, Cheolwoo; Kim, Woo-Jun; Yang, Tian; Choi, Sang-Jun; Dapkus, Paul D.

    2003-04-01

    Photonic crystal microcavity lasers are potentially attractive optical sources for future communication systems. They operate at lithographically defined wavelengths and because of their small volumes they are expected to exhibit low operating powers. Much work remains to be done, however, in order for these sources to find mainstream applications. In this presentation we will report on our work on optically pumped photonic crystal lasers. Finite-difference time-domain and finite element simulations will be presented as part of a discussion of the resonant cavity design. The trade-offs in the design of photonic lattice hole radius and membrane thickness will also be included, and we will discuss strategies for minimizing the optical loss in these cavities. The photonic crystal laser cavities reported here are defined by electron beam lithography in pmma. The pmma is subsequently used as a mask to transfer the pattern into a Cr/Au layer in an ion beam milling step. This patterned metal layer is then used as a mask for a reactive ion etch that patterns a silicon nitride layer. Finally this layer is used as a mask to transfer the lattice into the InGaAsP semiconductor using an ECR etching step. Suspended membranes are formed by chemically undercutting the lattice. This provides strong optical confinement at the semiconductor/air interfaces at the top and bottom of the cavity. We have demonstrated pulsed, optically pumped lasing at and above room temperature in these resonant cavities using a semiconductor diode laser as the pump. The resonant cavity in our demonstration is formed by removing 19 holes from a triangular lattice and is about 2.6 mm across. Incident threshold pump powers for this cavity size as low as 0.5 mW have been demonstrated at room temperature. The peak output power collected through an optical fiber is approximately 2 mW. Lasing is seen for pump pulses as long as 200 ns. We have also demonstrated lasing in these cavities at elevated substrate temperatures. This demonstration was done using an 860 nm top emitting VCSEL as the pumping source because we expect it to provide a direction towards monolithic, electrically addressable lasers. Input power versus output power lasing characteristics for substrate temperatures up to 50 °C have been obtained. We will also report on our work on lithographic fine-tuning of the lasing wavelength. This wavelength can be defined through the lattice constant or the hole radius. This feature of photonic crystal lasers allows the definition of multiwavelength arrays. We have built and characterized arrays in which the lattice constant varies 2 nm steps across the array. The lasing wavelength redshifts with increasing lattice constant with an average separation between adjacent lasing wavelengths of 4.6 nm. The lasing wavelength tunes through the gain spectrum before the laser mode hops. Finally, we will present data on the optical loss in these cavities obtained by varying the number of lattice periods. We observed a reduction in incident threshold pump powers with increasing number of lattice periods at least through 11 periods.

  8. Teleporting photonic qudits using multimode quantum scissors.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Sandeep K; Konrad, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Teleportation plays an important role in the communication of quantum information between the nodes of a quantum network and is viewed as an essential ingredient for long-distance Quantum Cryptography. We describe a method to teleport the quantum information carried by a photon in a superposition of a number d of light modes (a "qudit") by the help of d additional photons based on transcription. A qudit encoded into a single excitation of d light modes (in our case Laguerre-Gauss modes which carry orbital angular momentum) is transcribed to d single-rail photonic qubits, which are spatially separated. Each single-rail qubit consists of a superposition of vacuum and a single photon in each one of the modes. After successful teleportation of each of the d single-rail qubits by means of "quantum scissors" they are converted back into a qudit carried by a single photon which completes the teleportation scheme. PMID:24352610

  9. Teleporting photonic qudits using multimode quantum scissors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Sandeep K.; Konrad, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Teleportation plays an important role in the communication of quantum information between the nodes of a quantum network and is viewed as an essential ingredient for long-distance Quantum Cryptography. We describe a method to teleport the quantum information carried by a photon in a superposition of a number d of light modes (a ``qudit'') by the help of d additional photons based on transcription. A qudit encoded into a single excitation of d light modes (in our case Laguerre-Gauss modes which carry orbital angular momentum) is transcribed to d single-rail photonic qubits, which are spatially separated. Each single-rail qubit consists of a superposition of vacuum and a single photon in each one of the modes. After successful teleportation of each of the d single-rail qubits by means of ``quantum scissors'' they are converted back into a qudit carried by a single photon which completes the teleportation scheme.

  10. Single Photon Transport through an Atomic Chain Coupled to a One-dimensional Photonic Waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Zeyang; Zeng, Xiaodong; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2015-03-01

    We study the dynamics of a single photon pulse travels through a linear atomic chain coupled to a one-dimensional (1D) single mode photonic waveguide. We derive a time-dependent dynamical theory for this collective many-body system which allows us to study the real time evolution of the photon transport and the atomic excitations. Our result is consistent with previous calculations when there is only one atom. For an atomic chain, the collective interaction between the atoms mediated by the waveguide mode can significantly change the dynamics of the system. The reflectivity can be tuned by changing the ratio of coupling strength and the photon linewidth or by changing the number of atoms in the chain. The reflectivity of a single photon pulse with finite bandwidth can even approach 100%. The spectrum of the reflected and transmitted photon can also be significantly different from the single atom case. Many interesting physics can occur in this system such as the photonic bandgap effects, quantum entanglement generation, Fano-type interference, superradiant effects and nonlinear frequency conversion. For engineering, this system may be used as a single photon frequency filter, single photon modulation and photon storage.

  11. The Statistical Fermi Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccone, C.

    In this paper is provided the statistical generalization of the Fermi paradox. The statistics of habitable planets may be based on a set of ten (and possibly more) astrobiological requirements first pointed out by Stephen H. Dole in his book Habitable planets for man (1964). The statistical generalization of the original and by now too simplistic Dole equation is provided by replacing a product of ten positive numbers by the product of ten positive random variables. This is denoted the SEH, an acronym standing for Statistical Equation for Habitables. The proof in this paper is based on the Central Limit Theorem (CLT) of Statistics, stating that the sum of any number of independent random variables, each of which may be ARBITRARILY distributed, approaches a Gaussian (i.e. normal) random variable (Lyapunov form of the CLT). It is then shown that: 1. The new random variable NHab, yielding the number of habitables (i.e. habitable planets) in the Galaxy, follows the log- normal distribution. By construction, the mean value of this log-normal distribution is the total number of habitable planets as given by the statistical Dole equation. 2. The ten (or more) astrobiological factors are now positive random variables. The probability distribution of each random variable may be arbitrary. The CLT in the so-called Lyapunov or Lindeberg forms (that both do not assume the factors to be identically distributed) allows for that. In other words, the CLT "translates" into the SEH by allowing an arbitrary probability distribution for each factor. This is both astrobiologically realistic and useful for any further investigations. 3. By applying the SEH it is shown that the (average) distance between any two nearby habitable planets in the Galaxy may be shown to be inversely proportional to the cubic root of NHab. This distance is denoted by new random variable D. The relevant probability density function is derived, which was named the "Maccone distribution" by Paul Davies in 2008. 4. A practical example is then given of how the SEH works numerically. Each of the ten random variables is uniformly distributed around its own mean value as given by Dole (1964) and a standard deviation of 10% is assumed. The conclusion is that the average number of habitable planets in the Galaxy should be around 100 million 200 million, and the average distance in between any two nearby habitable planets should be about 88 light years 40 light years. 5. The SEH results are matched against the results of the Statistical Drake Equation from reference 4. As expected, the number of currently communicating ET civilizations in the Galaxy turns out to be much smaller than the number of habitable planets (about 10,000 against 100 million, i.e. one ET civilization out of 10,000 habitable planets). The average distance between any two nearby habitable planets is much smaller that the average distance between any two neighbouring ET civilizations: 88 light years vs. 2000 light years, respectively. This means an ET average distance about 20 times higher than the average distance between any pair of adjacent habitable planets. 6. Finally, a statistical model of the Fermi Paradox is derived by applying the above results to the coral expansion model of Galactic colonization. The symbolic manipulator "Macsyma" is used to solve these difficult equations. A new random variable Tcol, representing the time needed to colonize a new planet is introduced, which follows the lognormal distribution, Then the new quotient random variable Tcol/D is studied and its probability density function is derived by Macsyma. Finally a linear transformation of random variables yields the overall time TGalaxy needed to colonize the whole Galaxy. We believe that our mathematical work in deriving this STATISTICAL Fermi Paradox is highly innovative and fruitful for the future.

  12. Statistics Anxiety among Postgraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Denise; Zawi, Mohd Khairi

    2014-01-01

    Most postgraduate programmes, that have research components, require students to take at least one course of research statistics. Not all postgraduate programmes are science based, there are a significant number of postgraduate students who are from the social sciences that will be taking statistics courses, as they try to complete their…

  13. Book Trade Research and Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Adrian W.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The six articles in this section examine prices of U.S. and foreign materials; book title output and average prices; book sales statistics; U.S. book exports and imports; number of book outlets in the United States and Canada; and book review media statistics. (LRW)

  14. Book Trade Research and Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Stephen; Ink, Gary; Greco, Albert N.

    1999-01-01

    Presents: "Prices of United States and Foreign Published Materials"; "Book Title Output and Average Prices"; "Book Sales Statistics, 1998"; "United States Book Exports and Imports: 1998"; "International Book Title Output: 1990-96"; "Number of Book Outlets in the United States and Canada"; and "Book Review Media Statistics". (AEF)

  15. Representational Versatility in Learning Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Alan T.; Thomas, Michael O. J.

    2005-01-01

    Statistical data can be represented in a number of qualitatively different ways, the choice depending on the following three conditions: the concepts to be investigated; the nature of the data; and the purpose for which they were collected. This paper begins by setting out frameworks that describe the nature of statistical thinking in schools, and

  16. SOCR: Statistics Online Computational Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinov, Ivo D.

    2006-01-01

    The need for hands-on computer laboratory experience in undergraduate and graduate statistics education has been firmly established in the past decade. As a result a number of attempts have been undertaken to develop novel approaches for problem-driven statistical thinking, data analysis and result interpretation. In this paper we describe an

  17. Harvesting entropy and quantifying the transition from noise to chaos in a photon-counting feedback loop

    PubMed Central

    Hagerstrom, Aaron Morgan; Murphy, Thomas Edward; Roy, Rajarshi

    2015-01-01

    Many physical processes, including the intensity fluctuations of a chaotic laser, the detection of single photons, and the Brownian motion of a microscopic particle in a fluid are unpredictable, at least on long timescales. This unpredictability can be due to a variety of physical mechanisms, but it is quantified by an entropy rate. This rate, which describes how quickly a system produces new and random information, is fundamentally important in statistical mechanics and practically important for random number generation. We experimentally study entropy generation and the emergence of deterministic chaotic dynamics from discrete noise in a system that applies feedback to a weak optical signal at the single-photon level. We show that the dynamics transition from shot noise to chaos as the photon rate increases and that the entropy rate can reflect either the deterministic or noisy aspects of the system depending on the sampling rate and resolution. PMID:26175023

  18. Influence of pump-field scattering on nonclassical-light generation in a photonic-band-gap nonlinear planar waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Perina, Jan Jr.; Sibilia, Concita; Tricca, Daniela; Bertolotti, Mario

    2005-04-01

    Optical parametric process occurring in a nonlinear planar waveguide can serve as a source of light with nonclassical properties. The properties of the generated fields are substantially modified by scattering of the nonlinearly interacting fields in a photonic-band-gap structure inside the waveguide. A general quantum model of linear operator amplitude corrections to the amplitude mean values and its numerical analysis provide conditions for efficient squeezed-light generation as well as generation of light with sub-Poissonian photon-number statistics. The destructive influence of phase mismatch of the nonlinear interaction can fully be compensated using a suitable photonic-band-gap structure inside the waveguide. Also an increase of the signal-to-noise ratio of the incident optical field can be reached in the waveguide.

