Photon-number statistics of twin beams: Self-consistent measurement, reconstruction, and properties
Pe?ina, Jan Jr.; Haderka, Ond?ej; Michálek, Václav
2014-12-04
A method for the determination of photon-number statistics of twin beams using the joint signal-idler photocount statistics obtained by an iCCD camera is described. It also provides absolute quantum detection efficiency of the camera. Using the measured photocount statistics, quasi-distributions of integrated intensities are obtained. They attain negative values occurring in characteristic strips an a consequence of pairing of photons in twin beams.
Photon number statistics uncover the fluctuations in non-equilibrium lattice dynamics.
Esposito, Martina; Titimbo, Kelvin; Zimmermann, Klaus; Giusti, Francesca; Randi, Francesco; Boschetto, Davide; Parmigiani, Fulvio; Floreanini, Roberto; Benatti, Fabio; Fausti, Daniele
2015-01-01
Fluctuations of the atomic positions are at the core of a large class of unusual material properties ranging from quantum para-electricity to high temperature superconductivity. Their measurement in solids is the subject of an intense scientific debate focused on seeking a methodology capable of establishing a direct link between the variance of the atomic displacements and experimentally measurable observables. Here we address this issue by means of non-equilibrium optical experiments performed in shot-noise-limited regime. The variance of the time-dependent atomic positions and momenta is directly mapped into the quantum fluctuations of the photon number of the scattered probing light. A fully quantum description of the non-linear interaction between photonic and phononic fields is benchmarked by unveiling the squeezing of thermal phonons in ?-quartz. PMID:26690958
Generalized binomial distribution in photon statistics
Aleksey V. Ilyin
2015-05-28
The photon-number distribution between two parts of a given volume is found for an arbitrary photon statistics. This problem is related to the interaction of a light beam with a macroscopic device, for example a diaphragm, that separates the photon flux into two parts with known probabilities. To solve this problem, a Generalized Binomial Distribution (GBD) is derived that is applicable to an arbitrary photon statistics satisfying probability convolution equations. It is shown that if photons obey Poisson statistics then the GBD is reduced to the ordinary binomial distribution, whereas in the case of Bose-Einstein statistics the GBD is reduced to the Polya distribution. In this case, the photon spatial distribution depends on the phase-space volume occupied by the photons. This result involves a photon bunching effect, or collective behavior of photons that sharply differs from the behavior of classical particles. It is shown that the photon bunching effect looks similar to the quantum interference effect.
Generalized binomial distribution in photon statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilyin, Aleksey
2015-01-01
The photon-number distribution between two parts of a given volume is found for an arbitrary photon statistics. This problem is related to the interaction of a light beam with a macroscopic device, for example a diaphragm, that separates the photon flux into two parts with known probabilities. To solve this problem, a Generalized Binomial Distribution (GBD) is derived that is applicable to an arbitrary photon statistics satisfying probability convolution equations. It is shown that if photons obey Poisson statistics then the GBD is reduced to the ordinary binomial distribution, whereas in the case of Bose- Einstein statistics the GBD is reduced to the Polya distribution. In this case, the photon spatial distribution depends on the phase-space volume occupied by the photons. This result involves a photon bunching effect, or collective behavior of photons that sharply differs from the behavior of classical particles. It is shown that the photon bunching effect looks similar to the quantum interference effect.
Characterization of photon statistics in a single-photon source via variable attenuation
Zhang Shengli; Zou Xubo; Li Chuanfeng; Guo Guangcan; Jin Chenhui
2009-10-15
We propose a simple but effective scheme for characterizing photon-number statistics of a practical single-photon source. In this scheme, the variable attenuation method which frequently appears in decoy state quantum cryptography is utilized here to enhance the estimation of photon-number statistics. A much stricter bound for vacuum and single-photon proportions is obtained and this result, in turn, is shown to be applicable to the unconditional secure quantum cryptographic communication with single-photon devices.
Theory of the two-photon micromaser: Photon statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashraf, Imrana; Gea-Banacloche, J.; Zubairy, M. S.
1990-12-01
Exact results for the photon statistics of a two-photon micromaser are presented, including the effect of finite detuning of the intermediate level. A periodic dependence on interaction times is shown to arise for large detunings, when sufficiently long interaction times are considered. Some typical photon-number distributions are shown, including some exhibiting sub-Poissonian fluctuations and multiple peaks. Previous treatments and the validity of some usual approximations are discussed. By direct comparison with the exact results, it is shown that the effective-Hamiltonian approximation yields incorrect equations for the off-diagonal elements of the field density matrix.
Lorentz invariant photon number density
Margaret Hawton
2008-08-07
A Lorentz invariant positive definite expression for photon number density is derived as the absolute square of the invariant scalar product of a polarization sensitive position eigenvector and the photon wave function. It is found that this scalar product is independent of the form chosen for the wave function and that the normalized positive frequency vector potential-electric field pair is a convenient choice of wave function in the presence of matter. The number amplitude describing a localized state is a delta-function at the instant at which localization and detection are seen as simultaneous.
Photon statistics and polarization correlations at telecommunications
Orozco, Luis A.
Photon statistics and polarization correlations at telecommunications wavelengths from a warm of heralded single photons at a telecommunication wavelength. We measure the heralded autocorrelation and see. Kuzmich, "Quantum telecommunication based on atomic cascade transitions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 093604
Observing fermionic statistics with photons in arbitrary processes
Matthews, Jonathan C. F.; Poulios, Konstantinos; Meinecke, Jasmin D. A.; Politi, Alberto; Peruzzo, Alberto; Ismail, Nur; Wörhoff, Kerstin; Thompson, Mark G.; O'Brien, Jeremy L.
2013-01-01
Quantum mechanics defines two classes of particles-bosons and fermions-whose exchange statistics fundamentally dictate quantum dynamics. Here we develop a scheme that uses entanglement to directly observe the correlated detection statistics of any number of fermions in any physical process. This approach relies on sending each of the entangled particles through identical copies of the process and by controlling a single phase parameter in the entangled state, the correlated detection statistics can be continuously tuned between bosonic and fermionic statistics. We implement this scheme via two entangled photons shared across the polarisation modes of a single photonic chip to directly mimic the fermion, boson and intermediate behaviour of two-particles undergoing a continuous time quantum walk. The ability to simulate fermions with photons is likely to have applications for verifying boson scattering and for observing particle correlations in analogue simulation using any physical platform that can prepare the entangled state prescribed here. PMID:23531788
Quantum random-number generator based on a photon-number-resolving detector
Ren Min; Wu, E; Liang Yan; Jian Yi; Wu Guang; Zeng Heping
2011-02-15
We demonstrated a high-efficiency quantum random number generator which takes inherent advantage of the photon number distribution randomness of a coherent light source. This scheme was realized by comparing the photon flux of consecutive pulses with a photon number resolving detector. The random bit generation rate could reach 2.4 MHz with a system clock of 6.0 MHz, corresponding to a random bit generation efficiency as high as 40%. The random number files passed all the stringent statistical tests.
Photon-number-resolving superconducting nanowire detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mattioli, Francesco; Zhou, Zili; Gaggero, Alessandro; Gaudio, Rosalinda; Jahanmirinejad, Saeedeh; Sahin, Döndü; Marsili, Francesco; Leoni, Roberto; Fiore, Andrea
2015-10-01
In recent years, photon-number-resolving (PNR) detectors have attracted great interest, mainly because they can play a key role in diverse application fields. A PNR detector with a large dynamic range would represent an ideal photon detector, bringing the linear response of conventional analogue detectors down to the single-photon level. Several technologies, such as InGaAs single photon avalanche detectors (SPADs), arrays of silicon photomultipliers, InGaAs SPADs with self-differencing circuits and transition edge sensors have shown photon number resolving capability. Superconducting nanowires provide free-running single-photon sensitivity from visible to mid-infrared frequencies, low dark counts, excellent timing resolution (<60 ps) and short dead time (˜10 ns), at an easily accessible temperature (2-3 K), but they do not inherently resolve the photon number. In this framework, PNR detectors based on arrays of superconducting nanowires have been proposed. In this article we describe a number of methods and device configurations that have been pursued to obtain PNR capability using superconducting nanowire detectors.
Efficient and robust quantum random number generation by photon number detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Applegate, M. J.; Thomas, O.; Dynes, J. F.; Yuan, Z. L.; Ritchie, D. A.; Shields, A. J.
2015-08-01
We present an efficient and robust quantum random number generator based upon high-rate room temperature photon number detection. We employ an electric field-modulated silicon avalanche photodiode, a type of device particularly suited to high-rate photon number detection with excellent photon number resolution to detect, without an applied dead-time, up to 4 photons from the optical pulses emitted by a laser. By both measuring and modeling the response of the detector to the incident photons, we are able to determine the illumination conditions that achieve an optimal bit rate that we show is robust against variation in the photon flux. We extract random bits from the detected photon numbers with an efficiency of 99% corresponding to 1.97 bits per detected photon number yielding a bit rate of 143 Mbit/s, and verify that the extracted bits pass stringent statistical tests for randomness. Our scheme is highly scalable and has the potential of multi-Gbit/s bit rates.
Counting statistics of collective photon transmissions
Vogl, M. Schaller, G. Brandes, T.
2011-10-15
We theoretically study cooperative effects in the steady-state transmission of photons through a medium of N radiators. Using methods from quantum transport, we find a cross-over in scaling from N to N{sup 2} in the current and to even higher powers of N in the higher cumulants of the photon counting statistics as a function of the tunable source occupation. The effect should be observable for atoms confined within a nano-cell with a pumped optical cavity as photon source. - Highlights: > Super-radiance transfers to super-transmittance in steady-state transport. > Higher cumulants are much more sensitive indicators for collective behavior than the first cumulant. > Effects should be measurable by pumped-cavity experiment.
Photon-Number Distribution and Wigner Function of Generalized Photon-Modulated Coherent State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Jun; Wang, Shuai; Song, Jun; Fan, Hong-Yi
In this paper, we present the generalized photon-modulated coherent state (GPMCS) generated by repeatedly operating the combination of Bosonic creation and annihilation operators on the coherent state. It is found that the GPMCS is a Hermite-excited coherent state and its normalization factor is related to single-variable Hermite polynomials. Furthermore, some significant quantum statistical properties of the GPMCS are investigated, such as photon-number distribution (PND) and the Wigner function (WF). We find that the WF of the GPMCS has negative values when the generalized photon-modulation exists, which implies the nonclassical properties of the GPMCS.
Experimental determination of the statistics of photons emitted by a tunnel junction.
Zakka-Bajjani, Eva; Dufouleur, J; Coulombel, N; Roche, P; Glattli, D C; Portier, F
2010-05-21
We report on an Hanbury Brown-Twiss experiment probing the statistics of microwave photons emitted by a tunnel junction in the shot-noise regime at low temperature. By measuring the cross correlation of the fluctuations of the occupation numbers of the photon modes of both detection branches, we show that while the statistics of electrons is Poissonian, the photons obey chaotic statistics. This is observed even for low photon occupation number when the voltage across the junction is close to h?/e. PMID:20867050
Photon-number squeezing by two-photon absorption in an organic polymer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ispasoiu, R. G.; Goodson, T.
2000-05-01
We report the generation of photon-number squeezed light by two-photon absorption in a thin film of the organic polymeric dye R-478 with intense femtosecond laser pulses at 800 nm. Photon-number noise measurements of the transmitted laser beam were carried out simultaneously with the measurement of the sample's nonlinear transmission. A two-photon absorption coefficient ( ?) of 7 cm/GW was estimated for the organic polymer thin film. At the highest incident peak irradiance used we observed a reduction of the photon-number noise of 0.1 dB (4.6%) below the standard quantum limit. By considering the detection losses we inferred 7.7% squeezing at the sample output. The experimental results were compared with the predictions of a theoretical model relating the Fano factor to the nonlinear transmission. The analysis of the experimental results indicates that sub-Poissonian photon statistics occurs when the linear optical losses in the sample are overcome by the quantum noise reduction effect of multi-photon absorption.
Fast recognition of single molecules based on single event photon statistics
Shuangli Dong; Tao Huang; Yuan Liu; Jun Wang; Guofeng Zhang; Liantuan Xiao+; Suotang Jia
2007-08-02
Mandel Q-parameter, which is determined from single event photon statistics, provides an alternative to differentiate single-molecule with fluorescence detection. In this work, by using the Q-parameter of the sample fluorescence compared to that of an ideal double-molecule system with the same average photon number, we present a novel and fast approach for identifying single molecules based on single event photon statistics analyses, compared with commonly used two-time correlation measurements. The error estimates for critical values of photon statistics are also presented for single-molecule determination.
Interaction of Fixed Number of Photons with Retinal Rod Cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phan, Nam Mai; Cheng, Mei Fun; Bessarab, Dmitri A.; Krivitsky, Leonid A.
2014-05-01
New tools and approaches of quantum optics offer a unique opportunity to generate light pulses carrying a precise number of photons. Accurate control over the light pulses helps to improve the characterization of photoinduced processes. Here, we study interaction of a specialized light source which provides flashes containing just one photon, with retinal rod cells of Xenopus laevis toads. We provide unambiguous proof of the single-photon sensitivity of rod cells without relying on the statistical modeling. We determine their quantum efficiencies without the use of any precalibrated detectors and obtain the value of (29±4.7)%. Our approach provides the path for future studies and applications of quantum properties of light in phototransduction, vision, and photosynthesis.
Nonlinearity sensing via photon-statistics excitation spectroscopy
Assmann, Marc; Bayer, Manfred
2011-11-15
We propose photon-statistics excitation spectroscopy as an adequate tool to describe the optical response of a nonlinear system. To this end we suggest to use optical excitation with varying photon statistics as another spectroscopic degree of freedom to gather information about the system in question. The responses of several simple model systems to excitation beams with different photon statistics are discussed. Possible spectroscopic applications in terms of identifying lasing operation are pointed out.
Linking numbers, spin, and statistics of solitons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilczek, F.; Zee, A.
1983-01-01
The spin and statistics of solitons in the (2 + 1)- and (3 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear sigma models is considered. For the (2 + 1)-dimensional case, there is the possibility of fractional spin and exotic statistics; for 3 + 1 dimensions, the usual spin-statistics relation is demonstrated. The linking-number interpretation of the Hopf invariant and the use of suspension considerably simplify the analysis.
Statistical fitting accuracy in photon correlation spectroscopy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shaumeyer, J. N.; Briggs, Matthew E.; Gammon, Robert W.
1993-01-01
Continuing our experimental investigation of the fitting accuracy associated with photon correlation spectroscopy, we collect 150 correlograms of light scattered at 90 deg from a thermostated sample of 91-nm-diameter, polystyrene latex spheres in water. The correlograms are taken with two correlators: one with linearly spaced channels and one with geometrically spaced channels. Decay rates are extracted from the single-exponential correlograms with both nonlinear least-squares fits and second-order cumulant fits. We make several statistical comparisons between the two fitting techniques and verify an earlier result that there is no sample-time dependence in the decay rate errors. We find, however, that the two fitting techniques give decay rates that differ by 1 percent.
Department: Statistics Course number: STAT 202W
Alpay, S. Pamir
Department: Statistics Course number: STAT 202W Title: Undergraduate Seminar II Credits: 1 Contact, and choose one statistical topic to investigate in detail. The student will write a well revised comprehensive paper on this topic, including a literature review, description of technical details
Ideal photon number amplifier and duplicator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dariano, G. M.
1992-01-01
The photon number-amplification and number-duplication mechanism are analyzed in the ideal case. The search for unitary evolutions leads to consider also a number-deamplification mechanism, the symmetry between amplification and deamplification being broken by the integer-value nature of the number operator. Both transformations, amplification and duplication, need an auxiliary field which, in the case of amplification, turns out to be amplified in the inverse way. Input-output energy conservation is accounted for using a classical pump or through frequency-conversion of the fields. Ignoring one of the fields is equivalent to considering the amplifier as an open system involving entropy production. The Hamiltonians of the ideal devices are given and compared with those of realistic systems.
Photon Statistics and Coherence in Light Emission from a Random Laser Lucia Florescu and Sajeev John
John, Sajeev
Photon Statistics and Coherence in Light Emission from a Random Laser Lucia Florescu and Sajeev August 2003; published 2 July 2004) We derive the photon number probability distribution of light emitted from a random multiple-light- scattering medium with gain, using a generalized master equation. Our
Interferometry with a photon-number resolving detector
Wildfeuer, Christoph F; Chen, Jun; Fan, Jingyun; Migdall, Alan; Dowling, Jonathan P
2009-01-01
With photon-number resolving detectors, we show compression of interference fringes with increasing photon numbers for a Fabry-Perot interferometer. This feature provides a higher precision in determining the position of the interference maxima compared to a classical detection strategy. We also theoretically show supersensitivity if N-photon states are sent into the interferometer and a photon-number resolving measurement is performed.
Chrzanowski, H. M.; Bernu, J.; Sparkes, B. M.; Hage, B.; Lam, P. K.; Symul, T.; Lund, A. P.; Ralph, T. C.
2011-11-15
The nonlinearity of a conditional photon-counting measurement can be used to ''de-Gaussify'' a Gaussian state of light. Here we present and experimentally demonstrate a technique for photon-number resolution using only homodyne detection. We then apply this technique to inform a conditional measurement, unambiguously reconstructing the statistics of the non-Gaussian one- and two-photon-subtracted squeezed vacuum states. Although our photon-number measurement relies on ensemble averages and cannot be used to prepare non-Gaussian states of light, its high efficiency, photon-number-resolving capabilities, and compatibility with the telecommunications band make it suitable for quantum-information tasks relying on the outcomes of mean values.
Photon number squeezed states in semiconductor lasers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Machida, Susumu; Richardson, Wayne H.
1992-01-01
Electromagnetic fields, with the noise on one quadrature component reduced to below the quantum mechanical zero-point fluctuation level and the noise on the other quadrature component enhanced to above it, are currently of great interest in quantum optics because of their potential applications to various precision measurements. Such squeezed states of light are usually produced by imposing nonlinear unitary evolution on coherent (or vacuum) states. On the other hand, squeezed states with reduced photon number noise and enhanced phase noise are generated directly by a constant current-driven semiconductor laser. This is the simplest scheme for the generation of nonclassical light, and so far it has yielded the largest quantum noise reduction. The mutual coupling between a lasing junction and an external electrical circuit provides opportunities for exploring the macroscopic and microscopic quantum effects in open systems.
Photon statistics of atomic fluorescence after {pi}-pulse excitation
Yoshimi, Kazuyoshi; Koshino, Kazuki
2010-09-15
The photon statistics of atomic fluorescence after {pi}-pulse excitation is investigated in a system in which the input and output ports are connected to an atom. Since spontaneous decay during input pulse excitation occurs, the output pulse generally contains a multiphoton component with a certain probability. We quantitatively evaluate the probability of the output pulse containing multiple photons and determine the conditions for ideal single-photon generation.
Joint multipartite photon statistics by on/off detection
G. Brida; M. Genovese; M. G. A. Paris; F. Piacentini
2006-06-23
We demonstrate a method to reconstruct the joint photon statistics of two or more modes of radiation using on/off photodetection performed at different quantum efficiencies. The two-mode case is discussed in details and experimental results are presented for the bipartite states obtained after a beam-splitter fed by a single photon state or a thermal state.
Self consistent, absolute calibration technique for photon number resolving detectors
Avella, A; Degiovanni, I P; Genovese, M; Gramegna, M; Lolli, L; Monticone, E; Portesi, C; Rajteri, M; Rastello, M L; Taralli, E; Traina, P; White, M; 10.1364/OE.19.023249
2011-01-01
Well characterized photon number resolving detectors are a requirement for many applications ranging from quantum information and quantum metrology to the foundations of quantum mechanics. This prompts the necessity for reliable calibration techniques at the single photon level. In this paper we propose an innovative absolute calibration technique for photon number resolving detectors, using a pulsed heralded photon source based on parametric down conversion. The technique, being absolute, does not require reference standards and is independent upon the performances of the heralding detector. The method provides the results of quantum efficiency for the heralded detector as a function of detected photon numbers. Furthermore, we prove its validity by performing the calibration of a Transition Edge Sensor based detector, a real photon number resolving detector that has recently demonstrated its effectiveness in various quantum information protocols.
Self consistent, absolute calibration technique for photon number resolving detectors
A. Avella; G. Brida; I. P. Degiovanni; M. Genovese; M. Gramegna; L. Lolli; E. Monticone; C. Portesi; M. Rajteri; M. L. Rastello; E. Taralli; P. Traina; M. White
2011-11-16
Well characterized photon number resolving detectors are a requirement for many applications ranging from quantum information and quantum metrology to the foundations of quantum mechanics. This prompts the necessity for reliable calibration techniques at the single photon level. In this paper we propose an innovative absolute calibration technique for photon number resolving detectors, using a pulsed heralded photon source based on parametric down conversion. The technique, being absolute, does not require reference standards and is independent upon the performances of the heralding detector. The method provides the results of quantum efficiency for the heralded detector as a function of detected photon numbers. Furthermore, we prove its validity by performing the calibration of a Transition Edge Sensor based detector, a real photon number resolving detector that has recently demonstrated its effectiveness in various quantum information protocols.
Imaging with a small number of photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morris, Peter A.; Aspden, Reuben S.; Bell, Jessica E. C.; Boyd, Robert W.; Padgett, Miles J.
2015-01-01
Low-light-level imaging techniques have application in many diverse fields, ranging from biological sciences to security. A high-quality digital camera based on a multi-megapixel array will typically record an image by collecting of order 105 photons per pixel, but by how much could this photon flux be reduced? In this work we demonstrate a single-photon imaging system based on a time-gated intensified camera from which the image of an object can be inferred from very few detected photons. We show that a ghost-imaging configuration, where the image is obtained from photons that have never interacted with the object, is a useful approach for obtaining images with high signal-to-noise ratios. The use of heralded single photons ensures that the background counts can be virtually eliminated from the recorded images. By applying principles of image compression and associated image reconstruction, we obtain high-quality images of objects from raw data formed from an average of fewer than one detected photon per image pixel.
Weng, Qianchun; An, Zhenghua; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Pingping; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Zhu, Ziqiang; Lu, Wei
2015-01-01
Low-noise single-photon detectors that can resolve photon numbers are used to monitor the operation of quantum gates in linear-optical quantum computation. Exactly 0, 1 or 2 photons registered in a detector should be distinguished especially in long-distance quantum communication and quantum computation. Here we demonstrate a photon-number-resolving detector based on quantum dot coupled resonant tunneling diodes (QD-cRTD). Individual quantum-dots (QDs) coupled closely with adjacent quantum well (QW) of resonant tunneling diode operate as photon-gated switches- which turn on (off) the RTD tunneling current when they trap photon-generated holes (recombine with injected electrons). Proposed electron-injecting operation fills electrons into coupled QDs which turn “photon-switches” to “OFF” state and make the detector ready for multiple-photons detection. With proper decision regions defined, 1-photon and 2-photon states are resolved in 4.2?K with excellent propabilities of accuracy of 90% and 98% respectively. Further, by identifying step-like photon responses, the photon-number-resolving capability is sustained to 77?K, making the detector a promising candidate for advanced quantum information applications where photon-number-states should be accurately distinguished. PMID:25797442
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weng, Qianchun; An, Zhenghua; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Pingping; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Zhu, Ziqiang; Lu, Wei
2015-03-01
Low-noise single-photon detectors that can resolve photon numbers are used to monitor the operation of quantum gates in linear-optical quantum computation. Exactly 0, 1 or 2 photons registered in a detector should be distinguished especially in long-distance quantum communication and quantum computation. Here we demonstrate a photon-number-resolving detector based on quantum dot coupled resonant tunneling diodes (QD-cRTD). Individual quantum-dots (QDs) coupled closely with adjacent quantum well (QW) of resonant tunneling diode operate as photon-gated switches- which turn on (off) the RTD tunneling current when they trap photon-generated holes (recombine with injected electrons). Proposed electron-injecting operation fills electrons into coupled QDs which turn ``photon-switches'' to ``OFF'' state and make the detector ready for multiple-photons detection. With proper decision regions defined, 1-photon and 2-photon states are resolved in 4.2 K with excellent propabilities of accuracy of 90% and 98% respectively. Further, by identifying step-like photon responses, the photon-number-resolving capability is sustained to 77 K, making the detector a promising candidate for advanced quantum information applications where photon-number-states should be accurately distinguished.
Photon statistics of a two-mode squeezed vacuum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schrade, Guenter; Akulin, V. M.; Schleich, W. P.; Manko, Vladimir I.
1994-01-01
We investigate the general case of the photon distribution of a two-mode squeezed vacuum and show that the distribution of photons among the two modes depends on four parameters: two squeezing parameters, the relative phase between the two oscillators and their spatial orientation. The distribution of the total number of photons depends only on the two squeezing parameters. We derive analytical expressions and present pictures for both distributions.
Towards a Metric to Estimate Atomic Number from Backscattered Photons
Walston, S; Dietrich, D; Wurtz, R
2009-08-17
An ability to determine the atomic number of a material in a cargo container would be helpful in interdicting smuggled nuclear materials. This paper examines two processes by which high energy photons interact with matter; Compton scattering and pair production. The ratio of the number of photons which originate from the annihilation of positrons resulting from pair production and the number of photons coming from Compton scattering gives a good indication of atomic number. At large angles relative to an incident beam - i.e. backscattered, there is good separation in energy between Compton scattered photons and photons from positron annihilations. This ratio can then be cleanly determined in order to estimate atomic number.
An integrated atom detector: single atoms and photon statistics
Heine, Dennis; Raub, Thomas; Hessmo, Björn; Schmiedmayer, Jörg; 10.1103/PhysRevA.79.021804
2009-01-01
We demonstrate a robust fiber-optics-based fluorescence detector, fully integrated on an atom chip, which detects single atoms propagating in a guide with 66% efficiency. We characterize the detector performance and the atom flux by analyzing the photon statistics. Near-perfect photon antibunching proves that single atoms are detected, and allows us to study the second-order intensity correlation function of the fluorescence over three orders of magnitude in atomic density.
An integrated atom detector: single atoms and photon statistics
Dennis Heine; Marco Wilzbach; Thomas Raub; Björn Hessmo; Jörg Schmiedmayer
2009-03-23
We demonstrate a robust fiber-optics-based fluorescence detector, fully integrated on an atom chip, which detects single atoms propagating in a guide with 66% efficiency. We characterize the detector performance and the atom flux by analyzing the photon statistics. Near-perfect photon antibunching proves that single atoms are detected, and allows us to study the second-order intensity correlation function of the fluorescence over three orders of magnitude in atomic density.
Direct test of quantum nonlocality using inefficient photon number detectors
Lee, Seung-Woo; Jaksch, Dieter
2009-01-01
We derive a Bell inequality for detecting non-local correlations in continuous variable systems directly from measurement results obtained with imperfect photon number detectors. We find that detectors with a photon detection efficiency as low as 50% can yield strong violations of local realistic theories for single photon and two-mode squeezed states. This study opens up the possibility of direct tests of quantum non-locality using current technologies.
Conditional preparation of states containing a definite number of photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Sullivan, Malcolm N.; Chan, Kam Wai Clifford; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan; Boyd, Robert W.
2008-02-01
A technique for conditionally creating single-mode or multimode photon-number states is analyzed using Bayesian theory. We consider the heralded N -photon states created from the photons produced by an unseeded optical parametric amplifier when the heralding detector is the time-multiplexed photon-number-resolving detector recently demonstrated by Fitch [Phys. Rev. A 68, 043814 (2003)] and simultaneously by Achilles [Opt. Lett. 28, 2387 (2003)]. We find that even with significant loss in the heralding detector, fields with sub-Poissonian photon-number distributions can be created. We also show that heralded multimode fields created using this technique are more robust against detector loss than are single-mode fields.
Holger F. Hofmann; Takafumi Ono
2007-08-23
We show that the quantum interference between downconverted photon pairs and photons from coherent laser light can produce a maximally path entangled N-photon output component with a fidelity greater than 90% for arbitrarily high photon numbers. A simple beam splitter operation can thus transform the 2-photon coherence of down-converted light into an almost optimal N-photon coherence.
Optical bistability and nonclassical photon counting statistics with few atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martini, Ullrich; Ginzel, Christian; Schenzle, Axel
1993-10-01
The behavior of a collection of atoms that are strongly coupled to a resonant cavity is numerically studied. Atoms and mode are coupled to individual heat baths. The mode is coupled to a classical driving field. The system exhibits interesting properties like optical bistability and nonclassical photon counting statistics.
High intrinsic energy resolution photon number resolving detectors
Lolli, L; Portesi, C; Monticone, E; Rajteri, M
2013-01-01
Transition Edge Sensors (TESs) are characterized by the intrinsic figure of merit to resolve both the energy and the statistical distribution of the incident photons. These properties lead TES devices to become the best single photon detector for quantum technology experiments. For a TES based on titanium and gold has been reached, at telecommunication wavelength, an unprecedented intrinsic energy resolution (0.113 eV). The uncertainties analysis of both energy resolution and photon state assignment has been discussed. The thermal properties of the superconductive device have been studied by fitting the bias curve to evaluate theoretical limit of the energy resolution.
High intrinsic energy resolution photon number resolving detectors
L. Lolli; E. Taralli; C. Portesi; E. Monticone; M. Rajteri
2013-06-23
Transition Edge Sensors (TESs) are characterized by the intrinsic figure of merit to resolve both the energy and the statistical distribution of the incident photons. These properties lead TES devices to become the best single photon detector for quantum technology experiments. For a TES based on titanium and gold has been reached, at telecommunication wavelength, an unprecedented intrinsic energy resolution (0.113 eV). The uncertainties analysis of both energy resolution and photon state assignment has been discussed. The thermal properties of the superconductive device have been studied by fitting the bias curve to evaluate theoretical limit of the energy resolution.
Counting statistics of photons produced by electronic shot noise.
Beenakker, C W; Schomerus, H
2001-01-22
A theory is presented for the photodetection statistics of radiation produced by current fluctuations in a phase-coherent conductor. Deviations are found from the Poisson statistics that would result from a classical current. For detection in a narrow frequency interval delta omega, the photocount distribution has the negative-binomial form of blackbody radiation if e delta omega is less than the mean current I in the conductor. When electronic localization sets in, I drops below e delta omega and a different type of super-Poissonian photon statistics results. PMID:11177916
Ultrabroadband direct detection of nonclassical photon statistics at telecom wavelength
Wakui, Kentaro; Eto, Yujiro; Benichi, Hugo; Izumi, Shuro; Yanagida, Tetsufumi; Ema, Kazuhiro; Numata, Takayuki; Fukuda, Daiji; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide
2014-01-01
Broadband light sources play essential roles in diverse fields, such as high-capacity optical communications, optical coherence tomography, optical spectroscopy, and spectrograph calibration. Although a nonclassical state from spontaneous parametric down-conversion may serve as a quantum counterpart, its detection and characterization have been a challenging task. Here we demonstrate the direct detection of photon numbers of an ultrabroadband (110?nm FWHM) squeezed state in the telecom band centred at 1535?nm wavelength, using a superconducting transition-edge sensor. The observed photon-number distributions violate Klyshko's criterion for the nonclassicality. From the observed photon-number distribution, we evaluate the second- and third-order correlation functions, and characterize a multimode structure, which implies that several tens of orthonormal modes of squeezing exist in the single optical pulse. Our results and techniques open up a new possibility to generate and characterize frequency-multiplexed nonclassical light sources for quantum info-communications technology. PMID:24694515
He, Y -H; Zhang, W -J; Zhang, L; Wu, J -J; Chen, S -J; You, L -X; Wang, Z
2015-01-01
Counting rate is a key parameter of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPD) and is determined by the current recovery time of an SNSPD after a detection event. We propose a new method to study the transient detection efficiency (DE) and pulse amplitude during the current recovery process by statistically analyzing the single photon response of an SNSPD under photon illumination with a high repetition rate. The transient DE results match well with the DEs deduced from the static current dependence of DE combined with the waveform of a single-photon detection event. This proves that the static measurement results can be used to analyze the transient current recovery process after a detection event. The results are relevant for understanding the current recovery process of SNSPDs after a detection event and for determining the counting rate of SNSPDs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Yu-Hao; Chao-Lin, Lü; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Zhang, Lu; Wu, Jun-Jie; Chen, Si-Jing; You, Li-Xing; Wang, Zhen
2015-06-01
A new method to study the transient detection efficiency (DE) and pulse amplitude of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPD) during the current recovery process is proposed — statistically analyzing the single photon response under photon illumination with a high repetition rate. The transient DE results match well with the DEs deduced from the static current dependence of DE combined with the waveform of a single-photon detection event. This proves that static measurement results can be used to analyze the transient current recovery process after a detection event. The results are relevant for understanding the current recovery process of SNSPDs after a detection event and for determining the counting rate of SNSPDs. Project supported by the Strategic Priority Research Program (B) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB04010200), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CBA00202), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61401441).
Array fluorometry: the theory of the statistical multiplexing of single-photon timing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birch, David J. S.; Suhling, Klaus; Smith, Sheila; Dutch, A. D.; Imhof, Robert E.
1990-05-01
The theory of the statistical multiplexing of single photon timing fluorescence decay data is derived for the first time and shown to be consistent with measured array data. The present theory enables single photon timing arrays to be optimised for maximum data collection rate with regard to the number of channels in an array, channel count rates and cross-channel pile-up. Both the experimental and theoretical results prove that overall data collection rates up to 35% of the source repetition rate can be achieved by means of multiplexing with a single time-to-amplitude converter.
Photon number dependent group velocity in vacuum induced transparency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lauk, Nikolai; Fleischhauer, Michael
2015-05-01
Vacuum induced transparency (VIT) is an effect which occurs in an ensemble of three level atoms in a ? configuration that interact with two quantized fields. Coupling of one transition to a cavity mode induces transparency for the second field on the otherwise opaque transition similar to the well known EIT effect. In the strong coupling regime even an empty cavity leads to transparency, in contrast to EIT where the presence of a strong control field is required. This transparency is accompanied by a reduction of the group velocity for the propagating field. However, unlike in EIT the group velocity in VIT depends on the number of incoming photons, i.e. different photon number components propagate with different velocities. Here we investigate the possibility of using this effect to spatially separate different photon number components of an initially coherent pulse. We present the results of our calculations and discuss a possible experimental realization.
Number Hunting: Statistics on the Net.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Raeder, Aggi
1996-01-01
Discusses how to find statistical data on the Internet, particularly with awareness of lag times associated with posted data and of the large quantity of university sources. Lists World Wide Web sites under the headings of metasites, agriculture, banking, business, crime, economics, education, energy, government, health, international, local…
Plaçais, Bernard
by Conductors J. Gabelli,1 L.-H. Reydellet,2 G. Fe`ve,1 J.-M. Berroir,1 B. Plac¸ais,1 P. Roche,2 and D. C in quantum conductors. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.056801 PACS numbers: 73.23.b, 42.50.Ar, 73.50.Td conductors, where the ana- logue of the photon flux is the electrical current. Because of Fermi statistics
Sum-frequency generation from photon number squeezed light
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Ling-An; Du, Cong-Shi; Wu, Mei-Juan; Li, Shi-Qun
1994-01-01
We investigate the quantum fluctuations of the fields produced in sum-frequency (SF) generation from light initially in the photon number squeezed state. It is found that, to the fourth power term, the output SF light is sub-Poissonian whereas the quantum fluctuations of the input beams increase. Quantum anticorrelation also exists in SF generation.
The Detection Statistics of Neutrons and Photons Emitted from a Fissile Sample
Eustice, Ryan
The Detection Statistics of Neutrons and Photons Emitted from a Fissile Sample Andreas Enqvista derivations to de- scribe the emission and detection statistics of neutrons and photons generated and detected neutrons and photons is also described. The analytical model described in this paper accounts
Joint multipartite photon statistics by on/off G. Brida, M. Genovese, and F. Piacentini
Paris, Matteo G. A.
Joint multipartite photon statistics by on/off detection G. Brida, M. Genovese, and F. Piacentini November 9, 2006 We demonstrate a method to reconstruct the joint photon statistics of two or more modes.5290, 270.5570, 190.4970. The reconstruction of the joint photon distribution of two or more correlated
Apollo by the Numbers: A Statistical Reference
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orloff, Richard; Garber, Stephen (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
The purpose of this work is to provide researchers, students, and space enthusiasts with a comprehensive reference for facts about Project Apollo, America's effort to put humans in the Moon. Research for this work started in 1988, when the author discovered that, despite the number of excellent books that focused on the drama of events that highlighted Apollo, there were none that focused on the drama of the numbers. This book is separated into two parts. The first part contains narratives for the Apollo 1 fire and the 11 flown Apollo missions. Included after each narrative is a series of data tables, followed by a comprehensive timeline of events from just before liftoff to just after crew and spacecraft recovery. The second part contains more than 50 tables. These tables organize much of the data from the narratives in one place so they can be compared among all missions. The tables offer additional data as well. The reader can select a specific mission narrative or specific data table by consulting the Table of Contents.
Single photon laser altimeter simulator and statistical signal processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vacek, Michael; Prochazka, Ivan
2013-05-01
Spaceborne altimeters are common instruments onboard the deep space rendezvous spacecrafts. They provide range and topographic measurements critical in spacecraft navigation. Simultaneously, the receiver part may be utilized for Earth-to-satellite link, one way time transfer, and precise optical radiometry. The main advantage of single photon counting approach is the ability of processing signals with very low signal-to-noise ratio eliminating the need of large telescopes and high power laser source. Extremely small, rugged and compact microchip lasers can be employed. The major limiting factor, on the other hand, is the acquisition time needed to gather sufficient volume of data in repetitive measurements in order to process and evaluate the data appropriately. Statistical signal processing is adopted to detect signals with average strength much lower than one photon per measurement. A comprehensive simulator design and range signal processing algorithm are presented to identify a mission specific altimeter configuration. Typical mission scenarios (celestial body surface landing and topographical mapping) are simulated and evaluated. The high interest and promising single photon altimeter applications are low-orbit (˜10 km) and low-radial velocity (several m/s) topographical mapping (asteroids, Phobos and Deimos) and landing altimetry (˜10 km) where range evaluation repetition rates of ˜100 Hz and 0.1 m precision may be achieved. Moon landing and asteroid Itokawa topographical mapping scenario simulations are discussed in more detail.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arosio, V.; Caccia, M.; Chmill, V.; Ebolese, A.; Locatelli, M.; Martemiyanov, A.; Mattone, C.; Santoro, R.; Tintori, C.
2015-08-01
Silicon Photomultipliers are a new class of light sensitive detectors with single photon sensitivity and unprecedented photon number resolving capability. These properties open up the possibility to verify the statistics of the emitted light analysing the data collected by the sensor. In this paper, a procedure based on a Multi-Gaussian Fit of the spectrum and a model accounting for detector related effects is proposed and qualified using a LED illuminating a Silicon Photomultiplier.
How random are random numbers generated using photons?
Aldo Solis; Alí M. Angulo Martinez; Roberto Ramírez Alarcón; Hector Cruz Ramírez; Alfred B. U'Ren; Jorge G. Hirsch
2015-02-20
Randomness is fundamental in quantum theory, with many philosophical and practical implications. In this paper we discuss the concept of algorithmic randomness, which provides a quantitative method to assess the Borel normality of a given sequence of numbers, a necessary condition for it to be considered random. We use Borel normality as a tool to investigate the randomness of ten sequences of bits generated from the differences between detection times of photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric downconversion. These sequences are shown to fulfil the randomness criteria without difficulties. As deviations from Borel normality for photon-generated random number sequences have been reported in previous work, a strategy to understand these diverging findings is outlined.
How random are random numbers generated using photons?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solis, Aldo; Angulo Martínez, Alí M.; Ramírez Alarcón, Roberto; Cruz Ramírez, Hector; U'Ren, Alfred B.; Hirsch, Jorge G.
2015-06-01
Randomness is fundamental in quantum theory, with many philosophical and practical implications. In this paper we discuss the concept of algorithmic randomness, which provides a quantitative method to assess the Borel normality of a given sequence of numbers, a necessary condition for it to be considered random. We use Borel normality as a tool to investigate the randomness of ten sequences of bits generated from the differences between detection times of photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric downconversion. These sequences are shown to fulfil the randomness criteria without difficulties. As deviations from Borel normality for photon-generated random number sequences have been reported in previous work, a strategy to understand these diverging findings is outlined.
REVSTAT Statistical Journal Volume 6, Number 1, March 2008, 83100
Alves, Maria Isabel Fraga
, ... are (Generalized) Extreme Value distributions. The Generalized Extreme Value distribution (GEVd) comprises FrREVSTAT Â Statistical Journal Volume 6, Number 1, March 2008, 83Â100 TESTING EXTREME VALUE a brief overview about several tests published in the context of statistical choice of extreme value
Photon number amplification/duplication through parametric conversion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dariano, G. M.; Macchiavello, C.; Paris, M.
1993-01-01
The performance of parametric conversion in achieving number amplification and duplication is analyzed. It is shown that the effective maximum gains G(sub *) remain well below their integer ideal values, even for large signals. Correspondingly, one has output Fano factors F(sub *) which are increasing functions of the input photon number. On the other hand, in the inverse (deamplifier/recombiner) operating mode quasi-ideal gains G(sub *) and small factors F(sub *) approximately equal to 10 percent are obtained. Output noise and non-ideal gains are ascribed to spontaneous parametric emission.
Gerrits, Thomas; Lita, Adriana E.; Calkins, Brice; Tomlin, Nathan A.; Fox, Anna E.; Linares, Antia Lamas; Mirin, Richard P.; Nam, Sae Woo; Thomas-Peter, Nicholas; Metcalf, Benjamin J.; Spring, Justin B.; Langford, Nathan K.; Walmsley, Ian A.; Gates, James C.; Smith, Peter G. R.
2011-12-15
Integration is currently the only feasible route toward scalable photonic quantum processing devices that are sufficiently complex to be genuinely useful in computing, metrology, and simulation. Embedded on-chip detection will be critical to such devices. We demonstrate an integrated photon-number-resolving detector, operating in the telecom band at 1550 nm, employing an evanescently coupled design that allows it to be placed at arbitrary locations within a planar circuit. Up to five photons are resolved in the guided optical mode via absorption from the evanescent field into a tungsten transition-edge sensor. The detection efficiency is 7.2{+-}0.5 %. The polarization sensitivity of the detector is also demonstrated. Detailed modeling of device designs shows a clear and feasible route to reaching high detection efficiencies.
Predicting landfalling hurricane numbers from basin hurricane numbers: basic statistical analysis
Laepple, T; Penzer, J; Bellone, E; Nzerem, K; Laepple, Thomas; Jewson, Stephen; Penzer, Jeremy; Bellone, Enrica; Nzerem, Kechi
2007-01-01
One possible method for predicting landfalling hurricane numbers is to first predict the number of hurricanes in the basin and then convert that prediction to a prediction of landfalling hurricane numbers using an estimated proportion. Should this work better than just predicting landfalling hurricane numbers directly? We perform a basic statistical analysis of this question in the context of a simple abstract model.
Observation of squeezed states with strong photon-number oscillations
Mehmet, Moritz; Vahlbruch, Henning; Lastzka, Nico; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman
2010-01-15
Squeezed states of light constitute an important nonclassical resource in the field of high-precision measurements, for example, gravitational wave detection, as well as in the field of quantum information, for example, for teleportation, quantum cryptography, and distribution of entanglement in quantum computation networks. Strong squeezing in combination with high purity, high bandwidth, and high spatial mode quality is desirable in order to achieve significantly improved performances contrasting any classical protocols. Here we report on the observation of 11.5 dB of squeezing, together with relatively high state purity corresponding to a vacuum contribution of less than 5%, and a squeezing bandwidth of about 170 MHz. The analysis of our squeezed states reveals a significant production of higher-order pairs of quantum-correlated photons and the existence of strong photon-number oscillations.
Noise figure and photon statistics in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering
Jalali. Bahram
biochemical species. ©2006 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (270.5290) Photon Statistics; (190 EXPRESS 11418 #12;15. R. Tang, P.L. Voss, J. Lasri, P. Devgan, P. Kumar, "Noise-figure of fiber-opticalNoise figure and photon statistics in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering D. Dimitropoulos, D. R
Double galaxy redshifts and the statistics of small numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, William I.; Haynes, Martha P.; Terzian, Yervant
1989-01-01
Tifft (1980, 1982) claimed that observations of double galaxies reveal a 72 km/s periodicity. Sharp showed that the 'periodicities' in the observations are completely consistent with the statistics of small numbers. Here it is shown that Tifft's statistical procedure would ascribe a periodicity to small sets of Gaussian random noise. Satisfying the null hypothesis that the observations are not samples drawn from a normal population would require the acquisition of at least an order of magnitude more data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faby, Sebastian; Maier, Joscha; Simons, David; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Lell, Michael; Kachelrieß, Marc
2015-03-01
We present a novel increment matrix concept to simulate the correlations in an energy-selective photon counting detector. Correlations between the energy bins of neighboring detector pixels are introduced by scattered and fluorescence photons, together with the broadening of the induced charge clouds as they travel towards the electrodes, leading to charge sharing. It is important to generate statistically correct detector signals for the different energy bins to be able to realistically assess the detector's performance in various tasks, e.g. material decomposition. Our increment matrix concept describes the counter increases in neighboring pixels on a single event level. Advantages of our model are the fact that much less random numbers are required than simulating single photons and that the increment matrices together with their probabilities have to be generated only once and can be stored for later use. The different occurring increment matrix sets and the corresponding probabilities are simulated using an analytic model of the photon-matter-interactions based on the photoelectric effect and Compton scattering, and the charge cloud drift, featuring thermal diffusion and Coulomb expansion of the charge cloud. The results obtained with this model are evaluated in terms of the spectral response for different detector geometries and the resulting energy bin sensitivity. Comparisons to published measured data and a parameterized detector model show both a good qualitative and quantitative agreement. We also studied the resulting covariance of reconstructed energy bin images.
