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Sample records for photovoltaic concentrator module

  1. Photovoltaic concentrator module technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Elizabeth H.; Chamberlin, Jay L.; Boes, Eldon C.

    Significant developments in the development of photovoltaic (PV) concentrator technology are described. Concentrator cell research, advances in PV concentrator cell technology, and PV concentrator module development are described. Reliability issues currently of concern, including the applicability of wet insulation resistance tests to concentrator modules, correlation of accelerated thermal cycling tests with life expectancy in the field, and the importance of quality assurance during manufacture, are discussed. Two PV concentrator power systems installed in 1989 are discussed. A PV concentrator initiative program established by the DOE is given, and the results of the latest cost study are presented.

  2. Photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, C.J.

    1991-05-16

    This invention consists of a planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation which includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor.

  3. Photovoltaic concentrator module improvements study

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.L.; Kerschen, K.A. ); Hutchison, G. ); Nowlan, M.J. )

    1991-08-01

    This report presents results of a project to design and fabricate an improved photovoltaic concentrator module. Using previous work as a baseline, this study conducted analyses and testing to select major module components and design features. The lens parquet and concentrator solar cell were selected from the highest performing, available components. A single 185X point-focus module was fabricated by the project team and tested at Sandia. Major module characteristics include a 6 by 4 compression-molded acrylic lens parquet (0.737 m{sup 2} area), twenty-four 0.2 ohms-cm, FZ, p-Si solar cells (1.56 cm{sup 2} area) soldered to ceramic substrates and copper heat spreaders, and an aluminized steel housing with corrugated bottom. This project marked the first attempt to use prismatic covers on solar cells in a high-concentration, point-focus application. Cells with 15 percent metallization were obtained, but problems with the fabrication and placement of prismatic covers on these cells lead to the decision not to use covers in the prototype module. Cell assembly fabrication, module fabrication, and module optical design activities are presented here. Test results are also presented for bare cells, cell assemblies, and module. At operating conditions of 981 watts/m{sup 2} DNI and an estimated cell temperature of 65{degrees}C, the module demonstrated an efficiency of 13.9 percent prior to stressed environmental exposure. 12 refs., 56 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Clement J.

    1992-01-01

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor.

  5. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, C.J.

    1992-12-01

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor. 5 figs.

  6. Development of a commercial photovoltaic concentrator module

    SciTech Connect

    Saifee, S.T.; Hutchison, G.

    1992-09-01

    The ojective of this work was to develop the design and prototype of a commercial high-concentration photovoltaic (PV) module. The design is for a 282-sun point-focus concentrating module. Most of the components, subassemblies, and design features incorporate simplifications and ease of manufacturing. The Solar Kinetics, Inc. (SKI) module is designed to incorporate high-efficiency, single-crystal silicon PV cells. The housing is made with aluminum laminated for voltage stand-off and simultaneously providing high thermal conductivity. The Fresnel lens injection molded by American Optical (AO) as singles. The cell assembly consists of a copper heat spreader, a photovoltaic cell soldered, a top and bottom contact, and a reflective secondary optical element (SOE). The cell assemblies passed all of the initial electrical characterization and high-potential tests. Under environmental cycling, the only bond that failed was the PV cell-to-heat spreader interface. The other components (top contact, bottom contact, SOE) passed all the environmental cycling tests. The cell assemblies were designed to be mounted onto the receiver section with a thermally conductive RTV. This geometry was subjected to environmental testing. There was no delamination of this bond nor was there electrical breakdown when the assemblies were subjected to the hi-pot test. A mock module was fabricated for environmental evaluation. This module was subjected to the humidity/freeze cycling to assess the performance of the lens mounting design. This module was also subjected to the rain test after the humidity/freeze cycling and checked for water leaks. The lens showed small displacement from its original position after the environmental cycling. One tablespoon of water did collect inside the module.

  7. Thin photovoltaic modules at ultra high concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Higueras, Pedro; Ferrer-Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Shanks, Katie; Almonacid, Florencia; Férnández, Eduardo F.

    2015-09-01

    A new design concept of high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) module is studied both by ray-tracing simulation and by building a prototype. This set-up is based on the idea of concentrating sunlight from different optical units to a single commercial multi-junction solar cell, which is located in a different plane than that of the primary optics (e.g. Fresnel lenses). A two-optical-unit set-up, as a first approach, is built and measured with the solar simulator "Helios 3198". These results are compared to the measurement results of the single-unit of one Fresnel lens and the same solar cell. The feasibility of this new design has been confirmed theoretically and practically.

  8. Status of photovoltaic concentrator modules and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maish, A.B.

    1994-04-01

    Several leading line- and point-focus photovoltaic concentrator system development programs are reviewed, including those by ENTECH, SEA Corporation, AMONIX, and Alpha Solarco. Concentrating collectors and trackers are gaining maturity and reaching product status as designs are made more manufacturable and reliable. Utilities are starting to take notice of this emerging technology, and several privately-funded utility installations are underway. Several advantages are offered by concentrators, including low system and capital cost and rapid production ramp-up. These are discussed along with issues generally raised concerning concentrator technology.

  9. Evaluation tests for photovoltaic concentrator receiver sections and modules

    SciTech Connect

    Woodworth, J.R.; Whipple, M.L.

    1992-06-01

    Sandia has developed a third-generation set of specifications for performance and reliability testing of photovoltaic concentrator modules. Several new requirements have been defined. The primary purpose of the tests is to screen new concentrator designs and new production runs for susceptibility to known failure mechanisms. Ultraviolet radiation testing of materials precedes receiver section and module performance and environmental tests. The specifications include the purpose, procedure, and requirements for each test. Recommendations for future improvements are presented.

  10. Solar kinetics` photovoltaic concentrator module and tracker development

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.L.; Howell, B.

    1995-11-01

    Solar Kinetics, Inc., has been developing a point-focus concentrating photovoltaic module and tracker system under contract to Sandia National Laboratories. The primary focus of the contract was to achieve a module design that was manufacturable and passed Sandia`s environmental testing. Nine modules of two variations were assembled, tested, and characterized in Phase 1, and results of these tests were promising, with module efficiency approaching the theoretical limit achievable with the components used. The module efficiency was 11.9% at a solar irradiance of 850 W/sq m and an extrapolated cell temperature of 25 C. Improvements in module performance are anticipated as cell efficiencies meet their expectations. A 2-kW tracker and controller accommodating 20 modules was designed, built, installed, and operated at Solar Kinetics` test site. The drive used many commercially available components in an innovative arrangement to reduce cost and increase reliability. Backlash and bearing play were controlled by use of preloaded, low slip-stick, synthetic slide bearings. The controller design used a standard industrial programmable logic controller to perform ephemeris calculations, operate the actuators, and monitor encoders.

  11. Solar kinetics` photovoltaic concentrator module and tracker development

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.L.; Howell, B.

    1995-11-01

    Solar Kinetics, Inc., has been developing a point-focus concentrating photovoltaic module and tracker system under contract to Sandia National Laboratories. The primary focus of the contract was to achieve a module design that was manufacturable and passed Sandia`s environmental testing. Nine modules of two variations were assembled, tested, and characterized in Phase 1, and results of these tests were promising, with module efficiency approaching the theoretical limit achievable with the components used. The module efficiency was 11.9% at a solar irradiance of 850 W/m{sup 2} and an extrapolated cell temperature of 25{degrees}C. Improvements in module performance are anticipated as cell efficiencies meet their expectations. A 2-kW tracker and controller accommodating 20 modules was designed, built, installed, and operated at Solar Kinetics` test site. The drive used many commercially available components in an innovative arrangement to reduce cost and increase reliability. Backlash and bearing play were controlled by use of preloaded, low slip-stick, synthetic slide bearings. The controller design used a standard industrial programmable logic controller to perform ephemeris calculations, operate the actuators, and monitor encoders.

  12. Spectral losses of high concentrator photovoltaic modules depending on latitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria-Moya, Alberto; Fernández, Eduardo F.; Almonacid, Florencia; Mallick, Tapas K.

    2015-09-01

    High concentrator photovoltaic (HCPV) modules and systems are affected by changes on the incident solar spectrum. It is well known that among all the atmospheric parameters, the air mass has the largest impact on the spectral behavior of HCPV devices. The air mass can be considered as a geometrical parameter which depends entirely on the Sun's zenith angle (θ). Because of this, the yield of HCPV modules is affected by latitude. In this paper, a new method to estimate the gains/losses of energy due to the spectral impact has been introduced. Furthermore, the annual spectral losses depending on latitude have been calculated for several theoretical modules. For default values defined in the standard AM1.5d ASTM G-173-03 spectrum, results show that the spectral losses are almost independent of latitude for locations with low latitude values. Losses between 3% and 5% on the annual energy yield have been estimated for those areas. For high latitudes, the losses increase until they reach values between 10% and 14%. Results depend on the multi-junction solar cells and optical devices of the HCPV module considered.

  13. Concentrating Photovoltaic Module Testing at NREL's Concentrating Solar Radiation Users Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, C.; Lewandowski, A.; Stone, K.; Sherif, R.; Ortabasi, U.; Kusek, S.

    2003-05-01

    There has been much recent interest in photovoltaic modules designed to operate with concentrated sunlight (>100 suns). Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology offers an exciting new opportunity as a viable alternative to dish Stirling engines. Advantages of CPV include potential for>40% cell efficiency in the long term (25% now), no moving parts, no intervening heat transfer surface, near-ambient temperature operation, no thermal mass, fast response, concentration reduces cost of cells relative to optics, and scalable to a range of sizes. Over the last few years, we have conducted testing of several CPV modules for DOEs Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) program. The testing facilities are located at the Concentrating Solar Radiation Users Facility (CRULF) and consist the 10 kW High-Flux Solar Furnace (HFSF) and a 14m2 Concentrating Technologies, LLC (CTEK) dish. This paper will primarily describe the test capabilities; module test results will be detailed in the presentation.

  14. Real-time performance testing of photovoltaic-concentrator modules

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    A description of the resources at the Photovoltaic Advanced Systems Test Facility (PASTF) is presented. These resources include a multi-level data acquisition system for collector module performance testing, associated user-interactive software for accomplishing these tests, and extensive support hardware. A group of standard tests has been developed for module characterization. Descriptions of these tests and sample results for a variety of module designs are also presented.

  15. Results of testing a development module of the second-generation E-Systems concentrating photovoltaic-thermal module

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, T D

    1982-04-01

    An actively-cooled linear Fresnel lens concentrating photovoltaic and thermal module, designed and built by E-Systems, was tested in the Photovoltaic Advanced Systems Test Facility. Physical, electrical, and thermal characteristics of the module are presented. Module performance is characterized through the use of multiple linear regression techniques.

  16. The design and research of distributed cooling type high concentrated photovoltaic module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Mingchong; Yao, Shun; Chen, Bingzhen; Yang, Guanghui; Guo, Limin; Peng, Na; Shen, Du; Bao, Wei; Yang, Cuibai; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Zhiyong

    2015-10-01

    At present, the conversion efficiency of high concentrated photovoltaic modules is about 30%, most of the solar energy is converted into heat, which will result in solar cell temperature rise and subsequent module efficiency decrease. For existing module with large solar cell, the heat source is concentrated and additional cooling fins must be used, resulting in high system complexity and cost rise. In order to lower the cost of photovoltaic, we developed distributed cooling type module with simple structure. This paper depicts a distributed cooling design for high concentrated photovoltaic module, as well as the thermal simulation of this design with analysis software. Module prototype was also made to test the actual effect. The final outdoor results showed high consistency with the simulation results. The chip temperature can be lower than 45° and the module outdoor working efficiency is higher than 26% and lower temperature provide a guarantee of long-term reliability to module packaging material.

  17. Solder fatigue reduction in point focus photovoltaic concentrator modules

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, T.D.; Burchett, S.N.

    1991-01-01

    Solder fatigue tests have been conducted on point focus photovoltaic concentration cell assemblies to identify a baseline fatigue life and to quantify the fatigue life improvements that result using a copper-molybdenum-copper low-expansion insert between the solar cell and copper heat spreader. Solder microstructural changes and fatigue crack growth were identified using cross sections and ultrasonic scans of the fatigue solder joints. The Coffin-Manson and Total Strain fatigue models for low-cycle fatigue were evaluated for use in fatigue life predictions. Since both of these models require strain calculations, two strain calculation methods were compared: hand-calculated shear strain and a finite element method shear strain. At present, the available theoretical models for low-cycle solder fatigue are limited in their ability to predict failure; consequently, extensive thermal cycling is continuing to define the fatigue life for point focus photovoltaic cell assemblies. 9 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Results of the PRDA 35 qualification tests of the Motorola concentrating photovoltaic module

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, D.A.

    1981-10-01

    A passively-cooled, Fresnel lens, concentrating photovoltaic module, designed and built by Motorola, Incorporated, was tested to the PRDA 35 specifications. The PRDA 35 module test program is described. Physical, electrical, and thermal characteristics of the module are presented. Module performance is shown using multiple linear regression techniques: some change was measured after environmental exposure. In addition, sample cell assemblies were evaluated for effects of severe environmental conditions. Results presented herein show the module has met the qualification goals.

  19. Optimized design and research of secondary microprism for dense array concentrating photovoltaic module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guanghui; Chen, Bingzhen; Liu, Youqiang; Guo, Limin; Yao, Shun; Wang, Zhiyong

    2015-10-01

    As the critical component of concentrating photovoltaic module, secondary concentrators can be effective in increasing the acceptance angle and incident light, as well as improving the energy uniformity of focal spots. This paper presents a design of transmission-type secondary microprism for dense array concentrating photovoltaic module. The 3-D model of this design is established by Solidworks and important parameters such as inclination angle and component height are optimized using Zemax. According to the design and simulation results, several secondary microprisms with different parameters are fabricated and tested in combination with Fresnel lens and multi-junction solar cell. The sun-simulator IV test results show that the combination has the highest output power when secondary microprism height is 5mm and top facet side length is 7mm. Compared with the case without secondary microprism, the output power can improve 11% after the employment of secondary microprisms, indicating the indispensability of secondary microprisms in concentrating photovoltaic module.

  20. Advanced photovoltaic concentrator system low-cost prototype module

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminar, N.R.; McEntee, J.; Curchod, D. )

    1991-09-01

    This report describes the continued development of an extruded lens and the development of a PV receiver, both of which will be used in the Solar Engineering Applications Corporation (SEA) 10X concentrator. These efforts were pare of a pre-Concentrator Initiative Program. The 10X concentrator consists of an inexpensive, extruded linear Fresnel lens which focuses on one-sun cells which are adhesive-bonded to an anodized aluminum heat sink. Module sides are planned to be molded along with the lens and are internally reflective for improved on- and off-track performance. End caps with molded-in bearings complete the module. Ten modules are mounted in a stationary frame for simple, single-axis tracking in the east-west direction. This configuration an array, is shipped completely assembled and requires only setting on a reasonably flat surface, installing 4 fasteners, and hooking up the wires. Development of the 10-inch wide extruded lens involved one new extrusion die and a series of modifications to this die. Over 76% lens transmission was measured which surpassed the program goal of 75%. One-foot long receiver sections were assembled and subjected to evaluation tests at Sandia National Laboratories. A first group had some problem with cell delamination and voids but a second group performed very well, indicating that a full size receiver would pass the full qualification test. Cost information was updated and presented in the report. The cost study indicated that the Solar Engineering Applications Corporation concentrator system can exceed the DOE electricity cost goals of less than 6cents per KW-hr. 33 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. Advanced photovoltaic concentrator system low-cost prototype module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminar, N. R.; McEntee, J.; Curchod, D.

    1991-09-01

    This report describes the continued development of an extruded lens and the development of a PV receiver, both of which will be used in the Solar Engineering Applications Corporation (SEA) 10X concentrator. These efforts were part of a pre-Concentrator Initiative Program. The 10X concentrator consists of an inexpensive, extruded linear Fresnel lens which focuses on one-sun cells which are adhesive-bonded to an anodized aluminum heat sink. Module sides are planned to be molded along with the lens and are internally reflective for improved on- and off-track performance. End caps with molded-in bearings complete the module. Ten modules are mounted in a stationary frame for simple, single-axis tracking in the east-west direction. This array configuration is shipped completely assembled and requires only setting on a reasonably flat surface, installing 4 fasteners, and hooking up the wires. Development of the 10-inch wide extruded lens involved one new extrusion die and a series of modifications to this die. Over 76 percent lens transmission was measured, which surpassed the program goal of 75 percent. One-foot long receiver sections were assembled and subjected to evaluation tests at Sandia National Laboratories. A first group had some problem with cell delamination and voids but a second group performed very well, indicating that a full size receiver would pass the full qualification test. Cost information was updated and presented in the report. The cost study indicated that the Solar Engineering Applications Corporation concentrator system can exceed the DOE electricity cost goals of less than 6 cents per KW-hr.

  2. Russian Activities in Space Photovoltaic Power Modules with Concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreev, Vyacheslav M.; Rumyantsev, Valeri D.

    2004-01-01

    Space concentrator modules with point-and line-focus Fresnel lenses and with reflective parabolic troughs have been developed recently at Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute. PV receivers for these modules are based: on the single junction LPE and MOCVD AlGaAs/GaAs solar cells characterized by AM0 efficiencies of 23.5 - 24% at 20 - 50 suns and 24 - 24.75 at 50 - 200 suns; on the mechanically stacked tandem AlGaAs/GaAs-GaSb cells with efficiency of 27 - 28 at 20 - 100 suns. MOCVD AlGaAs/GaAs cells with internal Bragg reflector have shown a higher radiation resistance as compared to a traditional structure. Monolithic two-terminal tandems AlGaAs (top)-GaAs (bottom) for space application and GaSb (top) - InGaAsSb (bottom) for TRV application are under development as well.

  3. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    SciTech Connect

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  4. SOLERAS - Analysis of photovoltaic concentrator module failures and repair methods

    SciTech Connect

    Huraib, F.S.; Imamura, M.S.; Salim, A.A.; Rao, N.R.

    1987-06-01

    This report presents the results of the failure analysis, performed from early 1984 through September 1986 on the open-circuited modules, and the assessment of repairing these modules on site at the Solar Village. 16 refs., 26 figs., 19 tabs.

  5. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) improvements for ENTECH's concentrator module

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J.; Perry, J.L.; Jackson, M.C.; Walters, R.R. )

    1991-11-01

    This final technical report documents ENTECH's Phase 1 contract with Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Under this project we prepared a detailed description of our current manufacturing process for making our unique linear Fresnel lens photovoltaic concentrator modules. In addition, we prepared a detailed description of an improved manufacturing process, which will simultaneously increase module production rates, enhance module quality, and substantially reduce module costs. We also identified potential problems in implementing the new manufacturing process, and we proposed solutions to these anticipated problems. Before discussing the key results of our program, however, we present a brief description of our unique photovoltaic technology. The key conclusion of our PVMAT Phase 1 study is that our module technology, without further breakthroughs, can realistically meet the near-term DOE goal of 12 cents/kWh levelized electricity cost, provided that we successfully implement the new manufacturing process at a production volume of at least 10 megawatts per year. The key recommendation from our Phase 1 study is to continue our PVMaT project into Phase 2A, which is directed toward the actual manufacturing technology development required for our new module production process. 15 refs.

  6. Measuring complex for studying cascade solar photovoltaic cells and concentrator modules on their basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, V. R.; Malevskii, D. A.; Pokrovskii, P. V.; Rumyantsev, V. D.

    2015-06-01

    The design and implementation of several measuring complexes intended for studying cascade solar photovoltaic converters are considered. The complexes consist of a solar simulator and an electronic unit with an active load. The high-aperture light source of the complex reproduces solar intensity over wide spectral range λ = 350-1700 nm with an angle of divergence of ±0.26°, which are characteristic of solar radiation. The active load of the electronic unit allows taking both dark and illuminated I- V characteristics of test objects within about 1 ms during the quasi-stationary part of the irradiation pulse. The small size and low power consumption of the complexes hold out the hope that they will be widely used in designing, refining, and testing cascade efficient photovoltaic converters made of III-V materials and solar modules integrating these converters with concentrator modules.

  7. Photovoltaic concentrator research progress

    SciTech Connect

    Arvizu, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper provides a review of progress in the DOE sponsored, Sandia managed Photovoltaic Concentrator Research Project. Research status, project goals and a discussion of concentrator economics is presented. Recent research accomplishments that will be discussed include 21% efficient baseline silicon cells by Applied Solar Energy Corporation and Sandia, 26% efficient GaAs cells by Varian Associates, and near 25% mechanically stacked multijunction GaAs/Si cells by Hughes Research, Applied Solar, and Sandia. In addition, improvements in breadboard module units (i.e. single lens/cell combination) such as a 19% GaAs unit by Varian and a near 17% silicon unit by ENTECH will be reviewed. This paper concludes that the photovoltaic concentrator option is making excellent progress toward competitive cost-effectiveness and provides a strong photovoltaic alternative.

  8. Intermediate-band dynamics of quantum dots solar cell in concentrator photovoltaic modules

    PubMed Central

    Sogabe, Tomah; Shoji, Yasushi; Ohba, Mitsuyoshi; Yoshida, Katsuhisa; Tamaki, Ryo; Hong, Hwen-Fen; Wu, Chih-Hung; Kuo, Cherng-Tsong; Tomić, Stanko; Okada, Yoshitaka

    2014-01-01

    We report for the first time a successful fabrication and operation of an InAs/GaAs quantum dot based intermediate band solar cell concentrator photovoltaic (QD-IBSC-CPV) module to the IEC62108 standard with recorded power conversion efficiency of 15.3%. Combining the measured experimental results at Underwriters Laboratory (UL®) licensed testing laboratory with theoretical simulations, we confirmed that the operational characteristics of the QD-IBSC-CPV module are a consequence of the carrier dynamics via the intermediate-band at room temperature. PMID:24762433

  9. Tracking Error analysis of Concentrator Photovoltaic Module Using Total 3-Dimensional Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Yasuyuki; Nishioka, Kensuke

    2011-12-01

    A 3-dimensional (3D) operating simulator for concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) module using triple-junction solar cell was developed. By connecting 3D equivalent circuit simulation for triple-junction solar cell and ray-trace simulation for optics model, the operating characteristics of CPV module were calculated. A typical flat Fresnel lens and homogenizer were adapted to the optics model. The influence of tracking error on the performance of CPV module was calculated. There was the correlation between the optical efficiency and Isc. However, Pm was not correlated with these values, and was strongly dependent on FF. We can use this total simulator for the evaluation and optimization from the light incidence to operating characteristic of CPV modules.

  10. Photovoltaic concentrator research status

    SciTech Connect

    Arvizu, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the most important developments in concentrator research and development since the fifth E.C. Photovoltaic Energy Conference in October 1983. Within the Sandia managed Photovoltaic Concentrator Research Project several record cell efficiencies have been reported. Applied Solar Energy Corporation has fabricated a concentrator silicon cell with 20.9% peak efficiency, at 90X concentration. Varian Associates has demonstrated a 26.0% efficient GaAs cell at 700X concentration. Hughes Research Labs together with Applied Solar Energy Corporation and Sandia has demonstrated a 24.7% efficient, at 70X concentration, mechanically-stacked multijunction device using GaAs on silicon. In addition, a record efficiency for silicon technology has been demonstrated with the Sandia developed 200X silicon module. The module has been measured to have 17% peak efficiency. This paper will review these accomplishments, other research progress, and current research directions in concentrator cells, modules, and arrays. A brief economic assessment is also presented which indicates the potential of concentrator technology.

  11. Qualification testing of photovoltaic concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, E. H.; Barlow, R. S.

    Sandia has developed a revised set of specifications for qualification testing of passively-cooled photovoltaic concentrator modules. The purpose of the tests is to screen new concentrator designs and new production runs for susceptibility to known failure mechanisms; concentrator hardware must be qualified prior to array-level installation at Sandia's Photovoltaic Advanced System Test Facility (PASTF). Tests for cell assemblies and receiver sections, as well as for complete modules, are specified. They include ultraviolet radiation testing of materials, characterization of electrical performance checks to assure safety and structural integrity of modules, and accelerated environmental aging or cycling.

  12. Characterization of Photovoltaic Concentrators

    SciTech Connect

    Kiehl, J.; Emery, E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper will describe the resources at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for performing characterization of photovoltaic (PV) materials designed for operation under concentrated light. NREL has the capability to measure devices ranging from very small, unencapsulated research cells to reasonably sized, environmentally protected modules. Data gathering and interpretation are also ongoing areas of revision and improvement. The main goal of the current research is to reduce the measurement uncertainty to the lowest practical value. At present, the state of the art is limited at a ?5% level in measuring efficiency accurately.

  13. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Wares, Brian S.

    2014-09-02

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  14. A 24.4% solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency by combining concentrator photovoltaic modules and electrochemical cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Akihiro; Ota, Yasuyuki; Koike, Kayo; Hidaka, Yoshihide; Nishioka, Kensuke; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Fujii, Katsushi

    2015-10-01

    The highest efficiency of 24.4% for the solar-to-hydrogen (STH) energy conversion was obtained in an outdoor field test by combining concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules with InGaP/GaAs/Ge three-junction cells and polymer-electrolyte electrochemical (EC) cells. The high efficiency was obtained by using the high-efficiency CPV modules (∼31% under the present operation conditions) and the direct connection between the CPV modules and the EC cells with an almost optimized number of elements in series. The STH efficiency bottleneck was clarified to be the efficiency of the CPV modules, the over-potential of the EC cells, and matching of the operation point to the maximal-power point of the CPV modules.

  15. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrig, L.

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986 to 1990. The reliability photovoltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warrantees available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the U.S., PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  16. Formed photovoltaic module busbars

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Douglas; Daroczi, Shan; Phu, Thomas

    2015-11-10

    A cell connection piece for a photovoltaic module is disclosed herein. The cell connection piece includes an interconnect bus, a plurality of bus tabs unitarily formed with the interconnect bus, and a terminal bus coupled with the interconnect bus. The plurality of bus tabs extend from the interconnect bus. The terminal bus includes a non-linear portion.

  17. Bracket for photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason

    2014-06-24

    Brackets for photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. In one embodiment, a saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. The gusset can have a first leg and a second leg extending at an angle relative to the mounting surface. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets. The mounting feature can be coupled to the first gusset and configured to stand the one or more PV modules off the tube.

  18. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Mrig, L.

    1990-01-01

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  19. Advanced photovoltaic power systems using tandem GaAs/GaSb concentrator modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraas, L. M.; Kuryla, M. S.; Pietila, D. A.; Sundaram, V. S.; Gruenbaum, P. E.; Avery, J. E.; Dihn, V.; Ballantyne, R.; Samuel, C.

    1992-01-01

    In 1989, Boeing announced the fabrication of a tandem gallium concentrator solar cell with an energy conversion efficiency of 30 percent. This research breakthrough has now led to panels which are significantly smaller, lighter, more radiation resistant, and potentially less expensive than the traditional silicon flat plate electric power supply. The new Boeing tandem concentrator (BTC) module uses an array of lightweight silicone Fresnel lenses mounted on the front side of a light weight aluminum honeycomb structure to focus sunlight onto small area solar cells mounted on a thin back plane. This module design is shown schematically. The tandem solar cell in this new module consists of a gallium arsenide light sensitive cell with a 24 percent energy conversion efficiency stacked on top of a gallium antimonide infrared sensitive cell with a conversion efficiency of 6 percent. This gives a total efficiency 30 percent for the cell-stack. The lens optical efficiency is typically 85 percent. Discounting for efficiency losses associated with lens packing, cell wiring, and cell operating temperature still allows for a module efficiency of 22 percent which leads to a module power density of 300 Watts/sq. m. This performance provides more than twice the power density available from a single crystal silicon flat plate module and at least four times the power density available from amorphous silicon modules. The fact that the lenses are only 0.010 ft. thick and the aluminum foil back plane is only 0.003 ft. thick leads to a very lightweight module. Although the cells are an easy to handle thickness of 0.020 ft., the fact that they are small, occupying one-twenty-fifth of the module area, means that they add little to the module weight. After summing all the module weights and given the high module power, we find that we are able to fabricate BTC modules with specific power of 100 watts/kg.

  20. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Wares, Brian S.

    2012-09-04

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame having at least a top member and a bottom member. A plurality of alignment features are included on the top member of each frame, and a plurality of alignment features are included on the bottom member of each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by the alignment features on the top member of a lower module fitting together with the alignment features on the bottom member of an upper module. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  1. Daily and seasonal performance of angularly dependent fixed mount dual aperture holographic planar concentrator photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Juan M.; Castillo, Jose E.; Aspnes, Eric D.; Kostuk, Raymond K.; Rosenberg, Glenn

    2010-08-01

    Dual aperture holographic planar concentrator (DA-HPC) technology consists of bifacial cells separated by strips of holographic film that diffract the light from the spacing into the cells for direct incident, diffuse, roof-reflected and albedo irradiance. The holographic film is angularly dependent of the seasonal sun angle. DA-HPC modules are compared to single aperture conventional modules for clear and cloudy days as well as for a seasonal period of eight months. Direct-current IV and alternating-current power curves are used to compare modules with comparable silicon active area and cell efficiency.

  2. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Lenox, Carl J. S.; Culligan, Matthew; Danning, Matt

    2012-07-17

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame. The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  3. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Lenox, Carl J. S.; Culligan, Matthew; Danning, Matt

    2013-08-27

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame, The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  4. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Clews, Peggy J.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-08

    A process including forming a photovoltaic solar cell on a substrate, the photovoltaic solar cell comprising an anchor positioned between the photovoltaic solar cell and the substrate to suspend the photovoltaic solar cell from the substrate. A surface of the photovoltaic solar cell opposite the substrate is attached to a receiving substrate. The receiving substrate may be bonded to the photovoltaic solar cell using an adhesive force or a metal connecting member. The photovoltaic solar cell is then detached from the substrate by lifting the receiving substrate having the photovoltaic solar cell attached thereto and severing the anchor connecting the photovoltaic solar cell to the substrate. Depending upon the type of receiving substrate used, the photovoltaic solar cell may be removed from the receiving substrate or remain on the receiving substrate for use in the final product.

  5. Reliability of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    In order to assess the reliability of photovoltaic modules, four categories of known array failure and degradation mechanisms are discussed, and target reliability allocations have been developed within each category based on the available technology and the life-cycle-cost requirements of future large-scale terrestrial applications. Cell-level failure mechanisms associated with open-circuiting or short-circuiting of individual solar cells generally arise from cell cracking or the fatigue of cell-to-cell interconnects. Power degradation mechanisms considered include gradual power loss in cells, light-induced effects, and module optical degradation. Module-level failure mechanisms and life-limiting wear-out mechanisms are also explored.

  6. Durability of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. C.; Gedvilas, L. M.; To, B.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2010-08-01

    Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology has recently gained interest based on their expected low levelized cost of electricity, high efficiency, and scalability. Many CPV systems use Fresnel lenses made of poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) to obtain a high optical flux density. The optical and mechanical durability of such components, however, are not well established relative to the desired service life of 30 years. Specific reliability issues may include: reduced optical transmittance, discoloration, hazing, surface erosion, embrittlement, crack growth, physical aging, shape setting (warpage), and soiling. The initial results for contemporary lens- and material-specimens aged cumulatively to 6 months are presented. The study here uses an environmental chamber equipped with a xenon-arc lamp to age specimens at least 8x the nominal field rate. A broad range in the affected characteristics (including optical transmittance, yellowness index, mass loss, and contact angle) has been observed to date, depending on the formulation of PMMA used. The most affected specimens are further examined in terms of their visual appearance, surface roughness (examined via atomic force microscopy), and molecular structure (via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy).

  7. Durability of poly(methyl methacrylate) lenses used in concentrating photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David C.; Gedvilas, Lynn M.; To, Bobby; Kennedy, Cheryl E.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2010-08-01

    Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology has recently gained interest based on their expected low levelized cost of electricity, high efficiency, and scalability. Many CPV systems use Fresnel lenses made of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to obtain a high optical flux density. The optical and mechanical durability of such components, however, are not well established relative to the desired service life of 30 years. Specific reliability issues may include: reduced optical transmittance, discoloration, hazing, surface erosion, embrittlement, crack growth, physical aging, shape setting (warpage), and soiling. The initial results for contemporary lens- and material-specimens aged cumulatively to 6 months are presented. The study here uses an environmental chamber equipped with a xenon-arc lamp to age specimens at least 8x the nominal field rate. A broad range in the affected characteristics (including optical transmittance, yellowness index, mass loss, and contact angle) has been observed to date, depending on the formulation of PMMA used. The most affected specimens are further examined in terms of their visual appearance, surface roughness (examined via atomic force microscopy), and molecular structure (via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy).

  8. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2016-03-15

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  9. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2012-12-11

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  10. Concentrated photovoltaics, a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonini, Piergiorgio; Centro, Sandro; Golfetto, Stelvio; Saccà, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV), once a niche technology, has now reached the maturity and reliability for large scale power generation. Especially in regions where temperatures are very high, the use of high efficiency triple junction solar cells with concentrating optics allows stable energy yield. Thus CPV can be seen as complementary and not in concurrence with silicon photovoltaics. The state of the art, the advantages and limitations of this technology will be shown. Among the main advantages of CPV is the possibility of a much higher energy supply, when compared to silicon photovoltaics, both comparing CPV and silicon with same area or the same installed power. The use of recycled and recyclable materials allows a more environmentally friendly production. The possibility to couple CPV with desalination facilities, energy storage will be analysed. As an example a case study of a CPV installation in Northern Italy is discussed. Here the use of mature technologies, derived from automotive and lighting sectors resulted in a simple and efficient module.

  11. Utility-scale photovoltaic concentrators

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The photovoltaics concentrators section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  12. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    SciTech Connect

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N.; Holland, Rodney H.

    2012-04-17

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  13. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    SciTech Connect

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N; Holland, Rodney H

    2012-09-18

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  14. Flexible, rollable photovoltaic cell module

    SciTech Connect

    Cull, C.R.; Hartman, R.A.; Koch, P.E.

    1986-03-04

    A photovoltaic module is described consisting of: busbar means; individual photovoltaic cell strips, each cell strip having an electrically conductive substrate layer, a semiconductor body deposited on the substrate layer, and a transparent electrically conductive layer deposited on the semiconductor body, the transparent electrically conductive layer being selectively sectioned to define electrically distinct photovoltaic cells carried by the cell strip; grid means deposited on the transparent electrically conductive layer of each of the photovoltaic cell; continuous electrically conductive filament means alternately and repetitively connected, at contact points, to the electrically conductive substrate layer of one photovoltaic cell strip and to the grid means of another photovoltaic cell strip; wherein the filament means is connected medially of the lateral edges of the respective cell strips; and means for connecting the transparent electrically conductive layer of one photovoltaic cell strip to the busbar means.

  15. Progress in photovoltaic concentrator research

    SciTech Connect

    Arvizu, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent progress in photovoltaic concentrator research. In the past 18 months, several exciting new developments have been reported. Record efficiency concentrator silicon cells have been reported at Stanford University, with 28% efficient high resistivity cells, and at the University of New South Wales, with near 25% efficient low resistivity cells. Both groups also report record 22% one-sun efficiencies for these cells. Compound semiconductor cells have also made advances. Research on multijunction devices has led to a mechanically stacked concentrator cell with near 27% efficiency. Module improvements in commercial designs have taken the form of reduced cost and better component reliability. In addition, current research emphasis is on the development of new prototype modules that use the recent laboratory cell advances. Array efforts have centered around improving the tracking and control subsystems in accuracy, durability, and cost. Today, concentrator systems in high insolation areas are being offered at prices near $4/W/sub p/ ac for large MW sizes and at prices below those of flat plate systems ($8/W/sub p/) in hundred kW sizes. This paper will review these achievements and discuss the potential for concentrator technology to become a viable cost-effective bulk electrical power option.

  16. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Xavier, Grace

    2013-10-08

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  17. Impact of environmental hazards on internal soiling within concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Sara

    2014-09-01

    Environmental conditions have a significant impact on internal soiling of a CPV system, which affects overall system performance and efficiency. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 62108, Section 10, standard includes accelerated testing such as temperature cycling, damp heat, and humidity freeze to assess a CPV module's ability to withstand environmental hazards that can compromise the typical 25-year lifetime. This paper discusses the IEC 60529 ingress protection (IP) test protocols and how they can be used to evaluate the performance of CPV modules to block water and particulate contaminants. Studies with GORE® Protective Vents installed in a CPV module and subjected to environmental hazard testing have shown increased reliability of the module over the lifetime of the system by protecting the seals from pressure differentials and keeping out contaminants.

  18. Vacuum lamination of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Vacuum lamination of terrestrial photovoltaic modules is a new high volume process requiring new equipment and newly develop materials. Equipment development, materials research, and some research in related fields and testing methods are discussed.

  19. Parabolic dish photovoltaic concentrator development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beninga, K.; Davenport, R.; Featherby, M.; Sandubrae, J.; Walcott, K.

    1991-05-01

    Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) and Tactical Fabs, Inc. (TFI) have fabricated a prototype parabolic dish photovoltaic (PV) concentrator system to demonstrate the functionality of this approach. A 1.5 m diameter parabolic dish was fabricated of a polyester/fiberglass composite, with a silvered polymer reflective surface. An innovative receiver cooling system used outward radial flow of cooling water in a narrow passage. This configuration matches the heat transfer capability of the cooling system to the flux profile on the PV receiver, minimizing temperature variations across the receiver. The photovoltaic cells used in the system were a new, TFI-proprietary design. Interleaved contacts form a bi-polar, rear-contact cell configuration. Because the electrical contacts are made on the rear of the cells, cells can be close-packed to form receiver arrays of arbitrary shape and size. Optical testing of the dish concentrator was performed by SAIC, SERI, and Sandia National Labs. The dish concentrator, designed for solar thermal applications, had a tight focal spot but exhibited flux non-uniformities away from the focal plane. Thermal testing of the receiver cooling system was performed with excellent success. Single PV cells, 4-cell blocks, and 144-cell receiver modules were built and tested. The cells successfully demonstrated the TFI design concept, but due to cell processing problems their efficiency was very low. Sources of the processing problems were identified and solutions were proposed, but funding limitations precluded further cell production. Operation of the complete PV dish system was conducted, and the functionality of the system was demonstrated. However, low cell efficiencies and receiver plane flux non-uniformities caused the system performance to be very low. These problems are not generic to the concept, and solutions to them proposed.

  20. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) improvements for ENTECH`s concentrator module. Final technical report, 9 January 1991--14 April 1991

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J.; Perry, J.L.; Jackson, M.C.; Walters, R.R.

    1991-11-01

    This final technical report documents ENTECH`s Phase 1 contract with Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Under this project we prepared a detailed description of our current manufacturing process for making our unique linear Fresnel lens photovoltaic concentrator modules. In addition, we prepared a detailed description of an improved manufacturing process, which will simultaneously increase module production rates, enhance module quality, and substantially reduce module costs. We also identified potential problems in implementing the new manufacturing process, and we proposed solutions to these anticipated problems. Before discussing the key results of our program, however, we present a brief description of our unique photovoltaic technology. The key conclusion of our PVMAT Phase 1 study is that our module technology, without further breakthroughs, can realistically meet the near-term DOE goal of 12 cents/kWh levelized electricity cost, provided that we successfully implement the new manufacturing process at a production volume of at least 10 megawatts per year. The key recommendation from our Phase 1 study is to continue our PVMaT project into Phase 2A, which is directed toward the actual manufacturing technology development required for our new module production process. 15 refs.

  1. Optical design of a 4-off-axis-unit Cassegrain ultra-high concentrator photovoltaics module with a central receiver.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Rodríguez, Juan P; Fernández, Eduardo F; Almonacid, Florencia; Pérez-Higueras, Pedro

    2016-05-01

    Ultra-high concentrator photovoltaics (UHCPV), with concentrations higher than 1000 suns, have been pointed out by different authors as having great potential for being a cost-effective PV technology. This Letter presents a UHCPV Cassegrain-based optical design in which the sunrays are concentrated and sent from four different and independent paraboloid-hyperboloid pairs optical units onto a single central receiver. The optical design proposed has the main advantage of the achievement of ultra-high concentration ratios using relative small mirrors with similar performance values of efficiency, acceptance angle, and irradiance uniformity to other designs. PMID:27128055

  2. Reliability Research for Photovoltaic Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Ronald J., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes research approach used to improve reliability of photovoltaic modules. Aimed at raising useful module lifetime to 20 to 30 years. Development of cost-effective solutions to module-lifetime problem requires compromises between degradation rates, failure rates, and lifetimes, on one hand, and costs of initial manufacture, maintenance, and lost energy, on other hand. Life-cycle costing integrates disparate economic terms, allowing cost effectiveness to be quantified, allowing comparison of different design alternatives.

  3. Natural sunlight accelerated weathering of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerlaut, G. A.; Anderson, T. B.; Arnett, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Photovoltaic modules are exposed to the equivalent of ten years of sunlight aging in an accelerated exposure testing and evaluation program, the objective being to determine the long-term durability characteristics of flat plate modules in comparatively short periods of time. The modules are illuminated with concentrated sunlight in a large, sun-tracking, Fresnel-reflecting solar concentrator. The effects of the accelerated exposure are assessed by performing periodic visual inspections and electrical measurements. It is found that field-experienced failure modes are duplicated, that acceleration factors of 6x to 8x are readily attainable, and that the test method is feasible as a predictive tool for photovoltaic module lifetime durability.

  4. Natural sunlight accelerated weathering of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerlaut, G. A.; Anderson, T. B.; Arnett, J. C.

    Photovoltaic modules are exposed to the equivalent of ten years of sunlight aging in an accelerated exposure testing and evaluation program, the objective being to determine the long-term durability characteristics of flat plate modules in comparatively short periods of time. The modules are illuminated with concentrated sunlight in a large, sun-tracking, Fresnel-reflecting solar concentrator. The effects of the accelerated exposure are assessed by performing periodic visual inspections and electrical measurements. It is found that field-experienced failure modes are duplicated, that acceleration factors of 6x to 8x are readily attainable, and that the test method is feasible as a predictive tool for photovoltaic module lifetime durability.

  5. AC photovoltaic module magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, C.; Chang, G.J.; Reyes, A.B.; Whitaker, C.M.

    1997-12-31

    Implementation of alternating current (AC) photovoltaic (PV) modules, particularly for distributed applications such as PV rooftops and facades, may be slowed by public concern about electric and magnetic fields (EMF). This paper documents magnetic field measurements on an AC PV module, complementing EMF research on direct-current PV modules conducted by PG and E in 1993. Although not comprehensive, the PV EMF data indicate that 60 Hz magnetic fields (the EMF type of greatest public concern) from PV modules are comparable to, or significantly less than, those from household appliances. Given the present EMF research knowledge, AC PV module EMF may not merit considerable concern.

  6. Mounting support for a photovoltaic module

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Gregory Michael; Barsun, Stephan K.; Coleman, Nathaniel T.; Zhou, Yin

    2013-03-26

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a foundation having an integrated wire-way ledge portion. A photovoltaic module support mechanism is coupled with the foundation.

  7. Ballasted photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt

    2011-11-29

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module and a ballast tray. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes an arm. The ballast tray is adapted for containing ballast and is removably associated with the PV module in a ballasting state where the tray is vertically under the PV laminate and vertically over the arm to impede overt displacement of the PV module. The PV module assembly can be installed to a flat commercial rooftop, with the PV module and the ballast tray both resting upon the rooftop. In some embodiments, the ballasting state includes corresponding surfaces of the arm and the tray being spaced from one another under normal (low or no wind) conditions, such that the frame is not continuously subjected to a weight of the tray.

  8. Photovoltaic Cz Silicon Module Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Jester, T. L.

    1998-09-01

    Work focused on reducing the cost per watt of Cz silicon photovoltaic modules under Phase II of Siemens Solar Industries' DOE/NREL PVMaT 4A subcontract is described in this report. New module designs were deployed in this phase of the contract, improvements in yield of over 10% were realized, and further implementation of Statistical Process Control was achieved during this phase. Module configurations representing a 12% cost reduction per watt were implemented in small scale production under Phase II of this contract. Yield improvements are described in detail, yield sensitivity to wafer thickness is quantified, and the deployment of SPC in critical process steps is reported here.

  9. Solar simulator for concentrator photovoltaic systems.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, César; Antón, Ignacio; Sala, Gabriel

    2008-09-15

    A solar simulator for measuring performance of large area concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules is presented. Its illumination system is based on a Xenon flash light and a large area collimator mirror, which simulates natural sun light. Quality requirements imposed by the CPV systems have been characterized: irradiance level and uniformity at the receiver, light collimation and spectral distribution. The simulator allows indoor fast and cost-effective performance characterization and classification of CPV systems at the production line as well as module rating carried out by laboratories. PMID:18795026

  10. Space photovoltaic modules based on reflective optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreev, V. M.; Larionov, V. R.; Rumyantsev, V. D.; Shvarts, M. Z.

    1995-01-01

    The conceptual design and experimental results for two types of space application concentrator photovoltaic modules, employing reflective optical elements, are presented. The first type is based on the use of compound parabolic concentrators, the second type is based on the use of line-focus parabolic troughs. Lightweight concentrators are formed with nickel foil coated silver with a diamond-like carbon layer protection. Secondary optical elements, including lenses and cones, are introduced for a better matching of concentrators and solar cells. Both types of modules are characterized by concentration ratios in the range 20x to 30x, depending on the chosen range of misorientation angles. The estimated specific parameters of these modules operating with single junction AlGaAs/GaAs solar cells are 240 W/sq m and 3 kg/sq m.

  11. Tracking accuracy assessment for concentrator photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Matthew S. H.; Anstey, Ben; Bentley, Roger W.; Georghiou, George E.

    2010-10-01

    The accuracy to which a concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) system can track the sun is an important parameter that influences a number of measurements that indicate the performance efficiency of the system. This paper presents work carried out into determining the tracking accuracy of a CPV system, and illustrates the steps involved in gaining an understanding of the tracking accuracy. A Trac-Stat SL1 accuracy monitor has been used in the determination of pointing accuracy and has been integrated into the outdoor CPV module test facility at the Photovoltaic Technology Laboratories in Nicosia, Cyprus. Results from this work are provided to demonstrate how important performance indicators may be presented, and how the reliability of results is improved through the deployment of such accuracy monitors. Finally, recommendations on the use of such sensors are provided as a means to improve the interpretation of real outdoor performance.

  12. Design and development of a high-concentration photovoltaic concentrator

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, R C

    1982-04-01

    The design and development of a high concentration photovoltaic concentrator module is discussed. The design concept described herein incorporates a curved groove domed Fresnel lens, a high concentration etched multiple vertical junction (EMVJ) solar cell and a passively cooled direct-bonded copper cell mount all packaged in a plastic module. Two seven inch diameter 1200x domed Fresnel lenses were fabricated using single point diamond turning technology. Testing at both GE and Sandia confirmed optical transmission efficiencies of over 83%. Samples of the latest available EMVJ cells were mounted and installed, with a domed Fresnel lens, into a prototype module. Subsequent testing demonstrated net lens-cell efficiencies of 10 to 13%. As a result of this program, salient conclusions have been formulated as to this technology.

  13. Photovoltaic Array Space Power flight experiment plus diagnostics (PASP+) modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooley, William T.; Adams, Steven F.; Reinhardt, Kitt C.; Piszczor, Michael F.

    1992-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics flight experiment (PASP+) subsumes twelve solar array modules which represent the state of the art in the space photovoltaic array industry. Each of the twelve modules individually feature specific photovoltaic technologies such as advanced semiconductor materials, multi-bandgap structures, lightweight array designs, advanced interconnect technologies, or concentrator array designs. This paper will describe each module in detail including the configuration, components, materials, anticipated on orbit performance, and some of the aspects of each array technology. The layout of each module and the photovoltaic cells or array cross section will be presented graphically. A discussion on the environmental constraints and materials selection will be included as well as a delineation of the differences between the modules and the baseline array configuration in its intended application.

  14. Apparatus for encapsulating a photovoltaic module

    DOEpatents

    Albright, Scot P.; Dugan, Larry M.

    1995-10-24

    The subject inventions concern various photovoltaic module designs to protect the module from horizontal and vertical impacts and degradation of solar cell efficiency caused by moisture. In one design, a plurality of panel supports that are positioned adjacent to the upper panel in a photovoltaic module absorb vertical forces exerted along an axis perpendicular to the upper panel. Other designs employ layers of glass and tempered glass, respectively, to protect the module from vertical impacts. A plurality of button-shaped channels is used around the edges of the photovoltaic module to absorb forces applied to the module along an axis parallel to the module and direct moisture away from the module that could otherwise penetrate the module and adversely affect the cells within the module. A spacer is employed between the upper and lower panels that has a coefficient of thermal expansion substantially equivalent to the coefficient of thermal expansion of at least one of the panels.

  15. Recent results for concentrator photovoltaics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Takamoto, Tatsuya; Araki, Kenji; Kojima, Nobuaki

    2016-04-01

    We summarize the Europe-Japan Collaborative Research Project on Concentrator Photovoltaics (CPV); NGCPV Project (a New Generation of Concentrator PhotoVoltaic cells, modules and systems). The aim of this project was to accelerate the move to very high efficiency and lower cost CPV technologies and to enhance the widespread deployment of CPV systems. Seven European partners and nine Japanese partners have contributed to this international collaboration. The following objectives have been reached: 1) a CPV cell with InGaP/GaAs/InGaAs three-junction world-record efficiency of 44.4% has been developed by Sharp, 2) 50 kW and 15 kW CPV plant operations with an average DC efficiency of 27.8% have been demonstrated in Spain (since mid-2012), 3) a new “Intrepid” CPV module with 31.3% efficiency has been developed by Daido Steel, 4) standard measurement of CPV cells has been established by FhG-ISE and AIST, and 46.0% efficiency has been confirmed for the direct-bonded GaInP/GaAs/GaInAsP/GaInAs four-junction solar cell under this project, 5) the fundamental research on novel materials and structures for CPV has also been conducted.

  16. Residential photovoltaic module and array requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nearhoof, S. L.; Oster, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Design requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays used in residential applications were identified. Building codes and referenced standards were reviewed for their applicability to residential photovoltaic array installations. Four installation types were identified - integral (replaces roofing), direct (mounted on top of roofing), stand-off (mounted away from roofing), and rack (for flat or low slope roofs, or ground mounted). Installation costs were developed for these mounting types as a function of panel/module size. Studies were performed to identify optimum module shapes and sizes and operating voltage cost drivers. It is concluded that there are no perceived major obstacles to the use of photovoltaic modules in residential arrays. However, there is no applicable building code category for residential photovoltaic modules and arrays and additional work with standards writing organizations is needed to develop residential module and array requirements.

  17. Tracking-integrated systems for concentrating photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostoleris, Harry; Stefancich, Marco; Chiesa, Matteo

    2016-04-01

    Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems, which use optical elements to focus light onto small-area solar cells, have the potential to minimize the costs, while improving efficiency, of photovoltaic technology. However, CPV is limited by the need to track the apparent motion of the Sun. This is typically accomplished using high-precision mechanical trackers that rotate the entire module to maintain normal light incidence. These machines are large, heavy and expensive to build and maintain, deterring commercial interest and excluding CPV from the residential market. To avoid this issue, some attention has recently been devoted to the development of tracking-integrated systems, in which tracking is performed inside the CPV module itself. This creates a compact system geometry that could be less expensive and more suitable for rooftop installation than existing CPV trackers. We review the basic tracking principles and concepts exploited in these systems, describe and categorize the existing designs, and discuss the potential impact of tracking integration on CPV cost models and commercial potential.

  18. Modelling of Photovoltaic Module Using Matlab Simulink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afiqah Zainal, Nurul; Ajisman; Razlan Yusoff, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) module consists of numbers of photovoltaic cells that are connected in series and parallel used to generate electricity from solar energy. The characteristics of PV module are different based on the model and environment factors. In this paper, simulation of photovoltaic module using Matlab Simulink approach is presented. The method is used to determine the characteristics of PV module in various conditions especially in different level of irradiations and temperature. By having different values of irradiations and temperature, the results showed the output power, voltage and current of PV module can be determined. In addition, all results from Matlab Simulink are verified with theoretical calculation. This proposed model helps in better understanding of PV module characteristics in various environment conditions.