  19. Harvesting entropy and quantifying the transition from noise to chaos in a photon-counting feedback loop.

    PubMed

    Hagerstrom, Aaron Morgan; Murphy, Thomas Edward; Roy, Rajarshi

    2015-07-28

    Many physical processes, including the intensity fluctuations of a chaotic laser, the detection of single photons, and the Brownian motion of a microscopic particle in a fluid are unpredictable, at least on long timescales. This unpredictability can be due to a variety of physical mechanisms, but it is quantified by an entropy rate. This rate, which describes how quickly a system produces new and random information, is fundamentally important in statistical mechanics and practically important for random number generation. We experimentally study entropy generation and the emergence of deterministic chaotic dynamics from discrete noise in a system that applies feedback to a weak optical signal at the single-photon level. We show that the dynamics transition from shot noise to chaos as the photon rate increases and that the entropy rate can reflect either the deterministic or noisy aspects of the system depending on the sampling rate and resolution. PMID:26175023

  20. A photonic thermalization gap in disordered lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondakci, H. Esat; Abouraddy, Ayman F.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.

    2015-11-01

    The formation of gaps--forbidden ranges in the values of a physical parameter--is common to a variety of physical systems: from energy bandgaps of electrons in periodic lattices and their analogues in photonic, phononic and plasmonic systems to pseudo-energy gaps in aperiodic quasicrystals. Here, we predict a thermalization gap for light propagating in finite disordered structures characterized by disorder-immune chiral symmetry--the appearance of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors in skew-symmetric pairs. In these systems, the span of sub-thermal photon statistics is inaccessible to input coherent light, which--once the steady state is reached--always emerges with super-thermal statistics no matter how small the disorder level. We formulate an independent constraint of the input field for the chiral symmetry to be activated and the gap to be observed. This unique feature enables a new form of photon-statistics interferometry: the deterministic tuning of photon statistics via controlled excitation symmetry breaking realized by sculpting the amplitude or phase of the input coherent field.

  1. Purification of single qubits by collinear photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odate, Satoru; Takeno, Yuishi; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2007-03-01

    We have demonstrated purification of a single qubit by two collinear photons, one of which was time-delayed. Our method can be applied to a single qubit many times, and the qubit can be purified to an arbitrarily high degree of purity. Thus, by repeating this method we can make the statistical error that single qubits incur along a transmission channel much smaller.

  2. The mass of the photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Liang-Cheng; Luo, Jun; Gillies, George T.

    2005-01-01

    Because classical Maxwellian electromagnetism has been one of the cornerstones of physics during the past century, experimental tests of its foundations are always of considerable interest. Within that context, one of the most important efforts of this type has historically been the search for a rest mass of the photon. The effects of a nonzero photon rest mass can be incorporated into electromagnetism straightforwardly through the Proca equations, which are the simplest relativistic generalization of Maxwell's equations. Using them, it is possible to consider some far-reaching implications of a massive photon, such as variation of the speed of light, deviations in the behaviour of static electromagnetic fields, longitudinal electromagnetic radiation and even questions of gravitational deflection. All of these have been studied carefully using a number of different approaches over the past several decades. This review attempts to assess the status of our current knowledge and understanding of the photon rest mass, with particular emphasis on a discussion of the various experimental methods that have been used to set upper limits on it. All such tests can be most easily categorized in terms of terrestrial and extra-terrestrial approaches, and the review classifies them as such. Up to now, there has been no conclusive evidence of a finite mass for the photon, with the results instead yielding ever more stringent upper bounds on the size of it, thus confirming the related aspects of Maxwellian electromagnetism with concomitant precision. Of course, failure to find a finite photon mass in any one experiment or class of experiments is not proof that it is identically zero and, even as the experimental limits move more closely towards the fundamental bounds of measurement uncertainty, new conceptual approaches to the task continue to appear. The intrinsic importance of the question and the lure of what might be revealed by attaining the next decimal place are as strong a draw on this question as they are in any other aspect of precise tests of physical laws.

  3. Extraction of a single photon from an optical pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenblum, Serge; Bechler, Orel; Shomroni, Itay; Lovsky, Yulia; Guendelman, Gabriel; Dayan, Barak

    2016-01-01

    Removing a single photon from a pulse is one of the most elementary operations that can be performed on light, having both fundamental significance and practical applications in quantum communication and computation. So far, photon subtraction, in which the removed photon is detected and therefore irreversibly lost, has been implemented in a probabilistic manner with inherently low success rates using low-reflectivity beam splitters. Here we demonstrate a scheme for the deterministic extraction of a single photon from an incoming pulse. The removed photon is diverted to a different mode, enabling its use for other purposes, such as a photon number-splitting attack on quantum key distribution protocols. Our implementation makes use of single-photon Raman interaction (SPRINT) with a single atom near a nanofibre-coupled microresonator. The single-photon extraction probability in our current realization is limited mostly by linear loss, yet probabilities close to unity should be attainable with realistic experimental parameters.

  4. [Projection of prisoner numbers].

    PubMed

    Metz, Rainer; Sohn, Werner

    2015-01-01

    The past and future development of occupancy rates in prisons is of crucial importance for the judicial administration of every country. Basic factors for planning the required penal facilities are seasonal fluctuations, minimum, maximum and average occupancy as well as the present situation and potential development of certain imprisonment categories. As the prisoner number of a country is determined by a complex set of interdependent conditions, it has turned out to be difficult to provide any theoretical explanations. The idea accepted in criminology for a long time that prisoner numbers are interdependent with criminal policy must be regarded as having failed. Statistical and time series analyses may help, however, to identify the factors having influenced the development of prisoner numbers in the past. The analyses presented here, first describe such influencing factors from a criminological perspective and then deal with their statistical identification and modelling. Using the development of prisoner numbers in Hesse as an example, it has been found that modelling methods in which the independent variables predict the dependent variable with a time lag are particularly helpful. A potential complication is, however, that for predicting the number of prisoners the different dynamics in German and foreign prisoners require the development of further models. PMID:26419083

  5. Dow Corning photonics: the silicon advantage in automotive photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Terry V.; Paquet, Rene; Norris, Ann; Pettersen, Babette

    2005-02-01

    The Automotive Market offers several opportunities for Dow Corning to leverage the power of silicon-based materials. Dow Corning Photonics Solutions has a number of developments that may be attractive for the emergent photonics needs in automobiles, building on 40 years of experience as a leading Automotive supplier with a strong foundation of expertise and an extensive product offering- from encapsulents and highly reliable resins, adhesives, insulating materials and other products, ensuring that the advantage of silicones are already well-embedded in Automotive systems, modules and components. The recent development of LED encapsulants of exceptional clarity and stability has extended the potential for Dow Corning"s strength in Photonics to be deployed "in-car". Demonstration of board-level and back-plane solutions utilising siloxane waveguide technology offers new opportunities for systems designers to integrate optical components at low cost on diverse substrates. Coupled with work on simple waveguide technology for sensors and data communications applications this suite of materials and technology offerings is very potent in this sector. The harsh environment under hood and the very extreme thermal range that materials must sustain in vehicles due to both their engine and the climate is an applications specification that defines the siloxane advantage. For these passive optics applications the siloxanes very high clarity at the data-communications wavelengths coupled with extraordinary stability offers significant design advantage. The future development of Head-Up-Displays for instrumentation and data display will offer yet more opportunities to the siloxanes in Automotive Photonics.

  6. Multiplexing photons with a binary division strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmiegelow, Christian Toms; Larotonda, Miguel Antonio

    2014-08-01

    We present a scheme to produce clock-synchronized photons from a single parametric downconversion source with a binary division strategy. The time difference between a clock and detections of the herald photons determines the amount of delay that must be imposed to a photon by actively switching different temporal segments, so that all photons emerge from the output with their wavepackets temporally synchronized with the temporal reference. The operation is performed using a binary division configuration which minimizes the passages through switches. Finally, we extend this scheme to the production of many synchronized photons and find expressions for the optimal amount of correction stages as a function of the pair generation rate and the target coherence time. Our results show that, for the generation of this heralded single-photon per output state at an optimized input photon flux, the output rate of our scheme scales essentially with the reciprocal of the target output photon number. With current technology, rates of up to 104 synchronized pairs per second could be observed with only 7 correction stages.

  7. The Photon Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronberg, Jeffrey

    The idea of converting an electron linear collider into a photon-photon collider through the addition of high power lasers was put forward in the early 1980s. Progress in the field of high average power, short pulse lasers has brought the state of the art within striking range of what would be required to realize a photon collider. In parallel, the necessary modifications to the detector and accelerator to enable a photon collider have been laid out. The basic concept of the photon collider, the requirements for the laser, and the detector and accelerator impact are reviewed in this article.

  8. Progress on the global photonics education network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nantel, Marc

    2005-10-01

    Since ETOP 2001, the Global Photonics Education Network (GPEN) has slowly formed and built momentum. With its growing number of members, its list-serv email address and a new webpage, the GPEN is gathering the critical mass needed to become a useful tool for photonics educators worldwide. This paper will recap the evolution of the GPEN so far, present its current state (including the webpage), emphasize the role of "clusters" for its health and suggest the next steps to take to firmly establish it as an essential part of the photonics education and training community.

  9. Heavy flavor production from photons and hadrons

    SciTech Connect

    Heusch, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The present state of the production and observation of hadrons containing heavy quarks or antiquarks as valence constituents, in reactions initiated by real and (space-like) virtual photon or by hadron beams is discussed. Heavy flavor production in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, which is well covered in a number of recent review papers is not discussed, and similarly, neutrino production is omitted due to the different (flavor-changing) mechanisms that are involved in those reactions. Heavy flavors from spacelike photons, heavy flavors from real photons, and heavy flavors from hadron-hadron collisions are discussed. (WHK)

  10. Single-photon non-linear optics with a quantum dot in a waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Javadi, A.; Sllner, I.; Arcari, M.; Hansen, S. Lindskov; Midolo, L.; Mahmoodian, S.; Kiransk?, G; Pregnolato, T.; Lee, E. H.; Song, J. D.; Stobbe, S.; Lodahl, P.

    2015-01-01

    Strong non-linear interactions between photons enable logic operations for both classical and quantum-information technology. Unfortunately, non-linear interactions are usually feeble and therefore all-optical logic gates tend to be inefficient. A quantum emitter deterministically coupled to a propagating mode fundamentally changes the situation, since each photon inevitably interacts with the emitter, and highly correlated many-photon states may be created. Here we show that a single quantum dot in a photonic-crystal waveguide can be used as a giant non-linearity sensitive at the single-photon level. The non-linear response is revealed from the intensity and quantum statistics of the scattered photons, and contains contributions from an entangled photonphoton bound state. The quantum non-linearity will find immediate applications for deterministic Bell-state measurements and single-photon transistors and paves the way to scalable waveguide-based photonic quantum-computing architectures. PMID:26492951

  11. Single-photon non-linear optics with a quantum dot in a waveguide.

    PubMed

    Javadi, A; Söllner, I; Arcari, M; Hansen, S Lindskov; Midolo, L; Mahmoodian, S; Kiršanskė, G; Pregnolato, T; Lee, E H; Song, J D; Stobbe, S; Lodahl, P

    2015-01-01

    Strong non-linear interactions between photons enable logic operations for both classical and quantum-information technology. Unfortunately, non-linear interactions are usually feeble and therefore all-optical logic gates tend to be inefficient. A quantum emitter deterministically coupled to a propagating mode fundamentally changes the situation, since each photon inevitably interacts with the emitter, and highly correlated many-photon states may be created. Here we show that a single quantum dot in a photonic-crystal waveguide can be used as a giant non-linearity sensitive at the single-photon level. The non-linear response is revealed from the intensity and quantum statistics of the scattered photons, and contains contributions from an entangled photon-photon bound state. The quantum non-linearity will find immediate applications for deterministic Bell-state measurements and single-photon transistors and paves the way to scalable waveguide-based photonic quantum-computing architectures. PMID:26492951

  12. Single-photon non-linear optics with a quantum dot in a waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javadi, A.; Sllner, I.; Arcari, M.; Hansen, S. Lindskov; Midolo, L.; Mahmoodian, S.; Kiransk?, G.; Pregnolato, T.; Lee, E. H.; Song, J. D.; Stobbe, S.; Lodahl, P.