Direct probing of the Wigner function by time-multiplexed detection of photon statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laiho, K.; Avenhaus, M.; Cassemiro, K. N.; Silberhorn, Ch
2009-04-01
We investigate the capabilities of loss-tolerant quantum state characterization using a photon-number resolving, time-multiplexed detector (TMD). We employ the idea of probing the Wigner function point-by-point in phase space via photon parity measurements and displacement operations, replacing the conventional homodyne tomography. Our emphasis lies on reconstructing the Wigner function of non-Gaussian Fock states with highly negative values in a scheme that is based on a realistic experimental set-up. In order to establish the concept of loss-tolerance for state characterization, we show how losses can be decoupled from the impact of other experimental imperfections, i.e. the non-unity transmittance of the displacement beamsplitter and non-ideal mode overlap. We relate the experimentally accessible parameters to effective ones that are needed for an optimized state reconstruction. The feasibility of our approach is tested by Monte Carlo simulations, which provide bounds resulting from statistical errors that are due to limited data sets. Our results clearly show that high losses can be accepted for a defined parameter range, and moreover, that—in contrast to homodyne detection—mode mismatch results in a distinct signature, which can be evaluated by analysing the photon number oscillations of the displaced Fock states.
Hiroshi Fujisaki; Akira Shimizu
1998-04-22
From the microscopic quantum Langevin equations (QLEs) we derive the effective semiconductor QLEs and the associated noise correlations which are valid at a low-injection level and in real devices. Applying the semiconductor QLEs to semiconductor light-emitting devices (LEDs), we obtain a new formula for the Fano factor of photons which gives the photon-number statistics as a function of the pump statistics and several parameters of LEDs. Key ingredients are non-radiative processes, carrier-number dependence of the radiative and non-radiative lifetimes, and multimodeness of LEDs. The formula is applicable to the actual cases where the quantum efficiency $\\eta$ differs from the differential quantum efficiency $\\eta_{d}$, whereas previous theories implicitly assumed $\\eta = \\eta_{d}$. It is also applicable to the cases when photons in each mode of the cavity are emitted and/or detected inhomogeneously. When $\\eta_{d} light. This mechanism for generation of sub-Poissonian light is completely different from those of previous theories, which assumed sub-Poissonian statistics for the current injected into the active layers of LEDs. Our results agree with recent experiments. We also discuss frequency dependence of the photon statistics.
Single-Photon-Resolved Cross-Kerr Interaction for Autonomous Stabilization of Photon-Number States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holland, E. T.; Vlastakis, B.; Heeres, R. W.; Reagor, M. J.; Vool, U.; Leghtas, Z.; Frunzio, L.; Kirchmair, G.; Devoret, M. H.; Mirrahimi, M.; Schoelkopf, R. J.
2015-10-01
Quantum states can be stabilized in the presence of intrinsic and environmental losses by either applying an active feedback condition on an ancillary system or through reservoir engineering. Reservoir engineering maintains a desired quantum state through a combination of drives and designed entropy evacuation. We propose and implement a quantum-reservoir engineering protocol that stabilizes Fock states in a microwave cavity. This protocol is realized with a circuit quantum electrodynamics platform where a Josephson junction provides direct, nonlinear coupling between two superconducting waveguide cavities. The nonlinear coupling results in a single-photon-resolved cross-Kerr effect between the two cavities enabling a photon-number-dependent coupling to a lossy environment. The quantum state of the microwave cavity is discussed in terms of a net polarization and is analyzed by a measurement of its steady state Wigner function.
Single-photon Resolved Cross-Kerr Interaction for Autonomous Stabilization of Photon-number States
E. T. Holland; B. Vlastakis; R. W. Heeres; M. J. Reagor; U. Vool; Z. Leghtas; L. Frunzio; G. Kirchmair; M. H. Devoret; M. Mirrahimi; R. J. Schoelkopf
2015-04-13
Quantum states can be stabilized in the presence of intrinsic and environmental losses by either applying active feedback conditioned on an ancillary system or through reservoir engineering. Reservoir engineering maintains a desired quantum state through a combination of drives and designed entropy evacuation. We propose and implement a quantum reservoir engineering protocol that stabilizes Fock states in a microwave cavity. This protocol is realized with a circuit quantum electrodynamics platform where a Josephson junction provides direct, nonlinear coupling between two superconducting waveguide cavities. The nonlinear coupling results in a single photon resolved cross-Kerr effect between the two cavities enabling a photon number dependent coupling to a lossy environment. The quantum state of the microwave cavity is discussed in terms of a net polarization and is analyzed by a measurement of its steady state Wigner function.
Single-Photon-Resolved Cross-Kerr Interaction for Autonomous Stabilization of Photon-Number States.
Holland, E T; Vlastakis, B; Heeres, R W; Reagor, M J; Vool, U; Leghtas, Z; Frunzio, L; Kirchmair, G; Devoret, M H; Mirrahimi, M; Schoelkopf, R J
2015-10-30
Quantum states can be stabilized in the presence of intrinsic and environmental losses by either applying an active feedback condition on an ancillary system or through reservoir engineering. Reservoir engineering maintains a desired quantum state through a combination of drives and designed entropy evacuation. We propose and implement a quantum-reservoir engineering protocol that stabilizes Fock states in a microwave cavity. This protocol is realized with a circuit quantum electrodynamics platform where a Josephson junction provides direct, nonlinear coupling between two superconducting waveguide cavities. The nonlinear coupling results in a single-photon-resolved cross-Kerr effect between the two cavities enabling a photon-number-dependent coupling to a lossy environment. The quantum state of the microwave cavity is discussed in terms of a net polarization and is analyzed by a measurement of its steady state Wigner function. PMID:26565448
Generation of optical 'Schrödinger cats' from photon number states.
Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Jeong, Hyunseok; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe
2007-08-16
Schrödinger's cat is a Gedankenexperiment in quantum physics, in which an atomic decay triggers the death of the cat. Because quantum physics allow atoms to remain in superpositions of states, the classical cat would then be simultaneously dead and alive. By analogy, a 'cat' state of freely propagating light can be defined as a quantum superposition of well separated quasi-classical states-it is a classical light wave that simultaneously possesses two opposite phases. Such states play an important role in fundamental tests of quantum theory and in many quantum information processing tasks, including quantum computation, quantum teleportation and precision measurements. Recently, optical Schrödinger 'kittens' were prepared; however, they are too small for most of the aforementioned applications and increasing their size is experimentally challenging. Here we demonstrate, theoretically and experimentally, a protocol that allows the generation of arbitrarily large squeezed Schrödinger cat states, using homodyne detection and photon number states as resources. We implemented this protocol with light pulses containing two photons, producing a squeezed Schrödinger cat state with a negative Wigner function. This state clearly exhibits several quantum phase-space interference fringes between the 'dead' and 'alive' components, and is large enough to become useful for quantum information processing and experimental tests of quantum theory. PMID:17700695
On the Euclidean version of the photon number integral
Ruijsenaars, S.; Stodolsky, L.
2008-02-15
We reconsider the Euclidean version of the photon number integral introduced by Stodolsky [Acta Phys. Pol. B 33, 2659 (2002), e-print hep-th/02053131].This integral is well defined for any smooth non-self-intersecting curve in R{sup N}. Besides studying general features of this integral (including its conformal invariance), we evaluate it explicitly for the ellipse. The result is n{sub ellipse}=({xi}{sup -1}+{xi}){pi}{sup 2}, where {xi} is the ratio of the minor and major axes. This is in agreement with the previous result n{sub circle}=2{pi}{sup 2} and also with the conjecture that the minimum value of n for any plane curve occurs for the circle.
Cavity State Manipulation Using Photon-Number Selective Phase Gates.
Heeres, Reinier W; Vlastakis, Brian; Holland, Eric; Krastanov, Stefan; Albert, Victor V; Frunzio, Luigi; Jiang, Liang; Schoelkopf, Robert J
2015-09-25
The large available Hilbert space and high coherence of cavity resonators make these systems an interesting resource for storing encoded quantum bits. To perform a quantum gate on this encoded information, however, complex nonlinear operations must be applied to the many levels of the oscillator simultaneously. In this work, we introduce the selective number-dependent arbitrary phase (snap) gate, which imparts a different phase to each Fock-state component using an off-resonantly coupled qubit. We show that the snap gate allows control over the quantum phases by correcting the unwanted phase evolution due to the Kerr effect. Furthermore, by combining the snap gate with oscillator displacements, we create a one-photon Fock state with high fidelity. Using just these two controls, one can construct arbitrary unitary operations, offering a scalable route to performing logical manipulations on oscillator-encoded qubits. PMID:26451578
Cavity State Manipulation Using Photon-Number Selective Phase Gates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heeres, Reinier W.; Vlastakis, Brian; Holland, Eric; Krastanov, Stefan; Albert, Victor V.; Frunzio, Luigi; Jiang, Liang; Schoelkopf, Robert J.
2015-09-01
The large available Hilbert space and high coherence of cavity resonators make these systems an interesting resource for storing encoded quantum bits. To perform a quantum gate on this encoded information, however, complex nonlinear operations must be applied to the many levels of the oscillator simultaneously. In this work, we introduce the selective number-dependent arbitrary phase (snap) gate, which imparts a different phase to each Fock-state component using an off-resonantly coupled qubit. We show that the snap gate allows control over the quantum phases by correcting the unwanted phase evolution due to the Kerr effect. Furthermore, by combining the snap gate with oscillator displacements, we create a one-photon Fock state with high fidelity. Using just these two controls, one can construct arbitrary unitary operations, offering a scalable route to performing logical manipulations on oscillator-encoded qubits.
Li, Dong; Chen, Bin; Ran, Wei Yu; Wang, Guo Xiang; Wu, Wen Juan
2015-09-01
The voxel-based Monte Carlo method (VMC) is now a gold standard in the simulation of light propagation in turbid media. For complex tissue structures, however, the computational cost will be higher when small voxels are used to improve smoothness of tissue interface and a large number of photons are used to obtain accurate results. To reduce computational cost, criteria were proposed to determine the voxel size and photon number in 3-dimensional VMC simulations with acceptable accuracy and computation time. The selection of the voxel size can be expressed as a function of tissue geometry and optical properties. The photon number should be at least 5 times the total voxel number. These criteria are further applied in developing a photon ray splitting scheme of local grid refinement technique to reduce computational cost of a nonuniform tissue structure with significantly varying optical properties. In the proposed technique, a nonuniform refined grid system is used, where fine grids are used for the tissue with high absorption and complex geometry, and coarse grids are used for the other part. In this technique, the total photon number is selected based on the voxel size of the coarse grid. Furthermore, the photon-splitting scheme is developed to satisfy the statistical accuracy requirement for the dense grid area. Result shows that local grid refinement technique photon ray splitting scheme can accelerate the computation by 7.6 times (reduce time consumption from 17.5 to 2.3 h) in the simulation of laser light energy deposition in skin tissue that contains port wine stain lesions. PMID:26417866
Quantum statistical testing of a quantum random number generator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Humble, Travis S.
2014-10-01
The unobservable elements in a quantum technology, e.g., the quantum state, complicate system verification against promised behavior. Using model-based system engineering, we present methods for verifying the operation of a prototypical quantum random number generator. We begin with the algorithmic design of the QRNG followed by the synthesis of its physical design requirements. We next discuss how quantum statistical testing can be used to verify device behavior as well as detect device bias. We conclude by highlighting how system design and verification methods must influence effort to certify future quantum technologies.
Quantum Statistical Testing of a Quantum Random Number Generator
Humble, Travis S
2014-01-01
The unobservable elements in a quantum technology, e.g., the quantum state, complicate system verification against promised behavior. Using model-based system engineering, we present methods for verifying the opera- tion of a prototypical quantum random number generator. We begin with the algorithmic design of the QRNG followed by the synthesis of its physical design requirements. We next discuss how quantum statistical testing can be used to verify device behavior as well as detect device bias. We conclude by highlighting how system design and verification methods must influence effort to certify future quantum technologies.
G. P. Berman; A. A. Chumak
2007-02-26
The photon density operator function is used to describe the propagation of single-photon pulses through a turbulent atmosphere. The effects of statistical properties of photon source and the effects of a random phase screen on the variance of photon counting are studied. A procedure for reducing the total noise is discussed. The physical mechanisms responsible for this reduction are explained.
Advanced Photon Source research: Volume 1, Number 1, April 1998
1998-04-01
The following articles are included in this publication: (1) The Advanced Photon Source: A Brief Overview; (2) MAD Analysis of FHIT at the Structural Biology Center; (3) Advances in High-Energy-Resolution X-ray Scattering at Beamline 3-ID; (4) X-ray Imaging and Microspectroscopy of the Mycorrhyizal Fungus-Plant Symbiosis; (5) Measurement and Control of Particle-beam Trajectories in the Advanced Photon Storage Ring; (6) Beam Acceleration and Storage at the Advanced Photon Source; and (7) Experimental Facilities Operations and Current Status.
Statistical distributions of earthquake numbers: consequence of branching process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kagan, Yan Y.
2010-03-01
We discuss various statistical distributions of earthquake numbers. Previously, we derived several discrete distributions to describe earthquake numbers for the branching model of earthquake occurrence: these distributions are the Poisson, geometric, logarithmic and the negative binomial (NBD). The theoretical model is the `birth and immigration' population process. The first three distributions above can be considered special cases of the NBD. In particular, a point branching process along the magnitude (or log seismic moment) axis with independent events (immigrants) explains the magnitude/moment-frequency relation and the NBD of earthquake counts in large time/space windows, as well as the dependence of the NBD parameters on the magnitude threshold (magnitude of an earthquake catalogue completeness). We discuss applying these distributions, especially the NBD, to approximate event numbers in earthquake catalogues. There are many different representations of the NBD. Most can be traced either to the Pascal distribution or to the mixture of the Poisson distribution with the gamma law. We discuss advantages and drawbacks of both representations for statistical analysis of earthquake catalogues. We also consider applying the NBD to earthquake forecasts and describe the limits of the application for the given equations. In contrast to the one-parameter Poisson distribution so widely used to describe earthquake occurrence, the NBD has two parameters. The second parameter can be used to characterize clustering or overdispersion of a process. We determine the parameter values and their uncertainties for several local and global catalogues, and their subdivisions in various time intervals, magnitude thresholds, spatial windows, and tectonic categories. The theoretical model of how the clustering parameter depends on the corner (maximum) magnitude can be used to predict future earthquake number distribution in regions where very large earthquakes have not yet occurred.
Podoshvedov, S. A.
2007-04-15
The nonlinear {chi}{sup (2)} Mach-Zehnder interferometer is proposed as a device for conditional generation of a modified coherent nonclassical state. We show that the generated macroscopic state exhibits nonclassical effects, such as squeezing, photon antibunching, and sub-Poissonian statistics. The modified coherent state generates a macroscopic entangled state. The scheme works without the photon number resolving detection but requires high-efficiency photodetectors. We explain the mechanism of generation of the modified coherent non-classical state.
Effective Atomic Numbers of Lanthanides with Gamma Radiation for Photon Energy Absorption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shantappa, Anil; Hanagodimath, S. M.
Effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption, ZPEA,eff have been calculated for photon from 1 keV to 20 MeV for selected oxides of lanthanides, such as Lanthanum oxide, Cerium oxide, Samarium oxide, Europium oxide, Dysprosium oxide, Thulium oxide, Ytterbium oxide. The ZPEA,eff values then compared with ZPI,eff for photon interaction. The ZPEA,eff values have been found to change with energy and composition of selected lanthanides. Oxides of lanthanides are considered as better shielding materials to the exposure of gamma radiation. The values of effective atomic number for photon energy absorption help in the calculation of absorbed dose.
Multi-bit quantum random number generation by measuring positions of arrival photons
Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Liao, Qinghong; Zhou, Nanrun
2014-10-15
We report upon the realization of a novel multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring the arrival positions of photon emitted from a LED using MCP-based WSA photon counting imaging detector. A spatial encoding method is proposed to extract multi-bits random number from the position coordinates of each detected photon. The randomness of bits sequence relies on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission and subsequent photoelectric conversion. A prototype has been built and the random bit generation rate could reach 8 Mbit/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 16 bits per detected photon. FPGA implementation of Huffman coding is proposed to reduce the bias of raw extracted random bits. The random numbers passed all tests for physical random number generator.
Sub- and super-Poissonian photon statistics of single-molecule fluorescence blinking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osad'Ko, I. S.
2007-06-01
An analysis of intermittent fluorescence is presented for a single molecule driven by a continuous-wave laser field. The interruptions of fluorescence are caused by transition of the molecule to a triplet state. A method previously developed to calculate photon distribution for continuous-wave fluorescence is applied to analyze photon statistics of fluorescence blinking. The probability w N ( T) of counting N photons over a time interval T is derived for intermittent fluorescence. The photons counted over relatively short intervals are found to have a sub-Poissonian (narrower than Poisson) distribution. The photon distribution over intervals longer than the mean off time has a complicated form with two maxima; i.e., a super-Poissonian (wider than Poisson) distribution is obtained.
Statistical method for resolving the photon-photoelectron-counting inversion problem
Wu Jinlong; Li Tiejun; Peng, Xiang; Guo Hong
2011-02-01
A statistical inversion method is proposed for the photon-photoelectron-counting statistics in quantum key distribution experiment. With the statistical viewpoint, this problem is equivalent to the parameter estimation for an infinite binomial mixture model. The coarse-graining idea and Bayesian methods are applied to deal with this ill-posed problem, which is a good simple example to show the successful application of the statistical methods to the inverse problem. Numerical results show the applicability of the proposed strategy. The coarse-graining idea for the infinite mixture models should be general to be used in the future.
Interaction of low-energy photons with biological materials and the effective atomic number
Rao, B.V.; Raju, M.L.; Narasimham, K.L.; Parthasaradhi, K.; Rao, B.M.
1985-11-01
The effective atomic numbers for total photon interaction in bone, muscle, liver, spleen, fat, and water are determined and found to decrease up to 50% as the energy increases from 10 to 200 keV. Muscle, spleen, liver, and water are found to behave in an approximately similar manner in this energy region, as far as photon interaction is concerned.
Photon statistics, film preparation and characterization in fluorescent microthermal imaging
Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Barton, D.L.
1995-08-01
Fluorescent microthermal imaging (FMI) involves coating a sample surface with a thin inorganic-based film that, upon exposure to uv light, emits temperature-dependent fluorescence. FMI offers the ability to create thermal maps of integrated circuits with a thermal resolution theoretically limited to 1 m{degree}C and a spatial resolution diffraction-limited to 0.3 {mu}m. Even though FMI has been in use for more than a decade, many factors that can affect the thermal image quality have not been studied well. This paper presents recent results showing the limitations from photon shot noise and the improvement in signal-to-noise ratio from signal averaging. Three important factors in film preparation and characterization are presented that have a significant impact on thermal quality and sensitivity of FMI: uv bleaching, film dilution, and film curing. It is shown how proper film preparation and data collection method can dramatically improve the quality of FMI thermal images.
Lischinski, Dani
Photon Maps Photon Tracing Simulating light propagation by shooting photons from the light sources. Photon Tracing Storing the incidences of photon's path. Implementing surface properties statistically. Russian Roulette. Photon Tracing Photon maps keep: Incidence point (in 3D). The normal at that point
Statistics for Geography Teachers: Topics in Geography, Number 2.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Council for Geographic Education.
This publication is designed to provide geography teachers with useful statistical information. It presents tables, maps, graphs, diagrams, and explanations of statistical data in 24 areas. The areas in which statistics are given are conversions, measurement, astronomy, time, daylight, twilight, latitude and longitude as distance, the relationship…
Pázsit, Imre
for the number of neutrons and gamma photons generated in a fissile sample with internal multiplication. The for with the expressions for factorial moments of the total number of neutrons and photons generated in the sample The number distribution of neutrons and photons generated in a finite sample with internal multiplication has
Measurement of Photon Statistics with Live Photoreceptor Cells
Sim, Nigel; Bessarab, Dmitri; Jones, C Michael; Krivitsky, Leonid
2012-01-01
We analyzed the electrophysiological response of an isolated rod photoreceptor of Xenopus laevis under stimulation by coherent and pseudo-thermal light sources. Using the suction electrode technique for single cell recordings and a fiber optics setup for light delivery allowed measurements of the major statistical characteristics of the rod response. The results indicate differences in average responses of rod cells to coherent and pseudo-thermal light of the same intensity and also differences in signal-to-noise ratios and second order intensity correlation functions. These findings should be relevant for interdisciplinary studies in applications of quantum optics in biology.
Measurement of photon statistics with live photoreceptor cells.
Sim, Nigel; Cheng, Mei Fun; Bessarab, Dmitri; Jones, C Michael; Krivitsky, Leonid A
2012-09-14
We analyzed the electrophysiological response of an isolated rod photoreceptor of Xenopus laevis under stimulation by coherent and pseudothermal light sources. Using the suction-electrode technique for single cell recordings and a fiber optics setup for light delivery allowed measurements of the major statistical characteristics of the rod response. The results indicate differences in average responses of rod cells to coherent and pseudothermal light of the same intensity and also differences in signal-to-noise ratios and second-order intensity correlation functions. These findings should be relevant for interdisciplinary studies seeking applications of quantum optics in biology. PMID:23005626
Measurement of Photon Statistics with Live Photoreceptor Cells
Nigel Sim; Mei Fun Cheng; Dmitri Bessarab; C. Michael Jones; Leonid A. Krivitsky
2013-07-15
We analyzed the electrophysiological response of an isolated rod photoreceptor of Xenopus laevis under stimulation by coherent and pseudo-thermal light sources. Using the suction electrode technique for single cell recordings and a fiber optics setup for light delivery allowed measurements of the major statistical characteristics of the rod response. The results indicate differences in average responses of rod cells to coherent and pseudo-thermal light of the same intensity and also differences in signal-to-noise ratios and second order intensity correlation functions. These findings should be relevant for interdisciplinary studies seeking applications of quantum optics in biology.
SUBMILLIMETER NUMBER COUNTS FROM STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF BLAST MAPS
Patanchon, Guillaume; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Scott, Douglas; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff; Rex, Marie; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Olmi, Luca
2009-12-20
We describe the application of a statistical method to estimate submillimeter galaxy number counts from confusion-limited observations by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST). Our method is based on a maximum likelihood fit to the pixel histogram, sometimes called 'P(D)', an approach which has been used before to probe faint counts, the difference being that here we advocate its use even for sources with relatively high signal-to-noise ratios. This method has an advantage over standard techniques of source extraction in providing an unbiased estimate of the counts from the bright end down to flux densities well below the confusion limit. We specifically analyze BLAST observations of a roughly 10 deg{sup 2} map centered on the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey South field. We provide estimates of number counts at the three BLAST wavelengths 250, 350, and 500 mum; instead of counting sources in flux bins we estimate the counts at several flux density nodes connected with power laws. We observe a generally very steep slope for the counts of about -3.7 at 250 mum, and -4.5 at 350 and 500 mum, over the range approx0.02-0.5 Jy, breaking to a shallower slope below about 0.015 Jy at all three wavelengths. We also describe how to estimate the uncertainties and correlations in this method so that the results can be used for model-fitting. This method should be well suited for analysis of data from the Herschel satellite.
Lin Song; Wen Qiaoyan; Gao Fei; Zhu Fuchen
2009-05-15
A collective photon-number-splitting attack strategy is proposed, which combines photon-number-splitting attack with an unambiguous set discrimination of quantum state. Verified by this attack strategy, it is shown that a two-way quantum secure direct communication protocol with qubits is insecure in real circumstance. Finally, we present a possible improved version of this kind of quantum secure direct communication protocol.
Streamline segment statistics of premixed flames with nonunity Lewis numbers.
Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Wang, Lipo; Klein, Markus
2014-03-01
The interaction of flame and surrounding fluid motion is of central importance in the fundamental understanding of turbulent combustion. It is demonstrated here that this interaction can be represented using streamline segment analysis, which was previously applied in nonreactive turbulence. The present work focuses on the effects of the global Lewis number (Le) on streamline segment statistics in premixed flames in the thin-reaction-zones regime. A direct numerical simulation database of freely propagating thin-reaction-zones regime flames with Le ranging from 0.34 to 1.2 is used to demonstrate that Le has significant influences on the characteristic features of the streamline segment, such as the curve length, the difference in the velocity magnitude at two extremal points, and their correlations with the local flame curvature. The strengthenings of the dilatation rate, flame normal acceleration, and flame-generated turbulence with decreasing Le are principally responsible for these observed effects. An expression for the probability density function (pdf) of the streamline segment length, originally developed for nonreacting turbulent flows, captures the qualitative behavior for turbulent premixed flames in the thin-reaction-zones regime for a wide range of Le values. The joint pdfs between the streamline length and the difference in the velocity magnitude at two extremal points for both unweighted and density-weighted velocity vectors are analyzed and compared. Detailed explanations are provided for the observed differences in the topological behaviors of the streamline segment in response to the global Le. PMID:24730945
Spontaneously generated coherence in a Rb atom via photon counting statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Zhuo; Peng, Yonggang; Sun, Zhen-Dong; Zheng, Yujun
2016-01-01
We study the spontaneously generated coherence (SGC) in a Rb atom by employing photon counting statistics based on the four-level Y-type model driven by a probe field and two coherent control fields. A transparency channel induced by coherent population trapping (CPT) and ultra-narrow probe absorption peaks in the presence of SGC are found.
Practical photon number detection with electric field-modulated silicon avalanche photodiodes.
Thomas, O; Yuan, Z L; Shields, A J
2012-01-01
Low-noise single-photon detection is a prerequisite for quantum information processing using photonic qubits. In particular, detectors that are able to accurately resolve the number of photons in an incident light pulse will find application in functions such as quantum teleportation and linear optics quantum computing. More generally, such a detector will allow the advantages of quantum light detection to be extended to stronger optical signals, permitting optical measurements limited only by fluctuations in the photon number of the source. Here we demonstrate a practical high-speed device, which allows the signals arising from multiple photon-induced avalanches to be precisely discriminated. We use a type of silicon avalanche photodiode in which the lateral electric field profile is strongly modulated in order to realize a spatially multiplexed detector. Clearly discerned multiphoton signals are obtained by applying sub-nanosecond voltage gates in order to restrict the detector current. PMID:22273682
Statistics of scattered photons from a driven three-level emitter in 1D open space
Roy, Dibyendu; Bondyopadhaya, Nilanjan
2014-01-07
We derive the statistics of scattered photons from a ?- or ladder-type three-level emitter (3LE) embedded in a 1D open waveguide. The weak probe photons in the waveguide are coupled to one of the two allowed transitions of the 3LE, and the other transition is driven by a control beam. This system shows electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) which is accompanied with the Autler-Townes splitting (ATS) at a strong driving by the control beam, and some of these effects have been observed recently. We show that the nature of second-order coherence of the transmitted probe photons near two-photon resonance changes from bunching to antibunching to constant as strength of the control beam is ramped up from zero to a higher value where the ATS appears.
Nonclassical correlations between photon number and quadrature components of the light field
Holger F. Hofmann
2000-04-19
Finite resolution quantum nondemolition (QND) measurements allow a determination of light field properties while preserving some of the original quantum coherence of the input state. It is thus possible to measure correlations between the photon number and a quadrature component of the same light field mode. Nonclassical features emerge as photon number quantization is resolved. In particular, a strong anti-correlation of quantization and coherence is observable in QND measurements of photon number, and a correlation between measurement induced quantum jumps and quadrature component measurement results is obtained in QND measurements of quadrature fluctuations in the photon vacuum. Such nonclassical correlations represent fundamental quantum properties of the light field and may provide new insights into the nature of quantization itself.
Muir, Ryan D; Kissick, David J; Simpson, Garth J
2012-04-23
Data from photomultiplier tubes are typically analyzed using either counting or averaging techniques, which are most accurate in the dim and bright signal limits, respectively. A statistical means of adjoining these two techniques is presented by recovering the Poisson parameter from averaged data and relating it to the statistics of binomial counting from Kissick et al. [Anal. Chem. 82, 10129 (2010)]. The point at which binomial photon counting and averaging have equal signal to noise ratios is derived. Adjoining these two techniques generates signal to noise ratios at 87% to approaching 100% of theoretical maximum across the full dynamic range of the photomultiplier tube used. The technique is demonstrated in a second harmonic generation microscope. PMID:22535131
Crunching Numbers: What Cancer Screening Statistics Really Tell Us
Cancer screening studies have shown that more screening does not necessarily translate into fewer cancer deaths. This article explains how to interpret the statistics used to describe the results of screening studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Lisheng; Zhang, Heyong; Guo, Jin; Zhao, Shuai; Wang, Tingfeng
2012-08-01
In this paper, we report a mathematical derivation of probability density function (PDF) of time-interval between two successive photoelectrons of the laser heterodyne signal, and give a confirmation of the theoretical result by both numerical simulation and an experiment. The PDF curve of the beat signal displays a series of fluctuations, the period and amplitude of which are respectively determined by the beat frequency and the mixing efficiency. The beat frequency is derived from the frequency of fluctuations accordingly when the PDF curve is measured. This frequency measurement method still works while the traditional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm hardly derives the correct peak value of the beat frequency in the condition that we detect 80 MHz beat signal with 8 Mcps (counts per-second) photons count rate, and this indicates an advantage of the PDF method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamide, Kenji; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko
2015-09-01
A simple calculation method for photon statistics of frequency-filtered fields is proposed. This method, based on eigenvalue decompositions of superoperators, allows us to study effects on the photon statistics of spectral filtering by various types of filters, such as Gaussian and rectangular filters as well as Lorentzian filters, which is not possible by conventional approaches. As an example, this method is applied to a simulation of quantum dot single-photon emitters, where we found that the efficient choice of the filter types to have pure single photons depends on the excitation conditions, i.e., incoherent or coherent (and resonant) excitations.
Canadian Statistical Review. Volume 53, Number 7, July 1978.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
von Zur-Muehlen, Max
1978-01-01
Information on Canadian social and economic trends is presented in this statistical review. Advance information on national income and expenditure accounts for the first quarter of 1978 is provided. Characteristics of full-time university teachers from 1956-57 to 1977-78 are detailed in tables that recount such developments as the nearly six-fold…
USA by Numbers: A Statistical Portrait of the United States.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weber, Susan, Ed.
This book presents demographic data about a variety of U.S. public policies, social problems, and environmental issues. The issues and problems that the statistics illustrate (such as overflowing garbage dumps, homelessness, child poverty, and smog and water pollution) are connected with, and the consequences of, the expanding U.S. population. The…
Cavity Nonlinear Optics at Low Photon Numbers from Collective Atomic Motion
Gupta, Subhadeep; Moore, Kevin L.; Murch, Kater W.; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M.
2007-11-23
We report on Kerr nonlinearity and dispersive optical bistability of a Fabry-Perot optical resonator due to the displacement of ultracold atoms trapped within. In the driven resonator, such collective motion is induced by optical forces acting upon up to 10{sup 5} {sup 87}Rb atoms prepared in the lowest band of a one-dimensional intracavity optical lattice. The longevity of atomic motional coherence allows for strongly nonlinear optics at extremely low cavity photon numbers, as demonstrated by the observation of both branches of optical bistability at photon numbers below unity.
Cavity Nonlinear Optics at Low Photon Numbers from Collective Atomic Motion
Subhadeep Gupta; Kevin L. Moore; Kater W. Murch; Dan M. Stamper-Kurn
2007-09-05
We report on Kerr nonlinearity and dispersive optical bistability of a Fabry-Perot optical resonator due to the displacement of ultracold atoms trapped within. In the driven resonator, such collective motion is induced by optical forces acting upon up to $10^5$ $^{87}$Rb atoms prepared in the lowest band of a one-dimensional intracavity optical lattice. The longevity of atomic motional coherence allows for strongly nonlinear optics at extremely low cavity photon numbers, as demonstrated by the observation of both branches of optical bistability at photon numbers below unity.
Qubit portrait of the photon-number tomogram and separability of two-mode light states
S. N. Filippov; V. I. Man'ko
2009-01-31
In view of the photon-number tomograms of two-mode light states, using the qubit-portrait method for studying the probability distributions with infinite outputs, the separability and entanglement detection of the states are studied. Examples of entangled Gaussian state and Schr\\"{o}dinger cat state are discussed.
Photon-number parity oscillations in the resonant Jaynes-Cummings model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birrittella, Richard; Cheng, Kezi; Gerry, Christopher C.
2015-11-01
We study the time evolution of photon number parity operator for a single-mode quantized cavity field interacting with a two-level atom as described by the resonant Jaynes-Cummings model. With the field prepared in a coherent state and the atom prepared in its excited state, we find that the photon number parity undergoes oscillations at the Rabi frequency but only during the period between the collapse and revival of the Rabi oscillations of the atomic inversion. We explain this in terms of the global parity of the Jaynes-Cummings model. The phenomenon is related to the interference of the counter-rotating components of the field in phase space, which in turn gives rise to occurrence of highly oscillatory photon number probability distributions near half the revival time of the atomic inversion noted by Bužek et al. (Phys. Rev. A 45, 1992, p. 8190). Detection of the photon number oscillations would amount to a detection of this interference effect.
Photon-number superselection and the entangled coherent-state representation
Sanders, Barry C.; Bartlett, Stephen D.; Rudolph, Terry; Knight, Peter L.
2003-10-01
We introduce the entangled coherent-state representation, which provides a powerful technique for efficiently and elegantly describing and analyzing quantum optics sources and detectors while respecting the photon-number superselection rule that is satisfied by all known quantum optics experiments. We apply the entangled coherent-state representation to elucidate and resolve the long-standing puzzles of the coherence of a laser output field, interference between two number states, and dichotomous interpretations of quantum teleportation of coherent states.
Xu Bingjie; Peng Xiang; Guo Hong
2010-10-15
A passive scheme with a beam splitter and a photon-number-resolving (PNR) detector is proposed to verify the photon statistics of an untrusted source in a plug-and-play quantum-key-distribution system by applying a three-intensity decoy-state protocol. The practical issues due to statistical fluctuation and detection noise are analyzed. The simulation results show that the scheme can work efficiently when the total number of optical pulses sent from Alice to Bob is above 10{sup 8}, and the dark count rate of the PNR detector is below 0.5 counts/pulse, which is realizable with current techniques. Furthermore, we propose a practical realization of the PNR detector with a variable optical attenuator combined with a threshold detector.
Bingjie Xu; Xiang Peng; Hong Guo
2010-10-08
A passive scheme with a beam splitter and a photon-number-resolving (PNR) detector is proposed to verify the photon statistics of an untrusted source in a plug-and-play quantum-key-distribution system by applying a three-intensity decoy-state protocol. The practical issues due to statistical fluctuation and detection noise are analyzed. The simulation results show that the scheme can work efficiently when the total number of optical pulses sent from Alice to Bob is above 10^8, and the dark count rate of the PNR detector is below 0.5 counts/pulse, which is realizable with current techniques. Furthermore, we propose a practical realization of the PNR detector with a variable optical attenuator combined with a threshold detector.
Relationship between backscattered photon numbers and their scattering events in a turbid media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Lanqing; Li, Hui; Zheng, Yongping; Xie, Shusen
2005-01-01
Various optical imaging techniques had been brought out and studied for imaging in turbid media such as bio-tissues. However, there"re always limitations or problems here and there. Among them many are related to light scattering in the media. In this paper we provide a new insight into these questions and tried to give some possible explanations. The distribution of backscattered photon numbers on scattering events of light was studied for what is to our knowledge the first time. A Monte Carlo (MC) method was used to calculate how many photons will reemit from media as their scattering events increase. Various illuminant conditions and detecting methods were simulated, results show that instead of easily took feint that photons reemitted from tissue increases/decreases as scattering events accumulates; backscattered photon numbers increase firstly and decrease later. The peak position, peak value and exact curve shape depend on illuminant conditions, monitoring method and tissue optical parameters. From these curves two basic conclusions could be drawn as follows: (1) the chance of single scattering photon packet exiting the tissue exists, but decreases dramatically as internal source moves deep into media. This suggests that theoretically many coherent imaging approaches are feasible, but good imaging depth requires high power density, this leads to difficulty in improving imaging depth. (2) as for the majority of backscattered photons, the number of average scattering events has a close relationship with mean free path -- one of the most important tissue optical parameters. Our simulation results will lead to several interesting explanations to many present problems.
Extremal states for photon number and quadratures as gauges for nonclassicality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hradil, Z.; ?ehá?ek, J.; de la Hoz, P.; Leuchs, G.; Sánchez-Soto, L. L.
2015-04-01
Rotated quadratures carry the phase-dependent information of the electromagnetic field, so they are somehow conjugate to the photon number. We analyze this noncanonical pair, finding an exact uncertainty relation, as well as a couple of weaker inequalities obtained by relaxing some restrictions of the problem. We also find the intelligent states saturating that relation and complete their characterization by considering extra constraints on the second-order moments of the variables involved. Using these moments, we construct performance measures tailored to diagnose photon-added and Schrödinger-cat-like states, among others.
Temperature Measurement and Phonon Number Statistics of a Nanoelectromechanical Resonator
O. P. de Sá Neto; M. C. de Oliveira; G. J. Milburn
2015-08-07
Measuring thermodynamic quantities can be easy or not, depending on the system that is being studied. For a macroscopic object, measuring temperatures can be as simple as measuring how much a column of mercury rises when in contact with the object. At the small scale of quantum electromechanical systems, such simple methods are not available and invariably detection processes disturb the system state. Here we propose a method for measuring the temperature on a suspended semiconductor membrane clamped at both ends. In this method, the membrane is mediating a capacitive coupling between two transmission line resonators (TLR). The first TLR has a strong dispersion, that is, its decaying rate is larger than its drive, and its role is to pump in a pulsed way the interaction between the membrane and the second TLR. By averaging the pulsed measurements of the quadrature of the second TLR we show how the temperature of the membrane can be determined. Moreover the statistical description of the state of the membrane, which is directly accessed in this approach is significantly improved by the addition of a Josephson Junction coupled to the second TLR.
Construction of photon-added spin coherent states and their statistical properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berrada, K.
2015-07-01
In the present work, we construct and investigate some properties of the photon-added spin coherent states (PA-SCSs). The Klauder's minimal set of conditions required to obtain coherent states are discussed. We give the analytical form for the positive weight function in the resolution of unity. Finally, we examine the statistical properties of the PA-SCSs in terms of different parameters using the Mandel's Q-parameter. All these quantities are expressed in terms of hypergeometric and Meijer G-functions, and so, the PA-SCSs are a new field of application for these functions.
Kobtsev, Sergei M.
.4380) Nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing Extreme type statistics in nonlinear fiber optics has attracted a great of numerous longitudinal generation modes. OCIS codes: (190.4370) Nonlinear optics, fibers; (190JTu5A.43.pdf Advanced Photonics Congress © 2012 OSA Extreme value statistics in quasi-CW Raman
Statistical Handbook on Aging Americans. 1994 Edition. Statistical Handbook Series Number 5.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schick, Frank L., Ed.; Schick, Renee, Ed.
This statistical handbook contains 378 tables and charts illustrating the changes in the United States' aging population based on data collected during the 1990 census and several other surveys. The tables and charts are organized by topic as follows: demographics (age and sex distribution, life expectancy, race and ethnicity, geographic…
Comparing Data Sets: Implicit Summaries of the Statistical Properties of Number Sets
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morris, Bradley J.; Masnick, Amy M.
2015-01-01
Comparing datasets, that is, sets of numbers in context, is a critical skill in higher order cognition. Although much is known about how people compare single numbers, little is known about how number sets are represented and compared. We investigated how subjects compared datasets that varied in their statistical properties, including ratio of…
Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Hideki; Wang, Haibo; Kobayashi, Takayoshi
2005-07-15
We propose a high security quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme utilizing one mode of spontaneous parametric downconversion gated by a photon number resolving detector. This photon number measurement is possible by using single-photon detectors operating at room temperature and optical fibers. By post selection, the multiphoton probability in this scheme can be reduced to lower than that of a scheme using an attenuated coherent light resulting in improvement of security. Furthermore, if distillation protocol (error correction and privacy amplification) is performed, the gain will be increased. Hence a QKD system with higher security and bit rate than the laser-based QKD system can be attained using present available technologies.
Wittmann, Christoffer; Sych, Denis; Leuchs, Gerd; Takeoka, Masahiro
2010-06-15
We investigate quantum measurement strategies capable of discriminating two coherent states probabilistically with significantly smaller error probabilities than can be obtained using nonprobabilistic state discrimination. We apply a postselection strategy to the measurement data of a homodyne detector as well as a photon number resolving detector in order to lower the error probability. We compare the two different receivers with an optimal intermediate measurement scheme where the error rate is minimized for a fixed rate of inconclusive results. The photon number resolving (PNR) receiver is experimentally demonstrated and compared to an experimental realization of a homodyne receiver with postselection. In the comparison, it becomes clear that the performance of the PNR receiver surpasses the performance of the homodyne receiver, which we prove to be optimal within any Gaussian operations and conditional dynamics.
Anne E. B. Nielsen; Christine A. Muschik; Geza Giedke; K. G. H. Vollbrecht
2010-03-23
We propose and analyze a multi-functional setup consisting of high finesse optical cavities, beam splitters, and phase shifters. The basic scheme projects arbitrary photonic two-mode input states onto the subspace spanned by the product of Fock states |n>|n> with n=0,1,2,.... This protocol does not only provide the possibility to conditionally generate highly entangled photon number states as resource for quantum information protocols but also allows one to test and hence purify this type of quantum states in a communication scenario, which is of great practical importance. The scheme is especially attractive as a generalization to many modes allows for distribution and purification of entanglement in networks. In an alternative working mode, the setup allows of quantum non demolition number resolved photodetection in the optical domain.
Photon-number entangled states generated in Kerr media with optical parametric pumping
Kowalewska-Kudlaszyk, A.; Leonski, W.; Perina, Jan Jr.
2011-05-15
Two nonlinear Kerr oscillators mutually coupled by parametric pumping are studied as a source of states entangled in photon numbers. Temporal evolution of entanglement quantified by negativity shows the effects of sudden death and birth of entanglement. Entanglement is preserved even in asymptotic states under certain conditions. The role of reservoirs at finite temperature in entanglement evolution is elucidated. Relation between generation of entangled states and violation of Cauchy-Schwartz inequality for oscillator intensities is found.
Zhai, Yanhua E-mail: jfan@nist.gov; Fan, Jingyun E-mail: jfan@nist.gov; Migdall, Alan; Becerra, Francisco E.
2014-09-08
We examine thermal light diffracted through a double slit using photon-number-resolved detection to directly measure high-order spatial correlations, and we see sinusoidal modulations of those correlations. The fringe width can, in principal, be made arbitrarily small, and we have experimentally obtained fringe widths as small as 30?nm with 800?nm wavelength light. This extreme sub-wavelength resolution, along with this direct detection technique, offers potential for high precision measurement applications.
Measuring photon-photon interactions via photon detection
Mihai A. Macovei
2010-06-18
The strong non-linearity plays a significant role in physics, particularly, in designing novel quantum sources of light and matter as well as in quantum chemistry or quantum biology. In simple systems, the photon-photon interaction can be determined analytically. However, it becomes challenging to obtain it for more compex systems. Therefore, we show here how to measure strong non-linearities via allowing the sample to interact with a weakly pumped quantized leaking optical mode. We found that the detected mean-photon number versus pump-field frequency shows several peaks. Interestingly, the interval between neighbour peaks equals the photon-photon interaction potential. Furthermore, the system exhibits sub-Poissonian photon statistics, entanglement and photon switching with less than one photon. Finally, we connect our study with existing related experiments.
Measuring photon-photon interactions via photon detection
Macovei, Mihai A
2010-01-01
The strong non-linearity plays a significant role in physics, particularly, in designing novel quantum sources of light and matter as well as in quantum chemistry or quantum biology. In simple systems, the photon-photon interaction can be determined analytically. However, it becomes challenging to obtain it for more compex systems. Therefore, we show here how to measure strong non-linearities via allowing the sample to interact with a weakly pumped quantized leaking optical mode. We found that the detected mean-photon number versus pump-field frequency shows several peaks. Interestingly, the interval between neighbour peaks equals the photon-photon interaction potential. Furthermore, the system exhibits sub-Poissonian photon statistics, entanglement and photon switching with less than one photon. Finally, we connect our study with existing related experiments.