  19. Analysis techniques used on field degraded photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, T.D.; King, D.L.

    1995-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratory`s PV System Components Department performs comprehensive failure analysis of photovoltaic modules after extended field exposure at various sites around the world. A full spectrum of analytical techniques are used to help identify the causes of degradation. The techniques are used to make solder fatigue life predictions for PV concentrator modules, identify cell damage or current mismatch, and measure the adhesive strength of the module encapsulant.

  20. Tests Of Amorphous-Silicon Photovoltaic Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Ronald G., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Progress in identification of strengths and weaknesses of amorphous-silicon technology detailed. Report describes achievements in testing reliability of solar-power modules made of amorphous-silicon photovoltaic cells. Based on investigation of modules made by U.S. manufacturers. Modules subjected to field tests, to accelerated-aging tests in laboratory, and to standard sequence of qualification tests developed for modules of crystalline-silicon cells.

  1. Photovoltaic module electrical termination design requirement study

    SciTech Connect

    Mosna, F.J. Jr.; Donlinger, J.

    1980-07-01

    Motorola Inc., in conjunction with ITT Cannon, has conducted a study to develop information to facilitate the selection of existing, commercial, electrical termination hardware for photovoltaic modules and arrays. This volume of the report contains the executive summary. Module and array design parameters were investigated and recommendations were developed for use in surveying, evaluating, and comparing electrical termination hardware. Electrical termination selection criteria factors were developed and applied to nine generic termination types in each of the four application sectors: remote, residential, intermediate and industrial. Existing terminations best suited for photovoltaic modules and arrays were identified. Cost information was developed to identify cost drivers and/or requirements which might lead to cost reductions. The general conclusion is that there is no single generic termination that is best suited for photovoltaic application, but that the appropriate termination is strongly dependent upon the module construction and its support structure as well as the specific application sector.

  2. Photovoltaic concentrator assembly with optically active cover

    DOEpatents

    Plesniak, Adam P

    2014-01-21

    A photovoltaic concentrator assembly that includes a housing that defines an internal volume and includes a rim, wherein the rim defines an opening into the internal volume, a photovoltaic cell positioned in the internal volume, and an optical element that includes an optically active body and a flange extending outward from the body, wherein the flange is sealingly engaged with the rim of the housing to enclose the internal volume.

  3. Alpha Solarco`s Photovoltaic Concentrator Development program

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.; Bailor, B.; Carroll, D.

    1995-10-01

    This report details the work done under Sandia`s Photovoltaic Concentrator Development contract, funded jointly by Alpha Solarco and the US Department of Energy. It discusses improvements made to the cell assembly and module design of Alpha Solarco`s point-focus, high-concentration photovoltaic module. The goals of this effort were to increase the module efficiency, reduce the manufacturing cost of the cell assembly, and increase product reliability. Redesign of the secondary optical element achieved a 4 percent increase in efficiency due to better cell fill factors and offtrack performance. New, lower cost materials were identified for the secondary optical element, the optical couple between the secondary optical element and the cell, and the cell assembly electrical insulator. Manufacturing process improvements and test equipment are also discussed.

  4. The AC photovoltaic module is here!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, Steven J.; Wohlgemuth, John H.; Wills, Robert H.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the design, development, and performance results of a large-area photovoltaic module whose electrical output is ac power suitable for direct connection to the utility grid. The large-area ac PV module features a dedicated, integrally mounted, high-efficiency dc-to-ac power inverter with a nominal output of 250 watts (STC) at 120 Vac, 60 H, that is fully compatible with utility power. The module's output is connected directly to the building's conventional ac distribution system without need for any dc wiring, string combiners, dc ground-fault protection or additional power-conditioning equipment. With its advantages, the ac photovoltaic module promises to become a universal building block for use in all utility-interactive PV systems. This paper discusses AC Module design aspects and utility interface issues (including islanding).

  5. Photovoltaic module with light reflecting backskin

    DOEpatents

    Gonsiorawski, Ronald C.

    2007-07-03

    A photovoltaic module comprises electrically interconnected and mutually spaced photovoltaic cells that are encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant between a light-transparent front cover and a back cover, with the back cover sheet being an ionomer/nylon alloy embossed with V-shaped grooves running in at least two directions and coated with a light reflecting medium so as to provide light-reflecting facets that are aligned with the spaces between adjacent cells and oriented so as to reflect light falling in those spaces back toward said transparent front cover for further internal reflection onto the solar cells, whereby substantially all of the reflected light will be internally reflected from said cover sheet back to the photovoltaic cells, thereby increasing the current output of the module. The internal reflector improves power output by as much as 67%.

  6. Hole-thru-laminate mounting supports for photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Wexler, Jason; Botkin, Jonathan; Culligan, Matthew; Detrick, Adam

    2015-02-17

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a pedestal having a surface adaptable to receive a flat side of a photovoltaic module laminate. A hole is disposed in the pedestal, the hole adaptable to receive a bolt or a pin used to couple the pedestal to the flat side of the photovoltaic module laminate.

  7. Solar Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Summary data for the photovoltaic industry in the United States. Data includes manufacturing, imports, and exports of modules in the United States and its territories. Summary data include volumes in peak kilowatts and average prices. Where possible, imports and exports are listed by country, and shipments to the United States are listed by state.

  8. Ultralight photovoltaic modules for unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Nowlan, M.J.; Maglitta, J.C.; Darkazalli, G.; Lamp, T.

    1997-12-31

    New lightweight photovoltaic modules are being developed for powering high altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Modified low-cost terrestrial solar cell and module technologies are being applied to minimize vehicle cost. New processes were developed for assembling thin solar cells, encapsulant films, and cover films. An innovative by-pass diode mounting approach that uses a solar cell as a heat spreader was devised and tested. Materials and processes will be evaluated through accelerated environmental testing.

  9. Photovoltaic module spread-of-flame testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimura, R. S.; Otth, D. H.; Arnett, J. C.

    1984-10-01

    Photovoltaic modules used in solar energy conversion are tested for flammability. Class B burning brand tests were conducted with the following results: module glass shattered and hydrocarbon encapsulants ignited. Penetration of back surface material was the prime cause of failure. Materials with greater flame and heat resistance are under consideration to increase back surface integrity up to Class A burning brand standard. The most promising is stainless steel foil.

  10. Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seippel, R. G.

    This book attempts to provide the reader with a cursory look at solar energy from a quarry of quartz to a sophisticated solar system. The progression of the theories of light is discussed along with the progression of photoelectricity, light rays, the optical spectrum, light reception, photodetection, aspects of photometry and radiometry, preferred terms in radiometric measurement, semiconductor physics, and light energy availability. Other subjects explored are related to manufacturing processes, photovoltaic materials, crystal growing, slicing techniques, wafer finishing, solar cell fabrication, photovoltaic cell types, concentrators, module fabrication, problems of quality assurance, photovoltaic systems, and the photovoltaics hierarchy. Attention is given to the polycrystalline cell, insulator cells, cadmium sulfide cells, amorphous silicon cells, an electrochemical cell, and the low-cost solar array project.

  11. Photovoltaic concentrator technology development project. Sixth project integration meeting

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    Thirty-three abstracts and short papers are presented which describe the current status of research, development, and demonstration of concentrator solar cell technology. Solar concentrators discussed include the parabolic trough, linear focus Fresnel lens, point focus Fresnel lens, and the parabolic dish. Solar cells studied include silicon, GaAs, and AlGaAs. Research on multiple junction cells, combined photovoltaic/thermal collectors, back contact solar cells, and beam splitter modules is described. Concentrator solar cell demonstration programs are reported. Contractor status summaries are given for 33 US DOE concentrator solar cell contracts; a description of the project, project status, and key results to date is included. (WHK)

  12. Photovoltaic concentrator initiative: Concentrator cell development

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.H.; Narayanan, S.

    1993-05-01

    This project involves the development of a large-area, low-cost, high-efficiency concentrator solar cell for use in the Entech 22-sun linear-focus Fresnel lens concentrator system. The buried contact solar cell developed at the University of New South Wales was selected for this project. Both Entech and the University of New South Wales are subcontractors. This annual report presents the program efforts from November 1990 through December 1991, including the design of the cell, development of a baseline cell process, and presentation of the results of preliminary cell processing. Important results include a cell designed for operation in a real concentrator system and substitution of mechanical grooving for the previously utilized laser scribing.

  13. Recovering valuable metals from recycled photovoltaic modules.

    PubMed

    Yi, Youn Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Tran, Tam; Hong, Sung Kil; Kim, Myong Jun

    2014-07-01

    Recovering valuable metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, and Al has become a pressing issue as end-of-life photovoltaic modules need to be recycled in the near future to meet legislative requirements in most countries. Of major interest is the recovery and recycling of high-purity silicon (> 99.9%) for the production of wafers and semiconductors. The value of Si in crystalline-type photovoltaic modules is estimated to be -$95/kW at the 2012 metal price. At the current installed capacity of 30 GW/yr, the metal value in the PV modules represents valuable resources that should be recovered in the future. The recycling of end-of-life photovoltaic modules would supply > 88,000 and 207,000 tpa Si by 2040 and 2050, respectively. This represents more than 50% of the required Si for module fabrication. Experimental testwork on crystalline Si modules could recover a > 99.98%-grade Si product by HNO3/NaOH leaching to remove Al, Ag, and Ti and other metal ions from the doped Si. A further pyrometallurgical smelting at 1520 degrees C using CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slag mixture to scavenge the residual metals after acid leaching could finally produce > 99.998%-grade Si. A process based on HNO3/NaOH leaching and subsequent smelting is proposed for recycling Si from rejected or recycled photovoltaic modules. Implications: The photovoltaic industry is considering options of recycling PV modules to recover metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, Al, and others used in the manufacturing of the PV cells. This is to retain its "green" image and to comply with current legislations in several countries. An evaluation of potential resources made available from PV wastes and the technologies used for processing these materials is therefore of significant importance to the industry. Of interest are the costs of processing and the potential revenues gained from recycling, which should determine the viability of economic recycling of PV modules in the future. PMID:25122953

  14. Photovoltaic Module Qualification Plus Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Kempe, M.; Bosco, N.; Hacke, P.; Jordan, D.; Miller, D. C.; Silverman, T. J.; Phillips, N.; Earnest, T.; Romero, R.

    2013-12-01

    This report summarizes a set of test methods that are in the midst of being incorporated into IEC 61215 for certification of a module design or other tests that go beyond certification to establish bankability.

  15. Photovoltaic module bypass diode encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. J., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The design and processing techniques necessary to incorporate bypass diodes within the module encapsulant are presented. The Semicon PN junction diode cells were selected. Diode junction to heat spreader thermal resistance measurements, performed on a variety of mounted diode chip types and sizes, have yielded values which are consistently below 1 deg C per watt, but show some instability when thermally cycled over the temperature range from -40 to 150 deg C. Three representative experimental modules, each incorporating integral bypass diode/heat spreader assemblies of various sizes, were designed. Thermal testing of these modules enabled the formulation of a recommended heat spreader plate sizing relationship. The production cost of three encapsulated bypass diode/heat spreader assemblies were compared with similarly rated externally mounted packaged diodes. It is concluded that, when proper designed and installed, these bypass diode devices will improve the overall reliability of a terrestrial array over a 20 year design lifetime.

  16. Accelerated degradation testing of a photovoltaic module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charki, Abdérafi; Laronde, Rémi; Bigaud, David

    2013-01-01

    There are a great many photovoltaic (PV) modules installed around the world. Despite this, not enough is known about the reliability of these modules. Their electrical power output decreases with time mainly as a result of the effects of corrosion, encapsulation discoloration, and solder bond failure. The failure of a PV module is defined as the point where the electrical power degradation reaches a given threshold value. Accelerated life tests (ALTs) are commonly used to assess the reliability of a PV module. However, ALTs provide limited data on the failure of a module and these tests are expensive to carry out. One possible solution is to conduct accelerated degradation tests. The Wiener process in conjunction with the accelerated failure time model makes it possible to carry out numerous simulations and thus to determine the failure time distribution based on the aforementioned threshold value. By this means, the failure time distribution and the lifetime (mean and uncertainty) can be evaluated.

  17. Durability of Polymeric Encapsulation Materials for Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. C.; Kempe, M. D.; Araki, K.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    Polymeric encapsulation materials are typically used in concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) modules to protect the cell from the field environment. Because it is physically located adjacent to the cell, the encapsulation is exposed to a high optical flux, often including light in the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) wavelengths. The durability of encapsulants used in CPV modules is critical to the technology, but is presently not well understood. This work seeks to identify the appropriate material types, field-induced failure mechanisms, and factors of influence (if possible) of polymeric encapsulation. These results will ultimately be weighed against those of future qualification and accelerated life test procedures.

  18. Microinverters for employment in connection with photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Johnson, Brian Benjamin; Krein, Philip T.

    2015-09-22

    Microinverters useable in association with photovoltaic modules are described. A three phase-microinverter receives direct current output generated by a microsystems-enabled photovoltaic cell and converts such direct current output into three-phase alternating current out. The three-phase microinverter is interleaved with other three-phase-microinverters, wherein such microinverters are integrated in a photovoltaic module with the microsystems-enabled photovoltaic cell.

  19. White butterflies as solar photovoltaic concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanks, Katie; Senthilarasu, S.; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H.; Mallick, Tapas K.

    2015-07-01

    Man’s harvesting of photovoltaic energy requires the deployment of extensive arrays of solar panels. To improve both the gathering of thermal and photovoltaic energy from the sun we have examined the concept of biomimicry in white butterflies of the family Pieridae. We tested the hypothesis that the V-shaped posture of basking white butterflies mimics the V-trough concentrator which is designed to increase solar input to photovoltaic cells. These solar concentrators improve harvesting efficiency but are both heavy and bulky, severely limiting their deployment. Here, we show that the attachment of butterfly wings to a solar cell increases its output power by 42.3%, proving that the wings are indeed highly reflective. Importantly, and relative to current concentrators, the wings improve the power to weight ratio of the overall structure 17-fold, vastly expanding their potential application. Moreover, a single mono-layer of scale cells removed from the butterflies’ wings maintained this high reflectivity showing that a single layer of scale cell-like structures can also form a useful coating. As predicted, the wings increased the temperature of the butterflies’ thorax dramatically, showing that the V-shaped basking posture of white butterflies has indeed evolved to increase the temperature of their flight muscles prior to take-off.

  20. White butterflies as solar photovoltaic concentrators.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Katie; Senthilarasu, S; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Mallick, Tapas K

    2015-01-01

    Man's harvesting of photovoltaic energy requires the deployment of extensive arrays of solar panels. To improve both the gathering of thermal and photovoltaic energy from the sun we have examined the concept of biomimicry in white butterflies of the family Pieridae. We tested the hypothesis that the V-shaped posture of basking white butterflies mimics the V-trough concentrator which is designed to increase solar input to photovoltaic cells. These solar concentrators improve harvesting efficiency but are both heavy and bulky, severely limiting their deployment. Here, we show that the attachment of butterfly wings to a solar cell increases its output power by 42.3%, proving that the wings are indeed highly reflective. Importantly, and relative to current concentrators, the wings improve the power to weight ratio of the overall structure 17-fold, vastly expanding their potential application. Moreover, a single mono-layer of scale cells removed from the butterflies' wings maintained this high reflectivity showing that a single layer of scale cell-like structures can also form a useful coating. As predicted, the wings increased the temperature of the butterflies' thorax dramatically, showing that the V-shaped basking posture of white butterflies has indeed evolved to increase the temperature of their flight muscles prior to take-off. PMID:26227341

  1. White butterflies as solar photovoltaic concentrators

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, Katie; Senthilarasu, S.; ffrench-Constant, Richard H.; Mallick, Tapas K.

    2015-01-01

    Man’s harvesting of photovoltaic energy requires the deployment of extensive arrays of solar panels. To improve both the gathering of thermal and photovoltaic energy from the sun we have examined the concept of biomimicry in white butterflies of the family Pieridae. We tested the hypothesis that the V-shaped posture of basking white butterflies mimics the V-trough concentrator which is designed to increase solar input to photovoltaic cells. These solar concentrators improve harvesting efficiency but are both heavy and bulky, severely limiting their deployment. Here, we show that the attachment of butterfly wings to a solar cell increases its output power by 42.3%, proving that the wings are indeed highly reflective. Importantly, and relative to current concentrators, the wings improve the power to weight ratio of the overall structure 17-fold, vastly expanding their potential application. Moreover, a single mono-layer of scale cells removed from the butterflies’ wings maintained this high reflectivity showing that a single layer of scale cell-like structures can also form a useful coating. As predicted, the wings increased the temperature of the butterflies’ thorax dramatically, showing that the V-shaped basking posture of white butterflies has indeed evolved to increase the temperature of their flight muscles prior to take-off. PMID:26227341

  2. Concentrator Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luque-Heredia, Ignacio; Luque, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * The early development of CPV * Concentrator solar cells * Optics for photovoltaic concentrators * Photovoltaic concentration modules * Tracking systems for photovoltaic concentration * High-concentration systems * Rating and performance * Cost considerations * Conclusions * References

  3. Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt; Culligan, Matthew

    2013-05-28

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module, a deflector, and a clip. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes a support arm forming a seat. The deflector defines a front face and a rear face, with the clip extending from either the trailing frame member or the rear face of the deflector. In a mounted state, the deflector is nested within the seat and is releasably mounted to the trailing frame member via the clip. In some embodiments, the support arm forms a second seat, with the PV module assembly providing a second mounted state in which the deflector is in a differing orientation/slope, nested within the second seat and releasably mounted to the trailing frame member via the clip.

  4. Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt; Culligan, Matthew

    2012-08-07

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module, a deflector, and a clip. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes a support arm forming a seat. The deflector defines a front face and a rear face, with the clip extending from either the trailing frame member or the rear face of the deflector. In a mounted state, the deflector is nested within the seat and is releasably mounted to the trailing frame member via the clip. In some embodiments, the support arm forms a second seat, with the PV module assembly providing a second mounted state in which the deflector is in a differing orientation/slope, nested within the second seat and releasably mounted to the trailing frame member via the clip.

  5. Chemical bonding technology for terrestrial photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulter, D. R.; Cuddihy, E. F.; Plueddeman, E. P.

    1983-01-01

    Encapsulated photovoltaic modules must hold together for 20 years, reliably resisting delamination and separation of any of the component materials. Delamination of encapsulation materials from each other, or from solar cells and interconnects, can create voids for accumulation of water, promoting corrosive failure. Delamination of silicone elastomers from unprimed surfaces was a common occurrence with early modules, but the incidences of silicone delamination with later modules decreased when adhesion promoters recommended by silicone manufacturers were used. An investigation of silicone delamination from unprimed surfaces successfully identified the mechanism, which was related to atmospheric oxygen and moisture. This early finding indicated that reliance on physical bonding of encapsulation interfaces for long life in an outdoor environment would be risky. For long outdoor life, the material components of a module must therefore be held together by weather-stable adhesion promoters that desirably form strong, interfacial chemical bonds.

  6. Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt; Culligan, Matthew

    2014-02-18

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module, a deflector, and a clip. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes a support arm forming a seat. The deflector defines a front face and a rear face, with the clip extending from either the trailing frame member or the rear face of the deflector. In a mounted state, the deflector is nested within the seat and is releasably mounted to the trailing frame member via the clip. In some embodiments, the support arm forms a second seat, with the PV module assembly providing a second mounted state in which the deflector is in a differing orientation/slope, nested within the second seat and releasably mounted to the trailing frame member via the clip.

  7. Uniform sunlight concentration reflectors for photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Rabady, Rabi Ibrahim

    2014-03-20

    Sunlight concentration is essential to reach high temperatures of a working fluid in solar-thermal applications and to reduce the cost of photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation systems. Commonly, sunlight concentration is realized by parabolic or cylindrical reflectors, which do not provide uniform concentration on the receiver finite surface. Uniform concentration of sunlight is favored especially for the PV conversion applications since it not only enhances the conversion efficiency of sunlight but also reduces the thermal variations along the receiving PV cell, which can be a performance and life-span limiting factor. In this paper a reflector profile that uniformly infiltrates the concentrated sunlight into the receiving unit is attempted. The new design accounts for all factors that contribute to the nonuniform concentration, like the reflector curvature, which spatially reflects the sunlight nonuniformly, and the angular dependency of both the reflector reflectivity and the sunlight transmission through the PV cell. PMID:24663464

  8. Wide-angle planar microtracking for quasi-static microcell concentrating photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Price, Jared S; Sheng, Xing; Meulblok, Bram M; Rogers, John A; Giebink, Noel C

    2015-01-01

    Concentrating photovoltaics offer a way to lower the cost of solar power. However, the existing paradigm based on precise orientation of large-area concentrator modules towards the Sun limits their deployment to large, open land areas. Here, we explore an alternate approach using high-efficiency microcell photovoltaics embedded between a pair of plastic lenslet arrays to demonstrate quasi-static concentrating photovoltaic panels <1 cm thick that accomplish full-day tracking with >200x flux concentration ratio through small (<1 cm) lateral translation at fixed latitude tilt. Per unit of installed land area, cosine projection loss for fixed microtracking concentrating photovoltaic panels is ultimately offset by improved ground coverage relative to their conventional dual-axis counterparts, enabling a ~1.9x increase in daily energy output that may open up a new opportunity for compact, high-efficiency concentrating photovoltaics to be installed on rooftops and other limited-space urban environments. PMID:25651754

  9. Wide-angle planar microtracking for quasi-static microcell concentrating photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Jared S.; Sheng, Xing; Meulblok, Bram M.; Rogers, John A.; Giebink, Noel C.

    2015-02-01

    Concentrating photovoltaics offer a way to lower the cost of solar power. However, the existing paradigm based on precise orientation of large-area concentrator modules towards the Sun limits their deployment to large, open land areas. Here, we explore an alternate approach using high-efficiency microcell photovoltaics embedded between a pair of plastic lenslet arrays to demonstrate quasi-static concentrating photovoltaic panels <1 cm thick that accomplish full-day tracking with >200x flux concentration ratio through small (<1 cm) lateral translation at fixed latitude tilt. Per unit of installed land area, cosine projection loss for fixed microtracking concentrating photovoltaic panels is ultimately offset by improved ground coverage relative to their conventional dual-axis counterparts, enabling a ~1.9x increase in daily energy output that may open up a new opportunity for compact, high-efficiency concentrating photovoltaics to be installed on rooftops and other limited-space urban environments.

  10. Endurance Tests Of Amorphous-Silicon Photovoltaic Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Ronald G., Jr.; Sugimura, Russell S.

    1989-01-01

    Failure mechanisms in high-power service studied. Report discusses factors affecting endurance of amorphous-silicon solar cells. Based on field tests and accelerated aging of photovoltaic modules. Concludes that aggressive research needed if amorphous-silicon modules to attain 10-year life - value U.S. Department of Energy established as goal for photovoltaic modules in commercial energy-generating plants.

  11. Microsystem enabled photovoltaic modules and systems

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N; Sweatt, William C; Okandan, Murat

    2015-05-12

    A microsystem enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) module including: an absorber layer; a fixed optic layer coupled to the absorber layer; a translatable optic layer; a translation stage coupled between the fixed and translatable optic layers; and a motion processor electrically coupled to the translation stage to controls motion of the translatable optic layer relative to the fixed optic layer. The absorber layer includes an array of photovoltaic (PV) elements. The fixed optic layer includes an array of quasi-collimating (QC) micro-optical elements designed and arranged to couple incident radiation from an intermediate image formed by the translatable optic layer into one of the PV elements such that it is quasi-collimated. The translatable optic layer includes an array of focusing micro-optical elements corresponding to the QC micro-optical element array. Each focusing micro-optical element is designed to produce a quasi-telecentric intermediate image from substantially collimated radiation incident within a predetermined field of view.

  12. Cell shunt resistance and photovoltaic module performance

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, T.J.; Basso, T.S.; Rummel, S.R.

    1996-05-01

    Shunt resistance of cells in photovoltaic modules can affect module power output and could indicate flawed manufacturing processes and reliability problems. The authors describe a two-terminal diagnostic method to directly measure the shunt resistance of individual cells in a series-connected module non-intrusively, without deencapsulation. Peak power efficiency vs. light intensity was measured on a 12-cell, series-connected, single crystalline module having relatively high cell shunt resistances. The module was remeasured with 0.5-, 1-, and 2-ohm resistors attached across each cell to simulate shunt resistances of several emerging technologies. Peak power efficiencies decreased dramatically at lower light levels. Using the PSpice circuit simulator, the authors verified that cell shunt and series resistances can indeed be responsible for the observed peak power efficiency vs. intensity behavior. The authors discuss the effect of basic cell diode parameters, i.e., shunt resistance, series resistance, and recombination losses, on PV module performance as a function of light intensity.

  13. Research Opportunities in Reliability of Photovoltaic Modules (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hacke, P.

    2010-05-01

    The motivation for an increased scope and a more proactive effort in reliability research of photovoltaic modules and systems includes reducing the levelized cost of energy and gaining better confidence in the energy and financial payback for photovoltaic systems. This increased reliability and confidence will lead to greater penetration of photovoltaics in the energy portfolio and greater employment in photovoltaics and related industries. Present research needs include the fundamental degradation mechanisms of polymers, connectors and other module components, mapping of failure mechanisms observed in the field to those in accelerated lifetime tests, determining the acceleration factors, and improving standards for modules such that tests can appropriately be assigned to evaluate their long term durability. Specific mechanisms discussed are corrosion in module components, metastability in thin-film active layers, delamination and loss of elastic properties in module polymeric materials, and inverter failure. Presently, there is hiring of reliability scientists and engineers at many levels of the value chain for photovoltaics.

  14. High efficiency compound semiconductor concentrator photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, P.; Gregory, P.; Saxena, R.; Owen, R.; Moore, O.

    1980-01-01

    Special emphasis was given to the high yield pilot production of packaged AlGaAs/GaAs concentrator solar cells, using organometallic VPE for materials growth, the demonstration of a concentrator module using 12 of these cells which achieved 16.4 percent conversion efficiency at 50 C coolant inlet temperature, and the demonstration of a spectral splitting converter module that achieved in excess of 20 percent efficiency. This converter employed ten silicon and ten AlGaAs cells with a dichroic filter functioning as the beam splitter. A monolithic array of AlGaAs/GaAs solar cells is described.

  15. 64 kW concentrator Photovoltaics Application Test Center. Volume. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, D.M.; Jones, D.W.

    1980-06-01

    Kaman Sciences Corporation has designed a 64 kW Concentrating Photovoltaic Applications Test Center (APTEC). The APTEC employs a combined concentrating photovoltaic array in a total energy system application for load sharing the electric and thermal demands of a large computer center with the interfaced electric and natural gas utility. The photovoltaic array is composed of two-axis tracking heliostats of Fresnel lens concentrating, silicon solar cell modules. The modules are cooled with a fluid which transfers heat to a ground coupled heat sink/storage unit for subsequent use in meeting the computer center's thermal load demand. The combined photovoltaic power system shares basic components - a power conditioning unit, batteries and thermal conditioning equipment - with the electric and natural gas utility service, improving the computer center's operating availability time and displacing a portion of the fossil fuel required to power the computer center with solar energy. The detailed system design is reported.

  16. Method of manufacturing a large-area segmented photovoltaic module

    DOEpatents

    Lenox, Carl

    2013-11-05

    One embodiment of the invention relates to a segmented photovoltaic (PV) module which is manufactured from laminate segments. The segmented PV module includes rectangular-shaped laminate segments formed from rectangular-shaped PV laminates and further includes non-rectangular-shaped laminate segments formed from rectangular-shaped and approximately-triangular-shaped PV laminates. The laminate segments are mechanically joined and electrically interconnected to form the segmented module. Another embodiment relates to a method of manufacturing a large-area segmented photovoltaic module from laminate segments of various shapes. Other embodiments relate to processes for providing a photovoltaic array for installation at a site. Other embodiments and features are also disclosed.

  17. Development of the SEA Corporation Powergrid{trademark} photovoltaic concentrator

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminar, N.; Curchod, D.; Daroczi, S.; Walpert, M.; Sahagian, J.; Pepper, J.

    1998-03-01

    This report covers the three phase effort to bring the SEA Corporation`s Powergrid{trademark} from the concept stage to pilot production. The three phases of this contract covered component development, prototype module development, and pilot line production. The Powergrid is a photovoltaic concentrator that generates direct current electricity directly from sunlight using a linear Fresnel lens. Analysis has shown that the Powergrid has the potential to be very low cost in volume production. Before the start of the project, only proof of concept demonstrations of the components had been completed. During the project, SEA Corporation developed a low cost extruded Fresnel lens, a low cost receiver assembly using one sun type cells, a low cost plastic module housing, a single axis tracking system and frame structure, and pilot production equipment and techniques. In addition, an 800 kW/yr pilot production rate was demonstrated and two 40 kW systems were manufactured and installed.

  18. Some advanced testing techniques for concentrator photovoltaic cells and lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Wiczer, J.J.; Chaffin, R.J.; Hibray, R.E.

    1982-09-01

    The authors describe two separate test techniques for evaluating concentrator photovoltaic components. For convenient characterization of concentrator solar cells, they have developed a method for measuring the entire illuminated I-V curve of a photovoltaic cell with a single flash of intense simulated sunlight. This method reduces the heat input to the cell and the time required to test a cell, thus making possible quick indoor measurements of photovoltaic conversion efficiency at concentrated illumination levels without the use of elaborate cell mounting fixtures or heat sink attachments. The other test method provides a technique to analyze the spatially dependent, spectral distribution of intense sunlight collected and focused by lenses designed for use in photovoltaic concentrator systems. This information is important in the design of multijunction photovoltaic receivers, secondary concentrators, and in optimizing the performance of conventional silicon cell concentrator systems.

  19. Fourth-generation photovoltaic concentrator system development

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J.

    1995-10-01

    In 1991, under a contract with Sandia for the Concentrator Initiative, the ENTECH team initiated the design and development of a fourth-generation concentrator module. In 1992, Sandia also contracted with ENTECH to develop a new control and drive system for the ENTECH array. This report documents the design and development work performed under both contracts. Manufacturing processes for the new module were developed at the same time under a complementary PVMaT contract with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Two 100-kW power plants were deployed in 1995 in Texas using the newly developed fourth-generation concentrator technology, one at the CSW Solar Park near Ft. Davis and one at TUE Energy Park in Dallas. Technology developed under the Sandia contracts has made a successful transition from the laboratory to the production line to the field.

  20. Terrestrial Photovoltaic Module Accelerated Test-To-Failure Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, C. R.

    2008-03-01

    This technical report documents a test-to-failure protocol that may be used to obtain quantitative information about the reliability of photovoltaic modules using accelerated testing in environmental temperature-humidity chambers.

  1. Qualification testing of flat-plate photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Griffith, J. S.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The placement of photovoltaic modules in various applications, in climates and locations throughout the world, results in different degrees and combinations of environmental and electrical stress. Early detection of module reliability deficiencies via laboratory testing is necessary for achieving long, satisfactory field service. This overview paper describes qualification testing techniques being used in the US Department of Energy's flat-plate terrestrial photovoltaic development program in terms of their significance, rationale for specified levels and durations, and test results.

  2. Residential photovoltaic module and array requirements study, appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nearhoof, S. L.; Oster, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Regional building code variations, federal and city codes, and the national electric code are reviewed for their possible effects on the design of photovoltaic modules. Problems that photovoltaic arrays may impose on the insurability of residences are also discussed. Mounting configurations are developed for the modules, and grounding, wiring, terminal, and voltage requirements are established. Installation and materials costs are presented along with performance criteria.

  3. REGULATIONS ON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE DISPOSAL AND RECYCLING.

    SciTech Connect

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    2001-01-29

    Environmental regulations can have a significant impact on product use, disposal, and recycling. This report summarizes the basic aspects of current federal, state and international regulations which apply to end-of-life photovoltaic (PV) modules and PV manufacturing scrap destined for disposal or recycling. It also discusses proposed regulations for electronics that may set the ground of what is to be expected in this area in the near future. In the US, several states have started programs to support the recycling of electronic equipment, and materials destined for recycling often are excepted from solid waste regulations during the collection, transfer, storage and processing stages. California regulations are described separately because they are different from those of most other states. International agreements on the movement of waste between different countries may pose barriers to cross-border shipments. Currently waste moves freely among country members of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and between the US and the four countries with which the US has bilateral agreements. However, it is expected, that the US will adopt the rules of the Basel Convention (an agreement which currently applies to 128 countries but not the US) and that the Convection's waste classification system will influence the current OECD waste-handling system. Some countries adopting the Basel Convention consider end-of-life electronics to be hazardous waste, whereas the OECD countries consider them to be non-hazardous. Also, waste management regulations potentially affecting electronics in Germany and Japan are mentioned in this report.

  4. Yellowing reaction in encapsulant of photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Shigekuni, T.; Kumano, M.

    1997-12-31

    To clarify the mechanism of the yellowing reaction in encapsulant used for photovoltaic (PV) modules, a low molecular weight substance in EVA (Ethylene vinyl acetate) under accelerated weathering test (Dew cycle test, 1000 hours) with yellow change and virgin EVA were extracted with methanol. Extracts were chemically analyzed by GCIR (Gas Chromatography Infrared-Ray spectroscopic analysis), GC-AED (Gas Chromatography Atomic Emission Detector), and FDMS (Field Desorption Mass Spectroscopy). The conditions of this accelerated test were based on JIS-K9117. The analysis results showed that 2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methyl phenol of antioxidant and 2-hydroxy-4-octoxy-benzophenone of UV absorbent were consumed after the weathering test and that 3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde having yellow color was newly produced. A mechanism of the yellowing reaction in encapsulant was presented here that 2,6-di-t-N-O radical from Bis-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinyl sebacate to produce 3,5 di-t-butyl-4-hydroxy benzaldehyde.

  5. Manufacturing cost analysis for photovoltaic concentrator tracking structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, B.; Pass, N.; Blackwell, R.

    1983-11-01

    Detailed manufacturing, transportation and installation costs are developed for the current design of three different photovoltaic concentrator tracking structures at a production rate of 10 to the 5th power/sq m per year. These costs are combined with array field performance estimates to obtain cost per watt and levelized energy costs for 500 kW fields. Installed structure costs for the three arrays (including G and A and profit but not module FOB costs) range from $166 to $208/sqm, or $1.04 to $1.28/W sub ap in 1982 dollars. The pedestal tracking structure has a lower cost than the post/frame or pylon/torque tube arrays.

  6. Laminated photovoltaic modules using back-contact solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Gee, James M.; Garrett, Stephen E.; Morgan, William P.; Worobey, Walter

    1999-09-14

    Photovoltaic modules which comprise back-contact solar cells, such as back-contact crystalline silicon solar cells, positioned atop electrically conductive circuit elements affixed to a planar support so that a circuit capable of generating electric power is created. The modules are encapsulated using encapsulant materials such as EVA which are commonly used in photovoltaic module manufacture. The module designs allow multiple cells to be electrically connected in a single encapsulation step rather than by sequential soldering which characterizes the currently used commercial practices.

  7. Development of photovoltaic array and module safety requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Safety requirements for photovoltaic module and panel designs and configurations likely to be used in residential, intermediate, and large-scale applications were identified and developed. The National Electrical Code and Building Codes were reviewed with respect to present provisions which may be considered to affect the design of photovoltaic modules. Limited testing, primarily in the roof fire resistance field was conducted. Additional studies and further investigations led to the development of a proposed standard for safety for flat-plate photovoltaic modules and panels. Additional work covered the initial investigation of conceptual approaches and temporary deployment, for concept verification purposes, of a differential dc ground-fault detection circuit suitable as a part of a photovoltaic array safety system.

  8. Safety-related requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levins, A.; Smoot, A.; Wagner, R.

    1984-01-01

    Safety requirements for photovoltaic module and panel designs and configurations for residential, intermediate, and large scale applications are investigated. Concepts for safety systems, where each system is a collection of subsystems which together address the total anticipated hazard situation, are described. Descriptions of hardware, and system usefulness and viability are included. A comparison of these systems, as against the provisions of the 1984 National Electrical Code covering photovoltaic systems is made. A discussion of the Underwriters Laboratory UL investigation of the photovoltaic module evaluated to the provisions of the proposed UL standard for plat plate photovoltaic modules and panels is included. Grounding systems, their basis and nature, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are described. The meaning of frame grounding, circuit groundings, and the type of circuit ground are covered.

  9. Durability of Polymeric Encapsulation Materials for Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. C.; Muller, M.; Kempe, M. D.; Araki, K.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-03-01

    Many concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems use a polymeric encapsulant to couple and optical component and/or coverglass to the cell. In that location, the encapsulation improves the transmission of concentrated optical flux through interface(s), while protecting the cell from the environment. The durability of encapsulation materials, however, is not well established relative to the desired service life of 30 years. Therefore, we have initiated a screen test to identify the field-induced failure modes for a variety of popular PV encapsulation materials. An existing CPV module (with no PV cells present) was modified to accommodate encapsulation specimens. The module (where nominal concentration of solar flux is 500x for the domed-Fresnel design) has been mounted on a tracker in Golden, CO (elevation 1.79 km). Initial results are reported here for 18 months cumulative exposure, including the hottest and coldest months of the past year. Characteristics observed at intervals during that time include: visual appearance, direct and hemispherical transmittance, and mass. Degradation may be assessed from subsequent analysis (including yellowness index and cut-on frequency) relative to the ambient conditions present during field exposure. The fluorescence signature observed of all the silicone specimens is examined here, including possible factors of causation -- the platinum catalyst used in the addition cured materials as well as the primer used to promote adhesion to the quartz substrate and superstrate.

  10. Natural conditions and administrative settings for concentrating photovoltaics in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Ling; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Leutz, Ralf

    2012-10-01

    It is an inevitable trend for China to develop green technologies to help the country to produce cleaner energy and to consume it more efficiently, under the pressure of energy security concern, the nation's emissions trajectory and sustainable economic development. The abundant solar resources in West China provide a big potential to utilize the solar energy. Under the promotion of key incentive policies including both feed-in-tariff (FIT) mechanisms and government rebate programs, China has become a major global solar force in photovoltaic (PV) industry both in manufacturing and in the installation of flat-plate products, with 16 GW production and 2.75 GW installation achieved in the year 2011. As a branch of PV technology, concentrating photovoltaics (CPV) technology with several years' development history in China is presently moving from pilot facilities to commercial-scale applications. Several MW-CPV power plants have been installed by both domestic and western companies in China, factories with several hundred-MW production capacity are being planned or built. Sustainable performance and reliability improvement of CPV modules, a vertical integration of supply chain in CPV industry aiming at a cost reduction, a sufficient grid infrastructure for facilitating the West-East and North-South electricity transmission will promote Chinese CPV market to actually initiate, develop and mature.

  11. The World's Largest Photovoltaic Concentrator System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Harry V.

    1982-01-01

    The Mississippi County Community College large-scale energy experiment, featuring the emerging high technology of solar electricity, is described. The project includes a building designed for solar electricity and a power plant consisting of a total energy photovoltaic system, and features two experimental developments. (MLW)

  12. Photovoltaic module electrical termination design requirement study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mosna, F.J. Jr.; Donlinger, J.

    1980-07-01

    Motorola Inc., in conjunction with ITT Cannon, has conducted a study to develop information to facilitate the selection of existing, commercial, electrical termination hardware for photovoltaic modules and arrays. Details of the study are presented in this volume. Module and array design parameters were investigated and recommendations were developed for use in surveying, evaluating, and comparing electrical termination hardware. Electrical termination selection criteria factors were developed and applied to nine generic termination types in each of the four application sectors. Remote, residential, intermediate and industrial. Existing terminations best suited for photovoltaic modules and arrays were identified. Cost information was developed to identify cost drivers and/or requirements which might lead to cost reductions. The general conclusion is that there is no single generic termination that is best suited for photovoltaic application, but that the appropriate termination is strongly dependent upon the module construction and its support structure as well as the specific application sector.

  13. Integral bypass diodes in an amorphous silicon alloy photovoltaic module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanak, J. J.; Flaisher, H.

    1991-01-01

    Thin-film, tandem-junction, amorphous silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic modules were constructed in which a part of the a-Si alloy cell material is used to form bypass protection diodes. This integral design circumvents the need for incorporating external, conventional diodes, thus simplifying the manufacturing process and reducing module weight.

  14. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2014: February 25-26, 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.

    2014-02-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  15. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2012: February 28 - March 1, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.

    2013-11-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  16. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2010: February 18-19, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, J.

    2013-11-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  17. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2013: February 26-27, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.

    2013-10-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  18. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2011: February 16-17, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.

    2013-11-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  19. Methodology for a reliability study on photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desombre, A.

    It is found that an assessment of the reliability of photovoltaic solar modules involves an analysis of the stresses encountered in use and of the failure mechanisms that depend on the design and manufacture of the module. It is stressed that research must be carried out on acceleration tests and on calculating acceleration factors for each method of manufacture and each environmental parameter.

  20. Cost effective flat plate photovoltaic modules using light trapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, C. N.; Gordon, B. A.; Knasel, T. M.; Malinowski, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Work in optical trapping in 'thick films' is described to form a design guide for photovoltaic engineers. A thick optical film can trap light by diffusive reflection and total internal reflection. Light can be propagated reasonably long distances compared with layer thicknesses by this technique. This makes it possible to conduct light from inter-cell and intra-cell areas now not used in photovoltaic modules onto active cell areas.

  1. 22. 7% efficient silicon photovoltaic modules with textured front surface

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, J.; Wang, A.; Campbell, P.; Green, M.A. . Photovoltaics Special Research Centre)

    1999-07-01

    This paper reports the highest ever independently confirmed efficiency for a photovoltaic module as demonstrated by two 778-cm[sup 2] silicon solar cell modules of 22.7% efficiency. A key feature of these modules was the use of a pyramidally textured top module surface to reduce reflection from this surface as well as from the underlying cell surface, by trapping light within the top cover sheet. Higher current density and higher energy conversion efficiency for such a textured module are theoretically predicted and experimentally measured compared to a standard module with a planar front surface. This advantage becomes more significant for obliquely incident light.

  2. Quantifying Solar Cell Cracks in Photovoltaic Modules by Electroluminescence Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso; Glick, Stephen; Kerekes, Tamas; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-06-14

    This article proposes a method for quantifying the percentage of partially and totally disconnected solar cell cracks by analyzing electroluminescence images of the photovoltaic module taken under high- and low-current forward bias. The method is based on the analysis of the module's electroluminescence intensity distribution, applied at module and cell level. These concepts are demonstrated on a crystalline silicon photovoltaic module that was subjected to several rounds of mechanical loading and humidity-freeze cycling, causing increasing levels of solar cell cracks. The proposed method can be used as a diagnostic tool to rate cell damage or quality of modules after transportation. Moreover, the method can be automated and used in quality control for module manufacturers, installers, or as a diagnostic tool by plant operators and diagnostic service providers.

  3. Multijunction Photovoltaic Technologies for High-Performance Concentrators

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.; Symko-Davies, M.

    2006-01-01

    Multijunction solar cells provide high-performance technology pathways leading to potentially low-cost electricity generated from concentrated sunlight. The National Center for Photovoltaics at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has funded different III-V multijunction solar cell technologies and various solar concentration approaches. Within this group of projects, III-V solar cell efficiencies of 41% are close at hand and will likely be reported in these conference proceedings. Companies with well-developed solar concentrator structures foresee installed system costs of $3/watt--half of today's costs--within the next 2 to 5 years as these high-efficiency photovoltaic technologies are incorporated into their concentrator photovoltaic systems. These technology improvements are timely as new large-scale multi-megawatt markets, appropriate for high performance PV concentrators, open around the world.

  4. Multijunction Photovoltaic Technologies for High-Performance Concentrators: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.; Symko-Davies, M.

    2006-05-01

    Multijunction solar cells provide high-performance technology pathways leading to potentially low-cost electricity generated from concentrated sunlight. The National Center for Photovoltaics at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has funded different III-V multijunction solar cell technologies and various solar concentration approaches. Within this group of projects, III-V solar cell efficiencies of 41% are close at hand and will likely be reported in these conference proceedings. Companies with well-developed solar concentrator structures foresee installed system costs of $3/watt--half of today's costs--within the next 2 to 5 years as these high-efficiency photovoltaic technologies are incorporated into their concentrator photovoltaic systems. These technology improvements are timely as new large-scale multi-megawatt markets, appropriate for high performance PV concentrators, open around the world.

  5. Reliability evaluation of a photovoltaic module using accelerated degradation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laronde, Rémi; Charki, Abdérafi; Bigaud, David; Excoffier, Philippe

    2011-09-01

    Many photovoltaic modules are installed all around the world. However, the reliability of this product is not enough really known. The electrical power decreases in time due mainly to corrosion, encapsulation discoloration and solder bond failure. The failure of a photovoltaic module is obtained when the electrical power degradation reaches a threshold value. Accelerated life tests are commonly used to estimate the reliability of the photovoltaic module. However, using accelerated life tests, few data on the failure of this product are obtained and the realization of this kind of tests is expensive. As a solution, an accelerated degradation test can be carried out using only one stress if parameters of the acceleration model are known. The Wiener process associated with the accelerated failure time model permits to carry out many simulations and to determine the failure time distribution when the threshold value is reached. So, the failure time distribution and the lifetime (mean and uncertainty) can be evaluated.

  6. Dense-array concentrator photovoltaic system using non-imaging dish concentrator and crossed compound parabolic concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Kok-Keong; Yew, Tiong-Keat; Wong, Chee-Woon; Tan, Ming-Hui; Tan, Woei-Chong; Lai, An-Chow; Lim, Boon-Han; Lau, Sing-Liong; Rahman, Faidz Abdul

    2015-04-01

    Solar concentrating device plays an important role by making use of optical technology in the design, which can be either reflector or lens to deliver high flux of sunlight onto the Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) module receiver ranging from hundreds to thousand suns. To be more competitive compared with fossil fuel, the current CPV systems using Fresnel lens and Parabolic dish as solar concentrator that are widely deployed in United States, Australia and Europe are facing great challenge to produce uniformly focused sunlight on the solar cells as to reduce the cost of electrical power generation. The concept of non-imaging optics is not new, but it has not fully explored by the researchers over the world especially in solving the problem of high concentration solar energy, which application is only limited to be a secondary focusing device or low concentration device using Compound Parabolic Concentrator. With the current advancement in the computer processing power, we has successfully invented the non-imaging dish concentrator (NIDC) using numerical simulation method to replace the current parabolic dish as primary focusing device with high solar concentration ratio (more than 400 suns) and large collective area (from 25 to 125 m2). In this paper, we disclose our research and development on dense array CPV system based on non-imaging optics. The geometry of the NIDC is determined using a special computational method. In addition, an array of secondary concentrators, namely crossed compound parabolic concentrators, is also proposed to further focus the concentrated sunlight by the NIDC onto active area of solar cells of the concentrator photovoltaic receiver. The invention maximizes the absorption of concentrated sunlight for the electric power generation system.

  7. Design of photovoltaic central power station concentrator array

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    A design for a photovoltaic central power station using tracking concentrators has been developed. The 100 MW plant is assumed to be located adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The design assumes an advanced Martin Marietta two-axis tracking fresnel lens concentrator. The concentrators are arrayed in 5 MW subfields, each with its own power conditioning unit. The photovoltaic plant output is connected to the existing 115 kV switchyard. The site specific design allows detailed cost estimates for engineering, site preparation, and installation. Collector and power conditioning costs have been treated parametrically.

  8. Durability of Polymeric Encapsulation Materials for Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. C.; Muller, M.; Kempe, M. D.; Araki, K.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-04-01

    Presented at the 7th International Conference on Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems (CPV-7), 4-6 April 2011, Las Vegas, Nevada. Many concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems use a polymeric encapsulant to couple an optical component and/or coverglass to the cell. In that location, the encapsulation improves the transmission of concentrated optical flux through interfaces(s) while protecting the cell from the environment. The durability of encapsulation materials, however, is not well established relative to the desired service life of 30 years. Therefore, we have initiated a screen test to identify the field-induced failure modes for a variety of popular PV encapsulation materials.

  9. Testing experience of photovoltaic modules for a multimegawatt power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Iliceto, A.; Previ, A.; Fleres, S.; Scuto, M.

    1994-12-31

    The planning of the 3,3 MWp photovoltaic power station of Serre (Salerno) required that ENEL performed a complete set of tests, both on the module types proposed by five pv module manufacturers (type test), and during the test sessions at manufacturer`s site on the batches of modules to be shipped to Serre (acceptance tests), and at the assembly line at Serre on the pv panels (on field tests). Type tests on modules were performed by JRC and CONPHOEBUS, module acceptance tests were performed by CONPHOEBUS and CISE, on field tests were performed by CONPHOEBUS. A list of the tests performed, and the most frequent defects encountered during the testing sessions will be shown in this paper. It is important to note that the aim of these notes is not to give a mark to any PV supplier, but only to put in evidence the actual state of the art of photovoltaic industry.

  10. Photovoltaic module mounting clip with integral grounding

    DOEpatents

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2010-08-24

    An electrically conductive mounting/grounding clip, usable with a photovoltaic (PV) assembly of the type having an electrically conductive frame, comprises an electrically conductive body. The body has a central portion and first and second spaced-apart arms extending from the central portion. Each arm has first and second outer portions with frame surface-disrupting element at the outer portions.

  11. Exploration of external light trapping for photovoltaic modules.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Lourens; van de Groep, Jorik; Di Vece, Marcel; Schropp, Ruud E I

    2016-07-11

    The reflection of incident sunlight by photovoltaic modules prevents them from reaching their theoretical energy conversion limit. We explore the effectiveness of a universal external light trap that can tackle this reflection loss. A unique feature of external light traps is their capability to simultaneously recycle various broadband sources of reflection on the module level, such as the reflection from the metal front grid, the front interfaces, the reflective backside of the cell, and the white back sheet. The reflected light is recycled in the space between the solar cell and a mirror above the solar cell. A concentrator funnels the light into this cage through a small aperture in the mirror. As a proof-of-principle experiment, a significant reflectance reduction of a bare crystalline silicon (c-Si) photodiode is demonstrated. In contrast to conventional light trapping methods, external light trapping does not induce any damage to the active solar cell material. Moreover, this is a universally applicable technology that enables the use of thin and planar solar cells of superior electrical quality that were so far hindered by limited optical absorption. We considered several trap designs and identified fabrication issues. A series of prototype millimeter-scale external metal light traps were milled and applied on an untextured c-Si photodiode, which is used as a model for future thin solar cells. We determined the concentrator transmittance and analyzed the effect of both the concentration factor and cage height on the absorptance and spatial intensity distribution on the surface of the solar cell. This relatively simple and comprehensive light management solution can be a promising candidate for highly efficient solar modules using thin c-Si solar cells. PMID:27410902

  12. Development of an advanced photovoltaic concentrator system for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.; Oneill, Mark J.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that significant increases in system performance (increased efficiency and reduced system mass) are possible for high power space based systems by incorporating technological developments with photovoltaic power systems. The Advanced Photovoltaic Concentrator Program is an effort to take advantage of recent advancements in refractive optical elements. By using a domed Fresnel lens concentrator and a prismatic cell cover, to eliminate metallization losses, dramatic reductions in the required area and mass over current space photovoltaic systems are possible. The advanced concentrator concept also has significant advantages when compared to solar dynamic Organic Rankine Cycle power systems in Low Earth Orbit applications where energy storage is required. The program is currently involved in the selection of a material for the optical element that will survive the space environment and a demonstration of the system performance of the panel design.