    2015-10-01

    Strong non-linear interactions between photons enable logic operations for both classical and quantum-information technology. Unfortunately, non-linear interactions are usually feeble and therefore all-optical logic gates tend to be inefficient. A quantum emitter deterministically coupled to a propagating mode fundamentally changes the situation, since each photon inevitably interacts with the emitter, and highly correlated many-photon states may be created. Here we show that a single quantum dot in a photonic-crystal waveguide can be used as a giant non-linearity sensitive at the single-photon level. The non-linear response is revealed from the intensity and quantum statistics of the scattered photons, and contains contributions from an entangled photon-photon bound state. The quantum non-linearity will find immediate applications for deterministic Bell-state measurements and single-photon transistors and paves the way to scalable waveguide-based photonic quantum-computing architectures.

  13. The Statistical Drake Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccone, Claudio

    2010-12-01

    We provide the statistical generalization of the Drake equation. From a simple product of seven positive numbers, the Drake equation is now turned into the product of seven positive random variables. We call this "the Statistical Drake Equation". The mathematical consequences of this transformation are then derived. The proof of our results is based on the Central Limit Theorem (CLT) of Statistics. In loose terms, the CLT states that the sum of any number of independent random variables, each of which may be ARBITRARILY distributed, approaches a Gaussian (i.e. normal) random variable. This is called the Lyapunov Form of the CLT, or the Lindeberg Form of the CLT, depending on the mathematical constraints assumed on the third moments of the various probability distributions. In conclusion, we show that: The new random variable N, yielding the number of communicating civilizations in the Galaxy, follows the LOGNORMAL distribution. Then, as a consequence, the mean value of this lognormal distribution is the ordinary N in the Drake equation. The standard deviation, mode, and all the moments of this lognormal N are also found. The seven factors in the ordinary Drake equation now become seven positive random variables. The probability distribution of each random variable may be ARBITRARY. The CLT in the so-called Lyapunov or Lindeberg forms (that both do not assume the factors to be identically distributed) allows for that. In other words, the CLT "translates" into our statistical Drake equation by allowing an arbitrary probability distribution for each factor. This is both physically realistic and practically very useful, of course. An application of our statistical Drake equation then follows. The (average) DISTANCE between any two neighboring and communicating civilizations in the Galaxy may be shown to be inversely proportional to the cubic root of N. Then, in our approach, this distance becomes a new random variable. We derive the relevant probability density function, apparently previously unknown and dubbed "Maccone distribution" by Paul Davies. DATA ENRICHMENT PRINCIPLE. It should be noticed that ANY positive number of random variables in the Statistical Drake Equation is compatible with the CLT. So, our generalization allows for many more factors to be added in the future as long as more refined scientific knowledge about each factor will be known to the scientists. This capability to make room for more future factors in the statistical Drake equation, we call the "Data Enrichment Principle," and we regard it as the key to more profound future results in the fields of Astrobiology and SETI. Finally, a practical example is given of how our statistical Drake equation works numerically. We work out in detail the case, where each of the seven random variables is uniformly distributed around its own mean value and has a given standard deviation. For instance, the number of stars in the Galaxy is assumed to be uniformly distributed around (say) 350 billions with a standard deviation of (say) 1 billion. Then, the resulting lognormal distribution of N is computed numerically by virtue of a MathCad file that the author has written. This shows that the mean value of the lognormal random variable N is actually of the same order as the classical N given by the ordinary Drake equation, as one might expect from a good statistical generalization.

  14. THE PHOTON UNDERPRODUCTION CRISIS

    SciTech Connect

    Kollmeier, Juna A.; Weinberg, David H.; McEwen, Joseph; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Danforth, Charles; Haardt, Francesco; Katz, Neal; Fardal, Mark; Davé, Romeel; Madau, Piero; Ford, Amanda B.; Peeples, Molly S.

    2014-07-10

    We examine the statistics of the low-redshift Lyα forest from smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations in light of recent improvements in the estimated evolution of the cosmic ultraviolet background (UVB) and recent observations from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS). We find that the value of the metagalactic photoionization rate (Γ{sub HI}) required by our simulations to match the observed properties of the low-redshift Lyα forest is a factor of five larger than the value predicted by state-of-the art models for the evolution of this quantity. This mismatch in Γ{sub HI} results in the mean flux decrement of the Lyα forest being overpredicted by at least a factor of two (a 10σ discrepancy with observations) and a column density distribution of Lyα forest absorbers systematically and significantly elevated compared to observations over nearly two decades in column density. We examine potential resolutions to this mismatch and find that either conventional sources of ionizing photons (galaxies and quasars) must contribute considerably more than current observational estimates or our theoretical understanding of the low-redshift universe is in need of substantial revision.

  15. Collective two-particle resonances induced by photon entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, Marten; Mukamel, Shaul

    2011-06-15

    An assembly of noninteracting atoms may become correlated upon interaction with entangled photons, and certain elements of their joint density matrix can then show collective resonances. We explore experimental signatures of these resonances in the nonlinear response of a pair of two-level atoms. We find that these resonances are canceled out in stimulated signals such as pump-probe and two-photon absorption due to the destructive interference of two-photon-absorption and emission pathways in the joint two-particle space. However, they may be observed in photon statistics (Hanbury-Brown-Twiss) measurements through the attenuation of two-time intensity correlations.

  16. Emission of photons in spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf

    SciTech Connect

    van der Ploeg, H.; Bacelar, J.C.S.; Buda, A.; Laurens, C.R.; van der Woude, A.; Gaardhoje, J.J.; Zelazny, Z.; van `t Hof, G.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.

    1995-10-01

    High energy photon emission accompanying the spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf is measured for different mass splits. The photon yields up to an energy of 20 MeV are obtained at several angles relative to the fission direction. Statistical model calculations are used to interpret the data. The photon yield is found to be very sensitive to the initial excitation energy sharing among the daughter nuclei and to their level density parameters. Using experimentally extracted level densities obtained from neutron evaporation measurements, the photon yield is well described by calculations for all mass splits.

  17. Ultrabright source of entangled photon pairs.

    PubMed

    Dousse, Adrien; Suffczy?ski, Jan; Beveratos, Alexios; Krebs, Olivier; Lematre, Aristide; Sagnes, Isabelle; Bloch, Jacqueline; Voisin, Paul; Senellart, Pascale

    2010-07-01

    A source of triggered entangled photon pairs is a key component in quantum information science; it is needed to implement functions such as linear quantum computation, entanglement swapping and quantum teleportation. Generation of polarization entangled photon pairs can be obtained through parametric conversion in nonlinear optical media or by making use of the radiative decay of two electron-hole pairs trapped in a semiconductor quantum dot. Today, these sources operate at a very low rate, below 0.01 photon pairs per excitation pulse, which strongly limits their applications. For systems based on parametric conversion, this low rate is intrinsically due to the Poissonian statistics of the source. Conversely, a quantum dot can emit a single pair of entangled photons with a probability near unity but suffers from a naturally very low extraction efficiency. Here we show that this drawback can be overcome by coupling an optical cavity in the form of a 'photonic molecule' to a single quantum dot. Two coupled identical pillars-the photonic molecule-were etched in a semiconductor planar microcavity, using an optical lithography method that ensures a deterministic coupling to the biexciton and exciton energy states of a pre-selected quantum dot. The Purcell effect ensures that most entangled photon pairs are emitted into two cavity modes, while improving the indistinguishability of the two optical recombination paths. A polarization entangled photon pair rate of 0.12 per excitation pulse (with a concurrence of 0.34) is collected in the first lens. Our results open the way towards the fabrication of solid state triggered sources of entangled photon pairs, with an overall (creation and collection) efficiency of 80%. PMID:20613838

  18. Calculating statistical distributions from operator relations: The statistical distributions of various intermediate statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Wu-Sheng Xie, Mi

    2013-05-15

    In this paper, we give a general discussion on the calculation of the statistical distribution from a given operator relation of creation, annihilation, and number operators. Our result shows that as long as the relation between the number operator and the creation and annihilation operators can be expressed as a{sup †}b=Λ(N) or N=Λ{sup −1}(a{sup †}b), where N, a{sup †}, and b denote the number, creation, and annihilation operators, i.e., N is a function of quadratic product of the creation and annihilation operators, the corresponding statistical distribution is the Gentile distribution, a statistical distribution in which the maximum occupation number is an arbitrary integer. As examples, we discuss the statistical distributions corresponding to various operator relations. In particular, besides the Bose–Einstein and Fermi–Dirac cases, we discuss the statistical distributions for various schemes of intermediate statistics, especially various q-deformation schemes. Our result shows that the statistical distributions corresponding to various q-deformation schemes are various Gentile distributions with different maximum occupation numbers which are determined by the deformation parameter q. This result shows that the results given in much literature on the q-deformation distribution are inaccurate or incomplete. -- Highlights: ► A general discussion on calculating statistical distribution from relations of creation, annihilation, and number operators. ► A systemic study on the statistical distributions corresponding to various q-deformation schemes. ► Arguing that many results of q-deformation distributions in literature are inaccurate or incomplete.

  19. Thermodynamics of cellular statistical inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Alex; Fisher, Charles; Mehta, Pankaj

    2014-03-01

    Successful organisms must be capable of accurately sensing the surrounding environment in order to locate nutrients and evade toxins or predators. However, single cell organisms face a multitude of limitations on their accuracy of sensing. Berg and Purcell first examined the canonical example of statistical limitations to cellular learning of a diffusing chemical and established a fundamental limit to statistical accuracy. Recent work has shown that the Berg and Purcell learning limit can be exceeded using Maximum Likelihood Estimation. Here, we recast the cellular sensing problem as a statistical inference problem and discuss the relationship between the efficiency of an estimator and its thermodynamic properties. We explicitly model a single non-equilibrium receptor and examine the constraints on statistical inference imposed by noisy biochemical networks. Our work shows that cells must balance sample number, specificity, and energy consumption when performing statistical inference. These tradeoffs place significant constraints on the practical implementation of statistical estimators in a cell.

  20. Means and method for calibrating a photon detector utilizing electron-photon coincidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, S. K. (inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An arrangement for calibrating a photon detector particularly applicable for the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet regions is based on electron photon coincidence utilizing crossed electron beam atom beam collisions. Atoms are excited by electrons which lose a known amount of energy and scatter with a known remaining energy, while the excited atoms emit photons of known radiation. Electrons of the known remaining energy are separated from other electrons and are counted. Photons emitted in a direction related to the particular direction of scattered electrons are detected to serve as a standard. Each of the electrons is used to initiate the measurements of a time interval which terminates with the arrival of a photon exciting the photon detector. Only the number of time intervals related to the coincidence correlation and of electrons scattered in the particular direction with the known remaining energy and photons of a particular radiation level emitted due to the collisions of such scattered electrons are counted. The detector calibration is related to the number of counted electrons and photons.

  1. Bose-Einstein condensation of photons in a 'white-wall' photon box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klrs, Jan; Schmitt, Julian; Vewinger, Frank; Weitz, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation, the macroscopic ground state occupation of a system of bosonic particles below a critical temperature, has been observed in cold atomic gases and solid-state physics quasiparticles. In contrast, photons do not show this phase transition usually, because in Planck's blackbody radiation the particle number is not conserved and at low temperature the photons disappear in the walls of the system. Here we report on the realization of a photon Bose-Einstein condensate in a dye-filled optical microcavity, which acts as a "white-wall" photon box. The cavity mirrors provide a trapping potential and a non-vanishing effective photon mass, making the system formally equivalent to a two-dimensional gas of trapped massive bosons. Thermalization of the photon gas is reached in a number conserving way by multiple scattering off the dye molecules. Signatures for a BEC upon increased photon density are: a spectral distribution that shows Bose-Einstein distributed photon energies with a macroscopically populated peak on top of a broad thermal wing, the observed threshold of the phase transition showing the predicted absolute value and scaling with resonator geometry, and condensation appearing at the trap centre even for a spatially displaced pump spot.

  2. New photon-added and photon-depleted coherent states associated with inverse q-boson operators: nonclassical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naderi, M. H.; Soltanolkotabi, M.; Roknizadeh, R.