Attacks exploiting deviation of mean photon number in quantum key distribution and coin tossing
Shihan Sajeed; Igor Radchenko; Sarah Kaiser; Jean-Philippe Bourgoin; Anna Pappa; Laurent Monat; Matthieu Legre; Vadim Makarov
2015-03-30
The security of quantum communication using a weak coherent source requires an accurate knowledge of the source's mean photon number. Finite calibration precision or an active manipulation by an attacker may cause the actual emitted photon number to deviate from the known value. We model effects of this deviation on the security of three quantum communication protocols: the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol without decoy states, Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) QKD protocol, and a coin-tossing protocol. For QKD, we model both a strong attack using technology possible in principle, and a realistic attack bounded by today's technology. To maintain the mean photon number in two-way systems, such as plug-and-play and relativistic quantum cryptography schemes, bright pulse energy incoming from the communication channel must be monitored. Implementation of a monitoring detector has largely been ignored so far, except for ID Quantique's commercial QKD system Clavis2. We scrutinize this implementation for security problems, and show that designing a hack-proof pulse-energy-measuring detector is far from trivial. Indeed the first implementation has three serious flaws confirmed experimentally, each of which may be exploited in a cleverly constructed Trojan-horse attack. We discuss requirements for a loophole-free implementation of the monitoring detector.
Attacks exploiting deviation of mean photon number in quantum key distribution and coin tossing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sajeed, Shihan; Radchenko, Igor; Kaiser, Sarah; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Pappa, Anna; Monat, Laurent; Legré, Matthieu; Makarov, Vadim
2015-03-01
The security of quantum communication using a weak coherent source requires an accurate knowledge of the source's mean photon number. Finite calibration precision or an active manipulation by an attacker may cause the actual emitted photon number to deviate from the known value. We model effects of this deviation on the security of three quantum communication protocols: the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol without decoy states, Scarani-Acín-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) QKD protocol, and a coin-tossing protocol. For QKD we model both a strong attack using technology possible in principle and a realistic attack bounded by today's technology. To maintain the mean photon number in two-way systems, such as plug-and-play and relativistic quantum cryptography schemes, bright pulse energy incoming from the communication channel must be monitored. Implementation of a monitoring detector has largely been ignored so far, except for ID Quantique's commercial QKD system Clavis2. We scrutinize this implementation for security problems and show that designing a hack-proof pulse-energy-measuring detector is far from trivial. Indeed, the first implementation has three serious flaws confirmed experimentally, each of which may be exploited in a cleverly constructed Trojan-horse attack. We discuss requirements for a loophole-free implementation of the monitoring detector.
Branching and path-deviation of positive streamers resulting from statistical photon transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Zhongmin; Kushner, Mark J.
2014-12-01
The branching and change in direction of propagation (path-deviation) of positive streamers in molecular gases such as air likely require a statistical process which perturbs the head of the streamer and produces an asymmetry in its space charge density. In this paper, the mechanisms for path-deviation and branching of atmospheric pressure positive streamer discharges in dry air are numerically investigated from the viewpoint of statistical photon transport and photoionization. A statistical photon transport model, based on randomly selected emitting angles and mean-free-path for absorption, was developed and embedded into a fluid-based plasma transport model. The hybrid model was applied to simulations of positive streamer coaxial discharges in dry air at atmospheric pressure. The results show that secondary streamers, often spatially isolated, are triggered by the random photoionization and interact with the thin space charge layer (SCL) of the primary streamer. This interaction may be partly responsible for path-deviation and streamer branching. The general process consists of random remote photo-electron production which initiates a back-traveling electron avalanche, collision of this secondary avalanche with the primary streamer and the subsequent perturbation to its SCL. When the SCL is deformed from a symmetric to an asymmetric shape, the streamer can experience an abrupt change in the direction of propagation. If the SCL is sufficiently perturbed and essentially broken, local maxima in the SCL can develop into new streamers, leading to streamer branching. During the propagation of positive streamers, this mechanism can take place repetitively in time and space, thus producing multi-level branching and more than two branches within one level.
Boyd, Robert W.
Conditional preparation of states containing a definite number of photons Malcolm N. O'Sullivan,1 2008 A technique for conditionally creating single-mode or multimode photon-number states is analyzed using Bayesian theory. We consider the heralded N-photon states created from the photons produced
Unified position-dependent photon-number quantization in layered structures
Mikko Partanen; Teppo Häyrynen; Jani Oksanen; Jukka Tulkki
2014-12-01
We have recently developed a position-dependent quantization scheme for describing the ladder and effective photon-number operators associated with the electric field to analyze quantum optical energy transfer in lossy and dispersive dielectrics [Phys. Rev. A, 89, 033831 (2014)]. While having a simple connection to the thermal balance of the system, these operators only described the electric field and its coupling to lossy dielectric bodies. Here we extend this field quantization scheme to include the magnetic field and thus to enable description of the total electromagnetic field and discuss conceptual measurement schemes to verify the predictions. In addition to conveniently describing the formation of thermal balance, the generalized approach allows modeling of the electromagnetic pressure and Casimir forces. We apply the formalism to study the local steady state field temperature distributions and electromagnetic force density in cavities with cavity walls at different temperatures. The calculated local electric and magnetic field temperatures exhibit oscillations that depend on the position as well as the photon energy. However, the effective photon number and field temperature associated with the total electromagnetic field is always position-independent in lossless media. Furthermore, we show that the direction of the electromagnetic force varies as a function of frequency, position, and material thickness.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richardson, W. H.; Yamamoto, Y.
1991-01-01
The photon-number fluctuation of the external field from a semiconductor laser - which was reduced to below the standard quantum limit - is shown to be correlated with the measured junction-voltage noise. The spectral density of the sum of the photon-number fluctuation and junction-voltage fluctuation falls below the squeezed photon-number fluctuation. This confirms the theoretical predictions that this correlation, which originates in the dipole interaction between the internal field and electron-hole pairs, extends into the quantum regime.
Binter, R; Khare, S; Binter, Roman; Jewson, Stephen; Khare, Shree
2007-01-01
We are building a hurricane number prediction scheme that relies, in part, on statistical modelling of the empirical relationship between Atlantic sea surface temperatures and Atlantic basin hurricane numbers. We test out a number of simple statistical models for this relationship, using data from 1900 to 2005 and data from 1950 to 2005, and for both all hurricane numbers and intense hurricane numbers.
On the Spectrum of Field Quadratures for a Finite Number of Photons
Emilio Pisanty; Eduardo Nahmad-Achar
2012-09-04
The spectrum and eigenstates of any field quadrature operator restricted to a finite number $N$ of photons are studied, in terms of the Hermite polynomials. By (naturally) defining \\textit{approximate} eigenstates, which represent highly localized wavefunctions with up to $N$ photons, one can arrive at an appropriate notion of limit for the spectrum of the quadrature as $N$ goes to infinity, in the sense that the limit coincides with the spectrum of the infinite-dimensional quadrature operator. In particular, this notion allows the spectra of truncated phase operators to tend to the complete unit circle, as one would expect. A regular structure for the zeros of the Christoffel-Darboux kernel is also shown.
Solar light trapping in slanted conical-pore photonic crystals: Beyond statistical ray trapping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eyderman, Sergey; John, Sajeev; Deinega, Alexei
2013-04-01
We demonstrate that with only 1 ?m, equivalent bulk thickness, of crystalline silicon, sculpted into the form of a slanted conical-pore photonic crystal and placed on a silver back-reflector, it is possible to attain a maximum achievable photocurrent density (MAPD) of 35.5 mA/cm2 from impinging sunlight. This corresponds to absorbing roughly 85% of all available sunlight in the wavelength range of 300-1100 nm and exceeds the limits suggested by previous "statistical ray trapping" arguments. Given the AM 1.5 solar spectrum and the intrinsic absorption characteristics of silicon, the optimum carrier generation occurs for a photonic crystal square lattice constant of 850 nm and slightly overlapping inverted cones with upper (base) radius of 500 nm. This provides a graded refractive index profile with good anti-reflection behavior. Light trapping is enhanced by tilting each inverted cone such that one side of each cone is tangent to the plane defining the side of the elementary cell. When the solar cell is packaged with silica (each pore filled with SiO2), the MAPD in the wavelength range of 400-1100 nm becomes 32.6 mA/cm2 still higher than the Lambertian 4n2 benchmark of 31.2 mA/cm2. In the near infrared regime from 800 to 1100 nm, our structure traps and absorbs light within slow group velocity modes, which propagate nearly parallel to the solar cell interface and exhibit localized high intensity vortex-like flow in the Poynting vector-field. In this near infrared range, our partial MAPD is 10.9 mA/cm2 compared to a partial MAPD of 7 mA/cm2 based on "4n2 statistical ray trapping." These results suggest silicon solar cell efficiencies exceeding 20% with just 1 ?m of silicon.
Choi, Jiyoung; Kang, Dong-Goo; Kang, Sunghoon; Sung, Younghun; Ye, Jong Chul
2013-09-15
Purpose: Material decomposition using multienergy photon counting x-ray detectors (PCXD) has been an active research area over the past few years. Even with some success, the problem of optimal energy selection and three material decomposition including malignant tissue is still on going research topic, and more systematic studies are required. This paper aims to address this in a unified statistical framework in a mammographic environment.Methods: A unified statistical framework for energy level optimization and decomposition of three materials is proposed. In particular, an energy level optimization algorithm is derived using the theory of the minimum variance unbiased estimator, and an iterative algorithm is proposed for material composition as well as system parameter estimation under the unified statistical estimation framework. To verify the performance of the proposed algorithm, the authors performed simulation studies as well as real experiments using physical breast phantom and ex vivo breast specimen. Quantitative comparisons using various performance measures were conducted, and qualitative performance evaluations for ex vivo breast specimen were also performed by comparing the ground-truth malignant tissue areas identified by radiologists.Results: Both simulation and real experiments confirmed that the optimized energy bins by the proposed method allow better material decomposition quality. Moreover, for the specimen thickness estimation errors up to 2 mm, the proposed method provides good reconstruction results in both simulation and real ex vivo breast phantom experiments compared to existing methods.Conclusions: The proposed statistical framework of PCXD has been successfully applied for the energy optimization and decomposition of three material in a mammographic environment. Experimental results using the physical breast phantom and ex vivo specimen support the practicality of the proposed algorithm.
Crovelli, R.A.
1997-01-01
The National Park Service needs to establish in all of the national parks how large the parking lots should be in order to enjoy and presence our natural resources, for example, in the Delicate Arch in the Arches National Park. Probabilistic and statistical relationships were developed between the number of vehicles (N) at one time in the Wolfe Ranch parking lot and the number of visitors (X) at Delicate Arch 1.5 miles away in the Arches National Park, southeastern Utah. The value of N is determined such that 30 or more visitors are at the arch only 10% of the time.
Nie, You-Qi; Zhang, Jun Pan, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Zhen; Ma, Xiongfeng
2014-02-03
We present a practical high-speed quantum random number generator, where the timing of single-photon detection relative to an external time reference is measured as the raw data. The bias of the raw data can be substantially reduced compared with the previous realizations. The raw random bit rate of our generator can reach 109 Mbps. We develop a model for the generator and evaluate the min-entropy of the raw data. Toeplitz matrix hashing is applied for randomness extraction, after which the final random bits are able to pass the standard randomness tests.
Reversing the weak measurement of an arbitrary field with finite photon number
Sun, Qingqing; Al-Amri, M.; Zubairy, M. Suhail.
2009-01-01
the weak measurement of an arbitrary field with finite photon number Qingqing Sun,1,* M. Al-Amri,2 and M. Suhail Zubairy1 1Department of Physics and Institute of Quantum Studies, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA 2The National...- ment ?1?, is only part of the story. There is another type of quantum measurement called weak measurement ?2?, in which the outcome is not precise or sharp but nevertheless reveals some information about the system. Since this weak measurement does...
Shimizu, Akira
Quantum Langevin equations for semiconductor light-emitting devices and the photon statistics at a low-injection level Hiroshi Fujisaki* and Akira Shimizu Institute of Physics, University of Tokyo, 3 noise correlations which are valid at a low-injection level and in real devices. Applying
Theory of photon-number squeezing in a heterojunction LED by the nonlinear backward pump process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sumitomo, Hiroyuki; Yamanishi, Masamichi; Kadoya, Yutaka
2002-04-01
We present a theoretical framework for sub-Poissonian-photon-state generation based on a microscopic backward-pump (BP) process in a semiconductor heterojunction light-emitting diode (LED). The model, which takes into account the BP and nonradiative recombination processes as well as the dynamical response of the external circuit, is applicable to practical LED's. It is shown that the nonlinear dependence of the BP rate on the carrier number in the active region brings about the photon-number squeezing below the full-shot-noise level, without recourse to a high-impedance constant-current source. We also point out that the bandwidth of the squeezing by the nonlinear BP process is wider than that limited by the recombination lifetime. In addition, we discuss the origin of the nonlinearity of the BP rate based on a microscopic model for the injected carriers in the active region. The nonlinearity is suggested to be due to the rises of the electron temperature and of energetic position of the quasi-Fermi level, with increasing pump current.
Effective atomic numbers and electron densities of bioactive glasses for photon interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shantappa, Anil; Hanagodimath, S. M.
2015-08-01
This work was carried out to study the nature of mass attenuation coefficient of bioactive glasses for gamma rays. Bioactive glasses are a group of synthetic silica-based bioactive materials with unique bone bonding properties. In the present study, we have calculated the effective atomic number, electron density for photon interaction of some selected bioactive glasses viz., SiO2-Na2O, SiO2-Na2O-CaO and SiO2-Na2O-P2O5 in the energy range 1 keV to 100 MeV. We have also computed the single valued effective atomic number by using XMuDat program. It is observed that variation in effective atomic number (ZPI, eff) depends also upon the weight fractions of selected bioactive glasses and range of atomic numbers of the elements. The results shown here on effective atomic number, electron density will be more useful in the medical dosimetry for the calculation of absorbed dose and dose rate.
Binter, R; Khare, S; Binter, Roman; Jewson, Stephen; Khare, Shree
2007-01-01
We are building a hurricane number prediction scheme that relies, in part, on statistical modelling of the empirical relationship between Atlantic sea surface temperatures and landfalling hurricane numbers. We test out a number of simple statistical models for that relationship, using data from 1900 to 2005 and data from 1950 to 2005, and for both all hurricane numbers and intense hurricane numbers. The results are very different from the corresponding analysis for basin hurricane numbers.
A Comparative Study of Gaussian TFA Learning and Statistical Tests on the Factor Number in APT
Xu, Lei
A Comparative Study of Gaussian TFA Learning and Statistical Tests on the Factor Number in APT Kai Chun Chiu and Lei Xu, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong], the Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT) assumes that cross-sectional expected returns of securities follow a multi
Pázsit, Imre
2006-01-01
of neutrons and gamma photons generated in a multiplying sample Andreas Enqvista,Ã, Imre Pa´ zsita , Sara is an analytical derivation of the full probability distribution of the number of neutrons and photons generated. With the introduction of a modified factorial moment of the number of neutrons and gamma photons generated in fission
Pion number fluctuations and correlations in a statistical system with fixed isospin
Begun, V. V.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Mogilevsky, O. A.
2010-08-15
The statistical system of pions with zero total isospin is studied. The suppression effects for the average yields due to isospin conservation are the same for {pi}{sup 0}, {pi}{sup +}, and {pi}{sup -}. However, a behavior of the corresponding particle number fluctuations are different. For neutral pions there is the enhancement of the fluctuations, whereas for charged pions the isospin conservation suppresses fluctuations. The correlations between the numbers of charged and neutral pions are observed for finite systems. This causes a maximum of the total pion number fluctuations for small systems. The thermodynamic limit values for the scaled variances of neutral and charged pions are calculated. The enhancements of the fluctuations due to Bose statistics are found and discussed.
Large-photon-number extraction from individual atoms trapped in an optical lattice
Shotter, M. D.
2011-03-15
The atom-by-atom characterization of quantum gases requires the development of novel measurement techniques. One particularly promising new technique demonstrated in recent experiments uses strong fluorescent laser scattering from neutral atoms confined in a short-period optical lattice to measure the positions of individual atoms in the sample. A crucial condition for the measurements is that atomic hopping between lattice sites must be strongly suppressed despite substantial photon recoil heating. This paper models three-dimensional polarization gradient cooling of atoms trapped within a far-detuned optical lattice. The atomic dynamics are simulated using a hybrid Monte Carlo and master-equation analysis in order to predict the frequency of processes which give rise to degradation or loss of the fluorescent signal during measurements. It is shown, consistently with the experimental results, that there exists a wide parameter range in which the lifetime of strongly fluorescing isolated lattice-trapped atoms is limited by background gas collisions rather than radiative processes. In these cases the total number of scattered photons can be as large as 10{sup 8} per atom. The performance of the technique is related to relevant experimental parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrenko, A.; Ofek, N.; Vlastakis, B.; Sun, L.; Leghtas, Z.; Heeres, R.; Sliwa, K. M.; Mirrahimi, M.; Jiang, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.
2015-03-01
Realizing a working quantum computer requires overcoming the many challenges that come with coupling large numbers of qubits to perform logical operations. These include improving coherence times, achieving high gate fidelities, and correcting for the inevitable errors that will occur throughout the duration of an algorithm. While impressive progress has been made in all of these areas, the difficulty of combining these ingredients to demonstrate an error-protected logical qubit, comprised of many physical qubits, still remains formidable. With its large Hilbert space, superior coherence properties, and single dominant error channel (single photon loss), a superconducting 3D resonator acting as a resource for a quantum memory offers a hardware-efficient alternative to multi-qubit codes [Leghtas et.al. PRL 2013]. Here we build upon recent work on cat-state encoding [Vlastakis et.al. Science 2013] and photon-parity jumps [Sun et.al. 2014] by exploring the effects of sequential measurements on a cavity state. Employing a transmon qubit dispersively coupled to two superconducting resonators in a cQED architecture, we explore further the application of parity measurements to characterizing such a hybrid qubit/cat state architecture. In so doing, we demonstrate the promise of integrating cat states as central constituents of future quantum codes.
Statistical properties of online avatar numbers in a massive multiplayer online role-playing game
Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Gu, Gao-Feng; Tan, Qun-Zhao; Zhou, Wei-Xing
2009-01-01
Massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are very popular in past few years. The profit of an MMORPG company is proportional to how many users registered, and the instant number of online avatars is a key factor to assess how popular an MMORPG is. We use the on-off-line logs on an MMORPG server to reconstruct the instant number of online avatars per second and investigate its statistical properties. We find that the online avatar number exhibits one-day periodic behavior and clear intraday pattern, the fluctuation distribution of the online avatar numbers has a leptokurtic non-Gaussian shape with power-law tails, and the increments of online avatar numbers after removing the intraday pattern are uncorrelated and the associated absolute values have long-term correlation. In addition, both time series exhibit multifractal nature.
Statistical properties of online avatar numbers in a massive multiplayer online role-playing game
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Ren, Fei; Gu, Gao-Feng; Tan, Qun-Zhao; Zhou, Wei-Xing
2010-02-01
Massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) have been very popular in the past few years. The profit of an MMORPG company is proportional to how many users registered, and the instant number of online avatars is a key factor to assess how popular an MMORPG is. We use the online-offline logs on an MMORPG server to reconstruct the instant number of online avatars per second and investigate its statistical properties. We find that the online avatar number exhibits one-day periodic behavior and clear intraday pattern, the fluctuation distribution of the online avatar numbers has a leptokurtic non-Gaussian shape with power-law tails, and the increments of online avatar numbers after removing the intraday pattern are uncorrelated and the associated absolute values have long-term correlation. In addition, both time series exhibit multifractal nature.
Generating arbitrary photon-number entangled states for continuous-variable quantum informatics.
Lee, Su-Yong; Park, Jiyong; Lee, Hai-Woong; Nha, Hyunchul
2012-06-18
We propose two experimental schemes that can produce an arbitrary photon-number entangled state (PNES) in a finite dimension. This class of entangled states naturally includes non-Gaussian continuous-variable (CV) states that may provide some practical advantages over the Gaussian counterparts (two-mode squeezed states). We particularly compare the entanglement characteristics of the Gaussian and the non-Gaussian states in view of the degree of entanglement and the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlation, and further discuss their applications to the CV teleportation and the nonlocality test. The experimental imperfection due to the on-off photodetectors with nonideal efficiency is also considered in our analysis to show the feasibility of our schemes within existing technologies. PMID:22714485
Development of a Statistical Model for Seasonal Prediction of North Atlantic Hurricane Numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis, K.; Zeng, X.
2014-12-01
Tropical cyclones cause more financial distress to insurance companies than any other natural disaster. From 1970-2002, it is estimated that hurricanes caused 44 billion dollars in damage, greater than 2.5 times the the next costliest catastrophe. Theses damages do not go without effect. A string of major catastrophes from 1991-1994 caused nine property firms to bankrupt and caused serious financial strain on others. The public was not only affected by the loss of life and property, but the increase in tax dollars for disaster relief. Providing better seasonal predictions of North Atlantic hurricane activity farther in advance will help alleviate some of the financial strains these major catastrophes put on the nation. A statistical model was first developed by Bill Gray's team to predict the total number of hurricanes over the North Atlantic in 1984, followed by other statistical methods, dynamic modeling, and hybrid methods in recent years. However, all these methods showed little to no skill with forecasts made by June 1 in recent years. In contrast to the relatively small year-to-year change in seasonal hurricane numbers pre-1980, there has been much greater interannual changes since, especially since the year 2000. For instance, while there were very high hurricane numbers in 2005 and 2010, 2013 was one of the lowest in history. Recognizing these interdecadal changes in the dispersion of hurricane numbers, we have developed a new statistical model to more realistically predict (by June 1 each year) the seasonal hurricane number over the North Atlantic. It is based on the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI) conditioned by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index, the zonal wind stress and sea surface temperature over the Atlantic. It provides both the deterministic number and the range of hurricane numbers. The details of the model and its performance from 1950-2014 in comparison with other methods will be presented in our presentation.
Photon Number-Phase Uncertainty Relation in the Evolution of the Field in a Kerr-Like Medium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fan, An-Fu; Sun, Nian-Chun
1996-01-01
A model of a single-mode field, initially prepared in a coherent state, coupled to a two-level atom surrounded by a nonlinear Kerr-like medium contained inside a very good quality cavity is considered. We derive the photon number-phase uncertainty relation in the evolution of the field for a weak and strong nonlinear coupling respectively, within the Hermitian phase operator formalism of Pegg and Barnett, and discuss the effects of nonlinear coupling of the Kerr-like medium on photon number-phase uncertainty relation of the field.
Jammalamadaka, S. Rao
Indian Statistical Institute A Rank Test Based on the Number of "Near-Matches" for Ordered Source: Sankhy: The Indian Journal of Statistics, Series A, Vol. 53, No. 2 (Jun., 1991), pp. 183 -193 Published by: Indian Statistical Institute Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25050833 Accessed: 03
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.
The booklet presents a report on the operation and use of person numbering (PN) systems for vital and health statistics in Israel and Scandinavia. A PN system involves assigning a different number to each individual within a given society and using that number for commercial, governmental, and military identification. The purpose of the report is…
TEGS-CN: A Statistical Method for Pathway Analysis of Genome-wide Copy Number Profile
Huang, Yen-Tsung; Hsu, Thomas; Christiani, David C
2014-01-01
The effects of copy number alterations make up a significant part of the tumor genome profile, but pathway analyses of these alterations are still not well established. We proposed a novel method to analyze multiple copy numbers of genes within a pathway, termed Test for the Effect of a Gene Set with Copy Number data (TEGS-CN). TEGS-CN was adapted from TEGS, a method that we previously developed for gene expression data using a variance component score test. With additional development, we extend the method to analyze DNA copy number data, accounting for different sizes and thus various numbers of copy number probes in genes. The test statistic follows a mixture of X2 distributions that can be obtained using permutation with scaled X2 approximation. We conducted simulation studies to evaluate the size and the power of TEGS-CN and to compare its performance with TEGS. We analyzed a genome-wide copy number data from 264 patients of non-small-cell lung cancer. With the Molecular Signatures Database (MSigDB) pathway database, the genome-wide copy number data can be classified into 1814 biological pathways or gene sets. We investigated associations of the copy number profile of the 1814 gene sets with pack-years of cigarette smoking. Our analysis revealed five pathways with significant P values after Bonferroni adjustment (<2.8 × 10?5), including the PTEN pathway (7.8 × 10?7), the gene set up-regulated under heat shock (3.6 × 10?6), the gene sets involved in the immune profile for rejection of kidney transplantation (9.2 × 10?6) and for transcriptional control of leukocytes (2.2 × 10?5), and the ganglioside biosynthesis pathway (2.7 × 10?5). In conclusion, we present a new method for pathway analyses of copy number data, and causal mechanisms of the five pathways require further study. PMID:25452685
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hiruma, Teruo
1993-04-01
After developing various kinds of photodetectors such as phototubes, photomultiplier tubes, image pick up tubes, solid state photodetectors and a variety of light sources, we also started to develop integrated systems utilizing new detectors or imaging devices. These led us to the technology for a single photon counting imaging and detection of picosecond and femtosecond phenomena. Through those experiences, we gained the understanding that photon is a paste of substances, and yet we know so little about photon. By developing various technology for many fields such as analytical chemistry, high energy physics, medicine, biology, brain science, astronomy, etc., we are beginning to understand that the mind and life are based on the same matter, that is substance. Since humankind has so little knowledge about the substance concerning the mind and life, this makes some confusion on these subjects at this moment. If we explore photonics more deeply, many problems we now have in the world could be solved. By creating new knowledge and technology, I believe we will be able to solve the problems of illness, aging, energy, environment, human capability, and finally, the essential healthiness of the six billion human beings in the world.
2015-01-01
with a small number of photons. Nature Communications, 6 (5913). ISSN 2041-1723 Copyright © 2015 Macmillan | Accepted 19 Nov 2014 | Published 5 Jan 2015 Imaging with a small number of photons Peter A. Morris1, Reuben photons per pixel, but by how much could this photon flux be reduced? In this work we demonstrate a single-photon
Majorana zero modes choose Euler numbers as revealed by full counting statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Dong E.; Levchenko, Alex; Lutchyn, Roman M.
2015-11-01
We study transport properties of a quantum dot coupled to a Majorana zero mode and two normal leads. We investigate the full counting statistics of charge tunneling events and obtain complete information on current fluctuations through the dot. Using the Keldysh path-integral approach, we compute the cumulant generating function of the current. We first consider a spinless case and find that for the symmetric dot-lead couplings, the zero-frequency cumulants are independent of the microscopic parameters and exhibit a universal pattern described by Euler numbers. We then consider the spinful system and investigate the effect of both weak and strong Coulomb interactions. We show that cases with and without Majorana coupling exhibit qualitatively different full counting statistics of charge tunneling events despite the fact that differential linear conductance might have zero-bias features in both cases.
Effects of Regular Pumping on Photon Statistics in Masers and Lasers
Zhu, S. Y.; Zubairy, M. Suhail; SU, C.; Bergou, J.
1992-01-01
:Aria Holter software). Statistical analyses, including t-tests and linear regression models, were performed using Stata® data-analysis and statistical software. When heart rates (bpm) determined by both diagnostic testing methods were compared individually...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buschmann, M. H.; Keirsbulck, L.; Fourrié, G.; Labraga, L.; Gad-el-Hak, M.
2011-12-01
We report high-resolution LDA and HWA measurements of the streamwise velocity component of a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer (ZPG TBL) over a range of momentum thickness Reynolds number from 1,170 to 3,720. The primary objective of this work is to investigate the near-wall behavior and the scaling of high-order statistics. In particular, we are interested in certain Kármán number dependencies. The obtained data are in excellent agreement with most recent DNS-results, which allows direct comparison of detailed results such as peak value and position of streamwise stress, wall-values of skewness and flatness factors, and turbulence dissipation rate. The experimental data clearly reveal the failure of classical scaling. An alternative mixed scaling based on u?3/2ue1/2 removes these discrepancies.
Statistics of the cosmic Mach number from numerical simulations of a cold dark matter universe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Suto, Yasushi; Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.
1992-01-01
Results are presented of an analysis of the cosmic Mach number, M, the ratio of the streaming velocity, v, to the random velocity dispersion, sigma, of galaxies in a given patch of the universe, which was performed on the basis of hydrodynamical simulations of the cold dark matter scenario. Galaxy formation is modeled by application of detailed physical processes rather than by the ad hoc assumption of 'bias' between dark matter and galaxy fluctuations. The correlation between M and sigma is found to be very weak for both components. No evidence is found for a physical 'velocity bias' in the quantities which appear in the definition of M. Standard cold-dark-matter-dominated universes are in conflict, at a statistically significant level, with the available observation, in that they predict a Mach number considerably lower than is observed.
Two-point statistics for turbulent boundary layers and channels at Reynolds numbers up to ?+ ? 2000
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sillero, Juan A.; Jiménez, Javier; Moser, Robert D.
2014-10-01
Two-point statistics are presented for a new direct simulation of the zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer in the range Re? = 2780-6680, and compared with channels in the same range of Reynolds numbers, ?+ ? 1000-2000. Three-dimensional spatial correlations are investigated in very long domains to educe the average structure of the velocity and pressure fluctuations. The streamwise velocity component is found to be coherent over longer distances in channels than in boundary layers, especially in the direction of the flow. For weakly correlated structures, the maximum streamwise length is \\cal{O}(7? ) for boundary layers and \\cal{O}(18? ) for channels, attained at the logarithmic and outer regions, respectively. The corresponding lengths for the spanwise and wall-normal velocities and for the pressure are shorter, \\cal{O}(?-2?). The correlations are shown to be inclined to the wall at angles that depend on the distance from the wall, on the variable being considered, and on the correlation level used to define them. All these features change little between the two types of flows. Most the above features are also approximately independent of the Reynolds number, except for the pressure, and for the streamwise velocity structures in the channel. Further insight into the flow is provided by correlations conditioned on the intensity of the perturbations at the reference point, or on their sign. The statistics of the new simulation are available in our website.
Burke, D.L.
1982-10-01
Studies of photon-photon collisions are reviewed with particular emphasis on new results reported to this conference. These include results on light meson spectroscopy and deep inelastic e..gamma.. scattering. Considerable work has now been accumulated on resonance production by ..gamma gamma.. collisions. Preliminary high statistics studies of the photon structure function F/sub 2//sup ..gamma../(x,Q/sup 2/) are given and comments are made on the problems that remain to be solved.
... statistics are numbers about some aspect of health. Statistics about births, deaths, marriages, and divorces are sometimes called "vital statistics." Researchers use statistics to see patterns of diseases ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takeda, Mitsuo; Wang, Wei; Naik, Dinesh N.
2011-10-01
We review two techniques of unconventional holography, coherence holography and photon-correlation holography, which we recently proposed and experimentally demonstrated. We will emphasize the importance of noticing mathematical analogies in optics and physical phenomena, which give insights into the methodology for developing new techniques.
Liu Weitao; Sun Shihai; Liang Linmei; Yuan Jianmin
2011-04-15
Any imperfections in a practical quantum key distribution (QKD) system may be exploited by an eavesdropper to collect information about the key without being discovered. We propose a modified photon-number-splitting attack scheme against QKD systems based on weak laser pulses taking advantage of possible multiphoton pulses. Proof-of-principle experiments are demonstrated. The results show that the eavesdropper can get information about the key generated between the legitimate parties without being detected. Since the equivalent attenuation introduced by the eavesdropper for pulses of different average photon numbers are different, the decoy-state method is effective in fighting against this kind of attack. This has also been proven in our experiments.
Migdall, Alan
VOLUME 77, NUMBER 10 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 2 SEPTEMBER 1996 Can Two-Photon Interference be Considered the Interference of Two Photons? T. B. Pittman,1 D. V. Strekalov,1 A. Migdall,2 M. H" experiment in which the observed two-photon entangled state interference cannot be pictured in terms
Hannequin, Pascal Paul
2015-06-01
Noise reduction in photon-counting images remains challenging, especially at low count levels. We have developed an original procedure which associates two complementary filters using a Wiener-derived approach. This approach combines two statistically adaptive filters into a dual-weighted (DW) filter. The first one, a statistically weighted adaptive (SWA) filter, replaces the central pixel of a sliding window with a statistically weighted sum of its neighbors. The second one, a statistical and heuristic noise extraction (extended) (SHINE-Ext) filter, performs a discrete cosine transformation (DCT) using sliding blocks. Each block is reconstructed using its significant components which are selected using tests derived from multiple linear regression (MLR). The two filters are weighted according to Wiener theory. This approach has been validated using a numerical phantom and a real planar Jaszczak phantom. It has also been illustrated using planar bone scintigraphy and myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. Performances of filters have been tested using mean normalized absolute error (MNAE) between the filtered images and the reference noiseless or high-count images.Results show that the proposed filters quantitatively decrease the MNAE in the images and then increase the signal-to-noise Ratio (SNR). This allows one to work with lower count images. The SHINE-Ext filter is well suited to high-size images and low-variance areas. DW filtering is efficient for low-size images and in high-variance areas. The relative proportion of eliminated noise generally decreases when count level increases. In practice, SHINE filtering alone is recommended when pixel spacing is less than one-quarter of the effective resolution of the system and/or the size of the objects of interest. It can also be used when the practical interest of high frequencies is low. In any case, DW filtering will be preferable.The proposed filters have been applied to nuclear medicine images but can also be used for any other kind of photon-counting images, such as x-ray and fluorescence images. PMID:26009552
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hannequin, Pascal Paul
2015-06-01
Noise reduction in photon-counting images remains challenging, especially at low count levels. We have developed an original procedure which associates two complementary filters using a Wiener-derived approach. This approach combines two statistically adaptive filters into a dual-weighted (DW) filter. The first one, a statistically weighted adaptive (SWA) filter, replaces the central pixel of a sliding window with a statistically weighted sum of its neighbors. The second one, a statistical and heuristic noise extraction (extended) (SHINE-Ext) filter, performs a discrete cosine transformation (DCT) using sliding blocks. Each block is reconstructed using its significant components which are selected using tests derived from multiple linear regression (MLR). The two filters are weighted according to Wiener theory. This approach has been validated using a numerical phantom and a real planar Jaszczak phantom. It has also been illustrated using planar bone scintigraphy and myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. Performances of filters have been tested using mean normalized absolute error (MNAE) between the filtered images and the reference noiseless or high-count images. Results show that the proposed filters quantitatively decrease the MNAE in the images and then increase the signal-to-noise Ratio (SNR). This allows one to work with lower count images. The SHINE-Ext filter is well suited to high-size images and low-variance areas. DW filtering is efficient for low-size images and in high-variance areas. The relative proportion of eliminated noise generally decreases when count level increases. In practice, SHINE filtering alone is recommended when pixel spacing is less than one-quarter of the effective resolution of the system and/or the size of the objects of interest. It can also be used when the practical interest of high frequencies is low. In any case, DW filtering will be preferable. The proposed filters have been applied to nuclear medicine images but can also be used for any other kind of photon-counting images, such as x-ray and fluorescence images.
Andrii Sokolov
2015-12-29
We determine the optimal parameters for a simple and efficient scheme of dispersive readout of a qubit. Depending on the qubit state (ground or excited), the resonance of a cavity is shifted either to the red or to the blue side. Qubit state is inferred by detecting the photon number transmitted through the cavity. It turns out that this kind of detection provides better measurement fidelity than the detection of the presence or absence of photons only. We show that radiating the cavity on either of the frequencies it shifts to results in a suboptimal measurement. The optimal frequency of the probe photons is determined, as well as the optimal ratio of the shift to the resonator leakage. It is shown that to maximize the fidelity of a long-lasting measurement, it is sufficient to use the parameters optimizing the signal-to-noise ratio in the photon count. One can reach 99% fidelity for a single-shot measurement in various physical realizations of the scheme.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, Pharis E.
2013-10-01
The initial theoretical finding that eventually led to laser development was Einstein's prediction, based upon statistical considerations, that the energy of quanta of light be given by Planck's constant times the frequency of the light. A new theoretical development based upon Weyl's gauge field theory predicts that photon energies are quantized with the energy given by N2h?. Such quantization of photon energy changes the character of the photon from the Einstein photon that does not have a quantum number. Photon energy that includes a quantum number means that for a given energy the frequency may have more than one value. Conversely, photons of a given frequency may be found that have more energy than the Einstein photon. Further, the phat photons, all at a given frequency will have energy proportional to the number of phat photons and N2. For these phat photons the electric field strength, which causes breakdown in optical fibers or air, depends linearly on N. Thus, more energy may be transmitted using phat photons of higher quantum numbers than increasing the number of photons of lesser quantum numbers while still keeping the electric field below the breakdown level. Further, while the stimulated and spontaneous emission probabilities are proportional to 1/N2 the Rayleigh scattering cross section diminishes by 1/N8. This reduction in the scattering cross section means that a laser emitting phat photons with N<1 will lose less energy traveling through the Earth's atmosphere than lasers using N=1. This reduction in energy losses through the atmosphere means increased efficiency for Earth based beamed applications. This presentation discusses the fundamental theory, emission probabilities, and cross section calculations.
Statistical analyses of the magnet data for the advanced photon source storage ring magnets
Kim, S.H.; Carnegie, D.W.; Doose, C.; Hogrefe, R.; Kim, K.; Merl, R.
1995-05-01
The statistics of the measured magnetic data of 80 dipole, 400 quadrupole, and 280 sextupole magnets of conventional resistive designs for the APS storage ring is summarized. In order to accommodate the vacuum chamber, the curved dipole has a C-type cross section and the quadrupole and sextupole cross sections have 180{degrees} and 120{degrees} symmetries, respectively. The data statistics include the integrated main fields, multipole coefficients, magnetic and mechanical axes, and roll angles of the main fields. The average and rms values of the measured magnet data meet the storage ring requirements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xiang-Yuan; Qian, Xian-Mei; Li, Yu-Jie; Rao, Rui-Zhong
2014-12-01
The number of return photons from sodium laser beacon (SLB) greatly suffers down-pumping, recoil, and geomagnetic field when the long pulse laser with circular polarization interacts with sodium atoms in the mesosphere. Considering recoil and down-pumping effects on the number of return photons from SLB, the spontaneous radiation rates are obtained by numerical computations and fittings. Furthermore, combining with the geomagnetic field effects, a new expression is achieved for calculating the number of return photons. By using this expression and considering the stochastic distribution of laser intensity in the mesosphere under different turbulence models for atmosphere, the number of return photons excited by the narrow-band single mode laser and that by the narrow-band three-mode laser are respectively calculated. The results show that the narrow-band three-mode laser with a specific spectrum structure has a higher spontaneous radiation rate and more return photons than a narrow-band single mode laser. Of note, the effect of the atmospheric turbulence on the number of return photons is remarkable. Calculation results indicate that the number of return photons under the HV5/7 model for atmospheric turbulence is much higher than that under the Greenwood and ModHV models.
1. Department, Course Number, Title ORE 608, Probability and Statistics for Ocean Engineers
and statistics Water wave mechanics 5. Textbooks and/or Other Reading Material Textbooks: None Reference books: 1 Stochastic Processes Moments and Expected Values Fourier Analysis Statistics of Extreme Events Auto
Solar light trapping in slanted conical-pore photonic crystals: Beyond statistical ray trapping
John, Sajeev
in real-time. To achieve high solar power conversion efficiency, one need to use advanced materialsn2 statistical ray trapping." These results suggest silicon solar cell efficiencies exceeding 20. With the exception of nuclear energy, nearly all other sources of power in use today are derivatives of solar power
Boyd, Robert W.
PHYSICAL REVIEW B VOLUME 23, NUMBER 3 1 FEBRUARY 1981 Three-photon absorption in Nd-doped yttrium observed in Nd-doped yttrium alumi- num garnet (Nd: YAG). This process probes the energy-level structure enhanced, three-, photon absorption in Nd-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Alg0~2) or Nd: YAG
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jing-Song; Zhao, Liang
2012-12-01
Six different statistical methods (i.e., correlation, difference, prominent period, variance contribution, scale-averaged spectrum, and cross spectrum) are used to test for regional differences in the relationship between the 11 year sunspot cycle and June precipitation in China during the 20th century. In the Huaihe River basin (HRB) of central China, located at the marginal region of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM), there exists a reliable positive-correlation relationship between the 11 year sunspot cycle and June precipitation; whereas, possible negative and very weak positive correlations in the south of the middle-lower Yangtze River Region and the HeTao Basin (HTB), located in the interior of the EASM and the westerlies, respectively. The reasons for these regional differences are investigated, revealing that the marginal region of EASM may be more sensitive to solar forcing than is its interior, which results in the HRB becoming the most susceptible (strongest correlation) region. That is to say, in June during the high sunspot number (SSN) years, the influence of the EASM is significantly greater and more to the north than that in June during the low SSN years, causing the HRB to be mainly influenced by the EASM (westerlies) in June during the high (low) SSN years. The northward expansion of the June EASM probably resulted from enhancement of the low-level southwesterly monsoon flow over the northern tropical Indian Ocean, combined with an expansion of the western Pacific subtropical high at times of high SSN.
Reynolds Number Effects on Boundary Layer Streamwise Velocity Statistics and Length Scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Metzger, M.; Atzet, I.; Klewicki, J.
2003-11-01
Well-resolved streamwise velocity data were recently obtained in a turbulent boundary layer at R_? ? 5 × 10^6. Hot-wire anemometry experiments were performed on the salt playa of Utah's western desert under conditions of near-neutral thermal stability, as verified by the Monin-Obukhov length. A distinction of the present data is the use of 20 simultaneously sampled hot-wires to cover a wall normal distance (inner normalized) spanning 5? y^+ ? 10^4. Because of inherent temporal variations in the atmosphere, simultaneous data are needed to clarify trends in the statistical profiles. The present atmospheric results are compared with wind tunnel data acquired in the range 2500 ? R_? ? 1.5×10^4. In all cases, the inner normalized wire length is less than 10. The inner normalized mean profile at high R_? exhibit a logarithmic region with an inverse slope less than the typical value of ?=0.41, observed at lower R_?. Evidence for a secondary peak in the inner normalized rms profile is observed near y^+=550 at R_? ? 5 × 10^6. The variation of intermediate length and time scales (Taylor microscales) as a function of Reynolds number and distance from the wall is also presented.
Hui, Y.Y.; Chang, Y.-R.; Lee, H.-Y.; Chang, H.-C.; Lim, T.-S.; Fann Wunshain
2009-01-05
The number of negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centers (N-V){sup -} in fluorescent nanodiamond (FND) has been determined by photon correlation spectroscopy and Monte Carlo simulations at the single particle level. By taking account of the random dipole orientation of the multiple (N-V){sup -} fluorophores and simulating the probability distribution of their effective numbers (N{sub e}), we found that the actual number (N{sub a}) of the fluorophores is in linear correlation with N{sub e}, with correction factors of 1.8 and 1.2 in measurements using linearly and circularly polarized lights, respectively. We determined N{sub a}=8{+-}1 for 28 nm FND particles prepared by 3 MeV proton irradiation.
Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.
Photon-number squeezing in a free-running quantum-well laser operating at 980 nm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wölfl, F.; Ispasoiu, R. G.; Ryan, J. F.; Fox, A. M.
2002-04-01
We present intensity noise investigations of a free-running InGaAs quantum-well laser diode operating at 980 nm at room temperature. The laser had a threshold current of 17 mA. Photon-number squeezing was achieved for drive currents of 48 mA when the laser was operating on two dominant longitudinal modes. The degree of squeezing obtained was 9%, which was in reasonable agreement with the current-to-current efficiency of 11%. No squeezing was observed at 35 K.
Wai, Ping-kong Alexander
of emerging dynamic fiber optic communication networks [1]. In particular, monitoring optical signalIEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 22, NO. 3, FEBRUARY 1, 2010 149 Statistical Analysis of Optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio Monitoring Using Delay-Tap Sampling F. N. Khan, Alan Pak Tao Lau, Zhaohui Li
Yu, Alex
/philosophy of science. This article will discuss how statistical methods developed by Karl Pearson and R. A. Fisher and Neyman/E .S. Pearson, son of Karl Pearson, respectively. Students will appreciate the meanings and Karl Pearson are considered the two most important figures in statistics as well as influential
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coughlin, Mary Ann; Pagano, Marian
This monograph covers the theory, application, and interpretation of both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques in institutional research. Each chapter opens with a hypothetical case study, which is used to illustrate the application of one or more statistical procedures to typical research questions. Chapter 2 covers the comparison…
Austin, Peter C
2010-01-01
Multilevel logistic regression models are increasingly being used to analyze clustered data in medical, public health, epidemiological, and educational research. Procedures for estimating the parameters of such models are available in many statistical software packages. There is currently little evidence on the minimum number of clusters necessary to reliably fit multilevel regression models. We conducted a Monte Carlo study to compare the performance of different statistical software procedures for estimating multilevel logistic regression models when the number of clusters was low. We examined procedures available in BUGS, HLM, R, SAS, and Stata. We found that there were qualitative differences in the performance of different software procedures for estimating multilevel logistic models when the number of clusters was low. Among the likelihood-based procedures, estimation methods based on adaptive Gauss-Hermite approximations to the likelihood (glmer in R and xtlogit in Stata) or adaptive Gaussian quadrature (Proc NLMIXED in SAS) tended to have superior performance for estimating variance components when the number of clusters was small, compared to software procedures based on penalized quasi-likelihood. However, only Bayesian estimation with BUGS allowed for accurate estimation of variance components when there were fewer than 10 clusters. For all statistical software procedures, estimation of variance components tended to be poor when there were only five subjects per cluster, regardless of the number of clusters. PMID:20949128
Niederberger, Armand; Scarani, Valerio; Gisin, Nicolas
2005-04-01
In practical quantum cryptography, the source sometimes produces multiphoton pulses, thus enabling the eavesdropper Eve to perform the powerful photon-number-splitting (PNS) attack. Recently, it was shown by Curty and Luetkenhaus [Phys. Rev. A 69, 042321 (2004)] that the PNS attack is not always the optimal attack when two photons are present: if errors are present in the correlations Alice-Bob and if Eve cannot modify Bob's detection efficiency, Eve gains a larger amount of information using another attack based on a 2{yields}3 cloning machine. In this work, we extend this analysis to all distances Alice-Bob. We identify a new incoherent 2{yields}3 cloning attack which performs better than those described before. Using it, we confirm that, in the presence of errors, Eve's better strategy uses 2{yields}3 cloning attacks instead of the PNS. However, this improvement is very small for the implementations of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol. Thus, the existence of these new attacks is conceptually interesting but basically does not change the value of the security parameters of BB84. The main results are valid both for Poissonian and sub-Poissonian sources.