  13. Flight Experience from Space Photovoltaic Concentrator Arrays and its Implication on Terrestrial Concentrator Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Nearly all photovoltaic solar arrays flown in space have used a planar (non- concentrating) design. However, there have been a few notable exceptions where photovoltaic concentrators have been tested and used as the mission s primary power source. Among these are the success experienced by the SCARLET (Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology) concept used to power NASA's Deep Space 1 mission and the problems encountered by the original Boeing 702 reflective trough concentrator design. This presentation will give a brief overview of past photovoltaic concentrator systems that have flown in space, specifically addressing the valuable lessons learned from flight experience, and other viable concentrator concepts that are being proposed for the future. The general trends of this flight experience will be noted and discussed with regard to its implications on terrestrial photovoltaic concentrator designs.

  14. Reliability Issues for Photovoltaic Modules (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.

    2009-10-01

    Si modules good in field; new designs need reliability testing. CdTe & CIGS modules sensitive to moisture; carefully seal. CPV in product development stage; benefits from expertise in other industries.

  15. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF AMORPHOUS SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The life cycle design framework was applied to photovoltaic module design. The primary objective of this project was to develop and evaluate design metrics for assessing and guiding the Improvement of PV product systems. Two metrics were used to assess life cycle energy perform...

  16. Performance model assessment for multi-junction concentrating photovoltaic systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Riley, Daniel M.; McConnell, Robert.; Sahm, Aaron; Crawford, Clark; King, David L.; Cameron, Christopher P.; Foresi, James S.

    2010-03-01

    Four approaches to modeling multi-junction concentrating photovoltaic system performance are assessed by comparing modeled performance to measured performance. Measured weather, irradiance, and system performance data were collected on two systems over a one month period. Residual analysis is used to assess the models and to identify opportunities for model improvement. Large photovoltaic systems are typically developed as projects which supply electricity to a utility and are owned by independent power producers. Obtaining financing at favorable rates and attracting investors requires confidence in the projected energy yield from the plant. In this paper, various performance models for projecting annual energy yield from Concentrating Photovoltaic (CPV) systems are assessed by comparing measured system output to model predictions based on measured weather and irradiance data. The results are statistically analyzed to identify systematic error sources.

  17. Electrochemical aging effects in photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mon, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    Leakage currents were experimentally measured in PV modules undergoing natural aging outdoors, and in PV modules undergoing accelerated aging in laboratory environmental chambers. The significant contributors to module leakage current were identified with a long range goal to develop techniques to reduce or stop module leakage currents. For outdoor aging in general, module leakage current is relatively insensitive to temperature fluctuations, but is very sensitive to moisture effects such as dew, precipitation, and fluctuations in relative humidity. Comparing ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and polyvinyl butyral (PVB), module leakage currents are much higher in PVB as compared to EVA for all environmental conditions investigated. Leakage currents proceed in series along two paths, bulk conduction followed by interfacial (surfaces) conduction.

  18. Photovoltaic module mounting clip with integral grounding

    DOEpatents

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2008-10-14

    An electrically conductive mounting/grounding clip, for use with a photovoltaic assembly of the type having an electrically conductive frame, comprises an electrically conductive body. The body has a central portion and first and second spaced-apart arms extending generally perpendicular to the central portion. Each arm has an outer portion with each outer portion having an outer end. At least one frame surface-disrupting element is at each outer end. The central portion defines a plane with the frame surface-disrupting elements pointing towards the plane. In some examples each arm extends from the central portion at an acute angle to the plane.

  19. Photovoltaic module energy rating methodology development

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.; Myers, D.; Emery, K.; Mrig, L.; Whitaker, C.; Newmiller, J.

    1996-05-01

    A consensus-based methodology to calculate the energy output of a PV module will be described in this paper. The methodology develops a simple measure of PV module performance that provides for a realistic estimate of how a module will perform in specific applications. The approach makes use of the weather data profiles that describe conditions throughout the United States and emphasizes performance differences between various module types. An industry-representative Technical Review Committee has been assembled to provide feedback and guidance on the strawman and final approach used in developing the methodology.

  20. Conceptual design for a high-concentration (500X) photovoltaic array

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.L.

    1984-12-01

    A conceptual design of a high concentration photovoltaic (PV) array using the Stanford/EPRI 500X silicon cell is presented. Work objectives were the following: to identify an array concept with promise for economic viability; to develop preliminary component (subsystem) designs for such an array; and to identify key component developmental issues. The design criterion was minimum levelized busbar energy cost, BBEC. Design trade studies were based on variation of subsystem costs and a 15 cent/kWh (current dollars) target for BBEC. Subsystems design included the tracking support structure and the PV module. The module includes the Fresnel lens parquet, the cell package, the backplate heat rejector, and the module housing. Estimated cost for the array is near the range of allowed costs established by BBEC target and balance-of-system cost estimates reported in Integrated Photovoltaic Central Station Conceptual Designs, EPRI AP-3264.

  1. Economic Feasibility of Recycling Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J.K.; Fthenakis, V.

    2010-12-01

    The market for photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation has boomed over the last decade, and its expansion is expected to continue with the development of new technologies. Taking into consideration the usage of valuable resources and the generation of emissions in the life cycle of photovoltaic technologies dictates proactive planning for a sound PV recycling infrastructure to ensure its sustainability. PV is expected to be a 'green' technology, and properly planning for recycling will offer the opportunity to make it a 'double-green' technology - that is, enhancing life cycle environmental quality. In addition, economic feasibility and a sufficient level of value-added opportunity must be ensured, to stimulate a recycling industry. In this article, we survey mathematical models of the infrastructure of recycling processes of other products and identify the challenges for setting up an efficient one for PV. Then we present an operational model for an actual recycling process of a thin-film PV technology. We found that for the case examined with our model, some of the scenarios indicate profitable recycling, whereas in other scenarios it is unprofitable. Scenario SC4, which represents the most favorable scenario by considering the lower bounds of all costs and the upper bound of all revenues, produces a monthly profit of $107,000, whereas the least favorable scenario incurs a monthly loss of $151,000. Our intent is to extend the model as a foundation for developing a framework for building a generalized model for current-PV and future-PV technologies.

  2. Performance model assessment for multi-junction concentrating photovoltaic systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Daniel M.; McConnell, Robert.; Sahm, Aaron; Crawford, Clark; King, David L.; Cameron, Christopher P.; Foresi, James S.

    2010-03-01

    Four approaches to modeling multi-junction concentrating photovoltaic system performance are assessed by comparing modeled performance to measured performance. Measured weather, irradiance, and system performance data were collected on two systems over a one month period. Residual analysis is used to assess the models and to identify opportunities for model improvement.

  3. Photovoltaic module encapsulation design and materials selection, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E.; Carroll, W.; Coulbert, C.; Gupta, A.; Liang, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    Encapsulation material system requirements, material selection criteria, and the status and properties of encapsulation materials and processes available are presented. Technical and economic goals established for photovoltaic modules and encapsulation systems and their status are described. Available encapsulation technology and data are presented to facilitate design and material selection for silicon flat plate photovoltaic modules, using the best materials available and processes optimized for specific power applications and geographic sites. The operational and environmental loads that encapsulation system functional requirements and candidate design concepts and materials that are identified to have the best potential to meet the cost and performance goals for the flat plate solar array project are described. Available data on encapsulant material properties, fabrication processing, and module life and durability characteristics are presented.

  4. Designing a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) system in adjunct with a silicon photovoltaic panel for a solar competition car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias-Rosales, Andrés.; Barrera-Velásquez, Jorge; Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Mejía-Gutiérrez, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    Solar competition cars are a very interesting research laboratory for the development of new technologies heading to their further implementation in either commercial passenger vehicles or related applications. Besides, worldwide competitions allow the spreading of such ideas where the best and experienced teams bet on innovation and leading edge technologies, in order to develop more efficient vehicles. In these vehicles, some aspects generally make the difference such as aerodynamics, shape, weight, wheels and the main solar panels. Therefore, seeking to innovate in a competitive advantage, the first Colombian solar vehicle "Primavera", competitor at the World Solar Challenge (WSC)-2013, has implemented the usage of a Concentrating Photovoltaic (CPV) system as a complementary solar energy module to the common silicon photovoltaic panel. By harvesting sunlight with concentrating optical devices, CPVs are capable of maximizing the allowable photovoltaic area. However, the entire CPV system weight must be less harmful than the benefit of the extra electric energy generated, which in adjunct with added manufacture and design complexity, has intervened in the fact that CPVs had never been implemented in a solar car in such a scale as the one described in this work. Design considerations, the system development process and implementation are presented in this document considering both the restrictions of the context and the interaction of the CPV system with the solar car setup. The measured data evidences the advantage of using this complementary system during the competition and the potential this technology has for further developments.

  5. Temperature dependence of photovoltaic cells, modules, and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, K.; Burdick, J.; Caiyem, Y.

    1996-05-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) cells and modules are often rated in terms of a set of standard reporting conditions defined by a temperature, spectral irradiance, and total irradiance. Because PV devices operates over a wide range of temperatures and irradiances, the temperature and irradiance related behavior must be known. This paper surveys the temperature dependence of crystalline and thin-film, state-of-the-art, research-size cells, modules, and systems measured by a variety of methods. The various error sources and measurement methods that contribute to cause differences in the temperature coefficient for a given cell or module measured with various methods are discussed.

  6. Stretched Lens Array Photovoltaic Concentrator Technology Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.; O'Neill, Mark J.

    2004-01-01

    Solar arrays have been and continue to be the mainstay in providing power to nearly all commercial and government spacecraft. Light from the Sun is directly converted into electrical energy using solar cells. One way to reduce the cost of future space power systems is by minimizing the size and number of expensive solar cells by focusing the sunlight onto smaller cells using concentrator optics. The stretched lens array (SLA) is a unique concept that uses arched Fresnel lens concentrators to focus sunlight onto a line of high-efficiency solar cells located directly beneath. The SLA concept is based on the Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology (SCARLET) design that was used on NASA's New Millennium Deep Space 1 mission. The highly successful asteroid/comet rendezvous mission (1998 to 2001) demonstrated the performance and long-term durability of the SCARLET/SLA solar array design and set the foundation for further improvements to optimize its performance.

  7. Mini-dome Fresnel lens photovoltaic concentrator development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, Mark J.; Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Since 1986 work on a new high-performance, light-weight space photovoltaic concentration array has been conducted. An update on the mini-dome lens concentrator array development program is provided. Recent prototype cell and lens test results indicate that near-term array performance goals of 300 w/sq m and 100 w/kg are feasible, and that a longer-term goal of 200 w/kg is reasonable.

  8. Design and development of a high-concentration and high-efficiency photovoltaic concentrator using a curved Fresnel lens

    SciTech Connect

    Scharlack, R.S.; Moffat, A.

    1983-08-01

    Thermo Electron has designed a high concentration photovoltaic module that uses a domed, point-focus Fresnel lens. Their design, design optimization process, and results from lens and receiver tests are described in this report. A complete module has not been fabricated and probably will not be fabricated in the future; however, Thermo Electron's optical design, analysis, and testing of both secondary optical units and domed Fresnel lenses have made a significant contribution to our project. Tooling errors prevented the lens from reaching its potential efficiency by the end of the contract, and resolution of these tooling problems is currently being attempted with a follow-on contract, No. 68-9463.

  9. Hermetic edge sealing of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The edge sealing technique is accomplished by a combination of a chemical bond between glass and aluminum, formed by electrostatic bonding, and a metallurgical bond between aluminum and aluminum, formed by ultrasonic welding. Such a glass to metal seal promises to provide a low cost, long lifetime, highly effective hermetic seal which can protect module components from severe environments. Development of the sealing techniques and demonstration of their effectiveness by fabricating a small number of dummy modules, up to eight inches square in size, and testing them for hermeticity using helium leak testing methods are reviewed. Non-destructive test methods are investigated.

  10. The research on thermal adaptability reinforcement technology for photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Nana; Zhou, Guozhong

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays, Photovoltaic module contains more high-performance components in smaller space. It is also demanded to work in severe temperature condition for special use, such as aerospace. As temperature rises, the failure rate will increase exponentially which makes reliability significantly reduce. In order to improve thermal adaptability of photovoltaic module, this paper makes a research on reinforcement technologies. Thermoelectric cooler is widely used in aerospace which has harsh working environment. So, theoretical formulas for computing refrigerating efficiency, refrigerating capacity and temperature difference are described in detail. The optimum operating current of three classical working condition is obtained which can be used to guide the design of driven circuit. Taken some equipment enclosure for example, we use thermoelectric cooler to reinforce its thermal adaptability. By building physical model and thermal model with the aid of physical dimension and constraint condition, the model is simulated by Flotherm. The temperature field cloud is shown to verify the effectiveness of reinforcement.

  11. Interconnect fatigue design for terrestrial photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Mon, G. R.; Moore, D. M.; Ross, Jr., R. G.

    1982-03-01

    Fatigue of solar cell electrical interconnects due to thermal cycling has historically been a major failure mechanism in photovoltaic arrays; the results of a comprehensive investigation of interconnect fatigue that has led to the definition of useful reliability-design and life-prediction algorithms are presented. Experimental data gathered in this study indicate that the classical strain-cycle (fatigue) curve for the interconnect material is a good model of mean interconnect fatigue performance, but it fails to account for the broad statistical scatter, which is critical to reliability prediction. To fill this shortcoming the classical fatigue curve is combined with experimental cumulative interconnect failure rate data to yield statistical fatigue curves (having failure probability as a parameter) which enable: (1) the prediction of cumulative interconnect failures during the design life of an array field; and (2) the unambiguous - i.e., quantitative - interpretation of data from field-service qualification (accelerated thermal cycling) tests. Optimal interconnect cost-reliability design algorithms are derived based on minimizing the cost of energy over the design life of the array field. This procedure yields not only the minimum break-even cost of delivered energy, but also the required degree of interconnect redundancy and an estimate of array power degradation during the design life of the array field. The usefulness of the design algorithms is demonstrated with realistic examples of design optimization, prediction, and service qualification testing.

  12. Lightweight photovoltaic module development for unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Nowlan, M.J.; Maglitta, J.C.; Lamp, T.R.

    1998-07-01

    Lightweight photovoltaic modules are being developed for powering high altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Terrestrial crystalline silicon solar cell and module technologies are being applied to minimize module cost, with modifications to improve module specific power (W/kg) and power density (W/m{sup 2}). New module processes are being developed for assembling standard thickness (320 mm) and thin (125 mm) solar cells, thin (50 to 100 mm) encapsulant films, and thin (25 mm) cover films. In comparison, typical terrestrial modules use 300 to 400 mm thick solar cells, 460 mm thick encapsulants, and 3.2 mm thick glass covers. The use of thin, lightweight materials allows the fabrication of modules with specific powers ranging from 120 to 200 W/kg, depending on cell thickness and efficiency, compared to 15 W/kg or less for conventional terrestrial modules. High efficiency designs based on ultra-thin (5 mm) GaAs cells have also been developed, with the potential for achieving substantially higher specific powers. Initial design, development, and module assembly work is completed. Prototype modules were fabricated in sizes up to 45 cm x 99 cm. Module materials and processes are being evaluated through accelerated environmental testing, including thermal cycling, humidity-freeze cycling, mechanical cycling, and exposure to UV and visible light.

  13. 77 FR 4764 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... Preliminary Determination in the Countervailing Duty Investigation, 76 FR 81914 (December 29, 2011... International Trade Administration Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules... duty investigation of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not assembled into...

  14. 77 FR 73017 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... Determination and Final Affirmative Critical Circumstances Determination, 77 FR 63788 (October 17, 2012). Scope... International Trade Administration Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules... issuing a countervailing duty order on crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not...

  15. Overview of photovoltaic module reliability testing at NREL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdick, Joseph; Pruett, Jim

    1994-06-01

    The goals of the photovoltaic module reliability testing program at NREL include working with PV manufacturers to improve the long-term reliability of their modules, as well as obtaining an understanding of the correlation between indoor (accelerated) testing and outdoor (natural) exposure in order to reasonably predict PV module service lifetime. In addition, when problems occur, it is important to perform accurate failure analysis techniques to determine failure mechanisms, and, hopefully, obtain realistic solutions. At NREL, we have developed both indoor and outdoor module reliability testing programs to investigate these various, complex issues. These programs involve module qualification testing, photostability studies, accelerated weathering, and outdoor, real-time exposure testing. An overview of these various ongoing programs, their goals, approaches, and methods, will be presented here.

  16. Performance optimization of dense-array concentrator photovoltaic system considering effects of circumsolar radiation and slope error.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chee-Woon; Chong, Kok-Keong; Tan, Ming-Hui

    2015-07-27

    This paper presents an approach to optimize the electrical performance of dense-array concentrator photovoltaic system comprised of non-imaging dish concentrator by considering the circumsolar radiation and slope error effects. Based on the simulated flux distribution, a systematic methodology to optimize the layout configuration of solar cells interconnection circuit in dense array concentrator photovoltaic module has been proposed by minimizing the current mismatch caused by non-uniformity of concentrated sunlight. An optimized layout of interconnection solar cells circuit with minimum electrical power loss of 6.5% can be achieved by minimizing the effects of both circumsolar radiation and slope error. PMID:26367685

  17. Electrical characterization of electrophoretically coated aluminum samples for photovoltaic concentrator application

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimura, R.S.; Mon, G.R.; Ross, R.G. Jr.

    1992-10-01

    The practicality of using a thin-film styrene/acrylate copolymer electrophoretic coating to isolate concentrator cells electrically from their surroundings in a photovoltaic concentrator module is assessed. Only the electrical isolation problem was investigated. The approach was to subject various types of EP-coated aluminum specimens to electrical stress testing and to aging tests while monitoring coating electrical resistivity properties. It was determined that, in general, longer processing times--i.e., thicker electrophoretic layers--resulted in better voltage-withstand properties. In particular, a two-minute processing time seemed sufficient to provide the electrical isolation required in photovoltaic concentrator application applications. Even though electrophoretic coatings did not seem to fill voids in porous-anodized aluminum substrates, breakdown voltages generally exceeded hi-pot pass-fail voltage levels with a comfortable margin. 6 refs, 11 figs, 5 tabs.

  18. Design and economics of a photovoltaic concentrator array for off-grid applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maish, A. B.; Rios, M., Jr.

    1982-09-01

    The array design and expected operation of a photovoltaic concentrator are discussed. A second generation stand alone 680 W/sub p/ photovoltaic (PV) concentrating array for low power, nongrid connected applications was designed. The array consists of six passive cooled point focus Fresnel lens concentrating modules on a two axis polar mount tracking structure. The new array design incorporates several major improvements to the first generation design. These include 50% more array area and a control system which allows unattended, fully automatic operation. The life cycle energy costs are calculated and compared to the equivalent energy costs of a 3 kW diesel electric generator set and an equivalent flat panel PV system.

  19. Strategies for recycling CdTe photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberspacher, Chris; Gay, Charles F.; Moskowitz, Paul D.

    1994-12-01

    Recycling end-of-life cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic (PV) modules may enhance the competitive advantage of CdTe PV in the marketplace, but the experiences of industries with comparable Environmental, Health and Safety (EH&S) challenges suggest that collection and recycling costs can impose significant economic burdens. Customer cooperation and pending changes to US Federal law may improve recycling economics.

  20. Photovoltaic module soiling studies, May 1978-October 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, A.R.; Maag, C.R.

    1980-11-01

    The retention of particulate contamination on the surface of flat-plate photovoltaic devices is adversely affecting electrical performance of outdoor-exposed modules. The results of an experimental study being performed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Low-Cost Solar Array Project to characterize and understand the effects of outdoor contaminants on sensitive optical surfaces of flat-plate photovoltaic modules and cover materials are described. Comparative electrical and optical performance data from photovoltaic modules and materials subjected to outdoor exposure at field test sites throughout the United States have been collected and examined. The results show significant time- and site-dependence. During periods when natural removal processes do not dominate, the rate of particulate contamination accumulation appears to be largely material-independent. The effectiveness of natural removal processes, especially rain, is strongly material-dependent. Glass and acrylic top-cover materials retain fewer particles than silicone rubber does. Side-by-side outdoor exposure testing for long duration is presently the most effective means of evaluating soiling differences between materials. Changes in spectral transmission as a function of time and location and limited scattering data are presented.

  1. Periodically multilayered planar optical concentrator for photovoltaic solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Solano, Manuel E.; Monk, Peter B.; Faryad, Muhammad; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Mallouk, Thomas E.

    2013-11-04

    A planar optical concentrator comprising a periodic multilayered isotropic dielectric material backed by a metallic surface-relief grating was theoretically examined for silicon photovoltaics. The concentrator was optimized using a differential evolution algorithm for solar-spectrum-integrated power-flux density. Further optimization was carried out for tolerance to variations in the incidence angle, spatial dimensions, and dielectric properties. The average electron-hole pair density in a silicon solar cell can be doubled, and the material costs substantially diminished by this concentrator, whose efficacy is due to the excitation of waveguide modes and multiple surface-plasmon-polariton waves in a broad spectral regime.

  2. Periodically multilayered planar optical concentrator for photovoltaic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, Manuel E.; Faryad, Muhammad; Monk, Peter B.; Mallouk, Thomas E.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2013-11-01

    A planar optical concentrator comprising a periodic multilayered isotropic dielectric material backed by a metallic surface-relief grating was theoretically examined for silicon photovoltaics. The concentrator was optimized using a differential evolution algorithm for solar-spectrum-integrated power-flux density. Further optimization was carried out for tolerance to variations in the incidence angle, spatial dimensions, and dielectric properties. The average electron-hole pair density in a silicon solar cell can be doubled, and the material costs substantially diminished by this concentrator, whose efficacy is due to the excitation of waveguide modes and multiple surface-plasmon-polariton waves in a broad spectral regime.

  3. High efficiency solar photovoltaic power module concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekey, I.

    1978-01-01

    The investigation of a preliminary concept for high efficiency solar power generation in space is presented. The concept was a synergistic combination of spectral splitting, tailored bandgap cells, high concentration ratios, and cool cell areas.

  4. Photovoltaic-module encapsulation design and materials selection: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cuddihy, E.; Carroll, W.; Coulbert, C.; Gupta, A.; Liang, R.

    1982-06-01

    Encapsulation-material system requirements, material-selection criteria, and the status and properties of encapsulation materials and processes available to the module manufacturer are presented in detail. Technical and economic goals established for photovoltaic modules and encapsulation systems and their status are described for material suppliers to assist them in assessing the suitability of materials in their product lines and the potential of new-material products. A comprehensive discussion of available encapsulation technology and data is presented to facilitate design and material selection for silicon flat-plate photovoltaic modules, using the best materials available and processes optimized for specific power applications and geographic sites. A basis is provided for specifying the operational and environmental loads that encapsulation material systems must resist. Potential deployment sites for which cost effectiveness may be achieved at a module price much greater than $0.70/W/sub p/, are also considered; data on higher-cost encapsulant materials and processes that may be in use and other material candidates that may be justified for special application are discussed. Described are encapsulation-system functional requirements and candidate design concepts and materials that have been identified and analyzed as having the best potential to meet the cost and performance goals for the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project. The available data on encapsulant material properties, fabrication processing, and module life and durability characteristics are presented.

  5. Cost Analysis of a Concentrator Photovoltaic Hydrogen Production System

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J. R.; McConnell, R. D.; Mosleh, M.

    2005-08-01

    The development of efficient, renewable methods of producing hydrogen are essential for the success of the hydrogen economy. Since the feedstock for electrolysis is water, there are no harmful pollutants emitted during the use of the fuel. Furthermore, it has become evident that concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) systems have a number of unique attributes that could shortcut the development process, and increase the efficiency of hydrogen production to a point where economics will then drive the commercial development to mass scale.

  6. Hermetic edge sealing of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowlan, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of using an electrostatic bonding (ESB) and ultrasonic welding process to produce hermetic edge seals on terrestrial solar cell modules was investigated. The fabrication sequence is to attach an aluminum foil "gasket' to the perimeter of a glass sheet. A cell circuit is next encapsulated inside the gasket, and its aluminum foil back cover is seam welded ultrasonically to the gasket. An ESB process for sealing aluminum to glass was developed in an ambient air atmosphere, which eliminates the requirement for a vacuum or pressure vessel. An ultrasonic seam welding process was also developed which did not degrade the quality of the ESB seal. Good quality welds with minimal deformation were produced. The effectiveness of the above described sealing techniques was tested by constructing 400 sq cm (8 x 8 s64 sq in) sample modules, and then subjecting them to nondestructive fine and gross leak tests. The gross leak tests identified several different causes of leaks which were then eliminated by modifying the assembly process.

  7. Basic Application Technologies of Bifacial Photovoltaic Solar Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joge, Toshio; Eguchi, Yoshio; Imazu, Yasuhiro; Araki, Ichiro; Uematsu, Tsuyoshi; Matsukuma, Kunihiro

    In order to realize a photovoltaic(PV) solar power system which is low cost and flexible on its installation, authors have studied on vertical installations of bifacial solar modules. Simulation studies and field tests were made to evaluate daily and yearly output energies when bifacial modules are vertically installed with various azimuth angles. It is clarified that the yearly generated energies by a vertically installed bifacial module is equivalent to that of a mono-facial module faced to the south with an optimum tilt, regardless the azimuth angles. According with the above results, some applications have been successfully demonstrated including a fence-integrated PV system and a pole mounted PV system.

  8. An array of directable mirrors as a photovoltaic solar concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ittner, W. B., III

    1980-01-01

    Calculations of the optics of heliostats for use in large thermal power towers have been carried out in considerable detail, chiefly by Vant-Hull et al. This paper describes a simplified method for calculating the images generated by a special type of concentrator, i.e. an array of independently steered mirrors on a single frame, intended to direct the solar image onto a flat photovoltaic solar cell target. The case of interest is one in which the field of illumination on the target is as uniform as possible, and the emphasis is thus on small 'rim angle' geometries (a configuration which also minimizes mirror interference effects). Calculations are presented for constructing the individual mirror target images in terms of three angles: (1) the angle between the photovoltaic target normal and the reflecting mirror (called here the mirror position angle), (2) the angle between the target center and the sun as measured from the center of the reflecting mirror, and (3) the angle at which the plane defined by the center of the sun, the mirror center and the target center intersects the plane of the target. The overall system efficiency for various mirror configurations, characterized by such parameters as the maximum mirror angle (i.e. 'rim angle'), target-mirror plane separation, and mirror aiming accuracy is discussed in terms of the specifications desirable in an optical concentrator designed specifically to illuminate uniformly a photovoltaic solar cell target.

  9. Generating Hydrogen through Water Electrolysis using Concentrator Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.; Thompson, J.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen can be an important element in reducing global climate change if the feedstock and process to produce the hydrogen are carbon free. Using nuclear energy to power a high temperature water electrolysis process meets these constraints while another uses heat and electricity from solar electric concentrators. Nuclear researchers have estimated the cost of hydrogen generated in this fashion and we will compare their estimates with those we have made for generating hydrogen using electricity and waste heat from a dish concentrator photovoltaic system. The conclusion is that the costs are comparable and low enough to compete with gasoline costs in the not too distant future.

  10. A data science approach to understanding photovoltaic module degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Nicholas R.; Gok, Abdulkerim; Peshek, Timothy J.; Bruckman, Laura S.; Goel, Nikhil; Zabiyaka, Davis; Fagerholm, Cara L.; Dang, Thomas; Alcantara, Christopher; Terry, Mason L.; French, Roger H.

    2015-09-01

    The expected lifetime performance and degradation of photovoltaic (PV) modules is a major issue facing the levelized cost of electricity of PV as a competitive energy source. Studies that quantify the rates and mechanisms of performance degradation are needed not only for bankability and adoption of these promising technologies, but also for the diagnosis and improvement of their mechanistic degradation pathways. Towards this goal, a generalizable approach to degradation science studies utilizing data science principles has been developed and applied to c-Si PV modules. By combining domain knowledge and data derived insights, mechanistic degradation pathways are indicated that link environmental stressors to the degradation of PV module performance characteristics. Targeted studies guided by these results have yielded predictive equations describing rates of degradation, and further studies are underway to achieve this for additional mechanistic pathways of interest.

  11. Two terminal diagnostics for cells in series connected photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, T.J.; Basso, T.S.

    1995-11-01

    The authors have developed a method that allows us to know if a cell`s shunt resistance is affecting the output of a two-terminal, series-connected photovoltaic module, without the need of encapsulation. This two-terminal diagnostic method directly measures the shunt resistance of the individual cells within a series-connected module non-intrusively. Being a phase sensitive, lock-in technique, individual cell shunt resistance values are measured over a wide range, from a fraction of an ohm to thousands of ohms. The authors have applied this method to amorphous Si, Si and CuInSe{sub 2}-based modules, some with as few as eight cells in series, but usually with 28 to 68 cells. ``Two-terminal values`` are more accurate for cells that have lower shunt resistance, i.e., the ``problem`` cells. Cells with visual defects may be a significant problem if they provide a substantial shunt path.

  12. Sequential and combined acceleration tests for crystalline Si photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Chizuko; Uchiyama, Naomi; Ueno, Kiyoshi; Yamazaki, Toshiharu; Mitsuhashi, Kazunari; Tsutsumida, Akihiro; Watanabe, Jyunichi; Shirataki, Jyunko; Matsuda, Keiko

    2016-04-01

    The sequential combination test for photovoltaic modules is effective for accelerating degradation to shorten the test time and for reproducing degradation phenomena observed in modules exposed outdoors for a long time. The damp-heat (DH) test, thermal-cycle (TC) test, humidity-freeze (HF) test or dynamic mechanical load (DML) test is combined for the test modules. It was confirmed that chemical corrosion degradation or physical mechanical degradation is reproduced by the combination of the above tests. Cracks on the back sheet and delamination, often observed upon outdoor exposure, were well reproduced by the combination of DH and TC tests and TC and HF tests, respectively. Sequential DH and TC tests and DML and TC tests accelerated the degradation. These sequential tests are expected to be effective in reducing the required time of indoor testing for ensuring long-term reliability.

  13. Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module design status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jimenez, Amador P.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    Electric power generation for the Space Station Freedom will be provided by four photovoltaic (PV) power modules using silicon solar cells during phase I operation. Each PV power module requires two solar arrays with 32,800 solar cells generating 18.75 kW of dc power for a total of 75 kW. A portion of this power will be stored in nickel-hydrogen batteries for use during eclipse, and the balance will be processed and converted to 20 kHz ac power for distribution to end users through the power management and distribution system. The design incorporates an optimized thermal control system, pointing and tracking provision with the application of gimbals, and the use of orbital replacement units to achieve modularization. The design status of the PV power module, as derived from major trade studies, is discussed at hardware levels ranging from component to system. Details of the design are presented where appropriate.

  14. Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module design status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jimenez, Amador P.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    Electric power generation for Space Station Freedom will be provided by four photovoltaic (PV) power modules using silicon solar cells during Phase 1 operation. Each PV power module requires two solar arrays with 32,800 solar cells generating 18.75 kW of dc power for a total of 75 kW. A portion of this power will be stored in nickel-hydrogen batteries for use during eclipse, and the balance will be processed and converted to 20 kHz ac power for distribution to end users through the power management and distribution system. The design incorporates an optimized thermal control system, pointing and tracking provision with the application of gimbals, and the use of orbital replacement units (ORU's) to achieve modularization. Design status of the PV power module, as derived from major trade studies, is discussed at hardware levels ranging from component to system. Details of the design are presented where appropriate.

  15. Photovoltaic module certification and laboratory accreditation criteria development

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, C.R.; Hammond, R.; Zerlaut, G.; D`Aiello, R.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of a model product certification and test laboratory accreditation program for photovoltaic (PV) modules that was recently developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Arizona State University. The specific objectives of this project was to produce a document that details the equipment, facilities, quality assurance procedures, and technical expertise an accredited laboratory needs for performance and qualification testing of PV modules, along with the specific tests needed for a module design to be certified. Development of the document was done in conjunction with a criteria development committee consisting of representatives from 30 US PV manufacturers, end users, standards and codes organizations, and testing laboratories. The intent is to lay the groundwork for a future US PV certification and accreditation program that will be beneficial to the PV industry as a whole.

  16. Terrestrial concentrator solar cell module

    SciTech Connect

    Fraas, L.M.; Mansoori, N.; Kim, N.B.; Avery, J.E.

    1992-06-02

    This patent describes a solar cell module having a plurality of discrete cell units wherein each cell unit constitutes a tandem cell comprising an upper cell of a first semiconductive material and a lower cell of a second semiconductive material. It comprises a housing having a base and an upper portion; primary outer lens elements supported by the housing upper portion; a secondary radiant energy concentrating element associated with each primary lens element for protecting the carrier tape against incident light; each of the solar cell units being thermally coupled to the base; and parallel spaced strips of conductive material carried by the tape with means for separately connecting the strips to predetermined contact surfaces of the upper and lower cells of each cell unit.

  17. Launch packaging options for the photovoltaic power module cargo element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoberecht, Mark A.; Vogt, Scott T.

    1989-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration recently embarked on the Space Station Freedom program, which will utilize the Shuttle Orbiter for transportation to orbit. This task will be accomplished with a number of flights over several years. Each flight is unique in terms of the hardware that is manifested and the method by which it is integrated to form viable cargo elements. Work Package 4 is responsible for the electric power system for Space Station Freedom, and was delegated the authority to develop a photovoltaic (PV) power module cargo element. The PV power module consists of several unique assemblies. The first of these is the combined solar array/beta gimbal assembly. The remaining assemblies form the single combined integrated equipment assembly for each PV power module. These three combined assemblies are packaged into a launch cradle to form the PV power module cargo element, which is placed in the cargo bay of the Shuttle Orbiter for transportation to orbit. Various constraints determine the packaging options for the three PV power module combined assemblies. The size and shape of the combined assemblies in relation to the Shuttle Orbiter cargo bay dimensions and other manifested hardware are ultimately a factor in determining the acceptable packaging schemes for the PV power module cargo element. Several packaging options for the PV power module cargo element are presented. These options are discussed in terms of their impact on the overall flight hardware manifest as determined by the various constraints.

  18. Review of Photovoltaic Energy Production Using Thin Film Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessert, Timothy

    2011-04-01

    It is now widely accepted that thin-film photovoltaic (PV) devices will be important contributors of new US electricity generation. The annual production of PV devices needed to meet conservative U.S. Department of Energy goals for 2050 represents ˜100 square miles of active module area (20 GW), or ˜200 times the total area of photovoltaic modules installed in the US by 2004. However, if the rate of growth observed in PV module production for the past eight years continues, 100 square miles of annual US PV production could be achieved as early as 2018. Further, the amount PV installed by 2036 could generate the entire 2004 US Total Energy Consumption (˜100 Quadrillion BTU's, i.e., the combined energy consumed in the US from petroleum, coal, natural gas, nuclear, and all renewable sources). Regardless of what assumptions are made, PV represents a significant future market for related materials and technologies. This talk will discuss thin-film PV devices within the context of the major PV technologies in production today, and indicate areas where improved material and device understanding would be beneficial. This work was performed with the support of US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308. This abstract is subject to government rights.

  19. Photovoltaic module encapsulation design and materials selection. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Cuddihy, E.

    1984-06-01

    This is Volume II of Photovoltaic Module Encapsulation Design and Materials Selection: a periodically updated handbook of encapsulation technology, developed with the support of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project (FSA), managed for the Department of Energy (DOE) by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Volume II describes FSA encapsulation technology developed between June 1, 1982, and January 1, 1984. Emphasis during this period shifted from materials development to demonstration of reliability and durability in an outdoor environment; the updated information in this volume reflects the developing technology base related to both reliability and encapsulation process improvements.

  20. Thermal control system for Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacha, Thomas H.; Howard, Laura

    1994-01-01

    The electric power for Space Station Freedom (SSF) is generated by the solar arrays of the photovoltaic power modules (PVM's) and conditioned, controlled, and distributed by a power management and distribution system. The PVM's are located outboard of the alpha gimbals of SSF. A single-phase thermal control system is being developed to provide thermal control of PVM electrical equipment and energy storage batteries. This system uses ammonia as the coolant and a direct-flow deployable radiator. The description and development status of the PVM thermal control system is presented.

  1. Thermal control system for Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacha, Thomas H.; Howard, Laura S.

    1992-01-01

    The electric power for Space Station Freedom (SSF) is generated by the solar arrays of the photovoltaic power modules (PVM's) and conditioned, controlled, and distributed by a power management and distribution system. The PVM's are located outboard of the alpha gimbals of SSF. A single-phase thermal control system is being developed to provide thermal control of PVM electrical equipment and energy storage batteries. This system uses ammonia as the coolant and a direct-flow deployable radiator. This paper presents the description and development status of the PVM thermal control system.

  2. Photothermal characterization of encapsulant materials for photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, R. H.; Gupta, A.; Distefano, S.

    1982-01-01

    A photothermal test matrix and a low cost testing apparatus for encapsulant materials of photovoltaic modules were defined. Photothermal studies were conducted to screen and rank existing as well as future encapsulant candidate materials and/or material formulations in terms of their long term physiochemical stability under accelerated photothermal aging conditions. Photothermal characterization of six candidate pottant materials and six candidate outer cover materials were carried out. Principal products of photothermal degradation are identified. Certain critical properties are also monitored as a function of photothermal aging.

  3. Model institutional infrastructures for recycling of photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Reaven, S.J.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.

    1996-01-01

    How will photovoltaic modules (PVMS) be recycled at the end of their service lives? This question has technological and institutional components (Reaven, 1994a). The technological aspect concerns the physical means of recycling: what advantages and disadvantages of the several existing and emerging mechanical, thermal, and chemical recycling processes and facilities merit consideration? The institutional dimension refers to the arrangements for recycling: what are the operational and financial roles of the parties with an interest in PVM recycling? These parties include PVM manufacturers, trade organizations; distributors, and retailers; residential, commercial, and utility PVM users; waste collectors, transporters, reclaimers, and reclaimers; and governments.

  4. Photovoltaic module certification/laboratory accreditation criteria development

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, C.R.; Hammond, R.L.; Wood, B.D.; Backus, C.E.; Sears, R.L.; Zerlaut, G.A.; D`Aiello, R.V.

    1995-04-01

    This document provides an overview of the structure and function of typical product certification/laboratory accreditation programs. The overview is followed by a model program which could serve as the basis for a photovoltaic (PV) module certification/laboratory accreditation program. The model covers quality assurance procedures for the testing laboratory and manufacturer, third-party certification and labeling, and testing requirements (performance and reliability). A 30-member Criteria Development Committee was established to guide, review, and reach a majority consensus regarding criteria for a PV certification/laboratory accreditation program. Committee members represented PV manufacturers, end users, standards and codes organizations, and testing laboratories.

  5. High Throughput, Continuous, Mass Production of Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt Barth

    2008-02-06

    AVA Solar has developed a very low cost solar photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing process and has demonstrated the significant economic and commercial potential of this technology. This I & I Category 3 project provided significant assistance toward accomplishing these milestones. The original goals of this project were to design, construct and test a production prototype system, fabricate PV modules and test the module performance. The original module manufacturing costs in the proposal were estimated at $2/Watt. The objectives of this project have been exceeded. An advanced processing line was designed, fabricated and installed. Using this automated, high throughput system, high efficiency devices and fully encapsulated modules were manufactured. AVA Solar has obtained 2 rounds of private equity funding, expand to 50 people and initiated the development of a large scale factory for 100+ megawatts of annual production. Modules will be manufactured at an industry leading cost which will enable AVA Solar's modules to produce power that is cost-competitive with traditional energy resources. With low manufacturing costs and the ability to scale manufacturing, AVA Solar has been contacted by some of the largest customers in the PV industry to negotiate long-term supply contracts. The current market for PV has continued to grow at 40%+ per year for nearly a decade and is projected to reach $40-$60 Billion by 2012. Currently, a crystalline silicon raw material supply shortage is limiting growth and raising costs. Our process does not use silicon, eliminating these limitations.

  6. Photovoltaic power modules for NASA's manned space station

    SciTech Connect

    Tatro, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The capability and the safety of manned spacecraft are largely dependent upon reliable electric power systems. Two similar space power systems able to survive the low Earth orbit environment, are being considered for NASA's Manned Space Station (SS), scheduled to begin operation in the mid 1990's. The Space Station Electric Power System (EPS) is composed of Photovoltaic (PV) Power Modules, Solar Dynamic (SD) Power Modules, and the Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) System. One EPS configuration will deliver 37.5 kW of PV based, utility grade, ac power to SS users. A second 75 kWe PV based EPS option is also being considered for SS deployment. The two EPS options utilize common modules and differ only in the total number of PV Power Modules used. Each PV Power Module supplies 18.75 kWe of ac power and incorporates its own energy storage and thermal control. The general requirements and the current preliminary design configuration of the Space Station PV Power Modules are examined.

  7. Stretched Lens Array (SLA) Photovoltaic Concentrator Hardware Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael; O'Neill, Mark J.; Eskenazi, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Over the past two years, the Stretched Lens Array (SLA) photovoltaic concentrator has evolved, under a NASA contract, from a concept with small component demonstrators to operational array hardware that is ready for space validation testing. A fully-functional four panel SLA solar array has been designed, built and tested. This paper will summarize the focus of the hardware development effort, discuss the results of recent testing conducted under this program and present the expected performance of a full size 7kW array designed to meet the requirements of future space missions.

  8. Parameter Estimation for Single Diode Models of Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Clifford

    2015-03-01

    Many popular models for photovoltaic system performance employ a single diode model to compute the I - V curve for a module or string of modules at given irradiance and temperature conditions. A single diode model requires a number of parameters to be estimated from measured I - V curves. Many available parameter estimation methods use only short circuit, o pen circuit and maximum power points for a single I - V curve at standard test conditions together with temperature coefficients determined separately for individual cells. In contrast, module testing frequently records I - V curves over a wide range of irradi ance and temperature conditions which, when available , should also be used to parameterize the performance model. We present a parameter estimation method that makes use of a fu ll range of available I - V curves. We verify the accuracy of the method by recov ering known parameter values from simulated I - V curves . We validate the method by estimating model parameters for a module using outdoor test data and predicting the outdoor performance of the module.

  9. Enhanced up-conversion for photovoltaics via concentrating integrated optics.

    PubMed

    Arnaoutakis, Georgios E; Marques-Hueso, Jose; Ivaturi, Aruna; Krämer, Karl W; Fischer, Stefan; Goldschmidt, Jan Christoph; Richards, Bryce S

    2014-03-10

    Concentrating optics are integrated into up-conversion photovoltaic (UC-PV) devices to independently concentrate sub-band-gap photons on the up-conversion layer, without affecting the full solar concentration on the overlying solar cell. The UC-PV devices consist of silicon solar cells optimized for up-conversion, coupled with tapered and parabolic dielectric concentrators, and hexagonal sodium yttrium fluoride (β-NaYF₄) up-converter doped with 25% trivalent erbium (Er³⁺). A normalized external quantum efficiency of 1.75x10⁻² cm²/W and 3.38x10⁻² cm²/W was obtained for the UC-PV device utilizing tapered and parabolic concentrators respectively. Although low to moderate concentration was shown to maximize UC, higher concentration lead to saturation and reduced external quantum efficiency. The presented work highlights some of the implications associated with the development of UC-PV devices and designates a substantial step for integration in concentrating PV. PMID:24922255

  10. Optimal Spacing of Dual-axis Trackers for Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong Sin; Winston, Roland

    2011-12-01

    The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) is widely used to compare the cost of energy generation across technologies. In a utility-scale concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) system, the spacing of dual-axis trackers must be balanced with total energy harvested from modules to minimize LCOE. In this paper, a spacing method of dual-axis trackers in a CPV system is presented. Based on the definition of LCOE, a cost function is defined and optimized in terms of spacing related parameters. Various methods to estimate hourly direct normal irradiance (DNI) are investigated and m-by-n tracker array configurations to minimize the cost function are discussed.

  11. A Photovoltaics Module for Incoming Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dark, Marta L.

    2011-01-01

    Photovoltaic-cell-based projects have been used to train eight incoming undergraduate women who were part of a residential summer programme at a women's college. A module on renewable energy and photovoltaic cells was developed in the physics department. The module's objectives were to introduce women in science, technology, engineering and…

  12. 77 FR 72884 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... in the Federal Register on June 13, 2012 (77 FR 35425). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on... COMMISSION Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China Determinations On the basis of the... reason of imports of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells and modules from China, provided for...

  13. 77 FR 14732 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 76 FR 70960 (November 16, 2011... International Trade Administration Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules... of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not assembled into modules, from the...

  14. High-efficiency thin and compact concentrator photovoltaics with micro-solar cells directly attached to a lens array.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Inoue, Daijiro; Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro; Matsushita, Akio; Higuchi, Hiroshi; Aya, Youichirou; Nakagawa, Tohru

    2015-06-01

    We propose a thin and compact concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) module, about 20 mm thick, one tenth thinner than those of conventional CPVs that are widely deployed for mega-solar systems, to broaden CPV application scenarios. We achieved an energy conversion efficiency of 37.1% at a module temperature of 25 °C under sunlight irradiation optimized for our module. Our CPV module has a lens array consisting of 10 mm-square unit lenses and micro solar cells that are directly attached to the lens array, to reduce the focal length of the concentrator and to reduce optical losses due to reflection. The optical loss of the lens in our module is about 9.0%, which is lower than that of conventional CPV modules with secondary optics. This low optical loss enables our CPV module to achieve a high energy conversion efficiency. PMID:26072884

  15. Optimum irradiance distribution of concentrated sunlight for photovoltaic energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benítez, Pablo; Mohedano, Rubén

    1999-04-01

    The irradiance distribution on a concentration photovoltaic cell that produces maximum conversion efficiency has been found with the tools of Variational Calculus. The analysis is two dimensional and can be applied to a comb-like double busbar solar cell illuminated by a line-focus concentrator. The optimum distribution is, in general, nonuniform, and depends on the internal parameters of the solar cell: the higher the contribution of the grid to the global cell series resistance, the lower the uniformity of the optimum irradiance distribution. In practical cases, the efficiency for uniform illumination is close to that of the optimum, but in the latter the irradiance close to the busbar may be noticeable higher than the average.

  16. Correlations in Characteristic Data of Concentrator Photovoltaics (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, C.; Bosco, N.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-02-01

    This study is motivated by a reported 1-2% infant mortality rate in concentrator photovoltaic cell assemblies. Approximately 650 bare III-V multi-junction PV cells were initially characterized via electroluminescence imaging and both light and dark current-voltage responses were recorded. The cells were then packaged into receivers and their IV response again evaluated both before and after an outdoor high concentration exposure of at least four hours above 750 DNI. Correlations exist between the initial dark IV characteristic and artifacts found in the EL image. Initial results also suggest that artifacts observed in the bare cell may serve as an indicator for early on-sun degradation, though may not be able to predict the infant mortality population.

  17. Manufacturing injection-moleded Fresnel lens parquets for point-focus concentrating photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, E.M.; Masso, J.D.

    1995-10-01

    This project involved the manufacturing of curved-faceted, injection-molded, four-element Fresnel lens parquets for concentrating photovoltaic arrays. Previous efforts showed that high-efficiency (greater than 82%) Fresnel concentrators could be injection molded. This report encompasses the mold design, molding, and physical testing of a four-lens parquet for a solar photovoltaic concentrator system.

  18. Effects of UV on power degradation of photovoltaic modules in combined acceleration tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Trang; Heta, Yushi; Doi, Takuya; Masuda, Atsushi

    2016-05-01

    UV exposure and other factors such as high/low temperature, humidity and mechanical stress have been reported to degrade photovoltaic (PV) module materials. By focusing on the combined effects of UV stress and moisture on PV modules, two new acceleration tests of light irradiation and damp heat (DH) were designed and conducted. The effects of UV exposure were validated through a change in irradiation time (UV dosage) and a change of the light irradiation side (glass side vs backsheet side) in the UV-preconditioned DH and cyclic sequential tests, respectively. The chemical corrosion of finger electrodes in the presence of acetic acid generated from ethylene vinyl acetate used as an encapsulant was considered to be the main origin of degradation. The module performance characterized by electroluminescence images was confirmed to correlate with the measured acetic acid concentration and Ag finger electrode resistance.

  19. High-throughput manufacturing of thin-film CdS/CdTe photovoltaic modules. Annual subcontract report, 16 September 1996--15 January 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Sandwisch, D.W.

    1998-08-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is recognized as one of the leading materials for low-cost photovoltaic modules. Solar Cells, Inc., has developed this technology and is scaling its pilot production capabilities to a multi-megawatt level. The Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) subcontract supports these efforts. Activities during the third phase of the program concentrated on process development, equipment design and testing, quality assurance, ES and H programs, and large-scale next-generation coating-system prototype development. These efforts broadly addressed the issues of the manufacturing process for producing thin-film, monolithic CdS/CdTe photovoltaic modules.

  20. Photovoltaic module certification/laboratory accreditation criteria development: Implementation handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, C.R.; Hammond, R.L.; Wood, B.D.; Backus, C.E.; Sears, R.L.; Zerlaut, G.A.; D`Aiello, R.V.

    1996-08-01

    This document covers the second phase of a two-part program. Phase I provided an overview of the structure and function of typical product certification/laboratory accreditation programs. This report (Phase H) provides most of the draft documents that will be necessary for the implementation of a photovoltaic (PV) module certification/laboratory accreditation program. These include organizational documents such as articles of incorporation, bylaws, and rules of procedure, as well as marketing and educational program documents. In Phase I, a 30-member criteria development committee was established to guide, review and reach a majority consensus regarding criteria for a PV certification/laboratory accreditation program. Committee members represented PV manufacturers, end users, standards and codes organizations, and testing laboratories. A similar committee was established for Phase II; the criteria implementation committee consisted of 29 members. Twenty-one of the Phase I committee members also served on the Phase II committee, which helped to provide program continuity during Phase II.

  1. Photovoltaic module soiling studies, May 1978 - October 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Maag, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    Comparative electrical and optical performance data from photovoltaic modules and materials subjected to outdoor exposure at field test sites throughout the United States were collected and examined. The results show significant time and site dependence. During periods when natural removal processes do not dominate, the rate of particulate contamination accumulation appears to be largely material-independent. The effectiveness of natural removal processes, especially rain, is strongly material-dependent. Glass and acrylic top cover materials retain fewer particles than silicone rubber does. Side by side outdoor exposure testing for long duration is presently the most effective means of evaluating soiling differences between materials. Changes in spectral transmission as a function of time and location and limited scattering data are presented.

  2. Environmental requirements for flat plate photovoltaic modules for terrestrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental test requirements that have been developed for flat plate modules purchased through Department of Energy funding are described. Concurrent with the selection of the initial qualification tests from space program experience - temperature cycling and humidity - surveys of existing photovoltaic systems in the field revealed that arrays were experiencing the following failure modes: interconnect breakage, delamination, and electrical termination corrosion. These coupled with application-dependent considerations led to the development of additional qualification tests, such as cyclic pressure loading, warped mounting surface, and hail. Rationale for the selection of tests, their levels and durations is described. Comparisons between field-observed degradation and test-induced degradation show a positive correlation with some of the observed field effects. Also, the tests are proving useful for detecting design, process, and workmanship deficiencies. The status of study efforts for the development of environmental requirements for field-related problems is reviewed.

  3. Predicting the Spectral Effects of Soils on Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Burton, Patrick D.; King, Bruce Hardison; Riley, Daniel M.

    2014-12-15

    The soiling losses on high concentrating photovoltaic (HCPV) systems may be influenced by the spectral properties of accumulated soil. We predicted the response of an isotype cell to changes in spectral content and reduction in transmission due to soiling using measured UV/vis transmittance through soil films. Artificial soil test blends deposited on glass coupons were used to supply the transmission data, which was then used to calculate the effect on model spectra. Moreover, the wavelength transparency of the test soil was varied by incorporating red and yellow mineral pigments into graded sand. The more spectrally responsive (yellow) soils were predictedmore » to alter the current balance between the top and middle subcells throughout a range of air masses corresponding to daily and seasonal variation.« less

  4. Predicting the Spectral Effects of Soils on Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, Patrick D.; King, Bruce Hardison; Riley, Daniel M.