    2004-03-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new family of photon-added as well as photon-depleted q-deformed coherent states related to the inverse q-boson operators. These states are constructed via the generalized inverse q-boson operator actions on a newly introduced family of q-deformed coherent states (Quesne C 2002 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 9213) which are defined by slightly modifying the maths-type q-deformed coherent states. The quantum statistical properties of these photon-added and photon-depleted states, such as quadrature squeezing and photon-counting statistics, are discussed analytically and numerically in the context of both conventional (nondeformed) and deformed quantum optics.

  3. Investigating the Randomness of Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendleton, Kenn L.

    2009-01-01

    The use of random numbers is pervasive in today's world. Random numbers have practical applications in such far-flung arenas as computer simulations, cryptography, gambling, the legal system, statistical sampling, and even the war on terrorism. Evaluating the randomness of extremely large samples is a complex, intricate process. However, the

  4. Quality management through statistics.

    PubMed

    Bush, D L

    1991-01-01

    One of the responsibilities of a quality assurance professional is to assess patient care data in an effort to meet "outcome" requirements as established by the institution, the patient, the patient's family, the Joint Commission, the Health Care Financing Administration, the state PRO, and other regulatory agencies. A major goal of effective quality management is to assure that patients treated in a similar diagnostic category achieve similar outcomes. To accomplish this, the QA manager must gain and maintain control over patient care processes. To obtain this control, the conditions of patient care processes must be measured. Over one hundred years ago, the English scientist Lord Kelvin said, "When you can measure what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, you know something about it; but when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is...unsatisfactory." This article will describe some of the statistical quality control techniques that will assist in measuring the performance of specific patient care processes and outcomes and expressing them in numbers. A review of the numbers will show whether a particular patient care process is running smoothly or needs further investigation or adjustments. Using statistical quality control techniques will enable the QA manager to predict how well patient care processes and outcomes will run in the future. The simple statistical techniques discussed in this article can be used to measure the performance of patient care processes and outcomes both before and after corrective actions have been taken. They apply both to attempts to bring a specific process or outcome into "control" or to break through to a new, improved level of quality performance. PMID:10112986

  5. Photonic Doppler Velocimetry Multiplexing Techniques: Evaluation of Photonic Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Daykin

    2012-05-24

    This poster reports progress related to photonic technologies. Specifically, the authors developed diagnostic system architecture for a Multiplexed Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (MPDV) that incorporates frequency and time-division multiplexing into existing PDV methodology to provide increased channel count. Current MPDV design increases number of data records per digitizer channel 8x, and also operates as a laser-safe (Class 3a) system. Further, they applied heterodyne interferometry to allow for direction-of-travel determination and enable high-velocity measurements (>10 km/s) via optical downshifting. They also leveraged commercially available, inexpensive and robust components originally developed for telecom applications. Proposed MPDV architectures employ only commercially available, fiber-coupled hardware.

  6. Single-photon transistor mediated by interstate Rydberg interactions.

    PubMed

    Gorniaczyk, H; Tresp, C; Schmidt, J; Fedder, H; Hofferberth, S

    2014-08-01

    We report on the realization of an all-optical transistor by mapping gate and source photons into strongly interacting Rydberg excitations with different principal quantum numbers in an ultracold atomic ensemble. We obtain a record switch contrast of 40% for a coherent gate input with mean photon number one and demonstrate attenuation of source transmission by over ten photons with a single gate photon. We use our optical transistor to demonstrate the nondestructive detection of a single Rydberg atom with a fidelity of 0.72(4). PMID:25126918

  7. Emitters of N-photon bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, C. Sánchez; Del Valle, E.; Tudela, A. González; Müller, K.; Lichtmannecker, S.; Kaniber, M.; Tejedor, C.; Finley, J. J.; Laussy, F. P.

    2014-07-01

    Controlling the output of a light emitter is one of the basic tasks in photonics, with landmarks such as the development of the laser and single-photon sources. The ever growing range of quantum applications is making it increasingly important to diversify the available quantum sources. Here, we propose a cavity quantum electrodynamics scheme to realize emitters that release their energy in groups (or `bundles') of N photons (where N is an integer). Close to 100% of two-photon emission and 90% of three-photon emission is shown to be within reach of state-of-the-art samples. The emission can be tuned with the system parameters so that the device behaves as a laser or as an N-photon gun. Here, we develop the theoretical formalism to characterize such emitters, with the bundle statistics arising as an extension of the fundamental correlation functions of quantum optics. These emitters will be useful for quantum information processing and for medical applications.

  8. Single-photon emitting diode in silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohrmann, A.; Iwamoto, N.; Bodrog, Z.; Castelletto, S.; Ohshima, T.; Karle, T. J.; Gali, A.; Prawer, S.; McCallum, J. C.; Johnson, B. C.

    2015-07-01

    Electrically driven single-photon emitting devices have immediate applications in quantum cryptography, quantum computation and single-photon metrology. Mature device fabrication protocols and the recent observations of single defect systems with quantum functionalities make silicon carbide an ideal material to build such devices. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of bright single-photon emitting diodes. The electrically driven emitters display fully polarized output, superior photon statistics (with a count rate of >300 kHz) and stability in both continuous and pulsed modes, all at room temperature. The atomic origin of the single-photon source is proposed. These results provide a foundation for the large scale integration of single-photon sources into a broad range of applications, such as quantum cryptography or linear optics quantum computing.

  9. Single-photon emitting diode in silicon carbide.

    PubMed

    Lohrmann, A; Iwamoto, N; Bodrog, Z; Castelletto, S; Ohshima, T; Karle, T J; Gali, A; Prawer, S; McCallum, J C; Johnson, B C

    2015-01-01

    Electrically driven single-photon emitting devices have immediate applications in quantum cryptography, quantum computation and single-photon metrology. Mature device fabrication protocols and the recent observations of single defect systems with quantum functionalities make silicon carbide an ideal material to build such devices. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of bright single-photon emitting diodes. The electrically driven emitters display fully polarized output, superior photon statistics (with a count rate of >300 kHz) and stability in both continuous and pulsed modes, all at room temperature. The atomic origin of the single-photon source is proposed. These results provide a foundation for the large scale integration of single-photon sources into a broad range of applications, such as quantum cryptography or linear optics quantum computing. PMID:26205309

  10. Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    2014 Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Statistics Cosmetic Procedure Trends 2014 Plastic Surgery Statistics Report Please credit the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PLASTIC SURGEONS when citing statistical data or using ...

  11. Multiple photon emission in heavy particle decays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asakimori, K.; Burnett, T. H.; Cherry, M. L.; Christl, M. J.; Dake, S.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.

    1994-01-01

    Cosmic ray interactions, at energies above 1 TeV/nucleon, in emulsion chambers flown on high altitude balloons have yielded two events showing apparent decays of a heavy particle into one charged particle and four photons. The photons converted into electron pairs very close to the decay vertex. Attempts to explain this decay topology with known particle decays are presented. Unless both events represent a b yields u transition, which is statistically unlikely, then other known decay modes for charmed or bottom particles do not account satisfactorily for these observations. This could indicate, possibly, a new decay channel.

  12. Linear-optic heralded photon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira da Silva, Thiago; Amaral, Gustavo C.; Temporo, Guilherme P.; von der Weid, Jean Pierre

    2015-09-01

    We present a heralded photon source based only on linear optics and weak coherent states. By time-tuning a Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer fed with frequency-displaced coherent states, the output photons can be synchronously heralded following sub-Poisson statistics, which is indicated by the second-order correlation function [ g2(0 )=0.556 ]. The absence of phase-matching restrictions makes the source widely tunable, with 100-nm spectral tunability on the telecom bands. The technique presents yield comparable to state-of-the-art spontaneous parametric down-conversion-based sources, with high coherence and fiber-optic quantum communication compatibility.

  13. Requirements for a loophole-free photonic Bell test using imperfect setting generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kofler, Johannes; Giustina, Marissa; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Mitchell, Morgan W.

    2016-03-01

    Experimental violations of Bell inequalities are in general vulnerable to so-called loopholes. In this work, we analyze the characteristics of a loophole-free Bell test with photons, closing simultaneously the locality, freedom-of-choice, fair-sampling (i.e., detection), coincidence-time, and memory loopholes. We pay special attention to the effect of excess predictability in the setting choices due to nonideal random-number generators. We discuss necessary adaptations of the Clauser-Horne and Eberhard inequality when using such imperfect devices and—using Hoeffding's inequality and Doob's optional stopping theorem—the statistical analysis in such Bell tests.

  14. Explorations in statistics: power.

    PubMed

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2010-06-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This fifth installment of Explorations in Statistics revisits power, a concept fundamental to the test of a null hypothesis. Power is the probability that we reject the null hypothesis when it is false. Four things affect power: the probability with which we are willing to reject-by mistake-a true null hypothesis, the magnitude of the difference we want to be able to detect, the variability of the underlying population, and the number of observations in our sample. In an application to an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee or to the National Institutes of Health, we define power to justify the sample size we propose. PMID:20522895

  15. Photonically Engineered Incandescent Emitter

    DOEpatents

    Gee, James M.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Fleming, James G.; Moreno, James B.

    2005-03-22

    A photonically engineered incandescence is disclosed. The emitter materials and photonic crystal structure can be chosen to modify or suppress thermal radiation above a cutoff wavelength, causing the emitter to selectively emit in the visible and near-infrared portions of the spectrum. An efficient incandescent lamp is enabled thereby. A method for fabricating a three-dimensional photonic crystal of a structural material, suitable for the incandescent emitter, is also disclosed.

  16. Photonically engineered incandescent emitter

    DOEpatents

    Gee, James M.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Fleming, James G.; Moreno, James B.

    2003-08-26

    A photonically engineered incandescence is disclosed. The emitter materials and photonic crystal structure can be chosen to modify or suppress thermal radiation above a cutoff wavelength, causing the emitter to selectively emit in the visible and near-infrared portions of the spectrum. An efficient incandescent lamp is enabled thereby. A method for fabricating a three-dimensional photonic crystal of a structural material, suitable for the incandescent emitter, is also disclosed.

  17. Obtaining Identical Results on Varying Numbers of Processors In Domain Decomposed particle Monte Carlo Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, N A; Kalos, M H; Brunner, T A

    2005-03-22

    Domain decomposed Monte Carlo codes, like other domain-decomposed codes, are difficult to debug. Domain decomposition is prone to error, and interactions between the domain decomposition code and the rest of the algorithm often produces subtle bugs. These bugs are particularly difficult to find in a Monte Carlo algorithm, in which the results have statistical noise. Variations in the results due to statistical noise can mask errors when comparing the results to other simulations or analytic results. If a code can get the same result on one domain as on many, debugging the whole code is easier. This reproducibility property is also desirable when comparing results done on different numbers of processors and domains. We describe how reproducibility, to machine precision, is obtained on different numbers of domains in an Implicit Monte Carlo photonics code.

  18. Superdense teleportation using hyperentangled photons

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Trent M.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Wei, Tzu-Chieh; Junge, Marius; Kwiat, Paul G

    2015-01-01

    Transmitting quantum information between two remote parties is a requirement for many quantum applications; however, direct transmission of states is often impossible because of noise and loss in the communication channel. Entanglement-enhanced state communication can be used to avoid this issue, but current techniques require extensive experimental resources to transmit large quantum states deterministically. To reduce these resource requirements, we use photon pairs hyperentangled in polarization and orbital angular momentum to implement superdense teleportation, which can communicate a specific class of single-photon ququarts. We achieve an average fidelity of 87.0(1)%, almost twice the classical limit of 44% with reduced experimental resources than traditional techniques. We conclude by discussing the information content of this constrained set of states and demonstrate that this set has an exponentially larger state space volume than the lower-dimensional general states with the same number of state parameters. PMID:26018201

  19. Superdense teleportation using hyperentangled photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Trent M.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Wei, Tzu-Chieh; Junge, Marius; Kwiat, Paul G.