Divide-and-Conquer: An integrated photon-counting scheme
Rene Heilmann; Jan Sperling; Armando Perez-Leija; Markus Graefe; Matthias Heinrich; Stefan Nolte; Werner Vogel; Alexander Szameit
2015-02-17
The key requirement for harnessing the quantum properties of light is the capability to detect and count individual photons. Of particular interest are photon-number-resolving detectors, which allow one to determine whether a state of light is classical or genuinely quantum. Existing schemes for addressing this challenge rely on a proportional conversion of photons to electrons. As such, they are capable of correctly characterizing small photon fluxes, yet are limited by uncertainties in the conversion rate. In this work, we employ a divide-and-conquer approach to overcome these limitations by transforming the incident fields into uniform distributions that readily lend themselves for characterization by standard on-off detectors. Since the exact statistics of the light stream are obtained from the click statistics, our technique is freely scalable to accommodate - in principle - arbitrarily large photon fluxes. Our experiments pave the way towards genuine integrated photon-number-resolving detectors for advanced on-chip photonic quantum networks.
Disability Statistics in the Developing World: A Reflection on the Meanings in Our Numbers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fujiura, Glenn T.; Park, Hye J.; Rutkowski-Kmitta, Violet
2005-01-01
Background: The imbalance between the sheer size of the developing world and what little is known about the lives and life circumstances of persons with disabilities living there should command our attention. Method: International development initiatives routinely give great priority to the collection of statistical indicators yet even the most…
Manufacturing Numbers: How Inaccurate Statistics Conceal U.S. Industrial Decline.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mishel, Lawrence
Contrary to a major statistical series calculated by the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Gross Product Originating (GPO) series, the United States has experienced a definite erosion of its industrial base between 1973 and 1985, with manufacturing dropping at least 2.8 percent and perhaps as much as 4.5 percent in its share of national…
Health Conditions and Impairments Causing Disability. Disabililty Statistics Abstract, Number 16.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
LaPlante, Mitchell P.
This statistical digest presents data on the prevalence of disabling conditions among the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States. Data were obtained from the National Health Interview Survey, consisting of 49,401 household interviews with 128,412 people in 1992. Disability is defined as a limitation in social or other…
Equipartitions and a distribution for numbers: A statistical model for Benford's law
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iafrate, Joseph R.; Miller, Steven J.; Strauch, Frederick W.
2015-06-01
A statistical model for the fragmentation of a conserved quantity is analyzed, using the principle of maximum entropy and the theory of partitions. Upper and lower bounds for the restricted partitioning problem are derived and applied to the distribution of fragments. The resulting power law directly leads to Benford's law for the first digits of the parts.
Equipartitions and a Distribution for Numbers: A Statistical Model for Benford's Law
Iafrate, Joseph R; Strauch, Frederick W
2015-01-01
A statistical model for the fragmentation of a conserved quantity is analyzed, using the principle of maximum entropy and the theory of partitions. Upper and lower bounds for the restricted partitioning problem are derived and applied to the distribution of fragments. The resulting power law directly leads to Benford's law for the first digits of the parts.
Need for Assistance in the Activities of Daily Living. Disability Statistics Abstract, Number 18.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kennedy, Jae; LaPlante, Mitchell P.; Kaye, H. Stephen
This abstract summarizes recent statistics on those needing assistance in Activities of Daily Living (ADLs), along with participation rates for various proposed benefit programs, based on an analysis of the 1990-91 Survey of Income and Program Participation. Analysis indicates: (1) an estimated 1.9 percent of the population has difficulty…
Static Numbers to Dynamic Statistics: Designing a Policy-Friendly Social Policy Indicator Framework
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ahn, Sang-Hoon; Choi, Young Jun; Kim, Young-Mi
2012-01-01
In line with the economic crisis and rapid socio-demographic changes, the interest in "social" and "well-being" indicators has been revived. Social indicator movements of the 1960s resulted in the establishment of social indicator statistical frameworks; that legacy has remained intact in many national governments and international organisations.…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Del Lama, L. S.; Soares, L. D. H.; Antoniassi, M.; Poletti, M. E.
2015-06-01
The Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio (R/C) has been used as a reliable quantitative method for materials analysis, especially biological ones Unlike the conventional transmission method, which is sensitive to linear attenuation coefficients, the R/C ratio is more useful for situations where the ? variations are small and the atomic number variations become more significant. In the present study, gamma rays from an 241Am source with an energy of 59.54 keV were used to determine the effective atomic numbers for several materials considering the conventional total cross-section based method (ZeffATTEN) and also the intensity ratio between elastic (Rayleigh) and inelastic (Compton) scattered photons (ZeffR/C). Common liquid and solid compounds used as phantoms for investigation of radiation interaction effects on biological tissues were analyzed. This work aimed to use the R/C method in choosing the most suitable phantom to simulate biological tissues, considering two different experimental conditions: attenuation and scattering. The Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio was shown to be a complementary approach to assist in the selection of appropriate tissue substitute materials.
Piepel, Gregory F.; Matzke, Brett D.; Sego, Landon H.; Amidan, Brett G.
2013-04-27
This report discusses the methodology, formulas, and inputs needed to make characterization and clearance decisions for Bacillus anthracis-contaminated and uncontaminated (or decontaminated) areas using a statistical sampling approach. Specifically, the report includes the methods and formulas for calculating the • number of samples required to achieve a specified confidence in characterization and clearance decisions • confidence in making characterization and clearance decisions for a specified number of samples for two common statistically based environmental sampling approaches. In particular, the report addresses an issue raised by the Government Accountability Office by providing methods and formulas to calculate the confidence that a decision area is uncontaminated (or successfully decontaminated) if all samples collected according to a statistical sampling approach have negative results. Key to addressing this topic is the probability that an individual sample result is a false negative, which is commonly referred to as the false negative rate (FNR). The two statistical sampling approaches currently discussed in this report are 1) hotspot sampling to detect small isolated contaminated locations during the characterization phase, and 2) combined judgment and random (CJR) sampling during the clearance phase. Typically if contamination is widely distributed in a decision area, it will be detectable via judgment sampling during the characterization phrase. Hotspot sampling is appropriate for characterization situations where contamination is not widely distributed and may not be detected by judgment sampling. CJR sampling is appropriate during the clearance phase when it is desired to augment judgment samples with statistical (random) samples. The hotspot and CJR statistical sampling approaches are discussed in the report for four situations: 1. qualitative data (detect and non-detect) when the FNR = 0 or when using statistical sampling methods that account for FNR > 0 2. qualitative data when the FNR > 0 but statistical sampling methods are used that assume the FNR = 0 3. quantitative data (e.g., contaminant concentrations expressed as CFU/cm2) when the FNR = 0 or when using statistical sampling methods that account for FNR > 0 4. quantitative data when the FNR > 0 but statistical sampling methods are used that assume the FNR = 0. For Situation 2, the hotspot sampling approach provides for stating with Z% confidence that a hotspot of specified shape and size with detectable contamination will be found. Also for Situation 2, the CJR approach provides for stating with X% confidence that at least Y% of the decision area does not contain detectable contamination. Forms of these statements for the other three situations are discussed in Section 2.2. Statistical methods that account for FNR > 0 currently only exist for the hotspot sampling approach with qualitative data (or quantitative data converted to qualitative data). This report documents the current status of methods and formulas for the hotspot and CJR sampling approaches. Limitations of these methods are identified. Extensions of the methods that are applicable when FNR = 0 to account for FNR > 0, or to address other limitations, will be documented in future revisions of this report if future funding supports the development of such extensions. For quantitative data, this report also presents statistical methods and formulas for 1. quantifying the uncertainty in measured sample results 2. estimating the true surface concentration corresponding to a surface sample 3. quantifying the uncertainty of the estimate of the true surface concentration. All of the methods and formulas discussed in the report were applied to example situations to illustrate application of the methods and interpretation of the results.
PHOTONIC NANOJET PHOTONIC NANOJET
Poon, Andrew Wing On
PHOTONIC NANOJET SCANNING MICROSCOPY PHOTONIC NANOJET SCANNING MICROSCOPY Project Members: LEE Yi Final Year Project (2004 2005) #12;OVERVIEW Photonic nanojet Photonic nanojet measurement Conventional Photonic Nanojet Scanning MicroscopePhotonic Nanojet Scanning Microscope AFM tip scanning AFM tip scanning
A Statistical Analysis for Estimating Fish Number Density with the Use of a Multibeam Echosounder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schroth-Miller, Madeline L.
Fish number density can be estimated from the normalized second moment of acoustic backscatter intensity [Denbigh et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 90, 457-469 (1991)]. This method assumes that the distribution of fish scattering amplitudes is known and that the fish are randomly distributed following a Poisson volume distribution within regions of constant density. It is most useful at low fish densities, relative to the resolution of the acoustic device being used, since the estimators quickly become noisy as the number of fish per resolution cell increases. New models that include noise contributions are considered. The methods were applied to an acoustic assessment of juvenile Atlantic Bluefin Tuna, Thunnus thynnus. The data were collected using a 400 kHz multibeam echo sounder during the summer months of 2009 in Cape Cod, MA. Due to the high resolution of the multibeam system used, the large size (approx. 1.5 m) of the tuna, and the spacing of the fish in the school, we expect there to be low fish densities relative to the resolution of the multibeam system. Results of the fish number density based on the normalized second moment of acoustic intensity are compared to fish packing density estimated using aerial imagery that was collected simultaneously.
Dependence of the statistical distribution of reduced neutron widths on the quantum number K
Masterov, V.S.; Rabotnov, N.S.
1984-02-01
The assumption of a random distribution of the quantum number K in states corresponding to neutron resonances in odd nuclei is analyzed in detail; the resulting expression for the reaction amplitude is used to study the distribution of reduced neutron widths. The distribution obtained has a relative dispersion ((GAMMA/sup 0//sub n/)/sup 2/)-(Gamma-bar/sup 0//sub n/)/sup 2/)/(Gamma-bar/sup 0//sub n/)/sup 2/approx. =2.7.5. The observed dispersions are on the average smaller almost by a factor of two, which may point to appreciable correlation of the partial (with respect to K) amplitudes.
2. Statistical mechanics of particles 2.1 The need for a statistical description of particles
Pohl, Martin Karl Wilhelm
2. Statistical mechanics of particles 2.1 The need for a statistical description of particles Astrophysical objects contain a large number of particles. The sun for example is made up of approximately 1057 individual atomic nuclei, not to count electrons, photons, and neutrinos. The particles will interact via
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gounhalli, Shivraj G.; Shantappa, Anil; Hanagodimath, S. M.
2013-04-01
Effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption ZPEA,eff, photon interaction ZPI,eff and for electron density Nel, have been calculated by a direct method in the photon-energy region from 1 keV to 20 MeV for narcotic drugs, such as Heroin (H), Cocaine (CO), Caffeine (CA), Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Cannabinol (CBD), Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV). The ZPEA,eff, ZPI,eff and Nel values have been found to change with energy and composition of the narcotic drugs. The energy dependence ZPEA,eff, ZPI,eff and Nel is shown graphically. The maximum difference between the values of ZPEA,eff, and ZPI,eff occurs at 30 keV and the significant difference of 2 to 33% for the energy region 5-100 keV for all drugs. The reason for these differences is discussed.
Quantum random number generator
M. Stipcevic; B. Medved Rogina
2007-01-01
We report upon a novel principle for realization of a fast nondeterministic random number generator whose randomness relies on intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission in semiconductors and subsequent detection by the photoelectric effect. Timing information of detected photons is used to generate binary random digits-bits. The bit extraction method based on restartable clock theoretically eliminates both bias and autocorrelation while reaching efficiency of almost 0.5 bits per random event. A prototype has been built and statistically tested.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Zetong; Lai, Zhenhua; Zhang, Xi; Yin, Jihao; DiMarzio, Charles A.
2015-03-01
Melanin is regarded as the most enigmatic pigments/biopolymers found in most organisms. We have shown previously that melanin goes through a step-wise multi-photon absorption process after the fluorescence has been activated with high laser intensity. No melanin step-wise multi-photon activation fluorescence (SMPAF) can be obtained without the activation process. The step-wise multi-photon activation fluorescence has been observed to require less laser power than what would be expected from a non-linear optical process. In this paper, we examined the power dependence of the activation process of melanin SMPAF at 830nm and 920nm wavelengths. We have conducted research using varying the laser power to activate the melanin in a point-scanning mode for multi-photon microscopy. We recorded the fluorescence signals and position. A sequence of experiments indicates the relationship of activation to power, energy and time so that we can optimize the power level. Also we explored regional analysis of melanin to study the spatial relationship in SMPAF and define three types of regions which exhibit differences in the activation process.
Study of surface plasmon statistics by optical methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oszetzky, Dániel; Kroó, Norbert; Nagy, Attila; Czitrovszky, Aladár
2008-08-01
Recent theoretical and experimental studies indicated that at certain conditions surface plasmon oscillations (SPOs) may show non-classical properties. In this study we present the results of our measurements on spatial distribution and photon statistics of the light emitted by surface plasmon oscillations. Both visible and near infrared lasers have been used for generation of surface plasmons. The experiments were performed in the Kretschmann geometry using both gold and silver layers at several laser pumping powers. We used different type of photo detectors in the photon counting regime to measure the statistical properties of the light generated by surface plasmons. The photon statistics have been measured by different methods. Time interval statistics, photon-number distribution and correlation function of the generated light were determined and compared to those of the exciting laser. Correlations between statistical properties of the light emitted by decaying surface plasmons and the exciting laser source have been studied.
Solomon, Patty
of statistics? Presumably because the conduct of "statistics" in the medical literature has been found to be consistently poor,1 the transfer of innovative statistical techniques into the medical literature has been ABSTRACT Statistics and biomedical literature have historically had an uneasy alliance. A critical approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Housiadas, Kostas; Beris, Antony
2002-11-01
We present a wide post-processing of our results obtained from direct numerical simulations of turbulent viscoelastic channel flow modeled by the FENE-P and the Giesekus model. The flow parameters are the friction Reynolds number, Re_ô0, the friction Weissenberg number, We_ô0, the molecular extensibility, L, for the FENE-P model, or the anisotropic mobility parameter, á, for Giesekus and the ratio of the solvent to the total viscosity, â. We have performed four main series of runs to investigate: (a) the effect of the elasticity by varying the We_ô0 from 0 to 125, (b) the effect of inertia by varying Re_ô0 from 125 to 590, (c) the effect of the chain molecular weight by varying L from 10 to 30 and (d) the effect of the molecular concentration of the polymer by varying â from 0.9 to 0.99. We present the following statistic results: (i) energy budgets for the Reynolds stresses (ii) energy budgets for the enstrophy (offering a new grouping of terms), (iii) quadrant analysis for the Reynolds stresses and (iv) the energy spectrum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hackl, Jason F.
The relative dispersion of one uid particle with respect to another is fundamentally related to the transport and mixing of contaminant species in turbulent flows. The most basic consequence of Kolmogorov's 1941 similarity hypotheses for relative dispersion, the Richardson-Obukhov law that mean-square pair separation distance
Olivares, Stefano
2012-01-01
with multimode pulsed quantum states Alessia Allevi* Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia, Universit`a degli multimode states in regimes realistic for quantum technology, that is, in the mesoscopic photon, the very multimode nature of the bipartite states used in many quantum protocols requires both theoretical
Resonant excitation and photon entanglement from semiconductor quantum dots
Ana Predojevi?
2015-03-01
In this chapter we review the use of semiconductor quantum dots as sources of quantum light. Principally, we focus on resonant two-photon excitation, which is a method that allows for on-demand generation of photon pairs. We explore the advantages of resonant excitation and present a number of measurements that were made in this excitation regime. In particular, we cover the following topics: photon statistics, coherent manipulation of the ground-excited state superposition, and generation of time-bin entangled photon pairs.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schoenborn, Charlotte A.
This report is based on data from the 1988 National Health Interview Survey on Alcohol (NHIS-Alcohol), part of the ongoing National Health Interview Survey conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics. Interviews for the NHIS are conducted in person by staff of the United States Bureau of the Census. Information is collected on each…
J. D. Jackson
2002-01-09
A classical calculation, modified by Compton-recoil kinematics, of the radiation emitted by a relativistic neutrino with mass and a magnetic moment passing through a transverse magnetic field. The calculation is performed in the neutrinos rest frame by the method of virtual quanta. The total number N of virtual quanta scattered by the neutrino is determined. The semi-classical result for the analog of the Klein-Nishina formula is compared with a QED calculation of the photon scattering cross section. The different angular distributions, both strongly peaked, lead to a factor of two difference between the QED and semi-classical results for N.
Properties of two-mode squeezed number states
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chizhov, Alexei V.; Murzakhmetov, B. K.
1994-01-01
Photon statistics and phase properties of two-mode squeezed number states are studied. It is shown that photon number distribution and Pegg-Barnett phase distribution for such states have similar (N + 1)-peak structure for nonzero value of the difference in the number of photons between modes. Exact analytical formulas for phase distributions based on different phase approaches are derived. The Pegg-Barnett phase distribution and the phase quasiprobability distribution associated with the Wigner function are close to each other, while the phase quasiprobability distribution associated with the Q function carries less phase information.
Gilbert, R.O.; Kinnison, R.R.
1981-08-01
The commonly used procedure for estimating the Extreme Value distribution of a sequence of measurements implicitly assumes the samples are from a stationary random process. This ignores the well known systematic and cyclic trends that typically occur. Ignoring these trends tends to overestimate the magnitude of the extremes and their associated statistics. This chapter has presented a procedure for including such trends within the parameter estimation algorithm. The result is a better estimate of extreme values.
Complete Quantum Thermodynamics of the Black Body Photon Gas
Pankovic, Vladan
2011-01-01
Kelly and Leff demonstrated and discussed formal and conceptual similarities between basic thermodynamic formulas for the classical ideal gas and black body photon gas. Leff pointed out that thermodynamic formulas for the photon gas cannot be deduced completely by thermodynamic methods since these formulas hold two characteristic parameters, {\\it r} and {\\it b}, whose accurate values can be obtained exclusively by accurate methods of the quantum statistics (by explicit use of the Planck's or Bose-Einstein distribution). In this work we prove that the complete quantum thermodynamics of the black body photon gas can be done by simple, thermodynamic (non-statistical) methods. We prove that both mentioned parameters and corresponding variables (photons number and pressure) can be obtained very simply and practically exactly (with relative error about few percent), by non-statistical (without any use of the Planck's or Bose-Einstein distribution), quantum thermodynamic methods. Corner-stone of these methods repres...
Volkán-Kacsó, Sándor
2014-06-14
A theoretical method is proposed for the calculation of the photon counting probability distribution during a bin time. Two-state fluorescence and steady excitation are assumed. A key feature is a kinetic scheme that allows for an extensive class of stochastic waiting time distribution functions, including power laws, expanded as a sum of weighted decaying exponentials. The solution is analytic in certain conditions, and an exact and simple expression is found for the integral contribution of “bright” and “dark” states. As an application for power law kinetics, theoretical results are compared with experimental intensity histograms from a number of blinking CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. The histograms are consistent with distributions of intensity states around a “bright” and a “dark” maximum. A gap of states is also revealed in the more-or-less flat inter-peak region. The slope and to some extent the flatness of the inter-peak feature are found to be sensitive to the power-law exponents. Possible models consistent with these findings are discussed, such as the combination of multiple charging and fluctuating non-radiative channels or the multiple recombination center model. A fitting of the latter to experiment provides constraints on the interaction parameter between the recombination centers. Further extensions and applications of the photon counting theory are also discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kraft, Ralph P.; Burrows, David N.; Nousek, John A.
1991-01-01
Two different methods, classical and Bayesian, for determining confidence intervals involving Poisson-distributed data are compared. Particular consideration is given to cases where the number of counts observed is small and is comparable to the mean number of background counts. Reasons for preferring the Bayesian over the classical method are given. Tables of confidence limits calculated by the Bayesian method are provided for quick reference.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurudirek, Murat; Onaran, Tayfur
2015-07-01
Effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and electron densities (Ne) of some essential biomolecules have been calculated for total electron interaction, total proton interaction and total alpha particle interaction using an interpolation method in the energy region 10 keV-1 GeV. Also, the spectrum weighted Zeff for multi-energetic photons has been calculated using Auto-Zeff program. Biomolecules consist of fatty acids, amino acids, carbohydrates and basic nucleotides of DNA and RNA. Variations of Zeff and Ne with kinetic energy of ionizing charged particles and effective photon energies of heterogeneous sources have been studied for the given materials. Significant variations in Zeff and Ne have been observed through the entire energy region for electron, proton and alpha particle interactions. Non-uniform variation has been observed for protons and alpha particles in low and intermediate energy regions, respectively. The maximum values of Zeff have found to be in higher energies for total electron interaction whereas maximum values have found to be in relatively low energies for total proton and total alpha particle interactions. When it comes to the multi-energetic photon sources, it has to be noted that the highest Zeff values were found at low energy region where photoelectric absorption is the pre-dominant interaction process. The lowest values of Zeff have been shown in biomolecules such as stearic acid, leucine, mannitol and thymine, which have highest H content in their groups. Variation in Ne seems to be more or less the same with the variation in Zeff for the given materials as expected.
the top 16 species of fish landed by anglers in Canada. How- ever, Fisheries and Environment Canada points, are under- represented owing to the limited survey of anglers who fished those waters. Species are ranked in order of total numbers of fish caught and retained by anglers. The first four (yellow perch, brook trout
Skin Conditions of Youths 12-17, United States. Vital and Health Statistics; Series 11, Number 157.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roberts, Jean; Ludford, Jacqueline
This report of the National Center for Health Statistics presents national estimates of the prevalence of facial acne and other skin lesions among noninstitutionalized youths aged 12-17 years by age, race, sex, geographic region, population size of place of residence, family income, education of parent, overall health, indications of stress,…
Knill, Oliver
regions, the creation and annihilation oper- ators for Al anticommute with those for A2. These axioms.l The purpose of the present paper is to attempt the same program for quantum- statistical mechanics and annihilation operators satisfying the canonical anticommutation relations, and, if Al and A2 are disjoint
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coast Community Coll. District, Costa Mesa, CA.
This instructor's manual for workplace trainers contains the materials required to conduct a course in pre-statistical process control. The course consists of six lessons for workers and two lessons for supervisors that discuss the following: concepts taught in the six lessons; workers' progress in the individual lessons; and strategies for…
Multi-Photon Interference and Temporal Distinguishability of Photons
Z. Y. Ou
2007-08-24
A number of recent interference experiments involving multiple photons are reviewed. These experiments include generalized photon bunching effects, generalized Hong-Ou-Mandel interference effects and multi-photon interferometry for demonstrations of multi-photon de Broglie wavelength. The multi-photon states used in these experiments are from two pairs of photons in parametric down-conversion. We find that the size of the interference effect in these experiments, characterized by the visibility of interference pattern, is governed by the degree of distinguishability among different pairs of photons. Based on this discovery, we generalize the concept of multi-photon temporal distinguishability and relate it to a number of multi-photon interference effects. Finally, we make an attempt to interpret the coherence theory by the multi-photon interference via the concept of temporal distinguishability of photons.
Statistically background-free, phase-preserving parametric up-conversion with faint light.
Cheng, Y-H; Thomay, Tim; Solomon, Glenn S; Migdall, Alan L; Polyakov, Sergey V
2015-07-13
We demonstrate up-conversion with no statistically significant background photons and a dynamic range of 15 decades. Near-infrared 920 nm photons were converted into the visible at 577 nm using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides pumped by a 1550 nm laser. In addition to achieving statistically noiseless frequency up-conversion, we report a high degree of phase preservation (with fringe visibilities ? 0.97) at the single-photon level using an up-converting Mach-Zehnder interferometer. This background-free process opens a path to single-photon detection with no intrinsic dark count. Combined with a demonstrated photon-number preserving property of an up-converter, this work demonstrates the feasibility of noiseless frequency up-conversion of entangled photon pairs. PMID:26191926
A bias free true random number generator
Wei Wei; Hong Guo
2009-05-15
We propose a new approach to nondeterministic random number generation. In theory, the randomness originated from the uncorrelated nature of consecutive laser pulses with Poissonian photon number distribution and that of the consecutive single photon detections is used to generate random bit. In experiment, von Neumann correction method is applied to extract the final random bit. This method is proved to be bias free in randomness generation, provided that the single photon detections are mutually independent, and further, it has the advantage in generation efficiency of random bits since no postprocessing is needed. A true random number generator based on this new method is realized and its randomness is guaranteed using three batteries of statistical tests.
Dhar, S.
1989-02-01
In electronic-structure calculations for finite systems using the local-spin-density (LSD) approximation, it is assumed that the eigenvalues of the Kohn-Sham equation should obey Fermi-Dirac (FD) statistics. In order to comply with this assumption for some of the transition-metal atoms, a nonintegral occupation number is used which also minimizes the total energy. It is shown here that for finite systems it is not necessary that the eigenvalues of the Kohn-Sham equation obey FD statistics. It is also shown that the Kohn-Sham exchange potential used in all LSD models is correct only for integer occupation number. With a noninteger occupation number the LSD exchange potential will be smaller than that given by the Kohn-Sham potential. Ab initio self-consistent spin-polarized calculations have been performed numerically for the total energy of an iron atom. It is found that the ground state belongs to the 3d/sup 6/4s/sup 2/ configuration. The ionization potentials of all the Fe/sup n//sup +/ ions are reported and are in agreement with experiment.
Year 3 Fall Photonic Science &
Hua, Kien A.
for Photonics (3) OSE 4470L (1) OSE 4470 Fiber-Optic Commun (3) OSE 4830L (1) OSE 4830 Imaging and Display (3 3321 Engineering Dynamics (3) EGN 3211** Engineering Analysis (3) STA 3032 Probability / Statistics (3) OSE 3052 Introduction to Photonics (3) OSE 4930 Frontiers of Optics & Photonics (2) CHS 1440
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kallies, J.; Özlük, A.; Peter, M.; Snyder, C.
Let
Zhang, Han; Zhao, Yang-Yu; Song, Jing; Zhu, Qi-Ying; Yang, Hua; Zheng, Mei-Ling; Xuan, Zhao-Ling; Wei, Yuan; Chen, Yang; Yuan, Peng-Bo; Yu, Yang; Li, Da-Wei; Liang, Jun-Bin; Fan, Ling; Chen, Chong-Jian; Qiao, Jie
2015-01-01
Analyses of cell-free fetal DNA (cff-DNA) from maternal plasma using massively parallel sequencing enable the noninvasive detection of feto-placental chromosome aneuploidy; this technique has been widely used in clinics worldwide. Noninvasive prenatal tests (NIPT) based on cff-DNA have achieved very high accuracy; however, they suffer from maternal copy-number variations (CNV) that may cause false positives and false negatives. In this study, we developed an algorithm to exclude the effect of maternal CNV and refined the Z-score that is used to determine fetal aneuploidy. The simulation results showed that the algorithm is robust against variations of fetal concentration and maternal CNV size. We also introduced a method based on the discrepancy between feto-placental concentrations to help reduce the false-positive ratio. A total of 6615 pregnant women were enrolled in a prospective study to validate the accuracy of our method. All 106 fetuses with T21, 20 with T18, and three with T13 were tested using our method, with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 99.97%. In the results, two cases with maternal duplications in chromosome 21, which were falsely predicted as T21 by the previous NIPT method, were correctly classified as normal by our algorithm, which demonstrated the effectiveness of our approach. PMID:26534864
Zhang, Han; Zhao, Yang-Yu; Song, Jing; Zhu, Qi-Ying; Yang, Hua; Zheng, Mei-Ling; Xuan, Zhao-Ling; Wei, Yuan; Chen, Yang; Yuan, Peng-Bo; Yu, Yang; Li, Da-Wei; Liang, Jun-Bin; Fan, Ling; Chen, Chong-Jian; Qiao, Jie
2015-01-01
Analyses of cell-free fetal DNA (cff-DNA) from maternal plasma using massively parallel sequencing enable the noninvasive detection of feto-placental chromosome aneuploidy; this technique has been widely used in clinics worldwide. Noninvasive prenatal tests (NIPT) based on cff-DNA have achieved very high accuracy; however, they suffer from maternal copy-number variations (CNV) that may cause false positives and false negatives. In this study, we developed an algorithm to exclude the effect of maternal CNV and refined the Z-score that is used to determine fetal aneuploidy. The simulation results showed that the algorithm is robust against variations of fetal concentration and maternal CNV size. We also introduced a method based on the discrepancy between feto-placental concentrations to help reduce the false-positive ratio. A total of 6615 pregnant women were enrolled in a prospective study to validate the accuracy of our method. All 106 fetuses with T21, 20 with T18, and three with T13 were tested using our method, with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 99.97%. In the results, two cases with maternal duplications in chromosome 21, which were falsely predicted as T21 by the previous NIPT method, were correctly classified as normal by our algorithm, which demonstrated the effectiveness of our approach. PMID:26534864
Hybrid laser with CMOS photonics
Chong, Johanna S
2014-01-01
In this thesis, an interesting approach for a photonic laser source is presented. By using integrated photonic resonators with an external gain medium, we are able to build a laser that offers a number of advantages including ...
The photon counting histogram in fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy.
Chen, Y; Müller, J D; So, P T; Gratton, E
1999-01-01
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is generally used to obtain information about the number of fluorescent particles in a small volume and the diffusion coefficient from the autocorrelation function of the fluorescence signal. Here we demonstrate that photon counting histogram (PCH) analysis constitutes a novel tool for extracting quantities from fluorescence fluctuation data, i.e., the measured photon counts per molecule and the average number of molecules within the observation volume. The photon counting histogram of fluorescence fluctuation experiments, in which few molecules are present in the excitation volume, exhibits a super-Poissonian behavior. The additional broadening of the PCH compared to a Poisson distribution is due to fluorescence intensity fluctuations. For diffusing particles these intensity fluctuations are caused by an inhomogeneous excitation profile and the fluctuations in the number of particles in the observation volume. The quantitative relationship between the detected photon counts and the fluorescence intensity reaching the detector is given by Mandel's formula. Based on this equation and considering the fluorescence intensity distribution in the two-photon excitation volume, a theoretical expression for the PCH as a function of the number of molecules in the excitation volume is derived. For a single molecular species two parameters are sufficient to characterize the histogram completely, namely the average number of molecules within the observation volume and the detected photon counts per molecule per sampling time epsilon. The PCH for multiple molecular species, on the other hand, is generated by successively convoluting the photon counting distribution of each species with the others. The influence of the excitation profile upon the photon counting statistics for two relevant point spread functions (PSFs), the three-dimensional Gaussian PSF conventionally employed in confocal detection and the square of the Gaussian-Lorentzian PSF for two photon excitation, is explicitly treated. Measured photon counting distributions obtained with a two-photon excitation source agree, within experimental error with the theoretical PCHs calculated for the square of a Gaussian-Lorentzian beam profile. We demonstrate and discuss the influence of the average number of particles within the observation volume and the detected photon counts per molecule per sampling interval upon the super-Poissonian character of the photon counting distribution. PMID:10388780
Brodsky, S.J.
1988-07-01
Highlights of the VIIIth International Workshop on Photon-Photon Collisions are reviewed. New experimental and theoretical results were reported in virtually every area of ..gamma gamma.. physics, particularly in exotic resonance production and tests of quantum chromodynamics where asymptotic freedom and factorization theorems provide predictions for both inclusive and exclusive ..gamma gamma.. reactions at high momentum transfer. 73 refs., 12 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karasik, Boris S.; Pereverzev, Sergey V.; Soibel, Alexander; Santavicca, Daniel F.; Prober, Daniel E.; Olaya, David; Gershenson, Michael E.
2012-07-01
We report on the detection of single photons with ? = 8 ?m using a superconducting hot-electron microbolometer. The sensing element is a titanium transition-edge sensor with a volume ˜0.1 ?m3 fabricated on a silicon substrate. Poisson photon counting statistics including simultaneous detection of 3 photons was observed. The width of the photon-number peaks was 0.11 eV, 70% of the photon energy, at 50-100 mK. This achieved energy resolution is one of the best figures reported so far for superconducting devices. Such devices can be suitable for single-photon calorimetric spectroscopy throughout the mid-infrared and even the far-infrared.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siegel, Z.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig
2011-03-01
RANDOMNESS of Numbers cognitive-semantics DEFINITION VIA Cognition QUERY: WHAT???, NOT HOW?) VS. computer-``science" mindLESS number-crunching (Harrel-Sipser-...) algorithmics Goldreich "PSEUDO-randomness"[Not.AMS(02)] mea-culpa is ONLY via MAXWELL-BOLTZMANN CLASSICAL-STATISTICS(NOT FDQS!!!) "hot-plasma" REPULSION VERSUS Newcomb(1881)-Weyl(1914;1916)-Benford(1938) "NeWBe" logarithmic-law digit-CLUMPING/ CLUSTERING NON-Randomness simple Siegel[AMS Joint.Mtg.(02)-Abs. # 973-60-124] algebraic-inversion to THE QUANTUM and ONLY BEQS preferentially SEQUENTIALLY lower-DIGITS CLUMPING/CLUSTERING with d = 0 BEC, is ONLY VIA Siegel-Baez FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS (SON OF TRIZ)/"Category-Semantics"(C-S), latter intersection/union of Lawvere(1964)-Siegel(1964)] category-theory (matrix: MORPHISMS V FUNCTORS) "+" cognitive-semantics'' (matrix: ANTONYMS V SYNONYMS) yields Siegel-Baez FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS/C-S tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics: MBCS RANDOMNESS TRUTH/EMET!!!
Chow, Tze-Show
1988-04-22
A photon calorimeter is provided that comprises a laminar substrate that is uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition. A plasma-sprayed coating, that is generally uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition within the proximity of planes that are parallel to the surfaces of the substrate, is applied to either one or both sides of the laminar substrate. The plasma-sprayed coatings may be very efficiently spectrally tailored in atomic number. Thermocouple measuring junctions, are positioned within the plasma-sprayed coatings. The calorimeter is rugged, inexpensive, and equilibrates in temperature very rapidly. 4 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hermann, Claudine
Statistical Physics bridges the properties of a macroscopic system and the microscopic behavior of its constituting particles, otherwise impossible due to the giant magnitude of Avogadro's number. Numerous systems of today's key technologies - such as semiconductors or lasers - are macroscopic quantum objects; only statistical physics allows for understanding their fundamentals. Therefore, this graduate text also focuses on particular applications such as the properties of electrons in solids with applications, and radiation thermodynamics and the greenhouse effect.
Complete Quantum Thermodynamics of the Black Body Photon Gas
Vladan Pankovic; Darko V. Kapor
2011-03-16
Kelly and Leff demonstrated and discussed formal and conceptual similarities between basic thermodynamic formulas for the classical ideal gas and black body photon gas. Leff pointed out that thermodynamic formulas for the photon gas cannot be deduced completely by thermodynamic methods since these formulas hold two characteristic parameters, {\\it r} and {\\it b}, whose accurate values can be obtained exclusively by accurate methods of the quantum statistics (by explicit use of the Planck's or Bose-Einstein distribution). In this work we prove that the complete quantum thermodynamics of the black body photon gas can be done by simple, thermodynamic (non-statistical) methods. We prove that both mentioned parameters and corresponding variables (photons number and pressure) can be obtained very simply and practically exactly (with relative error about few percent), by non-statistical (without any use of the Planck's or Bose-Einstein distribution), quantum thermodynamic methods. Corner-stone of these methods represents a quantum thermodynamic stability condition that is, in some degree, very similar to quantum stability condition in the Bohr quantum atomic theory (de Broglie's interpretation of the Bohr quantization postulate). Finally, we discuss conceptual similarities between black body photon gas entropy and Bekenstein-Hawking black hole entropy.
Park, Eun Sug; Symanski, Elaine; Han, Daikwon; Spiegelman, Clifford
2015-06-01
A major difficulty with assessing source-specific health effects is that source-specific exposures cannot be measured directly; rather, they need to be estimated by a source-apportionment method such as multivariate receptor modeling. The uncertainty in source apportionment (uncertainty in source-specific exposure estimates and model uncertainty due to the unknown number of sources and identifiability conditions) has been largely ignored in previous studies. Also, spatial dependence of multipollutant data collected from multiple monitoring sites has not yet been incorporated into multivariate receptor modeling. The objectives of this project are (1) to develop a multipollutant approach that incorporates both sources of uncertainty in source-apportionment into the assessment of source-specific health effects and (2) to develop enhanced multivariate receptor models that can account for spatial correlations in the multipollutant data collected from multiple sites. We employed a Bayesian hierarchical modeling framework consisting of multivariate receptor models, health-effects models, and a hierarchical model on latent source contributions. For the health model, we focused on the time-series design in this project. Each combination of number of sources and identifiability conditions (additional constraints on model parameters) defines a different model. We built a set of plausible models with extensive exploratory data analyses and with information from previous studies, and then computed posterior model probability to estimate model uncertainty. Parameter estimation and model uncertainty estimation were implemented simultaneously by Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC*) methods. We validated the methods using simulated data. We illustrated the methods using PM2.5 (particulate matter ? 2.5 ?m in aerodynamic diameter) speciation data and mortality data from Phoenix, Arizona, and Houston, Texas. The Phoenix data included counts of cardiovascular deaths and daily PM2.5 speciation data from 1995-1997. The Houston data included respiratory mortality data and 24-hour PM2.5 speciation data sampled every six days from a region near the Houston Ship Channel in years 2002-2005. We also developed a Bayesian spatial multivariate receptor modeling approach that, while simultaneously dealing with the unknown number of sources and identifiability conditions, incorporated spatial correlations in the multipollutant data collected from multiple sites into the estimation of source profiles and contributions based on the discrete process convolution model for multivariate spatial processes. This new modeling approach was applied to 24-hour ambient air concentrations of 17 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured at nine monitoring sites in Harris County, Texas, during years 2000 to 2005. Simulation results indicated that our methods were accurate in identifying the true model and estimated parameters were close to the true values. The results from our methods agreed in general with previous studies on the source apportionment of the Phoenix data in terms of estimated source profiles and contributions. However, we had a greater number of statistically insignificant findings, which was likely a natural consequence of incorporating uncertainty in the estimated source contributions into the health-effects parameter estimation. For the Houston data, a model with five sources (that seemed to be Sulfate-Rich Secondary Aerosol, Motor Vehicles, Industrial Combustion, Soil/Crustal Matter, and Sea Salt) showed the highest posterior model probability among the candidate models considered when fitted simultaneously to the PM2.5 and mortality data. There was a statistically significant positive association between respiratory mortality and same-day PM2.5 concentrations attributed to one of the sources (probably industrial combustion). The Bayesian spatial multivariate receptor modeling approach applied to the VOC data led to a highest posterior model probability for a model with five sources (that seemed to be refinery, petrochemical production, gasoline eva
Random number generation from spontaneous Raman scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collins, M. J.; Clark, A. S.; Xiong, C.; Mägi, E.; Steel, M. J.; Eggleton, B. J.
2015-10-01
We investigate the generation of random numbers via the quantum process of spontaneous Raman scattering. Spontaneous Raman photons are produced by illuminating a highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass ( As 2 S 3 ) fiber with a CW laser at a power well below the stimulated Raman threshold. Single Raman photons are collected and separated into two discrete wavelength detuning bins of equal scattering probability. The sequence of photon detection clicks is converted into a random bit stream. Postprocessing is applied to remove detector bias, resulting in a final bit rate of ˜650 kb/s. The collected random bit-sequences pass the NIST statistical test suite for one hundred 1 Mb samples, with the significance level set to ? = 0.01 . The fiber is stable, robust and the high nonlinearity (compared to silica) allows for a short fiber length and low pump power favourable for real world application.
Zeng, Chen
VOLUME 80, NUMBER 1 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 5 JANUARY 1998 Statistical Topography) The statistical topography of two-dimensional interfaces in the presence of quenched disorder is studied utilizing-in-time algorithms to study the topography [7] of disordered interfaces at zero tempera- ture. In contrast
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobayashi, M.; Kohno, M.; Kadoya, Y.; Yamanishi, M.; Abe, J.; Hirano, T.
1998-01-01
We demonstrate experimental results on the generation of sub-Poissonian photon fluxes emanating from an AlGaAs light-emitting diode, which manifest a wide-band (0-100 MHz) noise suppression below the standard quantum limit level despite low current density (˜38 A/cm2) operation at room temperature. The experimental noise power spectrum is well fitted in terms of the theoretical curve estimated with the quantum mechanical Langevin equations.
Accidental cloning of a single-photon qubit in two-channel continuous-variable quantum teleportation
Ide, Toshiki; Hofmann, Holger F.
2007-06-15
The information encoded in the polarization of a single photon can be transferred to a remote location by two-channel continuous-variable quantum teleportation. However, the finite entanglement used in the teleportation causes random changes in photon number. If more than one photon appears in the output, the continuous-variable teleportation accidentally produces clones of the original input photon. In this paper, we derive the polarization statistics of the N-photon output components and show that they can be decomposed into an optimal cloning term and completely unpolarized noise. We find that the accidental cloning of the input photon is nearly optimal at experimentally feasible squeezing levels, indicating that the loss of polarization information is partially compensated by the availability of clones.
Karasik, Boris S; Soibel, Alexander; Santavicca, Daniel F; Prober, Daniel E; Olaya, David; Gershenson, Michael E
2012-01-01
We report on the detection of single photons with {\\lambda} = 8 {\\mu}m using a superconducting hot-electron microbolometer. The sensing element is a titanium transition-edge sensor with a volume ~ 0.1 {\\mu}m^3 fabricated on a silicon substrate. Poisson photon counting statistics including simultaneous detection of 3 photons was observed. The width of the photon-number peaks was 0.11 eV, 70% of the photon energy, at 50-100 mK. This achieved energy resolution is the best figure reported so far for superconducting devices. Such devices can be suitable for single photon calorimetric spectroscopy throughout the mid-infrared and even the far-infrared.
A. Ringwald
2006-12-11
Precision experiments exploiting low-energy photons may yield information on particle physics complementary to experiments at high-energy colliders, in particular on new very light and very weakly interacting particles, predicted in many extensions of the standard model. Such particles may be produced by laser photons send along a transverse magnetic field. The laser polarization experiment PVLAS may have seen the first indirect signal of such particles by observing an anomalously large rotation of the polarization plane of photons after the passage through a magnetic field. This can be interpreted as evidence for photon disappearance due to particle production. There are a number of experimental proposals to test independently the particle interpretation of PVLAS. Many of them are based on the search for photon reappearance or regeneration, i.e. for ``light shining through a wall''. At DESY, the Axion-Like Particle Search (ALPS) collaboration is currently setting up such an experiment.
G. David; for the PHENIX Collaboration
2008-10-21
Direct photons are ideal tools to investigate kinematical and thermodynamical conditions of heavy ion collisions since they are emitted from all stages of the collision and once produced they leave the interaction region without further modification by the medium. The PHENIX experiment at RHIC has measured direct photon production in p+p and Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV over a wide transverse momentum ($p_T$) range. The $p$ + $p$ measurements allow a fundamental test of QCD, and serve as a baseline when we try to disentangle more complex mechanisms producing high $p_T$ direct photons in Au+Au. As for thermal photons in Au+Au we overcome the difficulties due to the large background from hadronic decays by measuring "almost real" virtual photons which appear as low invariant mass $e^+e^-$ pairs: a significant excess of direct photons is measured above the above next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. Additional insights on the origin of direct photons can be gained with the study of the azimuthal anisotropy which benefits from the increased statistics and reaction plane resolution achieved in RHIC Year-7 data.