    2014-12-15

    The soiling losses on high concentrating photovoltaic (HCPV) systems may be influenced by the spectral properties of accumulated soil. We predicted the response of an isotype cell to changes in spectral content and reduction in transmission due to soiling using measured UV/vis transmittance through soil films. Artificial soil test blends deposited on glass coupons were used to supply the transmission data, which was then used to calculate the effect on model spectra. Moreover, the wavelength transparency of the test soil was varied by incorporating red and yellow mineral pigments into graded sand. The more spectrally responsive (yellow) soils were predicted to alter the current balance between the top and middle subcells throughout a range of air masses corresponding to daily and seasonal variation.

  5. Degradation study on optical materials for concentrator photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltermann, Fabian; Roeder, Kerstin; Wiesenfarth, Maike; Wilde, Juergen; Bett, Andreas W.

    2012-10-01

    In this work the impact of accelerated aging on the spectral transmission and the mechanical robustness of silicone elastomers for concentrator photovoltaic applications was investigated. Therefore, specific test samples were manufactured. The samples were annealed at 150 °C to assure a complete cross-linking. These samples were exposed to humidity freeze, to a pressure cooker test, and to UV light. To investigate optical materials under UVA intensity up to 10 W/cm2 a test setup was developed. Thus, a UV dosage of 10000 kWh/m2 was applied to the silicone samples after thermal treatment. The mean transmission was used as a measure to identify changes in the spectral behavior and was, therefore, compared after the stress tests with the initial value. No total failures but rather degradation was observed, mainly in the range of ultraviolet and visible light. In addition, the shear strengths for the silicone elastomers were compared before and after stress.

  6. Relative potentials of concentrating and two-axis tracking flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central-station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.; Schwartz, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the relative economic potentials of concenrating and two-axis tracking flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central-station applications in the mid-1990's. Specific objectives of this study are to provide information on concentrator photovoltaic collector probabilistic price and efficiency levels to illustrate critical areas of R&D for concentrator cells and collectors, and to compare concentrator and flat-plate PV price and efficiency alternatives for several locations, based on their implied costs of energy. To deal with the uncertainties surrounding research and development activities in general, a probabilistic assessment of commercially achievable concentrator photovoltaic collector efficiencies and prices (at the factory loading dock) is performed. The results of this projection of concentrator photovoltaic technology are then compared with a previous flat-plate module price analysis (performed early in 1983). To focus this analysis on specific collector alternatives and their implied energy costs for different locations, similar two-axis tracking designs are assumed for both concentrator and flat-plate options.

  7. Solar cells design for low and medium concentrating photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baig, Hasan; Heasman, Keith C.; Sarmah, Nabin; Mallick, Tapas

    2012-10-01

    The solar cell is the key element of any CPV system, and its design plays an important role in enhancing the performance of the entire system. Special types of cells are required in the CPV systems capable of operating at high concentrations and elevated temperatures. These Concentrator solar cells differ significantly from the usual solar cells in the method of manufacture, the overall cell design and their performance. Systematic design and manufacture of the cell ensures better performance in a given CPV system. A number of factors come into play while designing the solar cell for a specific system these include concentration, cell material properties, expected operating temperature, shape, bus bar configuration and finger spacing. Most of these variables are decided on based on some rules of thumb and PC1D calculations. However, there is scope for design improvement and cell optimization by performing a detailed analysis based on the illumination profile incident on the cell. Recent studies demonstrated the use of Finite element method to analyze the electrical behavior of PV cell under the influence of arbitrarily chosen illumination flux profiles. This study outlines a methodology and analysis procedure while performing a case study of a CPV system under development having a non-uniform illumination profile towards the exit of the concentrator. The LCPV system chosen is the Photovoltaic Facades of Reduced Costs Incorporating Devices with Optically Concentrating Elements (PRIDE) concentrator made of dielectric material. A coupled optical, thermal and electrical analysis is performed on the system to demonstrate the method useful in designing solar cells for low and medium concentrations.

  8. Safety-related requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Levins, A.

    1984-03-01

    Underwriters Laboratories has conducted a study to identify and develop safety requirements for photovoltaic module and panel designs and configurations for residential, intermediate, and large scale applications. Concepts for safety systems, where each system is a collection of subsystems which together address the total anticipated hazard situation, are described. Descriptions of hardware, and system usefulness and viability are included. This discussion of safety systems recognizes that there is little history on which to base the expected safety related performance of a photovoltaic system. A comparison of these systems, as against the provisions of the 1984 National Electrical Code covering photovoltaic systems is made. A discussion of the UL investigation of the photovoltaic module evaluated to the provisions of the Proposed UL Standard for Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Modules and Panels is included. Grounding systems, their basis and nature, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are described. The meaning of frame grounding, circuit grounding, and the type of circuit ground are covered. The development of the Standard for Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Modules and Panels has continued, and with both industry comment and a product submittal and listing, the Standard has been refined to a viable document allowing an objective safety review of photovoltaic modules and panels. How this document, and other UL documents would cover investigations of certain other photovoltaic system components is described.

  9. Optical design considerations for high-concentration photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garboushian, Vahan; Gordon, Robert

    2006-08-01

    Over the past 15 years, major advances in Concentrating Photovoltaics (CPV) have been achieved. Ultra-efficient Si solar cells have produced commercial concentration systems which are being fielded today and are competitively priced. Advanced research has primarily focused on significantly more efficient multi-junction solar cells for tomorrow's systems. This effort has produced sophisticated solar cells that significantly improve power production. Additional performance and cost improvements, especially in the optical system area and system integration, must be made before CPV can realize its ultimate commercial potential. Structural integrity and reliability are vital for commercial success. As incremental technical improvements are made in solar cell technologies, evaluation and 'fine-tuning' of optical systems properly matched to the solar cell are becoming increasingly necessary. As we move forward, it is increasingly important to optimize all of the interrelated elements of a CPV system for high performance without sacrificing the marketable cost and structural requirements of the system. Areas such as wavelength absorption of refractive optics need to be carefully matched to the solar cell technology employed. Reflective optics require advanced engineering models to insure uniform flux distribution without excessive losses. In Situ measurement of the 'fine-grain' improvements are difficult as multiple variables such as solar insolation, temperature, wind, altitude, etc. infringe on analytical data. This paper discusses design considerations based on 10 years of field trials of high concentration systems and their relevance for tomorrow's advanced CPV systems.

  10. Point-focus spectral splitting solar concentrator for multiple cells concentrating photovoltaic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maragliano, Carlo; Chiesa, Matteo; Stefancich, Marco

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we present and experimentally validate a low-cost design of a spectral splitting concentrator for the efficient conversion of solar energy. The optical device consists of a dispersive prismatic lens made of polycarbonate designed to simultaneously concentrate solar light and split it into its spectral components. With respect to our previous implementation, this device concentrates light along two axes and generates a light pattern compatible with the dimensions of a set of concentrating photovoltaic cells, while providing a higher concentration ratio. The mathematical framework and the constructive approach used for the design are presented and the device performance is simulated using ray-tracing software. We obtain spectral separation in the visible range within a 3 × 1 cm2 area and a maximum concentration of 210× for a single wavelength. The device is fabricated by injection molding and its performance is experimentally investigated. We measure an optical transmissivity above 90% in the range 400-800 nm and we observe a spectral distribution in good accordance with simulations. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of the device for cost effective high efficiency concentrated photovoltaic systems.

  11. Photovoltaic module encapsulation design and materials section, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.

    1984-01-01

    Tests for chemical structure, material properties, water absorption, aging and curing agent of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) and UV absorption studies are carried out. A computer model was developed for thermal optical modeling, to investigate dependence between module operating temperature and solar insolation, and heat dissapation behavior. Structural analyses were performed in order to determine the stress distribution under wind and heat conditions. Curves are shown for thermal loading conditions. An electrical isolation was carried out to investigate electrical stress aging of non-metallic encapsulation materials and limiting material flaws, and to develop a computer model of electrical fields and stresses in encapsulation materials. In addition, a mathematical model was developed and tests were conducted to predict hygroscopic and thermal expansion and contraction on a plastic coated wooden substrate. Thermal cycle and humidity freezing cycle tests, partial discharge tests, and hail impact tests were also carried out. Finally, the effects of soiling on the surface of photovoltaic modules were investigated. Two antisoiling coatings, a fluorinated silane and perflourodecanoic acid were considered.

  12. Apparatus and processes for the mass production of photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Barth, Kurt L.; Enzenroth, Robert A.; Sampath, Walajabad S.

    2007-05-22

    An apparatus and processes for large scale inline manufacturing of CdTe photovoltaic modules in which all steps, including rapid substrate heating, deposition of CdS, deposition of CdTe, CdCl.sub.2 treatment, and ohmic contact formation, are performed within a single vacuum boundary at modest vacuum pressures. A p+ ohmic contact region is formed by subliming a metal salt onto the CdTe layer. A back electrode is formed by way of a low cost spray process, and module scribing is performed by means of abrasive blasting or mechanical brushing through a mask. The vacuum process apparatus facilitates selective heating of substrates and films, exposure of substrates and films to vapor with minimal vapor leakage, deposition of thin films onto a substrate, and stripping thin films from a substrate. A substrate transport apparatus permits the movement of substrates into and out of vacuum during the thin film deposition processes, while preventing the collection of coatings on the substrate transport apparatus itself.

  13. 77 FR 37877 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... Determination of Critical Circumstances, 77 FR 31309 (May 25, 2012), under the section entitled ``Preliminary... International Trade Administration Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules... determination in the antidumping duty investigation of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or...

  14. 76 FR 78313 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... notice in the Federal Register of October 27, 2011 (76 FR 66748). The conference was held in Washington... COMMISSION Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China Determinations On the basis of the... is materially injured by reason of imports from China of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells...

  15. Luminescent Solar Concentrators - a low cost photovoltaics alternative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Sark, W. G. J. H. M.

    2012-10-01

    Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) are being developed as a potentially low cost-per-Wp photovoltaic device, suited for applications especially in the built environment. LSCs generally consist of transparent polymer sheets doped with luminescent species, either organic dye molecules or semiconductor nanocrystals. Direct and diffuse incident sunlight is absorbed by the luminescent species and emitted at redshifted wavelengths with high quantum efficiency. Optimum design ensures that a large fraction of emitted light is trapped in the sheet, which travels to the edges where it can be collected by one or more mono- or bifacial solar cells, with minimum losses due to absorption in the sheet and re-absorption by the luminescent species. Today's record efficieny is 7%, however, 10-15% is within reach. Optimized luminescent solar concentrators potentially offer lower cost per unit of power compared to conventional solar cells. Moreover, LSCs have an increased conversion efficiency for overcast and cloudy sky conditions, having a large fraction of diffuse irradiation, which is blueshifted compared to clear sky conditions. As diffuse irradiation conditions are omnipresent throughout mid- and northern-European countries, annual performance of LSCs is expected to be better in terms of kWh/Wp compared to conventional PV.

  16. Report of an exploratory study: safety and liability considerations for photovoltaic modules/panels, Low Cost Solar Array Project

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, A.S.; Meeker, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    Product safety and product liability considerations are explored for photovoltaic module/array devices. A general review of photovoltaic literature was made using computerized literature searches. A literature search was also made of relevant legal material as it applies to design. Recommendations are made to minimize or eliminate perceived hazards in manufacture and use of a photovoltaic module/array. (MHR)

  17. New architecture for utility scale electricity from concentrator photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, Roger; Connors, Thomas; Davison, Warren; Olbert, Blain; Sivanandam, Suresh

    2010-08-01

    The paper describes a new system architecture optimized for utility-scale generation with concentrating photovoltaic cells (CPV) at fossil fuel price. We report on-sun tests of the architecture and development at the University of Arizona of the manufacturing processes adapted for high volume production. The new system takes advantage of triple-junction cells to convert concentrated sunlight into electricity. These commercially available cells have twice the conversion efficiency of silicon panels (40%) and one-tenth the cost per watt, when used at 1000x concentration. Telescope technology is adapted to deliver concentrated light to the cells at minimum cost. The architecture combines three novel elements: large (3.1 m x 3.1 m square) dish reflectors made as back-silvered glass monoliths; 2.5 kW receivers at each dish focus, each one incorporating a spherical field lens to deliver uniform illumination to multiple cells; and a lightweight steel spaceframe structure to hold multiple dish/receiver units in coalignment and oriented to the sun. Development of the process for replicating single-piece reflector dishes is well advanced at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab. End-to-end system tests have been completed with single cells. A lightweight steel spaceframe to hold and track eight dish/receiver units to generate 20 kW has been completed. A single 2.5 kW receiver is presently under construction, and is expected to be operated in an end-to-end on-sun test with a monolithic dish before the end of 2010. The University of Arizona has granted an exclusive license to REhnu, LLC to commercialize this technology.

  18. Thermal and other tests of photovoltaic modules performed in natural sunlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stultz, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT), an effective way to characterize the thermal performance of a photovoltaic module in natural sunlight, is developed. NOCT measurements for more than twenty different modules are presented. Changes in NOCT reflect changes in module design, residential roof mounting, and dirt accumulation. Other test results show that electrical performance is improved by cooling modules with water and by use of a phase change wax. Electrical degradation resulting from the marriage of photovoltaic and solar water heating modules is demonstrated. Cost-effectiveness of each of these techniques is evaluated.

  19. Degradation of back surface acrylic mirrors for low concentration and mirror-augmented photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Myles P.; Bruckman, Laura S.; Gordon, Devin; Richardson, Samuel; Reinbolt, Greg; Schuetz, Mark; French, Roger H.

    2012-10-01

    Back-surface acrylic mirrors can be used in low concentration and mirror augmented photovoltaics (LCPV, MAPV) to increase the irradiance on a module. Back-surface mirrors can spectrally filter incoming solar radiation reducing the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) load on the module, while useful radiation is coupled into a module or photovoltaic cell. Degradation of these mirrors can occur from UV induced photodegradative processes and metallization corrosion. Environmental stresses such as humidity, thermal cycling and exposure to corrosive substances can cause an increase in scattering, reducing mirror performance. In order to increase the lifetime and durability of back-surface acrylic mirrors a better understanding of the degradation modes is necessary. In a study of acrylic back-surface mirrors for LCPV and MAPV applications, optical properties and bidirectional scattering distribution functions (BSDF) were investigated and correlated to simulated exposure protocols. Formulations of Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with differing concentration of UV absorbers were used for the aluminum backsurface acrylic mirrors. The formulations of aluminum back-surface acrylic mirrors were exposed in a QUV accelerated weathering tester (QLabs) to ASTM G154 Cycle 4. Total and diffuse reflectance spectra were measured for each mirror under exposure using a diffuse reflectance accessory (DRA) from 180-1800 nm on a Varian Cary 6000i at defined dose intervals. The total reflectance losses in the 250-400 nm region were greater and diffuse-only reflectance increased for formulations of acrylic mirrors that contained the least amount of UV stabilizer after each dose of QUV exposure. Acrylic back-surface mirrors were exposed to salt fog corrosion and QUV and were analyzed using BSDF. There was an increase in scattering from roughening of the mirror surface after exposure to the corrosive environment.

  20. Cylindrically symmetric Fresnel lens for high concentration photovoltaic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Yu-Ting; Su, Guo-Dung

    2009-08-01

    High concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) utilizes point-focus cost-effective plastic Fresnel lens. And a millimeter-sized Ill-V compound multi-junction solar cell is placed underneath focusing optics which can achieve cell efficiency potential of up to 40.7 %. The advantage of HCPV makes less solar cell area and higher efficiency; however, the acceptance angle of HCPV is about +/-1°, which is very small and the mechanical tracking of the sun is necessary. In order to reduce the power consumption and the angle tracking error of tracking systems, a light collector model with larger acceptance angle is designed with ZEMAX®. In this model, the original radially symmetric Fresnel lens of HCPV is replaced by cylindrically symmetric Fresnel lens and a parabolic reflective surface. Light is collected in two dimensions separately. And a couple of lenses and a light pipe are added before the solar cell chip in order to collect more light when sun light deviates from incident angle of 00. An acceptance angle of +/-10° is achieved with GCR 400.

  1. Energy and environmental analysis of a linear concentrating photovoltaic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerzmann, Tony

    The world is facing an imminent energy supply crisis. In order to sustain and increase our energy supply in an environmentally-conscious manner, it is necessary to advance renewable technologies. Despite this urgency, however, it is paramount to consider the larger environmental effects associated with using renewable energy resources. This research is meant to better understand linear concentrating photovoltaics (LCPVs) from an engineering and environmental standpoint. In order to analyze the LCPV system, a simulation and life cycle assessment (LCA) were developed. The LCPV system serves two major purposes: it produces electricity, and waste heat is collected for heating use. There are three parts to the LCPV simulation. The first part simulates the multijunction cell output so as to calculate the temperature-dependent electricity generation. The second part simulates the cell cooling and waste heat recovery system using a model consisting of heat transfer and fluid flow equations. The waste heat recovery in the LCPV system was linked to a hot water storage system, which was also modeled. Coupling the waste heat recovery simulation and the hot water storage system gives an overall integrated system that is useful for system design, optimization, and acts as a stepping stone for future multijunction cell Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) systems. Finally, all of the LCPV system components were coded in Engineering Equation Solver (EES) and were used in an energy analysis under actual weather and solar conditions for the Phoenix, AZ, region. The life cycle assessment for the LCPV system allowed for an environmental analysis of the system where areas of the highest environmental impact were pinpointed. While conducting the LCA research, each component of the system was analyzed from a resource extraction, production, and use standpoint. The collective production processes of each LCPV system component were gathered into a single inventory of materials and energy flows

  2. High-throughput manufacturing of thin-film CdS/CdTe photovoltaic modules. Annual subcontract report, 16 November 1994--15 November 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Sandwisch, D.W.

    1997-02-01

    The objectives of this subcontract are to advance Solar Cells, Inc.`s (SCI`s) photovoltaic manufacturing technologies, reduce module production costs, increase module performance, and provide the groundwork for SCI to expand its commercial production capacities. Activities during the second year of the program concentrated on process development, equipment design and testing, quality assurance, and ES and H programs. These efforts broadly addressed the issues of the manufacturing process for producing thin-film monolithic CdS/CdTe photovoltaic modules.

  3. Model institutional infrastructures for recycling of photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Moscowitz, P.D.; Reaven, J.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes model approaches to designing an institutional infrastructure for the recycling of decommissioned photovoltaic modules; more detailed discussion of the information presented in this paper is contained in Reaven et al., (1996)[1]. The alternative approaches are based on experiences in other industries, with other products and materials. In the aluminum, scrap iron, and container glass industries, where recycling is a long-standing, even venerable practice, predominantly private, fully articulated institutional infrastructures exist. Nevertheless, even in these industries, arrangements are constantly evolving in response to regulatory changes, competition, and new technological developments. Institutional infrastructures are less settled for younger large- scale recycling industries that target components of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, such as cardboard and newspaper, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastics, and textiles. In these industries the economics, markets, and technologies are rapidly changing. Finally, many other industries are developing projects to ensure that their products are recycled (and recyclable) e.g., computers, non-automotive batteries, communications equipment, motor and lubrication oil and oil filters, fluorescent lighting fixtures, automotive plastics and shredder residues, and bulk industrial chemical wastes. The lack of an an adequate recycling infrastructure, attractive end-markets, and clear the economic incentives, can be formidable impediments to a self- sustaining recycling system.

  4. Cost-effective flat-plate photovoltaic modules using light trapping. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bain, C.N.; Gordon, B.A.; Knasel, T.M.; Malinowski, R.L.

    1981-04-01

    Work in optical trapping in thick films is extended to form a design guide for photovoltaic engineers. Details of the methods, techniques, and considerations that are used in the definition and analysis of light trapping photovoltaic panels are provided. Assumptions, sources of data, optical and cost modeling methods and the techniques used in the analysis are included. The ways to use light trapping are discussed, and methods are described to use simplified design and costing equations to predict performance and cost benefits. Four significant ways to use the findings presented are: a minimum design change module; an optimum packing factor module concept; roof or wall integrated panels; and modules using light trapping from cell grids. Finally, a design guide is included which shows how to construct photovoltaic modules to exploit light trapping. It is claimed that up to 20% improvements in standard module performance can be expected. (LEW)

  5. Electrochemical and galvanic corrosion effects in thin-film photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mon, G.; Wen, L.; Meyer, J.; Ross, R., Jr.; Nelson, A.

    The electrochemical and galvanic corrosion properties of thin-film photovoltaic (TF-PV) modules and module subcomponents are determined and interpreted in the light of established corrosion science. Results of a detailed study of thin-film aluminum metallization corrosion are presented. Bar-graph corrosion, observed in fielded modules, has been induced experimentally and found to be electrochemical in nature. Corrosion rates and passivation techniques for TF-PV modules are discussed.

  6. Electrochemical and galvanic corrosion effects in thin-film photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mon, G.; Wen, L.; Meyer, J.; Ross, R., Jr.; Nelson, A.

    1988-01-01

    The electrochemical and galvanic corrosion properties of thin-film photovoltaic (TF-PV) modules and module subcomponents are determined and interpreted in the light of established corrosion science. Results of a detailed study of thin-film aluminum metallization corrosion are presented. Bar-graph corrosion, observed in fielded modules, has been induced experimentally and found to be electrochemical in nature. Corrosion rates and passivation techniques for TF-PV modules are discussed.

  7. Evaluation of cleaners for photovoltaic modules exposed in an outdoor environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    Power recovery of silicone encapsulated and glass covered photovoltaic modules, exposed for two years to a suburban environment, was measured after washing with a variety of cleaners including detergents, abrasive soap, and hydrocarbon solvents. Silicone encapsulated modules in operating environments may experience significant power losses or require extensive periodic cleaning. Glass front-faced modules in similar situations are much less affected. Organic hydrocarbon solvents or abrasives were found to be about five times more effective than mild detergents in cleaning encapsulated modules.

  8. The design and development of a rectangular, shingle-type photovoltaic module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    A shingle-type photovoltaic module has been designed and developed to meet the requirements of specifications for residential applications. The module is ideally suited for installation directly to the sheathing of a sloping, south-facing roof of a residential, industrial, or commercial building. The design requirements are examined, taking into account also module safety requirements. Aspects of module design and analysis are discussed, giving attention to installation details, solar cells and electrical circuit design, the encapsulation system, substrate lamination, and the module-to-module interconnecting cable. Details of module assembly experience and test and outdoor exposure experience are also considered.

  9. The design and development of a rectangular, shingle-type photovoltaic module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A shingle-type photovoltaic module has been designed and developed to meet the requirements of specifications for residential applications. The module is ideally suited for installation directly to the sheathing of a sloping, south-facing roof of a residential, industrial, or commercial building. The design requirements are examined, taking into account also module safety requirements. Aspects of module design and analysis are discussed, giving attention to installation details, solar cells and electrical circuit design, the encapsulation system, substrate lamination, and the module-to-module interconnecting cable. Details of module assembly experience and test and outdoor exposure experience are also considered.

  10. Recycling of cadmium and selenium from photovoltaic modules and manufacturing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Zweibel, K.

    1992-01-01

    Since the development of the first silicon based photovoltaic cell in the 1950's, large advances have been made in photovoltaic material and processing options. At present there is growing interest in the commercial potential of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic modules. As the commercial potential of these technologies becomes more apparent, interest in the environmental, health and safety issues associated with their production, use and disposal has also increased because of the continuing regulatory focus on cadmium and selenium. In future, recycling of spent or broken CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes may be needed for environmental, economic or political reasons. To assist industry to identify recycling options early in the commercialization process, a Workshop was convened. At this Workshop, representatives from the photovoltaic, electric utility, and nonferrous metals industries met to explore technical and institutional options for the recycling of spent CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes. This report summarizes the results of the Workshop. This report includes: (1) A discussion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations and their potential implications to the photovoltaic industry; (2) an assessment of the needs of the photovoltaic industry from the perspective of module manufacturers and consumers; (3) an overview of recycling technologies now employed by other industries for similar types of materials; and, (4) a list of recommendation.

  11. Recycling of cadmium and selenium from photovoltaic modules and manufacturing wastes. A workshop report

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Zweibel, K.

    1992-10-01

    Since the development of the first silicon based photovoltaic cell in the 1950`s, large advances have been made in photovoltaic material and processing options. At present there is growing interest in the commercial potential of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic modules. As the commercial potential of these technologies becomes more apparent, interest in the environmental, health and safety issues associated with their production, use and disposal has also increased because of the continuing regulatory focus on cadmium and selenium. In future, recycling of spent or broken CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes may be needed for environmental, economic or political reasons. To assist industry to identify recycling options early in the commercialization process, a Workshop was convened. At this Workshop, representatives from the photovoltaic, electric utility, and nonferrous metals industries met to explore technical and institutional options for the recycling of spent CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes. This report summarizes the results of the Workshop. This report includes: (1) A discussion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations and their potential implications to the photovoltaic industry; (2) an assessment of the needs of the photovoltaic industry from the perspective of module manufacturers and consumers; (3) an overview of recycling technologies now employed by other industries for similar types of materials; and, (4) a list of recommendation.

  12. Solar concentrator with a toroidal relay module.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jhe-Syuan; Liang, Chao-Wen

    2015-10-01

    III-V multijunction solar cells require solar concentrators with a high concentration ratio to reduce per watt cost and to increase solar energy transforming efficiency. This paper discusses a novel solar concentrator design that features a high concentration ratio, high transfer efficiency, thin profile design, and a high solar acceptance angle. The optical design of the concentrator utilizes a toroidal relay module, which includes both the off-axis relay lens and field lens design in a single concentric toroidal lens shape. The optical design concept of the concentrator is discussed and the simulation results are shown. The given exemplary design has an aspect ratio of 0.24, a high averaged optical concentration ratio 1230×, a maximum efficiency of 76.8%, and the solar acceptance angle of ±0.9°. PMID:26479646

  13. Enhanced power generation in concentrated photovoltaics using broadband antireflective coverglasses with moth eye structures.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Min; Jeong, Yonkil; Yeo, Chan Il; Lee, Yong Tak

    2012-11-01

    We present the effect of broadband antireflective coverglasses (BARCs) with moth eye structures on the power generation capability of a sub-receiver module for concentrated photovoltaics. The period and height of the moth eye structures were designed by a rigorous coupled-wave analysis method in order to cover the full solar spectral ranges without transmission band shrinkage. The BARCs with moth eye structures were prepared by the dry etching of silver (Ag) nanomasks, and the fabricated moth eye structures on coverglass showed strongly enhanced transmittance compared to the bare glass with a flat surface, at wavelengths of 300 - 1800 nm. The BARCs were mounted on InGaP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells and the power conversion efficiency of this sub-receiver module reached 42.16% for 196 suns, which is a 7.41% boosted value compared to that of a module with bare coverglass, without any detrimental changes of the open circuit voltages (V(oc)) and fill factor (FF). PMID:23326839

  14. Enhanced power generation in concentrated photovoltaics using broadband antireflective coverglasses with moth eye structures.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Min; Jeong, Yonkil; Yeo, Chan Il; Lee, Yong Tak

    2012-11-01

    We present the effect of broadband antireflective coverglasses (BARCs) with moth eye structures on the power generation capability of a sub-receiver module for concentrated photovoltaics. The period and height of the moth eye structures were designed by a rigorous coupled-wave analysis method in order to cover the full solar spectral ranges without transmission band shrinkage. The BARCs with moth eye structures were prepared by the dry etching of silver (Ag) nanomasks, and the fabricated moth eye structures on coverglass showed strongly enhanced transmittance compared to the bare glass with a flat surface, at wavelengths of 300 - 1800 nm. The BARCs were mounted on InGaP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells and the power conversion efficiency of this sub-receiver module reached 42.16% for 196 suns, which is a 7.41% boosted value compared to that of a module with bare coverglass, without any detrimental changes of the open circuit voltages (Voc) and fill factor (FF). PMID:23187668

  15. Progress Toward a Stabilization and Preconditioning Protocol for Polycrystalline Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    del Cueto, J. A.; Deline, C. A.; Rummel, S. R.; Anderberg, A.

    2010-08-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules can exhibit substantial variation in measured performance depending on prior exposure history. This study examines the metastable performance changes in these PV modules with the goal of establishing standard preconditioning or stabilization exposure procedures to mitigate measured variations prior to current-voltage (IV) measurements.

  16. Towards a flat 45%-efficient concentrator module

    SciTech Connect

    Mohedano, Rubén Hernandez, Maikel; Vilaplana, Juan; Chaves, Julio; Sorgato, S.; Falicoff, Waqidi; Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo

    2015-09-28

    The so-called CCS{sup 4}FK is an ultra-flat photovoltaic system of high concentration and high efficiency, with potential to convert, ideally, the equivalent of a 45% of direct solar radiation into electricity by optimizing the usage of sun spectrum and by collecting part of the diffuse radiation, as a flat plate does. LPI has recently finished a design based on this concept and is now developing a prototype based on this technology, thanks to the support of FUNDACION REPSOL-Fondo de Emprendedores, which promotes entrepreneur projects in different areas linked to energy. This works shows some details of the actual design and preliminary potential performance expected, according to accurate spectral simulations.

  17. Towards a flat 45%-efficient concentrator module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohedano, Rubén; Hernandez, Maikel; Vilaplana, Juan; Chaves, Julio; Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo; Sorgato, S.; Falicoff, Waqidi

    2015-09-01

    The so-called CCS4FK is an ultra-flat photovoltaic system of high concentration and high efficiency, with potential to convert, ideally, the equivalent of a 45% of direct solar radiation into electricity by optimizing the usage of sun spectrum and by collecting part of the diffuse radiation, as a flat plate does. LPI has recently finished a design based on this concept and is now developing a prototype based on this technology, thanks to the support of FUNDACION REPSOL-Fondo de Emprendedores, which promotes entrepreneur projects in different areas linked to energy. This works shows some details of the actual design and preliminary potential performance expected, according to accurate spectral simulations.

  18. Tests of Low-Concentration-Ratio Photovoltaic Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, M. W.; Backovsky, Z. F.

    1985-01-01

    Report describes performance measurements on elements of low-concentrationratio solar arrays (LCRSA's) employing silicon and gallium arsenide photovoltaic cells. Measurements intended to verify predictions of performance based on mathematical models. Measured and predicted values found to agree closely for both normal and off-normal pointing of array toward Sun.

  19. III-V Multi-junction solar cells and concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipps, Simon P.; Bett, Andreas W.

    2014-12-01

    It has been proven that the only realistic path to practical ultra-high efficiency solar cells is the monolithic multi-junction approach, i.e., to stack pn-junctions made of different semiconductor materials on top of each other. Each sub pn-junction, i.e., sub solar cell, converts a specific part of the sun's spectrum. In this way, the energy of the sunlight photons is converted with low thermalization losses. However, large-area multi-junction solar cells are still far too expensive if applied in standard PV modules. A viable solution to solve the cost issue is to use tiny solar cells in combination with optical concentrating technology, in particular, high concentrating photovoltaics (HCPV), in which the light is concentrated over the solar cells more than 500 times. The combination of ultra-high efficient solar cells and optical concentration lead to low cost on system level and eventually to low levelized cost of electricity, today, well below 8 €cent/kWh and, in the near future, below 5 €cent/kWh. A wide variety of approaches exists for III-V multi-junction solar cells and HCPV systems. This article is intended to provide an overview about the different routes being followed.

  20. Review of the environmental effects of the Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.

    1989-01-01

    An overview is provided of the environment in the low Earth orbit (LEO), the interaction of this environment with the Photovoltaic (PV) Power system of the Space Station Freedom is reviewed, and the environmental programs are described that are designed to investigate the interactions of the LEO environment with the photovoltaic power system. Such programs will support and impact the design of the subsystems of the PV module in order to survive the design lifetime in the LEO natural and induced environment.

  1. Cost effective flat plate photovoltaic modules using light trapping. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bain, C.N.; Gordon, B.A.; Knasel, T.M.; Malinowski, R.L.

    1981-04-01

    Work in optical trapping in 'thick films' is described to form a design guide for photovoltaic engineers. A thick optical film can trap light by diffusive reflection and total internal reflection. Light can be propagated reasonably long distances compared with layer thicknesses by this technique. This makes it possible to conduct light from inter-cell and intra-cell areas now not used in photovoltaic modules onto active cell areas.

  2. Operation and maintenance cost data for residential photovoltaic modules/panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oster, J. R., Jr.; Zaremski, D. R., Jr.; Albert, E. M.; Hawkins, S. L.

    1980-01-01

    Costs associated with the operation and maintenance of residential photovoltaic modules and arrays are studied. Six basic topics related to operation and maintenance to photovoltaic arrays are investigated: maintenance; cleaning; panel replacement; gasket repair/replacement; wiring repair/replacement; and termination repair/replacement. The effects of the mounting types (rack mount, stand off mount, direct mount and integral mount) and the installation/replacement type (sequential, partial interruption and independent) are identified and described. Methods of reducing maintenance costs are suggested.

  3. Experimental measurements of a prototype high-concentration Fresnel lens and sun-tracking method for photovoltaic panel's efficiency enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaee, Meraj; Ghorashi, Seyed Mohamad Bagher

    2015-08-01

    Concentrator photovoltaic modules are a promising technology for highly efficient solar energy conversion. This system presents several advantages due to additional degrees of freedom that has been provided by the spectral separation such as cost and mass reduction, increase in the incident solar flux on PV cells and performances. This paper has proposed a unique photovoltaic solar cell system that consists of semi-Fresnel lens convergent structure and a novel two axis sun tracking module to enhance the efficiency of solar cell by using less cell area and energy losses. The grooves of this lens are calculated according to the refraction and convergent angles of the light easy for perpendicular incidence angle. The update time interval during tracking causes misalignment of the lens' optical axis versus the sunrays. Then an inventive sun-tracking method is introduced to adjust the module so that the incident rays are always perpendicular to the module's surface. As a result, all rays will be refracted with the predetermined angles. This way the focus area is reduced and smaller cells can be used. We also mentioned different module connections in order to provide compensation method during losses, for networks and power systems. Experimental results show that using semi-Fresnel lens, along with the sun-tracking method increases the efficiency of PV panel.

  4. Comparison of photovoltaic cell temperatures in modules operating with exposed and enclosed back surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkoong, D.; Simon, F. F.

    1981-01-01

    Four different photovoltaic module designs were tested to determine the cell temperature of each design. The cell temperatures were compared to those obtained on identical design, using the same nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT) concept. The results showed that the NOCT procedure does not apply to the enclosed configurations due to continuous transient conditions. The enclosed modules had higher cell temperatures than the open modules, and insulated modules higher than the uninsulated. The severest performance loss - when translated from cell temperatures - 17.5 % for one enclosed, insulated module as a compared to that module mounted openly.

  5. Photovoltaic module performance and durability following long-term field exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Ellibee, D.E.; Hansen, B.R.; King, D.L.; Kratochvil, J.A.; Quintana, M.A.

    1998-09-08

    Our investigations of both new and field-aged photovoltaic modules have indicated that, in general, today's commercially available modules area highly reliable product. However, by using new test procedures, subtle failure mechanisms have also been identified that must be addressed in order to achieve 30-year module lifetimes. This paper summarizes diagnostic test procedures, results, and implications of in-depth investigations of the performance and durability characteristics of commercial modules after long-term field exposure. A collaborative effort with U.S. module manufacturers aimed at achieving 30-year module lifetimes is also described.

  6. Photovoltaic technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Backus, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    After a brief review of the history of photovoltaic devices and a discussion of the cost goals set for photovoltaic modules, the status of photovoltaic technology is assessed. Included are discussions of: current applications, present industrial production, low-cost silicon production techniques, energy payback periods for solar cells, advanced materials research and development, concentrator systems, balance-of-system components. Also discussed are some nontechnical aspects, including foreign markets, US government program approach, and industry attitudes and approaches. (LEW)

  7. CPV for the rooftop market: novel approaches to tracking integration in photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostoleris, Harry; Stefancich, Marco; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo; Chiesa, Matteo

    2016-03-01

    Concentrated photovoltaics (CPV) has long been recognized as an effective approach to enabling the use of high cost, high-efficiency solar cells for enhanced solar energy conversion, but is excluded from the domestic rooftop market due to the requirement that solar concentrators track the sun. This market may be opened up by integrating of the tracking mechanism into the module itself. Tracking integration may take the form of a miniaturization of a conventional tracking apparatus, or optical tracking, in which tracking is achieved through variation of optical properties such as refractive index or transparency rather than mechanical movement of the receiver. We have demonstrated a simple system using a heat-responsive transparency switching material to create a moving aperture that tracks the position of a moving light spot. We use this behavior to create a concentrating light trap with a moving aperture that reactively tracks the sun. Taking the other approach, we have fabricated 3D-printed parabolic mini-concentrators which can track the sun using small motors in a low-profile geometry. We characterize the performance of the concentrators and consider the impact of tracking integration on the broader PV market.

  8. Low-Cost High-Concentration Photovoltaic Systems for Utility Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.; Garboushian, V.; Gordon, R.; Dutra, D.; Kinsey, G.; Geer, S.; Gomez, H.; Cameron, C.

    2012-03-31

    Under DOE's Technology Pathway Partnership (TPP) program, Amonix, Inc. developed a new generation of high-concentration photovoltaic systems using multijunction technology and established the manufacturing capacity needed to supply multi-megawatt power plants buing using the new Amonix 7700-series solar energy systems. For this effort, Amonix Collaborated with a variety of suppliers and partners to complete project tasks. Subcontractors included: Evonik/Cyro; Hitek; the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Raytech; Spectrolab; UL; University of Nevada, Las Vegas; and TUV Rheinland PTL. The Amonix TPP tasks included: Task 1: Multijunction Cell Optimization for Field Operation, Task 2: Fresnel Lens R&D, Task 3: Cell Package Design & Production, Task 4: Standards Compliance and Reliability Testing, Task 5: Receiver Plate Production, Task 6: MegaModule Performance, Task 7: MegaModule Cost Reduction, Task 8: Factory Setup and MegaModule Production, Task 9: Tracker and Tracking Controller, Task 10: Installation and Balance of System (BOS), Task 11: Field Testing, and Task 12: Solar Advisor Modeling and Market Analysis. Amonix's TPP addressed nearly the complete PV value chain from epitaxial layer design and wafer processing through system design, manufacturing, deployment and O&M. Amonix has made progress toward achieving these reduced costs through the development of its 28%+ efficient MegaModule, reduced manufacturing and installation cost through design for manufacturing and assembly, automated manufacturing processes, and reduced O&M costs. Program highlights include: (1) Optimized multijunction cell and cell package design to improve performance by > 10%; (2) Updated lens design provided 7% increased performance and higher concentration; (3) 28.7% DC STC MegaModule efficiency achieved in Phase II exceeded Phase III performance goal; (4) New 16' focal length MegaModule achieved target materials and manufacturing cost reduction; (5) Designed and placed into

  9. Design and development of a point focus concentrated PV module operating above 100 suns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olah, S.; Ho, F.; Khemthong, S.

    The present objective was to design, develop, fabricate and performance-test a highly efficient and cost-effective concentrated photovoltaic module which can operate above 100-suns concentration, which can be mass produced, and is reliable, with minimum maintenance. A point-focus module design was chosen, operating at 120 suns using a molded acrylic Fresnel lens and passive cooling. Four modules were built and tested, and a manufacturing cost analysis was made. The module and components were designed for future high volume production with the use of automated equipment in mind. The module consisted of a lightweight module body fabricated from aluminum sheet stock, a lens parquet assembly, and a 15 high efficiency solar cell-heat sink assembly, connected in series to produce 55 W under normal operating conditions.

  10. Fabrication of stable, large-area thin-film CdTe photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, T. X.

    1995-06-01

    During the period of this subcontract, May 1991 through February 1995, Solar Cells, Inc. has developed and demonstrated a low-cost process to fabricate stable large-area cadmium telluride based thin-film photovoltaic modules. This report summarizes the final phase of the project which is concentrated on process optimization and product life tests. One of the major post-deposition process steps, the CdCl2 heat treatment, has been experimentally replaced with alternative treatments with vapor chloride or chlorine gas. Material and device qualities associated with alternative treatments are comparable or superior to those with the conventional treatment. Extensive experiments have been conducted to optimize the back-electrode structure in order to ensure long term device stability. Numerous small-area cells and minimodules have been subjected to a variety of stress tests, including but not limited to continuous light soak under open or short circuit or with resistive load, for over 10,000 hours. Satisfactory stability has been demonstrated on 48 and 64 sq cm minimodules under accelerated tests and on 7200 sq cm large modules under normal operating conditions. The conversion efficiency has also been significantly improved during this period. The total area efficiency of 7200 sq cm module has reached 8.4%, corresponding to a 60.3 W normalized output; the efficiency of 64 sq cm minimodules and 1.1 sq cm cells has reached 10.5% (aperture area) and 12.4% (total area), respectively.

  11. Photovoltaic module and array performance characterization methods for all system operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    This paper provides new test methods and analytical procedures for characterizing the electrical performance of photovoltaic modules and arrays. The methods use outdoor measurements to provide performance parameters both at standard reporting conditions and for all operating conditions encountered by typical photovoltaic systems. Improvements over previously used test methods are identified, and examples of the successful application of the methodology are provided for crystalline- and amorphous-silicon modules and arrays. This work provides an improved understanding of module and array performance characteristics, and perhaps most importantly, a straight- forward yet rigorous model for predicting array performance at all operating conditions. For the first time, the influences of solar irradiance, operating temperature, solar spectrum, solar angle-of- incidence, and temperature coefficients are all addressed in a practical way that will benefit both designers and users of photovoltaics.

  12. The NREL outdoor accelerated-weathering tracking system and photovoltaic module exposure results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, Thomas S.

    1999-03-01

    This paper describes the Outdoor Accelerated-weathering Tracking System (OATS) and interim results for the first OATS study on photovoltaic (PV) modules. With two test planes measuring 1.52×1.83 m, OATS provides a unique solar-concentrating exposure capability. Test sample temperatures are moderated by air blowers. Water spray capability exists for wetting samples. The OATS two-axis tracker points to the sun using software calculations. Non-imaging aluminum reflectors give a nominal clear-sky optical concentration ratio of three. Field-qualification measurements in the test plane under reflector conditions showed its relative irradiance non-uniformity was ±15% for a clear-sky summer day with ± 75 mm as the smallest distance for that non-uniformity. Exposure studies began in November 1997 on seven pairs of commercially available ribbon silicon, crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon PV modules kept at constant resistive load. The modules were periodically removed from OATS for visual inspection and solar simulator performance measurements. There were no module failures. This PV module study is ongoing and later results will be compared to other testing techniques. Through July 1998, the modules under reflector conditions received 392 MJ/m2 of total ultraviolet (TUV) exposure. That was 2.07 times the TUV exposure compared to a south-facing fixed array tilted 40° up from horizontal at NREL. Similarly, the modules in the test plane under the covered reflectors received 1.04 times the fixed array TUV exposure. For the test plane under the covered reflectors there was a loss of 13% TUV exposure attributed to the reflectors blocking some of the diffuse-sky UV light. Also through July 1998, the OATS sunlight availability measured 95% compared to the cumulative global normal exposure at the NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The OATS sunlight availability losses included downtime when the PV modules were removed, and when there were OATS tracking

  13. Applications of ethylene vinyl acetate as an encapsulation material for terrestrial photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Coulbert, C. D.; Liang, R. H.; Gupta, A.; Willis, P.; Baum, B.

    1983-01-01

    Terrestrial photovoltaic modules must undergo substantial reductions in cost in order to become economically attractive as practical devices for large scale production of electricity. Part of the cost reductions must be realized by the encapsulation materials that are used to package, protect, and support the solar cells, electrical interconnects, and other ancillary components. As many of the encapsulation materials are polymeric, cost reductions necessitate the use of low cost polymers. The performance and status of ethylene vinyl acetate, a low cost polymer that is being investigated as an encapsulation material for terrestrial photovoltaic modules, are described.

  14. Photovoltaic Cz Silicon Module Improvements; Final Subcontract Report, 9 November 1995 - 8 November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    T. L. Jester.

    1999-06-17

    This report describes work that focused on reducing the cost per watt of Cz silicon photovoltaic modules under Siemens Solar Industries' (SSI) DOE/NREL Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) 4A subcontract. SSI researchers deployed new module designs, realized improvements in yield of more than 25%, and implemented statistical process control (SPC). They have described yield improvements in detail and reported on the deployment of SPC in critical process steps. The sum of all improvements resulted in a greater than 17% cost per watt reduction in manufacturing.

  15. 77 FR 35425 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China; Scheduling of the Final Phase of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly revised Commission's Handbook on E-Filing... COMMISSION Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China; Scheduling of the Final Phase of... crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells and modules, provided for in subheadings 8501.31.80, 8501.61.00,...

  16. Thermal and Electrical Effects of Partial Shade in Monolithic Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, Timothy J.; Deceglie, Michael G.; Sun, Xingshu; Garris, Rebekah L.; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Deline, Chris; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-06-14

    Photovoltaic cells can be damaged by reverse bias stress, which arises during service when a monolithically integrated thin-film module is partially shaded. We introduce a model for describing a module's internal thermal and electrical state, which cannot normally be measured. Using this model and experimental measurements, we present several results with relevance for reliability testing and module engineering: Modules with a small breakdown voltage experience less stress than those with a large breakdown voltage, with some exceptions for modules having light-enhanced reverse breakdown. Masks leaving a small part of the masked cells illuminated can lead to very high temperature and current density compared to masks covering entire cells.

  17. Thermal and Electrical Effects of Partial Shade in Monolithic Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, Timothy J.; Deceglie, Michael G.; Sun, Xingshu; Garris, Rebekah L.; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Deline, Chris; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-09-02

    Photovoltaic cells can be damaged by reverse bias stress, which arises during service when a monolithically integrated thin-film module is partially shaded. We introduce a model for describing a module's internal thermal and electrical state, which cannot normally be measured. Using this model and experimental measurements, we present several results with relevance for reliability testing and module engineering: Modules with a small breakdown voltage experience less stress than those with a large breakdown voltage, with some exceptions for modules having light-enhanced reverse breakdown. Masks leaving a small part of the masked cells illuminated can lead to very high temperature and current density compared to masks covering entire cells.

  18. History of Accelerated and Qualification Testing of Terrestrial Photovoltaic Modules: A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, C. R.; McMahon, T. J.

    2009-01-01

    We review published literature from 1975 to the present for accelerated stress testing of flat-plate terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules. An important facet of this subject is the standard module test sequences that have been adopted by national and international standards organizations, especially those of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The intent and history of these qualification tests, provided in this review, shows that standard module qualification test results cannot be used to obtain or infer a product lifetime. Closely related subjects also discussed include: other limitations of qualification testing, definitions of module lifetime, module product certification, and accelerated life testing.

  19. Simulation of an active cooling system for photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelhakim, Lotfi

    2016-06-01

    Photovoltaic cells are devices that convert solar radiation directly into electricity. However, solar radiation increases the photovoltaic cells temperature [1] [2]. The temperature has an influence on the degradation of the cell efficiency and the lifetime of a PV cell. This work reports on a water cooling technique for photovoltaic panel, whereby the cooling system was placed at the front surface of the cells to dissipate excess heat away and to block unwanted radiation. By using water as a cooling medium for the photovoltaic solar cells, the overheating of closed panel is greatly reduced without prejudicing luminosity. The water also acts as a filter to remove a portion of solar spectrum in the infrared band but allows transmission of the visible spectrum most useful for the PV operation. To improve the cooling system efficiency and electrical efficiency, uniform flow rate among the cooling system is required to ensure uniform distribution of the operating temperature of the PV cells. The aims of this study are to develop a 3D thermal model to simulate the cooling and heat transfer in Photovoltaic panel and to recommend a cooling technique for the PV panel. The velocity, pressure and temperature distribution of the three-dimensional flow across the cooling block were determined using the commercial package, Fluent. The second objective of this work is to study the influence of the geometrical dimensions of the panel, water mass flow rate and water inlet temperature on the flow distribution and the solar panel temperature. The results obtained by the model are compared with experimental results from testing the prototype of the cooling device.

  20. Photovoltaic-Concentrator Based Power Beaming For Space Elevator Application

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Daniel E.; Chiang, Richard; Keys, Catherine C.; Lyjak, Andrew W.; Starch, Michael D.; Nees, John A.

    2010-05-06

    The MClimber team, at the Student Space Systems Fabrication Laboratory of the University of Michigan, has developed a prototype robotic climber for competition in the NASA sponsored Power Beaming Challenge. This paper describes the development of the system that utilizes a simple telescope to deliver an 8 kW beam to a photovoltaic panel in order to power a one kilometer climb. Its unique approach utilizes a precision GPS signal to track the panel. Fundamental systems of the project were implemented using a design strategy focusing on robustness and modularity. Development of this design and its results are presented.

  1. Concentrated PhotoVoltaics (CPV): Is it a real opportunity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonini, P.

    2013-06-01

    Many large industries made relevant investment in the field of CPV. Considering the present price of traditional silicon cells one could argue about this strategy. Critical points of CPV together with its benefits will be presented. In CPV more technology is involved compared to PhotoVoltaic (PV) and this could be the key issue. Moreover, progress in the field of multiple-juction solar cells is constant and efficiency is increasing every year. Good technical solutions could make CPV very competitive, provided it is installed in areas where the direct light (DNI) is relevant.

  2. Improved Coefficient Calculator for the California Energy Commission 6 Parameter Photovoltaic Module Model

    SciTech Connect

    Dobos, A. P.

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes an improved algorithm for calculating the six parameters required by the California Energy Commission (CEC) photovoltaic (PV) Calculator module model. Rebate applications in California require results from the CEC PV model, and thus depend on an up-to-date database of module characteristics. Currently, adding new modules to the database requires calculating operational coefficients using a general purpose equation solver - a cumbersome process for the 300+ modules added on average every month. The combination of empirical regressions and heuristic methods presented herein achieve automated convergence for 99.87% of the 5487 modules in the CEC database and greatly enhance the accuracy and efficiency by which new modules can be characterized and approved for use. The added robustness also permits general purpose use of the CEC/6 parameter module model by modelers and system analysts when standard module specifications are known, even if the module does not exist in a preprocessed database.

  3. Lateral Spectrum Splitting Concentrator Photovoltaics: Direct Measurement of Component and Submodule Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaoting, W.; Waite, N.; Murcia, P.; Emery, K.; Steiner, M.; Kiamilev, F.; Goossen, K.; Honsberg, C.; Barnett, A.

    2012-03-01

    To achieve high energy conversion efficiency, a solar module architecture called lateral spectrum splitting concentrator photovoltaics (LSSCPV) is being developed. LSSCPV can concentrate available sunlight and laterally split a single beam into bands with different spectra for absorption by different solar cells with band gaps matched to the split spectrum. Test assemblies of a sample LSSCPV architecture were constructed, each of which contains four p-n junctions and two optical pieces. Independent experiments or simulations had been implemented on the components but by using optimal assumptions. In order to examine the actual performances of all the components, which are dependent on each other and the light source, direct outdoor measurements were made. A set of self-consistent efficiency definitions was articulated and a test bed was developed to measure the parameters required by the efficiency calculation. By comparing the component efficiency items derived from the outdoor measurement and the expected values based on independent simulations, the potential opportunities for efficiency improvement are determined. In the outdoor measurement at the University of Delaware, the optical component demonstrated 89.1% efficiency. Additional assemblies were tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. One assembly demonstrated 36.7% submodule efficiency, which compares favorably with the 32.6% previously reported verified submodule efficiency.