    2015-05-01

    Transmitting quantum information between two remote parties is a requirement for many quantum applications; however, direct transmission of states is often impossible because of noise and loss in the communication channel. Entanglement-enhanced state communication can be used to avoid this issue, but current techniques require extensive experimental resources to transmit large quantum states deterministically. To reduce these resource requirements, we use photon pairs hyperentangled in polarization and orbital angular momentum to implement superdense teleportation, which can communicate a specific class of single-photon ququarts. We achieve an average fidelity of 87.0(1)%, almost twice the classical limit of 44% with reduced experimental resources than traditional techniques. We conclude by discussing the information content of this constrained set of states and demonstrate that this set has an exponentially larger state space volume than the lower-dimensional general states with the same number of state parameters.

  20. Superdense teleportation using hyperentangled photons.

    PubMed

    Graham, Trent M; Bernstein, Herbert J; Wei, Tzu-Chieh; Junge, Marius; Kwiat, Paul G

    2015-01-01

    Transmitting quantum information between two remote parties is a requirement for many quantum applications; however, direct transmission of states is often impossible because of noise and loss in the communication channel. Entanglement-enhanced state communication can be used to avoid this issue, but current techniques require extensive experimental resources to transmit large quantum states deterministically. To reduce these resource requirements, we use photon pairs hyperentangled in polarization and orbital angular momentum to implement superdense teleportation, which can communicate a specific class of single-photon ququarts. We achieve an average fidelity of 87.0(1)%, almost twice the classical limit of 44% with reduced experimental resources than traditional techniques. We conclude by discussing the information content of this constrained set of states and demonstrate that this set has an exponentially larger state space volume than the lower-dimensional general states with the same number of state parameters. PMID:26018201

  1. Qudit-Teleportation for photons with linear optics

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Sandeep K.; Boukama-Dzoussi, Patricia E.; Ghosh, Sibasish; Roux, Filippus S.; Konrad, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Quantum Teleportation, the transfer of the state of one quantum system to another without direct interaction between both systems, is an important way to transmit information encoded in quantum states and to generate quantum correlations (entanglement) between remote quantum systems. So far, for photons, only superpositions of two distinguishable states (one qubit) could be teleported. Here we show how to teleport a qudit, i.e. a superposition of an arbitrary number d of distinguishable states present in the orbital angular momentum of a single photon using d beam splitters and d additional entangled photons. The same entanglement resource might also be employed to collectively teleport the state of d/2 photons at the cost of one additional entangled photon per qubit. This is superior to existing schemes for photonic qubits, which require an additional pair of entangled photons per qubit. PMID:24686274

  2. Qudit-teleportation for photons with linear optics.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Sandeep K; Boukama-Dzoussi, Patricia E; Ghosh, Sibasish; Roux, Filippus S; Konrad, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Quantum Teleportation, the transfer of the state of one quantum system to another without direct interaction between both systems, is an important way to transmit information encoded in quantum states and to generate quantum correlations (entanglement) between remote quantum systems. So far, for photons, only superpositions of two distinguishable states (one "qubit") could be teleported. Here we show how to teleport a "qudit", i.e. a superposition of an arbitrary number d of distinguishable states present in the orbital angular momentum of a single photon using d beam splitters and d additional entangled photons. The same entanglement resource might also be employed to collectively teleport the state of d/2 photons at the cost of one additional entangled photon per qubit. This is superior to existing schemes for photonic qubits, which require an additional pair of entangled photons per qubit. PMID:24686274

  3. Bayesian reconstruction of photon interaction sequences for high-resolution PET detectors

    PubMed Central

    Pratx, Guillem

    2013-01-01

    Realizing the full potential of high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) systems involves accurately positioning events in which the annihilation photon deposits all its energy across multiple detector elements. Reconstructing the complete sequence of interactions of each photon provides a reliable way to select the earliest interaction because it ensures that all the interactions are consistent with one another. Bayesian estimation forms a natural framework to maximize the consistency of the sequence with the measurements while taking into account the physics of ?-ray transport. An inherently statistical method, it accounts for the uncertainty in the measured energy and position of each interaction. An algorithm based on maximum a posteriori (MAP) was evaluated for computer simulations. For a high-resolution PET system based on cadmium zinc telluride detectors, 93.8% of the recorded coincidences involved at least one photon multiple-interactions event (PMIE). The MAP estimate of the first interaction was accurate for 85.2% of the single photons. This represents a two-fold reduction in the number of mispositioned events compared to minimum pair distance, a simpler yet efficient positioning method. The point-spread function of the system presented lower tails and higher peak value when MAP was used. This translated into improved image quality, which we quantified by studying contrast and spatial resolution gains. PMID:19652293

  4. Two-photon imaging and spectroscopy of fresh human colon biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchi, R.; Sturiale, A.; Nesi, G.; Tonelli, F.; Pavone, F. S.

    2012-03-01

    Two-photon fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy is a powerful tool to image human tissues up to 200 microns depth without any exogenously added probe. TPEF can take advantage of the autofluorescence of molecules intrinsically contained in a biological tissue, as such NADH, elastin, collagen, and flavins. Two-photon microscopy has been already successfully used to image several types of tissues, including skin, muscles, tendons, bladder. Nevertheless, its usefulness in imaging colon tissue has not been deeply investigated yet. In this work we have used combined two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF), second harmonic generation microscopy (SHG), fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), and multispectral two-photon emission detection (MTPE) to investigate different kinds of human ex-vivo fresh biopsies of colon. Morphological and spectroscopic analyses allowed to characterize both healthy mucosa, polyp, and colon samples in a good agreement with common routine histology. Even if further analysis, as well as a more significant statistics on a large number of samples would be helpful to discriminate between low, mild, and high grade cancer, our method is a promising tool to be used as diagnostic confirmation of histological results, as well as a diagnostic tool in a multiphoton endoscope or colonoscope to be used in in-vivo imaging applications.

  5. Photon blockade in an optical cavity with one trapped atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birnbaum, K. M.; Boca, A.; Miller, R.; Boozer, A. D.; Northup, T. E.; Kimble, H. J.

    2005-07-01

    At low temperatures, sufficiently small metallic and semiconductor devices exhibit the `Coulomb blockade' effect, in which charge transport through the device occurs on an electron-by-electron basis. For example, a single electron on a metallic island can block the flow of another electron if the charging energy of the island greatly exceeds the thermal energy. The analogous effect of `photon blockade' has been proposed for the transport of light through an optical system; this involves photon-photon interactions in a nonlinear optical cavity. Here we report observations of photon blockade for the light transmitted by an optical cavity containing one trapped atom, in the regime of strong atom-cavity coupling. Excitation of the atom-cavity system by a first photon blocks the transmission of a second photon, thereby converting an incident poissonian stream of photons into a sub-poissonian, anti-bunched stream. This is confirmed by measurements of the photon statistics of the transmitted field. Our observations of photon blockade represent an advance over traditional nonlinear optics and laser physics, into a regime with dynamical processes involving atoms and photons taken one-by-one.

  6. Optimization of the transmission of observable expectation values and observable statistics in continuous-variable teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Albano Farias, L.; Stephany, J.

    2010-12-15

    We analyze the statistics of observables in continuous-variable (CV) quantum teleportation in the formalism of the characteristic function. We derive expressions for average values of output-state observables, in particular, cumulants which are additive in terms of the input state and the resource of teleportation. Working with a general class of teleportation resources, the squeezed-bell-like states, which may be optimized in a free parameter for better teleportation performance, we discuss the relation between resources optimal for fidelity and those optimal for different observable averages. We obtain the values of the free parameter of the squeezed-bell-like states which optimize the central momenta and cumulants up to fourth order. For the cumulants the distortion between in and out states due to teleportation depends only on the resource. We obtain optimal parameters {Delta}{sub (2)}{sup opt} and {Delta}{sub (4)}{sup opt} for the second- and fourth-order cumulants, which do not depend on the squeezing of the resource. The second-order central momenta, which are equal to the second-order cumulants, and the photon number average are also optimized by the resource with {Delta}{sub (2)}{sup opt}. We show that the optimal fidelity resource, which has been found previously to depend on the characteristics of input, approaches for high squeezing to the resource that optimizes the second-order momenta. A similar behavior is obtained for the resource that optimizes the photon statistics, which is treated here using the sum of the squared differences in photon probabilities of input versus output states as the distortion measure. This is interpreted naturally to mean that the distortions associated with second-order momenta dominate the behavior of the output state for large squeezing of the resource. Optimal fidelity resources and optimal photon statistics resources are compared, and it is shown that for mixtures of Fock states both resources are equivalent.

  7. Photons with Momentum Along Curved Paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Basil S.

    Electromagnetic energy flow is expressed mathematically by the Poynting Vector. Quantum theory determines that the Poynting Vector provides the direction of movement of the photons which are the quanta of the electromagnetic field. In this dissertation important phenomena featuring the flow of electromagnetic energyand hence transport of photonsalong curved paths are investigated. A circuit is considered in the shape of a ring, with a battery of negligible size and a wire of uniform resistance. A linear charge distribution in the wire generates an electrostatic field and a steady current through the circuit which maintains a constant magnetic field. Earlier studies of the Poynting vector and the rate of flow of energy considered only idealized geometries in which the Poynting vector was confined to the space within the circuit. But in more realistic cases the Poynting vector is nonzero outside as well as inside the circuit. An expression is obtained for the Poynting vector in terms of products of integrals, which are evaluated numerically to show the energy flow. Limiting expressions are obtained analytically. It is shown that the total power generated by the battery equals the energy flowing into the wire per unit time. Whereas the Poynting Vector flows along the direction of propagation of a plane wave photon, it is a different matter with photons described by Laguerre-Gaussian transverse profiles. Such "twisted" photon beams have a spiraling Poynting Vector that generates an orbital angular momentum that is distinct from the photon's spin angular momentum. The transverse confinement of the twisted photon beam gives rise to a Gouy phase shift, and the transverse structure of this phase shift is characterized by the Gouy radius. A new expression is obtained for this radius in terms of the parameters w, p, and ? of the Laguerre-Gaussian beam profile. The orbital angular momentum states have a two-fold degeneracy with respect to the winding number or topological charge, the degeneracy being suitable for encoding qubits. The conditions under which such a photon qubit could flip through exchange of angular momentum with the atoms of a medium are investigated and an expression obtained for the matrix elements of such transitions. Whereas a plane wave photon has only a longitudinal Poynting Vector, in the case of a twisted photon there is also a transverse azimuthal Poynting Vector flow. This suggests that photonic orbital angular momentum may have a component oscillating with a frequency of 2? where ? is the polarization or spin frequency of the photon. Thus the orbital angular momentum is a manifestation of photonic zitterbewegung.

  8. q-deformed model of nonclassical quantum-statistical behaviour for an atom laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghshenasfard, Zahra; Cottam, Michael G.

    2013-09-01

    Theoretical studies are reported for the quantum dynamical and statistical properties of an atom laser. The model is based on the generalized deformed oscillator algebra in which the field radiation operators are deformed by an operator-valued function f( N) of the photon number N. The Hamiltonian of the system is solved analytically under the rotating wave approximation. In particular, it is shown that the nonlinearity introduced by q-deformation leads to quadrature squeezing effects and a sub-Poisson distribution for the atom laser beam.

  9. Resonances in photon-photon scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1984-11-01

    A quantity called stickiness is introduced which should be largest for J not equal to 0 glueballs and can be measured in two photon scattering and radiative J/psi decay. An argument is reviewed suggesting that light J = 0 glueballs may have large couplings to two photons. The analysis of radiative decays of eta and eta' is reviewed and a plea made to desist from false claims that they are related to GAMMA(..pi../sup 0/ ..-->.. ..gamma gamma..) by SU(3) symmetry. It is shown that two photon studies can refute the difficult-to-refute hypothesis that xi(2220) or zeta(8320) are Higgs bosons. A gallery of rogue resonances and resonance candidates is presented which would usefully be studied in ..gamma gamma.. scattering, including especially the low mass dipion. 34 references.