Ben-Zion, Yehuda
of the Burridge-Knopoff (or "sliderblock") model in which the randomness can be generated dynamically, and inertia-9007(97)03365-6] PACS numbers: 91.30.Px, 62.20.Fe The Gutenberg-Richter law [1] for the statistics of earthquakes--frequency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belinskii, A. V.; Chirkin, A. S.
1990-08-01
A quantum theory of propagation of solitons in a nonlinear medium is developed based on Shroedinger's nonlinear equation for operators of positive and negative frequency parts of the field. The equation is derived in the continual-integral representation, a form useful in the analysis of the dynamics of quantum field fluctuations. An analysis is presented of the propagation of a fundamental soliton initially in the coherent state, and it is shown that the photon statistics of a soliton in a nonlinear medium does not change. It is also shown that under certain conditions fluctuations of one of the quadrature components of the field may be suppressed. Interference between the soliton and coherent radiation alters the photon statistics of the resulting field. The conditions for optimal suppression of the fluctuations of photon number and under which their sub-Poisson statistics occur are considered.
Lifetime statistics of quantum chaos studied by a multiscale analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Falco, A.; Krauss, T. F.; Fratalocchi, A.
2012-04-01
In a series of pump and probe experiments, we study the lifetime statistics of a quantum chaotic resonator when the number of open channels is greater than one. Our design embeds a stadium billiard into a two dimensional photonic crystal realized on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. We calculate resonances through a multiscale procedure that combines energy landscape analysis and wavelet transforms. Experimental data is found to follow the universal predictions arising from random matrix theory with an excellent level of agreement.
Random Number Generation Using Amplified Spontaneous Emission in a Fiber Amplifier
Anlage, Steven
Random Number Generation Using Amplified Spontaneous Emission in a Fiber Amplifier Julia C. Salevan methods including photon counting and chaotic systems. · We examine an optical system using the amplified spontaneous emission in a fiber amplifier as our random source. System Conclusions and Future Work Statistical
The photon gas formulation of thermal radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ried, R. C., Jr.
1975-01-01
A statistical consideration of the energy, the linear momentum, and the angular momentum of the photons that make up a thermal radiation field was presented. A general nonequilibrium statistical thermodynamics approach toward a macroscopic description of thermal radiation transport was developed and then applied to the restricted equilibrium statistical thermostatics derivation of the energy, linear momentum, and intrinsic angular momentum equations for an isotropic photon gas. A brief treatment of a nonisotropic photon gas, as an example of the results produced by the nonequilibrium statistical thermodynamics approach, was given. The relativistic variation of temperature and the invariance of entropy were illustrated.
Evans, Joshua D. Yu, Yaduo; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Whiting, Bruce R.; O’Sullivan, Joseph A.; Politte, David G.; Klahr, Paul H.
2013-12-15
Purpose: Accurate patient-specific photon cross-section information is needed to support more accurate model-based dose calculation for low energy photon-emitting modalities in medicine such as brachytherapy and kilovoltage x-ray imaging procedures. A postprocessing dual-energy CT (pDECT) technique for noninvasivein vivo estimation of photon linear attenuation coefficients has been experimentally implemented on a commercial CT scanner and its accuracy assessed in idealized phantom geometries. Methods: Eight test materials of known composition and density were used to compare pDECT-estimated linear attenuation coefficients to NIST reference values over an energy range from 10 keV to 1 MeV. As statistical image reconstruction (SIR) has been shown to reconstruct images with less random and systematic error than conventional filtered backprojection (FBP), the pDECT technique was implemented with both an in-house polyenergetic SIR algorithm, alternating minimization (AM), as well as a conventional FBP reconstruction algorithm. Improvement from increased spectral separation was also investigated by filtering the high-energy beam with an additional 0.5 mm of tin. The law of propagated uncertainty was employed to assess the sensitivity of the pDECT process to errors in reconstructed images. Results: Mean pDECT-estimated linear attenuation coefficients for the eight test materials agreed within 1% of NIST reference values for energies from 1 MeV down to 30 keV, with mean errors rising to between 3% and 6% at 10 keV, indicating that the method is unbiased when measurement and calibration phantom geometries are matched. Reconstruction with FBP and AM algorithms conferred similar mean pDECT accuracy. However, single-voxel pDECT estimates reconstructed on a 1 × 1 × 3 mm{sup 3} grid are shown to be highly sensitive to reconstructed image uncertainty; in some cases pDECT attenuation coefficient estimates exhibited standard deviations on the order of 20% around the mean. Reconstruction with the statistical AM algorithm led to standard deviations roughly 40% to 60% less than FBP reconstruction. Additional tin filtration of the high energy beam exhibits similar pDECT estimation accuracy as the unfiltered beam, even when scanning with only 25% of the dose. Using the law of propagated uncertainty, low Z materials are found to be more sensitive to image reconstruction errors than high Z materials. Furthermore, it is estimated that reconstructed CT image uncertainty must be limited to less than 0.25% to achieve a target linear-attenuation coefficient estimation uncertainty of 3% at 28 keV. Conclusions: That pDECT supports mean linear attenuation coefficient measurement accuracies of 1% of reference values for energies greater than 30 keV is encouraging. However, the sensitivity of the pDECT measurements to noise and systematic errors in reconstructed CT images warrants further investigation in more complex phantom geometries. The investigated statistical reconstruction algorithm, AM, reduced random measurement uncertainty relative to FBP owing to improved noise performance. These early results also support efforts to increase DE spectral separation, which can further reduce the pDECT sensitivity to measurement uncertainty.
Multi-photon entanglement in high dimensions
Mehul Malik; Manuel Erhard; Marcus Huber; Mario Krenn; Robert Fickler; Anton Zeilinger
2015-09-08
Entanglement lies at the heart of quantum mechanics $-$ as a fundamental tool for testing its deep rift with classical physics, while also providing a key resource for quantum technologies such as quantum computation and cryptography. In 1987 Greenberger, Horne, and Zeilinger realized that the entanglement of more than two particles implies a non-statistical conflict between local realism and quantum mechanics. The resulting predictions were experimentally confirmed by entangling three photons in their polarization. Experimental efforts since have singularly focused on increasing the number of particles entangled, while remaining in a two-dimensional space for each particle. Here we show the experimental generation of the first multi-photon entangled state where both $-$ the number of particles and the number of dimensions $-$ are greater than two. Interestingly, our state exhibits an asymmetric entanglement structure that is only possible when one considers multi-particle entangled states in high dimensions. Two photons in our state reside in a three-dimensional space, while the third lives in two dimensions. Our method relies on combining two pairs of photons, high-dimensionally entangled in their orbital angular momentum, in such a way that information about their origin is erased. Additionally, we show how this state enables a new type of "layered" quantum cryptographic protocol where two parties share an additional layer of secure information over that already shared by all three parties. In addition to their application in novel quantum communication protocols, such asymmetric entangled states serve as a manifestation of the complex dance of correlations that can exist within quantum mechanics.
Controlling photon transport in the single-photon weak-coupling regime of cavity optomechanics
Wen-Zhao Zhang; Jiong Cheng; Jing-Yi Liu; Ling Zhou
2015-07-01
We study the photon statistics properties of few-photon transport in an optomechanical system where an optomechanical cavity couples to two empty cavities. By analytically deriving the one- and two-photon currents in terms of a zero-time-delayed two-order correlation function, we show that a photon blockade can be achieved in both the single-photon strong-coupling regime and the single-photon weak-coupling regime due to the nonlinear interacting and multipath interference. Furthermore, our systems can be applied as a quantum optical diode, a single-photon source, and a quantum optical capacitor. It is shown that this the photon transport controlling devices based on photon antibunching does not require the stringent single-photon strong-coupling condition. Our results provide a promising platform for the coherent manipulation of optomechanics, which has potential applications for quantum information processing and quantum circuit realization.
Controlling photon transport in the single-photon weak-coupling regime of cavity optomechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Wen-Zhao; Cheng, Jiong; Liu, Jing-Yi; Zhou, Ling
2015-06-01
We study the photon statistics properties of few-photon transport in an optomechanical system where an optomechanical cavity couples to two empty cavities. By analytically deriving the one- and two-photon currents in terms of a zero-time-delayed two-order correlation function, we show that a photon blockade can be achieved in both the single-photon strong-coupling regime and the single-photon weak-coupling regime due to the nonlinear interacting and multipath interference. Furthermore, our systems can be applied as a quantum optical diode, a single-photon source, and a quantum optical capacitor. It is shown that this the photon transport controlling devices based on photon antibunching does not require the stringent single-photon strong-coupling condition. Our results provide a promising platform for the coherent manipulation of optomechanics, which has potential applications for quantum information processing and quantum circuit realization.
Quantum Interference Induced Photon Blockade in a Coupled Single Quantum Dot-Cavity System
Tang, Jing; Geng, Weidong; Xu, Xiulai
2015-01-01
We propose an experimental scheme to implement a strong photon blockade with a single quantum dot coupled to a nanocavity. The photon blockade effect can be tremendously enhanced by driving the cavity and the quantum dot simultaneously with two classical laser fields. This enhancement of photon blockade is ascribed to the quantum interference effect to avoid two-photon excitation of the cavity field. Comparing with Jaynes-Cummings model, the second-order correlation function at zero time delay g(2)(0) in our scheme can be reduced by two orders of magnitude and the system sustains a large intracavity photon number. A red (blue) cavity-light detuning asymmetry for photon quantum statistics with bunching or antibunching characteristics is also observed. The photon blockade effect has a controllable flexibility by tuning the relative phase between the two pumping laser fields and the Rabi coupling strength between the quantum dot and the pumping field. Moreover, the photon blockade scheme based on quantum interference mechanism does not require a strong coupling strength between the cavity and the quantum dot, even with the pure dephasing of the system. This simple proposal provides an effective way for potential applications in solid state quantum computation and quantum information processing. PMID:25783560
Velchik, M.G.
1987-01-01
Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the detection and treatment of osteoporosis. This paper is a review of the merits and limitations of the various noninvasive modalities currently available for the measurement of bone mineral density with special emphasis placed upon the nuclear medicine techniques of single-photon and dual-photon absorptiometry. The clinicians should come away with an understanding of the relative advantages and disadvantages of photon absorptiometry and its optimal clinical application. 49 references.
Statistical Reconstruction of Qutrits
Yu. I. Bogdanov; M. V. Chekhova; L. A. Krivitsky; S. P. Kulik; L. C. Kwek; C. H. Oh; A. N. Penin; M. K. Tey; A. A. Zhukov
2004-04-23
We discuss a procedure of measurement followed by the reproduction of the quantum state of a three-level optical system - a frequency- and spatially degenerate two-photon field. The method of statistical estimation of the quantum state based on solving the likelihood equation and analyzing the statistical properties of the obtained estimates is developed. Using the root approach of estimating quantum states, the initial two-photon state vector is reproduced from the measured fourth moments in the field . The developed approach applied to quantum states reconstruction is based on the amplitudes of mutually complementary processes. Classical algorithm of statistical estimation based on the Fisher information matrix is generalized to the case of quantum systems obeying Bohr's complementarity principle. It has been experimentally proved that biphoton-qutrit states can be reconstructed with the fidelity of 0.995-0.999 and higher.
Breakdown of Bose-Einstein distribution in photonic crystals
Ping-Yuan Lo; Heng-Na Xiong; Wei-Min Zhang
2013-11-21
In the last two decades, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of nano-photonics in photonic crystals. Previous theoretical investigations of photon dynamics were carried out at zero temperature. Here, we investigate micro/nano cavity photonics in photonic crystals at finite temperature. Due to photonic-band-gap-induced non-Markovian dynamics, we discover that cavity photons in photonic crystals do not obey the standard Bose-Einstein statistical distribution. Within the photonic band gap and in the vicinity of the band edge, cavity photons combine nontrivial quantum dissipation with thermal fluctuations to form photon states that can memorize the initial cavity state information. As a result, Bose-Einstein distribution is completely broken down in these regimes, even if the thermal energy is larger than the photonic band gap.
Two-photon and three-photon blockades in driven nonlinear systems
Adam Miranowicz; Malgorzata Paprzycka; Yu-xi Liu; Jiri Bajer; Franco Nori
2013-03-26
Photon blockade, in analogy to Coulomb's or phonon blockades, is a phenomenon when a single photon in a nonlinear cavity blocks the transmission of a second photon. This effect can occur in Kerr-type systems driven by a laser due to strong nonlinear photon-photon interactions. We predict the occurrence of higher-order photon blockades where the transmission of more than two photons is effectively blocked by single- and two-photon states. This photon blockade can be achieved by tuning the frequency of the laser driving field to be equal to the sum of the Kerr nonlinearity and the cavity resonance frequency. We refer to this phenomenon as two-photon blockade or two-photon state truncation via nonlinear scissors, and can also be interpreted as photon-induced tunneling. We also show that, for a driving-field frequency fulfilling another resonance condition and for higher strengths of the driving field, even a three-photon blockade can occur but less clearly than in the case of single- and two-photon blockades. We demonstrate how various photon blockades can be identified by analyzing photon-number correlations, coherence and entropic properties, Wigner functions, and spectra of squeezing. We show that two- and three-photon blockades can, in principle, be observed in various cavity and circuit quantum electrodynamical systems for which the standard single-photon blockade was observed without the need of using higher-order driving interactions or Kerr media exhibiting higher-order nonlinear susceptibility.
M. Fanfoni; M. Tomellini
2015-05-19
An "experimental" study on the randomness of the fractional digits of $\\pi$, $e$ and $\\phi$ irrational numbers are presented. This is done by exploiting the $1D$ Poisson-Voronoi tessellation. We employed two approaches and in both cases, within the numerical error, no differences have been detected between the irrational fractional digits and an equivalent random sequence of digits. The number of tested digits is $1.6 \\times 10^7$ and $4 \\times 10^7$ for the first and second approach, respectively. Although not shown here, we investigated several irrational numbers and all of them have displayed a similar behavior.
Photonic Astronomy and Quantum Optics
Dravins, Dainis
2015-01-01
Quantum optics potentially offers an information channel from the Universe beyond the established ones of imaging and spectroscopy. All existing cameras and all spectrometers measure aspects of the first-order spatial and/or temporal coherence of light. However, light has additional degrees of freedom, manifest in the statistics of photon arrival times, or in the amount of photon orbital angular momentum. Such quantum-optical measures may carry information on how the light was created at the source, and whether it reached the observer directly or via some intermediate process. Astronomical quantum optics may help to clarify emission processes in natural laser sources and in the environments of compact objects, while high-speed photon-counting with digital signal handling enables multi-element and long-baseline versions of the intensity interferometer. Time resolutions of nanoseconds are required, as are large photon fluxes, making photonic astronomy very timely in an era of large telescopes.
Photonic Astronomy and Quantum Optics
Dainis Dravins
2007-01-09
Quantum optics potentially offers an information channel from the Universe beyond the established ones of imaging and spectroscopy. All existing cameras and all spectrometers measure aspects of the first-order spatial and/or temporal coherence of light. However, light has additional degrees of freedom, manifest in the statistics of photon arrival times, or in the amount of photon orbital angular momentum. Such quantum-optical measures may carry information on how the light was created at the source, and whether it reached the observer directly or via some intermediate process. Astronomical quantum optics may help to clarify emission processes in natural laser sources and in the environments of compact objects, while high-speed photon-counting with digital signal handling enables multi-element and long-baseline versions of the intensity interferometer. Time resolutions of nanoseconds are required, as are large photon fluxes, making photonic astronomy very timely in an era of large telescopes.
Gregg, B. A.; van de Lagemaat, J.
2012-05-01
Scientists have shown that wrinkles and folds can be used to maximize the absorption of low-energy photons by efficiently redirecting them into a thin absorbing film. This inexpensive technique for structuring photonic substrates could be used to increase the efficiency of many organic photovoltaic cells.
Department of Statistics STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM
Department of Statistics STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM SAMUEL WONG Department of Statistics Harvard literature. The goal of refinement is to generate a structure prediction that improves upon a given homology
Photon Statistics in Multi-Photon Absorption and Emission Processes
Zubairy, M. Suhail; Yeh, J. J.
1980-01-01
multilevel atom and the vacuum reservoir can be described by the Hamiltonian ?set- ting ?=1? H = H0 + H1, ?1? H0 = ? i ?i?i??i? + ? k ?kbk ?bk, ?2? H1 = ? i,j?i,k gk,ij?bk? + bk??i??j? , ?3? where ?i is the energy of the ?i? state, bk... 12?0?kL3 e?k ?pij is the coupling constant between the atomic transition ??i?? ?j?? and the kth EM mode with pij being the transition matrix element of the momentum opera- tor. The interacting spectrum is defined by ?8,9? Gij??? = ? k gk,ij 2...
Spectral x-ray diffraction using a 6 megapixel photon counting array detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muir, Ryan D.; Pogranichniy, Nicholas R.; Muir, J. Lewis; Sullivan, Shane Z.; Battaile, Kevin P.; Mulichak, Anne M.; Toth, Scott J.; Keefe, Lisa J.; Simpson, Garth J.
2015-03-01
Pixel-array array detectors allow single-photon counting to be performed on a massively parallel scale, with several million counting circuits and detectors in the array. Because the number of photoelectrons produced at the detector surface depends on the photon energy, these detectors offer the possibility of spectral imaging. In this work, a statistical model of the instrument response is used to calibrate the detector on a per-pixel basis. In turn, the calibrated sensor was used to perform separation of dual-energy diffraction measurements into two monochromatic images. Targeting applications include multi-wavelength diffraction to aid in protein structure determination and X-ray diffraction imaging.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chough, Young-Tak
2014-05-01
We propose a feedback scheme to control the photon statistics in a micromaser/laser cavity, using the system output as the control signal, which generates a highly nonclassical field whose Mandel-Q parameter is even lower than -0.9 and mean photon number much greater than unity. We demonstrate that the so-obtained system constitutes a continuous-wave (CW) quasi-Fock state source, the emission of which exhibits a sub-Poissonian photocount distribution as well as the photon anti-bunching property.
Single-photon filtering by a cavity quantum electrodynamics system
Koshino, Kazuki
2008-02-15
The nonlinear dynamics of a classical photon pulse in a cavity-QED system is investigated theoretically. It is shown that this system can work as a single-photon filter, which drastically suppresses the multiple-photon probability of the output. The output photon statistics is sensitive to the input pulse length. A suitable choice of pulse length produces a photon pulse with the single-photon probability of 0.32, while the multiple-photon probability is suppressed to 0.01.
Department of Statistics STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM
Department of Statistics STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM ZONGMING MA Department of Statistics University (CCA) is a widely used multivariate statistical technique for exploring the relation between two sets massive data sets. However, there have been few theoretical justifications available in the literature
A Photon Interference Detector with Continuous Display.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gilmore, R. S.
1978-01-01
Describes an apparatus which attempts to give a direct visual impression of the random detection of individual photons coupled with the recognition of the classical intensity distribution as a result of fairly high proton statistics. (Author/GA)
Balasubramonian, Rajeev (Sandy, UT); Dwarkadas, Sandhya (Rochester, NY); Albonesi, David (Ithaca, NY)
2009-02-10
In a processor having multiple clusters which operate in parallel, the number of clusters in use can be varied dynamically. At the start of each program phase, the configuration option for an interval is run to determine the optimal configuration, which is used until the next phase change is detected. The optimum instruction interval is determined by starting with a minimum interval and doubling it until a low stability factor is reached.
Single-Photon-Sensitive HgCdTe Avalanche Photodiode Detector
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huntington, Andrew
2013-01-01
The purpose of this program was to develop single-photon-sensitive short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) and mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) avalanche photodiode (APD) receivers based on linear-mode HgCdTe APDs, for application by NASA in light detection and ranging (lidar) sensors. Linear-mode photon-counting APDs are desired for lidar because they have a shorter pixel dead time than Geiger APDs, and can detect sequential pulse returns from multiple objects that are closely spaced in range. Linear-mode APDs can also measure photon number, which Geiger APDs cannot, adding an extra dimension to lidar scene data for multi-photon returns. High-gain APDs with low multiplication noise are required for efficient linear-mode detection of single photons because of APD gain statistics -- a low-excess-noise APD will generate detectible current pulses from single photon input at a much higher rate of occurrence than will a noisy APD operated at the same average gain. MWIR and LWIR electron-avalanche HgCdTe APDs have been shown to operate in linear mode at high average avalanche gain (M > 1000) without excess multiplication noise (F = 1), and are therefore very good candidates for linear-mode photon counting. However, detectors fashioned from these narrow-bandgap alloys require aggressive cooling to control thermal dark current. Wider-bandgap SWIR HgCdTe APDs were investigated in this program as a strategy to reduce detector cooling requirements.
Lu, Ling
The application of topology, the mathematics of conserved properties under continuous deformations, is creating a range of new opportunities throughout photonics. This field was inspired by the discovery of topological ...
Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni (Shoreham, NY)
2002-01-01
A photon generator includes an electron gun for emitting an electron beam, a laser for emitting a laser beam, and an interaction ring wherein the laser beam repetitively collides with the electron beam for emitting a high energy photon beam therefrom in the exemplary form of x-rays. The interaction ring is a closed loop, sized and configured for circulating the electron beam with a period substantially equal to the period of the laser beam pulses for effecting repetitive collisions.
Lighting affects appearance LightSource emits photons
Jacobs, David
1 Lighting affects appearance #12;2 LightSource emits photons Photons travel in a straight line). And then some reach the eye/camera. #12;3 Basic fact: Light is linear Double intensity of sources, double photons reaching eye. Turn on two lights, and photons reaching eye are same as sum of number when each
Photonic module: An on-demand resource for photonic entanglement
Devitt, Simon J.; Greentree, Andrew D.; Hollenberg, Lloyd C. L.; Ionicioiu, Radu; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Munro, William J.
2007-11-15
Photonic entanglement has a wide range of applications in quantum computation and communication. Here we introduce a device: the photonic module, which allows for the rapid, deterministic preparation of a large class of entangled photon states. The module is an application independent, ''plug and play'' device, with sufficient flexibility to prepare entanglement for all major quantum computation and communication applications in a completely deterministic fashion without number-discriminated photon detection. We present two alternative constructions for the module, one using free-space components and one in a photonic band-gap structure. The natural operation of the module is to generate states within the stabilizer formalism and we present an analysis on the cavity requirements to experimentally realize this device.
Photon molecules in atomic gases trapped near photonic crystal waveguides
James S. Douglas; Tommaso Caneva; Darrick E. Chang
2015-11-03
Realizing systems that support robust, controlled interactions between individual photons is an exciting frontier of nonlinear optics. To this end, one approach that has emerged recently is to leverage atomic interactions to create strong and spatially non-local interactions between photons. In particular, effective interactions have been successfully created via interactions between atoms excited to Rydberg levels. Here, we investigate an alternative approach, in which atomic interactions arise via their common coupling to photonic crystal waveguides. This technique takes advantage of the ability to separately tailor the strength and range of interactions via the dispersion engineering of the structure itself, which can lead to qualitatively new types of phenomena. As an example, we discuss the formation of correlated transparency windows, in which photonic states of a certain number and shape selectively propagate through the system. Through this technique, we show in particular that one can create molecular-like potentials that lead to molecular bound states of photon pairs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyons, M.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig
2011-03-01
Weiss-Page-Holthaus[Physica A,341,586(04); http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0403295] number-FACTORIZATION VIA BEQS BEC VS.(?) Shor-algorithm, strongly-supporting Watkins' [www.secamlocal.ex.ac.uk/people/staff/mrwatkin/] Intersection of number-theory "pure"-maths WITH (Statistical)-Physics, as Siegel[AMS Joint.Mtg.(02)-Abs.973-60-124] Benford logarithmic-law algebraic-INVERSION to ONLY BEQS with d=0 digit P (d = 0) > = oogapFULBEC ! ! ! SiegelRiemann - hypothesisproofviaRayleigh [ Phil . Trans . CLXI (1870) ] - Polya [ Math . Ann . (21) ] - [ Random - WalksElectric - Nets . , MAA (81) ] - nderson [ PRL (58) ] - localization - Siegel [ Symp . Fractals , MRSFallMtg . (89) - 5 - papers ! ! ! ] FUZZYICS = CATEGORYICS : [ LOCALITY ]- MORPHISM / CROSSOVER / AUTMATHCAT / DIM - CAT / ANTONYM- > (GLOBALITY) FUNCTOR / SYNONYM / concomitancetonoise = / Fluct . - Dissip . theorem / FUNCTOR / SYNONYM / equivalence / proportionalityto = > generalized - susceptibilitypower - spectrum [ FLAT / FUNCTIONLESS / WHITE ]- MORPHISM / CROSSOVER / AUTMATHCAT / DIM - CAT / ANTONYM- > HYPERBOLICITY/ZIPF-law INEVITABILITY) intersection with ONLY BEQS BEC).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vigneron, Jean Pol; Simonis, Priscilla
2012-10-01
Photonic structures appeared in nature several hundred millions years ago. In the living world, color is used for communication and this important function strongly impacts the individual chances of survival as well as the chances to reproduce. This has a statistical influence on species populations. Therefore, because they are involved in evolution, natural color-generating structures are - from some point of view - highly optimized. In this short review, a survey is presented of the development of natural photonic crystal-type structures occurring in insects, spiders, birds, fishes and other marine animals, in plants and more, from the standpoint of light-waves propagation. One-, two-, and three-dimensional structures will be reviewed with selected examples.
MCNP: Photon benchmark problems
Whalen, D.J.; Hollowell, D.E.; Hendricks, J.S.
1991-09-01
The recent widespread, markedly increased use of radiation transport codes has produced greater user and institutional demand for assurance that such codes give correct results. Responding to these pressing requirements for code validation, the general purpose Monte Carlo transport code MCNP has been tested on six different photon problem families. MCNP was used to simulate these six sets numerically. Results for each were compared to the set's analytical or experimental data. MCNP successfully predicted the analytical or experimental results of all six families within the statistical uncertainty inherent in the Monte Carlo method. From this we conclude that MCNP can accurately model a broad spectrum of photon transport problems. 8 refs., 30 figs., 5 tabs.
Green photonics: the role of photonics in sustainable product design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wessler, Berit; Tober, Ursula
2011-05-01
Photonic technologies will play an increasingly significant role in reducing our environmental impact. In addition to the direct eco-benefits derived from the products themselves, green photonics will also impact the product design and manufacturing processes employed. Examples are discussed covering laser manufacturing, solid-state lighting, solar cells and optical communications. The importance of considering the full lifetime environmental impact of products is discussed, including raw materials, manufacture, use, and end of life issues. Industrial and legislative strategies are reviewed, and a number of specific measures are presented for accelerating the development of green photonics technologies and promoting their adoption into society.
Mario Stip?evi?; John Bowers
2014-10-09
We present a random number generator based on quantum effects in photonic emission and detection. It is unique in simultaneous use of both spatial and temporal quantum information contained in the system which makes it resilient to hardware failure and signal injection attacks. We show that its deviation from randomness cam be estimated based on simple measurements. Generated numbers pass NIST Statistical test suite without post-processing.
Computational Statistics Canonical Forest
Ahn, Hongshik
Computational Statistics Canonical Forest --Manuscript Draft-- Manuscript Number: COST-D-12-00160R3 Full Title: Canonical Forest Article Type: Original Paper Keywords: Canonical linear discriminant analysis; Classification; Ensemble; Linear discriminant analysis; Rotation Forest Corresponding Author
Deconstructing Statistical Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Snell, Joel
2014-01-01
Using a very complex statistical analysis and research method for the sake of enhancing the prestige of an article or making a new product or service legitimate needs to be monitored and questioned for accuracy. 1) The more complicated the statistical analysis, and research the fewer the number of learned readers can understand it. This adds a…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milan, D. J.; Heritage, G. L.
2007-12-01
Water flow level in river channels is moderated by the interaction with the roughness of the surface over which it flows. The interaction is highly complex and remains poorly understood despite its economic and social importance in flood level forecasting. The empirical and semi-rational nature of approaches used to estimate hydraulic roughness makes them very difficult to apply and much of the hydraulic resistance has been attributed to grain roughness using various forms of the Colebrook-White equation where the grain diameter is modified by a multiplier to account for the non-uniform nature of gravel-bed surfaces. Fundamental to the accuracy of the particle size approaches is the sampling of river-bed gravels where sample size, operator bias, particle shape and surface heterogeneity can greatly affect the result. Despite these problems a standard surface sample of the intermediate axis of 100 clasts remains the accepted method for grain-size characterisation amongst scientists and engineers concerned with channel hydraulics. Surface roughness has also been measured using a random field of spatial elevation data. The success of this approach has been tempered by the lack of high-resolution topographic data covering all roughness scales, however, improved data-point resolution is now achievable using terrestrial laser scanning technology. The aim here is to reliably quantify the population grain-size distribution of a natural gravel surface using random field terrestrial laser scanner x,y,z data and by direct comparison to demonstrate the errors inherent in the conventional particle-size approach. Application of the random field approach, using a terrestrial laser scanner, across a gravel bar surface on the River South Tyne at Lambley, UK, generated an effective sample of 120,000 clasts yielding a D84 for use in the Colebrook White equation of 0.110m. Monte Carlo sampling within the 12000 measured clasts from the bar surface generated 560 simulated grid-by-number D84 estimates. Grain-size D84 values ranged from 0.100m to 0.195m with a median value of 0.130m. This represents an average 18% and a maximum 77% over-estimation of the grain-size value in the flow resistance equation. Such potential errors, inherent with the conventional grid-by-number sampling technique, impact significantly on flood level estimation options.
Wolfgang Mück
2015-10-15
The electromagnetic field inside a spherical cavity of large radius R is considered in the presence of stationary charge and current densities. R provides infra-red regularization while maintaining gauge invariance. The quantum ground state of physical photons forming the magnetic field is found to be a coherent state with a definite mean occupation number. The electric field, which is determined by the Gauss law constraint, is maintained by a minimum uncertainty coherent state, according to the projection operator approach to the quantization of constrained systems. The mean occupation number of this state is proportional to the square of the total charge. The results confirm formulae obtained previously from a calculation with a finite photon mass for infra-red regularization.
Mück, Wolfgang
2015-01-01
The electromagnetic field inside a spherical cavity of large radius R is considered in the presence of stationary charge and current densities. R provides infra-red regularization while maintaining gauge invariance. The quantum ground state of physical photons forming the magnetic field is found to be a coherent state with a definite mean occupation number. The electric field, which is determined by the Gauss law constraint, is maintained by a minimum uncertainty coherent state, according to the projection operator approach to the quantization of constrained systems. The mean occupation number of this state is proportional to the square of the total charge. The results confirm formulae obtained previously from a calculation with a finite photon mass for infra-red regularization.
Mocanu, L. M.; Crawford, T. M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crites, A. T.; Vieira, J. D.; Aird, K. A.; Aravena, M.; Austermann, J. E.; Everett, W. B.; Halverson, N. W.; Béthermin, M.; Chapman, S.; Cho, H.-M.; De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; George, E. M.; and others
2013-12-10
We present a point-source catalog from 771 deg{sup 2} of the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich survey at 95, 150, and 220 GHz. We detect 1545 sources above 4.5? significance in at least one band. Based on their relative brightness between survey bands, we classify the sources into two populations, one dominated by synchrotron emission from active galactic nuclei, and one dominated by thermal emission from dust-enshrouded star-forming galaxies. We find 1238 synchrotron and 307 dusty sources. We cross-match all sources against external catalogs and find 189 unidentified synchrotron sources and 189 unidentified dusty sources. The dusty sources without counterparts are good candidates for high-redshift, strongly lensed submillimeter galaxies. We derive number counts for each population from 1 Jy down to roughly 11, 4, and 11 mJy at 95, 150, and 220 GHz. We compare these counts with galaxy population models and find that none of the models we consider for either population provide a good fit to the measured counts in all three bands. The disparities imply that these measurements will be an important input to the next generation of millimeter-wave extragalactic source population models.
from SIAM News, Volume Number photon moving
Laurie, Dirk
polynomial that approximates f the disk supremum norm # # . What is f p # A flea starts at (0, 0 with probability 1/4, east with probability + #, and west with probability 1/4 -- #. The probability that the flea
Photon doses in NPL standard neutron fields.
Roberts, N J; Horwood, N A; McKay, C J
2014-10-01
Standard neutron fields are invariably accompanied by a photon component due to the neutron-generating reactions and secondary neutron interactions in the surrounding environment. A set of energy-compensated Geiger-Müller (GM) tubes and electronic personal dosemeters (EPDs) have been used to measure the photon dose rates in a number of standard radionuclide and accelerator-based neutron fields. The GM tubes were first characterised in standard radioisotope and X-ray photon fields and then modelled using MCNP to determine their photon dose response as a function of energy. Values for the photon-to-neutron dose equivalent ratios are presented and compared with other published values. PMID:24126485
Topological photonic crystal with equifrequency Weyl points
Wang, Luyang; Yao, Hong
2015-01-01
Weyl points in three-dimensional photonic crystals behave as monopoles of Berry flux in momentum space. Here, based on general symmetry analysis, we show that a minimal number of four symmetry-related (consequently equifrequency) Weyl points can be realized in time-reversal invariant photonic crystals. We further propose a new and experimentally-feasible way to modify double-gyroid photonic crystals to realize four equifrequency Weyl points, which is explicitly confirmed by our first-principle photonic band-structure calculations. Remarkably, photonic crystals with equifrequency Weyl points are qualitatively advantageous in applications including angular selectivity, frequency selectivity, invisibility cloaking, and the 3D-imaging.
Zheng Weikang; Akerlof, Carl W.; McKay, Timothy A.; Pandey, Shashi B.; Zhang Binbin; Zhang Bing; Sakamoto, Takanori
2012-09-01
Launched on 2008 June 11, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has provided a rare opportunity to study high-energy photon emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although the majority of such events (27) have been identified by the Fermi-LAT Collaboration, four were uncovered by using more sensitive statistical techniques. In this paper, we continue our earlier work by finding three more GRBs associated with high-energy photon emission, GRB 110709A, 111117A, and 120107A. To systematize our matched filter approach, a pipeline has been developed to identify these objects in nearly real time. GRB 120107A is the first product of this analysis procedure. Despite the reduced threshold for identification, the number of GRB events has not increased significantly. This relative dearth of events with low photon number prompted a study of the apparent photon number distribution. We find an extremely good fit to a simple power law with an exponent of -1.8 {+-} 0.3 for the differential distribution. As might be expected, there is a substantial correlation between the number of lower energy photons detected by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and the number observed by LAT. Thus, high-energy photon emission is associated with some but not all of the brighter GBM events. Deeper studies of the properties of the small population of high-energy emitting bursts may eventually yield a better understanding of these entire phenomena.
MEASURING TEMPORAL PHOTON BUNCHING IN BLACKBODY RADIATION
Tan, P. K.; Poh, H. S.; Kurtsiefer, C.; Yeo, G. H.; Chan, A. H. E-mail: phyck@nus.edu.sg
2014-07-01
Light from thermal blackbody radiators such as stars exhibits photon bunching behavior at sufficiently short timescales. However, with available detector bandwidths, this bunching signal is difficult to observe directly. We present an experimental technique to increase the photon bunching signal in blackbody radiation via spectral filtering of the light source. Our measurements reveal strong temporal photon bunching from blackbody radiation, including the Sun. This technique allows for an absolute measurement of the photon bunching signature g {sup (2)}(0), and thereby a direct statement on the statistical nature of a light source. Such filtering techniques may help revive the interest in intensity interferometry as a tool in astronomy.
Photonic Floquet topological insulators.
Rechtsman, Mikael C; Zeuner, Julia M; Plotnik, Yonatan; Lumer, Yaakov; Podolsky, Daniel; Dreisow, Felix; Nolte, Stefan; Segev, Mordechai; Szameit, Alexander
2013-04-11
Topological insulators are a new phase of matter, with the striking property that conduction of electrons occurs only on their surfaces. In two dimensions, electrons on the surface of a topological insulator are not scattered despite defects and disorder, providing robustness akin to that of superconductors. Topological insulators are predicted to have wide-ranging applications in fault-tolerant quantum computing and spintronics. Substantial effort has been directed towards realizing topological insulators for electromagnetic waves. One-dimensional systems with topological edge states have been demonstrated, but these states are zero-dimensional and therefore exhibit no transport properties. Topological protection of microwaves has been observed using a mechanism similar to the quantum Hall effect, by placing a gyromagnetic photonic crystal in an external magnetic field. But because magnetic effects are very weak at optical frequencies, realizing photonic topological insulators with scatter-free edge states requires a fundamentally different mechanism-one that is free of magnetic fields. A number of proposals for photonic topological transport have been put forward recently. One suggested temporal modulation of a photonic crystal, thus breaking time-reversal symmetry and inducing one-way edge states. This is in the spirit of the proposed Floquet topological insulators, in which temporal variations in solid-state systems induce topological edge states. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a photonic topological insulator free of external fields and with scatter-free edge transport-a photonic lattice exhibiting topologically protected transport of visible light on the lattice edges. Our system is composed of an array of evanescently coupled helical waveguides arranged in a graphene-like honeycomb lattice. Paraxial diffraction of light is described by a Schrödinger equation where the propagation coordinate (z) acts as 'time'. Thus the helicity of the waveguides breaks z-reversal symmetry as proposed for Floquet topological insulators. This structure results in one-way edge states that are topologically protected from scattering. PMID:23579677
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quan, Frederic
2012-02-01
Photonics, the broad merger of electronics with the optical sciences, encompasses such a wide swath of technology that its impact is almost universal in our everyday lives. This is a broad overview of some aspects of the industry and their contribution to the ‘green’ or environmental movement. The rationale for energy conservation is briefly discussed and the impact of photonics on our everyday lives and certain industries is described. Some opinions from industry are presented along with market estimates. References are provided to some of the most recent research in these areas.
Photonic Bandgaps in Photonic Molecules
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, David D.; Chang, Hongrok; Gates, Amanda L.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Gregory, Don A.; Witherow, William K.; Paley, Mark S.; Frazier, Donald O.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This talk will focus on photonic bandgaps that arise due to nearly free photon and tight-binding effects in coupled microparticle and ring-resonator systems. The Mie formulation for homogeneous spheres is generalized to handle core/shell systems and multiple concentric layers in a manner that exploits an analogy with stratified planar systems, thereby allowing concentric multi-layered structures to be treated as photonic bandgap (PBG) materials. Representative results from a Mie code employing this analogy demonstrate that photonic bands arising from nearly free photon effects are easily observed in the backscattering, asymmetry parameter, and albedo for periodic quarter-wave concentric layers, though are not readily apparent in extinction spectra. Rather, the periodicity simply alters the scattering profile, enhancing the ratio of backscattering to forward scattering inside the bandgap, in direct analogy with planar quarter-wave multilayers. PBGs arising from tight-binding may also be observed when the layers (or rings) are designed such that the coupling between them is weak. We demonstrate that for a structure consisting of N coupled micro-resonators, the morphology dependent resonances split into N higher-Q modes, in direct analogy with other types of oscillators, and that this splitting ultimately results in PBGs which can lead to enhanced nonlinear optical effects.
Black-body photon clustering by semi-classical means
J. P. Lestone
2008-04-20
If stimulated emission could be turned off then only uncorrelated photons would be emitted from black bodies and the photon counting statistics would be Poissonian. Through the process of stimulated emission, some fraction of the photons emitted from a black body are correlated and thus emitted in clusters. This photon clustering can be calculated by semi-classical means. The corresponding results are in agreement with quantum theory.
Generalized quantum interference of correlated photon pairs
Heonoh Kim; Sang Min Lee; Han Seb Moon
2015-03-30
Superposition and indistinguishablility between probability amplitudes have played an essential role in observing quantum interference effects of correlated photons. The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and interferences of the path-entangled photon number state are of special interest in the field of quantum information technologies. However, a fully generalized two-photon quantum interferometric scheme accounting for the Hong-Ou-Mandel scheme and path-entangled photon number states has not yet been proposed. Here we report the experimental demonstrations of the generalized two-photon interferometry with both the interferometric properties of the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect and the fully unfolded version of the path-entangled photon number state using photon-pair sources, which are independently generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Our experimental scheme explains two-photon interference fringes revealing single- and two-photon coherence properties in a single interferometer setup. Using the proposed interferometric measurement, it is possible to directly estimate the joint spectral intensity of a photon pair source.
Generalized quantum interference of correlated photon pairs
Kim, Heonoh; Lee, Sang Min; Moon, Han Seb
2015-01-01
Superposition and indistinguishablility between probability amplitudes have played an essential role in observing quantum interference effects of correlated photons. The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and interferences of the path-entangled photon number state are of special interest in the field of quantum information technologies. However, a fully generalized two-photon quantum interferometric scheme accounting for the Hong-Ou-Mandel scheme and path-entangled photon number states has not yet been proposed. Here we report the experimental demonstrations of the generalized two-photon interferometry with both the interferometric properties of the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect and the fully unfolded version of the path-entangled photon number state using photon-pair sources, which are independently generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Our experimental scheme explains two-photon interference fringes revealing single- and two-photon coherence properties in a single interferometer setup. Using the proposed interferometric measurement, it is possible to directly estimate the joint spectral intensity of a photon pair source. PMID:25951143
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hanford, Terry; White, Kathleen
1991-01-01
Although numbers such as average test scores or dropout rates can capture part of a school system's success or failure, school statistics seldom tell the whole story. School board members should realize that numbers might measure compliance or process, rather than improvement. Also, improvements in numbers might reflect changes in assessment…
Multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors
Dauler, Eric A. (Eric Anthony), 1980-
2009-01-01
Single-photon-detector arrays can provide unparalleled performance and detailed information in applications that require precise timing and single photon sensitivity. Such arrays have been demonstrated using a number of ...
Valery Telnov
2001-03-06
High energy photon colliders (gamma-gamma, gamma-electron) based on backward Compton scattering of laser light is a very natural addition to e+e- linear colliders. In this report we consider this option for the TESLA project. Recent study has shown that the horizontal emittance in the TESLA damping ring can be further decreased by a factor of four. In this case the gamma-gamma luminosity luminosity in the high energy part of spectrum can reach (1/3)L_{e+e-}. Typical cross sections of interesting processes in gamma-gamma collisions are higher than those in e+e- collisions by about one order of magnitude, so the number of events in gamma-gamma collisions will be more than that in e+e- collisions. Photon colliders can, certainly, give additional information and they are the best for the study of many phenomena. The main question is now the technical feasibility. The key new element in photon colliders is a very powerful laser system. An external optical cavity is a promising approach for the TESLA project. A free electron laser is another option. However, a more straightforward solution is ``an optical storage ring (optical trap)'' with diode pumped solid state laser injector which is today technically feasible. This paper briefly reviews the status of a photon collider based at TESLA, its possible parameters and existing problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Telnov, Valery
2001-10-01
High energy photon colliders ( ??, ?e) based on backward Compton scattering of laser light is a very natural addition to e +e - linear colliders. In this report, we consider this option for the TESLA project. Recent study has shown that the horizontal emittance in the TESLA damping ring can be further decreased by a factor of four. In this case, the ?? luminosity in the high energy part of spectrum can reach about (1/3) Le +e -. Typical cross-sections of interesting processes in ?? collisions are higher than those in e +e - collisions by about one order of magnitude, so the number of events in ?? collisions will be more than that in e +e - collisions. Photon colliders can, certainly, give additional information and they are the best for the study of many phenomena. The main question is now the technical feasibility. The key new element in photon colliders is a very powerful laser system. An external optical cavity is a promising approach for the TESLA project. A free electron laser is another option. However, a more straightforward solution is "an optical storage ring (optical trap)" with a diode pumped solid state laser injector which is today technically feasible. This paper briefly reviews the status of a photon collider based on the linear collider TESLA, its possible parameters and existing problems.
Di-photon and photon + b/c production cross sections at Ecm = 1.96- TeV
Gajjar, Anant; /Liverpool U.
2005-05-01
Measurements of the di-photon cross section have been made in the central region and are found to be in good agreement with NLO QCD predictions. The cross section of events containing a photon and additional heavy flavor jet have also been measured, as well as the ratio of photon + b to photon + c. The statistically limited sample shows good agreement with Leading Order predictions.
Nonclassicality in phase by breaking classical bounds on statistics
Martin, Daniel; Luis, Alfredo
2010-09-15
We derive upper bounds on the statistics of phase and phase difference that are satisfied by all classical states. They are obtained by finding the maximum projection of classical states on phase states. For a single-mode phase, meaningful bounds are obtained conditioned to a fixed mean number of photons. We also derive classical bounds for the projection on phase-coherent states, discussing their relation with phase-state bounds within the context of analytic representations. We find states with nonclassical phase properties disclosed by the violation of these classical bounds. These are quadrature and SU(2) squeezed states and phase-coherent states.