  4. A systematic method of interconnection optimization for dense-array concentrator photovoltaic system.

    PubMed

    Siaw, Fei-Lu; Chong, Kok-Keong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new systematic approach to analyze all possible array configurations in order to determine the most optimal dense-array configuration for concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) systems. The proposed method is fast, simple, reasonably accurate, and very useful as a preliminary study before constructing a dense-array CPV panel. Using measured flux distribution data, each CPV cells' voltage and current values at three critical points which are at short-circuit, open-circuit, and maximum power point are determined. From there, an algorithm groups the cells into basic modules. The next step is I-V curve prediction, to find the maximum output power of each array configuration. As a case study, twenty different I-V predictions are made for a prototype of nonimaging planar concentrator, and the array configuration that yields the highest output power is determined. The result is then verified by assembling and testing of an actual dense-array on the prototype. It was found that the I-V curve closely resembles simulated I-V prediction, and measured maximum output power varies by only 1.34%. PMID:24453823

  5. A Systematic Method of Interconnection Optimization for Dense-Array Concentrator Photovoltaic System

    PubMed Central

    Siaw, Fei-Lu

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new systematic approach to analyze all possible array configurations in order to determine the most optimal dense-array configuration for concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) systems. The proposed method is fast, simple, reasonably accurate, and very useful as a preliminary study before constructing a dense-array CPV panel. Using measured flux distribution data, each CPV cells' voltage and current values at three critical points which are at short-circuit, open-circuit, and maximum power point are determined. From there, an algorithm groups the cells into basic modules. The next step is I-V curve prediction, to find the maximum output power of each array configuration. As a case study, twenty different I-V predictions are made for a prototype of nonimaging planar concentrator, and the array configuration that yields the highest output power is determined. The result is then verified by assembling and testing of an actual dense-array on the prototype. It was found that the I-V curve closely resembles simulated I-V prediction, and measured maximum output power varies by only 1.34%. PMID:24453823

  6. Performance and reliability of photovoltaic modules at various MIT LL test sites

    SciTech Connect

    Forman, S. E.; Themelis, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    Between March 1977 and the present, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, has placed 85 kW of photovoltaic modules at various experimental test sites in the United States. These sites range in size and function from a 25-kW System Test Facility, where all the components in a PV system are tested, down to a 0.1-kW Environmental Test Site, where modules alone undergo weathering and soil accumulation experiments. To date, 144 modules (amounting to 2.75 kW) of 4533 have experienced electrical failure. This report summarizes the performance and reliability of photovoltaic modules at two experimental test sites: a 25-kW array field at Mead, Nebraska, and a 7.5-kW array field at Arlington, Texas.

  7. Structural cost optimization of photovoltaic central power station modules and support structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, P. D.; Stolte, W. J.; Marsh, R. O.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive study of photovoltaic module structural support concepts for photovoltaic central power stations and their associated costs are presented. The objective of the study has been the identification of structural cost drivers. Parametric structural design and cost analyses of complete array systems consisting of modules, primary support structures, and foundations were performed. Area related module cost was found to be constant with design, size, and loading. A curved glass module concept was evaluated and found to have the potential to significantly reduce panel structural costs. Conclusions of the study are: array costs do not vary greatly among the designs evaluated; panel and array costs are strongly dependent on design loading; and the best support configuration is load dependent

  8. Report of an exploratory study: Safety and liability considerations for photovoltaic modules/panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, A. S.; Meeker, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    An overview of legal issues as they apply to design, manufacture and use of photovoltaic module/array devices is provided and a methodology is suggested for use of the design stage of these products to minimize or eliminate perceived hazards. Questions are posed to stimulate consideration of this area.

  9. Building America Case Study: Photovoltaic Systems with Module-Level Power Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    Direct current (DC) power optimizers and microinverters (together known as module-level power electronics, or MLPE) are one of the fastest growing market segments in the solar industry. According to GTM Research in The Global PV Inverter Landscape 2015, over 55% of all residential photovoltaic (PV) installations in the United States used some form of MLPE in 2014.

  10. 77 FR 25400 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ..., 76 FR 70966 (November 16, 2011), and Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 76 FR..., 77 FR 17439 (March 26, 2012). Because the AD and CVD investigations were initiated simultaneously...

  11. Robust Measurement of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules Exhibiting Light-Induced Transients: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Deceglie, Michael, G.; Silverman, Timothy J.; Marion, Bill; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2015-09-09

    Light-induced changes to the current-voltage characteristic of thin-film photovoltaic modules (i.e. light-soaking effects) frustrate the repeatable measurement of their operating power. We describe best practices for mitigating, or stabilizing, light-soaking effects for both CdTe and CIGS modules to enable robust, repeatable, and relevant power measurements. We motivate the practices by detailing how modules react to changes in different stabilization methods. We also describe and demonstrate a method for validating alternative stabilization procedures, such as those relying on forward bias in the dark. Reliable measurements of module power are critical for qualification testing, reliability testing, and power rating.

  12. Thermal and optical performance of encapsulation systems for flat-plate photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minning, C. P.; Coakley, J. F.; Perrygo, C. M.; Garcia, A., III; Cuddihy, E. F.

    1981-01-01

    The electrical power output from a photovoltaic module is strongly influenced by the thermal and optical characteristics of the module encapsulation system. Described are the methodology and computer model for performing fast and accurate thermal and optical evaluations of different encapsulation systems. The computer model is used to evaluate cell temperature, solar energy transmittance through the encapsulation system, and electric power output for operation in a terrestrial environment. Extensive results are presented for both superstrate-module and substrate-module design schemes which include different types of silicon cell materials, pottants, and antireflection coatings.

  13. Robust measurement of thin-film photovoltaic modules exhibiting light-induced transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deceglie, Michael G.; Silverman, Timothy J.; Marion, Bill; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2015-09-01

    Light-induced changes to the current-voltage characteristic of thin-film photovoltaic modules (i.e. light-soaking effects) frustrate the repeatable measurement of their operating power. We describe best practices for mitigating, or stabilizing, light-soaking effects for both CdTe and CIGS modules to enable robust, repeatable, and relevant power measurements. We motivate the practices by detailing how modules react to changes in different stabilization methods. We also describe and demonstrate a method for validating alternative stabilization procedures, such as those relying on forward bias in the dark. Reliable measurements of module power are critical for qualification testing, reliability testing, and power rating.

  14. Thermal and other tests of photovoltaic modules performed in natural sunlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stultz, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    The bulk of the testing was the characterization of twenty-nine modules according to their nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT) and the effect on NOCT of changes in module design, various residential roof mounting configurations, and dirt accumulation. Other tests, often performed parallel with the NOCT measurements, evaluated the improvement in electrical performance by cooling the modules with water and by channeling the waste heat into a phase change material (wax). Electrical degradation resulting from the natural marriage of photovoltaic and solar water heating modules was also demonstrated. Cost effectiveness of each of these techniques are evaluated in light of the LSA cost goal of $0.50 per watt.

  15. Performance degradation of grid-tied photovoltaic modules in a hot-dry climatic condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleske, Adam; Singh, Jaspreet; Kuitche, Joseph; Tamizh-Mani, Govindasamy

    2011-09-01

    The crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) modules under open circuit conditions typically degrade at a rate of about 0.5% per year. However, it is suspected that the modules in an array level may degrade, depending on equipment/frame grounding and array grounding, at higher rates because of higher string voltage and increased module mismatch over the years of operation in the field. This paper compares and analyzes the degradation rates of grid-tied photovoltaic modules operating over 10-17 years in a desert climatic condition of Arizona. The nameplate open-circuit voltages of the arrays ranged between 400 and 450 V. Six different types/models of crystalline silicon modules with glass/glass and glass/polymer constructions were evaluated. About 1865 modules were inspected using an extended visual inspection checklist and infrared (IR) scanning. The visual inspection checklist included encapsulant discoloration, cell/interconnect cracks, delamination and corrosion. Based on the visual inspection and IR studies, a large fraction of these modules were identified as allegedly healthy and unhealthy modules and they were electrically isolated from the system for currentvoltage (I-V) measurements of individual modules. The annual degradation rate for each module type is determined based on the I-V measurements.

  16. Estimating Parameters for the PVsyst Version 6 Photovoltaic Module Performance Model

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Clifford

    2015-10-01

    We present an algorithm to determine parameters for the photovoltaic module perf ormance model encoded in the software package PVsyst(TM) version 6. Our method operates on current - voltage (I - V) measured over a range of irradiance and temperature conditions. We describe the method and illustrate its steps using data for a 36 cell crystalli ne silicon module. We qualitatively compare our method with one other technique for estimating parameters for the PVsyst(TM) version 6 model .

  17. Development of a photovoltaic module qualification test based on combined-environment accelerated stress data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenchard, S. E.; Royal, E.; Anderson, R. T.

    The U.S. Coast Guard has developed a qualification test to screen photovoltaic modules for utilization on marine aids to navigation. The test is based on a combined-environment of hot and cold saltwater immersion and air pressurization. The test has demonstrated a very high acceleration factor and excellent correlation of electrical failures with modules in a concurrent real-time marine exposure.

  18. Development of a photovoltaic module qualification test based on combined-environment accelerated stress data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trenchard, S. E.; Royal, E.; Anderson, R. T.

    1982-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard has developed a qualification test to screen photovoltaic modules for utilization on marine aids to navigation. The test is based on a combined-environment of hot and cold saltwater immersion and air pressurization. The test has demonstrated a very high acceleration factor and excellent correlation of electrical failures with modules in a concurrent real-time marine exposure.

  19. Ability of photovoltaic modules to withstand lightning strikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felder, B.; Robb, J. D.

    The ability of glass superstrate and metal/plastic substrate modules to withstand lightning strikes was examined. Each of three different types of modules were exposed to four nearby and one direct strike of high voltage, long arc simulated lightning, and to one direct strike of high current, long duration lightning. Visual and electrical examination demonstrated that the high voltage strikes produced no electrical damage to the glass superstrate modules and little to the plastic substrate module. The high current, long duration strike resulted in varying degrees of physical damage to all modules but little or no loss in electrical performance.

  20. Modelling acceptance of sunlight in high and low photovoltaic concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Leutz, Ralf

    2014-09-26

    A simple model incorporating linear radiation characteristics, along with the optical trains and geometrical concentration ratios of solar concentrators is presented with performance examples for optical trains of HCPV, LCPV and benchmark flat-plate PV.

  1. Recent developments in refractive concentrators for space photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael F.; Oneill, Mark J.

    1993-01-01

    Since SPRAT 11, significant progress has been made in the development of refractive concentrator elements and components designed specifically for space applications. The status of the mini-dome Fresnel lens concentrator array is discussed and then the results of work recently completed in the area of prismatic cell covers for concentrator systems are summarized. This is followed by a brief discussion of some work just starting in the area of line-focus refractive concentrators for space.

  2. A series connection architecture for large-area organic photovoltaic modules with a 7.5% module efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Soonil; Kang, Hongkyu; Kim, Geunjin; Lee, Seongyu; Kim, Seok; Lee, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Jinho; Yi, Minjin; Kim, Junghwan; Back, Hyungcheol; Kim, Jae-Ryoung; Lee, Kwanghee

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication of organic photovoltaic modules via printing techniques has been the greatest challenge for their commercial manufacture. Current module architecture, which is based on a monolithic geometry consisting of serially interconnecting stripe-patterned subcells with finite widths, requires highly sophisticated patterning processes that significantly increase the complexity of printing production lines and cause serious reductions in module efficiency due to so-called aperture loss in series connection regions. Herein we demonstrate an innovative module structure that can simultaneously reduce both patterning processes and aperture loss. By using a charge recombination feature that occurs at contacts between electron- and hole-transport layers, we devise a series connection method that facilitates module fabrication without patterning the charge transport layers. With the successive deposition of component layers using slot-die and doctor-blade printing techniques, we achieve a high module efficiency reaching 7.5% with area of 4.15 cm2.

  3. A series connection architecture for large-area organic photovoltaic modules with a 7.5% module efficiency.

    PubMed

    Hong, Soonil; Kang, Hongkyu; Kim, Geunjin; Lee, Seongyu; Kim, Seok; Lee, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Jinho; Yi, Minjin; Kim, Junghwan; Back, Hyungcheol; Kim, Jae-Ryoung; Lee, Kwanghee

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication of organic photovoltaic modules via printing techniques has been the greatest challenge for their commercial manufacture. Current module architecture, which is based on a monolithic geometry consisting of serially interconnecting stripe-patterned subcells with finite widths, requires highly sophisticated patterning processes that significantly increase the complexity of printing production lines and cause serious reductions in module efficiency due to so-called aperture loss in series connection regions. Herein we demonstrate an innovative module structure that can simultaneously reduce both patterning processes and aperture loss. By using a charge recombination feature that occurs at contacts between electron- and hole-transport layers, we devise a series connection method that facilitates module fabrication without patterning the charge transport layers. With the successive deposition of component layers using slot-die and doctor-blade printing techniques, we achieve a high module efficiency reaching 7.5% with area of 4.15 cm(2). PMID:26728507

  4. Reconstruction of solar spectral resource using limited spectral sampling for concentrating photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsiankou, Viktar; Hinzer, Karin; Mohammed, Jafaru; Muron, Aaron; Wilkins, Matthew; Haysom, Joan; Schriemer, Henry; Myrskog, Stefan

    2013-10-01

    One of the challenges associated with forecasting and evaluating concentrating photovoltaic system (CPV) performance in diverse locations is the lack of high-quality spectral solar resource data. Various local atmospheric conditions such as air mass, aerosols, and atmospheric gases affect daily CPV module operation. A multi-channel filter radiometer (MFCR) can be used to quantify these effects at relatively low cost. The proposed method of selectively sampling the solar spectrum at specific wavelength channels to spectrally reconstruct incident irradiance is described and extensively analyzed. Field spectroradiometer (FSR) measurements at the University of Ottawa's CPV testing facility (45.42°N, 75.68°W) are fed into our model to mimic the outputs from the MCFR. The analysis is performed over a two year period (2011-2012), using 46,564 spectra. A recommendation is made to use four aerosols channels at 420, 500, 780, and 1050 nm, one ozone channel at 610 nm and one water vapour channel at 940 nm, all of which can be measured with ubiquitous Si photodiodes. A simulation of this MFCR channel configuration produces an RMS error under 1.5% over 96% of the 350-1830 nm range, when compared with the FSR, for the 2012 data set in Ottawa.

  5. Photovoltaic module hot spot durability design and test methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnett, J. C.; Gonzalez, C. C.

    1981-01-01

    As part of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Low-Cost Solar Array Project, the susceptibility of fat-plate modules to hot-spot problems is investigated. Hot-spot problems arise in modules when the cells become back-biased and operate in the negative-voltage quadrant, as a result of short-circuit current mismatch, cell cracking or shadowing. The details of a qualification test for determining the capability of modules of surviving field hot-spot problems and typical results of this test are presented. In addition, recommended circuit-design techniques for improving the module and array reliability with respect to hot-spot problems are presented.

  6. Operation and maintenance cost data for residential photovoltaic modules/panels

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    Burt Hill Kosar Rittelmann Associates has conducted a study to identify and estimate costs associated with the operation and maintenance of residential photovoltaic modules and arrays. Six basic topics related to operation and maintenance to photovoltaic arrays were investigated - General (Normal) Maintenance, Cleaning, Panel Replacement, Gasket Repair/Replacement, Wiring Repair/Replacement, and Termination Repair/Replacement. The effects of the mounting types - Rack Mount, Stand-Off Mount, Direct Mount, and Integral Mount - and the installation/replacement type - Sequential, Partial Interruption, and Independent - have been identified and described. Recommendation on methods of reducing maintenance costs are made.

  7. A photovoltaics module for incoming science, technology, engineering and mathematics undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dark, Marta L.

    2011-05-01

    Photovoltaic-cell-based projects have been used to train eight incoming undergraduate women who were part of a residential summer programme at a women's college. A module on renewable energy and photovoltaic cells was developed in the physics department. The module's objectives were to introduce women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) majors to physical phenomena, to develop quantitative literacy and communication skills, and to increase the students' interest in physics. The students investigated the performance of commercially available silicon semiconductors through experiments they designed, carried out and analysed. They fabricated and tested organic dye-based solar cells. This article describes the programme, the solar cell module, and presents some experimental results obtained by the students.

  8. PVSIM{copyright}: A simulation program for photovoltaic cells, modules, and arrays

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.L.; Dudley, J.K.; Boyson, W.E.

    1996-06-01

    An electrical simulation model for photovoltaic cells, modules, and arrays has been developed that will be useful to a wide range of analysts in the photovoltaic industry. The Microsoft{reg_sign} Windows{trademark} based program can be used to analyze individual cells, to analyze the effects of cell mismatch or reverse bias(`hot spot`) heating in modules and to analyze the performance of large arrays of modules including bypass and blocking diodes. User defined statistical variance can be applied to the fundamental parameters used to simulate the cells and diodes. The model is most appropriate for cells that can be accurately modeled using a two-diode equivalent circuit. This paper describes the simulation program and illustrates its versatility with examples.

  9. Interim qualification tests and procedures for terrestrial photovoltaic thin-film flat-plate modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deblasio, R.; Mrig, L.; Waddington, D.

    1990-01-01

    This document provides recommended procedures and specifications for qualification tests that are structured to evaluate terrestrial thin-film flat-plate photovoltaic nonconcentrating modules intended for power generation applications. The qualification tests provided in this document are designed to evaluate flat-plate thin-film photovoltaic (PV) module design performance and susceptibility to known failure mechanisms. Emphasis is placed on testing and evaluating module performance characteristics and design features that will affect possible degradation of module performance and physical properties resulting from solar exposure, environmental weathering, mechanical loading, corrosion, and module shadowing. Because of limited thin-film module field operation experience and the evolutionary nature of new thin-film module material technologies and designs, these tests should not be considered definitive or complete, nor do they provide a basis to predict 30-year field life. Current understanding of failure and degradation mechanisms and the relationship between accelerated tests and field reliability is not sufficient to allow accurate estimation of life-expectancy, nor are the cycling tests given in this document considered to be equivalent to a full 30-year field exposure. However, the test and evaluation procedures given in this document provide a common approach for conducting qualification tests. Acceptable results from these tests should provide reasonable assurance that the modules that pass these tests will perform reliably in the field but for an unspecified period of time.

  10. Interim qualification tests and procedures for terrestrial photovoltaic thin-film flat-plate modules

    SciTech Connect

    DeBlasio, R.; Mrig, L.; Waddington, D.

    1990-01-01

    This document provides recommended procedures and specifications for qualification tests that are structured to evaluate terrestrial thin-film flat-plate photovoltaic nonconcentrating modules intended for power generation applications. The qualification tests provided in this document are designed to evaluate flat-plate thin-film photovoltaic (PV) module design performance and susceptibility to known failure mechanisms. Emphasis is placed on testing and evaluating module performance characteristics and design features that will affect possible degradation of module performance and physical properties resulting from solar exposure, environmental weathering, mechanical loading, corrosion, and module shadowing. Because of limited thin-film module field operation experience and the evolutionary nature of new thin-film module material technologies and designs, these tests should not be considered definitive or complete, nor do they provide a basis to predict 30-year field life. Current understanding of failure and degradation mechanisms and the relationship between accelerated tests and field reliability is not sufficient to allow accurate estimation of life-expectancy, nor are the cycling tests given in this document considered to be equivalent to a full 30-year field exposure. However, the test and evaluation procedures given in this document provide a common approach for conducting qualification tests. Acceptable results from these tests should provide reasonable assurance that the modules that pass these tests will perform reliably in the field but for an unspecified period of time. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Design of nonimaging static solar concentrator for window integrated photovoltaic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellami, Nazmi; Mallick, Tapas K.

    2012-10-01

    The focus of this research is to develop a solar concentrator for the purpose of building integration which is compact, static and, at the same time, able to collect maximum solar energy. The novel concentrator is designed to be used in Window Integrated Concentrated PV (WICPV). The window provides natural light transmission as well as electricity production. The concentrator is optically optimised for different incident angles of the incoming light rays. Evaluating the best combination of the optical efficiency and the acceptance angle, the 4x concentrator built from dielectric material, working with total internal reflection is optimised. It is found to have a constant optical efficiency of 40% for an acceptance angle equal to 120° (-60°, +60°) and an optical concentration ratio (OCR) of 1.6x. This enables capture of the sun rays all day long from both direct and diffuse light. Higher OCR's are obtained for different dimensions of the solar concentrator; however, the acceptance angles are relatively low. Three prototypes with different heights (10mm, 15mm and 20 mm) of the optimised concentrators have been manufactured and tested in indoor conditions. The experimental results validate the results obtained from the optical model with a variation of less than 5%.

  12. Microscopic Degradation Mechanisms in Silicon Photovoltaic Module under Long-Term Environmental Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Keiko; Watanabe, Takeshi; Sakaguchi, Koichi; Yoshikawa, Masanobu; Doi, Takuya; Masuda, Atsushi

    2012-10-01

    We used several analytical methods to identify the mechanism underlying the performance degradation in a photovoltaic (PV) module subjected to long-term (10 years) field exposure. Cloudy visual defects in this module were caused by delamination between the poly(ethylene vinyl acetate) (EVA) and antireflection coating films on the Si substrate. The delamination was considered to be caused by the formation of a segregation layer and oxidative degradation of EVA. Furthermore, it was found that sodium ions diffused from the superstrate glass into the EVA film and Si cell. We confirm that diffusion of sodium ions caused the degradation of Si cells and the superstrate glass of this module.

  13. Metastable Changes to the Temperature Coefficients of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Deceglie, M. G.; Silverman, T. J.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2014-07-01

    Transient changes in the performance of thin-film modules with light exposure are a well-known and widely reported phenomenon. These changes are often the result of reversible metastabilities rather than irreversible changes. Here we consider how these metastable changes affect the temperature dependence of photovoltaic performance. We find that in CIGS modules exhibiting a metastable increase in performance with light exposure, the light exposure also induces an increase in the magnitude of the temperature coefficient. It is important to understand such changes when characterizing temperature coefficients and when analyzing the outdoor performance of newly installed modules.

  14. Measuring solar spectral and angle-of-incidence effects on photovoltaic modules and solar irradiance sensors

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.L.; Kratochvil, J.A.; Boyson, W.E.

    1997-11-01

    Historically, two time-of-day dependent factors have complicated the characterization of photovoltaic module and array performance; namely, changes in the solar spectrum over the day and optical effects in the module that vary with the solar angle-of-incidence. This paper describes straightforward methods for directly measuring the effects of these two factors. Measured results for commercial modules, as well as for typical solar irradiance sensors (pyranometers) are provided. The empirical relationships obtained from the measurements can be used to improve the methods used for system design, verification of performance after installation, and diagnostic monitoring of performance during operation.

  15. Ultralight amorphous silicon alloy photovoltaic modules for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanak, J. J.; Chen, Englade; Fulton, C.; Myatt, A.; Woodyard, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    Ultralight and ultrathin, flexible, rollup monolithic PV modules have been developed consisting of multijunction, amorphous silicon alloys for either terrestrial or aerospace applications. The rate of progress in increasing conversion efficiency of stable multijunction and multigap PV cells indicates that arrays of these modules can be available for NASA's high power systems in the 1990's. Because of the extremely light module weight and the highly automated process of manufacture, the monolithic a-Si alloy arrays are expected to be strongly competitive with other systems for use in NASA's space station or in other large aerospace applications.

  16. Crystalline-silicon photovoltaics summary module design and reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of the design and reliability of solar modules was described. Design requirements involved 14 different considerations, including residential building and material electrical codes, wind-loading, hail impact, operating temperature levels, module flammability, and interfaces for both the array structure and the operation of the system. Reliability research involved in diverse investigations including glass-fracture strength, soiling levels, electrochemical corrosion, and bypass-diode qualification tests. Based on these internationally recognized studies, performance assessments, and failure analyses, the Flat-plate Solar Array Project in its 11-year duration served to nuture the development of 45 different solar module designs from 15 PV manufacturers.

  17. Investigation of terrestrial photovoltaic power systems with sunlight concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backus, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical model of the silicon solar cells for high illumination is being used to design cells for different concentration factors. It is shown that a cell design using one centimeter length grid fingers would have an efficiency at 100 suns that is 90% of the efficiency of a typical cell at one sun. This may require about 30 fingers per centimeter. A decrease in efficiency comes from the greater coverage of the surface with grids as the concentration increases. The importance of base material resistivity on cell design for high concentration is outlined.

  18. Electrochemical degradation of amorphous-silicon photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mon, G. R.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques of module electrochemical corrosion research, developed during reliability studies of crystalline-silicon modules (C-Si), have been applied to this new investigation into amorphous-silicon (a-Si) module reliability. Amorphous-Si cells, encapsulated in the polymers polyvinyl butyral (PVB) and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), were exposed for more than 1200 hours in a controlled 85 C/85 percent RH environment, with a constant 500 volts applied between the cells and an aluminum frame. Plotting power output reduction versus charge transferred reveals that about 50 percent a-Si cell failures can be expected with the passage of 0.1 to 1.0 Coulomb/cm of cell-frame edge length; this threshold is somewhat less than that determined for C-Si modules.

  19. Photovoltaic array performance model.

    SciTech Connect

    Kratochvil, Jay A.; Boyson, William Earl; King, David L.

    2004-08-01

    This document summarizes the equations and applications associated with the photovoltaic array performance model developed at Sandia National Laboratories over the last twelve years. Electrical, thermal, and optical characteristics for photovoltaic modules are included in the model, and the model is designed to use hourly solar resource and meteorological data. The versatility and accuracy of the model has been validated for flat-plate modules (all technologies) and for concentrator modules, as well as for large arrays of modules. Applications include system design and sizing, 'translation' of field performance measurements to standard reporting conditions, system performance optimization, and real-time comparison of measured versus expected system performance.

  20. New nonimaging static concentrators for bifacial photovoltaic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benitez, Pablo; Hernandez, Maikel; Mohedano Arroyo, Ruben; Minano, Juan C.; Munoz, Fernando

    1999-10-01

    Two new static nonimaging designs for bifacial solar cells are presented. These concentrators have been obtained with the Simultaneous Multiple Surface design method of Nonimaging Optics. The main characteristics of these concentrators are: (1) high compactness, (2) linear symmetry (in order to be made by low cost extrusion), (3) performance close to the thermodynamic limit, and (4) a non-shading sizable gap between at least one of the cell edges and the optically active surfaces. This last feature is interesting because this gap can be used to allocate the interconnections between cells, with no additional optical losses. As an example of the results, one design for an acceptable angle of +/- 30 degrees gets a geometrical concentration of 5.5X, with an average thickness to entry aperture width ratio of 0.24. The 3D ray-tracing analysis of the concentrators is also presented.

  1. Partial shade stress test for thin-film photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Timothy J.; Deceglie, Michael G.; Deline, Chris; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Partial shade of monolithic thin-film PV modules can cause reverse-bias conditions leading to permanent damage. In this work, we introduce a partial shade stress test for thin-film PV modules that quantifies permanent performance loss. The test reproduces shading and loading conditions that may occur in the field. It accounts for reversible light-induced performance changes and for the effects of light-enhanced reverse breakdown. We simulated the test procedure using a computer model that predicts the local voltage, current and temperature stress resulting from partial shade. We also performed the test on three commercial module types. Each module type we tested suffered permanent damage during masked ash testing totaling < 2 s of light exposure. During the subsequent stress test these module types lost 4%{11% in Pmp due to widespread formation of new shunts. One module type showed a substantial worsening of the Pmp loss upon light stabilization, underscoring the importance of this practice for proper quantification of damage.

  2. SCARLET Photovoltaic Concentrator Array Selected for Flight Under NASA's New Millennium Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center continues to demonstrate its expertise in the development and implementation of advanced space power systems. For example, during the past year, the NASA New Millennium Program selected the Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology (SCARLET) photovoltaic array as the power system for its Deep Space-1 (DS-1) mission. This Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) managed DS-1 mission, which represents the first operational flight of a photovoltaic concentrator array, will provide a baseline for the use of this technology in a variety of future government and commercial applications. SCARLET is a joint NASA Lewis/Ballistic Missile Defense Organization program to develop advanced photovoltaic array technology that uses a unique refractive concentrator design to focus sunlight onto a line of photovoltaic cells located below the optical element. The general concept is based on previous work conducted at Lewis under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with AEC-Able Engineering, Inc., for the Multiple Experiments to Earth Orbit and Return (METEOR) spacecraft. The SCARLET II design selected by the New Millennium Program is a direct adaptation of the smaller SCARLET I array built for METEOR. Even though SCARLET I was lost during a launch failure in October 1995, the hardware (designed, built, and flight qualified within 6 months) provided invaluable information and experience that led to the selection of this technology as the primary power source for DS-1.

  3. Analysis of transmitted optical spectrum enabling accelerated testing of multijunction concentrating photovoltaic designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David C.; Kempe, Michael D.; Kennedy, Cheryl E.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2011-01-01

    Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology has recently gained interest based on its scalability and expected low levelized cost of electricity. The reliability of encapsulation materials used in CPV systems, however, is not well established. For example, the present qualification test for CPV modules includes only real-time ultraviolet (UV) exposure, i.e., methods for accelerated UV testing have not yet been developed. To better define the stress inherent to CPV systems, the UV and infrared spectra transmitted through representative optical systems were evaluated. Measurements of optical components are used to assess expected optical performance and quantify damaging optical exposure. Optical properties (transmittance, refractive index, reflectance, and absorptance) of candidate materials (including PMMA, soda-lime glass, borosilicate glass, and quartz refractors), components (including Ag- and Al-enabled reflectors), and encapsulants (including EVA, ionomer, PDMS, PPMS, polyolefin, and PVB) were identified. The activation spectrum was calculated for the representative optical systems using an assumed action spectrum to compare the expected damaging dose of UV radiation delivered to the cell encapsulation. The dose and flux analysis identifies the significance of IR relative to UV exposure for CPV systems. Because UV light is typically more highly attenuated, the UV dose within the encapsulation may not greatly exceed the unconcentrated global solar condition, but the thermal load scales nearly directly with the geometric concentration. Relative to a previous analysis for crystalline silicon cell technology, the analysis here is performed for III-V multijunction technology. Novel aspects here also include additional materials (such as TPU encapsulation) and additional components (transmission through silicone on glass lenses, antireflective coatings, and the front glass used with reflective systems, as well as reflection off of the cell).

  4. Comparative performance testing of photovoltaic modules in tropical climates of Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosyid, Oo Abdul

    2016-02-01

    Solar energy is one of the most significant types of the sustainable and renewable energy sources that have been used in Indonesia. Photovoltaic (PV) is known as the direct conversion of the sunlight to electricity energy with the used of solar cells. There are number of different types of solar PV modules, from an ever increasing range of manufacturers. Each of them claims that they are the best for one reason or another. This paper reports the study results of energy yield measurements of different PV module technologies performed at the outdoor testing facility of the Energy Technology Center (B2TE-BPPT) Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong-Indonesia from March 2014 through February 2015. The purposes of the study wereto evaluate and compare the performances of three different PV modules during a medium term outdoor exposure at the tropical climate of Indonesia. Normalized energy yields (Y), module efficiency (η), and performance ratio (PR) were calculated for each module, and the effect of module temperature and solar irradiance on these parameters was investigated. Monocrystalline PV module was better in terms of module efficiency and overall power production. Meanwhile micromorph silicon (uc-Si) showed the lowest module efficiency, but the more power production compared with polycrystalline PV module. Module efficiency and performance ratio showed a decreasing trend with increase of module temperature.

  5. Study of a micro-concentrated photovoltaic system based on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 microcells array.

    PubMed

    Jutteau, Sebastien; Guillemoles, Jean-François; Paire, Myriam

    2016-08-20

    We study a micro-concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system based on micro solar cells made from a thin film technology, Cu(In,Ga)Se2. We designed, using the ray-tracing software Zemax OpticStudio 14, an optical system adapted and integrated to the microcells, with only spherical lenses. The designed architecture has a magnification factor of 100× for an optical efficiency of 85% and an acceptance angle of ±3.5°, without anti-reflective coating. An experimental study is realized to fabricate the first generation prototype on a 5  cm×5  cm substrate. A mini-module achieved a concentration ratio of 72× under AM1.5G, and an absolute efficiency gain of 1.8% for a final aperture area efficiency of 12.6%. PMID:27556986

  6. Combined optics for concentration and light trapping in photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Philip A.; Minano, Juan C.

    1992-11-01

    Light trapping by means of external cavities theoretically offers the same potential to improve the efficiency of solar converters as does concentration. The ideal efficiency of 86% could be reached by any combination of concentration and light trapping, provided all the etendue of the cell is coupled either to itself (giving light trapping) or to the sun (giving concentration). But with real solar cells, there are optimum conditions of concentration and light trapping which maximize the efficiency. The possibility of achieving these conditions is compared between two optical systems: (1) axisymmetric Fresnel lens with plane upper surface, and ellipsoidal cavity, (2) similar Fresnel lens plus secondary lens using total internal reflections to trap light. With regard to a deep-emitter cell, of moderate technology, either system can attain near optimum conditions, giving an efficiency about 4% points above 1-sun efficiency. With a more speculative cell model assuming back mirroring and cell thinning to reduce series resistance, the maximum efficiency (predicted 8% points above 1-sun efficiency) cannot be obtained due to limitations of the optical system, and about 5% points above 1-sun efficiency appears feasible.

  7. Cost and Potential of Monolithic CIGS Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, Kelsey A.; Woodhouse, Michael

    2015-06-14

    A bottom-up cost analysis of monolithic, glass-glass Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGS) modules is presented, illuminating current cost drivers for this technology and possible pathways to reduced cost. At 14% module efficiency, for the case of U.S. manufacturing, a manufacturing cost of $0.56/WDC and a minimum sustainable price of $0.72/WDC were calculated. Potential for reduction in manufacturing costs to below $0.40/WDC in the long-term may be possible if module efficiency can be increased without significant increase in $/m2 costs. The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in Phoenix, AZ under different conditions is assessed and compared to standard c-Si.

  8. Cost and Potential of Monolithic CIGS Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, Kelsey; Woodhouse, Michael

    2015-06-17

    A bottom-up cost analysis of monolithic, glass-glass Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGS) modules is presented, illuminating current cost drivers for this technology and possible pathways to reduced cost. At 14% module efficiency, for the case of U.S. manufacturing, a manufacturing cost of $0.56/WDC and a minimum sustainable price of $0.72/WDC were calculated. Potential for reduction in manufacturing costs to below $0.40/WDC in the long-term may be possible if module efficiency can be increased without significant increase in $/m2 costs. The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in Phoenix, AZ under different conditions is assessed and compared to standard c-Si.

  9. NREL Determines Better Testing Methods for Photovoltaic Module Durability (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Research & Development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    NREL discoveries will enable manufacturers to produce more robust photovoltaic modules. Over the past decade, some photovoltaic (PV) modules have experienced power losses because of the system voltage stress that modules experience in fielded arrays. This is partly because qualification tests and standards do not adequately evaluate the durability of modules that undergo the long-term effects of high voltage. Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) tried various testing methods and stress levels to demonstrate module durability to system voltage potential-induced degradation (PID) mechanisms. The results of these accelerated tests, along with outdoor testing, were used to estimate the acceleration factors needed to more accurately evaluate the durability of modules to system voltage stress. NREL was able to determine stress factors, levels, and methods for testing based on the stresses experienced by modules in the field. These results, in combination with those in the literature, suggest that constant stress with humidity and system voltage is more damaging than stress applied intermittently or with periods of recovery comprising hot and dry conditions or alternating bias in between. NREL has determined some module constructions to be extremely durable to PID. These findings will help the manufacturers of PV materials and components produce more durable products that better satisfy their customers. NREL determined that there is rapid degradation of some PV modules under system voltage stress and evaluated degradation rates in the field to develop more accurate accelerated testing methods. PV module manufacturers will be better able to choose robust materials and durable designs and guarantee sturdier, longer-lasting products. As PV modules become more durable, and thus more efficient over the long term, the risks and the cost of PV power will be reduced.

  10. Fatigue degradation and electric recovery in Silicon solar cells embedded in photovoltaic modules

    PubMed Central

    Paggi, Marco; Berardone, Irene; Infuso, Andrea; Corrado, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Cracking in Silicon solar cells is an important factor for the electrical power-loss of photovoltaic modules. Simple geometrical criteria identifying the amount of inactive cell areas depending on the position of cracks with respect to the main electric conductors have been proposed in the literature to predict worst case scenarios. Here we present an experimental study based on the electroluminescence (EL) technique showing that crack propagation in monocrystalline Silicon cells embedded in photovoltaic (PV) modules is a much more complex phenomenon. In spite of the very brittle nature of Silicon, due to the action of the encapsulating polymer and residual thermo-elastic stresses, cracked regions can recover the electric conductivity during mechanical unloading due to crack closure. During cyclic bending, fatigue degradation is reported. This pinpoints the importance of reducing cyclic stresses caused by vibrations due to transportation and use, in order to limit the effect of cracking in Silicon cells. PMID:24675974

  11. Fatigue degradation and electric recovery in Silicon solar cells embedded in photovoltaic modules.

    PubMed

    Paggi, Marco; Berardone, Irene; Infuso, Andrea; Corrado, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Cracking in Silicon solar cells is an important factor for the electrical power-loss of photovoltaic modules. Simple geometrical criteria identifying the amount of inactive cell areas depending on the position of cracks with respect to the main electric conductors have been proposed in the literature to predict worst case scenarios. Here we present an experimental study based on the electroluminescence (EL) technique showing that crack propagation in monocrystalline Silicon cells embedded in photovoltaic (PV) modules is a much more complex phenomenon. In spite of the very brittle nature of Silicon, due to the action of the encapsulating polymer and residual thermo-elastic stresses, cracked regions can recover the electric conductivity during mechanical unloading due to crack closure. During cyclic bending, fatigue degradation is reported. This pinpoints the importance of reducing cyclic stresses caused by vibrations due to transportation and use, in order to limit the effect of cracking in Silicon cells. PMID:24675974

  12. Dark current-voltage measurements on photovoltaic modules as a diagnostic or manufacturing tool

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.L.; Hansen, B.R.; Quintana, M.A.; Kratochvil, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    Dark current-voltage (dark I-V) measurements are commonly used to analyze the electrical characteristics of solar cells, providing an effective way to determine fundamental performance parameters without the need for a solar simulator. The dark I-V measurement procedure does not provide information regarding short-circuit current, but is more sensitive than light I-V measurements in determining the other parameters (series resistance, shunt resistance, diode factor, and diode saturation currents) that dictate the electrical performance of a photovoltaic device. The work documented here extends the use of dark I-V measurements to photovoltaic modules, illustrates their use in diagnosing module performance losses, and proposes their use for process monitoring during manufacturing.

  13. Photovoltaic Shading Testbed for Module-Level Power Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Deline, C.; Meydbray, J.; Donovan, M.; Forrest, J.

    2012-05-01

    This document describes a repeatable test procedure that attempts to simulate shading situations, as would be experienced by typical residential rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems. This type of shading test is particularly useful to evaluate the impact of different power conversion setups, including microinverters, DC power optimizers and string inverters, on overall system performance. The performance results are weighted based on annual estimates of shade to predict annual performance improvement. A trial run of the test procedure was conducted with a side by side comparison of a string inverter with a microinverter, both operating on identical 8kW solar arrays. Considering three different shade weighting conditions, the microinverter was found to increase production by 3.7% under light shading, 7.8% under moderate shading, and 12.3% under heavy shading, relative to the reference string inverter case. Detail is provided in this document to allow duplication of the test method at different test installations and for different power electronics devices.

  14. Thermal Reliability Study of Bypass Diodes in Photovoltaic Modules (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Kurtz, S.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents the result of high-temperature durability and thermal cycling testing and analysis for the selected diodes to study the detail of the thermal design and relative long-term reliability of the bypass diodes used to limit the detrimental effects of module hot-spot susceptibility.

  15. Development of photovoltaic modules integrated with roofing materials (heat insulated roof panel)

    SciTech Connect

    Nitta, Y.; Hatukaiwa, T.; Yamawaki, T.; Matumura, Y.; Mizukami, S.

    1994-12-31

    The authors have started to develop low cost photovoltaic modules integrated with roofing materials for wooden houses. They made a concept of the design for the modules using amorphous silicon solar cells and produced test modules that consist of untempered surface glass, solar cells, waterproof sheet, heat insulating materials and base frames. They have primarily tested the distributed pressure resistance as a building component. When applying a load from the front surface side of the modules, a 3.6 mm deflection at the center of the specimen under 300 kg/m{sup 2} load was observed, which is equivalent to a snowfall of 1.2 meters. As a result, they have finally confirmed that modules have enough structural strength to be used as a roof panel. They also tested the impact resistance of untempered surface glass by the testing method in JIS3212. In this test, cracks could not be seen from a height of 75 cm.

  16. The silicon concentrator photovoltaic generator Sophocles - Performance and costs based on material characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteve, D.; Vialaret, G.; Therez, F.

    1981-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that, in the short term, a solution can be found to enable the immediate exploitation of concentrator photovoltaic systems. The technical requirements, tracking system, optical system and thermal dissipation necessary for concentrator generators are described. A description of the prototype generator 'Sophocles' is presented. The results of various experiments are given. Finally, the prospects of reductions in cost for a concentrator generator using a higher concentration ratio and more efficient solar cells, which can lead to a price of $4/W(p) if all expenses are taken into account, are reviewed.

  17. Can Integrated Micro-Optical Concentrator Technology Revolutionize Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Solar Energy Harvesting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haney, Michael W.

    2015-12-01

    The economies-of-scale and enhanced performance of integrated micro-technologies have repeatedly delivered disruptive market impact. Examples range from microelectronics to displays to lighting. However, integrated micro-scale technologies have yet to be applied in a transformational way to solar photovoltaic panels. The recently announced Micro-scale Optimized Solar-cell Arrays with Integrated Concentration (MOSAIC) program aims to create a new paradigm in solar photovoltaic panel technology based on the incorporation of micro-concentrating photo-voltaic (μ-CPV) cells. As depicted in Figure 1, MOSAIC will integrate arrays of micro-optical concentrating elements and micro-scale PV elements to achieve the same aggregated collection area and high conversion efficiency of a conventional (i.e., macro-scale) CPV approach, but with the low profile and mass, and hopefully cost, of a conventional non-concentrated PV panel. The reduced size and weight, and enhanced wiring complexity, of the MOSAIC approach provide the opportunity to access the high-performance/low-cost region between the conventional CPV and flat-plate (1-sun) PV domains shown in Figure 2. Accessing this portion of the graph in Figure 2 will expand the geographic and market reach of flat-plate PV. This talk reviews the motivation and goals for the MOSAIC program. The diversity of the technical approaches to micro-concentration, embedded solar tracking, and hybrid direct/diffuse solar resource collection found in the MOSAIC portfolio of projects will also be highlighted.

  18. Emerging photovoltaic module technologies at PVUSA: A five-year assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, T.

    1995-04-01

    The Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) project tests two types of photovoltaic systems: new modules fielded as 20-kW Emerging Module Technology (EMT) arrays, and more mature technologies fielded as 20- to 500-kW turnkey Utility Scale (US) systems. This report summarizes experiences of the PVUSA project in operating the first six 20-kW EMT photovoltaic systems. Five systems are installed at Davis, California, and one at Kihei, Hawaii. Products selected for testing and demonstration were judged to have potential for significant technical advancement or reduction in manufacturing cost. Features leading to selection of each system and findings over the average 5 years of operation are compared in the report. Factory product qualification test experiences along with field acceptance test results are documented. Evaluation includes a broad range of performance parameters, including long-term efficiency, seasonal generation patterns, and maintenance. While some of the arrays have operated as well as any commercial system, others have fared poorly. Throughout the procurement and operation of these precommercial PV modules, PVUSA has provided feedback to vendors, critical for product improvement. The data and evaluations in this report will be of further benefit to manufacturers and provide general comparative information on a variety of technologies to researchers in utilities, government, and industry alike.

  19. Producing thin film photovoltaic modules with high integrity interconnects and dual layer contacts

    DOEpatents

    Jansen, Kai W.; Maley, Nagi

    2000-01-01

    High performance photovoltaic modules are produced with improved interconnects by a special process. Advantageously, the photovoltaic modules have a dual layer back (rear) contact and a front contact with at least one layer. The front contact and the inner layer of the back contact can comprise a transparent conductive oxide. The outer layer of the back contact can comprise a metal or metal oxide. The front contact can also have a dielectric layer. In one form, the dual layer back contact comprises a zinc oxide inner layer and an aluminum outer layer and the front contact comprises a tin oxide inner layer and a silicon dioxide dielectric outer layer. One or more amorphous silicon-containing thin film semiconductors can be deposited between the front and back contacts. The contacts can be positioned between a substrate and an optional superstrate. During production, the transparent conductive oxide layer of the front contact is scribed by a laser, then the amorphous silicon-containing semiconductors and inner layer of the dual layer back contact are simultaneously scribed and trenched (drilled) by the laser and the trench is subsequently filled with the same metal as the outer layer of the dual layer back contact to provide a superb mechanical and electrical interconnect between the front contact and the outer layer of the dual layer back contact. The outer layer of the dual layer back contact can then be scribed by the laser. For enhanced environmental protection, the photovoltaic modules can be encapsulated.

  20. Producing thin film photovoltaic modules with high integrity interconnects and dual layer contacts

    DOEpatents

    Jansen, Kai W.; Maley, Nagi

    2001-01-01

    High performance photovoltaic modules are produced with improved interconnects by a special process. Advantageously, the photovoltaic modules have a dual layer back (rear) contact and a front contact with at least one layer. The front contact and the inner layer of the back contact can comprise a transparent conductive oxide. The outer layer of the back contact can comprise a metal or metal oxide. The front contact can also have a dielectric layer. In one form, the dual layer back contact comprises a zinc oxide inner layer and an aluminum outer layer and the front contact comprises a tin oxide inner layer and a silicon dioxide dielectric outer layer. One or more amorphous silicon-containing thin film semiconductors can be deposited between the front and back contacts. The contacts can be positioned between a substrate and an optional superstrate. During production, the transparent conductive oxide layer of the front contact is scribed by a laser, then the amorphous silicon-containing semiconductors and inner layer of the dual layer back contact are simultaneously scribed and trenched (drilled) by the laser and the trench is subsequently filled with the same metal as the outer layer of the dual layer back contact to provide a superb mechanical and electrical interconnect between the front contact and the outer layer of the dual layer back contact. The outer layer of the dual layer back contact can then be scribed by the laser. For enhanced environmental protection, the photovoltaic modules can be encapsulated.

  1. Photovoltaic-module bypass-diode encapsulation. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-20

    The design and processing techniques necessary to incorporate bypass diodes within the module encapsulant are presented in this annual report. A comprehensive survey of available pad-mounted PN junction and Schottky diodes led to the selection of Semicon PN junction diode cells for this application. Diode junction-to-heat spreader thermal resistance measurements, performed on a variety of mounted diode chip types and sizes, have yielded values which are consistently below 1/sup 0/C per watt, but show some instability when thermally cycled over the temperature range from -40 to 150/sup 0/C. Based on the results of a detailed thermal analysis, which covered the range of bypass currents from 2 to 20 amperes, three representative experimental modules, each incorporating integral bypass diode/heat spreader assemblies of various sizes, were designed and fabricated. Thermal testing of these modules has enabled the formation of a recommended heat spreader plate sizing relationship. The production cost of three encapsulated bypass diode/heat spreader assemblies were compared with similarly rated externally-mounted packaged diodes. An assessment of bypass diode reliability, which relies heavily on rectifying diode failure rate data, leads to the general conclusion that, when proper designed and installed, these devices will improve the overall reliability of a terrestrial array over a 20 year design lifetime.

  2. Commercial Application of a Photovoltaic Concentrator system. Phase I. Final report, 1 June 1978-28 February 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.J.; Anderson, E.R.; Bardwell, K.M.

    1980-04-01

    This report documents the design and analysis of the BDM CAPVC (Commercial Application of a Photovoltaic Concentrator) system. The preliminary design, prototype test and evaluation, system analysis, and final design of a large-scale concentrating photovoltaic system are described. The application is on an attractive new office building which represents a large potential market. The photovoltaic concentrating array is a roof-mounted, single-axis linear parabolic trough, using single crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells. A total of 6720 square feet of aperture is focussed on 13,944 PV cells. The photovoltaic system operates in parallel with the local utility in an augmentary loadsharing operating mode. The array is actively cooled and the thermal energy utilized for building heat during winter months. (WHK)

  3. Some tests of flat plate photovoltaic module cell temperatures in simulated field conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, J. S.; Rathod, M. S.; Paslaski, J.

    1981-01-01

    The nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT) of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules is an important characteristic. Typically, the power output of a PV module decreases 0.5% per deg C rise in cell temperature. Several tests were run with artificial sun and wind to study the parametric dependencies of cell temperature on wind speed and direction and ambient temperature. It was found that the cell temperature is extremely sensitive to wind speed, moderately so to wind direction and rather insensitive to ambient temperature. Several suggestions are made to obtain data more typical of field conditions.

  4. Accelerated and Outdoor Aging Effects on Photovoltaic Module Interfacial Adhesion Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, G. J.; McMahon, T. J.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed an apparatus that allows the measurement of applied torque as a function of angle of twist during shear removal of cored specimens. This allows us to characterize the strength and durability of various interfaces within many types of photovoltaic (PV) modules. We have used this device to evaluate several parameters in terms of their ability to quantify degradation of interfacial adhesion in weathered PV modules. The usefulness of shear modulus in this regard is marginal. However, peak torque, angle at peak torque, and toughness are very sensitive parameters.

  5. A preliminary 'test case' manufacturing sequence for 50 cents/watt solar photovoltaic modules in 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickler, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes a 'test case' manufacturing process sequence for solar photovoltaic modules which will cost 50 cents/watt in 1986. The process, which starts with the purification of silicon grown into 75-mm-wide thin ribbons, is discussed, and the plant layout is depicted; each department is sized to produce 250 MW of modules/per year. The cost of this process sequence is compared to present technology at various companies showing considerable spread for each process; data are tabulated in a composite state-of-the-art cell processing cost summary for these processes.

  6. The application of encapsulation material stability data to photovoltaic module life assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulbert, C. D.

    1983-04-01

    For any piece of hardware that degrades when subject to environmental and application stresses, the route or sequence that describes the degradation process may be summarized in terms of six key words: LOADS, RESPONSE, CHANGE, DAMAGE, FAILURE, and PENALTY. Applied to photovoltaic modules, these six factors form the core outline of an expanded failure analysis matrix for unifying and integrating relevant material degradation data and analyses. An important feature of this approach is the deliberate differentiation between factors such as CHANGE, DAMAGE, and FAILURE. The application of this outline to materials degradation research facilitates the distinction between quantifying material property changes and quantifying module damage or power loss with their economic consequences. The approach recommended for relating material stability data to photovoltaic module life is to use the degree of DAMAGE to (1) optical coupling, (2) encapsulant package integrity, (3) PV circuit integrity or (4) electrical isolation as the quantitative criterion for assessing module potential service life rather than simply using module power loss.

  7. The application of encapsulation material stability data to photovoltaic module life assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulbert, C. D.

    1983-01-01

    For any piece of hardware that degrades when subject to environmental and application stresses, the route or sequence that describes the degradation process may be summarized in terms of six key words: LOADS, RESPONSE, CHANGE, DAMAGE, FAILURE, and PENALTY. Applied to photovoltaic modules, these six factors form the core outline of an expanded failure analysis matrix for unifying and integrating relevant material degradation data and analyses. An important feature of this approach is the deliberate differentiation between factors such as CHANGE, DAMAGE, and FAILURE. The application of this outline to materials degradation research facilitates the distinction between quantifying material property changes and quantifying module damage or power loss with their economic consequences. The approach recommended for relating material stability data to photovoltaic module life is to use the degree of DAMAGE to (1) optical coupling, (2) encapsulant package integrity, (3) PV circuit integrity or (4) electrical isolation as the quantitative criterion for assessing module potential service life rather than simply using module power loss.