  10. Resonances in photon-photon scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanowitz, M. S.

    1984-11-01

    A quantity called stickiness is introduced which should be largest for J not equal to 0 glueballs and can be measured in two photon scattering and radiative J/psi decay. An argument is reviewed suggesting that light J = 0 glueballs may have large couplings to two photons. The analysis of radiative decays of eta and eta prime is reviewed and a plea made to desist from false claims that they are related to GAMMA((PI)(0) (YIELDS) (GAMMA)(GAMMA)) by SU(3) symmetry. It is shown that two photon studies can refute the difficult-to-refute hypothesis that xi(2220) or zeta (8320) are Higgs bosons. A gallery of rogue resonances and resonance candidates is presented which would usefully be studied in (GAMMA)(GAMMA) scattering, including especially the low mass dipion.

  11. Photon transport in binary photonic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrguez-Lara, B. M.; Moya-Cessa, H.

    2013-03-01

    We present a review of the mathematical methods that are used to theoretically study classical propagation and quantum transport in arrays of coupled photonic waveguides. We focus on analyzing two types of binary photonic lattices: those where either self-energies or couplings alternate. For didactic reasons, we split the analysis into classical propagation and quantum transport, but all methods can be implemented, mutatis mutandis, in a given case. On the classical side, we use coupled mode theory and present an operator approach to the Floquet-Bloch theory in order to study the propagation of a classical electromagnetic field in two particular infinite binary lattices. On the quantum side, we study the transport of photons in equivalent finite and infinite binary lattices by coupled mode theory and linear algebra methods involving orthogonal polynomials. Curiously, the dynamics of finite size binary lattices can be expressed as the roots and functions of Fibonacci polynomials.

  12. Quantum interference in heterogeneous superconducting-photonic circuits on a silicon chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuck, C.; Guo, X.; Fan, L.; Ma, X.; Poot, M.; Tang, H. X.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum information processing holds great promise for communicating and computing data efficiently. However, scaling current photonic implementation approaches to larger system size remains an outstanding challenge for realizing disruptive quantum technology. Two main ingredients of quantum information processors are quantum interference and single-photon detectors. Here we develop a hybrid superconducting-photonic circuit system to show how these elements can be combined in a scalable fashion on a silicon chip. We demonstrate the suitability of this approach for integrated quantum optics by interfering and detecting photon pairs directly on the chip with waveguide-coupled single-photon detectors. Using a directional coupler implemented with silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides, we observe 97% interference visibility when measuring photon statistics with two monolithically integrated superconducting single-photon detectors. The photonic circuit and detector fabrication processes are compatible with standard semiconductor thin-film technology, making it possible to implement more complex and larger scale quantum photonic circuits on silicon chips.

  13. Quantum interference in heterogeneous superconducting-photonic circuits on a silicon chip.

    PubMed

    Schuck, C; Guo, X; Fan, L; Ma, X; Poot, M; Tang, H X

    2016-01-01

    Quantum information processing holds great promise for communicating and computing data efficiently. However, scaling current photonic implementation approaches to larger system size remains an outstanding challenge for realizing disruptive quantum technology. Two main ingredients of quantum information processors are quantum interference and single-photon detectors. Here we develop a hybrid superconducting-photonic circuit system to show how these elements can be combined in a scalable fashion on a silicon chip. We demonstrate the suitability of this approach for integrated quantum optics by interfering and detecting photon pairs directly on the chip with waveguide-coupled single-photon detectors. Using a directional coupler implemented with silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides, we observe 97% interference visibility when measuring photon statistics with two monolithically integrated superconducting single-photon detectors. The photonic circuit and detector fabrication processes are compatible with standard semiconductor thin-film technology, making it possible to implement more complex and larger scale quantum photonic circuits on silicon chips. PMID:26792424

  14. Quantum interference in heterogeneous superconducting-photonic circuits on a silicon chip

    PubMed Central

    Schuck, C.; Guo, X.; Fan, L.; Ma, X.; Poot, M.; Tang, H. X.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum information processing holds great promise for communicating and computing data efficiently. However, scaling current photonic implementation approaches to larger system size remains an outstanding challenge for realizing disruptive quantum technology. Two main ingredients of quantum information processors are quantum interference and single-photon detectors. Here we develop a hybrid superconducting-photonic circuit system to show how these elements can be combined in a scalable fashion on a silicon chip. We demonstrate the suitability of this approach for integrated quantum optics by interfering and detecting photon pairs directly on the chip with waveguide-coupled single-photon detectors. Using a directional coupler implemented with silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides, we observe 97% interference visibility when measuring photon statistics with two monolithically integrated superconducting single-photon detectors. The photonic circuit and detector fabrication processes are compatible with standard semiconductor thin-film technology, making it possible to implement more complex and larger scale quantum photonic circuits on silicon chips. PMID:26792424

  15. SOCR: Statistics Online Computational Resource

    PubMed Central

    Dinov, Ivo D.

    2011-01-01

    The need for hands-on computer laboratory experience in undergraduate and graduate statistics education has been firmly established in the past decade. As a result a number of attempts have been undertaken to develop novel approaches for problem-driven statistical thinking, data analysis and result interpretation. In this paper we describe an integrated educational web-based framework for: interactive distribution modeling, virtual online probability experimentation, statistical data analysis, visualization and integration. Following years of experience in statistical teaching at all college levels using established licensed statistical software packages, like STATA, S-PLUS, R, SPSS, SAS, Systat, etc., we have attempted to engineer a new statistics education environment, the Statistics Online Computational Resource (SOCR). This resource performs many of the standard types of statistical analysis, much like other classical tools. In addition, it is designed in a plug-in object-oriented architecture and is completely platform independent, web-based, interactive, extensible and secure. Over the past 4 years we have tested, fine-tuned and reanalyzed the SOCR framework in many of our undergraduate and graduate probability and statistics courses and have evidence that SOCR resources build student’s intuition and enhance their learning. PMID:21451741

  16. SOCR: Statistics Online Computational Resource.

    PubMed

    Dinov, Ivo D

    2006-10-01

    The need for hands-on computer laboratory experience in undergraduate and graduate statistics education has been firmly established in the past decade. As a result a number of attempts have been undertaken to develop novel approaches for problem-driven statistical thinking, data analysis and result interpretation. In this paper we describe an integrated educational web-based framework for: interactive distribution modeling, virtual online probability experimentation, statistical data analysis, visualization and integration. Following years of experience in statistical teaching at all college levels using established licensed statistical software packages, like STATA, S-PLUS, R, SPSS, SAS, Systat, etc., we have attempted to engineer a new statistics education environment, the Statistics Online Computational Resource (SOCR). This resource performs many of the standard types of statistical analysis, much like other classical tools. In addition, it is designed in a plug-in object-oriented architecture and is completely platform independent, web-based, interactive, extensible and secure. Over the past 4 years we have tested, fine-tuned and reanalyzed the SOCR framework in many of our undergraduate and graduate probability and statistics courses and have evidence that SOCR resources build student's intuition and enhance their learning. PMID:21451741

  17. Who Needs Statistics? | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    You may know the feeling. You have collected a lot of new data on an important experiment. Now you are faced with multiple groups of data, a sea of numbers, and a deadline for submitting your paper to a peer-reviewed journal. And you are not sure which data are relevant, or even the best way to present them. The statisticians at Data Management Services (DMS) know how to help. This small group of experts provides a wide array of statistical and mathematical consulting services to the scientific community at NCI at Frederick and NCI-Bethesda.

  18. Statistics in a Trilinear Interacting Stokes-Antistokes Boson System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tnzler, W.; Schtte, F.-J.

    The statistics of a system of four boson modes is treated with simultaneous Stokes-Antistokes interaction taking place. The time evolution is calculated in full quantum manner but in short time approximation. Mean photon numbers and correlations of second order are calculated. Antibunching can be found in the laser mode and in the system of Stokes and Antistokes mode.Translated AbstractStatistik in einem trilinear wechselwirkenden Stokes-Antistokes-BosonensystemDie Statistik eines Systems von vier Bosonenmoden mit gleichzeitiger Stokes-Antistokes-Wechselwirkung wird bei vollquantenphysikalischer Beschreibung in Kurzzeitnherung untersucht. Mittlere Photonenzahlen und Korrelationen zweiter Ordnung werden berechnet. Dabei wird Antibunching sowohl in der Lasermode allein als auch im System aus Stokes- und Antistokesmode gefunden.

  19. Evaluation of bremsstrahlung contribution to photon transport in coupled photon-electron problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Jorge E.; Scot, Viviana; Di Giulio, Eugenio; Salvat, Francesc

    2015-11-01

    The most accurate description of the radiation field in x-ray spectrometry requires the modeling of coupled photon-electron transport. Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect actually produce electrons as secondary particles which contribute to the photon field through conversion mechanisms like bremsstrahlung (which produces a continuous photon energy spectrum) and inner-shell impact ionization (ISII) (which gives characteristic lines). The solution of the coupled problem is time consuming because the electrons interact continuously and therefore, the number of electron collisions to be considered is always very high. This complex problem is frequently simplified by neglecting the contributions of the secondary electrons. Recent works (Fernández et al., 2013; Fernández et al., 2014) have shown the possibility to include a separately computed coupled photon-electron contribution like ISII in a photon calculation for improving such a crude approximation while preserving the speed of the pure photon transport model. By means of a similar approach and the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE (coupled photon-electron Monte Carlo), the bremsstrahlung contribution is characterized in this work. The angular distribution of the photons due to bremsstrahlung can be safely considered as isotropic, with the point of emission located at the same place of the photon collision. A new photon kernel describing the bremsstrahlung contribution is introduced: it can be included in photon transport codes (deterministic or Monte Carlo) with a minimal effort. A data library to describe the energy dependence of the bremsstrahlung emission has been generated for all elements Z=1-92 in the energy range 1-150 keV. The bremsstrahlung energy distribution for an arbitrary energy is obtained by interpolating in the database. A comparison between a PENELOPE direct simulation and the interpolated distribution using the data base shows an almost perfect agreement. The use of the data base increases the calculation speed by several magnitude orders.

  20. Photon beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kuzay, Tuncer M. (Naperville, IL); Shu, Deming (Darien, IL)

    1995-01-01

    A photon beam position monitor for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade "shadowing". Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation.

  1. Photon beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kuzay, T.M.; Shu, D.

    1995-02-07

    A photon beam position monitor is disclosed for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade ''shadowing''. Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation. 18 figs.

  2. Photonic layered media

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G.; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2002-01-01

    A new class of structured dielectric media which exhibit significant photonic bandstructure has been invented. The new structures, called photonic layered media, are easy to fabricate using existing layer-by-layer growth techniques, and offer the ability to significantly extend our practical ability to tailor the properties of such optical materials.

  3. 42 CFR 1003.133 - Statistical sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statistical sampling. 1003.133 Section 1003.133... AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.133 Statistical sampling. (a) In meeting... statistical sampling study as evidence of the number and amount of claims and/or requests for payment...

  4. 45 CFR 160.536 - Statistical sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statistical sampling. 160.536 Section 160.536... REQUIREMENTS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Hearings § 160.536 Statistical sampling. (a) In... statistical sampling study as evidence of the number of violations under § 160.406 of this part, or...

  5. 45 CFR 160.536 - Statistical sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Statistical sampling. 160.536 Section 160.536... REQUIREMENTS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Hearings § 160.536 Statistical sampling. (a) In... statistical sampling study as evidence of the number of violations under § 160.406 of this part, or...

  6. 45 CFR 160.536 - Statistical sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Statistical sampling. 160.536 Section 160.536... REQUIREMENTS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Hearings § 160.536 Statistical sampling. (a) In... statistical sampling study as evidence of the number of violations under § 160.406 of this part, or...

  7. 42 CFR 1003.133 - Statistical sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Statistical sampling. 1003.133 Section 1003.133... AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.133 Statistical sampling. (a) In meeting... statistical sampling study as evidence of the number and amount of claims and/or requests for payment...

  8. 45 CFR 160.536 - Statistical sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Statistical sampling. 160.536 Section 160.536... REQUIREMENTS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Hearings § 160.536 Statistical sampling. (a) In... statistical sampling study as evidence of the number of violations under § 160.406 of this part, or...