T. V. Gevorgyan; G. Yu. Kryuchkyan
2012-05-17
Generating multi-photon entangled states is a primary task for applications of quantum information processing. We investigate production of photon-triplet in a regime of light amplification in second-order nonlinear media under action of a pulsed laser beam. For this goal the process of cascaded three-photon splitting in an optical cavity driven by a sequence of laser pulses with Gaussian time-dependent envelopes is investigated. Considering production of photon-triplet for short-time regime and in the cascaded three-wave collinear configuration Generating multi-photon entangled states is a primary task for applications of quantum information processing. We investigate production of photon-triplet in a regime of light amplification in second-order nonlinear media under action of a pulsed laser beam. For this goal the process of cascaded three-photon splitting in an optical cavity driven by a sequence of laser pulses with Gaussian time-dependent envelopes is investigated. Considering production of photon-triplet for short-time regime and in the cascaded three-wave collinear configuration we shortly analyze preparation of polarization-non-product states looking further applications of these results in the cascaded optical parametric oscillator. It is also demonststed the nonclassical characteritics of the photon-triplet in phase-space on the base of the Wigner function. Calculating the normalized third-order correlation functions below-and at the generation threshold of cascaded optical parametric oscillator, we demonstrate that in the pulsed regime, depending on the duration of pulses and the time-interval separations between them, the degree of three-photon-number correlation essentially exceed the analogous one for the case of continuous pumping.
Waveguide single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits
J. P. Sprengers; A. Gaggero; D. Sahin; S. Jahanmiri Nejad; F. Mattioli; R. Leoni; J. Beetz; M. Lermer; M. Kamp; S. Höfling; R. Sanjines; A. Fiore
2011-08-25
The generation, manipulation and detection of quantum bits (qubits) encoded on single photons is at the heart of quantum communication and optical quantum information processing. The combination of single-photon sources, passive optical circuits and single-photon detectors enables quantum repeaters and qubit amplifiers, and also forms the basis of all-optical quantum gates and of linear-optics quantum computing. However, the monolithic integration of sources, waveguides and detectors on the same chip, as needed for scaling to meaningful number of qubits, is very challenging, and previous work on quantum photonic circuits has used external sources and detectors. Here we propose an approach to a fully-integrated quantum photonic circuit on a semiconductor chip, and demonstrate a key component of such circuit, a waveguide single-photon detector. Our detectors, based on superconducting nanowires on GaAs ridge waveguides, provide high efficiency (20%) at telecom wavelengths, high timing accuracy (60 ps), response time in the ns range, and are fully compatible with the integration of single-photon sources, passive networks and modulators.
Nonperturbative atom-photon interactions in an optical cavity
Carmichael, H.J.; Tian, L.; Ren, W.
1994-12-31
One of the principal developments in cavity quantum electrodynamics in the last few years has been the extension of the ideas originally applied to systems of Rydberg atoms in microwave cavities to optical frequencies. As a corollary of this, more attention is being paid to quantum fluctuations and photon statistics. Another development, still in its infancy, is a move toward experiments using slowed or trapped atoms, or velocity selected beams; these methods are needed to enter the nonperturbative (strong dipole coupling) regime for one atom where there are experiments on subtle quantum-statistical effects go carry out. In this chapter we solve a number of theoretical problems related to these themes. Although the focus of the work is on optical systems, most of what we do is also relevant at microwave frequencies. We emphasize quantum fluctuations and photon statistics, and we try always to separate the quantum physics from those aspects of the physics that are understandable in classical terms. On the whole we only pay attention to the nonperturbative regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics where the dipole coupling strength is larger than the dissipation rates. 59 refs., 14 figs.
Statistics Anxiety and Business Statistics: The International Student
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bell, James A.
2008-01-01
Does the international student suffer from statistics anxiety? To investigate this, the Statistics Anxiety Rating Scale (STARS) was administered to sixty-six beginning statistics students, including twelve international students and fifty-four domestic students. Due to the small number of international students, nonparametric methods were used to…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Floume, Timmy; Coquil, Thomas; Sylvestre, Julien
2011-05-01
Due to their metabolic flexibility and fast growth rate, microscopic aquatic phototrophs like algae have a potential to become industrial photochemical converters. Algae photosynthesis could enable the large scale production of clean and renewable liquid fuels and chemicals with major environmental, economic and societal benefits. Capital and operational costs are the main issues to address through optical, process and biochemical engineering improvements. In this perspective, a variety of photonic approaches have been proposed - we introduce them here and describe their potential, limitations and compatibility with separate biotechnology and engineering progresses. We show that only sunlight-based approaches are economically realistic. One of photonics' main goals in the algae field is to dilute light to overcome photosaturation effects that impact upon cultures exposed to full sunlight. Among other approaches, we introduce a widely-compatible broadband spectral adaptation technique called AlgoSun® that uses luminescence to optimize sunlight spectrum in view of the bioconverter's requirements.
Quantum statistical properties of an FEL amplifier
Dattoli, G.; Gallardo, J.; Renieri, A.; Richetta, M.
1985-07-01
We discuss the problem of photon quantum statistics of a single particle free-electron laser (FEL) amplifier in the small-signal cold beam regime to first order in the electron quantum recoil. The initial radiation wave is an arbitrary coherent state. We show that Glauber coherence is not preserved by the FEL interaction if the initial coherent state is not the vacuum, even if we neglect the electron quantum recoil (absence of gain). We evaluate the first two moments of the final photon distribution and find sub- (super)-Poissonian photon statistics for a negative (positive) resonance parameter.
Study of eta formation in photon-photon collisions
Aihara, H.; Alston-Garnjost, M.; Armitage, J.C.; Avery, R.E.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barker, A.R.; Barnes, A.V.; Barnett, B.A.; Bauer, D.A.; Bengtsson, H.
1986-02-01
The two-photon production of the eta meson has been observed, and a value has been determined for the two-photon eta decay width by a measurement of the cross section sigma(e e e e eta) where eta elel. The measurement was made with the TPC/Two-Gamma facility at the SLAC e e collider PEP, with an accumulated data sample of 64.5 pb . The eta elel events were both triggered and detected by the pole-tip calorimeter. The measured two-photon eta decay width is GAMMA/sub etaarrow-rightgammagamma/ = 0.64 +- 0.14 (statistical) +- 0.13 (systematic) keV, in agreement with earlier similarly determined values.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Callamaras, Peter
1983-01-01
This buyer's guide to seven major types of statistics software packages for microcomputers reviews Edu-Ware Statistics 3.0; Financial Planning; Speed Stat; Statistics with DAISY; Human Systems Dynamics package of Stats Plus, ANOVA II, and REGRESS II; Maxistat; and Moore-Barnes' MBC Test Construction and MBC Correlation. (MBR)
Lithography system using quantum entangled photons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Colin (Inventor); Dowling, Jonathan (Inventor); della Rossa, Giovanni (Inventor)
2002-01-01
A system of etching using quantum entangled particles to get shorter interference fringes. An interferometer is used to obtain an interference fringe. N entangled photons are input to the interferometer. This reduces the distance between interference fringes by n, where again n is the number of entangled photons.
Photon production by the dynamical Casimir effect
Sassaroli, E.; Srivastava, Y.N.; Widom, A. Physics Department and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, University of Perugia, Perugia )
1994-08-01
In this paper we present some calculations regarding the average number of photons produced in the dynamical Casimir effect for the ideal case of two perfectly conducting uncharged parallel plates, using the zero-point energy summation method. We show that it is possible to create intense photon radiation when the two plates are modulated periodically.
Department of Statistics STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM
Department of Statistics STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM JEFFREY LEEK Department of Biostatistics Johns on these results. But the fundamental belief in the medical literature was called into serious question by a paper
Department of Statistics STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM
the implications of having network-structured data on statistical principles and tasks of a foundational nature, (ii) propagation of uncertainty to summary statistics of "noisy" networks, and (iii) estimation
Exciton-photon correlations in bosonic condensates of exciton-polaritons.
Kavokin, Alexey V; Sheremet, Alexandra S; Shelykh, Ivan A; Lagoudakis, Pavlos G; Rubo, Yuri G
2015-01-01
Exciton-polaritons are mixed light-matter quasiparticles. We have developed a statistical model describing stochastic exciton-photon transitions within a condensate of exciton polaritons. We show that the exciton-photon correlator depends on the rate of incoherent exciton-photon transformations in the condensate. We discuss implications of this effect for the quantum statistics of photons emitted by polariton lasers. PMID:26153979
Exciton-photon correlations in bosonic condensates of exciton-polaritons
Kavokin, Alexey V.; Sheremet, Alexandra S.; Shelykh, Ivan A.; Lagoudakis, Pavlos G.; Rubo, Yuri G.
2015-01-01
Exciton-polaritons are mixed light-matter quasiparticles. We have developed a statistical model describing stochastic exciton-photon transitions within a condensate of exciton polaritons. We show that the exciton-photon correlator depends on the rate of incoherent exciton-photon transformations in the condensate. We discuss implications of this effect for the quantum statistics of photons emitted by polariton lasers. PMID:26153979
Department of Statistics STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM
Department of Statistics STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM PETER LATHAM Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit Both natural and artificial systems often exhibit a surprising degree of statistical regularity. One of Zipf's law in the literature for which we can identify a latent variable model. Finally, we show how
Spindel, Jennifer; Begum, Hasina; Akdemir, Deniz; Virk, Parminder; Collard, Bertrand; Redoña, Edilberto; Atlin, Gary; Jannink, Jean-Luc; McCouch, Susan R.
2015-01-01
Genomic Selection (GS) is a new breeding method in which genome-wide markers are used to predict the breeding value of individuals in a breeding population. GS has been shown to improve breeding efficiency in dairy cattle and several crop plant species, and here we evaluate for the first time its efficacy for breeding inbred lines of rice. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in conjunction with five-fold GS cross-validation on a population of 363 elite breeding lines from the International Rice Research Institute's (IRRI) irrigated rice breeding program and herein report the GS results. The population was genotyped with 73,147 markers using genotyping-by-sequencing. The training population, statistical method used to build the GS model, number of markers, and trait were varied to determine their effect on prediction accuracy. For all three traits, genomic prediction models outperformed prediction based on pedigree records alone. Prediction accuracies ranged from 0.31 and 0.34 for grain yield and plant height to 0.63 for flowering time. Analyses using subsets of the full marker set suggest that using one marker every 0.2 cM is sufficient for genomic selection in this collection of rice breeding materials. RR-BLUP was the best performing statistical method for grain yield where no large effect QTL were detected by GWAS, while for flowering time, where a single very large effect QTL was detected, the non-GS multiple linear regression method outperformed GS models. For plant height, in which four mid-sized QTL were identified by GWAS, random forest produced the most consistently accurate GS models. Our results suggest that GS, informed by GWAS interpretations of genetic architecture and population structure, could become an effective tool for increasing the efficiency of rice breeding as the costs of genotyping continue to decline. PMID:25689273
Quantum phase transition of light in a one-dimensional photon-hopping-controllable resonator array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Chun-Wang; Gao, Ming; Deng, Zhi-Jiao; Dai, Hong-Yi; Chen, Ping-Xing; Li, Cheng-Zu
2011-10-01
We give a concrete experimental scheme for engineering the insulator-superfluid transition of light in a one-dimensional (1D) array of coupled superconducting stripline resonators. In our proposed architecture, the on-site interaction and the photon-hopping rate can be tuned independently by adjusting the transition frequencies of the charge qubits inside the resonators and at the resonator junctions, respectively, which permits us to systematically study the quantum phase transition of light in a complete parameter space. By combining the techniques of photon-number-dependent qubit transition and fast readout of the qubit state using a separate low-Q resonator mode, the statistical property of the excitations in each resonator can be obtained with a high efficiency. An analysis of the various decoherence sources and disorders shows that our scheme can serve as a guide to upcoming experiments involving a small number of coupled resonators.
Light-shift-induced photonic nonlinearities
Fernando G. S. L. Brandao; Michael J. Hartmann; Martin B. Plenio
2007-05-16
We propose a new method to produce self- and cross-Kerr photonic nonlinearities, using light-induced Stark shifts due to the interaction of a cavity mode with atoms. The proposed experimental set-up is considerably simpler than in previous approaches, while the strength of the nonlinearity obtained with a single atom is the same as in the setting based on electromagnetically induced transparency. Furthermore our scheme can be applied to engineer effective photonic nonlinear interactions whose strength increases with the number of atoms coupled to the cavity mode, leading to photon-photon interactions several orders of magnitude larger than previously considered possible.
Biexciton-mediated superradiant photon blockade
Poshakinskiy, Alexander V
2015-01-01
The photon blockade is a hallmark of quantum light transport through a single two-level system that can accomodate only one photon. Here, we theoretically show that two-photon transmission can be suppressed even for a seemingly classical system with large number of quantum dots in a cavity when the biexciton nonlinearity is taken into account. We reveal the nonmonotonous dependence of the second-order correlation function of the transmitted photons on the biexciton binding energy. The blockade is realized by proper tuning the biexciton resonance that controls the collective superradiant modes.
Why photons cannot be sharply localized
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo; Bialynicka-Birula, Zofia
2009-03-01
Photons cannot be localized in a sharply defined region. The expectation value of their energy density and the photon number density can only be approximately localized, leaving an exponential tail. We show that one may sharply localize either electric or magnetic (but not both) footprints of photons and only momentarily. In the course of time evolution this localization is immediately destroyed. However, the coherent states, like their classical counterparts, can be localized without any limitations. The main tool in our analysis is a set of space-dependent photon creation and annihilation operators defined without any reference to the mode decomposition.
Entangled-photon compressive ghost imaging
Zerom, Petros; Chan, Kam Wai Clifford; Howell, John C.; Boyd, Robert W.
2011-12-15
We have experimentally demonstrated high-resolution compressive ghost imaging at the single-photon level using entangled photons produced by a spontaneous parametric down-conversion source and using single-pixel detectors. For a given mean-squared error, the number of photons needed to reconstruct a two-dimensional image is found to be much smaller than that in quantum ghost imaging experiments employing a raster scan. This procedure not only shortens the data acquisition time, but also suggests a more economical use of photons for low-light-level and quantum image formation.
How a Single Photon Can Act as Many Photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dmochowski, Greg; Hallaji, Matin; Feizpour, Amir; Sinclair, Josiah; Steinberg, Aephraim
2015-05-01
We experimentally show how a single, post-selected photon may induce a non-linear cross-phase shift that is five times larger than the nominal single photon effect. Using a weak cross-Kerr interaction, we deterministically couple two coherent state optical fields and exploit weak-value amplification (WVA) to increase the effect that one field (the ``signal'') has on the other (the ``probe''). Due to the (weak) entangling interaction, appropriate preparation and post-selection of the signal field leads to interference of different possible probe states and an anomalously large cross-phase shift. This amplification only occurs for particular pre- and post-selections of the signal field; larger amplification arises when the final state is nearly orthogonal to the initially prepared state and, therefore, occurs less frequently. A laser-cooled cloud of 85Rb atoms is used to mediate the cross-Kerr interaction; the signal field imprints a phase shift on the probe laser, which grows linearly with the photon number in the signal pulse. That is, the probe effectively measures the photon number in the signal beam. The signal field is prepared in a given superposition of two polarizations, one of which interacts with the probe field more strongly than the other. After the interaction, detection of an individual signal photon (using a single photon detector) which is nearly orthogonally polarized causes the probe to acquire an additional single-photon phase shift that is amplified by the degree of orthogonality. We demonstrate an amplification factor of five.
Spectra of Photon Down Conversion
Smotlacha, J.; Chadzitaskos, G.; Daskaloyannis, C.
2009-11-30
We demonstrate that quasi-exactly solvable models of quantum mechanics can be used in nonlinear optical processes for a down conversion or second-harmonic generation processes. After the reduction we use the Turbiner and Bender -Dunne polynomial approach. The eigenvalues of Hamiltonian for low number of photons are calculated and the approximation formula is found out.
Counterintuitive temporal shape of single photons
Gurpreet Kaur Gulati; Bharath Srivathsan; Brenda Chng; Alessandro Cerè; Dzmitry Matsukevich; Christian Kurtsiefer
2014-02-24
We prepare heralded single photons from a photon pair source based on non-degenerate four-wave mixing in a cold atomic ensemble via a cascade decay scheme. Their statistics shows strong antibunching with g(2)(0) < 0.03, indicating a near single photon character. In an optical homodyne experiment, we directly measure the temporal envelope of these photons and find, depending on the heralding scheme, an exponentially decaying or rising profile. The rising envelope will be useful for efficient interaction between single photons and microscopic systems like single atoms and molecules. At the same time, their observation illustrates the breakdown of a realistic interpretation of the heralding process in terms of defining an initial condition of a physical system.
Dai, Wu-Sheng Xie, Mi
2013-05-15
In this paper, we give a general discussion on the calculation of the statistical distribution from a given operator relation of creation, annihilation, and number operators. Our result shows that as long as the relation between the number operator and the creation and annihilation operators can be expressed as a{sup †}b=?(N) or N=?{sup ?1}(a{sup †}b), where N, a{sup †}, and b denote the number, creation, and annihilation operators, i.e., N is a function of quadratic product of the creation and annihilation operators, the corresponding statistical distribution is the Gentile distribution, a statistical distribution in which the maximum occupation number is an arbitrary integer. As examples, we discuss the statistical distributions corresponding to various operator relations. In particular, besides the Bose–Einstein and Fermi–Dirac cases, we discuss the statistical distributions for various schemes of intermediate statistics, especially various q-deformation schemes. Our result shows that the statistical distributions corresponding to various q-deformation schemes are various Gentile distributions with different maximum occupation numbers which are determined by the deformation parameter q. This result shows that the results given in much literature on the q-deformation distribution are inaccurate or incomplete. -- Highlights: ? A general discussion on calculating statistical distribution from relations of creation, annihilation, and number operators. ? A systemic study on the statistical distributions corresponding to various q-deformation schemes. ? Arguing that many results of q-deformation distributions in literature are inaccurate or incomplete.
Tevatron direct photon results.
Kuhlmann, S.
1999-09-21
Tevatron direct photon results since DIS98 are reviewed. Two new CDF measurements are discussed, the Run Ib inclusive photon cross section and the photon + Muon cross section. Comparisons with the latest NLO QCD calculations are presented.
High efficiency photon counting using stopped light
A. Imamoglu
2002-05-31
Single-photon detection and photon counting play a central role in a large number of quantum communication and computation protocols. While the efficiency of state-of-the-art photo-detectors is well below the desired limits, quantum state measurements in trapped ions can be carried out with efficiencies approaching 100%. Here, we propose a method that can in principle achieve ideal photon counting, by combining the techniques of photonic quantum memory and ion-trap fluorescence detection: after mapping the quantum state of a propagating light pulse onto metastable collective excitations of a trapped cold atomic gas, it is possible to monitor the resonance fluorescence induced by an additional laser field that only couples to the metastable excited state. Even with a photon collection/detection efficiency as low as 10%, it is possible to achieve photon counting with efficiency approaching 100%.
Generalized multi-photon quantum interference
Max Tillmann; Si-Hui Tan; Sarah E. Stoeckl; Barry C. Sanders; Hubert de Guise; René Heilmann; Stefan Nolte; Alexander Szameit; Philip Walther
2015-02-12
Non-classical interference of photons lies at the heart of optical quantum information processing. This effect is exploited in universal quantum gates as well as in purpose-built quantum computers that solve the BosonSampling problem. Although non-classical interference is often associated with perfectly indistinguishable photons this only represents the degenerate case, hard to achieve under realistic experimental conditions. Here we exploit tunable distinguishability to reveal the full spectrum of multi-photon non-classical interference. This we investigate in theory and experiment by controlling the delay times of three photons injected into an integrated interferometric network. We derive the entire coincidence landscape and identify transition matrix immanants as ideally suited functions to describe the generalized case of input photons with arbitrary distinguishability. We introduce a compact description by utilizing a natural basis which decouples the input state from the interferometric network, thereby providing a useful tool for even larger photon numbers.
Observation of eight-photon entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Xing-Can; Wang, Tian-Xiong; Xu, Ping; Lu, He; Pan, Ge-Sheng; Bao, Xiao-Hui; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Lu, Chao-Yang; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei
2012-04-01
The creation of increasingly large multipartite entangled states is not only a fundamental scientific endeavour in itself, but is also the enabling technology for quantum information. Tremendous experimental effort has been devoted to generating multiparticle entanglement with a growing number of qubits. So far, up to six spatially separated single photons have been entangled based on parametric downconversion. Multiple degrees of freedom of a single photon have been exploited to generate forms of hyper-entangled states. Here, using new ultra-bright sources of entangled photon pairs, an eight-photon interferometer and post-selection detection, we demonstrate for the first time the creation of an eight-photon Schrödinger cat state with genuine multipartite entanglement. The ability to control eight individual photons represents a step towards optical quantum computation, and will enable new experiments on, for example, quantum simulation, topological error correction and testing entanglement dynamics under decoherence.
John, Sajeev
degree of tunability of the photonic band structure through electrooptic effects. Such tunability may. The science of liquid crystals [17 -- 19] has spawned an entire indus try related to these electrooptic for electro optic tuning effects. In particular, a change in the orienta tion of the nematic director field
General displaced SU(1, 1) number states: Revisited
Dehghani, A. E-mail: a-dehghani@tabrizu.ac.ir
2014-04-15
The most general displaced number states, based on the bosonic and an irreducible representation of the Lie algebra symmetry of su(1, 1) and associated with the Calogero-Sutherland model are introduced. Here, we utilize the Barut-Girardello displacement operator instead of the Klauder-Perelomov counterpart, to construct new kind of the displaced number states which can be classified in nonlinear coherent states regime, too, with special nonlinearity functions. They depend on two parameters, and can be converted into the well-known Barut-Girardello coherent and number states, respectively, depending on which of the parameters equal to zero. A discussion of the statistical properties of these states is included. Significant are their squeezing properties and anti-bunching effects which can be raised by increasing the energy quantum number. Depending on the particular choice of the parameters of the above scenario, we are able to determine the status of compliance with flexible statistics. Major parts of the issue is spent on something that these states, in fact, should be considered as new kind of photon-added coherent states, too. Which can be reproduced through an iterated action of a creation operator on new nonlinear Barut-Girardello coherent states. Where the latter carry, also, outstanding statistical features.
Continuous-mode multi-photon filtering
Hongting Song; Guofeng Zhang; Zairong Xi
2015-12-04
The purpose of this paper is to derive filters for an arbitrary open quantum system driven by a light wavepacket prepared in a continuous-mode multi-photon state. A continuous-mode multi-photon state is a state of a travelling light wavepacket that contains a definite number of photons and is characterised by a temporal (or equivalently spectral) profile. After the interaction with the system, the outgoing light can be monitored by means of homodyne detection or photodetection. Filters for both measurement schemes are derived in this paper. Unlike the vacuum or the coherent state case, the annihilation operator of the light field acting on a multi-photon state changes the state by annihilating a photon, and this makes the traditional filtering techniques inapplicable. To circumvent this difficulty, we adopt a non-Markovian embedding technique proposed in \\cite{gough:2013} for the study of the single-photon filtering problem. However, the multi-photon nature of the problem addressed in this paper makes the study much more mathematically involved. Moreover, as demonstrated by an example --- a two-level system driven by a continuous-mode two-photon state, multi-photon filters can reveal interesting strong nonlinear optical phenomena absent in both the single-photon state case and the continuous-mode Fock state case.
Multimode One-Way Waveguides of Large Chern Numbers
Skirlo, Scott A.
Current experimental realizations of the quantum anomalous Hall phase in both electronic and photonic systems have been limited to a Chern number of one. In photonics, this corresponds to a single-mode one-way edge waveguide. ...
Supernova brightening from chameleon-photon mixing
Burrage, C.
2008-02-15
Measurements of standard candles and measurements of standard rulers give an inconsistent picture of the history of the universe. This discrepancy can be explained if photon number is not conserved as computations of the luminosity distance must be modified. I show that photon number is not conserved when photons mix with chameleons in the presence of a magnetic field. The strong magnetic fields in a supernova mean that the probability of a photon converting into a chameleon in the interior of the supernova is high, this results in a large flux of chameleons at the surface of the supernova. Chameleons and photons also mix as a result of the intergalactic magnetic field. These two effects combined cause the image of the supernova to be brightened resulting in a model which fits both observations of standard candles and observations of standard rulers.
Supernova brightening from chameleon-photon mixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burrage, C.
2008-02-01
Measurements of standard candles and measurements of standard rulers give an inconsistent picture of the history of the universe. This discrepancy can be explained if photon number is not conserved as computations of the luminosity distance must be modified. I show that photon number is not conserved when photons mix with chameleons in the presence of a magnetic field. The strong magnetic fields in a supernova mean that the probability of a photon converting into a chameleon in the interior of the supernova is high, this results in a large flux of chameleons at the surface of the supernova. Chameleons and photons also mix as a result of the intergalactic magnetic field. These two effects combined cause the image of the supernova to be brightened resulting in a model which fits both observations of standard candles and observations of standard rulers.
Resonance formation in photon-photon collisions
Gidal, G.
1988-08-01
Recent experimental progress on resonance formation in photon-photon collisions is reviewed with particular emphasis on the pseudoscalar and tensor nonents and on the ..gamma gamma..* production of spin-one resonances. 37 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.
Recursive Relations For Processes With n Photons Of Noncommutative QED
Abolfazl Jafari
2006-08-10
The recursion relations are derived for multi-photon processes of noncommutative QED. The relations concern purely photonic processes as well as the processes with two fermions involved, both for arbitrary number of photons at tree level. It is shown that despite of the dependence of noncommutative vertices on momentum, in contrast to momentum-independent color factors of QCD, the recursion relation method can be employed for multi-photon processes of noncommutative QED.
Aaron M. Hagerstrom; Thomas E. Murphy; Rajarshi Roy
2015-08-07
Some physical processes, including the intensity fluctuations of a chaotic laser, the detection of single photons, and the Brownian motion of a microscopic particle in a fluid are unpredictable, at least on long timescales. This unpredictability can be due to a variety of physical mechanisms, but it is quantified by an entropy rate. This rate describes how quickly a system produces new and random information, is fundamentally important in statistical mechanics and practically important for random number generation. We experimentally study entropy generation and the emergence of deterministic chaotic dynamics from discrete noise in a system that applies feedback to a weak optical signal at the single-photon level. We show that the dynamics qualitatively change from shot noise to chaos as the photon rate increases, and that the entropy rate can reflect either the deterministic or noisy aspects of the system depending on the sampling rate and resolution.
Wigner distribution of twisted photons
Mohammad Mirhosseini; Omar Magaña-Loaiza; Changchen Chen; Seyed Mohammad Hashemi Rafsanjani; Robert W. Boyd
2015-12-04
We present the first experimental characterization of the azimuthal Wigner distribution of a photon. Our protocol fully characterizes the transverse structure of a photon in conjugate bases of orbital angular momentum (OAM) and azimuthal angle (ANG). We provide a test of our protocol by characterizing pure superpositions and incoherent mixtures of OAM modes in a seven-dimensional space. The time required for performing measurements in our scheme scales only linearly with the dimension size of the state under investigation. This time scaling makes our technique suitable for quantum information applications involving a large number of OAM states.
Photon-Photon Interactions via Rydberg Blockade
Alexey V. Gorshkov; Johannes Otterbach; Michael Fleischhauer; Thomas Pohl; Mikhail D. Lukin
2011-03-18
We develop the theory of light propagation under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in systems involving strongly interacting Rydberg states. Taking into account the quantum nature and the spatial propagation of light, we analyze interactions involving few-photon pulses. We demonstrate that this system can be used for the generation of nonclassical states of light including trains of single photons with an avoided volume between them, for implementing photon-photon quantum gates, as well as for studying many-body phenomena with strongly correlated photons.
... medicine in the United States 2000-2005: an analysis of bed numbers, occupancy rates, payer mix and costs. Crit Care Med. 2010;38:65-71. Health Forum, LLC. American Hospital Association Hospital Statistics, 2011 (2009 survey data). Chicago, IL: ...
EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Two-photon excitation chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime imaging
Qu, Jianan
EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Two-photon excitation chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime imaging: a rapid in a marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii. The chlorophyll, an intrinsic fluorophore, was used is based on an imaging- guided statistical analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence decay. This novel label
Photon position eigenvectors lead to complete photon wave mechanics
Margaret Hawton
2007-11-01
We have recently constructed a photon position operator with commuting components. This was long thought to be impossible, but our position eigenvectors have a vortex structure like twisted light. Thus they are not spherically symmetric and the position operator does not transform as a vector, so that previous non-existence arguments do not apply. We find two classes of position eigenvectors and obtain photon wave functions by projection onto the bases of position eigenkets that they define, following the usual rules of quantum mechanics. The hermitian position operator, r0, leads to a Landau-Peierls wave function, while field-like eigenvectors of the nonhermitian position operator and its adjoint lead to a biorthonormal basis. These two bases are equivalent in the sense that they are related by a similarity transformation. The eigenvectors of the nonhermitian position operators lead to a field-potential wave function pair. These field-like positive frequency wave functions satisfy Maxwell's equations, and thus justify the supposition that MEs describe single photon wave mechanics. The expectation value of the number operator is photon density with undetected photons integrated over, consistent with Feynman's conclusion that the density of non-interacting particles can be interpreted as probability density.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Feiveson, Alan H.; Foy, Millennia; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James
2014-01-01
Do you have elevated p-values? Is the data analysis process getting you down? Do you experience anxiety when you need to respond to criticism of statistical methods in your manuscript? You may be suffering from Insufficient Statistical Support Syndrome (ISSS). For symptomatic relief of ISSS, come for a free consultation with JSC biostatisticians at our help desk during the poster sessions at the HRP Investigators Workshop. Get answers to common questions about sample size, missing data, multiple testing, when to trust the results of your analyses and more. Side effects may include sudden loss of statistics anxiety, improved interpretation of your data, and increased confidence in your results.
UK photonics in defence and security
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gracie, C.; Tooley, I.; Wilson, A.
2008-10-01
The UK is globally recognised as strong in Photonics. However its Photonics sector is fragmented and the size and sectors of interest have not previously been established. The UK government has instigated the formation of the Photonics Knowledge Transfer Network (PKTN) to bring the Photonics community together. The UK features in Defence & Security; Communications; Measurement; Medical Technology; Lighting; Solar Energy; Information Technology and Flat Panels. This expertise is scattered through out the UK in geographic areas each with a breadth of Photonic interests. The PKTN has mapped the UK capability in all Photonics sectors. This paper will present the capability of the Companies, Research Institutions and Infrastructure making up the Defence & Security Photonics scene in the UK. Large Defence companies in the UK are well known throughout the world. However, there are a large number of SMEs, which may not be as well known in the supply chain. These are being actively encouraged by the UK MoD to engage with the Defence & Security Market and shall be discussed here. The presentation will reference a number of organisations which help to fund and network the community, such as the Defence Technology Centres. In addition the Roadmap for Defence & Security in the UK, produced for the UK Photonics Strategy (July 2006) by the Scottish Optoelectronics Association will be described and the plans in taking it forward under the PKTN will be revealed.
Klaus Reygers; for the PHENIX Collaboration
2009-08-17
A brief overview of direct-photon measurements in p+p and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV with the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is given. Direct-photon yields for pT > 4 GeV/c and photon-hadron azimuthal correlations were determined with the aid of an electromagnetic calorimeter. By detecting e+e- pairs from the internal conversion of virtual photons direct-photon yields were measured between 1 photons from a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) are expected to contribute significantly to the total direct-photon yield in this range.
The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute works to provide information on cancer statistics in an effort to reduce the burden of cancer among the U.S. population.
... see the Understanding Cancer Prognosis page. Cancer Statistics | Did You Know? View this video on YouTube. Information ... Cancer Registries. Related Resources State Cancer Profiles SEER Did You Know? Video Series Most text on the ...
... population, or about 25 million Americans, has experienced tinnitus lasting at least five minutes in the past ... by NIDCD Epidemiology and Statistics Program staff: (1) tinnitus prevalence was obtained from the 2008 National Health ...
... for scientific studies. Amusement Rides March 09, 2015 Estimated Number of Injuries and Reported Deaths Associated with Inflatable Amusements, 2003–2013 July 10, 2009 Estimated Number of Injuries and Reported Deaths Associated with ...
Quantum statistical theory of the ring laser
Singh, S.
1981-02-01
A unified quantum treatment is presented for bidirectional two-mode ring lasers using the approach of Haken and co-workers. Equations of motion for the reduced density matrix of the field have been derived and used to study the fluctuation properties of the radiation field in different kinds of active media. The steady-state photon number distribution for an inhomogeneously broadened gas ring laser is derived. It is shown that for equal losses the relative fluctuations and normalized cross correlation of the photon numbers approach values 1/3 and -1/3, respectively, for large excitations. For unequal losses the laser may emit typical single-mode laser radiation in the direction of the favored mode and typical equilibrium blackbody radiation in the direction of the weaker mode. Our results generally agree with the predictions of earlier treatments when the losses are equal. However, for unequal losses we predict different behavior for large excitations. Effects of detuning, spatial, and temporal variation of atomic inversion on the fluctuation properties have been investigated in the coherent-state diagonal representation of the density matrix, and steady-state intensity distributions have been derived for various kinds of active atoms. It is shown that for inhomogeneously broadened solid-state ring lasers spatial inhomogeneities may couple the modes strongly and the statistical properties of such lasers, characterized by a double-peaked intensity distribution and large relative-intensity fluctuations, may be similar to those of a homogeneously broadened ring laser. Curves are presented to illustrate the behavior.
Large numbers hypothesis. II - Electromagnetic radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, P. J.
1983-01-01
This paper develops the theory of electromagnetic radiation in the units covariant formalism incorporating Dirac's large numbers hypothesis (LNH). A direct field-to-particle technique is used to obtain the photon propagation equation which explicitly involves the photon replication rate. This replication rate is fixed uniquely by requiring that the form of a free-photon distribution function be preserved, as required by the 2.7 K cosmic radiation. One finds that with this particular photon replication rate the units covariant formalism developed in Paper I actually predicts that the ratio of photon number to proton number in the universe varies as t to the 1/4, precisely in accord with LNH. The cosmological red-shift law is also derived and it is shown to differ considerably from the standard form of (nu)(R) - const.
Statistical data mining Finn Arup Nielsen
Nielsen, Finn Årup
Statistical data mining Finn °Arup Nielsen Informatics and Mathematical Modelling Technical University of Denmark February 3, 2004 #12;Introduction · "Statistical data mining". · The goal is "knowledge. · Heterogeneous data analysis on text, numbers, images, . . . · Examples from Neuroinformatics (Neuroscience
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lynch, Mary Jo; Oder, Norman; Halstead, Kent; Fox, Bette-Lee
2003-01-01
Includes seven reports that discuss research on libraries and librarianship, including academic, public, and school libraries; awards and grants; number of libraries in the United States and Canada; National Center for Education Statistics results; library expenditures for public, academic, special, and government libraries; library budgets; price…
A photonic thermalization gap in disordered lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondakci, H. Esat; Abouraddy, Ayman F.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.
2015-11-01
The formation of gaps--forbidden ranges in the values of a physical parameter--is common to a variety of physical systems: from energy bandgaps of electrons in periodic lattices and their analogues in photonic, phononic and plasmonic systems to pseudo-energy gaps in aperiodic quasicrystals. Here, we predict a thermalization gap for light propagating in finite disordered structures characterized by disorder-immune chiral symmetry--the appearance of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors in skew-symmetric pairs. In these systems, the span of sub-thermal photon statistics is inaccessible to input coherent light, which--once the steady state is reached--always emerges with super-thermal statistics no matter how small the disorder level. We formulate an independent constraint of the input field for the chiral symmetry to be activated and the gap to be observed. This unique feature enables a new form of photon-statistics interferometry: the deterministic tuning of photon statistics via controlled excitation symmetry breaking realized by sculpting the amplitude or phase of the input coherent field.
Statistics Anxiety among Postgraduate Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Koh, Denise; Zawi, Mohd Khairi
2014-01-01
Most postgraduate programmes, that have research components, require students to take at least one course of research statistics. Not all postgraduate programmes are science based, there are a significant number of postgraduate students who are from the social sciences that will be taking statistics courses, as they try to complete their…
Representational Versatility in Learning Statistics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Graham, Alan T.; Thomas, Michael O. J.
2005-01-01
Statistical data can be represented in a number of qualitatively different ways, the choice depending on the following three conditions: the concepts to be investigated; the nature of the data; and the purpose for which they were collected. This paper begins by setting out frameworks that describe the nature of statistical thinking in schools, and…
Teleporting photonic qudits using multimode quantum scissors.
Goyal, Sandeep K; Konrad, Thomas
2013-01-01
Teleportation plays an important role in the communication of quantum information between the nodes of a quantum network and is viewed as an essential ingredient for long-distance Quantum Cryptography. We describe a method to teleport the quantum information carried by a photon in a superposition of a number d of light modes (a "qudit") by the help of d additional photons based on transcription. A qudit encoded into a single excitation of d light modes (in our case Laguerre-Gauss modes which carry orbital angular momentum) is transcribed to d single-rail photonic qubits, which are spatially separated. Each single-rail qubit consists of a superposition of vacuum and a single photon in each one of the modes. After successful teleportation of each of the d single-rail qubits by means of "quantum scissors" they are converted back into a qudit carried by a single photon which completes the teleportation scheme. PMID:24352610
Efficient photon management with nanostructures for photovoltaics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hua, Bo; Lin, Qingfeng; Zhang, Qianpeng; Fan, Zhiyong
2013-07-01
Efficient photon management schemes are crucial for improving the energy conversion efficiency of photovoltaic devices; they can lead potentially to reduced material usage and cost for these devices. In this review, photon trapping mechanisms are discussed briefly in the beginning, followed by a summary of recent progress on a number of major categories of nanostructures with intriguing photon management properties. Specifically, nanostructures including nanowires, nanopillars, nanopyramids, nanocones, nanospikes, and so forth, have been reviewed comprehensively with materials including Si, Ge, CdS, CIGS, ZnO, etc. It is found that these materials with diverse configurations have tunable photon management properties, namely, optical reflectance, transmittance and absorption. Investigations on these nanostructures have not only shed light on the fundamental interplay between photons and materials at the nanometer scale, but also suggested a potential pathway for a new generation of photovoltaic devices.
Efficient photon management with nanostructures for photovoltaics.
Hua, Bo; Lin, Qingfeng; Zhang, Qianpeng; Fan, Zhiyong
2013-08-01
Efficient photon management schemes are crucial for improving the energy conversion efficiency of photovoltaic devices; they can lead potentially to reduced material usage and cost for these devices. In this review, photon trapping mechanisms are discussed briefly in the beginning, followed by a summary of recent progress on a number of major categories of nanostructures with intriguing photon management properties. Specifically, nanostructures including nanowires, nanopillars, nanopyramids, nanocones, nanospikes, and so forth, have been reviewed comprehensively with materials including Si, Ge, CdS, CIGS, ZnO, etc. It is found that these materials with diverse configurations have tunable photon management properties, namely, optical reflectance, transmittance and absorption. Investigations on these nanostructures have not only shed light on the fundamental interplay between photons and materials at the nanometer scale, but also suggested a potential pathway for a new generation of photovoltaic devices. PMID:23771410
Extraction of a single photon from an optical pulse
Serge Rosenblum; Orel Bechler; Itay Shomroni; Yulia Lovsky; Gabriel Guendelman; Barak Dayan
2015-10-14
Removing a single photon from a pulse is one of the most elementary operations that can be performed on light, having both fundamental significance and practical applications in quantum communication and computation. So far, photon subtraction, in which the removed photon is detected and therefore irreversibly lost, has been implemented in a probabilistic manner with inherently low success rates using low-reflectivity beam splitters. Here we demonstrate a scheme for the deterministic extraction of a single photon from an incoming pulse. The removed photon is diverted to a different mode, enabling its use for other purposes, such as a photon number-splitting attack on quantum key distribution protocols. Our implementation makes use of single-photon Raman interaction (SPRINT) with a single atom near a nanofibre-coupled microresonator. The single-photon extraction probability in our current realization is limited mostly by linear loss, yet probabilities close to unity should be attainable with realistic experimental parameters.
Habs, D.; Guenther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.
2012-07-09
With the planned new {gamma}-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 10{sup 13}{gamma}/s and a band width of {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -3}, a new era of {gamma} beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HI{gamma}S facility at Duke University (USA) with 10{sup 8}{gamma}/s and {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 3 Dot-Operator 10{sup -2}. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for {gamma} beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused {gamma} beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the {gamma} beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for {gamma} beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for {gamma} beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the {gamma}-beam facility, the {gamma}-beam optics and {gamma} detectors. We can trade {gamma} intensity for band width, going down to {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -6} and address individual nuclear levels. The term 'nuclear photonics' stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with {gamma}-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, {gamma} beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to {mu}m resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of applications. We find many new applications in biomedicine, green energy, radioactive waste management or homeland security. Also more brilliant secondary beams of neutrons and positrons can be produced.
D. Habs; M. M. Guenther; M. Jentschel; P. G. Thirolf
2012-01-21
With new gamma-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest with 10^13 g/s and a bandwidth of Delta E_g/E_g ~10^-3, a new era of g-beams with energies world-leading HIGS facility (Duke Univ., USA) with 10^8 g/s and Delta E_g/E_g~0.03. Even a seeded quantum FEL for g-beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused g-beams. We describe a new experiment at the g-beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for g-beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for g-beams are being developed. Thus we have to optimize the system of the g-beam facility, the g-beam optics and g-detectors. We can trade g-intensity for band width, going down to Delta E_g/E_g ~ 10^-6 and address individual nuclear levels. 'Nuclear photonics' stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with g-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, g-beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to micron resolution using Nucl. Reson. Fluorescence for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of applications. We find many new applications in biomedicine, green energy, radioactive waste management or homeland security. Also more brilliant secondary beams of neutrons and positrons can be produced.
Photonic Molecules and Spectral Engineering
Boriskina, Svetlana V.
2010-01-01
This chapter reviews the fundamental optical properties and applications of photonic molecules (PMs) – photonic structures formed by electromagnetic coupling of two or more optical microcavities (photonic atoms). Controllable ...
Single-photon non-linear optics with a quantum dot in a waveguide.
Javadi, A; Söllner, I; Arcari, M; Hansen, S Lindskov; Midolo, L; Mahmoodian, S; Kiršansk?, G; Pregnolato, T; Lee, E H; Song, J D; Stobbe, S; Lodahl, P
2015-01-01
Strong non-linear interactions between photons enable logic operations for both classical and quantum-information technology. Unfortunately, non-linear interactions are usually feeble and therefore all-optical logic gates tend to be inefficient. A quantum emitter deterministically coupled to a propagating mode fundamentally changes the situation, since each photon inevitably interacts with the emitter, and highly correlated many-photon states may be created. Here we show that a single quantum dot in a photonic-crystal waveguide can be used as a giant non-linearity sensitive at the single-photon level. The non-linear response is revealed from the intensity and quantum statistics of the scattered photons, and contains contributions from an entangled photon-photon bound state. The quantum non-linearity will find immediate applications for deterministic Bell-state measurements and single-photon transistors and paves the way to scalable waveguide-based photonic quantum-computing architectures. PMID:26492951
Single-photon non-linear optics with a quantum dot in a waveguide
Javadi, A.; Söllner, I.; Arcari, M.; Hansen, S. Lindskov; Midolo, L.; Mahmoodian, S.; Kiršansk?, G; Pregnolato, T.; Lee, E. H.; Song, J. D.; Stobbe, S.; Lodahl, P.
2015-01-01
Strong non-linear interactions between photons enable logic operations for both classical and quantum-information technology. Unfortunately, non-linear interactions are usually feeble and therefore all-optical logic gates tend to be inefficient. A quantum emitter deterministically coupled to a propagating mode fundamentally changes the situation, since each photon inevitably interacts with the emitter, and highly correlated many-photon states may be created. Here we show that a single quantum dot in a photonic-crystal waveguide can be used as a giant non-linearity sensitive at the single-photon level. The non-linear response is revealed from the intensity and quantum statistics of the scattered photons, and contains contributions from an entangled photon–photon bound state. The quantum non-linearity will find immediate applications for deterministic Bell-state measurements and single-photon transistors and paves the way to scalable waveguide-based photonic quantum-computing architectures. PMID:26492951
Single-photon non-linear optics with a quantum dot in a waveguide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Javadi, A.; Söllner, I.; Arcari, M.; Hansen, S. Lindskov; Midolo, L.; Mahmoodian, S.; Kiršansk?, G.; Pregnolato, T.; Lee, E. H.; Song, J. D.; Stobbe, S.; Lodahl, P.
2015-10-01
Strong non-linear interactions between photons enable logic operations for both classical and quantum-information technology. Unfortunately, non-linear interactions are usually feeble and therefore all-optical logic gates tend to be inefficient. A quantum emitter deterministically coupled to a propagating mode fundamentally changes the situation, since each photon inevitably interacts with the emitter, and highly correlated many-photon states may be created. Here we show that a single quantum dot in a photonic-crystal waveguide can be used as a giant non-linearity sensitive at the single-photon level. The non-linear response is revealed from the intensity and quantum statistics of the scattered photons, and contains contributions from an entangled photon-photon bound state. The quantum non-linearity will find immediate applications for deterministic Bell-state measurements and single-photon transistors and paves the way to scalable waveguide-based photonic quantum-computing architectures.