  8. Earth abundant thin film technology for next generation photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alapatt, Githin Francis

    With a cumulative generation capacity of over 100 GW, Photovoltaics (PV) technology is uniquely poised to become increasingly popular in the coming decades. Although, several breakthroughs have propelled PV technology, it accounts for only less than 1% of the energy produced worldwide. This aspect of the PV technology is primarily due to the somewhat high cost per watt, which is dependent on the efficiency of the PV cells as well as the cost of manufacturing and installing them. Currently, the efficiency of the PV conversion process is limited to about 25% for commercial terrestrial cells; improving this efficiency can increase the penetration of PV worldwide rapidly. A critical review of all possibilities pursued in the public domain reveals serious shortcomings and manufacturing issues. To make PV generated power a reality in every home, a Multi-Junction Multi-Terminal (MJMT) PV architecture can be employed combining silicon and another earth abundant material. However, forming electronic grade thin films of earth abundant materials is a non-trivial challenge; without solving this, it is impossible to increase the overall PV efficiency. Deposition of Copper (I) Oxide, an earth abundant semiconducting material, was conducted using an optimized Photo assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition process. X-Ray Diffraction, Ellipsometry, Transmission Electron Microscopy, and Profilometry revealed that the films composed of Cu2O of about 90 nm thickness and the grain size was as large as 600 nm. This result shows an improvement in material properties over previously grown thin films of Cu2O. Measurement of I-V characteristics of a diode structure composed of the Cu2O indicates an increase in On/Off ratio to 17,000 from the previous best value of 800. These results suggest that the electronic quality of the thin films deposited using our optimized process to be better than the results reported elsewhere. Using this optimized thin film forming technique, it is now possible to

  9. Outdoor Performance of a Thin-Film Gallium-Arsenide Photovoltaic Module

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, T. J.; Deceglie, M. G.; Marion, B.; Cowley, S.; Kayes, B.; Kurtz, S.

    2013-06-01

    We deployed a 855 cm2 thin-film, single-junction gallium arsenide (GaAs) photovoltaic (PV) module outdoors. Due to its fundamentally different cell technology compared to silicon (Si), the module responds differently to outdoor conditions. On average during the test, the GaAs module produced more power when its temperature was higher. We show that its maximum-power temperature coefficient, while actually negative, is several times smaller in magnitude than that of a Si module used for comparison. The positive correlation of power with temperature in GaAs is due to temperature-correlated changes in the incident spectrum. We show that a simple correction based on precipitable water vapor (PWV) brings the photocurrent temperature coefficient into agreement with that measured by other methods and predicted by theory. The low operating temperature and small temperature coefficient of GaAs give it an energy production advantage in warm weather.

  10. Partial Shade Stress Test for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, Timothy J.; Deceglie, Michael G.; Deline, Chris; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-09-02

    Partial shade of monolithic thin-film PV modules can cause reverse-bias conditions leading to permanent damage. In this work, we propose a partial shade stress test for thin-film PV modules that quantifies permanent performance loss. We designed the test with the aid of a computer model that predicts the local voltage, current and temperature stress that result from partial shade. The model predicts the module-scale interactions among the illumination pattern, the electrical properties of the photovoltaic material and the thermal properties of the module package. The test reproduces shading and loading conditions that may occur in the field. It accounts for reversible light-induced performance changes and for additional stress that may be introduced by light-enhanced reverse breakdown. We present simulated and experimental results from the application of the proposed test.

  11. Photovoltaic Cz silicon module improvements. Annual technical progress report, November 9, 1995--November 8, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.R.; Mitchell, K.W.; Jester, T.L.

    1998-02-01

    Work focused on reducing the cost per watt of Cz silicon photovoltaic modules under Phase I of Siemens Solar Industries` DOE/NREL PVMaT 4A subcontract is described. Module cost components are analyzed and solutions to high-cost items are discussed in terms of specific module designs. The approaches of using larger cells and modulus to reduce per-part processing cost, and of minimizing yield loss are particularly leveraging. Yield components for various parts of the fabrication process and various types of defects are shown, and measurements of the force required to break wafers throughout the cell fabrication sequence are given. The most significant type of yield loss is mechanical breakage. The implementation of statistical process control on key manufacturing processes at Siemens Solar Industries is described. Module configurations prototyped during Phase I of this project and scheduled to begin production in Phase II have a projected cost per watt reduction of 19%.

  12. Modeling the irradiance and temperature rependence of photovoltaic modules in PVsyst

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sauer, Kenneth J.; Roessler, Thomas; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2014-11-10

    In order to reliably simulate the energy yield of photovoltaic (PV) systems, it is necessary to have an accurate model of how the PV modules perform with respect to irradiance and cell temperature. Building on previous work that addresses the irradiance dependence, two approaches to fit the temperature dependence of module power in PVsyst have been developed and are applied here to recent multi-irradiance and -temperature data for a standard Yingli Solar PV module type. The results demonstrate that it is possible to match the measured irradiance and temperature dependence of PV modules in PVsyst. As a result, improvements inmore » energy yield prediction using the optimized models relative to the PVsyst standard model are considered significant for decisions about project financing.« less

  13. Parameters Identification for Photovoltaic Module Based on an Improved Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Hua

    2014-01-01

    A precise mathematical model plays a pivotal role in the simulation, evaluation, and optimization of photovoltaic (PV) power systems. Different from the traditional linear model, the model of PV module has the features of nonlinearity and multiparameters. Since conventional methods are incapable of identifying the parameters of PV module, an excellent optimization algorithm is required. Artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA), originally inspired by the simulation of collective behavior of real fish swarms, is proposed to fast and accurately extract the parameters of PV module. In addition to the regular operation, a mutation operator (MO) is designed to enhance the searching performance of the algorithm. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by various parameters of PV module under different environmental conditions, and the testing results are compared with other studied methods in terms of final solutions and computational time. The simulation results show that the proposed method is capable of obtaining higher parameters identification precision. PMID:25243233

  14. Modeling the irradiance and temperature rependence of photovoltaic modules in PVsyst

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, Kenneth J.; Roessler, Thomas; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2014-11-10

    In order to reliably simulate the energy yield of photovoltaic (PV) systems, it is necessary to have an accurate model of how the PV modules perform with respect to irradiance and cell temperature. Building on previous work that addresses the irradiance dependence, two approaches to fit the temperature dependence of module power in PVsyst have been developed and are applied here to recent multi-irradiance and -temperature data for a standard Yingli Solar PV module type. The results demonstrate that it is possible to match the measured irradiance and temperature dependence of PV modules in PVsyst. As a result, improvements in energy yield prediction using the optimized models relative to the PVsyst standard model are considered significant for decisions about project financing.

  15. Degradation of Photovoltaic Modules Under High Voltage Stress in the Field: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    del Cueto, J. A.; Rummel, S. R.

    2010-08-01

    The degradation in performance for eight photovoltaic (PV) modules stressed at high voltage (HV) is presented. Four types of modules--tandem-junction and triple-junction amorphous thin-film silicon, plus crystalline and polycrystalline silicon modules--were tested, with a pair of each biased at opposite polarities. They were deployed outdoors between 2001 and 2009 with their respective HV leakage currents through the module encapsulation continuously monitored with a data acquisition system, along with air temperature and relative humidity. For the first 5 years, all modules were biased continuously at fixed 600 VDC, day and night. In the last 2 years, the modules were step-bias stressed cyclically up and down in voltage between 10 and 600 VDC, in steps of tens to hundreds of volts. This allowed characterization of leakage current versus voltage under a large range of temperature and moisture conditions, facilitating determination of leakage paths. An analysis of the degradation is presented, along with integrated leakage charge. In HV operation: the bulk silicon modules degraded either insignificantly or at rates of 0.1%/yr higher than modules not biased at HV; for the thin-film silicon modules, the added loss rates are insignificant for one type, or 0.2%/yr-0.6%/yr larger for the other type.

  16. Potential-induced degradation of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Seira; Jonai, Sachiko; Hara, Kohjiro; Komaki, Hironori; Shimizu-Kamikawa, Yukiko; Shibata, Hajime; Niki, Shigeru; Kawakami, Yuji; Masuda, Atsushi

    2015-08-01

    Potential-induced degradation (PID) of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) photovoltaic (PV) modules fabricated from integrated submodules is investigated. PID tests were performed by applying a voltage of -1000 V to connected submodule interconnector ribbons at 85 °C. The normalized energy conversion efficiency of a standard module decreases to 0.2 after the PID test for 14 days. This reveals that CIGS modules suffer PID under this experimental condition. In contrast, a module with non-alkali glass shows no degradation, which implies that the degradation occurs owing to alkali metal ions, e.g., Na+, migrating from the cover glass. The results of dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry show Na accumulation in the n-ZnO transparent conductive oxide layer of the degraded module. A CIGS PV module with an ionomer (IO) encapsulant instead of a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate shows no degradation. This reveals that the IO encapsulant can prevent PID of CIGS modules. A degraded module can recover from its performance losses by applying +1000 V to connected submodule interconnector ribbons from an Al plate placed on the test module.

  17. Durability of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaic Technology (Revised) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. C.; Carloni, J. D.; Pankow, J. W.; Gjersing, E. L.; To, B.; Packard, C. E.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-01-01

    Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology recently gained interest based on its expected low levelized cost of electricity, high efficiency, and scalability. Many CPV systems employ Fresnel lenses composed of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to obtain a high optical flux density on the cell. The optical and mechanical durability of these lenses, however, is not well established relative to the desired surface life of 30 years. Our research aims to quantify the expected lifetime of PMMA in key market locations (FL, AZ, and CO).

  18. Thin-film-based CdTe photovoltaic module characterization: Measurements and energy prediction improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay-Ekuakille, A.; Arnesano, A.; Vergallo, P.

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic characterization is a topic of major interest in the field of renewable energy. Monocrystalline and polycrystalline modules are mostly used and, hence characterized since many laboratories have data of them. Conversely, cadmium telluride (CdTe), as thin-film module are, in some circumstances, difficult to be used for energy prediction. This work covers outdoor testing of photovoltaic modules, in particular that regarding CdTe ones. The scope is to obtain temperature coefficients that best predict the energy production. A First Solar (K-275) module has been used for the purposes of this research. Outdoor characterizations were performed at Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy. The location of Lecce city represents a typical site in the South Italy. The module was exposed outdoor and tested under clear sky conditions as well as under cloudy sky ones. During testing, the global-inclined irradiance varied between 0 and 1500 W/m2. About 37 000 I-V characteristics were acquired, allowing to process temperature coefficients as a function of irradiance and ambient temperature. The module was characterized by measuring the full temperature-irradiance matrix in the range from 50 to 1300 W/m2 and from -1 to 40 W/m2 from October 2011 to February 2012. Afterwards, the module energy output, under real conditions, was calculated with the "matrix method" of SUPSI-ISAAC and the results were compared with the five months energy output data of the same module measured with the outdoor energy yield facility in Lecce.

  19. The Stretched Lens Array (SLA): An Ultra-Light Photovoltaic Concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeill, Mark J.; Pisczor, Michael F.; Eskenazi, Michael I.; McDanal, A. J.; George, Patrick J.; Botke, Matthew M.; Brandhorst, Henry W.; Edwards, David L.; Jaster, Paul A.

    2002-01-01

    A high-performance, ultralight, photovoltaic concentrator array is being developed for space power. The stretched lens array (SLA) uses stretched-membrane, silicone Fresnel lenses to concentrate sunlight onto triple-junction photovoltaic cells. The cells are mounted to a composite radiator structure. The entire solar array wing, including lenses, photovoltaic cell flex circuits, composite panels, hinges, yoke, wiring harness, and deployment mechanisms, has a mass density of 1.6 kg/sq.m. NASA Glenn has measured 27.4% net SLA panel efficiency, or 375 W/sq.m. power density, at room temperature. At GEO operating cell temperature (80 C), this power density will be 300 W/sq.m., resulting in more than 180 W/kg specific power at the full wing level. SLA is a direct ultralight descendent of the successful SCARLET array on NASA's Deep Space 1 spacecraft. This paper describes the evolution from SCARLET to SLA, summarizes the SLA's key features, and provides performance and mass data for this new concentrator array.

  20. The Stretched Lens Array (SLA): An Ultra-Light Photovoltaic Concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ONeill, Mark J.; Pisczor, Michael F.; Eskenazi, Michael I.; McDanal, A. J.; George, Patrick J.; Botke, Matthew M.; Brandhorst, Henry W.; Edwards, David L.; Jaster, Paul A.

    2002-10-01

    A high-performance, ultralight, photovoltaic concentrator array is being developed for space power. The stretched lens array (SLA) uses stretched-membrane, silicone Fresnel lenses to concentrate sunlight onto triple-junction photovoltaic cells. The cells are mounted to a composite radiator structure. The entire solar array wing, including lenses, photovoltaic cell flex circuits, composite panels, hinges, yoke, wiring harness, and deployment mechanisms, has a mass density of 1.6 kg/sq.m. NASA Glenn has measured 27.4% net SLA panel efficiency, or 375 W/sq.m. power density, at room temperature. At GEO operating cell temperature (80 C), this power density will be 300 W/sq.m., resulting in more than 180 W/kg specific power at the full wing level. SLA is a direct ultralight descendent of the successful SCARLET array on NASA's Deep Space 1 spacecraft. This paper describes the evolution from SCARLET to SLA, summarizes the SLA's key features, and provides performance and mass data for this new concentrator array.

  1. A photovoltaic 12/1 concentrating solar power system with a unique launch stowing configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Falbel, G.

    1998-07-01

    Recent advancements in photovoltaic solar cells made from gallium arsenide (GaAs) have shown that with concentration ratios greater than one solar constant, overall efficiencies up to 23% can be achieved. A second issue applicable to solar power systems for spacecraft is the cost driver, which requires that the efficiency/weight ratio be improved so that solar panels with high output, weighing less, will reduce payload weights, which, in turn, reduces launch costs. This has resulted in a Figure of Merit being introduced to grade the characteristics of solar panels for spacecraft. This Figure of Merit defines a ratio of watts/kilogram for a solar panel. Typical flat plate panels on current spacecraft, fabricated with silicon solar cells without concentration, provide Figures of Merit of 25 to 30 watts/Kg. This paper describes a new design of a 12/1 solar concentrator in which conservative calculations show improvements on this Figure of Merit by a major factor. An ultra-lightweight cylindrical solar concentrator is coiled up around a spacecraft in the launch mode, using the same principle as is used in Lufkin type metal measuring tapes. This provides a high volumetric efficiency launch folded mode as compared to the current method of accordion pleats of flat solar panels. The deployment means of this coiled launch mode configuration is much simpler and inherently more reliable than the current unfolding of accordion pleats, and is self powered by the spring action of the coiled cylindrical aluminum mirror. A special triangular heat pipe transfers the heat absorbed by the solar array to the cylindrical mirror, which also acts as the heat dissipator. Through the use of flexible bellows in the heat pipe assembly the assembly collapses to a cylindrical shape having a radial thickness of less than 1 inch, so that only two coils of this concentrating collector around a 10 ft diameter spacecraft results in a 2 ft. wide, x 66 ft. long deployed collector module capable of

  2. On the dust-equivalent series resistance of a photovoltaic concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakzouk, A. K. M.

    1984-02-01

    A new concept for treating the effects of dust on the electrical performance of photovoltaic concentrators is presented in the paper. The dust concentration in the atmospheric air around the concentrator is measured continuously during the test period. The rate of dust accumulation on the concentrator surface is determined. The concentrator performance degradation, as a result of dust accumulation, is related to the amount of dust accumulated per unit area of the collector surface (in g/sq m) rather than the exposure time. It has been shown that major reductions in the short-circuit current and the efficiency are observed for dust accumulations up to 5.4 g/sq m. The accumulation of dust on the photovoltaic concentrator causes a successively larger 'rounding' of the I/V characteristic at constant incident direct normal radiation intensity and constant cell temperature. This effect is equivalent to an increase in the internal series resistance of the concentrator. This dust-equivalent series resistance increases with increasing dust accumulation.

  3. Design construction and analysis of solar ridge concentrator photovoltaic (PV) system to improve battery charging performance.

    PubMed

    Narasimman, Kalaiselvan; Selvarasan, Iniyan

    2016-05-01

    A ridge concentrator photovoltaic system for a 10W multi-crystalline solar panel was designed with the concentration ratios of 1X and 2X. The ray tracing model of ridge concentrator photovoltaic system was carried out using Trace-Pro simulation. The optimum tilt angle for the concentrator PV system throughout the year was computed. The electrical parameters of the 3 panels were analyzed. The effect of temperature on the electrical performance of the panel was also studied. The reduction of voltage due to increasing panel temperature was managed by MPES type Charge controller. Glass reflector with reflectivity 0.95 was chosen as the ridge wall for the concentrator system. The maximum power outputs for the 1X and 2X panel reached were 9W and 10.5W with glass reflector. The percentage of power improvement for 1X and 2X concentrations were 22.3% and 45.8% respectively. The 2X concentrated panel connected battery takes lower time to charge compared with normal panel connected battery. PMID:26852396

  4. Pump and Flow Control Subassembly of Thermal Control Subsystem for Photovoltaic Power Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Brian; Santen, Mark A.

    1993-01-01

    The pump and flow control subassembly (PFCS) is an orbital replacement unit (ORU) on the Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module (PVM). The PFCS pumps liquid ammonia at a constant rate of approximately 1170 kg/hr while providing temperature control by flow regulation between the radiator and the bypass loop. Also, housed within the ORU is an accumulator to compensate for fluid volumetric changes as well as the electronics and firmware for monitoring and control of the photovoltaic thermal control system (PVTCS). Major electronic functions include signal conditioning, data interfacing and motor control. This paper will provide a description of each major component within the PFCS along with performance test data. In addition, this paper will discuss the flow control algorithm and describe how the nickel hydrogen batteries and associated power electronics will be thermally controlled through regulation of coolant flow to the radiator.

  5. Module for measurement of CO2 concentration in exhaled air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puton, Jaroslaw; Palko, Tadeusz; Knap, Andrzej; Jasek, Krzysztof; Siodlowski, Boguslaw

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this work consists in working out of a detection module for capnography (carbon dioxide concentration measurement in anaesthesiology and intensive care). The principle of operation of the module consists of the NDIR method. The basic assumption for construction of this model was using of directly modulated thermal IR source in it. A few models of IR sources were worked out. Their heaters were made from thick platinum layers and foil. Limits of modulation frequency for IR sources were greater than 30 Hz. The detection module consists of an optical part, analogue electronics and microprocessor system with a suitable program. The time dependent concentration of CO2, end tidal concentration of CO2, mean concentration of N2O and breath frequency are output values of the detection module. Measurements are executed 30 times per second. The accuracy of CO2 concentration measurement equals to 5%.

  6. Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Deb, S.K.

    1985-01-01

    Photovoltaics, the direct conversion of sunlight into electrical energy, may be the best hope for a relatively clean, secure, and inexhaustible source of energy for the future. To stimulate the growth of this technology as a viable energy supply option, considerable research and development has been directed, in both the private and public sectors, to a variety of materials and devices. The technology has sufficiently matured in recent years to be seriously considered as an alternative to conventional energy sources. Despite phenomenal advances in energy conversion efficiencies, many problems still remain to be solved. It is timely, therefore, to review various technological options available. This review critically assesses the status and promise of this emerging technology by a group of experts, each of whom has presented an extended invited paper on his specific field of expertise. This collection of presentations is intended to be an authoritative review of the technology including its developments, current status, and projections for future direction. The content of this review was carefully chosen to represent most of the leading state-of-the-art technologies; these are divided into four areas: (i) a general overview and discussion of silicon technology; (ii) high efficiency multijunction solar cells; (iii) amorphous silicon solar cells; and (iv) thin film compound semiconductors.

  7. Development of a dome Fresnel lens/gallium arsenide photovoltaic concentrator for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Mark J.; Piszczor, Michael F.

    1987-01-01

    A novel photovoltaic concentrator system is currently being developed. Phase I of the program, completed in late 1986, produced a conceptual design for the concentrator system, including an array weight and performance estimates based on optical, electrical, and thermal analyses. Phase II of the program, just underway, concerns the fabrication and testing of prototype concentrator panels of the design. The concentrator system uses dome Fresnel lenses for optical concentration; gallium arsenide concentrator cells for power generation; prismatic cell covers to eliminate gridline obscuration losses; a backplane radiator for heat rejection; and a honeycomb structure for the deployable panel assembly. The conceptual design of the system, its anticipated performance, and its estimated weight are reported.

  8. Photovoltaic concentrator optical system design: Solar energy engineering from physics to field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughenour, Blake Michael

    This dissertation describes the design, development, and field validation of a concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) solar energy system. The challenges of creating a highly efficient yet low-cost system architecture come from many sources. The solid-state physics of photovoltaic devices present fundamental limits to photoelectron conversion efficiency, while the electrical and thermal characteristics of widely available materials limit the design arena. Furthermore, the need for high solar spectral throughput, evenly concentrated sunlight, and tolerance to off-axis pointing places strict illumination requirements on the optical design. To be commercially viable, the cost associated with all components must be minimized so that when taken together, the absolute installed cost of the system in kWh is lower than any other solar energy method, and competitive with fossil fuel power generation. The work detailed herein focuses specifically on unique optical design and illumination concepts discovered when developing a viable commercial CPV system. By designing from the ground up with the fundamental physics of photovoltaic devices and the required system tolerances in mind, a select range of optical designs are determined and modeled. Component cost analysis, assembly effort, and development time frame further influence design choices to arrive at a final optical system design. When coupled with the collecting mirror, the final optical hardware unit placed at the focus generates more than 800W, yet is small and lightweight enough to hold in your hand. After fabrication and installation, the completed system's illumination, spectral, and thermal performance is validated with on-sun operational testing.

  9. Flexible concentrator photovoltaics based on microscale silicon solar cells embedded in luminescent waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Jongseung; Li, Lanfang; Semichaevsky, Andrey V.; Ryu, Jae Ha; Johnson, Harley T.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.

    2011-06-14

    Unconventional methods to exploit monocrystalline silicon and other established materials in photovoltaic (PV) systems can create new engineering opportunities, device capabilities and cost structures. Here we show a type of composite luminescent concentrator PV system that embeds large scale, interconnected arrays of microscale silicon solar cells in thin matrix layers doped with luminophores. Photons that strike cells directly generate power in the usual manner; those incident on the matrix launch wavelength-downconverted photons that reflect and waveguide into the sides and bottom surfaces of the cells to increase further their power output, by more than 300% in examples reported here. Unlike conventional luminescent photovoltaics, this unusual design can be implemented in ultrathin, mechanically bendable formats. Detailed studies of design considerations and fabrication aspects for such devices, using both experimental and computational approaches, provide quantitative descriptions of the underlying materials science and optics.

  10. Flexible concentrator photovoltaics based on microscale silicon solar cells embedded in luminescent waveguides.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jongseung; Li, Lanfang; Semichaevsky, Andrey V; Ryu, Jae Ha; Johnson, Harley T; Nuzzo, Ralph G; Rogers, John A

    2011-01-01

    Unconventional methods to exploit monocrystalline silicon and other established materials in photovoltaic (PV) systems can create new engineering opportunities, device capabilities and cost structures. Here we show a type of composite luminescent concentrator PV system that embeds large scale, interconnected arrays of microscale silicon solar cells in thin matrix layers doped with luminophores. Photons that strike cells directly generate power in the usual manner; those incident on the matrix launch wavelength-downconverted photons that reflect and waveguide into the sides and bottom surfaces of the cells to increase further their power output, by more than 300% in examples reported here. Unlike conventional luminescent photovoltaics, this unusual design can be implemented in ultrathin, mechanically bendable formats. Detailed studies of design considerations and fabrication aspects for such devices, using both experimental and computational approaches, provide quantitative descriptions of the underlying materials science and optics. PMID:21673664

  11. Contribution of concentrator photovoltaic installations to grid stability and power quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Toro García, Xavier; Roncero-Sánchez, Pedro; Torres, Alfonso Parreño; Vázquez, Javier

    2012-10-01

    Large-scale integration of Photovoltaic (PV) generation systems, including Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) technologies, will require the contribution and support of these technologies to the management and stability of the grid. New regulations and grid codes for PV installations in countries such as Spain have recently included dynamic voltage control support during faults. The PV installation must stay connected to the grid during voltage dips and inject reactive power in order to enhance the stability of the system. The existing PV inverter technologies based on the Voltage-Source Converter (VSC) are in general well suited to provide advanced grid-support characteristics. Nevertheless, new advanced control schemes and monitoring techniques will be necessary to meet the most demanding requirements.

  12. Commercial/industrial photovoltaic module and array requirement study. Low-cost solar array project engineering area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Design requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays used in commercial and industrial applications were identified. Building codes and referenced standards were reviewed for their applicability to commercial and industrial photovoltaic array installation. Four general installation types were identified - integral (replaces roofing), direct (mounted on top of roofing), stand-off (mounted away from roofing), and rack (for flat or low slope roofs, or ground mounted). Each of the generic mounting types can be used in vertical wall mounting systems. This implies eight mounting types exist in the commercial/industrial sector. Installation costs were developed for these mounting types as a function of panel/module size. Cost drivers were identified. Studies were performed to identify optimum module shapes and sizes and operating voltage cost drivers. The general conclusion is that there are no perceived major obstacles to the use of photovoltaic modules in commercial/industrial arrays.

  13. Creep in Photovoltaic Modules: Examining the Stability of Polymeric Materials and Components

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. C.; Kempe, M. D.; Glick, S. H.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    Interest in renewable energy has motivated the implementation of new polymeric materials in photovoltaic modules. Some of these are non-cross-linked thermoplastics, in which there is a potential for new behaviors to occur, including phase transformation and visco-elastic flow. Differential scanning calorimetry and rheometry data were obtained and then combined with existing site-specific time-temperature information in a theoretical analysis to estimate the displacement expected to occur during module service life. The analysis identified that, depending on the installation location, module configuration and/or mounting configuration, some of the thermoplastics are expected to undergo unacceptable physical displacement. While the examples here focus on encapsulation materials, the concerns apply equally to the frame, junction-box, and mounting-adhesive technologies.

  14. A circuit-based photovoltaic module simulator with shadow and fault settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Kuei-Hsiang; Chao, Yuan-Wei; Chen, Jyun-Ping

    2016-03-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop a photovoltaic (PV) module simulator. The proposed simulator, using electrical parameters from solar cells, could simulate output characteristics not only during normal operational conditions, but also during conditions of partial shadow and fault conditions. Such a simulator should possess the advantages of low cost, small size and being easily realizable. Experiments have shown that results from a proposed PV simulator of this kind are very close to that from simulation software during partial shadow conditions, and with negligible differences during fault occurrence. Meanwhile, the PV module simulator, as developed, could be used on various types of series-parallel connections to form PV arrays, to conduct experiments on partial shadow and fault events occurring in some of the modules. Such experiments are designed to explore the impact of shadow and fault conditions on the output characteristics of the system as a whole.

  15. Use of Melt Flow Rate Test in Reliability Study of Thermoplastic Encapsulation Materials in Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, J.; Miller, D.; Shah, Q.-U.-A. S. J.; Sakurai, K.; Kempe, M.; Tamizhmani, G.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-10-01

    Use of thermoplastic materials as encapsulants in photovoltaic (PV) modules presents a potential concern in terms of high temperature creep, which should be evaluated before thermoplastics are qualified for use in the field. Historically, the issue of creep has been avoided by using thermosetting polymers as encapsulants, such as crosslinked ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA). Because they lack crosslinked networks, however, thermoplastics may be subject to phase transitions and visco-elastic flow at the temperatures and mechanical stresses encountered by modules in the field, creating the potential for a number of reliability and safety issues. Thermoplastic materials investigated in this study include PV-grade uncured-EVA (without curing agents and therefore not crosslinked); polyvinyl butyral (PVB); thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU); and three polyolefins (PO), which have been proposed for use as PV encapsulation. Two approaches were used to evaluate the performance of these materials as encapsulants: module-level testing and a material-level testing.

  16. Statistical data analysis of thin film photovoltaic modules deployed in hot and humid climate of Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pethe, Shirish A.; Kaul, Ashwani; Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2008-08-01

    Current accelerated tests of photovoltaic (PV) modules mostly prevent infant mortality but cannot duplicate changes occurring in the field nor can predict useful lifetime. Therefore, monitoring of field-deployed PV modules was undertaken at FSEC with goals to assess their performance in hot and humid climate under high voltage operation and to correlate the PV performance with the meteorological parameters. This paper presents performance analysis of U.S. Company manufactured thin film a-Si:H PV modules that are encapsulated using flexible front sheets and framed to be outdoor tested. Statistical data analysis of PV parameters along with meteorological parameters, monitored continuously, is carried out on regular basis with PVUSA type regression analysis. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of module arrays that are obtained periodically complement the continuous data monitoring. Moreover, effect of high voltage bias and ambient parameters on leakage current in PV modules on individual modules is studied. Any degradation occurring during initial 18 months could not be assessed due to data acquisition and hurricane problems. No significant degradation was observed in the performance of PV modules during the subsequent 30-months. It is planned to continue this study for a prolonged period so as to serve as basis for their long-term warranties.

  17. Low Earth orbit durability evaluation of protected silicone for advanced refractive photovoltaic concentrator arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroh, Kim K.; Mccollum, Timothy A.

    1994-01-01

    The need for efficient, cost effective sources of electrical power in space has led to the development of photovoltaic power systems which make use of novel refractive solar concentrators. These concentrators have been conceived in both point-focus and linear-focus designs. Current concentrator lenses are fabricated from flexible silicones with Fresnel facets along their inside surface. To insure the efficient operation of these power systems, the concentrator lenses must be durable and the silicone material must remain specularly transmitting over a reasonable lifetime in low Earth orbit (LEO) and other space environments. Because of the vulnerability of silicones to atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation in LEO these lenses have been coated with a multi-layer metal oxide protective coating. The objective of this research was to evaluate the LEO durability of the multilayer coated silicone for advanced refractive photovoltaic concentrator arrays with respect to optical properties and microstructure. Flat metal oxide coated silicone samples were exposed to ground-laboratory and in-space atomic oxyqen for durability evaluation.

  18. Optical simulation of photovoltaic modules with multiple textured interfaces using the matrix-based formalism OPTOS.

    PubMed

    Tucher, Nico; Eisenlohr, Johannes; Gebrewold, Habtamu; Kiefel, Peter; Höhn, Oliver; Hauser, Hubert; Goldschmidt, Jan Christoph; Bläsi, Benedikt

    2016-07-11

    The OPTOS formalism is a matrix-based approach to determine the optical properties of textured optical sheets. It is extended within this work to enable the modelling of systems with an arbitrary number of textured, plane-parallel interfaces. A matrix-based system description is derived that accounts for the optical reflection and transmission interaction between all textured interfaces. Using OPTOS, we calculate reflectance and absorptance of complete photovoltaic module stacks, which consist of encapsulated silicon solar cells featuring textures that operate in different optical regimes. As exemplary systems, solar cells with and without module encapsulation are shown to exhibit a considerable absorptance gain if the random pyramid front side texture is combined with a diffractive rear side grating. A variation of the sunlight's angle of incidence reveals that the grating gain is almost not affected for incoming polar angles up to 60°. Considering as well the good agreement with alternative simulation techniques, OPTOS is demonstrated to be a versatile and efficient method for the optical analysis of photovoltaic modules. PMID:27410896

  19. Solar concentrator modules with silicone-on-glass Fresnel lens panels and multijunction cells.

    PubMed

    Rumyantsev, Valery D

    2010-04-26

    High-efficiency multijunction (MJ) solar cells, being very expensive to manufacture, should only be used in combination with solar concentrators in terrestrial applications. An essential cost reduction of electric power produced by photovoltaic (PV) installations with MJ cells, may be expected by the creation of highly-effective, but inexpensive, elements for optical concentration and sun tracking. This article is an overview of the corresponding approach under development at the Ioffe Physical Technical Institute. The approach to R&D of the solar PV modules is based on the concepts of sunlight concentration by small-aperture area Fresnel lenses and "all-glass" module design. The small-aperture area lenses are arranged as a panel with silicone-on-glass structure where the glass plate serves as the front surface of a module. In turn, high-efficiency InGaP/(In)GaAs/Ge cells are arranged on a rear module panel mounted on a glass plate which functions as a heat sink and integrated protective cover for the cells. The developed PV modules and sun trackers are characterized by simple design, and are regarded as the prototypes for further commercialization. PMID:20588569

  20. Solar concentrator modules with silicone-onglass Fresnel lens panels and multijunction cells.

    PubMed

    Rumyantsev, Valery D

    2010-04-26

    High-efficiency multijunction (MJ) solar cells, being very expensive to manufacture, should only be used in combination with solar concentrators in terrestrial applications. An essential cost reduction of electric power produced by photovoltaic (PV) installations with MJ cells, may be expected by the creation of highly-effective, but inexpensive, elements for optical concentration and sun tracking. This article is an overview of the corresponding approach under development at the Ioffe Physical Technical Institute. The approach to R&D of the solar PV modules is based on the concepts of sunlight concentration by small-aperture area Fresnel lenses and "all-glass" module design. The small-aperture area lenses are arranged as a panel with silicone-on-glass structure where the glass plate serves as the front surface of a module. In turn, high-efficiency InGaP/(In)GaAs/Ge cells are arranged on a rear module panel mounted on a glass plate which functions as a heat sink and integrated protective cover for the cells. The developed PV modules and sun trackers are characterized by simple design, and are regarded as the prototypes for further commercialization. PMID:20607883

  1. Positional irradiance measurement: characterization of spectrum-splitting and concentrating optics for photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, Cristofer A.; Darbe, Sunita; Eisler, Carissa N.; He, Junwen; Atwater, Harry A.

    2014-10-01

    Multijunction photovoltaics enable significantly improved efficiency over their single junction analogues by mitigating unabsorbed sub-bandgap photons and voltage loss to carrier thermalization. Lateral spectrum-splitting configurations promise further increased efficiency through relaxation of the lattice- and current-matching requirements of monolithic stacks, albeit at the cost of increased optical and electrical complexity. Consequently, in order to achieve an effective spectrum-splitting photovoltaic configuration it is essential that all optical losses and photon misallocation be characterized and subsequently minimized. We have developed a characterization system that enables us to map the spatial, spectral, and angular distribution of illumination incident on the subcell reception plane or emerging from any subset of the concentrating and splitting optics. This positional irradiance measurement system (PIMS) comprises four motorized stages assembled in an X-Z-RY configuration with three linear degrees of freedom and one rotational degree of freedom, on which we mount an optical fiber connected to a set of spectrometers covering the solar spectrum from 280-1700 nm. In combination with a xenon arc lamp solar simulator with a divergence half angle of 1.3 degrees, we are able to characterize our optics across the full spectrum of our photovoltaic subcells with close agreement to outdoor conditions. We have used this tool to spectrally characterize holographic diffraction efficiency versus diffraction angle; multilayer dielectric filter transmission and reflection efficiency versus filter incidence angle; and aspheric lens chromatic aberration versus optic-to-receiver separation distance. These examples illustrate the versatility of the PIMS in characterizing optical performance relevant to both spectrum-splitting and traditional multijunction photovoltaics.

  2. Photovoltaic Shading Testbed for Module-Level Power Electronics: 2014 Update

    SciTech Connect

    Deline, C.; Meydbray, J.; Donovan, M.

    2014-08-01

    The 2012 NREL report 'Photovoltaic Shading Testbed for Module-Level Power Electronics' provides a standard methodology for estimating the performance benefit of distributed power electronics under partial shading conditions. Since the release of the report, experiments have been conducted for a number of products and for different system configurations. Drawing from these experiences, updates to the test and analysis methods are recommended. Proposed changes in data processing have the benefit of reducing the sensitivity to measurement errors and weather variability, as well as bringing the updated performance score in line with measured and simulated values of the shade recovery benefit of distributed PV power electronics. Also, due to the emergence of new technologies including sub-module embedded power electronics, the shading method has been extended to include power electronics that operate at a finer granularity than the module level. An update to the method is proposed to account for these emerging technologies that respond to shading differently than module-level devices. The partial shading test remains a repeatable test procedure that attempts to simulate shading situations as would be experienced by typical residential or commercial rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems. Performance data for multiple products tested using this method are discussed, based on equipment from Enphase, Solar Edge, Maxim Integrated and SMA. In general, the annual recovery of shading losses from the module-level electronics evaluated is 25-35%, with the major difference between different trials being related to the number of parallel strings in the test installation rather than differences between the equipment tested.

  3. High-efficiency thin and compact concentrator photovoltaics using micro-solar cells with via-holes sandwiched between thin lens-array and circuit board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itou, Akihiro; Asano, Tetsuya; Inoue, Daijiro; Arase, Hidekazu; Matsushita, Akio; Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Futakuchi, Ryutaro; Inoue, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Masaki; Fujii, Eiji; Nakagawa, Tohru; Anda, Yoshiharu; Ishida, Hidetoshi; Ueda, Tetsuzo; Fidaner, Onur; Wiemer, Michael; Ueda, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a compact concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) module that comprises micro-solar cells with an area of ≈0.6 × 0.6 mm2 sandwiched between a 20-mm-thick lens array and a 1-mm-thick circuit board with no air gap. To establish electrical connections between the circuit board and the micro-solar cells, we developed a micro-solar cell with positive and negative electrodes on the lower face of the cell. In this study, we demonstrated the photovoltaic performance of the micro-solar cell closely approaches that of the standard solar cell measuring ≈5 × 5 mm2 commonly used in conventional CPVs under concentrated illumination. Our study showed that the negative effect on PV performance of perimeter carrier recombination in the micro-solar cell was insignificant under concentrated illumination. Finally, we assembled our micro-solar cells into a CPV module and achieved the module energy conversion efficiency of 34.7% under outdoor solar illumination.

  4. Effects of charge carrier concentration in hybrid conjugated polymer/oxide photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Matthew Schuette

    2009-12-01

    Organic photovoltaics (OPV) represent an attractive route towards inexpensive, lightweight, and abundant renewable energy. The principal criticisms of OPV are low power conversion efficiency and unstable materials resulting in short device lifetimes. Hybrid OPV (h-OPV) devices with ZnO functioning either as the electron acceptor in the heterojunction, or as an electron transport layer in a polymer/fullerene based heterojunction, present useful device structures for investigating the functional mechanisms within OPV devices and a possible pathway towards air-stable high efficiency devices. Such use allows the vast knowledge surrounding oxide nanostructure morphology, band position, and carrier concentration control to be used in designing bulk-heterojunction OPV devices. The work presented in this thesis explores the effects of carrier concentration modulation in the polymer and/or oxide layers of these devices. Exposure to air is known to induce chemical defects in polymer semiconductors, which act as dopants in OPV devices. This increase in doping density can be used to improve OPV devices, however the low work-function metallic electrodes are often highly air sensitive. Using a silver back electrode and a ZnO interlayer at the transparent front contact in a polymer-based bulk heterojunction device allows for fabrication and testing in air. Relatively efficient devices are fabricated in this manner, but the devices show a characteristic aging time that indicates that air is a requirement to function as a quality diode. Air exposure may be effecting any of the layers in the device, but evidence is presented that shows the increased doping density in the polymer is largely responsible for the change in device quality over this time period. When oxides are used as the electron acceptor material in the device heterojunction, the carrier concentration in both the oxide and the polymer determine the strength of the electric field at the junction. Oxygen related doping

  5. Stationary Optical Concentrator Designs and Wafer Scale Monolithic Integration of Semiconductor Devices for Next Generation Photovoltaic Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung Min

    A major barrier in utilizing solar energy for large scale deployment is the cost of the photovoltaic (PV) systems. Several approaches have been used for the cost reduction such as by modifying PV system designs in addition to enhancing the efficiency of solar cells. Due to the high cost of materials, minimizing the use of solar cells such as in concentrator type systems is highly attractive for reducing the cost of the PV modules by focusing the incident light onto the PV cell. However concentrator PV systems (CPV) require constant tracking of the sun and hence are complex in design and expensive to operate, except in limited situations such as large scale PV power plants. It is desirable to design new concentrator type systems that do not require continuous tracking of the sun. These systems could ultimately reduce the PV system cost to a minimum while maximizing the power conversion efficiency. In this thesis we propose a simple design for a stationary concentrator photovoltaic (SCPV) system that could significantly reduce the cost of generating electricity using PV devices. Using optical ray tracing simulations, we have been able to design SCPV systems that could reduce the PV module cost by 2--10 times without compromising on the power conversion efficiency of the system. Another alternative approach for sustainable high efficiency PV system design is to develop low cost PV cells for terrestrial applications. To meet the demands of low cost and large scale production, larger and thinner (or flexible) substrates are required. We demonstrated the feasibility of fabricating monolithic interconnected PV devices at the wafer scale (2 inch wafers). In this study, GaSb PV cells grown on semi-insulating GaAs were used as the model material. Crucial device fabrication steps such as a selective etching process have been developed that is necessary for isolating individual devices on the wafer and interconnecting them with sub-micron scale accuracy. Selective etching of

  6. Modulating Concentration Of Hydrazine Vapor To Aid Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetter, Joseph R.; Maclay, G. Jordan

    1992-01-01

    Three techniques, flow modulation, filament modulation, and reactive-filter modulation developed to obtain selective response to hydrazine or to methyl hydrazines from photoionization detector. Implemented in portable selective hydrazine detectors, useful where continuous or rapid, repetitive quantitative measurements of concentrations of vapors of these toxic substances required. Measure concentration of gaseous hydrazines in presence of other gases like cyclohexane, chlorofluorocarbons, and ammonia. Produce modulated signal, amplitude and phase indicating amount of hydrazine, monomethyl hydrazine, or 1,1-dimethyl hydrazine present in mixture. Used with such other detectors as electrochemical cells.

  7. Thermal characteristics of a medium-level concentration photovoltaic unit with evaporation cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokotov, Yuri V.; Reyz, Michael A.; Fisher, Yossi

    2009-08-01

    The results of thermal analysis and experiments are presented for a 1-kW brand new medium-level (8X) concentration photovoltaic (CPV) unit that is cooled by evaporation and built as an elongated floating solar unit. The unit keeps the silicon PV elements at low and stable temperature around the clock, significantly outperforms competitors' systems in terms of the power output and the life span of identical PV elements. It is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that the PV element temperature level exceeds the temperature level of water in the water basin (used as a heat sink) by just a few degrees.

  8. A high temperature hybrid photovoltaic-thermal receiver employing spectral beam splitting for linear solar concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojiri, Ahmad; Stanley, Cameron; Rosengarten, Gary

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV-T) solar collectors are capable of delivering heat and electricity concurrently. Implementing such receivers in linear concentrators for high temperature applications need special considerations such as thermal decoupling of the photovoltaic (pv) cells from the thermal receiver. Spectral beam splitting of concentrated light provides an option for achieving this purpose. In this paper we introduce a relatively simple hybrid receiver configuration that spectrally splits the light between a high temperature thermal fluid and silicon pv cells using volumetric light filtering by semi-conductor doped glass and propylene glycol. We analysed the optical performance of this device theoretically using ray tracing and experimentally through the construction and testing of a full scale prototype. The receiver was mounted on a commercial parabolic trough concentrator in an outdoor experiment. The prototype receiver delivered heat and electricity at total thermal efficiency of 44% and electrical efficiency of 3.9% measured relative to the total beam energy incident on the primary mirror.

  9. Effects of Photovoltaic Module Soiling on Glass Surface Resistance and Potential-Induced Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Hacke, Peter; Burton, Patrick; Hendrickson, Alex; Spataru, Sergiu; Glick, Stephen; Terwilliger, Kent

    2015-06-14

    The sheet resistance of three soil types (Arizona road dust, soot, and sea salt) on glass were measured by the transmission line method as a function of relative humidity (RH) between 39% and 95% at 60 degrees C. Sea salt yielded a 3.5 orders of magnitude decrease in resistance on the glass surface when the RH was increased over this RH range. Arizona road dust showed reduced sheet resistance at lower RH, but with less humidity sensitivity over the range tested. The soot sample did not show significant resistivity change compared to the unsoiled control. Photovoltaic modules with sea salt on their faces were step-stressed between 25% and 95% RH at 60 degrees C applying -1000 V bias to the active cell circuit. Leakage current from the cell circuit to ground ranged between two and ten times higher than that of the unsoiled controls. Degradation rate of modules with salt on the surface increased with increasing RH and time.

  10. Reliability and Engineering of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules. Research forum proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr. (Editor); Royal, E. L. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    A Research Forum on Reliability and Engineering of Thin Film Photovoltaic Modules, under sponsorship of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Flat Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project and the U.S. Department of Energy, was held in Washington, D.C., on March 20, 1985. Reliability attribute investigations of amorphous silicon cells, submodules, and modules were the subjects addressed by most of the Forum presentations. Included among the reliability research investigations reported were: Arrhenius-modeled accelerated stress tests on a Si cells, electrochemical corrosion, light induced effects and their potential effects on stability and reliability measurement methods, laser scribing considerations, and determination of degradation rates and mechanisms from both laboratory and outdoor exposure tests.

  11. Wettability and Reaction between Solder and Silver Busbar during the Tabbing Process for Silicon Photovoltaic Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Beom-Yong; Hoang, Thi-Lien; Cho, Sung-Bin; Huh, Joo-Youl; Lee, Young-Sik

    2012-10-01

    The soldering quality of a Cu ribbon onto the Ag busbars of solar cells is one of the key factors affecting the cell-to-module loss and durability of a silicon photovoltaic module. In this study, we examined the effects of the surface chemistry and morphology of the screen-printed Ag busbars on the solder wettability and bonding uniformity of the Cu ribbon over the length of the busbar during the tabbing process. The surface of the as-fired Ag busbar was covered by a thin glass layer originating from the glass frit contained in the Ag paste. The presence of the thin glass layer significantly decreased the wettability of the solder, leading to the formation of voided regions at the solder/busbar interface. Although it had only a minor influence on solder wettability, increasing the roughness of the busbar surface resulted in the formation of more voided regions at the solder/busbar interface.

  12. Assessing photovoltaic module degradation and lifetime from long term environmental tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otth, D. H.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The photovoltaic module failure mechanisms related to temperature, humidity, and electrical bias are analyzed using the data collected over a period of 20 years from various sites in the U.S. The approach is based on measuring the rate dependence of the mechanisms on site stress levels, and then using the rate data to analytically estimate the field life by means of computer models of the site environment. A correlation is established between the accelerated constant-stress testing and the time-varying field exposures. Test results are presented for two failure mechanisms for a module design featuring polyvinyl butyral encapsulant for the temperature range of 85 to 100 C and 85-percent relative humidity.

  13. Protoflight photovoltaic power module system-level tests in the space power facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Juan C.; Kirch, Luke A.

    1989-01-01

    Work Package Four, which includes the NASA-Lewis and Rocketdyne, has selected an approach for the Space Station Freedom Photovoltaic (PV) Power Module flight certification that combines system level qualification and acceptance testing in the thermal vacuum environment: The protoflight vehicle approach. This approach maximizes ground test verification to assure system level performance and to minimize risk of on-orbit failures. The preliminary plans for system level thermal vacuum environmental testing of the protoflight PV Power Module in the NASA-Lewis Space Power Facility (SPF), are addressed. Details of the facility modifications to refurbish SPF, after 13 years of downtime, are briefly discussed. The results of an evaluation of the effectiveness of system level environmental testing in screening out incipient part and workmanship defects and unique failure modes are discussed. Preliminary test objectives, test hardware configurations, test support equipment, and operations are presented.

  14. A review of incentives, strategies and model technologies for recycling photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    DePhillips, M.P.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1994-03-07

    This paper identifies existing recycling programs for consumer products with similar composition to photovoltaic (PV) modules, including cathode-ray tubes, electronic circuit boards, batteries, and automobile windshield glass. Discussed are incentives, the selection of technologies, and strategies used to recycle these products. Since the technologies for recycling these products exist, developing a process, or series of processes, for PV modules should primarily be a matter of customization. Developing an entire recycling program that is economically feasible will provide a greater challenge. Achieving this will require careful analysis of incentives, use of various combinations of strategies, and inclusion of multiple industries for additional technical processes. This can contribute to the success of a program by dividing the costs and ensuring that secondary products and materials enter into a diverse amount of markets.

  15. Analysis of Photovoltaic (PV) Module during Partial Shading based on Simplified Two-Diode Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitti Babu, B.; Gurjar, Suresh; Meher, Ashish

    2015-02-01

    Generally, the characteristics of photovoltaic (PV) array are largely affected by solar temperature, solar irradiance, shading patterns, array configuration and location of shading modules. Partial shading is due to moving clouds and shadows of nearby obstacles and can cause a significant degradation in the output of PV system. Hence, the characteristics of PV array get more multifaceted with multiple peaks. The ultimate aim of the paper is to analyze the performance of PV module during such adverse condition based on simplified two-diode model. To reduce the computational time, the simplified two-diode model has a photocurrent source in parallel with two ideal diodes. Only four parameters are required to be calculated from datasheet in order to simulate the model. Moreover, the performance of PV array is evaluated at different shaded patterns and it is found that the model has less computational time and gives accurate results.

  16. Protoflight photovoltaic power module system-level tests in the Space Power Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Juan C.; Kirch, Luke A.

    1989-01-01

    Work Package Four, which includes the NASA-Lewis and Rocketdyne, has selected an approach for the Space Station Freedom Photovoltaic (PV) Power Module flight certification that combines system level qualification and acceptance testing in the thermal vacuum environment: the 'protoflight' vehicle approach. This approach maximizes ground test verification to assure system level performance and to minimize risk of on-orbit failures. The preliminary plans for system level thermal vacuum environmental testing of the protoflight PV Power Module in the NASA-Lewis Space Power Facility (SPF) are addressed. Details of the facility modifications to refurbish SPF, after 13 years of downtime, are briefly discussed. The results of an evaluation of the effectiveness of system level environmental testing in screening out incipient part and workmanship defects and unique failure modes are discussed. Preliminary test objectives, test hardware configurations, test support equipment, and operations, are presented.

  17. Determination of hot-spot susceptibility of multistring photovoltaic modules in a central-station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, C. C.; Weaver, R. W.; Ross, R. G., Jr.; Spencer, R.; Arnett, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Part of the effort of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Flat-Plate Solar Array Project (FSA) includes a program to improve module and array reliability. A collaborative activity with industry dealing with the problem of hot-spot heating due to the shadowing of photovoltaic cells in modules and arrays containing several paralleled cell strings is described. The use of multiparallel strings in large central-station arrays introduces the likelihood of unequal current sharing and increased heating levels. Test results that relate power dissipated, current imbalance, cross-strapping frequency, and shadow configuration to hot-spot heating levels are presented. Recommendations for circuit design configurations appropriate to central-station applications that reduce the risk of hot-spot problems are offered. Guidelines are provided for developing hot-spot tests for arrays when current imbalance is a threat.

  18. Study of curved glass photovoltaic module and module electrical isolation design requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The design of a 1.2 by 2.4 m curved glass superstrate and support clip assembly is presented, along with the results of finite element computer analysis and a glass industry survey conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of the concept. Installed costs for four curved glass module array configurations are estimated and compared with cost previously reported for comparable flat glass module configurations. Electrical properties of candidate module encapsulation systems are evaluated along with present industry practice for the design and testing of electrical insulation systems. Electric design requirements for module encapsulation systems are also discussed.

  19. Environmental and health aspects of copper-indium-diselenide thin-film photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberger, Hartmut; Thumm, Werner; Freitag, Renate; Moskowitz, Paul D.; Chapin, Robert

    Copper-indium-diselenide (CIS) is a semiconductor compound that can be used to produce thin-film photovoltaic modules. There is on-going research being conducted by various federal agencies and private industries to demonstrate the commercial viability of this material. Because this is a new technology, and because scant information about the health and environmental hazards associated with the use of this material is available, studies have been initiated to characterize the environmental mobility and environmental toxicology of this compound. The objective of these studies is to identify the environmental and health hazards associated with the production, use, and disposal of CIS thin-film photovoltaic modules. The program includes both experimental and theoretical components. Theoretical studies are being undertaken to estimate material flows through the environment for a range of production options as well as use and disposal scenarios. The experimental programs characterize the physical, chemical (e.g. leachability), and biological parameters (e.g. EC(sub 50)) in daphnia and algae, and feeding studies in rats.