  9. 42 CFR 1003.133 - Statistical sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Statistical sampling. 1003.133 Section 1003.133... AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.133 Statistical sampling. (a) In meeting... statistical sampling study as evidence of the number and amount of claims and/or requests for payment...

  10. 45 CFR 160.536 - Statistical sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Statistical sampling. 160.536 Section 160.536... REQUIREMENTS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Hearings § 160.536 Statistical sampling. (a) In... statistical sampling study as evidence of the number of violations under § 160.406 of this part, or...

  11. 42 CFR 1003.133 - Statistical sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Statistical sampling. 1003.133 Section 1003.133... AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.133 Statistical sampling. (a) In meeting... statistical sampling study as evidence of the number and amount of claims and/or requests for payment...

  12. 42 CFR 1003.133 - Statistical sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Statistical sampling. 1003.133 Section 1003.133... AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.133 Statistical sampling. (a) In meeting... statistical sampling study as evidence of the number and amount of claims and/or requests for payment...

  13. Experimental generation of single photons via active multiplexing

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Xiaosong; Zotter, Stefan; Kofler, Johannes; Jennewein, Thomas; Zeilinger, Anton

    2011-04-15

    An on-demand single-photon source is a fundamental building block in quantum science and technology. We experimentally demonstrate the proof of concept for a scheme to generate on-demand single photons via actively multiplexing several heralded photons probabilistically produced from pulsed spontaneous parametric down-conversions (SPDCs). By utilizing a four-photon-pair source, an active feed-forward technique, and an ultrafast single-photon router, we show a fourfold enhancement of the output photon rate. Simultaneously, we maintain the quality of the output single-photon states, confirmed by correlation measurements. We also experimentally verify, via Hong-Ou-Mandel interference, that the router does not affect the indistinguishability of the single photons. Furthermore, we give numerical simulations, which indicate that photons based on multiplexing of four SPDC sources can outperform the heralding based on highly advanced photon-number-resolving detectors. Our results show a route for on-demand single-photon generation and the practical realization of scalable linear optical quantum-information processing.

  14. Ion photon emission microscope

    DOEpatents

    Doyle, Barney L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-04-22

    An ion beam analysis system that creates microscopic multidimensional image maps of the effects of high energy ions from an unfocussed source upon a sample by correlating the exact entry point of an ion into a sample by projection imaging of the ion-induced photons emitted at that point with a signal from a detector that measures the interaction of that ion within the sample. The emitted photons are collected in the lens system of a conventional optical microscope, and projected on the image plane of a high resolution single photon position sensitive detector. Position signals from this photon detector are then correlated in time with electrical effects, including the malfunction of digital circuits, detected within the sample that were caused by the individual ion that created these photons initially.

  15. A novel photonic oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, X. S.; Maleki, L.

    1995-01-01

    We report a novel oscillator for photonic RF systems. This oscillator is capable of generating high-frequency signals up to 70 GHz in both electrical and optical domains and is a special voltage-controlled oscillator with an optical output port. It can be used to make a phase-locked loop (PLL) and perform all functions that a PLL is capable of for photonic systems. It can be synchronized to a reference source by means of optical injection locking, electrical injection locking, and PLL. It can also be self-phase locked and self-injection locked to generate a high-stability photonic RF reference. Its applications include high-frequency reference regeneration and distribution, high-gain frequency multiplication, comb-frequecy and square-wave generation, carrier recovery, and clock recovery. We anticipate that such photonic voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs) will be as important to photonic RF systems as electrical VCOs are to electrical RF systems.

  16. Mineral statistics yearbook, 1997. Miscellaneous report number 98-3

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The paper presents the annual report on Saskatchewan production, sales, provincial revenue, exports, and value of crude oil, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, coal, potash, sodium sulphate, salt, uranium, and gold. Drilling data and historical summaries of annual well completions and abandonments are given, as well as Crown land disposition.

  17. Mineral statistics yearbook, 1997. Miscellaneous report number 98-3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents the annual report on Saskatchewan production, sales, provincial revenue, exports, and value of crude oil, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, coal, potash, sodium sulphate, salt, uranium, and gold. Drilling data and historical summaries of annual well completions and abandonments are given, as well as Crown land disposition.

  18. Disability and the Digital Divide. Disability Statistics Abstract Number 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, H. Stephen

    This report discusses findings from the Current Population Survey of 1998 that found Americans with disabilities are less than half as likely as their counterparts to own a computer, and they are about one-quarter as likely to use the Internet. Others findings indicate: (1) among persons 65 years of age or older, only one-tenth of those with

  19. On the main Errors underlying Statistical Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalanov, Temur Z.

    2002-04-01

    The basis of statistical physics that was created by Maxwell, Boltzmann, Gibbs, Planck, Bose, Einstein, Fermi has been analyzed critically. The analysis is based on the concepts of discrete accidental quantity (the energy of the subsystem), statistical ensemble of identical systems and temperature. The key idea is that the expression for the distribution function (giving the complete quantum-statistical description of a subsystem) is the equation for the universal parameter the temperature T of the subsystems; in view of logic, the solution of the equation presents the quantum-statistical definition of T; the T is to characterize the empirically found general property of thermal processes (i.e., the T is not to depend on the structure of the energy spectrum of the subsystem). The results of the critical analysis are, in particular, as follows. (1) The energy of the subsystem must be counted off its least value. (2) The range of the parameter T of the subsystem is given by 0 < T < E_? where E_? is the boundary of the energy spectrum of the subsystem. If T = 0, then the description of the subsystem loses its statistical meaning because, in this case, the energy of the subsystem is not an accidental quantity (hence, the thermal energy of this subsystem equals zero). (3) The Boltzmann formula S = klogW, the Boltzmann-Gibbs and Einstein-Planck formulae for entropy S are incorrect. (4) The correct expression for the entropy of the subsystem has the form S = sumnolimitsn = 0^? S_nf_n, Sn ? E_n/T = - ln(f_n/f_0), n = 0, 1, ldots where E_n, fn are the energy of the subsystem and the Gibbs quantum canonical distribution, respectively. In the thermodynamical limit, S = 1 (therefore, thermodynamics should be corrected). (5) The Gibbs grand-canonical distribution, the Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac distribution functions are incorrect because they contain the chemical potential ?. (6) The Einstein coefficients A_nm, B_nm, B_mn are different from zero only if A_nm ? B_nm ? B_mn ? P_nm^10 (where P_nm^q + 1, q is the (m, q) arrow (n, q + 1) transition probability in unit time; the quantum numbers q, q + 1 and m, n characterize the energetic states of the photon gas and of the molecule, respectively). Thus, the generally accepted basis of statistical physics includes the essential errors that are due to violation of the laws of logic. Correction of the errors open a way to unitarization of the principles of statistical physics and physical kinetics. (A more detailed consideration is given in a dissertation [T.Z.Kalanov, The correct quantum-statistical description of the ideal systems within the framework of the master equation, Tashkent, 1993]).

  20. Dimension of quantum phase space measured by photon correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuchs, Gerd; Glauber, Roy J.; Schleich, Wolfgang P.

    2015-06-01

    We show that the different values 1, 2 and 3 of the normalized second-order correlation function {g}(2)(0) corresponding to a coherent state, a thermal state and a highly squeezed vacuum originate from the different dimensionality of these states in phase space. In particular, we derive an exact expression for {g}(2)(0) in terms of the ratio of the moments of the classical energy evaluated with the Wigner function of the quantum state of interest and corrections proportional to the reciprocal of powers of the average number of photons. In this way we establish a direct link between {g}(2)(0) and the shape of the state in phase space. Moreover, we illuminate this connection by demonstrating that in the semi-classical limit the familiar photon statistics of a thermal state arise from an area in phase space weighted by a two-dimensional Gaussian, whereas those of a highly squeezed state are governed by a line-integral of a one-dimensional Gaussian. We dedicate this article to Margarita and Vladimir Man’ko on the occasion of their birthdays. The topic of our contribution is deeply rooted in and motivated by their love for non-classical light, quantum mechanical phase space distribution functions and orthogonal polynomials. Indeed, through their articles, talks and most importantly by many stimulating discussions and intensive collaborations with us they have contributed much to our understanding of physics. Happy birthday to you both!

  1. Photon counting altimeter and lidar for air and spaceborne applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacek, Michael; Michalek, Vojtech; Peca, Marek; Prochazka, Ivan; Blazej, Josef; Kodet, Jan

    2011-06-01

    We are presenting the concept and preliminary design of modular multipurpose device for space segment: single photon counting laser altimeter, atmospheric lidar, laser transponder and one way laser ranging receiver. For all the mentioned purposes, the same compact configuration of the device is appropriate. Overall estimated device weight should not exceed 5 kg with the power consumption below 10 W. The device will consists of three main parts, namely, receiver, transmitter and control and processing unit. As a transmitter a commercial solid state laser at 532 nm wavelength with 10 mW power will be used. The transmitter optics will have a diameter at most of 50 mm. The laser pulse width will be of hundreds of picoseconds order. For the laser altimeter and atmospheric lidar application, the repetition rate of 10 kHz is planned in order to obtain sufficient number of data for a distance value computing. The receiver device will be composed of active quenched Single Photon Avalanche Diode module, tiny optics, and narrow-band optical filter. The core part of the control and processing unit including high precision timing unit is implemented using single FPGA chip. The preliminary device concept includes considerations on energy balance, and statistical algorithms to meet all the mentioned purposes. Recently, the bread board version of the device is under construction in our labs. The concept, construction, and timing results will be presented.

  2. Single photon laser altimeter data processing, analysis and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacek, Michael; Peca, Marek; Michalek, Vojtech; Prochazka, Ivan

    2015-10-01

    Spaceborne laser altimeters are common instruments on-board the rendezvous spacecraft. This manuscript deals with the altimeters using a single photon approach, which belongs to the family of time-of-flight range measurements. Moreover, the single photon receiver part of the altimeter may be utilized as an Earth-to-spacecraft link enabling one-way ranging, time transfer and data transfer. The single photon altimeters evaluate actual altitude through the repetitive detections of single photons of the reflected laser pulses. We propose the single photon altimeter signal processing and data mining algorithm based on the Poisson statistic filter (histogram method) and the modified Kalman filter, providing all common altimetry products (altitude, slope, background photon flux and albedo). The Kalman filter is extended for the background noise filtering, the varying slope adaptation and the non-causal extension for an abrupt slope change. Moreover, the algorithm partially removes the major drawback of a single photon altitude reading, namely that the photon detection measurement statistics must be gathered. The developed algorithm deduces the actual altitude on the basis of a single photon detection; thus, being optimal in the sense that each detected signal photon carrying altitude information is tracked and no altitude information is lost. The algorithm was tested on the simulated datasets and partially cross-probed with the experimental data collected using the developed single photon altimeter breadboard based on the microchip laser with the pulse energy on the order of microjoule and the repetition rate of several kilohertz. We demonstrated that such an altimeter configuration may be utilized for landing or hovering a small body (asteroid, comet).

  3. Monitoring molecular interactions using photon arrival-time interval distribution analysis

    DOEpatents

    Laurence, Ted A. (Livermore, CA); Weiss, Shimon (Los Angels, CA)

    2009-10-06

    A method for analyzing/monitoring the properties of species that are labeled with fluorophores. A detector is used to detect photons emitted from species that are labeled with one or more fluorophores and located in a confocal detection volume. The arrival time of each of the photons is determined. The interval of time between various photon pairs is then determined to provide photon pair intervals. The number of photons that have arrival times within the photon pair intervals is also determined. The photon pair intervals are then used in combination with the corresponding counts of intervening photons to analyze properties and interactions of the molecules including brightness, concentration, coincidence and transit time. The method can be used for analyzing single photon streams and multiple photon streams.