Statistical BER analysis of simulated optical interconnections U. Lohmann, H. Knuppertz, J. Jahns
Jahns, Jürgen
Statistical BER analysis of simulated optical interconnections U. Lohmann, H. Knuppertz, J. Jahns Interchip Interconnections and Photonic PCBs, (2009). [2] G. Agrawal, Fiber Optic Communication Systems libraries with the focus on statistical BER calculation, is a helpful and inexpensive alternative
Collective two-particle resonances induced by photon entanglement
Richter, Marten; Mukamel, Shaul
2011-06-15
An assembly of noninteracting atoms may become correlated upon interaction with entangled photons, and certain elements of their joint density matrix can then show collective resonances. We explore experimental signatures of these resonances in the nonlinear response of a pair of two-level atoms. We find that these resonances are canceled out in stimulated signals such as pump-probe and two-photon absorption due to the destructive interference of two-photon-absorption and emission pathways in the joint two-particle space. However, they may be observed in photon statistics (Hanbury-Brown-Twiss) measurements through the attenuation of two-time intensity correlations.
Heavy flavor production from photons and hadrons
Heusch, C.A.
1982-01-01
The present state of the production and observation of hadrons containing heavy quarks or antiquarks as valence constituents, in reactions initiated by real and (space-like) virtual photon or by hadron beams is discussed. Heavy flavor production in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, which is well covered in a number of recent review papers is not discussed, and similarly, neutrino production is omitted due to the different (flavor-changing) mechanisms that are involved in those reactions. Heavy flavors from spacelike photons, heavy flavors from real photons, and heavy flavors from hadron-hadron collisions are discussed. (WHK)
Progress on the global photonics education network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nantel, Marc
2005-10-01
Since ETOP 2001, the Global Photonics Education Network (GPEN) has slowly formed and built momentum. With its growing number of members, its list-serv email address and a new webpage, the GPEN is gathering the critical mass needed to become a useful tool for photonics educators worldwide. This paper will recap the evolution of the GPEN so far, present its current state (including the webpage), emphasize the role of "clusters" for its health and suggest the next steps to take to firmly establish it as an essential part of the photonics education and training community.
A Diamond Nanowire Single Photon Antenna
Tom Babinec; Birgit J. M. Hausmann; Mughees Khan; Yinan Zhang; Jero Maze; Philip R. Hemmer; Marko Loncar
2009-10-28
The development of a robust light source that emits one photon at a time is an outstanding challenge in quantum science and technology. Here, at the transition from many to single photon optical communication systems, fully quantum mechanical effects may be utilized to achieve new capabilities, most notably perfectly secure communication via quantum cryptography. Practical implementations place stringent requirements on the device properties, including stable photon generation, room temperature operation, and efficient extraction of many photons. Single photon light emitting devices based on fluorescent dye molecules, quantum dots, and carbon nanotube material systems have all been explored, but none have simultaneously demonstrated all criteria. Here, we describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of a bright source of single photons consisting of an individual Nitrogen-vacancy color center (NV center) in a diamond nanowire operating in ambient conditions. The nanowire plays a positive role in increasing the number of single photons collected from the NV center by an order of magnitude over devices based on bulk diamond crystals, and allows operation at an order of magnitude lower power levels. This result enables a new class of nanostructured diamond devices for room temperature photonic and quantum information processing applications, and will also impact fields as diverse as biological and chemical sensing, opto-mechanics, and scanning-probe microscopy.
Photonics: how to get familiar with it
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Senderáková, Dagmar; Mesaros, Vladimir; Strba, Anton
2010-12-01
Year 2010 brought the 50th anniversary of laser. Our century seems to be called the photon-century. Light in our lives plays both pervasive and primordial role. To describe the new role of today "interdisciplinary optics" a new term - photonics appeared. The term was coined in 1967 by Pierre Aigrain, a French scientist, who defined photonics as the science of the harnessing of light. Photonics encompasses the generation of light, the detection of light, the management of light through guidance, manipulation, and amplification, and most importantly, its utilisation for the benefit of mankind. Number of photonics applications proves its importance. On one side, there is a demand for skilled people with photonics training. On the other side, nearly everyone is affected by science in a way and it would be useful to have at least a basic understanding of scientific principles. However, it is not a brand-new idea, an effort to popularise new scientific achievements has still been present. The contribution is based on experience of popularising photonics to high school students and attracting undergraduate University students for basis of optics via photonics. The aim of it is to share and exchange experience.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Penfield, Douglas A.
The 30 papers in the area of educational statistics that were presented at the 1972 AERA Conference are reviewed. The papers are categorized into five broad areas of interest: (1) theory of univariate analysis, (2) nonparametric methods, (3) regression-prediction theory, (4) multivariable methods, and (5) factor analysis. A list of the papers…
Candidate Assembly Statistical Evaluation
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1998-07-15
The Savannah River Site (SRS) receives aluminum clad spent Material Test Reactor (MTR) fuel from all over the world for storage and eventual reprocessing. There are hundreds of different kinds of MTR fuels and these fuels will continue to be received at SRS for approximately ten more years. SRS''s current criticality evaluation methodology requires the modeling of all MTR fuels utilizing Monte Carlo codes, which is extremely time consuming and resource intensive. Now that amore »significant number of MTR calculations have been conducted it is feasible to consider building statistical models that will provide reasonable estimations of MTR behavior. These statistical models can be incorporated into a standardized model homogenization spreadsheet package to provide analysts with a means of performing routine MTR fuel analyses with a minimal commitment of time and resources. This became the purpose for development of the Candidate Assembly Statistical Evaluation (CASE) program at SRS.« less
Two-photon imaging and spectroscopy of fresh human colon biopsies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cicchi, R.; Sturiale, A.; Nesi, G.; Tonelli, F.; Pavone, F. S.
2012-03-01
Two-photon fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy is a powerful tool to image human tissues up to 200 microns depth without any exogenously added probe. TPEF can take advantage of the autofluorescence of molecules intrinsically contained in a biological tissue, as such NADH, elastin, collagen, and flavins. Two-photon microscopy has been already successfully used to image several types of tissues, including skin, muscles, tendons, bladder. Nevertheless, its usefulness in imaging colon tissue has not been deeply investigated yet. In this work we have used combined two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF), second harmonic generation microscopy (SHG), fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), and multispectral two-photon emission detection (MTPE) to investigate different kinds of human ex-vivo fresh biopsies of colon. Morphological and spectroscopic analyses allowed to characterize both healthy mucosa, polyp, and colon samples in a good agreement with common routine histology. Even if further analysis, as well as a more significant statistics on a large number of samples would be helpful to discriminate between low, mild, and high grade cancer, our method is a promising tool to be used as diagnostic confirmation of histological results, as well as a diagnostic tool in a multiphoton endoscope or colonoscope to be used in in-vivo imaging applications.
Scalable spatial superresolution using entangled photons.
Rozema, Lee A; Bateman, James D; Mahler, Dylan H; Okamoto, Ryo; Feizpour, Amir; Hayat, Alex; Steinberg, Aephraim M
2014-06-01
N00N states-maximally path-entangled states of N photons-exhibit spatial interference patterns sharper than any classical interference pattern. This is known as superresolution. However, even given perfectly efficient number-resolving detectors, the detection efficiency of all previous measurements of such interference would decrease exponentially with the number of photons in the N00N state, often leading to the conclusion that N00N states are unsuitable for spatial measurements. A technique known as the "optical centroid measurement" has been proposed to solve this and has been experimentally verified for photon pairs; here we present the first extension beyond two photons, measuring the superresolution fringes of two-, three-, and four-photon N00N states. Moreover, we compare the N00N-state interference to the corresponding classical superresolution interference. Although both provide the same increase in spatial frequency, the visibility of the classical fringes decreases exponentially with the number of detected photons. Our work represents an essential step forward for quantum-enhanced measurements, overcoming what was believed to be a fundamental challenge to quantum metrology. PMID:24949765
Scalable Spatial Superresolution Using Entangled Photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rozema, Lee A.; Bateman, James D.; Mahler, Dylan H.; Okamoto, Ryo; Feizpour, Amir; Hayat, Alex; Steinberg, Aephraim M.
2014-06-01
N00N states—maximally path-entangled states of N photons—exhibit spatial interference patterns sharper than any classical interference pattern. This is known as superresolution. However, even given perfectly efficient number-resolving detectors, the detection efficiency of all previous measurements of such interference would decrease exponentially with the number of photons in the N00N state, often leading to the conclusion that N00N states are unsuitable for spatial measurements. A technique known as the "optical centroid measurement" has been proposed to solve this and has been experimentally verified for photon pairs; here we present the first extension beyond two photons, measuring the superresolution fringes of two-, three-, and four-photon N00N states. Moreover, we compare the N00N-state interference to the corresponding classical superresolution interference. Although both provide the same increase in spatial frequency, the visibility of the classical fringes decreases exponentially with the number of detected photons. Our work represents an essential step forward for quantum-enhanced measurements, overcoming what was believed to be a fundamental challenge to quantum metrology.
Ibanescu, Mihai, 1977-
2005-01-01
In this thesis, we explore the properties of cylindrical photonic crystal waveguides in which light is confined laterally by the band gap of a cylindrically-layered photonic crystal. We show in particular that axially-uniform ...
Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM); Bur, James A. (Corrales, NM)
2004-07-27
A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naderi, M. H.; Soltanolkotabi, M.; Roknizadeh, R.
2004-03-01
In this paper, we introduce a new family of photon-added as well as photon-depleted q-deformed coherent states related to the inverse q-boson operators. These states are constructed via the generalized inverse q-boson operator actions on a newly introduced family of q-deformed coherent states (Quesne C 2002 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 9213) which are defined by slightly modifying the maths-type q-deformed coherent states. The quantum statistical properties of these photon-added and photon-depleted states, such as quadrature squeezing and photon-counting statistics, are discussed analytically and numerically in the context of both conventional (nondeformed) and deformed quantum optics.
Composite Photon Theory Versus Elementary Photon Theory
Walton A. Perkins
2015-03-02
The purpose of this paper is to show that the composite photon theory measures up well against the Standard Model's elementary photon theory. This is done by comparing the two theories area by area. Although the predictions of quantum electrodynamics are in excellent agreement with experiment (as in the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron), there are some problems, such as the difficulty in describing the electromagnetic field with the four-component vector potential because the photon has only two polarization states. In most areas the two theories give similar results, so it is impossible to rule out the composite photon theory. Pryce's arguments in 1938 against a composite photon theory are shown to be invalid or irrelevant. Recently, it has been realized that in the composite theory the antiphoton does not interact with matter because it is formed of a neutrino and an antineutrino with the wrong helicity. This leads to experimental tests that can determine which theory is correct.
Ultrabright source of entangled photon pairs.
Dousse, Adrien; Suffczy?ski, Jan; Beveratos, Alexios; Krebs, Olivier; Lemaître, Aristide; Sagnes, Isabelle; Bloch, Jacqueline; Voisin, Paul; Senellart, Pascale
2010-07-01
A source of triggered entangled photon pairs is a key component in quantum information science; it is needed to implement functions such as linear quantum computation, entanglement swapping and quantum teleportation. Generation of polarization entangled photon pairs can be obtained through parametric conversion in nonlinear optical media or by making use of the radiative decay of two electron-hole pairs trapped in a semiconductor quantum dot. Today, these sources operate at a very low rate, below 0.01 photon pairs per excitation pulse, which strongly limits their applications. For systems based on parametric conversion, this low rate is intrinsically due to the Poissonian statistics of the source. Conversely, a quantum dot can emit a single pair of entangled photons with a probability near unity but suffers from a naturally very low extraction efficiency. Here we show that this drawback can be overcome by coupling an optical cavity in the form of a 'photonic molecule' to a single quantum dot. Two coupled identical pillars-the photonic molecule-were etched in a semiconductor planar microcavity, using an optical lithography method that ensures a deterministic coupling to the biexciton and exciton energy states of a pre-selected quantum dot. The Purcell effect ensures that most entangled photon pairs are emitted into two cavity modes, while improving the indistinguishability of the two optical recombination paths. A polarization entangled photon pair rate of 0.12 per excitation pulse (with a concurrence of 0.34) is collected in the first lens. Our results open the way towards the fabrication of solid state triggered sources of entangled photon pairs, with an overall (creation and collection) efficiency of 80%. PMID:20613838
Means and method for calibrating a photon detector utilizing electron-photon coincidence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srivastava, S. K. (inventor)
1984-01-01
An arrangement for calibrating a photon detector particularly applicable for the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet regions is based on electron photon coincidence utilizing crossed electron beam atom beam collisions. Atoms are excited by electrons which lose a known amount of energy and scatter with a known remaining energy, while the excited atoms emit photons of known radiation. Electrons of the known remaining energy are separated from other electrons and are counted. Photons emitted in a direction related to the particular direction of scattered electrons are detected to serve as a standard. Each of the electrons is used to initiate the measurements of a time interval which terminates with the arrival of a photon exciting the photon detector. Only the number of time intervals related to the coincidence correlation and of electrons scattered in the particular direction with the known remaining energy and photons of a particular radiation level emitted due to the collisions of such scattered electrons are counted. The detector calibration is related to the number of counted electrons and photons.
Physics with polarized photons
Matone, G.
1985-10-01
The role that polarization can play in the interaction of real and virtual photons with nuclear matter is considered. Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization are considered. Photodisintegration of the deuteron with linearly polarized photons is then examined, followed by use of circularly polarized photons with a polarized target. 30 refs., 4 figs. (LEW)
D. Peressounko; Y. Kharlov; for the ALICE collaboration
2009-09-17
We give an overview of photon physics which will be studied by the ALICE experiment in proton-proton and heavy ion collisions at LHC. We compare properties of ALICE photon detectors and estimate their ability to measure neutral meson and direct photon spectra as well as gamma-hadron and gamma-jet correlations in pp and Pb+Pb collisions.
Faure, Claudie
1 FUNDAMENTALS OF PHOTONICS Module 1.1 Nature and Properties of Light Linda J. Vandergriff Director the dual nature of light, as a continuous wave and a discrete particle (photon), and give examples of light of Photonics System Engineering Science Applications International Corporation McLean, Virginia Light plays
Department of Statistics STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM
ABSTRACT Progress in science and engineering relies on building good models. Modern applications often-dimensional statistical models to capture the complexity of such problems. Most of the work in this direction has focused Research Office Young Investigator Program Award (1999), the Office of Naval Research Young Investigator
Department of Statistics STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM
Stephens, Matthew
for Partical Astrophysics Probing Cosmic Acceleration with the Dark Energy Survey: Statistical Challenges remains a mys- tery. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) aims to address the questions: why is the expansion speeding up? Is cosmic acceleration due to dark energy or does it require a modification of Einstein
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goodman, Joseph W.
2000-07-01
The Wiley Classics Library consists of selected books that have become recognized classics in their respective fields. With these new unabridged and inexpensive editions, Wiley hopes to extend the life of these important works by making them available to future generations of mathematicians and scientists. Currently available in the Series: T. W. Anderson The Statistical Analysis of Time Series T. S. Arthanari & Yadolah Dodge Mathematical Programming in Statistics Emil Artin Geometric Algebra Norman T. J. Bailey The Elements of Stochastic Processes with Applications to the Natural Sciences Robert G. Bartle The Elements of Integration and Lebesgue Measure George E. P. Box & Norman R. Draper Evolutionary Operation: A Statistical Method for Process Improvement George E. P. Box & George C. Tiao Bayesian Inference in Statistical Analysis R. W. Carter Finite Groups of Lie Type: Conjugacy Classes and Complex Characters R. W. Carter Simple Groups of Lie Type William G. Cochran & Gertrude M. Cox Experimental Designs, Second Edition Richard Courant Differential and Integral Calculus, Volume I RIchard Courant Differential and Integral Calculus, Volume II Richard Courant & D. Hilbert Methods of Mathematical Physics, Volume I Richard Courant & D. Hilbert Methods of Mathematical Physics, Volume II D. R. Cox Planning of Experiments Harold S. M. Coxeter Introduction to Geometry, Second Edition Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Representation Theory of Finite Groups and Associative Algebras Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Methods of Representation Theory with Applications to Finite Groups and Orders, Volume I Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Methods of Representation Theory with Applications to Finite Groups and Orders, Volume II Cuthbert Daniel Fitting Equations to Data: Computer Analysis of Multifactor Data, Second Edition Bruno de Finetti Theory of Probability, Volume I Bruno de Finetti Theory of Probability, Volume 2 W. Edwards Deming Sample Design in Business Research
Changliang Ren; Holger F. Hofmann
2011-06-01
To fully utilize the energy-time degree of freedom of photons for optical quantum information processes, it is necessary to control and characterize the quantum states of the photons at extremely short time scales. For measurements beyond the time resolution of available detectors, two-photon interference with a photon in a short time reference pulse may be a viable alternative. In this paper, we derive the temporal measurement operators for the bunching statistics of a single photon input state with a reference photon. It is shown that the effects of the pulse shape of the reference pulse can be expressed in terms of a spectral filter selecting the bandwidth within which the measurement can be treated as an ideal projection on eigenstates of time. For full quantum tomography, temporal coherence can be determined by using superpositions of reference pulses at two different times. Moreover, energy-time entanglement can be evaluated based on the two-by-two entanglement observed in the coherences between pairs of detection times.
Single-photon emitting diode in silicon carbide.
Lohrmann, A; Iwamoto, N; Bodrog, Z; Castelletto, S; Ohshima, T; Karle, T J; Gali, A; Prawer, S; McCallum, J C; Johnson, B C
2015-01-01
Electrically driven single-photon emitting devices have immediate applications in quantum cryptography, quantum computation and single-photon metrology. Mature device fabrication protocols and the recent observations of single defect systems with quantum functionalities make silicon carbide an ideal material to build such devices. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of bright single-photon emitting diodes. The electrically driven emitters display fully polarized output, superior photon statistics (with a count rate of >300?kHz) and stability in both continuous and pulsed modes, all at room temperature. The atomic origin of the single-photon source is proposed. These results provide a foundation for the large scale integration of single-photon sources into a broad range of applications, such as quantum cryptography or linear optics quantum computing. PMID:26205309
Single-photon emitting diode in silicon carbide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lohrmann, A.; Iwamoto, N.; Bodrog, Z.; Castelletto, S.; Ohshima, T.; Karle, T. J.; Gali, A.; Prawer, S.; McCallum, J. C.; Johnson, B. C.
2015-07-01
Electrically driven single-photon emitting devices have immediate applications in quantum cryptography, quantum computation and single-photon metrology. Mature device fabrication protocols and the recent observations of single defect systems with quantum functionalities make silicon carbide an ideal material to build such devices. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of bright single-photon emitting diodes. The electrically driven emitters display fully polarized output, superior photon statistics (with a count rate of >300 kHz) and stability in both continuous and pulsed modes, all at room temperature. The atomic origin of the single-photon source is proposed. These results provide a foundation for the large scale integration of single-photon sources into a broad range of applications, such as quantum cryptography or linear optics quantum computing.
THE PHOTON UNDERPRODUCTION CRISIS
Kollmeier, Juna A.; Weinberg, David H.; McEwen, Joseph; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Danforth, Charles; Haardt, Francesco; Katz, Neal; Fardal, Mark; Davé, Romeel; Madau, Piero; Ford, Amanda B.; Peeples, Molly S.
2014-07-10
We examine the statistics of the low-redshift Ly? forest from smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations in light of recent improvements in the estimated evolution of the cosmic ultraviolet background (UVB) and recent observations from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS). We find that the value of the metagalactic photoionization rate (?{sub HI}) required by our simulations to match the observed properties of the low-redshift Ly? forest is a factor of five larger than the value predicted by state-of-the art models for the evolution of this quantity. This mismatch in ?{sub HI} results in the mean flux decrement of the Ly? forest being overpredicted by at least a factor of two (a 10? discrepancy with observations) and a column density distribution of Ly? forest absorbers systematically and significantly elevated compared to observations over nearly two decades in column density. We examine potential resolutions to this mismatch and find that either conventional sources of ionizing photons (galaxies and quasars) must contribute considerably more than current observational estimates or our theoretical understanding of the low-redshift universe is in need of substantial revision.
Albano Farias, L.; Stephany, J.
2010-12-15
We analyze the statistics of observables in continuous-variable (CV) quantum teleportation in the formalism of the characteristic function. We derive expressions for average values of output-state observables, in particular, cumulants which are additive in terms of the input state and the resource of teleportation. Working with a general class of teleportation resources, the squeezed-bell-like states, which may be optimized in a free parameter for better teleportation performance, we discuss the relation between resources optimal for fidelity and those optimal for different observable averages. We obtain the values of the free parameter of the squeezed-bell-like states which optimize the central momenta and cumulants up to fourth order. For the cumulants the distortion between in and out states due to teleportation depends only on the resource. We obtain optimal parameters {Delta}{sub (2)}{sup opt} and {Delta}{sub (4)}{sup opt} for the second- and fourth-order cumulants, which do not depend on the squeezing of the resource. The second-order central momenta, which are equal to the second-order cumulants, and the photon number average are also optimized by the resource with {Delta}{sub (2)}{sup opt}. We show that the optimal fidelity resource, which has been found previously to depend on the characteristics of input, approaches for high squeezing to the resource that optimizes the second-order momenta. A similar behavior is obtained for the resource that optimizes the photon statistics, which is treated here using the sum of the squared differences in photon probabilities of input versus output states as the distortion measure. This is interpreted naturally to mean that the distortions associated with second-order momenta dominate the behavior of the output state for large squeezing of the resource. Optimal fidelity resources and optimal photon statistics resources are compared, and it is shown that for mixtures of Fock states both resources are equivalent.
All-optical routing of single photons with multiple input and output ports by interferences
Wei-Bin Yan; Bao Liu; Ling Zhou; Heng Fan
2014-09-23
We propose a waveguide-cavity coupled system to achieve the routing of photons by the phases of other photons. Our router has four input ports and four output ports. The transport of the coherent-state photons injected through any input port can be controlled by the phases of the coherent-state photons injected through other input ports. This control can be achieved when the mean numbers of the routed and control photons are small enough and require no additional control fields. Therefore, the all-optical routing of photons can be achieved at the single-photon level.
Linear-Optic Heralded Photon Source
Thiago Ferreira da Silva; Gustavo C. Amaral; Guilherme P. Temporão; Jean Pierre von der Weid
2015-11-22
We present a Heralded Photon Source based only on linear optics and weak coherent states. By time-tuning a Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer fed with frequency-displaced coherent states, the output photons can be synchronously heralded following sub-Poisson statistics, which is indicated by the second-order correlation function ($g^2\\left(0\\right)=0.556$). The absence of phase-matching restrictions makes the source widely tunable, with 100-nm spectral tunability on the telecom bands. The technique presents yield comparable to state-of-the-art spontaneous parametric down-conversion-based sources, with high coherence and fiber-optic quantum communication compatibility.
Linear-optic heralded photon source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferreira da Silva, Thiago; Amaral, Gustavo C.; Temporão, Guilherme P.; von der Weid, Jean Pierre
2015-09-01
We present a heralded photon source based only on linear optics and weak coherent states. By time-tuning a Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer fed with frequency-displaced coherent states, the output photons can be synchronously heralded following sub-Poisson statistics, which is indicated by the second-order correlation function [ g2(0 )=0.556 ]. The absence of phase-matching restrictions makes the source widely tunable, with 100-nm spectral tunability on the telecom bands. The technique presents yield comparable to state-of-the-art spontaneous parametric down-conversion-based sources, with high coherence and fiber-optic quantum communication compatibility.
Multiple photon emission in heavy particle decays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Asakimori, K.; Burnett, T. H.; Cherry, M. L.; Christl, M. J.; Dake, S.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.
1994-01-01
Cosmic ray interactions, at energies above 1 TeV/nucleon, in emulsion chambers flown on high altitude balloons have yielded two events showing apparent decays of a heavy particle into one charged particle and four photons. The photons converted into electron pairs very close to the decay vertex. Attempts to explain this decay topology with known particle decays are presented. Unless both events represent a b yields u transition, which is statistically unlikely, then other known decay modes for charmed or bottom particles do not account satisfactorily for these observations. This could indicate, possibly, a new decay channel.
Iwo Bialynicki-Birula
2005-08-26
Photon wave function is a controversial concept. Controversies stem from the fact that photon wave functions can not have all the properties of the Schroedinger wave functions of nonrelativistic wave mechanics. Insistence on those properties that, owing to peculiarities of photon dynamics, cannot be rendered, led some physicists to the extreme opinion that the photon wave function does not exist. I reject such a fundamentalist point of view in favor of a more pragmatic approach. In my view, the photon wave function exists as long as it can be precisely defined and made useful.
von Oppen, Felix
VOLUME 88, NUMBER 11 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 18 MARCH 2002 Nodal Domains, E 1 gE , (g . 0 arbitrary), and denote by NI the number of eigenvalues in Ig E . The j distribution the distribution of the (properly normalized) numbers of nodal domains of wave functions in 2D quantum billiards
Broadhurst, David
2010-01-01
This is an expansion of a talk for mathematics and physics students of the Manchester Grammar and Manchester High Schools. It deals with numbers such as the Riemann zeta value zeta(3)=sum_{n>0}1/n^3. Zeta values appear in the description of sunshine and of relics from the Big Bang. They also result from Feynman diagrams, which occur in the quantum field theory of fundamental particles such as photons, electrons and positrons. My talk included 7 reasonably simple problems, for which I here add solutions, with further details of their context.
David Broadhurst
2010-04-23
This is an expansion of a talk for mathematics and physics students of the Manchester Grammar and Manchester High Schools. It deals with numbers such as the Riemann zeta value zeta(3)=sum_{n>0}1/n^3. Zeta values appear in the description of sunshine and of relics from the Big Bang. They also result from Feynman diagrams, which occur in the quantum field theory of fundamental particles such as photons, electrons and positrons. My talk included 7 reasonably simple problems, for which I here add solutions, with further details of their context.
Rácz, Zoltán
. It is found that one of the extreme value distributions, the Fisher-Tippett-Gumbel (FTG) distri- bution of the extreme value distribu- tions, the FTG distribution [7]. As we shall see, the FTG distribution emerges and Extreme Value Statistics T. Antal,1 M. Droz,1 G. Györgyi,2 and Z. Rácz2,3 1 Département de Physique
Derrida, Bernard
of Genealogical Trees Bernard Derrida,1 Susanna C. Manrubia,2 and DamiÃ¡n H. Zanette3 1 Laboratoire de PhysiqueÂ´o Negro, Argentina (Received 14 October 1998) We analyze the statistical properties of genealogical trees of ancestors appearing more than once in a given tree. After a transient time, the probability of repetition
Photonic Doppler Velocimetry Multiplexing Techniques: Evaluation of Photonic Techniques
Edward Daykin
2012-05-24
This poster reports progress related to photonic technologies. Specifically, the authors developed diagnostic system architecture for a Multiplexed Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (MPDV) that incorporates frequency and time-division multiplexing into existing PDV methodology to provide increased channel count. Current MPDV design increases number of data records per digitizer channel 8x, and also operates as a laser-safe (Class 3a) system. Further, they applied heterodyne interferometry to allow for direction-of-travel determination and enable high-velocity measurements (>10 km/s) via optical downshifting. They also leveraged commercially available, inexpensive and robust components originally developed for telecom applications. Proposed MPDV architectures employ only commercially available, fiber-coupled hardware.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muñoz, C. Sánchez; Del Valle, E.; Tudela, A. González; Müller, K.; Lichtmannecker, S.; Kaniber, M.; Tejedor, C.; Finley, J. J.; Laussy, F. P.
2014-07-01
Controlling the output of a light emitter is one of the basic tasks in photonics, with landmarks such as the development of the laser and single-photon sources. The ever growing range of quantum applications is making it increasingly important to diversify the available quantum sources. Here, we propose a cavity quantum electrodynamics scheme to realize emitters that release their energy in groups (or `bundles') of N photons (where N is an integer). Close to 100% of two-photon emission and 90% of three-photon emission is shown to be within reach of state-of-the-art samples. The emission can be tuned with the system parameters so that the device behaves as a laser or as an N-photon gun. Here, we develop the theoretical formalism to characterize such emitters, with the bundle statistics arising as an extension of the fundamental correlation functions of quantum optics. These emitters will be useful for quantum information processing and for medical applications.
Quantum versus classical effects in two-photon speckle patterns
Manutea Candé; Sergey E. Skipetrov
2013-01-21
We discuss quantum and classical aspects of two-photon interference in light transmission through disordered media. We show that disorder is the main factor that suppresses the interference, whatever the quantum state of the incident light. Secondarily, the two-photon interference is affected by the quantum nature of light (i.e., the well-defined number of photons in the two-photon entangled and Fock states as compared to the coherent state). And finally, entanglement is a resource that allows to prepare two-photon states with special symmetries with respect to the interchange of the photons and, in particular, the states with bosonic and fermionic symmetries. The two-photon interference is more robust for the latter states and its sign can be inverted for the fermionic state.
Quantum versus classical in two-photon speckle patterns
Candé, Manutea
2012-01-01
We discuss quantum and classical aspects of two-photon interference in light transmission through disordered media. We show that disorder is the main factor that suppresses the interference, whatever the quantum state of the incident light. Secondarily, the two-photon interference is affected by the quantum nature of light (i.e., the well-defined number of photons in the two-photon entangled and Fock states as compared to the coherent state). And finally, entanglement is a resource that allows to prepare two-photon states with special symmetries with respect to the interchange of the photons and, in particular, the states with bosonic and fermionic symmetries. The two-photon interference is more robust for the latter states and its sign can be inverted for the fermionic state.
Qudit-teleportation for photons with linear optics.
Goyal, Sandeep K; Boukama-Dzoussi, Patricia E; Ghosh, Sibasish; Roux, Filippus S; Konrad, Thomas
2014-01-01
Quantum Teleportation, the transfer of the state of one quantum system to another without direct interaction between both systems, is an important way to transmit information encoded in quantum states and to generate quantum correlations (entanglement) between remote quantum systems. So far, for photons, only superpositions of two distinguishable states (one "qubit") could be teleported. Here we show how to teleport a "qudit", i.e. a superposition of an arbitrary number d of distinguishable states present in the orbital angular momentum of a single photon using d beam splitters and d additional entangled photons. The same entanglement resource might also be employed to collectively teleport the state of d/2 photons at the cost of one additional entangled photon per qubit. This is superior to existing schemes for photonic qubits, which require an additional pair of entangled photons per qubit. PMID:24686274
How subtraction of a single photon affects many quantum modes
Valentin A. Averchenko; Clément Jacquard; Valérian Thiel; Claude Fabre; Nicolas Treps
2015-10-14
The subtraction of a single photon from a multimode quantum field is analyzed as the conditional evolution of an open quantum system. We develop a theory describing different subtraction schemes in a unified approach and we introduce the concept of subtraction modes intrinsic to the process. The matching between the subtraction modes and the modes of the field defines different possible scenarios for the photon subtraction. In particular, our framework identifies: the conditions of pure photon subtraction, the quantum states of the field modes conditioned to the photon subtraction, the mode with the highest fidelity with a single-photon state when the subtraction is performed on multimode squeezed light. We use our theory to analyze the photon subtraction from a highly multimode quantum resource - a train of quantum squeezed or correlated optical pulses. Performing the photon subtraction optimally on various multimode light field has the potential to implement a number of quantum information protocols in a multiplexed and scalable way.
The Statistical Drake Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maccone, Claudio
2010-12-01
We provide the statistical generalization of the Drake equation. From a simple product of seven positive numbers, the Drake equation is now turned into the product of seven positive random variables. We call this "the Statistical Drake Equation". The mathematical consequences of this transformation are then derived. The proof of our results is based on the Central Limit Theorem (CLT) of Statistics. In loose terms, the CLT states that the sum of any number of independent random variables, each of which may be ARBITRARILY distributed, approaches a Gaussian (i.e. normal) random variable. This is called the Lyapunov Form of the CLT, or the Lindeberg Form of the CLT, depending on the mathematical constraints assumed on the third moments of the various probability distributions. In conclusion, we show that: The new random variable N, yielding the number of communicating civilizations in the Galaxy, follows the LOGNORMAL distribution. Then, as a consequence, the mean value of this lognormal distribution is the ordinary N in the Drake equation. The standard deviation, mode, and all the moments of this lognormal N are also found. The seven factors in the ordinary Drake equation now become seven positive random variables. The probability distribution of each random variable may be ARBITRARY. The CLT in the so-called Lyapunov or Lindeberg forms (that both do not assume the factors to be identically distributed) allows for that. In other words, the CLT "translates" into our statistical Drake equation by allowing an arbitrary probability distribution for each factor. This is both physically realistic and practically very useful, of course. An application of our statistical Drake equation then follows. The (average) DISTANCE between any two neighboring and communicating civilizations in the Galaxy may be shown to be inversely proportional to the cubic root of N. Then, in our approach, this distance becomes a new random variable. We derive the relevant probability density function, apparently previously unknown and dubbed "Maccone distribution" by Paul Davies. DATA ENRICHMENT PRINCIPLE. It should be noticed that ANY positive number of random variables in the Statistical Drake Equation is compatible with the CLT. So, our generalization allows for many more factors to be added in the future as long as more refined scientific knowledge about each factor will be known to the scientists. This capability to make room for more future factors in the statistical Drake equation, we call the "Data Enrichment Principle," and we regard it as the key to more profound future results in the fields of Astrobiology and SETI. Finally, a practical example is given of how our statistical Drake equation works numerically. We work out in detail the case, where each of the seven random variables is uniformly distributed around its own mean value and has a given standard deviation. For instance, the number of stars in the Galaxy is assumed to be uniformly distributed around (say) 350 billions with a standard deviation of (say) 1 billion. Then, the resulting lognormal distribution of N is computed numerically by virtue of a MathCad file that the author has written. This shows that the mean value of the lognormal random variable N is actually of the same order as the classical N given by the ordinary Drake equation, as one might expect from a good statistical generalization.
Photon counting altimeter and lidar for air and spaceborne applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vacek, Michael; Michalek, Vojtech; Peca, Marek; Prochazka, Ivan; Blazej, Josef; Kodet, Jan
2011-06-01
We are presenting the concept and preliminary design of modular multipurpose device for space segment: single photon counting laser altimeter, atmospheric lidar, laser transponder and one way laser ranging receiver. For all the mentioned purposes, the same compact configuration of the device is appropriate. Overall estimated device weight should not exceed 5 kg with the power consumption below 10 W. The device will consists of three main parts, namely, receiver, transmitter and control and processing unit. As a transmitter a commercial solid state laser at 532 nm wavelength with 10 mW power will be used. The transmitter optics will have a diameter at most of 50 mm. The laser pulse width will be of hundreds of picoseconds order. For the laser altimeter and atmospheric lidar application, the repetition rate of 10 kHz is planned in order to obtain sufficient number of data for a distance value computing. The receiver device will be composed of active quenched Single Photon Avalanche Diode module, tiny optics, and narrow-band optical filter. The core part of the control and processing unit including high precision timing unit is implemented using single FPGA chip. The preliminary device concept includes considerations on energy balance, and statistical algorithms to meet all the mentioned purposes. Recently, the bread board version of the device is under construction in our labs. The concept, construction, and timing results will be presented.
Dimension of quantum phase space measured by photon correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leuchs, Gerd; Glauber, Roy J.; Schleich, Wolfgang P.
2015-06-01
We show that the different values 1, 2 and 3 of the normalized second-order correlation function {g}(2)(0) corresponding to a coherent state, a thermal state and a highly squeezed vacuum originate from the different dimensionality of these states in phase space. In particular, we derive an exact expression for {g}(2)(0) in terms of the ratio of the moments of the classical energy evaluated with the Wigner function of the quantum state of interest and corrections proportional to the reciprocal of powers of the average number of photons. In this way we establish a direct link between {g}(2)(0) and the shape of the state in phase space. Moreover, we illuminate this connection by demonstrating that in the semi-classical limit the familiar photon statistics of a thermal state arise from an area in phase space weighted by a two-dimensional Gaussian, whereas those of a highly squeezed state are governed by a line-integral of a one-dimensional Gaussian. We dedicate this article to Margarita and Vladimir Man’ko on the occasion of their birthdays. The topic of our contribution is deeply rooted in and motivated by their love for non-classical light, quantum mechanical phase space distribution functions and orthogonal polynomials. Indeed, through their articles, talks and most importantly by many stimulating discussions and intensive collaborations with us they have contributed much to our understanding of physics. Happy birthday to you both!
Theory of basic Galactic statistical research systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eelsalu, H.
This short monograph is meant for deepening the understanding of basic theoretical problems in stellar statistics viewed as a research system. It has been written with the intent of promoting the treatment of major stellar statistical observational programmes such as the current programme of obtaining a variety of statistical data for a large number of fields along the main Galactic meridional section.
Photon detection efficiency of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes
Simonetta Gentile; Ekaterina Kuznetsova; Franco Meddi
2010-06-16
The photon detection efficiencies of multi-pixel Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes manufactured by different produ cers are estimated. A new fit method of the response spectra to low-intensity light, taking into ac count after-pulse and cross-talk effects is proposed to yield the initial number of photons. The value of photon detection efficiency is calculated using a calibrated photodetector as a reference.
D. V. Bandourin; V. F. Konoplyanikov; N. B. Skachkov
2001-04-27
It is shown in the paper that Pt activity limitation (modulus of the vector sum) of all particle beyond "photon+Jet" system Pt^out leads to the noticeable photon Pt - jet Pt disbalance decreasing. On a simultaneous restriction of the cluster Pt and Pt^out from above it is possible to reach an acceptable balance between photon Pt - jet Pt with a sufficient number of the photon Pt - jet Pt events for the jet energy scale setting and hadron calorimeter calibratiom of the CMS detector at LHC.
Superdense teleportation using hyperentangled photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graham, Trent M.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Wei, Tzu-Chieh; Junge, Marius; Kwiat, Paul G.
2015-05-01
Transmitting quantum information between two remote parties is a requirement for many quantum applications; however, direct transmission of states is often impossible because of noise and loss in the communication channel. Entanglement-enhanced state communication can be used to avoid this issue, but current techniques require extensive experimental resources to transmit large quantum states deterministically. To reduce these resource requirements, we use photon pairs hyperentangled in polarization and orbital angular momentum to implement superdense teleportation, which can communicate a specific class of single-photon ququarts. We achieve an average fidelity of 87.0(1)%, almost twice the classical limit of 44% with reduced experimental resources than traditional techniques. We conclude by discussing the information content of this constrained set of states and demonstrate that this set has an exponentially larger state space volume than the lower-dimensional general states with the same number of state parameters.
Superdense teleportation using hyperentangled photons
Graham, Trent M.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Wei, Tzu-Chieh; Junge, Marius; Kwiat, Paul G
2015-01-01
Transmitting quantum information between two remote parties is a requirement for many quantum applications; however, direct transmission of states is often impossible because of noise and loss in the communication channel. Entanglement-enhanced state communication can be used to avoid this issue, but current techniques require extensive experimental resources to transmit large quantum states deterministically. To reduce these resource requirements, we use photon pairs hyperentangled in polarization and orbital angular momentum to implement superdense teleportation, which can communicate a specific class of single-photon ququarts. We achieve an average fidelity of 87.0(1)%, almost twice the classical limit of 44% with reduced experimental resources than traditional techniques. We conclude by discussing the information content of this constrained set of states and demonstrate that this set has an exponentially larger state space volume than the lower-dimensional general states with the same number of state parameters. PMID:26018201
Superdense teleportation using hyperentangled photons.
Graham, Trent M; Bernstein, Herbert J; Wei, Tzu-Chieh; Junge, Marius; Kwiat, Paul G
2015-01-01
Transmitting quantum information between two remote parties is a requirement for many quantum applications; however, direct transmission of states is often impossible because of noise and loss in the communication channel. Entanglement-enhanced state communication can be used to avoid this issue, but current techniques require extensive experimental resources to transmit large quantum states deterministically. To reduce these resource requirements, we use photon pairs hyperentangled in polarization and orbital angular momentum to implement superdense teleportation, which can communicate a specific class of single-photon ququarts. We achieve an average fidelity of 87.0(1)%, almost twice the classical limit of 44% with reduced experimental resources than traditional techniques. We conclude by discussing the information content of this constrained set of states and demonstrate that this set has an exponentially larger state space volume than the lower-dimensional general states with the same number of state parameters. PMID:26018201
Axion-photon Propagation in Magnetized Universe
Wang, Chen
2015-01-01
Oscillations between photons and axion-like particles (ALP) travelling in intergalactic magnetic fields have been invoked to explain a number of astrophysical phenomena, or used to constrain ALP properties using observations. One example is the anomalous transparency of the universe to TeV gamma-rays. The intergalactic magnetic field is usually modeled as patches of coherent domains, each with a uniform magnetic field, but the field orientation changes randomly from one domain to the next ("discrete-$\\varphi$ model"). We show in this paper that in more realistic situations, when the magnetic field direction varies continuously along the propagation path, the photon-to-ALP conversion probability $P$ can be significantly different from the discrete-$\\varphi$ model. In particular, $P$ has a distinct dependence on the photon energy and ALP mass, and can be as large as 100 percent. This result may affect previous constraints on ALP properties based on ALP-photon propagation in intergalactic magnetic fields.
Axion-photon Propagation in Magnetized Universe
Chen Wang; Dong Lai
2015-11-11
Oscillations between photons and axion-like particles (ALP) travelling in intergalactic magnetic fields have been invoked to explain a number of astrophysical phenomena, or used to constrain ALP properties using observations. One example is the anomalous transparency of the universe to TeV gamma-rays. The intergalactic magnetic field is usually modeled as patches of coherent domains, each with a uniform magnetic field, but the field orientation changes randomly from one domain to the next ("discrete-$\\varphi$ model"). We show in this paper that in more realistic situations, when the magnetic field direction varies continuously along the propagation path, the photon-to-ALP conversion probability $P$ can be significantly different from the discrete-$\\varphi$ model. In particular, $P$ has a distinct dependence on the photon energy and ALP mass, and can be as large as 100 percent. This result may affect previous constraints on ALP properties based on ALP-photon propagation in intergalactic magnetic fields.
Multi-photon optical rotation by molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cameron, R.; Tabisz, G. C.
2001-05-01
Forward scattering of polarized light by a chiral molecule results in optical rotation. Ordinary optical rotation, a single-photon effect, is independent of intensity, I. Multi-photon optical rotation is proportional to I^N-1, where N is the number of photons involved the scattering event. The ordinary optical rotation changes with temperature, and so the absorption of light can also cause an intensity-dependent change in optical rotation. We used a polarimeter to measure the change in optical rotation with light intensity for several molecules in solution: sucrose, borneol, uridine and phenylalanine. Making use of Faraday rotation, we added a time-dependent rotation of the light to our apparatus. This allowed us to use Fourier analysis to separate the multi-photon optical rotation from the temperature change in ordinary optical rotation and improved the signal-to-noise.
Orbital Angular Momentum of Gauge Fields: Excitation of an Atom by Twisted Photons
Afanasev, Andrei V.; Carlson, Carl E.; Mukherjee, Asmita
2014-01-01
Twisted photon states, or photon states with large (> {h_bar}) angular momentum projection in the direction of motion, can photoexcite atomic final states of differing quantum numbers. If the photon symmetry axis coincides with the center of an atom, there are known selection rules that require exact matching between the quantum numbers of the photon and the photoexcited states. The more general case of arbitrarily positioned beams relaxes the selection rules but produces a distribution of quantum numbers of the final atomic states that is novel and distinct from final states produced by plane-wave photons. Numerical calculations are presented using a hydrogen atom as an example.
Relativistic spinor equation of photon
Xiang-Yao Wu; Hong Li; Xiao-Jing Liu; Si-Qi Zhang; Ji Ma; Guang-Huai Wang; Hai-Xin Gao; Heng-Mei Li; Hong-Chun Yuan
2014-01-02
In this paper, we have proposed the spiron equation of free and non-free photon, and give the spin operator and spin wave function of photon. We calculate the helicity of photon and prove there are left-handed and right-handed photon. By the spiron equation of non-free photon, we can study the quantum property of photon in medium, which can be used in quantum optics, photonic crystals and so on.
Evaluation of bremsstrahlung contribution to photon transport in coupled photon-electron problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández, Jorge E.; Scot, Viviana; Di Giulio, Eugenio; Salvat, Francesc
2015-11-01
The most accurate description of the radiation field in x-ray spectrometry requires the modeling of coupled photon-electron transport. Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect actually produce electrons as secondary particles which contribute to the photon field through conversion mechanisms like bremsstrahlung (which produces a continuous photon energy spectrum) and inner-shell impact ionization (ISII) (which gives characteristic lines). The solution of the coupled problem is time consuming because the electrons interact continuously and therefore, the number of electron collisions to be considered is always very high. This complex problem is frequently simplified by neglecting the contributions of the secondary electrons. Recent works (Fernández et al., 2013; Fernández et al., 2014) have shown the possibility to include a separately computed coupled photon-electron contribution like ISII in a photon calculation for improving such a crude approximation while preserving the speed of the pure photon transport model. By means of a similar approach and the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE (coupled photon-electron Monte Carlo), the bremsstrahlung contribution is characterized in this work. The angular distribution of the photons due to bremsstrahlung can be safely considered as isotropic, with the point of emission located at the same place of the photon collision. A new photon kernel describing the bremsstrahlung contribution is introduced: it can be included in photon transport codes (deterministic or Monte Carlo) with a minimal effort. A data library to describe the energy dependence of the bremsstrahlung emission has been generated for all elements Z=1-92 in the energy range 1-150 keV. The bremsstrahlung energy distribution for an arbitrary energy is obtained by interpolating in the database. A comparison between a PENELOPE direct simulation and the interpolated distribution using the data base shows an almost perfect agreement. The use of the data base increases the calculation speed by several magnitude orders.