  20. Environmental and health aspects of copper-indium-diselenide thin-film photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberger, H.; Thumm, W.; Freitag, R.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Chapin, R.

    1994-12-31

    Copper-indium-diselenide (CIS) is a semiconductor compound that can be used to produce thin-film photovoltaic modules. There is on-going research being conducted by various federal agencies and private industries to demonstrate the commercial viability of this material. Because this is a new technology, and because scant information about the health and environmental hazards associated with the use of this material is available, studies have been initiated to characterize the environmental mobility and environmental toxicology of this compound. The objective of these studies is to identify the environmental and health hazards associated with the production, use, and disposal of CIS thin-film photovoltaic modules. The program includes both experimental and theoretical components. Theoretical studies are being undertaken to estimate material flows through the environment for a range of production options as well as use and disposal scenarios. The experimental programs characterize the physical, chemical e.g. leachability and biological parameters e.g. EC{sub 50} in daphnia and algae, and feeding studies in rats.

  1. Qualification and durability tests - Applications for thermal collectors and photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riesch, G.

    Accelerated and abbreviated durability tests for characterizing the long-term reliability of solar thermal and photovoltaic modules are described. The tests have been designed to provoke behaviors which would normally require years to become manifest, thereby allowing lifetime predictions to be made over a short testing period. Increasing the intensity of the potentially damaging agent, e.g., UV radiation, humidity, a combination of both, is one method, and cycling the specimen through exposures and out of them in repetitive rapid succession, such as in thermal cycling, is another. The two techniques can also be combined. Solar flat plate collectors are presently tested for overpressure resistance of the absorber, leak tests, rain penetration, load carrying capacity, resistance to hail impact, and durability under thermal shock. Trials are also run involving exposure to a dry atmosphere, UV radiation, ozone-contaminatead atmosphere, sulfur dioxide, cyclic damp heat, and salt mist. Photovoltaic modules are tested for thermal strength, in mounting twist tests, for insulation integrity, for ice loading, for humidity freezing, temperature cycling, long exposure to high temperatures, in damp heat in long storage, and to the same atmospheric factors as flat plates.

  2. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology (PVMaT) improvements for ENTECH{close_quote}s fourth-generation concentrator systems

    SciTech Connect

    ONeill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes recent improvements in manufacturing technology for fourth-generation photovoltaic concentrator systems. The fourth-generation systems are firmly based on prior generations of a field-proven, high-efficiency, stable photovoltaic technology. The fourth-generation manufacturing process has been streamlined and validated through pilot runs and field deployments. Future plans include a 1.5 MW installation in 1998, as part of the Solar Enterprise Zone (SEZ) program in Nevada. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Long-term performance analysis of copper indium gallium selenide thin-film photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaul, Ashwani; Pethe, Shirish A.; Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2012-01-01

    Current accelerated qualification tests of photovoltaic (PV) modules mostly assist in avoiding premature failures but can neither duplicate changes occurring in the field nor predict useful product lifetime. Therefore, outdoor monitoring of field-deployed thin-film PV modules was undertaken at FSEC with the goal of assessing their performance in hot and humid climate under high system-voltage operation. Significant and comparable degradation rate of -5.13±1.53% and -4.5±1.46% per year was found using PVUSA type regression analysis for the positive and negative strings, respectively of 40W glass-to-glass Cu-In-Ga-Se (CIGS) thin-film PV modules in the hot and humid climate of Florida. Using the current-voltage measurements, it was found that the performance degradation within the PV array was mainly due to a few (8% to 12%) modules that had substantially higher degradation. The remaining modules within the array continued to show reasonable performance (>96% of the rated power after ˜ four years).

  4. Automatized segmentation of photovoltaic modules in IR-images with extreme noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, Andreas; Hepp, Johannes; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2016-05-01

    Local electric defects may result in considerable performance losses in solar cells. Infrared thermography is an essential tool to detect these defects on photovoltaic modules. Accordingly, IR-thermography is frequently used in R&D labs of PV manufactures and, furthermore, outdoors in order to identify faulty modules in PV-power plants. Massive amount of data is acquired which needs to be analyzed. An automatized method for detecting solar modules in IR-images would enable a faster and automatized analysis of the data. However, IR-images tend to suffer from rather large noise, which makes an automatized segmentation challenging. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable segmentation algorithm for R&D labs. We propose an algorithm, which detects a solar cell or module within an IR-image with large noise. We tested the algorithm on images of 10 PV-samples characterized by highly sensitive dark lock-in thermography (DLIT). The algorithm proved to be very reliable in detecting correctly the solar module. In our study, we focused on thin film solar cells, however, a transfer of the algorithm to other cell types is straight forward.

  5. Flat plate vs. concentrator solar photovoltaic cells - A manufacturing cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granon, L. A.; Coleman, M. G.

    1980-01-01

    The choice of which photovoltaic system (flat plate or concentrator) to use for utilizing solar cells to generate electricity depends mainly on the cost. A detailed, comparative manufacturing cost analysis of the two types of systems is presented. Several common assumptions, i.e., cell thickness, interest rate, power rate, factory production life, polysilicon cost, and direct labor rate are utilized in this analysis. Process sequences, cost variables, and sensitivity analyses have been studied, and results of the latter show that the most important parameters which determine manufacturing costs are concentration ratio, manufacturing volume, and cell efficiency. The total cost per watt of the flat plate solar cell is $1.45, and that of the concentrator solar cell is $1.85, the higher cost being due to the increased process complexity and material costs.

  6. Field test analysis of concentrator photovoltaic system focusing on average photon energy and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husna, Husyira Al; Ota, Yasuyuki; Minemoto, Takashi; Nishioka, Kensuke

    2015-08-01

    The concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) system is unique and different from the common flat-plate PV system. It uses a multi-junction solar cell and a Fresnel lens to concentrate direct solar radiation onto the cell while tracking the sun throughout the day. The cell efficiency could reach over 40% under high concentration ratio. In this study, we analyzed a one year set of environmental condition data of the University of Miyazaki, Japan, where the CPV system was installed. Performance ratio (PR) was discussed to describe the system’s performance. Meanwhile, the average photon energy (APE) was used to describe the spectrum distribution at the site where the CPV system was installed. A circuit simulator network was used to simulate the CPV system electrical characteristics under various environmental conditions. As for the result, we found that the PR of the CPV systems depends on the APE level rather than the cell temperature.

  7. 30 kW concentrator photovoltaic system using dome-shaped Fresnel lenses.

    PubMed

    Araki, Kenji; Yano, Taizo; Kuroda, Yoshio

    2010-04-26

    A 30 kW concentrator photovoltaic power plant was constructed and has started operation with the following new technologies: A new Concentrating PhotoVoltaic (CPV) tracker developed for high wind area like Korea and Japan by Daido Steel. (The power consumption of the tracking motors was only 19.6 W, namely 0.07% of the rated power.) With improved optics that reduce the mismatch losses associated with optical aberrations, an efficiency of 25.8% was achieved under standard testing conditions (STC) even in a large 23.8 m2 array size. A rapid installation sequence was developed. It was designed for long-term power supply to a local sewage center. Peak power corresponds to 10% of the demand. As a result, the system performance ratio was 0.87, and the capacity factor was 11.7%. The energy generation per rated power was 1,020 kWh/kWp. While it is true that CPV systems perform better in dry and high irradiance areas, our 30 kW system installed in a cloudy area like Japan, showed satisfactory performance. PMID:20607886

  8. 30 kW concentrator photovoltaic system using dome-shaped Fresnel lenses.

    PubMed

    Araki, Kenji; Yano, Taizo; Kuroda, Yoshio

    2010-04-26

    A 30 kW concentrator photovoltaic power plant was constructed and has started operation with the following new technologies: A new Concentrating PhotoVoltaic (CPV) tracker developed for high wind area like Korea and Japan by Daido Steel. (The power consumption of the tracking motors was only 19.6 W, namely 0.07% of the rated power.) With improved optics that reduce the mismatch losses associated with optical aberrations, an efficiency of 25.8% was achieved under standard testing conditions (STC) even in a large 23.8 m(2) array size. A rapid installation sequence was developed. It was designed for long-term power supply to a local sewage center. Peak power corresponds to 10% of the demand. As a result, the system performance ratio was 0.87, and the capacity factor was 11.7%. The energy generation per rated power was 1,020 kWh/kWp. While it is true that CPV systems perform better in dry and high irradiance areas, our 30 kW system installed in a cloudy area like Japan, showed satisfactory performance. PMID:20588574

  9. A high-performance photovoltaic concentrator array - The mini-dome Fresnel lens concentrator with 30 percent efficient GaAs/GaSb tandem cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, M. F.; Brinker, D. J.; Flood, D. J.; Avery, J. E.; Fraas, L. M.; Fairbanks, E. S.; Yerkes, J. W.; O'Neill, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    A high-efficiency, lightweight space photovoltaic concentrator array is described. Previous work on the minidome Fresnel lens concentrator concept is being integrated with Boeing's 30 percent efficient tandem GaAs/GaSb concentrator cells into a high-performance photovoltaic array. Calculations indicate that, in the near term, such an array can achieve 300 W/sq m at a specific power of 100 W/kg. Emphasis of the program has now shifted to integrating the concentrator lens, tandem cell, and supporting panel structure into a space-qualifiable array. A description is presented of the current status of component and prototype panel testing and the development of a flight panel for the Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics (PASP PLUS) flight experiment.

  10. Metastable Electrical Characteristics of Polycrystalline Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules upon Exposure and Stabilization: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Deline, C. A.; del Cueto, J. A.; Albin, D. S.; Rummel, S. R.

    2011-09-01

    The significant features of a series of stabilization experiments conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) between May 2009 and the present are reported. These experiments evaluated a procedure to stabilize the measured performance of thin-film polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of CdTe and CIGS thin-film PV devices and modules exhibit transitory changes in electrical performance after thermal exposure in the dark and/or bias and light exposures. We present the results of our case studies of module performance versus exposure: light-soaked at 65 degrees C; exposed in the dark under forward bias at 65 degrees C; and, finally, longer-term outdoor exposure. We find that stabilization can be achieved to varying degrees using either light-soaking or dark bias methods and that the existing IEC 61646 light-soaking interval may be appropriate for CdTe and CIGS modules with one caveat: it is likely that at least three exposure intervals are required for stabilization.

  11. Amorphous silicon photovoltaic modules and test devices design, fabrication and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanleeuwen, M.

    1985-01-01

    In July of 1984, Hughes and JPL initiated a contract for Hughes to design, fabricate and test 10 thin film Amorphous Silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic power modules. These modules were to be 1 ft x 4 ft in size. They were to be preceded by the delivery of 10 a-Si 4 in. square test devices. This effort is very timely since thin film PV development has progressed to the point where intermediate load power applications are on the horizon. It is important to know if current a-Si submodule design and manufacturing processes yield a product that is compatible with the packaging needed to meet a 20 to 30 year life span expectancy. The term submodule is assigned to an interconnected assembly of 28 a-Si cells deposited on a 1 foot square glass superstrate. These assemblies are equipped with electrical terminations, i.e., copper tabs at the four corners of the inverted submodules. It is these submodules that are to be interconnected and packaged into power modules, as opposed to the interconnected individual crystalline cells packaged into todays PV modules. A discussion of the fabrication methods and results follows.

  12. Battery Reinitialization of the Photovoltaic Module of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajela, Gyan; Cohen, Fred; Dalton, Penni

    2002-01-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) module on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operating since November 2000 and supporting electric power demands of the ISS and its crew of three. The PV module contains photovoltaic arrays that convert solar energy to electrical power and an integrated equipment assembly (IEA) that houses electrical hardware and batteries for electric power regulation and storage. Each PV module contains two independent power channels for fault tolerance. Each power channel contains three batteries in parallel to meet its performance requirements and for fault tolerance. Each battery consists of 76 Ni-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) cells in series. These 76 cells are contained in two orbital replaceable units (ORU) that are connected in series. On-orbit data are monitored and trended to ensure that all hardware is operating normally. Review of on-orbit data showed that while five batteries are operating very well, one is showing signs of mismatched ORUs. The cell pressure in the two ORUs differs by an amount that exceeds the recommended range. The reason for this abnormal behavior may be that the two ORUs have different use history. An assessment was performed and it was determined that capacity of this battery would be limited by the lower pressure ORU. Steps are being taken to reduce this pressure differential before battery capacity drops to the point of affecting its ability to meet performance requirements. As a first step, a battery reinitialization procedure was developed to reduce this pressure differential. The procedure was successfully carried out on-orbit and the pressure differential was reduced to the recommended range. This paper describes the battery performance and the consequences of mismatched ORUs that make a battery. The paper also describes the reinitialization procedure, how it was performed on orbit, and battery performance after the reinitialization. On-orbit data monitoring and trending is an ongoing activity and it will continue as

  13. Simulation analysis of GaN microdomes with broadband omnidirectional antireflection for concentrator photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Lu; Zhao, Hongping

    2014-04-01

    Microdome structures are analyzed as surface topology to reduce surface reflection over a broad spectral range and wide light incidence angle for concentrator photovoltaics application. Three dimensional finite difference time domain method was used to accurately calculate the surface reflection and transmission for surface topologies with different feature sizes and aspect ratios. Studies show that the use of GaN microdomes will lead to a significant reduction of the surface reflection over a broad wavelength range and wide incidence angle range. The surface reflection significantly depends on the surface structure feature size and geometrical shape. The design of the GaN microdomes provides flexibility to tune the structure in order to obtain the minimum surface reflection for different designs of concentrator optical systems. The surface reflections of the GaN microdomes are compared with that of the conventional flat surface as well as the one with antireflection coating.

  14. Photovoltaic Cavity Converter as a Means of Enhancing the Performance of State-of-the-Art Multijunction and Multibandgap Concentrator Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortabasi, Ugur; Waszczak, John P.; Allen, Steven L.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we report the developmental status of a High Concentration Photovoltaic system that uses a Photovoltaic Cavity Converter (PVCC) as the receiver. The unique feature of the PVCC receiver is its ability to efficiently re-cycle (re-use) photons that are reflected from a multi-cell array located near the focus of a two-axis tracking, parabolic dish. The Introduction of "Photon Re-cycling" for high concentrations applications (CR≥500X) has far reaching impacts on the achievable system performances with the state-of-the-art MJ cells. The most distinctive feature of the PVCC is its potential of extending the realm of the present day 3j technology to 4-, 5- and 6-Bandgap concentrator systems. The paper summarizes the analytical studies that support the rational behind the PVCC concept. Preliminary field tests were conducted with a 1/36 downscaled, but high fidelity HCPV system to compare the "cavity" versus "non-cavity" modes of operation. The system power output improved by 55% (relative) in the case of the "cavity" mode at 82% Cavity Optical Efficiency (COE). We project that 90% COE is realistically achievable. At this COE level, the module conversion efficiency of a PVCC using resistivity optimized III-V cells can be as high as 45%, today. A 6-bandgap, photon re-cycling PVCC using the state-of the-art 3j technology can achieve the module conversion efficiency of 50% in the foreseeable future.

  15. Optical analysis and thermal management of 2-cell strings linear concentrating photovoltaic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, K. S.; Kamnapure, Nikhilesh R.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the optical and thermal analyses for a linear concentrating photovoltaic/thermal collector under different operating conditions. Linear concentrating photovoltaic system (CPV) consists of a highly reflective mirror, a receiver and semi-dual axis tracking mechanism. The CPV receiver embodies two strings of triple-junction cells (100 cells in each string) adhered to a mild steel circular tube mounted at the focal length of trough. This system provides 560 W of electricity and 1580 W of heat which needs to be dissipated by active cooling. The Al2O3/Water nanofluid is used as heat transfer fluid (HTF) flowing through circular receiver for CPV cells cooling. Optical analysis of linear CPV system with 3.35 m2 aperture and geometric concentration ratio (CR) of 35 is carried out using Advanced System Analysis Program (ASAP) an optical simulation tool. Non-uniform intensity distribution model of solar disk is used to model the sun in ASAP. The impact of random errors including slope error (σslope), tracking error (σtrack) and apparent change in sun's width (σsun) on optical performance of collector is shown. The result from the optical simulations shows the optical efficiency (ηo) of 88.32% for 2-cell string CPV concentrator. Thermal analysis of CPV receiver is carried out with conjugate heat transfer modeling in ANSYS FLUENT-14. Numerical simulations of Al2O3/Water nanofluid turbulent forced convection are performed for various parameters such as nanoparticle volume fraction (φ), Reynolds number (Re). The addition of the nanoparticle in water enhances the heat transfer in the ranges of 3.28% - 35.6% for φ = 1% - 6%. Numerical results are compared with literature data which shows the reasonable agreement.

  16. High Efficiency Nanostructured III-V Photovoltaics for Solar Concentrator Application

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, Seth

    2012-09-12

    The High Efficiency Nanostructured III-V Photovoltaics for Solar Concentrators project seeks to provide new photovoltaic cells for Concentrator Photovoltaics (CPV) Systems with higher cell efficiency, more favorable temperature coefficients and less sensitivity to changes in spectral distribution. The main objective of this project is to provide high efficiency III-V solar cells that will reduce the overall cost per Watt for power generation using CPV systems.This work is focused both on a potential near term application, namely the use of indium arsenide (InAs) QDs to spectrally "tune" the middle (GaAs) cell of a SOA triple junction device to a more favorable effective bandgap, as well as the long term goal of demonstrating intermediate band solar cell effects. The QDs are confined within a high electric field i-region of a standard GaAs solar cell. The extended absorption spectrum (and thus enhanced short circuit current) of the QD solar cell results from the increase in the sub GaAs bandgap spectral response that is achievable as quantum dot layers are introduced into the i-region. We have grown InAs quantum dots by OMVPE technique and optimized the QD growth conditions. Arrays of up to 40 layers of strain balanced quantum dots have been experimentally demonstrated with good material quality, low residual stain and high PL intensity. Quantum dot enhanced solar cells were grown and tested under simulated one sun AM1.5 conditions. Concentrator solar cells have been grown and fabricated with 5-40 layers of QDs. Testing of these devices show the QD cells have improved efficiency compared to baseline devices without QDs. Device modeling and measurement of thermal properties were performed using Crosslight APSYS. Improvements in a triple junction solar cell with the insertion of QDs into the middle current limiting junction was shown to be as high as 29% under one sun illumination for a 10 layer stack QD enhanced triple junction solar cell. QD devices have strong

  17. Photovoltaic roof construction

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, W.W.

    1980-02-26

    In a batten-seam roof construction employing at least one photovoltaic cell module, the electrical conduits employed with the at least one photovoltaic cell module are disposed primarily under the battens of the roof.

  18. Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulations of luminescent solar concentrators for building integrated photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leow, Shin Woei; Corrado, Carley; Osborn, Melissa; Carter, Sue A.

    2013-09-01

    Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) have the ability to receive light from a wide range of angles, concentrating the captured light onto small photo active areas. This enables greater incorporation of LSCs into building designs as windows, skylights and wall claddings in addition to rooftop installations of current solar panels. Using relatively cheap luminescent dyes and acrylic waveguides to effect light concentration onto lesser photovoltaic (PV) cells, there is potential for this technology to approach grid price parity. We employ a panel design in which the front facing PV cells collect both direct and concentrated light ensuring a gain factor greater than one. This also allows for flexibility in determining the placement and percentage coverage of PV cells during the design process to balance reabsorption losses against the power output and level of light concentration desired. To aid in design optimization, a Monte-Carlo ray tracing program was developed to study the transport of photons and loss mechanisms in LSC panels. The program imports measured absorption/emission spectra and transmission coefficients as simulation parameters with interactions of photons in the panel determined by comparing calculated probabilities with random number generators. LSC panels with multiple dyes or layers can also be simulated. Analysis of the results reveals optimal panel dimensions and PV cell layouts for maximum power output for a given dye concentration, absorbtion/emission spectrum and quantum efficiency.

  19. Modeling Photovoltaic Module-Level Power Electronics in the System Advisor Model; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    Module-level power electronics, such as DC power optimizers, microinverters, and those found in AC modules, are increasing in popularity in smaller-scale photovoltaic (PV) systems as their prices continue to decline. Therefore, it is important to provide PV modelers with guidelines about how to model these distributed power electronics appropriately in PV modeling software. This paper extends the work completed at NREL that provided recommendations to model the performance of distributed power electronics in NREL’s popular PVWatts calculator [1], to provide similar guidelines for modeling these technologies in NREL's more complex System Advisor Model (SAM). Module-level power electronics - such as DC power optimizers, microinverters, and those found in AC modules-- are increasing in popularity in smaller-scale photovoltaic (PV) systems as their prices continue to decline. Therefore, it is important to provide PV modelers with guidelines about how to model these distributed power electronics appropriately in PV modeling software.

  20. Polarization-dependent interfacial coupling modulation of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect in PZT-ZnO heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Dan-Feng; Bi, Gui-Feng; Chen, Guang-Yi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-03-01

    Recently, ferroelectric perovskite oxides have drawn much attention due to potential applications in the field of solar energy conversion. However, the power conversion efficiency of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect currently reported is far below the expectable value. One of the crucial problems lies in the two back-to-back Schottky barriers, which are formed at the ferroelectric-electrode interfaces and blocking most of photo-generated carriers to reach the outside circuit. Herein, we develop a new approach to enhance the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect by introducing the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect. Through inserting a semiconductor ZnO layer with spontaneous polarization into the ferroelectric ITO/PZT/Au film, a p-n junction with strong polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect is formed. The power conversion efficiency of the heterostructure is improved by nearly two orders of magnitude and the polarization modulation ratio is increased about four times. It is demonstrated that the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect can give rise to a great change in band structure of the heterostructure, not only producing an aligned internal electric field but also tuning both depletion layer width and potential barrier height at PZT-ZnO interface. This work provides an efficient way in developing highly efficient ferroelectric-based solar cells and novel optoelectronic memory devices.

  1. Polarization-dependent interfacial coupling modulation of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect in PZT-ZnO heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Dan-Feng; Bi, Gui-Feng; Chen, Guang-Yi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, ferroelectric perovskite oxides have drawn much attention due to potential applications in the field of solar energy conversion. However, the power conversion efficiency of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect currently reported is far below the expectable value. One of the crucial problems lies in the two back-to-back Schottky barriers, which are formed at the ferroelectric-electrode interfaces and blocking most of photo-generated carriers to reach the outside circuit. Herein, we develop a new approach to enhance the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect by introducing the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect. Through inserting a semiconductor ZnO layer with spontaneous polarization into the ferroelectric ITO/PZT/Au film, a p-n junction with strong polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect is formed. The power conversion efficiency of the heterostructure is improved by nearly two orders of magnitude and the polarization modulation ratio is increased about four times. It is demonstrated that the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect can give rise to a great change in band structure of the heterostructure, not only producing an aligned internal electric field but also tuning both depletion layer width and potential barrier height at PZT-ZnO interface. This work provides an efficient way in developing highly efficient ferroelectric-based solar cells and novel optoelectronic memory devices. PMID:26954833

  2. Effects of cerium removal from glass on photovoltaic module performance and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempe, Michael D.; Moricone, Thomas; Kilkenny, Matt

    2009-08-01

    Photovoltaic modules are exposed to extremely harsh conditions of heat, humidity, high voltage, mechanical stress, thermal cycling and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The current qualification tests (e.g. IEC 61215) do not require sufficient UV exposure to evaluate lifespans of 30 years. Recently, photovoltaic panel manufacturers have been using glass that does not contain Cerium. This has the advantage of providing about 1.3% to 1.8% more photon transmission but potentially at the expense of long term stability. The additional transmission of light in the 300 nm to 340 nm range can cause delamination to occur about 3.8 times faster. Similarly, UV radiation will cause polymeric encapsulants, such as ethylene vinyl-acetate (EVA), to turn yellow faster losing photon transmission. Silicones do not suffer from light induced degradation as hydrocarbon based polymers do, therefore if silicone encapsulants are used, a 1.6% to 1.9% increase in photon transmission can be obtained from removal of Ce from glass, with no tradeoff in long term stability. Additionally antimony can be added to non-Ce containing glass to further improve photon transmission (principally in the IR range) by an additional 0.4% to 0.7%; however, this does not significantly affect UV transmission so the same UV induced reliability concerns will still exist with common hydrocarbon-based encapsulants.

  3. Polarization-dependent interfacial coupling modulation of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect in PZT-ZnO heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Pan, Dan-Feng; Bi, Gui-Feng; Chen, Guang-Yi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, ferroelectric perovskite oxides have drawn much attention due to potential applications in the field of solar energy conversion. However, the power conversion efficiency of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect currently reported is far below the expectable value. One of the crucial problems lies in the two back-to-back Schottky barriers, which are formed at the ferroelectric-electrode interfaces and blocking most of photo-generated carriers to reach the outside circuit. Herein, we develop a new approach to enhance the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect by introducing the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect. Through inserting a semiconductor ZnO layer with spontaneous polarization into the ferroelectric ITO/PZT/Au film, a p-n junction with strong polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect is formed. The power conversion efficiency of the heterostructure is improved by nearly two orders of magnitude and the polarization modulation ratio is increased about four times. It is demonstrated that the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect can give rise to a great change in band structure of the heterostructure, not only producing an aligned internal electric field but also tuning both depletion layer width and potential barrier height at PZT-ZnO interface. This work provides an efficient way in developing highly efficient ferroelectric-based solar cells and novel optoelectronic memory devices. PMID:26954833

  4. Si Radial p-i-n Junction Photovoltaic Arrays with Built-In Light Concentrators.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jinkyoung; Nguyen, Binh-Minh; Campbell, Ian H; Dayeh, Shadi A; Schuele, Paul; Evans, David; Picraux, S Tom

    2015-05-26

    High-performance photovoltaic (PV) devices require strong light absorption, low reflection and efficient photogenerated carrier collection for high quantum efficiency. Previous optical studies of vertical wires arrays have revealed that extremely efficient light absorption in the visible wavelengths is achievable. Photovoltaic studies have further advanced the wire approach by employing radial p-n junction architectures to achieve more efficient carrier collection. While radial p-n junction formation and optimized light absorption have independently been considered, PV efficiencies have further opportunities for enhancement by exploiting the radial p-n junction fabrication procedures to form arrays that simultaneously enhance both light absorption and carrier collection efficiency. Here we report a concept of morphology control to improve PV performance, light absorption and quantum efficiency of silicon radial p-i-n junction arrays. Surface energy minimization during vapor phase epitaxy is exploited to form match-head structures at the tips of the wires. The match-head structure acts as a built-in light concentrator and enhances optical absorptance and external quantum efficiencies by 30 to 40%, and PV efficiency under AM 1.5G illumination by 20% compared to cylindrical structures without match-heads. The design rules for these improvements with match-head arrays are systematically studied. This approach of process-enhanced control of three-dimensional Si morphologies provides a fab-compatible way to enhance the PV performance of Si radial p-n junction wire arrays. PMID:25961330

  5. Micro-optics for high-efficiency optical performance and simplified tracking for concentrated photovoltaics (CPV).

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Filatov, Anton; Lentine, Anthony L.; Sweatt, William C.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Jared, Bradley Howell

    2010-02-01

    Micro-optical 5mm lenses in 50mm sub-arrays illuminate arrays of photovoltaic cells with 49X concentration. Fine tracking over {+-}10{sup o} FOV in sub-array allows coarse tracking by meter-sized solar panels. Plastic prototype demonstrated for 400nm < {lambda} < 1600 nm. We have designed a solar collector that will be composed of 50-mm-diameter sub-arrays, each containing {approx}100 5-mm plastic micro-lenses. Each micro-lens illuminates a stack of about four 0.7mm PV cells that collect sunlight from 400nm to 1600 nm with a theoretical efficiency approaching 50%. Each sub-array has internal solar tracking and alignment over a {+-}10{sup o} field, so a large array of sub-arrays only needs to coarsely track the sun. The refractive lenses in the design are thin so the optical transmission can be >90% and the optics will weigh very little. There are other optical properties incorporated in this design that help the photovoltaic cells to operate very efficiently. We are building a pre-prototype system now, and will describe our progress at the conference.

  6. Design of a multiplexer to characterize individual optics at a concentrating photovoltaic test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Matthew; Beal, Richard; Haysom, Joan E.; Wheeldon, Jeffrey F.; Mulet, Philippe; Jamieson, Graeme; Youssef, Nashed; Balachandreswaran, Dhan; Fan, Jennifer; Hall, Trevor; Myrskog, Stefan; Hinzer, Karin

    2011-08-01

    An on-sun Concentrating Photovoltaic (CPV) test site with a multiplexed current-voltage measurement capability has been installed at the University of Ottawa. Herein, we present details of the instrumentation, which is designed to provide in-situ I-V measurements of individual solar cells within a functioning, series connected, string. A 4-wire multiplexing system enables current-voltage measurements of individual cells. Where other multi-cell test systems have left cells at open-circuit or connected to a fixed resistor when not selected by the multiplexer, in this system each test cell operates within a string of cells controlled by a maximum power point tracker. This allows us to maintain the test cells at realistic operating conditions for all irradiance conditions. Using the current-voltage data, a range of parameters of interest can be monitored over time, including the solar cell temperature, photovoltaic efficiency and optical efficiency. This information is correlated with time-synchronized spectrometer and pyrheliometer data, allowing automated collection of performance data from several strings of optic/solar cell assemblies. The test site includes two 20m2, dual-axis, ring mounted solar trackers and is being used to test new CPV systems which incorporate novel lightguiding optics designed and manufactured by Morgan Solar Inc.

  7. Concentrator Photovoltaic Qualification Standards for Systems Using Refractive and Reflective Optics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.; Ji, L.; Lasich, J.; Mansfield, R.

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes a proposed international qualification standard for photovoltaic (PV) systems generating electricity from concentrated sunlight. The standard's purpose is to provide stress tests and procedures to identify any component weaknesses in a system. If no weaknesses are identified during qualification, both the manufacturer and the customer can expect a more reliable product. In 2002, we began developing the standard, under the auspices of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), that would describe testing procedures for concentrator PV systems using reflecting (mirrors) or refractive (lenses) optics for focusing sunlight onto solar cells. The initial draft of the IEC standard was based on the first concentrator PV qualification standard published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) in the United States in 2001. Well-developed U.S. concentrator technologies use refractive optics, and the IEEE standard needed improvement for testing systems with reflective optics. Furthermore, with record III-V solar cell efficiencies above 37%, concentrator PV developers around the world would like to incorporate such cells into their next generation of technologies. The paper will highlight significant differences between the proposed IEC standard and the earlier IEEE standard.

  8. Commercial production of thin-film CdTe photovoltaic modules. 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Brog, T.K.

    1997-02-01

    This report presents a general overview of progress made in Golden Photon Inc.`s commercial production of thin-film CdTe photovoltaic modules. It describes the improvement in the number of batch runs processed through substrate deposition, all inter-connection, and encapsulation process steps; a progressive increase in the total number of panels processed each month; an improvement in cumulative process yields; and the continual attention given to modifying operating parameters of each major process step. The report also describes manpower status and staffing issues. The description of the status of subcontract progress includes engineering design; process improvement and development; cost improvement and raw materials; environment, safety, and health; and manufacturing cost and productivity optimization. Milestones and deliverables are also described.

  9. Mast material test program (MAMATEP). [for Solar Array Assembly of Space Station Photovoltaic Power Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciancone, Michael L.; Rutledge, Sharon K.

    1988-01-01

    The MAMATEP program, which is aimed at verifying the need for and evaluating the performance of various protection techniques for the solar array assembly mast of the Space Station photovoltaic power module, is discussed. Coated and uncoated mast material samples have been environmentally tested and evaluated, before and after testing, in terms of mass and bending modulus. The protective coatings include CV-1144 silicone, a Ni/Al/InSn eutectic, and an open-weave Al braid. Long-term plasma asher results from unprotected samples indicate that, even though fiberglass-epoxy samples degrade, a protection technique may not be necessary to ensure structural integrity. A protection technique, however, may be desirable to limit or contain the amount of debris generated by the degradation of the fiberglass-epoxy.

  10. Insolation-oriented model of photovoltaic module using Matlab/Simulink

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Huan-Liang

    2010-07-15

    This paper presents a novel model of photovoltaic (PV) module which is implemented and analyzed using Matlab/Simulink software package. Taking the effect of sunlight irradiance on the cell temperature, the proposed model takes ambient temperature as reference input and uses the solar insolation as a unique varying parameter. The cell temperature is then explicitly affected by the sunlight intensity. The output current and power characteristics are simulated and analyzed using the proposed PV model. The model verification has been confirmed through an experimental measurement. The impact of solar irradiation on cell temperature makes the output characteristic more practical. In addition, the insolation-oriented PV model enables the dynamics of PV power system to be analyzed and optimized more easily by applying the environmental parameters of ambient temperature and solar irradiance. (author)

  11. Accelerated testing of metal foil tape joints and their effect of photovoltaic module reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, N. Robert; Quintana, Michael A.; Puskar, Joseph D.; Lucero, Samuel J.

    2009-08-01

    A program is underway at Sandia National Laboratories to predict long-term reliability of photovoltaic (PV) systems. The vehicle for the reliability predictions is a Reliability Block Diagram (RBD), which models system behavior. Because this model is based mainly on field failure and repair times, it can be used to predict current reliability, but it cannot currently be used to accurately predict lifetime. In order to be truly predictive, physics-informed degradation processes and failure mechanisms need to be included in the model. This paper describes accelerated life testing of metal foil tapes used in thin-film PV modules, and how tape joint degradation, a possible failure mode, can be incorporated into the model.

  12. Examination of a junction-box adhesion test for use in photovoltaic module qualification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David C.; Wohlgemuth, John H.

    2012-10-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires) caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the "damp heat" IEC qualification test is proposed to verify the basic robustness of its adhesion system. The details of the proposed test will be described, in addition to the preliminary results obtained using representative materials and components. The described discovery experiments examine moisture-cured silicone, foam tape, and hot-melt adhesives used in conjunction with PET or glass module "substrates." To be able to interpret the results, a set of material-level characterizations was performed, including thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. PV j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then placed inside an environmental chamber (at 85°C, 85% relative humidity). Some systems did not remain attached through the discovery experiments. Observed failure modes include delamination (at the j-box/adhesive or adhesive/substrate interface) and phase change/creep. The results are discussed in the context of the application requirements, in addition to the plan for the formal experiment supporting the proposed modification to the qualification test.

  13. Examination of a Junction-Box Adhesion Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2012-08-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires) caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp heat' IEC qualification test is proposed to verify the basic robustness of its adhesion system. The details of the proposed test will be described, in addition to the preliminary results obtained using representative materials and components. The described discovery experiments examine moisture-cured silicone, foam tape, and hot-melt adhesives used in conjunction with PET or glass module 'substrates.' To be able to interpret the results, a set of material-level characterizations was performed, including thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. PV j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then placed inside an environmental chamber (at 85C, 85% relative humidity). Some systems did not remain attached through the discovery experiments. Observed failure modes include delamination (at the j-box/adhesive or adhesive/substrate interface) and phase change/creep. The results are discussed in the context of the application requirements, in addition to the plan for the formal experiment supporting the proposed modification to the qualification test.

  14. Acceleration of potential-induced degradation by salt-mist preconditioning in crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Soh; Nishiyama, Naoki; Yoshino, Seiji; Ujiro, Takumi; Watanabe, Shin; Doi, Takuya; Masuda, Atsushi; Tanahashi, Tadanori

    2015-08-01

    We examined the sequential effects of salt-mist stress followed by high-system-voltage stress on the power loss of crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) modules to determine whether a crucial failure as potential-induced degradation (PID) is accelerated by material-property changes caused by the long-term effects of a less harmful stress such as salt-mist spraying. Degradation profiles confirmed in this study show that PID is accelerated by certain types of salt-mist preconditioning. For the acceleration of PID, the contribution of sodium ions liberated from the front glass of the PV module seems to be excluded. Therefore, we consider that the sodium ions penetrating into the PV modules from the ambient environment may also cause degradation according to the proposed mechanisms of PID, as the sodium ions existing in the front glass cause PID. Furthermore, this type of degradation may indicate the wear-out phenomenon after a long-term exposure in the field (especially near the coast).

  15. Examination of a Junction-Box Adhesion Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2012-08-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires) caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp heat' IEC qualification test is proposed to verify the basic robustness of its adhesion system. The details of the proposed test will be described, in addition to the preliminary results obtained using representative materials and components. The described discovery experiments examine moisture-cured silicone, foam tape, and hot-melt adhesives used in conjunction with PET or glass module 'substrates.' To be able to interpret the results, a set of material-level characterizations was performed, including thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. PV j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then placed inside an environmental chamber (at 85C, 85% relative humidity). Some systems did not remain attached through the discovery experiments. Observed failure modes include delamination (at the j-box/adhesive or adhesive/substrate interface) and phase change/creep. The results are discussed in the context of the application requirements, in addition to the plan for the formal experiment supporting the proposed modification to the qualification test.

  16. Estimating service lifetimes of a polymer encapsulant for photovoltaic modules from accelerated testing

    SciTech Connect

    Czanderna, A.W.; Pern, F.J.

    1996-05-01

    In this paper, most of the emphasis is on A9918 ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) used commercially as the pottant for encapsulating photovoltaic (PV) modules, in which the efficiencies in field-deployed modules have been reduced by 10-70% in 4-12 years. Yet, projections were made by several different research groups in the 1980s that the EVA lifetime could range from 2-100 years. The authors (1) elucidate the complexity of the encapsulation problem, (2) indicate the performance losses reported for PV systems deployed since 1981, (3) critically assess the service lifetime predictions for EVA as a PV pottant based on studies by others for which they review the inherent errors in their assumptions about the Arrhenius relation, (4) show how degradation of minimodules in laboratory experiments that simulate reality can produce efficiency losses comparable to those in field-degraded PV modules reported in the literature, and (5) outline an acceptable methodology for making a service lifetime prediction of the polymer encapsulant, including the essential need for relating accelerated lifetime testing to real-time testing with a sufficient number of samples.

  17. Trial Run of a Junction-Box Attachment Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.; Deibert, S.; Wohlgemuth, J.

    2014-06-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development and manufacturing process control. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires), caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp-heat', 'thermal-cycle', or 'creep' tests within the IEC qualification protocol is proposed to verify the basic robustness of the adhesion system. The details of the proposed test are described, in addition to a trial run of the test procedure. The described experiments examine 4 moisture-cured silicones, 4 foam tapes, and a hot-melt adhesive used in conjunction with glass, KPE, THV, and TPE substrates. For the purpose of validating the experiment, j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then subjected to aging. The replicate mock-modules were aged in an environmental chamber (at 85 deg C/85% relative humidity for 1000 hours; then 100 degrees C/<10% relative humidity for 200 hours) or fielded in Golden, Miami, and Phoenix for 1 year. Attachment strength tests, including pluck and shear test geometries, were also performed on smaller component specimens.

  18. Multifunctional microstructured polymer films for boosting solar power generation of silicon-based photovoltaic modules.

    PubMed

    Leem, Jung Woo; Choi, Minkyu; Yu, Jae Su

    2015-02-01

    We propose two-dimensional periodic conical micrograting structured (MGS) polymer films as a multifunctional layer (i.e., light harvesting and self-cleaning) at the surface of outer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) cover-substrates for boosting the solar power generation in silicon (Si)-based photovoltaic (PV) modules. The surface of ultraviolet-curable NOA63 MGS polymer films fabricated by the soft imprint lithography exhibits a hydrophobic property with water contact angle of ∼121° at no inclination and dynamic advancing/receding water contact angles of ∼132°/111° at the inclination angle of 40°, respectively, which can remove dust particles or contaminants on the surface of PV modules in real outdoor environments (i.e., self-cleaning). The NOA63 MGS film coated on the bare PET leads to the reduction of reflection as well as the enhancement of both the total and diffuse transmissions at wavelengths of 300-1100 nm, indicating lower solar weighted reflectance (RSW) of ∼8.2%, higher solar weighted transmittance (TSW) of ∼93.1%, and considerably improved average haze ratio (HAvg) of ∼88.3% as compared to the bare PET (i.e., RSW ≈ 13.5%, TSW ≈ 86.9%, and HAvg ≈ 9.1%), respectively. Additionally, it shows a relatively good durability at temperatures of ≤160 °C. The resulting Si PV module with the NOA63 MGS/PET has an enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 13.26% (cf., PCE = 12.55% for the reference PV module with the bare PET) due to the mainly improved short circuit current from 49.35 to 52.01 mA, exhibiting the PCE increment percentage of ∼5.7%. For light incident angle-dependent PV module current-voltage characteristics, superior solar energy conversion properties are also obtained in a broad angle range of 10-80°. PMID:25622310

  19. Method for a reliability study on photovoltaic modules Application for the qualification of cells and modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desombre, A.

    The different steps used to determine the reliability of a solar cell are described and their effectiveness in predictions of cell lifetime are discussed. Commercially acceptable solar cells must last an average of 20 yr in various climatic conditions and in different applications. Testing is performed after characterizing the stresses to which the cells will be exposed, including climatic, electrical, and mechanical factors. Cell failures can be either catastrophic, i.e., total functional cutoff, or drift failure, a gradual decrease in productivity. Accelerated stresses are applied to cells as a means of measuring the long-term behavior, and various module components are also exposed to conditions that simulate possible failure-producing mechanisms or combinations of agents, such as humidity leading to eventual output degradation from corrosion. Specific test configurations are necessary to study module and cell performance whenever the units are intended for installation in extreme climatic situations, e.g., jungles or deserts.

  20. GaN microdomes for broadband omnidirectional antireflection for concentrator photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Lu; McGoogan, Matthew R.; Piedimonte, Tyler A.; Kidd, Ian V.; French, Roger H.; Zhao, Hongping

    2013-03-01

    GaN microdomes are studied as a broadband omnidirectional anti-reflection structure for high efficiency multi-junction concentrated photovoltaics. Comprehensive studies of the effect of GaN microdome sizes and shapes on the light collection efficiency were studied. The three dimensional finite difference time domain (3-D FDTD) method was used to calculate the surface reflectance of GaN microdomes as compared to that of the flat surface. Studies indicate significant reduction of the surface reflectance is achievable by properly designing the microdome structures. Formation of the GaN microdomes with the flexibility to tune the size and shape has been demonstrated by using reactive ion etching (RIE) of both GaN and the self-assembled silica monolayer microspheres. Characterizations of the angle-dependence light surface reflectance for both micro-domes and flat surface show the similar trend as the simulation.

  1. Fabrication of Monolithic Integrated Series-Connected GaAs Photovoltaic Cells for Concentrator Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kentaroh; Yamada, Yugo; Senou, Minato; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Nakano, Yoshiaki

    2012-10-01

    Aiming at reducting in Joule energy loss of a photovoltaic cell under sunlight concentration, monolithic integration of GaAs cells has been realized, in which five subcells were connected in series and the total surface area of the cells occupied over 80% of the whole chip area. Using plasma etching with Cl2, a sufficiently sharp mesa for device isolation was obtained. Insulation between etched mesa sidewalls and interconnect electrodes proved to be the most significant issues for the purpose of eliminating shunt resistance and securing a reasonable fill factor; the SiO2 layer deposited by sputtering was much superior to polyimide as an insulator. The fabricated test device showed a short circuit current density of 20.7 mA/cm2 and an open circuit voltage of 4.79 V, which were consistent with the values for a single subcell.

  2. The hybrid nanofluid/microchannel cooling solution for concentrated photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelea, Dorin; Calinoiu, Delia Gabriela; Trif-Tordai, Gavrila; Cioabla, Adrian Eugen; Laza, Ioan; Popescu, Francisc

    2015-02-01

    The paper deals with the cooling solution of the concentrated photovoltaic panel based on a microthermal device with impingement fluid jet and nanofluid as the working fluid. For this purpose, the numerical simulations of the nanofluid flow and heat transfer through the microchannel heat sink with impingement fluid jets is made. The laminar and stationary regime is considered. The water based Al2O3 nanofluid type is considered with various particle diameters and volume fractions of the particles. The results are presented in the form of the thermal resistance considered Reynolds number and fixed pumping power basis. It is concluded that cooling behavior of the micro-thermal device is strongly dependent both on the analysis basis and particle diameter or volume fractions.

  3. Low cost electrochemical sensor module for measurement of gas concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, Grzegorz; Strzelczyk, Anna; Koscinski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a low cost electrochemical sensor module for gas concentration measurement. A module is universal and can be used for many types of electrochemical gas sensors. Device is based on AVR ATmega8 microcontroller. As signal processing circuit a specialized integrated circuit LMP91000 is used. The proposed equipment will be used as a component of electronic nose system employed for classifying and distinguishing different levels of air contamination.

  4. Behavioral data of thin-film single junction amorphous silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic modules under outdoor long term exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kichou, Sofiane; Silvestre, Santiago; Nofuentes, Gustavo; Torres-Ramírez, Miguel; Chouder, Aissa; Guasch, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Four years׳ behavioral data of thin-film single junction amorphous silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic (PV) modules installed in a relatively dry and sunny inland site with a Continental-Mediterranean climate (in the city of Jaén, Spain) are presented in this article. The shared data contributes to clarify how the Light Induced Degradation (LID) impacts the output power generated by the PV array, especially in the first days of exposure under outdoor conditions. Furthermore, a valuable methodology is provided in this data article permitting the assessment of the degradation rate and the stabilization period of the PV modules. Further discussions and interpretations concerning the data shared in this article can be found in the research paper “Characterization of degradation and evaluation of model parameters of amorphous silicon photovoltaic modules under outdoor long term exposure” (Kichou et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:26977439

  5. Behavioral data of thin-film single junction amorphous silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic modules under outdoor long term exposure.

    PubMed

    Kichou, Sofiane; Silvestre, Santiago; Nofuentes, Gustavo; Torres-Ramírez, Miguel; Chouder, Aissa; Guasch, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Four years׳ behavioral data of thin-film single junction amorphous silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic (PV) modules installed in a relatively dry and sunny inland site with a Continental-Mediterranean climate (in the city of Jaén, Spain) are presented in this article. The shared data contributes to clarify how the Light Induced Degradation (LID) impacts the output power generated by the PV array, especially in the first days of exposure under outdoor conditions. Furthermore, a valuable methodology is provided in this data article permitting the assessment of the degradation rate and the stabilization period of the PV modules. Further discussions and interpretations concerning the data shared in this article can be found in the research paper "Characterization of degradation and evaluation of model parameters of amorphous silicon photovoltaic modules under outdoor long term exposure" (Kichou et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:26977439

  6. Photovoltaic response in pristine WSe{sub 2} layers modulated by metal-induced surface-charge-transfer doping

    SciTech Connect

    Wi, Sungjin; Chen, Mikai; Li, Da; Nam, Hongsuk; Meyhofer, Edgar; Liang, Xiaogan

    2015-08-10

    We obtained photovoltaic response in pristine multilayer WSe{sub 2} by sandwiching WSe{sub 2} between top and bottom metals. In this structure, the work-function difference between the top metal and WSe{sub 2} plays a critical role in generating built-in potentials and photovoltaic responses. Our devices with Zn as top metal exhibit photo-conversion efficiencies up to 6.7% under 532 nm illumination and external quantum efficiencies in the range of 40%–83% for visible light. This work provides a method for generating photovoltaic responses in layered semiconductors without detrimental doping or exquisite heterostructures, and also advances the physics for modulating the band structures of such emerging semiconductors.

  7. Hybrid photovoltaic-thermoelectric system for concentrated solar energy conversion: Experimental realization and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeri, Ofer; Rotem, Oded; Hazan, Eden; Katz, Eugene A.; Braun, Avi; Gelbstein, Yaniv

    2015-09-01

    An experimental demonstration of the combined photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric conversion of concentrated sunlight (with concentration factor, X, up to ˜300) into electricity is presented. The hybrid system is based on a multi-junction PV cell and a thermoelectric generator (TEG). The latter increases the electric power of the system and dissipates some of the excessive heat. For X ≤ 200, the system's maximal efficiency, ˜32%, was mostly due to the contribution from the PV cell. With increasing X and system temperature, the PV cell's efficiency decreased while that of the TEG increased. Accordingly, the direct electrical contribution of the TEG started to dominate in the total system power, reaching ˜20% at X ≈ 290. Using a simple steady state finite element modeling, the cooling effect of the TEG on the hybrid system's efficiency was proved to be even more significant than its direct electrical contribution for high solar concentrations. As a result, the total efficiency contribution of the TEG reached ˜40% at X ≈ 200. This suggests a new system optimization concept that takes into account the PV cell's temperature dependence and the trade-off between the direct electrical generation and cooling capabilities of the TEG. It is shown that the hybrid system has a real potential to exceed 50% total efficiency by using more advanced PV cells and TE materials.

  8. Analyzing luminescent solar concentrators with front-facing photovoltaic cells using weighted Monte Carlo ray tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woei Leow, Shin; Corrado, Carley; Osborn, Melissa; Isaacson, Michael; Alers, Glenn; Carter, Sue A.

    2013-06-01

    Luminescent solar concentrators (LSC) collect ambient light from a broad range of angles and concentrate the captured light onto photovoltaic (PV) cells. LSCs with front-facing cells collect direct and indirect sunlight ensuring a gain factor greater than one. The flexible placement and percentage coverage of PV cells on the LSC panel allow for layout adjustments to be made in order to balance re-absorption losses and the level of light concentration desired. A weighted Monte Carlo ray tracing program was developed to study the transport of photons and loss mechanisms in the LSC to aid in design optimization. The program imports measured absorption/emission spectra of an organic luminescent dye (LR305), the transmission coefficient, and refractive index of acrylic as parameters that describe the system. Simulations suggest that for LR305, 8-10 cm of luminescent material surrounding the PV cell yields the highest increase in power gain per unit area of LSC added, thereby determining the ideal spacing between PV cells in the panel. For rectangular PV cells, results indicate that for each centimeter of PV cell width, an additional increase of 0.15 mm to the waveguide thickness is required to efficiently transport photon collected by the LSC to the PV cell with minimal loss.

  9. Studying Anomalous Open-Circuit Voltage Drop-Out in Concentrated Photovoltaics Using Computational Numerical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Margaret; Downs, Chandler; Vandervelde, Thomas; Machlachlan, Scott; Adler, James

    2015-03-01

    Under high solar concentration, an anomalous open-circuit voltage drop-out has been observed experimentally, but not understood theoretically. This anomaly has often been attributed to various thermal effects, but the effect is also observed in flash testing, where thermal effects do not have time to accumulate. We discuss our theoretical examination of semiconductor performance under high optical generated carrier injection. Under these conditions, the number of optically generated charge carriers increase past the number of equilibrium charge carriers. The effect of dynamically changing charge carrier compositions on fundamental electrical properties, such as open-circuit voltage, has yet to be explored in detail. Using the Newton-Raphson method, we solved the carrier continuity equations for the optically generated charge carriers as a function of material depth in bulk III-V semiconducting materials. Ultimately, we implemented these carrier concentration functions in our simulations of p-n band structures to characterize the impact of solar concentration on the electrical behavior of photovoltaic devices.

  10. Parametric analysis of a coupled photovoltaic/thermal concentrating solar collector for electricity generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otanicar, Todd; Chowdhury, Ihtesham; Phelan, Patrick E.; Prasher, Ravi

    2010-12-01

    The analysis of the combined efficiencies in a coupled photovoltaic (PV)/thermal concentrating solar collector are presented based on a coupled electrical/thermal model. The calculations take into account the drop in efficiency that accompanies the operation of PV cells at elevated temperatures along with a detailed analysis of the thermal system including losses. An iterative numerical scheme is described that involves a coupled electrothermal simulation of the solar energy conversion process. In the proposed configuration losses in the PV cell due to reduced efficiencies at elevated temperatures and the incident solar energy below the PV bandgap are both harnessed as heat. This thermal energy is then used to drive a thermodynamic power cycle. The simulations show that it is possible to optimize the overall efficiency of the system by variation in key factors such as the solar concentration factor, the band gap of the PV material, and the system thermal design configuration, leading to a maximum combined efficiency of ˜32.3% for solar concentrations between 10-50 and a band-gap around 1.5-2.0 eV.