  4. Aspects of photonic topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechtsman, Mikael

    2015-03-01

    Great excitement surrounding optical topological protection has recently emerged from the promise of endowing photonic devices with quantum Hall-like robustness. Here, I will present the prediction and realization of a photonic topological insulator for light. Topological insulators (TIs) are solid-state materials that are insulators in the bulk, but conduct electricity along their surfaces - and are intrinsically robust to disorder. In particular, when a surface electron in a TI encounters a defect, it simply goes around it without scattering, always exhibiting - quite strikingly - perfect transmission. The structure is composed of an array of coupled helical waveguides; the helicity generates an artificial circularly-polarized force on the photons that breaks time-reversal symmetry. This leads to bands with non-zero Chern number, and thus topologically-protected edge states (protected in the quantum Hall sense - not by any symmetry). Due to the time-dependent force, the band structure must be solved in the Floquet sense; the result bears close resemblance to that of the quantum anomalous Hall effect. I will also present experimental results on the first realization of a ``topological Anderson insulator'' (in a similar setting), where the addition of disorder can make a trivial system topological. Time permitting, I will discuss the question of what it means to have topological interface states in non-Hermitian systems, and show new experiments exploring their properties.

  5. Statistics Poker: Reinforcing Basic Statistical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    Learning basic statistical concepts does not need to be tedious or dry; it can be fun and interesting through cooperative learning in the small-group activity of Statistics Poker. This article describes a teaching approach for reinforcing basic statistical concepts that can help students who have high anxiety and makes learning and reinforcing

  6. Orbital Angular Momentum of Gauge Fields: Excitation of AN Atom by Twisted Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasev, Andrei; Carlson, Carl E.; Mukherjee, Asmita

    2014-01-01

    Twisted photon states, or photon states with large (> ?) angular momentum projection in the direction of motion, can photoexcite atomic final states of differing quantum numbers. If the photon symmetry axis coincides with the center of an atom, there are known selection rules that require exact matching between the quantum numbers of the photon and the photoexcited states. The more general case of arbitrarily positioned beams relaxes the selection rules but produces a distribution of quantum numbers of the final atomic states that is novel and distinct from final states produced by plane-wave photons. Numerical calculations are presented using a hydrogen atom as an example.

  7. Microwave photonic signal processing.

    PubMed

    Minasian, R A; Chan, E H W; Yi, X

    2013-09-23

    Photonic signal processing offers the advantages of large time-bandwidth capabilities to overcome inherent electronic limitations. In-fibre signal processors are inherently compatible with fibre optic microwave systems that can integrate with wireless antennas, and can provide connectivity with in-built signal conditioning and electromagnetic interference immunity. Recent methods in wideband and adaptive signal processing, which address the challenge of realising programmable microwave photonic phase shifters and true-time delay elements for phased array beamforming; ultra-wideband Hilbert transformers; single passband, widely tunable, and switchable microwave photonic filters; and ultra-wideband microwave photonic mixers, are described. In addition, a new microwave photonic mixer structure is presented, which is based on using the inherent frequency selectivity of the stimulated Brillouin scattering loss spectrum to suppress the carrier of a dual-phase modulated optical signal. Results for the new microwave photonic mixer demonstrate an extremely wide bandwidth operation of 0.2 to 20 GHz and a large conversion efficiency improvement compared to the conventional microwave photonic mixer. PMID:24104178

  8. Performance limits for single-photons, correlated-photons, and entangled photons for quantum key distribution over fiber optics network topologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkor, Eric; Althowibi, Fahad; Williams, Ryan

    2015-05-01

    We present and compare the characteristic performance of single-photons, correlatedphotons, and entangled-photons for quantum key distribution over various fiber optic network topologies. The networks include the RING, BUS, and STAR. Quantum biterror rate is determined for each network as function of number of users, and transmission distance. The trade-off between number of users and transmission distance is presented. The robustness of the QKD against eavesdropping is evaluated for each architecture.

  9. Incoherent photon conversion in selectively infiltrated hollow-core photonic crystal fibers for single photon generation in the near infrared.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ping; Schroeder, Tim; Bath, Michael; Lesnyak, Vladimir; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmüller, Alexander; Benson, Oliver

    2012-05-01

    At present, there exist a number of on-demand single photon sources with high emission rates and stability even at room temperature. However, their emission wavelength is restricted to specific transitions in single quantum emitters. Single photon generation in the near infrared, possibly within the telecom band, though most urgently needed, is particularly crucial. In this paper, we suggest an experimental method to convert visible single photons from a defect center in diamond to the near infrared. The conversion relies on efficient absorption by colloidal quantum dots and subsequent Stokes-shifted emission. The desired target wavelength can be chosen almost arbitrarily by selecting quantum dots with a suitable emission spectrum. A hollow core photonic crystal fiber selectively filled with a solution of quantum dots was used to achieve at the same time a single photon absorption probability of near unity and a very high re-collection efficiency of Stokes-shifted fluorescence (theoretically estimated to be 26%). A total conversion efficiency of light of 0.1% is achieved. Experimental strategies to significantly enhance this number are presented. PMID:22565773

  10. Determinations of photon spectra. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wannigman, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    A method is developed to unfold photon spectra from measurements obtained with a sodium iodide counting system. A response matrix is computed by combining photon cross sections with probability distributions of path lengths for incident and internally generated photons in the energy range 0-2.8 MeV. This matrix is inverted and multiplied by a measured pulse height spectrum to obtain the photon energy distribution incident upon the detector. This deconvolution procedure provides improved information about the energy continuum of incident photons and can enhanced the identification of discrete gamma energies. Experiments were performed to verify the unfolding methodology and to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of this technique. Measured spectra were acquired from indoor and outdoor environments and unfolded. The results show that measured spectra overestimate the number of photons below 240 keV by up to 30 %. When the total exposure was calculated directly from the measured spectra, the low energy contribution was overestimated by a factor of two. This may have implications on the interpretation and calibration of energy dependent dosimeters used for occupational and environmental monitoring.

  11. Photon dose calculation incorporating explicit electron transport.

    PubMed

    Yu, C X; Mackie, T R; Wong, J W

    1995-07-01

    Significant advances have been made in recent years to improve photon dose calculation. However, accurate prediction of dose perturbation effects near the interfaces of different media, where charged particle equilibrium is not established, remain unsolved. Furthermore, changes in atomic number, which affect the multiple Coulomb scattering of the secondary electrons, are not accounted for by current photon dose calculation algorithms. As local interface effects are mainly due to the perturbation of secondary electrons, a photon-electron cascade model is proposed which incorporates explicit electron transport in the calculation of the primary photon dose component in heterogeneous media. The primary photon beam is treated as the source of many electron pencil beams. The latter are transported using the Fermi-Eyges theory. The scattered photon dose contribution is calculated with the dose spread array [T.R. Mackie, J.W. Scrimger, and J.J. Battista, Med. Phys. 12, 188-196 (1985)] approach. Comparisons of the calculation with Monte Carlo simulation and TLD measurements show good agreement for positions near the polystyrene-aluminum interfaces. PMID:7565390

  12. Single photon quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Beveratos, Alexios; Brouri, Rosa; Gacoin, Thierry; Villing, Andr; Poizat, Jean-Philippe; Grangier, Philippe

    2002-10-28

    We report the full implementation of a quantum cryptography protocol using a stream of single photon pulses generated by a stable and efficient source operating at room temperature. The single photon pulses are emitted on demand by a single nitrogen-vacancy color center in a diamond nanocrystal. The quantum bit error rate is less that 4.6% and the secure bit rate is 7700 bits/s. The overall performances of our system reaches a domain where single photons have a measurable advantage over an equivalent system based on attenuated light pulses. PMID:12398636

  13. Photonic Maxwell's Demon.

    PubMed

    Vidrighin, Mihai D; Dahlsten, Oscar; Barbieri, Marco; Kim, M S; Vedral, Vlatko; Walmsley, Ian A

    2016-02-01

    We report an experimental realization of Maxwell's demon in a photonic setup. We show that a measurement at the few-photons level followed by a feed-forward operation allows the extraction of work from intense thermal light into an electric circuit. The interpretation of the experiment stimulates the derivation of an equality relating work extraction to information acquired by measurement. We derive a bound using this relation and show that it is in agreement with the experimental results. Our work puts forward photonic systems as a platform for experiments related to information in thermodynamics. PMID:26894692

  14. Is the photon paramagnetic?

    SciTech Connect

    Perez Rojas, H.; Querts, E. Rodriguez

    2009-05-01

    A photon exhibits a tiny anomalous magnetic moment {mu}{sub {gamma}} due to its interaction with an external constant magnetic field in vacuum through the virtual electron-positron background. It is paramagnetic ({mu}{sub {gamma}}>0) in the whole region of transparency, i.e., below the first threshold energy for pair creation, and has a maximum near this threshold. The photon magnetic moment is different for eigenmodes polarized along and perpendicular to the magnetic field. Explicit expressions are given for {mu}{sub {gamma}} for the cases of photon energies smaller than and closer to the first pair creation threshold. The region beyond the first threshold is briefly discussed.

  15. Photon physics at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Skuja, A.; White, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    Two photon processes induced by heavy ion collisions have been considered. An approximate formalism for calculation is derived. The event rate is interesting at low-photon-photon mass but is limited by the form factor of the nuclei at high mass. The event rate is compared with that at LEP and found to be favorable at the mass of charm mesons but unfavorable at higher masses. It is further noted that two pomeron processes are similar in configuration and are prolific at low pomeron-pomeron masses. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Photon collider Higgs factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telnov, V. I.

    2014-09-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson (and still nothing else) have triggered appearance of many proposals of Higgs factories for precision measurement of the Higgs properties. Among them there are several projects of photon colliders (PC) without e+e- in addition to PLC based on e+e- linear colliders ILC and CLIC. In this paper, following a brief discussion of Higgs factories physics program I give an overview of photon colliders based on linear colliders ILC and CLIC, and of the recently proposed photon-collider Higgs factories with no e+e- collision option based on recirculation linacs in ring tunnels.

  17. Photon detector system

    DOEpatents

    Ekstrom, Philip A. (Lexington, KY)

    1981-01-01

    A photon detector includes a semiconductor device, such as a Schottky barrier diode, which has an avalanche breakdown characteristic. The diode is cooled to cryogenic temperatures to eliminate thermally generated charge carriers from the device. The diode is then biased to a voltage level exceeding the avalanche breakdown threshold level such that, upon receipt of a photon, avalanche breakdown occurs. This breakdown is detected by appropriate circuitry which thereafter reduces the diode bias potential to a level below the avalanche breakdown threshold level to terminate the avalanche condition. Subsequently, the bias potential is reapplied to the diode in preparation for detection of a subsequently received photon.

  18. Photonic structures in biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukusic, Pete; Sambles, J. Roy

    2003-08-01

    Millions of years before we began to manipulate the flow of light using synthetic structures, biological systems were using nanometre-scale architectures to produce striking optical effects. An astonishing variety of natural photonic structures exists: a species of Brittlestar uses photonic elements composed of calcite to collect light, Morpho butterflies use multiple layers of cuticle and air to produce their striking blue colour and some insects use arrays of elements, known as nipple arrays, to reduce reflectivity in their compound eyes. Natural photonic structures are providing inspiration for technological applications.

  19. Photonic structures in biology.

    PubMed

    Vukusic, Pete; Sambles, J Roy

    2003-08-14

    Millions of years before we began to manipulate the flow of light using synthetic structures, biological systems were using nanometre-scale architectures to produce striking optical effects. An astonishing variety of natural photonic structures exists: a species of Brittlestar uses photonic elements composed of calcite to collect light, Morpho butterflies use multiple layers of cuticle and air to produce their striking blue colour and some insects use arrays of elements, known as nipple arrays, to reduce reflectivity in their compound eyes. Natural photonic structures are providing inspiration for technological applications. PMID:12917700

  20. Photonics: Technology project summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Depaula, Ramon P.

    1991-01-01

    Photonics involves the use of light (photons) in conjunction with electronics for applications in communications, computing, control, and sensing. Components used in photonic systems include lasers, optical detectors, optical wave guide devices, fiber optics, and traditional electronic devices. The goal of this program is to develop hybrid optoelectronic devices and systems for sensing, information processing, communications, and control. It is hoped that these new devices will yield at least an order of magnitude improvement in performance over existing technology. The objective of the program is to conduct research and development in the following areas: (1) materials and devices; (2) networking and computing; (3) optical processing/advanced pattern recognition; and (4) sensing.