Takafumi Ono; Holger F. Hofmann
2008-04-01
It is shown that the addition of down-converted photon pairs to coherent laser light enhances the N-photon phase sensitivity due to the quantum interference between components of the same total photon number. Since most of the photons originate from the coherent laser light, this method of obtaining non-classical N-photon states is much more efficient than methods based entirely on parametrically down-converted photons. Specifically, it is possible to achieve an optimal phase sensitivity of about delta phi^2=1/N^(3/2), equal to the geometric mean of the standard quantum limit and the Heisenberg limit, when the average number of down-converted photons contributing to the N-photon state approaches (N/2)^(1/2).
Monitoring molecular interactions using photon arrival-time interval distribution analysis
Laurence, Ted A. (Livermore, CA); Weiss, Shimon (Los Angels, CA)
2009-10-06
A method for analyzing/monitoring the properties of species that are labeled with fluorophores. A detector is used to detect photons emitted from species that are labeled with one or more fluorophores and located in a confocal detection volume. The arrival time of each of the photons is determined. The interval of time between various photon pairs is then determined to provide photon pair intervals. The number of photons that have arrival times within the photon pair intervals is also determined. The photon pair intervals are then used in combination with the corresponding counts of intervening photons to analyze properties and interactions of the molecules including brightness, concentration, coincidence and transit time. The method can be used for analyzing single photon streams and multiple photon streams.
2. Probabilities, Distributions and Random 2.1 From Numbers to Random Numbers
Heermann, Dieter W.
. A random number generator should produce numbers that appear ran- dom, i.e., passes the common statistical2. Probabilities, Distributions and Random Numbers 2.1 From Numbers to Random Numbers A sequence of numbers that is random plays a very important role for the stochastic simulation methods
Single Photon Source Using Laser Pulses and Two-Photon Absorption
B. C. Jacobs; T. B. Pittman; J. D. Franson
2006-03-17
We have previously shown that two-photon absorption (TPA) and the quantum Zeno effect can be used to make deterministic quantum logic devices from an otherwise linear optical system. Here we show that this type of quantum Zeno gate can be used with additional two-photon absorbing media and weak laser pulses to make a heralded single photon source. A source of this kind is expected to have a number of practical advantages that make it well suited for large scale quantum information processing applications.
Effect of loss on multiplexed single-photon sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonneau, Damien; Mendoza, Gabriel J.; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Thompson, Mark G.
2015-04-01
An on-demand single-photon source is a key requirement for scaling many optical quantum technologies. A promising approach to realize an on-demand single-photon source is to multiplex an array of heralded single-photon sources using an active optical switching network. However, the performance of multiplexed sources is degraded by photon loss in the optical components and the non-unit detection efficiency of the heralding detectors. We provide a theoretical description of a general multiplexed single-photon source with lossy components and derive expressions for the output probabilities of single-photon emission and multi-photon contamination. We apply these expressions to three specific multiplexing source architectures and consider their tradeoffs in design and performance. To assess the effect of lossy components on near- and long-term experimental goals, we simulate the multiplexed sources when used for many-photon state generation under various amounts of component loss. We find that with a multiplexed source composed of switches with ˜ 0.2-0.4 dB loss and high efficiency number-resolving detectors, a single-photon source capable of efficiently producing 20-40 photon states with low multi-photon contamination is possible, offering the possibility of unlocking new classes of experiments and technologies.
Photonic circuits for generating modal, spectral, and polarization entanglement
Mohammed F. Saleh; Giovanni Di Giuseppe; Bahaa E. A. Saleh; Malvin Carl Teich
2010-09-22
We consider the design of photonic circuits that make use of Ti:LiNbO$_{3}$ diffused channel waveguides for generating photons with various combinations of modal, spectral, and polarization entanglement. Down-converted photon pairs are generated via spontaneous optical parametric down-conversion (SPDC) in a two-mode waveguide. We study a class of photonic circuits comprising: 1) a nonlinear periodically poled two-mode waveguide structure, 2) a set of single-mode and two-mode waveguide-based couplers arranged in such a way that they suitably separate the three photons comprising the SPDC process, and, for some applications, 3) a holographic Bragg grating that acts as a dichroic reflector. The first circuit produces frequency-degenerate down-converted photons, each with even spatial parity, in two separate single-mode waveguides. Changing the parameters of the elements allows this same circuit to produce two nondegenerate down-converted photons that are entangled in frequency or simultaneously entangled in frequency and polarization. The second photonic circuit is designed to produce modal entanglement by distinguishing the photons on the basis of their frequencies. A modified version of this circuit can be used to generate photons that are doubly entangled in mode number and polarization. The third photonic circuit is designed to manage dispersion by converting modal, spectral, and polarization entanglement into path entanglement.
Light Higgs Production at a Photon Collider
G. Jikia; S. Soldner-Rembold
2001-01-30
We present a preliminary study of the production of a light Higgs boson with a mass between 120 and 160 GeV in photon-photon collisions at a Compton collider. The event generator for the backgrounds to a Higgs signal due to bbbar and ccbar heavy quark pair production in polarized Gamma-Gamma collisions is based on a complete next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative QCD calculation. For J_z=0 the large double-logarithmic corrections up to four loops are also included. It is shown that the two-photon width of the Higgs boson can be measured with high statistical accuracy of about 2-10% for integrated Gamma-Gamma luminosity in the hard part of the spectrum of 43 fb-1. From this result the total Higgs boson width can be derived in a model independent way.
SOCR: Statistics Online Computational Resource
Dinov, Ivo D.
2011-01-01
The need for hands-on computer laboratory experience in undergraduate and graduate statistics education has been firmly established in the past decade. As a result a number of attempts have been undertaken to develop novel approaches for problem-driven statistical thinking, data analysis and result interpretation. In this paper we describe an integrated educational web-based framework for: interactive distribution modeling, virtual online probability experimentation, statistical data analysis, visualization and integration. Following years of experience in statistical teaching at all college levels using established licensed statistical software packages, like STATA, S-PLUS, R, SPSS, SAS, Systat, etc., we have attempted to engineer a new statistics education environment, the Statistics Online Computational Resource (SOCR). This resource performs many of the standard types of statistical analysis, much like other classical tools. In addition, it is designed in a plug-in object-oriented architecture and is completely platform independent, web-based, interactive, extensible and secure. Over the past 4 years we have tested, fine-tuned and reanalyzed the SOCR framework in many of our undergraduate and graduate probability and statistics courses and have evidence that SOCR resources build student’s intuition and enhance their learning. PMID:21451741
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donkor, Eric; Althowibi, Fahad; Williams, Ryan
2015-05-01
We present and compare the characteristic performance of single-photons, correlatedphotons, and entangled-photons for quantum key distribution over various fiber optic network topologies. The networks include the RING, BUS, and STAR. Quantum biterror rate is determined for each network as function of number of users, and transmission distance. The trade-off between number of users and transmission distance is presented. The robustness of the QKD against eavesdropping is evaluated for each architecture.
Single photon laser altimeter data processing, analysis and experimental validation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vacek, Michael; Peca, Marek; Michalek, Vojtech; Prochazka, Ivan
2015-10-01
Spaceborne laser altimeters are common instruments on-board the rendezvous spacecraft. This manuscript deals with the altimeters using a single photon approach, which belongs to the family of time-of-flight range measurements. Moreover, the single photon receiver part of the altimeter may be utilized as an Earth-to-spacecraft link enabling one-way ranging, time transfer and data transfer. The single photon altimeters evaluate actual altitude through the repetitive detections of single photons of the reflected laser pulses. We propose the single photon altimeter signal processing and data mining algorithm based on the Poisson statistic filter (histogram method) and the modified Kalman filter, providing all common altimetry products (altitude, slope, background photon flux and albedo). The Kalman filter is extended for the background noise filtering, the varying slope adaptation and the non-causal extension for an abrupt slope change. Moreover, the algorithm partially removes the major drawback of a single photon altitude reading, namely that the photon detection measurement statistics must be gathered. The developed algorithm deduces the actual altitude on the basis of a single photon detection; thus, being optimal in the sense that each detected signal photon carrying altitude information is tracked and no altitude information is lost. The algorithm was tested on the simulated datasets and partially cross-probed with the experimental data collected using the developed single photon altimeter breadboard based on the microchip laser with the pulse energy on the order of microjoule and the repetition rate of several kilohertz. We demonstrated that such an altimeter configuration may be utilized for landing or hovering a small body (asteroid, comet).
D'Ambrosio, C
2003-01-01
Hybrid photon detectors detect light via vacuum photocathodes and accelerate the emitted photoelectrons by an electric field towards inversely polarized silicon anodes, where they are absorbed, thus producing electron-hole pairs. These, in turn, are collected and generate electronic signals on their ohmic contacts. This review first describes the characteristic properties of the main components of hybrid photon detectors: light entrance windows, photocathodes, and silicon anodes. Then, essential relations describing the trajectories of photoelectrons in electric and magnetic fields and their backscattering from the silicon anodes are derived. Depending on their anode configurations, three families of hybrid photon detectors are presented: hybrid photomultiplier tubes with single anodes for photon counting with high sensitivity and for gamma spectroscopy; multi-anode photon detector tubes with anodes subdivided into square or hexagonal pads for position-sensitive photon detection; imaging silicon pixel array t...
Photonic Circuits for Generating Modal, Spectral, and Polarization Entanglement
Teich, Malvin C.
Photonic Circuits for Generating Modal, Spectral, and Polarization Entanglement Volume 2, Number 5 Circuits for Generating Modal, Spectral, and Polarization Entanglement Mohammed F. Saleh,1 Giovanni Di@creol.ucf.edu). Abstract: We consider the design of photonic circuits that make use of Ti:LiNbO3 diffused channel
S. Mioduszewski; for the PHENIX Collaboration
2004-09-29
The PHENIX experiment has measured direct photons in $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200$ GeV Au+Au collisions and p+p collisions. The fraction of photons due to direct production in Au+Au collisions is shown as a function of $p_T$ and centrality. This measurement is compared with expectation from pQCD calculations. Other possible sources of direct photons are discussed.
Photonically Engineered Incandescent Emitter
Gee, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)
2005-03-22
A photonically engineered incandescence is disclosed. The emitter materials and photonic crystal structure can be chosen to modify or suppress thermal radiation above a cutoff wavelength, causing the emitter to selectively emit in the visible and near-infrared portions of the spectrum. An efficient incandescent lamp is enabled thereby. A method for fabricating a three-dimensional photonic crystal of a structural material, suitable for the incandescent emitter, is also disclosed.
Photonically engineered incandescent emitter
Gee, James M.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Fleming, James G.; Moreno, James B.
2003-08-26
A photonically engineered incandescence is disclosed. The emitter materials and photonic crystal structure can be chosen to modify or suppress thermal radiation above a cutoff wavelength, causing the emitter to selectively emit in the visible and near-infrared portions of the spectrum. An efficient incandescent lamp is enabled thereby. A method for fabricating a three-dimensional photonic crystal of a structural material, suitable for the incandescent emitter, is also disclosed.
Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Statistics
2014 Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Statistics Cosmetic Procedure Trends 2014 Plastic Surgery Statistics Report Please credit the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PLASTIC SURGEONS when citing statistical data or using ...
Analytical model of SiPM time resolution and order statistics with crosstalk
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vinogradov, S.
2015-07-01
Time resolution is the most important parameter of photon detectors in a wide range of time-of-flight and time correlation applications within the areas of high energy physics, medical imaging, and others. Silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) have been initially recognized as perfect photon-number-resolving detectors; now they also provide outstanding results in the scintillator timing resolution. However, crosstalk and afterpulsing introduce false secondary non-Poissonian events, and SiPM time resolution models are experiencing significant difficulties with that. This study presents an attempt to develop an analytical model of the timing resolution of an SiPM taking into account statistics of secondary events resulting from a crosstalk. Two approaches have been utilized to derive an analytical expression for time resolution: the first one based on statistics of independent identically distributed detection event times and the second one based on order statistics of these times. The first approach is found to be more straightforward and "analytical-friendly" to model analog SiPMs. Comparisons of coincidence resolving times predicted by the model with the known experimental results from a LYSO:Ce scintillator and a Hamamatsu MPPC are presented.
Investigating the Randomness of Numbers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pendleton, Kenn L.
2009-01-01
The use of random numbers is pervasive in today's world. Random numbers have practical applications in such far-flung arenas as computer simulations, cryptography, gambling, the legal system, statistical sampling, and even the war on terrorism. Evaluating the randomness of extremely large samples is a complex, intricate process. However, the…
Fast physical random number generator using amplified spontaneous emission.
Williams, Caitlin R S; Salevan, Julia C; Li, Xiaowen; Roy, Rajarshi; Murphy, Thomas E
2010-11-01
We report a 12.5 Gb/s physical random number generator (RNG) that uses high-speed threshold detection of the spectrally-sliced incoherent light produced by a fiber amplifier. The system generates a large-amplitude, easily measured, fluctuating signal with bandwidth that is constrained only by the optical filter and electrical detector used. The underlying physical process (spontaneous emission) is inherently quantum mechanical in origin, and therefore cannot be described deterministically. Unlike competing optical RNG approaches that require photon counting electronics, chaotic laser cavities, or state-of-the-art analog-to-digital converters, the system employs only commonly available telecommunications-grade fiber optic components and can be scaled to higher speeds or multiplexed into parallel channels. The quality of the resulting random bitstream is verified using industry-standard statistical tests. PMID:21164703
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sebawe Abdalla, M.; Khalil, E. M.; Obada, A. S.-F.; Pe?ina, J.; K?epelka, J.
2015-11-01
A quantum optics model is considered where the cavity field interacts with two coupled atoms. The time-dependent wave function is obtained and used to derive the density matrix from which we discussed some statistical properties for the present system. The atom-atom entanglement, atoms-cavity entanglement, entropy and variance squeezing, the Pegg-Barrnet phase and the fidelity are discussed with the effects of the initial conditions, atom-atom coupling and the detuning parameter displayed. It is shown that an increase in the value of the atom-atom coupling parameter leads to an increase in the degree of entanglement. Numerical results show that under some conditions the phenomena of entanglement and the collapses and the revivals emerge. Nonclassical properties are demonstrated by means of the field quantum statistical characteristics, such as photon-number distribution, Husimi, Wigner and Glauber-Sudarshan quasidistributions and the corresponding variances.
Single-photon frequency down-conversion experiment
Takesue, Hiroki
2010-07-15
We report a single-photon frequency down-conversion experiment. Using the difference frequency generation process in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide, we successfully observed the phase-preserved frequency down-conversion of a coherent pulse train with an average photon number per pulse of <1, from the 0.7 {mu}m visible wavelength band to the 1.3 {mu}m telecom band. We expect this technology to become an important tool for flexible photonic quantum networking, including the realization of quantum repeater systems over optical fiber using atom-photon entanglement sources for the visible wavelength bands.
Two-photon physics as a probe of hadron dynamics
Brodsky, S.J.
1981-05-01
Two-photon collisions provide an ideal laboratory for testing many features of quantum chromodynamics, especially the interplay between the vector-meson-dominated and point-like hadronic interactions of the photon. A number of QCD applications are discussed, including: jet and single-particle production at large transverse momentum; the photon structure function and its relationship to the ..gamma.. ..-->.. q anti q wave function; and the possible role of gluonium states in the ..gamma gamma.. ..-->.. rho/sup 0/rho/sup 0/ channel. Evidence that even low momentum transfer photon-hadron interactions are sensitive to the point-like ..gamma.. ..-->.. q anti q coupling is discussed.
Contrast improvement by selecting ballistic-photons using polarization gating.
Sormaz, Miloš; Jenny, Patrick
2010-11-01
In this paper a new approach to improve contrast in optical subsurface imaging is presented. The method is based on time-resolved reflectance and selection of ballistic photons using polarization gating. Numerical studies with a statistical Monte Carlo method also reveal that weakly scattered diffuse photons can be eliminated by employing a small aperture and that the contrast improvement strongly depends on the single-scattering phase function. A possible experimental setup is discussed in the conclusions. PMID:21164718
Excitation of photons by inflationary gravitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, C. L.; Woodard, R. P.
2015-06-01
We use a recent result for the graviton contribution to the one-loop vacuum polarization to solve the effective field equations for dynamical photons on a de Sitter background. Our results show that the electric field experiences a secular enhancement proportional to the number of inflationary e -foldings. We discuss the minimum effect this establishes for primordial inflation to seed cosmic magnetic fields.
Resonances in photon-photon scattering
Chanowitz, M.S.
1984-11-01
A quantity called stickiness is introduced which should be largest for J not equal to 0 glueballs and can be measured in two photon scattering and radiative J/psi decay. An argument is reviewed suggesting that light J = 0 glueballs may have large couplings to two photons. The analysis of radiative decays of eta and eta' is reviewed and a plea made to desist from false claims that they are related to GAMMA(..pi../sup 0/ ..-->.. ..gamma gamma..) by SU(3) symmetry. It is shown that two photon studies can refute the difficult-to-refute hypothesis that xi(2220) or zeta(8320) are Higgs bosons. A gallery of rogue resonances and resonance candidates is presented which would usefully be studied in ..gamma gamma.. scattering, including especially the low mass dipion. 34 references.
Photon transport in binary photonic lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez-Lara, B. M.; Moya-Cessa, H.
2013-03-01
We present a review of the mathematical methods that are used to theoretically study classical propagation and quantum transport in arrays of coupled photonic waveguides. We focus on analyzing two types of binary photonic lattices: those where either self-energies or couplings alternate. For didactic reasons, we split the analysis into classical propagation and quantum transport, but all methods can be implemented, mutatis mutandis, in a given case. On the classical side, we use coupled mode theory and present an operator approach to the Floquet-Bloch theory in order to study the propagation of a classical electromagnetic field in two particular infinite binary lattices. On the quantum side, we study the transport of photons in equivalent finite and infinite binary lattices by coupled mode theory and linear algebra methods involving orthogonal polynomials. Curiously, the dynamics of finite size binary lattices can be expressed as the roots and functions of Fibonacci polynomials.
Who Needs Statistics? | Poster
You may know the feeling. You have collected a lot of new data on an important experiment. Now you are faced with multiple groups of data, a sea of numbers, and a deadline for submitting your paper to a peer-reviewed journal. And you are not sure which data are relevant, or even the best way to present them. The statisticians at Data Management Services (DMS) know how to help. This small group of experts provides a wide array of statistical and mathematical consulting services to the scientific community at NCI at Frederick and NCI-Bethesda.
Fluctuations of the number of neutral pions at high multiplicity in pp interactions at 50 GeV
Ryadovikov, V. N.
2012-08-15
Results obtained by measuring fluctuations of the number of neutral pions in the SERP-E-190 Experiment (Thermalization Project) upon irradiating a liquid-hydrogen target of the SVD-2 setup with a beam of 50-GeV protons are presented. A simulation of the detection of photons from the decay of neutral pions with the aid of an electromagnetic calorimeter revealed a linear relation between the number of detected photons and the mean number of neutral pions in an event. After the introduction of corrections for the loss of charged tracks because of a limited acceptance of the setup, trigger operation, and the efficiency of the data-treatment system, distributions of the number of neutral pions, N{sub 0}, were obtained for each value of the total number of particles in an event, N{sub tot} = N{sub ch} + N{sub 0}. The fluctuation parameter {omega} = D/ Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket N{sub 0} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket was measured. In the region N{sub tot} > 22, fluctuations of the number of neutral pions increase, which, within statistical models (GCE, CE, MCE), indicates that the system involving a large number of pions approaches the pion-condensate state. This effect was observed for the first time.
Nano-optomechanical measurement in the photon counting regime
de Lépinay, Laure Mercier; Rohr, Sven; Gloppe, Arnaud; Kuhn, Aurélien; Verlot, Pierre; Dupont-Ferrier, Eva; Besga, Benjamin; Arcizet, Olivier
2015-01-01
Optically measuring in the photon counting regime is a recurrent challenge in modern physics and a guarantee to develop weakly invasive probes. Here we investigate this idea on a hybrid nano-optomechanical system composed of a nanowire hybridized to a single Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) defect. The vibrations of the nanoresonator grant a spatial degree of freedom to the quantum emitter and the photon emission event can now vary in space and time. We investigate how the nanomotion is encoded on the detected photon statistics and explore their spatio-temporal correlation properties. This allows a quantitative measurement of the vibrations of the nanomechanical oscillator at unprecedentedly low light intensities in the photon counting regime when less than one photon is detected per oscillation period, where standard detectors are dark-noise-limited. These results have implications for probing weakly interacting nanoresonators, for low temperature experiments and for investigating single moving markers.
Photonic quantum transport in a nonlinear optical fiber
Hafezi, Mohammad; Gritsev, Vladimir; Demler, Eugene; Lukin, Mikhail D
2009-01-01
We theoretically study the transmission of few-photon quantum fields through a strongly nonlinear optical medium. We develop a general approach to investigate non-equilibrium quantum transport of bosonic fields through a finite-size nonlinear medium and apply it to a recently demonstrated experimental system where cold atoms are loaded in a hollow-core optical fiber. We show that when the interaction between photons is effectively repulsive, the system acts as a single-photon switch. In the case of attractive interaction, the system can exhibit either anti-bunching or bunching, associated with the resonant excitation of bound states of photons by the input field. These effects can be observed by probing statistics of photons transmitted through the nonlinear fiber.
Photonic quantum transport in a nonlinear optical fiber
Mohammad Hafezi; Darrick E. Chang; Vladimir Gritsev; Eugene Demler; Mikhail D. Lukin
2009-11-26
We theoretically study the transmission of few-photon quantum fields through a strongly nonlinear optical medium. We develop a general approach to investigate non-equilibrium quantum transport of bosonic fields through a finite-size nonlinear medium and apply it to a recently demonstrated experimental system where cold atoms are loaded in a hollow-core optical fiber. We show that when the interaction between photons is effectively repulsive, the system acts as a single-photon switch. In the case of attractive interaction, the system can exhibit either anti-bunching or bunching, associated with the resonant excitation of bound states of photons by the input field. These effects can be observed by probing statistics of photons transmitted through the nonlinear fiber.
Nano-optomechanical measurement in the photon counting regime
Laure Mercier de Lépinay; Benjamin Pigeau; Sven Rohr; Arnaud Gloppe; Aurélien Kuhn; Pierre Verlot; Eva Dupont-Ferrier; Benjamin Besga; Olivier Arcizet
2015-03-11
Optically measuring in the photon counting regime is a recurrent challenge in modern physics and a guarantee to develop weakly invasive probes. Here we investigate this idea on a hybrid nano-optomechanical system composed of a nanowire hybridized to a single Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) defect. The vibrations of the nanoresonator grant a spatial degree of freedom to the quantum emitter and the photon emission event can now vary in space and time. We investigate how the nanomotion is encoded on the detected photon statistics and explore their spatio-temporal correlation properties. This allows a quantitative measurement of the vibrations of the nanomechanical oscillator at unprecedentedly low light intensities in the photon counting regime when less than one photon is detected per oscillation period, where standard detectors are dark-noise-limited. These results have implications for probing weakly interacting nanoresonators, for low temperature experiments and for investigating single moving markers.
The effects of capillarity on photonic crystal selective emitters
Peykov, Daniel
2014-01-01
Photonic crystals offer an unparalleled control over optical properties and are ideal candidates as high efficiency selective emitters. They are, however, known to degrade at elevated temperatures through a number of ...
Quantum interference in heterogeneous superconducting-photonic circuits on a silicon chip
Schuck, Carsten; Fan, Linran; Ma, Xiao-Song; Poot, Menno; Tang, Hong X
2015-01-01
Quantum information processing holds great promise for communicating and computing data efficiently. However, scaling current photonic implementation approaches to larger system size remains an outstanding challenge for realizing disruptive quantum technology. Two main ingredients of quantum information processors are quantum interference and single-photon detectors. Here we develop a hybrid superconducting-photonic circuit system to show how these elements can be combined in a scalable fashion on a silicon chip. We demonstrate the suitability of this approach for integrated quantum optics by interfering and detecting photon pairs directly on the chip with waveguide-coupled single-photon detectors. Using a directional coupler implemented with silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides, we observe 97% interference visibility when measuring photon statistics with two monolithically integrated superconducting single photon detectors. The photonic circuit and detector fabrication processes are compatible with standa...
Two-photon speckle as a probe of multi-dimensional entanglement
C. W. J. Beenakker; J. W. F. Venderbos; M. P. van Exter
2009-01-15
We calculate the statistical distribution P_2(I_2) of the speckle pattern produced by a photon pair current I_2 transmitted through a random medium, and compare with the single-photon speckle distribution P_1(I_1). We show that the purity Tr rho^2 of a two-photon density matrix rho can be directly extracted from the first two moments of P_1 and P_2. A one-to-one relationship is derived between P_1 and P_2 if the photon pair is in an M-dimensional entangled pure state. For M>>1 the single-photon speckle disappears, while the two-photon speckle acquires an exponential distribution. The exponential distribution transforms into a Gaussian if the quantum entanglement is degraded to a classical correlation of M>>1 two-photon states. Two-photon speckle can therefore discriminate between multi-dimensional quantum and classical correlations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Khayatt, A. M.; Al-Rajhi, M. A.
2015-04-01
Understanding the space radiation environment is critical to future manned lunar missions, and this includes photons. In this paper, the attenuation properties of gamma rays in 20 lunar soil and rocks, found at landing site during the Apollo 17, are investigated. Effective atomic numbers Zeff for photon interaction and photon energy absorption for a wide range of photon energies are determined. The results indicate that within the wide compositional range of the Apollo 17 samples, three categories, each one have broadly similar attenuation properties. As well as the results showed that the Zeff has been successfully characterize and correlate the different soil samples with mixing of prevalent local rocks.
Buldyrev, Sergey
VOLUME 76, NUMBER 12 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 18 MARCH 1996 Avalanches in the Lung incorporates recent experimental observations on the opening of individual airways by a cascade or avalanche mechanism. Using an exact mapping of the avalanche problem onto percolation on a Cayley tree, we
Determinations of photon spectra. Master's thesis
Wannigman, D.L.
1989-01-01
A method is developed to unfold photon spectra from measurements obtained with a sodium iodide counting system. A response matrix is computed by combining photon cross sections with probability distributions of path lengths for incident and internally generated photons in the energy range 0-2.8 MeV. This matrix is inverted and multiplied by a measured pulse height spectrum to obtain the photon energy distribution incident upon the detector. This deconvolution procedure provides improved information about the energy continuum of incident photons and can enhanced the identification of discrete gamma energies. Experiments were performed to verify the unfolding methodology and to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of this technique. Measured spectra were acquired from indoor and outdoor environments and unfolded. The results show that measured spectra overestimate the number of photons below 240 keV by up to 30 %. When the total exposure was calculated directly from the measured spectra, the low energy contribution was overestimated by a factor of two. This may have implications on the interpretation and calibration of energy dependent dosimeters used for occupational and environmental monitoring.
Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM)
2002-01-01
A new class of structured dielectric media which exhibit significant photonic bandstructure has been invented. The new structures, called photonic layered media, are easy to fabricate using existing layer-by-layer growth techniques, and offer the ability to significantly extend our practical ability to tailor the properties of such optical materials.
J. T. Mendonca; M. Marklund; P. K. Shukla; G. Brodin
2006-08-16
A new process associated with the nonlinear optical properties of the electromagnetic vacuum, as predicted by quantum electrodynamics, is described. This can be called photon acceleration in vacuum, and corresponds to the frequency shift that takes place when a given test photon interacts with an intense beam of background radiation.
Kuzay, T.M.; Shu, D.
1995-02-07
A photon beam position monitor is disclosed for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade ''shadowing''. Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation. 18 figs.
Jabs, Harry
1997-01-01
photons, neutrons, charged particles, and fission fragments were used to study the reaction 160 + 238 U at a projectile energy of 50 MeV/u. Inverse slope values of the photon spectra were extracted for inclusive data and data of higher multiplicities...
Faure, Claudie
73 FUNDAMENTALS OF PHOTONICS Module 1.3 Basic Geometrical Optics Leno S. Pedrotti CORD Waco, Texas Optics is the cornerstone of photonics systems and applications. In this module, you will learn about one have completed Module 1-1, Nature and Properties of Light. In addition, you should be able
Observation of detection-dependent multi-photon coherence times
Young-Sik Ra; Malte C. Tichy; Hyang-Tag Lim; Osung Kwon; Florian Mintert; Andreas Buchleitner; Yoon-Ho Kim
2015-01-12
The coherence time constitutes one of the most critical parameters that determines whether or not interference is observed in an experiment. For photons, it is traditionally determined by the effective spectral bandwidth of the photon. Here we report on multi-photon interference experiments in which the multi-photon coherence time, defined by the width of the interference signal, depends on the number of interfering photons and on the measurement scheme chosen to detect the particles. A theoretical analysis reveals that all multi-photon interference with more than two particles features this dependence, which can be attributed to higher-order effects in the mutual indistinguishability of the particles. As a striking consequence, a single, well-defined many-particle quantum state can exhibit qualitatively different degrees of interference, depending on the chosen observable. Therefore, optimal sensitivity in many-particle quantum interferometry can only be achieved by choosing a suitable detection scheme.
Xiang-Yao Wu; Bai-Jun Zhang; Jing-Hai Yang; Xiao-Jing Liu; Nuo Ba; Yi-Heng Wu; Qing-Cai Wang; Guang-Huai Wang
2012-12-01
In the paper, we present a new kind of function photonic crystals, which refractive index is a function of space position. Unlike conventional PCs, which structure grow from two materials, A and B, with different dielectric constants $\\epsilon_{A}$ and $\\epsilon_{B}$. By Fermat principle, we give the motion equations of light in one-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional function photonic crystals. For one-dimensional function photonic crystals, we study the dispersion relation, band gap structure and transmissivity, and compare them with conventional photonic crystals. By choosing various refractive index distribution function $n(z)$, we can obtain more width or more narrow band gap structure than conventional photonic crystals.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yao, X. S.; Maleki, L.
1995-01-01
We report a novel oscillator for photonic RF systems. This oscillator is capable of generating high-frequency signals up to 70 GHz in both electrical and optical domains and is a special voltage-controlled oscillator with an optical output port. It can be used to make a phase-locked loop (PLL) and perform all functions that a PLL is capable of for photonic systems. It can be synchronized to a reference source by means of optical injection locking, electrical injection locking, and PLL. It can also be self-phase locked and self-injection locked to generate a high-stability photonic RF reference. Its applications include high-frequency reference regeneration and distribution, high-gain frequency multiplication, comb-frequecy and square-wave generation, carrier recovery, and clock recovery. We anticipate that such photonic voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs) will be as important to photonic RF systems as electrical VCOs are to electrical RF systems.
Ion photon emission microscope
Doyle, Barney L. (Albuquerque, NM)
2003-04-22
An ion beam analysis system that creates microscopic multidimensional image maps of the effects of high energy ions from an unfocussed source upon a sample by correlating the exact entry point of an ion into a sample by projection imaging of the ion-induced photons emitted at that point with a signal from a detector that measures the interaction of that ion within the sample. The emitted photons are collected in the lens system of a conventional optical microscope, and projected on the image plane of a high resolution single photon position sensitive detector. Position signals from this photon detector are then correlated in time with electrical effects, including the malfunction of digital circuits, detected within the sample that were caused by the individual ion that created these photons initially.
Clad photon sieve for generating localized hollow beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Yiguang; Tong, Junmin; Zhu, Jiangping; Liu, Junbo; Hu, Song; He, Yu
2016-02-01
A novel photon sieve structure called clad photon sieve is proposed to generate localized hollow beams and its design principle and focusing properties are studied. The clad photon sieve is composed of the internal zone and external zone with pinholes being positioned on the dark zones. Pinholes in the internal zone and in the external zone give destructive interference to the focus, leading to localized hollow beams being generated on the focal plane. Focusing properties of clad photon sieve with different focal lengths, zone numbers and modulation factors are also studied by theoretical calculations, numerical simulations and experiments, showing that the central dark spot size can be controlled by the focal length and rings number, and the intensity of the central dark spot varies with different modulation factors related with the internal zone and the external zone. This photon sieve can be useful for trapping and manipulating of particles and cooling of atoms.
Baldo Sahlmueller; for the PHENIX collaboration
2010-02-01
Direct photons are a powerful probe to study the properties of the unique matter created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. They carry information on the various stages of a heavy-ion collision. At different transverse momenta (pT), different production processes dominate the direct photon yield in heavy-ion collisions. Photons at high pT can be used to study initial hard scattering processes while photons at low and intermediate pT provide direct information on the hot and dense medium created in such collisions since they origin predominantly from jet-medium interactions and from thermal radiation from the medium itself. PHENIX has measured direct-photon yields over a broad pT and energy range in different collision systems such as Au+Au and Cu+Cu, allowing systematic studies of the behavior of direct photons in heavy-ion collisions. Two different methods have been used to measure the direct photons. An excess of direct photons in Au+Au collisions at low pT beyond the expectation from p+p collisions was measured for the first time via internal conversion. Furthermore, the azimuthal anisotropy parameter v2 has been measured. The direct photon v2 sheds light on the different processes contributing to the production of direct photons. The p+p data at the same energy provide a baseline for understanding the heavy-ion data, but are also interesting in their own right, e.g. for testing pQCD calculations or - as RHIC collides polarized protons - for constraining models on the gluon contribution to the proton spin.
Indistinguishability of independent single photons
F. W. Sun; C. W. Wong
2009-02-02
The indistinguishability of independent single photons is presented by decomposing the single photon pulse into the mixed state of different transform limited pulses. The entanglement between single photons and outer environment or other photons induces the distribution of the center frequencies of those transform limited pulses and makes photons distinguishable. Only the single photons with the same transform limited form are indistinguishable. In details, the indistinguishability of single photons from the solid-state quantum emitter and spontaneous parametric down conversion is examined with two-photon Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer. Moreover, experimental methods to enhance the indistinguishability are discussed, where the usage of spectral filter is highlighted.
Wesfreid, JosÃ© Eduardo
VOLUME 78, NUMBER 23 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 9 JUNE 1997 Coherent Structures 10021 2 Laboratoire de Physique et de Mecanique des Milieux Heterogenes, Ecole SupÃ©rieure de Physique et structures (GÃ¶rtler vortices). These structures entrain the passive scalar in such a way that its one
Silicon photon-counting avalanche diodes for single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy
Michalet, Xavier; Ingargiola, Antonino; Colyer, Ryan A.; Scalia, Giuseppe; Weiss, Shimon; Maccagnani, Piera; Gulinatti, Angelo; Rech, Ivan; Ghioni, Massimo
2014-01-01
Solution-based single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful experimental tool with applications in cell biology, biochemistry and biophysics. The basic feature of this technique is to excite and collect light from a very small volume and work in a low concentration regime resulting in rare burst-like events corresponding to the transit of a single molecule. Detecting photon bursts is a challenging task: the small number of emitted photons in each burst calls for high detector sensitivity. Bursts are very brief, requiring detectors with fast response time and capable of sustaining high count rates. Finally, many bursts need to be accumulated to achieve proper statistical accuracy, resulting in long measurement time unless parallelization strategies are implemented to speed up data acquisition. In this paper we will show that silicon single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) best meet the needs of single-molecule detection. We will review the key SPAD parameters and highlight the issues to be addressed in their design, fabrication and operation. After surveying the state-of-the-art SPAD technologies, we will describe our recent progress towards increasing the throughput of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy in solution using parallel arrays of SPADs. The potential of this approach is illustrated with single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer measurements. PMID:25309114
López, Marco; Hofer, Helmuth; Kück, Stefan
2015-01-01
A highly accurate method for the determination of the detection efficiency of a silicon single-photon avalanche diode (Si-SPAD) is presented. This method is based on the comparison of the detected count rate of the Si-SPAD compared to the photon rate determined from a calibrated silicon diode using a modified attenuator technique, in which the total attenuation is measured in two attenuation steps. Furthermore, a validation of this two-step method is performed using attenuators of higher transmittance. The setup is a tabletop one, laser-based, and fully automated. The measurement uncertainty components are determined and analyzed in detail. The obtained standard measurement uncertainty is < 0.5%. Main contributions are the transmission of the neutral density filters used as attenuators and the spectral responsivity of the calibrated analog silicon diode. Furthermore, the dependence of the detection efficiency of the Si-SPAD on the mean photon number of the impinging laser radiation with Poissonian statistics is investigated. PMID:25892852
Silicon photon-counting avalanche diodes for single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy.
Michalet, Xavier; Ingargiola, Antonino; Colyer, Ryan A; Scalia, Giuseppe; Weiss, Shimon; Maccagnani, Piera; Gulinatti, Angelo; Rech, Ivan; Ghioni, Massimo
2014-11-01
Solution-based single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful experimental tool with applications in cell biology, biochemistry and biophysics. The basic feature of this technique is to excite and collect light from a very small volume and work in a low concentration regime resulting in rare burst-like events corresponding to the transit of a single molecule. Detecting photon bursts is a challenging task: the small number of emitted photons in each burst calls for high detector sensitivity. Bursts are very brief, requiring detectors with fast response time and capable of sustaining high count rates. Finally, many bursts need to be accumulated to achieve proper statistical accuracy, resulting in long measurement time unless parallelization strategies are implemented to speed up data acquisition. In this paper we will show that silicon single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) best meet the needs of single-molecule detection. We will review the key SPAD parameters and highlight the issues to be addressed in their design, fabrication and operation. After surveying the state-of-the-art SPAD technologies, we will describe our recent progress towards increasing the throughput of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy in solution using parallel arrays of SPADs. The potential of this approach is illustrated with single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer measurements. PMID:25309114
Cavity nonlinear optics with few photons and ultracold quantum particles
András Vukics; Wolfgang Niedenzu; Helmut Ritsch
2008-02-17
The light force on particles trapped in the field of a high-Q cavity mode depends on the quantum state of field and particle. Different photon numbers generate different optical potentials anddifferent motional states induce different field evolution. Even for weak saturation and linear polarizability the induced particle motion leads to nonlinear field dynamics. We derive a corresponding effective field Hamiltonian containing all the powers of the photon number operator, which predicts nonlinear phase shifts and squeezing even at the few-photon level. Wave-function simulations of the full particle-field dynamics confirm this and show significant particle-field entanglement in addition.
0th Order Heavy Quark Photon Bremsstrahlung
W. A. Horowitz
2008-06-18
We calculate the 0th order in opacity number distribution of massive photons (gluons) for heavy quark production radiation including interference from the away-side jet. While consistent with the soft photon (gluon) approximation, we find that approximating 1-x with 1, as done in previous calculations, strongly affects the magnitude of energy loss. Restoring gauge invariance by including the radiation associated with the away-side jet fills in the "dead cone," but is a relatively small effect. The Ter-Mikayelian reduction from vacuum energy loss is 10-40% for 5-25 GeV charm and bottom quarks.
Amplification of effects of photons on wound healing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyson, Mary
2009-02-01
Following the absorption of photons by cells either resident in or in transit through the skin at and around a wound site, healing can be modulated. This is due to the primary, secondary and tertiary cellular effects of the photons. The main primary effect of phototherapy is photon absorption. This initiates secondary effects within the cells that have absorbed the photons. Secondary effects are restricted to cells that have absorbed a suprathreshold quantity of photonic energy. Photon absorption can lead to an increase in ATP synthesis and the release of reactive oxygen species that can activate specific transcription factors resulting in changes in synthesis of the enzymes needed for cellular proliferation, migration, phagocytosis and protein synthesis, all essential for wound healing. The amount of ATP production is limited in each cell by the availability of ADP and phosphate. Spatial and temporal amplification of the effects of photon absorption increases the range and duration of phototherapy. It may be caused in part by tertiary effects initiated in cells that have not absorbed photons by regulatory proteins such as cytokines secreted by cells that have absorbed photons. Amplification may also be due to changes induced by photons in immune cells, stem cells and soluble protein mediators while in transit through the dermal capillaries. The peripheral location of these capillaries makes their contents readily accessible to photons. The longer the duration of treatment, the greater will be the number of cells in transit that can be affected by photons. Depth of effect may be increased by transduction of electromagnetic energy into mechanical energy. For a treatment to be clinically effective on wound healing, its duration and power may each be important. Components of the immune system, endocrine system and nervous system may also amplify the effects of photons on wound healing.
The Statistical Handbook on Technology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Berinstein, Paula
This volume tells stories about the tools we use, but these narratives are told in numbers rather than in words. Organized by various aspects of society, each chapter uses tables and statistics to examine everything from budgets, costs, sales, trade, employment, patents, prices, usage, access and consumption. In each chapter, each major topic is…
American Youth: A Statistical Snapshot.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wetzel, James R.
This document presents a statistics snapshot of young people, aged 15 to 24 years. It provides a broad overview of trends documenting the direction of changes in social behavior and economic circumstances. The projected decline in the total number of youth from 43 million in 1980 to 35 million in 1995 will affect marriage and childbearing…
Statistics by Example, Weighing Chances.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mosteller, Frederick; And Others
Part of a series of four pamphlets providing problems in probability and statistics taken from real-life situations, this booklet develops probability methods through random numbers, simulations, and simple probability models, and presents the idea of scatter and residuals for analyzing complex data. The pamphlet was designed for a student having…
Statistical description of turbulent dispersion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brouwers, J. J. H.
2012-12-01
We derive a comprehensive statistical model for dispersion of passive or almost passive admixture particles such as fine particulate matter, aerosols, smoke, and fumes in turbulent flow. The model rests on the Markov limit for particle velocity. It is in accordance with the asymptotic structure of turbulence at large Reynolds number as described by Kolmogorov. The model consists of Langevin and diffusion equations in which the damping and diffusivity are expressed by expansions in powers of the reciprocal Kolmogorov constant C0. We derive solutions of O(C00) and O(C0-1). We truncate at O(C0-2) which is shown to result in an error of a few percentages in predicted dispersion statistics for representative cases of turbulent flow. We reveal analogies and remarkable differences between the solutions of classical statistical mechanics and those of statistical turbulence.
Laurence, Ted Alfred
2002-07-30
Single-molecule methods have the potential to provide information about conformational dynamics and molecular interactions that cannot be obtained by other methods. Removal of ensemble averaging provides several benefits, including the ability to detect heterogeneous populations and the ability to observe asynchronous reactions. Single-molecule diffusion methodologies using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) are developed to monitor conformational dynamics while minimizing perturbations introduced by interactions between molecules and surfaces. These methods are used to perform studies of the folding of Chymotrypsin Inhibitor 2, a small, single-domain protein, and of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) homopolymers. Confocal microscopy is used in combination with sensitive detectors to detect bursts of photons from fluorescently labeled biomolecules as they diffuse through the focal volume. These bursts are analyzed to extract fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency. Advances in data acquisition and analysis techniques that are providing a more complete picture of the accessible molecular information are discussed. Photon Arrival-time Interval Distribution (PAID) analysis is a new method for monitoring macromolecular interactions by fluorescence detection with simultaneous determination of coincidence, brightness, diffusion time, and occupancy (proportional to concentration) of fluorescently-labeled molecules undergoing diffusion in a confocal detection volume. This method is based on recording the time of arrival of all detected photons, and then plotting the two-dimensional histogram of photon pairs, where one axis is the time interval between each pair of photons 1 and 2, and the second axis is the number of other photons detected in the time interval between photons 1 and 2. PAID is related to Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) by a collapse of this histogram onto the time interval axis. PAID extends auto- and cross-correlation FCS by measuring the brightness of fluorescent species. A data-fitting model is developed, which is used to simultaneously determine coincidence, brightness, diffusion time, and occupancy from experiments performed on fluorophore-labeled dsDNA test samples. Using simulations, the performance of PAID is compared with existing methods. The statistical accuracy of the parameters extracted using PAID exceeds or matches the accuracy of the other methods, while providing additional information.
PHOTONIC CRYSTALSAND MICROSTRUCTURES Three-dimensionalphoton confinement in photonic
direction in space. The fabrication of three-dimensional crystals, however, poses a great tech- 0IEE, 1998PHOTONIC CRYSTALSAND MICROSTRUCTURES Three-dimensionalphoton confinement in photonic crystals corifinement, Photonic crystals, Low-dimensionalperiodicity, Rudiation loss Abstract: Photonic crystals of one
Perez Rojas, H.; Querts, E. Rodriguez
2009-05-01
A photon exhibits a tiny anomalous magnetic moment {mu}{sub {gamma}} due to its interaction with an external constant magnetic field in vacuum through the virtual electron-positron background. It is paramagnetic ({mu}{sub {gamma}}>0) in the whole region of transparency, i.e., below the first threshold energy for pair creation, and has a maximum near this threshold. The photon magnetic moment is different for eigenmodes polarized along and perpendicular to the magnetic field. Explicit expressions are given for {mu}{sub {gamma}} for the cases of photon energies smaller than and closer to the first pair creation threshold. The region beyond the first threshold is briefly discussed.