  11. Development of a building block design of modular photovoltaic concentrator array fields

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, D.C.; Alexander, G.; Noel, G.T.; Scurlock, L.D.; Huss, W.R.; Stickford, G.H.

    1983-08-01

    To reduce the balance-of-system (BOS) costs and site-specific design costs for photovoltaic concentrator array fields, a modular Building Block design has been developed for installing array fields of each of two available concentrator collectors. The array-field subsystems and requirements incorporated in the design analyses include site preparation, foundations, electrical wiring, grounding, lightning protection, electromagnetic interference provisions, and tracking and controls. The Building Block designs developed minimize these array-field BOS costs and serve as standardized units to be used in multiples to construct array fields of various sizes. The detailed drawings and construction specifications prepared for the designs require only minimal design modification and cost for adaption to a specific site and application. The two concentrator collectors for which the modular array-field designs were developed are the linear-focus Fresnel-lens array manufactured by E-Systems, Inc., and the point-focus Fresnel-lens array manufactured by Martin Marietta Aerospace Corporation. Both designs are two-axis tracking and passively cooled. The developed Building Block designs are immediately applicable and reduce the array-field BOS costs and site-specific design costs to a fraction of those experienced in previous installations. The estimated array-field BOS costs (in 1982 dollars) using these modular designs are $0.78/W for the modular field based on the E-Systems array and $1.18/W for the modular field based on the Martin-Marietta array.

  12. Implementation of high concentration photovoltaic grid connected power plant for training, research, innovation and solar electricity production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barhdadi, A.; Benazzouz, A.; Fabrizio, B.; Verdilio, D.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, performance monitoring program is applied to a grid-connected high concentration photovoltaic power plant in order to identify any operational problem and to make sure of its optimal and continuous power generation working conditions. A preventive maintenance plan was also established and proposed for the whole system.

  13. Study of highly precise outdoor characterization technique for photovoltaic modules in terms of reproducibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukabori, Akihiro; Takenouchi, Takakazu; Matsuda, Youji; Tsuno, Yuki; Hishikawa, Yoshihiro

    2015-08-01

    In this study, novel outdoor measurements were conducted for highly precise characterization of photovoltaic (PV) modules by measuring current-voltage (I-V) curves with fast sweep speeds and module’s temperature, and with a PV sensor for reference. Fast sweep speeds suppressed the irradiance variation. As a result, smooth I-V curves were obtained and the PV parameter deviation was suppressed. The module’s temperature was measured by attaching resistive temperature detector sensors on the module’s backsheet. The PV sensor was measured synchronously with the PV module. The PV parameters including Isc, Pmax, Voc, and FF were estimated after correcting the I-V curves using the IEC standards. The reproducibility of Isc, Pmax, Voc, and FF relative to the outdoor fits was evaluated as 0.43, 0.58, 0.24, and 0.23%, respectively. The results demonstrate that highly precise measurements are possible using a PV measurement system with the three above-mentioned features.

  14. Start-up capabilities of photovoltaic module for the International Space Station

    SciTech Connect

    Hajela, G.; Hague, L.

    1997-12-31

    The International Space Station (ISS) uses four photovoltaic modules (PVMs) to supply electric power for the US On-Orbit Segment (USOS). The ISS is assembled on orbit over a period of about 5 years and over 40 stages. PVMs are launched and integrated with the ISS at different times during the ISS assembly. During early stages, the electric power is provided by the integrated truss segment (ITS) P6; subsequently, ITS P4, S4, and S6 are launched. PVMs are launched into space in the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) cargo bay. Each PVM consists of two independent power channels. The NSTS docks with the ISS, the PVM is removed from the cargo bay and installed on the ISS. At this stage the PVM is in stowed configuration and its batteries are in fully discharged state. The start-up consists of initialization and checkout of all hardware, deployment of SAW and photovoltaic radiator (PVR), thermal conditioning batteries, and charging batteries; not necessarily in the same order for all PVMs. PVMs are designed to be capable of on-orbit start-up, within a specified time period, when external power is applied to a specified electrical interface. This paper describes the essential steps required for PVM start-up and how these operations are performed for various PVMs. The integrated operations scenarios (IOS) prepared by the NASA, Johnson Space Center, details specific procedures and timelines for start-up of each PVM. The paper describes how dormant batteries are brought to their normal operating temperature range and then charged to 100% state of charge (SOC). Total time required to complete start-up is computed and compared to the IOS timelines. External power required during start-up is computed and compared to the requirements and/or available power on ISS. Also described is how these start-up procedures can be adopted for restart of PVMs when required.

  15. Synergic system between photovoltaic module and microbial fuel cell with simultaneous pollution control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyliv, Oresta; Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2015-05-01

    Combined photovoltaic module-microbial fuel cell construction shows prospect of advanced autonomous functioning effective energy-production system with the possibility of round-the-clock power generation. Application of Desulfuromonas sp. as anode biocatalyst in photovoltaic (PV) - microbial fuel cell (MFC) could support highly effective eco-friendly energy derivation with simultaneous reduction of organic and inorganic wastes in water environment. D. acetoxidans is exoelectrogenic bacterium that supports S0-reduction with H2S formation and S0-oxidation while an electrode serves as the electron acceptor. Simultaneous sulfur redox processes enhance electron transfer to the electrode surface that may increase the effectiveness of microbial fuel cell performance. It was shown that D. acetoxidans IMV B-7384 possesses selective resistance to 0.5-2.5 mM of copper, iron, nickel, manganese and lead ions. Metal-resistant strains of this bacterium may help overcome H2S toxicity, which is produced because of dissimilative S0-reduction, since divalent cations will interact with sulfide ions, forming insoluble precipitates. Thus D. acetoxidans IMV B-7384 may be applied for remediation of toxic metal ions from water environments because of metal fixation in form of insoluble complexes of metal sulfides. D. acetoxidans IMV B-7384 is presumed to have the capability to convert organic compounds, such as malate, pyruvate, succinate and fumarate via reductive stage of tricarboxylic acid cycle. Thus application of effluents as anolyte in MFC, based on D. acetoxidans IMV B-7384, may cause decrease of its organic content with formation of simple benign constituents, such as CO2 and H2O. Hence the advanced system for eco-friendly energy generation with simultaneous water pollution control is proposed.

  16. Effect of UV aging on degradation of Ethylene-vinyl Acetate (EVA) as encapsulant in photovoltaic (PV) modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badiee, Amir; Wildman, Ricky; Ashcroft, Ian

    2014-10-01

    A lifetime of 20-30 years is generally regarded as necessary for photovoltaic modules to achieve economic break even. As a consequence, understanding how to improve the durability and reliability of the modules is becoming a necessity. Photovoltaic modules are exposed to extremely harsh conditions of heat, humidity, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation which affect the properties of the encapsulant material and cause yellowing, delamination and degradation of the material, which knock on effects on the performance and the long-term reliability of photovoltaic modules. This study addresses the impact of UV on the photochemical degradation of Ethylene-vinyl Acetate (EVA). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy in Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR) mode was performed on aged samples. The samples were exposed to UV light from a xenon lamp at 0.68 W/m2 at 340 nm with exposure up to 1000 hours. The FTIR-ATR measurement shows significant changes in the absorption at 1740 cm-1, 1720 cm-1 and 910 cm-1 which correspond to acetate, carboxylic acid and vinyl group respectively. It is shown that the UV exposure is the most significant aging factor. The rate of the photooxidation of EVA is compared by measuring the changes of absorbance at 1720 cm-1 with the UV irradiation time.

  17. How could the family-scale photovoltaic module help the poor farmer out of poverty and reduce CO2 emission?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Xu; Jin, Ran

    2016-04-01

    China, the world's most populous country, is facing great opportunities and challenges. On the one hand, China's increasing economy is raising hundreds of millions of people out of poverty. On the other hand, there are still 100 million of whose daily income is less than 1 US dollar. In addition, China is the world's largest solar panel producer and also the largest emitter of greenhouse gases. Could we find a feasible way to use solar panels to help the poor and meanwhile reduce CO2 emissions? To do this, we reviewed the literature and investigated the related field sites and institutions in China. Results show that the extension of family-scale photovoltaic modules to countryside could help. The 3 kW-module is recommended for widely distribution because its technology is mature and the cost is relatively low (3500 US dollars). Besides their own use to improve their living standard, farmers can sell the excess electricity to the grid at the price of 0.17 UD/kWh. The farmer's annual income could be increased by 460-615 US dollars by selling electricity, and this is equivalent to half of their annual income in many rural regions. The photovoltaic module can be used for 25 years and the payback period is 7 years. In addition to its economic benefit, the photovoltaic module can reduce CO2 emissions by 0.93 kg/kWh. This is equivalent to annual reduction of 3000-4000 kg CO2 per family. Therefore, it is concluded that the family-scale photovoltaic module not only can help the farmers out of poverty but also can reduce CO2 emissions significantly. To promote its sustainable development, it is worthwhile to further investigations its business models as well as the effects of long-term support policies under different social and nature conditions.

  18. Life cycle assessment and economic analysis of a low concentrating photovoltaic system.

    PubMed

    De Feo, G; Forni, M; Petito, F; Renno, C

    2016-10-01

    Many new photovoltaic (PV) applications, such as the concentrating PV (CPV) systems, are appearing on the market. The main characteristic of CPV systems is to concentrate sunlight on a receiver by means of optical devices and to decrease the solar cells area required. A low CPV (LCPV) system allows optimizing the PV effect with high increase of generated electric power as well as decrease of active surface area. In this paper, an economic analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA) study of a particular LCPV scheme is presented and its environmental impacts are compared with those of a PV traditional system. The LCA study was performed with the software tool SimaPro 8.0.2, using the Econinvent 3.1 database. A functional unit of 1 kWh of electricity produced was chosen. Carbon Footprint, Ecological Footprint and ReCiPe 2008 were the methods used to assess the environmental impacts of the LCPV plant compared with a corresponding traditional system. All the methods demonstrated the environmental convenience of the LCPV system. The innovative system allowed saving 16.9% of CO2 equivalent in comparison with the traditional PV plant. The environmental impacts saving was 17% in terms of Ecological Footprint, and, finally, 15.8% with the ReCiPe method. PMID:26935857

  19. Different cell cycle modulation by celecoxib at different concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Mee; Pyo, Hongryull

    2013-03-01

    Abstract Different cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors were known to cause different cell cycle changes. We investigated whether this different effect on cell cycle change was due to concentration-dependent effect. We investigated the effects of celecoxib, a COX-2 selective inhibitor, on cell cycle regulation in irradiated cancer cells that express high or low levels of COX-2. Four stably COX-2 knocked-down or overexpressed cell lines were treated with various concentrations of celecoxib with or without radiation. Celecoxib differentially modulated the cell cycle according to the concentrations applied. G1 arrest was induced at lower concentrations, whereas G2/M arrest was induced at higher concentrations in each cell line tested. Radiation-induced G2/M arrest was enhanced at lower concentrations but reduced at higher concentrations. The cutoff values to divide lower and higher concentrations were cell-type specific. Celecoxib treatment activated Cdc25C and inhibited p21 expression in both unirradiated and irradiated cells, regardless of COX-2 expression. Apoptosis was induced in irradiated cells 48 hours after treatment with celecoxib dependent of COX-2. These results imply that celecoxib deactivates the G2 checkpoint via both Cdc25C- and p21-dependent pathways in irradiated cells, which subsequently die by secondary apoptosis. Cell cycle modulating effects in irradiated cells resulting from treatment with celecoxib may have clinical importance with regard to the potential application of celecoxib in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. PMID:23268707

  20. 26+ Year Old Photovoltaic Power Plant: Degradation and Reliability Evaluation of Crystalline Silicon Modules -- South Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olakonu, Kolapo

    As the use of photovoltaic (PV) modules in large power plants continues to increase globally, more studies on degradation, reliability, failure modes, and mechanisms of field aged modules are needed to predict module life expectancy based on accelerated lifetime testing of PV modules. In this work, a 26+ year old PV power plant in Phoenix, Arizona has been evaluated for performance, reliability, and durability. The PV power plant, called Solar One, is owned and operated by John F. Long's homeowners association. It is a 200 kW dc, standard test conditions (STC) rated power plant comprised of 4000 PV modules or frameless laminates, in 100 panel groups (rated at 175 kW ac). The power plant is made of two center-tapped bipolar arrays, the north array and the south array. Due to a limited time frame to execute this large project, this work was performed by two masters students (Jonathan Belmont and Kolapo Olakonu) and the test results are presented in two masters theses. This thesis presents the results obtained on the south array and the other thesis presents the results obtained on the north array. Each of these two arrays is made of four sub arrays, the east sub arrays (positive and negative polarities) and the west sub arrays (positive and negative polarities), making up eight sub arrays. The evaluation and analyses of the power plant included in this thesis consists of: visual inspection, electrical performance measurements, and infrared thermography. A possible presence of potential induced degradation (PID) due to potential difference between ground and strings was also investigated. Some installation practices were also studied and found to contribute to the power loss observed in this investigation. The power output measured in 2011 for all eight sub arrays at STC is approximately 76 kWdc and represents a power loss of 62% (from 200 kW to 76 kW) over 26+ years. The 2011 measured power output for the four south sub arrays at STC is 39 kWdc and represents a power

  1. Rollable, efficient, low concentration PV for powering small satellites via diffractive modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Menahem, Shahar; Kress, Bernard; Brac-de-la-Pierriere, Vincent; Ishihara, Abraham K.

    2013-05-01

    We present a novel LP-CPV (Low Power Concentrating Photo-Voltaics) technology well suited for Low Earth Orbit small satellites. The LP-CPV consists of three layers: the first two layers are optical redirection layers which implement non-tracking concentrating functionality and the third one is a support layer for single crystal silicon lamellar strips covering 10% of the overall area. The optical layers are diffractive transparent plastic layers embossed with micro-structures via roll-to-roll embossing. Instead of using spectral dispersion, we use diffraction efficiency modulation to reduce the amount of IR light concentrated on the crystal silicon strips, therefore allowing maximum conversion efficiency even at 10X concentration over silicon. All three layers (concentrating optics and lamellar silicon PV strips) comprise, when deployed, a uniaxial PV system periodic in the other (non-axis) principal in-plane direction. The layers can be rolled together in one compact cylindrical roll to minimize the payload volume. The entire LP-CPV system can then be deployed/unrolled in space and held in place, but can also be rolled back in order to prevent damage from solar flares, micro-meteorites, etc.

  2. Progress on photovoltaic technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Maycock, P.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter presents the state of the art of photovoltaics, both economic and technological, using 15 tables of data to augment the text. The tables are entitled: (1) World PV Module Shipments; (2) 1984 World Market End-Use Sectors (MW); (3) World PV Module Shipments by Module Type; (4) US PV Module Shipments by Company; (5) US PV Module Shipments by Application; (6) Summary of Technology/Cost for Key Silicon-Based Options (1984 $); (7) Single-Crystal Cells: Manufacturing Process and Costs; (8) Manufactured cost per Watt (10% Module): US 5MWp; (9) Manufactured Cost per Watt (13% Modules): Hoxan 9MW; (10) Single-Crystal Technology Forecast; (11) Concentrators: 1985, 1990, 1995; (12) Si Ribbon: 1985, 1990, 1995; (13) Polysilicon: 1985, 1990, 1995; (14) Amorphous Si: 1985, 1990, 1995; (15) Option: No. of Professionals. Technology and cost forecasts, as well as R and D are included for all pertinent areas. 15 tables.

  3. Low-cost photovoltaics: Luminescent solar concentrators and colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leow, Shin Woei

    Solar energy has long been lauded as an inexhaustible fuel source with more energy reaching the earth's surface in one hour than the global consumption for a year. Although capable of satisfying the world's energy requirements, solar energy remains an expensive technology that has yet to attain grid parity. Another drawback is that existing solar farms require large quantities of land in order to generate power at useful rates. In this work, we look to luminescent solar concentrator systems and quantum dot technology as viable solutions to lowering the cost of solar electricity production with the flexibility to integrate such technologies into buildings to achieve dual land use. Luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) windows with front-facing photovoltaic (PV) cells were built and their gain and power efficiency were investigated. Conventional LSCs employ a photovoltaic (PV) cell that is placed on the edge of the LSC, facing inward. This work describes a new design with the PV cells on the front-face allowing them to receive both direct solar irradiation and wave-guided photons emitted from a dye embedded in an acrylic sheet, which is optically coupled to the PV cells. Parameters investigated include the thickness of the waveguide, edge treatment of the window, cell width, and cell placement. The data allowed us to make projections that aided in designing windows for maximized overall efficiency. A gain in power of 2.2x over the PV cells alone was obtained with PV cell coverage of 5%, and a power conversion efficiency as high as 6.8% was obtained with a PV cell coverage of 31%. Balancing the trade-offs between gain and efficiency, the design with the lowest cost per watt attained a power efficiency of 3.8% and a gain of 1.6x. With the viability of the LSC demonstrated, a weighted Monte-Carlo Ray Tracing program was developed to study the transport of photons and loss mechanisms in the LSC to aid in design optimization. The program imports measured absorption

  4. Consideration on Na diffusion and recovery phenomena in potential-induced degradation for crystalline Si photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Atsushi; Hara, Yukiko; Jonai, Sachiko

    2016-02-01

    Potential-induced degradation (PID), which brings about a large rapid decrease in output power has been observed in megawatt-scale photovoltaic power plants. Na diffusion from a cover glass to a cell through an encapsulant is possibly the direct origin of PID for p-type crystalline Si photovoltaic modules. On the other hand, PID is suppressed when using an ionomer encapsulant instead of a conventional ethylene vinyl acetate encapsulant. Some researchers consider that the reason is the suppression of Na diffusion when using an ionomer encapsulant. However, there has been no direct observation of Na diffusion behavior to the best of our knowledge for the modules prepared using an ionomer encapsulant. In this study it was found for the first time that Na diffuses in p-type multicrystalline Si photovoltaic modules prepared using an ionomer encapsulant without PID, suggesting that Na diffusion is not a sufficient condition for PID to occur. Another feature of PID is the recovery phenomenon induced by applying reverse voltage after PID occurs. In this study it was also found that reverse voltage application in the initial stage is effective for suppressing PID.

  5. A pulse-width modulated, high reliability charge controller for small photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gerken, K.; Welsh, D.

    1997-02-01

    This report presents the results of a development effort to design, test and begin production of a new class of small photovoltaic (PV) charge controllers. Sandia National Laboratories provided technical support, test data and financial support through a Balance-of-System Development contract. One of the objectives of the development was to increase user confidence in small PV systems by improving the reliability and operating life of the system controllers. Another equally important objective was to improve the economics of small PV systems by extending the battery lifetimes. Using new technology and advanced manufacturing techniques, these objectives were accomplished. Because small stand-alone PV systems account for over one third of all PV modules shipped, the positive impact of improving the reliability and economics of PV systems in this market segment will be felt throughout the industry. The results of verification testing of the new product are also included in this report. The initial design goals and specifications were very aggressive, but the extensive testing demonstrates that all the goals were achieved. Production of the product started in May at a rate of 2,000 units per month. Over 40 Morningstar distributors (5 US and 35 overseas) have taken delivery in the first 2 months of shipments. Initial customer reactions to the new controller have been very favorable.

  6. Ultraviolet Radiation Round-Robin Testing of Various Backsheets for Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Koehl, Michael; Ballion, Amal; Lee, Yu-Hsien; Wu, Hung-Sen; Scott, Kurt; Glick, Stephen; Hacke, Peter; Koo, Hyun Jin

    2015-06-14

    Durability testing of materials exposed to natural weathering requires testing of the ultraviolet (UV) stability, especially for polymeric materials. The type approval testing of photovoltaic (PV) modules according to standards IEC 61215 and IEC 61646, which includes a so-called UV preconditioning test with a total UV dose of 15 kWh/m2, does not correspond to the real loads during lifetime. Between 3%-10% of the UV radiation has to be in the spectral range between 280 and 320 nm (UV-B) in the recent editions of the standards. However, the spectral distribution of the radiation source is very important because different samples show very individual spectral sensitivity for the radiation offered. Less than 6% of the intensity of solar radiation exists in the UV range. In the case of an increase of the intensity of the light source for accelerating the UV test, overheating of the samples would have to be prevented more rigorously and the temperature of the samples have to be measured to avoid misinterpretation of the test results.

  7. Low earth orbit durability of protected silicone for refractive photovoltaic concentrator arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCollum, Timothy A.; deGroh, Kim K.

    1995-01-01

    Photovoltaic power systems with novel refractive silicone solar concentrators are being developed for use in low Earth orbit (LEO). Because of the vulnerability of silicones to atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation, these lenses are coated with a multilayer metal oxide protective coating. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of atomic oxygen and thermal exposures on multilayer coated silicone. Samples were exposed to high-fluence ground-laboratory and low-fluence in-space atomic oxygen. Ground testing resulted in decreases in both total and specular transmittance, while in-space exposure resulted in only small decreases in specular transmittance. A contamination film, attributed to exposed silicone at coating crack sites, was found to cause transmittance decreases during ground testing. Propagation of coating cracks was found to be the result of sample heating during exposure. The potential for silicone exposure, with the resulting degradation of optical properties from silicone contamination, indicates that this multilayer coated silicone is not durable for LEO space applications where thermal exposures will cause coating crack development and propagation.

  8. Utility-Scale Concentrating Solar Power and Photovoltaic Projects: A Technology and Market Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.; Lowder, T.; Canavan, B.

    2012-04-01

    Over the last several years, solar energy technologies have been, or are in the process of being, deployed at unprecedented levels. A critical recent development, resulting from the massive scale of projects in progress or recently completed, is having the power sold directly to electric utilities. Such 'utility-scale' systems offer the opportunity to deploy solar technologies far faster than the traditional 'behind-the-meter' projects designed to offset retail load. Moreover, these systems have employed significant economies of scale during construction and operation, attracting financial capital, which in turn can reduce the delivered cost of power. This report is a summary of the current U.S. utility-scale solar state-of-the-market and development pipeline. Utility-scale solar energy systems are generally categorized as one of two basic designs: concentrating solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV). CSP systems can be further delineated into four commercially available technologies: parabolic trough, central receiver (CR), parabolic dish, and linear Fresnel reflector. CSP systems can also be categorized as hybrid, which combine a solar-based system (generally parabolic trough, CR, or linear Fresnel) and a fossil fuel energy system to produce electric power or steam.

  9. Electrical Bias as an Alternate Method for Reproducible Measurement of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide (CIGS) Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Deline, C.; Stokes, A.; Silverman, T. J.; Rummel, S.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-08-01

    Light-to-dark metastable changes in thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules can introduce uncertainty when measuring module performance on indoor flash testing equipment. This study describes a method to stabilize module performance through forward-bias current injection rather than light exposure. Measurements of five pairs of thin-film copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) PV modules indicate that forward-bias exposure maintained the PV modules at a stable condition (within 1%) while the unbiased modules degraded in performance by up to 12%. It was additionally found that modules exposed to forward bias exhibited stable performance within about 3% of their long-term outdoor exposed performance. This carrier-injection method provides a way to reduce uncertainty arising from fast transients in thin-film module performance between the time a module is removed from light exposure and when it is measured indoors, effectively simulating continuous light exposure by injecting minority carriers that behave much as photocarriers do. This investigation also provides insight into the initial light-induced transients of thin-film modules upon outdoor deployment.

  10. System and method for design and optimization of grid connected photovoltaic power plant with multiple photovoltaic module technologies

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Bex George; Elasser, Ahmed; Bollapragada, Srinivas; Galbraith, Anthony William; Agamy, Mohammed; Garifullin, Maxim Valeryevich

    2016-03-29

    A system and method of using one or more DC-DC/DC-AC converters and/or alternative devices allows strings of multiple module technologies to coexist within the same PV power plant. A computing (optimization) framework estimates the percentage allocation of PV power plant capacity to selected PV module technologies. The framework and its supporting components considers irradiation, temperature, spectral profiles, cost and other practical constraints to achieve the lowest levelized cost of electricity, maximum output and minimum system cost. The system and method can function using any device enabling distributed maximum power point tracking at the module, string or combiner level.

  11. Concentration fluctuations and phase transitions in coupled modulated bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, Yuichi; Komura, Shigeyuki; Andelman, David

    2012-08-01

    We consider the formation of finite-size domains in lipid bilayers consisting of saturated and hybrid lipids. First, we describe a monolayer model that includes a coupling between a compositional scalar field and a two-dimensional vectorial order parameter. Such a coupling yields an effective two-dimensional microemulsion free energy for the lipid monolayer, and its characteristic length of compositional modulations can be considered as the origin of finite-size domains in biological membranes. Next, we consider a coupled bilayer composed of two modulated monolayers and discuss the static and dynamic properties of concentration fluctuations above the transition temperature. We also investigate the micro-phase separation below the transition temperature and compare the micro-phase separated structures with statics and dynamics of concentration fluctuations above the transition.

  12. Detection of acid moisture in photovoltaic modules using a dual wavelength pH-sensitive fluorescent dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaka, Takashi; Iwami, Kentaro; Taguchi, Atsushi; Umeda, Norihiro; Masuda, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    The formation of acetic acid via the penetration of moisture into ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) in photovoltaic (PV) modules is cited as the main reason for PV modules’ degradation. Currently, there is no effective method for detecting acetic moisture in PV modules. We proposed a simple method for detecting acid moisture in PV modules using a dual-wavelength pH-sensitive dye that measures pH by the ratio of the intensities of two peaks in the fluorescence spectra of the dye. We detected the pH change caused by acetic acid with the change in the intensity ratio of the fluorescence spectra of the dried dye. Furthermore, we observed that the dry fluorescent dye is heat resistant to withstand the lamination process for the manufacturing of PV modules, and has good long-term durability.

  13. Grating-over-lens concentrating photovoltaic spectrum splitting systems with volume holographic optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Juan M.; Zhang, Deming; Gordon, Michael; Vorndran, Shelby D.; Wu, Youchen; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2013-09-01

    In grating-over-lens spectrum splitting designs, a planar transmission grating is placed at the entrance of a plano-convex lens. Part of the incident solar spectrum is diffracted at 15-30° from normal incidence to the lens. The diffracted spectral range comes to a focus at an off-axis point and the undiffracted spectrum comes to a focus on the optical axis of the lens. Since the diffracted wave is planar and off-axis, the off-axis focal points suffer from aberrations that increase system loss. Field curvature, chromatic and spherical aberrations are compensated using defocusing and a curved focal plane (approximated with each photovoltaic receiver). Coma is corrected by modifying the off-axis wavefront used in constructing the hologram. In this paper, we analyze the use of non-planar transmission gratings recorded using a conjugate object beam to modify the off-axis wavefront. Diverging sources are used as conjugate object and reference beams. The spherical waves are incident at the lens and the grating is recorded at the entrance aperture of the solar concentrator. The on-axis source is adjusted to produce an on-axis planar wavefront at the hologram plane. The off-axis source is approximated to a diffraction limited spot producing a non-planar off-axis wavefront on the hologram plane. Illumination with a planar AM1.5 spectrum reproduces an off-axis diffraction-limited spot on the focal plane. This paper presents ray trace and coupled wave theory simulations used to quantify the reduction in losses achieved with aberration correction.

  14. Dietary fructans modulate polyamine concentration in the cecum of rats.

    PubMed

    Delzenne, N M; Kok, N; Deloyer, P; Dandrifosse, G

    2000-10-01

    Nondigestible but fermentable dietary fructans such as oligofructose exert many effects on gut physiology through their fermentation end products such as short-chain fatty acids. Could other metabolites be produced in the gut and contribute to the physiologic effects of dietary fructans? The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of oligofructose on putrescine, spermidine and spermine concentrations in the cecum, the portal vein and the liver of rats and to assess their involvement in cecal enlargement and the modulation of hepatic lipid metabolism. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine were quantified by HPLC in samples obtained from male Wistar rats fed a nonpurified standard diet (controls) or the same diet enriched with 10 g/100 g oligofructose (OFS) for 4 wk. OFS-fed rats had significantly greater cecal content and tissue weights. OFS almost doubled the concentration of putrescine in the cecal contents. The concentration of all three polyamines in the cecal tissue was significantly greater than in controls. The concentration of spermidine in portal plasma was lower in rats fed OFS, whereas the treatment did not affect the polyamine concentrations in the liver. The fermentation of dietary fructans contributed to an increase in the concentration of putrescine in the gut without modifying putrescine concentration in either the portal blood or liver. Moreover, the greater levels of polyamines in cecal tissue may be related to the cell proliferation resulting from OFS fermentation in the gut. PMID:11015472

  15. Monte Carlo Simulations of Luminescent Solar Concentrators with Front-Facing Photovoltaic Cells for Building Integrated Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leow, Shin; Corrado, Carley; Osborn, Melissa; Carter, Sue

    2013-03-01

    Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) have the ability to receive light from a wide range of angles and concentrate the captured light on to small photo active areas. This enables LSCs to be integrated more extensively into buildings as windows and wall claddings on top of roof installations. LSCs with front facing PV cells collect both direct and concentrated light ensuring a gain factor greater than one. It also allows for flexibility in determining the placement and percentage coverage of PV cells when designing panels to balance reabsorption losses, power output and the level of concentration desired. A Monte-Carlo ray tracing program was developed to study the transport of photons and loss mechanisms in LSC panels and aid in design optimization. The program imports measured absorption/emission spectra and transmission coefficients as simulation parameters. Interactions of photons with the LSC panel are determined by comparing calculated probabilities with random number generators. Simulation results reveal optimal panel dimensions and PV cell layouts to achieve maximum power output.

  16. Low-cost photovoltaics: Luminescent solar concentrators and colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leow, Shin Woei

    Solar energy has long been lauded as an inexhaustible fuel source with more energy reaching the earth's surface in one hour than the global consumption for a year. Although capable of satisfying the world's energy requirements, solar energy remains an expensive technology that has yet to attain grid parity. Another drawback is that existing solar farms require large quantities of land in order to generate power at useful rates. In this work, we look to luminescent solar concentrator systems and quantum dot technology as viable solutions to lowering the cost of solar electricity production with the flexibility to integrate such technologies into buildings to achieve dual land use. Luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) windows with front-facing photovoltaic (PV) cells were built and their gain and power efficiency were investigated. Conventional LSCs employ a photovoltaic (PV) cell that is placed on the edge of the LSC, facing inward. This work describes a new design with the PV cells on the front-face allowing them to receive both direct solar irradiation and wave-guided photons emitted from a dye embedded in an acrylic sheet, which is optically coupled to the PV cells. Parameters investigated include the thickness of the waveguide, edge treatment of the window, cell width, and cell placement. The data allowed us to make projections that aided in designing windows for maximized overall efficiency. A gain in power of 2.2x over the PV cells alone was obtained with PV cell coverage of 5%, and a power conversion efficiency as high as 6.8% was obtained with a PV cell coverage of 31%. Balancing the trade-offs between gain and efficiency, the design with the lowest cost per watt attained a power efficiency of 3.8% and a gain of 1.6x. With the viability of the LSC demonstrated, a weighted Monte-Carlo Ray Tracing program was developed to study the transport of photons and loss mechanisms in the LSC to aid in design optimization. The program imports measured absorption

  17. 77 FR 63788 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination, 77 FR 17439... Critical Circumstances, 77 FR 5487 (February 3, 2012) (Preliminary Critical Circumstances Determination... International Trade Administration Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into...

  18. Effects of light illumination during damp/dry heat tests on a flexible thin film photovoltaic module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Keiichiro; Takano, Akihiro; Takani, Masayoshi; Masuda, Atsushi

    2015-09-01

    Current injected damp heat (CDH) test have been reported to accelerate certain type of long-term degradation observed in at least one prototype flexible thin film silicon photovoltaic (PV) modules deployed in field [1]. This report have raised a question that whether conventional DH tests should be combined with current injection or light illumination to better reproduce long-time degradations of flexible thin film modules. To answer this question, we have been testing multiple flexible products available in the market, as part of the activities of Japanese Task Group 8 of the International PV Quality Assurance Task Force (PVQAT) [2]. Here, we present some results of our damp (or dry) heat testing with light illumination on a flexible CIGS module product with relatively poor moisture barriers.

  19. Influence of volcanic tephra on photovoltaic (PV)-modules: An experimental study with application to the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorn, Edgar; Walter, Thomas R.

    2016-04-01

    Large volcanic eruptions may lead to significant tephra dispersion, crossing borders and affecting distant and industrial societies in various ways. While the effects of volcanic ash clouds on the aviation industry have been recognized, damaging effects on the photovoltaic energy sector are poorly investigated. Here we describe the influence of volcanic tephra deposition on photovoltaic (PV) modules that we experimentally analyzed and evaluated. A systematic set of experiments was conducted under controlled conditions using an artificial light source and measuring the electrical power generated from the PV-modules with the aim to determine the dependency of the amount of tephra covering a module and its subsequent loss in power production (measured in voltage and current) as well as the influence of the tephra grain size. We find that a mass of fine tephra has a stronger influence on the PV-modules power generation than the same mass of coarser particles. An application to the fine-grained 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption in Iceland and the resulting ash-cloud reveals that the power produced by PV-modules in continental Europe might have been affected significantly. Deposits were thick enough to cause complete failures of PV-modules up to a distance of about 300 km downwind. Although this distance is largely over the ocean in this particular case, our results imply that similar and larger eruptions of other volcanoes elsewhere might harm commercial or private energy production at distances of hundreds to thousands of kilometers from the volcano. Given that volcanic eruptions are frequent and the fact that the PV-industry is growing rapidly, negative impacts are expected in the future, requiring close tephra dispersion monitoring and PV-maintenance strategies.

  20. Review of Consensus Standard Spectra for Flat Plate and Concentrating Photovoltaic Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.

    2011-09-01

    Consensus standard reference terrestrial solar spectra are used to establish nameplate ratings for photovoltaic device performance at standard reporting conditions. This report describes reference solar spectra developed in the United States and international consensus standards community which are widely accepted as of this writing (June 2011).

  1. Design and modeling of a cost-effective achromatic Fresnel lens for concentrating photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Vallerotto, Guido; Victoria, Marta; Askins, Stephen; Herrero, Rebeca; Domínguez, César; Antón, Ignacio; Sala, Gabriel

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a novel Fresnel lens capable of significantly reducing chromatic aberration in solar applications. The optical performance of this achromatic lens has been analyzed through ray-tracing simulations, showing a concentration factor three times higher than that attained by a classic silicone on glass (SOG) Fresnel lens while maintaining the same acceptance angle. This should avoid the need for a secondary optical element, reducing the cost associated with its manufacturing and assembly and increasing the module reliability. The achromatic lens is made of inexpensive plastic and elastomer which allows a highly scalable and cost-competitive manufacturing process similar to the one currently used for the fabrication of SOG Fresnel lenses. PMID:27607727

  2. Proposed Reference Spectral Irradiance Standards to Improve Photovoltaic Concentrating System Design and Performance Evaluation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D. R.; Emery, K. E.; Gueymard, C.

    2002-05-01

    This conference paper describes the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), and the International Standards Organization (ISO) standard solar terrestrial spectra (ASTM G-159, IEC-904-3, ISO 9845-1) provide standard spectra for photovoltaic performance applications. Modern terrestrial spectral radiation models and knowledge of atmospheric physics are applied to develop suggested revisions to update the reference spectra. We use a moderately complex radiative transfer model (SMARTS2) to produce the revised spectra. SMARTS2 has been validated against the complex MODTRAN radiative transfer code and spectral measurements. The model is proposed as an adjunct standard to reproduce the reference spectra. The proposed spectra represent typical clear sky spectral conditions associated with sites representing reasonable photovoltaic energy production and weathering and durability climates. The proposed spectra are under consideration by ASTM.

  3. Measurement requirements and techniques for degradation studies and lifetime prediction testing of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noel, G. T.; Sliemers, F. A.; Derringer, G. C.; Wood, V. E.; Wilkes, K. E.; Gaines, G. B.; Carmichael, D. C.

    1978-01-01

    Tests of weathering and aging behavior are being developed to characterize the degradation and predict the lifetimes of low-cost photovoltaic arrays. Environmental factors which affect array performance include UV radiation, thermal energy, water, oxygen (generally involved in synergistic effects with UV radiation or high temperatures), physical stress, pollutants (oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide and ozone), abrasives and dirt. A survey of photovoltaic array testing has shown the need to establish quantitative correlations between certain measurable properties (carbonyl formation, glass transition temperature, and molecular weight change) and modes of degradation and failure.

  4. Suppression of zero-crossing distortion for single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic inverters with unipolar modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Bin; Xu, Hong-bing; Chen, Kai; Chen, Jian-guo

    2013-10-01

    For single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic inverters, current-control with unipolar modulation can reduce the losses of power tubes and improve the efficiency compared with using the bipolar modulation. However, it suffers inherent zero-crossing distortion which is related to the grid current and voltage. In this paper, the reason for zero-crossing distortion is analyzed and simulated, also a novel current-control approach with commutating in advance is proposed to resolve this problem. This approach obtains a leading angle of the grid current by using the feedback of proportional-integral controller of the unipolar inverter, and then set the working mode of power tubes according to this angle through commutation.

  5. Cast polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic module manufacturing technology improvements. Annual subcontract report, 1 January 1996--31 December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    1997-10-01

    This report describes Solarex`s accomplishments during this phase of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) program. During this reporting period, Solarex researchers converted 79% of production casting stations to increase ingot size and operated them at equivalent yields and cell efficiencies; doubled the casting capacity at 20% the cost of buying new equipment to achieve the same capacity increase; operated the wire saws in a production mode with higher yields and lower costs than achieved on the ID saws; purchased additional wire saws; developed and qualified a new wire-guide coating material that doubles the wire-guide lifetime and produces significantly less scatter in wafer thickness; ran an Al paste back-surface-field process on 25% of all cells in manufacturing; completed environmental qualification of modules using cells produced by an all-print metallization process; qualified a vendor-supplied Tedlar/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) laminate to replace the combination of separate sheets of EVA and Tedlar backsheet; substituted RTV adhesive for the 3M Very High Bond tape after several field problems with the tape; demonstrated the operation of a prototype unit to trim/lead attach/test modules; demonstrated the use of light soldering for solar cells; demonstrated the operation of a wafer pull-down system for cassetting wet wafers; and presented three PVMaT-related papers at the 25th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference.

  6. High-efficiency one-sun photovoltaic module demonstration using solar-grade CZ silicon. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, J.M.

    1996-10-01

    This work was performed jointly by Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque, NM) and Siemens Solar Industries (Camarillo, CA) under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA 1248). The work covers the period May 1994 to March 1996. The purpose of the work was to explore the performance potential of commercial, photovoltaic-grade Czochralski (Cz) silicon, and to demonstrate this potential through fabrication of high-efficiency cells and a module. Fabrication of the module was omitted in order to pursue further development of advanced device structures. The work included investigation of response of the material to various fabrication processes, development of advanced cell structures using the commercial material, and investigation of the stability of Cz silicon solar cells. Some important achievements of this work include the following: post-diffusion oxidations were found to be a possible source of material contamination; bulk lifetimes around 75 pts were achieved; efficiencies of 17.6% and 15.7% were achieved for large-area cells using advanced cell structures (back-surface fields and emitter wrap-through); and preliminary investigations into photodegradation in Cz silicon solar cells found that oxygen thermal donors might be involved. Efficiencies around 20% should be possible with commercial, photovoltaic-grade silicon using properly optimized processes and device structures.

  7. Relationship between cross-linking conditions of ethylene vinyl acetate and potential induced degradation for crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonai, Sachiko; Hara, Kohjiro; Tsutsui, Yuji; Nakahama, Hidenari; Masuda, Atsushi

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship in crystalline silicon (c-Si) photovoltaic (PV) modules between the cross-linking level of copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA) as the encapsulant and the degree of degradation due to potential induced degradation (PID) phenomenon. We used three methods for the determination of cross-linking level of EVA: xylene method, which is one of the solvent extraction methods (SEM), curing degree by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and viscoelastic properties by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The results indicate that degradation of PV modules by PID test depends on the cross-linking level of EVA. The PV modules encapsulated by EVA with higher cross-linking level show lower degradation degree due to PID phenomenon. Also we showed that EVA with higher cross-linking level tended to be higher volume resistivity. This tendency is similar to that for electrical resistance value during the PID test. The PID test was also done by changing thickness of EVA between front cover glass and c-Si with the same cross-linking level. The PV modules encapsulated by thicker EVA between front cover glass and c-Si cell show lower degradation by PID. From these results, the PV modules encapsulated by EVA with higher cross-linking level, higher volume resistivity and increased thickness would be tolerant of PID phenomenon.

  8. Concentrating PV module output power using a wireless microcontroller based automatic sun tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou-Elnour, Ali; Salem, Asma M.; Ghanem, Salma M.; Ali, Iman

    2015-09-01

    In the present work, a wireless two dimensional microcontroller based sun tracker is designed and implemented. The proposed system has three main components namely the controlling unit, the wireless communication system, and the monitoring and recording unit. Controlling features are fully obtained in the present system using an efficient microcontroller based programming environment. Design equations, which are implemented, allow the usage of the system anywhere anytime without extra hardware tracking circuits. The sun tracker continuously calculates the photovoltaic module's tilt and azimuth angles by using accurate sun movement equations. The system generates the motors controlling signals to allocate the photovoltaic module to receive the maximize amount of solar energy on its surface from sunrise to sunset. For monitoring purpose the output of the movable photovoltaic module and from a south faced fixed module are wirelessly transmitted to the local monitoring system where the data are recorded, analyzed, and published. The proposed system is successfully implemented and tested for long periods under realistic operating conditions and the obtained positioning results are in excellent agreement with the theoretical ones.

  9. Solar photovoltaic power systems: an electric utility R & d perspective.

    PubMed

    Demeo, E A; Taylor, R W

    1984-04-20

    Solar photovoltaic technology is receiving increasing attention as a prospective source of bulk, electric utility power within the next 10 to 20 years. Successful development will require solar energy conversion efficiencies of about 15 percent for photovoltaic flat-plate modules, or about 25 percent for photovoltaic cells using highly concentrated sunlight. Three different cell technologies have a better than even chance of achieving these target efficiencies with costs and operating lifetimes that would allow significant use by electric utilities. The challenge for the next decade is to push photovoltaic technology to its physical limits while expanding markets and user confidence with currently available systems. PMID:17734901

  10. 77 FR 73018 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... FR 63791 (October 17, 2012) (``Final Determination''). \\2\\ See Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells... and Affirmative Preliminary Determination of Critical Circumstances,77 FR 31309 (May 25, 2012...., Ltd HC Solar Power Co., Ltd. 24.48 Zhiheng Solar Inc....... 24.48 Zhejiang Leye 24.48...

  11. 76 FR 81914 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Countervailing Duty Investigation, 76 FR 70966 (November 16, 2011). Postponement of Due Date for the Preliminary... Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). This notice is issued and published pursuant to section 703(c)(2) of... International Trade Administration Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into...

  12. Silicon solar photovoltaic power stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chowaniec, C. R.; Ferber, R. R.; Pittman, P. F.; Marshall, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Modular design of components and arrays, cost estimates for modules and support structures, and cost/performance analysis of a central solar photovoltaic power plant are discussed. Costs of collector/reflector arrays are judged the dominant element in the total capital investment. High-concentration solar tracking arrays are recommended as the most economic means for producing solar photovoltaic energy when solar cells costs are high ($500 per kW generated). Capital costs for power conditioning subsystem components are itemized and system busbar energy costs are discussed at length.

  13. Durability of Polymeric Encapsulation Materials for a PMMA/glass Concentrator Photovoltaic System

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David C.; Kempe, Michael D.; Muller, Matthew T; Gray, Matthew H.; Araki, Kenji; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2014-04-08

    The durability of polymeric encapsulation materials was examined using outdoor exposure at the nominal geometric concentration of 500 suns. The results for 36 months cumulative field deployment are presented for materials including: poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate), (EVA); polyvinyl butyral (PVB); ionomer; polyethylene/ polyoctene copolymer (PO); thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU); poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS); poly(diphenyl dimethyl siloxane) (PDPDMS); and poly(phenyl-methyl siloxane) (PPMS). Measurements of the field conditions including ambient temperature and ultraviolet (UV) dose were recorded at the test site during the experiment. Measurements for the experiment included optical transmittance (with subsequent analysis of solar-weighted transmittance, UV cut-off wavelength, and yellowness index), mass, visual photography, photoelastic imaging, and fluorescence spectroscopy. While the results to date for EVA are presented and discussed, examination here focuses more on the siloxane materials. A specimen recently observed to fail by thermal decomposition is discussed in terms of the implementation of the experiment as well as its fluorescence signature, which was observed to become more pronounced with age. Modulated thermogravimetry (allowing determination of the activation energy of thermal decomposition) was performed on a subset of the siloxanes to quantify the propensity for decomposition at elevated temperatures. Supplemental, Pt-catalyst- and primer-solutions as well as peroxide-cured PDMS specimens were examined to assess the source of the luminescence. The results of the study including the change in optical transmittance, observed failure modes, and subsequent analyses of the failure modes are described in the conclusions.

  14. Enhancing photovoltaic output power by 3-band spectrum-splitting and concentration using a diffractive micro-optic

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mohammad, Nabil; Wang, Peng; Friedman, Daniel J.; Menon, Rajesh

    2014-09-17

    We report the enhancement of photovoltaic output power by separating the incident spectrum into 3 bands, and concentrating these bands onto 3 different photovoltaic cells. The spectrum-splitting and concentration is achieved via a thin, planar micro-optical element that demonstrates high optical efficiency over the entire spectrum of interest. The optic (which we call a polychromat) was designed using a modified version of the direct-binary-search algorithm. The polychromat was fabricated using grayscale lithography. Rigorous optical characterization demonstrates excellent agreement with simulation results. Electrical characterization of the solar cells made from GaInP, GaAs and Si indicate increase in the peak output powermore » density of 43.63%, 30.84% and 30.86%, respectively when compared to normal operation without the polychromat. This represents an overall increase of 35.52% in output power density. As a result, the potential for cost-effective large-area manufacturing and for high system efficiencies makes our approach a strong candidate for low cost solar power.« less

  15. Enhancing photovoltaic output power by 3-band spectrum-splitting and concentration using a diffractive micro-optic.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Nabil; Wang, Peng; Friedman, Daniel J; Menon, Rajesh

    2014-10-20

    We report the enhancement of photovoltaic output power by separating the incident spectrum into 3 bands, and concentrating these bands onto 3 different photovoltaic cells. The spectrum-splitting and concentration is achieved via a thin, planar micro-optical element that demonstrates high optical efficiency over the entire spectrum of interest. The optic (which we call a polychromat) was designed using a modified version of the direct-binary-search algorithm. The polychromat was fabricated using grayscale lithography. Rigorous optical characterization demonstrates excellent agreement with simulation results. Electrical characterization of the solar cells made from GaInP, GaAs and Si indicate increase in the peak output power density of 43.63%, 30.84% and 30.86%, respectively when compared to normal operation without the polychromat. This represents an overall increase of 35.52% in output power density. The potential for cost-effective large-area manufacturing and for high system efficiencies makes our approach a strong candidate for low cost solar power. PMID:25607308

  16. Enhancing photovoltaic output power by 3-band spectrum-splitting and concentration using a diffractive micro-optic

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammad, Nabil; Wang, Peng; Friedman, Daniel J.; Menon, Rajesh

    2014-09-17

    We report the enhancement of photovoltaic output power by separating the incident spectrum into 3 bands, and concentrating these bands onto 3 different photovoltaic cells. The spectrum-splitting and concentration is achieved via a thin, planar micro-optical element that demonstrates high optical efficiency over the entire spectrum of interest. The optic (which we call a polychromat) was designed using a modified version of the direct-binary-search algorithm. The polychromat was fabricated using grayscale lithography. Rigorous optical characterization demonstrates excellent agreement with simulation results. Electrical characterization of the solar cells made from GaInP, GaAs and Si indicate increase in the peak output power density of 43.63%, 30.84% and 30.86%, respectively when compared to normal operation without the polychromat. This represents an overall increase of 35.52% in output power density. As a result, the potential for cost-effective large-area manufacturing and for high system efficiencies makes our approach a strong candidate for low cost solar power.

  17. Photovoltaic Roofs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, R. W., Jr.; Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Solar cells perform two functions: waterproofing roof and generating electricity. Sections through horizontal and slanting joints show overlapping modules sealed by L-section rubber strips and side-by-side modules sealed by P-section strips. Water seeping through seals of slanting joints drains along channels. Rooftop photovoltaic array used watertight south facing roof, replacing shingles, tar, and gravel. Concept reduces cost of residential solar-cell array.

  18. Use of Glass Reinforced Concrete (GRC) as a substrate for photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eirls, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    A substrate for flat plate photovoltaic solar panel arrays using a glass fiber reinforced concrete (GRC) material was developed. The installed cost of this GRC panel is 30% less than the cost goal of the Near Term Low-Cost Flat Plate Photovoltaic Solar Array Program. The 4 ft by 8 ft panel is fabricated from readily available inexpensive materials, weighs a nominal 190 lbs., has exceptionally good strength and durability properties (rigid and resists weathering), is amenable to mass production and is easily installed on simple mountings. Solar cells are encapsulated in ethylene/vinyl acetate with Tedlar backing and Korad cover film. The laminates are attached to the GRC substrate with acrylic transfer tape and edge sealed with silicone RTV adhesive.

  19. New light-trapping concept by means of several optical components applied to compact holographic 3D concentration solar module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villamarín Villegas, Ayalid M.; Pérez López, Francisco J.; Calo López, Antonio; Rodríguez San Segundo, Hugo-José

    2014-05-01

    A new light-trapping concept is presented, which joins broad bandwidth volume phase reflection holograms (VPRH) working together with three other optical components: specifically designed three-dimensional (3D) cavities, Total Internal Reflection (TIR) within an optical medium, and specular reflection by means of a highly reflective surface. This concept is applied to the design and development of both low concentration photovoltaic (LCPV) and solar thermal modules reaching a concentration factor of up to 3X. Higher concentrations are feasible for use in concentrated solar power (CSP) devices. The whole system is entirely made of polymeric materials (except for the solar cells or fluid carrying pipes), thus reducing cost by up to 40%. The module concentrates solar light onto solar cells - or fluid carrying pipes - with no need for active tracking of the sun, covering the whole seasonal and daily incident angle spectrum while it also minimizes optical losses. In this work we analyze the first experimentally measured optical characteristics and performance of VPRH in dichromated gelatin film (DCG) in our concept. The VPRH can reach high diffraction efficiencies (˜98%, ignoring Fresnel reflection losses). Thanks to specifically designed raw material, coating and developing process specifications, also very broad selective spectral (higher than 300 nm) and angular bandwidths (˜+20º) per grating are achieved. The VPRH was optimized to use silicon solar cells, but designs for other semiconductor devices or for fluid heating are feasible. The 3D shape, the hologram's and reflective surface's optical quality, the TIR effect and the correct coupling of all the components are key to high performance of the concentration solar module.

  20. Moisture-temperature degradation in module encapsulants: The general problem of moisture in photovoltaic encapsulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mon, G. R.

    1985-01-01

    A general research approach was outlined toward understanding water-module interactions and the influence of temperature involving the need to: quantify module performance loss versus level of accumulated degradation, establish the dependence of the degradation reaction rate on module moisture and temperature levels, and determine module moisture and temperature levels in field environments. These elements were illustrated with examples drawn from studies of the now relatively well understood module electrochemical degradation process. Research data presented include temperature and humidity-dependent equilibrium leakage current values for multiparameter module material and design configurations. The contributions of surface, volume, and interfacial conductivities was demonstrated. Research directions were suggested to more fully understand the contributions to overall module conductivity of surface, volume, and interfacial conductivities over ranges of temperature and relative humidity characteristic of field environments.